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1

Generalised hyperpigmentation in vitamin B12 deficiency.  

PubMed

In developing countries like India, nutritional deficiencies are prevalent and hyperpigmentation due to protein energy malnutrition, zinc deficiency and pellagra are common. Indian women, especially vegetarian are prone to vitamin B12 deficiency. Vitamin B12 deficiency can present as anaemia, neurological defect, gastrointestinal symptoms or dementia. Hyperpigmentation as the first presentation of Vitamin B12 deficiency is rare. Our patient, a 45 year-old Hindu vegetarian female presented to us with generalized hyperpigmentation. Examination revealed associated anaemia and peripheral neuropathy. Laboratory investigation confirmed vitamin B12 deficiency. Clinical features along with hyperpigmentation improved with vitamin B12 supplementation. We report this case to highlight this rare manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency. A high index of clinical suspicion is warranted to diagnose the case. Since India is a country with a large number of potential vitamin B12 deficiency cases, the physicians need to be aware of all the varied manifestations of this vitamin deficiency. In case of hyperpigmentation, nutritional aspect must be ruled out as it is reversible. Early replacement therapy may also help to prevent morbidities like dementia and neuropathy. PMID:25856944

Santra, Gouranga; Paul, Rudrajit; Ghosh, Sumit Kr; Chakraborty, Debojyoti; Das, Shubhabrata; Pradhan, Sourav; Das, Abhishek

2014-08-01

2

Vitamin B12 deficiency: the great masquerader.  

PubMed

Vitamin B12 deficiency is rare in children, with nonspecific symptoms including failure to thrive, vomiting, anorexia, and neurologic changes with or without hematologic disturbances. The neuropathy can be severe and irreversible. We report four cases of children with B12 deficiency secondary to adult type pernicious anemia, a presumed transport protein abnormality, and a metabolic defect. All demonstrated neurologic compromise that improved after initiation of B12 therapy. Hematologic manifestations may be preceded by constitutional, gastrointestinal, or neurologic changes, and must raise concern for B12 deficiency. Therapy should be initiated promptly in this setting to prevent irreversible neuropathy. PMID:24115632

Dobrozsi, Sarah; Flood, Veronica H; Panepinto, Julie; Scott, J Paul; Brandow, Amanda

2014-04-01

3

Factors affecting formiminoglutamic acid excretion in vitamin B12 deficiency  

PubMed Central

1. Formiminoglutamic acid, a product of the catabolism of histidine, is excreted in abnormally large amounts in the urines of vitamin B12-deficient rats and of vitamin B12-deficient sheep; the excretion is reduced to negligible amounts after administration of vitamin B12. 2. After administration of certain methyl donors to vitamin B12-deficient rats or sheep urinary excretion of formiminoglutamic acid is temporarily decreased. 3. Irrespective of the pteroylglutamic acid status of the animals neither vitamin B12-deficient rats nor vitamin B12-deficient sheep have the ability to deal efficiently with histidine. 4. In sheep, urinary excretion of formiminoglutamic acid is increased after administration of aminopterin; treatment with pteroylglutamic acid restores the ability of the animal to deal with the catabolic products of histidine. 5. The possible functions of vitamin B12 and methionine in relieving a virtual deficiency of pteroylglutamic acid are discussed. PMID:5435494

Marston, Hedley R.; Allen, Shirley H.

1970-01-01

4

Orthostatic tolerance in older patients with vitamin B12 deficiency before and after vitamin B12 replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthostatic hypotension (OH) and vitamin B12 deficiency are common disorders in older people. Several case series have reported an association between vitamin B12 deficiency and OH. The effect of vitamin B12 replacement on this dysfunction has not been studied. We prospectively studied responses to head up tilt in patients over 70 years with vitamin B12 deficiency (intervention group) and compared

Allan Moore; Jude Ryan; Michael Watts; Isweri Pillay; David Clinch; Declan Lyons

2004-01-01

5

Vitamin B12 deficiency common in primary hypothyroidism  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and clinical features of B12 deficiency in hypothyroid patients and to evaluate clinical response in symptoms to B12 replacement therapy.METHODS: One hundred and sixteen hypothyroid patients from our endocrine clinic were evaluated for signs and symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency. Laboratory parameters including Haemoglobin (Hb), MCV, Vitamin B12 levels and presence of anti thyroid antibodies

Abdul Jabbar; Aasma Yawar; Sabiha Waseem; Najmul Islam; Naeem Ul Haque; Lubna Zuberi; Ataullah Khan; Jaweed Akhter

2008-01-01

6

Vitamin B12 deficiency - A 21st century perspective?.  

PubMed

Vitamin B12 deficiency is a common condition which can present with non-specific clinical features, and in severe cases with neurological or haematological abnormalities. Although classically caused by pernicious anaemia, this condition now accounts for a minority of cases and vitamin B12 deficiency occurs most often due to food-bound cobalamin malabsorption. Since missing the diagnosis can result in potentially severe complications, including degeneration of the spinal cord and pancytopaenia, vitamin B12 deficiency must be diagnosed early and managed appropriately. Intramuscular injections have been the mainstay of treatment, but oral replacement therapy can be effective in many cases. There is accumulating evidence that high vitamin B12 levels (values varied from 350-1,200 pmol/l) are associated with haematological and hepatic disorders, in particular with malignancy. This review focuses on the developments in the clinical features and management of vitamin B12 deficiency over the last decade. PMID:25824066

Shipton, Michael J; Thachil, Jecko

2015-04-01

7

Causes of Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This review describes current knowledge of the main causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The most common explanations for poor B12 status are a low dietary intake of the vitamin (i.e., a low intake of animal-source foods) and malabsorption. Although it has long been known that strict vegetar...

8

MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL VITAMIN B12 AND HOLOTRANSCOBALAMIN, SINGLY AND IN COBMINATION, IN SCREENING FOR METABOLIC VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: The standard screening test for vitamin B12 deficiency, measurement of total plasma vitamin B12, has limitations of sensitivity and specificity. Plasma vitamin B12 bound to transcobalamin (holoTC) is the fraction of total vitamin B12 available for tissue uptake and therefore has been pro...

9

[Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in infants breastfed by vegans].  

PubMed

Weight loss and reduction of motor skills resulted in paediatric evaluation of a 10-month-old girl and a 12-month-old boy. Both children suffered form anaemia and delayed development due to vitamin B12 deficiency caused by strict maternal vegan diet during pregnancy and nursing. Therapy with cyanocobalamin was instituted with remission of symptoms. Since infants risk irreversible neurologic damage following severe vitamin B12 deficiency, early diagnosis and treatment are mandatory. Vegan and vegetarian women should take vitamin B12 supplementation during the pregnancy and nursing period. PMID:19852900

Roed, Casper; Skovby, Flemming; Lund, Allan Meldgaard

2009-10-19

10

Causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency.  

PubMed

This review describes current knowledge of the main causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The most common explanations for poor vitamin B12 status are a low dietary intake of the vitamin (i.e., a low intake of animal-source foods) and malabsorption. Although it has long been known that strict vegetarians (vegans) are at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency, evidence now indicates that low intakes of animal-source foods, such as occur in some lacto-ovo vegetarians and many less-industrialized countries, cause vitamin B12 depletion. Malabsorption of the vitamin is most commonly observed as food-bound cobalamin malabsorption due to gastric atrophy in the elderly, and probably as a result of Helicobacter pylori infection. There is growing evidence that gene polymorphisms in transcobalamins affect plasma vitamin B12 concentrations. The primary cause of folate deficiency is low intake of sources rich in the vitamin, such as legumes and green leafy vegetables, and the consumption of these foods may explain why folate status can be adequate in relatively poor populations. Other situations in which the risk of folate deficiency increases include lactation and alcoholism. PMID:18709879

Allen, Lindsay H

2008-06-01

11

Neurological consequences of vitamin B12 deficiency and its treatment.  

PubMed

In developed countries, the vitamin B12 deficiency usually occurs in children exclusively breast-fed, whose mothers are vegetarians, causing low stores of vitamin B12. Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency appear during the second trimester of life and include failure to thrive, lethargy, hypotonia, and arrest or regression of developmental skills. A megaloblastic anemia can be present. One half of the infants exhibit abnormal movements before the start of treatment with intramuscular cobalamin, which disappear 1 or 2 days after. More rarely, movement disorders appear a few days after treatment, whereas neurological symptoms are improving. These abnormal movements can last for 2 to 6 weeks. If not treated, vitamin B12 deficiency can cause lasting neurodisability. Therefore, efforts should be directed to preventing deficiency in pregnant and breast-feeding women on vegan diets and their infants by giving them vitamin B12 supplements. When preventive supplementation has failed, one should recognize and treat quickly an infant presenting with failure to thrive and delayed development. PMID:18708898

Chalouhi, Christel; Faesch, Sabine; Anthoine-Milhomme, Marie-Constance; Fulla, Yvonne; Dulac, Olivier; Chéron, Gérard

2008-08-01

12

Involuntary movements due to vitamin B12 deficiency.  

PubMed

Deficiency of vitamin B12 produces protean effects on the nervous system, most commonly neuropathy, myelopathy, cognitive and behavioural symptoms, and optic atrophy. Involuntary movements comprise a relatively rare manifestation of this readily treatable disorder. Both adults and infants deficient in vitamin B12 may present with chorea, tremor, myoclonus, Parkinsonism, dystonia, or a combination of these, which may precede diagnosis or become apparent only a few days after parenteral replacement therapy has begun. The pathogenesis of these movement disorders shows interesting parallels to certain neurodegenerative conditions. The clinical syndrome responds well to vitamin B12 supplementation in most cases, and an early diagnosis is essential to reverse the haematological and neurological dysfunction characteristic of this disorder. In this article, we elucidate the association of vitamin B12 deficiency with movement disorders in adults and in infants, discuss the pathogenesis of this association, review previously reported cases, and present a young adult male with severe generalized chorea that showed a salutary response to vitamin B12 supplementation. PMID:24852503

de Souza, Aaron; Moloi, M W

2014-12-01

13

How prevalent is vitamin B(12) deficiency among vegetarians?  

PubMed

Vegetarians are at risk for vitamin B(12) (B12) deficiency due to suboptimal intake. The goal of the present literature review was to assess the rate of B12 depletion and deficiency among vegetarians and vegans. Using a PubMed search to identify relevant publications, 18 articles were found that reported B12 deficiency rates from studies that identified deficiency by measuring methylmalonic acid, holo-transcobalamin II, or both. The deficiency rates reported for specific populations were as follows: 62% among pregnant women, between 25% and almost 86% among children, 21-41% among adolescents, and 11-90% among the elderly. Higher rates of deficiency were reported among vegans compared with vegetarians and among individuals who had adhered to a vegetarian diet since birth compared with those who had adopted such a diet later in life. The main finding of this review is that vegetarians develop B12 depletion or deficiency regardless of demographic characteristics, place of residency, age, or type of vegetarian diet. Vegetarians should thus take preventive measures to ensure adequate intake of this vitamin, including regular consumption of supplements containing B12. PMID:23356638

Pawlak, Roman; Parrott, Scott James; Raj, Sudha; Cullum-Dugan, Diana; Lucus, Debbie

2013-02-01

14

Vitamin B12 deficiency in relation to functional disabilities.  

PubMed

This study was designed to assess whether symptoms, functional measures, and reported disabilities were associated with vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency when defined in three ways. Participants, aged 60 or more years of age, in 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were categorized in relation to three previously used definitions of B12 deficiency: (1) serum B12 < 148 pmol/L; (2) serum B12 < 200 pmol/L and serum homocysteine > 20 ?mol/L; and (3) serum B12 < 258 pmol/L or serum methylmalonic acid > 0.21 ?mol/L. Functional measures of peripheral neuropathy, balance, cognitive function, gait speed, along with self-reported disability (including activities of daily living) were examined with standardized instruments by trained NHANES interviewers and technicians. Individuals identified as B12 deficient by definition 2 were more likely to manifest peripheral neuropathy OR (odds) (95% confidence intervals), p value: 9.70 (2.24, 42.07), 0.004 and report greater total disability, 19.61 (6.22, 61.86) 0.0001 after adjustments for age, sex, race, serum creatinine, and ferritin concentrations, smoking, diabetes, and peripheral artery disease. Smaller, but significantly increased, odds of peripheral neuropathy and total disability were also observed when definition 3 was applied. Functional measures and reported disabilities were associated with B12 deficiency definitions that include B12 biomarkers (homocysteine or methylmalonic acid). Further study of these definitions is needed to alert clinicians of possible subclinical B12 deficiency because functional decline amongst older adults may be correctable if the individual is B12 replete. PMID:24225845

Oberlin, Breanna S; Tangney, Christy C; Gustashaw, Kristin A R; Rasmussen, Heather E

2013-11-01

15

VOLATILE FATTY-ACID CLEARANCE STUDIES IN RELATION TO VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY IN SHEEP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clearance studies were used to investigate propionate and acetate metabolism in sheep at progressive stages during the induction of vitamin B12 (cobalt) deficiency. Both propionate and acetate clearance rates were increasingly adversely affected as vitamin B12 deficiency intensified. The effect of vitamin B12 on propionate and acetate clearance times was greater than the effect of depressed feed intake. Both of

M Somers

1969-01-01

16

Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as acute ataxia  

PubMed Central

A previously healthy 7-year-old Caucasian boy was hospitalised for evaluation of acute ataxia and failure to thrive, initially suspicious for an intracranial mass. Weight and body mass index were below the third percentile and he demonstrated loss of joint position and vibratory sense on examination. Laboratory studies revealed megaloblastic anaemia while an initial MRI of the brain showed no evidence of mass lesions or other abnormalities. A dietary history revealed the child subscribed to a restrictive vegan diet with little to no intake of animal products or other fortified foods. The child was diagnosed with presumed vitamin B12 deficiency and was treated with intramuscular B12 injections. Neurological symptoms resolved promptly within several days after starting therapy. This case underlines the importance of assessing nutritional status in the evaluation of neurological dysfunction in the pediatric patient. PMID:23536622

Crawford, John Ross; Say, Daphne

2013-01-01

17

Vitamin B12 Deficiency Due to a Strictly Vegetarian Diet in Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 14-year-old white girl suffered from severe neurologic disturbances caused by vitamin B12 deficiency, due to failure to provide vitamin B12 supplementation to a strictly vegetarian diet. The disturbances resolved completely following treatment with vatamin B12. Physicians should be alert to the necessity for vitamin B12 supplementation for strict vegetarians, who eat no meat, fish, eggs, or dairy products.

S. Ashkenazi; R. Weitz; I. Varsano; M. Mimouni

1987-01-01

18

VITAMIN B-12 SUPPLEMENTATION OF DEFICIENT LACTATING GUATEMALAN WOMEN IMPROVES MATERNAL BUT NOT INFANT STATUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vitamin B-12 deficiency is common in mothers and infants where maternal intake of animals source foods is low. The first six months post-partum is a critical period of neurological development requiring vitamin B-12. A pilot study was designed to determine the dose of B-12 to the mothers that would ...

19

Vitamin B-12  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Vitamin B-12 Vitamin B-12 What is vitamin B-12? Vitamin B-12 is an important vitamin that you usually get from your ... in fish, shellfish, meat and dairy products. Vitamin B-12 helps make red blood cells and DNA, ...

20

Persistence of neurological damage induced by dietary vitamin B12 deficiency in infancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case is reported of a 14 month old boy with severe dietary vitamin B-12 deficiency caused by his mother’s vegan diet. Cinical, electroencephalography (EEG), and haematological findings are described. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed severe frontal and frontoparietal cranial atrophy. Vitamin B-12 supplements led to a rapid improvement of haematological and neurological symptoms. Serum vitamin B-12 and urinary

Ursula von Schenck; Christine Bender-Götze; Berthold Koletzko

1997-01-01

21

Prevalent vitamin B-12 deficiency in twelve-month-old Guatemalan infants is predicted by maternal B-12 deficiency and infant diet  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Marginal (<148 pmol/L) or deficient (148-220 pmol/L) plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations were reported previously in approximately one third of low-income women and children studied in Guatemala. Since vitamin B-12 deficiency can adversely affect infant development and cognitive function, this study ...

22

Effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on neurodevelopment in infants: current knowledge and possible mechanisms  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Severe vitamin B12 deficiency produces a cluster of neurological symptoms in infants, including irritability, failure to thrive, apathy, anorexia, and developmental regression, which respond remarkably rapidly to supplementation. The underlying mechanisms may involve delayed myelination or demyelina...

23

Association of Vitamin B12 Deficiency with Fatigue and Depression after Lacunar Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn lacunar stroke patients vitamin B12 deficiency is often found and a relationship with the degree of periventricular white matter lesions (pWMLs) is suggested. Given the known relationships between WMLs and depression and between depression and fatigue after stroke, we studied both depression and fatigue in lacunar stroke patients with and without vitamin B12 deficiency.MethodsIn 40 first-ever lacunar stroke patients

Marjolein Huijts; Annelien Duits; Julie Staals; Robert J. van Oostenbrugge

2012-01-01

24

Cerebral atrophy in a vitamin B12-deficient infant of a vegetarian mother.  

PubMed

In developed countries, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency usually occurs in children, exclusively breastfed ones whose mothers are vegetarian, causing low body stores of vitamin B12. The haematologic manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anaemia. It is a megaloblastic anaemia with high mean corpuscular volume and typical morphological features, such as hyperlobulation of the nuclei of the granulocytes. In advanced cases, neutropaenia and thrombocytopaenia can occur, simulating aplastic anaemia or leukaemia. In addition to haematological symptoms, infants may experience weakness, fatigue, failure to thrive, and irritability. Other common findings include pallor, glossitis, vomiting, diarrhoea, and icterus. Neurological symptoms may affect the central nervous system and, in severe cases, rarely cause brain atrophy. Here, we report an interesting case, a 12-month old infant, who was admitted with neurological symptoms and diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:25076673

Kocaoglu, Celebi; Akin, Fatih; Caksen, Hüseyin; Böke, Saltuk Bu?ra; Arslan, Sükrü; Aygün, Serhat

2014-06-01

25

Cerebral Atrophy in a Vitamin B12-deficient Infant of a Vegetarian Mother  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT In developed countries, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency usually occurs in children, exclusively breastfed ones whose mothers are vegetarian, causing low body stores of vitamin B12. The haematologic manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anaemia. It is a megaloblastic anaemia with high mean corpuscular volume and typical morphological features, such as hyperlobulation of the nuclei of the granulocytes. In advanced cases, neutropaenia and thrombocytopaenia can occur, simulating aplastic anaemia or leukaemia. In addition to haematological symptoms, infants may experience weakness, fatigue, failure to thrive, and irritability. Other common findings include pallor, glossitis, vomiting, diarrhoea, and icterus. Neurological symptoms may affect the central nervous system and, in severe cases, rarely cause brain atrophy. Here, we report an interesting case, a 12-month old infant, who was admitted with neurological symptoms and diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:25076673

Akin, Fatih; Çaksen, Hüseyin; Böke, Saltuk Bu?ra; Arslan, ?ükrü; Aygün, Serhat

2014-01-01

26

Association of Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Metformin Use in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency and associated factors in type 2 diabetes patients using metformin. A total of 799 type 2 diabetes patients using metformin was enrolled. Vitamin B12 and folate levels were quantified by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. Vitamin B12 deficiency was defined as vitamin B12 ? 300 pg/mL without folate deficiency (folate > 4 ng/mL). The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in metformin-treated type 2 diabetes patients was 9.5% (n = 76), and the mean vitamin B12 level was 662.5 ± 246.7 pg/mL. Vitamin B12 deficient patients had longer duration of metformin use (P < 0.001) and higher daily metformin dose (P < 0.001) than non-deficient patients. Compared with daily metformin dose of ? 1,000 mg, the adjusted odds ratio for 1,000-2,000 mg, and ? 2,000 mg were 2.52 (95% CI, 1.27-4.99, P = 0.008) and 3.80 (95% CI, 1.82-7.92, P < 0.001). Compared with metformin use of < 4 yr, the adjusted odds ratios for 4-10 yr, and ? 10 yr were 4.65 (95% CI, 2.36-9.16, P < 0.001) and 9.21 (95% CI, 3.38-25.11, P < 0.001), respectively. In conclusion, our study indicates that patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin should be screened for vitamin B12 deficiency, especially at higher dosages (> 1,000 mg) and longer durations (? 4 yr) of treatment. Graphical Abstract PMID:25045229

Ahn, Yu-Bae; Ko, Seung-Hyun

2014-01-01

27

Association of vitamin B12 deficiency and metformin use in patients with type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

We evaluated the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency and associated factors in type 2 diabetes patients using metformin. A total of 799 type 2 diabetes patients using metformin was enrolled. Vitamin B12 and folate levels were quantified by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. Vitamin B12 deficiency was defined as vitamin B12 ? 300 pg/mL without folate deficiency (folate > 4 ng/mL). The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in metformin-treated type 2 diabetes patients was 9.5% (n = 76), and the mean vitamin B12 level was 662.5 ± 246.7 pg/mL. Vitamin B12 deficient patients had longer duration of metformin use (P < 0.001) and higher daily metformin dose (P < 0.001) than non-deficient patients. Compared with daily metformin dose of ? 1,000 mg, the adjusted odds ratio for 1,000-2,000 mg, and ? 2,000 mg were 2.52 (95% CI, 1.27-4.99, P = 0.008) and 3.80 (95% CI, 1.82-7.92, P < 0.001). Compared with metformin use of < 4 yr, the adjusted odds ratios for 4-10 yr, and ? 10 yr were 4.65 (95% CI, 2.36-9.16, P < 0.001) and 9.21 (95% CI, 3.38-25.11, P < 0.001), respectively. In conclusion, our study indicates that patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin should be screened for vitamin B12 deficiency, especially at higher dosages (> 1,000 mg) and longer durations (? 4 yr) of treatment. PMID:25045229

Ko, Sun-Hye; Ko, Sun-Hee; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Song, Ki-Ho; Han, Kyung-Do; Park, Yong-Moon; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Hye-Soo

2014-07-01

28

Status of B-Vitamins and Homocysteine in Diabetic Retinopathy: Association with Vitamin-B12 Deficiency and Hyperhomocysteinemia  

PubMed Central

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common cause of blindness. Although many studies have indicated an association between homocysteine and DR, the results so far have been equivocal. Amongst the many determinants of homocysteine, B-vitamin status was shown to be a major confounding factor, yet very little is known about its relationship to DR. In the present study, we, therefore, investigated the status of B-vitamins and homocysteine in DR. A cross-sectional case–control study was conducted with 100 normal control (CN) subjects and 300 subjects with type-2 diabetes (T2D). Of the 300 subjects with T2D, 200 had retinopathy (DR) and 100 did not (DNR). After a complete ophthalmic examination including fundus fluorescein angiography, the clinical profile and the blood levels of all B-vitamins and homocysteine were analyzed. While mean plasma homocysteine levels were found to be higher in T2D patients compared with CN subjects, homocysteine levels were particularly high in the DR group. There were no group differences in the blood levels of vitamins B1 and B2. Although the plasma vitamin-B6 and folic acid levels were significantly lower in the DNR and DR groups compared with the CN group, there were no significant differences between the diabetes groups. Interestingly, plasma vitamin-B12 levels were found to be significantly lower in the diabetes groups compared with the CN group; further, the levels were significantly lower in the DR group compared with the DNR group. Higher homocysteine levels were significantly associated with lower vitamin-B12 and folic acid but not with other B-vitamins. Additionally, hyperhomocysteinemia and vitamin-B12 deficiency did not seem to be related to subjects' age, body mass index, or duration of diabetes. These results thus suggest a possible association between vitamin-B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia in DR. Further, the data indicate that vitamin-B12 deficiency could be an independent risk factor for DR. PMID:22069468

Satyanarayana, Alleboena; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Pitla, Sujatha; Reddy, Paduru Yadagiri; Mudili, Sivaprasad; Lopamudra, Pratti; Suryanarayana, Palla; Viswanath, Kalluru; Ayyagari, Radha; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash

2011-01-01

29

Association of Vitamin B12 Deficiency with Fatigue and Depression after Lacunar Stroke  

PubMed Central

Background In lacunar stroke patients vitamin B12 deficiency is often found and a relationship with the degree of periventricular white matter lesions (pWMLs) is suggested. Given the known relationships between WMLs and depression and between depression and fatigue after stroke, we studied both depression and fatigue in lacunar stroke patients with and without vitamin B12 deficiency. Methods In 40 first-ever lacunar stroke patients vitamin B12 levels were determined and self-report questionnaires for fatigue and depression were completed three months after stroke. Results Lacunar stroke patients with vitamin B12 deficiency (N?=?13) reported significantly more fatigue (90.7 versus 59.4; p?=?.001) and depressive symptoms (6.62 versus 3.89; p<.05) than those without (N?=?27). In regression analyses, vitamin B12 deficiency was significantly and independently associated with the presence of severe fatigue and clinically significant depression. Conclusions Our preliminary results suggest a relationship between vitamin B12 deficiency and increased levels of fatigue and depression in lacunar stroke patients. If these findings could be replicated in a larger and general stroke sample, this would open treatment options and may improve quality of life after stroke. PMID:22276208

Huijts, Marjolein; Duits, Annelien; Staals, Julie; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J.

2012-01-01

30

Vitamin B12 deficiency & levels of metabolites in an apparently normal urban south Indian elderly population  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: There is no published literature on the extent of vitamin B12 deficiency in elderly Indians as determined by plasma vitamin B12 levels and methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels. Vitamin B12 deficiency is expected to be higher in elderly Indians due to vegetarianism, varied socio-economic strata and high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection. We therefore, studied the dietary habits of south Indian urban elderly population and measured vitamin B12, MMA red cell folate and homocysteine (Hcy) levels. Methods: Healthy elderly urban subjects (175, >60 yr) were recruited. Detailed history, physical examination and neurological assessment were carried out. Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) for dietary analysis for daily intake of calories, vitamin B12, folate and detailed psychological assessment for cognitive functions was carried out. Blood samples were analyzed for routine haematology and biochemistry, vitamin B12, red cell folate, MMA and Hcy. Results: The mean age of the study population was 66.3 yr. Median values for daily dietary intake of vitamin B12 and folate were 2.4 and 349.2 ?g/day respectively. Sixty two (35%) participants consumed multivitamin supplements. Plasma vitamin B12 level and the dietary intake of vitamin B12 was significantly correlated (P=0.157). Plasma vitamin B12 and Hcy were inversely correlated (P= -0.509). Red cell folate was inversely correlated with Hcy (P= -0.550). Significant negative correlation was observed between plasma vitamin B12 and MMA in the entire study population (P= -0.220). Subjects consuming vitamin supplements (n=62) had significantly higher plasma vitamin B12 levels, lower MMA levels and lower Hcy levels. There was no significant correlation between plasma vitamin B12, MMA, Hcy and red cell folate and any of the 10 cognitive tests including Hindi Mental Status Examination (HMSE). Interpretation & conclusions: Our study is indicative of higher vitamin B12 (2.4 ?g/day) intakes in urban south Indian population. Thirty five per cent of the study population consumed multivitamin supplements and therefore, low plasma vitamin B12 levels were seen only in 16 per cent of the study subjects. However, MMA was elevated in 55 per cent and Hcy in 13 per cent of the subjects. PMID:22089603

Shobha, Vineeta; Tarey, Subhash D.; Singh, Ramya G.; Shetty, Priya; Unni, Uma S.; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Kurpad, Anura V.

2011-01-01

31

Review of the magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies worldwide  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Human deficiencies of folate and vitamin B12 result in adverse effects which may be of public health significance, but the magnitude of these deficiencies is unknown. Therefore, we examine the prevalence data currently available, assess global coverage of surveys, determine the frequency with which...

32

Isolated cerebellar involvement in vitamin B12 deficiency: a case report.  

PubMed

Deficiency of vitamin B12 causes megaloblastic anemia and nervous system demyelination. Structures affected in the nervous system include spinal cord, cranial and peripheral nerves, and brain white matter. A 9-year-old boy presented with knuckle hyperpigmentation and oral ulcers for 3 years, pallor and easy fatigability for 6 months, gait abnormalities for 3 months, and abnormal speech and behavioral abnormalities for 3 days. On examination, he had physical signs of megaloblastic anemia, mood swings with intermittent hallucinations, and features of cerebellar impairment. Blood investigations revealed megaloblastic anemia, and pernicious anemia was ruled out. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed bilateral cerebellar signal changes. He received treatment for vitamin B12 deficiency and appropriate nutritional counseling. Three months later, he showed significant clinical and radiologic resolution. To our knowledge, isolated cerebellar involvement as the sole neurologic manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency has not been described previously in children. PMID:24346315

Chakrabarty, Biswaroop; Dubey, Rachana; Gulati, Sheffali; Yoganathan, Sangeetha; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Atin

2014-11-01

33

Vitamin B12 deficiency with combined hematological and neuropsychiatric derangements: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Although vitamin B12 deficiency is a well-known cause of hematological and neuropsychiatric illness, the presentation of combined severe pancytopenia, demyelination and prominent psychiatric impairment is rare. Case presentation We present a case of a previously healthy 55-year-old East African man with severe vitamin B12 deficiency (serum vitamin B12 22pmol/L) secondary to pernicious anemia. He had a severe hypoproliferative megaloblastic anemia with hemolysis (hemoglobin 61g/L, mean corpuscular volume 99fL, reticulocytes 0.8%, haptoglobin undetectable), leukopenia (2.7×109/L), thrombocytopenia (96×109/L), ataxia with central demyelination, and megaloblastic madness. The patient’s anemia, myelopathy and psychiatric condition responded well to parenteral vitamin B12 replacement therapy, with significant improvement seen within weeks. Conclusion Hematological manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency are typically inversely correlated with the presence and severity of neuropsychiatric impairment. Although uncommon, a presentation with severe hematological and neuropsychiatric disease can occur, as illustrated by this case. Its presence may help guide diagnosis as well as provide clinically important prognostic information. PMID:25128288

2014-01-01

34

Vitamin B12 Deficiency: An Important Reversible Co-Morbidity in Neuropsychiatric Manifestations  

PubMed Central

Background: Vitamin B12 deficiency is a common condition causing neurologic, cognitive, psychiatric, and mood symptoms. With varied religious, ethnic, and socioeconomic heterogeneity among the people in India greatly influencing their dietary habits and with the high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection, Vitamin B12 deficiency is not uncommon, but is often under recognized due to the lack of classical symptomatic presentation. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study on Vitamin B12 deficiency with neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients who attended neurology, psychiatry, and geriatric OPDs for a period of 1 year in a specialized neuropsychiatric institute in South India. Results: Out of 259 patients who had Vitamin B12 deficiency (<220 pmol/L), 60 had neuropsychiatric symptoms. Among them the Vitamin B12 levels were <150 (severe), 150-200 (moderate), and 201-220 pmol/L (mild) in 19, 24, 17 patients, respectively. Twenty one were diagnosed with Posterior dementias, 20 with frontotemporal dementia, 7 with Schizophrenia, 4 each with Parkinson's disease and alcohol-dependent syndromes (ADS), 3 with bipolar affective disorder, and 1 with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Eight patients also had hypothyroidism. First symptom of presentation was behavioral disturbances in 30 (50%), memory loss in 20 (33.9%), and sensorimotor and movement disorders in 9 (15.3%), and 56.7% were vegetarians while 43.3% were nonvegetarians. In our study, Vitamin B12 deficiency was more prevalent in elderly males (56.67%) and was associated with increased severity of behavioral disturbances (P = 0.043) which was the most common presentation. Memory loss was present in 16 (84.2%) patients of severe Vitamin B12 deficiency. Hindi mental status examination (HMSE) score was graded as <20, 20-24, 24-31 in 37 (61.7%), 10 (16.7%), and 13 (21.7%) patients, respectively. Cognitive decline in Vitamin B12 deficiency was significantly associated with increased serum cholesterol (P = 0.019) and was significantly prevalent in neurological disorders when compared with primary psychiatric illnesses (P = 0.001). Mean folate and mean homocysteine in our study was 11.7 ± 6.44 ng/ml and 17.77 ± 5.45 ?mol/L, respectively. Eighty percent of the population had normal folate levels whereas mean homocysteine values were much higher than that of the western population (10-12 ?mol/L). Conclusion: Vitamin B12 deficiency though common in India is often overlooked. It increases the load of cognitive decline and accentuates vascular risk factors in neuropsychiatric illnesses. Vitamin B12 deficiency also increases homocysteine levels contributing to the vascular comorbidity in cerebro and cardiovascular illnesses. So prevention, early detection, and management of this reversible Vitamin B12 deficiency state is of profound importance. PMID:25722508

Issac, Thomas Gregor; Soundarya, Soundararajan; Christopher, Rita; Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami

2015-01-01

35

West Syndrome in an Infant with Vitamin B[subscript 12] Deficiency in the Absence of Macrocytic Anaemia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vitamin B[subscript 12] deficiency in infants often produces haematological and neurological deficits, including macrocytic anaemia, neurodevelopmental delay or regression, irritability, weakness, hypotonia, ataxia, apathy, tremor, and seizures. The diagnosis of vitamin B[subscript 12] deficiency can be difficult when the typical macrocytic…

Erol, Ilknur; Alehan, Fusun; Gumus, Ayten

2007-01-01

36

Brief Report: Childhood Disintegrative Disorder as a Likely Manifestation of Vitamin B12 Deficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Childhood disintegrative disorder is a rare disorder, characterized by regression of acquired skills after a period of normal development. The case of childhood disintegrative disorder presented here was found to have vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia on extensive evaluation to find a probable cause for regression. This case…

Malhotra, Savita; Subodh, B. N.; Parakh, Preeti; Lahariya, Sanjay

2013-01-01

37

The prevalence of cobalamin deficiency among vegetarians assessed by serum vitamin B12: a review of literature.  

PubMed

Individuals following vegetarian diets are at risk for developing vitamin B12 deficiency owing to suboptimal intake. As vitamin B12 is essential for the synthesis of nucleic acids, erythrocytes and in the maintenance of myelin, deficiency may result in a variety of symptoms. Some of these symptoms may be severe while others may be irreversible. The objective of this review was to assess vitamin B12 deficiency, based on reported serum vitamin B12, among individuals adhering to different types of vegetarian diets. A systematic literature search was carried out using multiple search engines including PubMed, Medline, CINAHL plus, ERIC, Nursing and Allied Health Collection and Nursing/Academic Edition. The inclusion criteria consisted of original studies that assessed serum vitamin B12, studies written in English, non-case studies and studies that reported actual percentages of vitamin B12 deficiency. Forty research studies were included. The deficiency prevalence among infants reached 45%. The deficiency among the children and adolescents ranged from 0 to 33.3%. Deficiency among pregnant women ranged from 17 to 39%, dependent on the trimester. Adults and elderly individuals had a deficiency range of 0-86.5%. Higher deficiency prevalence was reported in vegans than in other vegetarians. Thus, with few exceptions, the reviewed studies documented relatively high deficiency prevalence among vegetarians. Vegans who do not ingest vitamin B12 supplements were found to be at especially high risk. Vegetarians, especially vegans, should give strong consideration to the use of vitamin B12 supplements to ensure adequate vitamin B12 intake. Vegetarians, regardless of the type of vegetarian diet they adhere to, should be screened for vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:24667752

Pawlak, R; Lester, S E; Babatunde, T

2014-05-01

38

Vitamin B12 deficiency with intrinsic factor antibodies in an infant with poor growth and developmental delay.  

PubMed

Vitamin B12 deficiency is very rare in infants and may lead to serious hematological and neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The present article describes a case involving a seven-month-old boy with severe vitamin B12 deficiency, likely caused by juvenile pernicious anemia, an entity rarely described. The child presented with feeding intolerance, poor growth and developmental delay. He was noted to have macrocytic anemia, a markedly low serum vitamin B12 level, and elevated homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels. Antibodies to intrinsic factor were positive. The mother was healthy, with normal vitamin B12 status. Therapy with vitamin B12 supplements led to excellent recovery of symptoms. Vitamin B12 deficiency should be considered in children presenting with failure to thrive, especially when compounded with neurological symptoms. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment is essential to avoid serious complications. PMID:24596481

McNeil, Kathleen; Chowdhury, Dhiman; Penney, Lynette; Rashid, Mohsin

2014-02-01

39

Vitamin B12 and Vitamin D Deficiencies: An Unusual Cause of Fever, Severe Hemolytic Anemia and Thrombocytopenia  

PubMed Central

The array of diagnostic workup for pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) generally revolves in searching for infections, inflammatory/autoimmune, and endocrine etiologies. A differential diagnosis of fever, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia can have etiologies varying from infections like malaria, dengue, cytomegalovirus, Ebstein barr virus, Parvovirus, infective endocarditis, to autoimmune disorder (systemic lupus erythromatosis), vasculitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), autoimmune hemolytic anemia/Evan's syndrome, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuri (PNH), or drugs. Nutritional deficiencies (especially vitamin B12 deficiency) as a cause of fever, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia are very rare and therefore rarely thought of. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency may cause fever and if accompanied by concurrent hyper-homocysteinemia and hypophosphatemia can sometimes lead to severe hemolysis mimicking the above-mentioned conditions. We present a case that highlights vitamin B12 and vitamin D deficiency as an easily treatable cause of PUO, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia, which should be actively looked for and treated before proceeding with more complicated and expensive investigation or starting empiric treatments.

Mishra, Vikas A.; Harbada, Rishit; Sharma, Akhilesh

2015-01-01

40

[Metabolic and nutritional neuropathies: update in diabetes, vitamin B12 and copper deficiency].  

PubMed

Metabolic and deficiency neuropathies retain a growing interest because of their important prevalence. The dismemberment of diabetic neuropathies is proceeded, letting distinct pathophysiological mechanisms appear. So, even if glycaemic control remains determining for preventing the neuropathy associated with type 1 diabetes, it seems to have a restricted role with type 2 diabetes in which other metabolic factors are involved. The diagnosis of neuropathy due to B12 vitamin deficiency remains a real challenge for the clinician. Indeed, positive and negative predictive values of serum B12 and metabolites assay are weak, only a good therapeutic response allows a reliable diagnostic. It is so recommended to know the clinical and contextual particularities of this etiology in order to not delay the vitamin substitution, determining for the functional outcome. Finally, copper deficiency remains an unknown cause of neuropathy which is suitable to raise in case of malabsorption but also and especially in case of abuse of dental adhesive rich in zinc. PMID:24269115

Franques, J; Gazzola, S

2013-12-01

41

A Study of the Prevalence of Serum Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Deficiency in Western Maharashtra  

PubMed Central

Context: This study summarizes the prevalence of vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency in the population coming to tertiary care center in Western Maharashtra along with the main presenting symptom routinely misinterpreted in daily practice. Aims and Objectives: 1. To study the prevalence of vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency in the population of western Maharashtra. 2. To correlate the symptoms with serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. Materials and Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional observation study carried out on patients from western Maharashtra seeking medical attention on outpatient and inpatient basis in the medicine department of a teaching institute in Karad. One-hundred patients were selected on basis of below mentioned symptoms viz. tingling and numbness in extremities, dizziness, unsteady gait, early tiredness, forgetfulness, proximal weakness, distal weakness, chronic headache, less interest in work, chronic loose stools, strict vegetarians, alcoholics, intake of medications like anti-tubercular treatment, surgery involving terminal ileum. Serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels of these patients were observed. Deficiency of vitamin B12 and folic acid was studied in 4 groups: (a) Absolute vitamin B12 deficiency; (b) Absolute folic acid deficiency; (c) Borderline vitamin B12 deficiency; (d) Combined vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency. Results: Of the 100 cases, 33% patients were vegetarian. Folic acid deficiency formed the major chunk of deficiency group. Six percent patients had neuropsychiatric manifestations. Depressive illness in 1% patients, dementia in 0% patients, forgetfulness in 1% patients, mania/hallucination in 0% patients each, and chronic headache in 1% patients. Neuropathy in form of loss of reflexes, decreased touch sensation was present in 9% patients. Posterior column involvement viz. Loss of joint position, vibration, positive Romberg's sign were present in 34% patients of vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency. Conclusion: In a small study, it was found that megaloblastic anemia may have symptoms and signs referable to several systems including hematology, dermatology, gastrointestinal, neurology, and neuropsychiatry.

Mahajan, Sanket K.; Aundhakar, Swati C.

2015-01-01

42

Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Young Lady due to Vitamin B12 Deficiency Induced Hyperhomocysteinemia  

PubMed Central

Hyper-homocysteinemia is a risk factor for coronary artery disease in young patients. A 32 years old female without any conventional risk factors except obesity presented with acute anterior wall myocardial infarction (MI). Her echocardiography showed anterior wall hypokinesia with moderate left ventricular dysfunction. Angiography showed tight stenosis of the proximal left anterior descending (LAD) and borderline lesion in left circumflex coronary artery (LCX). She underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to LAD with good result. Her blood tests showed low vitamin B12, folate and serum iron levels and elevated serum homocysteine level. She was given folic acid and vitamin B12 and her homocysteine levels normalized. This case demonstrates that hyperhomocysteinemia caused by nutritional deficiency of vitamin co factors may lead to MI. Hyperhomocysteinemia should be considered in the evalauation of young people with MI, especially those without conventional risk factors. PMID:25838876

Shamkani, Warkaa Al; Jafar, Nagham Saeed; Narayanan, Sunil Roy; Rajappan, Anil Kumar

2015-01-01

43

Helicobacter pylori associated vitamin B12 deficiency, pernicious anaemia and subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord.  

PubMed

A 23-year-old man presented with weakness in the lower limbs, numbness in hands and feet over past 6 months. Examination revealed a combination of absent ankle jerk, extensor plantar response and reduced sensations in a glove and stocking distribution. MRI of the spinal cord was distinctive of subacute combined degeneration (SACD) of the spinal cord. Serum vitamin B12 was low and anti-intrinsic factor antibodies were positive. A biopsy of the stomach revealed intense inflammatory infiltrates in lamina propria with grade III Helicobacter pylori infection. Other work-up for the cause of vitamin B12 deficiency was unremarkable. H pylori infection triggers autoantibodies by a mechanism of molecular mimicry. This case report highlights H pylori as a causative agent in vitamin B12 deficiency and culminating in SACD of the spinal cord. H pylori treatment reverses the underlying pathogenesis and corrects vitamin B12 deficient state in selected individuals. PMID:24081591

Gowdappa, H Basavana; Mahesh, M; Murthy, K V K S N; Narahari, M G

2013-01-01

44

Bioavailability of vitamin B12  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in people of all ages who consume a low intake of animal-source foods, including populations in developing countries. It is also prevalent among the elderly, even in wealthier countries, due to their malabsorption of B12 from food. Several methods have been applied t...

45

Effect of oral vitamin B12 with or without folic acid on cognitive function in older people with mild vitamin B12 deficiency: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Vitamin B-12 deficiency is associated with cognitive impairment in older people. However, evidence from randomized trials of the effects of vitamin B-12 supplementation on cognitive function is limited and inconclusive. Objective: The objective was to investigate whether daily supple- mentation with high doses of oral vitamin B-12 alone or in combi- nationwithfolicacidhasanybeneficialeffectsoncognitivefunction in persons aged 70 y with mild vitamin

Simone J Eussen; Lisette C de Groot; Liesbeth W Joosten; Rubia J Bloo; Robert Clarke; Per M Ueland; Jörn Schneede; Henk J Blom; Willibrord H Hoefnagels; Wija A van Staveren

46

Sequential changes in plasma methylmalonic acid and vitamin B 12 in sheep eating cobalt-deficient grass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations are elevated in plasma as a result of vitamin B12 deficiency. This study reports the sequential changes in plasma MMA in lambs maintained on a cobalt-deficient pasture compared\\u000a with supplemented controls. The results indicate that MMA is elevated in the early stages of deficiency, preceding the onset\\u000a of loss of production and clinical signs of disease.

Desmond A. Rice; Marian McLoughlin; W. John Blanchflower; Cecil H. McMurray; Edward A. Goodall

1989-01-01

47

Vitamin B12 and Cognitive Function  

PubMed Central

Background More than 2.9 million serum vitamin B12 tests were performed in 2010 in Ontario at a cost of $40 million. Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with a few neurocognitive disorders. Objective To determine the clinical utility of B12 testing in patients with suspected dementia or cognitive decline. Methods Three questions were addressed: Is there an association between vitamin B12 deficiency and the onset of dementia or cognitive decline? Does treatment with vitamin B12 supplementation improve cognitive function in patients with dementia or cognitive decline and vitamin B12 deficiency? What is the effectiveness of oral versus parenteral vitamin B12 supplementation in those with confirmed vitamin B12 deficiency? A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Embase, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database, from January 2002 until August 2012. Results Eighteen studies (7 systematic reviews and 11 observational studies) were identified to address the question of the association between B12 and the onset of dementia. Four systematic reviews were identified to address the question of the treatment of B12 on cognitive function. Finally, 3 randomized controlled trials were identified that compared oral B12 to intramuscular B12. Conclusions Based on very low quality evidence, there does appear to be an association between elevated plasma homocysteine levels (a by-product of B vitamins) and the onset of dementia. Based on moderate quality evidence, but with less than optimal duration of follow-up, treatment with B12 supplementation does not appreciably change cognitive function. Based on low to moderate quality of evidence, treatment with vitamin B12 and folate in patients with mild cognitive impairment seems to slow the rate of brain atrophy. Based on moderate quality evidence, oral vitamin B12 is as effective as parenteral vitamin B12 in patients with confirmed B12 deficiency. Plain Language Summary Low levels of vitamin B12 have been associated with neurocognitive disorders. This evidence-based analysis assessed the usefulness of serum vitamin B12 testing as it relates to brain function. This review found very low quality evidence that suggests a connection between high plasma homocysteine levels (a by-product of B vitamin metabolism in the body) and the onset of dementia. Moderate quality of evidence indicates treatment with vitamin B12 does not improve brain function. Moderate quality of evidence also indicates treatment using oral vitamin B12 supplements is as effective as injections of vitamin B12. PMID:24379897

2013-01-01

48

[Effect of pantothenate on indices related to cobalamin metabolism in vitamin B 12 deficiency].  

PubMed

White rats kept on the B12-deficient diet for 9 weeks developed hyperchromic anemia, manifested the reduced content of cobalamines in the blood, kidneys, liver, myocardium and urine, the increased excretion of methylmalonic acid (MMA) and the intensified activity of CoA and its precursors participating in the reaction of acetylation in the liver, kidneys and myocardium. There was a decrease in the content of cobalamine-protein complexes that break down to the greatest extent at 80 degrees C. Ten-fold administration of cyanocobalamine (0.5 microgram/kg), calcium pantothenate (3.3 mg/kg) or of both the preparations concurrently removed the aforesaid disorders of cobalamine metabolism, with the most complete therapeutic effect being attained upon combined use of the vitamin preparations. Administration of pantothenate increased the content of cobalamines and cobalamine-protein complexes in the liver and myocardium, normalizing methylmalonylaciduria. PMID:7113102

Mo?seenok, A G; Bud'ko, T N; She?bak, V M

1982-01-01

49

Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids during gestation and lactation to a vitamin B12-deficient or -supplemented diet improves pregnancy outcome and metabolic variables in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Maternal vitamin B12 deficiency leads to an adverse pregnancy outcome and increases the risk for developing diabetes and metabolic syndrome in mothers in later life. Our earlier studies have demonstrated that vitamin B12 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are interlinked in the one carbon cycle. The present study for the first time examines the effect of maternal n-3 PUFA supplementation to vitamin B12 deficient or supplemented diets on pregnancy outcome, fatty-acid status and metabolic variables in Wistar rats. Pregnant dams were assigned to one of the following groups: control, vitamin B12 deficient, vitamin B12 supplemented, vitamin B12 deficient + n-3 PUFA or vitamin B12 supplemented + n-3 PUFA. The amount of vitamin B12 in the supplemented group was 0.50 ?g kg(-1) diet and n-3 PUFA was alpha linolenic acid (ALA) 1.68, eicosapentaenoic acid 5.64, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 3.15 (g per 100g fatty acids per kg diet). Our findings indicate that maternal vitamin B12 supplementation did not affect the weight gain of dams during pregnancy but reduced litter size and weight and was ameliorated by n-3 PUFA supplementation. Vitamin B12 deficiency or supplementation resulted in a low percentage distribution of plasma arachidonic acid and DHA. n-3 PUFA supplementation to these diets improved the fatty-acid status. Vitamin B12 deficiency resulted in higher homocysteine and insulin levels, which were normalised by supplementation with either vitamin B12 or n-3 PUFA. Our study suggests that maternal vitamin B12 status is critical in determining pregnancy outcome and metabolic variables in dams and that supplementation with n-3 PUFA is beneficial. PMID:24355403

Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Kemse, Nisha; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

2015-01-01

50

Severe vitamin B12 deficiency with pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly and leukoerythroblastosis in two Syrian refugee infants: a challenge to differentiate from acute leukaemia.  

PubMed

Megaloblastic anaemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency is rare in childhood. However, as most cases are due to maternal insufficiency, it is mainly seen in breastfed infants especially when the mother's socioeconomic status is low and the nutrition is not adequate. We present case of two Syrian refugee infants with severe vitamin B12 deficiency with pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly and leukoerythroblastosis. PMID:24599434

Belen, Burcu; Hismi, Burcu Ozturk; Kocak, Ulker

2014-01-01

51

A NEW 13C BREATH TEST TO DETECT VITAMIN B-12 DEFICIENCY: A PREVALENT AND POORLY DIAGNOSED HEALTH PROBLEM  

PubMed Central

Vitamin B12 deficiency is emerging as a growing public health problem. The most commonly used diagnostic tests are limited in accuracy, sensitivity, and are non-specific for B12 deficiency. The aim of this study was to develop a simple B12 Breath Test (BBT) to more accurately evaluate vitamin B12 status as an alternative to the most common diagnostic test, serum B12 levels. The breath test is based on the metabolism of sodium 1-13C-propionate to 13CO2 which requires B12 as a cofactor. We initially compared the BBT to current B12 diagnostic methods in 58 subjects. Subjects also received a second BBT 1–3 days after initial testing to evaluate reproducibility of results. Propionate dosage, fasting times, and collection periods were compared respectively. The dose of sodium 1-13C-propionate (10 to 50 mg) gave equivalent results while an 8 hour fast was essential. Statistical analysis revealed that breath collection times could be reduced to just a baseline and 10 and 20 minutes following propionate dosing. We also measured the incidence of B12 deficiency with the BBT in 119 patients with chronic pancreatitis, Crohn’s disease, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and subjects over 65 years of age. The BBT results agreed with previous publications showing a higher incidence of B12 deficiency in these patients. The BBT may provide clinicians with a non-invasive, accurate, reliable, and reproducible diagnostic test to detect vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:21697586

Wagner, David A.; Schatz, Richard; Coston, Richard; Curington, Cheryl; Bolt, Daniel; Toskes, Phillip P.

2011-01-01

52

Homocysteine and vitamin B12 status and iron deficiency anemia in female university students from Gaza Strip, Palestine  

PubMed Central

Objective Nutritional deficiencies are very significant to the overall health of humans at all ages and for both genders, yet in infants, children and women of childbearing age these deficiencies can seriously affect growth and development. The present work is aimed to assess homocysteine and vitamin B12 status in females with iron deficiency anemia from the Gaza Strip. Methods Venous blood samples were randomly collected from 240 female university students (18–22 years old) and parameters of the complete blood count, serum ferritin, homocysteine and vitamin B12 were measured. Statistical analysis included the t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the IBM SPSS software (version 18). Statistical significance was set for p-values <0.05. Results The results revealed that 20.4% of the students have iron deficiency anemia. The mean serum vitamin B12 level in females with iron deficiency anemia (212.9 ± 62.8 pg/mL) was significantly lower than in normal controls (286.9 ± 57.1 pg/mL) and subjects with microcytic anemia and normal ferritin (256.7 ± 71.1 pg/mL). Significantly higher serum homocysteine levels were reported in the iron deficiency anemia group (27.0 ± 4.6 ?mol/L) compared to normal controls (15.5 ± 2.9 ?mol/L) and in subjects with microcytic anemia and normal ferritin (18.1 ± 2.7 ?mol/L). Statistically significant negative correlations were reported for serum homocysteine with serum ferritin, vitamin B12, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels. Conclusion Important associations were found between serum homocysteine and markers of iron deficiency. Monitoring homocysteine levels might be essential to understand the development of different clinical conditions including anemia. It seems necessary to conduct prospective trials to determine whether treating anemia ameliorates homocysteine levels. PMID:25031061

Sirdah, Mahmoud Mohammed; Yassin, Maged M.; El Shekhi, Sabreen; Lubbad, Abdel Monem

2014-01-01

53

Nutritional Vitamin B12 Deficiency in a Breast-fed Infant of a Vegan-diet Mother  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 7-month-old male presented with lethargy and failure to thrive. The child was exclusively breast-fed from birth by a mother who was a strict vegetarian. Laboratory data revealed macrocytic anemia and methylmalonic acid in the urine, consistent with vitamin B12 deficient anemia. The patient responded well to supplementation with B12 alone and was developmentally normal by 11 months of age.

Ronald Sklar

1986-01-01

54

Cobalamin (Vitamin B_(12)) Deficiency in the Chinese Shar Pei – Evaluation of a Potential Hereditary Etiology  

E-print Network

. INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………….... 1 1.1 Cobalamin (vitamin B12) ………………………………….. 1 1.2 Disorders of cobalamin absorption, transport and intracellular metabolism …………………………………… 5 1.3 Canine genetics ……………………………………………. 10 1....4 Chinese Shar Peis .................................................................. 13 1.5 Hypotheses and research objectives ……………….………. 17 2. EVALUATION OF SERUM COBALAMIN CONCENTRATION IN DOGS OF 164 DOG BREEDS (2006...

Grützner, Niels

2013-12-11

55

Anemia - B12 deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... vitamin B12. They include: Chronic alcoholism Crohn disease, celiac disease, infection with the fish tapeworm, or other problems ... may no longer be needed after Crohn disease, celiac disease, or alcoholism is properly treated. Your doctor or ...

56

Atypical B12 Deficiency with Nonresolving Paraesthesia  

PubMed Central

Vitamin B12 deficiency can present with various hematological, gastrointestinal and neurological manifestations. We report a case of elderly female who presented with neuropathy and vitamin B12 deficiency where the final work-up revealed polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes (POEMS). This case suggests that, although POEMS syndrome is a rare entity, it can present with vitamin-B12 deficiency and thus specific work up for early diagnosis of POEMS should be considered in patients with B12 deficiency unresponsive to therapy. PMID:24349810

Haider, S.; Ahmad, N.; Anaissie, E. J.; Abdel Karim, N.

2013-01-01

57

A Puzzle of Hemolytic Anemia, Iron and Vitamin B12 Deficiencies in a 52-Year-Old Male  

PubMed Central

A 52-year-old male with no significant past medical history reports increasing generalized fatigue and weakness for the past 2 weeks. Physical examination reveals jaundice and pallor without organomegaly or lymphadenopathy. His hemoglobin was 5.9?g/dL with a mean corpuscular volume of 87.1?fL and elevated red blood cell distribution width of 30.7%. His liver function test was normal except for elevated total bilirubin of 3.7?mg/dL. Serum LDH was 701?IU/L, and serum haptoglobin was undetectable. Further investigation revealed serum vitamin B12 of <30?pg/mL with elevated methylmalonic acid and homocysteine level. In addition, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation were low. The patient was diagnosed with hemolytic anemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency with concomitant iron deficiency anemia. PMID:24083040

Liana, Palacci; Ali, Alaa M.; Gilman, Alan D.

2013-01-01

58

Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in a breast fed infant with pancytopenia.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 7-month-old breast fed infant who presented with a nose bleed and bruises. Investigation showed severe nutritional B12 deficiency anemia with a pancytopenia. It is important to take the nutritional history of both the infant and the mother for early prevention and treatment. PMID:19617270

Citak, Funda Erkasar; Citak, Elvan Caglar

2011-02-01

59

[Clinical, biological and therapeutic profile of anemia by vitamin B12 deficiency in the department of hematology of Marrakech (Morocco)].  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to examine retrospectively the clinical, biological and treatment features of anemia by vitamin B12 deficiency in the Hematology department of CHU Mohamed VI Marrakech. We report the results of a retrospective study conducted during six years (2005-2010). It included all patients with anemia (with or without thrombocytopenia or leukopenia) associated with vitamin B12 levels <200 pg / ml. One hundred twenty one cases were analyzed. The average age of patients was 62 years (38-89 years) with a female predominance (sex ratio F/M: 1.3). The clinical symptomatology is dominated by pallor (97.5%), cardiovascular signs (46%) and digestive symptoms (34.7%). Neurological signs were noted in 17.3% of cases. The blood count showed anemia (hemoglobin: mean= 6.9 g/dl), macrocythemia (MCV: mean= 109 fl). Leukopenia was noted in 35 patients (29%), thrombocytopenia in 34 patients (28%) and pancytopenia in 21 patients (17,3%). The average vitamin B12 was 72 pg/ml. The causes of B12 deficiency are pernicious anemia (43%), food-cobalamin malabsorption (43%), and in 14% of cases no etiology was found. Gastritis was found in 82.7% of our patients and Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection in 72.7% of cases. Reticulocyte crisis was observed after parenteral administration of hydroxocobalamine within an average of 8 days and normalization of blood counts, in all patients, within an average of 51 days. In patients with HP infection, eradication therapy of HP was performed. The cure rate of the HP is 90%. PMID:23536425

Nafil, H; Tazi, I; Sifessalam, M; Bouchtia, M; Mahmal, L

2013-05-01

60

Neurologic aspects of cobalamin (B12) deficiency.  

PubMed

Optimal functioning of the central and peripheral nervous system is dependent on a constant supply of appropriate nutrients. Particularly important for optimal functioning of the nervous system is cobalamin (vitamin B12). Cobalamin deficiency is particularly common in the elderly and after gastric surgery. Many patients with clinically expressed cobalamin deficiency have intrinsic factor-related malabsorption such as that seen in pernicious anemia. The commonly recognized neurological manifestations of cobalamin deficiency include a myelopathy with or without an associated neuropathy. This review deals with neurological aspects of vitamin B12 deficiency and attempts to highlight recent developments. PMID:24365360

Kumar, Neeraj

2014-01-01

61

A high prevalence of biochemical evidence of vitamin B12 or folate deficiency does not translate into a comparable prevalence of anemia.  

PubMed

Based on biochemical evidence, a high prevalence of biochemical evidence of vitamin B12 or folate deficiency has been reported in a number of areas in the world. The evidence that these biochemical abnormalities lead to a comparable prevalence of anemia is reviewed. The overall contribution of vitamin B12 deficiency to the global burden of anemia is probably not significant, except perhaps in women and their infants and children in vegetarian communities. In developed countries, folate-deficiency anemia is uncommon. In some developing countries, this anemia is still seen, but there are no comprehensive data on the relative prevalence compared with anemia due to malaria, iron-deficiency, hemoglobinopathy, and HIV disease. It seems unlikely that folate deficiency makes a major contribution to the burden of anemia in developing countries. Iron-deficiency anemia may coexist with vitamin B12 and especially folate deficiency, and may confound the hematological features of the vitamin deficiencies whose prevalence would then be underestimated. Supplementation of the diet of pregnant women with folic acid can virtually eliminate folate-deficiency anemia in these women. There are very few data on the hematological effect of vitamin B12 supplementation or fortification at the population level. The addition of vitamin B12 to the supplementation of the diet of pregnant women with iron and folic acid does not produce an increased hematological response, at least in nonvegetarian populations. There are numerous reports of the effect of folic acid fortification of food on tests of folate status, but only a single published report on the hematological response was found. PMID:18709883

Metz, Jack

2008-06-01

62

Higher Prevalence of Metformin-Induced Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Sulfonylurea Combination Compared with Insulin Combination in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Long-term and high-dose treatment with metformin is known to be associated with vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether the prevalence of B12 deficiency was different in patients treated with different combination of hypoglycemic agents with metformin during the same time period. A total of 394 patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin and sulfonylurea (S+M group, n?=?299) or metformin and insulin (I+M group, n?=?95) were consecutively recruited. The vitamin B12 and folate levels were quantified using the chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. Vitamin B12 deficiency was defined as vitamin B12?300 pg/mL without folate deficiency (folate>4 ng/mL). The mean age of and duration of diabetes in the subjects were 59.4±10.5 years and 12.2±6.7 years, respectively. The mean vitamin B12 level of the total population was 638.0±279.6 pg/mL. The mean serum B12 levels were significantly lower in the S+M group compared with the I+M group (600.0±266.5 vs. 757.7±287.6 pg/mL, P<0.001). The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in the metformin-treated patients was significantly higher in the S+M group compared with the I+M group (17.4% vs. 4.2%, P?=?0.001). After adjustment for various factors, such as age, sex, diabetic duration, duration or daily dose of metformin, diabetic complications, and presence of anemia, sulfonylurea use was a significant independent risk factor for B12 deficiency (OR?=?4.74, 95% CI 1.41–15.99, P?=?0.012). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that patients with type 2 diabetes who were treated with metformin combined with sulfonylurea require clinical attention for vitamin B12 deficiency and regular monitoring of their vitamin B12 levels. PMID:25299054

Kang, Donghoon; Yun, Jae-Seung; Ko, Sun-Hye; Lim, Tae-Seok; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Park, Yong-Moon; Ko, Seung-Hyun

2014-01-01

63

Vegetarian lifestyle and monitoring of vitamin B12 status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetarians are at risk to develop deficiencies of some essential nutrients, especially vitamin B-12 (cobalamin). Cobalamin occurs in substantial amounts only in foods derived from animals and is essential for one-carbon metabolism and cell division. Low nutritional intake of vitamin B-12 may lead to negative balance and, finally, to functional deficiency when tissue stores of vitamin B-12 are depleted. Early

Wolfgang Herrmann; Jürgen Geisel

2002-01-01

64

Prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus on metformin: A case control study from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Introduction Diabetes Mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder and metformin is the most commonly prescribed oral hypoglycemic agent. Metformin is well known to cause viamin B12 deficiency due to effect on calcium-dependent membrane action in the terminal ileum leading to malabsorption of vitamin B12. The purpose of this study is to determine prevalence and associations of Vitamin B12 deficiency in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with metformin. Methods This case control study was carried out in department of medicine, Combined Military Hospital, Kharian from 1st Jan 2012 to 30 december 2012. We enrolled 114 outdoor patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus currently on metformin for atleast 12 months, by consecutive sampling, and 105 age and sex matched patients taken as control. Patients with vitamin B12 levels of less than 150 pg/ml were said to be B12 deficient. The results were analyzed on SPSS version 16. Results Serum B12 levels were low in 35 patients (31%) on metformin as compared to only 9 patients (8.6%) among controls,(p value 0.002). Mean B12 levels were significantly low in metformin group 311 pg/ml (±194.4), p value 0.03. Dose of metformin had inverse correlation with B12 levels and the difference was statistically significant with p-value < 0.001. Conclusion Our study demonstrated significantly high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients treated with metformin with significant effect of dose and duration of metformin use on B12 levels. Physicians must recognize this important fact and screen diabetics on metformin therapy for underlying B12 deficiency. PMID:24711867

Iftikhar, Raheel; Kamran, Sultan Mehmood; Qadir, Adnan; Iqbal, Zohaib; Usman, Hassan bin

2013-01-01

65

Penicillin and Vitamin B12  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The WebWare Molecules for July are mentioned in the article "The History of Molecular Structure Determination Viewed through the Nobel Prizes", by Jensen, Palenik, and Suh. One of the recipients discussed, Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin, won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in part for determining the structures of penicillin and vitamin B12.

66

Considering the case for vitamin B12 fortification of flour  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reasons to fortify flour with vitamin B12 are considered, which include the high prevalence of depletion and deficiency of this vitamin that occurs in persons of all ages in resource-poor countries and in elderly in wealthier countries, as well as the adverse functional consequences of poor vitamin ...

67

Vegan diet, subnormal vitamin B-12 status and cardiovascular health.  

PubMed

Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products). Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians in Australia, Germany, Italy and Austria, and in vegans (80%) in Hong Kong and India, where vegans rarely take vitamin B-12 fortified food or vitamin B-12 supplements. Similar deficiencies exist in northern Chinese rural communities consuming inadequate meat, egg or dairy products due to poverty or dietary habits. Vascular studies have demonstrated impaired arterial endothelial function and increased carotid intima-media thickness as atherosclerosis surrogates in such metabolic vitamin B-12 deficient populations, but not in lactovegetarians in China. Vitamin B-12 supplementation has a favourable impact on these vascular surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China. Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 status is thus potentially beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency in vegans, and possibly for prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases. PMID:25195560

Woo, Kam S; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Celermajer, David S

2014-08-01

68

Vegan Diet, Subnormal Vitamin B-12 Status and Cardiovascular Health  

PubMed Central

Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products). Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians in Australia, Germany, Italy and Austria, and in vegans (80%) in Hong Kong and India, where vegans rarely take vitamin B-12 fortified food or vitamin B-12 supplements. Similar deficiencies exist in northern Chinese rural communities consuming inadequate meat, egg or dairy products due to poverty or dietary habits. Vascular studies have demonstrated impaired arterial endothelial function and increased carotid intima-media thickness as atherosclerosis surrogates in such metabolic vitamin B-12 deficient populations, but not in lactovegetarians in China. Vitamin B-12 supplementation has a favourable impact on these vascular surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China. Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 status is thus potentially beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency in vegans, and possibly for prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases. PMID:25195560

Woo, Kam S.; Kwok, Timothy C.Y.; Celermajer, David S.

2014-01-01

69

Vitamin B1 Deficiency Does not Affect the Liver Concentrations of the Other Seven Kinds of B-Group Vitamins in Rats.  

PubMed

We aimed to determine the effects of vitamin B1 deficiency on vitamin contents of urine, liver, and blood. In the current study, rats were divided into 3 groups (n = 5, each group): the first was freely fed a complete diet (ad lib-fed control group); the second freely fed a vitamin B1-free diet (vitamin B1 deficient group); and the third pair-fed a complete diet with the same amounts of the vitamin B1 deficient group (pair-fed control group). The experimental period was for 15 days. The blood concentrations of vitamin B2, PLP, vitamin B12, folic acid, and biotin were lower in the pair-fed control than in the ad lib-fed control and those of nicotinamide and pantothenic acid were the same. We conclude that Vitamin B1 deficiency did not affect concentrations of the other B-group vitamins. PMID:23935367

Shibata, Katsumi; Shimizu, Atsushi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

2013-01-01

70

Vitamin B12 sources and bioavailability.  

PubMed

The usual dietary sources of vitamin B(12) are animal foods, meat, milk, egg, fish, and shellfish. As the intrinsic factor-mediated intestinal absorption system is estimated to be saturated at about 1.5-2.0 microg per meal under physiologic conditions, vitamin B(12) bioavailability significantly decreases with increasing intake of vitamin B(12) per meal. The bioavailability of vitamin B(12) in healthy humans from fish meat, sheep meat, and chicken meat averaged 42%, 56%-89%, and 61%-66%, respectively. Vitamin B(12) in eggs seems to be poorly absorbed (< 9%) relative to other animal food products. In the Dietary Reference Intakes in the United States and Japan, it is assumed that 50% of dietary vitamin B(12) is absorbed by healthy adults with normal gastro-intestinal function. Some plant foods, dried green and purple lavers (nori) contain substantial amounts of vitamin B(12), although other edible algae contained none or only traces of vitamin B(12). Most of the edible blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) used for human supplements predominantly contain pseudovitamin B(12), which is inactive in humans. The edible cyanobacteria are not suitable for use as vitamin B(12) sources, especially in vegans. Fortified breakfast cereals are a particularly valuable source of vitamin B(12) for vegans and elderly people. Production of some vitamin B(12)-enriched vegetables is also being devised. PMID:17959839

Watanabe, Fumio

2007-11-01

71

Vitamin B12-Containing Plant Food Sources for Vegetarians  

PubMed Central

The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori) is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups. PMID:24803097

Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Bito, Tomohiro; Teng, Fei

2014-01-01

72

The influence of cobalt/vitamin B12 deficiency as a stressor affecting adrenal cortex  

E-print Network

measurement and the pituitary gland and corpus luteum for LH and progesterone determinations, respectively corticosteroids were persistently high in cobalt-deficient goats as compared to the controls, and pituitary LH to irregular cycles, the action site being located in the hypothalamo-pituitary axis. Introduction. The effects

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

73

The roles of vitamin B12 and vitamin D in children with intractable epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) can cause vitamin B12 or D deficiency in children with intractable epilepsy. In this study, we measured salivary superoxide dismutase (SOD) and metalloproteinsases (MMP) levels in the patients with vitamin B12 and vitamin D treatment. Cytokines and chemokines were measured using ELISA. The mean salivary value of SOD activity in the control group was 1.75 ± 0.21 U/ml. In the treatment group, the value was 1.33 ± 0.18 U/ml. The salivary MMP 2, MMP 3, and MMP 9 levels of the patients with vitamin D and vitamin B12 treatment were lower than that in the patients without vitamin D and vitamin B12 treatment. Interleukin 1? (IL-1?), IL-6, IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein 1? (MIP-1?), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and IFN-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) were significantly decreased in the cortex of our patients with vitamin D and vitamin B12 treatment. In this study, a clear association between vitamin D and vitamin B12 treatment and epilepsy was identified. We now plan to investigate the genetic factors that underlie vitamin D and vitamin B12 treatment in patients treated with AEDs.

Li, Xiao-Hong; Hou, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Rong

2015-01-01

74

A daily intake of approximately 6 g vitamin B12 appears to saturate all the vitamin B12-related variables in Danish postmenopausal women1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recommended daily intakes of vitamin B-12 vary between 2 and 6 g. Objective: The objective was to examine the associations between vitamin B-12 intake and markers of vitamin B-12 deficiency. Design:We studied 98 Danish postmenopausal women aged 41-75 y. Serum cobalamin, transcobalamin (TC) saturated with vitamin B-12 (holo-TC), TC saturation (holo-TC\\/total TC), methylmalonic acid (MMA), and total homocysteine (tHcy)

Mustafa Vakur Bor; Eva Lydeking-Olsen; Jan Møller; Ebba Nexø

75

Treatment of Neuroblastoma with Vitamin B12  

PubMed Central

A retrospective study of treatment given to 108 children with neuroblastoma failed to confirm that vitamin B12 therapy is beneficial. 43 of 47 children whose treatment did not include vitamin B12 are known to have died, compared with 56 of 61 children who received the vitamin in addition to other treatments. 2 children who received vitamin B12 as their only treatment were alive and well six years later, but this apparently favourable response could well be ascribed to spontaneous remission of the tumour. PMID:5427853

Langman, M. J. S.

1970-01-01

76

Vitamin B12 Intramuscular Injections Versus Oral Supplements  

PubMed Central

Background Vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to adverse health effects such as anemia and, in some cases, permanent neurologic damage. In Canada, patients with vitamin B12 deficiency are typically given intramuscular injections, which incur considerable cost and inconvenience. The clinical evidence-based analysis has found that oral supplementation is as effective as intramuscular injections. Objectives This economic analysis aimed to estimate the cost savings of switching from intramuscular injections to high-dose oral supplements for patients aged 18 years and older with confirmed vitamin B12 deficiency. Data Sources Population-based administrative databases for Ontario were used to identify patients receiving vitamin B12 intramuscular injections in any fiscal year between 2006 and 2011. The Ontario Drug Benefit (ODB) database was used to identify patients who were prescribed vitamin B12 injections, and the Ontario Health Insurance Plan database was used to identify all physician claims for intramuscular injections as well as laboratory tests assessing vitamin B12 levels. The Registered Physicians Database was used to identify the type of physician; the analysis was restricted to family physicians and internists. Review Methods Two cohorts of patients were identified. For cohort 1, the ODB database was used to identify patients who were prescribed vitamin B12 injections. Those covered under the ODB are 65 years of age or older and are economically deprived. A second cohort was created to capture those 18 to 64 years of age receiving injections. Cohort 2 consisted of patients (not in cohort 1) who received 6 or more intramuscular injections within 1 year and had a laboratory test 2 months before the intramuscular injection claim. Physician experts were consulted to estimate the resources and costs of converting patients to oral supplements. The Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care perspective was taken, and all costs are expressed in 2013 Canadian dollars. Results The budget impact analysis demonstrated costs of $2.8 million to the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care in the first year of conversion; however, in subsequent years there are savings of $4.2 million per year. The cumulative 5-year budget impact demonstrates savings of $14.2 million to the health care system. Limitations This analysis represents the cost of conversion for those currently receiving intramuscular injections. There are no conversion costs for those who are prescribed oral supplements as an initial therapy, and so the savings could be even greater than reported. As well, an underlying assumption of this analysis is that patients will comply with oral supplementation. Conclusions Over 5 years, there are savings of $14.2 million to the health care system from switching to vitamin B12 oral supplements. Plain Language Summary Vitamin B12 deficiency has long been thought to be associated with dementia and other neurocognitive disorders. In a separate report, Health Quality Ontario (HQO) reviewed the published research on this issue and found only weak evidence that vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with the onset of dementia. That review also found moderate evidence that treatment with vitamin B12 does not improve dementia and that oral supplements are as effective as injections of vitamin B12. In 2010, more than 2.9 million serum vitamin B12 tests were performed in Ontario at a cost of $40 million. Each year, approximately 110,000 residents receive vitamin B12 injections to boost their levels of vitamin B12. HQO commissioned an economic analysis to estimate the cost savings of switching from vitamin B12 injections to high-dose oral supplements for patients aged 18 years and older with confirmed B12 deficiency. This study concluded that the Ontario health care system could save $14.5 million in 5 years by switching to oral supplements, assuming that patients took the oral supplements as required. PMID:24379898

Masucci, L; Goeree, R

2013-01-01

77

Vitamin B12 and homocysteine status in asymptomatic Indian toddlers.  

PubMed

Low serum vitamin B(12) (V B(12)) and hyperhomocysteinemia have been reported in asymptomatic Asian Indian men. We studied the prevalence of V B(12) deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia in 51 asymptomatic toddlers, from Pune, India. V B(12) levels were low and total serum homocysteine was high in 14% and homocysteine levels were significantly higher in boys. Programming for cardiovascular risk in adulthood possibly starts at a very young age through the homocysteine axis. PMID:18716749

Hanumante, N M; Wadia, R S; Deshpande, S S; Sanwalka, N J; Vaidya, M V; Khadilkar, A V

2008-07-01

78

Breast milk vitamin B-12 concentrations of Guatemalan women are correlated with maternal but not infant vitamin B12 status at 12 months postpartum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In our previous studies one third of lactating Guatemalan women, infants and children had deficient or marginal serum vitamin B-12 concentrations. Relationships among maternal and infant status and breast milk vitamin B-12, however, have not been investigated in such populations. Our purpose was to ...

79

Assay for vitamin B12 absorption and method of making labeled vitamin B12  

DOEpatents

The invention provides methods for labeling vitamin B12 with .sup.14C, .sup.13C, tritium, and deuterium. When radioisotopes are used, the invention provides for methods of labeling B12 with high specific activity. The invention also provides labeled vitamin B12 compositions made in accordance with the invention.

Anderson, Peter J. (Davis, CA); Dueker, Stephen (Davis, CA); Miller, Joshua (Davis, CA); Green, Ralph (Elmacero, CA); Roth, John (Davis, CA); Carkeet, Colleen (Silver Spring, MD); Buchholz,; Bruce A. (Orinda, CA)

2012-06-19

80

Molecular Structure of Vitamin B12  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) has many uses as a nutritional supplement in both humans and livestock. It is used in humans to treat pernicious anemia, hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver, and to help maintain the body's metabolism. In its long-effect form (hydroxocobalamin), vitamin B12 is used to treat anemia, growth impediment, improvement in the function of the heart, liver, kidneys and nerves, and general strengthening of the body. In livestock, it is used to improve feed production.

2002-08-13

81

Enhancement of chemiluminescence for vitamin B 12 analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current article, chemiluminescence (CL) from the vitamin B12 and luminol reaction was studied under alkaline conditions to develop a sensitive analytical method for vitamin B12 using the carbonate enhancement effect. The method was successfully applied to the determination of vitamin B12 in vitamin B12 tablets, multivitamin capsules, and vitamin B12 injections. Experimental parameters were optimized, including luminol concentration,

Sagaya Selva Kumar; Raghuraj Singh Chouhan; Munna Singh Thakur

2009-01-01

82

INTAKES OF ADDED VITAMINS - FOLATE, VITAMIN B12, AND VITAMIN E  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As foods in the marketplace continue to be fortified with nutrients, it necessitates separation of added forms of some vitamins from natural forms. The USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) now includes added forms of folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin E. Folic acid, the added fo...

83

Biochemical studies of vitamin B?? deficiency in the domestic fowl  

E-print Network

) found that the blood levels of riboflavin and calcium in chicks were increased when chlorte- tracycline was fed. Sparing effects of this antibiotic on riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, pantothenic acid, thiamine, vitamin A, and manganese have been..., and sympathetic ganglia of rats kept on a diet deficient in vitamin Big, folic acid, and para-aminobenzoic acid. Rose and Schweigert (68) showed that vitamin Big deficiency caused a decrease in the amount of deoxynucleic acid and ribonucleic acid per gram...

Mohan, Vallury Surya

1959-01-01

84

Effect of combined folic acid, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on colorectal adenoma  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Folic acid, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) act in concert in the one-carbon metabolism and may protect against colorectal neoplasia. We examined the effect of combined B-vitamin treatment on the occurrence of colorectal adenoma. The Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study was a rand...

85

21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12 . (b) Conditions of use....

2011-04-01

86

21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12 . (b) Conditions of use....

2010-04-01

87

21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12 . (b) Conditions of use....

2012-04-01

88

Radiolysis of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B 12)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on the radiolysis of vitamins is of considerable interest since these compounds are important nutritional constituents in foods and in dietetic supplements. In spite of these considerations there are few data and very often difficult to compare for the radiolytic behavior of vitamins. In this work we focused our attention on to the study of the radiolysis of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B 12) in solid state and in aqueous solutions. The procedure was followed by HPLC and UV-spectroscopy. The results obtained in aqueous solutions showed a dependence of the decomposition as a linear function of the dose. The G of decomposition for a 1×10 -5 M solution was 3.3. In the solid state the vitamin was very stable towards the irradiation in the conditions used in this study with a G=2.1×10 -3. A study made with Serratia marcescens as a microbiological contaminant showed that at the sterilization dose there is a destruction of the vitamin in aqueous solution. In the solid state the degree of decomposition was 7%.

Juanchi, X.; Albarran, G.; Negron-Mendoza, A.

2000-03-01

89

Sequential changes in propionate metabolism during the development of cobalt\\/vitamin B 12 deficiency in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in propionate metabolism that accompany cobalt deficiency in sheep are described. Two groups of sheep, fed either\\u000a a cobalt sufficient or deficient diet, were given an iv propionate load at intervals during a 14 w experiment. There was a\\u000a tendency towards increased propionate half-life as the animals became cobalt deficient. However, significant changes in the\\u000a area under the

D. Glenn Kennedy; Finbarr P. M. O'Harte; W. John Blanchflower; Desmond A. Rice

1991-01-01

90

Seizures caused by pyridoxine (vitamin B6) deficiency in adults: A case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Summary Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) deficiency is a recognised cause of intractable seizures in neonates. However, pyridoxine deficiency related seizures in adults were rarely reported. This article reports a case of a 79 year old lady who suffered from new-onset seizures and was successfully treated with vitamin B6. The patient had chronic renal disease and weight loss due to anepithymia following a pelvic fracture. This article also reviews literatures of seizures caused by pyridoxine deficiency in adults. Seizures caused by vitamin B6 deficiency in adults may result from dietary deficiency, liver disease, pregnancy and certain medications and can be easily treated by vitamin B6 with excellent outcome. Clinicians should consider vitamin B6 deficiency as a potential aetiology of seizures, even in patients who suffer from other underlying diseases which can cause seizures. PMID:25343127

Tong, Yisha

2014-01-01

91

Metabolic evidence of vitamin B-12 deficiency, including high homocysteine and methylmalonic acid and low holotranscobalamin, is more pronounced in older adults with elevated plasma folate  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: An analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey indicated that in older adults exposed to folic acid fortification, the combination of low serum vitamin B-12 and elevated folate is associated with higher concentrations of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid ...

92

In vitamin B12 deficiency, higher serum folate is assoicated with increased total homocysteine (tHcy) and methlmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In a recent study of older participants (age >/= 60 y) in the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we showed that a combination of high serum folate and low vitamin B-12 status was associated with higher prevalence of cognitive impairment and anemia than other combina...

93

Urinary Methylmalonic Acid as an Indicator of Early Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Its Role in Polyneuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

The rising incidence of diabetes and its negative impact on quality of life highlights the urgent need to develop biomarkers of early nerve damage. Measurement of total vitamin B12 has some limitations. We want to determine the levels of urinary methylmalonic acid and its relationships with serum vitamin B12 and polyneuropathy. The 176 Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus were divided into 3 groups according to the levels of vitamin B12. A gas chromatography mass spectrometric technique was used to determine blood methylmalonic acid and urinary methylmalonic acid. The diagnosis of distal diabetic polyneuropathy was based on the determination of bilateral limb sensory and motor nerve conduction velocity and amplitude with electromyogram. Multiple regression analysis revealed that urinary methylmalonic acid/creatinine, blood methylmalonic acid, and so forth were variables that influenced diabetic polyneuropathy significantly. Nerve sensory conduction velocity and nerve amplitude in the group of urinary methylmalonic acid/creatinine >3.5?mmol/mol decreased significantly. Superficial peroneal nerve sensory and motor conduction velocity and ulnar nerve compound motor active potential amplitude were inversely correlated with urinary methylmalonic acid/creatinine. Urinary methylmalonic acid correlates with serum vitamin B12 levels in person with diabetes and is a sensitive marker of early polyneuropathy. PMID:24719898

Sun, Ai-li; Ni, Yi-hong; Li, Xiao-bo; Zhuang, Xiang-hua; Liu, Yuan-tao; Liu, Xin-hua; Chen, Shi-hong

2014-01-01

94

Effects of vitamin B12, folate, and vitamin B6 supplements in elderly people with normal serum vitamin concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryIn a prospective, multicentre, double-blind controlled study, the effect of an intramuscular vitamin supplement containing 1 mg vitamin B12, 1·1 mg folate, and 5 mg vitamin B6 on serum concentrations of methylmalonic acid (MMA), homocysteine (HCYS), 2-methylcitric acid (2-MCA), and cystathionine (CYSTA) was compared with that of placebo in 175 elderly subjects living at home and 110 in hospital. Vitamin

H. J. Naurath; E. Joosten; R. Riezler; S. Stabler; R. H. Allen; J. Lindenbaum

1995-01-01

95

Daily milk intake improves vitamin B-12 status in young vegetarian Indians: an intervention trial  

PubMed Central

Background Asymptomatic Indian lacto vegetarians, who make up more than half of the Indian population in different geographic regions, have distinctly low vitamin B-12 concentrations than non- vegetarians. Vegetarians consume milk but it seems that the amount is not enough to improve vitamin B-12 status or vitamin B-12 concentration in milk itself may be low. The aim of this study was to determine if daily milk consumption can improve vitamin B-12 status. Methods Fifteen male and 36 female, young healthy post-graduate volunteers participated. Blood from ten participants (4 males and 6 females) was collected (day-1). They continued their regular diet for next fourteen days and on day-15, blood of all 51 participants was collected, plasma vitamin B-12 concentration was measured and were divided into two groups; Normal (vitamin B-12 >148 pmol/L, n?=?22) and Vitamin B-12 deficient (<148 pmol/L, n?=?29), the remaining plasma was stored. All participants consumed 600 ml. of non-enriched buffalo milk (200 × 3) during the day along with their usual diet. Next day blood was collected for plasma holotranscobalamin II measurement. Subjects from deficient group continued to drink 400 ml of milk daily for next 14 days and blood was collected on day-30. Plasma holotranscoabalamin II (day-1, 15, 16, 30), vitamin B-12, folate, total homocysteine, creatinine and hematoloical parameters (day-1, 15, 30), and milk vitamin B-12 concentrations (day-15, 16, 30) were measured. Results Fifty seven per cent of the participants were vitamin B-12 deficient and 65% were hyperhomocysteinemic. No significant difference in biomarkers was observed when there was no intervention. Plasma holotranscobalamin II concentration increased from 19.6 to 22.27 pmol/L (p?vitamin B-12 increased from 92.5 to 122 pmol/L and tHcy concentrations decreased from 31.9 to 24.9 ? mol/L (p?vitamin B-12 deficient subjects. Conclusions Regular intake of milk improved vitamin B-12 status of vitamin B-12 deficient vegetarians indicating a potential dietary strategy to improve the vitamin status. PMID:24107225

2013-01-01

96

Biomarkers of vitamin B-12 status in NHANES: a roundtable summary123456  

PubMed Central

A roundtable to discuss the measurement of vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) status biomarkers in NHANES took place in July 2010. NHANES stopped measuring vitamin B-12–related biomarkers after 2006. The roundtable reviewed 3 biomarkers of vitamin B-12 status used in past NHANES—serum vitamin B-12, methylmalonic acid (MMA), and total homocysteine (tHcy)—and discussed the potential utility of measuring holotranscobalamin (holoTC) for future NHANES. The roundtable focused on public health considerations and the quality of the measurement procedures and reference methods and materials that past NHANES used or that are available for future NHANES. Roundtable members supported reinstating vitamin B-12 status measures in NHANES. They noted evolving concerns and uncertainties regarding whether subclinical (mild, asymptomatic) vitamin B-12 deficiency is a public health concern. They identified the need for evidence from clinical trials to address causal relations between subclinical vitamin B-12 deficiency and adverse health outcomes as well as appropriate cutoffs for interpreting vitamin B-12–related biomarkers. They agreed that problems with sensitivity and specificity of individual biomarkers underscore the need for including at least one biomarker of circulating vitamin B-12 (serum vitamin B-12 or holoTC) and one functional biomarker (MMA or tHcy) in NHANES. The inclusion of both serum vitamin B-12 and plasma MMA, which have been associated with cognitive dysfunction and anemia in NHANES and in other population-based studies, was preferable to provide continuity with past NHANES. Reliable measurement procedures are available, and National Institute of Standards and Technology reference materials are available or in development for serum vitamin B-12 and MMA. PMID:21593512

Pfeiffer, Christine M; Phinney, Karen W; Bailey, Regan L; Blackmore, Sheena; Bock, Jay L; Brody, Lawrence C; Carmel, Ralph; Curtin, L Randy; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramón A; Eckfeldt, John H; Green, Ralph; Gregory, Jesse F; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Jacobsen, Donald W; Jacques, Paul F; Lacher, David A; Molloy, Anne M; Massaro, Joseph; Mills, James L; Nexo, Ebba; Rader, Jeanne I; Selhub, Jacob; Sempos, Christopher; Shane, Barry; Stabler, Sally; Stover, Patrick; Tamura, Tsunenobu; Tedstone, Alison; Thorpe, Susan J; Johnson, Clifford L; Picciano, Mary Frances

2011-01-01

97

Biomarkers of vitamin B-12 status in NHANES: a roundtable summary.  

PubMed

A roundtable to discuss the measurement of vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) status biomarkers in NHANES took place in July 2010. NHANES stopped measuring vitamin B-12-related biomarkers after 2006. The roundtable reviewed 3 biomarkers of vitamin B-12 status used in past NHANES--serum vitamin B-12, methylmalonic acid (MMA), and total homocysteine (tHcy)--and discussed the potential utility of measuring holotranscobalamin (holoTC) for future NHANES. The roundtable focused on public health considerations and the quality of the measurement procedures and reference methods and materials that past NHANES used or that are available for future NHANES. Roundtable members supported reinstating vitamin B-12 status measures in NHANES. They noted evolving concerns and uncertainties regarding whether subclinical (mild, asymptomatic) vitamin B-12 deficiency is a public health concern. They identified the need for evidence from clinical trials to address causal relations between subclinical vitamin B-12 deficiency and adverse health outcomes as well as appropriate cutoffs for interpreting vitamin B-12-related biomarkers. They agreed that problems with sensitivity and specificity of individual biomarkers underscore the need for including at least one biomarker of circulating vitamin B-12 (serum vitamin B-12 or holoTC) and one functional biomarker (MMA or tHcy) in NHANES. The inclusion of both serum vitamin B-12 and plasma MMA, which have been associated with cognitive dysfunction and anemia in NHANES and in other population-based studies, was preferable to provide continuity with past NHANES. Reliable measurement procedures are available, and National Institute of Standards and Technology reference materials are available or in development for serum vitamin B-12 and MMA. PMID:21593512

Yetley, Elizabeth A; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Phinney, Karen W; Bailey, Regan L; Blackmore, Sheena; Bock, Jay L; Brody, Lawrence C; Carmel, Ralph; Curtin, L Randy; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramón A; Eckfeldt, John H; Green, Ralph; Gregory, Jesse F; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Jacobsen, Donald W; Jacques, Paul F; Lacher, David A; Molloy, Anne M; Massaro, Joseph; Mills, James L; Nexo, Ebba; Rader, Jeanne I; Selhub, Jacob; Sempos, Christopher; Shane, Barry; Stabler, Sally; Stover, Patrick; Tamura, Tsunenobu; Tedstone, Alison; Thorpe, Susan J; Coates, Paul M; Johnson, Clifford L; Picciano, Mary Frances

2011-07-01

98

Combined dietary folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 intake influences plasma docosahexaenoic acid concentration in rats  

E-print Network

Background: Folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 are essential nutritional components in one-carbon metabolism and are required for methylation capacity. The availability of these vitamins may therefore modify methylation ...

van Wijk, Nick

99

B Vitamins  

MedlinePLUS

The B vitamins are B1 (thiamine) B2 (riboflavin) B3 (niacin) B5 (pantothenic acid) B6 B7 (biotin) B12 Folic acid ... help form red blood cells. You can get B vitamins from proteins such as fish, poultry, meat, ...

100

Oral cobalamin (vitamin B(12)) treatment. An update.  

PubMed

The objective of this review was to evaluate oral cobalamin (vitamin B(12)) therapy in adult and elderly patients, from the perspective of a hematologist. PubMed was systematically searched for English and French articles published from January 1990 to January 2007. Data from our working group, the 'Groupe d'étude des carences en vitamine B(12)des Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg', have also been included. Several prospective studies in well-determined population (n = 4), prospective randomized studies (n = 3) and a systematic review by the Cochrane group (n = 1) provide evidence that oral cobalamin therapy may adequately treat cobalamin deficiency, particularly hematological abnormalities or manifestations. These studies suggest that at least 1000 microg/day of oral cyanocobalmin are needed for pernicious anemia and a mean daily dose of 250 microg for food-cobalamin malabsorption. This present review confirms the previously reported efficacy of oral cobalamin treatment in adult and elderly patients. PMID:19032377

Andrès, E; Dali-Youcef, N; Vogel, T; Serraj, K; Zimmer, J

2009-02-01

101

Vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy and early lactation increases maternal, breast milk, and infant measures of vitamin B-12 status.  

PubMed

Pregnant women in resource-poor areas are at risk of multiple micronutrient deficiencies, and indicators of low vitamin B-12 status have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including anemia, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth retardation. To evaluate whether daily oral vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy increases maternal and infant measures of vitamin B-12 status, we performed a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Pregnant women <14 wk of gestation in Bangalore, India, were randomly assigned to receive daily oral supplementation with vitamin B-12 (50 ?g) or placebo through 6 wk postpartum. All women were administered iron and folic acid supplements throughout pregnancy. One hundred eighty-three women were randomly assigned to receive vitamin B-12 and 183 to receive placebo. Compared with placebo recipients, vitamin B-12-supplemented women had significantly higher plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations at both the second (median vitamin B-12 concentration: 216 vs. 111 pmol/L, P < 0.001) and third (median: 184 vs. 105 pmol/L, P < 0.001) trimesters. At 6 wk postpartum, median breast milk vitamin B-12 concentration was 136 pmol/L in vitamin B-12-supplemented women vs. 87 pmol/L in the placebo group (P < 0.0005). Among vitamin B-12-supplemented women, the incidence of delivering an infant with intrauterine growth retardation was 33 of 131 (25%) vs. 43 of 125 (34%) in those administered placebo (P = 0.11). In a subset of infants tested at 6 wk of age, median plasma vitamin B-12 concentration was 199 pmol/L in those born to supplemented women vs. 139 pmol/L in the placebo group (P = 0.01). Infant plasma methylmalonic acid and homocysteine concentrations were significantly lower in the vitamin B-12 group as well. Oral supplementation of urban Indian women with vitamin B-12 throughout pregnancy and early lactation significantly increases vitamin B-12 status of mothers and infants. It is important to determine whether there are correlations between these findings and neurologic and metabolic functions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00641862. PMID:24598885

Duggan, Christopher; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Thomas, Tinku; Samuel, Tinu; Rajendran, Ramya; Muthayya, Sumithra; Finkelstein, Julia L; Lukose, Ammu; Fawzi, Wafaie; Allen, Lindsay H; Bosch, Ronald J; Kurpad, Anura V

2014-05-01

102

Longitudinal association of vitamin B-6, folate, and vitamin B-12 with depressive symptoms among older adults over time123  

PubMed Central

Background: B-vitamin deficiencies have been associated with depression; however, there is very little prospective evidence from population-based studies of older adults. Objective: We examined whether dietary intakes of vitamins B-6, folate, or vitamin B-12 were predictive of depressive symptoms over an average of 7.2 y in a community-based population of older adults. Design: The study sample consisted of 3503 adults from the Chicago Health and Aging project, an ongoing, population-based, biracial (59% African American) study in adults aged ?65 y. Dietary assessment was made by food-frequency questionnaire. Incident depression was measured by the presence of ?4 depressive symptoms from the 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Results: The logistic regression models, which used generalized estimating equations, showed that higher total intakes, which included supplementation, of vitamins B-6 and B-12 were associated with a decreased likelihood of incident depression for up to 12 y of follow-up, after adjustment for age, sex, race, education, income, and antidepressant medication use. For example, each 10 additional milligrams of vitamin B-6 and 10 additional micrograms of vitamin B-12 were associated with 2% lower odds of depressive symptoms per year. There was no association between depressive symptoms and food intakes of these vitamins or folate. These associations remained after adjustment for smoking, alcohol use, widowhood, caregiving status, cognitive function, physical disability, and medical conditions. Conclusion: Our results support the hypotheses that high total intakes of vitamins B-6 and B-12 are protective of depressive symptoms over time in community-residing older adults. PMID:20519557

Tangney, Christine; Li, Hong; Ouyang, Bichun; Evans, Denis A; Morris, Martha Clare

2010-01-01

103

Low Vitamin B12 Levels among Newly-Arrived Refugees from Bhutan, Iran and Afghanistan: A Multicentre Australian Study  

PubMed Central

Background Vitamin B12 deficiency is prevalent in many countries of origin of refugees. Using a threshold of 5% above which a prevalence of low Vitamin B12 is indicative of a population health problem, we hypothesised that Vitamin B12 deficiency exceeds this threshold among newly-arrived refugees resettling in Australia, and is higher among women due to their increased risk of food insecurity. This paper reports Vitamin B12 levels in a large cohort of newly arrived refugees in five Australian states and territories. Methods In a cross-sectional descriptive study, we collected Vitamin B12, folate and haematological indices on all refugees (n?=?916; response rate 94% of eligible population) who had been in Australia for less than one year, and attended one of the collaborating health services between July 2010 and July 2011. Results 16.5% of participants had Vitamin B12 deficiency (<150 pmol/L). One-third of participants from Iran and Bhutan, and one-quarter of participants from Afghanistan had Vitamin B12 deficiency. Contrary to our hypothesis, low Vitamin B12 levels were more prevalent in males than females. A higher prevalence of low Vitamin B12 was also reported in older age groups in some countries. The sensitivity of macrocytosis in detecting Vitamin B12 deficiency was only 4.6%. Conclusion Vitamin B12 deficiency is an important population health issue in newly-arrived refugees from many countries. All newly-arrived refugees should be tested for Vitamin B12 deficiency. Ongoing research should investigate causes, treatment, and ways to mitigate food insecurity, and the contribution of such measures to enhancing the health of the refugee communities. PMID:23469126

Benson, Jill; Phillips, Christine; Kay, Margaret; Webber, Murray T.; Ratcliff, Alison J.; Correa-Velez, Ignacio; Lorimer, Michelle F.

2013-01-01

104

Anaphylactic reaction after intramuscular injection of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12): a case report.  

PubMed

We report a case of anaphylactic reaction to intramuscular injection of cyanocobalamin. This 52-year-old lady was diagnosed as a case of megaloblastic anemia secondary to dietary vitamin B12 deficiency. She had severe anaphylactic reaction after the parenteral administration of cyanocobalamine. Later she received oral vitamin B12 with no adverse effects. The purpose of this case report is to draw attention to the hypersensitive reaction to injectable vitamin B12, which is rarely seen. This could be due to sensitization to the vitamin B12 molecule itself or an IgE mediated reaction. We concluded that anaphylactic reaction to vitamin B12 is a rare but serious side effect and it should be kept in mind while the drug is being administered to the patient, especially via the parenteral route. PMID:15960291

Bilwani, Fareena; Adil, Salman N; Sheikh, Usman; Humera, Ayesha; Khurshid, Mohammad

2005-05-01

105

Folate (vitamin B9) and vitamin B12 and their function in the maintenance of nuclear and mitochondrial genome integrity.  

PubMed

Folate plays a critical role in the prevention of uracil incorporation into DNA and hypomethylation of DNA. This activity is compromised when vitamin B12 concentration is low because methionine synthase activity is reduced, lowering the concentration of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) which in turn may diminish DNA methylation and cause folate to become unavailable for the conversion of dUMP to dTMP. The most plausible explanation for the chromosome-breaking effect of low folate is excessive uracil misincorporation into DNA, a mutagenic lesion that leads to strand breaks in DNA during repair. Both in vitro and in vivo studies with human cells clearly show that folate deficiency causes expression of chromosomal fragile sites, chromosome breaks, excessive uracil in DNA, micronucleus formation, DNA hypomethylation and mitochondrial DNA deletions. In vivo studies show that folate and/or vitamin B12 deficiency and elevated plasma homocysteine (a metabolic indicator of folate deficiency) are significantly correlated with increased micronucleus formation and reduced telomere length respectively. In vitro experiments indicate that genomic instability in human cells is minimised when folic acid concentration in culture medium is greater than 100nmol/L. Intervention studies in humans show (a) that DNA hypomethylation, chromosome breaks, uracil incorporation and micronucleus formation are minimised when red cell folate concentration is greater than 700nmol/L and (b) micronucleus formation is minimised when plasma concentration of vitamin B12 is greater than 300pmol/L and plasma homocysteine is less than 7.5?mol/L. These concentrations are achievable at intake levels at or above current recommended dietary intakes of folate (i.e. >400?g/day) and vitamin B12 (i.e. >2?g/day) depending on an individual's capacity to absorb and metabolise these vitamins which may vary due to genetic and epigenetic differences. PMID:22093367

Fenech, Michael

2012-05-01

106

Urinary methylmalonic acid as an indicator of the vitamin B12 status of grazing sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lambs grazing cobalt-deficient pastures and injected with hydroxocobalamine gained significantly more weight and excreted significantly less methylmalonic acid in the urine than untreated controls. Lambs with liver vitamin B12 levels in the range 0.1–0.2?g\\/g excreted less than 25 ?g of methylmalonic acid per ml of urine, whereas lambs with liver vitamin B12 concentrations of less than 0.1 ?g\\/g excreted greater

K. R. Millar; P. P. Lorentz

1979-01-01

107

21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of anemias of gastrointestinal malabsorption. (b) Classification. Class...

2012-04-01

108

Low plasma vitamin B-12 in Kenyan school children is highly prevalent and improved by supplemental animal source foods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The high prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in many regions of the world is becoming recognized as a widespread public health problem, but it is not known to what extent this deficiency results from a low intake of the vitamin or from its malabsorption from food. In rural Kenya, where a previous ...

109

Altered vitamin B12 status in recreational endurance athletes.  

PubMed

This study aimed to compare the vitamin B(12)and folate status of recreational endurance athletes and inactive controls by modern biomarkers. In 72 athletes (38 +/- 7 y) and 46 inactive controls (38 +/- 9 y) serum levels of vitamin B(2), methylmalonic acid (MMA), holotranscobalamin II (holoTC), folate, and homocysteine (Hcy) were measured. Vitamin B(12)and folate levels of both groups were comparable, but athletes had higher median (25.-75. percentile) MMA [242 (196 to 324) versus 175 (141 to 266) nmol/L] and holoTC concentrations [67 (52 to 93) versus 55 (45 to 70) pmol/L] than controls. Hcy was slightly lower in athletes [9.2 (7.2 to 12.6) versus 10.8 (8.9 to 12.9) nmol/L]. In controls, we found the following correlations: vitamin B(12)and MMA (r = -0.38), vitamin B(12)and holoTC (r = 0.51), MMA and holoTC (r = -0.36). In athletes, MMA did not correlate with vitamin B(12)and holoTC. Our data suggests an altered vitamin B(12)metabolism in recreational athletes that needs further investigation. PMID:16286674

Herrmann, Markus; Obeid, Rima; Scharhag, Juergen; Kindermann, Wilfried; Herrmann, Wolfgang

2005-08-01

110

Serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations and the effect of the Mediterranean diet on vulnerable populations.  

PubMed

Low vitamin B12 and folate levels in expectant mothers may lead to low stores in babies. The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies of vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies in pregnant women and neonates, and to assess the effect of maternal vitamin status on babies' vitamin levels in the Aegean region of Turkey, where the Mediterranean diet (mainly fresh fruits and vegetables) is adopted. We studied 72 pregnant women and their singleton-term babies. Venous blood samples of expectant mothers were collected 1 h before delivery and cord blood of babies were obtained at birth. The mean vitamin B12 in maternal and cord blood serum was 163.1 ± 72.0 pg/mL and 146.2 ± 102.5 pg/mL, and the mean folate, 9.8 ± 4.8 ng/mL and 15.8 ± 3.8 ng/mL, respectively. There were statistically significant correlation between maternal and cord blood serum vitamin B12 (r = 0.61, P = .04) and folate levels (r = 0.65, P < .001). 70.8% of the mothers and 83.9% of the babies were vitamin B12 deficient (<200 pg/mL). Neither group showed folate deficiency. The mean level of vitamin B12 in mothers significantly varied by the type of diet (241.6 (72.1) pg/mL versus 155.9 (68.2) pg/mL; P = .012). Vitamin B12 deficiency in pregnant women and neonates may be a public health problem in our community. The Mediterranean diet in these vulnerable groups may be an aggravating factor for vitamin B12 deficiency. Prenatal screening of all expectant mothers, prenatal supplementation of vitamin B12, and an increase in animal-source food intake may improve expectant mother's vitamin B12 level. PMID:24088029

Balc?, Yasemin I??k; Ergin, Ahmet; Karabulut, Aysun; Polat, Aziz; Do?an, Mustafa; Küçükta?c?, Kaz?m

2014-02-01

111

Chelation in metal intoxication XXI: chelation in lead intoxication during vitamin B complex deficiency  

SciTech Connect

The vitamin B-complex deficiency increases the vulnerability to neuro- and systemic toxicity of Pb in young rats. Thus, the nutritional status of vitamins like that of protein or minerals seems to influence the etiology of Pb toxicity and may be expected to affect the response toward Pb chelators. 2,3 dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylene-diamine triacetic acid (HEDTA) have been found to be effective antidotes to Pb intoxication. In the present study, these selective metal chelating agents were compared for their ability to reduce the body burden of Pb and restore the altered biochemical parameters in young developing Pb intoxicated rats maintained on normal or vitamin B-complex deficient diet. The investigation was aimed to suggest suitable prophylaxis of Pb poisoning prevalent among children who may also be suffering from vitamin deficiency in developing and poor countries.

Not Available

1986-09-01

112

STUDIES OF LIPOGENESIS IN CERTAIN B-VITAMIN DEFICIENCIES 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence to suggest that many vitamins of the B-complex are concerned with fat metabolism (McHenry and Cornett, '44). The role of choline as a lipotropic factor is well established (Best and Lucas, '43; McHenry and Patter son, '44). It has also been shown that high fat diets spare dietary thiamine (Evans and Lepkovsky, '35; Banerji, '40), and that

ROBEET E. OLSON

113

21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B 12 test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1810 Vitamin B 12 test system. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

114

21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

115

21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B 12 test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1810 Vitamin B 12 test system. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

116

Vitamin B12, folate and iron levels in primary nocturnal enuresis  

PubMed Central

Objective: Folate, vitamin B12 and iron are important vitamin and minerals which play role in the development of nervous system. The aim of this study was looking at the presence of folate, vitamin B12 and iron deficiency among patients with Primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) and possible relation between the delay of central nervous system (CNS) development, PNE and folate, vitamin B12 and iron states. Methods: Consecutively applied forty patients with PNE (23 girls and 17 boys) and otherwise normal thirty control subjects (17 girls and 13 boys) were included in the study. Average ages (in range) of PNE and the control group were 9.2(6-12) years and 9.3 (6-12) years accordingly. Age, height, weight, complete blood count, blood vitamin B12, folate, ferritin and iron values of both groups were recorded and compared to each other. Results: Average vitamin B12 and folate levels of patients with PNE were significantly and statistically lower compared to those of the control group. Average blood iron of patients with PNE was significantly higher than that of the control group and also average ferritin level of the PNE group was detected to be higher than the control group but this relation was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Primary nocturnal enuresis is related to the delay in CNS maturation so it was thought that low vitamin B12 and folate which were found in patients with PNE may have role in the delay of CNS maturation. Additionally, further studies are needed to investigate the role of vitamin B12 and folate either alone or as combination in treatment of patients with PNE who have low vitamin B12and folate level.

Albayrak, Sebahattin; Zengin, Kürsad; Tanik, Serhat; Daar, Ghaniya; Ozdamar, Mustafa Yasar; Bakirtas, Hasan; Imamoglu, M. Abdurrahim; Gurdal, Mesut

2015-01-01

117

Vitamin B deficiencies in a critically ill autistic child with a restricted diet.  

PubMed

An 11-year-old male with autism became less responsive and was hospitalized with hepatomegaly and liver dysfunction, as well as severe lactic acidosis. His diet for several years was self-limited exclusively to a single "fast food"-a particular type of fried chicken-and was deficient in multiple micronutrients, including the B vitamins thiamine and pyridoxine. Lactic acidosis improved rapidly with thiamine; 2 weeks later, status epilepticus-with low serum pyridoxine-resolved rapidly with pyridoxine. Dietary B vitamin deficiencies complicated the care of this critically ill autistic child and should be considered in this setting. PMID:25112945

Baird, J Scott; Ravindranath, Thyyar M

2015-02-01

118

Vitamin B12 Status in Metformin Treated Patients: Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objective Randomized controlled trials and observational studies have yielded inconsistent results on the effects of metformin on vitamin B12 reduction. We therefore performed a systematic review to analyze the effects of metformin on vitamin B12 concentration. Methods PubMed, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane central registry of controlled trials were searched to identify randomized controlled trials and observational studies exploring the association between metformin and vitamin B12 concentration in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus or polycystic ovary syndrome. The main outcome measure was changes in serum vitamin B12 concentration after 6–208 weeks of treatment with metformin, as compared with placebo or other anti-hyperglycemic therapy. Results Six randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria. Serum vitamin B12 concentrations were significantly lower in patients treated with metformin than in those who received placebo or rosiglitazone (mean difference [MD], ?53.93 pmol/L; 95% confidence interval [CI], ?81.44 to ?26.42 pmol/L, P?=?0.0001). Subgroup analysis identified four trials in which patients received a lower dose of metformin (<2000 mg/d) and two in which they received a higher dose (?2000 mg/d), with MDs in vitamin B12 concentration after metformin treatment of ?37.99 pmol/L (95% CI, ?57.44 to ?18.54 pmol/L, P?=?0.0001) and ?78.62 pmol/L (95% CI, ?106.37 to ?50.86 pmol/L, P<0.00001), respectively. Conclusions The reduction of vitamin B12 may be induced by metformin in a dose dependent manner. PMID:24959880

Quan, Heng; Li, Jianwei

2014-01-01

119

Placental transport of vitamin B12 in the pregnant rat  

PubMed Central

Placental transport of vitamin B12 was studied in the pregnant rat in two series of experiments. In the first series animals were given cyanocobalamin-57Co intravenously at various stages of gestation. High specific activity tracer was used and doses of B12 were 1-2 ng per animal. The rats were killed from 15 min to 24 hr after injection and the fetuses, placentas, and serum were assayed for radioactivity. In the second series using uninjected animals, absolute amounts of vitamin B12 in fetuses and placentas were measured at stages of gestation from day 12 through day 20. There was a progressive increase in B12 transferred to the fetus during gestation. Although the quantity of vitamin B12 transported per 24 hr was proportional to fetal weight, the amount transported per gram of placenta increased tenfold from day 10 through day 19. Uptake of tracer B12 by placenta was initially rapid; however, no radioactivity appeared in the fetus until 2 hr after injection. The actual amount of B12 in placenta increased throughout gestation, and the placental concentration of B12 was greater than maternal plasma and fetal tissue concentrations at all times measured. These data suggest that the ability of placenta to transport B12 increased throughout gestation, and that the rate-limiting step in the transport process was either the passage of B12 from the maternal to the fetal side of placenta or the transfer from placenta into fetal plasma. PMID:5552402

Graber, Stanley E.; Scheffel, Ursula; Hodkinson, Barbara; McIntyre, Patricia A.

1971-01-01

120

LOW PLASMA VITAMIN B12 AND HIGH FOLATE CONCENTRATIONS IN PREGNANCY ARE ASSOCIATED WITH GESTATIONAL DIABESITY AND INCIDENT DIABETES  

PubMed Central

Aim To test the hypothesis that low plasma vitamin B12 concentrations combined with high folate concentrations in pregnancy are associated with higher incidence of gestational diabetes (GDM) and later diabetes. Methods Women (N=785) attending the antenatal clinics of the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India had their anthropometry, insulin resistance (Homeostasis Model Assessment) and glucose tolerance assessed at 30 weeks gestation (100g Oral Glucose Tolerance Test/ OGTT; Carpenter-Coustan criteria), and five years after delivery (75g OGTT, WHO 1999). Vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in pregnancy were measured in stored frozen plasma samples. Results Low vitamin B12 concentrations (<150 pmol/l, B12 deficiency) were observed in 43% of women and low folate concentrations (<7 nmol/l) in 4%. Women with vitamin B12 deficiency had higher body mass index (BMI; P<0.001), sum of skinfolds (P<0.001), insulin resistance (P=0.02) and a higher incidence of GDM (8.7% v 4.6%; OR=2.14, P=0.02; P=0.1 after adjusting for maternal BMI) than non-deficient women. Among vitamin B12-deficient women the incidence of GDM increased with folate concentration (5.6%, 8.8%, 12.8% respectively from lowest to highest third; P for interaction=0.2). B12 deficiency during pregnancy predicted larger skinfolds, increased insulin resistance (P<0.05) and incident diabetes at 5-year follow-up (P=0.02, after adjusting for current BMI). Conclusion Maternal vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with increased adiposity and, in turn, with increased insulin resistance and GDM, especially in the presence of high folate concentrations. Vitamin B12 deficiency may be an important factor underlying the high risk of diabesity in south Asian Indians. PMID:19707742

Krishnaveni, GV; Hill, JC; Veena, SR; Bhat, DS; Wills, AK; Chachyamma, KJ; Karat, SC; Yajnik, CS; Fall, CHD

2012-01-01

121

Vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine levels in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

It is known that elevated serum homocysteine, decreased folate, and low vitamin B12 serum levels are associated with poor cognitive function, cognitive decline, and dementia. Current literature shows that some psychiatric disorders, mainly affective and psychotic ones, can be related to the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine. These results can be explained by the importance of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine in carbon transfer metabolism (methylation), which is required for the production of serotonin as well as for other monoamine neurotransmitters and catecholamines. Earlier studies focused on the relationship between folate deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and depressive disorders. Although depressive and anxiety disorders show a common comorbidity pattern, there are few studies addressing the effect of impaired one-carbon metabolism in anxiety disorders – especially in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). This study aimed to measure the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine specifically in order to see if eventual alterations have an etiopathogenetic significance on patients with OCD. Serum vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine concentrations were measured in 35 patients with OCD and 22 controls. In addition, the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety were conducted for each patient. It was found that vitamin B12 levels were decreased and homocysteine levels were increased in some OCD patients. Homocysteine levels were positively correlated with Yale–Brown compulsion and Yale–Brown total scores. In conclusion, findings of this study suggest that some OCD patients might have vitamin B12 deficiency and higher homocysteine levels. PMID:25228807

Türksoy, Nuray; Bilici, Rabia; Yalç?ner, Altan; Özdemir, Y Özay; Örnek, Ibrahim; Tufan, Ali Evren; Kara, Ay?e

2014-01-01

122

Differential regulation of hepatic transcription factors in the Wistar rat offspring born to dams fed folic acid, vitamin B12 deficient diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids.  

PubMed

Nutritional status of the mother is known to influence various metabolic adaptations required for optimal fetal development. These may be mediated by transcription factors like peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), which are activated by long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The objective of the current study was to examine the expression of different hepatic transcription factors and the levels of global methylation in the liver of the offspring born to dams fed micronutrient deficient (folic acid and vitamin B12) diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids. Female rats were divided into five groups (n = 8/group) as follows; control, folic acid deficient (FD), vitamin B12 deficient (BD) and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented groups (FDO and BDO). Diets were given starting from pre-conception and continued throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups were dissected at the end of lactation. Liver tissues were removed; snap frozen and stored at -80°C. Maternal micronutrients deficiency resulted in lower (p<0.05) levels of pup liver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) as compared to the control group. Pup liver PPAR? and PPAR? expression was lower (p<0.05) in the BD group although there were no differences in the expression of SREBP-1c, LXR? and RXR? expression. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group normalized (p<0.05) levels of both PPAR? and PPAR? but reduced (p<0.05) SREBP-1c, LXR? and RXR? expression. There was no change in any of the transcription factors in the pup liver in the FD group. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group reduced (p<0.05) PPAR?, SREBP-1c and RXR? expression. Pup liver global methylation levels were higher (p<0.01) in both the micronutrients deficient groups and could be normalized (p<0.05) by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Our novel findings suggest a role for omega-3 fatty acids in the one carbon cycle in influencing the hepatic expression of transcription factors in the offspring. PMID:24587285

Meher, Akshaya; Joshi, Asmita; Joshi, Sadhana

2014-01-01

123

Dietary folate and vitamin B 12 supplementation and consequent vitamin deposition in chicken eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the effects of dietary supplementation with folate and vitamin B12 on lipid metabolism and the deposition of these vitamins in eggs of laying hens (age 64–72 weeks). Four levels of folate\\u000a (0, 0.5, 4 and 10 mg\\/kg) and three levels of vitamin B12 (0, 0.01 and 0.08 mg\\/kg) were added to the basal diet for 8 weeks in a 4?×?3 factorial completely

Chaiyapoom Bunchasak; Sompong Kachana

2009-01-01

124

PREVALENCE OF VITAMINS E AND B12 IN DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS REPORTED IN NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EVALUATION SURVEY (NHANES)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objectives: Public health concerns regarding excessive Vitamin E and deficient Vitamin B12 intake warrant evaluation of total dietary intake for these nutrients. A Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database is being developed by the Nutrient Data Laboratory with the Office of Dietary Supplements and oth...

125

Most harmful algal bloom species are vitamin B1 and B12 auxotrophs  

PubMed Central

Eutrophication can play a central role in promoting harmful algal blooms (HABs), and therefore many HAB studies to date have focused on macronutrients (N, P, Si). Although a majority of algal species require exogenous B vitamins (i.e., auxotrophic for B vitamins), the possible importance of organic micronutrients such as B vitamins (B1, B7, B12) in regulating HABs has rarely been considered. Prior investigations of vitamins and algae have examined a relatively small number of dinoflagellates (n = 26) and a paucity of HAB species (n = 4). In the present study, the vitamin B1, B7, and B12 requirements of 41 strains of 27 HAB species (19 dinoflagellates) were investigated. All but one species (two strains) of harmful algae surveyed required vitamin B12, 20 of 27 species required B1, and 10 of 27 species required B7, all proportions higher than the previously reported for non-HAB species. Half-saturation (Ks) constants of several HAB species for B1 and B12 were higher than those previously reported for other phytoplankton and similar to vitamin concentrations reported in estuaries. Cellular quotas for vitamins suggest that, in some cases, HAB demands for vitamins may exhaust standing stocks of vitamins in hours to days. The sum of these findings demonstrates the potentially significant ecological role of B-vitamins in regulating the dynamics of HABs. PMID:21068377

Tang, Ying Zhong; Koch, Florian; Gobler, Christopher J.

2010-01-01

126

Chapter 30 Historical aspects of the major neurological vitamin deficiency disorders: the water-soluble B vitamins  

Microsoft Academic Search

This historical review addresses major neurological disorders associated with deficiencies of water-soluble B vitamins: beriberi, Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome, pellagra, neural tube defects, and subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord.Beriberi: Beriberi was known for millennia in Asia, but was not described by a European until the 17th century when Brontius in the Dutch East Indies reported the progressive sensorimotor polyneuropathy. The

Douglas j. Lanska

2009-01-01

127

Lifestyle and genetic determinants of folate and vitamin B12 levels in a general adult population.  

PubMed

Danish legislation regarding food fortification has been very restrictive resulting in few fortified food items on the Danish market. Folate and vitamin B12 deficiency is thought to be common due to inadequate intakes but little is known about the actual prevalence of low serum folate and vitamin B12 in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the folate and vitamin B12 status of Danish adults and to investigate associations between vitamin status and distinct lifestyle and genetic factors. The study included a random sample of 6784 individuals aged 30-60 years. Information on lifestyle factors was obtained by questionnaires and blood samples were analysed for serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations and several genetic polymorphisms. The overall prevalence of low serum folate ( < 6.8 nmol/l) was 31.4 %. Low serum folate was more common among men than women and the prevalence was lower with increasing age. Low serum folate was associated with smoking, low alcohol intake, high coffee intake, unhealthy diet, and the TT genotype of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR)-C677T polymorphism. The overall prevalence of low serum vitamin B12 ( < 148 pmol/l) was 4.7 %. Low serum vitamin B12 was significantly associated with female sex, high coffee intake, low folate status, and the TT genotype of the MTHFR-C677T polymorphism. In conclusion, low serum folate was present in almost a third of the adult population in the present study and was associated with several lifestyle factors whereas low serum concentrations of vitamin B12 were less common and only found to be associated with a few lifestyle factors. PMID:19968891

Thuesen, Betina H; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Ovesen, Lars; Jørgensen, Torben; Fenger, Mogens; Linneberg, Allan

2010-04-01

128

Connective tissue integrity is lost in vitamin B-6-deficient chicks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the present investigation was to characterize further the connective tissue disorder produced by pyridoxine (vitamin B-6) deficiency, as previously evidenced by electron microscopy. Following the second post-natal week, fast growing male chicks were deprived of pyridoxine for a 1-mo period. Six weeks post-natally, blood concentrations in the experimental deficiency group had declined to deficiency levels as registered by low concentrations of pyridoxal phosphate (coenzyme form) in erythrocytes, but did not reach levels associated with neurological symptoms. Light microscopic study showed abnormalities in the extracellular matrix of the connective tissues. Collagen cross-links and the aldehyde contents were not significantly lower in cartilage and tendon collagens of vitamin B-6-deficient animals than in age-matched controls; also, their proteoglycan degrading protease and collagenase activities measured in articular cartilages were not greater. Thus, proteolysis was an unlikely alternative mechanism to account for the loss of connective tissue integrity. These results point to the need for further investigation into adhesive properties of collagen associated proteoglycans or other proteins in vitamin B-6-deficient connective tissue.

Masse, P. G.; Yamauchi, M.; Mahuren, J. D.; Coburn, S. P.; Muniz, O. E.; Howell, D. S.

1995-01-01

129

The Status of Vitamin B12 and Folate among Chinese Women: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Northwest China  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the status of the vitamin B12 and folate of Chinese women living in northwest China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008 among Chinese women aged 10–49 years living in Shaanxi province of northwest China. A stratified multistage random sampling method was adopted to obtain a sample of 1170 women. The women were interviewed for collection of their background information and their plasma vitamin B12 and folate were measured with the immunoassay method. The status of both vitamins was evaluated and the prevalence of deficiency was estimated. Results The median value of the women was 214.5 pg/mL for vitamin B12 and 4.6 ng/mL for folate. The urban women had a significantly higher vitamin B12 (254.1 vs. 195.9 pg/mL) but lower folate (4.4 vs. 4.7 ng/mL) than rural women. Total prevalence of deficiency was 45.5% (95% CI: 42.6%?48.4%) for vitamin B12 and 14.7% (95% CI: 12.6%?16.8%) for folate. About 36% of women presented vitamin B12 deficiency alone, 5.2% belonged to folate deficiency alone and 9.5% was combined deficiency in both vitamins. More than 25% of the women were in marginal vitamin B12 status (200–299 pg/mL) and 60% in marginal status of folate (3–6 ng/mL). About 75.2% of rural women with folate deficiency were deficient in vitamin B12 and 46% for urban women. Quantile regression model found decreasing coefficient of folate status across 73 different quantiles of vitamin B12, which indicated that the women with folate deficiency had lower vitamin B12 significantly compared with those with no deficiency. Conclusions The deficiency of vitamin B12 and folate is still prevalent among the Chinese women in northwest China. Vitamin B12 deficiency could be more serious and the improvement of poor vitamin B12 status should be invoked when practicing the supplementation of folate against the neural tube defects in northwest China. PMID:25390898

Dang, Shaonong; Yan, Hong; Zeng, Lingxia; Wang, Quanli; Li, Qiang; Xiao, Shengbin; Fan, Xiaojing

2014-01-01

130

Unraveling vitamin B12-responsive gene regulation in algae.  

PubMed

Photosynthetic microalgae play a vital role in primary productivity and biogeochemical cycling in both marine and freshwater systems across the globe. However, the growth of these cosmopolitan organisms depends on the bioavailability of nutrients such as vitamins. Approximately one-half of all microalgal species requires vitamin B12 as a growth supplement. The major determinant of algal B12 requirements is defined by the isoform of methionine synthase possessed by an alga, such that the presence of the B12-independent methionine synthase (METE) enables growth without this vitamin. Moreover, the widespread but phylogenetically unrelated distribution of B12 auxotrophy across the algal lineages suggests that the METE gene has been lost multiple times in evolution. Given that METE expression is repressed by the presence of B12, prolonged repression by a reliable source of the vitamin could lead to the accumulation of mutations and eventually gene loss. Here, we probe METE gene regulation by B12 and methionine/folate cycle metabolites in both marine and freshwater microalgal species. In addition, we identify a B12-responsive element of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii METE using a reporter gene approach. We show that complete repression of the reporter occurs via a region spanning -574 to -90 bp upstream of the METE start codon. A proteomics study reveals that two other genes (S-Adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase and Serine hydroxymethyltransferase2) involved in the methionine-folate cycle are also repressed by B12 in C. reinhardtii. The strong repressible nature and high sensitivity of the B12-responsive element has promising biotechnological applications as a cost-effective regulatory gene expression tool. PMID:24627342

Helliwell, Katherine E; Scaife, Mark A; Sasso, Severin; Araujo, Ana Paula Ulian; Purton, Saul; Smith, Alison G

2014-05-01

131

Serum holotranscobalamine, vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine levels in alopecia areata patients.  

PubMed

Alopecia areata has been associated with many autoimmune diseases. There is a common belief that the prevalence of pernicious anemia is increased in patients with alopecia areata. In this study, we sought to investigate vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine metabolism in alopecia areata. We measured holotranscobalamine (holoTC), vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine levels in 75 patients with alopecia areata and 54 controls. We did not find any significant differences in these parameters between these groups. We think that alopecia areata may not be associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. The co-occurrence of pernicious anemia and alopecia areata in rare autoimmune syndromes, may not justify routine measurements of these parameters in alopecia areata patients. PMID:22591107

Ertugrul, Derun Taner; Karadag, Ayse Serap; Takci, Zennure; Bilgili, Serap Gunes; Ozkol, Hatice Uce; Tutal, Emre; Akin, Kadir Okhan

2013-03-01

132

Interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C in pregnancy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The water-soluble vitamins B6, B12 and C play important roles in maternal health as well as fetal development and physiology during gestation. This systematic review evaluates the risks and benefits of interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C during pregnancy on maternal, neonatal and child health ...

133

Erythrocyte mean cellular volume and its relation to serum homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate.  

PubMed

Cobalamin (B12) and folate deficiency is related to both increased erythrocyte mean cellular volume (MCV) and raised serum total homocysteine (tHcy) values. Furthermore, there are indications that B12 and folate serum values do not represent the tissue status of the two vitamins exactly. Therefore, a direct relationship between MCV and tHcy, if demonstrated, could support the hypothesis that tHcy is a better indicator for the cited vitamin status than the serum levels of B12 and folate. We studied MCV, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), serum B12, folate and tHcy values in 200 hospitalized patients. There was a significant correlation of MCV with GGT (r = 0.266, P < 0.001) and with tHcy (r = 0.248, P < 0.001), but not with serum B12 and folate. Stepwise multiple linear regression with MCV as dependent and GGT, B12, folate and tHcy as independent variables, respectively, revealed significant associations of MCV with GGT (B = 2.18, 95% CI 0.95-3.42, P = 0.001) and tHcy (B = 3.33, 95% CI 1.26-5.39, P = 0.002). By removing tHcy from this model, serum B12 became a significant predictor of MCV (B = -1.70, 95% CI -3.25 to -0.15, P = 0.032). Serum folate was not significantly associated with MCV in multivariate analysis. In conclusion, the present study confirms indications that serum B12 and folate values lack clinical sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing vitamin deficiency states by showing MCV was better associated to tHcy, than to B12 or folate serum levels. This observation demonstrates that tHcy may be useful in diagnosing patients with B12 and/or folate deficiency. PMID:12050947

Haltmayer, M; Mueller, T; Poelz, W

2002-01-01

134

Dietary pectin shortens the biologic half-life of vitamin B-12 in rats by increasing fecal and urinary losses  

SciTech Connect

As little as 5% of pectin added to a fiber-free diet elevates urinary methylmalonic acid (MMA) severalfold in vitamin B-12--deprived rats. The present study examines whether increased urinary MMA reflects lower vitamin B-12 status or occurs only because of fermentation of pectin by intestinal bacteria and increased production of propionate, a precursor of MMA. By monitoring urinary and fecal excretion of {sup 57}Co after a tracer dose of ({sup 57}Co)vitamin B-12, we found the biologic half-life of vitamin B-12 to be 59 d for rats fed a fiber-free diet and only 19 d for rats fed a 5% pectin diet. Also, pectin-fed rats oxidized only 12% of a 1-mmol dose of ({sup 14}C)propionate to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in 2 h, whereas rats fed the fiber-free diet expired 33% of the dose. Finally, high urinary MMA persisted even after the removal of pectin from the diet. We conclude that dietary pectin accelerates vitamin B-12 depletion in rats, possibly by interfering with enterohepatic recycling of vitamin B-12. By stimulating microbial propionate production, pectin and other fermentable fibers may also contribute to increased urinary MMA in vitamin B-12 deficiency, but a larger propionate pool does not account for the other effects of pectin on vitamin B-12 status.

Cullen, R.W.; Oace, S.M. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

1989-08-01

135

Serum iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

We aimed to investigate possible associations between systemic iron metabolism deficiency and Parkinson's disease, and also to research any possible correlations between stage of the disease and vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. 33 male and 27 female patients diagnosed with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and 22 male and 20 female age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in the study. Having the diagnosis of secondary Parkinsonism or Parkinson plus syndromes, and for the females, not being in the menopausal stage were considered as exclusion criteria. Recordings of blood samples of both groups collected after 8 h fasts were assessed in terms of serum iron, ferritin levels and iron-binding capacity, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. The Hoehn and Yahr scale was used to determine the stage of the disease. No statistically significant difference was found with respect to mean serum iron, median serum ferritin levels and median serum iron-binding capacity between the groups. A statistically significant but inverse correlation was found between symptoms' duration and serum iron and ferritin levels. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups with respect to vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. However, a statistically significant but inverse correlation was determined between the patients' vitamin B12 levels and the Hoehn and Yahr scores. As Parkinson's disease progresses, serum iron, ferritin and vitamin B12 levels may decrease. The lower levels of these parameters may be the cause of the progression or may be the result of it. PMID:22367474

Madenci, Gulizar; Bilen, Sule; Arli, Berna; Saka, Mustafa; Ak, Fikri

2012-07-01

136

Tissue vitamin B-12 assay by a radioisotope dilution technique.  

PubMed

A method is described for the measurement of vitamin B-12 (B-12) in solid tissues by radioisotope dilution (RID) assay. The method is a modivication using double extraction of a serum B-12 RID assay which uses chicken serum as the B-12 binder. The method was developed and tested using human and bat liver specimens. Double extraction was shown to be more efficient than single extraction, and resulted in complete release of endogenous liver [57Co] B-12 administered to bats. Results using the RID assay in 16 humans and 17 bat liver specimens were compared with those obtained using the Lactobacillus leichmannii microbiological assay. Correlation was good, but the RID assay gave higher results using the microbiological assay appear to be due to inadequate extraction of B-12 from tissues. PMID:1100288

Van Tonder, S V; Metz, J; Green, R

1975-09-16

137

[Vitamin B9].  

PubMed

Vitamin B9 is represented by the group of folate, whose structure is derived from folic acid. The biologically active form is reduced tetrahydrofolates, serving as an essential cofactor in methylation reactions, including the vitamin B12-dependent formation of methionine from homocysteine, and as a carrier of one-carbon units involved in the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines. Folate deficiency is associated with hyperhomocysteinemia, megaloblastic anemia, leuco- and thrombocytopenia, cardiovascular disease, embryonic defects, in particular neural tube defects, and, possibly, malignancies, depression and cognitive impairment. PMID:24298825

Guilland, Jean-Claude; Aimone-Gastin, Isabelle

2013-10-01

138

Vitamin B12–dependent taurine synthesis regulates growth and bone mass  

PubMed Central

Both maternal and offspring-derived factors contribute to lifelong growth and bone mass accrual, although the specific role of maternal deficiencies in the growth and bone mass of offspring is poorly understood. In the present study, we have shown that vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency in a murine genetic model results in severe postweaning growth retardation and osteoporosis, and the severity and time of onset of this phenotype in the offspring depends on the maternal genotype. Using integrated physiological and metabolomic analysis, we determined that B12 deficiency in the offspring decreases liver taurine production and associates with abrogation of a growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF1) axis. Taurine increased GH-dependent IGF1 synthesis in the liver, which subsequently enhanced osteoblast function, and in B12-deficient offspring, oral administration of taurine rescued their growth retardation and osteoporosis phenotypes. These results identify B12 as an essential vitamin that positively regulates postweaning growth and bone formation through taurine synthesis and suggests potential therapies to increase bone mass. PMID:24911144

Roman-Garcia, Pablo; Quiros-Gonzalez, Isabel; Mottram, Lynda; Lieben, Liesbet; Sharan, Kunal; Wangwiwatsin, Arporn; Tubio, Jose; Lewis, Kirsty; Wilkinson, Debbie; Santhanam, Balaji; Sarper, Nazan; Clare, Simon; Vassiliou, George S.; Velagapudi, Vidya R.; Dougan, Gordon; Yadav, Vijay K.

2014-01-01

139

Serum alpha tocopherol, vitamin B12, and folate levels in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors with and without neuropathy.  

PubMed

Various micronutrients are essential for optimal functioning of the peripheral nervous system. Serum vitamin E, vitamin B12, and folic acid were estimated in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors aged between 5 and 18 years in first continuous remission within 3 years of completion of vincristine-based chemotherapy with and without electrophysiologically defined neuropathy. A total of 80 children were studied. Neuropathy was seen in 27 (33.75%) children electrophysiologically. None of the children had vitamin E deficiency. However, the alpha tocopherol/(cholesterol + triglyceride) ratio was significantly lower in children with neuropathy (P = .05). The prevalence of folate (P = .48) and vitamin B12 (P = .21) deficiency in children with and without neuropathy was not significantly different. Thus, the prevalence of deficiencies of these micronutrients was not significantly different in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors with or without electrophysiologically defined neuropathy. PMID:24859786

Jain, Puneet; Gulati, Sheffali; Toteja, G S; Bakhshi, Sameer; Seth, Rachna; Pandey, R M

2015-05-01

140

Vitamin B6 deficient plants display increased sensitivity to high light and photo-oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Vitamin B6 is a collective term for a group of six interconvertible compounds: pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine and their phosphorylated derivatives. Vitamin B6 plays essential roles as a cofactor in a range of biochemical reactions. In addition, vitamin B6 is able to quench reactive oxygen species in vitro, and exogenously applied vitamin B6 protects plant cells against cell death induced

Michel Havaux; Brigitte Ksas; Agnieszka Szewczyk; Dominique Rumeau; Fabrice Franck; Stefano Caffarri; Christian Triantaphylidès

2009-01-01

141

Folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 status of a group of high socioeconomic status women in the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort.  

PubMed

Folic acid supplementation and food fortification policies have improved folate status in North American women of child bearing age. Recent studies have reported the possible inadequacy of vitamin B12 and B6 in the etiology of neural tube defects in folate-fortified populations. The aims of this study were to describe folate status and its relationship to supplementation and to assess vitamin B12 and B6 status in a cohort of pregnant women. Supplement intake data were collected in each trimester from the first cohort (n = 599) of the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study. Red blood cell folate (RBCF) and plasma folate, holotranscobalamin, and pyridoxal 5-phosphate were measured. Overt folate deficiency was rare (3%) but 24% of women in their first trimester had suboptimal RBCF concentration (<906 nmol·L(-1)). The proportion of the cohort in this category declined substantially in second (9%) and third (7%) trimesters. High RBCF (>1360 nmol·L(-1)) was observed in approximately half of the women during each pregnancy trimester. Vitamin B12 and B6 deficiencies were rare (<1% of the cohort). Women consuming folic acid supplements above the upper level had significantly higher RBCF and plasma folate concentrations. In conclusion, the prevalence of vitamin B12 and B6 deficiency was very low. A quarter of the women had suboptimal folate status in the first trimester of pregnancy and over half the women had abnormally high RBCF, suggesting that supplementation during pregnancy is not appropriate in a cohort of women considered to be healthy and a low risk for nutritional deficiencies. PMID:25386981

Fayyaz, Faiqa; Wang, Flora; Jacobs, René L; O'Connor, Deborah L; Bell, Rhonda C; Field, Catherine J

2014-12-01

142

A Multinuclear Solid-State NMR Analysis of Vitamin B12 in Its Different Polymorphic Forms  

E-print Network

A Multinuclear Solid-State NMR Analysis of Vitamin B12 in Its Different Polymorphic Forms Ales of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) polymorphs. These studies involved recrystallizing a series of samples under structures described by Hodgkin and co-workers in their seminal vitamin B12 crystallographic analyses. Most

Frydman, Lucio

143

Copper, iron and zinc absorption, retention and status of young women fed vitamin B-6 deficient diets  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted in young women to determine the effect of vitamin B-6 deficient diets on copper, iron and zinc metabolism. Young women were confined to a metabolic research unit for 84 and 98 days. They were fed a vitamin B-6 deficient formula diet initially, followed by food diet containing four increasing levels of vitamin B-6. Copper, iron and zinc absorption, retention and status were determined at intervals throughout the study. Absorption was determined using the stable isotopes {sup 65}Cu, {sup 54}Fe, and {sup 67}Zn. Status was based on serum copper and zinc, hemoglobin, hematocrit and mean corpuscular volume. Copper absorption averaged 18 {plus minus} 1% during vitamin B-6 depletion, significantly lower than 24 {plus minus} 1% during repletion, but serum copper was not affected and balance was positive. Iron absorption was not impaired significantly by vitamin B-6 deficient diets, but status declined during the depletion period. Zinc absorption averaged 40 {plus minus} 2% during depletion and 27 {plus minus} 2% during repletion. Zinc absorption and retention were significantly greater during vitamin B-6 depletion, but serum zinc declined suggesting the absorbed zinc was not available for utilization. The results suggest that vitamin B-6 depletion of young women may inhibit copper absorption, affect iron status and alter zinc metabolism. The effects of vitamin B-6 depletion differ markedly among these elements.

Turnlund, J.R.; Keyes, W.R.; Hudson, C.A.; Betschart, A.A.; Kretsch, M.J.; Sauberlich, H.E. (USDA/ARS, San Francisco, CA (United States) Western Regional Research Center, Albany, CA (United States))

1991-03-11

144

Measurement of vitamin B12 in the livers and sera of sheep and cattle and an investigation of factors influencing serum vitamin B12 levels in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modifications of a radioassay method for the analysis of vitamin B12 using chicken serum as the binder are described. This obviates the need to use individual serum blanks to correct for non-specific binding in vitamin B12 assays of the sera and livers of sheep and cattle.Samples with high vitamin B12 levels can be diluted prior to assay without loss of

K. R. Millar; A. T. Albyt; G. C. Bond

1984-01-01

145

Vitamin D Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Recently, scientists have generated a strong body of evidence providing new information about the preventive effect of vitamin D on a broad range of disorders. This evidence suggests that vitamin D is much more than a nutrient needed for bone health; it is an essential hormone required for regulation of a large number of physiological functions. Sufficient concentration of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is essential for optimising human health. This article reviews the present state-of-the-art knowledge about vitamin D’s status worldwide and refers to recent articles discussing some of the general background of vitamin D, including sources, benefits, deficiencies, and dietary requirements, especially in pregnancy. They offer evidence that vitamin D deficiency could be a major public health burden in many parts of the world, mostly because of sun deprivation. The article also discusses the debate about optimal concentration of circulating serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and explores different views on the amount of vitamin D supplementation required to achieve and maintain this concentration. PMID:22548132

Alshishtawy, Moeness Moustafa

2012-01-01

146

Antiparasitic Effect of Vitamin B12 on Trypanosoma cruzi  

PubMed Central

A nutritional characteristic of trypanosomatid protozoa is that they need a heme compound as a growth factor. Because of the cytotoxic activity of heme and its structural similarity to cobalamins, we have investigated the in vitro and in vivo effect of vitamin B12 (or cyanocobalamin) on the different forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Cyanocobalamin showed a marked antiparasitic activity against epimastigotes (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 2.42 ?M), amastigotes (IC50, 10.69 ?M), and trypomastigotes (IC50, 9.46 ?M). Anti-epimastigote and -trypomastigote values were 1.7 to 4 times lower than those obtained with the reference drug benznidazole (Bnz). We also found that B12 and hemin do not interact with each other in their modes of action. Our results show that B12 increases intracellular oxidative activity and stimulates both superoxide dismutase (50%) and ascorbate peroxidase (20%) activities, while the activity of trypanothione reductase was not modified. In addition, we found that the antioxidants dithiothreitol and ascorbic acid increase the susceptibility of the parasite to the cytotoxic action of B12. We propose that vitamin B12 exerts its growth-inhibitory effect through the generation of reactive oxygen species. In an in vivo assay, a significant reduction in the number of circulating parasites was found in T. cruzi-infected mice treated with cyanocobalamin and ascorbic acid. The reduction of parasitemia in benznidazole-treated mice was improved by the addition of these vitamins. According to our results, a combination of B12 and Bnz should be further investigated due to its potential as a new therapeutic modality for the treatment of Chagas' disease. PMID:22869565

Ciccarelli, Alejandra B.; Frank, Fernanda M.; Puente, Vanesa; Malchiodi, Emilio L.

2012-01-01

147

Vitamin B1 deficiency inhibits the increased conversion of tryptophan to nicotinamide in severe food-restricted rats.  

PubMed

The conversion of tryptophan (Trp) ? nicotinamide (Nam) is an important pathway for supplying vitamin niacin. We reported the following two phenomena: (1) severe food restriction led to an increase in the Trp ? Nam conversion compared with free-access control group; (2) the conversion of Trp ? Nam is also increased by vitamin B1 deficiency compared with free-access control group. The present study was done to clarify whether or not a true reason about an increase in the Trp ? Nam conversion is a vitamin B1 deficiency or severe food restriction. The present results showed that vitamin B1 deficiency suppressed the increased conversion of Trp ? Nam induced by severe food restriction, probably by suppressing 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid 3,4-dioxygenase protein synthesis in liver. PMID:25253514

Shibata, Katsumi; Kobayashi, Ryoko; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

2015-01-01

148

Night blindness due to vitamin A deficiency associated with copper deficiency myelopathy secondary to bowel bypass surgery.  

PubMed

We present an interesting case of combined vitamin A and copper deficiency after a history of gastric bypass surgery where symptoms improved after parenteral copper and vitamin A treatment. Gastric bypass surgery as a cause of fat soluble vitamin deficiency is generally under-reported. Copper deficiency has been reported after gastric bypass surgery. Vitamin A deficiency after gastric bypass surgery has also been reported in the literature, but the reported cases again fall below the actual figures. B12 and folate deficiencies can produce a type of myelopathy similar to that produced by copper deficiency, and differentiation on the basis of laboratory tests, neurophysiology and improvement of symptoms after replacement therapy might be the hallmark of diagnosis. Combinations of vitamin deficiencies were previously reported, but no cases of combined vitamin A and copper deficiency could be found in the literature. PMID:24781845

AlHassany, Ali Abdul Jabbar

2014-01-01

149

Folate, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, and Methionine Intakes and Risk of Stroke Subtypes in Male Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The associations of dietary folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and methionine intakes with risk of stroke subtypes were examined among 26,556 male Finnish smokers, aged 50-69 years, enrolled in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta- Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline by using a validated food frequency questionnaire. During a mean follow-up of 13.6 years, from 1985 through 2004,

Susanna C. Larsson; Satu Mannisto; Mikko J. Virtanen; Jukka Kontto; Demetrius Albanes; Jarmo Virtamo

2008-01-01

150

Sugar and Chromosome Stability: Clastogenic Effects of Sugars in Vitamin B6-Deficient Cells  

PubMed Central

Pyridoxal 5?-phosphate (PLP), the active form of vitamin B6, has been implicated in preventing human pathologies, such as diabetes and cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of PLP are still unclear. Using Drosophila as a model system, we show that PLP deficiency, caused either by mutations in the pyridoxal kinase-coding gene (dPdxk) or by vitamin B6 antagonists, results in chromosome aberrations (CABs). The CAB frequency in PLP-depleted cells was strongly enhanced by sucrose, glucose or fructose treatments, and dPdxk mutant cells consistently displayed higher glucose contents than their wild type counterparts, an effect that is at least in part a consequence of an acquired insulin resistance. Together, our results indicate that a high intracellular level of glucose has a dramatic clastogenic effect if combined with PLP deficiency. This is likely due to an elevated level of Advanced Glycation End-products (AGE) formation. Treatment of dPdxk mutant cells with ?-lipoic acid (ALA) lowered both AGE formation and CAB frequency, suggesting a possible AGE-CAB cause-effect relationship. The clastogenic effect of glucose in PLP-depleted cells is evolutionarily conserved. RNAi-mediated silencing of PDXK in human cells or treatments with PLP inhibitors resulted in chromosome breakage, which was potentiated by glucose and reduced by ALA. These results suggest that patients with concomitant hyperglycemia and vitamin B6 deficiency may suffer chromosome damage. This might impact cancer risk, as CABs are a well-known tumorigenic factor. PMID:24651653

Gatti, Maurizio; Vernì, Fiammetta

2014-01-01

151

Insights into the Evolution of Vitamin B12 Auxotrophy from Sequenced Algal Genomes  

E-print Network

microalgal species need the vitamin as a growth supplement, but there is no phylogenetic relationship betweenInsights into the Evolution of Vitamin B12 Auxotrophy from Sequenced Algal Genomes Katherine E Abstract Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a dietary requirement for humans because it is an essential cofactor

Goldstein, Raymond E.

152

B Vitamins Test  

MedlinePLUS

... Is there anything else I should know? A person may sometimes be diagnosed and treated for a B vitamin deficiency based upon clinical findings and a response to treatment, rather than testing. For instance, if ...

153

Studies on the biosynthesis of vitamin B sub 2 and vitamin B sub 12  

SciTech Connect

Feeding experiments with Ashbya gossypii followed by NMR analysis of the resulting riboflavin showed incorporation of deuterium from D-(2-{sup 2}H)ribose at C-2{prime} and from D-(1-{sup 2}H)ribose in the pro-R position at C-1{prime} of the ribityl side chain. The results rule out an Amadori rearrangement mechanism for the reduction of the ribosylamino to the ribitylamino linkage and point to formation of a Schiff base that is reduced stereospecifically opposite to the face from which the oxygen has departed. As prerequisite for the analysis, the {sup 1}H NMR signals for the pro-R and pro-S hydrogens at C-1{prime} of riboflavin and its tetraacetate were assigned with the aid of synthetic stereospecifically deuteriated samples. Feeding experiments with Propionibacterium shermianii followed by NMR analysis of the resulting vitamin B{sub 12} showed: (1) 5-methylbenzimidazole (5MBI) incorporated and only one regioisomer (B6-demethylcyanocobalamin)formed. (2) 8-demethylriboflavin incorporated and the same regioisomer was obtained as 5MBI experiment. (3) (1{prime}-{sup 13}C, 5-{sup 15}N)riboflavin incorporated and {sup 13}C-NMR showed that {sup 13}C at the B2 position of cyanocobalamin coupled to both adjacent nitrogen-15 atoms at about the same ratio.

Chen, H.C.

1988-01-01

154

The role of folic acid and Vitamin B12 in genomic stability of human cells.  

PubMed

Folic acid plays a critical role in the prevention of chromosome breakage and hypomethylation of DNA. This activity is compromised when Vitamin B12 (B12) concentration is low because methionine synthase activity is reduced, lowering the concentration of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) which in turn may diminish DNA methylation and cause folate to become unavailable for the conversion of dUMP to dTMP. The most plausible explanation for the chromosome-breaking effect of low folate is excessive uracil misincorporation into DNA, a mutagenic lesion that leads to strand breaks in DNA during repair. Both in vitro and in vivo studies with human cells clearly show that folate deficiency causes expression of chromosomal fragile sites, chromosome breaks, excessive uracil in DNA, micronucleus formation and DNA hypomethylation. In vivo studies show that Vitamin B12 deficiency and elevated plasma homocysteine are significantly correlated with increased micronucleus formation. In vitro experiments indicate that genomic instability in human cells is minimised when folic acid concentration in culture medium is >227nmol/l. Intervention studies in humans show: (a) that DNA hypomethylation, chromosome breaks, uracil misincorporation and micronucleus formation are minimised when red cell folate concentration is >700nmol/l folate; and (b) micronucleus formation is minimised when plasma concentration of Vitamin B12 is >300pmol/l and plasma homocysteine is <7.5micromol/l. These concentrations are achievable at intake levels in excess of current RDIs i.e. more than 200-400microgram folic acid per day and more than 2microgram Vitamin B12 per day. A placebo-controlled study with a dose-response suggests that based on the micronucleus index in lymphocytes, an RDI level of 700microgram/day for folic acid and 7microgram/day for Vitamin B12 would be appropriate for genomic stability in young adults. Dietary intakes above the current RDI may be particularly important in those with extreme defects in the absorption and metabolism of these Vitamins, for which ageing is a contributing factor. PMID:11295154

Fenech, M

2001-04-18

155

Effects of vitamin B12 on cadmium toxicity in rats.  

PubMed

The survival rate was high among male Sprague rats treated with 0.15 mg/kg vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamine) after injection of 5 mg/kg CdCl2.H2O (LD50). The cadmium content of the liver and, for some protocols, in the kidney was significantly reduced in survivors. According to UV-V and multinuclear (1H, 13C, 31P, and 113Cd) magnetic resonance spectroscopy no direct interaction seems to take place between cyanocobalamine and CdCl2 in aqueous solution at pH 4.5. An indirect mechanism is put forward to explain the antidotal activity. PMID:2019828

Couce, M D; Varela, J M; Sánchez, A; Casas, J S; Sordo, J; López-Rivadulla, M

1991-01-01

156

Micronutrient Status in Female University Students: Iron, Zinc, Copper, Selenium, Vitamin B12 and Folate  

PubMed Central

Young women are at an increased risk of micronutrient deficiencies, particularly due to higher micronutrient requirements during childbearing years and multiple food group avoidances. The objective of this study was to investigate biomarkers of particular micronutrients in apparently healthy young women. Female students (n = 308; age range 18–35 year; Body Mass Index 21.5 ± 2.8 kg/m2; mean ± SD) were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Blood samples were obtained from participants in the fasted state and analysed for biomarkers of iron status, vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine, selenium, zinc, and copper. The results show iron deficiency anaemia, unspecified anaemia, and hypoferritinemia in 3%, 7% and 33.9% of participants, respectively. Low vitamin B12 concentrations (<120 pmol/L) were found in 11.3% of participants, while 4.7% showed sub-clinical deficiency based on serum methylmalonic acid concentrations >0.34 ?mol/L. Folate concentrations below the reference range were observed in 1.7% (serum) or 1% (erythrocytes) of participants, and 99.7% of the participant had erythrocyte-folate concentrations >300 nmol/L. Serum zinc concentrations <10.7 ?mol/L were observed in 2% of participants. Serum copper and selenium concentrations were below the reference range in 23% and 11% of participants, respectively. Micronutrient deficiencies including iron and vitamin B12, and apparent excess of folate are present in educated Australian female students of childbearing age, including those studying nutrition. The effects of dietary behaviours and food choices on markers of micronutrient status require further investigation. PMID:25401503

Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

2014-01-01

157

Effect of yeast extract and vitamin B sub 12 on ethanol production from cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B  

SciTech Connect

Addition to media of yeast extract, a vitamin mixture containing vitamin B{sub 12}, biotin, pyridoxamine, and p-aminobenzoic acid, or vitamin B{sub 12} alone enhanced formation of ethanol but decreased lactate production in the fermentation of cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B. A similar effect was not observed with C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 and JW20.

Sato, Kanji; Goto, Shingo; Yonemura, Sotaro; Sekine, Kenji; Okuma, Emiko; Takagi, Yoshio; Honnami, Koyu; Saiki, Takashi (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Chiba (Japan))

1992-02-01

158

Congenital disorders of vitamin B12 transport and their contributions to concepts. II.  

PubMed Central

Congenital deficiencies of Transcobalamin II (TC II) and R binders of vitamin B12 (B12, cobalamin, Cbl) have been described in several families. The deficiency of TC II exists as at least three variants. The deficiency of TC II is expressed by a profound megaloblastic pancytopenia during the first few weeks of life, but the serum Cbl is normal. In contrast, the deficiency of R binder is asymptomatic, tissues are replete in Cbl, but the serum Cbl is low. All of the R binder in the several body sources is under the same genetic control. Studies of the congenital deficiency TC II suggest the following: (1) The function of TC II is the promotion of cell uptake of physiologic amounts of Cbl, which can also be accomplished by very large amounts of Cbl, and not in any intracellular process. (2) TC II is essential for the absorption, postabsorptive distribution, and recycling of TC II. (3) The metabolic consequences of TC II deficiency are expressed primarily in rapidly dividing cells probably because they are dependent upon the constant need for new Cbl. PMID:7342493

Hall, C. A.

1981-01-01

159

Maternal and foetal vitamin B12 concentration at parturition among Nigerians.  

PubMed

Serum vitamin B12 concentrations were determined immediately after delivery among fifty healthy mothers and in cord blood of their newly delivered babies. The serum vitamin B12 concentrations of the infants were higher than those of their mothers and the ratio was approximately 2:1. The maternal serum vitamin B12 concentration was significantly higher than other maternal serum vitamin B12 concentration reported previously and the infant serum vitamin B12 level was also significantly higher than other infants studied in similar projects. These results suggest that the high serum vitamin B12 concentration reported among Nigerians is most probably due to both genetical and environmental factors coupled with some microbial synthesis in the gastro-intestinal tract after resuming a full adult diet. PMID:941240

Osifo, B O; Onifade, A

1976-03-01

160

How Nature Builds the Pigments of Life: The Conquest of Vitamin B12  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In part because humans cannot synthesize vitamin B12 and must obtain it from organisms that produce it and because B12 deficiency leads to pernicious anemia, it has been important to understand how microorganisms build this quite complex substance. As shown here, an interdisciplinary attack was needed, which combined the strengths of genetics, molecular biology, enzymology, chemistry, and spectroscopy. This allowed the step-by-step synthetic pathway of B12 to be elucidated, and this approach has acted as a model for future research on the synthesis of substances in living organisms. One practical outcome of such an approach has been the improved availability of B12 for animal feedstuffs and human health.

Battersby, Alan R.

1994-06-01

161

Extraction of serum vitamin B12 for radio-isotopic and Lactobacillus leichmannii assay.  

PubMed

The protein precipitates discarded during the extraction process of the Lactobacillus leichmannii vitamin B12 assay have been shown to contain significant amounts of vitamin B12. This loss of vitamin B12 provide a satisfactory explanation for many of the descrepancies between the serum vitamin B12 values obtained by the L. leichmannii method and the radio-isotopic method of Raven et al (1969). It is possible to produce lower results by the method of Raven et al (1969)by incorporating into that method the L. leichmannii extraction process; it is also possible to produce higher results by the L. leichmannii method using a papain extraction process. PMID:1150894

Raven, J L; Robson, M B

1975-07-01

162

Chapter 30: historical aspects of the major neurological vitamin deficiency disorders: the water-soluble B vitamins.  

PubMed

This historical review addresses major neurological disorders associated with deficiencies of water-soluble B vitamins: beriberi, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, pellagra, neural tube defects, and subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord. Beriberi: Beriberi was known for millennia in Asia, but was not described by a European until the 17th century when Brontius in the Dutch East Indies reported the progressive sensorimotor polyneuropathy. The prevalence of beriberi increased greatly in Asia with a change in the milling process for rice in the late 19th century. In the 1880s, Takaki demonstrated the benefits of dietary modification in sailors, and later instituted dietary reforms in the Japanese Navy, which largely eradicated beriberi from the Japanese Navy by 1887. In 1889 Eijkman in Java serendipitously identified dietary factors as a major contributor to "chicken polyneuritis," which he took to be an animal model for beriberi; the polyneuritis could be cured or prevented by feeding the chickens either unpolished rice or rice polishings. By 1901, Grijns, while continuing studies of beriberi in Java, suggested a dietary deficiency explanation for beriberi after systematically eliminating deficiencies of known dietary components and excluding a toxic effect. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome: In the late 1870s, Wernicke identified a clinicopathological condition with ophthalmoparesis, nystagmus, ataxia, and encephalopathy, associated with punctate hemorrhages symmetrically arranged in the grey matter around the third and fourth ventricles and the aqueduct of Sylvius. In the late 1880s, Korsakoff described a spectrum of cognitive disorders, including a confabulatory amnestic state following an agitated delirium, occurring in conjunction with peripheral polyneuropathy. Beginning around 1900, investigators recognized the close relationship between Korsakoff's psychosis, delirium tremens, and Wernicke's encephalopathy, but not until several decades later were Wernicke's encephalopathy, Korsakoff's psychosis, and beriberi all linked to the deficiency of a specific dietary factor, i.e. thiamin. Thiamin: Thiamin was crystallized from rice polishings by Jansen and Donath in 1926, and synthesized by Williams and Cline in 1936. In the late 1930s and early 1940s, characteristic pathological changes of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome were produced in animal models, the biochemical roles of thiamin in intermediary carbohydrate metabolism were elaborated by Peters and others, and the therapeutic benefits of thiamin for Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and beriberi were demonstrated. By the 1950s synthetic forms of the vitamin were produced cheaply, allowing both therapeutic administration and prevention with food enrichment. Pellagra and niacin: Pellagra was unknown prior to the introduction of maize into Europe from the New World. In the 18th century, Casàl and Frapolli described the clinical features of pellagra in Europe, and linked it with poverty and subsistence on nutritionally marginal corn-based diets. In the United States, pellagra became epidemic among poor Southerners in the early 20th century, in part because of economically-driven reliance on monotonous, nutritionally inadequate diets, combined with new manufacturing methods that removed vitamins from processed grain. From 1914-1929, Goldberger completed well-designed epidemiologic investigations, tested theories with human experiments, and utilized an animal model ("black tongue" in dogs) - all strongly supporting a dietary deficiency explanation for pellagra over prevailing toxic and infectious theories. Initial prevention and treatment approaches proved inadequate because of complex social issues linked to poverty, even after Goldberger and colleagues established that dried brewer's yeast could cure or prevent pellagra less expensively than dietary modification. During the depression, the collapse of cotton as an economically viable crop facilitated crop diversification, which contributed to an abrupt decline in pellagra mortality in the early 1930s. In 1937

Lanska, Douglas J

2010-01-01

163

The effect of vitamin C deficiency and chronic ultraviolet-B exposure on corneal ultrastructure: a preliminary investigation  

PubMed Central

Purpose In the visually debilitating condition of climatic droplet keratopathy, corneal transparency is progressively lost. Although the precise cause of the disease and the mechanism by which it progresses are not known, a lifetime exposure to high solar radiation and a vitamin C–deficient diet may be involved in its development. This study examines the effect of dietary ascorbate levels and ultraviolet (UV)-B exposure on corneal stromal structure. Methods Eight guinea pigs were divided into four treatment groups (A, B, C, and D). For 15 weeks, Groups A and C were fed an ascorbate-rich diet (2 mg/100 g bodyweight/day), while Groups B and D received an ascorbate-deficient diet (0.07 mg/100 g bodyweight/day). For the last 12 weeks of the study, Groups C and D also experienced chronic UVB exposure (0.12 J/cm2 for 40 min/day). Following euthanasia, the corneas were enucleated and their stromal ultrastructure examined using X-ray scattering and electron microscopy. Results UVB exposure resulted in an increased corneal thickness (p<0.001), but this was not accompanied by a widespread expansion of the collagen fibrillar array, and in the case of ascorbate-deficient animals, stromal thickening was associated with the compaction of collagen fibrils (p<0.01). Neither UVB exposure nor ascorbic acid deficiency caused any change in the average diameter or D-periodicity of the stromal collagen fibrils. Conclusions UVB-induced changes in the corneal ultrastructure were most pronounced in animals fed an ascorbic acid–deficient diet. This suggests that ascorbic acid may play a vital role in protecting the corneal stroma from the harmful effects of UVB. PMID:22171156

Hayes, Sally; Cafaro, Thamara A.; Boguslawska, Patrycja J.; Kamma-Lorger, Christina S.; Boote, Craig; Harris, Jonathan; Young, Robert; Hiller, Jennifer; Terrill, Nicholas; Meek, Keith M.

2011-01-01

164

Harvard study finds folic acid, vitamins B6 and 12 do not affect colorectal adenoma risk  

Cancer.gov

Combined folic acid, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 supplements had no statistically significant effect on the risk of colorectal adenoma among women who were at high risk for cardiovascular disease, according to a Harvard Medical School study published October 12 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. The Harvard Medical School is a component of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute.

165

Loss of vitamin B(12) in fish (round herring) meats during various cooking treatments.  

PubMed

The loss of vitamin B(12) in round herring meats during various cooking treatments was evaluated. Although amounts of vitamin B(12) were three times greater in the viscera (37.5 ± 10.6 µg/100 g fresh weight) than in the meats, about 73% of total vitamin B(12) found in the whole fish body (except for head and bones) were recovered in the meats (5.1 ± 1.0 µg of vitamin B(12)). The vitamin B(12) contents of the round herring's meats were significantly decreased up to ~62% during cooking by grilling, boiling, frying, steaming, and microwaving. There was, however, no loss of vitamin B(12) during vacuum-packed pouch cooking. Model experiment using hydroxocobalamin suggest that loss of vitamin B(12) is dependent on the degree of temperature and time used in conventional cooking, and is further affected by the concomitant ingredients of food. Retention of vitamin B(12) was not dependent on vacuum or temperature (or both) used in the vacuum-packed pouch cooking. PMID:22472286

Nishioka, Michiko; Kanosue, Fuki; Yabuta, Yukinori; Watanabe, Fumio

2011-01-01

166

Metabolic Vitamin B12 Status on a Mostly Raw Vegan Diet with Follow-Up Using Tablets, Nutritional Yeast, or Probiotic Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Pure vegetarian diets might cause cobalamin deficiency due to lack of dietary intake. It was hypothesized that a population following a vegan diet consuming mostly raw fruits and vegetables, carrot juice, and dehydrated barley grass juice would be able to avoid vitamin B12 deficiency naturally. Methods: Subjects were recruited at a health ministers’ reunion based on adherence to the

Michael S. Donaldson

2000-01-01

167

Vitamin B(12) metabolism during pregnancy and in embryonic mouse models.  

PubMed

Vitamin B(12) (cobalamin, Cbl) is required for cellular metabolism. It is an essential coenzyme in mammals for two reactions: the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by the enzyme methionine synthase and the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Symptoms of Cbl deficiency are hematological, neurological and cognitive, including megaloblastic anaemia, tingling and numbness of the extremities, gait abnormalities, visual disturbances, memory loss and dementia. During pregnancy Cbl is essential, presumably because of its role in DNA synthesis and methionine synthesis; however, there are conflicting studies regarding an association between early pregnancy loss and Cbl deficiency. We here review the literature about the requirement for Cbl during pregnancy, and summarized what is known of the expression pattern and function of genes required for Cbl metabolism in embryonic mouse models. PMID:24025485

Moreno-Garcia, Maira A; Rosenblatt, David S; Jerome-Majewska, Loydie A

2013-09-01

168

B-vitamin deficiency is protective against DSS-induced colitis in mice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vitamin deficiencies are common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Homocysteine (Hcys) is a thrombogenic amino acid produced from methionine (Met) and its increase in IBD patients indicates a disruption of Met metabolism, yet the role of Hcys and Met metabolism in IBD is not well und...

169

Effect of Long-Term Gastric Acid Suppressive Therapy on Serum Vitamin B 12 Levels in Patients with Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims: Long-term treatment with H+-K+-adenotriphosphatase (ATPase) inhibitors, such as omeprazole or lansoprazole, for severe gastroesophageal reflux disease is now widely used. Whether such treatment will result in vitamin B12 deficiency is controversial. We studied whether long-term treatment with omeprazole alters serum vitamin B12 levels in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.Methods:In 131 consecutive patients treated with either omeprazole (n =

Basel Termanini; Fathia Gibril; Vincent E Sutliff; Fang Yu; David J Venzon; Robert T Jensen

1998-01-01

170

The effects of vitamins C and B12 on human nasal ciliary beat frequency  

PubMed Central

Background This study was designed to investigate the effects of the vitamins C and B12 on the regulation of human nasal ciliary beat frequency (CBF). Methods Human nasal mucosa was removed endoscopically and nasal ciliated cell culture was established. Changes of CBF in response to different concentrations of vitamin C or vitamin B12 were quantified by using high-speed (240 frames per second) digital microscopy combined with a beat-by-beat CBF analysis. Results At the concentrations of 0.01% and 0.10%, vitamin C induced an initial increase, followed by a gradual decrease of CBF to the baseline level, while 1.00% vitamin C induced a reversible decrease of CBF. Vitamin B12, at the concentrations of 0.01% and 0.10%, did not influence CBF during the 20-min observation period, while a 1.00% vitamin B12 treatment caused a time-dependent but reversible decrease of CBF. Conclusions Treatment with vitamin C or vitamin B12 caused a concentration-dependent but reversible decrease of CBF in cultured human nasal epithelial cells. Therefore, it is necessary to choose a concentration that is safe, effective, and non-ciliotoxic when applying these drugs topically in the nasal cavity. PMID:23688196

2013-01-01

171

Metabolic interrelationships between folic acid, vitamin B12 and the citrovorum factor  

E-print Network

METABOLIC INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN FOLIC ACID, VITAMIN B AND THE CITROVORUM FACTOR A Thesis by Vasant Manilal Doctor Approved as to style and content by METABOLIC INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN FOLIC ACID, VITAMIN B12 AND THE CITROVORUM FACTOR... citrovorum factor (rep rin t )....................................................................... Conversion of folic acid to citrovorum factor by avian liver homogenates. I . Influence of reducing agents and anaerobiosis...

Doctor, Vasant Manilal

1953-01-01

172

Should we be more cautious about replacement of vitamin B12 in patients with cancer receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy?  

PubMed

Vitamin B12 (Cbl) deficiency may cause hematologic and neurologic dysfunction. Replacement therapy is effective in correcting hematologic abnormalities and improving neurologic symptoms. Cbl is known to have antioxidant activity. This antioxidant activity may antagonize the effects of chemotherapeutics (i.e. genotoxic effects of paclitaxel) on tumor DNA. We claim that Cbl replacement should be done more cautiously in patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy. PMID:25459143

Eren, Orhan Onder; Ozturk, Mehmet Akif; Sonmez, Ozlem Uysal; Oyan, Basak

2014-12-01

173

Maternal dietary folate and/or vitamin B12 restrictions alter body composition (adiposity) and lipid metabolism in Wistar rat offspring.  

PubMed

Maternal vitamin deficiencies are associated with low birth weight and increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. We hypothesize that maternal folate and/or vitamin B(12) restrictions alter body composition and fat metabolism in the offspring. Female weaning Wistar rats received ad libitum for 12 weeks a control diet (American Institute of Nutrition-76A) or the same with restriction of folate, vitamin B(12) or both (dual deficient) and, after confirming vitamin deficiency, were mated with control males. The pregnant/lactating mothers and their offspring received their respective diets throughout. Biochemical and body composition parameters were determined in mothers before mating and in offspring at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age. Vitamin restriction increased body weight and fat and altered lipid profile in female Wistar rats, albeit differences were significant with only B(12) restriction. Offspring born to vitamin-B(12)-restricted dams had lower birth weight, while offspring of all vitamin-restricted dams weighed higher at/from weaning. They had higher body fat (specially visceral fat) from 3 months and were dyslipidemic at 12 months, when they had high circulating and adipose tissue levels of tumor necrosis factor ?, leptin and interleukin 6 and low levels of adiponectin and interleukin 1?. Vitamin-restricted offspring had higher activities of hepatic fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA-carboxylase and higher plasma cortisol levels. In conclusion, maternal and peri-/postnatal folate and/or vitamin B(12) restriction increased visceral adiposity (due to increased corticosteroid stress), altered lipid metabolism in rat offspring perhaps by modulating adipocyte function and may thus predispose them to high morbidity later. PMID:22703962

Kumar, Kalle Anand; Lalitha, Anumula; Pavithra, Dhandapani; Padmavathi, Inagadapa J N; Ganeshan, Manisha; Rao, Kalashikam Rajender; Venu, Lagishetty; Balakrishna, Nagala; Shanker, Nemani Hari; Reddy, Singi Umakar; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Sengupta, Shantanu; Raghunath, Manchala

2013-01-01

174

Vitamin A Deficiency Is Prevalent in Children Less Than 5 y of Age in Nigeria1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a serious and widespread public health problem in developing countries. We conducted a nationwide food consumption and nutrition survey in Nigeria to help fomulate strategies to address VAD, among other deficiencies. One objectives was to assess the vitamin A status of children ,5 y old. A total of 6480 households with a mother and child

Busie B. Maziya-Dixon; Isaac O. Akinyele; Rasaki A. Sanusi; Tunde E. Oguntona; Sagary K. Nokoe; Ellen W. Harris

175

Biochemical and Hematologic Manifestations of Gastric Intrinsic Factor (GIF) Deficiency: A Treatable Cause of B12 Deficiency in the Old Order Mennonite Population of Southwestern Ontario.  

PubMed

Intrinsic factor deficiency (OMIM #261000, IFD) is a rare inherited disorder of vitamin B12 metabolism due to mutations in the gastric intrinsic factor (GIF) gene.We report three individuals from an Old Order Mennonite community who presented with B12 deficiency. Two cases are siblings born to consanguineous parents and the third case is not known to be closely related. The older male sib presented at 4 years with gastrointestinal symptoms, listlessness, and pallor. He had pancytopenia with megaloblastic anemia. Serum B12 was 61 (198-615 pmol/L). Methylmalonic aciduria was present. C3 was elevated on acylcarnitine profile. Homocysteine was high at 16.7 (5.0-12.0 umol/L). His asymptomatic female sibling was also found to have B12 deficiency. Genetic testing for methylmalonic aciduria (MMAA), transcobalamin deficiency (TCN2), and Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (AMN) showed no mutation in both siblings. The third patient, a 34-year-old woman, had presented in infancy with a diagnosis of pernicious anemia. Mutation analysis of GIF revealed compound heterozygosity for a c.79+1G>A substitution and a c.973delG deletion in all three individuals. Oral or parenteral vitamin B12 has led to complete recovery of clinical parameters and vitamin B12 levels. Newborn screening samples on the siblings revealed normal methylcitrate, C3, and C3/C2 ratios thus indicating no disruption of propionic or methylmalonic acid metabolism.A high index of suspicion should be maintained if children present with megaloblastic anemia since GIF deficiency is a treatable disorder and newborn screening may not be able to detect this condition. PMID:25308559

Ferrand, A; Siu, V M; Rupar, C A; Napier, M P; Al-Dirbashi, O Y; Chakraborty, P; Prasad, C

2015-01-01

176

Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and methionine synthase polymorphisms with breast cancer risk and interaction with folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B 12 intakes.  

PubMed

We assessed the association between dietary intake of folate and the MTHFR genotype with breast cancer in a Chinese population, with additional analysis of the interactions of gene polymorphisms and dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. A case-control study was performed, and 535 patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer and 673 controls were enrolled into this study. The MTHFR 667TT genotype (odds ratio (OR)?=?1.82, 95 % confidence interval (CI)?=?1.24-2.97) and T allele (OR 0=?1.48, 95 % CI?=?1.15-1.78) were correlated with a moderately significant increased risk of breast cancer when compared with the CC genotype. Individuals carrying the MTR 2756GG genotype (OR?=?1.66, 95 % CI?=?1.16-2.56) and G allele (OR?=?1.42, 95 % CI?=?1.26-1.81) had a higher risk of breast cancer when compared with subjects with the AA genotype. The MTHFR 667 T allele and MTR 2756 G allele were associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in individuals with low folate intake, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12, but the association disappeared among subjects with moderate and high intake of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. This case-control study found that the MTHFR C677T and MTR A2756G polymorphisms are associated with risk of breast cancer, and folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 intakes influence these associations. PMID:25217320

Jiang-Hua, Qiao; De-Chuang, Jiao; Zhen-Duo, Lu; Shu-de, Cui; Zhenzhen, Liu

2014-12-01

177

Vitamin B12 Cream Containing Avocado Oil in the Therapy of Plaque Psoriasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There are already many effective topical therapies available for use in the treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis. Unfortunately, these treatments are often associated with a rather significant risk of undesirable effects. Objective and Methods: In this randomized, prospective clinical trial, the effects of the vitamin D3 analog calcipotriol were evaluated against those of a recently developed vitamin B12 cream

Markus Stücker; Ulrike Memmel; Matthias Hoffmann; Joachim Hartung; Peter Altmeyer

2001-01-01

178

HETEROGENEITY AND LACK OF GOOD QUALITY STUDIES LIMIT ASSOCIATION BETWEEN FOLATE, VITAMIN B-6 AND B-12, AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Despite their important role in cognitive function, the value of B vitamin supplementation is unknown. A systematic review of the effect of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation on cognitive function was performed. Literature search conducted in MEDLINE with supplemental articles from rev...

179

VITAMIN B6, B12 AND FOLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF RANDOMIZED TRIALS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Despite their important role in cognitive function, the value of B vitamin supplementation is unknown. A systematic review of the effect of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation on cognitive function was performed. Literature search conducted in MEDLINE with supplemental articles from re...

180

THE EFFECT OF DIETARY COBALT INTAKE ON THE PLASMA VITAMIN B12 CONCENTRATION OF SHEEP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma vitamin B12 concentration of sheep progressively increased as the dietary cobalt level was raised from 0·04 parts per million to 0·34 parts per million. With rations containing more than 0·10 parts per million cobalt (8·1 ?g. Co\\/day) plasma vitamin B12 concentrations of sheep were more variable than those with lower cobalt intakes. This variability may have been due

M Somers; JM Gawthorne

1969-01-01

181

Recovery from vitamin B-12-induced unbalanced growth. The shortened cell cycle and the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate pools.  

PubMed Central

The deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate pools are undetectable in vitamin B-12-deficient cells of Euglena gracillis, but appear rapidly after the replenishment with the vitamin. They reach a maximum size that is about 6 times that of normal exponentially growing cells, but decrease to almost zero as the cells divide. The pools expand again during the post-replenishment shortened cell cycle. However, the expansion takes place during rather than before the resumption of DNA synthesis. The maximum sizes reached are still larger than in normal cells. By using the protein-synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide and determining the pool size, we found that vitamin-deficient cells apparently accumulate a large amount of ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase apoenzyme, which lacks the vitamin B12 coenzyme. We showed that the production of the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates is not closely coupled to DNA synthesis under our experimental conditions, and that the concentration of the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate pools per unit of DNA synthesized is almost constant for all stages of growth examined. PMID:417723

Goetz, G H; Carell, E F

1978-01-01

182

Über das Vitamin B 12 -Bedürfnis phototropher Schwefelbakterien  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.10 von 19 Chlorobium-Stämmen, die mit einer Vit. B12-haltigen Nährlösung aus verschiedenen Gewässern in Kalifornien, Norwegen und Deutschland isoliert waren, erwiesen sich als Vit. B12-bedürftig.2.Bei Vit. B12-bedürftigen Chlorobium- und Chromatium-Stämmen wurde der Chlorophyllgehalt der Kulturen in Abhängigkeit von der Vit. B12-Konzentration quantitativ bestimmt. Zur Bildung vergleichbarer Erträge benötigten alle untersuchten Chlorobium-Stämme gegenüber den Chromatium-Stämmen etwa zehnmal höhere Vit. B12-Konzentrationen.3.Der Vergleich

Norbert Pfennig; Klaus Dieter Lippert

1966-01-01

183

Effects of Formulation Variables and Storage Conditions on Light Protected Vitamin B12 Mixed Parenteral Formulations  

PubMed Central

Purpose: In this research the effect of vitamin B1 and B6 on cyanocobalamin stability in commercial light protected parenteral formulations and upon adding stabilizing agents will be investigated and best formulation composition and proper storage condition will be introduced. Methods: In this research some additives such as co solvents and tonicity adjusters, surfactants, antioxidants and chelating agents as well as buffer solutions, were used to improve the stability of the parenteral mixed formulations of B12 in the presence of other B vitamins (B1 and B6). Screening tests and accelerated stability tests were performed according to ICH guidelines Q1A (R2). Results: Shelf life evaluation revealed the best formulation and the proper storage condition. The results indicated the first kinetic models for all tested formulations and the optimum pH value was determined to be 5.8. There was no evidence of B12 loss when mixed with B1 and B6 in a medical syringe at room temperature for maximum of 8 hours. Conclusion: It is necessary to formulate vitamin B12 mixed parenteral solutions using proper phosphate buffers (pH=5.8) and to indicate “Store in refrigerator” on the mixed parenteral formulations of vitamin B12 with other B vitamins, which has not been expressed on the label of tested Brand formulations at the time of this study. PMID:25436187

Monajjemzadeh, Farnaz; Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin; Valizadeh, Hadi

2014-01-01

184

FRACTION OF TOTAL PLASMA VITAMIN B12 BOUND TO TRANSCOBALAMIN CORRELATES WITH COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN ELDERLY LATINOS WITH DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: The fraction of total plasma vitamin B12 bound to transcobalamin (holoTC/B12 ratio) may reflect tissue levels of the vitamin, but its clinical relevance is unclear. Methods: associations between cognitive function and total B12, holoTC, and holoTC/B12 ratio were assessed in a cohort of ...

185

Two outer membrane transport systems for vitamin B12 in Salmonella typhimurium.  

PubMed Central

The involvement of an outer membrane transport component for vitamin B12 uptake in Salmonella typhimurium, analogous to the btuB product in Escherichia coli, was investigated. Mutants of S. typhimurium selected for resistance to bacteriophage BF23 carried mutations at the btuB locus (butBS) (formerly called bfe, at the analogous map position as the E. coli homolog) and were defective in high-affinity vitamin B12 uptake. The cloned E. coli btuB gene (btuBE) hybridized to S. typhimurium genomic DNA and restored vitamin B12 transport activity to S. typhimurium btuBS mutants. An Mr-60,000 protein in the S. typhimurium outer membrane was repressed by growth with vitamin B12 and was eliminated in a btuBS mutant. The btuBS product thus appears to play the same role in vitamin B12 transport by S. typhimurium as does the E. coli btuBE product. A second vitamin B12 transport system that is not present in E. coli was found by cloning a fragment of S. typhimurium DNA that complemented btuB mutants for vitamin B12 utilization. In addition to this plasmid with a 6-kilobase insert of S. typhimurium DNA, vitamin B12 utilization by E. coli btuB strains required the btuC and btuD products, necessary for transport across the cytoplasmic membrane, but not the btuE or tonB product. The plasmid conferred low levels of vitamin B12-binding and energy-dependent transport activity but not susceptibility to phage BF23 or utilization of dicyanocobinamide. The cloned S. typhimurium DNA encoding this new transport system did not hybridize to the btuBE gene or to E. coli chromosomal DNA and therefore does not carry the S. typhimurium btuBS locus. Increased production of an Mr -84,000 polypeptide associated with the outer membrane was seen. The new locus appears to be carried on the large plasmid in most S. typhimurium strains. Thus S. typhimurium possesses both high- and low-affinity systems for uptake of cobalamins across the outer membrane. Images PMID:2656634

Rioux, C R; Kadner, R J

1989-01-01

186

Dietary intake of folate, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, genetic polymorphism of related enzymes, and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Japan.  

PubMed

We investigated associations among intake of folate, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and polymorphisms of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase (MTR) genes and breast cancer risk in a Japanese population. A hospital based, case-control study was conducted in Nagano Prefecture, Japan, in 388 pairs of patients with histologically confirmed invasive breast cancer and age- and area-matched controls selected from medical checkup examinees. Energy-adjusted intakes of folate and other B vitamins were derived from a validated food frequency questionnaire. Genotyping was completed for MTHFR (C677T and A1298T) and MTR (A2756G). Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by the conditional logistical regression model. Median dietary folate intake (microg/day) in the control group was 438.2 (interquartile range: 354.9-542.9). Neither dietary intake of folate, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, or vitamin B12 nor polymorphisms of MTHFR or MTR genes were significantly associated with breast cancer risk. Further, no significant interaction was found among nutrients, polymorphisms, and breast cancer risk. Associations of nutrients with breast cancer risk did not differ by hormone receptors status. We conclude that dietary intake of folate and related B vitamins and genotypes of MTHFR or MTR have no overall association with breast cancer risk in Japanese women. PMID:19838916

Ma, Enbo; Iwasaki, Motoki; Kobayashi, Minatsu; Kasuga, Yoshio; Yokoyama, Shiro; Onuma, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Hideki; Kusama, Ritsu; Tsugane, Shoichiro

2009-01-01

187

Vitamin B??-containing plant food sources for vegetarians.  

PubMed

The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori) is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups. PMID:24803097

Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Bito, Tomohiro; Teng, Fei

2014-05-01

188

Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies Are Highly Prevalent in Newly Diagnosed Celiac Disease Patients  

PubMed Central

Malabsorption, weight loss and vitamin/mineral-deficiencies characterize classical celiac disease (CD). This study aimed to assess the nutritional and vitamin/mineral status of current “early diagnosed” untreated adult CD-patients in the Netherlands. Newly diagnosed adult CD-patients were included (n = 80, 42.8 ± 15.1 years) and a comparable sample of 24 healthy Dutch subjects was added to compare vitamin concentrations. Nutritional status and serum concentrations of folic acid, vitamin A, B6, B12, and (25-hydroxy) D, zinc, haemoglobin (Hb) and ferritin were determined (before prescribing gluten free diet). Almost all CD-patients (87%) had at least one value below the lower limit of reference. Specifically, for vitamin A, 7.5% of patients showed deficient levels, for vitamin B6 14.5%, folic acid 20%, and vitamin B12 19%. Likewise, zinc deficiency was observed in 67% of the CD-patients, 46% had decreased iron storage, and 32% had anaemia. Overall, 17% were malnourished (>10% undesired weight loss), 22% of the women were underweight (Body Mass Index (BMI) < 18.5), and 29% of the patients were overweight (BMI > 25). Vitamin deficiencies were barely seen in healthy controls, with the exception of vitamin B12. Vitamin/mineral deficiencies were counter-intuitively not associated with a (higher) grade of histological intestinal damage or (impaired) nutritional status. In conclusion, vitamin/mineral deficiencies are still common in newly “early diagnosed” CD-patients, even though the prevalence of obesity at initial diagnosis is rising. Extensive nutritional assessments seem warranted to guide nutritional advices and follow-up in CD treatment. PMID:24084055

Wierdsma, Nicolette J.; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, Marian A. E.; Berkenpas, Marijke; Mulder, Chris J. J.; van Bodegraven, Ad A.

2013-01-01

189

Vitamin B12 absorption capacity in healthy children  

SciTech Connect

B12 absorption was investigated in 47 healthy children aged 7 months to 15.8 years (median 4.9 years). The patients had either recovered from giardiasis, the post-gastroenteritis syndrome, or had celiac disease in remission (treated with a gluten-free diet). The B12 absorption was measured by a double-isotope technique using /sup 57/CoB12 and /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/, the latter being the inabsorbable marker. The radiation dose was minimal. The results were presented as fractional absorption of B12 (FAB12). Within the different age groups, the absorption test was performed by means of the following oral amounts of B12: 0- less than 1 year, 0.5 microgram; 1-3 years: 1.7 micrograms, 4-6 years, 2.5 micrograms; 7-10 years; 3.3 micrograms; and 11-15 years, 4.5 micrograms. When using these oral amounts of B12, the medians (and ranges) of FAB12 were found to be: 1-3 years (n = 18), 37% (16-80%); 4-6 years (n = 10), 27% (19-40%); 7-10 years (n = 9), 32% (21-44%); and 11-15 years (n = 8), 27% (19-59%). The FAB12 in two children aged 7 and 11 months was 31% and 32%, respectively. These results may be interpretated as reference values for B12 absorption in children. Further absorption tests were performed in seven children representing the four age groups from 1 to 15 years. When a high oral amount of B12 was given (i.e., three times the saturation dose), the FAB12 ranged from 0 to 20% (median 9%), whereas a low amount (i.e., one-ninth of the saturation dose) produced fractional absorptions from 65 to 82% (median 74%).

Hjelt, K.; Krasilnikoff, P.A.

1986-03-01

190

Human vitamin B12 absorption measurement by accelerator mass spectrometry using specifically  

E-print Network

idiosyncrasies of Salmonella metabolism. To grow aerobically on ethanolamine, Salmonella enterica mustCi mmol) (1 Ci 37 GBq) and no detectable dilution of label from endogenous DMB synthesis. In a human engineering Salmonella Schilling test Vitamin B12 (B12) is a compound of significant nutritional and clinical

California at Davis, University of

191

Folate and Vitamin B12 Transport Systems in the Developing Infant  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

B vitamin transport systems in infants are not as well studied as those for amino acids and glucose. For most B vitamins, a 2-step process allows for digestion of coenzyme forms of the vitamins in food, followed by specific transport systems for the free vitamin in the intestine. Folate and vitamin ...

192

Folate and vitamin B-12 status in relation to anemia, macrocytosis, and cognitive impairment in older Americans in the age of folic acid fortification  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Historic data on folic acid treatment of pernicious anemia suggested that high-level fortification would delay diagnosis or exacerbate effects of vitamin B12 deficiency, which affects many seniors. This idea is controversial, however, because observational data are few and inconclusive and experime...

193

The Relationship of Vitamin B12 and Sensory and Motor Peripheral Nerve Function in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine whether deficient B12 status or low serum B12 levels are associated with worse sensory and motor peripheral nerve function in older adults. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. Participants Two thousand two hundred eighty-seven adults aged 72–83 years [mean age: 76.5 ± 2.9 years; 51.4% female; 38.3% black]. Measurements Low serum B12 was defined based solely on serum B12 of <260 pmol/L, whereas deficient B12 status was defined as B12 <260 pmol/L, methylmalonic acid [MMA] >271 nmol/L and MMA >2-methylcitrate. Peripheral nerve function was assessed by peroneal nerve conduction amplitude and velocity [NCV] (motor); 1.4g/10g monofilament detection; average vibration threshold detection; and peripheral neuropathy symptoms [numbness; aching/burning pain] (sensory). Results B12 deficient status was found in 7.0% and an additional 10.1% had low serum B12 levels. B12 deficient status was associated with greater insensitivity to light (1.4g) touch (OR: 1.50; 95% CI: [1.06, 2.13]) and worse NCV [42.3 m/s vs. 43.5 m/s] (? =?1.16; p=0.01), after multivariable adjustment for demographics, lifestyle factors, and health conditions. Associations were consistent for the alternative definition using low serum B12 only. No significant associations were found for deficient B12 status or the alternative low serum B12 definition and vibration detection, nerve conduction amplitude, or peripheral neuropathy symptoms. Conclusion Poor B12 (deficient B12 status and low serum B12) is associated with worse sensory and motor peripheral nerve function. Nerve function impairments may lead to physical function declines and disability in older adults, suggesting that prevention and treatment of low B12 levels may be important to evaluate. PMID:22690982

Leishear, Kira; Boudreau, Robert M.; Studenski, Stephanie A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Rosano, Caterina; de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Houston, Denise K.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Schwartz, Ann V.; Vinik, Aaron I.; Hogervorst, Eva; Yaffe, Kristine; Harris, Tamara B.; Newman, Anne B.; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.

2012-01-01

194

Intergenotypic variation of Vitamin B12 and Folate in AD: In north indian population  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Changes in lifestyle habits such as diet modification or supplementation have been indicated as probable protective factors for a number of chronic conditions including Alzheimer's disease (AD). With this background, we aim to hypothesize that whether C677T polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene contributes towards the risk of developing AD and its association with vitamin B12 and folate levels. Materials and Methods: A case-control study comprising of total 200 subjects, within the age group of 50-85 years. Their blood samples were analyzed for serum folate, vitamin B12 levels, and MTHFR C677T polymorphism by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Results: The mean plasma levels of vitamin B12 and folate were significantly lower in study group when compared to the control group (P < 0.001). Genotypic and allelic frequency of MTHFR gene in both groups was found to be significant (P < 0.05). The intergenotypic variations of vitamin B12 and folate were found to be significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: We concluded that the subjects with homozygous mutated alleles are more prone to AD and also pointed out the influence of presence/absence of MTHFR T allelic variants on serum folate and vitamin B12 levels. PMID:25221401

Chhillar, Neelam; Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Bala, Kiran; Basu, Mitra; Sharma, Deepika

2014-01-01

195

Vitamin D deficiency in patients with Behcet’s disease  

PubMed Central

Background Behcet’s disease is an autoimmune, recurrent and multisystem disease. Vitamin D has immunomodulator role in immune system. So that vitamin D deficiency was reported in some autoimmune diseases. Behcet’s disease as a Silk Road disease is common in Iran. The aim of this study was to detect the serum level of 25(OH) vitamin D in Behcet’s patients and control group. Methods In this case–control study, 112 Behcet’s patients as cases group and 112 healthy individuals as controls group were enrolled. Any subject on vitamin D supplement, steroid, and immunosuppressors during the last 6 months were excluded. The serum level of 25(OH) vitamin D was measured in the two groups by ELISA method. The findings were compared via SPSS software. Results About 57% and 17% of Behcet’s patients had vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency respectively. Vitamin D deficiency was significantly more common in controls than cases group (P?Vitamin D levels were significantly lower in controls (P?B5, and HLA-B51 with vitamin D level in Behcet’s patients. Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency is common among Behcet’s patients. However, our results revealed vitamin D deficiency was significantly more common in healthy controls in comparison with Behcet’s cases. PMID:24451043

2014-01-01

196

Vitamin D deficiency in the sunshine state.  

PubMed

Vitamin D is well known for its skeletal and extraskeletal benefits. Chronic kidney disease (CKD), even in the early stages, may predispose patients to vitamin D deficiency, which may result in deleterious effects. Understanding the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the CKD population living in southern areas of the United States may help in early identification and implementation of preventative strategies. PMID:24175439

Pasupala, Umabala; Hain, Debra; Paixao, Rute; Barrera, Noellema ?e; Kernan, William

2013-01-01

197

The Biosynthesis of Vitamin B12: A Study by 13C Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

The origin of the methyl group on C-1 of Ring A of the corrin ring of vitamin B12 was investigated by 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The proton-decoupled 13C spectra of vitamin B12 synthesized from [5-13C]?-aminolevulinic acid by Propionibacteria were obtained by Fourier-transform nuclear magnetic resonance of high resolution, and spectra of high-resolution proton magnetic resonance of the 13C-labeled B12 were also taken. The ?-carbon atom of ?-aminolevulinic acid is the source of seven or eight known positions of vitamin B12, depending on whether the C-1 methyl group is also derived from the labeled substrate. We have found seven resonances whose chemical shifts enable us to identify the position of the 13C atoms in the molecule from the assignment of Dodderell and Allerhand. We observed no 13C resonance corresponding to the C-1 methyl group of Ring A. Furthermore, the proton magnetic resonance spectrum showed no spin-spin splitting of the proton peak at the ? values assigned for the H atoms in this methyl group. It would thus appear that the methyl group at C-1, which has been considered to have the same origin as the ?-methine bridge of porphyrins, does not originate from the ?-carbon atom of ?-aminolevulinic acid. This finding may aid in elucidation of the mechanism of synthesis of the functional isomer of vitamin B12 and porphyrins. The 13C-labeled vitamin B12 enabled us to make further assignments to the 13C magnetic resonance of the vitamin. PMID:4506779

Brown, Charles Eric; Katz, Joseph J.; Shemin, David

1972-01-01

198

Homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels in psoriatic patients and correlation with disease severity.  

PubMed

Hyperhomocysteinaemia represents an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, stroke, peripheral arterial occlusive disease and venous thrombosis. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease associated with increased atherothrombosis and cardiovascular risk profile. The aim of this study is to investigate homocysteine, folic acid and vitamin B12 levels in a cohort of psoriatic patients and its relationship with the severity of the disease. A retrospective observational study in 98 patients with chronic plaque psoriasis and 98 healthy controls was performed. Total plasma homocysteine level, folic acid, vitamin B12 and PASI index were assessed in every patient. Patients with psoriasis had plasma homocysteine levels higher than controls (57% of cases and 25% of controls; p<0.0001). Folic acid and vitamin B12 plasma levels were lower in psoriatic patients than in controls (p = NS), lower levels of vitamin B12 were found in patients with hyperhomocysteinaemia compared to patients with a normal value of homocysteine (p = 0.0009). The severity of psoriasis assessed according to PASI (19.51+/-16.26) did not directly correlate either with higher levels of homocysteine or with vitamin B12 and folic acid plasma levels. In conclusion, a significantly higher prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia was found in psoriatic patients compared to healthy controls. A significant correlation between hyperhomocysteinaemia and lower vitamin B12 levels, but not folic acid, was evidenced. On the contrary, our data do not correlate the high level of homocysteine with higher PASI scores or psoriasis type, suggesting that homocysteine level can be considered an independent risk factor in psoriatic patients. PMID:20943063

Brazzelli, V; Grasso, V; Fornara, L; Moggio, E; Gamba, G; Villani, S; Borroni, G

2010-01-01

199

LOW ERYTHROCYTE FOLATE, BUT NOT PLASMA VITAMIN B-12 OR HOMOCYSTEINE, IS ASSOCIATED WITH DEMENTIA IN ELDERLY LATINOS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The relationship between B vitamin status and cognitive function has been of interest for many years. There is evidence of relationships between intake and status of folate and vitamin B-12 with neurological, cognitive, and memory impairment, but results have been inconsistent. Plasma B-12, erythroc...

200

Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)  

MedlinePLUS

Riboflavin is a B vitamin. It can be found in certain foods such as milk, meat, eggs, nuts, enriched flour, and green vegetables. Riboflavin is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex products. Vitamin B complex ...

201

RED CELL STROMA PROTEIN RICH IN VITAMIN B12 DURING ACTIVE REGENERATION  

PubMed Central

During active blood regeneration in anemia in dogs an increase occurs in the stroma protein of the red cells. When vitamin B12 with radioactive cobalt is given at the start of this blood regeneration one finds concentration of labeled B12 in the stroma protein but not in the hemoglobin. After the acute phase of red cell regeneration is ended the concentration of B12 in stroma protein falls rapidly to very low levels within 2 weeks. Subsequent episodes of red blood cell regeneration seems not to cause remobilization of radioactive cobalt into red cells from other body stores. It appears that the vitamin B12 is a factor of importance in the first steps of stroma protein formation in the first few days of the life of the red cell in the dog. This response in dogs and the response in pernicious anemia to vitamin B12 may have some points in common. Distribution of the B12-radioactive cobalt in the organs and tissues at autopsy has been recorded. Some very suggestive localizations were noted and some variation 1 week and 7 weeks after B12 injections. Radioactive cobalt escapes in the urine during the weeks following B12 injections. PMID:13271685

Whipple, G. H.; Robscheit-Robbins, F. S.; Bale, W. F.

1955-01-01

202

Vitamin D deficiency in adolescents  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in adolescents is variable but considerably high in many countries, especially in Middle-east and Southeast Asia. Different factors attribute to this deficiency including lack of sunlight exposure due to cultural dress codes and veiling or due to pigmented skin, and less time spent outdoors, because of hot weather, and lower vitamin D intake. A potent adaptation process significantly modifies the clinical presentation and therefore clinical presentations may be subtle and go unnoticed, thus making true prevalence studies difficult. Adolescents with severe VDD may present with vague manifestations including pain in weight-bearing joints, back, thighs and/or calves, difficulty in walking and/or climbing stairs, or running and muscle cramps. Adaptation includes increased parathormone (PTH) and deceased insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) secretion. PTH enhances the tubular reabsorption of Ca and stimulates the kidneys to produce 1, 25-(OH) 2D3 that increases intestinal calcium absorption and dissolves the mineralized collagen matrix in bone, causing osteopenia and osteoporosis to provide enough Ca to prevent hypocalcaemia. Decreased insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) delays bone growth to economize calcium consumption. Radiological changes are not uncommon and include osteoporosis/osteopenia affecting long bones as well as vertebrae and ribs, bone cysts, decalcification of the metaphysis of the long bones and pseudo fractures. In severe cases pathological fractures and deformities may occur. Vitamin D treatment of adolescents with VDD differs considerably in different studies and proved to be effective in treating all clinical, biochemical, and radiological manifestations. Different treatment regiments for VDD have been discussed and presented in this mini-review for practical use. Adequate vitamin D replacement after treating VDD, improving calcium intake (milk and dairy products), encouraging adequate exposure to the sun and possible enrichment of the stable food with vitamin D in areas with high prevalence of VDD are important measures to prevent the harmful consequences of VDD. PMID:25538884

Soliman, Ashraf T.; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania; Bedair, Said; Kassem, Islam

2014-01-01

203

Vitamin D deficiency in adolescents.  

PubMed

The prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in adolescents is variable but considerably high in many countries, especially in Middle-east and Southeast Asia. Different factors attribute to this deficiency including lack of sunlight exposure due to cultural dress codes and veiling or due to pigmented skin, and less time spent outdoors, because of hot weather, and lower vitamin D intake. A potent adaptation process significantly modifies the clinical presentation and therefore clinical presentations may be subtle and go unnoticed, thus making true prevalence studies difficult. Adolescents with severe VDD may present with vague manifestations including pain in weight-bearing joints, back, thighs and/or calves, difficulty in walking and/or climbing stairs, or running and muscle cramps. Adaptation includes increased parathormone (PTH) and deceased insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) secretion. PTH enhances the tubular reabsorption of Ca and stimulates the kidneys to produce 1, 25-(OH) 2D3 that increases intestinal calcium absorption and dissolves the mineralized collagen matrix in bone, causing osteopenia and osteoporosis to provide enough Ca to prevent hypocalcaemia. Decreased insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) delays bone growth to economize calcium consumption. Radiological changes are not uncommon and include osteoporosis/osteopenia affecting long bones as well as vertebrae and ribs, bone cysts, decalcification of the metaphysis of the long bones and pseudo fractures. In severe cases pathological fractures and deformities may occur. Vitamin D treatment of adolescents with VDD differs considerably in different studies and proved to be effective in treating all clinical, biochemical, and radiological manifestations. Different treatment regiments for VDD have been discussed and presented in this mini-review for practical use. Adequate vitamin D replacement after treating VDD, improving calcium intake (milk and dairy products), encouraging adequate exposure to the sun and possible enrichment of the stable food with vitamin D in areas with high prevalence of VDD are important measures to prevent the harmful consequences of VDD. PMID:25538884

Soliman, Ashraf T; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania; Bedair, Said; Kassem, Islam

2014-11-01

204

Low serum vitamin B12 levels among psychiatric patients admitted in Butabika mental hospital in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Psychiatric manifestations have been noted in patients with low serum vitamin B12 levels even in the absence of other neurologic and/or haematologic abnormalities. There is no literature on low serum B12 prevalence among Ugandans with psychiatric illnesses. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence, risk factors, and clinical manifestations of low serum vitamin B12 among psychiatric patients admitted in a Mental Health Hospital in Uganda. Method Using a cross sectional descriptive study design, 280 in-patients selected by systematic sampling were studied using a standardized protocol. Low serum vitamin B12 was defined as a level?B12 in 28.6% of the participants. Absent vibration sense which was significantly associated (58.3% Vs. 26.7%: OR?=?3.84 (95% C.I. 1.18, 12.49); p-value?=?0.025) with low vitamin B12 was observed among 12 participants. Macro-ovalocytes present among 23 participants on peripheral film were significantly associated with low serum levels (73.9% Vs. 26.2%: OR?=?7.99 (95% C.I. 3.01, 21.19) p-value?B12 levels included psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia (AOR 1.74 (95% C.I. 1.00, 3.02); p-value?=?0.049), duration of psychiatric illness?>?or?=?3 years (AOR 2.27 (95% C.I. 1.29, 3.98); p-value?=?0.004), and hospitalization?B12 is common among hospitalized psychiatric patients with the majority having no haematological findings. Associated risk factors included having a psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia, a shorter duration of hospitalization and longer duration of psychiatric illness. Female participants were less likely to have low serum vitamin B12 levels. Routine screening for serum vitamin B12 levels should be adopted by all hospitals for admitted psychiatric patients. PMID:24533701

2014-01-01

205

Vitamin D: Deficiency, Sufficiency and Toxicity  

PubMed Central

The plethora of vitamin D studies over the recent years highlight the pleomorphic effects of vitamin D outside its conventional role in calcium and bone homeostasis. Vitamin D deficiency, though common and known, still faces several challenges among the medical community in terms of proper diagnosis and correction. In this review, the different levels of vitamin D and its clinical implications are highlighted. Recommendations and consensuses for the appropriate dose and duration for each vitamin D status are also emphasized. PMID:24067388

Alshahrani, Fahad; Aljohani, Naji

2013-01-01

206

Homocysteine and vitamin B12 status relate to bone turnover markers, broadband ultrasound attenuation, and fractures in healthy elderly people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperhomocysteinemia may contribute to the development of osteoporosis. The relationship of Hcy and vitamin B12 with bone turnover markers, BUA, and fracture incidence was studied in 1267 subjects of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. High Hcy and low vitamin B12 concentrations were significantly associated with low BUA, high markers of bone turnover, and increased fracture risk

R. A. M. Dhonukshe-Rutten; S. M. F. Pluijm; Groot de C. P. G. M; P. Lips; J. H. Smit; Staveren van W. A

2005-01-01

207

Inverse Correlation of Low Vitamin B12, Folic Acid and Homocysteine Levels in Diabetic Retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Evaluation of total plasma homocysteine, serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels in patients with diabetic retinopathy. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients having insulin dependent diabetes mellitus were included and subdivided into 3 groups: Diabetics without retinopathy (n=10), with background retinopathy (n=20), and proliferative retinopathy (n=20). Ten nor- mal subjects served as controls. Plasma total homocysteine levels were measured

Soher A. Mohammed Ismail; Iman A. Fahmy; Samah Ali; Mostafa Farrag

208

Copper control of bacterial nitrous oxide emission and its impact on vitamin B12-dependent metabolism  

PubMed Central

Global agricultural emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) have increased by around 20% over the last 100 y, but regulation of these emissions and their impact on bacterial cellular metabolism are poorly understood. Denitrifying bacteria convert nitrate in soils to inert di-nitrogen gas (N2) via N2O and the biochemistry of this process has been studied extensively in Paracoccus denitrificans. Here we demonstrate that expression of the gene encoding the nitrous oxide reductase (NosZ), which converts N2O to N2, is regulated in response to the extracellular copper concentration. We show that elevated levels of N2O released as a consequence of decreased cellular NosZ activity lead to the bacterium switching from vitamin B12-dependent to vitamin B12-independent biosynthetic pathways, through the transcriptional modulation of genes controlled by vitamin B12 riboswitches. This inhibitory effect of N2O can be rescued by addition of exogenous vitamin B12. PMID:24248380

Sullivan, Matthew J.; Gates, Andrew J.; Appia-Ayme, Corinne; Rowley, Gary; Richardson, David J.

2013-01-01

209

Competitive chemiluminescent anzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent discoveries of matrix interferences by haptocorrin (HC) in human milk and serum show that past analyses of vitamin B12 in samples with high HC content might have been inaccurate (Lildballe et al., 2009; Carmel & Agrawal, 2012). We evaluated two competitive enzyme-binding immunoassays for seru...

210

Vitamin D/dietary calcium deficiency rickets and pseudo-vitamin D deficiency rickets  

PubMed Central

This review describes the pathogenesis, clinical presentation and biochemical perturbations found in privational (nutritional) rickets and pseudo-vitamin D deficiency rickets (PDDR), an autosomal recessive condition with loss of function mutations in CYP27B1. It may seem strange to combine a discussion on privational rickets and PDDR as a single topic, but privational rickets and PDDR present with similar clinical signs and symptoms and with similar perturbations in bone and mineral metabolism. Of interest is the characteristic lack of features of rickets at birth in infants with PDDR, a finding which has also been reported in infants born to vitamin D-deficient mothers. This highlights the independence of the fetus and neonate from the need for vitamin D to maintain calcium homeostasis during this period. The variable roles of vitamin D deficiency and dietary calcium deficiency in the pathogenesis of privational rickets are discussed and the associated alterations in vitamin D metabolism highlighted. Although PDDR is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, results of long-term follow-up are now available on the effect of treatment with calcitriol, and these are discussed. Areas of uncertainty, such as should affected mothers breastfeed their infants, are emphasized. PMID:24818008

Glorieux, Francis H; Pettifor, John M

2014-01-01

211

Vitamin B12: one carbon metabolism, fetal growth and programming for chronic disease.  

PubMed

This review brings together human and animal studies and reviews that examine the possible role of maternal vitamin B12 (B12) on fetal growth and its programming for susceptibility to chronic disease. A selective literature review was undertaken to identify studies and reviews that investigate these issues, particularly in the context of a vegetarian diet that may be low in B12 and protein and high in carbohydrate. Evidence is accumulating that maternal B12 status influences fetal growth and development. Low maternal vitamin B12 status and protein intake are associated with increased risk of neural tube defect, low lean mass and excess adiposity, increased insulin resistance, impaired neurodevelopment and altered risk of cancer in the offspring. Vitamin B12 is a key nutrient associated with one carbon metabolic pathways related to substrate metabolism, synthesis and stability of nucleic acids and methylation of DNA which regulates gene expression. Understanding of factors regulating maternal-fetal one carbon metabolism and its role in fetal programming of non communicable diseases could help design effective interventions, starting with maternal nutrition before conception. PMID:24219896

Rush, E C; Katre, P; Yajnik, C S

2014-01-01

212

Chronic Maternal Vitamin B12 Restriction Induced Changes in Body Composition & Glucose Metabolism in the Wistar Rat Offspring Are Partly Correctable by Rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Maternal under-nutrition increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. We studied the effects of chronic maternal dietary vitamin B12 restriction on lean body mass (LBM), fat free mass (FFM), muscle function, glucose tolerance and metabolism in Wistar rat offspring. Prevention/reversibility of changes by rehabilitating restricted mothers from conception or parturition and their offspring from weaning was assessed. Female weaning Wistar rats (n?=?30) were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks, a control diet (n?=?6) or the same with 40% restriction of vitamin B12 (B12R) (n?=?24); after confirming deficiency, were mated with control males. Six each of pregnant B12R dams were rehabilitated from conception and parturition and their offspring weaned to control diet. While offspring of six B12R dams were weaned to control diet, those of the remaining six B12R dams continued on B12R diet. Biochemical parameters and body composition were determined in dams before mating and in male offspring at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of their age. Dietary vitamin B12 restriction increased body weight but decreased LBM% and FFM% but not the percent of tissue associated fat (TAF%) in dams. Maternal B12R decreased LBM% and FFM% in the male offspring, but their TAF%, basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake by diaphragm were unaltered. At 12 months age, B12R offspring had higher (than controls) fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and impaired glucose tolerance. Their hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme activities were increased. B12R offspring had increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant status. Changes in body composition, glucose metabolism and stress were reversed by rehabilitating B12R dams from conception, whereas rehabilitation from parturition and weaning corrected them partially, highlighting the importance of vitamin B12 during pregnancy and lactation on growth, muscle development, glucose tolerance and metabolism in the offspring. PMID:25398136

Kumar, Kalle Anand; Lalitha, Anumula; Reddy, Umakar; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Sengupta, Shantanu; Raghunath, Manchala

2014-01-01

213

Structural basis for receptor recognition of vitamin-B(12)-intrinsic factor complexes.  

PubMed

Cobalamin (Cbl, vitamin B(12)) is a bacterial organic compound and an essential coenzyme in mammals, which take it up from the diet. This occurs by the combined action of the gastric intrinsic factor (IF) and the ileal endocytic cubam receptor formed by the 460-kilodalton (kDa) protein cubilin and the 45-kDa transmembrane protein amnionless. Loss of function of any of these proteins ultimately leads to Cbl deficiency in man. Here we present the crystal structure of the complex between IF-Cbl and the cubilin IF-Cbl-binding-region (CUB(5-8)) determined at 3.3 A resolution. The structure provides insight into how several CUB (for 'complement C1r/C1s, Uegf, Bmp1') domains collectively function as modular ligand-binding regions, and how two distant CUB domains embrace the Cbl molecule by binding the two IF domains in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. This dual-point model provides a probable explanation of how Cbl indirectly induces ligand-receptor coupling. Finally, the comparison of Ca(2+)-binding CUB domains and the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-type A modules suggests that the electrostatic pairing of a basic ligand arginine/lysine residue with Ca(2+)-coordinating acidic aspartates/glutamates is a common theme of Ca(2+)-dependent ligand-receptor interactions. PMID:20237569

Andersen, Christian Brix Folsted; Madsen, Mette; Storm, Tina; Moestrup, Søren K; Andersen, Gregers R

2010-03-18

214

Variability in the carbon isotope fractionation of trichloroethene on its reductive dechlorination by vitamin B12.  

PubMed

Stable carbon isotope fractionation through the reductive dechlorination of trichloroethylene by vitamin B12 was determined to assess the possibility of using stable carbon isotope analysis to determine the efficacy of remediation of trichloroethylene using vitamin B12. We elucidated the effects of environmental conditions, including the pH, reaction temperature, and vitamin B12 concentration, on the carbon isotope enrichment factor (?). The ? values were relatively insensitive to the reaction temperature and vitamin B12 concentration, ranging from -15.7‰ to -16.2‰, with a mean of -15.9 ± 0.2‰, at different temperatures and vitamin B12 concentrations. Such a reproducible ? value could be particularly useful for estimating the extent of degradation in reactions in which a mass balance is difficult to achieve. However, changing the initial solution pH from 6.5 to 9.0 caused a notable change in the ? values, from -14.0‰ to -18.0‰. Reactions were investigated by calculating the apparent kinetic isotope effects for carbon, which, at 1.029-1.037, were smaller than the kinetic isotope effect values previously found for C-Cl bond cleavage. This indicates that a reaction other than the elimination of chloride may be a competitive degradation pathway. The dominant degradation pathway may be different for different initial solution pH values, and this will clearly influence carbon isotope fractionation. Therefore, if the ? value varies with reaction conditions, such as the solution pH, the calculations should take into account the actual environmental conditions that affect the rate limiting pathways. PMID:24889017

Gan, Yiqun; Yu, Tingting; Zhou, Aiguo; Liu, Yunde; Yu, Kai; Han, Li

2014-08-01

215

Development of a two-step cultivation strategy for the production of vitamin B12 by Bacillus megaterium  

PubMed Central

Background Vitamin B12 is a fascinating molecule which acts as a co-factor in the metabolism of many organisms, especially affecting DNA synthesis and regulation, fatty acid synthesis and energy production. The synthesis of vitamin B12 is limited to a few of bacteria and archaea. Therefore, industrial microbial fermentation is used to meet annual demands worldwide of vitamin B12 and as an alternative method to the chemical synthesis which requires at least 60 steps that is uneconomical. Bacillus megaterium is one of vitamin B12 producers and an ideal host for many biotechnology applications and being one of the best tools for the industrial production of several enzymes. Therefore, a two-step optimization strategy was established to produce high yield of vitamin B12 by B. megaterium through the provision of the production requirements and the suitable conditions for the biosynthesis of vitamin B12. Results We achieved the optimum conditions for the fermentation process of B. megaterium to produce high yield of vitamin B12 in a practical way based on statistical design and analysis which allowed vitamin B12 production to increase up to 759-fold (204.46 ?g/l) as compared with control without parameters (0.26 ?g/L). High performance liquid chromatography coupled to variable wavelength detector and mass spectrometry has been used to identify vitamin B12 forms and confirm the results. Conclusions We developed the fermentation process of B. megaterium to enhance the production of vitamin B12 by providing the required supplements for the synthesis of vitamin B12 (CoCl2, ?-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB)) and dividing the fermentation process into three stages. In addition, the optimum incubation times of the three fermentation stages were investigated and performed with reducing number of experimental and evaluated multiple parameters and their interactions by using statistical experimental design and analysis. All of these strategies has proven successful in enhancing the production of vitamin B12 up to 204.46 ?g/l and demonstrated that B. megaterium could be a good candidate for the industrial production of vitamin B12. PMID:25023574

2014-01-01

216

Vitamin B12: a novel indicator of bone health in vulnerable groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A number of modifiable predictors for osteoporosis and fractures have been identified, including nutritional factors, such as vitamin D deficiency and low calcium intake. Cobalamin deficiency has been suggested to affect bone metabolism. Pernicious anaemia, which can result in cobalamin deficiency, has been identified as a risk factor for osteoporosis. Also, it is known that homocystinuria patients are of

R. A. M. Dhonukshe-Rutten

2004-01-01

217

Hyperhomocysteinemia in hemodialysis patients: Effects of 12-month supplementation with hydrosoluble vitamins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperhomocysteinemia in hemodialysis patients: Effects of 12-month supplementation with hydrosoluble vitamins.BackgroundHigh-efficiency hemodialysis may induce a deficiency in hydrosoluble vitamins. Supplementation with B-complex vitamins has been shown to lower serum homocysteine concentrations in several groups, but relatively few studies have concerned hemodialysis patients. Our objectives were to determine the status in B-complex vitamins in a large cohort of unsupplemented hemodialysis patients

Richard Tremblay; Alain Bonnardeaux; David Geadah; Lambert Busque; Michel Lebrun; Denis Ouimet; Martine Leblanc

2000-01-01

218

Rickets–vitamin D deficiency and dependency  

PubMed Central

Rickets is an important problem even in countries with adequate sun exposure. The causes of rickets/osteomalacia are varied and include nutritional deficiency, especially poor dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. Non-nutritional causes include hypophosphatemic rickets primarily due to renal phosphate losses and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis. In addition, some varieties are due to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism and are called vitamin D dependent rickets. This chapter highlights rickets/osteomalacia related to vitamin D deficiency or to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism. Hypophosphatemic rickets and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis are discussed in other sections of the journal. PMID:22470851

Sahay, Manisha; Sahay, Rakesh

2012-01-01

219

The status of vitamins B6, B12, folate, and of homocysteine in geriatric home residents receiving laxatives or dietary fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Vitamin B12 deficiency as a digestive disorder and constipation as a gastro motility disorder are common in the elderly. Laxative\\u000a treatment is often chosen without regard for gut health.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To investigate whether the addition of oat-bran to the common oral diet for 12 weeks is able to reduce constipation and laxative\\u000a use and improve gut health. It is assumed that

Baerbel Sturtzel; A. Dietrich; K.-H. Wagner; C. Gisinger; I. Elmadfa

2010-01-01

220

The status of vitamins B6, B12, folate, and of homocysteine in geriatric home residents receiving laxatives or dietary fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Vitamin B12 deficiency as a digestive disorder and constipation as a gastro motility disorder are common in the elderly. Laxative\\u000a treatment is often chosen without regard for gut health.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To investigate whether the addition of oat-bran to the common oral diet for 12 weeks is able to reduce constipation and laxative\\u000a use and improve gut health. It is assumed that

Baerbel Sturtzel; A. Dietrich; K.-H. Wagner; C. Gisinger; I. Elmadfa

221

Vitamin B12 and pteroylglutamic acid studies in the domestic fowl  

E-print Network

? ration of vitamin B, p on the B-. P content of egg yolks........................... 5 Chapter 3. Factors affecting the in vitro conversion of folic acid (PGA) to the citrovorum factor (CF)............................ 29 Chapter 4. Effect of vitamin... of vitamin B^2 several workers (Doctor et al., '53; Drysdale et al., *51) have reported that the vitamin is implicated in utilization of pteroylglutamic acid (folic acid). Soon after the discovery of the citrovorum factor (OF, folinic acid...

Reid, Bobby Leroy

1955-01-01

222

Vitamin D Deficiency: Time for Inaction?  

PubMed Central

In 1998, the British Medical Journal boldly stated in an editorial headline, “Vitamin D Deficiency: Time for Action.”1 The urgency was clear: vitamin D deficiency was going undiagnosed and untreated in large numbers of people. Patients were at risk and suffering needlessly. A simple, extremely low-cost, low-toxicity intervention was readily available. All that was required was vitamin D advocacy. PMID:24381820

2013-01-01

223

Contribution of Food Sources to the Vitamin B12 Status of South Indian Children from a Birth Cohort Recruited in the City of Mysore  

PubMed Central

Objective There is evidence that sub-clinical vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency is common in India. Vegetarianism is prevalent and therefore meat consumption is low. Our objective was to explore the contribution of B12 source-foods and maternal B12 status during pregnancy to plasma B12 concentrations. Design Maternal plasma B12 concentrations were measured during pregnancy. Children’s dietary intakes and plasma B12 concentrations were measured at age 9.5 years; B12 and total energy intakes were calculated using food composition databases. We used linear regression to examine associations between maternal B12 status and children’s intakes of B12 and B12 source-foods, and children’s plasma B12 concentrations. Setting South Indian city of Mysore and surrounding rural areas. Subjects Children from the Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort (n=512, 47.1% male). Results Three percent of children were B12 deficient (<150 pmol/l). A further 14% had ‘marginal’ B12 concentrations (150-221 pmol/l). Children’s total daily B12 intake and consumption frequency of meat and fish, and micronutrient-enriched beverages were positively associated with plasma B12 concentrations (p=0.006, p=0.01 and p=0.04, adjusted for socio-economic indicators and maternal B12 status). Maternal pregnancy plasma B12 was associated with children’s plasma B12 concentrations, independent of current B12 intakes (p<0.001). Milk and curd (yoghurt) intakes were unrelated to B12 status. Conclusions Meat and fish are important B12 sources in this population. Micronutrient-enriched beverages appear to be important sources in our cohort, but their high sugar content necessitates care in their recommendation. Improving maternal B12 status in pregnancy may improve Indian children’s status. PMID:24866058

2014-01-01

224

Pyridoxine supplementation corrects vitamin B6 deficiency but does not improve inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Patients with rheumatoid arthritis have subnormal vitamin B6 status, both quantitatively and functionally. Abnormal vitamin B6 status in rheumatoid arthritis has been associated with spontaneous tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production and markers of inflammation, including C-reactive protein an...

225

Circulating folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine, vitamin B12 transport proteins and risk of prostate cancer: a case-control study, systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Disturbed folate metabolism is associated with an increased risk of some cancers. Our objective was to determine whether blood levels of folate, vitamin B12 and related metabolites were associated with prostate cancer risk. Methods Matched case-control study nested within the UK population-based ProtecT study of PSA-detected prostate cancer in men aged 50–69 years. Plasma concentrations of folate, B12 (cobalamin), holo-haptocorrin, holo- and total-transcobalamin, and total homocysteine (tHcy) were measured in 1,461 cases and 1,507 controls. ProtecT study estimates for associations of folate, B12, and tHcy with prostate cancer risk were included in a meta-analysis, based on a systematic review. Results In the ProtecT study, increased B12 and holo-haptocorrin concentrations showed positive associations with prostate cancer risk (highest vs lowest quartile of B12 odds ratio (OR)=1.17 (95% CI 0.95–1.43), P-for-trend=0.06; highest vs lowest quartile of holo-haptocorrin OR=1.27 (1.04–1.56), P-for-trend=0.01); folate, holo-transcobalamin and tHcy were not associated with prostate cancer risk. In the meta-analysis, circulating B12 levels were associated with an increased prostate cancer risk (pooled OR=1.10 (1.01–1.19) per 100 pmol/L increase in B12, P=0.002); the pooled OR for the association of folate with prostate cancer was positive (OR=1.11 (0.96–1.28) per 10 nmol/L, P=0.2) and conventionally statistically significant if ProtecT (the only case-control study) was excluded (OR=1.18 (1.00–1.40) per 10 nmol/L, P=0.02). Conclusion Vitamin B12 and (in cohort studies) folate were associated with increased prostate cancer risk. Impact Given current controversies over mandatory fortification, further research is needed to determine whether these are causal associations. PMID:20501771

Collin, Simon M.; Metcalfe, Chris; Refsum, Helga; Lewis, Sarah J.; Zuccolo, Luisa; Smith, George Davey; Chen, Lina; Harris, Ross; Davis, Michael; Marsden, Gemma; Johnston, Carole; Lane, J. Athene; Ebbing, Marta; Bønaa, Kaare Harald; Nygård, Ottar; Ueland, Per Magne; Grau, Maria V.; Baron, John A.; Donovan, Jenny; Neal, David E.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Smith, A. David; Martin, Richard M.

2013-01-01

226

Vitamin A Deficiency Impairs Adaptive B and T Cell Responses to a Prototype Monovalent Attenuated Human Rotavirus Vaccine and Virulent Human Rotavirus Challenge in a Gnotobiotic Piglet Model  

PubMed Central

Rotaviruses (RV) are a major cause of gastroenteritis in children. Widespread vitamin A deficiency is associated with reduced efficacy of vaccines and higher incidence of diarrheal infections in children in developing countries. We established a vitamin A deficient (VAD) gnotobiotic piglet model that mimics subclinical vitamin A deficiency in children to study its effects on an oral human rotavirus (HRV) vaccine and virulent HRV challenge. Piglets derived from VAD and vitamin A sufficient (VAS) sows were orally vaccinated with attenuated HRV or mock, with/without supplemental vitamin A and challenged with virulent HRV. Unvaccinated VAD control piglets had significantly lower hepatic vitamin A, higher severity and duration of diarrhea and HRV fecal shedding post-challenge as compared to VAS control pigs. Reduced protection coincided with significantly higher innate (IFN?) cytokine and CD8 T cell frequencies in the blood and intestinal tissues, higher pro-inflammatory (IL12) and 2-3 fold lower anti-inflammatory (IL10) cytokines, in VAD compared to VAS control pigs. Vaccinated VAD pigs had higher diarrhea severity scores compared to vaccinated VAS pigs, which coincided with lower serum IgA HRV antibody titers and significantly lower intestinal IgA antibody secreting cells post-challenge in the former groups suggesting lower anamnestic responses. A trend for higher serum HRV IgG antibodies was observed in VAD vs VAS vaccinated groups post-challenge. The vaccinated VAD (non-vitamin A supplemented) pigs had significantly higher serum IL12 (PID2) and IFN? (PID6) compared to vaccinated VAS groups suggesting higher Th1 responses in VAD conditions. Furthermore, regulatory T-cell responses were compromised in VAD pigs. Supplemental vitamin A in VAD pigs did not fully restore the dysregulated immune responses to AttHRV vaccine or moderate virulent HRV diarrhea. Our findings suggest that that VAD in children in developing countries may partially contribute to more severe rotavirus infection and lower HRV vaccine efficacy. PMID:24312675

Chattha, Kuldeep S.; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Vlasova, Anastasia N.; Saif, Linda J.

2013-01-01

227

Distributions of dissolved vitamin B 12 and Co in coastal and open-ocean environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributions of dissolved vitamin B 12 and total dissolved Co were measured to gain an understanding of the cycling of these interdependent micronutrients in six marine settings including; an upwelling location, a semi-enclosed bay, two urban coastal systems, and two open ocean locations. Along the coast of Baja California, Mexico, concentrations of B 12 and dissolved Co varied from 0.2 to 11 pM and 180 to 990 pM, respectively. At a nearby upwelling station, vitamin B 12 and Co concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 7.0 pM and 22 to 145 pM, and concentrations did not correlate with upwelling intensity. Concentrations of B 12 were highest within Todos Santos Bay, a semi-enclosed bay off the coast of Baja California, Mexico, during a dinoflagellate bloom, ranging from 2 to 61 pM, while Co concentrations varied between 61 and 194 pM. In the anthropogenically impacted Long Island Sound, NY, U.S.A., B 12 levels were between 0.1 and 23 pM and Co concentrations varied from 60 to 1900 pM. However, anthropogenic inputs were not evident in B 12 levels in the San Pedro Basin, located outside Los Angeles, Ca, U.S.A., where concentrations of B 12 were 0.2-1.8 pM, approximating observed open ocean B 12 concentrations. In the Southern Ocean and North Atlantic Ocean, B 12 levels were 0.4-4 pM and 0.2-2 pM, respectively. Total Co concentrations in the Southern Ocean and North Atlantic tended to be low; measuring 26-59 pM and 15-80 pM, respectively. These low Co concentrations may limit B 12 synthesis and its availability to B 12-requiring phytoplankton because the total dissolved Co pool is not necessarily entirely bioavailable.

Panzeca, Caterina; Beck, Aaron J.; Tovar-Sanchez, Antonio; Segovia-Zavala, Jose; Taylor, Gordon T.; Gobler, Christopher J.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.

2009-11-01

228

Multiple micronutrient supplementation improves vitamin B 12 and folate concentrations of HIV infected children in Uganda: a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation on vitamin B12 and folate has hither to not been reported in African HIV infected children. This paper describes vitamin B12 and folate status of Ugandan HIV infected children aged 1-5 years and reports the effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation\\u000a on serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Of 847 children who participated in a

Grace Ndeezi; James K Tumwine; Christopher M Ndugwa; Bjørn J Bolann; Thorkild Tylleskär

2011-01-01

229

Comparison of two modes of vitamin B12 supplementation on neuroconduction and cognitive function among older people living in Santiago, Chile: a cluster randomized controlled trial. a study protocol [ISRCTN 02694183  

PubMed Central

Background Older people have a high risk of vitamin B12 deficiency; this can lead to varying degrees of cognitive and neurological impairment. CBL deficiency may present as macrocytic anemia, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, or as neuropathy, but is often asymptomatic in older people. Less is known about subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency and concurrent neuroconduction and cognitive impairment. A Programme of Complementary Feeding for the Older Population (PACAM) in Chile delivers 2 complementary fortified foods that provide approximately 1.4 ?g/day of vitamin B12 (2.4 ?g/day elderly RDA). The aim of the present study is to assess whether supplementation with vitamin B12 will improve neuroconduction and cognitive function in older people who have biochemical evidence of vitamin B12 insufficiency in the absence of clinical deficiency. Methods We designed a cluster double-blind placebo-controlled trial involving community dwelling people aged 70-79 living in Santiago, Chile. We randomized 15 clusters (health centers) involving 300 people (20 per cluster). Each cluster will be randomly assigned to one of three arms: a) a 1 mg vitamin B12 pill taken daily and a routine PACAM food; b) a placebo pill and the milk-PACAM food fortified to provide 1 mg of vitamin B12; c) the routine PACAM food and a placebo pill. The study has been designed as an 18 month follow up period. The primary outcomes assessed at baseline, 4, 9 and 18 months will be: serum levels of vitamin B12, neuroconduction and cognitive function. Conclusions In view of the high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in later life, the present study has potential public health interest because since it will measure the impact of the existing program of complementary feeding as compared to two options that provide higher vitamin B12 intakes that might potentially may contribute in preserving neurophysiologic and cognitive function and thus improve quality of life for older people in Chile. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN02694183 PMID:21952034

2011-01-01

230

21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cyanocobalamin (C63 H88 CoN14 O14 P, CAS Reg. No. 68-0919-099), is produced commercially from cultures of Streptomyces griseus. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p....

2010-04-01

231

21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...cyanocobalamin (C63 H88 CoN14 O14 P, CAS Reg. No. 68-0919-099), is produced commercially from cultures of Streptomyces griseus. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p....

2011-04-01

232

21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...cyanocobalamin (C63 H88 CoN14 O14 P, CAS Reg. No. 68-0919-099), is produced commercially from cultures of Streptomyces griseus. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p....

2012-04-01

233

21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B 12..  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...cyanocobalamin (C63 H88 CoN14 O14 P, CAS Reg. No. 68-0919-099), is produced commercially from cultures of Streptomyces griseus. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p....

2013-04-01

234

21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...cyanocobalamin (C63 H88 CoN14 O14 P, CAS Reg. No. 68-0919-099), is produced commercially from cultures of Streptomyces griseus. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p....

2014-04-01

235

Effect of Vitamin B 12 and Folate on Homocysteine levels in colorectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Folate and cobalamin (Vitamin B12) are two essential micronutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism, which affects heart disease, neural tube defects and\\u000a cancer. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, the key enzyme involved in one carbon metabolism produces methyl tetrahydrofolate\\u000a from methylene tetrahydrofolate, which in turn donates methyl group to homocysteine to generate methionine. There exist two\\u000a common low function polymorphic variants of the methylenetetrahydrofolate

Sunil Chandy; M. N. Sadananda Adiga; Girija Ramaswamy; C. Ramachandra; Lakshmi Krishnamoorthy

2008-01-01

236

Production of extracellular vitamin B12 compounds from methanol by Methanosarcina barkeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Production of vitamin B-12 compounds from methanol was carried out by Methanosarcina barkeri Fusaro, an anaerobic methanogen. The methanogen released about 40% to 70% of corrinoids irrespective of the culture medium\\u000a used. The use of cysteine instead of Na2S as the sole sulphur source for cell growth led to an increase in the cobalt chloride concentration in the culture medium

Tapan Kumar Mazumder; Naomichi Nishio; Satoshi Fukuzaki; Shiro Nagai

1987-01-01

237

Serum Levels of Zinc, Copper, Vitamin B12, Folate and Immunoglobulins in Individuals with Giardiasis  

PubMed Central

Background: Giardia lamblia is one of the most important intestinal parasites. The aim of this study was to measure serum levels of IgA, IgE, zinc, copper, vitamin B12 and folate in individuals with giardiasis in comparison to normal subjects. Methods: The study was carried out among 49 Giardia positive and 39 age and sex matched healthy volunteers. Examination of stool samples was done by direct wet smear and formol-ether concentration method. Serum samples were obtained for further laboratory examination. IgA levels were measured by Single Radial Immune Diffusion (SRID). IgE levels were measured by ELISA kit. Zinc and copper levels was measured by Ziestchem Diagnostics Kit and colorimetric endpoint-method respectively. Vitamin B12 and folate levels were measured by DRG Diagnostics Kit and Enzyme Immunoassay method respectively. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in IgA, IgE, copper and zinc levels between positive and negative groups (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between vitamin B12 and folate levels between the two groups. Mean values of Giardia positive and negative groups for IgA were 309.26 and 216.89 mg/dl, IgE 167.34 and 35.49 IU/ml, copper 309.74 and 253.61 ?g/dl and zinc 69.41 and 144.75 ?g/dl respectively. Conclusion: The results showed levels of IgA may correlate more closely with giardiasis than IgE. Regarding trace elements, giardiasis elevated serum copper levels, while it decreased serum zinc. Finally, there was no significant difference in serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid between the two groups. PMID:23641390

Zarebavani, M; Dargahi, D; Einollahi, N; Dashti, N; Mohebali, M; Rezaeian, M

2012-01-01

238

[An enzymic assay for the determination of vitamin B12 (author's transl)].  

PubMed

A procedure which extends the very sensitive propanediol-dehydratase reaction for 5'-deoxy-5'-adenosylcobalamine determination to cyanocobalamine and hydroxocobalamine is described. In this procedure, the cobalamines are adenosylated by vitamin B12 coenzyme synthetase and the resulting 5'-deoxy-5'-adenosylcobalamine can be determined by the propanediol-dehydratase reaction. Aldehyde, the product of the latter, can be registered by the alcohol dehydrogenase reaction. PMID:1017795

Herrmann, R; Müller, O

1976-12-01

239

High serum vitamin B12 binding capacity as a marker of the fibrolamellar variant of hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten (9.3%) of 107 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma had considerably increased serum unsaturated vitamin B12 binding capacity. All 10 were young (mean 12 years), had no serum alpha-fetoprotein, and no underlying cirrhosis; all had a longer survival compared with patients without increased serum unsaturated vitamin B12 binding capacity in the study. Seven of the 10 patients had fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma,

F J Paradinas; W M Melia; M L Wilkinson; B Portmann; P J Johnson; I M Murray-Lyon; R Williams

1982-01-01

240

Methylcobalamin--a form of vitamin B12 identified and characterised in Chlorella vulgaris.  

PubMed

Vitamin B12 is among the most essential biomolecules required for crucial metabolic processes in humans. Vitamin B12 was extracted from Chlorella vulgaris biomass under aqueous conditions, partially purified by passing the extract through amberlite XAD-2, Sep-Pak columns, and further purified by HPLC. The target peak eluent was subjected to characterisation by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), selected ion recording (SIR) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and identified as methylcobalamin (Me-Cbl). Quantification of Me-Cbl was carried out by microbiological and chemiluminescence methods, and found to be 29.87±2 ?g/100 g and 26.84±2 ?g/100 g dry weight, respectively. The presence of Me-Cbl was further substantiated using gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) based aptamer analysis, and found to be 28.02±2 ?g/100 g dry weight. Good similarity was observed among all the methods. Methylcobalamin, a form of vitamin B12 was identified in C. vulgaris and this finding enhances its use as a nutritional supplement. PMID:25306351

Kumudha, Anantharajappa; Selvakumar, Sagaya; Dilshad, Pullancheri; Vaidyanathan, Gopal; Thakur, Munna Singh; Sarada, Ravi

2015-03-01

241

Resurrection of vitamin D deficiency and rickets  

PubMed Central

The epidemic scourge of rickets in the 19th century was caused by vitamin D deficiency due to inadequate sun exposure and resulted in growth retardation, muscle weakness, skeletal deformities, hypocalcemia, tetany, and seizures. The encouragement of sensible sun exposure and the fortification of milk with vitamin D resulted in almost complete eradication of the disease. Vitamin D (where D represents D2 or D3) is biologically inert and metabolized in the liver to 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], the major circulating form of vitamin D that is used to determine vitamin D status. 25(OH)D is activated in the kidneys to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], which regulates calcium, phosphorus, and bone metabolism. Vitamin D deficiency has again become an epidemic in children, and rickets has become a global health issue. In addition to vitamin D deficiency, calcium deficiency and acquired and inherited disorders of vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus metabolism cause rickets. This review summarizes the role of vitamin D in the prevention of rickets and its importance in the overall health and welfare of infants and children. PMID:16886050

Holick, Michael F.

2006-01-01

242

Functional and metabolic consequences of vitamin B-6 deficiency in the rat heart.  

PubMed

The cardiac functional and metabolic consequences of pyridoxine deficiency were studied in rats maintained on a pyridoxine-deficient diet for 10 weeks. Because food intake was diminished in the pyridoxine-deficient rats, a second group of animals was fed a diet restricted to the intake of the pyridoxine-deficient animals. The inotropic response (developed pressure) to an isoproterenol or Ca2+ concentration response curve was measured simultaneously with high energy phosphate levels using a modified Langendorf apparatus and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The inotropic response to Ca2+ and isoproterenol was significantly decreased relative to controls in both the food-deprived and the pyridoxine-deficient groups. Developed pressure after adrenergic stimulation was significantly less in the pyridoxine-deficient than in the food-deprived animals. Phosphocreatine and ATP levels were maintained and did not differ among the control, pyridoxine-deficient, and food-deprived groups during isoproterenol and Ca2+ stress, implying that the diminished inotropy was not due to an abnormality in generation of high energy phosphate levels. PMID:3797426

Feldman, A M; Guilarte, T R; Baughman, K L; Gerstenblith, G

1987-01-01

243

VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY IS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED FECAL INCONTINENCE SYMPTOMS  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION/HYPOTHESIS Vitamin D is an important micronutrient in muscle function. We hypothesize that vitamin D deficiency may contribute to fecal incontinence symptoms by affecting the anal continence mechanism. Our goal is to characterize the association of vitamin D deficiency as a variable affecting fecal incontinence symptoms and its impact on health-related quality of life. METHODS This case-control study included women seen at a tertiary care referral center. Subjects were identified as having had a serum vitamin D level obtained within a year of their visit. Cases were women presenting for care for fecal incontinence symptoms. Controls were women without any pelvic floor symptoms presenting to the same clinical site for general gynecology care. Cases completed the Modified Manchester Health Questionnaire and the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index to measure symptom severity and burden on quality of life. RESULTS Among the 31 cases and 81 controls, no demographic or medical differences existed between the groups. Women with fecal incontinence had lower vitamin D levels (mean 29.2±12.3 cases vs. 35±14.1 ng/ml controls respectively, p=0.04). The odds of vitamin D deficiency were higher in women with fecal incontinence compared to controls [OR 2.77, 95% CI (1.08–7.09)]. Among cases, women with deficient vitamin D (35%) had higher Modified Manchester Health Questionnaire scores, indicating greater fecal incontinence symptom burden [51.3±29.3 (vitamin D deficient) vs. 30±19.5 (vitamin D sufficient), p=0.02]. No differences were noted for fecal incontinence severity, p=0.07. CONCLUSIONS Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in women with fecal incontinence and may contribute to patient symptom burden. PMID:24807423

Parker-Autry, Candace Y.; Gleason, Jonathan L.; Griffin, Russell L.; Markland, Alayne; Richter, Holly E.

2014-01-01

244

Regulation of Vitamin C Homeostasis during Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Large cross-sectional population studies confirm that vitamin C deficiency is common in humans, affecting 5%–10% of adults in the industrialized world. Moreover, significant associations between poor vitamin C status and increased morbidity and mortality have consistently been observed. However, the absorption, distribution and elimination kinetics of vitamin C in vivo are highly complex, due to dose-dependent non-linearity, and the specific regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. Particularly, little is known about how adaptive mechanisms during states of deficiency affect the overall regulation of vitamin C transport in the body. This review discusses mechanisms of vitamin C transport and potential means of regulation with special emphasis on capacity and functional properties, such as differences in the Km of vitamin C transporters in different target tissues, in some instances demonstrating a tissue-specific distribution. PMID:23892714

Lindblad, Maiken; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

2013-01-01

245

Reaction to heat stress in the albino rat maintained on a vitamin B complex deficient diet  

E-print Network

and folic acid (46). The symptoms of biotin deficiency in rats and mice have been described by Gyorgy (47). Dermatitis with progressive alopecia. accompanied by erythematous lesions were seen in severe dei'iciency. Biotin is required for successful...

Baban, Riadh M. Ali

1965-01-01

246

Subpicogram determination of Vitamin B 12 in pharmaceuticals and human serum using flow injection with chemiluminescence detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) method, based on the enhancive effect of cobalt(II) on the CL reaction between luminol and dissolved oxygen in a flow injection (FI) system, was proposed for determination of Vitamin B12. The increment of the CL intensity was proportional to the concentration of Vitamin B12, giving a calibration graph linear over the concentration from 2.0×10?10 to 1.2×10?6gl?1

Zhenghua Song; Shuang Hou

2003-01-01

247

Vitamin B-12 status of long-term adherents of a strict uncooked vegan diet ("living food diet") is compromised.  

PubMed

The present study examined the vitamin B-12 status in long-term adherents of a strict uncooked vegan diet called the "living food diet." The study was comprised of two parts. In the cross-sectional part, the data on serum vitamin B-12 concentrations and dietary intakes in 21 (1 male, 20 females) long-term adherents (mean 5.2 y, range 0.7-14) of the "living food diet" were compared with those of 21 omnivorous controls matched for sex, age, social status and residence. In the longitudinal part of the study, food consumption data were collected and blood samples were taken from nine "living food eaters" (1 male, 8 females) on two occasions 2 y apart. The cross-sectional study revealed significantly (P < 0.001, paired t test) lower serum vitamin B-12 concentrations in the vegans (mean 193 pmol/L, range 35-408) compared with their matched omnivorous controls (311, 131-482). In the vegan group, total vitamin B-12 intake correlated significantly (r = 0.63, P < 0.01) with serum vitamin B-12 concentration. The vegans consuming Nori and/or Chlorella seaweeds (n = 16) had serum vitamin B-12 concentrations twice as high as those not using these seaweeds (n = 5) (mean 221 pmol/L, range 75-408, vs. 105, 35-252, P = 0.025). In the longitudinal study, six of nine vegans showed slow, but consistent deterioration of vitamin B-12 status over a 2-y observation period. On the basis of these results we conclude that some seaweeds consumed in large amounts can supply adequate amounts of bioavailable vitamin B-12.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7562085

Rauma, A L; Törrönen, R; Hänninen, O; Mykkänen, H

1995-10-01

248

An evaluation of plasma homocysteine in the assessment of vitamin B12 status of pasture-fed sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To assess the diagnostic potential of concentrations of homocysteine (Hcy) in plasma in relation to those of methylmalonic acid (MMA) and vitamin B12, as predictors of responsiveness of young sheep to supplementation with vitamin B12.METHODS: Eighty-two ewes grazing ryegrass-white clover pasture were used, 39 of which had been supplemented with a Co bullet and 43 unsupplemented. Thirty days after

JM Furlong; JR Sedcole; AR Sykes

2010-01-01

249

[Hematologic changes in patients under long-term hemodialysis and hemofiltration treatment with special reference to serum concentrations of folic acid and vitamin B 12].  

PubMed

The incidence of macrocytic anemia has been investigated in 32 patients on maintenance hemodialysis (mean age 46 years, mean duration of dialysis treatment 27.5 months), in 18 patients with combined hemodialysis (HD) and hemofiltration (HF) treatment (mean age 42 years, mean duration of combined HD and HF treatment 6.3 months) and in 32 patients after renal transplantation (mean age 41 years, mean observation period since successful renal transplantation 55.2 months). Also investigated were serum levels of vitamin B12 (radioassay kit 57Co) and folic acid (radioassay kit 125J). Macrocytosis (MCV greater than 96 fl) was observed in 38% of the patients on maintenance hemodialysis, in 44% of the patients with combined HD and HF treatment, and in 47% of the renal transplant recipients. In the chronically dialysed patients, in contrast to the patients with combined HD and HF treatment, the mean serum folic acid level was significantly lower (p less than 0.005) than that of healthy controls. Serum levels of vitamin B12 were within the normal range in all patients. There were no significant differences in serum levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 between the patients with MCV greater than 96 fl and MCV less than or equal to 96 fl. Nor was there a correlation between the serum levels of folic acid or vitamin B12 and mean corpuscular volume. These results suggest that folic acid deficiency is of minor importance in the complex pathogenesis of anemia in hemodialysed patients. PMID:6367027

Minar, E; Zazgornik, J; Bayer, P M; Lanschützer, H; Mengele, K; Marosi, L

1984-01-14

250

Vitamin B12 in Obese Adolescents with Clinical Features of Insulin Resistance  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence indicates an association between obesity, metformin use and reduced vitamin B12 status, which can have serious hematologic, neurologic and psychiatric consequences. This study aimed to examine B12 status in obese adolescents with pre-diabetes and/or clinical features of insulin resistance. Serum B12 was measured using chemiluminescence immunoassay in 103 (43 male, 60 female) obese (mean body mass index (BMI) z-score ± SD (2.36 ± 0.29)), adolescents aged 10 to 17 years, median (range) insulin sensitivity index of 1.27 (0.27 to 3.38) and 13.6% had pre-diabetes. Low B12 (<148 pmol/L) was identified in eight (7.8%) and borderline status (148 to 221 pmol/L) in an additional 25 (24.3%) adolescents. Adolescents with borderline B12 concentrations had higher BMI z-scores compared to those with normal concentrations (2.50 ± 0.22 vs. 2.32 ± 0.30, p = 0.008) or those with low B12 concentration (2.50 ± 0.22 vs. 2.27 ± 0.226, p = 0.041). In conclusion, nearly a third of obese adolescents with clinical insulin resistance had a low or borderline serum B12 status. Therefore, further investigations are warranted to explore the cause and the impact of low B12 status in obese pediatric populations. PMID:25486369

Ho, Mandy; Halim, Jocelyn H.; Gow, Megan L.; El-Haddad, Nouhad; Marzulli, Teresa; Baur, Louise A.; Cowell, Chris T.; Garnett, Sarah P.

2014-01-01

251

Purification and interaction analyses of two human lysosomal vitamin B12 transporters: LMBD1 and ABCD4.  

PubMed

Mutations in human LMBRD1 and ABCD4 prevent lysosomal export of vitamin B(12) to the cytoplasm, impairing the vitamin B(12)-dependent enzymes methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. The gene products of LMBRD1 and ABCD4 are implicated in vitamin B(12) transport at the lysosomal membrane and are proposed to act in complex. To address the mechanism for lysosomal vitamin B(12) transport, we report the novel recombinant production of LMBD1 and ABCD4 for detailed biophysical analyses. Using blue native PAGE, chemical crosslinking, and size exclusion chromatography coupled to multi-angle light scattering (SEC-MALS), we show that both detergent-solubilized LMBD1 and detergent-solubilized ABCD4 form homodimers. To examine the functional binding properties of these proteins, label-free surface plasmon resonance (SPR) provides direct in vitro evidence that: (i) LMBD1 and ABCD4 interact with low nanomolar affinity; and (ii) the cytoplasmic vitamin B(12)-processing protein MMACHC also interacts with LMBD1 and ABCD4 with low nanomolar affinity. Accordingly, we propose a model whereby membrane-bound LMBD1 and ABCD4 facilitate the vectorial delivery of lysosomal vitamin B(12) to cytoplasmic MMACHC, thus preventing cofactor dilution to the cytoplasmic milieu and protecting against inactivating side reactions. PMID:25535791

Deme, Justin C; Hancock, Mark A; Xia, Xiaobing; Shintre, Chitra A; Plesa, Maria; Kim, Jaeseung C; Carpenter, Elisabeth P; Rosenblatt, David S; Coulton, James W

2014-01-01

252

Higher maternal plasma folate but not vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy are associated with better cognitive function scores in 9- to 10- year-old children in South India.  

PubMed

Folate and vitamin B-12 are essential for normal brain development. Few studies have examined the relationship of maternal folate and vitamin B-12 status during pregnancy and offspring cognitive function. To test the hypothesis that lower maternal plasma folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations and higher plasma homocysteine concentrations during pregnancy are associated with poorer neurodevelopment, 536 children (aged 9-10 y) from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort underwent cognitive function assessment during 2007-2008 using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery, and additional tests measuring learning, long-term storage/retrieval, attention and concentration, and visuo-spatial and verbal abilities. Maternal folate, vitamin B-12, and homocysteine concentrations were measured at 30 +/- 2 wk gestation. During pregnancy, 4% of mothers had low folate concentrations (<7 nmol/L), 42.5% had low vitamin B-12 concentrations (<150 pmol/L), and 3% had hyperhomocysteinemia (>10 micromol/L). The children's cognitive test scores increased by 0.1-0.2 SD per SD increase across the entire range of maternal folate concentrations (P < 0.001 for all), with no apparent associations at the deficiency level. The associations with learning, long-term storage/retrieval, visuo-spatial ability, attention, and concentration were independent of the parents' education, socioeconomic status, religion, and the child's sex, age, current size, and folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations. There were no consistent associations of maternal vitamin B-12 and homocysteine concentrations with childhood cognitive performance. In this Indian population, higher maternal folate, but not vitamin B-12, concentrations during pregnancy predicted better childhood cognitive ability. It also suggests that, in terms of neurodevelopment, the concentration used to define folate deficiency may be set too low. PMID:20335637

Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Wills, Andrew K; Muthayya, Sumithra; Kurpad, Anura V; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Fall, Caroline H D

2010-05-01

253

Cardiovascular risk in the Asia-Pacific region from a nutrition and metabolic point of view: vitamin deficiencies.  

PubMed

In the past, recommended vitamin or micronutrient intakes have often been based on levels that were adequate to prevent clinical deficiencies from developing. Once these levels were reached, clinicians and nutrition scientists generally attributed little value to higher vitamin intake from supplements or food sources. Evidence has continued to mount showing that the intake and serum concentration of certain vitamins above those necessary to prevent clinical deficiencies, might importantly influence health status. This paper discusses the association of anti-oxidant vitamins and cardiovascular disease, and the association of low intake or serum concentrations of folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12, and elevated serum homocysteine, resulting in an increase in vascular disease risk. PMID:11710347

Wattanapenpaiboon, N

2001-01-01

254

The Pseudoenzyme PDX1.2 Boosts Vitamin B6 Biosynthesis under Heat and Oxidative Stress in Arabidopsis*  

PubMed Central

Vitamin B6 is an indispensable compound for survival, well known as a cofactor for numerous central metabolic enzymes and more recently for playing a role in several stress responses, particularly in association with oxidative stress. Regulatory aspects for the use of the vitamin in these roles are not known. Here we show that certain plants carry a pseudoenzyme (PDX1.2), which is involved in regulating vitamin B6 biosynthesis de novo under stress conditions. Specifically, we demonstrate that Arabidopsis PDX1.2 enhances the activity of its catalytic paralogs by forming a heterododecameric complex. PDX1.2 is strongly induced by heat as well as singlet oxygen stress, concomitant with an enhancement of vitamin B6 production. Analysis of pdx1.2 knockdown lines demonstrates that boosting vitamin B6 content is dependent on PDX1.2, revealing that this pseudoenzyme acts as a positive regulator of vitamin B6 biosynthesis during such stress conditions in plants. PMID:24505140

Moccand, Cyril; Boycheva, Svetlana; Surriabre, Pedro; Tambasco-Studart, Marina; Raschke, Maja; Kaufmann, Markus; Fitzpatrick, Teresa B.

2014-01-01

255

Pyridoxine supplementation corrects vitamin B6 deficiency but does not improve inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis  

PubMed Central

Patients with rheumatoid arthritis have subnormal vitamin B6 status, both quantitatively and functionally. Abnormal vitamin B6 status in rheumatoid arthritis has been associated with spontaneous tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? production and markers of inflammation, including C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Impaired vitamin B6 status could be a result of inflammation, and these patients may have higher demand for vitamin B6. The aim of this study was to determine if daily supplementation with 50 mg of pyridoxine for 30 days can correct the static and/or the functional abnormalities of vitamin B6 status seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and further investigate if pyridoxine supplementation has any effects on the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-? or IL-6 production of arthritis. This was a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study involving patients with rheumatoid arthritis with plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate below the 25th percentile of the Framingham Heart Cohort Study. Vitamin B6 status was assessed via plasma and erythrocyte pyridoxal 5'-phosphate concentrations, the erythrocyte aspartate aminotransferase activity coefficient (?EAST), net homocysteine increase in response to a methionine load test (?tHcy), and 24 h urinary xanthurenic acid (XA) excretion in response to a tryptophan load test. Urinary 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA) was measured to examine the impact of pyridoxine treatment on vitamin B6 excretion in these patients. Pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-? and IL-6) production, C-reactive protein levels and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate before and after supplementation were also examined. Pyridoxine supplementation significantly improved plasma and erythrocyte pyridoxal 5'-phosphate concentrations, erythrocyte ?EAST, urinary 4-PA, and XA excretion. These improvements were apparent regardless of baseline B6 levels. Pyridoxine supplementation also showed a trend (p < 0.09) towards a reduction in post-methionine load ?tHcy. Supplementation did not affect pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Although pyridoxine supplementation did not suppress pro-inflammatory cytokine production in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, the suboptimal vitamin B6 status seen in rheumatoid arthritis can be corrected by 50 mg pyridoxine supplementation for 30 days. Data from the present study suggest that patients with rheumatoid arthritis may have higher requirements for vitamin B6 than those in a normal healthy population. PMID:16277693

Chiang, En-Pei I; Selhub, Jacob; Bagley, Pamela J; Dallal, Gerard; Roubenoff, Ronenn

2005-01-01

256

Changes of Glucose, Insulin and Glucagon Associated with Propionate Infusion and Vitamin B12 Status in Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of propionate on hormonal and metabolic events was studied in ewes that were vitamin B-12 depleted (de-B12) and repleted (re-B12). Experiments were conducted before and after hydroxocobalamin resupplementation. De-B12 sheep had greater blood concentrations and total hepatic influx and effluxof glucose. However, rates of net hepatic release of glucose were similar. Comparable glucagon concentrations and fluxes were reduced

JAMES P. PETERS; EMMETT N. BERGMAN; MURRAY ELLIOT

257

A riboswitch sensor to determine vitamin B12 in fermented foods.  

PubMed

We describe a sensitive and selective method for determination of vitamin B12 content in fermented foods using riboswitch sensor. A riboswitch amplicon from Propionibacterium freudenreichii was cloned in p519NGFP vector in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The expression of green fluorescence protein was revers correlated to the concentrations of adenosylcobalamin. Adenosylcobalamin directly binds to riboswitch region leading to conformational changes in the secondary structure of mRNA, thus inhibiting expression. After various examinations, a standard curve was obtained from 10 to 1000 ng/mL of cyanocobalamin. The limit of determination is 10 ng/mL. The inter-assay coefficients of variation were 7.5% for the range of 10-1000 ng/mL. The recovery of this method was 92.3%. This method has no or less responses to nucleic acid, pseudovitamin B12, vitamin B12 bound to intrinsic factor and haptocorrin. The riboswitch sensor results were similar with HPLC, but they were Ca. 24% lower than the microbiological assay results. PMID:25577115

Zhu, Xuan; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Xiaoqi; Gu, Qing

2015-05-15

258

Release of toxic Gd3+ ions to tumour cells by vitamin B12 bioconjugates.  

PubMed

Two probes consisting of vitamin B(12) (CNCbl) conjugated to Gd chelates by esterification of the ribose 5'-OH moiety, Gd-DTPA-CNCbl (1; DTPA = diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N'',N''-pentaacetic acid) and Gd-TTHA-CNCbl (2; TTHA = triethylenetetramine-N,N,N',N'',N''',N'''-hexaacetic acid), have been synthesised and characterised. The crystal structure of a dimeric form of 1, obtained by crystallisation with an excess of GdCl(3), has been determined. The kinetics of binding to and dissociation from transcobalamin II show that 1 and 2 maintain high-affinity binding to the vitamin B(12) transport protein. Complex 2 is very stable with respect to Gd(3+) release owing to the saturated co-ordination of the Gd(3+) ion by four amino and five carboxylate groups. Hydrolysis of the ester functionality occurs on the time scale of several hours. The lack of saturation and the possible involvement of the ester functionality in co-ordination result in lower stability of 1 towards hydrolysis and in a considerable release of Gd(3+) in vitro. Gd(3+) ions released from 1 are avidly taken up by the K562 tumour cells to an extent corresponding to approximately 10(10) Gd(3+) per cell. The internalisation of toxic Gd(3+) ions causes a marked decrease in cell viability as assessed by Trypan blue and WST-1 tests. On the contrary, the experiments with the more stable 2 did not show any significant cell internalisation of Gd(3+) ions and any influence on cell viability. The results point to new avenues of in situ generation of cytotoxic pathways based on the release of toxic Gd(3+) ions by vitamin B(12) bioconjugates. PMID:19562781

Siega, Patrizia; Wuerges, Jochen; Arena, Francesca; Gianolio, Eliana; Fedosov, Sergey N; Dreos, Renata; Geremia, Silvano; Aime, Silvio; Randaccio, Lucio

2009-08-10

259

Vitamin B12[c-lactone], a biologically inactive corrinoid compound, occurs in cultured and dried lion's mane mushroom (Hericium erinaceus) fruiting bodies.  

PubMed

This study determined the vitamin B12 content of the edible medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus, lion's mane mushroom fruiting body, using a microbiological assay based on Lactobacillus delbrueckii ATCC 7830. Trace levels (0.04-0.36 ?g/100 g dry weight) of vitamin B12 were found in most of the dried mushroom samples, and two samples contained slightly higher levels (0.56 and 1.04 ?g/100 g dry weight, respectively) of vitamin B12. We purified the corrinoid compounds from the extracts of dried lion's mane mushroom fruiting bodies using an immunoaffinity column and identified them as vitamin B12 or vitamin B12[c-lactone] (or both) based on LC/ESI-MS/MS chromatograms. This is the first report on an unnatural corrinoid, vitamin B12[c-lactone], occurring in foods. Vitamin B12[c-lactone] was simple to produce during incubation of authentic vitamin B12 and chloramine-T, an antimicrobial agent, at varying pH values (3.0-7.0) and was completely inactive in the vitamin B12-dependent bacteria that are generally used in vitamin B12 bioassays. PMID:24506286

Teng, Fei; Bito, Tomohiro; Takenaka, Shigeo; Yabuta, Yukinori; Watanabe, Fumio

2014-02-19

260

Optimization of vitamin suppletion after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery can lower postoperative deficiencies: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid deficiencies are among the most common deficiencies occurring after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB). The present study evaluates the effectiveness of a specially designed multivitamin supplement (WLS Forte, FitForMe, Rotterdam, the Netherlands) specifically developed for LRYGB patients.A triple-blind, randomized, 12-month study was conducted comparing WLS forte with a standard multivitamin supplement (sMVS) containing approximately 100% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) for iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid. WLS Forte contains vitamin B12 14000% RDA, iron 500% RDA, and folic acid 300% RDA.In total, 148 patients (74 in each group) underwent a LRYGB procedure. Baseline characteristics were similar for both groups. Per protocol analysis demonstrated that sMVS treatment was associated with a decline in ferritin (-24.4?±?70.1??g/L) and vitamin B12 (-45.9?±?150.3?pmol/L) over 12 months, whereas in WLS Forte patients, ferritin remained stable (+3.2?±?93.2??g/L) and vitamin B12 increased significantly (+55.1?±?144.2?pmol/L). The number of patients developing ferritin or vitamin B12 deficiency was significantly lower with WLS Forte compared with sMVS (P?deficiency (ID) was reduced by 88% after WLS Forte compared with sMVS. Adverse events related to supplement use did not occur.An optimized multivitamin supplement is safe and reduces the development of iron and vitamin B12 deficiencies after LRYGB. PMID:25437032

Dogan, Kemal; Aarts, Edo O; Koehestanie, Parweez; Betzel, Bark; Ploeger, Nadine; de Boer, Hans; Aufenacker, Theo J; van Laarhoven, Kees J H M; Janssen, Ignace M C; Berends, Frits J

2014-11-01

261

Vitamin D deficiency in chronic liver disease  

PubMed Central

Vitamin D is an important secosteroid hormone with known effect on calcium homeostasis, but recently there is increasing recognition that vitamin D also is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Vitamin D deficiency has been frequently reported in many causes of chronic liver disease and has been associated with the development and evolution of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and chronic hepatitis C (CHC) virus infection. The role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and CHC is not completely known, but it seems that the involvement of vitamin D in the activation and regulation of both innate and adaptive immune systems and its antiproliferative effect may explain its importance in these liver diseases. Published studies provide evidence for routine screening for hypovitaminosis D in patients with liver disease. Further prospectives studies demonstrating the impact of vitamin D replacement in NAFLD and CHC are required. PMID:25544877

Iruzubieta, Paula; Terán, Álvaro; Crespo, Javier; Fábrega, Emilio

2014-01-01

262

Impact of Vitamin B12 on Formation of the Tetrachloroethene Reductive Dehalogenase in Desulfitobacterium hafniense Strain Y51  

PubMed Central

Corrinoids are essential cofactors of reductive dehalogenases in anaerobic bacteria. Microorganisms mediating reductive dechlorination as part of their energy metabolism are either capable of de novo corrinoid biosynthesis (e.g., Desulfitobacterium spp.) or dependent on exogenous vitamin B12 (e.g., Dehalococcoides spp.). In this study, the impact of exogenous vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) and of tetrachloroethene (PCE) on the synthesis and the subcellular localization of the reductive PCE dehalogenase was investigated in the Gram-positive Desulfitobacterium hafniense strain Y51, a bacterium able to synthesize corrinoids de novo. PCE-depleted cells grown for several subcultivation steps on fumarate as an alternative electron acceptor lost the tetrachloroethene-reductive dehalogenase (PceA) activity by the transposition of the pce gene cluster. In the absence of vitamin B12, a gradual decrease of the PceA activity and protein amount was observed; after 5 subcultivation steps with 10% inoculum, more than 90% of the enzyme activity and of the PceA protein was lost. In the presence of vitamin B12, a significant delay in the decrease of the PceA activity with an ?90% loss after 20 subcultivation steps was observed. This corresponded to the decrease in the pceA gene level, indicating that exogenous vitamin B12 hampered the transposition of the pce gene cluster. In the absence or presence of exogenous vitamin B12, the intracellular corrinoid level decreased in fumarate-grown cells and the PceA precursor formed catalytically inactive, corrinoid-free multiprotein aggregates. The data indicate that exogenous vitamin B12 is not incorporated into the PceA precursor, even though it affects the transposition of the pce gene cluster. PMID:22961902

Reinhold, Anika; Westermann, Martin; Seifert, Jana; von Bergen, Martin; Schubert, Torsten

2012-01-01

263

Progressive hyperpigmentation in a Taiwanese child due to an inborn error of vitamin B12 metabolism (cblJ).  

PubMed

The physiology of human skin pigmentation is varied and complex, with an extensive melanogenic paracrine network involving mesenchymal and epithelial cells, contributing to the regulation of melanocyte survival and proliferation and melanogenesis. Mutations in several genes, involving predominantly the KIT ligand/c-Kit and Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways, have been implicated in a spectrum of diseases in which there is hyperpigmentation, hypopigmentation or both. Here, we report on a 12-year-old girl from Taiwan with a 6-year history of diffuse progressive skin hyperpigmentation resulting from a different aetiology: an inborn metabolic disorder of vitamin B12 (cobalamin), designated cblJ. Using whole-exome sequencing we identified a homozygous mutation in ABCD4 (c.423C>G; p.Asn141Lys), which encodes an ATP-binding cassette transporter with a role in the intracellular processing of cobalamin. The patient had biochemical and haematological evidence of cobalamin deficiency but no other clinical abnormalities apart from a slight lightening of her previously black hair. Of note, she had no neurological symptoms or signs. Treatment with oral cobalamin (3 mg daily) led to metabolic correction and some reduction in the skin hyperpigmentation at the 3-month follow-up. This case demonstrates that defects or deficiencies of cobalamin should be remembered in the differential diagnosis of diffuse hyperpigmentary skin disorders. PMID:25234635

Takeichi, T; Hsu, C-K; Yang, H-S; Chen, H-Y; Wong, T-W; Tsai, W-L; Chao, S-C; Lee, J Y-Y; Akiyama, M; Simpson, M A; McGrath, J A

2015-04-01

264

Simultaneous determination of vitamin B12 and its derivatives using some of multivariate calibration 1 (MVC1) techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resolution of binary mixtures of vitamin B12, methylcobalamin and B12 coenzyme with minimum sample pre-treatment and without analyte separation has been successfully achieved by methods of partial least squares algorithm with one dependent variable (PLS1), orthogonal signal correction/partial least squares (OSC/PLS), principal component regression (PCR) and hybrid linear analysis (HLA). Data of analysis were obtained from UV-vis spectra. The UV-vis spectra of the vitamin B12, methylcobalamin and B12 coenzyme were recorded in the same spectral conditions. The method of central composite design was used in the ranges of 10-80 mg L -1 for vitamin B12 and methylcobalamin and 20-130 mg L -1 for B12 coenzyme. The models refinement procedure and validation were performed by cross-validation. The minimum root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 2.26 mg L -1 for vitamin B12 with PLS1, 1.33 mg L -1 for methylcobalamin with OSC/PLS and 3.24 mg L -1 for B12 coenzyme with HLA techniques. Figures of merit such as selectivity, sensitivity, analytical sensitivity and LOD were determined for three compounds. The procedure was successfully applied to simultaneous determination of three compounds in synthetic mixtures and in a pharmaceutical formulation.

Samadi-Maybodi, Abdolraouf; Darzi, S. K. Hassani Nejad

2008-10-01

265

Vitamin A deficiency modulates iron metabolism via ineffective erythropoiesis.  

PubMed

Vitamin A modulates inflammatory status, iron metabolism and erythropoiesis. Given that these factors modulate the expression of the hormone hepcidin (Hamp), we investigated the effect of vitamin A deficiency on molecular biomarkers of iron metabolism, the inflammatory response and the erythropoietic system. Five groups of male Wistar rats were treated: control (AIN-93G), the vitamin A-deficient (VAD) diet, the iron-deficient (FeD) diet, the vitamin A- and iron-deficient (VAFeD) diet or the diet with 12 mg atRA/kg diet replacing all-trans-retinyl palmitate by all-trans retinoic acid (atRA). Vitamin A deficiency reduced serum iron and transferrin saturation levels, increased spleen iron concentrations, reduced hepatic Hamp and kidney erythropoietin messenger RNA (mRNA) levels and up-regulated hepatic and spleen heme oxygenase-1 gene expression while reducing the liver HO-1 specific activity compared with the control. The FeD and VAFeD rats exhibited lower levels of serum iron and transferrin saturation, lower iron concentrations in tissues and lower hepatic Hamp mRNA levels compared with the control. The treatment with atRA resulted in lower serum iron and transferrin concentrations, an increased iron concentration in the liver, a decreased iron concentration in the spleen and in the gut, and decreased hepatic Hamp mRNA levels. In summary, these findings suggest that vitamin A deficiency leads to ineffective erythropoiesis by the down-regulation of renal erythropoietin expression in the kidney, resulting in erythrocyte malformation and the consequent accumulation of the heme group in the spleen. Vitamin A deficiency indirectly modulates systemic iron homeostasis by enhancing erythrophagocytosis of undifferentiated erythrocytes. PMID:24998947

da Cunha, Marcela S B; Siqueira, Egle M A; Trindade, Luciano S; Arruda, Sandra F

2014-10-01

266

Vitamin d deficiency in chronic idiopathic urticaria.  

PubMed

Chronic urticaria is the most common skin diseases, characterized by chronic cutaneous lesions which severely debilitates patients in several aspects of their everyday life. Vitamin D is known to exert several actions in the immune system and to influence function and differentiation of mast cells, central role players in the pathogenesis of chronic idiopathic urticaria. This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between vitamin D levels and susceptibility to chronic idiopathic urticaria. One hundred and fourteen patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria were recruited in this study along with one hundred and eighty seven sex-matched and age-matched healthy volunteers as the control group. For each patient, urticaria activity score was calculated and autologous serum skin test was done. Vitamin D metabolic statue was measured in serum as 25 hydroxyvitamin D using enzyme immunoassay method.  Patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria significantly showed lower levels of vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with increased susceptibility to chronic idiopathic urticaria. There was a significant positive correlation between vitamin D levels and urticaria activity score. This study showed that patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria had reduced levels of vitamin D, while vitamin D deficiency could increase susceptibility to chronic idiopathic urticaria. PMID:25780889

Movahedi, Masoud; Tavakol, Marzieh; Hirbod-Mobarakeh, Armin; Gharagozlou, Mohammad; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Tavakol, Zahra; Momenzadeh, Kaveh; Nabavi, Mohammad; Dabbaghzade, Abbas; Mosallanejad, Asieh; Rezaei, Nima

2015-04-01

267

Effect of B Vitamin (Folate, B6, and B12) Supplementation on Osteoporotic Fracture and Bone Turnover Markers: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background B vitamins (including folate, B6, and B12) supplementation can effectively and easily modify high plasma homocysteine (Hcy). However, the role of Hcy in the pathogenesis of osteoporotic fracture and bone turnover is still controversial. This meta-analysis aimed to assess the impact of B vitamin supplementation on occurrence of any osteoporotic fracture and bone turnover by pooling the results of previous studies. Material/Methods Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were searched in databases. Data integration and analysis were done by using Review Manager 5.3 (the Cochrane Collaboration). The risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) of fracture (intervention vs. control) were estimated. Changes in bone turnover indicators (continuous data), weighted mean difference (WMD), and corresponding 95% (CI) were pooled for estimation. Results Based on the results of 4 RCTs, this meta-analysis failed to identify a risk-reducing effect of daily supplementation of B vitamins on osteoporotic fracture in patients with vascular disease and with relatively normal plasma Hcy. In addition, we also did not find any positive effects of B vitamin supplementation on bone turnover. Conclusions B vitamin supplementation might not be effective in preventing fracture and improving bone turnover. However, the possible benefits in selective populations, such as populations with very high plasma Hcy and from regions without B vitamin fortification should be explored in the future. PMID:25805360

Ruan, Jianwei; Gong, Xiaokang; Kong, Jinsong; Wang, Haibao; Zheng, Xin; Chen, Tao

2015-01-01

268

Hydrosoluble vitamins.  

PubMed

The hydrosoluble vitamins are a group of organic substances that are required by humans in small amounts to prevent disorders of metabolism. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the biochemical, physiologic and nutritional aspects of the water-soluble vitamins. Deficiency of these particular vitamins, most commonly due to inadequate nutrition, can result in disorders of the nervous system. Many of these disorders have been successfully prevented in developed countries; however, they are still common in developing countries. Of the hydrosoluble vitamins, the nervous system depends the most on vitamins B and C (ascorbic acid) for proper functioning. The B group vitamins include thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin or niacinamide (vitamin B3), pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), pyridoxine or pyridoxal (vitamin B6) and cobalamin (vitamin B12). Clinical findings depend upon the deficiency of the underlying vitamin; generally, deficiency symptoms are seen from a combination rather than an isolated vitamin deficiency. True hereditary metabolic disorders and serious deficiency-associated diseases are rare and in general limited to particular geographic regions and high-risk groups. Their recognition is truly important as that determines the appropriate therapeutic management. The general availability of vitamins to practically everyone and several national health programs have saved many lives and prevented complications. However, there has been some apprehension for several decades about how harmless generous dosages of these vitamins are. Overt overdosages can cause vitamin toxicity affecting various body systems including the nervous system. Systemically, vitamin toxicity is associated with nonspecific symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and skin rash which are common with any acute or chronic vitamin overdose. At a national level, recommended daily allowances for vitamins become policy statements. Nutrition policy has far reaching implications in the food industry, in agriculture, and in food provision programs. Overall, water-soluble vitamins are complex molecular structures and even today, many areas of vitamin biochemistry still need to be explored. Many readers might be of the opinion that the classic forms of nutritional deficiency diseases have faded into the background of interesting history. This has caused their diverse symptoms to be neglected by most modern physicians since vitamin enrichment of many foods automatically erases them from their consideration in differential diagnosis. Vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiencies are discussed in other chapters. PMID:24365359

Chawla, Jasvinder; Kvarnberg, David

2014-01-01

269

Structural Basis of Multifunctionality in a Vitamin B[subscript 12]-processing Enzyme  

SciTech Connect

An early step in the intracellular processing of vitamin B{sub 12} involves CblC, which exhibits dual reactivity, catalyzing the reductive decyanation of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B{sub 12}), and the dealkylation of alkylcobalamins (e.g. methylcobalamin; MeCbl). Insights into how the CblC scaffold supports this chemical dichotomy have been unavailable despite it being the most common locus of patient mutations associated with inherited cobalamin disorders that manifest in both severe homocystinuria and methylmalonic aciduria. Herein, we report structures of human CblC, with and without bound MeCbl, which provide novel biochemical insights into its mechanism of action. Our results reveal that CblC is the most divergent member of the NADPH-dependent flavin reductase family and can use FMN or FAD as a prosthetic group to catalyze reductive decyanation. Furthermore, CblC is the first example of an enzyme with glutathione transferase activity that has a sequence and structure unrelated to the GST superfamily. CblC thus represents an example of evolutionary adaptation of a common structural platform to perform diverse chemistries. The CblC structure allows us to rationalize the biochemical basis of a number of pathological mutations associated with severe clinical phenotypes.

Koutmos, Markos; Gherasim, Carmen; Smith, Janet L.; Banerjee, Ruma (Michigan)

2012-07-11

270

Novel fermentation process strengthening strategy for production of propionic acid and vitamin B12 by Propionibacterium freudenreichii.  

PubMed

An efficient fermentation-strengthening approach was developed to improve the anaerobic production of propionic acid and vitamin B12 by co-fermentation with Propionibacterium freudenreichii. Vitamin B12 production from glucose resulted in relatively high productivity (0.35 mg/L h) but a low propionic acid yield (0.55 g/g). By contrast, glycerol gave a high propionic acid yield (0.63 g/g) but low productivity (0.16 g/L h). Co-fermentation of glycerol and glucose with a gradual addition strategy gave high yields (propionic acid: 0.71 g/g; vitamin B12: 0.72 mg/g) and productivities (propionic acid: 0.36 g/L h; vitamin B12: 0.36 mg/L h). Finally, the integrated feedstock and fermentation system strengthening strategy was demonstrated as an efficient method for the economic production of bio-based propionic acid and vitamin B12. PMID:25261985

Wang, Peng; Jiao, Youjing; Liu, Shouxin

2014-12-01

271

Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)  

MedlinePLUS

Pantothenic acid is a vitamin, also known as vitamin B5. It is widely found in both plants and animals ... Vitamin B5 is commercially available as D-pantothenic acid, as well as dexpanthenol and calcium pantothenate, which ...

272

CARDIOVASCULAR LESIONS IN COBALT-VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENT SHEEP  

E-print Network

in the literature concer- ning the manifestation of cardiovascular lesions similar to those of arteriosclerosis in ruminants. The arteriosclerosis observed in cattle in Hawaii (Willers et al., 1965) was attributed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

273

Homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12, and cardiovascular risk in Indians, Malays, and Chinese in Singapore  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To examine the hypothesis that the higher rates of coronary heart disease (CHD) in Indians (South Asians) compared with Malays and Chinese is partly attributable to differences in blood concentrations of homocysteine, and related blood concentrations of folate and vitamin B12.?DESIGN—Cross sectional study of the general population.?SETTING—Singapore.?PARTICIPANTS—Random sample of 726 fasting subjects aged 30 to 69 years.?MAIN RESULTS—Mean plasma total homocysteine concentrations did not show significant ethnic differences; values were Indians (men 16.2 and women 11.5 µmol/l), Malays (men 15.0 and women 12.5 µmol/l), and Chinese (men 15.3 and women 12.2 µmol/l). Similarly, the proportions with high plasma homocysteine (>14.0 µmol/l) showed no important ethnic differences being, Indians (men 60.0 and women 21.9 %), Malays (men 53.9 and women 37.8 %), and Chinese (men 56.6 and women 30.6 %). Mean plasma folate concentrations were lower in Indians (men 8.7 and women 10.9 nmol/l) and Malays (men 8.5 and women 10.8 nmol/l), than Chinese (men 9.7 and women 13.8 nmol/l). Similarly, the proportions with low plasma folate (<6.8 nmol/l) were higher in Indians (men 44.9 and women 36.6 %) and Malays (men 45.3 and women 24.5 %) than Chinese (men 31.4 and women 12.6 %). Mean plasma vitamin B12 concentrations were lowest in Indians (men 352.5 and women 350.7 pmol/l), then Chinese (men 371.1 and women 373.7 pmol/l), and then Malays (men 430.5 and women 486.0 pmol/l).?CONCLUSION—While there were ethnic differences for plasma folate and vitamin B12 (in particular lower levels in Indians), there was no evidence that homocysteine plays any part in the differential ethnic risk from CHD in Singapore and in particular the increased susceptibility of Indians to the disease.???Keywords: coronary heart disease; ethnic; homocysteine PMID:10692959

Hughes, K.; Ong, C.

2000-01-01

274

Vitamin B1 - Nobel Prize Educational Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chicken Farm educational game and related reading are based on the 1929 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. No one had heard of vitamins until Christian Eijkman pointed out that a substance in rice skin was missing from the diet of beriberi patients, which was later discovered to be vitamin B1. This was the first time that an illness was linked with vitamin deficiency.

2009-01-01

275

Immobilized Vitamin B 12 within nanoreactors of MCM-41 as selective catalyst for oxidation of organic substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immobilized Vitamin B12 (Vit-B12) within the nanoreactors of MCM-41 as molecular sieves was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, chemical analysis and nitrogen adsorption–desorption. XRD and N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms showed that the well ordered hexagonal structure of MCM-41 is presented and surface area, pore volumes and pore diameters decrease after immobilization of Vit-B12 within nanoreactors of MCM-41. It

F. Farzaneh; J. Taghavi; R. Malakooti; M. Ghandi

2006-01-01

276

Supplementing lactating dairy cows with a vitamin B12 precursor, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole, increases the apparent ruminal synthesis of vitamin B12.  

PubMed

Cobalamin (CBL), the biologically active form of vitamin B12, and its analogs, are produced by bacteria only if cobalt supply is adequate. The analogs differ generally by the nucleotide moiety of the molecule. In CBL, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (5,6-DMB) is the base in the nucleotide moiety. The present study aimed to determine if a supplement of 5,6-DMB could increase utilization of dietary cobalt for synthesis of CBL and change ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, omasal flow of nutrients and ruminal protozoa counts. Eight ruminally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows (mean±standard deviation=238±21 days in milk and 736±47 kg of BW) were used in a crossover design. Cows were randomly assigned to a daily supplement of a gelatin capsule containing 1.5 g of 5,6-DMB via the rumen cannula or no supplement. Each period lasted 29 days and consisted of 21 days for treatment adaptation and 8 days for data and samples collection. Five corrinoids, CBL and four cobamides were detected in the total mixed ration and the omasal digesta from both treatments. The dietary supplement of 5,6-DMB increased (P=0.02) apparent ruminal synthesis of CBL from 14.6 to 19.6 (s.e.m. 0.8) mg/day but had no effect (P>0.1) on apparent ruminal synthesis of the four analogs. The supplement of 5,6-DMB had no effect (P>0.1) on milk production and composition, or on protozoal count, ruminal pH and concentrations of volatile fatty acids and ammonia nitrogen in rumen content. The supplement had also no effect (P>0.1) on intake, omasal flow and apparent ruminal digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, NDF, ADF and nitrogenous fractions. Plasma concentration of CBL was not affected by treatments (P=0.98). Providing a preformed part of the CBL molecule, that is, 5,6-DMB, increased by 34% the apparent ruminal synthesis of CBL by ruminal bacteria but had no effect on ruminal fermentation or protozoa count and it was not sufficient to increase plasma concentrations of the vitamin. Even though the efficiency of cobalt utilization for apparent synthesis of CBL was increased from 2.0% to 2.7% by the 5,6-DMB supplement, this improved efficiency was still very low. Further research is needed to identify the factors affecting efficiency of utilization of cobalt for synthesis of CBL by the bacterial populations in rumen. PMID:25171056

Brito, A; Chiquette, J; Stabler, S P; Allen, R H; Girard, C L

2015-01-01

277

Lactobacillus rossiae, a Vitamin B12 Producer, Represents a Metabolically Versatile Species within the Genus Lactobacillus  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus rossiae is an obligately hetero-fermentative lactic acid bacterium, which can be isolated from a broad range of environments including sourdoughs, vegetables, fermented meat and flour, as well as the gastrointestinal tract of both humans and animals. In order to unravel distinctive genomic features of this particular species and investigate the phylogenetic positioning within the genus Lactobacillus, comparative genomics and phylogenomic approaches, followed by functional analyses were performed on L. rossiae DSM 15814T, showing how this type strain not only occupies an independent phylogenetic branch, but also possesses genomic features underscoring its biotechnological potential. This strain in fact represents one of a small number of bacteria known to encode a complete de novo biosynthetic pathway of vitamin B12 (in addition to other B vitamins such as folate and riboflavin). In addition, it possesses the capacity to utilize an extensive set of carbon sources, a characteristic that may contribute to environmental adaptation, perhaps enabling the strain's ability to populate different niches. PMID:25264826

De Angelis, Maria; Bottacini, Francesca; Fosso, Bruno; Kelleher, Philip; Calasso, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Ventura, Marco; Picardi, Ernesto; van Sinderen, Douwe; Gobbetti, Marco

2014-01-01

278

Regulation of expression of the gene for vitamin B12 receptor cloned on a multicopy plasmid in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The btuB gene of Escherichia coli codes for a protein (BtuB) located in the outer membrane. BtuB is the receptor for vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin). We have cloned the btuB gene into pUC8 using transposon Tn5 as the makrer to first isolate several parts of the relevant DNA fragment from the specialized transducing phage ?darg13. After reconsitution of the gene, Tn5

Robert Aufrère; Marc Tempête; Jean-Pierre Bohin

1986-01-01

279

Genetic Architecture of Vitamin B12 and Folate Levels Uncovered Applying Deeply Sequenced Large Datasets  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies have mainly relied on common HapMap sequence variations. Recently, sequencing approaches have allowed analysis of low frequency and rare variants in conjunction with common variants, thereby improving the search for functional variants and thus the understanding of the underlying biology of human traits and diseases. Here, we used a large Icelandic whole genome sequence dataset combined with Danish exome sequence data to gain insight into the genetic architecture of serum levels of vitamin B12 (B12) and folate. Up to 22.9 million sequence variants were analyzed in combined samples of 45,576 and 37,341 individuals with serum B12 and folate measurements, respectively. We found six novel loci associating with serum B12 (CD320, TCN2, ABCD4, MMAA, MMACHC) or folate levels (FOLR3) and confirmed seven loci for these traits (TCN1, FUT6, FUT2, CUBN, CLYBL, MUT, MTHFR). Conditional analyses established that four loci contain additional independent signals. Interestingly, 13 of the 18 identified variants were coding and 11 of the 13 target genes have known functions related to B12 and folate pathways. Contrary to epidemiological studies we did not find consistent association of the variants with cardiovascular diseases, cancers or Alzheimer's disease although some variants demonstrated pleiotropic effects. Although to some degree impeded by low statistical power for some of these conditions, these data suggest that sequence variants that contribute to the population diversity in serum B12 or folate levels do not modify the risk of developing these conditions. Yet, the study demonstrates the value of combining whole genome and exome sequencing approaches to ascertain the genetic and molecular architectures underlying quantitative trait associations. PMID:23754956

Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Bjarnason, Helgi; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Magnusson, Olafur T.; Sparsø, Thomas; Albrechtsen, Anders; Kong, Augustine; Masson, Gisli; Tian, Geng; Cao, Hongzhi; Nie, Chao; Kristiansen, Karsten; Husemoen, Lise Lotte; Thuesen, Betina; Li, Yingrui; Nielsen, Rasmus; Linneberg, Allan; Olafsson, Isleifur; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur I.; Jørgensen, Torben; Wang, Jun; Hansen, Torben; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefánsson, Kari; Pedersen, Oluf

2013-01-01

280

Vitamin A, iron and zinc deficiency in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research described in this thesis was concerned with vitamin A, iron and zinc deficiency in pregnant and lactating women and in infants. The effects of supplementation with?-carotene, iron and zinc on micronutrient status, growth, pregnancy outcome and immune function, and interactions between micronutrients were investigated.Deficiencies of vitamin A, iron and zinc are prevalent worldwide. Vitamin A deficiency leads to

M. A. Dijkhuizen; F. T. Wieringa

2001-01-01

281

Vitamin B1  

MedlinePLUS

... Sound: No High score: Yes Credits » Chicken Farm Game - Why do we need vitamin B1? - What food ... What is the disease beriberi? This fast-paced game relies on a keen knowledge of food containing ...

282

High prevalence of vitamin A deficiency and vitamin D deficiency in patients evaluated for liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Deficiencies in vitamins A, D, and E have been linked to night blindness, bone health, and post-liver transplant reperfusion injury. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictive factors of fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies in liver transplant candidates. We reviewed the medical records of liver transplant candidates at our center from January 2008 to September 2011. The etiology of cirrhosis, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, Child-Pugh class, body mass index (BMI), and vitamin A, vitamin E, and vitamin 25-OH-D levels were recorded. Patients were excluded for incomplete laboratory data, short gut syndrome, celiac disease, pancreatic insufficiency, or prior liver transplantation. Sixty-three patients were included. The most common etiologies of liver disease were alcohol (n?=?23), hepatitis C virus (n?=?19), and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (n?=?5). Vitamin A and D deficiencies were noted in 69.8% and 81.0%, respectively. Only 3.2% of the patients were vitamin E-deficient. There were no documented cases of night blindness. Twenty-five of the 55 patients with bone density measurements had osteopenia, and 10 had osteoporosis. Four patients had vertebral fractures. There was 1 case of posttransplant reperfusion injury in a patient with vitamin E deficiency. In a multivariate analysis, there were no statistically significant predictors for vitamin D deficiency. The Child-Pugh class [odds ratio (OR)?=?6.84, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?1.52-30.86, P?=?0.01], elevated total bilirubin level (OR?=?44.23, 95% CI?=?5.02-389.41, P?vitamin A deficiency. In conclusion, the majority of liver disease patients evaluated for liver transplantation at our center had vitamin A and D deficiencies. The presence or absence of cholestatic liver disease did not predict deficiencies, whereas Child-Pugh class, bilirubin level, and elevated BMI predicted vitamin A deficiency. PMID:23495130

Venu, Mukund; Martin, Eric; Saeian, Kia; Gawrieh, Samer

2013-06-01

283

Treatment of Vitamin D deficient states  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

UpToDate performs a continuous review of over 330 journals and other resources to synthesize and provide the latest medical information for clinicians. Updates are added as important new information is published. This document reviews the prevalence and treatment of vitamin D deficient states. Sever...

284

Genetic Engineering Challenge - Preventing Vitamin A Deficiency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Genetic Engineering Challenge - How can scientists develop a type of rice that could prevent vitamin A deficiency?" is an analysis and discussion activity. This activity begins with an introduction to vitamin A deficiency, rice seeds, and genetic engineering. Next, several questions challenge students to design a basic plan that could produce a genetically engineered rice plant that makes rice grains that contain pro-vitamin A. Subsequent information and questions guide students in developing an understanding of the basic techniques of genetic engineering. Students use fundamental molecular biology concepts as they think about how to solve a practical problem. This activity can be used to introduce students to genetic engineering or to reinforce basic understanding of genetic engineering.

Ingrid Waldron

285

The prevalence of low serum vitamin B-12 status in the absence of anemia or macrocytosis did not increase among older U.S. adults after mandatory folic acid fortification.  

PubMed

Whether folic acid fortification and supplementation at the population level have led to a higher prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in the absence of anemia remains to be examined among a nationally representative sample of older U.S. adults. We assessed the prevalence of low vitamin B-12 status in the absence of anemia or macrocytosis before and after fortification among adults aged >50 y using cross-sectional data from the NHANES 1991-1994 (prefortification) and 2001-2006 (postfortification). We compared the prefortification and postfortification prevalence of multiple outcomes, including serum vitamin B-12 deficiency (<148 pmol/L) and marginal deficiency (148-258 pmol/L) with and without anemia (hemoglobin <130 g/L for men, <120 g/L for women) and with and without macrocytosis (mean cell volume >100 fL) using multinomial logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index, C-reactive protein, and vitamin B-12 supplement use. Prefortification and postfortification serum vitamin B-12 deficiency without anemia [4.0 vs. 3.9%; adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) (95% CI): 0.98 (0.67, 1.44)] or without macrocytosis [4.2 vs. 4.1%; aPR (95% CI): 0.96 (0.65, 1.43)] remained unchanged. Marginal deficiency without anemia [25.1 vs. 20.7%; aPR (95% CI): 0.82 (0.72, 0.95)] or without macrocytosis [25.9 vs. 21.3%; aPR (95% CI): 0.82 (0.72, 0.94)] were both significantly lower after fortification. After fortification, higher folic acid intake was associated with a lower prevalence of low serum B-12 status in the absence of anemia or macrocytosis. Results suggest that the prevalence of low serum B-12 status in the absence of anemia or macrocytosis among older U.S. adults did not increase after fortification. Thus, at the population level, we found no evidence to support concerns that folic acid adversely affected the clinical presentation of vitamin B-12 deficiency among older adults. PMID:24306216

Qi, Yan Ping; Do, Ann N; Hamner, Heather C; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Berry, Robert J

2014-02-01

286

VITAMIN B12Co60 READILY PASSES THE PLACENTA INTO FETAL ORGANS AND NURSING PROVIDES B12 FROM MOTHER TO PUP  

PubMed Central

The placenta is permeable to B12Co60. Together with salts, sugar, amino acids, vitamins, and proteins, the B12 is contributed to the growing embryos from the mother's body stores. At birth, the placenta contains a liberal amount of B12, which the mother regains by ingestion of the placentas. Nursing draws a liberal amount of B12Co60 from the mother's stores and contributes it to the body of the pups where it is absorbed and distributed in the various organs, much as noted when adult dogs are injected with B12Co60. A redistribution is noted as the months pass; but the high values in the heart, liver, and gastric mucosa persist, and the brain usually shows a slow increase. Enterohepatic circulation of B12 may involve bile and enteric content plus hepatic, gastric, and pancreatic epithelial secretion. This type of body recycling of radioactive B12 is discussed but not proven. High values of B12 in the heart, brain, gastric mucosa, and liver indicate that the vitamin is functionally active, not an inert fraction. PMID:13786587

Woods, W. D.; Hawkins, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.

1960-01-01

287

Kinetics of tetrachloroethylene-reductive dechlorination catalyzed by vitamin B{sub 12}  

SciTech Connect

Reductive dechlorination kinetics of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) to ethylene catalyzed by vitamin B{sub 12} using Ti[III] citrate as the bulk reductant was examined in a vapor-water batch system. A kinetic model incorporating substrate-B{sub 12} electron-transfer complex formation and subsequent product release was developed. The model also accounted for the primary reductive dechlorination pathways (hydrogenolysis and reductive {beta} elimination) and vapor/water-phase partitioning. Reaction rate constants were sequentially determined by fitting the model to experimental kinetic data while moving upward through consecutive reaction pathways. The release of product from the complex was found to be second order with respect to substrate concentration for both PCE and acetylene; all other substrates appeared to release by first order. Reductive {beta} elimination was found to be a significant reaction pathway for trichloroethylene (TCE), and chloroacetylene was observed as a reactive intermediate. Acetylene production appears to be primarily due to the reduction of chloroacetylene derived from TCE. The reduction of cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE), the primary DCE isomer formed, was extremely slow, leading to a significant buildup of cis-DCE. The kinetics of acetylene and vinyl chloride reduction appeared to be limited by the formation of relatively stable substrate-B{sub 12} complexes. The relatively simple model examined appears to adequately represent the main features of the experimental data.

Burris, D.R. [AFRL/MLQR, Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Delcomyn, C.A. [Applied Research Associates, Inc., Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Deng, B. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States). Dept. of Mineral and Environmental Engineering; Buck, L.E. [Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Hatfield, K. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1998-09-01

288

Disseminated BCG in an infant with interleukin-12 receptor B1 (IL12RB1) deficiency.  

PubMed

Although neonatal vaccination with bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is considered to be safe, complications with disseminated disease are associated with underlying immuno-deficiency disorders. A BCG-vaccinated 4-month-old girl of Sri Lankan parentage developed progressive left axillary lymphadenopathy and severe bronchopneumonia. Lymph node biopsy demonstrated epithelioid granulomata and acid-fast bacilli. An older sibling had had a similar clinical presentation and the outcome had been fatal. Investigation for immuno-deficiency detected complete IL12RB1 deficiency. Full recovery followed a prolonged course of anti-tuberculous chemotherapy. She was put on lifelong isoniazid prophylaxis. In HIV-negative infants with unusual complications related to BCG vaccination, a primary immuno-deficiency disorder should be considered. PMID:24863105

Senanayake, Manouri P; Kumararatne, D S; Doffinger, Rainer; Barcenas-Morales, Gabriela

2015-02-01

289

A Potential Epigenetic Marker Mediating Serum Folate and Vitamin B12 Levels Contributes to the Risk of Ischemic Stroke  

PubMed Central

Stroke is a multifactorial disease that may be associated with aberrant DNA methylation profiles. We investigated epigenetic dysregulation for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene among ischemic stroke patients. Cases and controls were recruited after obtaining signed written informed consents following a screening process against the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Serum vitamin profiles (folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine) were determined using immunoassays. Methylation profiles for CpGs A and B in the MTHFR gene were determined using a bisulfite-pyrosequencing method. Methylation of MTHFR significantly increased the susceptibility risk for ischemic stroke. In particular, CpG A outperformed CpG B in mediating serum folate and vitamin B12 levels to increase ischemic stroke susceptibility risks by 4.73-fold. However, both CpGs A and B were not associated with serum homocysteine levels or ischemic stroke severity. CpG A is a potential epigenetic marker in mediating serum folate and vitamin B12 to contribute to ischemic stroke. PMID:25705649

Keat Wei, Loo; Sutherland, Heidi; Au, Anthony; Camilleri, Emily; Haupt, Larisa M.; Gan, Siew Hua; Griffiths, Lyn R.

2015-01-01

290

A potential epigenetic marker mediating serum folate and vitamin B 12 levels contributes to the risk of ischemic stroke.  

PubMed

Stroke is a multifactorial disease that may be associated with aberrant DNA methylation profiles. We investigated epigenetic dysregulation for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene among ischemic stroke patients. Cases and controls were recruited after obtaining signed written informed consents following a screening process against the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Serum vitamin profiles (folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine) were determined using immunoassays. Methylation profiles for CpGs A and B in the MTHFR gene were determined using a bisulfite-pyrosequencing method. Methylation of MTHFR significantly increased the susceptibility risk for ischemic stroke. In particular, CpG A outperformed CpG B in mediating serum folate and vitamin B12 levels to increase ischemic stroke susceptibility risks by 4.73-fold. However, both CpGs A and B were not associated with serum homocysteine levels or ischemic stroke severity. CpG A is a potential epigenetic marker in mediating serum folate and vitamin B12 to contribute to ischemic stroke. PMID:25705649

Keat Wei, Loo; Sutherland, Heidi; Au, Anthony; Camilleri, Emily; Haupt, Larisa M; Gan, Siew Hua; Griffiths, Lyn R

2015-01-01

291

Vitamin D Deficiency in a Multiethnic Healthy Control Cohort and Altered Immune Response in Vitamin D Deficient European-American Healthy Controls  

PubMed Central

Objective In recent years, vitamin D has been shown to possess a wide range of immunomodulatory effects. Although there is extensive amount of research on vitamin D, we lack a comprehensive understanding of the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or the mechanism by which vitamin D regulates the human immune system. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency and the relationship between vitamin D and the immune system in healthy individuals. Methods Healthy individuals (n?=?774) comprised of European-Americans (EA, n?=?470), African–Americans (AA, n?=?125), and Native Americans (NA, n?=?179) were screened for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels by ELISA. To identify the most noticeable effects of vitamin D on the immune system, 20 EA individuals with severely deficient (<11.3 ng/mL) and sufficient (>24.8 ng/mL) vitamin D levels were matched and selected for further analysis. Serum cytokine level measurement, immune cell phenotyping, and phosphoflow cytometry were performed. Results Vitamin D sufficiency was observed in 37.5% of the study cohort. By multivariate analysis, AA, NA, and females with a high body mass index (BMI, >30) demonstrate higher rates of vitamin D deficiency (p<0.05). Individuals with vitamin D deficiency had significantly higher levels of serum GM-CSF (p?=?0.04), decreased circulating activated CD4+ (p?=?0.04) and CD8+ T (p?=?0.04) cell frequencies than individuals with sufficient vitamin D levels. Conclusion A large portion of healthy individuals have vitamin D deficiency. These individuals have altered T and B cell responses, indicating that the absence of sufficient vitamin D levels could result in undesirable cellular and molecular alterations ultimately contributing to immune dysregulation. PMID:24727903

Shah, Hemangi B.; Robertson, Julie M.; Fife, Dustin A.; Maecker, Holden T.; Du, Hongwu; Fathman, Charles G.; Chakravarty, Eliza F.; Scofield, R. Hal; Kamen, Diane L.; Guthridge, Joel M.; James, Judith A.

2014-01-01

292

[Effect of betaine hydrochloride on broiler chickens when used alone or in combination with vitamin B12].  

PubMed

The studies were carried out with 2287 broilers aged from 3 to 56 days, divided when one-day-old into four equal groups. The first group were fed the common ration and served as controls. The remaining three groups were experimental, the broilers of the second group being offered the basic common ration enriched with 0.2 per cent betaine. The third group were also given the ordinary ration, however, they received in the drinking water some 10 mug vitamin BUI per one kilogram feed each. The fourth group received both betaine and vitamin B12 at the rates indicated. Results showed that betaine hydrochloride offered either alone or in combination with vitamin B12 contributes to increasing the liveweight gain of broilers in the course of the starter period, but its use in doses of 0.2 per cent in the finishing period is not effective. PMID:1014365

Bogdanov, M; Filipova, R; Tsvetkov, S

1976-01-01

293

Effects of low concentrations of dietary cobalt on liveweight gains, haematology, serum vitamin B(12) and biochemistry of Omani goats.  

PubMed

Seventy-three, 10-week-old, newly weaned Omani goats of three different breeds, namely Dhofari (D), Batinah (B) and Jebel Akhdar (JA) were randomly divided into a control (n=38) and a treated group (n=35) for an experimental period of 10 months. Goats in both groups were fed 150 g/day per head of a pelleted concentrate, based on body weight and their requirements and Rhodes grass hay ad libitum, containing 0.12 and 0.10 mg/kg DM cobalt, respectively. Goats in the treated group also received bi-monthly subcutaneous injections of 2000 microg hydroxycobalamin. In contrast to the treated goats, the control animals of all breeds experienced a severe decrease in their serum vitamin B(12) levels, developed pale mucous membranes, appeared scruffy and two breeds (D and B) had significantly lower weight gains from month 5. Untreated kids of all breeds had significant decreases in their red blood cell counts and erythrocyte indices after approximately four months. Controls developed low total serum protein levels whilst activities of alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase significantly increased. Although it is widely assumed that goats are more resistant to cobalt deficiency than sheep this is apparently not true for Omani goats. Based on experimental data from previously reported studies and those from the present study it can be concluded that the reduction in weight gains in D and B goats is related to their lower digestibility coefficients for dry matter, crude protein and energy while the increase in alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase are associated with developing hepatic lipidosis. PMID:16324857

Al-Habsi, Khalid; Johnson, Eugene H; Kadim, Isam T; Srikandakumar, Anandarajah; Annamalai, Kanthi; Al-Busaidy, Rashid; Mahgoub, Osman

2007-01-01

294

Vitamin B12, antibiotics and unidentified factors in the nutrition of the turkey poult and mature chicken  

E-print Network

that glycine could be converted irrevers- 1bly in the presence of folic acid to formic acid and the formic acid, in the presence of vitamin Bi&, could he converted to either methionine or choline. Patrick ( 'SO) found a close relationship between methionine... BI2 (20ug/kg) snd aureomycin hydrochlor1da (66mgikg) ~ Eggs ware collected during the 12th week in order to determine tha vitamin Bl? folic acid, b1otin, and psntothenic acid oontent. The exp- eriment wss closed at the end of tha 12th experimental...

Reid, Bobby Leroy

1952-01-01

295

Effect of Vegetarianism and Smoking on Vitamin B12, Thiocyanate, and Folate Levels in the Blood of Normal Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitamin B12, thiocyanate, and folate levels in the blood were estimated in 69 apparently normal subjects, of whom 26 were non-vegetarian non-smokers, 19 non-vegetarian smokers, 15 vegetarian non-smokers, and nine vegetarian smokers. The serum total (cyanide-extracted) B12 level (value A) ranged from 105 to 728 pg\\/ml, with a mean of 292 pg\\/ml. The highest values were found in non-vegetarian non-smokers

D. K. Dastur; E. V. Quadros; N. H. Wadia; M. M. Desai; E. P. Bharucha

1972-01-01

296

NUTRITIONAL CYTOPENIA (VITAMIN M DEFICIENCY) IN THE MONKEY  

PubMed Central

Young rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were given a diet containing casein, polished rice, whole wheat, salt mixture, sodium chloride, cod liver oil, and ascorbic acid. They developed a syndrome characterized by anemia, leukopenia, and loss of weight. Ulceration of the gums and diarrhea were common, and death occurred between the 26th and 100th day. 4 monkeys were given the deficient diet supplemented with 1 mg. of riboflavin daily, and these developed the characteristic signs and died. in periods of time similar to the survival of monkeys receiving the deficient diet alone. Nicotinic acid, either alone or in combination with riboflavin and thiamin chloride, failed to alter appreciably the course of the deficiency manifestations. Thus, it is evident that this nutritional cytopenia is not the result of a deficiency of vitamin B, riboflavin, or nicotinic acid. The deficient diet supplemented with either 10 gm. of dried brewers' yeast or 2 gm. of liver extract (Cohn fraction G) daily supported good growth, permitted normal body development, and maintained a normal blood picture over long periods. It is obvious that yeast and liver extract contain a substance essential to the nutrition of the monkey which is not identical with any of those factors of the vitamin B complex that have been chemically identified. We have proposed the term vitamin M for this factor which prevents nutritional cytopenia in the monkey. PMID:19870827

Langston, William C.; Darby, William J.; Shukers, Carroll F.; Day, Paul L.

1938-01-01

297

Expression of Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in the One Carbon Cycle in Rat Placenta is Determined by Maternal Micronutrients (Folic Acid, Vitamin B12) and Omega-3 Fatty Acids  

PubMed Central

We have reported that folic acid, vitamin B12, and omega-3 fatty acids are interlinked in the one carbon cycle and have implications for fetal programming. Our earlier studies demonstrate that an imbalance in maternal micronutrients influence long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and global methylation in rat placenta. We hypothesize that these changes are mediated through micronutrient dependent regulation of enzymes in one carbon cycle. Pregnant dams were assigned to six dietary groups with varying folic acid and vitamin B12 levels. Vitamin B12 deficient groups were supplemented with omega-3 fatty acid. Placental mRNA levels of enzymes, levels of phospholipids, and glutathione were determined. Results suggest that maternal micronutrient imbalance (excess folic acid with vitamin B12 deficiency) leads to lower mRNA levels of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase , but higher cystathionine b-synthase (CBS) and Phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEMT) as compared to control. Omega-3 supplementation normalized CBS and MTHFR mRNA levels. Increased placental phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), in the same group was also observed. Our data suggests that adverse effects of a maternal micronutrient imbalanced diet may be due to differential regulation of key genes encoding enzymes in one carbon cycle and omega-3 supplementation may ameliorate most of these changes. PMID:25003120

Khot, Vinita; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Asmita; Chavan-Gautam, Preeti; Joshi, Sadhana

2014-01-01

298

The risk of cervical cancer in relation to serum concentrations of folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine.  

PubMed

Due to its role in the synthesis and repair of DNA, folate may protect against the development of cervical cancer. Prospective data on the possible association between folate and cervical cancer have been lacking. There is also a paucity of prospective evidence concerning the possible associations between cervical cancer and vitamin B12, which shares pathways with folate, and homocysteine, a marker of low B vitamin concentrations. A nested case-control study was conducted to prospectively evaluate the associations between cervical cancer and serum concentrations of folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine. Among a community-based cohort of women who donated blood in 1974 for a serum bank in Washington County, Maryland, 39 cases of cervical cancer diagnosed between 1975 and mid-1990 were included in the study (13 cases of invasive cervical cancer and 26 cases of carcinoma in situ). Two controls were matched to each case by age, race, and sex. Stored serum from the cases and controls was assayed for folate, B12, and homocysteine concentrations. For folate, adjusted odds ratios were 1.0, 0.62, and 0.60 for the low to high thirds of the serum concentrations, respectively, a trend in the protective direction that was not statistically significant (P for trend = 0.42). Overall, the results for vitamin B12 tended to mimic those for folate, whereas the associations for homocysteine tended to be in the opposite direction. None of the results of this study were statistically significant, but patterns of the associations are in accord with hypothesized mechanistic pathways concerning B vitamins and cervical cancer. PMID:10919749

Alberg, A J; Selhub, J; Shah, K V; Viscidi, R P; Comstock, G W; Helzlsouer, K J

2000-07-01

299

Effects of folate and vitamin B12 on cognitive function in adult and elderly  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Age-related neurocognitive disorders, primarily Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD), have a major impact on health and well-being. Separate lines of evidence have suggested that B vitamin status may be associated with risk and progression of AD and PD. This report summarizes the ev...

300

Vitamin D Deficiency: Information for Cancer Patients  

MedlinePLUS

... vitamin D: ? Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). ? Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol). Vitamin supplements may contain either form of vitamin D and both forms are effective. Vitamin D supplements are taken by mouth. The recommended dose is ...

301

Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Uninsured Women  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vitamin D deficiency, an important risk factor for osteoporosis and other chronic medical conditions, is epidemic in the United States. Uninsured women may be at an even higher risk for vitamin D deficiency than others due to low intake of dietary and supplemental vitamin D and limited sun exposure....

302

Association of vitamin D deficiency with hypertension in uninsured women  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vitamin D deficiency is an epidemic in the United States. Uninsured women are at high risk due to a lower intake of vitamin D and limited sun exposure. We examined the association between vitamin D deficiency and hypertension in 96 uninsured women at a County Free Medical Clinic in urban Michigan. Q...

303

Maternal dietary intake of folate and vitamins B6 and B12 during pregnancy and risk of childhood brain tumors.  

PubMed

Childhood brain tumors (CBT) are the second most common childhood cancers, yet their etiology is largely unknown. We investigated whether maternal gestational intake of folate and vitamins B6 and B12 was associated with CBT risk in a nationwide case-control study conducted 2005-2010. Case children 0-14 years were recruited from all 10 Australian pediatric oncology centers. Control children were recruited by national random digit dialing, frequency matched to cases on age, sex, and state of residence. Dietary intake was ascertained using food frequency questionnaires and adjusted for total energy intake. Data from 293 case and 726 control mothers were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. The odds ratio (OR) for the highest versus lowest tertile of folate intake was 0.70 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48, 1.02]. The ORs appeared lower in mothers who drank alcohol during pregnancy (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.93), mothers who took folic acid (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.42, 1.06) or B6/B12 supplements (OR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.25, 1.06) and in children younger than 5 years (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.93). These findings are consistent with folate's crucial role in maintenance of genomic integrity and DNA methylation. Dietary intake of B6 and B12 was not associated with risk of CBT. PMID:24897174

Greenop, Kathryn R; Miller, Margaret; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Scott, Rodney J; Attia, John; Ashton, Lesley J; Dalla-Pozza, Luciano; Bower, Carol; Armstrong, Bruce K; Milne, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

304

Development and validation of PCR, PLS, and TLC densitometric methods for the simultaneous determination of vitamins B(1), B(6) AND B(12) in pharmaceutical formulations.  

PubMed

This work represents the simultaneous determination of thiamine hydrochloride (B(1)), pyridoxine hydrochloride (B(6)) and cyanocobalamine (B(12)) by two different methods namely spectrophotometry multivariate calibration and densitometry. The spectrophotometric numerical method depends on the use of spectrophotometric data coupled to PLS and PCR multivariate calibration methods for the simultaneous determination of (B(1)) and (B(6)) in the presence of (B(12)) in laboratory prepared mixtures and commercial tablets. A calibration set was prepared, where the three vitamins were modeled using a full factorial 23 with three center points experimental design. This calibration set was used to build the PLS and PCR models. The models were validated by testing their predictive ability on a validation set where low RMSEP, RSEP % were obtained for both models. Figures of merit were determined using the net analyte signal concept. The proposed models were applied successfully to simultaneous determination of B1 and B6 in presence of a low concentration of B12 in pharmaceutical dosage forms that contain simple excipients. The TLC densitometric method was based on the use of a developing system of chloroform: ethanol: water: acetic acid solution (2: 8: 2: 0.5 v/v) to separate the three vitamins. The separated spots were scanned at 242nm, 291nm and 360nm for B(1), B(6) and B(12) respectively. The proposed method was applied successfully to simultaneous determination of the three vitamins in their pure powder form in the range 0.1-1.5 (µg/spot), 0.5-3.5 (µg/spot), 0.1-1.5 (µg/spot) for B(1), B(6), and B(12) respectively and in their pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:20884455

Elzanfaly, Eman S; Nebsen, Marianne; Ramadan, Nesreen K

2010-10-01

305

Detection and Localization of Lipid Peroxidation in Selenium and Vitamin E-Deficient Rats using Fz-Isoprostanes12'3  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Data on,the,effect of vitamin E and selenium deficiency on lipid peroxidation in vivo have been,limited. P2-isoprostanes are novel prostanoids that, free in plasma and esterified to phospholipids in tissues, are markers of lipid peroxidation in vivo. To address the importance of vitamin E and,selenium in defense against lipid peroxidation in vivo, we determined p2-isoprostane concentrations in the plasma and

JOSEPH A. AWAD; JASON D. MORROW; KRISTINA E. HILL; L J. ROBERTS; II ANDRAYMOND F. BÃœRK

306

Dual isotope Schilling test for measuring absorption of food-bound and free vitamin B12 simultaneously  

SciTech Connect

A prototype food-bound vitamin B12 (food-B12) absorption test has been developed in which /sup 57/Co-B12 was incorporated in vitro into egg yolk (yolk-B12) and served to volunteers in 50-g cooked portions together with toast and coffee for breakfast. Six hours later, 1 mg nonlabeled B12 was given intramuscularly and 24-hour urine was collected for radioactivity measurement. In separate tests, the absorption of yolk-B12 and crystalline /sup 57/Co-B12 was equally poor in patients with pernicious anemia. However, in patients with simple gastric achlorhydria and those who had undergone gastric surgery, the assimilation of yolk-B12 was impaired greatly, whereas the absorption of crystalline radio-B12 was normal. Egg yolk labeled with /sup 58/Co-B12 was administered together with crystalline /sup 57/Co-B12 in a dual isotope test with results similar to those obtained when the tests were prepared separately. This yolk-/sup 58/Co-B12 test with its ability to detect malabsorption of food-B12 may be considered as an addition to the first part of the Schilling test.

Doscherholmen, A.; Silvis, S.; McMahon, J.

1983-10-01

307

Hyperkalemia after acute metabolic decompensation in two children with vitamin B12-unresponsive methylmalonic acidemia and normal renal function.  

PubMed

The patients affected by vitamin B12-unresponsive methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) on the long run develop chronic renal disease with interstitial nephropathy and progressive renal insufficiency. The mechanism of nephrotoxicity in vitamin B12-unresponsive MMA is not yet known. Chronic hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism has been found in many cases of methylmalonic acidemia, hyperkalemia and renal tubular acidosis type 4. We report 2 patients affected by B12-unresponsive methylmalonic acidemia diagnosed at the age of 23 months and 5 years, respectively, with normal glomerular filtration and function. They showed hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism and significant hyperkalemia requiring sodium potassium exchange resin (Kayexalate) therapy after an episode of metabolic decompensation leading to diagnosis of MMA. In both children, hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism and hyperkalemia disappeared after 6 months of good metabolic control. PMID:16878438

Pela, I; Gasperini, S; Pasquini, E; Donati, M A

2006-07-01

308

Effective oral delivery of insulin in animal models using vitamin B12-coated dextran nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The potential utility of vitamin B12 carrier system for the oral delivery of conjugated peptides/proteins and enhancement of nanoparticles (NPs) transport has been demonstrated. The present study aims to optimize the effectiveness of VB12-NPs conjugates using different levels of cross-linking, linked with different VB(12)-coatings and evaluates in animal models to investigate an efficient insulin carrier. Amino alkyl VB12 derivatives suitable for oral delivery were synthesized at 5'hydoxy ribose and e-propionamide sites via carbamate and ester/amide linkages, and were coupled to succinic acid modified dextran NPs of varied cross-linking. VB12 binding was confirmed by XPS analysis, and was quantified by HPLC (4.0 to 5.7% w/w of NPs). These polydisperse NPs conjugates showed higher size, high insulin entrapment and faster insulin release with low levels of cross-linking. These VB12-NPs conjugates (150-300 nm) showed profound (70-75% blood glucose reductions) and prolonged (54 h) anti-diabetic effects with biphasic behaviour in STZ diabetic rats. NPs with the low levels of cross-linking were found to be superior carriers, and were more effective with VB12 derivatives of carbamate linkage. The pharmacological availability relative to SC insulin was found to be 29.4%, which was superior compared to NPs conjugate of ester linked VB12 (1.5 fold) and relatively higher cross-linked particles (1.1 fold). Further, the NPs carrier demonstrated a similar oral insulin efficacy in congenital diabetic mice (60% reduction at 20 h). Significant quantities of plasma insulin were found in both animal models (231 and 197 muIU/ml). At two investigated doses, the carrier system shows dose response. Pre-dosing with a large excess of free VB12 minimized the observed activity, indicating predominance of VB12 mediated uptake. It is concluded that VB12-dextran NPs conjugate is a viable carrier for peroral insulin delivery to treat diabetics. PMID:17707540

Chalasani, Kishore B; Russell-Jones, Gregory J; Jain, Akhlesh K; Diwan, Prakash V; Jain, Sanjay K

2007-09-26

309

The chemistry of vitamin B12. The coordination of biologically important molecules  

PubMed Central

The following equilibrium constants (given as logK in units of m?1) were determined for the substitution of co-ordinated H2O in aquocobalamin by glycine (bound through N) 5.8, cysteine (bound through S) 6.0 or 8.3, depending on the value chosen for the pK of the thiol group, and phenolate 2.9. The spectrum of the phenolate cobalamin shows an additional intense absorption band at 468nm with a molar extinction coefficient of 1.1×104, which is assigned to a charge transfer from the phenolate to the cobalt ion. Equilibrium constants have also been determined for the equilibria between adenylcobamide cyanide and CN?, HO? and H+, which show that the adenine is more easily displaced by CN? and HO? than is 5,6-dimethylbenziminazole in vitamin B12, but can be protonated by acid while still remaining co-ordinated to the cobalt. It is shown that in the binding of corrinoids to proteins and polypeptides the formation of hydrogen bonds is far more important than co-ordination by the metal. PMID:5493853

Hill, H. A. O.; Pratt, J. M.; Thorp, R. G.; Ward, B.; Williams, R. J. P.

1970-01-01

310

Basal Gnathostomes Provide Unique Insights into the Evolution of Vitamin B12 Binders  

PubMed Central

The uptake and transport of vitamin B12 (cobalamin; Cbl) in mammals involves a refined system with three evolutionarily related transporters: transcobalamin 1 (Tcn1), transcobalamin 2 (Tcn2), and the gastric intrinsic factor (Gif). Teleosts have a single documented binder with intermediate features to the human counterparts. Consequently, it has been proposed that the expansion of Cbl binders occurred after the separation of Actinopterygians. Here, we demonstrate that the diversification of this gene family took place earlier in gnathostome ancestry. Our data indicates the presence of single copy orthologs of the Sarcopterygii/Tetrapoda duplicates Tcn1 and Gif, and Tcn2, in Chondrichthyes. In addition, a highly divergent Cbl binder was found in the Elasmobranchii. We unveil a complex scenario forged by genome, tandem duplications and lineage-specific gene loss. Our findings suggest that from an ancestral transporter, exhibiting large spectrum and high affinity binding, highly specific Cbl transporters emerged through gene duplication and mutations at the binding pocket. PMID:25552533

Lopes-Marques, Mónica; Ruivo, Raquel; Delgado, Inês; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Aluru, Neelakanteswar; Castro, L. Filipe C.

2015-01-01

311

The effects of vitamin B12 and diclofenac and their combination on cold and mechanical allodynia in a neuropathic pain model in rats  

PubMed Central

The present study was performed to investigate the effects of long-term intraperitoneal (IP) injection of vitamin B12 and diclofenac in separate and combined treatments on cold and mechanical allodynia in a neuropathic pain model in rats. Neuropathic pain was induced by crush injury in right tibial nerve. Acetone spray and von Frey tests were used to obtain cold and mechanical allodynia responses, respectively, on day 11 after nerve crush. Normal saline, vitamin B12 and diclofenac were injected intraperitoneally for 10 consecutive days after surgery. Normal saline treated rats showed cold and mechanical allodynia responses after nerve crush. Vitamin B12 at doses of 50, 100 and 200 µg kg-1 and diclofenac at a dose of 2 mg kg-1 produced antiallodynic effects. Antiallodynic effects were not observed when subanalgesic doses of vitamin B12 (25 µg kg-1) and diclofenac (0.25 mg kg-1) were used together. By increasing the dose of vitamin B12 to an effective dose (100 µg kg-1), antiallodynic effects were observed when compared with diclofenac (0.25 mg kg-1) alone. The results indicated that vitamin B12 and diclofenac produced neuropathic pain suppressing effects. Moreover, a potentiation effect was observed between vitamin B12 and diclofenac. PMID:25593681

Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Samadi, Farzad; Egdami, Karim

2013-01-01

312

Probiotic lactic acid bacterium from kanjika as a potential source of vitamin B12: evidence from LC-MS, immunological and microbiological techniques.  

PubMed

Vitamin B(12) was produced by probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum in submerged fermentation (96 h) with successive anaerobic and aerobic phases of 48 h each to give 13 ng vitamin B(12)/g dry biomass. Sodium cyanide-mediated cell lysis, followed by benzyl alcohol/chloroform/water extraction, improved the release of intracellular vitamin B(12) for analysis. The presence of the K(+) adduct of cyanocobalamin (m/z of 1394) was established using electron spray ionization-mass spectra; growth of a mutant of Escherichia coli in the presence of cyanocobalamin ascertained its bioavailability. PMID:19953302

Madhu, Arenahalli Ningegowda; Giribhattanavar, Prashant; Narayan, Mandayam Singara; Prapulla, Siddalingaiya Gurudutt

2010-04-01

313

Effect of Vitamin B12 on the Sleep-Wake Rhythm Following an 8Hour Advance of the Light-Dark Cycle in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kiuchi, T., H. Sei, H. Seno, A. Sano and Y. Morita. Effect of vitamin B12 on the sleep-wake rhythm following an 8-hour advance of the light-dark cycle in the rat. Physiol Behav 61(4) 551–554, 1997.—We have studied the effect of vitamin B12 (VB12) on the sleep-wake rhythm following an 8-h advance of the light-dark (LD) cycle in the rat. The

Taeko Kiuchi; Hiroyoshi Sei; Hiromasa Seno; Atsuko Sano; Yusuke Morita

1997-01-01

314

Socioeconomic factors are associated with folate and vitamin B12 intakes and related biomarkers concentrations in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study.  

PubMed

Because socioeconomic factors (SEFs) may influence dietary quality and vitamin intakes, this study aimed to examine associations between socioeconomic factors and folate and vitamin B12 intakes as well as their related biomarkers in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study. Vitamin intakes were obtained from two 24-hour recalls in 2253 participants (47% males). Vitamin B biomarkers were assessed in a subsample of 977 participants (46% males). Socioeconomic factors were assessed by questionnaire, and 1-way analysis of covariance and linear regression analysis were applied. For males and females, mean intakes of folate were 211.19 and 177.18 ?g/d, and for vitamin B12, 5.98 and 4.54 ?g/d, respectively. Levels of plasma folate, red blood cell folate, serum B12, and holotranscobalamin were 18.74, 807.19, 330.64, and 63.04 nmol/L in males, respectively, and 19.13, 770.16, 377.9, and 65.63 nmol/L in females, respectively. Lower folate intakes were associated with several SEFs, including maternal and paternal education in both sexes. Regarding folate biomarkers, lower plasma folate intakes were associated with single/shared care in males and with lower paternal occupation in females. Lower vitamin B12 intakes were associated with almost all the studied SEFs, except paternal occupation in both sexes. In females, when considering vitamin B12 biomarkers, lower plasma vitamin B12 was associated with lower maternal education and occupation, and lower holotranscobalamin was associated with lower maternal education and lower paternal occupation. In conclusion, from the set of socioeconomic determinants studied in a sample of European adolescents, maternal education and paternal occupation were more consistently associated with folate and vitamin B12 intakes and biomarkers concentrations. PMID:24655486

Iglesia, Iris; Mouratidou, Theodora; González-Gross, Marcela; Novakovic, Romana; Breidenassel, Christina; Jiménez-Pavón, David; Huybrechts, Inge; De Henauw, Stefaan; Geelen, Anouk; Gottrand, Frédéric; Kafatos, Anthony; Mistura, Lorenza; de Heredia, Fátima Pérez; Widhalm, Kurt; Manios, Yanis; Molnar, Denes; Stehle, Peter; Gurinovic, Mirjana; Cavelaars, Adrienne E J M; Van't Veer, Pieter; Moreno, Luis A

2014-03-01

315

Osteomalacia and vitamin D deficiency in a psychiatric rehabilitation unit: case report and survey  

E-print Network

suboptimal vitamin D levels. Vitamin D status was strongly predicted by dietary supplementation. Of those not on vitamin D supplements, 100% had vitamin D deficiency, with vitamin D levels significantly below those of historical controls. Age, sex...

Cardinal, Rudolf N; Gregory, Carol A

2009-05-09

316

Extraskeletal effects and manifestations of Vitamin D deficiency  

PubMed Central

The actions of vitamin D are not confined to bone. Vitamin D receptors are present in nearly all the nuclei and its actions are manifold. Populations deficient in vitamin D are at higher risk of developing autoimmune diseases, diabetes, cancer, infections, allergies and other chronic illnesses. PMID:23961475

Visweswaran, R. Kasi; Lekha, H.

2013-01-01

317

Subclinical vitamin K deficiency in hemodialysis (HD) patients  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Subclinical vitamin K deficiency has been increasingly associated with extraosseous calcification in healthy adults. Non-dietary determinants of vitamin K status include apolipoproteinE (apoE) genotype, which is believed to influence vitamin K transport to peripheral tissues. Phylloquinone and %u...

318

The importance of vitamin B12 and unidentified factors in the nutrition of the domestic fowl  

E-print Network

vitamins THE or B ^ ; synthetic folic acid, or pyracine lactone. Heuser, Norris, Lucas and Combs (*46) reported that hatchability was poor on a soybean meal basal ration. Addition of 2 to 3 percent fish meal gave a marked response in chick growth... ground yellow corn 46.35, commercial soybean meal 46.35, corn oil (Mazola) 5, cystine 0 .3 , CaHPO^ 0.92, Ca COg 0 .6 , iodized NaCl 0.44, and MnSO^^HgO 0.04 gmj thiamine 0 .3 , riboflavin 0 .3 , niacin 2, pyridoxine 0 .2 , pantothenic acid 2, folic...

Olcese, Orlando

1950-01-01

319

Newborn with Dilated Cardiomyopathy Secondary to Vitamin D Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Hypocalcemia is a rare but reversible cause of dilated cardiomyopathy with limited cases being reported in the literature. Vitamin D deficiency is the main cause of hypocalcemia in almost all reported cases. We report a newborn presented with hypocalcemia-induced dilated cardiomyopathy secondary to vitamin D deficiency. After calcium and vitamin D therapy, the baby showed a rapid recovery of the cardiac function. PMID:23056981

Al Azkawi, Hanan; Al Mutair, Angham

2012-01-01

320

Vitamin A Supplementation in Early Life Enhances the Intestinal Immune Response of Rats with Gestational Vitamin A Deficiency by Increasing the Number of Immune Cells  

PubMed Central

Vitamin A is a critical micronutrient for regulating immunity in many organisms. Our previous study demonstrated that gestational or early-life vitamin A deficiency decreases the number of immune cells in offspring. The present study aims to test whether vitamin A supplementation can restore lymphocyte pools in vitamin A-deficient rats and thereby improve the function of their intestinal mucosa; furthermore, the study aimed to identify the best time frame for vitamin A supplementation. Vitamin A-deficient pregnant rats or their offspring were administered a low-dose of vitamin A daily for 7 days starting on gestational day 14 or postnatal day 1, day 14 or day 28. Serum retinol concentrations increased significantly in all four groups that received vitamin A supplementation, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The intestinal levels of secretory immunoglobulin A and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor increased significantly with lipopolysaccharide challenge in the rats that received vitamin A supplementation starting on postnatal day 1. The rats in this group had higher numbers of CD8+ intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes, CD11C+ dendritic cells in the Peyer's patches and CD4+CD25+ T cells in the spleen compared with the vitamin A-deficient rats; flow cytometric analysis also demonstrated that vitamin A supplementation decreased the number of B cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Additionally, vitamin A supplementation during late gestation increased the numbers of CD8+ intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes and decreased the numbers of B lymphocytes in the mesenteric lymph nodes. However, no significant differences in lymphocyte levels were found between the rats in the other two vitamin A supplement groups and the vitamin A-deficient group. In conclusion, the best recovery of a subset of lymphocytes in the offspring of gestational vitamin A-deficient rats and the greatest improvement in the intestinal mucosal immune response are achieved when vitamin A supplementation occurs during the early postnatal period. PMID:25503794

Liu, Xia; Cui, Ting; Li, Yingying; Wang, Yuting; Wang, Qinghong; Li, Xin; Bi, Yang; Wei, Xiaoping; Liu, Lan; Li, Tingyu; Chen, Jie

2014-01-01

321

B12 in fetal development.  

PubMed

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is necessary for development of the fetus and child. Pregnant women who are vegetarian or vegan, have Crohn's or celiac disease, or have undergone gastric bypass surgery are at increased risk of B12 deficiency. Low serum levels of B12 have been linked to negative impacts in cognitive, motor, and growth outcomes. Low cobalamin levels also may be related to depression in adults. Some studies indicate that B12 supplementation may improve outcomes in children, although more research is needed in this area. Overall, the mechanisms of B12 action in development remain unclear. Further studies in this area to elucidate the pathways of cobalamin influence on development, as well as to prevent B12 deficiency in pregnant women and children are indicated. PMID:21664980

Pepper, M Reese; Black, Maureen M

2011-08-01

322

Effects of Two Synthetic Antioxidants, Vitamin E, caid Ascorbic Acid on the Choline-deficient Rat1\\/2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to determine the effects of two synthetic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), dZ-o-tocopherol and ascorbic acid on the fatty liver and on the renal and cardiovascular systems of choline-deficient rats. Weanling and 6-week-old male rats were fed casein- peanut meal diets devoid of choline for 8 and 10 days, respectively. Survivors

P. M. NEWBERNE; M. R. BRESNAHAN

323

Vitamin D deficiency and prognostics among patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among patients with cancer has been previously reported. Because vitamin D is fat soluble, patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma may have an especially high risk of vitamin D deficiency in association with ongoing and varying degrees of malabsorption. However, little is known about the correlation between vitamin D status and prognosis in these patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of vitamin D status in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma who were treated at Siteman Cancer Center. Patients’ demographic information, clinical staging at the time of vitamin D assessment, vitamin D levels, and survival data were collected. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) level of less than 20 ng/mL, and vitamin D insufficiency was defined as a 25(OH)D level of between 20 ng/mL and 30 ng/mL. Results Between December 2007 and June 2011, 178 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma had their vitamin D levels checked at the time of initial visit at this center. Of these 178 patients, 87 (49%) had vitamin D deficiency, and 44 (25%) had vitamin D insufficiency. The median 25(OH)D level was significantly lower among nonwhite patients and among patients with stage I and II disease. A 25(OH)D level of less than 20 ng/mL was found to be associated with poor prognosis (p?=?0.0019) in patients with stage III and IV disease. Conclusions Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency were prevalent among patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The vitamin D level appears to be prognostic for patients with advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and its effects should be further examined in a prospective study. PMID:24011168

2013-01-01

324

Vitamin D Deficiency in India: Prevalence, Causalities and Interventions  

PubMed Central

Vitamin D deficiency prevails in epidemic proportions all over the Indian subcontinent, with a prevalence of 70%–100% in the general population. In India, widely consumed food items such as dairy products are rarely fortified with vitamin D. Indian socioreligious and cultural practices do not facilitate adequate sun exposure, thereby negating potential benefits of plentiful sunshine. Consequently, subclinical vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in both urban and rural settings, and across all socioeconomic and geographic strata. Vitamin D deficiency is likely to play an important role in the very high prevalence of rickets, osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer and infections such as tuberculosis in India. Fortification of staple foods with vitamin D is the most viable population based strategy to achieve vitamin D sufficiency. Unfortunately, even in advanced countries like USA and Canada, food fortification strategies with vitamin D have been only partially effective and have largely failed to attain vitamin D sufficiency. This article reviews the status of vitamin D nutrition in the Indian subcontinent and also the underlying causes for this epidemic. Implementation of population based educational and interventional strategies to combat this scourge require recognition of vitamin D deficiency as a public health problem by the governing bodies so that healthcare funds can be allocated appropriately. PMID:24566435

G, Ritu; Gupta, Ajay

2014-01-01

325

Does Vitamin C Deficiency Affect Cognitive Development and Function?  

PubMed Central

Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival in newborn SVCT2(?/?) mice and perinatal deficiency have shown to reduce hippocampal volume and neuron number and cause decreased spatial cognition in guinea pigs, suggesting that maternal vitamin C deficiency could have severe consequences for the offspring. Furthermore, vitamin C deficiency has been proposed to play a role in age-related cognitive decline and in stroke risk and severity. The present review discusses the available literature on effects of vitamin C deficiency on the developing and aging brain with particular focus on in vivo experimentation and clinical studies. PMID:25244370

Hansen, Stine Normann; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

2014-01-01

326

Ataxia with Vitamin E Deficiency in Norway  

PubMed Central

Objective Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED) is a rare autosomal recessive neurological disorder which usually starts in childhood. The clinical presentation is very similar to Friedreich ataxia, most patients have progressive truncal and extremity ataxia, areflexia, positive Babinski sign, dysarthria and sensory neuropathy. Methods We made an inquiry to our colleagues in Norway, we included information from a prevalence study published southern Norway and added data from our own known case. Results A newly published prevalence study of hereditary ataxias (total of 171 subjects) found only one subject with AVED in Southeast Norway. We describe two more patients, one from the Central part and one from the Northern part of Norway. All 3 cases had age of onset in early childhood (age of 4–5 years) and all experienced gait ataxia and dysarthria. The genetic testing confirmed that they had pathogenic mutations in the ?-tocopherol transfer protein gene (TTPA). All were carriers of the non-sense c.400C > T mutation, one was homozygous for that mutation and the others were compound heterozygous, either with c.358G > A or c.513_514insTT. The homozygous carrier was by far the most severely affected case. Conclusions We estimate the occurrence of AVED in Norway to be at least 0.6 per million inhabitants. We emphasize that all patients who develop ataxia in childhood should be routinely tested for AVED to make an early diagnosis for initiating treatment with high dose vitamin E to avoid severe neurological deficits. PMID:25614784

Elkamil, Areej; Johansen, Krisztina K.; Aasly, Jan

2015-01-01

327

Vitamin D deficiency: the invisible accomplice of metabolic endotoxemia?  

PubMed

The aetiology of obesity is multi-factorial. Recent research has identified a novel association between endotoxaemia (circulating lipopolysaccharide in the systemic circulation) and low-grade inflammation in the adipose organ, which may contribute to obesity. The mechanisms for the low-grade elevation of circulating lipopolysaccharide in obesity are poorly understood. Vitamin D has been increasingly recognised for its pleiotropic actions beyond maintenance of musculoskeletal health. The parathyroid-vitamin D axis is altered in obesity. Circulating vitamin D levels are lower in obese individuals. The regulatory role of vitamin D in the immune system and colonic mucosa may explain the under-appreciated contribution of vitamin D deficiency in the obese to the pathogenesis of endotoxaemia and adipose inflammation. We propose a hypothetical model linking metabolic endotoxaemia with vitamin D deficiency in obesity. A therapeutic approach involving the use of probiotics and vitamin D metabolites in the obese is described. PMID:19689344

Lee, Paul; Campbell, Lesley V

2009-01-01

328

Effect of Vegetarianism and Smoking on Vitamin B12, Thiocyanate, and Folate Levels in the Blood of Normal Subjects  

PubMed Central

Vitamin B12, thiocyanate, and folate levels in the blood were estimated in 69 apparently normal subjects, of whom 26 were non-vegetarian non-smokers, 19 non-vegetarian smokers, 15 vegetarian non-smokers, and nine vegetarian smokers. The serum total (cyanide-extracted) B12 level (value A) ranged from 105 to 728 pg/ml, with a mean of 292 pg/ml. The highest values were found in non-vegetarian non-smokers and the lowest in vegetarian smokers. There was no significant difference in value A between smokers as a group and non-smokers as a group. On the other hand, in vegetarians value A was very significantly lower than in non-vegetarians regardless of their smoking habits. It is suggested that A may represent both the protein-bound and free forms of vitamin B12 in the blood, and B mainly the free B12, which may be the physiologically active form. The plasma thiocyanate level varied from 1·0 to 15 ?mol/100 ml, being, as expected, much higher in smokers (mean 8·20 ?mol/100 ml) than in non-smokers (mean 2·02 ?mol/100 ml). There was a rough correlation between falling B12 levels and rising thiocyanate levels. The serum folate level ranged from 2·75 to 15·75 ng/ml, and was slightly but significantly higher in vegetarians (mean 6·60 ng/ml) than in non-vegetarians (mean 4·79 ng/ml), reflecting the greater content of folate in a vegetarian diet. PMID:5046479

Dastur, D. K.; Quadros, E. V.; Wadia, N. H.; Desai, M. M.; Bharucha, E. P.

1972-01-01

329

A Stability-Indicating HPLC Method for the Determination of Nitrosylcobalamin (NO-Cbl), a Novel Vitamin B12 Analog  

PubMed Central

Nitrosylcobalamin (NO-Cbl), a novel vitamin B12 analog and anti-tumor agent, functions as a biologic ‘Trojan horse’, utilizing the vitamin B12 transcobalamin II transport protein and cell surface receptor to specifically target cancer cells. a stability-indicating HPLC method was developed for the detection of NO-Cbl during forced degradation studies. This method utilized an ascentis® RP-amide (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 ?m) column at 35 °C with a mobile phase (1.0 mL min?1) combining a gradient of methanol and an acetate buffer at pH 6.0. Detection wavelengths of 450 and 254 nm were used to detect corrin and non-corrin-based products, respectively. NO-Cbl, synthesized from hydroxocobalamin and pure nitric oxide gas, was subjected to degradative stress conditions including oxidation, hydrolysis and thermal and radiant energy challenge. The method was validated by assessing linearity, accuracy, precision, detection and quantitation limits and robustness. The method was applied successfully for purity assessment of synthesized NO-Cbl and for the determination of NO-Cbl during kinetic studies in aqueous solution and in solid-state degradation assessments. This HPLC method is suitable for the separation of cobalamins in aqueous and methanolic solutions, for routine detection of NO-Cbl and for purity assessment of synthesized NO-Cbl. additionally, this method has potential application in identification and monitoring of diseases involving altered nitric oxide homeostasis where vitamin B12 therapy is utilized to scavenge excess nitric oxide, subsequently resulting in the in vivo production of NO-Cbl. PMID:24855323

Dunphy, Michael J.; Sysel, Annette M.; Lupica, Joseph A.; Griffith, Kristie; Sherrod, Taylor

2014-01-01

330

A Stability-Indicating HPLC Method for the Determination of Nitrosylcobalamin (NO-Cbl), a Novel Vitamin B12 Analog.  

PubMed

Nitrosylcobalamin (NO-Cbl), a novel vitamin B12 analog and anti-tumor agent, functions as a biologic 'Trojan horse', utilizing the vitamin B12 transcobalamin II transport protein and cell surface receptor to specifically target cancer cells. a stability-indicating HPLC method was developed for the detection of NO-Cbl during forced degradation studies. This method utilized an ascentis(®) RP-amide (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 ?m) column at 35 °C with a mobile phase (1.0 mL min(-1)) combining a gradient of methanol and an acetate buffer at pH 6.0. Detection wavelengths of 450 and 254 nm were used to detect corrin and non-corrin-based products, respectively. NO-Cbl, synthesized from hydroxocobalamin and pure nitric oxide gas, was subjected to degradative stress conditions including oxidation, hydrolysis and thermal and radiant energy challenge. The method was validated by assessing linearity, accuracy, precision, detection and quantitation limits and robustness. The method was applied successfully for purity assessment of synthesized NO-Cbl and for the determination of NO-Cbl during kinetic studies in aqueous solution and in solid-state degradation assessments. This HPLC method is suitable for the separation of cobalamins in aqueous and methanolic solutions, for routine detection of NO-Cbl and for purity assessment of synthesized NO-Cbl. additionally, this method has potential application in identification and monitoring of diseases involving altered nitric oxide homeostasis where vitamin B12 therapy is utilized to scavenge excess nitric oxide, subsequently resulting in the in vivo production of NO-Cbl. PMID:24855323

Dunphy, Michael J; Sysel, Annette M; Lupica, Joseph A; Griffith, Kristie; Sherrod, Taylor; Bauer, Joseph A

2014-04-01

331

Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency and Its Related Factors Among University Students in Shiraz, Iran  

PubMed Central

Backgrounds: Vitamin D deficiency is a public health concern even in sunny areas, so we decided to assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its related factors among university students in Shiraz. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 254 (128 male and 126 female) university students. Demographic questionnaires and a questionnaire on exposure to sun light and sun protection were completed by the participants. Serum 25OH-vitamin D was measured using a radioimmunoassay kit. Data analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software # 16. A P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Mean ± standard deviation (SD) of serum 25OH-vitamin D was 49.29 ± 12.87 (nmol/l) and 27.46 ± 10.37 (nmol/l) among male and female students, respectively. 51.2% of female students were vitamin D insufficient and 44% of them had vitamin D deficiency. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and marginal status among male students were 49.5 and 48%, respectively. Serum vitamin D of female students was significantly less than the males (P < 0.001). Serum vitamin D was negatively correlated to sun protection score (P < 0.001, r = 0.50), but there was no correlation between serum vitamin D and sun exposure. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency especially among female students is alarmingly prevalent. Increasing use of sunscreen lotion and clothing style could be the main factors inhibiting endogenous vitamin D synthesis which results in its deficiency. PMID:25013702

Faghih, Shiva; Abdolahzadeh, Maryam; Mohammadi, Mohsen; Hasanzadeh, Jafar

2014-01-01

332

Measurement of total-body cobalt-57 vitamin B/sup 12/ absorption with a gamma camera  

SciTech Connect

Previously described techniques for the measurement of the absorption of (/sup 57/Co)vitamin B/sup 12/ by total-body counting have required an iron room equipped with scanning or multiple detectors. The present study uses simplifying modifications which make the technique more available and include the use of static geometry, the measurement of body thickness to correct for attenuation, a simple formula to convert the capsule-in-air count to a 100% absorption count, and finally the use of an adequately shielded gamma camera obviating the need of an iron room.

Cardarelli, J.A.; Slingerland, D.W.; Burrows, B.A.; Miller, A.

1985-08-01

333

Vitamin-D deficiency rickets in Jamaican children.  

PubMed Central

Vitamin-D deficiency is not as rare in Jamaica as previously believed. 9 children with vitamin-D deficiency rickets have been seen at the University Hospital of the West Indies during the past 5 years. All were over 3 years of age at time of presentation. Both dietary deficiency of vitamin D and lack of exposure to sunlight seem to be important causes. Children living in rural Jamaica seem to be more susceptible to the disease than those living in a city, due perhaps to more prolonged breast feeding and lack of fortified milk feeds on weaning. Images Fig. PMID:182089

Miller, C G; Chutkan, W

1976-01-01

334

Risk Factors and Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency Among Iranian Women Attending Two University Hospitals  

PubMed Central

Background: Several studies indicated that there is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Middle East countries. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and assess some risk factors of vitamin D deficiency among women attending our clinics in Tehran, the capital of Iran. Patients and Methods: Five hundred and thirty-eight women aged 20-80 years were entered in this cross-sectional study from 2011 to 2012. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were measured in all participants after recruiting their demographic and anthropometric data and past medical histories. Deficiency was defined as levels less than 35 nmol/L and classified as mild (? 25 nmol/L), moderate (12.5-25 nmol/L) and severe (? 12.5 nmol/L). Results: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 69%; mild, moderate and severe degrees were seen in %10.4, %38.3, and %20.3 respectively. Analysis of logistic regression shows that age (OR:0.96, CI: 0.93-0.97), menopause (OR: 0.44, CI: 0.21-0.99) and consumption of multivitamin supplements (OR: 2.67, CI: 1.4-5) were independent predictive factors for Vitamin D deficiency. Conclusions: This study showed a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Iranian women especially in reproductive ages. PMID:25763193

Alipour, Sadaf; Saberi, Azin; Seifollahi, Akram; shirzad, Nooshin; Hosseini, Ladan

2014-01-01

335

Vitamin B Complex  

MedlinePLUS

... risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. JAMA . 2010;303:1077-1083. Lin J, Lee ... K, Helzlsouer KJ, Comstock GW, et al. A prospective study on folate, B12, and pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (B6) ...

336

High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency in Dutch multi-ethnic obese children.  

PubMed

Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency is common among non-white children; however, little is known about the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency in non-white obese children living in the Netherlands. Therefore, a retrospective analysis was performed on data from multi-ethnic Dutch children and adolescents 6–18 years who visited the obesity outpatient clinic in 2012–2013. We performed anthropometric measurements, oral glucose tolerance test, and measured 25(OH)D and lipid levels. Vitamin D insufficiency was defined as 25(OH)D levels 37.5- <50 nmol/L and vitamin D deficiency as 25(OH)D <37.5 nmol/L. In total, data from 387 children were obtained (mean age 11.6 years, 41.1 % boys, 10.3 % Dutch native, 25.6 % Turkish, 24.5 % Moroccan, 7.5 % African Surinamese, and 7.0 % West African). The median 25(OH)D level was 34 (range 12–105)?nmol/L. In total, 17.8 % were vitamin D sufficient, 24.5 % with vitamin D insufficiency, and 57.6 % with vitamin D deficiency. Obese ethnic children showed the highest (87.5 %) and normal weight white children showed the lowest (20.0 %) prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency . Conclusion: Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency is extremely prevalent in treatment-seeking obese ethnic children. However, there was no evidence of an effect of vitamin D status on various components of the metabolic syndrome in our cohort. PMID:25015716

Radhakishun, Nalini; van Vliet, Mariska; von Rosenstiel, Ines; Weijer, Olivier; Diamant, Michaela; Beijnen, Jos; Brandjes, Dees

2015-02-01

337

Vitamin D Deficiency Modulates Graves’ Hyperthyroidism Induced in BALB/c Mice by Thyrotropin Receptor Immunization  

PubMed Central

TSH receptor (TSHR) antibodies and hyperthyroidism are induced by immunizing mice with adenovirus encoding the TSHR or its A-subunit. Depleting regulatory T cells (Treg) exacerbates thyrotoxicosis in susceptible BALB/c mice and induces hyperthyroidism in normally resistant C57BL/6 mice. Vitamin D plays an important role in immunity; high dietary vitamin D intake suppresses (and low intake enhances) adaptive immune responses. Vitamin D-induced immunosuppression may enhance Treg. Therefore, we hypothesized that decreased vitamin D intake would mimic Treg depletion and enhance hyperthyroidism induced by A-subunit adenovirus immunization. BALB/c mice had a reduced ability vs. C57BL/6 mice to generate the active metabolite of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3). Vitamin D deficiency induced subtle immune changes in BALB/c (not C57BL/6) mice. Compared with mice fed regular chow, vitamin D-deprived BALB/c mice had fewer splenic B cells and decreased interferon-? responses to mitogen and lacked memory T-cell responses to A-subunit protein. However, vitamin D deficiency did not alter TSHR antibody responses measured by ELISA, TSH binding inhibition, or cAMP generation from TSHR-expressing cells. Unexpectedly, compared with vitamin D-sufficient mice, vitamin D-deficient BALB/c mice had lower preimmunization T4 levels and developed persistent hyperthyroidism. This difference was unrelated to the immunological changes between vitamin D-deficient or -sufficient animals. Previously, we found that different chromosomes or loci confer susceptibility to TSHR antibody induction vs. thyroid function. Our present studies provide evidence that an environmental factor, vitamin D, has only minor effects on induced immunity to the TSHR but directly affects thyroid function in mice. PMID:18927213

Misharin, Alexander; Hewison, Martin; Chen, Chun-Rong; Lagishetty, Venu; Aliesky, Holly A.; Mizutori, Yumiko; Rapoport, Basil; McLachlan, Sandra M.

2009-01-01

338

Rickets associated with vitamin D deficiency in young sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outbreak of rickets in sheep under a year old (hoggs) appeared clinically as stiffness and rotation of the carpal joints. Histological studies confirmed the diagnosis and biochemical analyses of blood demonstrated a primary vitamin D deficiency.

MA Bonniwell; BS Smith; JA Spence; H Wright; DA Ferguson

1988-01-01

339

Vitamin D Deficiency and Replacement: Relationships to Cardiovascular Health  

E-print Network

Abstract Background: Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality and morbidity in the United States as well as many other nations. Recent evidence supports an association of vitamin D deficiency with ...

Vacek, James

2010-04-11

340

Vitamin D deficiency is common in psychogeriatric patients, independent of diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have found an association between psychiatric disorders and vitamin D deficiency, but most studies have focused on depression. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in elderly patients with a wider range of psychiatric diagnoses. Method The study included elderly patients (>64 years) referred to a psychiatric hospital in Northern Norway and a control group from a population survey in the same area. An assessment of psychiatric and cognitive symptoms and diagnoses was conducted using the Montgomery and Aasberg Depression Rating Scale, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, the Mini Mental State Examination, the Clockdrawing Test, and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI+), as well as clinical interviews and a review of medical records. The patients’ mean level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency were compared with those of a control group, and a comparison of vitamin D deficiency across different diagnostic groups was also made. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L (<20 ng/ml). Results The mean levels of 25(OH)D in the patient group (n?=?95) and the control group (n?=?104) were 40.5 nmol/L and 65.9 nmol/L (p?vitamin D deficiency was found in the patient group compared with the control group (71.6% and 20.0%, respectively; p?vitamin D deficiency was still associated with patient status (OR: 12.95, CI (95%): 6.03-27.83, p?vitamin D deficiency were found between patients with different categories of psychiatric diagnoses, such as depression, bipolar disorders, psychosis, and dementia. Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency is very common among psychogeriatric patients, independent of diagnostic category. Even though the role of vitamin D in psychiatric disorders is still not clear, we suggest screening for vitamin D deficiency in this patient group due to the importance of vitamin D for overall health. PMID:24884774

2014-01-01

341

Factors associated with vitamin D deficiency in a Norwegian population: the HUNT Study.  

PubMed

Vitamin D deficiency occurs worldwide. Winter season and high Body Mass Index (BMI) are associated with low levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). We estimated the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in a Norwegian adult population and examined factors associated with vitamin D deficiency. A cohort of 25,?616 adults (19-55 years) who participated in both the second and third Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 2 (1995-1997) and HUNT 3 (2006-2008)) was established in a previous study. A 10% random sample of the cohort population was recruited for serum 25(OH)D measurements (n=2584), which was used for the current cross-sectional study. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as serum 25(OH)D level <50 nmol/L. The overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 40%, but varied by season (winter: 64%; summer: 20%). Winter season (adjusted prevalence ratio (PR): 3.16, 95% CI 2.42 to 4.12) and obesity (BMI ?30.0 kg/m2) (PR: 1.74, 95% CI 1.45 to 2.10) were strongly associated with prevalent vitamin D deficiency. Current smoking also demonstrated an increased PR (1.41, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.65). Daily intake of cod liver oil (PR: 0.60, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.77), increased physical activity (PR: 0.80, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.95) and more frequent alcohol consumption (PR: 0.76, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.95) were associated with a reduced PR. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was high in Norwegian adults. Winter season, high BMI and current smoking were positively associated, and intake of cod liver oil, increased physical activity and more frequent alcohol consumption were inversely associated with vitamin D deficiency. PMID:24197920

Larose, Tricia L; Chen, Yue; Camargo, Carlos A; Langhammer, Arnulf; Romundstad, Pål; Mai, Xiao-Mei

2014-02-01

342

Citrus can help prevent vitamin A deficiency in developing countries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

California is a major producer of tangerines and oranges, which contain carotenoids that form vitamin A. Deficiencies of this vitamin are common in southern Asia and Africa, causing blindness and more than one-half million deaths each year. We evaluated the potential of tangerines and oranges to pre...

343

Vitamin D Deficiency and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vitamin D receptors have a broad tissue distribution that includes vascular smooth muscle, endothelium, and cardiomyocytes. A growing body of evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency may adversely affect the cardiovascular system, but few prospective data exist. This study examined the relation...

344

Vitamin E deficiency induces axonal degeneration in mouse hippocampal neurons.  

PubMed

Several lines of evidence demonstrate the relationship between vitamin E deficiency and cognitive dysfunction in rodent models, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we found axonal injury in the hippocampal CA1 region of vitamin E-deficient and normal old mice using immunohistochemical assay. The number of cells in the hippocampal CA1 region of vitamin E-deficient mice and normal old mice was significantly lower than in normal young mice. It is well known that collapsin response mediator protein (CRMP)-2 plays a crucial role in the maintenance of axonal conditions. The expressions of CRMP-2 in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of vitamin E-deficient mice were significantly lower than both the regions of normal ones. In normal old mice, the expression of CRMP-2 in the cerebral cortex was significantly lower than in the normal ones. In addition, the appearance of microtubule-associated protein (MAP)-light chain 3 (LC3), a major index of autophagy, was higher in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of vitamin E-deficient mice than in normal young and old mice. These results indicate that axonal degeneration is induced in living tissues, but not cultured cells, and that changes in CRMP-2 and MAP-LC3 may underlie vitamin E-deficiency-related axonal degeneration. PMID:23419395

Fukui, Koji; Kawakami, Hiroaki; Honjo, Tatsuki; Ogasawara, Reiko; Takatsu, Hirokatsu; Shinkai, Tadashi; Koike, Tatsuro; Urano, Shiro

2012-01-01

345

Effect of Folic Acid and Vitamin B12 on Pemetrexed Antifolate Chemotherapy in Nutrient Lung Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Pemetrexed (MTA) is a multitargeted antifolate drug approved for lung cancer therapy. Clinically, supplementation with high doses of folic acid (FA) and vitamin B12 (VB12) lowers MTA cytotoxicities. An antagonistic effect of FA/VB12 on MTA efficacy has been proposed. However, patients who receive FA/VB12 show better tolerance to MTA with improved survival. The aims of this study are to investigate the modulation of FA and VB12 on MTA drug efficacy in human nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. The sensitivities of cells, apoptosis, and MTA-regulated proteins were characterized to determine the possible effects of high doses of FA and VB12 on MTA efficacy. MTA has the lowest efficacy under 10% serum conditions. However, supplementation with FA and VB12 individually and additively reversed the insensitivity of NSCLC cells to MTA treatment with 10% serum. The enhanced sensitivities of cells following FA/VB12 treatment were correlated with increasing apoptosis and were specific to MTA but not to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Enhanced sensitivity was also associated with p21WAF1/Cip1 expression level. Our results revealed no antagonistic effect of high doses of FA/VB12 on MTA efficacy in cancer cells grown in nutrient medium. Furthermore, these data may partially explain why supplementation of FA and VB12 resulted in better survival in MTA-treated patients. PMID:23984356

Yang, Tsung-Ying; Chang, Gee-Chen; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Huang, Yi-Rou; Chiu, Ling-Yen

2013-01-01

346

Vitamin A Deficiency Induces Congenital Spinal Deformities in Rats  

PubMed Central

Most cases of congenital spinal deformities were sporadic and without strong evidence of heritability. The etiology of congenital spinal deformities is still elusive and assumed to be multi-factorial. The current study seeks to elucidate the effect of maternal vitamin A deficiency and the production of congenital spinal deformities in the offsping. Thirty two female rats were randomized into two groups: control group, which was fed a normal diet; vitamin A deficient group, which were given vitamin A-deficient diet from at least 2 weeks before mating till delivery. Three random neonatal rats from each group were killed the next day of parturition. Female rats were fed an AIN-93G diet sufficient in vitamin A to feed the rest of neonates for two weeks until euthanasia. Serum levels of vitamin A were assessed in the adult and filial rats. Anteroposterior (AP) spine radiographs were obtained at week 2 after delivery to evaluate the presence of the skeletal abnormalities especially of spinal deformities. Liver and vertebral body expression of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDHs) and RARs mRNA was assessed by reverse transcription-real time PCR. VAD neonates displayed many skeletal malformations in the cervical, thoracic, the pelvic and sacral and limbs regions. The incidence of congenital scoliosis was 13.79% (8/58) in the filial rats of vitamin A deficiency group and 0% in the control group. Furthermore, vitamin A deficiency negatively regulate the liver and verterbral body mRNA levels of RALDH1, RALDH2, RALDH3, RAR-?, RAR-? and RAR-?. Vitamin A deficiency in pregnancy may induce congenital spinal deformities in the postnatal rats. The decreases of RALDHs and RARs mRNA expression induced by vitamin A deprivation suggest that vertebral birth defects may be caused by a defect in RA signaling pathway during somitogenesis. PMID:23071590

Li, Zheng; Shen, Jianxiong; Wu, William Ka Kei; Wang, Xiaojuan; Liang, Jinqian; Qiu, Guixing; Liu, Jiaming

2012-01-01

347

Vitamin A deficiency modifies lipid metabolism in rat liver.  

PubMed

Liver fatty acid metabolism of male rats fed on a vitamin A-deficient diet for 3 months from 21 d of age was evaluated. Vitamin A restriction produced subclinical plasma and negligible liver retinol concentrations, compared with the control group receiving the same diet with 4000 IU vitamin A (8 mg retinol as retinyl palmitate)/kg diet. Vitamin A deficiency induced a hypolipidaemic effect by decreasing serum triacylglycerol, cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol levels. The decrease of liver total phospholipid was associated with low phosphatidylcholine synthesis observed by lower [14C]choline incorporation into phosphatidylcholine, compared with control. Also, liver fatty acid synthesis decreased, as was indicated by activity and mRNA expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and incorporation of [14C]acetate into saponified lipids. A decrease of the PPARalpha mRNA expression was observed. Liver mitochondria of vitamin A-deficient rats showed a lower total phospholipid concentration coinciding with a decrease of the cardiolipin proportion, without changes in the other phospholipid fractions determined. The mitochondria fatty acid oxidation increased by 30 % of the control value and it was attributed to a high activity and mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I (CPT-I). An increase in serum beta-hydroxybutyrate levels was observed in vitamin A-deficient rats. Vitamin A deficiency alters the mitochondria lipid composition and also enhances fatty acid oxidation by modifying the production of malonyl-CoA, the endogenous inhibitor of CPT-I, due to decreased activity of liver ACC. The incorporation of vitamin A into the diet of vitamin A-deficient rats reverted all the changes observed. PMID:17298694

Oliveros, Liliana B; Domeniconi, María A; Vega, Verónica A; Gatica, Laura V; Brigada, Ana M; Gimenez, María S

2007-02-01

348

Dietary intake of the water-soluble vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12 and C in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To describe the intake of vitamins thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), B6 (pyridoxine), B12 (cobalamine) and C (ascorbic acid) and their food sources among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.Methods:Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons aged between 35 and 74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall using

A Olsen; J Halkjær; C H van Gils; B Buijsse; H Verhagen; M Jenab; M C Boutron-Ruault; U Ericson; M C Ocké; P H M Peeters; M Touvier; M Niravong; M Waaseth; G Skeie; K T Khaw; R Travis; P Ferrari; M J Sanchez; A Agudo; K Overvad; J Linseisen; C Weikert; C Sacerdote; A Evangelista; D Zylis; K Tsiotas; J Manjer; B van Guelpen; E Riboli; N Slimani; S Bingham

2009-01-01

349

[Polyneuropathies in vitamin B1 deficiency in Reunion and Mayotte islands in 70 patients of Maori and Comorian descent].  

PubMed

Beriberi is an uncommon disorder related to thiamine deficiency. It is mainly found in underdeveloped countries among populations with poorly diversified diet, consisting largely of milled white cereals, a poor source of thiamine. In industrialized countries, thiamine deficiency with cardiac failure is more frequently found than the dry beriberi in high risk groups like chronic alcoholics. Nevertheless our attention was drawn to an outbreak of 70 cases of dry beriberi which occurred from 1997 to 2005 in the French territories of Reunion and Mayotte islands. It was characterized by an acute or sub-acute sensorimotor polyneuropathy with axonal lesions, affecting the lower limbs and occasionally the upper limbs, sometimes associated with cardiac beriberi. It affected young, non alcoholic individuals from the Mahoran and Comorian community who were in apparent good health when the illness occurred. Our study highlighted the feeding habits which are partly responsible for the development of the disease due to a chronic lack of thiamine and which probably contributed together with multiple cofactors to trigger off the illness. But many elements and mainly biological ones, also lead us to think that there is a genetic predisposition to develop this neuropathy. PMID:19739412

Darcel, F; Roussin, C; Vallat, J M; Charlin, C; Tournebize, P; Doussiet, E

2009-08-01

350

B Vitamins as Regulators of Phytoplankton Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Without an adequate supply of dissolved vitamins, many species of phytoplankton do not grow. Additions of inorganic nutrients like phosphorus and nitrogen, and trace metals like iron, are not alone adequate to sustain life-a practical lesson learned quickly by experimental biologists when they try to keep eukaryotic phytoplankton cultures alive in their labs. The reason is that coenzymes such as B vitamins are also required for many metabolic pathways. For example, vitamin B1 serves as a cofactor for a large number of enzymatic systems, including the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex required for the metabolism of carbohydrates (glycolysis) and amino acid synthesis [Vandamme, 1989]. Vitamin B12 is used primarily to assist two enzymes: methionine synthase, which is involved in DNA synthesis, and methylmalonyl CoA mutase, which is required for inorganic carbon assimilation [Lindemans and Abels, 1985].

Panzeca, Caterina; Tovar-Sanchez, Antonio; Agustí, Susana; Reche, Isabel; Duarte, Carlos M.; Taylor, Gordon T.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.

2006-12-01

351

Insulin resistance and endothelial function are improved after folate and vitamin B12 therapy in patients with metabolic syndrome: relationship between homocysteine levels and hyperinsulinemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was (a) to study whether a folate and vitamin B12 treatment, aimed at decreasing homocysteine levels, might ameliorate insulin resistance and endothelial dys- function in patients with metabolic syndrome according to the National Cholesterol Education Pro- gram - Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria and (b) to evaluate whether, under these metabolic conditions, there is a

Emanuela Setola; Lucilla Domenica Monti; Elena Galluccio; Altin Palloshi; Gabriele Fragasso; Rita Paroni; Fulvio Magni; Emilia Paola Sandoli; Pietro Lucotti; Sabrina Costa; Isabella Fermo; Marzia Galli-Kienle; Anna Origgi; Alberto Margonato; PierMarco Piatti

2004-01-01

352

Vitamin a deficiency phrynoderma associated with chronic giardiasis.  

PubMed

Phrynoderma is a rare form of follicular hyperkeratosis associated with deficiencies in vitamins A or C or essential fatty acids. We report a 6-year-old boy with an unusual presentation of phrynoderma, characterized by multiple minute digitate hyperkeratoses associated with hair casts and related to a severe deficiency in vitamins A and C complicating a chronic intestinal giardiasis. The lesions responded well to oral vitamins A and C combined with albendazole treatment. Vitamin A deficiency-related phrynoderma is rare in western countries and is usually caused by digestive malabsorption resulting from large intestine resection or pancreatic failure. To our knowledge, this is the first reported instance of phrynoderma related to a chronic intestinal parasitic infection by Giardia intestinalis with intestinal malabsorption as a likely consequence. PMID:16918630

Girard, Céline; Dereure, Olivier; Blatière, Véronique; Guillot, Bernard; Bessis, Didier

2006-01-01

353

Identification of structural markers for vitamin B12 and other corrinoid derivatives in solution using FTIR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The identification of structural markers for B12/protein interactions is crucial to a complete understanding of vitamin B12 transport and metabolic reaction mechanisms of B12 coenzymes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy can provide direct measurements of changes in the side chains and corrin ring resulting from B12/protein interactions. Using FTIR spectroscopy in various solvent systems, we have identified structural markers for corrinoids in the physiological state. We assign the major band (denoted B), which occurs at ca. 1630 cm-1 in D2O and ca. 1675 cm-1 in ethanol, to the amide I C=O stretching mode of the propionamide side chains of the corrin ring. The lower frequency of band B in D2O versus ethanol is due to the greater hydrogen-bonding properties of D2O that stabilize the charged amide resonance form. Since the propionamides are known to be important in protein binding, band B is a suitable marker for monitoring the interaction of these side chains with proteins. We assign bands at ca. 1575 and 1545 cm-1 (denoted C and D) as breathing modes of the corrin ring on the basis of the bands' solvent independence and their sensitivity to changes in axial ligation. As the sigma-donating strength of the axial ligands increases, the frequencies of bands C and D decrease, possibly indicating a lengthening of the corrin conjugated system. Band A, the known cyanide stretching frequency at ca. 2130 cm-1, probes the cobalt-carbon distance in cyanocorrinoids. As the frequency of band A increases, the cobalt-carbon bond strength should decrease. PMID:1991101

Taraszka, K S; Chen, E; Metzger, T; Chance, M R

1991-02-01

354

Chapter 29: historical aspects of the major neurological vitamin deficiency disorders: overview and fat-soluble vitamin A.  

PubMed

The vitamine doctrine: Although diseases resulting from vitamin deficiencies have been known for millennia, such disorders were generally attributed to toxic or infectious causes until the "vitamin doctrine" was developed in the early 20th century. In the late-19th century, a physiologically complete diet was believed to require only sufficient proteins, carbohydrates, fats, inorganic salts, and water. From 1880-1912, Lunin, Pekelharing, and Hopkins found that animals fed purified mixtures of known food components failed to grow or even lost weight and died, unless the diet was supplemented with small amounts of milk, suggesting that "accessory food factors" are required in trace amounts for normal growth. By this time, Funk suggested that deficiencies of trace dietary factors, which he labeled "vitamines" on the mistaken notion that they were "vital amines," were responsible for such diseases as beriberi, scurvy, rickets, and pellagra. Vitamin A deficiency eye disease: Night blindness was recognized by the ancient Egyptians and Greeks, and many authorities from Galen onward advocated liver as a curative. Outbreaks of night blindness were linked to nutritional causes in the 18th and 19th centuries by von Bergen, Schwarz, and others. Corneal ulceration was reported in 1817 by Magendie among vitamin A-deficient dogs fed for several weeks on a diet limited to sugar and water, although he erroneously attributed this to a deficiency of dietary nitrogen (i.e. protein). Subsequently, corneal epithelial defects, often in association with night blindness, were recognized in malnourished individuals subsisting on diets now recognizable as deficient in vitamin A by Budd, Livingstone, von Hubbenet, Bitot, Mori, Ishihari, and others. During World War I, Bloch conducted a controlled clinical trial of different diets among malnourished Danish children with night blindness and keratomalacia and concluded that whole milk, butter, and cod-liver oil contain a fat-soluble substance that protects against xerophthalmia. Early retinal photochemistry: In the 1870s, Boll found that light causes bleaching of the retinal pigment, and suggested that the outer segments of the rods contain a substance that conveys an impression of light to the brain by a photochemical process. Shortly thereafter, Kühne demonstrated that the bleaching process depends upon light, and was reversible if the retinal pigment epithelium was intact. Kühne proposed an "optochemical hypothesis," a prescient concept of photochemical transduction, attributing vision to a photochemical change in visual purple (rhodopsin) with resulting chemical products stimulating the visual cells and thereby conveying a visual image. Vitamin A: In 1913, Ishihara proposed that a "fatty substance" in blood is necessary for synthesis of both rhodopsin and the surface layer of the cornea, and that night blindness and keratomalacia develop when this substance is deficient. That year McCollum and Davis (and almost simultaneously Mendel and Osborne) discovered a fat-soluble accessory food factor (later called "fat-soluble A") distinct from the water-soluble anti-beriberi factor (later called "fat-soluble B"). By 1922 McCollum and colleagues distinguished two vitamins within the fat-soluble fraction, later named vitamins A and D. In 1925 Fridericia and Holm directly linked vitamin A to night blindness in animal experiments using rats, and in 1929 Holm demonstrated the presence of vitamin A in retinal tissue. In the 1930s, Moore, Karrer, Wald, and others established the provitamin role of beta-carotene. Karrer and colleagues isolated beta-carotene (the main dietary precursor of vitamin A) and retinol (vitamin A), and determined their chemical structures. In 1947, Isler and colleagues completed the full chemical synthesis of vitamin A. Modern retinal photochemistry: Beginning in the 1930s, Wald and colleagues greatly elaborated the photochemistry of vision, with the discovery of the visual cycle of vitamin A, demonstration

Lanska, Douglas J

2010-01-01

355

Vitamin D deficiency in children living in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is an unrecognized epidemic and a common health problem worldwide. This study was conducted to evaluate the vitamin D status in children living in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and to study its relation to various variables. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the pediatric clinic in Jeddah Clinic Hospital-Kandarah, Jeddah, KSA, from October through December 2010, in which 510 healthy children aged 4–15 years were enrolled. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were measured. Dietary vitamin D intake and duration of daily sunlight exposure were determined. 25(OH)D levels <20 ng/mL and <7 ng/mL were defined as relative and severe vitamin D deficiency, respectively. Results: The mean concentration of 25(OH)D was 13.07 ± 7.81 ng/mL. Seventy subjects (13.72%) had normal 25(OH)D level ranging 20–70 ng/mL. Three hundred (58.82%) had relative 25(OH)D deficiency and 140 (27.45%) had severe deficiency (P=0.000). 220 (43.14%) subjects were males and 290 (56.86%) were females having a statistically significant higher incidence of 25(OH)D deficiency (P=0.019). 54.9% were Saudis, 27.45% were Yemenis and 11.76% were Egyptians. Saudis and Yemenis were more subjected to 25(OH)D deficiency in comparison to Egyptians and other nationalities (P=0.01). There were significant inverse correlations between 25(OH)D levels and bony aches (P=0.000). 56.25% of asymptomatic children had vitamin D deficiency (P=0.000). Duration of sunlight exposure and daily intake of vitamin D had significant effects on serum level of vitamin D (P=0.000). Conclusions: A high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children living in Jeddah was observed in this study. Vitamin D supplementation of food products can prevent vitamin D deficiency in these children. PMID:22470865

Mansour, Maha M. H. K.; Alhadidi, Khaled M.

2012-01-01

356

Prevention of Vitamin D deficiency in infancy: daily 400 IU vitamin D is sufficient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary\\u000a Aim-objective  Vitamin D deficiency and rickets in developing countries continues to be a major health problem. Additionally, the increase\\u000a of cases of rickets in children of some ethnic groups in the United States and European countries has provided this issue\\u000a to be updated. Obviously, powerful strategies are necessary to prevent vitamin D deficiency nation-wide. In 2005, a nationwide\\u000a prevention program

Gul Yesiltepe Mutlu; Yusuf Kusdal; Elif Ozsu; Filiz M Cizmecioglu; Sukru Hatun

2011-01-01

357

Conformational Cycle of the Vitamin B12 ABC Importer in Liposomes Detected by Double Electron-Electron Resonance (DEER)*  

PubMed Central

Double electron-electron resonance is used here to investigate intermediates of the transport cycle of the Escherichia coli vitamin B12 ATP-binding cassette importer BtuCD-F. Previously, we showed the ATP-induced opening of the cytoplasmic gate I in TM5 helices, later confirmed by the AMP-PNP-bound BtuCD-F crystal structure. Here, other key residues are analyzed in TM10 helices (positions 307 and 322) and in the cytoplasmic gate II, i.e. the loop between TM2 and TM3 (positions 82 and 85). Without BtuF, binding of ATP induces detectable changes at positions 307 and 85 in BtuCD in liposomes. Together with BtuF, ATP triggers the closure of the cytoplasmic gate II in liposomes (reported by both positions 82 and 85). This forms a sealed cavity in the translocation channel in agreement with the AMP-PNP·BtuCD-F x-ray structure. When vitamin B12 and AMP-PNP are simultaneously present, the extent of complex formation is reduced, but the short 82–82 interspin distance detected indicates that the substrate does not affect the closed conformation of this gate. The existence of the BtuCD-F complex under these conditions is verified with spectroscopically orthogonal nitroxide and Gd(III)-based labels. The cytoplasmic gate II remains closed also in the vanadate-trapped state, but it reopens in the ADP-bound state of the complex. Therefore, we suggest that the substrate likely trapped in ATP·BtuCD-F can be released after ATP hydrolysis but before the occluded ADP-bound conformation is reached. PMID:24362024

Joseph, Benesh; Korkhov, Vladimir M.; Yulikov, Maxim; Jeschke, Gunnar; Bordignon, Enrica

2014-01-01

358

Vision changes after spaceflight are related to alterations in folate- and vitamin B-12-dependent one-carbon metabolism.  

PubMed

Approximately 20% (7 of 38) of astronauts on International Space Station (ISS) missions have developed measurable ophthalmic changes after flight. This study was conducted to determine if the folate- and vitamin B-12-dependent 1-carbon metabolic pathway is altered in these individuals. Since 2006, we have conducted experiments on the ISS to evaluate nutritional status and related biochemical indices of astronauts before, during, and after flight. Data were modeled to evaluate differences between individuals with ophthalmic changes (n = 5) and those without them (n = 15), all of whom were on ISS missions of 48-215 d. We also determined whether mean preflight serum concentrations of the 1-carbon metabolites and changes in measured cycloplegic refraction after flight were associated. Serum homocysteine (Hcy), cystathionine, 2-methylcitric acid (2MCA), and methylmalonic acid concentrations were 25-45% higher (P < 0.001) in astronauts with ophthalmic changes than in those without them. These differences existed before, during, and after flight. Preflight serum concentrations of Hcy and cystathionine, and mean in-flight serum folate, were correlated with change (postflight relative to preflight) values in refraction (P < 0.05), and preflight serum concentrations of 2MCA tended to be associated (P = 0.06) with ophthalmic changes. The biochemical differences observed in crewmembers with vision issues strongly suggest that their folate- and vitamin B-12-dependent 1-carbon transfer metabolism was affected before and during flight. The consistent differences in markers of 1-carbon metabolism between those who did and those who did not develop changes in vision suggest that polymorphisms in enzymes of this pathway may interact with microgravity to cause these pathophysiologic changes. PMID:22298570

Zwart, Sara R; Gibson, C Robert; Mader, Thomas H; Ericson, Karen; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Heer, Martina; Smith, Scott M

2012-03-01

359

The entropic contributions in vitamin B12 enzymes still reflect the electrostatic paradigm.  

PubMed

The catalytic power of enzymes containing coenzyme B12 has been, in some respects, the "last bastion" for the strain hypothesis. Our previous study of this system established by a careful sampling that the major part of the catalytic effect is due to the electrostatic interaction between the ribose of the ado group and the protein and that the strain contribution is very small. This finding has not been sufficiently appreciated due to misunderstandings of the power of the empirical valence bond (EVB) calculations and the need of sufficient sampling. Furthermore, some interesting new experiments point toward entropic effects as the source of the catalytic power, casting doubt on the validity of the electrostatic idea, at least, in the case of B12 enzymes. Here, we focus on the observation of the entropic effects and on analyzing their origin. We clarify that our EVB approach evaluates free energies rather than enthalpies and demonstrate by using the restraint release (RR) approach that the observed entropic contribution to the activation barrier is of electrostatic origin. Our study illustrates the power of the RR approach by evaluating the entropic contributions to catalysis and provides further support to our paradigm for the origin of the catalytic power of B12 enzymes. Overall, our study provides major support to our electrostatic preorganization idea and also highlights the basic requirements from ab initio quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations of activation free energies of enzymatic reactions. PMID:25805820

Schopf, Patrick; Mills, Matthew J L; Warshel, Arieh

2015-04-01

360

[Vitamin D deficiency rickets complicating Dorfman-Chanarin syndrome].  

PubMed

Vitamin D deficiency rickets remains a public health issue in many parts of the world. In France, this diagnosis has almost disappeared since 1992 with routine vitamin D supplementation for children. Therefore, it is more difficult for doctors to identify risk factors and early signs of this disease. In this article, we report a rickets diagnosis acquired by vitamin D deficiency in a child who presented with the onset of a genu valgum and difficulty walking at the age of 9½ years. This patient was a Comorian child followed up from his birth for Dorfman-Chanarin syndrome. Dorfman-Chanarin syndrome is a rare disease, with about 80 cases reported in the literature. It belongs to the group of neutral lipid storage diseases (NLSD) characterized especially on the skin by ichthyosis. This child presented risk factors for vitamin D deficiency (dark skin color, prolonged and exclusive breastfeeding, premature end of supplementation, and particularly severe ichthyosis) that should have alerted us to the risk of vitamin D deficiency and the need for supplementation. This case highlights the importance of vitamin D, especially if there are risk factors such as ichthyosis, and the need to remain watchful in monitoring all chronic diseases. PMID:25753274

Barraud, C; Cano, A; Boulay, C; Milh, M; Bollini, G; Chabrol, B

2015-04-01

361

The relationship between vitamin D deficiency and coronary artery ectasia  

PubMed Central

Introduction The pathophysiology of coronary artery ectasia (CAE) has not been clearly identified although multiple abnormalities including arteritis, endothelial dysfunction, and atherothrombosis have been reported. The role of vitamin D deficiency suggests cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, and hypertension. Vitamin D deficiency activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which affects the cardiovascular system. For this reason, it could be suggested that there is a relationship between vitamin D deficiency and CAE. Aim We aimed to compare the 25-OH vitamin D levels of CAE patients with those of controls. Material and methods This study included 50 CAE patients (20 male, mean age: 60.26 ±10.6 years) and 30 controls (10 males, mean age: 57.86 ±11.6 years). Along with routine tests, 25 OH vitamin D and parathormone (PTH) levels were analysed. Twenty-five OH vitamin D and PTH levels were compared. Results No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of basic characteristics. The average PTH level of the group of patients with CAE was higher than the average PTH level of the controls (97.8 ±46.3 pg/ml vs. 59.1 ±23.7 pg/ml; p < 0.001). The average 25 OH vitamin D level of the group of the patients with CAE was lower than the average 25 OH vitamin D level of the control group (18.9 ±8.5 ng/ml vs. 31.3 ±11.2 ng/ml; p < 0.001). Conclusions An association between CAE and vitamin D deficiency was found in our study. PMID:25489316

Demir, Canan; Keçeo?lu, Serdar

2014-01-01

362

Towards a cell factory for vitamin B12 production in Bacillus megaterium: bypassing of the cobalamin riboswitch control elements.  

PubMed

Bacillus megaterium is a bacterium that has been used in the past for the industrial production of vitamin B12 (cobalamin), the anti-pernicious anaemia factor. Cobalamin is a modified tetrapyrrole with a cobalt ion coordinated within its macrocycle. More recently, B. megaterium has been developed as a host for the high-yield production of recombinant proteins using a xylose inducible promoter system. Herein, we revisit cobalamin production in B. megaterium DSM319. We have investigated the importance of cobalt for optimum growth and cobalamin production. The cobaltochelatase (CbiX(L)) is encoded within a 14-gene cobalamin biosynthetic (cbi) operon, whose gene-products oversee the transformation of uroporphyrinogen III into adenosylcobyrinic acid a,c-diamide, a key precursor of cobalamin synthesis. The production of CbiX(L) in response to exogenous cobalt was monitored. The metal was found to stimulate cobalamin biosynthesis and decrease the levels of CbiX(L). From this we were able to show that the entire cbi operon is transcriptionally regulated by a B12-riboswitch, with a switch-off point at approximately 5 nM cobalamin. To bypass the effects of the B12-riboswitch the cbi operon was cloned without these regulatory elements. Growth of these strains on minimal media supplemented with glycerol as a carbon source resulted in significant increases in cobalamin production (up to 200 ?g L(-1)). In addition, a range of partially amidated intermediates up to adenosylcobyric acid was detected. These findings outline a potential way to develop B. megaterium as a cell factory for cobalamin production using cheap raw materials. PMID:24657453

Moore, Simon J; Mayer, Matthias J; Biedendieck, Rebekka; Deery, Evelyne; Warren, Martin J

2014-12-25

363

[Metabolism and effects of vitamin D. Definition of vitamin D deficiency].  

PubMed

There is a growing interest for vitamin D in the medical and scientific community as well as in the public media as illustrated by a huge number of publications. Most experts claim that vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is widespread with potential important public health consequences. It may seem surprising for many persons that a deficiency in a vitamin may be so frequent in countries where food is so diversified and easily available. In fact, vitamin D is not a vitamin stricto sensu as it is mainly synthesized in the skin under the action of UVB rays, while its food sources are scarce. Furthermore, UVB rays are absent during a marked part of the year at latitudes greater than 35-40°, while pollution, cloud cover reduce the number of UVB reaching the earth, and many factors such as age, skin pigmentation, covering clothes, sun creams reduce the capacity of the skin to synthesize vitamin D3. Vitamin D must be hydroxylated to form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25OH2D), the active metabolite. As 1,25OH2D is released into the bloodstream and binds to a receptor present in several distant tissues, it may be considered as a hormone, vitamin D being thus a pre-prohormone. In the present article, we review briefly the metabolism and various effects of vitamin D as well as vitamin D treatments. We define vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency considering separately the population and the patient level and propose our opinion according to which patients may beneficiate from vitamin D testing. PMID:24948019

Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

2014-01-01

364

A Novel Rat Model of Vitamin D Deficiency: Safe and Rapid Induction of Vitamin D and Calcitriol Deficiency without Hyperparathyroidism  

PubMed Central

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a range of clinical disorders. To study the mechanisms involved and improve treatments, animal models are tremendously useful. Current vitamin D deficient rat models have important practical limitations, including time requirements when using, exclusively, a vitamin D deficient diet. More importantly, induction of hypovitaminosis D causes significant fluctuations in parathyroid hormone (PTH) and mineral levels, complicating the interpretation of study results. To overcome these shortcomings, we report the successful induction of vitamin D deficiency within three weeks, with stable serum PTH and minerals levels, in Wistar rats. We incorporated two additional manoeuvres compared to a conventional diet. Firstly, the vitamin D depleted diet is calcium (Ca) enriched, to attenuate the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Secondly, six intraperitoneal injections of paricalcitol during the first two weeks are given to induce the rapid degradation of circulating vitamin D metabolites. After three weeks, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) levels had dropped below detection limits, with unchanged serum PTH, Ca, and phosphate (P) levels. Therefore, this model provides a useful tool to examine the sole effect of hypovitaminosis D, in a wide range of research settings, without confounding changes in PTH, Ca, and P.

Stavenuiter, Andrea W. D.; Arcidiacono, Maria Vittoria; Ferrantelli, Evelina; Keuning, Eelco D.; Vila Cuenca, Marc; ter Wee, Piet M.; Beelen, Robert H. J.; Vervloet, Marc G.; Dusso, Adriana S.

2015-01-01

365

Pasture cobalt concentration and its effect on vitamin B12 status of sheep grazing upland and lowland pastures in the Kaiwera district, eastern Southland, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cobalt (Co) concentrations in upland and lowland pastures of the Kaiwera district were monitored for a 13-month period from August 1985 to September 1986 and the effect of changes in pasture Co on the vitamin B12 status of grazing sheep was determined. Co concentration in upland pastures was adequate for stock in winter but fell rapidly to below the critical

C. G. Sherrell; P. Brunsden; P. D. McIntosh

1987-01-01

366

A water soluble vitamin B12-ReI fluorescent conjugate for cell uptake screens: use in the confirmation of cubilin in the lung cancer line A549.  

PubMed

A water soluble vitamin B(12)-rhenium conjugate was synthesized and used in concert with intrinsic factor to screen for cubilin receptor-mediated uptake in lung cancer cells. Internalization of the conjugate demonstrated that it could be used to rapidly screen for the cubilin receptor in living cells, subsequently confirmed with Western blotting and RT-PCR. PMID:21818500

Vortherms, Anthony R; Kahkoska, Anna R; Rabideau, Amy E; Zubieta, Jon; Andersen, Louise Lund; Madsen, Mette; Doyle, Robert P

2011-09-21

367

Vitamin D Deficiency and Its Health Consequences in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Studies on bone mineral health from different parts of India indicate wide prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in all\\u000a age groups including neonates, infants, school children, pregnant\\/lactating women, and adult males and females residing in\\u000a rural and urban India. These have resulted due to poor sun exposure, dark skin complexion, vegetarian food habits, sedentary\\u000a lifestyle, and lack of vitamin

R. K. Marwaha; R. Goswami

368

Vitamin D deficiency rickets presenting as pseudotumor cerebri.  

PubMed

Pseudotumor cerebri is a condition of elevated intracranial pressure in the absence of clinical, laboratory or radiological evidence of an intracranial space-occupying lesion. Various associations with pseudotumor cerebri have been made in literature. We report the case of a five-month-old female infant with vitamin D deficiency rickets, who presented with pseudotumor cerebri. Her cerebrospinal fluid examination was normal, with a high opening pressure of 330 mmH2O. Her computed tomography scan was normal. After lumbar puncture the anterior fontanelle came at level. Her investigations revealed vitamin D deficiency. She was started on acetazolamide, calcitriol sachets, and calcium supplements. She became asymptomatic in three days and was discharged. Through this case we wish to highlight this unusual presentation of vitamin D deficiency rickets appearing as pseudotumor cerebri. PMID:24347962

Zaki, Syed Ahmed; Lad, Vijay; Abdagire, Nitinkumar

2013-10-01

369

Vitamin D receptor overexpression in osteoblasts and osteocytes prevents bone loss during vitamin D-deficiency.  

PubMed

There are several lines of evidence that demonstrate the ability of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3), acting via the vitamin D receptor (VDR) to mediate negative or positive effects in bone. Transgenic over-expression of VDR in osteoblasts and osteocytes in a mouse model (OSVDR) has been previously shown to inhibit processes of bone resorption and enhance bone formation, under conditions of adequate calcium intake. While these findings suggest that vitamin D signalling in osteoblasts and osteocytes promotes bone mineral accrual, the vitamin D requirement for this action is not well understood. In this study, 4 week old female OSVDR and wild-type (WT) mice were fed either a vitamin D-replete (1000IU/kg diet, D+) or vitamin D-deficient (D-) diet for 4 months to observe changes to bone mineral homeostasis. Tibial bone mineral volume was analysed by micro-CT and changes to bone cell activities were measured using standard dynamic histomorphometric techniques. While vitamin D-deplete WT mice demonstrated a reduction in periosteal bone accrual and overall bone mineral volume, OSVDR mice, however, displayed increased cortical and cancellous bone volume in mice which remained higher during vitamin D-depletion due to a reduced osteoclast number and increased bone formation rate. These data suggest that increased VDR-mediated activity in osteoblast and osteocytes prevents bone loss due to vitamin D-deficiency. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '16th Vitamin D Workshop'. PMID:24434283

Lam, Nga N; Triliana, Rahma; Sawyer, Rebecca K; Atkins, Gerald J; Morris, Howard A; O'Loughlin, Peter D; Anderson, Paul H

2014-10-01

370

The bioavailability of (pro) vitamin A Carotenoids and maximizing the contribution of homestead food production to combating vitamin A deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

An estimated 100-140 million children worldwide suffer vitamin A deficiency disorders (VADD). Strategies for combating VADD are best used in combination because they serve particular target groups and none has full coverage. Homestead food production (HFP) can contribute to combating vitamin A deficiency directly, by increasing intake of vitamin A-rich foods, and indirectly through improving health and increasing income. By

S. de Pee; M. W. Bloem

2007-01-01

371

Vitamin E deficiency and risk of equine motor neuron disease  

PubMed Central

Background Equine motor neuron disease (EMND) is a spontaneous neurologic disorder of adult horses which results from the degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brain stem. Clinical manifestations, pathological findings, and epidemiologic attributes resemble those of human motor neuron disease (MND). As in MND the etiology of the disease is not known. We evaluated the predisposition role of vitamin E deficiency on the risk of EMND. Methods Eleven horses at risk of EMND were identified and enrolled in a field trial at different times. The horses were maintained on a diet deficient in vitamin E and monitored periodically for levels of antioxidants – ?-tocopherols, vitamins A, C, ?-carotene, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase (SOD1). In addition to the self-control another parallel control group was included. Survival analysis was used to assess the probability of developing EMND past a specific period of time. Results There was large variability in the levels of vitamins A and C, ?-carotene, GSH-Px, and SOD1. Plasma vitamin E levels dropped significantly over time. Ten horses developed EMND within 44 months of enrollment. The median time to develop EMND was 38.5 months. None of the controls developed EMND. Conclusion The study elucidated the role of vitamin E deficiency on the risk of EMND. Reproducing this disease in a natural animal model for the first time will enable us to carry out studies to test specific hypotheses regarding the mechanism by which the disease occurs. PMID:17605810

Mohammed, Hussni O; Divers, Thomas J; Summers, Brian A; de Lahunta, Alexander

2007-01-01

372

Enhanced Urinary Excretion of Co6#{176} Vitamin 12 Produced by Delayed Release Capsules  

Microsoft Academic Search

DIETARY VITAMIN B12 requires intrinsic factor for its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract.1 Even so, small amounts of vitamin B12 will be absorbed in the absence of intrinsic factor and therapeutic responses can be produced in pernicious anemia if sufficiently large amounts of vitamin B12 are ingested.2 In the human, vitamin B12 is absorbed from the upper gastro- intestinal tract.

P. C. JOHNSON; E. S. BERGER

1957-01-01

373

Effect of chronic vitamin E deficiency on sympathetic and sensorimotor function in rat mesenteric arteries.  

PubMed Central

1. Mesenteric arterial beds from male rats deprived of vitamin E for 12 months postweaning were isolated and perfused at 5 ml min-1. 2. The basal perfusion pressure of vitamin E-deficient preparations was significantly higher (34.0 +/- 1.9 mmHg, n = 15) than in age-matched controls (26.1 +/- 2 mmHg, n = 14; P < 0.01). 3. At basal tone, vasoconstrictor responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS) were not attenuated by vitamin E deficiency; at high stimulation frequencies, responses were enhanced. According to dose-response curves, exogenous noradrenaline was significantly more efficacious in preparations from vitamin E-deficient rats (P < 0.05). 4. In preparations with tone raised by methoxamine (6-20 microM) and in the presence of guanethidine (5 microM), EFS of perivascular sensorimotor nerves elicited frequency-dependent vasodilatation which was significantly attenuated by vitamin E deficiency. There was no difference in relaxation to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP; 1.5 x 10(-11) mol), or to the sensory neurotoxin capsaicin (5 x 10(-11) mol). 5. Immunohistochemical analysis of CGRP-containing nerves in the superior mesenteric artery showed no differences in density of innervation. 6. In conclusion, chronic vitamin E deficiency impairs sensorimotor vasodilatation in rat mesenteric arteries; this does not appear to be due to changes in postjunctional receptors, or to a depletion of transmitter (CGRP) content of the superior mesenteric artery. Sensorimotor nerves appear to be more vulnerable than sympathetic nerves to chronic vitamin E deficiency. Images Figure 6 PMID:8745286

Ralevic, V; Hoyle, C H; Goss-Sampson, M A; Milla, P J; Burnstock, G

1996-01-01

374

PANTOTHENIC ACID AND VITAMIN B12 IN THE LIVER OF SHEEP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten ewes were fed for nine months on a cobalt-deficient ration of wheaten hay chaff and gluten. Four of the animals were given cobalt throughout the whole period. The remaining six animals were given cobalt for the last two months only. Three of the ewes in the + cobalt group were pair fed with three in the - cobalt group.Biopsy

Mary C Dawbarn; Heather Forsyth; Diana Kilpatrick

1963-01-01

375

Preliminary Evidence for Cell Membrane Amelioration in Children with Cystic Fibrosis by 5-MTHF and Vitamin B12 Supplementation: A Single Arm Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common fatal autosomal recessive disorders in the Caucasian population caused by mutations of gene for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). New experimental therapeutic strategies for CF propose a diet supplementation to affect the plasma membrane fluidity and to modulate amplified inflammatory response. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) and vitamin B12 supplementation for ameliorating cell plasma membrane features in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis. Methodology and Principal Findings A single arm trial was conducted from April 2004 to March 2006 in an Italian CF care centre. 31 children with CF aged from 3 to 8 years old were enrolled. Exclusion criteria were diabetes, chronic infections of the airways and regular antibiotics intake. Children with CF were supplemented for 24 weeks with 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF, 7.5 mg /day) and vitamin B12 (0.5 mg/day). Red blood cells (RBCs) were used to investigate plasma membrane, since RBCs share lipid, protein composition and organization with other cell types. We evaluated RBCs membrane lipid composition, membrane protein oxidative damage, cation content, cation transport pathways, plasma and RBCs folate levels and plasma homocysteine levels at baseline and after 24 weeks of 5-MTHF and vitamin B12 supplementation. In CF children, 5-MTHF and vitamin B12 supplementation (i) increased plasma and RBC folate levels; (ii) decreased plasma homocysteine levels; (iii) modified RBC membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition; (iv) increased RBC K+ content; (v) reduced RBC membrane oxidative damage and HSP70 membrane association. Conclusion and Significance 5-MTHF and vitamin B12 supplementation might ameliorate RBC membrane features of children with CF. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00730509 PMID:19277125

Scambi, Cinzia; De Franceschi, Lucia; Guarini, Patrizia; Poli, Fabio; Siciliano, Angela; Pattini, Patrizia; Biondani, Andrea; La Verde, Valentina; Bortolami, Oscar; Turrini, Francesco; Carta, Franco; D'Orazio, Ciro; Assael, Baroukh M.; Faccini, Giovanni; Bambara, Lisa M.

2009-01-01

376

Dietary induced subclinical vitamin K deficiency in normal human subjects.  

PubMed Central

A subclinical vitamin K deficiency was induced in 32 healthy subjects (four groups of eight males and females) aged 20-40 and 60-80 yr residing in the Metabolic Research Unit of the Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University. Volunteers were initially fed (4 d) a baseline-period diet containing the recommended daily allowance for vitamin K which is equivalent to 80 micrograms/d of phylloquinone (vitamin K1). During the baseline period various parameters of vitamin K nutritional status were monitored. The baseline period was followed by a 13-d depletion period during which the subjects were fed a very low vitamin K1 diet (approximately 10 micrograms/d). After depletion, the subjects entered a 16-d repletion period (four stages lasting 4 d each) during which time they were repleted with 5, 15, 25, and 45 micrograms of vitamin K1 per day. Vitamin K1 depletion dramatically and significantly decreased plasma vitamin K1 levels (P < 0.0001) in both elderly and young groups to values 13-18% of day 1 (elderly 0.22 nM, young 0.14 nM). Repleting the subjects with up to 45 micrograms of vitamin K1 per day failed, in the case of the young subjects, to bring plasma vitamin K1 levels back into the normal range. Dietary vitamin K1 restriction induced different responses in the urinary excretion of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid between the young and the elderly subjects with values decreasing significantly (P < 0.03) in the young while remaining unchanged in the elderly. The vitamin K1 depletion period had no significant effect on either prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin times, or Factor VII and protein C (as determined by antigenic and functional assays). By using a monoclonal antibody, decarboxy prothrombin was found to increase slightly but significantly in both groups (P < 0.05) as a consequence of the low vitamin K1 diet. This study clearly shows that a diet low in vitamin K1 can result in a functional subclinical deficiency of vitamin K (decreased urinary gamma-carboxyglutamic acid excretion) without affecting blood coagulation. PMID:8473516

Ferland, G; Sadowski, J A; O'Brien, M E

1993-01-01

377

Metabolic and immunological consequences of vitamin D deficiency in obese children.  

PubMed

Numerous studies highlighted the link between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular, autoimmune, metabolic diseases, and obesity. However, a clear role of vitamin D in these disorders is still unknown. Vitamin D deficiency in children can be a potential risk factor for developing diseases at a later age. Early prevention and vitamin D supplementation should become a public health priority. This review highlights the clinical implications of vitamin D deficiency in adults and children with obesity. PMID:25315624

Pyr?ak, B; Witkowska-S?dek, E; Krajewska, M; Demkow, U; Kucharska, A M

2015-01-01

378

A novel spectral resolution and simultaneous determination of multicomponent mixture of Vitamins B1, B6, B12, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac in tablets and capsules by derivative and MCR-ALS.  

PubMed

A novel method was developed for spectral resolution and further determination of five-component mixture including Vitamin B complex (B1, B6, B12 and Benfotiamine) along with the commonly co-formulated Diclofenac. The method is simple, sensitive, precise and could efficiently determine the five components by a complementary application of two different techniques. The first is univariate second derivative method that was successfully applied for determination of Vitamin B12. The second is Multivariate Curve Resolution using the Alternating Least Squares method (MCR-ALS) by which an efficient resolution and quantitation of the quaternary spectrally overlapped Vitamin B1, Vitamin B6, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac sodium were achieved. The effect of different constraints was studied and the correlation between the true spectra and the estimated spectral profiles were found to be 0.9998, 0.9983, 0.9993 and 0.9933 for B1, B6, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac, respectively. All components were successfully determined in tablets and capsules and the results were compared to HPLC methods and they were found to be statistically non-significant. PMID:25645231

Hegazy, Maha A; Abdelwahab, Nada S; Fayed, Ahmed S

2015-04-01

379

Vitamin Deficiencies in Humans: Can Plant Science Help?[W  

PubMed Central

The term vitamin describes a small group of organic compounds that are absolutely required in the human diet. Although for the most part, dependency criteria are met in developed countries through balanced diets, this is not the case for the five billion people in developing countries who depend predominantly on a single staple crop for survival. Thus, providing a more balanced vitamin intake from high-quality food remains one of the grandest challenges for global human nutrition in the coming decade(s). Here, we describe the known importance of vitamins in human health and current knowledge on their metabolism in plants. Deficits in developing countries are a combined consequence of a paucity of specific vitamins in major food staple crops, losses during crop processing, and/or overreliance on a single species as a primary food source. We discuss the role that plant science can play in addressing this problem and review successful engineering of vitamin pathways. We conclude that while considerable advances have been made in understanding vitamin metabolic pathways in plants, more cross-disciplinary approaches must be adopted to provide adequate levels of all vitamins in the major staple crops to eradicate vitamin deficiencies from the global population. PMID:22374394

Fitzpatrick, Teresa B.; Basset, Gilles J.C.; Borel, Patrick; Carrari, Fernando; DellaPenna, Dean; Fraser, Paul D.; Hellmann, Hanjo; Osorio, Sonia; Rothan, Christophe; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Fernie, Alisdair R.

2012-01-01

380

NIH Researchers Find Vitamin D Binding Protein May Help to Assess Vitamin D Deficiency in African and White Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... to assess vitamin D deficiency in African and white Americans November 21, 2013 Measuring vitamin D binding ... more commonly diagnosed among African Americans than in white Americans. However, the poor skeletal-bone health associated ...

381

Methionine, folic acid, vitamin B b12 sand unidentified factors in the nutrition of the growing chick  

E-print Network

KETHIONINE ~ FOLIC ACID ~ VITAMIN Big AND UNIDENTIFIED FACTORS IN THE NUTRITION OF THE GROWING CHICK A Thesis by Billy E. Welch Appr ed o tyls and content by Chairman oi Committee YATHIONINE y FOLIC ACID ~ VITAMIN Big AND UNIDENTIFIED... factor(s) in these compounds would enhance the utili- sation of this;unino acid. . Becent reports have indicated that vit~n BIB and folic acid are concerned with protein metabolism. More specifically, reports by Stekol (1950) and Bennett (1950...

Welch, Billy E

1951-01-01

382

Vitamin C deficiency and risk of myocardial infarction: prospective population study of men from eastern Finland.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between plasma vitamin C concentrations and the risk of acute myocardial infarction. DESIGN: Prospective population study. SETTING: Eastern Finland. SUBJECTS: 1605 randomly selected men aged 42, 48, 54, or 60 who did not have either symptomatic coronary heart disease or ischaemia on exercise testing at entry to the Kuopio ischaemic heart disease risk factor study in between 1984 and 1989. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of acute myocardial infarctions; fasting plasma vitamin C concentrations at baseline. RESULTS: 70 of the men had a fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction between March 1984 and December 1992.91 men had vitamin C deficiency (plasma ascorbate < 11.4 mumol/l, or 2.0 mg/l), of whom 12 (13.2%) had a myocardial infarction; 1514 men were not deficient in vitamin C, of whom 58 (3.8%) had a myocardial infarction. In a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for age, year of examination, and season of the year examined (August to October v rest of the year) men who had vitamin C deficiency had a relative risk of acute myocardial infarction of 3.5 (95% confidence interval 1.8 to 6.7, P = 0.0002) compared with those who were not deficient. In another model adjusted additionally for the strongest risk factors for myocardial infarction and for dietary intakes of tea fibre, carotene, and saturated fats men with a plasma ascorbate concentration < 11.4 mumol/l had a relative risk of 2.5 (1.3 to 5.2, P = 0.0095) compared with men with higher plasma vitamin C concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin C deficiency, as assessed by low plasma ascorbate concentration, is a risk factor for coronary heart disease. PMID:9066474

Nyyssönen, K.; Parviainen, M. T.; Salonen, R.; Tuomilehto, J.; Salonen, J. T.

1997-01-01

383

Vitamin A Deficiency and Alterations in the Extracellular Matrix  

PubMed Central

Vitamin A or retinol which is the natural precursor of several biologically active metabolites can be considered the most multifunctional vitamin in mammals. Its deficiency is currently, along with protein malnutrition, the most serious and common nutritional disorder worldwide. It is necessary for normal embryonic development and postnatal tissue homeostasis, and exerts important effects on cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. These actions are produced mainly