Science.gov

Sample records for vitamin b 12 deficiency

  1. How common is vitamin B12 deficiency?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In considering the vitamin B-12 fortification of flour, it is important to know who is at risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency and whether those individuals would benefit from flour fortification.This article reviews current knowledge of the prevalence and causes of vitamin B-12 deficiency and considers ...

  2. [Vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Leischker, A H; Kolb, G F

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency increases with age. Patients with dementia and spouses of patients with dementia are at special risk for the development of vitamin B12 deficiency. In a normal diet this vitamin is present only in animal source foods; therefore, vegans frequently develop vitamin B12 deficiency if not using supplements or foods fortified with cobalamin. Apart from dementia, most of these manifestations are completely reversible under correct therapy; therefore it is crucial to identify and to treat even atypical presentations of vitamin B12 deficiency as early as possible. This article deals with the physiology and pathophysiology of vitamin B12 metabolism. A practice-oriented algorithm which also considers health economic aspects for a rational laboratory diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency is presented. In cases with severe neurological symptoms, therapy should be parenteral, especially initially. For parenteral treatment, hydroxocobalamin is the drug of choice. PMID:25586321

  3. [Approaches to vitamin B12 deficiency].

    PubMed

    Russcher, Henk; Heil, Sandra G; Slobbe, Lennert; Lindemans, Jan

    2012-01-01

    A 28-year-old female vegetarian was referred to a specialist in internal medicine with persistent iron deficiency. Laboratory analysis revealed microcytic anaemia with low ferritin levels but normal total vitamin B12 levels. The red blood cell distribution width, however, showed a very wide variation in red blood cell sizes, indicating a coexisting vitamin B12 deficiency, which was confirmed by the low concentration of active vitamin B12. Another patient, a 69-year-old woman with a history of previous gastric surgery and renal insufficiency as a complication of diabetes mellitus, was suspected to be deficient in vitamin B12, as she had low total vitamin B12 levels and an accumulation of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine in her blood. Testing the total concentration of vitamin B12 alone has insufficient diagnostic accuracy and no accepted gold standard is available for diagnosing vitamin B12 deficiency. With the development of newer tests, such as measuring holotranscobalamin II (concentration of active vitamin B12), atypical and subclinical deficiency states can be recognized. A new approach to diagnosing vitamin B12 deficiency is presented, based upon these 2 case descriptions. PMID:22217304

  4. Neuro-regression in vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Sanwar; Nathani, Shweta

    2009-01-01

    Neuroregression in infants has varied aetiology and vitamin B12 deficiency is one of the uncommon causes. Infantile vitamin B12 deficiency is encountered in malnourished infants or in offspring of strict vegan mothers. We present two cases, both infants of 10 and 8 months of age, whose mothers had vitamin B12 deficiency. On admission, the patients were apathic, hypotonic and lethargic. Serum vitamin B12 levels were below normal limits. On cranial MRI, T2-weighted images revealed frontoparietal cortical atrophy. Both the infants responded to vitamin B12 treatment. PMID:21686891

  5. [Vegetarians are at high risk of vitamin B12 deficiency].

    PubMed

    Javid, Parva; Christensen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Since vegetarians have a lower intake of vitamin B12 (B12) than non-vegetarians, they are at increased risk of developing B12 deficiency. The less animal products the food contains the worse the B12 status. However, even lacto-ovo-vegetarians run the risk of becoming deficient in B12. Vegetarians are recommended regularly to take supplements of B12, and they should be informed of the lacking content of B12 of plant products and the hazards of B12 deficiency. Furthermore, vegetarians should routinely be checked for possible B12 deficiency. PMID:26750191

  6. Vitamin B12 Deficiency due to Chlorofluorocarbon: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Hemlata; Chaudhary, Rekha

    2010-01-01

    Background. Vitamin B12 is vital for optimal functioning of various organ systems but more importantly the central nervous system and the hematological system. Deficiency of vitamin B12 clinically manifests as excessive daytime fatigue, memory difficulties, encephalopathy, myelopathy, peripheral neuropathy, and optic neuropathy. In occupational medicine, vitamin B12 deficiency has been reported with exposure to nitrous oxide in health care workers. However, not much is known about exposure to Freons in other industries and vitamin B12 deficiency. Aim. We are reporting a case of vitamin B12 deficiency in the setting of exposure to chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) gases. Case Report. A 55-year-old male refrigerator mechanic experienced recurrent visual symptoms, which included diplopia and blurring. A complete workup was done and was significant of vitamin B12 deficiency. However, his B12 levels were refractory to supplementation. Appropriate precautions at workplace improved patient's symptoms and were associated with significant improvement in B12 levels. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of vitamin B12 deficiency (that remains refractory to supplementation) in the setting of exposure to Freon gases. PMID:21461374

  7. Dietary vitamin B12 deficiency in an adolescent white boy.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, P; Holmes, D; Ramanan, A V; Bose-Haider, B; Lewis, M J; Will, A

    2002-06-01

    Dietary deficiency of cobalamin resulting in tissue deficiency in white individuals is unusual. However, several patients with dietary deficiency who were neither vegan nor Hindu have been described. This report describes the case of a 14 year old boy who was a white non-Hindu with a very low intake of cobalamin, which was not apparent until a detailed dietary assessment was performed. The patient responded rapidly to a combination of oral and parenteral B12. This case illustrates the fact that severe dietary vitamin B12 deficiency can occur in non-Hindu white individuals. Inadequate dietary content of B12 may not be apparent until a detailed dietary assessment is performed. This patient is likely to have had subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency for several years. Increased vitamin B12 requirements associated with the adolescent growth spurt may have provoked overt tissue deficiency. PMID:12037034

  8. West syndrome due to vitamin B12 deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Serin, Hepsen Mine; Kara, Aslıhan Oruçoğlu; Oğuz, Baran

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is one of the essential vitamins affecting various systems of the body. Vitamin B12 deficiency in infants often produces haematological and neurological deficits including macrocyticanaemia, neurodevelopmental delay or regression, irritability, weakness, hypotonia, ataxia, apathy, tremor andseizures. In this article, we report the case of a six-month-old male patient diagnosed with West syndrome associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. Although the patient had no evidence of macrocytic anemia in complete blood count, we measured the level of vitamin B12 because the patient had hypotonicity and found it to be low. No other problem was found in the other investigations directed to the etiology of West syndrome. He was being exclusively breast-fed and vitamin B12 deficiency was related with nutritional inadequacy of his mother. Vitamin B12 deficiency should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with different neurological findings. In addition, vitamin B12 deficiency should be considered as a rare cause in West syndrome which has a heterogeneous etiology. PMID:26884697

  9. Causes of Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review describes current knowledge of the main causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The most common explanations for poor B12 status are a low dietary intake of the vitamin (i.e., a low intake of animal-source foods) and malabsorption. Although it has long been known that strict vegetar...

  10. MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL VITAMIN B12 AND HOLOTRANSCOBALAMIN, SINGLY AND IN COBMINATION, IN SCREENING FOR METABOLIC VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The standard screening test for vitamin B12 deficiency, measurement of total plasma vitamin B12, has limitations of sensitivity and specificity. Plasma vitamin B12 bound to transcobalamin (holoTC) is the fraction of total vitamin B12 available for tissue uptake and therefore has been pro...

  11. [Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in infants breastfed by vegans].

    PubMed

    Roed, Casper; Skovby, Flemming; Lund, Allan Meldgaard

    2009-10-19

    Weight loss and reduction of motor skills resulted in paediatric evaluation of a 10-month-old girl and a 12-month-old boy. Both children suffered form anaemia and delayed development due to vitamin B12 deficiency caused by strict maternal vegan diet during pregnancy and nursing. Therapy with cyanocobalamin was instituted with remission of symptoms. Since infants risk irreversible neurologic damage following severe vitamin B12 deficiency, early diagnosis and treatment are mandatory. Vegan and vegetarian women should take vitamin B12 supplementation during the pregnancy and nursing period. PMID:19852900

  12. Causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency.

    PubMed

    Allen, Lindsay H

    2008-06-01

    This review describes current knowledge of the main causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The most common explanations for poor vitamin B12 status are a low dietary intake of the vitamin (i.e., a low intake of animal-source foods) and malabsorption. Although it has long been known that strict vegetarians (vegans) are at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency, evidence now indicates that low intakes of animal-source foods, such as occur in some lacto-ovo vegetarians and many less-industrialized countries, cause vitamin B12 depletion. Malabsorption of the vitamin is most commonly observed as food-bound cobalamin malabsorption due to gastric atrophy in the elderly, and probably as a result of Helicobacter pylori infection. There is growing evidence that gene polymorphisms in transcobalamins affect plasma vitamin B12 concentrations. The primary cause of folate deficiency is low intake of sources rich in the vitamin, such as legumes and green leafy vegetables, and the consumption of these foods may explain why folate status can be adequate in relatively poor populations. Other situations in which the risk of folate deficiency increases include lactation and alcoholism. PMID:18709879

  13. A rare case of vitamin B12 deficiency with ascites.

    PubMed

    Rajsekhar, Putta; Reddy, Mugannagari Maheshwar; Vaddera, Sameeraja; Rajini, G; Tikeli, Vinil

    2014-07-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is widespread than assumed in population. At risk are older people, pregnant women, vegans, patients with renal and intestinal diseases. Vitamin B12 deficiency can present with various hematological, gastrointestinal and neurological manifestations. In the population, the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in younger people is 5% to 7% which is less compared to elderly people. In developing countries, deficiency is much more common, starting in early life and persisting across the life span. Here, we present a 16-year-old female patient presenting with ascites since 2 months who was subsequently investigated and diagnosed to have nutritional megaloblastic anaemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency after exclusion of other infective, neoplastic, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Inspite, patient was treated with antitubercular drugs but she did not respond. After supplementation of Vitamin B12, ascites responded well. Inadequate intake due to low consumption of animal source foods is the main cause of low serum vitamin B12 in younger adults and likely the main cause in poor population worldwide. PMID:25177593

  14. Neurological consequences of vitamin B12 deficiency and its treatment.

    PubMed

    Chalouhi, Christel; Faesch, Sabine; Anthoine-Milhomme, Marie-Constance; Fulla, Yvonne; Dulac, Olivier; Chéron, Gérard

    2008-08-01

    In developed countries, the vitamin B12 deficiency usually occurs in children exclusively breast-fed, whose mothers are vegetarians, causing low stores of vitamin B12. Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency appear during the second trimester of life and include failure to thrive, lethargy, hypotonia, and arrest or regression of developmental skills. A megaloblastic anemia can be present. One half of the infants exhibit abnormal movements before the start of treatment with intramuscular cobalamin, which disappear 1 or 2 days after. More rarely, movement disorders appear a few days after treatment, whereas neurological symptoms are improving. These abnormal movements can last for 2 to 6 weeks. If not treated, vitamin B12 deficiency can cause lasting neurodisability. Therefore, efforts should be directed to preventing deficiency in pregnant and breast-feeding women on vegan diets and their infants by giving them vitamin B12 supplements. When preventive supplementation has failed, one should recognize and treat quickly an infant presenting with failure to thrive and delayed development. PMID:18708898

  15. Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Infancy: The Case for Screening.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurpreet; Le, Doan; Schnabl, Kareena; Leaker, Michael T; Steele, MacGregor; Sparkes, Rebecca L

    2016-04-01

    The classic principles put forth by Wilson and Jungner are often applied to determine the suitability of a condition for universal newborn screening. The three cases described here portray the harmful effects of vitamin B12 deficiency in infancy. The challenges and opportunities of early recognition and treatment are highlighted. Screening newborns would allow early detection and prevention of severe neurological damage in vitamin B12 -deficient infants and enable diagnosis of unrecognized maternal pernicious anemia in asymptomatic mothers. However, lack of standardized methodology and screening cutoffs present challenges to the use of current tandem mass spectrometry technologies for screening. PMID:26806811

  16. How prevalent is vitamin B(12) deficiency among vegetarians?

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Roman; Parrott, Scott James; Raj, Sudha; Cullum-Dugan, Diana; Lucus, Debbie

    2013-02-01

    Vegetarians are at risk for vitamin B(12) (B12) deficiency due to suboptimal intake. The goal of the present literature review was to assess the rate of B12 depletion and deficiency among vegetarians and vegans. Using a PubMed search to identify relevant publications, 18 articles were found that reported B12 deficiency rates from studies that identified deficiency by measuring methylmalonic acid, holo-transcobalamin II, or both. The deficiency rates reported for specific populations were as follows: 62% among pregnant women, between 25% and almost 86% among children, 21-41% among adolescents, and 11-90% among the elderly. Higher rates of deficiency were reported among vegans compared with vegetarians and among individuals who had adhered to a vegetarian diet since birth compared with those who had adopted such a diet later in life. The main finding of this review is that vegetarians develop B12 depletion or deficiency regardless of demographic characteristics, place of residency, age, or type of vegetarian diet. Vegetarians should thus take preventive measures to ensure adequate intake of this vitamin, including regular consumption of supplements containing B12. PMID:23356638

  17. Vitamin B-12

    MedlinePlus

    ... 12 from their stomach or small intestines. Vegetarians, vegans (strict vegetarians who do not eat any animal ... is referred to as a “vitamin B-12 deficiency.” If your vitamin B-12 level is just ...

  18. [Neurological signs due to isolated vitamin B12 deficiency].

    PubMed

    Martinez Estrada, K M; Cadabal Rodriguez, T; Miguens Blanco, I; García Méndez, L

    2013-01-01

    Isolated vitamin B12 deficiency is a common condition in elderly patients but uncommon in patients younger than 30 years, with an average age of onset between 60 and 70 years. This is because the dietary cobalamin, which is normally split by enzymes in meat in the presence of hydrochloric acid and pepsin in the stomach, is not released in the stomachs of elderly patients, usually due to achlorhydria. Although the body may be unable to release cobalamin it does retain the ability to absorb vitamin B12 in its crystalline form, which is present in multivitamin preparations. Other causes are due to drugs that suppress gastric acid production. Neurological signs of vitamin B12 deficiency can occur in patients with a normal haematocrit and red cell indices. They include paresthesia, loss of sensation and strength in the limbs, and ataxia. Reflexes may be slowed down or increased. Romberg and Babinsky signs may be positive, and vibration and position sensitivity often decreases. Behavoural disorders range from irritability and memory loss to severe dementia. The symptoms often do not fully respond to treatment. A case is presented of an isolated vitamin B12 deficiency in 27 year-old female patient who was seen in primary health care. During anamnesis she mentioned low back pain, to which she attributed the loss of strength and tenderness in the right side of the body, as well as the slow and progressive onset of accompanied headache for the previous 4 days. PMID:23834987

  19. Vitamin B12 deficiency among patients with diabetes mellitus: is routine screening and supplementation justified?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is an essential micronutrient required for optimal hemopoetic, neuro-cognitive and cardiovascular function. Biochemical and clinical vitamin B12 deficiency has been demonstrated to be highly prevalent among patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It presents with diverse clinical manifestations ranging from impaired memory, dementia, delirium, peripheral neuropathy, sub acute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, megaloblastic anemia and pancytopenia. This review article offers a current perspective on the physiological roles of vitamin B12, proposed pathophysiological mechanisms of vitamin B12 deficiency, screening for vitamin B12 deficiency and vitamin B12 supplementation among patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:23651730

  20. [Psychiatric manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency: a case report].

    PubMed

    Durand, C; Mary, S; Brazo, P; Dollfus, S

    2003-01-01

    Psychiatric manifestations are frequently associated with pernicious anemia including depression, mania, psychosis, dementia. We report a case of a patient with vitamin B12 deficiency, who has presented severe depression with delusion and Capgras' syndrome, delusion with lability of mood and hypomania successively, during a period of two Months. Case report - Mme V., a 64-Year-old woman, was admitted to the hospital because of confusion. She had no history of psychiatric problems. She had history of diabetes, hypertension and femoral prosthesis. The red blood count revealed a normocytosis with anemia (hemoglobin=11,4 g/dl). At admission she was uncooperative, disoriented in time and presented memory and attention impairment and sleep disorders. She seemed sad and older than her real age. Facial expression and spontaneous movements were reduced, her speech and movements were very slow. She had depressed mood, guilt complex, incurability and devaluation impressions. She had a Capgras' syndrome and delusion of persecution. Her neurologic examination, cerebral scanner and EEG were postponed because of uncooperation. Further investigations confirmed anemia (hemoglobin=11,4 g/dl) and revealed vitamin B12 deficiency (52 pmol/l) and normal folate level. Antibodies to parietal cells were positive in the serum and antibodies to intrinsic factor were negative. An iron deficiency was associated (serum iron=7 micromol/l; serum ferritin concentration=24 mg/l; serum transferrin concentration=3,16 g/l). This association explained normocytocis anemia. Thyroid function, hepatic and renal tests, glycemia, TP, TCA, VS, VDRL-TPHA were normal. Vitamin B12 replacement therapy was started with hydroxycobalamin 1 000 ng/day im for 10 days and iron replacement therapy. Her mental state improved dramatically within a few days. After one week of treatment the only remaining symptoms were lability of mood, delusion of persecution, Capgras' syndrome but disappeared totally 9 days after the beginning of the treatment. A neurologic examination was possible because of cooperation. All the tendon reflexes of inferior members were absent. The plantars were in flexion and there was a left inferior member hypoesthesia. The cerebral scan and EEG were normal. Fundic biopsy, realized by fibroscopy, revealed fundic atrophia and intestinal metaplasia compatible with Biermers' disease. The iron deficiency exploration concluded diet deficiency. Mme V. appeared euphoric, her speech was very rapid with play on words and overactivity. This hypomania state totally disappeared 3 days after. Six Months after her hospitalisation, she presented an hypothyroidism (TSH=3,780; T3=1,35; T4=1,08). A thyroid hormones replacement was started and she continued to receive Monthly B12 replacement. Discussion - This case report illustrates psychiatric manifestations of Biermers' disease. The clinical arguments in favour are: white woman, more than 60 Years old, no history of psychiatric problems, atypical symptoms (confusional state with psychiatric symptoms), fluctuation of symptoms (severe depression with confusional state, delusion of persecution and Capgras' syndrome; delusion with lability of mood and hypomania), dramatic improvement after 9 days of vitamin B12 replacement therapy. The biological arguments are: anemia, vitamin B12 deficiency, normal folate level, atrophia and fundic metaplasia, positive antibodies to parietal cells in the serum, association between Biermers' disease and autoimmune disease (Haschimoto thyroidite). Psychiatric manifestations can occur in the presence of low serum B12 levels but in the absence of the other well recognized neurological and haematological abnormalities of pernicious anemia. Mental or psychological changes may precede haematological signs by Months or Years. They can be the initial symptoms or the only ones. Verbank et al. described the case of a patient with vitamin B12 deficiency in whom hypomania, paranoia and depression had been successively presented during a period of 5 Years before anemia have been developed. The case of Mme V. is similar in the succession of severe depression with delusion of persecution and Capgras' syndrome, delusion with lability of mood and hypomania, during a period of two Months. This report seems to be the first one of a sequence of several psychiatric states with pernicious anemia during a period of two Months with normocytosis anemia. To illustrate this illness we reviewed the literature regarding psychopathology associated with B12 deficiency. The most common psychiatric symptoms were depression, mania, psychotic symptoms, cognitive impairment and obsessive compulsive disorder. The neuropsychiatric severity by vitamin B12 deficiency and the therapeutic efficacy depends on the duration of signs and symptoms. Conclusion - We recommend consideration of B12 deficiency and serum B12 determinations in all the patients with organic mental disorders, atypical psychiatric symptoms and fluctuation of symptomatology. B12 levels should be evaluated with treatment resistant depressive disorders, dementia, psychosis or risk factors for malnutrition such as alcoholism or advancing age associated with neurological symptoms, anemia, malabsorption, gastrointestinal surgery, parasite infestation or strict vegetarian diet. In first intention, B12 deficiency should be researched by serum B12 determination (normal 200-950 pg/ml). Studies of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine showed that they are very sensitive functional indicators of cobalamin status especially when other evidence of cobalamin (B12) deficiency was equivocal. Measurement of methylmalonic acid (normal 73-271 nmol/l) and homocysteine (normal 5,4-13,9 micromol/l) should not replace the measurement of serum cobalamin. PMID:15029091

  1. Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as acute ataxia.

    PubMed

    Crawford, John Ross; Say, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    A previously healthy 7-year-old Caucasian boy was hospitalised for evaluation of acute ataxia and failure to thrive, initially suspicious for an intracranial mass. Weight and body mass index were below the third percentile and he demonstrated loss of joint position and vibratory sense on examination. Laboratory studies revealed megaloblastic anaemia while an initial MRI of the brain showed no evidence of mass lesions or other abnormalities. A dietary history revealed the child subscribed to a restrictive vegan diet with little to no intake of animal products or other fortified foods. The child was diagnosed with presumed vitamin B12 deficiency and was treated with intramuscular B12 injections. Neurological symptoms resolved promptly within several days after starting therapy. This case underlines the importance of assessing nutritional status in the evaluation of neurological dysfunction in the pediatric patient. PMID:23536622

  2. Folate-vitamin B-12 interaction in relation to cognitive impairment, anemia, and biochemical indicators of vitamin B-12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Selhub, Jacob; Morris, Martha Savaria; Jacques, Paul F; Rosenberg, Irwin H

    2009-02-01

    Previous reports on pernicious anemia treatment suggested that high folic acid intake adversely influences the natural history of vitamin B-12 deficiency, which affects many elderly individuals. However, experimental investigation of this hypothesis is unethical, and the few existing observational data are inconclusive. With the use of data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we evaluated the interaction between high serum folate and low vitamin B-12 status [ie, plasma vitamin B-12 < 148 pmol/L or methylmalonic acid (MMA) > 210 nmol/L] with respect to anemia and cognitive impairment. With subjects having both plasma folate < or = 59 nmol/L and normal vitamin B-12 status as the referent category, odds ratios for the prevalence of anemia compared with normal hemoglobin concentration and impaired compared with unimpaired cognitive function were 2.1 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.7) and 1.7 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.9), respectively, for those with low vitamin B-12 status but normal serum folate and 4.9 (95% CI: 2.3, 10.6) and 5.0 (95% CI: 2.7, 9.5), respectively, for those with low vitamin B-12 status and plasma folate >59 nmol/L. Among subjects with low vitamin B-12 status, mean circulating vitamin B-12 was 228 pmol/L for the normal-folate subgroup and 354 pmol/L for the high-folate subgroup. We subsequently showed increases in circulating homocysteine and MMA concentrations with increasing serum folate among NHANES participants with serum vitamin B-12 < 148 pmol/L, whereas the opposite trends occurred among subjects with serum vitamin B-12 > or = 148 pmol/L. These interactions, which were not seen in NHANES III before fortification, imply that, in vitamin B-12 deficiency, high folate status is associated with impaired activity of the 2 vitamin B-12-dependent enzymes, methionine synthase and MMA-coenzyme A mutase. PMID:19141696

  3. Folate–vitamin B-12 interaction in relation to cognitive impairment, anemia, and biochemical indicators of vitamin B-12 deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous reports on pernicious anemia treatment suggested that high folic acid intake adversely influences the natural history of vitamin B-12 deficiency, which affects many elderly individuals. However, experimental investigation of this hypothesis is unethical, and the few existing observational d...

  4. VITAMIN B-12 SUPPLEMENTATION OF DEFICIENT LACTATING GUATEMALAN WOMEN IMPROVES MATERNAL BUT NOT INFANT STATUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin B-12 deficiency is common in mothers and infants where maternal intake of animals source foods is low. The first six months post-partum is a critical period of neurological development requiring vitamin B-12. A pilot study was designed to determine the dose of B-12 to the mothers that would ...

  5. Acute bilateral useless hand syndrome: a rare presenting manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Biyani, Sumant; Jha, Sneh Kumar; Pandey, Suchit; Shukla, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of bilateral useless hand syndrome, a rare presenting manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency. A 38-year-old man, a strict vegetarian and a teacher by occupation, presented with acute onset clumsiness of both hands while performing fine movements. Detailed history-taking, examination of the patient and relevant investigations (complete blood count, serum vitamin B12 and MRI of the cervical spinal cord) were carried out. Laboratory analysis was suggestive of vitamin B12 deficiency and MRI demonstrated a lesion involving the posterior columns of the cervical cord. The patient was diagnosed as a case of non-compressive cervical myelopathy predominantly involving the posterior column due to vitamin B12 deficiency. Acute bilateral useless hand syndrome can be a rare presenting feature of vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:26475874

  6. Vitamin B12

    MedlinePlus

    ... along with other B vitamins, such as niacin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and magnesium. A prescription form of ... Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, ...

  7. Is vitamin B12 deficiency a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in vegetarians?

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Roman

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe the role of vitamin B12 deficiency in cardiovascular disease development among vegetarians. Vegetarians have a high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Deficiency of this vitamin is associated with a variety of atherogenic processes that are mainly, but not exclusively, due to vitamin B12 deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinemia. Each 5-μmol/L increase above 10 μmol/L of serum homocysteine is associated with a 20% increased risk of circulatory health problems. Mean homocysteine concentration >10 μmol/L among vegetarians was reported in 32 of 34 reports. Macrocytosis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency is also associated with fatal and non-fatal coronary disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, and other circulatory health problems. Compared with non-vegetarians, vegetarians have an improved profile of the traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, including serum lipids, blood pressure, serum glucose concentration, and weight status. However, not all studies that assessed cardiovascular disease incidence among vegetarians reported a protective effect. Among studies that did show a lower prevalence of circulatory health problems, the effect was not as pronounced as expected, which may be a result of poor vitamin B12 status due to a vegetarian diet. Vitamin B12 deficiency may negate the cardiovascular disease prevention benefits of vegetarian diets. In order to further reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, vegetarians should be advised to use vitamin B12 supplements. PMID:25998928

  8. Are vitamin B12 and folate deficiency clinically important after roux-en-Y gastric bypass?

    PubMed

    Brolin, R E; Gorman, J H; Gorman, R C; Petschenik, A J; Bradley, L J; Kenler, H A; Cody, R P

    1998-01-01

    Although iron, vitamin B12, and folate deficiency have been well documented after gastric bypass operations performed for morbid obesity, there is surprisingly little information on either the natural course or the treatment of these deficiencies in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) patients. During a 10-year period, a complete blood count and serum levels of iron, total iron-binding capacity, vitamin B12, and folate were obtained in 348 patients preoperatively and postoperatively at 6-month intervals for the first 2 years, then annually thereafter. The principal objectives of this study were to determine how readily patients who developed metabolic deficiencies after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass responded to postoperative supplements of the deficient micronutrient and to learn whether the risk of developing these deficiencies decreases over time. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were significantly decreased at all postoperative intervals in comparison to preoperative values. Moreover, at each successive interval through 5 years, hemoglobin and hematocrit were decreased significantly compared to the preceding interval. Folate levels were significantly increased compared to preoperative levels at all time intervals. Iron and vitamin B12 levels were lower than preoperative measurements and remained relatively stable postoperatively. Half of the low hemoglobin levels were not associated with iron deficiency. Taking multivitamin supplements resulted in a lower incidence of folate deficiency but did not prevent iron or vitamin B12 deficiency. Oral supplementation of iron and vitamin B12 corrected deficiencies in 43% and 81% of cases, respectively. Folate deficiency was almost always corrected with multivitamins alone. No patient had symptoms that could be attributed to either vitamin B12 or folate deficiency Conversely, many patients had symptoms of iron deficiency and anemia. Lack of symptoms of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency suggests that these deficiencies are not clinically important after RYGB. Conversely, iron deficiency and anemia are potentially serious problems after RYGB, particularly in younger women. Hence we recommend prophylactic oral iron supplements to premenopausal women who undergo RYGB. PMID:9843603

  9. Biologically active vitamin B12 compounds in foods for preventing deficiency among vegetarians and elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Tanioka, Yuri; Bito, Tomohiro

    2013-07-17

    The usual dietary sources of vitamin B12 are animal-source based foods, including meat, milk, eggs, fish, and shellfish, although a few plant-based foods such as certain types of dried lavers (nori) and mushrooms contain substantial and considerable amounts of vitamin B12, respectively. Unexpectedly, detailed characterization of vitamin B12 compounds in foods reveals the presence of various corrinoids that are inactive in humans. The majority of edible blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) and certain edible shellfish predominately contain an inactive corrinoid known as pseudovitamin B12. Various factors affect the bioactivity of vitamin B12 in foods. For example, vitamin B12 is partially degraded and loses its biological activity during cooking and storage of foods. The intrinsic factor-mediated gastrointestinal absorption system in humans has evolved to selectively absorb active vitamin B12 from naturally occurring vitamin B12 compounds, including its degradation products and inactive corrinoids that are present in daily meal foods. The objective of this review is to present up-to-date information on various factors that can affect the bioactivity of vitamin B12 in foods. To prevent vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians and elderly subjects, it is necessary to identify plant-source foods that contain high levels of bioactive vitamin B12 and, in conjunction, to prepare the use of crystalline vitamin B12-fortified foods. PMID:23782218

  10. Vitamin B12 level

    MedlinePlus

    The vitamin B12 level is a blood test that measures how much vitamin B12 is in your blood. ... a form of megaloblastic anemia caused by poor vitamin B12 absorption. This can occur when the stomach ...

  11. Prevalent vitamin B-12 deficiency in twelve-month-old Guatemalan infants is predicted by maternal B-12 deficiency and infant diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marginal (<148 pmol/L) or deficient (148-220 pmol/L) plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations were reported previously in approximately one third of low-income women and children studied in Guatemala. Since vitamin B-12 deficiency can adversely affect infant development and cognitive function, this study ...

  12. Effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on neurodevelopment in infants: current knowledge and possible mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Severe vitamin B12 deficiency produces a cluster of neurological symptoms in infants, including irritability, failure to thrive, apathy, anorexia, and developmental regression, which respond remarkably rapidly to supplementation. The underlying mechanisms may involve delayed myelination or demyelina...

  13. Neglect-induced pseudo-thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura due to vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Asano, Takeshi; Narazaki, Hidehiko; Kaizu, Kiyohiko; Matsukawa, Shouhei; Takema-Tochikubo, Yuki; Fujii, Shuichi; Saitoh, Nobuyuki; Mashiko, Kunihiko; Fujino, Osamu

    2015-10-01

    Although thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is rare, early diagnosis and treatment are important for decreasing the mortality rate. Acquired vitamin B12 deficiency is frequently overlooked because of its rarity in developed countries, particularly in children and adolescents. The hematological changes in vitamin B12 deficiency present as megaloblastic anemia, increased lactate dehydrogenase, vasoconstriction, increased platelet aggregation, and abnormal activation of the coagulation followed by microangiopathy as well as neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. We report herein the case of a 15-year-old girl who had been neglected, which might have caused pseudo-TTP through malnutrition, particularly vitamin B12 deficiency. When we encounter cases of TTP in children, clinicians must be aware of the possibility of malnutrition, particularly with vitamin B12 deficiency, even in developed countries, and investigate the cause of malnutrition including neglect. PMID:26387768

  14. Cerebral atrophy in a vitamin B12-deficient infant of a vegetarian mother.

    PubMed

    Kocaoglu, Celebi; Akin, Fatih; Caksen, Hüseyin; Böke, Saltuk Buğra; Arslan, Sükrü; Aygün, Serhat

    2014-06-01

    In developed countries, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency usually occurs in children, exclusively breastfed ones whose mothers are vegetarian, causing low body stores of vitamin B12. The haematologic manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anaemia. It is a megaloblastic anaemia with high mean corpuscular volume and typical morphological features, such as hyperlobulation of the nuclei of the granulocytes. In advanced cases, neutropaenia and thrombocytopaenia can occur, simulating aplastic anaemia or leukaemia. In addition to haematological symptoms, infants may experience weakness, fatigue, failure to thrive, and irritability. Other common findings include pallor, glossitis, vomiting, diarrhoea, and icterus. Neurological symptoms may affect the central nervous system and, in severe cases, rarely cause brain atrophy. Here, we report an interesting case, a 12-month old infant, who was admitted with neurological symptoms and diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:25076673

  15. Cerebral Atrophy in a Vitamin B12-deficient Infant of a Vegetarian Mother

    PubMed Central

    Akin, Fatih; Çaksen, Hüseyin; Böke, Saltuk Buğra; Arslan, Şükrü; Aygün, Serhat

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In developed countries, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency usually occurs in children, exclusively breastfed ones whose mothers are vegetarian, causing low body stores of vitamin B12. The haematologic manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anaemia. It is a megaloblastic anaemia with high mean corpuscular volume and typical morphological features, such as hyperlobulation of the nuclei of the granulocytes. In advanced cases, neutropaenia and thrombocytopaenia can occur, simulating aplastic anaemia or leukaemia. In addition to haematological symptoms, infants may experience weakness, fatigue, failure to thrive, and irritability. Other common findings include pallor, glossitis, vomiting, diarrhoea, and icterus. Neurological symptoms may affect the central nervous system and, in severe cases, rarely cause brain atrophy. Here, we report an interesting case, a 12-month old infant, who was admitted with neurological symptoms and diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:25076673

  16. Association of vitamin B12 deficiency and metformin use in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ko, Sun-Hye; Ko, Sun-Hee; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Song, Ki-Ho; Han, Kyung-Do; Park, Yong-Moon; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Hye-Soo

    2014-07-01

    We evaluated the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency and associated factors in type 2 diabetes patients using metformin. A total of 799 type 2 diabetes patients using metformin was enrolled. Vitamin B12 and folate levels were quantified by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. Vitamin B12 deficiency was defined as vitamin B12 ≤ 300 pg/mL without folate deficiency (folate > 4 ng/mL). The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in metformin-treated type 2 diabetes patients was 9.5% (n = 76), and the mean vitamin B12 level was 662.5 ± 246.7 pg/mL. Vitamin B12 deficient patients had longer duration of metformin use (P < 0.001) and higher daily metformin dose (P < 0.001) than non-deficient patients. Compared with daily metformin dose of ≤ 1,000 mg, the adjusted odds ratio for 1,000-2,000 mg, and ≥ 2,000 mg were 2.52 (95% CI, 1.27-4.99, P = 0.008) and 3.80 (95% CI, 1.82-7.92, P < 0.001). Compared with metformin use of < 4 yr, the adjusted odds ratios for 4-10 yr, and ≥ 10 yr were 4.65 (95% CI, 2.36-9.16, P < 0.001) and 9.21 (95% CI, 3.38-25.11, P < 0.001), respectively. In conclusion, our study indicates that patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin should be screened for vitamin B12 deficiency, especially at higher dosages (> 1,000 mg) and longer durations (≥ 4 yr) of treatment. PMID:25045229

  17. Methylmalonic Acid and Homocysteine as Indicators of Vitamin B-12 Deficiency in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vashi, Pankaj; Edwin, Persis; Popiel, Brenten; Lammersfeld, Carolyn; Gupta, Digant

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Normal or high serum vitamin B-12 levels can sometimes be seen in a B-12 deficient state, and can therefore be misleading. High levels of Methymalonic Acid (MMA) and Homocysteine (HC) have been identified as better indicators of B-12 deficiency than the actual serum B-12 level itself. We evaluated the prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency using appropriate cut-off levels of vitamin B-12, MMA and HC, and determined the relationship between serum levels of vitamin B-12, MMA and HC in cancer. Methods This is a cross-sectional study using a consecutive case series of 316 cancer patients first seen at Cancer Treatment Centers of America® (CTCA) at Midwestern Regional Medical Center between April 2014 and June 2014. All patients were evaluated at baseline for vitamin B-12 (pg/mL), MMA (nmol/L) and HC (μmol/L) levels. In accordance with previously published research, the following cut-offs were used to define vitamin B-12 deficiency: <300 pg/mL for vitamin B-12, >260 nmol/L for MMA and >12 μmol/L for HC. The relationship between B-12, MMA and HC was evaluated using Spearman's rho correlation coefficient and cross-tabulation analysis. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were estimated using the non-parametric method to further evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of vitamin B-12 using Fedosov quotient as the "gold standard". Results Mean age at presentation was 52.5 years. 134 (42.4%) patients were males while 182 (57.6%) were females. Median vitamin B-12, MMA and HC levels were 582.5 pg/mL, 146.5 nmol/L and 8.4 μmol/L respectively. Of 316 patients, 28 (8.9%) were vitamin B-12 deficient based on vitamin B-12 (<300pg/mL), 34 (10.8%) were deficient based on MMA (>260 nmol/L) while 55 (17.4%) were deficient based on HC (>12 μmol/L). Correlation analysis revealed a significant weak negative correlation between vitamin B-12 and MMA (rho = -0.22) as well as B-12 and HC (rho = -0.35). ROC curves suggested MMA to have the best discriminatory power in predicting B-12 deficiency. Conclusion Vitamin B-12 is poorly correlated with MMA and HC in cancer. Using serum vitamin B-12 alone to evaluate B-12 status in cancer may fail to identify those with functional deficiency. A thorough clinical assessment is important to identify patients that may have risk factors and/or symptoms suggestive of deficiency. These patients should have additional testing of MMA and HC regardless of their B-12 levels. PMID:26807790

  18. Mathematical Modeling of Glutathione Status in Type 2 Diabetics with Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Karamshetty, Varun; Acharya, Jhankar D.; Ghaskadbi, Saroj; Goel, Pranay

    2016-01-01

    Deficiencies in vitamin B12 and glutathione (GSH) are associated with a number of diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus. We tested newly diagnosed Indian diabetic patients for correlation between their vitamin B12 and GSH, and found it to be weak. Here we seek to examine the theoretical dependence of GSH on vitamin B12 with a mathematical model of 1-carbon metabolism due to Reed and co-workers. We study the methionine cycle of the Reed-Nijhout model by developing a simple “stylized model” that captures its essential topology and whose kinetics are analytically tractable. The analysis shows—somewhat counter-intuitively—that the flux responsible for the homeostasis of homocysteine is, in fact, peripheral to the methionine cycle. Elevation of homocysteine arises from reduced activity of methionine synthase, a vitamin B12-dependent enzyme, however, this does not increase GSH biosynthesis. The model suggests that the lack of vitamin B12–GSH correlation is explained by suppression of activity in the trans-sulfuration pathway that limits the synthesis of cysteine and GSH from homocysteine. We hypothesize this “cysteine-block” is an essential consequence of vitamin B12 deficiency. It can be clinically relevant to appreciate that these secondary effects of vitamin B12 deficiency could be central to its pathophysiology. PMID:27047940

  19. Metabolic vitamin B12 deficiency: a missed opportunity to prevent dementia and stroke.

    PubMed

    Spence, J David

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this narrative review is to highlight insights into the importance and frequency of metabolic vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency, reasons why it is commonly missed, and reasons for the widespread but mistaken belief that treatment of B12 deficiency does not prevent stroke or improve cognitive function. Metabolic B12 deficiency is common, being present in 10%-40% of the population; is frequently missed; is easily treated; and contributes importantly to cognitive decline and stroke in older people. Measuring serum B12 alone is not sufficient for diagnosis; it is necessary to measure holotranscobalamin or functional markers of B12 adequacy such as methylmalonic acid or plasma total homocysteine. B-vitamin therapy with cyanocobalamin reduces the risk of stroke in patients with normal renal function but is harmful (perhaps because of thiocyanate accumulation from cyanide in cyanocobalamin) in patients with renal impairment. Methylcobalamin may be preferable in renal impairment. B12 therapy slowed gray matter atrophy and cognitive decline in the Homocysteine and B Vitamins in Cognitive Impairment Trial. Undiagnosed metabolic B12 deficiency may be an important missed opportunity for prevention of dementia and stroke; in patients with metabolic B12 deficiency, it would be prudent to offer inexpensive and nontoxic supplements of oral B12, preferably methylcobalamin or hydroxycobalamin. Future research is needed to distinguish the effects of thiocyanate from cyanocobalamin on hydrogen sulfide, and effects of treatment with methylcobalamin on cognitive function and stroke, particularly in patients with renal failure. PMID:26597770

  20. Neurology of Nutritional Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Infants: Case Series From India and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Goraya, Jatinder Singh; Kaur, Sukhjot; Mehra, Bharat

    2015-11-01

    We studied 27 infants aged 6 to 27 months with vitamin B12 deficiency also known as "infantile tremor syndrome" in India. All were exclusively breast-fed by vegetarian mothers. Developmental delay or regression, pallor, skin hyperpigmentation, and sparse brown hair were present in all. Majority were hypotonic and involuntary movements were encountered in 18. Anemia and macrocytosis was found in 83% and 71% infants, respectively. Low serum vitamin B12 was present in 12 of 21 infants. Seven of the 9 infants with normal serum vitamin B12 had received vitamin B12 before referral. Twelve mothers had low serum vitamin B12. Cerebral atrophy was present in all the 9 infants who underwent neuroimaging. Treatment with vitamin B12 resulted in dramatic improvement in general activity and appetite within 48 to 72 hours followed by return of lost milestones. Tremors resolved in all by 3 to 4 weeks. Nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency is a treatable cause of neurologic dysfunction in infants. PMID:25953825

  1. [Maternal Crohn's disease-related vitamin B12 deficient megaloblastic anemia in an infant].

    PubMed

    Ohyama, Wataru; Yamaoka, Masayoshi; Yokoi, Kentaro; Iwahashi, Megumi; Inage, Yuka; Arihiro, Seiji; Koganei, Kazutaka; Sugita, Akira; Ida, Hiroyuki; Akiyama, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    We report an 11-month-old breast-fed boy with feeding difficulties, lethargy, and developmental delay. Blood examination showed pancytopenia and decreased serum levels of vitamin B12. Anisocytosis and poikilocytes were detected in his peripheral blood, and increased megaloblastosis without leukemic cells was detected in his bone marrow. After the diagnosis of megaloblastic anemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency, symptoms were improved by vitamin B12 administration. Further investigation of the mother identified Crohn's disease and suggested that the supply of vitamin B12 from the mother to the infant, via the placenta during pregnancy and via breast milk after birth, was decreased due to impaired absorption of vitamin B12 in the mother's small intestine. Magnetic resonance imaging of the boy's brain on admission showed cerebral cortex atrophy which had improved by the age of 1 year and 10 months after vitamin B12 treatment, though developmental delay was still evident at the age of 3 years. Infantile vitamin B12 deficiency often presents with nonspecific manifestations, such as developmental delay and failure to thrive, in addition to anemia and is thus not easily diagnosed. To prevent severe neurological sequelae, this condition must be rapidly diagnosed, because a prolonged duration increases the risk of permanent disabilities. PMID:26861098

  2. Review of the magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies worldwide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human deficiencies of folate and vitamin B12 result in adverse effects which may be of public health significance, but the magnitude of these deficiencies is unknown. Therefore, we examine the prevalence data currently available, assess global coverage of surveys, determine the frequency with which...

  3. Folic acid metabolism in vitamin B12-deficient sheep. Depletion of liver folates

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard M.; Osborne-White, William S.

    1973-01-01

    1. Metabolism of folate was studied in six ewes in an advanced state of vitamin B12 deficiency as judged by voluntary food intake and in their pair-fed controls receiving vitamin B12. A group of four animals that were maintained throughout the experiment at pasture was also studied. 2. After 34–40 weeks on the cobalt-deficient diet urinary excretion of formiminoglutamate by four deficient animals was about 3.2mmol/day and this was not significantly decreased by injection of three of them with about 4.5μg of [2-14C]folate/kg body weight per day for 5 days. Three days after the last injection retention of [2-14C]folate by the livers of the deficient animals (5.5% of the dose) was lower than that of their pair-fed controls (26% of the dose) but there was no evidence of net retention of injected folate in the livers of either group. Urinary excretion of 14C indicated that renal clearance of folate may have been impaired in very severe vitamin B12 deficiency. 3. As estimated by microbiological assays total folates in the livers of animals at pasture (12.9μg/g) included about 24% of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate as compared with about 72% of a total of 12.5μg/g in three further ewes fed on a stock diet of wheaten hay-chaff and lucerne-chaff. Liver folates of vitamin B12-deficient animals (0.5μg/g) included about 88% of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate as compared with about 51% of a total of 5.2μg/g in pair-fed animals treated with vitamin B12. 4. Chromatography of liver folates of the pair-fed animals permitted quantitative estimates of the pteroylglutamates present. The results showed that the vitamin B12-deficient livers were more severely depleted of tetrahydrofolates and formyltetrahydrofolates than of methyltetrahydrofolates and that as the deficiency developed they were more severely depleted of the higher polyglutamates than of the monoglutamate within each of these classes. Results from animals injected with [2-14C]folate indicated an impairment of the exchange between pteroylmonoglutamates and pteroylpolyglutamates in the livers of deficient animals. 5. In vitamin B12-deficient animals with food intakes below 200g/day some of the liver folates were not completely reduced and some degradation of pteroylpolyglutamates was detected. The latter condition may have been associated with fatty liver. 6. The results are discussed in relation to current theories of vitamin B12–folate interactions. PMID:4204322

  4. Vitamin B12 Deficiency: An Important Reversible Co-Morbidity in Neuropsychiatric Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Issac, Thomas Gregor; Soundarya, Soundararajan; Christopher, Rita; Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitamin B12 deficiency is a common condition causing neurologic, cognitive, psychiatric, and mood symptoms. With varied religious, ethnic, and socioeconomic heterogeneity among the people in India greatly influencing their dietary habits and with the high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection, Vitamin B12 deficiency is not uncommon, but is often under recognized due to the lack of classical symptomatic presentation. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study on Vitamin B12 deficiency with neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients who attended neurology, psychiatry, and geriatric OPDs for a period of 1 year in a specialized neuropsychiatric institute in South India. Results: Out of 259 patients who had Vitamin B12 deficiency (<220 pmol/L), 60 had neuropsychiatric symptoms. Among them the Vitamin B12 levels were <150 (severe), 150-200 (moderate), and 201-220 pmol/L (mild) in 19, 24, 17 patients, respectively. Twenty one were diagnosed with Posterior dementias, 20 with frontotemporal dementia, 7 with Schizophrenia, 4 each with Parkinson's disease and alcohol-dependent syndromes (ADS), 3 with bipolar affective disorder, and 1 with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Eight patients also had hypothyroidism. First symptom of presentation was behavioral disturbances in 30 (50%), memory loss in 20 (33.9%), and sensorimotor and movement disorders in 9 (15.3%), and 56.7% were vegetarians while 43.3% were nonvegetarians. In our study, Vitamin B12 deficiency was more prevalent in elderly males (56.67%) and was associated with increased severity of behavioral disturbances (P = 0.043) which was the most common presentation. Memory loss was present in 16 (84.2%) patients of severe Vitamin B12 deficiency. Hindi mental status examination (HMSE) score was graded as <20, 20-24, 24-31 in 37 (61.7%), 10 (16.7%), and 13 (21.7%) patients, respectively. Cognitive decline in Vitamin B12 deficiency was significantly associated with increased serum cholesterol (P = 0.019) and was significantly prevalent in neurological disorders when compared with primary psychiatric illnesses (P = 0.001). Mean folate and mean homocysteine in our study was 11.7 6.44 ng/ml and 17.77 5.45 ?mol/L, respectively. Eighty percent of the population had normal folate levels whereas mean homocysteine values were much higher than that of the western population (10-12 ?mol/L). Conclusion: Vitamin B12 deficiency though common in India is often overlooked. It increases the load of cognitive decline and accentuates vascular risk factors in neuropsychiatric illnesses. Vitamin B12 deficiency also increases homocysteine levels contributing to the vascular comorbidity in cerebro and cardiovascular illnesses. So prevention, early detection, and management of this reversible Vitamin B12 deficiency state is of profound importance. PMID:25722508

  5. Methylmalonic acid and coenzyme A concentrations in the livers of pair-fed vitamin B12-deficient and vitamin B12-treated sheep

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R. M.; Osborne-White, W. S.; Russell, G. R.

    1969-01-01

    The concentrations of CoA in the livers of severely vitamin B12-deficient ewes were about 2·6 times those in pair-fed animals treated with vitamin B12. When the feeding rates of the pair-fed animals were closely similar, the concentrations of methylmalonic acid in deficient livers were about twice those in vitamin B12-sufficient livers. The molar concentrations of CoA present were more than three times those of methylmalonic acid in both deficient and treated animals, and it is concluded that the elevated concentrations of CoA in the deficient livers were not primarily due to accumulation of methylmalonyl-CoA. PMID:4898195

  6. Brief Report: Childhood Disintegrative Disorder as a Likely Manifestation of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Savita; Subodh, B. N.; Parakh, Preeti; Lahariya, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder is a rare disorder, characterized by regression of acquired skills after a period of normal development. The case of childhood disintegrative disorder presented here was found to have vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia on extensive evaluation to find a probable cause for regression. This case…

  7. Brief Report: Childhood Disintegrative Disorder as a Likely Manifestation of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Savita; Subodh, B. N.; Parakh, Preeti; Lahariya, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder is a rare disorder, characterized by regression of acquired skills after a period of normal development. The case of childhood disintegrative disorder presented here was found to have vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia on extensive evaluation to find a probable cause for regression. This case

  8. West Syndrome in an Infant with Vitamin B[subscript 12] Deficiency in the Absence of Macrocytic Anaemia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erol, Ilknur; Alehan, Fusun; Gumus, Ayten

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin B[subscript 12] deficiency in infants often produces haematological and neurological deficits, including macrocytic anaemia, neurodevelopmental delay or regression, irritability, weakness, hypotonia, ataxia, apathy, tremor, and seizures. The diagnosis of vitamin B[subscript 12] deficiency can be difficult when the typical macrocytic…

  9. West Syndrome in an Infant with Vitamin B[subscript 12] Deficiency in the Absence of Macrocytic Anaemia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erol, Ilknur; Alehan, Fusun; Gumus, Ayten

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin B[subscript 12] deficiency in infants often produces haematological and neurological deficits, including macrocytic anaemia, neurodevelopmental delay or regression, irritability, weakness, hypotonia, ataxia, apathy, tremor, and seizures. The diagnosis of vitamin B[subscript 12] deficiency can be difficult when the typical macrocytic

  10. The prevalence of cobalamin deficiency among vegetarians assessed by serum vitamin B12: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, R; Lester, S E; Babatunde, T

    2014-05-01

    Individuals following vegetarian diets are at risk for developing vitamin B12 deficiency owing to suboptimal intake. As vitamin B12 is essential for the synthesis of nucleic acids, erythrocytes and in the maintenance of myelin, deficiency may result in a variety of symptoms. Some of these symptoms may be severe while others may be irreversible. The objective of this review was to assess vitamin B12 deficiency, based on reported serum vitamin B12, among individuals adhering to different types of vegetarian diets. A systematic literature search was carried out using multiple search engines including PubMed, Medline, CINAHL plus, ERIC, Nursing and Allied Health Collection and Nursing/Academic Edition. The inclusion criteria consisted of original studies that assessed serum vitamin B12, studies written in English, non-case studies and studies that reported actual percentages of vitamin B12 deficiency. Forty research studies were included. The deficiency prevalence among infants reached 45%. The deficiency among the children and adolescents ranged from 0 to 33.3%. Deficiency among pregnant women ranged from 17 to 39%, dependent on the trimester. Adults and elderly individuals had a deficiency range of 0-86.5%. Higher deficiency prevalence was reported in vegans than in other vegetarians. Thus, with few exceptions, the reviewed studies documented relatively high deficiency prevalence among vegetarians. Vegans who do not ingest vitamin B12 supplements were found to be at especially high risk. Vegetarians, especially vegans, should give strong consideration to the use of vitamin B12 supplements to ensure adequate vitamin B12 intake. Vegetarians, regardless of the type of vegetarian diet they adhere to, should be screened for vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:24667752

  11. 4-ethylphenyl-cobalamin impairs tissue uptake of vitamin B12 and causes vitamin B12 deficiency in mice.

    PubMed

    Mutti, Elena; Ruetz, Markus; Birn, Henrik; Kräutler, Bernhard; Nexo, Ebba

    2013-01-01

    Coβ-4-ethylphenyl-cob(III) alamin (EtPhCbl) is an organometallic analogue of vitamin B12 (CNCbl) which binds to transcobalamin (TC), a plasma protein that facilitates the cellular uptake of cobalamin (Cbl). In vitro assays with key enzymes do not convert EtPhCbl to the active coenzyme forms of Cbl suggesting that administration of EtPhCbl may cause cellular Cbl deficiency. Here, we investigate the in vivo effect of EtPhCbl in mice and its ability, if any, to induce Cbl deficiency. We show that EtPhCbl binds to mouse TC and we examined mice that received 3.5 nmol/24h EtPhCbl (n=6), 3.5 nmol/24h CNCbl (n=7) or NaCl (control group) (n=5) through osmotic mini-pumps for four weeks. We analyzed plasma, urine, liver, spleen, submaxillary glands and spinal cord for Cbl and markers of Cbl deficiency including methylmalonic acid (MMA) and homocysteine (tHcy). Plasma MMA (mean±SEM) was elevated in animals treated with EtPhCbl (1.01±0.12 µmol/L) compared to controls (0.30±0.02 µmol/L) and CNCbl (0.29±0.01 µmol/L) treated animals. The same pattern was observed for tHcy. Plasma total Cbl concentration was higher in animals treated with EtPhCbl (128.82±1.87 nmol/L) than in CNCbl treated animals (87.64±0.93 nmol/L). However, the organ levels of total Cbl were significantly lower in animals treated with EtPhCbl compared to CNCbl treated animals or controls, notably in the liver (157.07±8.56 pmol/g vs. 603.85±20.02 pmol/g, and 443.09±12.32 pmol/g, respectively). Differences between the three groups was analysed using one-way ANOVA and, Bonferroni post-hoc test. EtPhCbl was present in all tissues, except the spinal cord, accounting for 35-90% of total Cbl. In conclusion, treatment with EtPhCbl induces biochemical evidence of Cbl deficiency. This may in part be caused by a compromised tissue accumulation of Cbl. PMID:24073261

  12. How I treat cobalamin (vitamin B12) deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The challenges in medical management of cobalamin deficiency lie in attention to the unique pathophysiology that underlies cobalamin deficiency, more than in the mechanics of therapy. The central physiologic principles are that clinically important deficiency is more likely to occur (and progress) when intrinsic factor–driven absorption fails than when diet is poor and that most causes take years to produce clinically obvious deficiency. Transient defects have little clinical impact. The key management principle is the importance of follow-up, which also requires knowing how the deficiency arose. The virtues of these principles are not always fully appreciated. Recent developments have made diagnosis and management more difficult by diminishing the ability to determine cobalamin absorption status. Clinicians must also grapple with premature medicalization of isolated, mild biochemical changes that added many asymptomatic cases of still undetermined medical relevance to their caseload, often expanded by inflated cobalamin level criteria. The potential for misattribution of cobalamin-unrelated presentations to nongermane cobalamin and metabolite abnormalities has grown. Pathophysiologically based management requires systematic attention to each of its individual components: correctly diagnosing cobalamin deficiency, reversing it, defining its underlying cause, preventing relapse, managing the underlying disorder and its complications, and educating the patient. PMID:18606874

  13. [Metabolic and nutritional neuropathies: update in diabetes, vitamin B12 and copper deficiency].

    PubMed

    Franques, J; Gazzola, S

    2013-12-01

    Metabolic and deficiency neuropathies retain a growing interest because of their important prevalence. The dismemberment of diabetic neuropathies is proceeded, letting distinct pathophysiological mechanisms appear. So, even if glycaemic control remains determining for preventing the neuropathy associated with type 1 diabetes, it seems to have a restricted role with type 2 diabetes in which other metabolic factors are involved. The diagnosis of neuropathy due to B12 vitamin deficiency remains a real challenge for the clinician. Indeed, positive and negative predictive values of serum B12 and metabolites assay are weak, only a good therapeutic response allows a reliable diagnostic. It is so recommended to know the clinical and contextual particularities of this etiology in order to not delay the vitamin substitution, determining for the functional outcome. Finally, copper deficiency remains an unknown cause of neuropathy which is suitable to raise in case of malabsorption but also and especially in case of abuse of dental adhesive rich in zinc. PMID:24269115

  14. Vitamin B12 and vitamin d deficiencies: an unusual cause of Fever, severe hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vikas A; Harbada, Rishit; Sharma, Akhilesh

    2015-01-01

    The array of diagnostic workup for pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) generally revolves in searching for infections, inflammatory/autoimmune, and endocrine etiologies. A differential diagnosis of fever, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia can have etiologies varying from infections like malaria, dengue, cytomegalovirus, Ebstein barr virus, Parvovirus, infective endocarditis, to autoimmune disorder (systemic lupus erythromatosis), vasculitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), autoimmune hemolytic anemia/Evan's syndrome, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuri (PNH), or drugs. Nutritional deficiencies (especially vitamin B12 deficiency) as a cause of fever, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia are very rare and therefore rarely thought of. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency may cause fever and if accompanied by concurrent hyper-homocysteinemia and hypophosphatemia can sometimes lead to severe hemolysis mimicking the above-mentioned conditions. We present a case that highlights vitamin B12 and vitamin D deficiency as an easily treatable cause of PUO, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia, which should be actively looked for and treated before proceeding with more complicated and expensive investigation or starting empiric treatments. PMID:25811010

  15. Vitamin B12 and Vitamin D Deficiencies: An Unusual Cause of Fever, Severe Hemolytic Anemia and Thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Vikas A.; Harbada, Rishit; Sharma, Akhilesh

    2015-01-01

    The array of diagnostic workup for pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) generally revolves in searching for infections, inflammatory/autoimmune, and endocrine etiologies. A differential diagnosis of fever, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia can have etiologies varying from infections like malaria, dengue, cytomegalovirus, Ebstein barr virus, Parvovirus, infective endocarditis, to autoimmune disorder (systemic lupus erythromatosis), vasculitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), autoimmune hemolytic anemia/Evan's syndrome, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuri (PNH), or drugs. Nutritional deficiencies (especially vitamin B12 deficiency) as a cause of fever, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia are very rare and therefore rarely thought of. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency may cause fever and if accompanied by concurrent hyper-homocysteinemia and hypophosphatemia can sometimes lead to severe hemolysis mimicking the above-mentioned conditions. We present a case that highlights vitamin B12 and vitamin D deficiency as an easily treatable cause of PUO, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia, which should be actively looked for and treated before proceeding with more complicated and expensive investigation or starting empiric treatments. PMID:25811010

  16. [Vitamin B(12) deficiency anaemia in a 7.5 months old girl].

    PubMed

    Jarosz, Malgorzata; Irga, Ninela; Wierzba, Jolanta

    2004-01-01

    Vitamin B(12) stores at birth are adequate for infants until the end of the first year of life even if it 's concentration in maternal breast milk is low. However, there are some situations in which infants have depleted vitamin B(12) stores and in addition have a low dietary intake of cobalamin. Vitamin B(12) depletion occurs in infants who are exclusively breastfed by mothers who have unrecognized pernicious anemia or are strict vegetarians for many years. In those infants symptoms of bone marrow disfunction and impaired development of the central nervous system appear already in the first months of life. Unrecognized cobalamin deficiency may lead to serious neurologic consequences, and even to the death of the child. The authors present a case of a 7.5 month old girl admitted to the Department of Paediatrics, Haematology, Oncology and Endocrinology. Gdańsk Medical University suspected of acute leukaemia. Based on a detailed diagnostic procedure a final diagnosis of vitamin B(12) deficiency anaemia was established. The child was exclusively breast-fed. Results of investigations into the reason for cobalamin deficiency in the patient s organism. Led to the diagnosis of pernicious anaemia in the mother. Such a suspicion had been made during pregnancy, but no continuation of investigations nor appropriate treatment were implemented. After treatment with vitamin B(12) supplements and modification of the diet the patient improved quickly and remarkably. A few months follow-up was enough to observe remarkable improvement of psychomotor development of this child. PMID:15738604

  17. Vitamin B-12

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin B-12 is a cofactor for 2 enzymes. In the cytoplasm, methionine synthase requires vitamin B-12 in the form of methylcobalamin and catalyzes the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate.This enzyme links the methylation pathway through ...

  18. Localised Skin Hyperpigmentation as a Presenting Symptom of Vitamin B12 Deficiency Complicating Chronic Atrophic Gastritis.

    PubMed

    El-Shafie, Kawther; Samir, Nafisa; Lakhtakia, Ritu; Davidson, Robin; Al-Waili, Ahmed; Al-Mamary, Muna; Al-Shafee, Mohammed

    2015-08-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in developing countries and should be suspected in patients with unexplained anaemia or neurological symptoms. Dermatological manifestations associated with this deficiency include skin hyper- or hypopigmentation, angular stomatitis and hair changes. We report a case of a 28-year-old man who presented to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Oman, in November 2013 with localised hyperpigmentation of the palmar and dorsal aspects of both hands of two months' duration. Other symptoms included numbness of the hands, anorexia, weight loss, dizziness, fatigability and a sore mouth and tongue. There was no evidence of hypocortisolaemia and a literature search revealed a possible B12 deficiency. The patient had low serum B12 levels and megaloblastic anaemia. An intrinsic factor antibody test was negative. A gastric biopsy revealed chronic gastritis. After B12 supplementation, the patient's symptoms resolved. Family physicians should familiarise themselves with atypical presentations of B12 deficiency. Many symptoms of this deficiency are reversible if detected and treated early. PMID:26357561

  19. Localised Skin Hyperpigmentation as a Presenting Symptom of Vitamin B12 Deficiency Complicating Chronic Atrophic Gastritis

    PubMed Central

    El-Shafie, Kawther; Samir, Nafisa; Lakhtakia, Ritu; Davidson, Robin; Al-Waili, Ahmed; Al-Mamary, Muna; Al-Shafee, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in developing countries and should be suspected in patients with unexplained anaemia or neurological symptoms. Dermatological manifestations associated with this deficiency include skin hyper- or hypopigmentation, angular stomatitis and hair changes. We report a case of a 28-year-old man who presented to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Oman, in November 2013 with localised hyperpigmentation of the palmar and dorsal aspects of both hands of two months’ duration. Other symptoms included numbness of the hands, anorexia, weight loss, dizziness, fatigability and a sore mouth and tongue. There was no evidence of hypocortisolaemia and a literature search revealed a possible B12 deficiency. The patient had low serum B12 levels and megaloblastic anaemia. An intrinsic factor antibody test was negative. A gastric biopsy revealed chronic gastritis. After B12 supplementation, the patient’s symptoms resolved. Family physicians should familiarise themselves with atypical presentations of B12 deficiency. Many symptoms of this deficiency are reversible if detected and treated early. PMID:26357561

  20. Bioavailability of vitamin B12

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in people of all ages who consume a low intake of animal-source foods, including populations in developing countries. It is also prevalent among the elderly, even in wealthier countries, due to their malabsorption of B12 from food. Several methods have been applied t...

  1. Vitamin B12 deficiency-induced increase of osteoclastic bone resorption caused by abnormal renal resorption of inorganic phosphorus via Napi2a.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Takahiro; Kimira, Yoshifumi; Mano, Hiroshi; Kawata, Tetsunori; Tadokoro, Tadahiro; Suzuki, Tsukasa; Yamamoto, Yuji

    2016-03-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is a risk factor for bone disorders via mechanisms not fully understood. In this study, an increase in serum inorganic phosphorus (Pi) concentrations was associated with a vitamin B12 deficiency. Napi2a, a renal cotransporter for Pi reabsorption, accumulated on plasma membranes in a vitamin B12 deficiency suggests that vitamin B12 plays an important role in Pi homeostasis. PMID:26460967

  2. Vitamin B12 in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    O’Leary, Fiona; Samman, Samir

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is essential for DNA synthesis and for cellular energy production.This review aims to outline the metabolism of vitamin B12, and to evaluate the causes and consequences of sub-clinical vitamin B12 deficiency. Vitamin B12 deficiency is common, mainly due to limited dietary intake of animal foods or malabsorption of the vitamin. Vegetarians are at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency as are other groups with low intakes of animal foods or those with restrictive dietary patterns. Malabsorption of vitamin B12 is most commonly seen in the elderly, secondary to gastric achlorhydria. The symptoms of sub-clinical deficiency are subtle and often not recognized. The long-term consequences of sub-clinical deficiency are not fully known but may include adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes, vascular, cognitive, bone and eye health. PMID:22254022

  3. A review of the cut-off points for the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency in the general population.

    PubMed

    Aparicio-Ugarriza, Raquel; Palacios, Gonzalo; Alder, Monika; González-Gross, Marcela

    2015-07-01

    Vitamin B12 deficit is one of the most common vitamin deficiencies. However, there is no consensus on the cut-off points for vitamin B12 and its co-markers, such as folate, holotranscobalamin, methylmalonic acid and homocysteine. In order to establish the state of the art about cut-off points used to determine vitamin B12 deficiency in the last decades, the database MEDLINE was used for searching studies published in adults between December 1992 and May 2014 (69 articles), using search terms like 'vitamin B12', 'cobalamin', 'cut-off', 'deficiency' alone or in combinations. Broad ranges of cut-off points for vitamin B12 and its biomarkers were identified: vitamin B12 ranged between 100 pmol/L and 350 pmol/L, holotranscobalamin 20-50 pmol/L, methylmalonic acid 0.210-0.470 μmol/L, homocysteine 10-21.6 μmol/L, serum folate 3.7-15.9 nmol/L and red blood cell 124-397 nmol/L. For the majority of studies, the potential influence of age, analytical methods, gender and fortified food consumption was not taken in account when choosing cut-off values. This could explain the discrepancies between studies on vitamin B12 and folate deficiency prevalences. We conclude that there is inconsistency in the literature regarding vitamin B12 cut-offs. It would be necessary to establish different reference cut-offs according to age, considering the analytical methods used. PMID:25470607

  4. Vitamin B-12 deficiency induces anomalies of base substitution and methylation in the DNA of rat colonic epithelium.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sang-Woon; Friso, Simonetta; Ghandour, Haifa; Bagley, Pamela J; Selhub, Jacob; Mason, Joel B

    2004-04-01

    Derangements of one-carbon metabolism can directly affect the integrity of the genome by producing inappropriate uracil insertion into DNA and by altering patterns of DNA methylation. Vitamin B-12, a one-carbon nutrient, serves as a cofactor in the synthesis of precursors of biological methylation and in nucleotide synthesis. We therefore examined whether vitamin B-12 deficiency can induce these molecular anomalies in the colonic mucosa of rats. Weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30) were divided into 2 groups and fed either a vitamin B-12-deficient diet or a similar diet containing adequate amounts of the vitamin. Rats from each group were killed at 6 and 10 wk. Uracil misincorporation into DNA was measured by GC/MS and genomic DNA methylation was measured by LC/MS. Plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations in deficient rats were below detectable limits at 6 and 10 wk; in control rats, concentrations were 0.46 +/- 0.07 and 0.42 +/- 0.10 nmol/L at those times. Although the colon total folate concentration did not differ between the groups, the proportion that was methylfolate was marginally greater in the deficient rats at 10 wk (P = 0.05) compared with control, consistent with the "methylfolate trap" that develops during vitamin B-12 deficiency. After 10 wk, the colonic DNA of the deficient rats displayed a 35% decrease in genomic methylation and a 105% increase in uracil incorporation (P < 0.05). This vitamin B-12-deficient diet, which was of insufficient severity to cause anemia or illness, created aberrations in both base substitution and methylation of colonic DNA, which might increase susceptibility to carcinogenesis. PMID:15051821

  5. Anemia - B12 deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... vitamin B12. They include: Chronic alcoholism Crohn disease, celiac disease, infection with the fish tapeworm, or other problems ... may no longer be needed after Crohn disease, celiac disease, or alcoholism is properly treated. Your doctor or ...

  6. Vitamin B12 and Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background More than 2.9 million serum vitamin B12 tests were performed in 2010 in Ontario at a cost of $40 million. Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with a few neurocognitive disorders. Objective To determine the clinical utility of B12 testing in patients with suspected dementia or cognitive decline. Methods Three questions were addressed: Is there an association between vitamin B12 deficiency and the onset of dementia or cognitive decline? Does treatment with vitamin B12 supplementation improve cognitive function in patients with dementia or cognitive decline and vitamin B12 deficiency? What is the effectiveness of oral versus parenteral vitamin B12 supplementation in those with confirmed vitamin B12 deficiency? A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Embase, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database, from January 2002 until August 2012. Results Eighteen studies (7 systematic reviews and 11 observational studies) were identified to address the question of the association between B12 and the onset of dementia. Four systematic reviews were identified to address the question of the treatment of B12 on cognitive function. Finally, 3 randomized controlled trials were identified that compared oral B12 to intramuscular B12. Conclusions Based on very low quality evidence, there does appear to be an association between elevated plasma homocysteine levels (a by-product of B vitamins) and the onset of dementia. Based on moderate quality evidence, but with less than optimal duration of follow-up, treatment with B12 supplementation does not appreciably change cognitive function. Based on low to moderate quality of evidence, treatment with vitamin B12 and folate in patients with mild cognitive impairment seems to slow the rate of brain atrophy. Based on moderate quality evidence, oral vitamin B12 is as effective as parenteral vitamin B12 in patients with confirmed B12 deficiency. Plain Language Summary Low levels of vitamin B12 have been associated with neurocognitive disorders. This evidence-based analysis assessed the usefulness of serum vitamin B12 testing as it relates to brain function. This review found very low quality evidence that suggests a connection between high plasma homocysteine levels (a by-product of B vitamin metabolism in the body) and the onset of dementia. Moderate quality of evidence indicates treatment with vitamin B12 does not improve brain function. Moderate quality of evidence also indicates treatment using oral vitamin B12 supplements is as effective as injections of vitamin B12. PMID:24379897

  7. Opportunistic Screening of Vitamin B12 Deficiency in IT Professionals Presenting for Routine Health Check-up

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rishi Devilal; Ingole, Sonali Jitendra; Pandave, Harshal Tukaram

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Vitamin B12 deficiency is mainly diagnosed in symptomatic patients. However, the deficiency may also be prevalent in asymptomatic patients. Our aim was to study the prevalence of Vit B12 deficiency in IT professionals (Information Technology Professionals from Software industry) who presented for routine health screening and to correlate the deficiency to various parameters. Materials and Methods This was single centre, observational study comprising of 84 IT professionals. The data was collected in structured format. The study was designed to identify prevalence of Vit B12 deficiency and correlate to other factors such as type of diet, income level & regular use of medication (such as Antacid & Metformin). Results Total 28 individuals were found to be deficient (33.34%). Prevalence of Vit B12 deficiency amongst Vegetarian and non vegetarian diet adhering subjects was 47.5% and 20.45% respectively. B12 deficiency was also prevalent in high income age group. Further chronic intake of PPI (Proton pump inhibitor) and Metformin was associated with prevalence of 37.5% and 33.34% in the present study. Conclusion During health screening of IT Professionals, significant prevalence of Vit B12 deficiency was noted across all income groups & non vegetarian diet consuming subjects also. There is significant correlation between Vit B12 deficiency with chronic use of PPI and Metformin. PMID:26816929

  8. In vitamin B12 deficiency, higher serum folate is associated with increased total homocysteine and methylmalonic acid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Selhub, Jacob; Morris, Martha Savaria; Jacques, Paul F

    2007-12-11

    In a recent study of older participants (age >/=60 years) in the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we showed that a combination of high serum folate and low vitamin B(12) status was associated with higher prevalence of cognitive impairment and anemia than other combinations of vitamin B(12) and folate status. In the present study, we sought to determine the joint influence of serum folate and vitamin B(12) concentrations on two functional indicators of vitamin B(12) status, total homocysteine (tHcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA), among adult participants in phase 2 of the NHANES III (1991-1994) and the NHANES 1999-2002. Exclusion of subjects who were <20 years old, were pregnant, had evidence of kidney or liver dysfunction, or reported a history of alcohol abuse or recent anemia therapy left 4,940 NHANES III participants and 5,473 NHANES 1999-2002 participants for the study. Multivariate analyses controlled for demographic factors, smoking, alcohol use, body mass index, self-reported diabetes diagnosis, and serum concentrations of creatinine and alanine aminotransferase revealed significant interactions between serum folate and serum vitamin B(12) in relation to circulating concentrations of both metabolites. In subjects with serum vitamin B(12) >148 pmol/liter (L), concentrations of both metabolites decreased significantly as serum folate increased. In subjects with lower serum vitamin B(12), however, metabolite concentrations increased as serum folate increased starting at approximately 20 nmol/L. These results suggest a worsening of vitamin B(12)'s enzymatic functions as folate status increases in people who are vitamin B(12)-deficient. PMID:18056804

  9. [Therapy of hyperhomocysteinemia with vitamin B12].

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Blazícek, P; Sebeková, K; Valachovicová, M

    2002-11-01

    Prevalence of mild hyperhomocysteinemia in vegetarians and vegans is a consequence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Clinical study of homocysteine reduction by vitamin B12 consisted of subjective healthy adults on alternative nutrition (n = 9) with vitamin B12 deficiency and with mild hyperhomocysteinemia. Vitamin B12 treatment was implemented by 5 intramuscular cyanocobalamin injections of a total content of 2200 micrograms during two weeks. Homocysteine level was significantly reduced (from 22 mumol/l to 11.7 mumol/l; individual reduction 29-55%). Vitamin B12 concentration in blood was significantly increased (from 152 pmol/l to 277 pmol/l; individual % of increase 63-150). The results show a high effect of vitamin B12 treatment in homocysteine value reduction of subjects on alternative nutrition. PMID:12501494

  10. Micronutrients and women of reproductive potential: required dietary intake and consequences of dietary deficiency or excess. Part I--Folate, Vitamin B12, Vitamin B6.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Joe Leigh; Bailey, Lynn B; Pietrzik, Klaus; Shane, Barry; Holzgreve, Wolfgang

    2010-12-01

    This two-part review highlights micronutrients for which either public health policy has been established or for which new evidence provides guidance as to recommended intakes during pregnancy. One pivotal micronutrient is folate, the generic name for different forms of a water-soluble vitamin essential for the synthesis of thymidylate and purines and, hence, DNA. For non-pregnant adult women the recommended intake is 400 μg/day dietary folate equivalent. For women capable of becoming pregnant an additional 400 μg/day of synthetic folic acid from supplements or fortified foods is recommended to reduce the risk of neural tube defects (NTD). The average amount of folic acid received through food fortification (grains) in the US is only 128 μg/day, emphasising the need for the supplemental vitamin for women of reproductive age. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a cofactor required for enzyme reactions, including generation of methionine and tetrahydrofolate. B12 is found almost exclusively in foods of animal origin (meats, dairy products); therefore, vegetarians are at greatest risk for dietary vitamin B12 deficiency and should be supplemented. Vitamin B6 is required for many reactions, primarily in amino acid metabolism. Meat, fish and poultry are good dietary sources. Supplementation beyond routine prenatal vitamins is not recommended. PMID:20373888

  11. Long-term Metformin Use and Vitamin B12 Deficiency in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study.

    PubMed

    Aroda, Vanita R; Edelstein, Sharon L; Goldberg, Ronald B; Knowler, William C; Marcovina, Santica M; Orchard, Trevor J; Bray, George A; Schade, David S; Temprosa, Marinella G; White, Neil H; Crandall, Jill P

    2016-04-01

    Participants from DPP/DPPOS were assigned to placebo (n=1082) or metformin (n=1073) for 3.2 years, followed by metformin in the metformin group for 9 years. Metformin use was associated with increased risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:26900641

  12. Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids during gestation and lactation to a vitamin B12-deficient or -supplemented diet improves pregnancy outcome and metabolic variables in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Kemse, Nisha; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2015-01-01

    Maternal vitamin B12 deficiency leads to an adverse pregnancy outcome and increases the risk for developing diabetes and metabolic syndrome in mothers in later life. Our earlier studies have demonstrated that vitamin B12 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are interlinked in the one carbon cycle. The present study for the first time examines the effect of maternal n-3 PUFA supplementation to vitamin B12 deficient or supplemented diets on pregnancy outcome, fatty-acid status and metabolic variables in Wistar rats. Pregnant dams were assigned to one of the following groups: control, vitamin B12 deficient, vitamin B12 supplemented, vitamin B12 deficient + n-3 PUFA or vitamin B12 supplemented + n-3 PUFA. The amount of vitamin B12 in the supplemented group was 0.50 μg kg(-1) diet and n-3 PUFA was alpha linolenic acid (ALA) 1.68, eicosapentaenoic acid 5.64, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 3.15 (g per 100g fatty acids per kg diet). Our findings indicate that maternal vitamin B12 supplementation did not affect the weight gain of dams during pregnancy but reduced litter size and weight and was ameliorated by n-3 PUFA supplementation. Vitamin B12 deficiency or supplementation resulted in a low percentage distribution of plasma arachidonic acid and DHA. n-3 PUFA supplementation to these diets improved the fatty-acid status. Vitamin B12 deficiency resulted in higher homocysteine and insulin levels, which were normalised by supplementation with either vitamin B12 or n-3 PUFA. Our study suggests that maternal vitamin B12 status is critical in determining pregnancy outcome and metabolic variables in dams and that supplementation with n-3 PUFA is beneficial. PMID:24355403

  13. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency with pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly and leukoerythroblastosis in two Syrian refugee infants: a challenge to differentiate from acute leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Belen, Burcu; Hismi, Burcu Ozturk; Kocak, Ulker

    2014-01-01

    Megaloblastic anaemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency is rare in childhood. However, as most cases are due to maternal insufficiency, it is mainly seen in breastfed infants especially when the mother's socioeconomic status is low and the nutrition is not adequate. We present case of two Syrian refugee infants with severe vitamin B12 deficiency with pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly and leukoerythroblastosis. PMID:24599434

  14. Mood disorder with mixed, psychotic features due to vitamin b12 deficiency in an adolescent: case report.

    PubMed

    Tufan, Ali Evren; Bilici, Rabia; Usta, Genco; Erdoğan, Ayten

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is one of the essential vitamins affecting various systems of the body. Reports of psychiatric disorders due to its deficiency mostly focus on middle aged and elderly patients. Here we report a case of vitamin B 12 deficiency in a 16-year old, male adolescent who presented with mixed mood disorder symptoms with psychotic features. Chief complaints were "irritability, regressive behavior, apathy, crying and truancy" which lasted for a year. Premorbid personality was unremarkable with no substance use/exposure or infections. No stressors were present. The patient was not vegetarian. Past medical history and family history was normal. Neurological examination revealed glossitis, ataxia, rigidity in both shoulders, cog-wheel rigidity in the left elbow, bilateral problems of coordination in cerebellar examination, reduced swinging of the arms and masked face. Romberg's sign was present. Laboratory evaluations were normal. Endoscopy and biopsy revealed atrophy of the gastric mucosa with Helicobacter Pylori colonization. Schilling test was suggestive of malabsorbtion. He was diagnosed with Mood disorder with Mixed, Psychotic Features due to Vitamin B12 Deficiency and risperidone 0.5 mg/day and intramuscular vitamin B12 500 mcg/day were started along with referral for treatment of Helicobacter pylori. A visit on the second week revealed no psychotic features. Romberg's sign was negative and cerebellar tests were normal. Extrapyramidal symptoms were reduced while Vitamin B12 levels were elevated. Risperidone was stopped and parenteral Vitamin B12 treatment was continued with monthly injections for 3 months. Follow-up endoscopy and biopsy at the first month demonstrated eradication of H. pylori. He was followed monthly for another 6 months and psychiatric symptoms did not recur at the time of last evaluation. Despite limitations, this case may underline the observation that mood disorders with psychotic features especially with accompanying extrapyramidal symptoms lacking a clear etiology may be rare manifestation of vitamin B12 and/or folate deficiency in children and adolescents and be potentially amenable to treatment. PMID:22726236

  15. Vitamin B12 deficiency in the brain leads to DNA hypomethylation in the TCblR/CD320 knockout mouse

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background DNA methylation is an epigenetic phenomenon that can modulate gene function by up or downregulation of gene expression. Vitamin B12 and folate pathways are involved in the production of S-Adenosylmethionine, the universal methyl donor. Findings Brain vitamin B12 concentration and global DNA methylation was determined in transcobalamin receptor (TCblR/CD320) knock out (KO) (n = 4) and control mice (n = 4) at 20–24 weeks of age. Median [IQR] brain vitamin B12 concentrations (pg/mg) in TCblR/CD320 KO mice compared with control mice was 8.59 [0.52] vs 112.42 [33.12]; p < 0.05. Global DNA methylation levels in brain genomic DNA were lower in TCblR/CD320 KO compared with control mice (Median [IQR]: 0.31[0.16] % vs 0.55[0.15] %; p < 0.05.). Conclusions In TCblR/CD320 KO mice, brain vitamin B12 drops precipitously by as much as 90% during a 20 week period. This decrease is associated with a 40% decrease in global DNA methylation in the brain. Future research will reveal whether the disruption in gene expression profiles due to changes in DNA hypomethylation contribute to central nervous system pathologies that are frequently seen in vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:22607050

  16. Severe but Not Moderate Vitamin B12 Deficiency Impairs Lipid Profile, Induces Adiposity, and Leads to Adverse Gestational Outcome in Female C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Shampa; Sinha, Jitendra Kumar; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Raghunath, Manchala

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is widely prevalent in women of childbearing age, especially in developing countries. In the present study, through dietary restriction, we have established mouse models of severe and moderate vitamin B12 deficiencies to elucidate the impact on body composition, biochemical parameters, and reproductive performance. Female weanling C57BL/6 mice were fed for 4 weeks: (a) control AIN-76A diet, (b) vitamin B12-restricted AIN-76A diet with pectin as dietary fiber (severe deficiency group, as pectin inhibits vitamin B12 absorption), or (c) vitamin B12-restricted AIN-76A diet with cellulose as dietary fiber (moderate deficiency group as cellulose does not interfere with vitamin B12 absorption). After confirming deficiency, the mice were mated with male colony mice and maintained on their respective diets throughout pregnancy, lactation, and thereafter till 12 weeks. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency increased body fat% significantly, induced adiposity and altered lipid profile. Pregnant dams of both the deficient groups developed anemia. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency decreased the percentage of conception and litter size, pups were small-for-gestational-age and had significantly lower body weight at birth as well as weaning. Most of the offspring born to severely deficient dams died within 24 h of birth. Stress markers and adipocytokines were elevated in severe deficiency with concomitant decrease in antioxidant defense. The results show that severe but not moderate vitamin B12 restriction had profound impact on the physiology of C57BL/6 mice. Oxidative and corticosteroid stress, inflammation and poor antioxidant defense seem to be the probable underlying mechanisms mediating the deleterious effects. PMID:26835453

  17. Vitamin B12 benefits (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Vitamin B12 is important for metabolism. Metabolism within the body includes the processes of energy generation and use; including nutrition, digestion, absorption, elimination, respiration, circulation, and temperature ...

  18. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis associated with hyperhomocysteinemia due to combined deficiencies of folate and vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Kanaya, Yuhei; Neshige, Shuichiro; Takemaru, Makoto; Shiga, Yuji; Takeshima, Shinichi; Kuriyama, Masaru

    2016-03-01

    A 63-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of convulsive seizures. Radiological examinations revealed cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in the anterior part of the superior sagittal sinus. He had marked hyperhomocysteinemia (93.5 nmol/ml) due to combined deficiencies of folate and vitamin B12. He was T/T homozygous for methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism. He received a supplement therapy of vitamins. First, he was administered folate orally. After 3 months, the serum level of homocysteine decreased to 22.6 nmol/ml (an 86% reduction), but was still above the normal level. Next, an additional supplement therapy of vitamin B12 lowered the homocysteine level to normal (12.3 nmol/ml) after 4 months. These results showed that the increase of homocysteine levels in this patient was mainly caused by the deficiency of folate. Additionally, acquired risk factors like vitamin deficiencies increased the level of serum homocysteine to almost 100 nmol/ml. PMID:26797484

  19. Plasma folate, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and risk of breast cancer in women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: B vitamins such as folate, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 are coenzymes that are important for DNA integrity and stability. Deficiency in these B vitamins may promote tumor carcinogenesis. Objective: We prospectively evaluated plasma concentrations of folate, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP; ...

  20. A Puzzle of Hemolytic Anemia, Iron and Vitamin B12 Deficiencies in a 52-Year-Old Male

    PubMed Central

    Liana, Palacci; Ali, Alaa M.; Gilman, Alan D.

    2013-01-01

    A 52-year-old male with no significant past medical history reports increasing generalized fatigue and weakness for the past 2 weeks. Physical examination reveals jaundice and pallor without organomegaly or lymphadenopathy. His hemoglobin was 5.9 g/dL with a mean corpuscular volume of 87.1 fL and elevated red blood cell distribution width of 30.7%. His liver function test was normal except for elevated total bilirubin of 3.7 mg/dL. Serum LDH was 701 IU/L, and serum haptoglobin was undetectable. Further investigation revealed serum vitamin B12 of <30 pg/mL with elevated methylmalonic acid and homocysteine level. In addition, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation were low. The patient was diagnosed with hemolytic anemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency with concomitant iron deficiency anemia. PMID:24083040

  1. Maternal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to a vitamin B12 deficient diet normalizes angiogenic markers in the pup brain at birth.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Richa S; Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids are critical for normal brain development and function and their deficiencies during pregnancy could have adverse effects on cognitive performance in children. Our earlier studies indicate that both maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids influence brain development by regulating the levels of neurotrophins. Literature suggests that there exists a cross talk between neurotrophins like nerve growth factor (NGF) and angiogenic factors like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). It remains to be established whether maternal nutrients like vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids influence the levels of angiogenic markers like VEGF and NGF in the brain of the offspring. Therefore the present study examines the effect of maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids on protein and mRNA levels of VEGF, HIF-1 alpha (hypoxia inducible factor alpha) and NGF in the pup brain at birth. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided into five dietary groups (n=8 each): control, vitamin B12 deficient, vitamin B12 deficient+omega-3 fatty acid, vitamin B12 supplemented, vitamin B12 supplemented+omega-3 fatty acid. At birth the pups were dissected to collect the brain tissue. Maternal vitamin B12 deficiency showed lower (p<0.05) pup brain mRNA and protein levels (p<0.01) of VEGF, higher (p<0.01) HIF-1 alpha protein levels, lower (p<0.05) NGF protein levels while NGF mRNA levels were not altered. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to a vitamin B12 deficient group normalized the VEGF mRNA levels, NGF protein levels and HIF-1 alpha protein levels. Vitamin B12 supplementation showed similar protein and mRNA levels of VEGF and NGF as well as HIF-1 alpha protein levels as compared to control. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to the vitamin B12 supplemented group showed higher (p<0.01) protein and mRNA levels of NGF but the protein and mRNA levels of VEGF were comparable to control. In conclusion maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids both influence the levels and expression of neurotrophins and angiogenic factors in the offspring brain suggesting a possible benefit of combined maternal supplementation of these vital nutrients. PMID:25889224

  2. Oral versus intramuscular administration of vitamin B12 for the treatment of patients with vitamin B12 deficiency: a pragmatic, randomised, multicentre, non-inferiority clinical trial undertaken in the primary healthcare setting (Project OB12)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The oral administration of vitamin B12 offers a potentially simpler and cheaper alternative to parenteral administration, but its effectiveness has not been definitively demonstrated. The following protocol was designed to compare the effectiveness of orally and intramuscularly administered vitamin B12 in the treatment of patients ≥65 years of age with vitamin B12 deficiency. Methods/design The proposed study involves a controlled, randomised, multicentre, parallel, non-inferiority clinical trial lasting one year, involving 23 primary healthcare centres in the Madrid region (Spain), and patients ≥65 years of age. The minimum number of patients required for the study was calculated as 320 (160 in each arm). Bearing in mind an estimated 8-10% prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency among the population of this age group, an initial sample of 3556 patients will need to be recruited. Eligible patients will be randomly assigned to one of the two treatment arms. In the intramuscular treatment arm, vitamin B12 will be administered as follows: 1 mg on alternate days in weeks 1 and 2, 1 mg/week in weeks 3–8,and 1 mg/month in weeks 9–52. In the oral arm, the vitamin will be administered as: 1 mg/day in weeks 1–8 and 1 mg/week in weeks 9–52. The main outcome variable to be monitored in both treatment arms is the normalisation of the serum vitamin B12 concentration at weeks 8, 26 and 52; the secondary outcome variables include the serum concentration of vitamin B12 (in pg/ml), adherence to treatment, quality of life (EuroQoL-5D questionnaire), patient 3satisfaction and patient preferences. All statistical tests will be performed with intention to treat and per protocol. Logistic regression with random effects will be used to adjust for prognostic factors. Confounding factors or factors that might alter the effect recorded will be taken into account in analyses. Discussion The results of this study should help establish, taking quality of life into account, whether the oral administration of vitamin B12 is an effective alternative to its intramuscular administration. If this administration route is effective, it should provide a cheaper means of treating vitamin B12 deficiency while inducing fewer adverse effects. Having such an alternative would also allow patient preferences to be taken into consideration at the time of prescribing treatment. Trial registration This trial has been registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT 01476007, and under EUDRACT number 2010-024129-20. PMID:22650964

  3. Positive predictive value of the diagnosis coding for vitamin B12 deficiency anemia in the Danish National Patient Register

    PubMed Central

    Ben Ghezala, Inès; Arendt, Johan Frederik Berg; Erichsen, Rune; Zalfani, Jihen; Gammelager, Henrik; Frøslev, Trine; Olsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this validation study was to assess the positive predictive value (PPV) of the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) diagnosis of vitamin B12 (cobalamin [Cbl]) deficiency anemia in the Danish National Patient Register (DNPR). Patients and methods We identified all patients above 18 years of age recorded in the DNPR with a diagnosis of Cbl deficiency anemia (ICD-10 code: D51) admitted to two Danish university hospitals and one Danish regional hospital from 2000 through 2009. We assessed the PPV using biochemical parameters on Cbl deficiency with or without anemia as reference standards. These data were obtained from the Laboratory Information Systems Database. Data on prescriptions with Cbl supplementation drugs were obtained from the Aarhus University Prescription Database. Results We identified 1089 patients coded with a Cbl deficiency anemia diagnosis in the DNPR. The PPV was 31.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 28.8%–34.3%) and 36.8% (95% CI: 34.0%–39.7%) depending on definitions of Cbl deficiency with anemia. When using Cbl deficiency without anemia as a reference standard, the PPV was 51.3% (95% CI: 48.4%–54.3%). The PPV for Cbl supplemented patients was 22.2% (95% CI: 18.0%–26.9%) and for non-Cbl supplemented patients 63.9% (95% CI: 60.5%–67.3%). Conclusion The PPVs of the ICD-10 diagnosis coding for Cbl deficiency anemia were generally low in the DNPR. Therefore, this register should be used with caution to study patients with Cbl deficiency anemia. PMID:23271924

  4. Higher prevalence of metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency in sulfonylurea combination compared with insulin combination in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Donghoon; Yun, Jae-Seung; Ko, Sun-Hye; Lim, Tae-Seok; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Park, Yong-Moon; Ko, Seung-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Long-term and high-dose treatment with metformin is known to be associated with vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether the prevalence of B12 deficiency was different in patients treated with different combination of hypoglycemic agents with metformin during the same time period. A total of 394 patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin and sulfonylurea (S+M group, n = 299) or metformin and insulin (I+M group, n = 95) were consecutively recruited. The vitamin B12 and folate levels were quantified using the chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. Vitamin B12 deficiency was defined as vitamin B12≤300 pg/mL without folate deficiency (folate>4 ng/mL). The mean age of and duration of diabetes in the subjects were 59.4±10.5 years and 12.2±6.7 years, respectively. The mean vitamin B12 level of the total population was 638.0±279.6 pg/mL. The mean serum B12 levels were significantly lower in the S+M group compared with the I+M group (600.0±266.5 vs. 757.7±287.6 pg/mL, P<0.001). The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in the metformin-treated patients was significantly higher in the S+M group compared with the I+M group (17.4% vs. 4.2%, P = 0.001). After adjustment for various factors, such as age, sex, diabetic duration, duration or daily dose of metformin, diabetic complications, and presence of anemia, sulfonylurea use was a significant independent risk factor for B12 deficiency (OR = 4.74, 95% CI 1.41-15.99, P = 0.012). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that patients with type 2 diabetes who were treated with metformin combined with sulfonylurea require clinical attention for vitamin B12 deficiency and regular monitoring of their vitamin B12 levels. PMID:25299054

  5. Vitamin B-12 from algae appears not to be bioavailable.

    PubMed

    Dagnelie, P C; van Staveren, W A; van den Berg, H

    1991-03-01

    The effect of algae (nori and spirulina) and fermented plant foods on the hematological status of vitamin B-12-deficient children was evaluated. Although rising plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations in children consuming only plant foods (0.1-2.7 micrograms vitamin B-12/d) indicated that the vitamin B-12 was absorbed, elevated baseline values of mean corpuscular volume (MCV) further deteriorated. In contrast, MCV improved in children receiving fish containing 0.15-0.5 microgram vitamin B-12/d or a vitamin B-12 supplement. Further studies on the specificity of current vitamin B-12 assays are warranted. It seems unjustified to advocate algae and other plant foods as a safe source of vitamin B-12 because its bioavailability is questionable. PMID:2000824

  6. Prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus on metformin: A case control study from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Iftikhar, Raheel; Kamran, Sultan Mehmood; Qadir, Adnan; Iqbal, Zohaib; Usman, Hassan bin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes Mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder and metformin is the most commonly prescribed oral hypoglycemic agent. Metformin is well known to cause viamin B12 deficiency due to effect on calcium-dependent membrane action in the terminal ileum leading to malabsorption of vitamin B12. The purpose of this study is to determine prevalence and associations of Vitamin B12 deficiency in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with metformin. Methods This case control study was carried out in department of medicine, Combined Military Hospital, Kharian from 1st Jan 2012 to 30 december 2012. We enrolled 114 outdoor patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus currently on metformin for atleast 12 months, by consecutive sampling, and 105 age and sex matched patients taken as control. Patients with vitamin B12 levels of less than 150 pg/ml were said to be B12 deficient. The results were analyzed on SPSS version 16. Results Serum B12 levels were low in 35 patients (31%) on metformin as compared to only 9 patients (8.6%) among controls,(p value 0.002). Mean B12 levels were significantly low in metformin group 311 pg/ml (±194.4), p value 0.03. Dose of metformin had inverse correlation with B12 levels and the difference was statistically significant with p-value < 0.001. Conclusion Our study demonstrated significantly high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients treated with metformin with significant effect of dose and duration of metformin use on B12 levels. Physicians must recognize this important fact and screen diabetics on metformin therapy for underlying B12 deficiency. PMID:24711867

  7. [Vitamin B12 and related genetic disorders].

    PubMed

    Guéant, Jean-louis; Coelho, David; Nicolas, Jean-Pierre

    2014-06-01

    Vitamin B12 (B12, cobalamin (Cbl)) is a water-soluble vitamin that requires complex mechanisms for its assimilation, blood transport and intracellular metabolism. Three proteins, intrinsic factor (IF), haptocorrin (HC), and transcobalamin (TC), and their specific receptors are involved in B12 absorption and transport. Acquired and inherited deficiencies can result in megaloblastic anemia and neurological manifestations. Several genetic diseases are linked to these two steps, namely inherited deficits in FI and TC, and Imerslund-Gräsbeck disease. In mammalian cells, only two enzymes depend on vitamin B12: L-methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (EC 5.4.99.2) in mitochondria, and methionine synthase (EC 2.1.1.13) in cytoplasm. Direct metabolic consequences of impaired B12 absorption and metabolism are the accumulation of methylmalonic acid (MMA) and of homocysteine (HCy), respectively. More than a dozen genes are involved in the intracellular metabolism of B12, and their defects result in several diseases designated cblA through cblJ This article reviews the steps involved in vitamin B12 absorption, transport and intracellular metabolism, and the main related genetic defects. PMID:26983191

  8. B-vitamin deficiency in patients treated with antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Mintzer, Scott; Skidmore, Christopher T; Sperling, Michael R

    2012-07-01

    Enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) produce many alterations in metabolism, including vitamin levels. Whether they produce clinically relevant deficiency of B vitamins has rarely been assessed. We obtained B-vitamin levels in patients who were being converted from an inducing AED (phenytoin or carbamazepine) to a non-inducing AED (levetiracetam, lamotrigine, or topiramate), with measurements both before and ≥ 6 weeks after the switch. A group of normal subjects underwent the same studies. Neither folate nor B12 deficiency was seen in any patient. Vitamin B6 deficiency was found in 16/33 patients (48%) taking inducers, compared to 1/11 controls (9%; p=0.031). After switch to non-inducers, only 7 patients (21%) were B6 deficient (p=0.027). The incidence of deficiency was similar regardless of which inducing or non-inducing AED was being taken. Our findings demonstrate that treatment with inducing AEDs commonly causes pyridoxine deficiency, often severe. This could conceivably contribute to the polyneuropathy sometimes attributed to older AEDs, as well as other chronic heath difficulties. PMID:22658435

  9. Deficiency or dementia? Exploring B12 deficiency after urostomy.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Michelle; Bryan, Sandra; Dukes, Suzie

    Vitamin B12 deficiency can be misdiagnosed as a variety of other illnesses, and if left untreated can lead to irreversible damage to the brain and nervous system. This article discusses the case of a 70-year-old female with a urostomy, well known to the stoma care department, who shortly after a routine parastomal hernia repair developed severe confusion, immobility and was unable to communicate. Subsequent investigations ruled out a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) and a diagnosis of rapidly progressing vascular dementia was made. An incidental finding of a low vitamin B12 level was identified and treatment commenced. She was transferred to a community hospital and her family were told to 'prepare for the worst'. It was, in fact, the vitamin B12 deficiency that was causing her symptoms of vascular dementia, and once treatment was established she underwent a 'miraculous' improvement, returning to normal life. This article discusses vitamin B12 deficiency and why patients with a urostomy are at risk of developing it; highlights the key role of the stoma care nurse and his or her knowledge of the patient; explores the importance of testing vitamin B12 levels in this group of patients; and discusses key learning and recommendations for practice. PMID:26067796

  10. Vitamin B12--folate interrelations.

    PubMed

    Das, K C; Herbert, V

    1976-10-01

    Megaloblastic anaemia is due to a derangement of DNA synthesis caused by insufficient supply of one or other of the four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) precursors of DNA synthesis or by direct inhibition of one or other DNA polymerase. Reduced supply of the pyrimidine deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) may be caused by folate or vitamin B12 deficiencies or by the action of dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors (e.g. methotrexate, pyrimethamine or trimethoprim), all of which cause reduced supply of the coenzyme 5, 10 methylene tetrahydrofolate (pentaglutamate) needed for thymidylate synthetase. Reduced dTTP supply may also be caused by direct inhibition of thymidylate synthetase by 5-fluorouracil. Reduced supply of both purines, deoxyadenosine triphosphate (dATP) and deoxyguanosine triphosphate (dGTP), may be caused by hydroxyurea, 6-mercaptopurine (and probably by another purine antagonist azaserine), whilst reduced supply of both pyrimidine DNA precursors, dTTP and dCTP (deoxycytidine triphosphate) may be due to inherited orotic aciduria or to treatment with azauridine. Cytosine arabinoside directly inhibits DNA polymerase. DNA replication is a discontinuous process and a number of enzymes are concerned with different aspects of the process. The parental strands partly unwind and a large number of initiation points or origins are activated on both strands. A primer RNA is first synthesised using the parental strand of DNA as template. Fragments of new DNA are then synthesised on the parental DNA template, starting at the RNA primer, under the action of one or other DNA polymerase (probably gamma). The RNA primer is then removed and the gap left is filled by further DNA synthesis under the action of a different DNA polymerase (probably alpha). The fragments of new DNA are joined to give newly synthesised stretches of DNA (replicons) which are then liigated together to form bulk DNA of enormous molecular weight. It is suggested here that reduced supply of one or other of the four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) during the 'S' phase of the cell cycle (due to vitamin B12 or folate deficiency, drug treatment or other congenital or acquired abnormality in synthesis of the dNTP) impairs the cell's ability to elongate newly initiated DNA fragments by preventing gap-filling, the polymerase needed for gap-filling requiring substantially greater concentrations of the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates than the polymerase involved in chain initiation. Cytosine arabinoside, which also may cause megaloblastosis, may affect principally the synthesis of new DNA fragments. Since active protein synthesis is needed for the cell to enter the S phase and RNA synthesis is needed to prime new DNA synthesis, megaloblastic anaemia may be expected to occur only when DNA synthesis is inhibited but protein and RNA synthesis are relatively unimpaired... PMID:10122

  11. Vegan Diet, Subnormal Vitamin B-12 Status and Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Kam S.; Kwok, Timothy C.Y.; Celermajer, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products). Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians in Australia, Germany, Italy and Austria, and in vegans (80%) in Hong Kong and India, where vegans rarely take vitamin B-12 fortified food or vitamin B-12 supplements. Similar deficiencies exist in northern Chinese rural communities consuming inadequate meat, egg or dairy products due to poverty or dietary habits. Vascular studies have demonstrated impaired arterial endothelial function and increased carotid intima-media thickness as atherosclerosis surrogates in such metabolic vitamin B-12 deficient populations, but not in lactovegetarians in China. Vitamin B-12 supplementation has a favourable impact on these vascular surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China. Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 status is thus potentially beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency in vegans, and possibly for prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases. PMID:25195560

  12. Vegan diet, subnormal vitamin B-12 status and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Woo, Kam S; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Celermajer, David S

    2014-08-01

    Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products). Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians in Australia, Germany, Italy and Austria, and in vegans (80%) in Hong Kong and India, where vegans rarely take vitamin B-12 fortified food or vitamin B-12 supplements. Similar deficiencies exist in northern Chinese rural communities consuming inadequate meat, egg or dairy products due to poverty or dietary habits. Vascular studies have demonstrated impaired arterial endothelial function and increased carotid intima-media thickness as atherosclerosis surrogates in such metabolic vitamin B-12 deficient populations, but not in lactovegetarians in China. Vitamin B-12 supplementation has a favourable impact on these vascular surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China. Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 status is thus potentially beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency in vegans, and possibly for prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases. PMID:25195560

  13. Vitamin B12 sources and bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Fumio

    2007-11-01

    The usual dietary sources of vitamin B(12) are animal foods, meat, milk, egg, fish, and shellfish. As the intrinsic factor-mediated intestinal absorption system is estimated to be saturated at about 1.5-2.0 microg per meal under physiologic conditions, vitamin B(12) bioavailability significantly decreases with increasing intake of vitamin B(12) per meal. The bioavailability of vitamin B(12) in healthy humans from fish meat, sheep meat, and chicken meat averaged 42%, 56%-89%, and 61%-66%, respectively. Vitamin B(12) in eggs seems to be poorly absorbed (< 9%) relative to other animal food products. In the Dietary Reference Intakes in the United States and Japan, it is assumed that 50% of dietary vitamin B(12) is absorbed by healthy adults with normal gastro-intestinal function. Some plant foods, dried green and purple lavers (nori) contain substantial amounts of vitamin B(12), although other edible algae contained none or only traces of vitamin B(12). Most of the edible blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) used for human supplements predominantly contain pseudovitamin B(12), which is inactive in humans. The edible cyanobacteria are not suitable for use as vitamin B(12) sources, especially in vegans. Fortified breakfast cereals are a particularly valuable source of vitamin B(12) for vegans and elderly people. Production of some vitamin B(12)-enriched vegetables is also being devised. PMID:17959839

  14. Considering the case for vitamin B12 fortification of flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reasons to fortify flour with vitamin B12 are considered, which include the high prevalence of depletion and deficiency of this vitamin that occurs in persons of all ages in resource-poor countries and in elderly in wealthier countries, as well as the adverse functional consequences of poor vitamin ...

  15. Folic acid fortification: why not vitamin B12 also?

    PubMed

    Selhub, Jacob; Paul, Ligi

    2011-01-01

    Folic acid fortification of cereal grains was introduced in many countries to prevent neural tube defect occurrence. The metabolism of folic acid and vitamin B12 intersect during the transfer of the methyl group from 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine catalyzed by B12-dependent methioine synthase. Regeneration of tetrahydrofolate via this reaction makes it available for synthesis of nucleotide precursors. Thus either folate or vitamin B12 deficiency can result in impaired cell division and anemia. Exposure to extra folic acid through fortification may be detrimental to those with vitamin B12 deficiency. Among participants of National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey with low vitamin B12 status, high serum folate (>59 nmol/L) was associated with higher prevalence of anemia and cognitive impairment when compared with normal serum folate. We also observed an increase in the plasma concentrations of total homocysteine and methylmalonic acid (MMA), two functional indicators of vitamin B12 status, with increase in plasma folate under low vitamin B12 status. These data strongly imply that high plasma folate is associated with the exacerbation of both the biochemical and clinical status of vitamin B12 deficiency. Hence any food fortification policy that includes folic acid should also include vitamin B12. PMID:21674649

  16. Patterns of plasma cobalamins in control subjects and in cases of vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Linnell, J C; Mackenzie, H M; Wilson, J; Matthews, D M

    1969-09-01

    A method for thin-layer chromatography and bioautography of plasma cobalamins is described. It requires only 5 ml of blood. Results are reported in 35 healthy people and hospital controls, and in 14 cases of untreated pernicious anaemia. In the control group there were two major components, methylcobalamin and a component which is probably a mixture of hydroxocobalamin and deoxyadenosyl cobalamin. Many cases of untreated pernicious anaemia showed a characteristic pattern in which methylcobalamin was reduced in relation to hydroxocobalamin. This pattern was also seen in one vegan who was taking a diet without B(12) supplement. A minority of subjects showed traces of cyanocobalamin; this compound was not confined to smokers. The significance of the results and possible diagnostic utility of the technique are discussed. PMID:5364437

  17. Vitamin B12-Containing Plant Food Sources for Vegetarians

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Bito, Tomohiro; Teng, Fei

    2014-01-01

    The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori) is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups. PMID:24803097

  18. Vitamin B12 status in older adults living in Ontario long-term care homes: prevalence and incidence of deficiency with supplementation as a protective factor.

    PubMed

    Pfisterer, Kaylen J; Sharratt, Mike T; Heckman, George G; Keller, Heather H

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency, although treatable, impacts up to 43% of community-living older adults; long-term care (LTC) residents may be at greater risk. Recommendations for screening require further evidence on prevalence and incidence in LTC. Small, ungeneralizable samples provide a limited perspective on these issues. The purposes of this study were to report prevalence of B12 deficiency at admission to LTC, incidence 1 year post-admission, and identify subgroups with differential risk. This multi-site (8), retrospective prevalence study used random proportionate sampling of resident charts (n = 412). Data at admission extracted included demographics, B12 status, B12 supplementation, medications, diagnoses, functional independence, cognitive performance, and nutrition. Prevalence at admission of B12 deficiency (<156 pmol/L) was 13.8%; 47.6% had normal B12 (>300 pmol/L). One year post-admission incidence was 4%. Better B12 status was significantly associated with supplementation use prior to LTC admission. Other characteristics were not associated with status. This work provides a better estimate of B12 deficiency prevalence than previously available for LTC, upon which to base protocols and policy. Prospective studies are needed to establish treatment efficacy and effect on health related outcomes. PMID:26781161

  19. Selective vitamin B12 malabsorption in two siblings

    PubMed Central

    Khakee, Sam; Stachewitsch, Andrew; Katz, Max

    1974-01-01

    Two siblings with megaloblastic anemia responsive to parenteral vitamin B12 were studied to elucidate the cause of the B12 deficiency. Gastric juice from both contained acid and functional intrinsic factor. Serum contained transcobalamin II and lacked antibodies to intrinsic factor. Schilling tests showed vitamin B12 malabsorption uncorrected by hog intrinsic factor or pancreatic extract. Other parameters of small intestinal function were normal. Proteinuria was initially present in both but cleared in one following treatment with B12. These patients with “familial selective vitamin B12 malabsorption” are the first reported from Canada. Only 37 cases have been reported in the world literature to date. PMID:4817548

  20. Vitamin B12 replacement. To B12 or not to B12?

    PubMed Central

    Delva, M. D.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence for an expanded approach to identifying and treating patients with cobalamin deficiency. Controversy surrounds this issue. Some authors claim that seven times more patients are treated than have true deficiency. New diagnostic tests and identification of patients who have neurologic consequences without hematologic abnormalities suggest that some of these patients have a vitamin B12 tissue deficiency. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search of English-language literature from 1990 to 1995 revealed retrospective and prospective studies of diagnostic tests; prospective surveys; a cohort study; and retrospective and prospective case series, some with control groups. No double-blind controlled trials of treatment were found. MAIN FINDINGS: Some patients with neuropsychiatric abnormalities develop a cobalamin tissue deficiency that can be detected by elevated serum homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels despite normal serum vitamin B12 levels without macrocytic anemia. Serum cobalamin testing is neither sensitive nor specific in the low normal range for cobalamin deficiency. Treatment recommendations vary because no controlled trials support any recommendations. Oral cobalamin is an underused alternative to parenteral treatment. CONCLUSION: Until the newer diagnostic tests become widely available, family physicians must continue to take a traditional approach to diagnosing vitamin B12 deficiency. There is, however, support for a clinical trial of treatment in patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms. PMID:9154363

  1. Vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 supplementation is needed among adults with phenylketonuria (PKU).

    PubMed

    Hvas, A M; Nexo, E; Nielsen, J B

    2006-02-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by an autosomal recessive deficiency of the enzyme phelnylalanine hydroxylase leading to a failure to convert phenylalanine to tyrosine. To avoid irreversible neurological damage because of increased phenylalanine, treatment is instituted rapidly after birth. We examined 31 adult PKU patients living on a less protein-restricted diet. Theoretically, these PKU patients had an increased risk of developing vitamin B(12) and B(6) deficiency because of a limited intake of animal products. Besides laboratory tests (n = 31) we obtained clinical information (n = 30) and detailed information on food consumption (n = 28). Three-quarters of the patients had early biochemical signs of vitamin B(12) deficiency. In spite of a normal folate status, 9 (29%) had a plasma homocysteine above 12 micromol/L. In accord with these findings, the food questionnaires indicated that 11 (39%) patients received less than the recommended daily vitamin B(12), and 20 (71%) received less vitamin B(6) than recommended. A significant association was found between reduced vitamin B(12) intake and both reduced serum cobalamins (p = 0.04) and reduced serum transcobalamin saturation (p = 0.03). Eleven patients took a vitamin pill daily, and these patients had a significantly lower plasma homocysteine compared to the rest. The present study suggests that adult PKU patients were at increased risk of developing vitamin B(12) deficiency, and their intake of vitamin B(6) was below the recommended daily intake. In conclusion PKU patients need continuing dietary guidance throughout adult life, and considering the risks, costs and potential benefits, daily vitamin supplementation seems justified in these patients. PMID:16601867

  2. Vitamin B12 catalysed reactions.

    PubMed

    Giedyk, Maciej; Goliszewska, Katarzyna; Gryko, Dorota

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, 1) is one of a few naturally occurring organometallic molecules. As a cofactor for adenosylcobalamin-dependent and methylcobalamin-dependent enzymes, it plays a crucial role in biological processes, including DNA synthesis and regulation, nervous system function, red blood cell formation, etc. Enzymatic reactions, such as isomerisation, dehalogenation, and methyl transfer, rely on the formation and cleavage of the Co-C bond. Because it is a natural, nontoxic, environmentally benign cobalt complex, cobalamin (1) has been successfully utilised in organic synthesis as a catalyst for Co-mediated reactions. This tutorial review concisely describes cobalamin-catalysed organic reactions that hold promise for environmentally friendly cobalt catalysis, leaving the reader with basic knowledge and the ability to harness the catalytic potential of this fascinating molecule. PMID:25945462

  3. Acceleration of brain amyloidosis in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model by a folate, vitamin B6 and B12-deficient diet

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Jia-Min; Praticò, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies indicate that elevated circulating level of homocysteine (Hcy) is a risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Dietary deficiency of folate, vitamin B6 and B12 results in a significant increase of Hcy levels, a condition also known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy). In the present study we tested the hypothesis that a diet deficient for these three important factors when administered to a mouse model of AD, i.e. Tg2576, will result in HHcy and in an acceleration of their amylodotic phenotype. Compared with Tg2576 mice on regular chow, the ones receiving the diet-deficient for folate, B6 and B12 developed HHcy. This condition was associated with a significant increase in Aβ levels in the cortex and hippocampus, and an elevation of Aβ deposits in the same regions. No significant changes were observed for steady state levels of total APP, BACE-1, ADAM-10, PS1 and nicastrin in the brains of mice with HHcy. No differences were observed for the main Aβ catabolic pathways, i.e IDE and neprilysin proteins, or the Aβ chaperone apolipoprotein E. Our findings demonstrate that a dietary condition which leads to HHcy may also result in increased Aβ levels and deposition in a transgenic mouse model of AD-like amylodosis. They further support the concept that dietary factors can contribute to the development of AD neuropathology. PMID:20005283

  4. Neuroenhancement with Vitamin B12—Underestimated Neurological Significance

    PubMed Central

    Gröber, Uwe; Kisters, Klaus; Schmidt, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is a cofactor of methionine synthase in the synthesis of methionine, the precursor of the universal methyl donor S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe), which is involved in different epigenomic regulatory mechanisms and especially in brain development. A Vitamin B12 deficiency expresses itself by a wide variety of neurological manifestations such as paraesthesias, skin numbness, coordination disorders and reduced nerve conduction velocity. In elderly people, a latent Vitamin B12 deficiency can be associated with a progressive brain atrophy. Moderately elevated concentrations of homocysteine (>10 µmol/L) have been associated with an increased risk of dementia, notably Alzheimer’s disease, in many cross-sectional and prospective studies. Raised plasma concentrations of homocysteine is also associated with both regional and whole brain atrophy, not only in Alzheimer’s disease but also in healthy elderly people. Clinician awareness should be raised to accurately diagnose and treat early Vitamin B12 deficiency to prevent irreversible structural brain damage. PMID:24352086

  5. Experiences with dual protein bound aqueous vitamin B12 absorption test in subjects with low serum vitamin B12 concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Gozzard, D I; Dawson, D W; Lewis, M J

    1987-01-01

    A dual isotope vitamin B12 absorption test in which vitamin B12 is given both in aqueous solution and bound to protein (chicken serum), was evaluated in 26 controls and 68 patients with subnormal serum vitamin B12 concentrations (19 with pernicious anaemia, 13 with iron deficiency, seven after partial gastrectomy, seven with malabsorptive states, five with folate deficiency, four with chronic alcoholism and 13 in whom no cause was apparent). In control patients protein bound absorption decreased with age; isotope excretion was 1.0% or over in those aged under 60 and 0.5% or over in those aged 60 and above. Malabsorption of protein bound vitamin B12 with normal aqueous absorption occurred in five patients with iron deficiency, three with alcoholism, two after partial gastrectomy, two with folate deficiency and in one with a malabsorptive state. In alcoholics abstinence produced an improvement in protein bound absorption. All patients in the group for whom no cause could be found for the subnormal serum vitamin B12 concentration had normal aqueous absorption but four had malabsorption of protein bound vitamin. Although the dual isotope test gave reproducible results and was consistent with the standard Schilling test some anomalies were detected; nine patients had reduced aqueous absorption with normal protein bound absorption. Despite this the dual test may prove useful in determining the importance of a subnormal vitamin B12 concentration where the cause is not clinically apparent. Further development is needed before it can be considered for routine use. PMID:3611394

  6. Different Neurologic Aspects of Nutritional B12 Deficiency in Infancy.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Sanem; Serdaroglu, Gul; Tekgul, Hasan; Gokben, Sarenur

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate neurologic problems caused by nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency in infancy. Twenty-four cases between 2 and 18 months of age with neurologic symptoms and/or signs and diagnosed as nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency were analyzed. The most common symptoms were developmental retardation, afebrile seizures, and involuntary movements. The mean vitamin B12 levels were lower in patients with both neurologic and extraneurologic involvement when compared to those with only neurologic symptoms. All of the cases were treated with vitamin B12. In patients with severe deficiencies, involuntary movements were observed during vitamin B12 treatment using cyanocobalamin form. At the 1-year follow-up, all but 3 patients were considered neurodevelopmentally normal. The 3 patients that did not fully recover, on admission, had the lowest vitamin B12 levels. It is of great importance to prevent, diagnose, and treat vitamin B12 deficiency promptly to prevent the long-term neurologic problems. PMID:26310585

  7. Vitamin B12 Intramuscular Injections Versus Oral Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Masucci, L; Goeree, R

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to adverse health effects such as anemia and, in some cases, permanent neurologic damage. In Canada, patients with vitamin B12 deficiency are typically given intramuscular injections, which incur considerable cost and inconvenience. The clinical evidence-based analysis has found that oral supplementation is as effective as intramuscular injections. Objectives This economic analysis aimed to estimate the cost savings of switching from intramuscular injections to high-dose oral supplements for patients aged 18 years and older with confirmed vitamin B12 deficiency. Data Sources Population-based administrative databases for Ontario were used to identify patients receiving vitamin B12 intramuscular injections in any fiscal year between 2006 and 2011. The Ontario Drug Benefit (ODB) database was used to identify patients who were prescribed vitamin B12 injections, and the Ontario Health Insurance Plan database was used to identify all physician claims for intramuscular injections as well as laboratory tests assessing vitamin B12 levels. The Registered Physicians Database was used to identify the type of physician; the analysis was restricted to family physicians and internists. Review Methods Two cohorts of patients were identified. For cohort 1, the ODB database was used to identify patients who were prescribed vitamin B12 injections. Those covered under the ODB are 65 years of age or older and are economically deprived. A second cohort was created to capture those 18 to 64 years of age receiving injections. Cohort 2 consisted of patients (not in cohort 1) who received 6 or more intramuscular injections within 1 year and had a laboratory test 2 months before the intramuscular injection claim. Physician experts were consulted to estimate the resources and costs of converting patients to oral supplements. The Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care perspective was taken, and all costs are expressed in 2013 Canadian dollars. Results The budget impact analysis demonstrated costs of $2.8 million to the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care in the first year of conversion; however, in subsequent years there are savings of $4.2 million per year. The cumulative 5-year budget impact demonstrates savings of $14.2 million to the health care system. Limitations This analysis represents the cost of conversion for those currently receiving intramuscular injections. There are no conversion costs for those who are prescribed oral supplements as an initial therapy, and so the savings could be even greater than reported. As well, an underlying assumption of this analysis is that patients will comply with oral supplementation. Conclusions Over 5 years, there are savings of $14.2 million to the health care system from switching to vitamin B12 oral supplements. Plain Language Summary Vitamin B12 deficiency has long been thought to be associated with dementia and other neurocognitive disorders. In a separate report, Health Quality Ontario (HQO) reviewed the published research on this issue and found only weak evidence that vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with the onset of dementia. That review also found moderate evidence that treatment with vitamin B12 does not improve dementia and that oral supplements are as effective as injections of vitamin B12. In 2010, more than 2.9 million serum vitamin B12 tests were performed in Ontario at a cost of $40 million. Each year, approximately 110,000 residents receive vitamin B12 injections to boost their levels of vitamin B12. HQO commissioned an economic analysis to estimate the cost savings of switching from vitamin B12 injections to high-dose oral supplements for patients aged 18 years and older with confirmed B12 deficiency. This study concluded that the Ontario health care system could save $14.5 million in 5 years by switching to oral supplements, assuming that patients took the oral supplements as required. PMID:24379898

  8. Assay for vitamin B12 absorption and method of making labeled vitamin B12

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Peter J.; Dueker, Stephen; Miller, Joshua; Green, Ralph; Roth, John; Carkeet, Colleen; Buchholz,; Bruce A.

    2012-06-19

    The invention provides methods for labeling vitamin B12 with .sup.14C, .sup.13C, tritium, and deuterium. When radioisotopes are used, the invention provides for methods of labeling B12 with high specific activity. The invention also provides labeled vitamin B12 compositions made in accordance with the invention.

  9. Morphological abnormalities in vitamin B6 deficient tarsometatarsal chick cartilage.

    PubMed

    Masse, P G; Colombo, V E; Gerber, F; Howell, D S; Weiser, H

    1990-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that deficiency of vitamin B6 would produce morphological characteristics of osteochondral lathyrism. To accomplish this goal, morphological characteristics of chick cartilage in which lathyrism was produced by two separate dietary regimens was compared to morphological changes encountered in vitamin B6 deficiency. Vitamin B6 deficiency should reduce activity of lysyloxidase needed for producing intermolecular cross-links. The question to be addressed was: would this latter deficiency impair collagen morphological features and secondarily other structures indirectly by reducing collagen molecular assembly? Failure of cross-linking of collagen in the positive controls was related to a lack of functional aldehyde cross-link intermediates which are blocked by homocysteine and aminoacetonitrile. Day-old-male Lohmann chicks were fed adequate (6 mg/kg) or vitamin B6-deficient diets. Cross-link defects were induced by homocysteine-rich diets (0.6% w/w) or a diet containing aminoacetonitrile (0.1% w/w). Animals were sacrificed at 6 weeks of age and Ossa tarsalia articular cartilage specimens, as well as the proximal end of tarsometatarsus were dissected from the tibial metatarsal joint, a major weight-bearing site. Light microscopic observations revealed reduction of subarticular trabecular bone formation, concurrent with overexpansion of the hypertrophic cell zone. Ultrastructural electron microscopy observation of articular fibro-cartilage indicated significant thickening of collagen fibers in vitamin B6 deficient birds, as well as the positive controls in comparison to that of cage-matched control birds. It was concluded that vitamin B6 deficient cross-linking may be responsible for the observed delay in bone development and aforementioned cartilage histological alterations. PMID:2080430

  10. Vitamin B12 deficiency reduces proliferation and promotes differentiation of neuroblastoma cells and up-regulates PP2A, proNGF, and TACE.

    PubMed

    Battaglia-Hsu, Shyue-fang; Akchiche, Nassila; Noel, Nicole; Alberto, Jean-Marc; Jeannesson, Elise; Orozco-Barrios, Carlos Enrique; Martinez-Fong, Daniel; Daval, Jean-Luc; Guéant, Jean-Louis

    2009-12-22

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) is indispensable for proper brain development and functioning, suggesting that it has neurotrophic effects beside its well-known importance in metabolism. The molecular basis of these effects remains hypothetical, one of the reasons being that no efficient cell model has been made available for investigating the consequences of B12 cellular deficiency in neuronal cells. Here, we designed an approach by stable transfection of NIE115 neuroblastoma cells to impose the anchorage of a chimeric B12-binding protein, transcobalamin-oleosin (TO) to the intracellular membrane. This model produced an intracellular sequestration of B12 evidenced by decreased methyl-Cbl and S-adenosylmethionine and increased homocysteine and methylmalonic acid concentrations. B12 deficiency affected the proliferation of NIE115 cells through an overall increase in catalytic protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), despite its demethylation. It promoted cellular differentiation by improving initial outgrowth of neurites and, at the molecular level, by augmenting the levels of proNGF and p75(NTR). The up-regulation of PP2A and pro-nerve growth factor (NGF) triggered changes in ERK1/2 and Akt, two signaling pathways that influence the balance between proliferation and neurite outgrowth. Compared with control cells, a 2-fold increase of p75(NTR)-regulated intramembraneous proteolysis (RIP) was observed in proliferating TO cells (P < 0.0001) that was associated with an increased expression of two tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha converting enzyme (TACE) secretase enzymes, Adam 10 and Adam 17. In conclusion, our data show that B12 cellular deficiency produces a slower proliferation and a speedier differentiation of neuroblastoma cells through interacting signaling pathways that are related with increased expression of PP2A, proNGF, and TACE. PMID:19959661

  11. B Vitamin deficiency and neuropsychiatric syndromes in alcohol misuse.

    PubMed

    Cook, C C; Hallwood, P M; Thomson, A D

    1998-01-01

    Alcohol misuse and alcohol withdrawal are associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric syndromes, some of which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. B vitamin deficiency is known to contribute to the aetiology of a number of these syndromes, and B vitamin supplementation thus plays a significant part in prophylaxis and treatment. In particular, the Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome (WKS). due to thiamine deficiency, is a common condition in association with alcohol misuse, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Nicotinamide deficiency may result in a rarer condition, alcoholic pellagra encephalopathy, which often has a similar clinical presentation to WKS. This review considers the role of B vitamins in the aetiology and treatment of neuropsychiatric syndromes associated with alcohol misuse, with particular emphasis on WKS. PMID:9719389

  12. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin B12 test system. 862.1810 Section 862.1810....1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B 12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin B 12 test system. 862.1810 Section 862....1810 Vitamin B 12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B 12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin B 12 test system. 862.1810 Section 862....1810 Vitamin B 12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin B12 test system. 862.1810 Section 862.1810....1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin B12 test system. 862.1810 Section 862.1810....1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  17. High-dose compared with low-dose vitamin B-12 supplement use is not associated with higher vitamin B-12 status in children, adolescents, and older adults.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, Amanda J; Shi, Yipu; Greene-Finestone, Linda S

    2014-06-01

    Over-the-counter vitamin supplements on the Canadian market are permitted to contain a daily vitamin B-12 dose of up to 1000 μg. Our objective was to determine the association between total daily vitamin B-12 supplement dose and markers of vitamin B-12 status in Canadians. Blood collected from a nationally representative sample aged 6-79 y (n = ∼5600) in the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007-2009) was analyzed for serum vitamin B-12 and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy). Total daily intake of vitamin B-12 from single and multivitamin supplements was calculated. Individuals that indicated proton pump inhibitor or vitamin B-12 injection treatment were excluded from the supplement dose and tHcy analyses; folate-deficient individuals were also excluded from the tHcy analysis. Twenty-three percent of children, 12.3% of adolescents, and 25.5% of adults consumed a vitamin B-12-containing supplement. Supplement users had 33% higher serum vitamin B-12 and 4.2% higher prevalence of adequacy than did non-supplement users. Children and adolescents consuming >10 μg/d supplemental vitamin B-12 did not demonstrate higher serum vitamin B-12, higher prevalence of serum vitamin B-12 adequacy, or lower tHcy than did those consuming >0-10 μg/d. The association between serum vitamin B-12 reached a plateau at doses of >25 and >10-25 μg/d in adults aged 46-59 and 60-79 y, respectively. The prevalences of serum vitamin B-12 adequacy and normal tHcy, and tHcy did not differ by vitamin B-12 supplement dose in adults >45 y. In this cross-sectional study, vitamin B-12 supplement doses >10-25 μg/d were not associated with higher vitamin B-12 status in children, adolescents, or older adults compared with lower doses. PMID:24699807

  18. Seizures Related to Vitamin B6 Deficiency in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Gun; Lee, Yeonkyung; Shin, Hyeeun; Kang, Kyusik; Park, Jong-Moo; Kim, Byung-Kun; Kwon, Ohyun; Lee, Jung-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B6 is closely associated with functions of the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems. Its deficiency may result in neurological disorders including convulsions and epileptic encephalopathy. Until today, this has only been reported in infants, children, and critically ill adult patients. We report a case of a 36year-old man with chronic alcoholism who presented with seizures after gastrointestinal disturbance. His seizures persisted even after treatment with antiepileptic drugs, but eventually disappeared after administration of pyridoxine. Hence, vitamin B6 deficiency may cause seizures in adult patients with chronic alcoholism. PMID:26157671

  19. Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Hemoglobin H Disease Early Misdiagnosed as Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura: A Series of Unfortunate Events

    PubMed Central

    Andreadis, Panagiotis; Theodoridou, Stamatia; Pasakiotou, Marily; Arapoglou, Stergios; Gigi, Eleni; Vetsiou, Evaggelia; Vlachaki, Efthymia

    2015-01-01

    We herein would like to report an interesting case of a patient who presented with anemia and thrombocytopenia combined with high serum Lactic Dehydrogenase where Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura was originally considered. As indicated a central venous catheter was inserted in his subclavian vein which led to mediastinal hematoma and finally intubation and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) hospitalization. After further examination patient was finally diagnosed with B12 deficiency in a setting of H hemoglobinopathy. There have been previous reports where pernicious anemia was originally diagnosed and treated as Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura but there has been none to our knowledge that was implicated with hemothorax and ICU hospitalization or correlated with thalassemia and we discuss the significance of accurate diagnosis in order to avoid adverse reactions and therapy implications. PMID:26609455

  20. A vitamin B-12 supplement of 500 μg/d for eight weeks does not normalize urinary methylmalonic acid or other biomarkers of vitamin B-12 status in elderly people with moderately poor vitamin B-12 status.

    PubMed

    Hill, Marilyn H; Flatley, Janet E; Barker, Margo E; Garner, Clare M; Manning, Nigel J; Olpin, Simon E; Moat, Stuart J; Russell, Jean; Powers, Hilary J

    2013-02-01

    Plasma vitamin B-12 is the most commonly used biomarker of vitamin B-12 status, but the predictive value for low vitamin B-12 status is poor. The urinary methylmalonic acid (uMMA) concentration has potential as a functional biomarker of vitamin B-12 status, but the response to supplemental vitamin B-12 is uncertain. A study was conducted to investigate the responsiveness of uMMA to supplemental vitamin B-12 in comparison with other biomarkers of vitamin B-12 status [plasma vitamin B-12, serum holotranscobalamin (holoTC), plasma MMA] in elderly people with moderately poor vitamin B-12 status. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized 8-wk intervention study was carried out using vitamin B-12 supplements (500 μg/d, 100 μg/d, and 10 μg/d cyanocobalamin) in 100 elderly people with a combined plasma vitamin B-12 <250 pmol/L and uMMA ratio (μmol MMA/mmol creatinine) >1.5. All biomarkers had a dose response to supplemental vitamin B-12. Improvements in plasma vitamin B-12 and serum holoTC were achieved at cobalamin supplements of 10 μg/d, but even 500 μg/d for 8 wk did not normalize plasma vitamin B-12 in 8% and serum holoTC in 12% of people. The response in uMMA was comparable with plasma MMA; 15-25% of people still showed evidence of metabolic deficiency after 500 μg/d cobalamin for 8 wk. There was a differential response in urinary and plasma MMA according to smoking behavior; the response was enhanced in ex-smokers compared with never-smokers. uMMA offers an alternative marker of metabolic vitamin-B12 status, obviating the need for blood sampling. PMID:23236022

  1. Microbial production of vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Martens, J H; Barg, H; Warren, M J; Jahn, D

    2002-03-01

    One of the most alluring and fascinating molecules in the world of science and medicine is vitamin B12 (cobalamin), which was originally discovered as the anti pernicious anemia factor and whose enigmatic complex structure is matched only by the beguiling chemistry that it mediates. The biosynthesis of this essential nutrient is intricate, involved and, remarkably, confined to certain members of the prokaryotic world, seemingly never have to have made the eukaryotic transition. In humans, the vitamin is required in trace amounts (approximately 1 microg/day) to assist the actions of only two enzymes, methionine synthase and (R)-methylmalonyl-CoA mutase; yet commercially more than 10 t of B12 are produced each year from a number of bacterial species. The rich scientific history of vitamin B12 research, its biological functions and the pathways employed by bacteria for its de novo synthesis are described. Current strategies for the improvement of vitamin B12 production using modern biotechnological techniques are outlined. PMID:11935176

  2. Folate, vitamin B12 and human health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past decade the role of folate and vitamin B12 in human nutrition have been under constant re-examination. Basic knowledge on the metabolism and interactions between these essential nutrients has expanded and multiple complexities have been unraveled. These micronutrients have shared func...

  3. Involuntary movements misdiagnosed as seizure during vitamin B12 treatment.

    PubMed

    Carman, Kursat Bora; Belgemen, Tugba; Yis, Uluc

    2013-11-01

    Seizures and epilepsy are a common problem in childhood. Nonepileptic paroxysmal events are conditions that can mimic seizure and frequent in early childhood. Nonepileptic paroxysmal events can be due to physiological or exaggerated physiological responses, parasomnias, movement disorders, behavioral or psychiatric disturbances, or to hemodynamic, respiratory, or gastrointestinal dysfunction. Vitamin B12 deficiency is a treatable cause of failure to thrive and developmental regression, involuntary movements, and anemia. Involuntary movements rarely may appear a few days after the initiation of vitamin B12 treatments and might be misdiagnosed as seizure. Here, we report 2 patients who presented with involuntary movements with his video image. PMID:24196096

  4. Vitamin B12 and Folate Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... certain anemias , such as pernicious anemia , an autoimmune disease that affects the absorption of B12. B12 and folate are ... deficiency Celiac disease Inflammatory bowel disease , including ... the intestines Reduced stomach acid production from long-term use of antacids or H2 ...

  5. Folate- and vitamin B12-deficient diet during gestation and lactation alters cerebellar synapsin expression via impaired influence of estrogen nuclear receptor α.

    PubMed

    Pourié, Grégory; Martin, Nicolas; Bossenmeyer-Pourié, Carine; Akchiche, Nassila; Guéant-Rodriguez, Rosa Maria; Geoffroy, Andréa; Jeannesson, Elise; El Hajj Chehadeh, Sarah; Mimoun, Khalid; Brachet, Patrick; Koziel, Violette; Alberto, Jean-Marc; Helle, Deborah; Debard, Renée; Leininger, Brigitte; Daval, Jean-Luc; Guéant, Jean-Louis

    2015-09-01

    Deficiency in the methyl donors vitamin B12 and folate during pregnancy and postnatal life impairs proper brain development. We studied the consequences of this combined deficiency on cerebellum plasticity in offspring from rat mothers subjected to deficient diet during gestation and lactation and in rat neuroprogenitor cells expressing cerebellum markers. The major proteomic change in cerebellum of 21-d-old deprived females was a 2.2-fold lower expression of synapsins, which was confirmed in neuroprogenitors cultivated in the deficient condition. A pathway analysis suggested that these proteomic changes were related to estrogen receptor α (ER-α)/Src tyrosine kinase. The influence of impaired ER-α pathway was confirmed by abnormal negative geotaxis test at d 19-20 and decreased phsophorylation of synapsins in deprived females treated by ER-α antagonist 1,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-methyl-5-[4-(2-piperidinylethoxy)phenol]-1H-pyrazole dihydrochloride (MPP). This effect was consistent with 2-fold decreased expression and methylation of ER-α and subsequent decreased ER-α/PPAR-γ coactivator 1 α (PGC-1α) interaction in deficiency condition. The impaired ER-α pathway led to decreased expression of synapsins through 2-fold decreased EGR-1/Zif-268 transcription factor and to 1.7-fold reduced Src-dependent phosphorylation of synapsins. The treatment of neuroprogenitors with either MPP or PP1 (4-(4'-phenoxyanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline, 6,7-dimethoxy-N-(4-phenoxyphenyl)-4-quinazolinamine, SKI-1, Src-l1) Src inhibitor produced similar effects. In conclusion, the deficiency during pregnancy and lactation impairs the expression of synapsins through a deregulation of ER-α pathway. PMID:26018677

  6. Plasma vitamin B12, methylmalonic acid and heart rate variability in healthy young Indian adults.

    PubMed

    Sucharita, Sambashivaiah; Sowmya, Sharma; Thomas, Tinku; Kurpad, Anura V; Vaz, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in the Indian population is not known, however; it is considered to be higher than in the Western population. Vitamin B12 deficiency is generally diagnosed by the plasma vitamin B12 level. Metabolites of vitamin B12 such as homocysteine (Hcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA) are considered to be better markers to diagnose vitamin B12 deficiency at the tissue level. Autonomic neuropathy in vitamin B12 deficiency appears to precede other neurological signs. One of the recent techniques to evaluate autonomic neuropathy is heart rate variability (HRV). We evaluated 14 healthy young adults to explore the association of plasma vitamin B12, MMA, and Hcy levels with HRV. Resting lead II ECG was recorded and power spectral analyses were performed. Plasma MMA level was significantly and negatively correlated with the log-transformed low frequency (r = - 0.74, p = 0.002) and total power spectra (r = - 0.55, p = 0.03) of HRV in absolute units. Low frequency (LF) (r = - 0.56, p = 0.03) and high frequency (HF) (r = 0.57, p = 0.03), when represented in normalized units, were also correlated significantly with plasma MMA. In summary, plasma MMA but not vitamin B12 was significantly associated with HRV indices in a young adult population, suggesting that a tissue-level marker of vitamin B12 deficiency is more closely correlated with functional changes. PMID:24846903

  7. Breast milk vitamin B-12 concentrations of Guatemalan women are correlated with maternal but not infant vitamin B–12 status at 12 months postpartum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our previous studies one third of lactating Guatemalan women, infants and children had deficient or marginal serum vitamin B-12 concentrations. Relationships among maternal and infant status and breast milk vitamin B-12, however, have not been investigated in such populations. Our purpose was to ...

  8. B-vitamin deficiency is protective in experimental colitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methionine (Met) cycle activity is critical for normal cell functions and requires B-vitamin (B6/B12) as cofactors. Sadenosylhomocysteine (SAH) is a Met cycle intermediates that is known to inhibit methyltransferases. Met metabolism is altered in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but M...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin B 12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B 12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin B 12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B 12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  14. Effect of combined folic acid, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on colorectal adenoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Folic acid, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) act in concert in the one-carbon metabolism and may protect against colorectal neoplasia. We examined the effect of combined B-vitamin treatment on the occurrence of colorectal adenoma. The Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study was a rand...

  15. The pathophysiology of elevated vitamin B12 in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Andrès, E; Serraj, K; Zhu, J; Vermorken, A J M

    2013-06-01

    Hypercobalaminemia (high serum vitamin B12 levels) is a frequent and underestimated anomaly. Clinically, it can be paradoxically accompanied by signs of deficiency, reflecting a functional deficiency linked to qualitative abnormalities, which are related to defects in tissue uptake and action of vitamin B12. The aetiological profile of high serum cobalamin predominantly encompasses severe disease entities for which early diagnosis is critical for prognosis. These entities are essentially comprised of solid neoplasms, haematological malignancies and liver and kidney diseases. This review reflects the potential importance of the vitamin B12 assay as an early diagnostic marker of these diseases. A codified approach is needed to determine the potential indications of a search for high serum cobalamin and the practical clinical strategy to adopt upon discovery of elevated cobalamin levels. While low serum cobalamin levels do not necessarily imply deficiency, an abnormally high serum cobalamin level forms a warning sign requiring exclusion of a number of serious underlying pathologies. Functional cobalamin deficiency can thus occur at any serum level. PMID:23447660

  16. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B 12..

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin B 12.. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B 12.. (a) Vitamin B12, also known as cyanocobalamin (C63H88Co... is used in food at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Vitamin B12 also may...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and....1945 Vitamin B12. (a) Vitamin B12, also known as cyanocobalamin (C63H88CoN14O14P, CAS Reg. No. 68-0919... exceed current good manufacturing practice. Vitamin B12 also may be used in infant formula in...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B12. (a) Vitamin B12, also known as cyanocobalamin (C63H88Co... is used in food at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Vitamin B12 also may...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B12. (a) Vitamin B12, also known as cyanocobalamin (C63H88Co... is used in food at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Vitamin B12 also may...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin B12. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B12. (a) Vitamin B12, also known as cyanocobalamin (C63H88Co... is used in food at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Vitamin B12 also may...

  1. Advances in clinical determinants and neurological manifestations of B vitamin deficiency in adults.

    PubMed

    Sechi, GianPietro; Sechi, Elia; Fois, Chiara; Kumar, Neeraj

    2016-05-01

    B vitamin deficiency is a leading cause of neurological impairment and disability throughout the world. Multiple B vitamin deficiencies often coexist, and thus an understanding of the complex relationships between the different biochemical pathways regulated in the brain by these vitamins may facilitate prompter diagnosis and improved treatment. Particular populations at risk for multiple B vitamin deficiencies include the elderly, people with alcoholism, patients with heart failure, patients with recent obesity surgery, and vegetarians/vegans. Recently, new clinical settings that predispose individuals to B vitamin deficiency have been highlighted. Moreover, other data indicate a possible pathogenetic role of subclinical chronic B vitamin deficiency in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In light of these findings, this review examines the clinical manifestations of B vitamin deficiency and the effect of B vitamin deficiency on the adult nervous system. The interrelationships of multiple B vitamin deficiencies are emphasized, along with the clinical phenotypes related to B vitamin deficiencies. Recent advances in the clinical determinants and diagnostic clues of B vitamin deficiency, as well as the suggested therapies for B vitamin disorders, are described. PMID:27034475

  2. [Production of vitamin B12 by fermentation].

    PubMed

    Oğultekin, R; Oner, M

    1985-10-01

    In this work, the methods and technology of vitamin B12 production were studied on laboratory scale. The microorganisms used for experiments were Streptomyces olivaceus IFO 3409, Streptomyces olivaceus CBS 355.53 and Streptomyces griseus CBS 161.45 which were brought from foreign countries. Vitamin B12 activity that have been obtained from fermentation experiments of each microorganisms are determined by microbiological assays using Lactobacillus leichmannii IFO 3073 (ATCC 4797) which is a test microorganism. As a result of these assays S. olivaceus IFO 3409 (2 micrograms/ml) was found as the most efficient strain were followed by S. olivaceus CBS 355.53 and S. griseus CBS 16.45 respectively. PMID:3938519

  3. Radiolysis of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B 12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juanchi, X.; Albarran, G.; Negron-Mendoza, A.

    2000-03-01

    Research on the radiolysis of vitamins is of considerable interest since these compounds are important nutritional constituents in foods and in dietetic supplements. In spite of these considerations there are few data and very often difficult to compare for the radiolytic behavior of vitamins. In this work we focused our attention on to the study of the radiolysis of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B 12) in solid state and in aqueous solutions. The procedure was followed by HPLC and UV-spectroscopy. The results obtained in aqueous solutions showed a dependence of the decomposition as a linear function of the dose. The G of decomposition for a 1×10 -5 M solution was 3.3. In the solid state the vitamin was very stable towards the irradiation in the conditions used in this study with a G=2.1×10 -3. A study made with Serratia marcescens as a microbiological contaminant showed that at the sterilization dose there is a destruction of the vitamin in aqueous solution. In the solid state the degree of decomposition was 7%.

  4. Vitamin B-12 Supplementation during Pregnancy and Early Lactation Increases Maternal, Breast Milk, and Infant Measures of Vitamin B-12 Status12

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, Christopher; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Thomas, Tinku; Samuel, Tinu; Rajendran, Ramya; Muthayya, Sumithra; Finkelstein, Julia L.; Lukose, Ammu; Fawzi, Wafaie; Allen, Lindsay H.; Bosch, Ronald J.; Kurpad, Anura V.

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant women in resource-poor areas are at risk of multiple micronutrient deficiencies, and indicators of low vitamin B-12 status have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including anemia, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth retardation. To evaluate whether daily oral vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy increases maternal and infant measures of vitamin B-12 status, we performed a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Pregnant women <14 wk of gestation in Bangalore, India, were randomly assigned to receive daily oral supplementation with vitamin B-12 (50 μg) or placebo through 6 wk postpartum. All women were administered iron and folic acid supplements throughout pregnancy. One hundred eighty-three women were randomly assigned to receive vitamin B-12 and 183 to receive placebo. Compared with placebo recipients, vitamin B-12–supplemented women had significantly higher plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations at both the second (median vitamin B-12 concentration: 216 vs. 111 pmol/L, P < 0.001) and third (median: 184 vs. 105 pmol/L, P < 0.001) trimesters. At 6 wk postpartum, median breast milk vitamin B-12 concentration was 136 pmol/L in vitamin B-12–supplemented women vs. 87 pmol/L in the placebo group (P < 0.0005). Among vitamin B-12–supplemented women, the incidence of delivering an infant with intrauterine growth retardation was 33 of 131 (25%) vs. 43 of 125 (34%) in those administered placebo (P = 0.11). In a subset of infants tested at 6 wk of age, median plasma vitamin B-12 concentration was 199 pmol/L in those born to supplemented women vs. 139 pmol/L in the placebo group (P = 0.01). Infant plasma methylmalonic acid and homocysteine concentrations were significantly lower in the vitamin B-12 group as well. Oral supplementation of urban Indian women with vitamin B-12 throughout pregnancy and early lactation significantly increases vitamin B-12 status of mothers and infants. It is important to determine whether there are correlations between these findings and neurologic and metabolic functions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00641862. PMID:24598885

  5. Vitamin B12 Status of Mothers of Children with Infantile Tremor Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Goraya, Jatinder Singh; Bansal, Kartik; Singla, Sekhar; Kaur, Sukhjot

    2016-03-01

    Retrospective chart review of 15 patients with infantile tremor syndrome in which mothers had their serum vitamin B12 measured, showed low (<200 pg/mL) serum vitamin B12 in 9 and low-normal (<200-350 pg/mL) in 6. Of the 9 mothers who had undergone complete blood counts, anemia was present in 6 and macrocytosis in 3. Vitamin B12 deficiency appears to be common in mothers of infants with infantile tremor syndrome. PMID:27029694

  6. B Vitamins

    MedlinePlus

    The B vitamins are B1 (thiamine) B2 (riboflavin) B3 (niacin) B5 (pantothenic acid) B6 B7 (biotin) B12 Folic acid These vitamins help the process your body uses to get or make energy from the food you eat. They also help form red blood cells. You can get B vitamins from ...

  7. An Escherichia coli K-12 tktA tktB mutant deficient in transketolase activity requires pyridoxine (vitamin B6) as well as the aromatic amino acids and vitamins for growth.

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, G; Winkler, M E

    1994-01-01

    We show that a tktA tktB double mutant, which is devoid of the two known transketolase isoenzymes of Escherichia coli K-12, requires pyridoxine (vitamin B6) as well as the aromatic amino acids and vitamins for growth. This pyridoxine requirement can also be satisfied by 4-hydroxy-L-threonine or glycolaldehyde. These results provide direct evidence that D-erythrose-4-phosphate is a precursor of the pyridine ring of pyridoxine. In addition, they show that the two major E. coli transketolase isoenzymes are not required for the biosynthesis of D-1-deoxyxylulose, which is thought to be another precursor of pyridoxine. PMID:7928977

  8. VITAMIN B12 LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS ON METFORMIN

    PubMed Central

    Akinlade, K.S.; Agbebaku, S.O.; Rahamon, S.K.; Balogun, W.O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Due to the clinical benefits of metformin, its associated side effects such as vitamin B12 deficiency are usually overlooked and rarely investigated. Objective: This study was carried out to determine the serum level of vitamin B12 in Nigerian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on metformin. Methods: Serum vitamin B12 level was determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 81 T2DM patients who have been on metformin for 5 years or more. Vitamin B12 deficiency was defined as serum concentration of <200 pg/dl, borderline deficiency as 200 - 300 pg/dl and >300 pg/dl as normal. Differences in vitamin B12 levels between different groups were assessed using Mann Whitney U test and P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Vitamin B12 deficiency and borderline deficiency were recorded in 8.6% and 26.0% of the patients respectively. Vitamin B12 level was significantly lower in patients who have been on metformin for ≥10 years compared with patients with <10 years history of metformin use. Similarly, patients who were on metformin at a dose of >1000 mg/day had significantly lower vitamin B12 level when compared with patients on ≤1000 mg/day. Conclusion: Low serum vitamin B12 level is associated with longer duration and higher dose of metformin use. Therefore, routine determination of vitamin B12 level in patients with T2DM on high dose of metformin and those with prolonged use of metformin might help in identifying patients that would benefit from vitamin B12 supplements.

  9. Vitamin B-12 concentrations in breast milk are low and are not associated with reported household hunger, recent animal source food or vitamin B-12 intake among women in rural Kenya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Breastmilk vitamin B-12 concentration may be inadequate in mothers living in regions where animal source food consumption is low or infrequent. Vitamin B-12 deficiency causes megaloglastic anemia and impairs growth and development in children. Objective: To measure vitamin B-12 in breast...

  10. Is it time for vitamin B-12 fortification? What are the questions?1234

    PubMed Central

    Green, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction of folic acid fortification of flour 10 y ago, an initiative to consider fortifying flour with vitamin B-12 has gained momentum in the United States. The impetus for this move stems from several considerations, including some evidence that a proportion of neural tube defect pregnancies may be the result of vitamin B-12 rather than folate deficiency. However, no interventional trials have taken place to show the efficacy of vitamin B-12 supplementation or fortification in the primary prevention or recurrence of neural tube defect pregnancies, as was the case with folic acid. Other reasons put forward for the institution of vitamin B-12 fortification include the high prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in certain demographic groups, including the elderly and the young in some countries. Much of this deficiency, however, is subclinical and not associated with manifest morbidity. Moreover, individuals affected by the most severe cases of vitamin B-12 deficiency that are associated with morbidity would not benefit from the concentrations of vitamin B-12 fortification that are practical or that are being considered, because such individuals suffer from malabsorption of vitamin B-12 rather than from an inadequacy of intake of the vitamin. In addition to the well-recognized complications of vitamin B-12 deficiency, such as macrocytic anemia and neurological complications affecting sensory and motor function, more subtle effects have also been described, including osteopenia, neurocognitive impairment, and increased vascular disease risk associated with elevated homocysteine. This analysis focuses on the research questions that are pertinent to the consideration of whether or not to introduce mandatory vitamin B-12 fortification in the United States. PMID:19141694

  11. Folate and vitamin B12 status in Latin America and the Caribbean: An update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The current magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean is uncertain. Objective: To summarize data on plasma or serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in Latin America and the Caribbean reported since 1990, a period that covers the era before an...

  12. In vitamin B12 deficiency, higher serum folate is assoicated with increased total homocysteine (tHcy) and methlmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a recent study of older participants (age >/= 60 y) in the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we showed that a combination of high serum folate and low vitamin B-12 status was associated with higher prevalence of cognitive impairment and anemia than other combina...

  13. Metabolic evidence of vitamin B-12 deficiency, including high homocysteine and methylmalonic acid and low holotranscobalamin, is more pronounced in older adults with elevated plasma folate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: An analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey indicated that in older adults exposed to folic acid fortification, the combination of low serum vitamin B-12 and elevated folate is associated with higher concentrations of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid ...

  14. Vitamin B-12 supplementation of rural Mexican women changes biochemical B-12 status indicators but does not affect hematology or a bone turnover marker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on the high prevalence of low serum vitamin B-12 concentrations and low dietary intake of the vitamin in Latin American studies including research in Mexico, it appears that vitamin B-12 deficiency is common. Whether this is associated with adverse effects on human function is unknown. To eval...

  15. Determination of vitamin B12 using the enzyme glycerol dehydrase.

    PubMed

    Yamada, S; Yamada, K; Nishikawa, N; Hioki, R; Nirasawa, M; Kii, K; Ryugo, H; Iwama, M; Fukuda, M

    2004-01-01

    Glycerol dehydrase is an enzyme that catalyzes dehydration of glycerol into beta-propionaldehyde. It requires 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin, one of the forms of vitamin B12, as a coenzyme. The enzyme is inactivated in vitro by all forms of vitamin B12 stoichiometrically. The objective of this study was to determine vitamin B12 content by utilizing the inactivation of the enzyme by vitamin B12. After various examinations, an excellent standard curve was obtained up to 1 pmol vitamin B12 using 14 mU of the enzyme per tube. Glycerol dehydrase does not respond to vitamin B12 if it is bound to haptocorrin, a vitamin B12-binding protein. This necessitates a procedure for extraction of vitamin B12 from samples before assay. The enzyme was less inactivated by 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin than any other form of vitamin B12. However, this did not matter because all forms of vitamin B12 were converted into cyanocobalamin during the extraction procedure cited above, which was performed in a buffer containing potassium cyanide. PMID:15222628

  16. The transcobalamin receptor knockout mouse: a model for vitamin B12 deficiency in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shao-Chiang; Nakayama, Yasumi; Sequeira, Jeffrey M; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan J; Cabrera, Robert M; Finnell, Richard H; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Quadros, Edward V

    2013-06-01

    The membrane receptor (TCblR/CD320) for transcobalamin (TC)-bound cobalamin (Cbl) facilitates the cellular uptake of Cbl. A genetically modified mouse model involving ablation of the CD320 gene was generated to study the effects on cobalamin homeostasis. The nonlethal nature of this knockout and the lack of systemic cobalamin deficiency point to other mechanisms for cellular Cbl uptake in the mouse. However, severe cobalamin depletion in the central nervous system (CNS) after birth (P<0.01) indicates that TCblR is the only receptor responsible for Cbl uptake in the CNS. Metabolic Cbl deficiency in the brain was evident from the increased methylmalonic acid (P<0.01-0.04), homocysteine (P<0.01), cystathionine (P<0.01), and the decreased S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosyl homocysteine ratio (P<0.01). The CNS pathology of Cbl deficiency seen in humans may not manifest in this mouse model; however, it does provide a model with which to evaluate metabolic pathways and genes affected. PMID:23430977

  17. The effect of vitamin B sub 12 on selenium metabolism in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.L.; Whanger, P.D. )

    1991-03-11

    Since animal methylate selenium (Se) and vitamin B{sub 12} is involved in methylation reactions, weaning rats were fed diets with or without vitamin B{sub 12} to evaluate its effect on Se metabolism. Plasma vitamin B{sub 12} of vitamin B{sub 12} depleted rats were below detection while vitamin B{sub 12} levels in plasma of control rats ranged from 3-6 ng/ml after 4 weeks feeding. After {sup 75}Se-selenite injection, vitamin B{sub 12} depleted rats exhaled 16% of the dose and excreted 22-28% as trimethylselenonium in urine as compared to 45% and 45-54% respectively in control rats. Se methylation experiments with rat liver supernatants from vitamin B{sub 12} depleted rats volatilized only 45% as the control rat liver preparation. When rats were fed various levels of Se as selenite, blood and heart Se levels were higher in vitamin B{sub 12} supplemented rats, but lower in liver, kidney, spleen and testis than the deficient rats. This difference in liver between supplemented and deficient rats became greater with higher dietary levels of Se. It is concluded that vitamin B{sub 12} affects Se metabolism through the methylation of this element.

  18. Daily milk intake improves vitamin B-12 status in young vegetarian Indians: an intervention trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Asymptomatic Indian lacto vegetarians, who make up more than half of the Indian population in different geographic regions, have distinctly low vitamin B-12 concentrations than non- vegetarians. Vegetarians consume milk but it seems that the amount is not enough to improve vitamin B-12 status or vitamin B-12 concentration in milk itself may be low. The aim of this study was to determine if daily milk consumption can improve vitamin B-12 status. Methods Fifteen male and 36 female, young healthy post-graduate volunteers participated. Blood from ten participants (4 males and 6 females) was collected (day-1). They continued their regular diet for next fourteen days and on day-15, blood of all 51 participants was collected, plasma vitamin B-12 concentration was measured and were divided into two groups; Normal (vitamin B-12 >148 pmol/L, n?=?22) and Vitamin B-12 deficient (<148 pmol/L, n?=?29), the remaining plasma was stored. All participants consumed 600ml. of non-enriched buffalo milk (200 3) during the day along with their usual diet. Next day blood was collected for plasma holotranscobalamin II measurement. Subjects from deficient group continued to drink 400ml of milk daily for next 14days and blood was collected on day-30. Plasma holotranscoabalamin II (day-1, 15, 16, 30), vitamin B-12, folate, total homocysteine, creatinine and hematoloical parameters (day-1, 15, 30), and milk vitamin B-12 concentrations (day-15, 16, 30) were measured. Results Fifty seven per cent of the participants were vitamin B-12 deficient and 65% were hyperhomocysteinemic. No significant difference in biomarkers was observed when there was no intervention. Plasma holotranscobalamin II concentration increased from 19.6 to 22.27 pmol/L (p?vitamin B-12 increased from 92.5 to 122 pmol/L and tHcy concentrations decreased from 31.9 to 24.9?mol/L (p?vitamin B-12 deficient subjects. Conclusions Regular intake of milk improved vitamin B-12 status of vitamin B-12 deficient vegetarians indicating a potential dietary strategy to improve the vitamin status. PMID:24107225

  19. Hyperhomocysteinemia and B-vitamin deficiencies in infants and children.

    PubMed

    Ueland, Per Magne; Monsen, Anne Lise Bjørke

    2003-11-01

    Measurement of total homocysteine (tHcy) in healthy and diseased children has documented the utility of this marker in pediatric research and diagnostics. This article focuses on novel data obtained in infants, children and adolescents, with emphasis on cobalamin status in infants. In children, determinants of plasma tHcy are similar to those established in adults, and include age, gender, nutrition, B-vitamin status, and some drugs interfering with B-vitamin function. In infants (age < 1 year), tHcy is moderately elevated and related to serum cobalamin, whereas in older children and throughout childhood, plasma tHcy is low (about 60% of adult levels), and folate status becomes a strong tHcy determinant. As in adults, hyperhomocysteinemia in childhood is a risk factor for stroke, and folate-responsive hyperhomocysteinemia has been detected in children with renal failure. tHcy seems to be a sensitive indicator of folate deficiency in children on a poor diet, in HIV-infected children, and in children treated with anti-folate drugs. In children at increased risk of cobalamin deficiency, which includes children born to vegetarian mothers or children in developing countries on a poor diet, tHcy and methylmalonic acid are responsive indicators of a deficiency state. In newborns and infants born to mothers with an adequate nutrition, there are consistent observations of low cobalamin, elevated tHcy and methylmalonic acid, and reduction of both metabolites by cobalamin supplementation. These data have raised the question whether cobalamin deficiency may be widespread and undetected in babies born to non-vegetarian women on a Westernized diet. PMID:14656020

  20. B-vitamin deficiency is protective against DSS-induced colitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Benight, Nancy M.; Stoll, Barbara; Chacko, Shaji; da Silva, Vanessa R.; Marini, Juan C.; Gregory, Jesse F.; Stabler, Sally P.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin deficiencies are common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Homocysteine (Hcys) is a thrombogenic amino acid produced from methionine (Met), and its increase in patients with IBD indicates a disruption of Met metabolism; however, the role of Hcys and Met metabolism in IBD is not well understood. We hypothesized that disrupted Met metabolism from a B-vitamin-deficient diet would exacerbate experimental colitis. Mice were fed a B6-B12-deficient or control diet for 2 wk and then treated with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to induce colitis. We monitored disease activity during DSS treatment and collected plasma and tissue for analysis of inflammatory tissue injury and Met metabolites. We also quantified Met cycle activity by measurements of in vivo Met kinetics using [1-13C-methyl-2H3]methionine infusion in similarly treated mice. Unexpectedly, we found that mice given the B-vitamin-deficient diet had improved clinical outcomes, including increased survival, weight maintenance, and reduced disease scores. We also found lower histological disease activity and proinflammatory gene expression (TNF-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase) in the colon in deficient-diet mice. Metabolomic analysis showed evidence that these effects were associated with deficient B6, as markers of B12 function were only mildly altered. In vivo methionine kinetics corroborated these results, showing that the deficient diet suppressed transsulfuration but increased remethylation. Our findings suggest that disrupted Met metabolism attributable to B6 deficiency reduces the inflammatory response and disease activity in DSS-challenged mice. These results warrant further human clinical studies to determine whether B6 deficiency and elevated Hcys in patients with IBD contribute to disease pathobiology. PMID:21596995

  1. Therapeutic role of Vitamin B12 in patients of chronic tinnitus: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Charu; Kawatra, Rahul; Gupta, Jaya; Awasthi, Vishnu; Dungana, Homnath

    2016-01-01

    True tinnitus is a phantom auditory perception arising from a source or trigger in the cochlea, brainstem, or at higher centers and has no detectable acoustic generator. The most accepted is the famous neurophysiologic model of Jastreboff, which stresses that tinnitus, is a subcortical perception and results from the processing of weak neural activity in the periphery. The aim of this study is to determine the role of Vitamin B12 in treatment of chronic tinnitus. In this randomized, double-blind pilot study, total 40 patients were enrolled, of which 20 in Group A (cases) received intramuscular therapy of 1 ml Vitamin B12 (2500 mcg) weekly for a period of 6 weeks and Group B (20) patients received placebo isotonic saline 01 ml intramuscular. The patients were subjected to Vitamin B12 assay and audiometry pre- and post-therapy. Of the total patients of tinnitus, 17 were Vitamin B12 deficient that is 42.5% showed deficiency when the normal levels were considered to be 250 pg/ml. A paired t-test showed that in Group A, patients with Vitamin B12 deficiency showed significant improvement in mean tinnitus severity index score and visual analog scale (VAS) after Vitamin B12 therapy. This pilot study highlights the significant prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency in North Indian population and improvement in tinnitus severity scores and VAS in cobalamin-deficient patients receiving intramuscular Vitamin B12 weekly for 6 weeks further provides a link between cobalamin deficiency and tinnitus thereby suggestive of a therapeutic role of B12 in cobalamin-deficient patients of tinnitus. PMID:26960786

  2. Vitamin B6 deficient plants display increased sensitivity to high light and photo-oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Havaux, Michel; Ksas, Brigitte; Szewczyk, Agnieszka; Rumeau, Dominique; Franck, Fabrice; Caffarri, Stefano; Triantaphylidès, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Background Vitamin B6 is a collective term for a group of six interconvertible compounds: pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine and their phosphorylated derivatives. Vitamin B6 plays essential roles as a cofactor in a range of biochemical reactions. In addition, vitamin B6 is able to quench reactive oxygen species in vitro, and exogenously applied vitamin B6 protects plant cells against cell death induced by singlet oxygen (1O2). These results raise the important question as to whether plants employ vitamin B6 as an antioxidant to protect themselves against reactive oxygen species. Results The pdx1.3 mutation affects the vitamin B6 biosynthesis enzyme, pyridoxal synthase (PDX1), and leads to a reduction of the vitamin B6 concentration in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. Although leaves of the pdx1.3 Arabidopsis mutant contained less chlorophyll than wild-type leaves, we found that vitamin B6 deficiency did not significantly impact photosynthetic performance or shoot and root growth. Chlorophyll loss was associated with an increase in the chlorophyll a/b ratio and a selective decrease in the abundance of several PSII antenna proteins (Lhcb1/2, Lhcb6). These changes were strongly dependent on light intensity, with high light amplifying the difference between pdx1.3 and the wild type. When leaf discs were exposed to exogenous 1O2, lipid peroxidation in pdx1.3 was increased relative to the wild type; this effect was not observed with superoxide or hydrogen peroxide. When leaf discs or whole plants were exposed to excess light energy, 1O2-mediated lipid peroxidation was enhanced in leaves of the pdx1.3 mutant relative to the wild type. High light also caused an increased level of 1O2 in vitamin B6-deficient leaves. Combining the pdx1.3 mutation with mutations affecting the level of 'classical' quenchers of 1O2 (zeaxanthin, tocopherols) resulted in a highly photosensitive phenotype. Conclusion This study demonstrates that vitamin B6 has a function in the in vivo antioxidant defense of plants. Thus, the antioxidant activity of vitamin B6 inferred from in vitro studies is confirmed in planta. Together with the finding that chloroplasts contain vitamin B6 compounds, the data show that vitamin B6 functions as a photoprotector that limits 1O2 accumulation in high light and prevents 1O2-mediated oxidative damage. PMID:19903353

  3. Vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy and early lactation increases maternal, breast milk, and infant measures of vitamin B-12 status.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Christopher; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Thomas, Tinku; Samuel, Tinu; Rajendran, Ramya; Muthayya, Sumithra; Finkelstein, Julia L; Lukose, Ammu; Fawzi, Wafaie; Allen, Lindsay H; Bosch, Ronald J; Kurpad, Anura V

    2014-05-01

    Pregnant women in resource-poor areas are at risk of multiple micronutrient deficiencies, and indicators of low vitamin B-12 status have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including anemia, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth retardation. To evaluate whether daily oral vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy increases maternal and infant measures of vitamin B-12 status, we performed a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Pregnant women <14 wk of gestation in Bangalore, India, were randomly assigned to receive daily oral supplementation with vitamin B-12 (50 μg) or placebo through 6 wk postpartum. All women were administered iron and folic acid supplements throughout pregnancy. One hundred eighty-three women were randomly assigned to receive vitamin B-12 and 183 to receive placebo. Compared with placebo recipients, vitamin B-12-supplemented women had significantly higher plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations at both the second (median vitamin B-12 concentration: 216 vs. 111 pmol/L, P < 0.001) and third (median: 184 vs. 105 pmol/L, P < 0.001) trimesters. At 6 wk postpartum, median breast milk vitamin B-12 concentration was 136 pmol/L in vitamin B-12-supplemented women vs. 87 pmol/L in the placebo group (P < 0.0005). Among vitamin B-12-supplemented women, the incidence of delivering an infant with intrauterine growth retardation was 33 of 131 (25%) vs. 43 of 125 (34%) in those administered placebo (P = 0.11). In a subset of infants tested at 6 wk of age, median plasma vitamin B-12 concentration was 199 pmol/L in those born to supplemented women vs. 139 pmol/L in the placebo group (P = 0.01). Infant plasma methylmalonic acid and homocysteine concentrations were significantly lower in the vitamin B-12 group as well. Oral supplementation of urban Indian women with vitamin B-12 throughout pregnancy and early lactation significantly increases vitamin B-12 status of mothers and infants. It is important to determine whether there are correlations between these findings and neurologic and metabolic functions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00641862. PMID:24598885

  4. Efficacy and safety of fortification and supplementation with vitamin B12: biochemical and physiological effects.

    PubMed

    Carmel, Ralph

    2008-06-01

    Long known as an uncommon but serious medical disorder requiring medical management, vitamin B12 deficiency is now seen to be common worldwide, but it is in a quite different form than traditionally envisioned. Most of the newly recognized deficiency is subclinical in nature, its health impact and natural history are uncertain, and its prevalence has been greatly inflated by also including persons with "low-normal" vitamin B12 levels, few of whom are deficient. The spread of folic acid fortification has also introduced concerns about folate's potentially adverse neurologic consequences in persons with undetected vitamin B12 deficiency. Fortification with vitamin B12 may prove more complicated than fortification with folic acid, however, because the bioavailability of vitamin B12 is limited. Bioavailability for those who need the vitamin B12 the most is especially poor, because they often have malabsorption affecting either classical intrinsic factor-mediated absorption or food-vitamin B12 absorption. Moreover, new evidence shows that many elderly persons respond poorly to daily oral doses under 500 microg (1 microg = 0.74 nmol), even if they do not have classical malabsorption, which suggests that proposed fortification with 1 to 10 microg may be ineffective. Those least in need of vitamin B12 usually have normal absorption and are thus at greatest risk for whatever unknown adverse effects of high-dose fortification might emerge, such as the effects of excess accumulation of cyanocobalamin. Studies are needed to define the still unproven health benefits of vitamin B12 fortification, the optimal levels of fortification, the stability of such fortification, interactions with other nutrients, and any possible adverse effects on healthy persons. The answers will permit formulation of appropriately informed decisions about mandatory fortification or (because fortification may prove a poor choice) about targeted supplementation in subpopulations with special needs for additional vitamin B12, such as vegetarians, nursing mothers, and the elderly. PMID:18709891

  5. Vitamin B-12 treatment of asymptomatic, deficient, elderly Chileans improves conductivity in myelinated periphreal nerves, but high serum folate impairs vitamin B-12 status response assessed by the combined indicator of...

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2005 the National Feeding Program for the Elderly (PACAM) in Chile has provided a B12 fortified milk drink (1.7 µg B12/d) which is insufficient to ensure B12 adequacy in many individuals. The objective was to evaluate effects of adding 1 mg B12/d to PACAM vs 1 mg B12/d as a pill with PACAM on ...

  6. Intestinal synthesis and absorption of vitamin B-12 in channel catfish

    SciTech Connect

    Limsuwan, T.; Lovell, R.T.

    1981-12-01

    A feeding experiment conducted in a controlled environment and using a vitamin B12-deficient, but otherwise nutritionally complete, purified diet revealed that intestinal microorganisms in channel catfish synthesized approximately 1.4 ng of vitamin B12 per gram of bodyweight per day. Removal of cobalt from the diet or supplementation with an antibiotic (succinylsulfathiazole) significantly reduced the rate of intestinal synthesis and liver stores of vitamin B12. Radiolabeled vitamin B12 in the blood, liver, kidneys, and spleen of fish fed 60Co in the diet indicated that the intestinally synthesized vitamin was absorbed by the fish. The primary route of absorption was directly from the digestive tract into the blood because coprophagy was prevented in the rearing aquariums and the amount of vitamin B12 dissolved in the aquarium water was too low for gill absorption. Dietary supplementation of vitamin B12 was not necessary for normal growth and erythrocyte formation in channel catfish in a 24-week feeding period. A longer period, however, may have caused a vitamin deficiency since liver-stored vitamin B 12 decreased between the 2nd and 24th weeks.

  7. Vitamin B-12 and homocysteine status among vegetarians: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Singer, Ingrid

    2009-05-01

    Evidence exists that well-planned vegetarian diets provide numerous health benefits and are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle. It is also known that animal foods provide micronutrients that are nonexistent or available only in limited amounts in plant foods. Restriction or exclusion of all animal foods may therefore result in low intake of certain micronutrients such as vitamin B-12, thereby affecting vitamin B-12 status and elevating plasma homocysteine concentrations. Overall, the studies we reviewed showed reduced mean vitamin B-12 status and elevated mean homocysteine concentrations in vegetarians, particularly among vegans. Low vitamin B-12 intake may lead to decreased bioavailability and functional deficiency of cobalamin. Although early noticeable symptoms of vitamin B-12 deficiency are nonspecific (unusual fatigue, digestion problems, frequent upper respiratory infections), the best-known clinical manifestations of cobalamin malabsorption are hematologic (pernicious anemia) and neurologic symptoms. Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Given these health concerns, vegetarians, particularly vegans, must be advised to carefully plan their diets, to monitor their plasma vitamin B-12 on a regular basis to facilitate early detection of low cobalamin status, and to use vitamin B-12-fortified foods or take vitamin B-12 supplements if necessary. PMID:19357223

  8. Vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids together regulate lipid metabolism in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2015-08-01

    Our recent study indicates that maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid status influence plasma and erythrocyte fatty acid profile in dams. The present study examines the effects of prenatal and postnatal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid status on lipid metabolism in the offspring. Pregnant dams were divided into five groups: Control; Vitamin B12 deficient (BD); Vitamin B12 supplemented (BS); Vitamin B12 deficient group supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids (BDO); Vitamin B12 supplemented group with omega-3 fatty acids (BSO). The offspring were continued on the same diets till 3 month of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency increased cholesterol levels (p<0.01) but reduced docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (p<0.05), liver mRNA levels of acetyl CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC-1) (p<0.05) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) (p<0.01) in the offspring. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to this group normalized cholesterol but not mRNA levels of ACC-1 and CPT-1. Vitamin B12 supplementation normalized the levels cholesterol to that of control but increased plasma triglyceride (p<0.01) and reduced liver mRNA levels of adiponectin, ACC-1, and CPT-1 (p<0.01 for all). Supplementation of both vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid normalized triglyceride and mRNA levels of all the above genes. Prenatal and postnatal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids together play a crucial role in regulating the genes involved in lipid metabolism in adult offspring. PMID:26003565

  9. Lipid, Oxidative and Inflammatory Profile and Alterations in the Enzymes Paraoxonase and Butyrylcholinesterase in Plasma of Patients with Homocystinuria Due CBS Deficiency: The Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Importance.

    PubMed

    Vanzin, Camila Simioni; Mescka, Caroline Paula; Donida, Bruna; Hammerschimidt, Tatiane Grazieli; Ribas, Graziela S; Kolling, Janaína; Scherer, Emilene B; Vilarinho, Laura; Nogueira, Célia; Coitinho, Adriana Simon; Wajner, Moacir; Wyse, Angela T S; Vargas, Carmen Regla

    2015-08-01

    Cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) deficiency is the main cause of homocystinuria. Homocysteine (Hcy), methionine, and other metabolites of Hcy accumulate in the body of affected patients. Despite the fact that thromboembolism represents the major cause of morbidity in CBS-deficient patients, the mechanisms of cardiovascular alterations found in homocystinuria remain unclear. In this work, we evaluated the lipid and inflammatory profile, oxidative protein damage, and the activities of the enzymes paraoxonase (PON1) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) in plasma of CBS-deficient patients at diagnosis and during the treatment (protein-restricted diet supplemented with pyridoxine, folic acid, betaine, and vitamin B12). We also investigated the effect of folic acid and vitamin B12 on these parameters. We found a significant decrease in HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA-1) levels, as well as in PON1 activity in both untreated and treated CBS-deficient patients when compared to controls. BuChE activity and IL-6 levels were significantly increased in not treated patients. Furthermore, significant positive correlations between PON1 activity and sulphydryl groups and between IL-6 levels and carbonyl content were verified. Moreover, vitamin B12 was positively correlated with PON1 and ApoA-1 levels, while folic acid was inversely correlated with total Hcy concentration, demonstrating the importance of this treatment. Our results also demonstrated that CBS-deficient patients presented important alterations in biochemical parameters, possibly caused by the metabolites of Hcy, as well as by oxidative stress, and that the adequate adherence to the treatment is essential to revert or prevent these alterations. PMID:25805165

  10. [Biosynthesis, fermentation and application of vitamin B12--a review].

    PubMed

    Ma, Hui; Wang, Lili; Zhang, Chunxiao; Yi, Hong

    2008-06-01

    Vitamin B12 is an important nutrient widely used in feed, food and medicine field. China is the primary producing area and the VB12 production is 27 t in 2007, 77% of total production in the world. VB12 is the most complex small molecule difficult to chemosynthesize. It ismanufactured by bacteria and archaea via two alternative routes, aerobic or anaerobic pathway. The main strains used in industry fermentation are Propionibacterium freudenrechii and Pseudomonas denitrificans. The basic characteristics, biosynthesis and fermentation of vitamin B12 are reviewed. The vitamin B12 application and market are also summarized. PMID:18807971

  11. Dietary Sources of Vitamin B-12 and Their Association with Vitamin B-12 Status Markers in Healthy Older Adults in the B-PROOF Study

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A. M.; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P.; van der Zwaluw, Nikita L.; van der Velde, Nathalie; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Low vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations between dietary sources of vitamin B-12 (meat, fish and shellfish, eggs, dairy) and serum vitamin B-12, using cross-sectional data of 600 Dutch community-dwelling adults (≥65 years). Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Vitamin B-12 concentrations were measured in serum. Associations were studied over tertiles of vitamin B-12 intake using P for trend, by calculating prevalence ratios (PRs), and splines. Whereas men had significantly higher vitamin B-12 intakes than women (median (25th–75th percentile): 4.18 (3.29–5.38) versus 3.47 (2.64–4.40) μg/day), serum vitamin B-12 did not differ between the two sexes (mean ± standard deviation (SD): 275 ± 104 pmol/L versus 290 ± 113 pmol/L). Higher intakes of dairy, meat, and fish and shellfish were significantly associated with higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations, where meat and dairy—predominantly milk were the most potent sources. Egg intake did not significantly contribute to higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations. Thus, dairy and meat were the most important contributors to serum vitamin B-12, followed by fish and shellfish. PMID:26389945

  12. Characterization of vitamin B12 in Dunaliella salina.

    PubMed

    Kumudha, Anantharajappa; Sarada, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is one of nature's complex metabolite which is industrially produced using certain bacteria. Algae could be an alternative source of vitamin B12 and in this study, vitamin B12 from a halotolerant green alga, Dunaliella salina V-101 was purified and characterized. The extract of Dunaliella was purified by passing through Amberlite XAD-2 and EASI-extract vitamin B12 immunoaffinity column. The total vitamin B12 content in purified sample fractions was 42 ± 2 μg/100 g dry weight as determined by the chemiluminescence method which was almost close to 49 ± 2 μg/100 g dry weight as estimated by microbiological method. Further quantification of total vitamin B12 using gold nanoparticle (AUNPs) based aptamer showed 40 ± 0.8/100 g dry weight. There was a good correlation among all the methods of quantification. Adenosylcobalamin, a form of vitamin B12 which is a cofactor for methylmalonyl CoA mutase was identified by HPLC. Upon quantification, Dunaliella was found to contain 34 ± 4 μg of adenosylcobalamin for 100 g dry biomass. Authenticity of adenosylcobalmin was confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), selected ion recording (SIR) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) studies. PMID:26788012

  13. Folate and vitamin B12: function and importance in cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Troen, Aron M

    2012-01-01

    The importance of the B vitamins folate and vitamin B12 for healthy neurological development and function is unquestioned. Folate and vitamin B12 are required for biological methylation and DNA synthesis. Vitamin B12 also participates in the mitochondrial catabolism of odd-chain fatty acids and some amino acids. Inborn errors of their metabolism and severe nutritional deficiencies cause serious neurological and hematological pathology. Poor folate and vitamin B12 status short of clinical deficiency is associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment, depression, Alzheimer's disease and stroke among older adults and increased risk of neural tube defects among children born to mothers with low folate status. Folate supplementation and food fortification are known to reduce incident neural tube defects, and B vitamin supplementation may have cognitive benefit in older adults. Less is known about folate and vitamin B12 requirements for optimal brain development and long-term cognitive health in newborns, children and adolescents. While increasing suboptimal nutritional status has observed benefits, the long-term effects of high folate intake are uncertain. Several observations of unfavorable health indicators in children and adults exposed to high folic acid intake make it imperative to achieve a more precise definition of folate and B12 requirements for brain development and function. PMID:25825305

  14. Response of vitamin B-6 deficiency and the carpal tunnel syndrome to pyridoxine.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, J M; Folkers, K; Levy, M; Shizukuishi, S; Lewandowski, J; Nishii, S; Schubert, H A; Ulrich, R

    1982-01-01

    The specific activities and percentage deficiencies of the glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase of erythrocytes (EGOT) were determined for patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) diagnosed by clinical examination and electrical conduction data; the EGOT data revealed a severe deficiency of vitamin B-6. After double-blind treatment with pyridoxine and placebo, two physicians identified those receiving pyridoxine (clinically improved) and those receiving placebo (did not improve) without error, P less than 0.0078. Correcting a deficiency of the coenzyme at receptors of existing molecules of the apoenzyme appears to take place within days; correction of the deficiency in the number of molecules of the transaminase takes place over 10-12 weeks. The clinical response, appraised by the diminution of the symptoms of CTS, was correlated only with the restored levels of the transaminase which presumably results from a translational long-term increase in the number of molecules of EGOT by a mechanism activated by correcting a deficiency of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Apparent Km values of EGOT were identical for groups of patients with CTS and others without CTS but with identical specific activities, indicating that CTS is a primary deficiency of vitamin B-6 rather than one of a dependency state. Clinical improvement of the syndrome with pyridoxine therapy may frequently obviate hand surgery. PMID:6961425

  15. Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B-12) status in Seventh-day Adventist ministers in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hokin, B D; Butler, T

    1999-09-01

    As part of the Adventist Ministers' Health Study, a series of cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1992, 1994, and 1997, the serum vitamin B-12 status of 340 Australian Seventh-day Adventist ministers was assessed in 1997. The ministers in the study participated voluntarily. Of this group, 245 were either lactoovovegetarians or vegans who were not taking vitamin B-12 supplements. Their mean vitamin B-12 concentration was 199 pmol/L (range: 58-538 pmol/L), 53% of whom had values below the reference range for the method used (171-850 pmol/L) and 73% of whom had values <221 pmol/L, the lower limit recommended by Herbert. Dual-isotope Schillings test results in 36 lactoovovegetarians with abnormally low vitamin B-12 concentrations indicated that dietary deficiency was the cause in 70% of cases. Data from the dietary questionnaires supported dietary deficiency as the cause of low serum vitamin B-12 in this population of lactoovovegetarians and vegans, 56 (23%) of whom consumed sufficient servings of vitamin B-12-containing foods to obtain the minimum daily maintenance allowance of the vitamin (1 microg). PMID:10479234

  16. Folate and vitamin B12 status of adolescent girls in northern Nigeria.

    PubMed Central

    VanderJagt, D. J.; Spelman, K.; Ambe, J.; Datta, P.; Blackwell, W.; Crossey, M.; Glew, R. H.

    2000-01-01

    The diets of populations in many developing countries are low in folate and vitamin B12 and a deficiency of either of these vitamins results in increased risk for cardiovascular disease and neural tube defects. The rates of neural tube defects in Nigeria are among the highest reported worldwide. Since many girls marry at an early age in northern Nigeria, we therefore determined the folate and vitamin B12 status of adolescent girls between 12 and 16 years of age in Maiduguri, Nigeria. The mean serum folate concentration for subjects was 15.3 +/- 5.2 nmol/L. Whereas only four subjects (2.4%) had serum folate concentrations lower than 6.8 nmol/L, a level indicative of negative folate balance, 9% of the subjects had serum vitamin B12 concentrations at or below 134 pmol/L, the lower limit of the reference range for their age group. Serum homocysteine was measured in 56 of the 162 subjects and the mean level was 15.9 +/- 5.0 mumol/L. The majority of subjects had serum homocysteine concentrations above the upper limit of the reference range for their age group. We conclude that the adolescent girls we studied were at greater risk for vitamin B12 deficiency than folate deficiency. This conclusion is consistent with the fact that their diet included few foods that contained vitamin B12. PMID:10946529

  17. Homocysteine, folic acid and vitamin B12 in relation to pre- and postnatal health aspects.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Rima; Herrmann, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Studies linking hyperhomocysteinemia (HHCY) and B-vitamin deficiency to some health aspects in children have been accumulating. Low B-vitamin status inearly life, even as early as the time of conception, may endanger the potential for new life and may negatively influence the health of the offspring. Early abortion, pregnancy complications and poor pregnancy outcomes have been linked to elevated concentrations of total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) and low folate or vitamin B12. Maternal vitamin status predicts that of fetuses and neonates. Lactating women are likely to experience low micronutrient status, which might affect breast-milk composition and hence the nutritional status of their breast-fed infants. Elevated concentrations of methylmalonic acid (MMA) is common in infants (age <6 months), which may indicate a transient inadequate vitamin B12 status. Deficiency of B-vitamins might confer deleterious effects on the physical and mental health of the child, such as impaired growth, gross motor function, poor school performance and other adaptive skills. The importance of maintaining adequate B-vitamin status during periods of progressive growth and development should be emphasized because symptoms related to folate and vitamin B12 deficiency are difficult to detect. Serum levels of tHcy and MMA should be estimated in several target groups of children, pregnant and lactating women and those planning for pregnancy. Concentrations of tHcy and MMA are useful indicators of B-vitamin status in the pediatric laboratory. Using these functional markers may facilitate detecting sub-optimal B-vitamin status in children. PMID:16197297

  18. Serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations and the effect of the Mediterranean diet on vulnerable populations.

    PubMed

    Balcı, Yasemin Işık; Ergin, Ahmet; Karabulut, Aysun; Polat, Aziz; Doğan, Mustafa; Küçüktaşcı, Kazım

    2014-02-01

    Low vitamin B12 and folate levels in expectant mothers may lead to low stores in babies. The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies of vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies in pregnant women and neonates, and to assess the effect of maternal vitamin status on babies' vitamin levels in the Aegean region of Turkey, where the Mediterranean diet (mainly fresh fruits and vegetables) is adopted. We studied 72 pregnant women and their singleton-term babies. Venous blood samples of expectant mothers were collected 1 h before delivery and cord blood of babies were obtained at birth. The mean vitamin B12 in maternal and cord blood serum was 163.1 ± 72.0 pg/mL and 146.2 ± 102.5 pg/mL, and the mean folate, 9.8 ± 4.8 ng/mL and 15.8 ± 3.8 ng/mL, respectively. There were statistically significant correlation between maternal and cord blood serum vitamin B12 (r = 0.61, P = .04) and folate levels (r = 0.65, P < .001). 70.8% of the mothers and 83.9% of the babies were vitamin B12 deficient (<200 pg/mL). Neither group showed folate deficiency. The mean level of vitamin B12 in mothers significantly varied by the type of diet (241.6 (72.1) pg/mL versus 155.9 (68.2) pg/mL; P = .012). Vitamin B12 deficiency in pregnant women and neonates may be a public health problem in our community. The Mediterranean diet in these vulnerable groups may be an aggravating factor for vitamin B12 deficiency. Prenatal screening of all expectant mothers, prenatal supplementation of vitamin B12, and an increase in animal-source food intake may improve expectant mother's vitamin B12 level. PMID:24088029

  19. Reductive dechlorination of chlorophenols by vitamin B[sub 12

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    The reductive dechlorination of chlorinated phenols by vitamin B[sub 12], supported by the reductant Ti(III) citrate, was examined. Procedures were developed, including a novel reactor system, for conducting these experiments. Most of the experiments were conducted in either hermetically-sealed glass ampoules, which could maintain vitamin B[sub 12] in the fully-reduced vitamin B[sub 12s] state for months, or in the novel two-chambered reactor (TCR), which could also support vitamin B[sub 12s] for extended periods, and could easily be sampled to perform kinetic studies. Vitamin B[sub 12s] reductively dechlorinates chlorinated phenols by nucleophilic aromatic substitution of the cobalamin for a chlorine, followed by reductive cleavage of the arylcobalamin to form the reductively-dechlorinated product. Dechlorination occurs chiefly at positions ortho to another chlorine, but the 2 and 6 positions are extremely recalcitrant, even when another chlorine is adjacent. The proposed mechanism accounts for the observed regiospecificity, consistent with bond charge density and thermodynamic considerations. Pentachlorophenol, all of the tetrachlorophenols, and all of the trichlorophenols were challenged with vitamin B[sub 12s], and all were reductively dechlorinated to some extent. A sequential dechlorination pathway was constructed and compared to patterns exhibited by anaerobic microbial consortia. On the basis of this comparison, it was concluded that any involvement of vitamin B[sub 12] in biological reductive dechlorination of chlorinated phenols requires the intimate participation of apoenzymes to direct the regiospecificity toward the 2 and 6 chlorines on the ring. The observed kinetics of the reductive dechlorination of pentachlorophenol by vitamin B[sub 12s] can be described with a first order approximation. A threefold variability in rate constants was observed.

  20. Low plasma vitamin B-12 in Kenyan school children is highly prevalent and improved by supplemental animal source foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in many regions of the world is becoming recognized as a widespread public health problem, but it is not known to what extent this deficiency results from a low intake of the vitamin or from its malabsorption from food. In rural Kenya, where a previous ...

  1. Dietary folate and vitamin B12 supplementation and consequent vitamin deposition in chicken eggs.

    PubMed

    Bunchasak, Chaiyapoom; Kachana, Sompong

    2009-10-01

    We determined the effects of dietary supplementation with folate and vitamin B(12) on lipid metabolism and the deposition of these vitamins in eggs of laying hens (age 64-72 weeks). Four levels of folate (0, 0.5, 4 and 10 mg/kg) and three levels of vitamin B(12) (0, 0.01 and 0.08 mg/kg) were added to the basal diet for 8 weeks in a 4 x 3 factorial completely randomized design study. No significant physiological interaction between folate and vitamin B(12) was evident under our experimental conditions. There was no effect of vitamins supplementation on egg production or feed intake. Supplementation with folate significantly elevated serum (p < 0.01) and yolk (p < 0.05) folate levels. Supplementation with vitamin B(12) did not significantly affect serum or egg yolk vitamin B(12) levels. Supplementation with folate or vitamin B(12) did not significantly affect triglyceride or total phospholipid levels in serum or egg yolk although a positive relationship was observed between dietary folate supplementation and total serum phospholipid (r(2) = 0.68, p < 0.05). The study showed that it is possible to produce folate-enriched eggs. An increase in serum total phospholipids due to dietary supplementation with folate may provide physiological benefits to hens, although we did not observe any strong effects of these vitamins on lipid composition. PMID:19396565

  2. Seasonal distribution of vitamin B12 in Lake Kinneret.

    PubMed Central

    Cavari, B; Grossowicz, N

    1977-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is formed in Lake Kinneret in the hypolimnion and in the sediment. The highest value of B12 recorded in the lake water was about 100 ng/liter in November and December of 1975 at a 40-m depth. The vitamin was liberated from the hypolimnion during the turnover period. This supply of the vitamin to the photic zone was accompanied by increasing biomass of Dinoflagellates, Bacillariophyta, and Chlorophyta. The decrease in the vitamin concentration, followed by an increase, is correlated with a decline and subsequent rise in the algal biomass, respectively. Cyanophyta biomass, on the other hand, increased when the vitamin concentration in the photic zone was at its lowest level. PMID:907339

  3. Vitamin B12 intake and status in early pregnancy among urban South Indian women

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Tinu Mary; Duggan, Christopher; Thomas, Tinku; Bosch, Ronald; Rajendran, Ramya; Virtanen, Suvi M; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Kurpad, Anura V

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the vitamin B12 status of South Indian women in early pregnancy and its relationship with sociodemographic, anthropometry and dietary intake. Methods Cross-sectional study among 366 pregnant urban South Indian women ≤14 weeks of gestation with outcome variables defined as low vitamin B12 blood concentration (<150 pmol/L) and impaired vitamin B12 status [low vitamin B12 plus elevated methylmalonic acid (MMA) >0.26 μmol/L)]. Results Low plasma vitamin B12 concentration was observed in 51.1% of the women, while 42.4% had impaired B12 status. Elevated MMA, elevated homocysteine ( >10 μmol/L) and low erythrocyte folate (<283 nmol/L) was observed among 75.8%, 43.3% and 22.2% of women, respectively. The median (25th, 75th percentile) dietary intake of vitamin B12 was 1.25 (0.86, 1.96) μg/day. Lower maternal body weight was associated with higher vitamin B12 concentration [prevalence ratios (PR) (95% CI) 0.57 (0.39, 0.84)). The predictors of impaired vitamin B12 status were non-use of yoghurt [PR (95%CI) 1.63 (1.03, 2.58)], non-use of fish [PR (95% CI) 1.32 (1.01, 1.71)] and primiparity [PR (95% CI) 1.41 (1.05, 1.90)]. Conclusion A high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in early pregnancy among urban South Indian women was related to primiparity and to a low consumption of yoghurt and fish. PMID:23344013

  4. A new role for glutathione: protection of vitamin B12 from depletion by xenobiotics.

    PubMed

    Watson, William P; Munter, Tony; Golding, Bernard T

    2004-12-01

    NADPH in microsomes reduces the hydroxocob(III)alamin form of vitamin B12 to cob(II)alamin and the supernucleophilic cob(I)alamin, which are both highly reactive toward xenobiotic epoxides formed by mammalian metabolism of dienes such as the industrially important chemicals chloroprene and 1,3-butadiene. With styrene, the metabolically formed styrene oxide is reactive toward cob(I)alamin but not cob(II)alamin. Such reactions in humans could lead to vitamin B12 deficiency, which is implicated in pernicious anemia, cancer, and degenerative diseases. However, glutathione inhibits the reduction of hydroxocob(III)alamin by formation of the 1:1 complex glutathionylcobalamin. This blocks reactions of the cobalamins with metabolically formed epoxides. The interaction between glutathione and vitamin B12 could protect against diseases related to vitamin B12 depletion. PMID:15606130

  5. Effects of vitamin B-12 supplementation on neurologic and cognitive function in older people: a randomized controlled trial12

    PubMed Central

    Dangour, Alan D; Allen, Elizabeth; Clarke, Robert; Elbourne, Diana; Fletcher, Astrid E; Letley, Louise; Richards, Marcus; Whyte, Ken; Uauy, Ricardo; Mills, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Background: Moderate vitamin B-12 deficiency is relatively common in older people. However, there is little robust evidence on the effect of vitamin B-12 supplementation on neurologic and cognitive outcomes in later life. Objective: We investigated whether vitamin B-12 supplementation benefits neurologic and cognitive function in moderately vitamin B-12deficient older people. Design: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 7 general practices in South East England, United Kingdom. Study participants were aged ≥75 y and had moderate vitamin B-12 deficiency (serum vitamin B-12 concentrations: 107–210 pmol/L) in the absence of anemia and received 1 mg crystalline vitamin B-12 or a matching placebo as a daily oral tablet for 12 mo. Peripheral motor and sensory nerve conduction, central motor conduction, a clinical neurologic examination, and cognitive function were assessed before and after treatment. Results: A total of 201 participants were enrolled in the trial, and 191 subjects provided outcome data. Compared with baseline, allocation to vitamin B-12 was associated with a 177% increase in serum concentration of vitamin B-12 (641 compared with 231 pmol/L), a 331% increase in serum holotranscobalamin (240 compared with 56 pmol/L), and 17% lower serum homocysteine (14.2 compared with 17.1 μmol/L). In intention-to-treat analysis of covariance models, with adjustment for baseline neurologic function, there was no evidence of an effect of supplementation on the primary outcome of the posterior tibial compound muscle action potential amplitude at 12 mo (mean difference: −0.2 mV; 95% CI: –0.8, 0.3 mV). There was also no evidence of an effect on any secondary peripheral nerve or central motor function outcome, or on cognitive function or clinical examination. Conclusion: Results of the trial do not support the hypothesis that the correction of moderate vitamin B-12 deficiency, in the absence of anemia and of neurologic and cognitive signs or symptoms, has beneficial effects on neurologic or cognitive function in later life. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN54195799. PMID:26135351

  6. Metabolomic Analysis Reveals Extended Metabolic Consequences of Marginal Vitamin B-6 Deficiency in Healthy Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lamers, Yvonne; Bandyopadhyay, Nirmalya; Chi, Yueh-Yun; Lee, Kichen; Kim, Steven; da Silva, Vanessa; Hove, Nikolas; Ranka, Sanjay; Kahveci, Tamer; Muller, Keith E.; Stevens, Robert D.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Stacpoole, Peter W.; Jones, Dean P.

    2013-01-01

    Marginal deficiency of vitamin B-6 is common among segments of the population worldwide. Because pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) serves as a coenzyme in the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids, and neurotransmitters, as well as in aspects of one-carbon metabolism, vitamin B-6 deficiency could have many effects. Healthy men and women (age: 20-40 y; n = 23) were fed a 2-day controlled, nutritionally adequate diet followed by a 28-day low-vitamin B-6 diet (<0.5 mg/d) to induce marginal deficiency, as reflected by a decline of plasma PLP from 52.6±14.1 (mean ± SD) to 21.5±4.6 nmol/L (P<0.0001) and increased cystathionine from 131±65 to 199±56 nmol/L (P<0.001). Fasting plasma samples obtained before and after vitamin B6 restriction were analyzed by 1H-NMR with and without filtration and by targeted quantitative analysis by mass spectrometry (MS). Multilevel partial least squares-discriminant analysis and S-plots of NMR spectra showed that NMR is effective in classifying samples according to vitamin B-6 status and identified discriminating features. NMR spectral features of selected metabolites indicated that vitamin B-6 restriction significantly increased the ratios of glutamine/glutamate and 2-oxoglutarate/glutamate (P<0.001) and tended to increase concentrations of acetate, pyruvate, and trimethylamine-N-oxide (adjusted P<0.05). Tandem MS showed significantly greater plasma proline after vitamin B-6 restriction (adjusted P<0.05), but there were no effects on the profile of 14 other amino acids and 45 acylcarnitines. These findings demonstrate that marginal vitamin B-6 deficiency has widespread metabolic perturbations and illustrate the utility of metabolomics in evaluating complex effects of altered vitamin B-6 intake. PMID:23776431

  7. Do high blood folate concentrations exacerbate metabolic abnormalities in people with low vitamin B-12 status?123

    PubMed Central

    Mills, James L; Carter, Tonia C; Scott, John M; Troendle, James F; Gibney, Eileen R; Shane, Barry; Kirke, Peadar N; Ueland, Per M; Brody, Lawrence C; Molloy, Anne M

    2011-01-01

    Background: In elderly individuals with low serum vitamin B-12, those who have high serum folate have been reported to have greater abnormalities in the following biomarkers for vitamin B-12 deficiency: low hemoglobin and elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA). This suggests that folate exacerbates vitamin B-12–related metabolic abnormalities. Objective: We determined whether high serum folate in individuals with low serum vitamin B-12 increases the deleterious effects of low vitamin B-12 on biomarkers of vitamin B-12 cellular function. Design: In this cross-sectional study, 2507 university students provided data on medical history and exposure to folic acid and vitamin B-12 supplements. Blood was collected to measure serum and red blood cell folate (RCF), hemoglobin, plasma tHcy, and MMA, holotranscobalamin, and ferritin in serum. Results: In subjects with low vitamin B-12 concentrations (<148 pmol/L), those who had high folate concentrations (>30 nmol/L; group 1) did not show greater abnormalities in vitamin B-12 cellular function in any area than did those with lower folate concentrations (≤30 nmol/L; group 2). Group 1 had significantly higher holotranscobalamin and RCF, significantly lower tHcy, and nonsignificantly lower (P = 0.057) MMA concentrations than did group 2. The groups did not differ significantly in hemoglobin or ferritin. Compared with group 2, group 1 had significantly higher mean intakes of folic acid and vitamin B-12 from supplements and fortified food. Conclusions: In this young adult population, high folate concentrations did not exacerbate the biochemical abnormalities related to vitamin B-12 deficiency. These results provide reassurance that folic acid in fortified foods and supplements does not interfere with vitamin B-12 metabolism at the cellular level in a healthy population. PMID:21653798

  8. Atypical vitamin B6 deficiency: a rare cause of unexplained neonatal and infantile epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Baumgart, Anna; Spiczak, Sarah von; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M; Møller, Rikke S; Boor, Rainer; Muhle, Hiltrud; Jähn, Johanna A; Klitten, Laura L; Hjalgrim, Helle; Lindhout, Dick; Stephani, Ulrich; van Kempen, Marjan J A; Helbig, Ingo

    2014-05-01

    ALDH7A1 and PNPO deficiencies are rare inborn errors of vitamin B6 metabolism causing perinatal seizure disorders. The phenotypic variability, however, is broad. To assess the frequency of these deficiencies in unexplained infantile epilepsy, we screened 113 patients for mutations in both genes. We identified 1 patient with an epilepsy phenotype resembling Dravet syndrome and likely pathogenic mutations in ALDH7A1. Presenting features were highly atypical of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, including febrile seizures, response to anticonvulsive drugs, and periods of seizure freedom without pyridoxine treatment. "Hidden" vitamin B6 deficiencies might be rare but treatable causes of unexplained epilepsy extending beyond the classical phenotypes. PMID:24114605

  9. Ginkgotoxin Induced Seizure Caused by Vitamin B6 Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun-Soon; Roh, Sook Young; Jeong, Eun Hye; Kim, Byung-Su; Sunwoo, Mun Kyung

    2015-12-01

    Although ginkgo is commonly used as an alternative treatment for memory loss, Alzheimer's dementia and peripheral circulatory disturbances, it is also known to cause neuronal symptoms due to ginkgotoxin (4'-methoxypyridoxine or B6 antivitamin). We experienced a case of a 51-year-old female patient with generalized tonic clonic seizure and postictal confusion after eating large amounts of ginkgo nuts. Blood vitamin B6 level was decreased. After conservative treatment and pyridoxine medication, her mental symptoms were resolved completely and no seizures recurred. PMID:26819944

  10. Ginkgotoxin Induced Seizure Caused by Vitamin B6 Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hyun-soon; Roh, Sook Young; Jeong, Eun Hye; Kim, Byung-Su; Sunwoo, Mun Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Although ginkgo is commonly used as an alternative treatment for memory loss, Alzheimer’s dementia and peripheral circulatory disturbances, it is also known to cause neuronal symptoms due to ginkgotoxin (4′-methoxypyridoxine or B6 antivitamin). We experienced a case of a 51-year-old female patient with generalized tonic clonic seizure and postictal confusion after eating large amounts of ginkgo nuts. Blood vitamin B6 level was decreased. After conservative treatment and pyridoxine medication, her mental symptoms were resolved completely and no seizures recurred. PMID:26819944

  11. A vitamin B12 transporter in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, Krishnamoorthy; Venclovas, Česlovas; Ioerger, Thomas R.; Sacchettini, James C.; McKinney, John D.; Mizrahi, Valerie; Warner, Digby F.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12-dependent enzymes function in core biochemical pathways in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an obligate pathogen whose metabolism in vivo is poorly understood. Although M. tuberculosis can access vitamin B12 in vitro, it is uncertain whether the organism is able to scavenge B12 during host infection. This question is crucial to predictions of metabolic function, but its resolution is complicated by the absence in the M. tuberculosis genome of a direct homologue of BtuFCD, the only bacterial B12 transport system described to date. We applied genome-wide transposon mutagenesis to identify M. tuberculosis mutants defective in their ability to use exogenous B12. A small proportion of these mapped to Rv1314c, identifying the putative PduO-type ATP : co(I)rrinoid adenosyltransferase as essential for B12 assimilation. Most notably, however, insertions in Rv1819c dominated the mutant pool, revealing an unexpected function in B12 acquisition for an ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-type protein previously investigated as the mycobacterial BacA homologue. Moreover, targeted deletion of Rv1819c eliminated the ability of M. tuberculosis to transport B12 and related corrinoids in vitro. Our results establish an alternative to the canonical BtuCD-type system for B12 uptake in M. tuberculosis, and elucidate a role in B12 metabolism for an ABC protein implicated in chronic mycobacterial infection. PMID:23407640

  12. Regulation of phytoplankton dynamics by vitamin B12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.; Gobler, C. J.; Okbamichael, M.; Taylor, G. T.

    2006-02-01

    Despite the biological necessity of vitamin B12 (cobalamin), its importance in phytoplankton ecology has been ignored for nearly three decades. Here we report strong and selective responses of phytoplankton communities to varying low levels (5-87 pM) of dissolved B12 in several coastal embayments. The ecological importance of this vitamin is inferred from observed declines in dissolved B12 levels as field populations of large (>5 μm) phytoplankton increased. In contrast, biomass of small (<5 μm) phytoplankton varied independently of B12 concentrations. These observations were corroborated by field-based nutrient amendment experiments, in which B12 additions stimulated growth of large phytoplankton taxa 6-fold over unamended controls. In contrast, small taxa (<5 μm) were largely unaffected. This study provides the first evidence of vitamin B12's influence on phytoplankton field population dynamics based on direct chemical measurements of cobalamin, and implicates B12 as an important organic regulator of photoautotrophic fertility in marine systems.

  13. Interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C in pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The water-soluble vitamins B6, B12 and C play important roles in maternal health as well as fetal development and physiology during gestation. This systematic review evaluates the risks and benefits of interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C during pregnancy on maternal, neonatal and child health ...

  14. Masked deficit of vitamin B12 in the patient with heterozygous beta-thalassemia and spastic paraparesis.

    PubMed

    Bilic, Ernest; Bilic, Ervina; Zagar, Marija; Juric, Stjepan

    2004-12-01

    The spinal cord, brain, optic nerves and peripheral nerves may be affected by vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency. Deficiency of vitamin B12 also causes megaloblastic anaemia, meaning that the red blood cells are usually larger than normal. In this paper we report a 16-year old girl who was referred to us for the evaluation of mild paraparesis and paresthesias marked by tingling "pins and needles" feelings and general weakness. The patient, her parents and sisters were on a strict vegan diet, which made us believe that vitamin B12 deficiency may be the possible cause of the neurologic clinical manifestations. The serum level of vitamin B12 was low, but there was no macrocytosis in the routine blood examination. The electrophoresis of haemoglobin was pathologic, there was 3.7% of HbA2 and 11.6% of HbF (heterozygous form of beta-thalassaemia). When megaloblastic anaemia occurs in combination with a condition that gives rise to microcytic anaemia, many megaloblastic features may be masked. Instead of being macrocytic, the anaemia could be normocytic or even microcytic. Vitamin B12 deficiency is a diagnosis that must not be overlooked. This case report turns the light on the fact that increased MCV is a hallmark in vitamin B12 deficiency, but it is not an obligatory sign. PMID:15742609

  15. Vitamin B6 deficiency accelerates metabolic turnover of cystathionase in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Sato, A; Nishioka, M; Awata, S; Nakayama, K; Okada, M; Horiuchi, S; Okabe, N; Sassa, T; Oka, T; Natori, Y

    1996-06-15

    Although most of cystathionase was found to exist as an inactive apoenzyme in the liver of vitamin B6-deficient rats, the concentrations of the immunoreactive enzyme protein were virtually the same for control and vitamin B6-deficient livers. Under vitamin B6 deficiency, however, the rate of synthesis of cystathionase, measured by incorporation of labeled amino acid into the immunoprecipitated enzyme, was increased severalfold due to an increased level of cystathionase mRNA. Western blot analysis of lysosomal proteins showed that the amount of cystathionase in the lysosomes from the liver of vitamin B6-deficient rats was also increased severalfold. This observation suggests that lysosomes specifically recognize the apocystathionase for sequestration in preference to the holoenzyme. The present study provides the molecular basis for dual roles of vitamin B6 in controlling the metabolic turnover of cystathionase; it regulates synthesis of the enzyme by modulating the expression of cystathionase gene, and it regulates degradation of the enzyme by different susceptibilities of apo- and holoenzymes to lysosomal proteolysis. PMID:8660672

  16. Vitamin B1 and B12 Uptake and Cycling by Plankton Communities in Coastal Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Florian; Hattenrath-Lehmann, Theresa K.; Goleski, Jennifer A.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio; Fisher, Nicholas S.; Gobler, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    While vitamin B12 has recently been shown to co-limit the growth of coastal phytoplankton assemblages, the cycling of B-vitamins in coastal ecosystems is poorly understood as planktonic uptake rates of vitamins B1 and B12 have never been quantified in tandem in any aquatic ecosystem. The goal of this study was to establish the relationships between plankton community composition, carbon fixation, and B-vitamin assimilation in two contrasting estuarine systems. We show that, although B-vitamin concentrations were low (pM), vitamin concentrations and uptake rates were higher within a more eutrophic estuary and that vitamin B12 uptake rates were significantly correlated with rates of primary production. Eutrophic sites hosted larger bacterial and picoplankton abundances with larger carbon normalized vitamin uptake rates. Although the >2 μm phytoplankton biomass was often dominated by groups with a high incidence of vitamin auxotrophy (dinoflagellates and diatoms), picoplankton (<2 μm) were always responsible for the majority of B12-vitamin uptake. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that heterotrophic bacteria were the primary users of vitamins among the picoplankton during this study. Nutrient/vitamin amendment experiments demonstrated that, in the Summer and Fall, vitamin B12 occasionally limited or co-limited the accumulation of phytoplankton biomass together with nitrogen. Combined with prior studies, these findings suggest that picoplankton are the primary producers and users of B-vitamins in some coastal ecosystems and that rapid uptake of B-vitamins by heterotrophic bacteria may sometimes deprive larger phytoplankton of these micronutrients and thus influence phytoplankton species succession. PMID:23091470

  17. Vitamin B12 Derivatives as Activators of Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Proinsias, Keith ó; Gryko, Daniel T.; Hisaeda, Yoshio; Martin, Emil; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Gryko, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    Various newly prepared and previously known vitamin B12 derivatives have been studied as potential soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) activators. All compounds tested were found to activate the sGC enzyme, although to differing extents. The best results were obtained with the derivatives synthesized from c-lactone and possessing aliphatic amides in the c- and d-positions. PMID:22991977

  18. An amphiphilic, catalytically active, vitamin B12 derivative.

    PubMed

    Giedyk, M; Fedosov, S N; Gryko, D

    2014-05-11

    We performed the reaction of vitamin B12 with N,N-dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal for primary amide activation, and added MeOH as a nucleophile, to afford cobalester, the first amphiphilic cobalamin derivative. The unique combination of redox properties and solubility represents an asset for its use as a catalyst in C-C bond forming reactions. PMID:24623153

  19. Chapter 30: historical aspects of the major neurological vitamin deficiency disorders: the water-soluble B vitamins.

    PubMed

    Lanska, Douglas J

    2010-01-01

    This historical review addresses major neurological disorders associated with deficiencies of water-soluble B vitamins: beriberi, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, pellagra, neural tube defects, and subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord. Beriberi: Beriberi was known for millennia in Asia, but was not described by a European until the 17th century when Brontius in the Dutch East Indies reported the progressive sensorimotor polyneuropathy. The prevalence of beriberi increased greatly in Asia with a change in the milling process for rice in the late 19th century. In the 1880s, Takaki demonstrated the benefits of dietary modification in sailors, and later instituted dietary reforms in the Japanese Navy, which largely eradicated beriberi from the Japanese Navy by 1887. In 1889 Eijkman in Java serendipitously identified dietary factors as a major contributor to "chicken polyneuritis," which he took to be an animal model for beriberi; the polyneuritis could be cured or prevented by feeding the chickens either unpolished rice or rice polishings. By 1901, Grijns, while continuing studies of beriberi in Java, suggested a dietary deficiency explanation for beriberi after systematically eliminating deficiencies of known dietary components and excluding a toxic effect. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome: In the late 1870s, Wernicke identified a clinicopathological condition with ophthalmoparesis, nystagmus, ataxia, and encephalopathy, associated with punctate hemorrhages symmetrically arranged in the grey matter around the third and fourth ventricles and the aqueduct of Sylvius. In the late 1880s, Korsakoff described a spectrum of cognitive disorders, including a confabulatory amnestic state following an agitated delirium, occurring in conjunction with peripheral polyneuropathy. Beginning around 1900, investigators recognized the close relationship between Korsakoff's psychosis, delirium tremens, and Wernicke's encephalopathy, but not until several decades later were Wernicke's encephalopathy, Korsakoff's psychosis, and beriberi all linked to the deficiency of a specific dietary factor, i.e. thiamin. Thiamin: Thiamin was crystallized from rice polishings by Jansen and Donath in 1926, and synthesized by Williams and Cline in 1936. In the late 1930s and early 1940s, characteristic pathological changes of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome were produced in animal models, the biochemical roles of thiamin in intermediary carbohydrate metabolism were elaborated by Peters and others, and the therapeutic benefits of thiamin for Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and beriberi were demonstrated. By the 1950s synthetic forms of the vitamin were produced cheaply, allowing both therapeutic administration and prevention with food enrichment. Pellagra and niacin: Pellagra was unknown prior to the introduction of maize into Europe from the New World. In the 18th century, Casàl and Frapolli described the clinical features of pellagra in Europe, and linked it with poverty and subsistence on nutritionally marginal corn-based diets. In the United States, pellagra became epidemic among poor Southerners in the early 20th century, in part because of economically-driven reliance on monotonous, nutritionally inadequate diets, combined with new manufacturing methods that removed vitamins from processed grain. From 1914-1929, Goldberger completed well-designed epidemiologic investigations, tested theories with human experiments, and utilized an animal model ("black tongue" in dogs) - all strongly supporting a dietary deficiency explanation for pellagra over prevailing toxic and infectious theories. Initial prevention and treatment approaches proved inadequate because of complex social issues linked to poverty, even after Goldberger and colleagues established that dried brewer's yeast could cure or prevent pellagra less expensively than dietary modification. During the depression, the collapse of cotton as an economically viable crop facilitated crop diversification, which contributed to an abrupt decline in pellagra mortality in the early 1930s. In 1937 Elvehjem isolated the P-P (pellagra preventive) factor, identified it as nicotinic acid (niacin), and demonstrated that nicotinic acid and nicotinic acid amide cure black tongue in dogs. Although clinical trials soon confirmed dramatic therapeutic effects in individual people, therapeutic administration of niacin had relatively little impact on population-level morbidity and mortality. Vitamin fortification of foodstuffs during World War II ultimately eradicated endemic pellagra in the United States. In the 1940s and 1950s, with expanded biochemical knowledge, pellagra was reformulated as a deficiency disease due to inadequate niacin and its amino acid precursor tryptophan. Neural tube defects and folate: Folate deficiency was initially recognized clinically as a macrocytic anemia in the 1920s, and only clearly separated from pernicious anemia by the mid-20th century. When folic acid was isolated and synthesized in the 1940s, it was shown to correct the macrocytic anemia associated with pernicious anemia, while the neurological manifestations progressed. In the 1950s and 1960s, the biochemical role of folates in transferring single carbon units was elucidated. Beginning in the 1960s, folate deficiency was increasingly recognized as the major cause of preventable neural tube defects. In the early 1990s well-designed randomized trials established that folate supplementation could prevent neural tube defects. Trial data, collectively indicating that periconceptual folate administration reduces both the occurrence and recurrence risks of neural tube defects by at least 70%, helped establish governmental recommendations concerning folic acid intake and health policy concerning vitamin fortification of foodstuffs. When dietary modification and supplementation strategies proved inadequate, folic acid food fortification was legally mandated in the US in the late 1990s, which significantly improved population folate status and produced an abrupt decline (20%-27%) in the prevalence of neural tube defects at birth. Recent studies have established genetic predispositions for neural tube defects, including both infant and maternal gene polymorphisms for enzymes involved in folate-dependent homocysteine metabolism, which help explain how the genotype of the mother, the genotype of the unborn child, and environmental factors (e.g. folate intake) can all impact on the risk of neural tube defects. Subacute combined degeneration and B(12) deficiency: Pernicious anemia was recognized clinically in the mid-19th century by Addison, but the most important neurological manifestation - subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord - was not recognized clinically and linked with pernicious anemia until the end of the 19th century, particularly by Lichtheim, Putnam, and Dana. At the beginning of the 20th century, pernicious anemia and the associated subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord were considered, by many investigators, to result from infectious or toxic causes. During the first quarter of the 20th century, various therapies were employed, but, with the possible exception of transfusion, were largely ineffective. In the 1920s, Minot and Murphy showed that large quantities of ingested liver could be used to effectively treat pernicious anemia, and specifically could improve or prevent progression of neurological manifestations, and could extend life expectancy beyond 2 years. Beginning in the late 1920s, Castle demonstrated that a substance elaborated by the gastric mucosa ("intrinsic factor") was essential for the absorption of a dietary factor ("extrinsic factor," later shown to be vitamin B(12)) needed to prevent pernicious anemia. Over two decades, from the late 1920s until the late 1940s, increasingly potent liver extracts were manufactured that could be given either intramuscularly or intravenously. In 1947, vitamin B(12) was isolated by Folkers and colleagues, and nearly simultaneously by Smith. Shortly thereafter the therapeutic efficacy of vitamin B(12) on subacute combined degeneration was demonstrated by West and Reisner and others. By 1955, Hodgkin determined the molecular structure of cyanocobalamin using computer-assisted x-ray crystallography, allowing complete chemical synthesis of vitamin B(12) in 1960 by an international consortium. Beginning in the late 1950s, the absorption and biochemistry of vitamin B(12) were elaborated, and several lines of evidence converged to support an autoimmune basis for pernicious anemia. PMID:19892133

  20. Iron, folacin, vitamin B/sub 12/ and zinc status and immune response in the elderly

    SciTech Connect

    Henry-Christian, J.R.; Johnson, A.A.; Walters, C.S.; Greene, E.J.; Lindsey, A.A.

    1986-03-01

    The relationships of iron, folacin, vitamin B/sub 12/ and zinc status to cell-mediated immune response were investigated among 125 healthy, elderly persons (60-87 years of age). Plasma ferritin, plasma and red cell folate, and plasma vitamin B/sub 12/ levels were assayed immuno-radiometrically. Plasma and hair zinc levels were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Immune response was determined by transformation of peripheral blood lymphocytes after stimulation with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (con A), and in mixed lymphocyte reaction. Deficiencies of iron, folacin vitamin B/sub 12/ and zinc were each associated (independently) with significantly lower lymphocyte responses to PHA and con A, and mixed lymphocyte reaction (P < 0.01). These findings indicate a depression of cell-mediated immunity in elderly persons deficient in iron, folacin, vitamin B/sub 12/ or zinc. Further, they suggest that deficiencies of these nutrients may play a role in the depression of cell-mediated immunity with age, which in turn may lead to increased susceptibility to infectious diseases and cancer in the elderly.

  1. PREVALENCE OF VITAMINS E AND B12 IN DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS REPORTED IN NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EVALUATION SURVEY (NHANES)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: Public health concerns regarding excessive Vitamin E and deficient Vitamin B12 intake warrant evaluation of total dietary intake for these nutrients. A Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database is being developed by the Nutrient Data Laboratory with the Office of Dietary Supplements and oth...

  2. Serum holotranscobalamine, vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine levels in alopecia areata patients.

    PubMed

    Ertugrul, Derun Taner; Karadag, Ayse Serap; Takci, Zennure; Bilgili, Serap Gunes; Ozkol, Hatice Uce; Tutal, Emre; Akin, Kadir Okhan

    2013-03-01

    Alopecia areata has been associated with many autoimmune diseases. There is a common belief that the prevalence of pernicious anemia is increased in patients with alopecia areata. In this study, we sought to investigate vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine metabolism in alopecia areata. We measured holotranscobalamine (holoTC), vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine levels in 75 patients with alopecia areata and 54 controls. We did not find any significant differences in these parameters between these groups. We think that alopecia areata may not be associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. The co-occurrence of pernicious anemia and alopecia areata in rare autoimmune syndromes, may not justify routine measurements of these parameters in alopecia areata patients. PMID:22591107

  3. [Stability of folic acid and vitamin B12 in TPN].

    PubMed

    Almodóvar, M J; Hernández Jaras, M V; León-Sanz, M; Ortuño, B; Estenoz, J; Negro Vega, E; Marfagón, N; Herreros de Tejada, A

    1991-01-01

    The stability of folic acid (FA) in mixtures of Total Parenteral Nutrition has been and is a controversial subject, with discussion concerning the influence of factors such as temperature, light and storage time. As regards the stability of the vitamin B12, there are few studies in scientific literature. For all those reasons, we consider it necessary to make a proper study to evaluate the influence of different factors in the stability of both vitamins. The study was made on 3 liter TPN bags of the EVA type, the composition of which was as follows: AA (85g), glucosa (225g), fat (50g), Na (86mEq), K (60 mEq), Ca (15 mEq), Cl (90 mEq), P (17 mmol) acetate (149 mEq) and 10 ml of MVI-12 which contain 400 micrograms of PA and 5 micrograms of Vitamin B 12. Consideration was also given to the stability of these two vitamins in the same diet, to which were added 10 ml of a commercial preparation of oligo-elements. Six TPN bags were prepared (without oligo-elements); two of them were kept in a fridge and protected from the light, two were kept at room temperature and protected from the light and the other two at room temperature without protection from the light. Samples were taken from all the bags immediately after their preparation and after 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The same process was carried with other TPN bags which did contain oligo-elements. The method for determining FA and Vitamin B12 was by radioassay.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1764534

  4. Dietary pectin shortens the biologic half-life of vitamin B-12 in rats by increasing fecal and urinary losses.

    PubMed

    Cullen, R W; Oace, S M

    1989-08-01

    As little as 5% of pectin added to a fiber-free diet elevates urinary methylmalonic acid (MMA) severalfold in vitamin B-12--deprived rats. The present study examines whether increased urinary MMA reflects lower vitamin B-12 status or occurs only because of fermentation of pectin by intestinal bacteria and increased production of propionate, a precursor of MMA. By monitoring urinary and fecal excretion of 57Co after a tracer dose of [57Co]vitamin B-12, we found the biologic half-life of vitamin B-12 to be 59 d for rats fed a fiber-free diet and only 19 d for rats fed a 5% pectin diet. Also, pectin-fed rats oxidized only 12% of a 1-mmol dose of [14C]propionate to 14CO2 in 2 h, whereas rats fed the fiber-free diet expired 33% of the dose. Finally, high urinary MMA persisted even after the removal of pectin from the diet. We conclude that dietary pectin accelerates vitamin B-12 depletion in rats, possibly by interfering with enterohepatic recycling of vitamin B-12. By stimulating microbial propionate production, pectin and other fermentable fibers may also contribute to increased urinary MMA in vitamin B-12 deficiency, but a larger propionate pool does not account for the other effects of pectin on vitamin B-12 status. PMID:2550599

  5. Dietary pectin shortens the biologic half-life of vitamin B-12 in rats by increasing fecal and urinary losses

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, R.W.; Oace, S.M. )

    1989-08-01

    As little as 5% of pectin added to a fiber-free diet elevates urinary methylmalonic acid (MMA) severalfold in vitamin B-12--deprived rats. The present study examines whether increased urinary MMA reflects lower vitamin B-12 status or occurs only because of fermentation of pectin by intestinal bacteria and increased production of propionate, a precursor of MMA. By monitoring urinary and fecal excretion of {sup 57}Co after a tracer dose of ({sup 57}Co)vitamin B-12, we found the biologic half-life of vitamin B-12 to be 59 d for rats fed a fiber-free diet and only 19 d for rats fed a 5% pectin diet. Also, pectin-fed rats oxidized only 12% of a 1-mmol dose of ({sup 14}C)propionate to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in 2 h, whereas rats fed the fiber-free diet expired 33% of the dose. Finally, high urinary MMA persisted even after the removal of pectin from the diet. We conclude that dietary pectin accelerates vitamin B-12 depletion in rats, possibly by interfering with enterohepatic recycling of vitamin B-12. By stimulating microbial propionate production, pectin and other fermentable fibers may also contribute to increased urinary MMA in vitamin B-12 deficiency, but a larger propionate pool does not account for the other effects of pectin on vitamin B-12 status.

  6. Iron, folate and vitamin B12 levels in first trimester pregnancies in the Southwest region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Karabulut, Aysun; Şevket, Osman; Acun, Ayhan

    2011-01-01

    Objective Iron, folate and vitamin B12 play important roles in the healthy development of the fetus in pregnancy. Preconceptional levels of these micronutrients is influenced by dietary habits. The purpose of this study was to investigate the status of iron, vitamin B12 and folate in first trimester pregnancies in the southwest region of Turkey where the Mediterranean Cuisine, rich in fresh fruit and vegetables is commonly consumed. Material and Methods Two hundred and one low-middle income pregnant women were recruited during their first prenatal visit. Hemoglobin, ferritin, folate and vitamin B12 levels were evaluated and a structured questionnaire was given to gather information including age, gravida, parity, frequency of pregnancy, history of abortion, and intrauterine device usage. Based on WHO and international guidelines, anemia was defined as hemoglobin <11 g/dl, and iron deficiency as ferritin <15 μg/L. Serum folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies were defined as levels below 3 ng/ml and 200 pg/ml respectively. Results The mean age and gestational week were 26.4±5.3 years and 9±3 weeks respectively. Mean plasma concentrations were 12.8±9.7 g/dl for hemoglobin, 22.7±17.2 μg/L for ferritin, 12.2±5.6 ng/ml for folate and 266.6±100.2 pg/ml for vitamin B12. Anemia was detected in 4.5% of pregnant women, iron deficiency in 40.3%, vitamin B12 deficiency in 29.8% and folate deficiency in 0.5% of patients. In 10.9% of patients, both vitamin B12 and iron iron deficiency was detected. There was no significant difference for age, body mass index, gravida, parity, frequency of pregnancy, history of abortion, and intrauterine device usage between women with low and normal levels of vitamin B12 and Ferritin (p>0.05). Conclusion Iron and vitamin B12 deficiencies were relatively common in the pregnant population consuming vegetable based diets. Iron and vitamin B12 supplementation in addition to folate must be considered for the wellbeing of the fetus in pregnant women living in areas where dietary patterns are mainly vegetable based. PMID:24591983

  7. Vitamin B12 as a modulator of gut microbial ecology

    PubMed Central

    Degnan, Patrick H.; Taga, Michiko E.; Goodman, Andrew L.

    2014-01-01

    The microbial mechanisms and key metabolites that shape the composition of the human gut microbiota are largely unknown, impeding efforts to manipulate dysbiotic microbial communities towards stability and health. Vitamins, which by definition are not synthesized in sufficient quantities by the host and can mediate fundamental biological processes in microbes, represent an attractive target for reshaping microbial communities. Here, we discuss how vitamin B12 (cobalamin) impacts diverse host-microbe symbioses. Although cobalamin is synthesized by some human gut microbes, it is a precious resource in the gut and is likely not provisioned to the host in significant quantities. However, this vitamin may make an unrecognized contribution in shaping the structure and function of human gut microbial communities. PMID:25440056

  8. Iron, folate, and vitamin B12 nutrition in pregnancy: a study of 1 000 women from southern India*

    PubMed Central

    Yusufji, D.; Mathan, V. I.; Baker, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    As part of a WHO collaborative programme the prevalence of anaemia was studied and the serum concentrations of iron, folate, and vitamin B12 were measured in 1 000 pregnant women from southern India. The results of the study show a high prevalence of anaemia, resulting from iron and folate deficiency with iron deficiency predominating. Interrelationships between these nutrients and their effect on pregnancy and the fetus were investigated. The results indicate that, in comparison with populations in developed countries, there was a high prevalence of iron and vitamin B12 deficiency in the community, but the state of folate nutrition was similar to that found elsewhere. PMID:4541142

  9. Vitamin B12–dependent taurine synthesis regulates growth and bone mass

    PubMed Central

    Roman-Garcia, Pablo; Quiros-Gonzalez, Isabel; Mottram, Lynda; Lieben, Liesbet; Sharan, Kunal; Wangwiwatsin, Arporn; Tubio, Jose; Lewis, Kirsty; Wilkinson, Debbie; Santhanam, Balaji; Sarper, Nazan; Clare, Simon; Vassiliou, George S.; Velagapudi, Vidya R.; Dougan, Gordon; Yadav, Vijay K.

    2014-01-01

    Both maternal and offspring-derived factors contribute to lifelong growth and bone mass accrual, although the specific role of maternal deficiencies in the growth and bone mass of offspring is poorly understood. In the present study, we have shown that vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency in a murine genetic model results in severe postweaning growth retardation and osteoporosis, and the severity and time of onset of this phenotype in the offspring depends on the maternal genotype. Using integrated physiological and metabolomic analysis, we determined that B12 deficiency in the offspring decreases liver taurine production and associates with abrogation of a growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF1) axis. Taurine increased GH-dependent IGF1 synthesis in the liver, which subsequently enhanced osteoblast function, and in B12-deficient offspring, oral administration of taurine rescued their growth retardation and osteoporosis phenotypes. These results identify B12 as an essential vitamin that positively regulates postweaning growth and bone formation through taurine synthesis and suggests potential therapies to increase bone mass. PMID:24911144

  10. High prevalence of suboptimal vitamin B12 status in young adult women of South Asian and European ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Quay, Teo A W; Schroder, Theresa H; Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Li, Wangyang; Devlin, Angela M; Barr, Susan I; Lamers, Yvonne

    2015-12-01

    Suboptimal vitamin B12 (B12) status has been associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies, preterm birth, and childhood insulin resistance. South Asians - Canada's largest minority group - and women of reproductive age are vulnerable to B12 deficiency. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with B12 deficiency and suboptimal B12 status in a convenience sample of young adult women of South Asian and European descent in Metro Vancouver. We measured serum B12, holotranscobalamin, plasma methylmalonic acid, red blood cell and plasma folate, and hematologic parameters in 206 nonpregnant, healthy women aged 19-35 years. Categorization for B12 status adhered to serum B12 cutoffs for deficiency (<148 pmol/L) and suboptimal B12 status (148-220 pmol/L). We collected demographic, lifestyle, and dietary intake data and conducted genotyping for common genetic variants linked to B-vitamin metabolism. The prevalence of deficiency and suboptimal B12 status were 14% and 20%, respectively. Serum vitamin B12 concentrations were negatively associated with oral contraceptive use and first-generation immigrant status, and positively with dietary B12 intake and B12 supplement use. The prevalence of B12 inadequacy in this sample of highly educated women is higher than in the general Canadian population. In light of maternal and fetal health risks associated with B12 inadequacy in early-pregnancy, practitioners should consider monitoring B12 status before and during early pregnancy, especially in immigrants and women with low dietary B12 intakes including non-users of vitamin supplements. PMID:26579949

  11. Nutrient Acquisition: The Generation of Bioactive Vitamin B12 by Microalgae.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Arthur

    2016-04-25

    Many microalgae acquire vitamin B12 from marine prokaryotes. A new study demonstrates that vitamin B12 is synthesized by planktonic cyanobacteria as pseudocobalamin, a form not bioactive in microalgae. However, some microalgae can remodel pseudocobalamin to the active cobalamin form, adding complexity to our assessment of active vitamin B12 in the environment. PMID:27115686

  12. Connective tissue integrity is lost in vitamin B-6-deficient chicks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masse, P. G.; Yamauchi, M.; Mahuren, J. D.; Coburn, S. P.; Muniz, O. E.; Howell, D. S.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to characterize further the connective tissue disorder produced by pyridoxine (vitamin B-6) deficiency, as previously evidenced by electron microscopy. Following the second post-natal week, fast growing male chicks were deprived of pyridoxine for a 1-mo period. Six weeks post-natally, blood concentrations in the experimental deficiency group had declined to deficiency levels as registered by low concentrations of pyridoxal phosphate (coenzyme form) in erythrocytes, but did not reach levels associated with neurological symptoms. Light microscopic study showed abnormalities in the extracellular matrix of the connective tissues. Collagen cross-links and the aldehyde contents were not significantly lower in cartilage and tendon collagens of vitamin B-6-deficient animals than in age-matched controls; also, their proteoglycan degrading protease and collagenase activities measured in articular cartilages were not greater. Thus, proteolysis was an unlikely alternative mechanism to account for the loss of connective tissue integrity. These results point to the need for further investigation into adhesive properties of collagen associated proteoglycans or other proteins in vitamin B-6-deficient connective tissue.

  13. Common variant in FUT2 gene is associated with levels of vitamin B(12) in Indian population.

    PubMed

    Tanwar, Vinay Singh; Chand, Mandeep P; Kumar, Jitender; Garg, Gaurav; Seth, Sandeep; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Sengupta, Shantanu

    2013-02-15

    Vitamin B(12) is an essential micronutrient synthesized by microorganisms. Mammals including humans have evolved ways for transport and absorption of this vitamin. Deficiency of vitamin B(12) (either due to low intake or polymorphism in genes involved in absorption and intracellular transport of this vitamin) has been associated with various complex diseases. Genome-wide association studies have recently identified several common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in fucosyl transferase 2 gene (FUT2) to be associated with levels of vitamin B(12)-the strongest association was with a non-synonymous SNP rs602662 in this gene. In the present study, we attempted to replicate the association of this SNP (rs602662) in an Indian population since a significant proportion has been reported to have low levels of vitamin B(12) in this population. A total of 1146 individuals were genotyped for this SNP using a single base extension method and association with levels of vitamin B(12) was assessed in these individuals. Regression analysis was performed to analyze the association considering various confounding factors like for age, sex, diet, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease status. We found that the SNP rs602662 was significantly associated with the levels of vitamin B(12) (p value<0.0001). We also found that individuals adhering to a vegetarian diet with GG (homozygous major genotype) have significantly lower levels of vitamin B(12) in these individuals. Thus, our study reveals that vegetarian diet along with polymorphism in the FUT2 gene may contribute significantly to the high prevalence of vitamin B(12) deficiency in India. PMID:23201895

  14. Serum alpha tocopherol, vitamin B12, and folate levels in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors with and without neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Jain, Puneet; Gulati, Sheffali; Toteja, G S; Bakhshi, Sameer; Seth, Rachna; Pandey, R M

    2015-05-01

    Various micronutrients are essential for optimal functioning of the peripheral nervous system. Serum vitamin E, vitamin B12, and folic acid were estimated in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors aged between 5 and 18 years in first continuous remission within 3 years of completion of vincristine-based chemotherapy with and without electrophysiologically defined neuropathy. A total of 80 children were studied. Neuropathy was seen in 27 (33.75%) children electrophysiologically. None of the children had vitamin E deficiency. However, the alpha tocopherol/(cholesterol + triglyceride) ratio was significantly lower in children with neuropathy (P = .05). The prevalence of folate (P = .48) and vitamin B12 (P = .21) deficiency in children with and without neuropathy was not significantly different. Thus, the prevalence of deficiencies of these micronutrients was not significantly different in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors with or without electrophysiologically defined neuropathy. PMID:24859786

  15. Folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 status of a group of high socioeconomic status women in the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort.

    PubMed

    Fayyaz, Faiqa; Wang, Flora; Jacobs, René L; O'Connor, Deborah L; Bell, Rhonda C; Field, Catherine J

    2014-12-01

    Folic acid supplementation and food fortification policies have improved folate status in North American women of child bearing age. Recent studies have reported the possible inadequacy of vitamin B12 and B6 in the etiology of neural tube defects in folate-fortified populations. The aims of this study were to describe folate status and its relationship to supplementation and to assess vitamin B12 and B6 status in a cohort of pregnant women. Supplement intake data were collected in each trimester from the first cohort (n = 599) of the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study. Red blood cell folate (RBCF) and plasma folate, holotranscobalamin, and pyridoxal 5-phosphate were measured. Overt folate deficiency was rare (3%) but 24% of women in their first trimester had suboptimal RBCF concentration (<906 nmol·L(-1)). The proportion of the cohort in this category declined substantially in second (9%) and third (7%) trimesters. High RBCF (>1360 nmol·L(-1)) was observed in approximately half of the women during each pregnancy trimester. Vitamin B12 and B6 deficiencies were rare (<1% of the cohort). Women consuming folic acid supplements above the upper level had significantly higher RBCF and plasma folate concentrations. In conclusion, the prevalence of vitamin B12 and B6 deficiency was very low. A quarter of the women had suboptimal folate status in the first trimester of pregnancy and over half the women had abnormally high RBCF, suggesting that supplementation during pregnancy is not appropriate in a cohort of women considered to be healthy and a low risk for nutritional deficiencies. PMID:25386981

  16. Effect of vitamin B12-enriched thraustochytrids on the population growth of rotifers.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masahiro; Yukino, Tsugiyo; Watanabe, Fumio; Miyamoto, Emi; Nakano, Yoshihisa

    2007-01-01

    Newly isolated thraustochytrids showed uptake of vitamin B12 from the culture into the cells. Cultivation of thraustochytrids in a medium containing 1 microg/ml of vitamin B12 greatly increased the contents of vitamin B12 in the cells. Similarly to Schizochytrium limacinum, odd numbered fatty acids decreased in the cells of new isolates cultivated with vitamin B12. Vitamin B12-enriched thraustochytrids, strain mh0186, enhanced the population growth of rotifers fed on the cells as sole feed. PMID:17213643

  17. Production of vitamin B-12 in tempeh, a fermented soybean food.

    PubMed

    Liem, I T; Steinkraus, K H; Cronk, T C

    1977-12-01

    Several varieties of soybeans contained generally less than 1 ng of vitamin B-12 per g. It was found that use of a lactic fermentation typical of tropical conditions during the initial soaking of the soybeans did not influence the vitamin B-12 content of the resulting tempeh. Pure tempeh molds obtained from different sources did not produce vitamin B-12. It was found that the major source of vitamin B-12 in commercial tempeh purchased in Toronto, Canada, was a bacterium that accompanies the mold during fermentation. Reinoculation of the pure bacterium onto dehulled, hydrated, and sterilized soybeans resulted in the production of 148 ng of vitamin B-12 per g. The presence of the mold, along with the bacterium, did not inhibit or enhance production of vitamin B-12. Nutritionally significant amounts of vitamin B-12 were also found in the Indonesian fermented food, ontjom. PMID:563702

  18. [Biological markers for the status of vitamins B12 and D: the importance of some analytical aspects in relation to clinical interpretation of results].

    PubMed

    Boulat, O; Rey, F; Mooser, V

    2012-10-31

    Biological markers for the status of vitamins B12 and D: the importance of some analytical aspects in relation to clinical interpretation of results When vitamin B12 deficiency is expressed clinically, the diagnostic performance of total cobalamin is identical to that of holotranscobalamin II. In subclinical B12 deficiency, the two aforementioned markers perform less well. Additional analysis of a second, functional marker (methylmalonate or homocysteine) is recommended. Different analytical approaches for 25-hydroxyvitamin D quantification, the marker of vitamin D deficiency, are not yet standardized. Measurement biases of up to +/- 20% compared with the original method used to establish threshold values are still observed. PMID:23185926

  19. Enhancing the vitamin B12 production and growth of Propionibacterium freudenreichii in tofu wastewater via a light-induced vitamin B12 riboswitch.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Zhu, Xuan; Shen, Yubiao; Yao, Huanghong; Wang, Peiheng; Ye, Kun; Wang, Xiaofeng; Gu, Qing

    2015-12-01

    The vitamin B12-dependent riboswitch is a crucial factor that regulates gene transcription to mediate the growth of and vitamin B12 synthesis by Propionibacterium freudenreichii. In this study, the effect of various wavelengths of light on the growth rate and vitamin B12 synthesis was studied. Red, green, and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were selected, and a dark condition was used as the control. The microorganism growth rate was measured using a spectrophotometer and plate counting, while the vitamin B12 content was determined using an HPLC-based method. The optical density at 600 nm (OD600) values indicated that P. freudenreichii grew better under the continuous and discontinuous blue light conditions. Moreover, under the blue light condition, P. freudenreichii tended to have a higher growth rate (0.332 h(-1)) and vitamin B12 synthesis (ca. 10 μg/mL) in tofu wastewater than in dark conditions. HPLC analysis also showed that more methylcobalamin was produced under the blue light conditions than in the other conditions. The cbiB gene transcription results showed that blue light induced the synthesis of this vitamin B12 synthesis enzyme. Moreover, the results of inhibiting the expression of green fluorescent protein indicated that blue light removed the inhibition by the vitamin B12-dependent riboswitch. This method can be used to reduce fermentation time and produce more vitamin B12 in tofu wastewater. PMID:26373724

  20. Folate and vitamin B12 in idiopathic male infertility.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Laurel E; Mills, James L; Molloy, Anne M; Qian, Cong; Carter, Tonia C; Strevens, Helena; Wide-Swensson, Dag; Giwercman, Aleksander; Levine, Richard J

    2011-11-01

    Although methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, a folate enzyme gene, has been associated with idiopathic male infertility, few studies have examined other folate-related metabolites and genes. We investigated whether idiopathic male infertility is associated with variants in folate, vitamin B(12) (B12) and total homocysteine (tHcy)-related genes and measured these metabolites in blood. We conducted a case-control study that included 153 men with idiopathic infertility and 184 fertile male controls recruited at the Fertility Center and Antenatal Care Center, University Hospital, Malm and Lund, Sweden. Serum folate, red cell folate (RCF), serum B12, plasma tHcy and semen quality were measured. Subjects were genotyped for 20 common variants in 12 genes related to folate/B12/homocysteine metabolism. Metabolite concentrations and genotype distributions were compared between cases and controls using linear and logistic regression with adjustment for covariates. The phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) M175V and TCblR rs173665 polymorphisms were significantly associated with infertility (P=0.01 and P=0.009, respectively), but not with semen quality. Among non-users of supplements, infertile men had lower serum folate concentrations than fertile men (12.89 vs. 14.73 nmol l(-1); P=0.02), but there were no significant differences in RCF, B12 or tHcy. Folate, B12 and tHcy concentrations were not correlated with any semen parameters. This study provides little support for low folate or B12 status in the pathogenesis of idiopathic male infertility. Although additional data are needed to confirm these initial findings, our results suggest that PEMT and TCblR, genes involved in choline and B12 metabolism, merit further investigation in idiopathic male infertility. PMID:21857689

  1. Vitamin B-12 and folate status in relation to decline in scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination in the Framingham Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochemical evidence of low vitamin B-12 status is common in seniors, but its clinical relevance is unclear. Vitamin B-12 deficiency can result in rapid, irreversible cognitive decline – a phenomenon that has been linked to high folate status. Our objective was to investigate the cognitive significa...

  2. Treatment of depression: time to consider folic acid and vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Coppen, Alec; Bolander-Gouaille, Christina

    2005-01-01

    We review the findings in major depression of a low plasma and particularly red cell folate, but also of low vitamin B12 status. Both low folate and low vitamin B12 status have been found in studies of depressive patients, and an association between depression and low levels of the two vitamins is found in studies of the general population. Low plasma or serum folate has also been found in patients with recurrent mood disorders treated by lithium. A link between depression and low folate has similarly been found in patients with alcoholism. It is interesting to note that Hong Kong and Taiwan populations with traditional Chinese diets (rich in folate), including patients with major depression, have high serum folate concentrations. However, these countries have very low life time rates of major depression. Low folate levels are furthermore linked to a poor response to antidepressants, and treatment with folic acid is shown to improve response to antidepressants. A recent study also suggests that high vitamin B12 status may be associated with better treatment outcome. Folate and vitamin B12 are major determinants of one-carbon metabolism, in which S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is formed. SAM donates methyl groups that are crucial for neurological function. Increased plasma homocysteine is a functional marker of both folate and vitamin B12 deficiency. Increased homocysteine levels are found in depressive patients. In a large population study from Norway increased plasma homocysteine was associated with increased risk of depression but not anxiety. There is now substantial evidence of a common decrease in serum/red blood cell folate, serum vitamin B12 and an increase in plasma homocysteine in depression. Furthermore, the MTHFR C677T polymorphism that impairs the homocysteine metabolism is shown to be overrepresented among depressive patients, which strengthens the association. On the basis of current data, we suggest that oral doses of both folic acid (800 microg daily) and vitamin B12 (1 mg daily) should be tried to improve treatment outcome in depression. PMID:15671130

  3. Studies on the biosynthesis of vitamin B sub 2 and vitamin B sub 12

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    Feeding experiments with Ashbya gossypii followed by NMR analysis of the resulting riboflavin showed incorporation of deuterium from D-(2-{sup 2}H)ribose at C-2{prime} and from D-(1-{sup 2}H)ribose in the pro-R position at C-1{prime} of the ribityl side chain. The results rule out an Amadori rearrangement mechanism for the reduction of the ribosylamino to the ribitylamino linkage and point to formation of a Schiff base that is reduced stereospecifically opposite to the face from which the oxygen has departed. As prerequisite for the analysis, the {sup 1}H NMR signals for the pro-R and pro-S hydrogens at C-1{prime} of riboflavin and its tetraacetate were assigned with the aid of synthetic stereospecifically deuteriated samples. Feeding experiments with Propionibacterium shermianii followed by NMR analysis of the resulting vitamin B{sub 12} showed: (1) 5-methylbenzimidazole (5MBI) incorporated and only one regioisomer (B6-demethylcyanocobalamin)formed. (2) 8-demethylriboflavin incorporated and the same regioisomer was obtained as 5MBI experiment. (3) (1{prime}-{sup 13}C, 5-{sup 15}N)riboflavin incorporated and {sup 13}C-NMR showed that {sup 13}C at the B2 position of cyanocobalamin coupled to both adjacent nitrogen-15 atoms at about the same ratio.

  4. The use of blood concentrations of vitamins and their respective functional indicators to define folate and vitamin B12 status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years there has been growing interest in the vitamins folic acid and vitamin B12 because of the realization that the status of these vitamins in populations is less than adequate, and that such inadequacy may be linked to adverse public health outcomes. This concern has prompted the United...

  5. Combined deficiencies of vitamins b1 and C in well-nourished patients.

    PubMed

    Veerapaneni, Karthika; Brown, Thomas M; Dooley, David P

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin deficiencies such as scurvy and Wernicke's encephalopathy are poorly recognized in Western populations. Inadequate intake of these micronutrients and low levels when measured are more frequent than expected. Cases of combined vitamin deficiencies such as that of ascorbic acid and thiamine are seldom reported. Two patients with clinical and biochemical evidence of vitamin deficiencies are described. Signs and symptoms rapidly responded to vitamin replacement. Neither patient was overtly malnourished, but nutritional histories and physical examination were strongly suggestive. Vitamin replacement may require large intravenous doses but is inexpensive and potentially of great benefit. PMID:25664204

  6. Combined Deficiencies of Vitamins B1 and C in Well-Nourished Patients

    PubMed Central

    Veerapaneni, Karthika; Dooley, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin deficiencies such as scurvy and Wernicke’s encephalopathy are poorly recognized in Western populations. Inadequate intake of these micronutrients and low levels when measured are more frequent than expected. Cases of combined vitamin deficiencies such as that of ascorbic acid and thiamine are seldom reported. Two patients with clinical and biochemical evidence of vitamin deficiencies are described. Signs and symptoms rapidly responded to vitamin replacement. Neither patient was overtly malnourished, but nutritional histories and physical examination were strongly suggestive. Vitamin replacement may require large intravenous doses but is inexpensive and potentially of great benefit. PMID:25664204

  7. Decreased vitamin B12 availability induces ER stress through impaired SIRT1-deacetylation of HSF1.

    PubMed

    Ghemrawi, R; Pooya, S; Lorentz, S; Gauchotte, G; Arnold, C; Gueant, J-L; Battaglia-Hsu, S-F

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a key determinant of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-dependent epigenomic cellular regulations related to methylation/acetylation and its deficiency produces neurodegenerative disorders by elusive mechanisms. Sirtuin 1 deacetylase (SIRT1) triggers cell response to nutritional stress through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Recently, we have established a N1E115 dopaminergic cell model by stable expression of a transcobalamin-oleosin chimera (TO), which impairs cellular availability of vitamin B12, decreases methionine synthase activity and SAM level, and reduces cell proliferation. In contrast, oleosin-transcobalamin chimera (OT) does not modify the phenotype of transfected cells. Presently, the impaired cellular availability of vitamin B12 in TO cells activated irreversible ER stress pathways, with increased P-eIF-2α, P-PERK, P-IRE1α, ATF6, ATF4, decreased chaperon proteins and increased pro-apoptotic markers, CHOP and cleaved caspase 3, through reduced SIRT1 expression and consequently greater acetylation of heat-shock factor protein 1 (HSF1). Adding either B12, SIRT1, or HSF1 activators as well as overexpressing SIRT1 or HSF1 dramatically reduced the activation of ER stress pathways in TO cells. Conversely, impairing SIRT1 and HSF1 by siRNA, expressing a dominant negative form of HSF1, or adding a SIRT1 inhibitor led to B12-dependent ER stress in OT cells. Addition of B12 abolished the activation of stress transducers and apoptosis, and increased the expression of protein chaperons in OT cells subjected to thapsigargin, a strong ER stress stimulator. AdoX, an inhibitor of methyltransferase activities, produced similar effects than decreased B12 availability on SIRT1 and ER stress by a mechanism related to increased expression of hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1). Taken together, these data show that cellular vitamin B12 has a strong modulating influence on ER stress in N1E115 dopaminergic cells. The impaired cellular availability in vitamin B12 induces irreversible ER stress by greater acetylation of HSF1 through decreased SIRT1 expression, whereas adding vitamin B12 produces protective effects in cells subjected to ER stress stimulation. PMID:23519122

  8. Anaerobic biosynthesis of the lower ligand of vitamin B12

    PubMed Central

    Hazra, Amrita B.; Han, Andrew W.; Mehta, Angad P.; Mok, Kenny C.; Osadchiy, Vadim; Begley, Tadhg P.; Taga, Michiko E.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is required by humans and other organisms for diverse metabolic processes, although only a subset of prokaryotes is capable of synthesizing B12 and other cobamide cofactors. The complete aerobic and anaerobic pathways for the de novo biosynthesis of B12 are known, with the exception of the steps leading to the anaerobic biosynthesis of the lower ligand, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB). Here, we report the identification and characterization of the complete pathway for anaerobic DMB biosynthesis. This pathway, identified in the obligate anaerobic bacterium Eubacterium limosum, is composed of five previously uncharacterized genes, bzaABCDE, that together direct DMB production when expressed in anaerobically cultured Escherichia coli. Expression of different combinations of the bza genes revealed that 5-hydroxybenzimidazole, 5-methoxybenzimidazole, and 5-methoxy-6-methylbenzimidazole, all of which are lower ligands of cobamides produced by other organisms, are intermediates in the pathway. The bza gene content of several bacterial and archaeal genomes is consistent with experimentally determined structures of the benzimidazoles produced by these organisms, indicating that these genes can be used to predict cobamide structure. The identification of the bza genes thus represents the last remaining unknown component of the biosynthetic pathway for not only B12 itself, but also for three other cobamide lower ligands whose biosynthesis was previously unknown. Given the importance of cobamides in environmental, industrial, and human-associated microbial metabolism, the ability to predict cobamide structure may lead to an improved ability to understand and manipulate microbial metabolism. PMID:26246619

  9. Anaerobic biosynthesis of the lower ligand of vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Amrita B; Han, Andrew W; Mehta, Angad P; Mok, Kenny C; Osadchiy, Vadim; Begley, Tadhg P; Taga, Michiko E

    2015-08-25

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is required by humans and other organisms for diverse metabolic processes, although only a subset of prokaryotes is capable of synthesizing B12 and other cobamide cofactors. The complete aerobic and anaerobic pathways for the de novo biosynthesis of B12 are known, with the exception of the steps leading to the anaerobic biosynthesis of the lower ligand, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB). Here, we report the identification and characterization of the complete pathway for anaerobic DMB biosynthesis. This pathway, identified in the obligate anaerobic bacterium Eubacterium limosum, is composed of five previously uncharacterized genes, bzaABCDE, that together direct DMB production when expressed in anaerobically cultured Escherichia coli. Expression of different combinations of the bza genes revealed that 5-hydroxybenzimidazole, 5-methoxybenzimidazole, and 5-methoxy-6-methylbenzimidazole, all of which are lower ligands of cobamides produced by other organisms, are intermediates in the pathway. The bza gene content of several bacterial and archaeal genomes is consistent with experimentally determined structures of the benzimidazoles produced by these organisms, indicating that these genes can be used to predict cobamide structure. The identification of the bza genes thus represents the last remaining unknown component of the biosynthetic pathway for not only B12 itself, but also for three other cobamide lower ligands whose biosynthesis was previously unknown. Given the importance of cobamides in environmental, industrial, and human-associated microbial metabolism, the ability to predict cobamide structure may lead to an improved ability to understand and manipulate microbial metabolism. PMID:26246619

  10. Effect of Yeast Extract and Vitamin B(12) on Ethanol Production from Cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B.

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Goto, S; Yonemura, S; Sekine, K; Okuma, E; Takagi, Y; Hon-Nami, K; Saiki, T

    1992-02-01

    Addition to media of yeast extract, a vitamin mixture containing vitamin B(12), biotin, pyridoxamine, and p-aminobenzoic acid, or vitamin B(12) alone enhanced formation of ethanol but decreased lactate production in the fermentation of cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B. A similar effect was not observed with C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 and JW20. PMID:16348657

  11. Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated with Progression of Knee Osteoarthritis12

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Driban, Jeffrey B; Lo, Grace H; Price, Lori Lyn; Booth, Sarah; Eaton, Charles B; Lu, Bing; Nevitt, Michael; Jackson, Becky; Garganta, Cheryl; Hochberg, Marc C; Kwoh, Kent; McAlindon, Timothy E

    2014-01-01

    Background: Knee osteoarthritis causes functional limitation and disability in the elderly. Vitamin D has biological functions on multiple knee joint structures and can play important roles in the progression of knee osteoarthritis. The metabolism of vitamin D is regulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH). Objective: The objective was to investigate whether serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and PTH, individually and jointly, predict the progression of knee osteoarthritis. Methods: Serum 25(OH)D and PTH were measured at the 30- or 36-mo visit in 418 participants enrolled in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) who had ?1 knee with both symptomatic and radiographic osteoarthritis. Progression of knee osteoarthritis was defined as any increase in the radiographic joint space narrowing (JSN) score between the 24- and 48-mo OAI visits. Results: The mean concentrations of serum 25(OH)D and PTH were 26.2 ?g/L and 54.5 pg/mL, respectively. Approximately 16% of the population had serum 25(OH)D < 15 ?g/L. Between the baseline and follow-up visits, 14% progressed in JSN score. Participants with low vitamin D [25(OH)D < 15 ?g/L] had >2-fold elevated risk of knee osteoarthritis progression compared with those with greater vitamin D concentrations (?15 ?g/L; OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1, 4.5). High serum PTH (?73 pg/mL) was not associated with a significant increase in JSN score. However, participants with both low vitamin D and high PTH had >3-fold increased risk of progression (OR: 3.2; 95%CI: 1.2, 8.4). Conclusion: Our results suggest that individuals deficient in vitamin D have an increased risk of knee osteoarthritis progression. PMID:25411034

  12. The source and content of vitamin B12 in the tempehs.

    PubMed

    Areekul, S; Pattanamatum, S; Cheeramakara, C; Churdchue, K; Nitayapabskoon, S; Chongsanguan, M

    1990-03-01

    Vitamin B12 contents were determined on 10 commercial tempeh samples purchased from various markets in Jakarta, Indonesia. A relatively high vitamin B12 content was found, i.e., 19 ng/g (ranges from 1.8 to 41.4 ng/g). As soybeans contain no vitamin B12, the amount of vitamin in the tempeh must therefore be derived from the other sources during the fermentation process. The tempeh prepared in the laboratory by inoculation of the commercial starter into the sterile soybean contained a much higher amount of vitamin B12, 127 ng/g (ranges from 122 to 136 ng/g). Pure mold and a single species of bacteria were isolated from the starter and commercial tempehs. Pure mold did not produce vitamin B12 in the sterile broth, soybean and medium used for vitamin B12 production. Only the isolated bacteria, identified as K. pneumoniae, could produce vitamin B12 in those substrates. The presence of mold did not significantly enhance or inhibit the vitamin B12 production by K. pneumoniae. It was, therefore, concluded that K. pneumoniae, the bacteria contaminated during the process of tempeh production, was responsible for the vitamin B12 production. PMID:2380647

  13. Micronutrient Status in Female University Students: Iron, Zinc, Copper, Selenium, Vitamin B12 and Folate

    PubMed Central

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Young women are at an increased risk of micronutrient deficiencies, particularly due to higher micronutrient requirements during childbearing years and multiple food group avoidances. The objective of this study was to investigate biomarkers of particular micronutrients in apparently healthy young women. Female students (n = 308; age range 18–35 year; Body Mass Index 21.5 ± 2.8 kg/m2; mean ± SD) were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Blood samples were obtained from participants in the fasted state and analysed for biomarkers of iron status, vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine, selenium, zinc, and copper. The results show iron deficiency anaemia, unspecified anaemia, and hypoferritinemia in 3%, 7% and 33.9% of participants, respectively. Low vitamin B12 concentrations (<120 pmol/L) were found in 11.3% of participants, while 4.7% showed sub-clinical deficiency based on serum methylmalonic acid concentrations >0.34 μmol/L. Folate concentrations below the reference range were observed in 1.7% (serum) or 1% (erythrocytes) of participants, and 99.7% of the participant had erythrocyte-folate concentrations >300 nmol/L. Serum zinc concentrations <10.7 μmol/L were observed in 2% of participants. Serum copper and selenium concentrations were below the reference range in 23% and 11% of participants, respectively. Micronutrient deficiencies including iron and vitamin B12, and apparent excess of folate are present in educated Australian female students of childbearing age, including those studying nutrition. The effects of dietary behaviours and food choices on markers of micronutrient status require further investigation. PMID:25401503

  14. Thiamine (Vitamin B1)

    MedlinePlus

    ... low levels of thiamine (thiamine deficiency syndromes), including beriberi and inflammation of the nerves (neuritis) associated with ... de Thiamine, Complexe de Vitamine B, Facteur Anti-béribéri, Facteur Antineuritique, Hydrochlorure de Thiamine, Mononitrate de Thiamine, ...

  15. Baseline Vitamin B12 and Folate Levels Do Not Predict Improvement in Depression After a Single Infusion of Ketamine

    PubMed Central

    Lundin, N. B.; Niciu, M. J.; Luckenbaugh, D. A.; Ionescu, D. F.; Richards, E. M.; Voort, J. L. Vande; Brutsche, N. E.; Machado-Vieira, R.; Zarate, C. A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Deficiencies in both vitamin B12 and folate have been associated with depression. Recently, higher baseline vitamin B12 levels were observed in individuals with bipolar depression who responded to the antidepressant ketamine at 7 days post-infusion. This study sought to replicate this result by correlating peripheral vitamin levels with ketamine's antidepressant efficacy in bipolar depression and major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods Baseline vitamin B12 and folate levels were obtained in 49 inpatients with treatment-resistant MDD and 34 inpatients with treatment-resistant bipolar depression currently experiencing a major depressive episode. All subjects received a single intravenous ketamine infusion. Post-hoc Pearson correlations were performed between baseline vitamin B12 and folate levels, as well as antidepressant response assessed by percent change in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) scores from baseline to 230 min, 1 day, and 7 days post-infusion. Results No significant correlation was observed between baseline vitamin B12 or folate and percent change in HDRS for any of the 3 time points in either MDD or bipolar depression. Discussion Ketamine's antidepressant efficacy may occur independently of baseline peripheral vitamin levels. PMID:24955551

  16. Folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, methionine and alcohol intake in relation to ovarian cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Holly R.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Vitonis, Allison F.; DePari, Mary; Terry, Kathryn L.

    2011-01-01

    Folate, methionine, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 may influence carcinogenesis due to their roles in the one-carbon metabolism pathway which is critical for DNA synthesis, methylation, and repair. Low intake of these nutrients has been associated with an increased risk of breast, colon, and endometrial cancers. Previous studies that have examined the relation between these nutrients and ovarian cancer risk have been inconsistent and have had limited power to examine the relation by histologic subtype. We investigated the association between folate, methionine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and alcohol among 1910 women with ovarian cancer and 1989 controls from a case-control study conducted in eastern Massachusetts and New Hampshire from 1992 to 2008. Diet was assessed via food frequency questionnaire. Participants were asked to recall diet one-year before diagnosis or interview. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). We also examined whether the associations varied by ovarian cancer histologies using polytomous logistic regression. We observed an inverse association between dietary vitamin B6 (covariate-adjusted OR=0.76, 95% CI 0.640.92; ptrend=0.002) and methionine intake (covariate-adjusted OR=0.72, 95% CI=0.600.87; ptrend<0.001) and ovarian cancer risk comparing the highest to lowest quartile. The association with dietary vitamin B6 was strongest for serous borderline (covariate-adjusted OR=0.49, 95% CI=0.320.77; ptrend=0.001) and serous invasive (covariate-adjusted OR=0.74, 95% CI=0.580.94; ptrend=0.012) subtypes. Overall, we observed no significant association between folate and ovarian cancer risk. One-carbon metabolism related nutrients, especially vitamin B6 and methionine, may lower ovarian cancer risk. PMID:21953625

  17. Vitamin deficiencies and excesses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamins are essential nutrients that must be supplied exogenously either as part of a well balanced diet or as supplements. Deficiency states are uncommon in developed countries except, perhaps, among some food insecure families. In contrast, deficiency states are quite common in many developing ...

  18. Discovery of Novel Sources of Vitamin B12 in Traditional Korean Foods from Nutritional Surveys of Centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Lee, Mee Sook; Oh, Se In; Park, Sang Chul

    2010-01-01

    Human longevity can be explained by a variety of factors, among them, nutritional factor would play an important role. In our study of Korean centenarians for their longevity, the apparent nutritional imbalance in the traditional semi-vegetarian diet raised a special attention, especially on vitamin B12 status, supplied by animal foods. Interestingly, we found that the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficient Korean centenarians was not higher compared with those from Western nations with animal-oriented traditional foods. We assumed that there might be some unveiled sources for vitamin B12 in the Korean traditional foods. Screening of vitamin B12 contents has revealed that some traditional soybean-fermented foods, such as Doenjang and Chunggukjang, and seaweeds contain considerable amounts of vitamin B12. Taken together, it can be summarized that the traditional foods, especially of fermentation, might be evaluated for compensation of the nutritional imbalance in the vegetable-oriented dietary pattern by supplying vitamin B12, resulting in maintenance of health status. PMID:21436999

  19. Characterization of vitamin B12 compounds from Korean purple laver (Porphyra sp.) products.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Emi; Yabuta, Yukinori; Kwak, Chung Shil; Enomoto, Toshiki; Watanabe, Fumio

    2009-04-01

    Vitamin B(12) contents of various Korean purple laver products were determined with the microbiological vitamin B(12) assay method. Although a substantial amount (133.8 microg/100 g) of vitamin B(12) was found in dried purple laver, seasoned and toasted laver products contained lesser vitamin B(12) contents (about 51.7 microg/100 g). The decreased vitamin B(12) contents in the seasoned and toasted laver products, however, were not due to loss or destruction of vitamin B(12) during the toasting process. Silica gel 60 thin layer chromatography-bioautogram analysis indicated that all Korean laver products tested contain true vitamin B(12), but not inactive corrinoid compounds. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion experiments indicated that digestion rate of vitamin B(12) from the dried Korean purple laver was estimated to be 50% under pH 2.0 conditions (as a model of normal gastric function). These results suggest that Korean purple laver products would be excellent vitamin B(12) sources for humans, especially vegetarians. PMID:19256490

  20. Vitamin D deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Gani, Linsey Utami; How, Choon How

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common and may contribute to osteopenia, osteoporosis and falls risk in the elderly. Screening for vitamin D deficiency is important in high-risk patients, especially for patients who suffered minimal trauma fractures. Vitamin D deficiency should be treated according to the severity of the deficiency. In high-risk adults, follow-up serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration should be measured 3–4 months after initiating maintenance therapy to confirm that the target level has been achieved. All patients should maintain a calcium intake of at least 1,000 mg for women aged ≤ 50 years and men ≤ 70 years, and 1,300 mg for women > 50 years and men > 70 years. PMID:26311908

  1. Selective vitamin B12 malabsorption with proteinuria. Renal biopsy study.

    PubMed

    Collan, Y; Lähdevirta, J; Jokinen, E J

    1979-01-01

    Percutaneous renal biopsy were performed on 5 patients with selective vitamin B12 malabsorption of whom 3 had proteinuria. Light microscopy showed slight prominence of the mesangial areas but otherwise the findings were normal. Electron microscopy showed increased mesangial matrix, thickening of the basement membrane at the mesangial areas and dark mesangial deposit. Light flocculent subendothelial material, moon craters, membranous convoluted structures, extracellular round particles and occasional intracellular microtubular inclusions were also seen in the glomeruli. The tubular basement membrane appeared thickened around a few tubules, showing membranous vesicular debris and convoluted structures. The capsular membrane also showed vesicular debris. On immunohistochemical examination the glomerular deposits contained immunoglobulins but not complement - an argument against their immunological nature. Deposits were seen only in patients who had been on inadequate treatment for years before the biopsy. Adequate treatment after correct diagnosis decreased the amount of deposits. Proteinuria did not apparently depend on the presence of glomerular deposits. PMID:384282

  2. Sugar and Chromosome Stability: Clastogenic Effects of Sugars in Vitamin B6-Deficient Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gatti, Maurizio; Vernì, Fiammetta

    2014-01-01

    Pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP), the active form of vitamin B6, has been implicated in preventing human pathologies, such as diabetes and cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of PLP are still unclear. Using Drosophila as a model system, we show that PLP deficiency, caused either by mutations in the pyridoxal kinase-coding gene (dPdxk) or by vitamin B6 antagonists, results in chromosome aberrations (CABs). The CAB frequency in PLP-depleted cells was strongly enhanced by sucrose, glucose or fructose treatments, and dPdxk mutant cells consistently displayed higher glucose contents than their wild type counterparts, an effect that is at least in part a consequence of an acquired insulin resistance. Together, our results indicate that a high intracellular level of glucose has a dramatic clastogenic effect if combined with PLP deficiency. This is likely due to an elevated level of Advanced Glycation End-products (AGE) formation. Treatment of dPdxk mutant cells with α-lipoic acid (ALA) lowered both AGE formation and CAB frequency, suggesting a possible AGE-CAB cause-effect relationship. The clastogenic effect of glucose in PLP-depleted cells is evolutionarily conserved. RNAi-mediated silencing of PDXK in human cells or treatments with PLP inhibitors resulted in chromosome breakage, which was potentiated by glucose and reduced by ALA. These results suggest that patients with concomitant hyperglycemia and vitamin B6 deficiency may suffer chromosome damage. This might impact cancer risk, as CABs are a well-known tumorigenic factor. PMID:24651653

  3. An assay for uracil in human DNA at baseline: effect of marginal vitamin B6 deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mashiyama, Susan T.; Hansen, Christine M.; Roitman, Esther; Sarmiento, Stella; Leklem, James E.; Shultz, Terry D.; Ames, Bruce N.

    2007-01-01

    Improvements are made to our gas chromatography-mass spectrometry based assay for quantifying low levels of DNA-uracil. Folate deficiency leads to increased deoxyuridine monophosphate/thymidylate (dUMP/dTMP) ratios and uracil misincorporation into DNA, which may increase cancer risk. Vitamin B6 (B6) deficiency might also result in increased DNA-uracil because B6 is a cofactor for serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), which catalyzes the methylation of tetrahydrofolate (THF) to methylene-THF, the folate form that is required to convert dUMP to dTMP. However, the low baseline levels of DNA-uracil in healthy human lymphocytes are difficult to measure accurately. This version of the assay (Uracil assay V3) has an approximately ten-fold increase in signal strength over the previous method, and a ten-fold lower detection limit (0.2 pg uracil). Five micrograms of DNA, the amount in about 1 ml of human blood, is a suitable amount for this assay. Using this improved assay, DNA-uracil was measured in lymphocytes from twelve healthy smoking or nonsmoking young men and women who consumed a B6 restricted diet (0.7 mg B6/day, or ≈ half the RDA) for 28 days. DNA-uracil concentration was not significantly related to B6 status or smoking. More severe and/or prolonged vitamin B6 deficiency may be necessary to detect significant changes in DNA-uracil in humans. The average concentration of DNA-uracil from these subjects was found to be approximately 3,000 uracils per diploid lymphocyte, which is comparable to steady state levels of one of the oxidative adducts of DNA, 8-oxoguanine. PMID:17963712

  4. [Age-associated changes in the metabolism of vitamin B(12) and folic acid: prevalence, aetiopathogenesis and pathophysiological consequences].

    PubMed

    Wolters, M; Ströhle, A; Hahn, A

    2004-04-01

    The increasing number of older people is characteristic for most industrialised nations and implicates the known psychosocial and economic consequences. Therefore, an optimal nutrient supply that promotes continuing mental and physical well-being is particularly important. In this respect, vitamin B(12) and folic acid play a major role, since deficiency of both vitamins is associated with the pathogenesis of different diseases such as declining neurocognitive function and atherosclerotic lesions. Vitamin B(12) and folic acid act as coenzymes and show a close molecular interaction on the basis of the homocysteine metabolism. In addition to the serum concentrations of the vitamins, the metabolites homocysteine and methylmalonic acid are sensitive markers of cobalamin and folate status. Depending on the used marker, 3-60% of the elderly are classified as vitamin B(12) deficient and about 29% as folate deficient. Predominantly, this high prevalence of poor cobalamin status is caused by the increasing prevalence of atrophic gastritis type B, which occurs with a frequency of approximately 20-50% in elderly subjects. Atrophic gastritis results in declining gastric acid and pepsinogen secretion, and hence decreasing intestinal digestion and absorption of both B vitamins. This is the reason why an insufficient vitamin B(12) status in the elderly is rarely due to low dietary intake. In contrast, folic acid intake among elderly subjects is generally well below the recommended dietary reference values. Even moderately increased homocysteine levels or poor folate and vitamin B(12) status are associated with vascular disease and neurocognitive disorders. Results of a meta-analysis of prospective studies revealed that a 25% lower homocysteine level (about 3 micromol/L) was associated with an 11% lower ischemic heart disease risk and 19% lower stroke risk. It is still discussed, whether hyperhomocysteinemia is causally related to vascular disease or whether it is a consequence of atherosclerosis. Estimated risk reduction is based on cohort studies, not on clinical trials. Homocysteine initiates different proatherogenetic mechanisms such as the formation of reactive oxygen species and an enhanced fibrin synthesis. Supplementation of folic acid (0.5-5 mg/d) reduces the homocysteine concentration by 25%. Additional vitamin B(12) (0.5 mg/d) induces further reduction by 7%. In secondary prevention, supplementation already led to clinical improvements (reduction of restenosis rate and plaques). Depression, dementia, and mental impairment are often associated with folate and vitamin B(12) deficiency. The biochemical reason of this finding may be the importance of folic acid and vitamin B(12) for the transmethylation of neuroactive substances (myelin, neurotransmitters) which is impaired in vitamin deficiency ("hypomethylation hypothesis"). In recent years, there is increasing evidence for a role of folic acid in cancer prevention. As a molecular mechanism of a preventive effect of folic acid the hypomethylation of certain DNA sections in folate deficiency has been suggested. Since folate and vitamin B(12) intake and status are mostly insufficient in elderly subjects, a supplementation can generally be recommended. PMID:15103481

  5. Decreased Brain Levels of Vitamin B12 in Aging, Autism and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiting; Hodgson, Nathaniel W.; Trivedi, Malav S.; Abdolmaleky, Hamid M.; Fournier, Margot; Cuenod, Michel; Do, Kim Quang; Deth, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Many studies indicate a crucial role for the vitamin B12 and folate-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS) in brain development and function, but vitamin B12 status in the brain across the lifespan has not been previously investigated. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) exists in multiple forms, including methylcobalamin (MeCbl) and adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl), serving as cofactors for MS and methylmalonylCoA mutase, respectively. We measured levels of five Cbl species in postmortem human frontal cortex of 43 control subjects, from 19 weeks of fetal development through 80 years of age, and 12 autistic and 9 schizophrenic subjects. Total Cbl was significantly lower in older control subjects (> 60 yrs of age), primarily reflecting a >10-fold age-dependent decline in the level of MeCbl. Levels of inactive cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) were remarkably higher in fetal brain samples. In both autistic and schizophrenic subjects MeCbl and AdoCbl levels were more than 3-fold lower than age-matched controls. In autistic subjects lower MeCbl was associated with decreased MS activity and elevated levels of its substrate homocysteine (HCY). Low levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) have been linked to both autism and schizophrenia, and both total Cbl and MeCbl levels were decreased in glutamate-cysteine ligase modulatory subunit knockout (GCLM-KO) mice, which exhibit low GSH levels. Thus our findings reveal a previously unrecognized decrease in brain vitamin B12 status across the lifespan that may reflect an adaptation to increasing antioxidant demand, while accelerated deficits due to GSH deficiency may contribute to neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26799654

  6. Decreased Brain Levels of Vitamin B12 in Aging, Autism and Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiting; Hodgson, Nathaniel W; Trivedi, Malav S; Abdolmaleky, Hamid M; Fournier, Margot; Cuenod, Michel; Do, Kim Quang; Deth, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Many studies indicate a crucial role for the vitamin B12 and folate-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS) in brain development and function, but vitamin B12 status in the brain across the lifespan has not been previously investigated. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) exists in multiple forms, including methylcobalamin (MeCbl) and adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl), serving as cofactors for MS and methylmalonylCoA mutase, respectively. We measured levels of five Cbl species in postmortem human frontal cortex of 43 control subjects, from 19 weeks of fetal development through 80 years of age, and 12 autistic and 9 schizophrenic subjects. Total Cbl was significantly lower in older control subjects (> 60 yrs of age), primarily reflecting a >10-fold age-dependent decline in the level of MeCbl. Levels of inactive cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) were remarkably higher in fetal brain samples. In both autistic and schizophrenic subjects MeCbl and AdoCbl levels were more than 3-fold lower than age-matched controls. In autistic subjects lower MeCbl was associated with decreased MS activity and elevated levels of its substrate homocysteine (HCY). Low levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) have been linked to both autism and schizophrenia, and both total Cbl and MeCbl levels were decreased in glutamate-cysteine ligase modulatory subunit knockout (GCLM-KO) mice, which exhibit low GSH levels. Thus our findings reveal a previously unrecognized decrease in brain vitamin B12 status across the lifespan that may reflect an adaptation to increasing antioxidant demand, while accelerated deficits due to GSH deficiency may contribute to neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26799654

  7. B Vitamins in Breast Milk: Relative Importance of Maternal Status and Intake, and Effects on Infant Status and Function12

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Lindsay H.

    2012-01-01

    Infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 mo of life. However, maternal deficiency of some micronutrients, conveniently classified as Group I micronutrients during lactation, can result in low concentrations in breast milk and subsequent infant deficiency preventable by improving maternal status. This article uses thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and choline as examples and reviews the evidence for risk of inadequate intakes by infants in the first 6 mo of life. Folate, a Group II micronutrient, is included for comparison. Information is presented on forms and concentrations in human milk, analytical methods, the basis of current recommended intakes for infants and lactating women, and effects of maternal supplementation. From reports of maternal and/or infant deficiency, concentrations in milk were noted as well as any consequences for infant function. These milk values were used to estimate the percent of recommended daily intake that infants fed by a deficient mother could obtain from her milk. Estimates were 60% for thiamin, 53% for riboflavin, 80% for vitamin B-6, 16% for vitamin B-12, and 56% for choline. Lack of data limits the accuracy and generalizability of these conclusions, but the overall picture that emerges is consistent across nutrients and points to an urgent need to improve the information available on breast milk quality. PMID:22585913

  8. The usefulness of holotranscobalamin in predicting vitamin B12 status in different clinical settings.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Wolfgang; Obeid, Rima; Schorr, Heike; Geisel, Jürgen

    2005-02-01

    Serum concentrations of homocysteine (Hcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA) become increased in B12-deficient subjects and are therefore, considered specific markers of B12 deficiency. Serum level of holotranscobalamin (holoTC) becomes decreased before the development of the metabolic dysfunction. We investigated the usefulness of holoTC in diagnosing B12 deficiency in some clinical settings. We measured serum concentrations of holoTC, MMA, Hcy and total B12 in omnivores, vegetarians, elderly people and haemodialysis patients. Our results indicated that the incidence of holoTC <35 pmol/L was highest in the vegans (76%). Low holoTC and elevated MMA were detected in 64% of the vegans and 43% of the lacto- and lacto-ovovegetarians. An elevated MMA and a low holoTC were found in subjects with total serum B12 as high as 300 pmol/L. The distribution of holoTC in elderly people was similar to that in younger adults (median holoTC 55 pmol/L in both groups). A low holoTC and an elevated MMA were found in 16% of the elderly group. An elevated MMA and a normal holoTC were found in 20% of the elderly group who had a relatively high median serum concentration of creatinine (106.1 micromol/L). Serum concentrations of holoTC in dialysis patients were considerably higher than all other groups (median 100 pmol/L). This was also associated with severely increased serum levels of MMA (median 987 nmol/L). From these results it can be concluded that serum concentration of holoTC is a much better predictor of B12 status than total B12. This was particularly evident in case of dietary B12 deficiency. Serum concentrations of holoTC as well as MMA can be affected by renal dysfunction. Elevated MMA and normal holoTC in patients with renal insufficiency may not exclude vitamin B12 deficiency. HoloTC seems not to be a promising marker in predicting B12 status in renal patients. PMID:15720207

  9. Competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND Few accurate data exist on the concentration of vitamin B12 in human milk. Binding of the vitamin to haptocorrin (HC) can interfere with the assay if not removed by pretreatment, and very low values can occur in women with poor B12 status. This study evaluated two competitive enzyme bind...

  10. Neomycin has no persistent sparing effect on vitamin B-12 status in pectin-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Cullen, R W; Oace, S M

    1989-10-01

    In the present study, rats were depleted of vitamin B-12 with fiber-free or 5% pectin diets, with or without neomycin. Through use of this intestinal antibiotic reported to "spare" vitamin B-12, we sought to determine if bacterial fermentation of pectin might explain our previous observations of negative effects of pectin on vitamin B-12 status. However, neomycin did not lessen interference by pectin with vitamin B-12 metabolism. Pectin increased urinary methylmalonate and decreased propionate oxidation to a greater extent in the presence than in the absence of neomycin. Also, regardless of the presence of neomycin, the biologic half-life of injected [57Co]vitamin B-12 was 58 d for rats fed the fiber-free diets and only 38 d for rats fed 5% pectin diets. Neomycin delayed early fecal excretion of 57Co but had no persistent effect. Thus, neomycin-sensitive bacteria do not mediate the negative effects of pectin on vitamin B-12 status. Pectin may interfere directly with vitamin B-12 absorption or may stimulate vitamin B-12 uptake or propionate production by microbial species that have adapted to neomycin. PMID:2555466

  11. Loss of vitamin B(12) in fish (round herring) meats during various cooking treatments.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, Michiko; Kanosue, Fuki; Yabuta, Yukinori; Watanabe, Fumio

    2011-01-01

    The loss of vitamin B(12) in round herring meats during various cooking treatments was evaluated. Although amounts of vitamin B(12) were three times greater in the viscera (37.5 ± 10.6 µg/100 g fresh weight) than in the meats, about 73% of total vitamin B(12) found in the whole fish body (except for head and bones) were recovered in the meats (5.1 ± 1.0 µg of vitamin B(12)). The vitamin B(12) contents of the round herring's meats were significantly decreased up to ~62% during cooking by grilling, boiling, frying, steaming, and microwaving. There was, however, no loss of vitamin B(12) during vacuum-packed pouch cooking. Model experiment using hydroxocobalamin suggest that loss of vitamin B(12) is dependent on the degree of temperature and time used in conventional cooking, and is further affected by the concomitant ingredients of food. Retention of vitamin B(12) was not dependent on vacuum or temperature (or both) used in the vacuum-packed pouch cooking. PMID:22472286

  12. Folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and methionine intakes and risk of stroke subtypes in male smokers.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Susanna C; Männistö, Satu; Virtanen, Mikko J; Kontto, Jukka; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo

    2008-04-15

    The associations of dietary folate, vitamin B(6), vitamin B(12), and methionine intakes with risk of stroke subtypes were examined among 26,556 male Finnish smokers, aged 50-69 years, enrolled in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline by using a validated food frequency questionnaire. During a mean follow-up of 13.6 years, from 1985 through 2004, 2,702 cerebral infarctions, 383 intracerebral hemorrhages, and 196 subarachnoid hemorrhages were identified from national registers. In analyses adjusting for age and cardiovascular risk factors, a high folate intake was associated with a statistically significant lower risk of cerebral infarction but not intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhages. The multivariate relative risk of cerebral infarction was 0.80 (95% confidence interval: 0.70, 0.91; p(trend) = 0.001) for men in the highest versus lowest quintile of folate intake. Vitamin B(6), vitamin B(12), and methionine intakes were not significantly associated with any subtype of stroke. These findings in men suggest that a high dietary folate intake may reduce the risk of cerebral infarction. PMID:18270369

  13. Marginal vitamin B-6 deficiency decreases plasma (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA concentrations in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mei; Lamers, Yvonne; Ralat, Maria A; Coats, Bonnie S; Chi, Yueh-Yun; Muller, Keith E; Bain, James R; Shankar, Meena N; Newgard, Christopher B; Stacpoole, Peter W; Gregory, Jesse F

    2012-10-01

    Previous animal studies showed that severe vitamin B-6 deficiency altered fatty acid profiles of tissue lipids, often with an increase of linoleic acid and a decrease of arachidonic acid. However, little is known about the extent to which vitamin B-6 deficiency affects human fatty acid profiles. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of marginal vitamin B-6 deficiency on fatty acid profiles in plasma, erythrocytes, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of healthy adults fed a 28-d, low-vitamin B-6 diet. Healthy participants (n = 23) received a 2-d, controlled, vitamin B-6-adequate diet followed by a 28-d, vitamin B-6-restricted diet to induce a marginal deficiency. Plasma HDL and LDL cholesterol concentrations, FFA concentrations, and erythrocyte and PBMC membrane fatty acid compositions did not significantly change from baseline after the 28-d restriction. Plasma total arachidonic acid, EPA, and DHA concentrations decreased from (mean ± SD) 548 ± 96 to 490 ± 94 μmol/L, 37 ± 13 to 32 ± 13 μmol/L, and 121 ± 28 to 109 ± 28 μmol/L [positive false discovery rate (pFDR) adjusted P < 0.05], respectively. The total (n-6):(n-3) PUFA ratio in plasma exhibited a minor increase from 15.4 ± 2.8 to 16.6 ± 3.1 (pFDR adjusted P < 0.05). These data indicate that short-term vitamin B-6 restriction decreases plasma (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA concentrations and tends to increase the plasma (n-6):(n-3) PUFA ratio. Such changes in blood lipids may be associated with the elevated risk of cardiovascular disease in vitamin B-6 insufficiency. PMID:22955512

  14. Marginal Vitamin B-6 Deficiency Decreases Plasma (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA Concentrations in Healthy Men and Women123

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mei; Lamers, Yvonne; Ralat, Maria A.; Coats, Bonnie S.; Chi, Yueh-Yun; Muller, Keith E.; Bain, James R.; Shankar, Meena N.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Stacpoole, Peter W.; Gregory, Jesse F.

    2012-01-01

    Previous animal studies showed that severe vitamin B-6 deficiency altered fatty acid profiles of tissue lipids, often with an increase of linoleic acid and a decrease of arachidonic acid. However, little is known about the extent to which vitamin B-6 deficiency affects human fatty acid profiles. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of marginal vitamin B-6 deficiency on fatty acid profiles in plasma, erythrocytes, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of healthy adults fed a 28-d, low-vitamin B-6 diet. Healthy participants (n = 23) received a 2-d, controlled, vitamin B-6–adequate diet followed by a 28-d, vitamin B-6–restricted diet to induce a marginal deficiency. Plasma HDL and LDL cholesterol concentrations, FFA concentrations, and erythrocyte and PBMC membrane fatty acid compositions did not significantly change from baseline after the 28-d restriction. Plasma total arachidonic acid, EPA, and DHA concentrations decreased from (mean ± SD) 548 ± 96 to 490 ± 94 μmol/L, 37 ± 13 to 32 ± 13 μmol/L, and 121 ± 28 to 109 ± 28 μmol/L [positive false discovery rate (pFDR) adjusted P < 0.05], respectively. The total (n-6):(n-3) PUFA ratio in plasma exhibited a minor increase from 15.4 ± 2.8 to 16.6 ± 3.1 (pFDR adjusted P < 0.05). These data indicate that short-term vitamin B-6 restriction decreases plasma (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA concentrations and tends to increase the plasma (n-6):(n-3) PUFA ratio. Such changes in blood lipids may be associated with the elevated risk of cardiovascular disease in vitamin B-6 insufficiency. PMID:22955512

  15. A relationship between vitamin B sub 12 , folic acid, ascorbic acid, and mercury uptake and methylation

    SciTech Connect

    Zorn, N.E.; Smith, J.T. )

    1990-01-01

    Ingestion of megadoses of certain vitamins appears to influence the in vivo methylation of mercuric chloride in guinea pigs. The addition of megadoses of vitamin B{sub 12} fed either singularly or in combination with folic acid resulted in increased methylmercury concentrations in the liver. Moreover, percent methylmercury levels were significantly increased with B{sub 12} treatment in the liver (B{sub 12} only and B{sub 12}/folic acid) and brain (B{sub 12}/vitamin C). Incorporation of high levels of folic acid into the dietary regime also increased the methylmercury concentration particularly in the liver and hair tissues. The addition of vitamin C in the diet, particularly in combination with B{sub 12} (brain) or folic acid (muscle) resulted in increased methylmercury levels in these tissues and percent methylmercury values with B{sub 12} in the muscle and brain tissue.

  16. Treatment of vitamin D deficiency due to Crohn's disease with tanning bed ultraviolet B radiation.

    PubMed

    Koutkia, P; Lu, Z; Chen, T C; Holick, M F

    2001-12-01

    In Crohn's disease, severe skeletal demineralization, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and muscle weakness can occur. This may be caused by impaired vitamin D absorption, resulting from extensive intestinal disease and resection of duodenum and jejunum, where vitamin D is absorbed. We report a 57-year-old woman with a long history of Crohn's disease and short-bowel syndrome who had only 2 feet of small intestine remaining after 3 bowel resections. She was taking a daily multivitamin containing 400 IU of vitamin D(3) and was dependent on total parenteral nutrition that contained 200 IU of vitamin D and calcium (18 mEq in a 1-L bag infused over 8 hours daily) for a period of 36 months. Despite the above replacement, she complained of bone pain and muscle weakness, and she continued to be vitamin D-deficient with a 25(OH)D level <20 ng/mL. She was then exposed to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation in a tanning bed wearing a 1-piece bathing suit for 10 minutes, 3 times a week for 6 months at the General Clinical Research Center, Boston University Medical Center. She tolerated the irradiation well without evidence of erythema. After 4 weeks, her serum 25(OH)D level increased by 357% from 7 to 32 ng/mL, parathyroid hormone level decreased by 52% from 92 to 44 pg/mL, and the serum calcium level increased from 7.8 to 8.5 mg/dL. After 6 months of UVB treatment, her serum 25(OH)D level was maintained in the normal range and was free of muscle weakness, and bone and muscle pain. PMID:11729127

  17. Study on methane fermentation and production of vitamin B12 from alcohol waste slurry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenya; Quan, Taisheng; Li, Pomin; Zhang, Yansheng; Sugiura, Norio; Maekawa, Takaaki

    2004-01-01

    We studied biogas fermentation from alcohol waste fluid to evaluate the anaerobic digestion process and the production of vitamin B12 as a byproduct. Anaerobic digestion using acclimated methanogens was performed using the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and fixed-bed reactor packed with rock wool as carrier material at 55 degrees C. We also studied the effects of metal ions added to the culture broth on methane and vitamin B12 formation. Vitamin B12 production was 2.92 mg/L in the broth of the fixed-bed reactor, twice that of the CSTR. The optimum concentrations of trace metal ions added to the culture liquid for methane and vitamin B12 production were 1.0 and 8 mL/L for the CSTR and fixed-bed reactor, respectively. Furthermore, an effective method for extracting and purifying vitamin B12 from digested fluid was developed. PMID:15054251

  18. Vitamin D Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Alshishtawy, Moeness Moustafa

    2012-01-01

    Recently, scientists have generated a strong body of evidence providing new information about the preventive effect of vitamin D on a broad range of disorders. This evidence suggests that vitamin D is much more than a nutrient needed for bone health; it is an essential hormone required for regulation of a large number of physiological functions. Sufficient concentration of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is essential for optimising human health. This article reviews the present state-of-the-art knowledge about vitamin D’s status worldwide and refers to recent articles discussing some of the general background of vitamin D, including sources, benefits, deficiencies, and dietary requirements, especially in pregnancy. They offer evidence that vitamin D deficiency could be a major public health burden in many parts of the world, mostly because of sun deprivation. The article also discusses the debate about optimal concentration of circulating serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and explores different views on the amount of vitamin D supplementation required to achieve and maintain this concentration. PMID:22548132

  19. A relationship between vitamin B sub 12 , folate, ascorbic acid, and mercury metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Zorn, N.E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of megadoses of vitamin B{sub 12}, folate, and vitamin C on the in vivo methylation of mercuric chloride was studied in guinea pigs. The incorporation of high levels of vitamin B{sub 12}, folate, and vitamin C resulted in a decrease in both inorganic mercury and methylmercury concentrations in all tissues except the lungs and heart compared to controls. However, percent methylmercury levels tended to increase with vitamin treatment. The addition of megadoses of vitamin B{sub 12} fed either singularly or in combination with the other vitamins resulted in increased methylmercury concentrations in the liver, spleen, and kidney tissues of the guinea pig. Moreover, percent methylmercury levels increased with B{sub 12} treatment in the liver, heart, and kidney. Incorporation of high levels of folate into the dietary regime also affected the mercury methylation process particularly in the liver, heart, kidney and hair tissues. However, this effect was observed most often in animals fed both B{sub 12} and folate. Vitamin C appears to play a synergistic role with vitamin B{sub 12} and/or folate in the methylation of mercury.

  20. Genetic Variation in Vitamin B-12 Content of Bovine Milk and Its Association with SNP along the Bovine Genome

    PubMed Central

    Rutten, Marc J. M.; Bouwman, Aniek C.; Sprong, R. Corinne; van Arendonk, Johan A. M.; Visker, Marleen H. P. W.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B-12 (also called cobalamin) is essential for human health and current intake levels of vitamin B-12 are considered to be too low. Natural enrichment of the vitamin B-12 content in milk, an important dietary source of vitamin B-12, may help to increase vitamin B-12 intake. Natural enrichment of the milk vitamin B-12 content could be achieved through genetic selection, provided there is genetic variation between cows with respect to the vitamin B-12 content in their milk. A substantial amount of genetic variation in vitamin B-12 content was detected among raw milk samples of 544 first-lactation Dutch Holstein Friesian cows. The presence of genetic variation between animals in vitamin B-12 content in milk indicates that the genotype of the cow affects the amount of vitamin B-12 that ends up in her milk and, consequently, that the average milk vitamin B-12 content of the cow population can be increased by genetic selection. A genome-wide association study revealed significant association between 68 SNP and vitamin B-12 content in raw milk of 487 first-lactation Dutch Holstein Friesian cows. This knowledge facilitates genetic selection for milk vitamin B-12 content. It also contributes to the understanding of the biological mechanism responsible for the observed genetic variation in vitamin B-12 content in milk. None of the 68 significantly associated SNP were in or near known candidate genes involved in transport of vitamin B-12 through the gastrointestinal tract, uptake by ileum epithelial cells, export from ileal cells, transport through the blood, uptake from the blood, intracellular processing, or reabsorption by the kidneys. Probably, associations relate to genes involved in alternative pathways of well-studied processes or to genes involved in less well-studied processes such as ruminal production of vitamin B-12 or secretion of vitamin B-12 by the mammary gland. PMID:23626813

  1. Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia in a Turkish Cohort: Association of Vitamin B12

    PubMed Central

    Eroglu, Nilgun; Kandur, Yasar; Kalay, Salih; Kalay, Zuhal; Guney, Ozgur

    2015-01-01

    Background Deficiency of vitamin B12 (VitB12) causes failure of erytrocyte maturation leading to cell lysis. Red blood cell lysis causes excess heme production that ends with hyperbilirubinemia. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the role of VitB12 in neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (NNH) with prolonged jaundice and to compare patients with control group who did not develop hyperbilirubinemia. Methods A total of 20 patients (M/F = 13/7) with jaundice and 20 healthy controls (M/F = 11/9) were included in the study. Results The mean indirect bilirubin level of patient group was 9.91 ± 1.90 mg/dL (6.71 - 15.2 mg/dL) and control group was 3.18 ± 1.24 mg/dL (1.16 - 4.96 mg/dL). The mean VitB12 level of patient group was 119.9 ± 43.9 ng/L (42.35 - 178 ng/L) and the control group was 286.17 ± 97.43 ng/L (207.90 - 624.10 ng/L). There was a statistically significant difference in terms of VitB12 level (< 0.001) between the study groups. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study is the first study showing that low VitB12 level has been observed as a risk factor in NNH for the first time in the literature. We suggest that prophylactic use of VitB12 by pregnant women so will greatly benefit to prevent VitB12 deficiency and its complications in the first years of life such as NNH. PMID:26015822

  2. Vitamin B12 Metabolism during Pregnancy and in Embryonic Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Garcia, Maira A.; Rosenblatt, David S.; Jerome-Majewska, Loydie A.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) is required for cellular metabolism. It is an essential coenzyme in mammals for two reactions: the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by the enzyme methionine synthase and the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Symptoms of Cbl deficiency are hematological, neurological and cognitive, including megaloblastic anaemia, tingling and numbness of the extremities, gait abnormalities, visual disturbances, memory loss and dementia. During pregnancy Cbl is essential, presumably because of its role in DNA synthesis and methionine synthesis; however, there are conflicting studies regarding an association between early pregnancy loss and Cbl deficiency. We here review the literature about the requirement for Cbl during pregnancy, and summarized what is known of the expression pattern and function of genes required for Cbl metabolism in embryonic mouse models. PMID:24025485

  3. Night blindness due to vitamin A deficiency associated with copper deficiency myelopathy secondary to bowel bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Jabbar AlHassany, Ali

    2014-01-01

    We present an interesting case of combined vitamin A and copper deficiency after a history of gastric bypass surgery where symptoms improved after parenteral copper and vitamin A treatment. Gastric bypass surgery as a cause of fat soluble vitamin deficiency is generally under-reported. Copper deficiency has been reported after gastric bypass surgery. Vitamin A deficiency after gastric bypass surgery has also been reported in the literature, but the reported cases again fall below the actual figures. B12 and folate deficiencies can produce a type of myelopathy similar to that produced by copper deficiency, and differentiation on the basis of laboratory tests, neurophysiology and improvement of symptoms after replacement therapy might be the hallmark of diagnosis. Combinations of vitamin deficiencies were previously reported, but no cases of combined vitamin A and copper deficiency could be found in the literature. PMID:24781845

  4. Night blindness due to vitamin A deficiency associated with copper deficiency myelopathy secondary to bowel bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    AlHassany, Ali Abdul Jabbar

    2014-01-01

    We present an interesting case of combined vitamin A and copper deficiency after a history of gastric bypass surgery where symptoms improved after parenteral copper and vitamin A treatment. Gastric bypass surgery as a cause of fat soluble vitamin deficiency is generally under-reported. Copper deficiency has been reported after gastric bypass surgery. Vitamin A deficiency after gastric bypass surgery has also been reported in the literature, but the reported cases again fall below the actual figures. B12 and folate deficiencies can produce a type of myelopathy similar to that produced by copper deficiency, and differentiation on the basis of laboratory tests, neurophysiology and improvement of symptoms after replacement therapy might be the hallmark of diagnosis. Combinations of vitamin deficiencies were previously reported, but no cases of combined vitamin A and copper deficiency could be found in the literature. PMID:24781845

  5. Subjective well-being in older adults: folate and vitamin B12 independently predict positive affect.

    PubMed

    Edney, Laura C; Burns, Nicholas R; Danthiir, Vanessa

    2015-10-28

    Vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine have long been implicated in mental illness, and growing evidence suggests that they may play a role in positive mental health. Elucidation of these relationships is confounded due to the dependence of homocysteine on available levels of vitamin B12 and folate. Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and subjective well-being were assessed in a sample of 391 older, community-living adults without clinically diagnosed depression. Levels of vitamin B12, but not folate, influenced homocysteine levels 18 months later. Vitamin B12, folate and their interaction significantly predicted levels of positive affect (PA) 18 months later, but had no impact on the levels of negative affect or life satisfaction. Cross-sectional relationships between homocysteine and PA were completely attenuated in the longitudinal analyses, suggesting that the cross-sectional relationship is driven by the dependence of homocysteine on vitamin B12 and folate. This is the first study to offer some evidence of a causal link between levels of folate and vitamin B12 on PA in a large, non-clinical population. PMID:26346363

  6. The effects of exercise training and acute exercise duration on plasma folate and vitamin B12

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Nam; Hwang, Ji Hyeon

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Energy production and the rebuilding and repair of muscle tissue by physical activity require folate and vitamin B12 as a cofactor. Thus, this study investigated the effects of regular moderate exercise training and durations of acute aerobic exercise on plasma folate and vitamin B12 concentrations in moderate exercise trained rats. MATERIALS/METHODS Fifty rats underwent non-exercise training (NT, n = 25) and regular exercise training (ET, n = 25) for 5 weeks. The ET group performed moderate exercise on a treadmill for 30 min/day, 5 days/week. At the end of week 5, each group was subdivided into 4 groups: non-exercise and 3 exercise groups. The non-exercise group (E0) was sacrificed without exercising and the 3 exercise groups were sacrificed immediately after exercising on a treadmill for 0.5 h (E0.5), 1 h (E1), and 2 h (E2). Blood samples were collected and plasma folate and vitamin B12 were analyzed. RESULTS After exercise training, plasma folate level was significantly lower and vitamin B12 concentration was significantly higher in the ET group compared with the NT group (P < 0.05). No significant associations were observed between plasma folate and vitamin B12 concentrations. In both the NT and ET groups, plasma folate and vitamin B12 were not significantly changed by increasing duration of aerobic exercise. Plasma folate concentration of E0.5 was significantly lower in the ET group compared with that in the NT group. Significantly higher vitamin B12 concentrations were observed in the E0 and E0.5 groups of the ET group compared to those of the NT group. CONCLUSION Regular moderate exercise training decreased plasma folate and increased plasma vitamin B12 levels. However, no significant changes in plasma folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were observed by increasing duration of acute aerobic exercise. PMID:27087899

  7. Malignant catatonia in a patient with bipolar disorder, B12 deficiency, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome: one cause or three?

    PubMed

    Lewis, A Lee; Pelic, Christopher; Kahn, David A

    2009-09-01

    A Case is presented of a 23-year-old woman with progressive onset of paranoid psychosis and catatonia, who was ultimately found to have both vitamin B12 deficiency and a family history of bipolar disorder. The patient was initially diagnosed with schizophrenia and treated with the antipsychotic medication ziprasidone. Her condition rapidly worsened to a state consistent with either neuroleptic malignant syndrome or malignant catatonia. Work-up then revealed vitamin B12 deficiency and a family history of bipolar disorder. Her symptoms improved rapidly but partially with benzodiazepines and electrocon-vulsive therapy, and completely with addition of valproic acid, vitamin B12 replacement, and re-introduction of antipsychotic medication in the form of olanzapine. The authors discuss the differential diagnosis of catatonia as reflecting a high likelihood of underlying mood disorder; the evaluation and management of malignant catatonia and malignant neuroleptic syndrome; and the role of vitamin B12 deficiency in precipitating psychotic symptoms. The case also illustrates the problems of diagnosing and managing a multifactorial disorder with psychiatric, general medical, and perhaps iatrogenic components. PMID:19820558

  8. Bacterial vitamin B2, B11 and B12 overproduction: An overview.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Catherine M; Smid, Eddy J; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2009-07-31

    Consumers are becoming increasingly health conscious and therefore more discerning in their food choices. The production of fermented food products with elevated levels of B-vitamins increase both their commercial and nutritional value, and eliminate the need for subsequent fortification with these essential vitamins. Such novel products could reduce the incidence of inadequate vitamin intake which is common in many parts of the world, not only in developing countries, but also in many industrialised countries. Moreover, the concept of in situ fortification by bacterial fermentation opens the way for development of food products targeted at specific groups in society such as the elderly and adolescents. This review looks at how vitamin overproduction strategies have been developed, some of which have successfully been tested in animal models. Such innovative strategies could be relatively easily adapted by the food industry to develop novel vitamin-enhanced functional foods with enhanced consumer appeal. PMID:19467724

  9. Deficiency of PdxR in Streptococcus mutans affects vitamin B6 metabolism, acid tolerance response and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Liao, S; Bitoun, J P; Nguyen, A H; Bozner, D; Yao, X; Wen, Z T

    2015-08-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a key etiological agent of the human dental caries, lives primarily on the tooth surface in tenacious biofilms. The SMU864 locus, designated pdxR, is predicted to encode a member of the novel MocR/GabR family proteins, which are featured with a winged helix DNA-binding N-terminal domain and a C-terminal domain highly homologous to the pyridoxal phosphate-dependent aspartate aminotransferases. A pdxR-deficient mutant, TW296, was constructed using allelic exchange. PdxR deficiency in S. mutans had little effect on cell morphology and growth when grown in brain heart infusion. However, when compared with its parent strain, UA159, the PdxR-deficient mutant displayed major defects in acid tolerance response and formed significantly fewer biofilms (P < 0.01). When analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction, PdxR deficiency was found to drastically reduce expression of an apparent operon encoding a pyridoxal kinase (SMU865) and a pyridoxal permease (SMU866) of the salvage pathway of vitamin B6 biosynthesis. In addition, PdxR deficiency also altered the expression of genes for ClpL protease, glucosyltransferase B and adhesin SpaP, which are known to play important roles in stress tolerance and biofilm formation. Consistently, PdxR-deficiency affected the growth of the deficient mutant when grown in defined medium with and without vitamin B6 . Further studies revealed that although S. mutans is known to require vitamin B6 to grow in defined medium, B6 vitamers, especially pyridoxal, were strongly inhibitory at millimolar concentrations, against S. mutans growth and biofilm formation. Our results suggest that PdxR in S. mutans plays an important role in regulation of vitamin B6 metabolism, acid tolerance response and biofilm formation. PMID:25421565

  10. Biochemical and Hematologic Manifestations of Gastric Intrinsic Factor (GIF) Deficiency: A Treatable Cause of B12 Deficiency in the Old Order Mennonite Population of Southwestern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Ferrand, A; Siu, V M; Rupar, C A; Napier, M P; Al-Dirbashi, O Y; Chakraborty, P; Prasad, C

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic factor deficiency (OMIM #261000, IFD) is a rare inherited disorder of vitamin B12 metabolism due to mutations in the gastric intrinsic factor (GIF) gene.We report three individuals from an Old Order Mennonite community who presented with B12 deficiency. Two cases are siblings born to consanguineous parents and the third case is not known to be closely related. The older male sib presented at 4 years with gastrointestinal symptoms, listlessness, and pallor. He had pancytopenia with megaloblastic anemia. Serum B12 was 61 (198-615 pmol/L). Methylmalonic aciduria was present. C3 was elevated on acylcarnitine profile. Homocysteine was high at 16.7 (5.0-12.0 umol/L). His asymptomatic female sibling was also found to have B12 deficiency. Genetic testing for methylmalonic aciduria (MMAA), transcobalamin deficiency (TCN2), and Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (AMN) showed no mutation in both siblings. The third patient, a 34-year-old woman, had presented in infancy with a diagnosis of pernicious anemia. Mutation analysis of GIF revealed compound heterozygosity for a c.79+1G>A substitution and a c.973delG deletion in all three individuals. Oral or parenteral vitamin B12 has led to complete recovery of clinical parameters and vitamin B12 levels. Newborn screening samples on the siblings revealed normal methylcitrate, C3, and C3/C2 ratios thus indicating no disruption of propionic or methylmalonic acid metabolism.A high index of suspicion should be maintained if children present with megaloblastic anemia since GIF deficiency is a treatable disorder and newborn screening may not be able to detect this condition. PMID:25308559

  11. HETEROGENEITY AND LACK OF GOOD QUALITY STUDIES LIMIT ASSOCIATION BETWEEN FOLATE, VITAMIN B-6 AND B-12, AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite their important role in cognitive function, the value of B vitamin supplementation is unknown. A systematic review of the effect of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation on cognitive function was performed. Literature search conducted in MEDLINE with supplemental articles from rev...

  12. VITAMIN B6, B12 AND FOLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF RANDOMIZED TRIALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite their important role in cognitive function, the value of B vitamin supplementation is unknown. A systematic review of the effect of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation on cognitive function was performed. Literature search conducted in MEDLINE with supplemental articles from re...

  13. Vitamin B12-dependent propionate production by the ruminal bacterium Prevotella ruminicola 23.

    PubMed

    Strobel, H J

    1992-07-01

    When Prevotella ruminicola 23 was grown in a defined medium containing a vitamin mixture, significant amounts of propionate were formed. Succinate and acetate were the major fermentation acids produced when vitamins were omitted, and further experiments demonstrated that propionate formation was dependent on vitamin B12. When the organism was grown in continuous culture at dilution rates of less than 0.20 h-1, propionate and acetate were the predominant fermentation products and little succinate was formed when vitamin B12 was present. However, at higher dilution rates, propionate formation declined and succinate accumulated. Since cell protein yields were reduced 15 to 25% in the absence of vitamin B12, the pathway for propionate formation may contain an energy-conserving step. PMID:1637169

  14. Vitamin B supplementation for diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Jayabalan, Bhavani; Low, Lian Leng

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with significant neurological pathology, especially peripheral neuropathy. This review aims to examine the existing evidence on the effectiveness of vitamin B12 supplementation for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. A search of PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for all relevant randomised controlled trials was conducted in December 2014. Any type of therapy using vitamin B12 or its coenzyme forms was assessed for efficacy and safety in diabetics with peripheral neuropathy. Changes in vibration perception thresholds, neuropathic symptoms and nerve conduction velocities, as well as the adverse effects of vitamin B12 therapy, were assessed. Four studies comprising 363 patients met the inclusion criteria. This review found no evidence that the use of oral vitamin B12 supplements is associated with improvement in the clinical symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. Furthermore, the majority of studies reported no improvement in the electrophysiological markers of nerve conduction. PMID:26892473

  15. Increases in Plasma Holotranscobalamin Can Be Used to Assess Vitamin B-12 Absorption in Individuals with Low Plasma Vitamin B-12123

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Dattatray S.; Thuse, Nileema V.; Lubree, Himangi G.; Joglekar, Charudatta V.; Naik, Sadanand S.; Ramdas, Lalita V.; Johnston, Carole; Refsum, Helga; Fall, Caroline H.; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.

    2012-01-01

    Low plasma concentrations of vitamin B-12 are common in Indians, possibly due to low dietary intakes of animal-source foods. Weather malabosrption of the vitamin contributes to this has not been investigated. A rise in plasma holotranscobalamin (holo-TC) concentration after a standard dose of oral vitamin B-12 has been proposed as a measure of gastrointestinal absorption in people with normal plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations. We studied 313 individuals (children and parents, 109 families) in the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study. They received 3 doses of 10 μg (n=191) or 2 μg (n=122) of cyanocobalamin at 6 h intervals. A rise in plasma holo-TC of ≥15% and >15 pmol/L above baseline was considered normal vitamin B-12 absorption. The baseline plasma vitamin B-12 was <150 pmol/L in 48% of participants; holo-TC was <35 pmol/L in 98%, and total homocysteine was high in 50% (>10 μmol/L in children and >15 μmol/L in adults). In 10 μg group plasma holo-TC concentration increased by 4.8 -fold from (mean ± SD) 9.3 ± 7.0 pmol/L to 53.8 ± 25.9 pmol/L, and in 2 μg group by 2.2 -fold from 11.1 ± 8.5 pmol/L to 35.7 ± 19.3 pmol/L. Only 10% of participants, mostly fathers, had an increase less than the suggested cut-points. Our results suggest that an increase in plasma holo-TC may be used to assess vitamin B-12 absorption in individuals with low vitamin B-12 status. Because malabsorption is unlikely to be a major reason for the low plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations in this population, increasing dietary vitamin B-12 should improve their status. PMID:19776185

  16. Single versus multiple deficiencies of methionine, zinc, riboflavin, vitamin B-6 and choline elicit surprising growth responses in young chicks.

    PubMed

    Baker, D H; Edwards, H M; Strunk, C S; Emmert, J L; Peter, C M; Mavromichalis, I; Parr, T M

    1999-12-01

    A soy-protein isolate diet that was deficient in methionine (Met), zinc (Zn), riboflavin, vitamin B-6 and choline for chick growth (Assay 1) was used to study individual or multiple deficiencies of several of these nutrients. In all cases, adding all three deficient nutrients together resulted in growth responses that were superior to those resulting from supplementation with any pairs of deficient nutrients. In Assay 2, single addition of Zn but not of methionine or riboflavin produced a growth response, but the combination of either Zn and Met or Zn and riboflavin resulted in growth responses that were greater than the response elicited by Zn alone. Assay 3 involved individual or multiple deficiencies of choline, riboflavin and vitamin B-6, and individual additions suggested that choline was first limiting. Choline + riboflavin supplementation, however, produced marked growth and gain:food responses that were far greater than those resulting from supplemental choline or riboflavin alone. Moreover, the growth response to a combination of choline + pyridoxine (PN) was also greater than that obtained from any of the three nutrients fed alone; even PN + riboflavin (in the absence of choline) produced responses greater than those observed with the unsupplemented negative-control diet. In Assay 4, chicks responded to individual additions of riboflavin, PN or Met, and in Assay 5, to either riboflavin or PN; all two-way combinations resulted in growth rates that were far greater than those occurring with any single addition. The data from these experiments show that unlike the situation with three deficient amino acids, the expected responses to first-, second- and third-limiting B-vitamins or deficient vitamins combined with deficient levels of Zn or Met do not follow the expected pattern of response to first-, further response to first- and second- and an even further response to first-, second- and third-limiting nutrients. PMID:10573557

  17. Serum folate, vitamin B-12 and cognitive function in middle and older age: The HAPIEE study

    PubMed Central

    Horvat, Pia; Gardiner, Julian; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Schöttker, Ben; Pikhart, Hynek; Peasey, Anne; Jansen, Eugene; Bobak, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Nutrient status of B vitamins, particularly folate and vitamin B-12, may be related to cognitive ageing but epidemiological evidence remains inconclusive. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the association of serum folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations with cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults from three Central and Eastern European populations. Methods Men and women aged 45–69 at baseline participating in the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study were recruited in Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania) and six urban centres in the Czech Republic. Tests of immediate and delayed recall, verbal fluency and letter search were administered at baseline and repeated in 2006–2008. Serum concentrations of biomarkers at baseline were measured in a sub-sample of participants. Associations of vitamin quartiles with baseline (n = 4166) and follow-up (n = 2739) cognitive domain-specific z-scores were estimated using multiple linear regression. Results After adjusting for confounders, folate was positively associated with letter search and vitamin B-12 with word recall in cross-sectional analyses. In prospective analyses, participants in the highest quartile of folate had higher verbal fluency (p < 0.01) and immediate recall (p < 0.05) scores compared to those in the bottom quartile. In addition, participants in the highest quartile of vitamin B-12 had significantly higher verbal fluency scores (β = 0.12; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.21). Conclusions Folate and vitamin B-12 were positively associated with performance in some but not all cognitive domains in older Central and Eastern Europeans. These findings do not lend unequivocal support to potential importance of folate and vitamin B-12 status for cognitive function in older age. Long-term longitudinal studies and randomised trials are required before drawing conclusions on the role of these vitamins in cognitive decline. PMID:26808046

  18. Improved large-scale production of vitamin B12 by Pseudomonas denitrificans with betaine feeding.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun-Tai; Liu, Dong-Hong; Li, Yong-Liang; Chu, Ju; Wang, Yong-Hong; Zhuang, Ying-Ping; Zhang, Si-Liang

    2008-11-01

    The strategy of betaine control for vitamin B12 large-scale fermentation by Pseudomonas denitrificans was investigated in this paper. The results obtained in shake-flask experiments demonstrated that betaine could greatly stimulate vitamin B12 biosynthesis but had an inhibition to cell growth. Based on the influence of betaine on the fermentation of P. denitrificans, betaine feeding was a beneficial strategy to solve the inconsistency between cell growth and vitamin B12 production. As a result, an effective and economical strategy of betaine feeding was established for vitamin B12 fermentation in 120-m3 fermenter, in which betaine was continuously fed to maintain betaine concentration of the broth at the range of 5-7g/l during 50-140h of fermentation. PMID:18440227

  19. Fermentable dietary fibers elevate urinary methylmalonate and decrease propionate oxidation in rats deprived of vitamin B-12.

    PubMed

    Cullen, R W; Oace, S M

    1989-08-01

    This study examines the effect of dietary fiber supplements of different degrees of bacterial fermentability on biochemical indicators of vitamin B-12 deficiency in rats. Groups of rats were fed a fiber-free diet deficient in vitamin B-12 or the fiber-free diet diluted with 5% of a poorly fermentable dietary fiber (cellulose, lignin or alginic acid) or a highly fermentable fiber (pectin, guar gum or xylan). Poorly fermentable fibers had no significant effect on apparent B-12 status, whereas the highly fermentable fibers significantly increased urinary methylmalonic acid and depressed oxidation of [14C]propionate to 14CO2. Pectin consistently induced significantly greater effects than did xylan or guar gum. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that fermentable fibers stimulate bacterial propionate production and exaggerate certain biochemical indicators of B-12 deficiency. Since pectin had a more pronounced effect than did other fermentable fibers, the possibility that pectin may also interfere with B-12 absorption requires further study. PMID:2550598

  20. Effects of 12-month, 2000IU/day vitamin D supplementation on treatment naïve and vitamin D deficient Saudi type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shahwan, May A.; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz M.; Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Sabico, Shaun B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether 12-month, 2000IU/day vitamin D supplementation cardiometabolically improves treatment naïve type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) Saudi patients with vitamin D deficiency. Methods: This 12-month interventional study was conducted at primary health centers in 5 different residential areas in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between January 2013 and January 2014. Forty-five Saudi T2DM patients were enrolled. Baseline anthropometrics, glycemic, and lipid profiles were measured and repeated after 6 and 12 months. All subjects were provided with 2000IU vitamin D supplements for one year. Results: Vitamin D deficiency at baseline was 46.7%, 31.8% after 6 months, and 35.6% after 12 months, indicating an overall improvement in the vitamin D status in the entire cohort. Insulin and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) after 12 months were significantly lower than a 6 months (p<0.05), but comparable to baseline values. Mean levels of triglycerides increased overtime from baseline (1.9±0.01 mmol/l) to 12 months (2.1±0.2 mmol). This modest increase in serum triglycerides was parallel to the insignificant decrease in circulating high-density lipoprotein -cholesterol levels. Conclusion: Twelve-month vitamin D supplementation of 2000IU per day in a cohort of treatment naïve Saudi patients with T2DM resulted in improvement of several cardiometabolic parameters including systolic blood pressure, insulin, and HOMA-IR. Further studies that include a placebo group are suggested to reinforce findings. PMID:26620985

  1. Vitamin B12 modulates the transcriptome of the skin microbiota in acne pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dezhi; Shi, Baochen; Erfe, Marie C; Craft, Noah; Li, Huiying

    2015-06-24

    Various diseases have been linked to the human microbiota, but the underlying molecular mechanisms of the microbiota in disease pathogenesis are often poorly understood. Using acne as a disease model, we aimed to understand the molecular response of the skin microbiota to host metabolite signaling in disease pathogenesis. Metatranscriptomic analysis revealed that the transcriptional profiles of the skin microbiota separated acne patients from healthy individuals. The vitamin B12 biosynthesis pathway in the skin bacterium Propionibacterium acnes was significantly down-regulated in acne patients. We hypothesized that host vitamin B12 modulates the activities of the skin microbiota and contributes to acne pathogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the skin microbiota in healthy subjects supplemented with vitamin B12. We found that the supplementation repressed the expression of vitamin B12 biosynthesis genes in P. acnes and altered the transcriptome of the skin microbiota. One of the 10 subjects studied developed acne 1 week after vitamin B12 supplementation. To further understand the molecular mechanism, we revealed that vitamin B12 supplementation in P. acnes cultures promoted the production of porphyrins, which have been shown to induce inflammation in acne. Our findings suggest a new bacterial pathogenesis pathway in acne and provide one molecular explanation for the long-standing clinical observation that vitamin B12 supplementation leads to acne development in a subset of individuals. Our study discovered that vitamin B12, an essential nutrient in humans, modulates the transcriptional activities of skin bacteria, and provided evidence that metabolite-mediated interactions between the host and the skin microbiota play essential roles in disease development. PMID:26109103

  2. Effect of a Klamath algae product ("AFA-B12") on blood levels of vitamin B12 and homocysteine in vegan subjects: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Luciana; Scoglio, Stefano; Benedetti, Serena; Bonetto, Chiara; Pagliarani, Silvia; Benedetti, Yanina; Rocchi, Marco; Canestrari, Franco

    2009-03-01

    Vitamin B12 is a critical nutrient that is often inadequate in a plant-based (vegan) diet, thus the inclusion of a reliable vitamin B12 source in a vegan diet is recommended as essential. Unfortunately, many natural sources of vitamin B12 have been proven to contain biologically inactive vitamin B12 analogues, inadequate for human supplementation. The aim of this non-randomized open trial was to determine whether supplementation with a natural Klamath algae-based product ("AFA-B12", Aphanizomenon flos-aquae algae plus a proprietary mix of enzymes) could favorably affect the vitamin B12 status of a group of 15 vegan subjects. By assessing blood concentration of vitamin B12, folate, and more importantly homocysteine (Hcy, a reliable marker in vegans of their B12 absorption), the vitamin B12 status of the participants at the end of the 3-month intervention period, while receiving the Klamath-algae supplement (T2), was compared with their vitamin B12 status at the end of the 3-month control period (T1), when they were not receiving any supplement, having stopped taking their usual vitamin B12 supplement at the beginning of the study (T0). Compared to the control period, in the intervention period participants improved their vitamin B12 status, significantly reducing Hcy blood concentration (p=0.003). In conclusion, the Klamath algae product AFA-B12 appears to be, in a preliminary study, an adequate and reliable source of vitamin B12 in humans. PMID:20108213

  3. B-vitamin deficiency is protective against DSS-induced colitis in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin deficiencies are common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Homocysteine (Hcys) is a thrombogenic amino acid produced from methionine (Met) and its increase in IBD patients indicates a disruption of Met metabolism, yet the role of Hcys and Met metabolism in IBD is not well und...

  4. Associations between Vitamin B-12 Status and Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Diabetic Vegetarians and Omnivores.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yau-Jiunn; Wang, Ming-Yang; Lin, Mon-Chiou; Lin, Ping-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is considered an oxidative stress and a chronic inflammatory disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlations between vitamin B-12 status and oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic vegetarians and omnivores. We enrolled 154 patients with type 2 diabetes (54 vegetarians and 100 omnivores). Levels of fasting glucose, glycohemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profiles, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes activity, and inflammatory makers were measured. Diabetic vegetarians with higher levels of vitamin B-12 (>250 pmol/L) had significantly lower levels of fasting glucose, HbA1c and higher antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase) than those with lower levels of vitamin B-12 (≤250 pmol/L). A significant association was found between vitamin B-12 status and fasting glucose (r = -0.17, p = 0.03), HbA1c (r = -0.33, p = 0.02), oxidative stress (oxidized low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, r = -0.19, p = 0.03), and antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase, r = 0.28, p = 0.01) in the diabetic vegetarians; vitamin B-12 status was significantly correlated with inflammatory markers (interleukin-6, r = -0.33, p < 0.01) in diabetic omnivores. As a result, we suggest that it is necessary to monitor the levels of vitamin B-12 in patients with diabetes, particularly those adhering to a vegetarian diet. PMID:26927168

  5. Associations between Vitamin B-12 Status and Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Diabetic Vegetarians and Omnivores

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yau-Jiunn; Wang, Ming-Yang; Lin, Mon-Chiou; Lin, Ping-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is considered an oxidative stress and a chronic inflammatory disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlations between vitamin B-12 status and oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic vegetarians and omnivores. We enrolled 154 patients with type 2 diabetes (54 vegetarians and 100 omnivores). Levels of fasting glucose, glycohemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profiles, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes activity, and inflammatory makers were measured. Diabetic vegetarians with higher levels of vitamin B-12 (>250 pmol/L) had significantly lower levels of fasting glucose, HbA1c and higher antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase) than those with lower levels of vitamin B-12 (≤250 pmol/L). A significant association was found between vitamin B-12 status and fasting glucose (r = −0.17, p = 0.03), HbA1c (r = −0.33, p = 0.02), oxidative stress (oxidized low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, r = −0.19, p = 0.03), and antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase, r = 0.28, p = 0.01) in the diabetic vegetarians; vitamin B-12 status was significantly correlated with inflammatory markers (interleukin-6, r = −0.33, p < 0.01) in diabetic omnivores. As a result, we suggest that it is necessary to monitor the levels of vitamin B-12 in patients with diabetes, particularly those adhering to a vegetarian diet. PMID:26927168

  6. Investigation on the growth of coprophagy-prevented rats with supplemented vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Sukemori, S; Kurosawa, A; Ikeda, S; Kurihara, Y

    2006-10-01

    The growth of coprophagy-prevented rats was compared under administration of normal levels of vitamin B12 and supplemented amounts. Two experiments in which supplemented amounts of vitamin B12 were administered were conducted under different conditions. Six rats per group were fed under coprophagy-allowed (conventional feeding) and coprophagy-prevented conditions respectively. In the first experiment, coprophagy-prevented rats were fed only feed containing recommended vitamin B12 level and forced fed hydrous faeces, vitamin B12 and folic acid respectively. In the second experiment, coprophagy-prevented rats were fed AIN-93G at the recommended vitamin B12 level (25 microg/kg diet), at 100 times the level and at 1000 times the level respectively. Body weight, feed consumption and amounts of each faeces type were determined in both experiments. In a comparison of body weight gain, we learned that coprophagy prevention reduced the values, but that there was no significant difference in the forced feeding group in the first experiment. Similar results were recognized in the second experiment. Vitamin B12 supplementation was not able to raise feed intake significantly and hence it obviously was not a severely limiting factor under the respective experimental condition which depressed feed intake. PMID:16958797

  7. Vitamin B12 absorption capacity in healthy children

    SciTech Connect

    Hjelt, K.; Krasilnikoff, P.A.

    1986-03-01

    B12 absorption was investigated in 47 healthy children aged 7 months to 15.8 years (median 4.9 years). The patients had either recovered from giardiasis, the post-gastroenteritis syndrome, or had celiac disease in remission (treated with a gluten-free diet). The B12 absorption was measured by a double-isotope technique using /sup 57/CoB12 and /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/, the latter being the inabsorbable marker. The radiation dose was minimal. The results were presented as fractional absorption of B12 (FAB12). Within the different age groups, the absorption test was performed by means of the following oral amounts of B12: 0- less than 1 year, 0.5 microgram; 1-3 years: 1.7 micrograms, 4-6 years, 2.5 micrograms; 7-10 years; 3.3 micrograms; and 11-15 years, 4.5 micrograms. When using these oral amounts of B12, the medians (and ranges) of FAB12 were found to be: 1-3 years (n = 18), 37% (16-80%); 4-6 years (n = 10), 27% (19-40%); 7-10 years (n = 9), 32% (21-44%); and 11-15 years (n = 8), 27% (19-59%). The FAB12 in two children aged 7 and 11 months was 31% and 32%, respectively. These results may be interpretated as reference values for B12 absorption in children. Further absorption tests were performed in seven children representing the four age groups from 1 to 15 years. When a high oral amount of B12 was given (i.e., three times the saturation dose), the FAB12 ranged from 0 to 20% (median 9%), whereas a low amount (i.e., one-ninth of the saturation dose) produced fractional absorptions from 65 to 82% (median 74%).

  8. FRACTION OF TOTAL PLASMA VITAMIN B12 BOUND TO TRANSCOBALAMIN CORRELATES WITH COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN ELDERLY LATINOS WITH DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The fraction of total plasma vitamin B12 bound to transcobalamin (holoTC/B12 ratio) may reflect tissue levels of the vitamin, but its clinical relevance is unclear. Methods: associations between cognitive function and total B12, holoTC, and holoTC/B12 ratio were assessed in a cohort of ...

  9. Genetic Associations with Plasma B12, B6, and Folate Levels in an Ischemic Stroke Population from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Keene, Keith L.; Chen, Wei-Min; Chen, Fang; Williams, Stephen R.; Elkhatib, Stacey D.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Pugh, Elizabeth W.; Ling, Hua; Laurie, Cathy C.; Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Madden, Ebony B.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Sale, Michele M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: B vitamins play an important role in homocysteine metabolism, with vitamin deficiencies resulting in increased levels of homocysteine and increased risk for stroke. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 2,100 stroke patients from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) trial, a clinical trial designed to determine whether the daily intake of high-dose folic acid, vitamins B6, and B12 reduce recurrent cerebral infarction. Methods: Extensive quality control (QC) measures resulted in a total of 737,081 SNPs for analysis. Genome-wide association analyses for baseline quantitative measures of folate, Vitamins B12, and B6 were completed using linear regression approaches, implemented in PLINK. Results: Six associations met or exceeded genome-wide significance (P ≤ 5 × 10−08). For baseline Vitamin B12, the strongest association was observed with a non-synonymous SNP (nsSNP) located in the CUBN gene (P = 1.76 × 10−13). Two additional CUBN intronic SNPs demonstrated strong associations with B12 (P = 2.92 × 10−10 and 4.11 × 10−10), while a second nsSNP, located in the TCN1 gene, also reached genome-wide significance (P = 5.14 × 10−11). For baseline measures of Vitamin B6, we identified genome-wide significant associations for SNPs at the ALPL locus (rs1697421; P = 7.06 × 10−10 and rs1780316; P = 2.25 × 10−08). In addition to the six genome-wide significant associations, nine SNPs (two for Vitamin B6, six for Vitamin B12, and one for folate measures) provided suggestive evidence for association (P ≤ 10−07). Conclusion: Our GWAS study has identified six genome-wide significant associations, nine suggestive associations, and successfully replicated 5 of 16 SNPs previously reported to be associated with measures of B vitamins. The six genome-wide significant associations are located in gene regions that have shown previous associations with measures of B vitamins; however, four of the nine suggestive associations represent novel finding and warrant further investigation in additional populations. PMID:25147783

  10. Vitamin B(12) Immunoassay on Roche Elecsys 2010: Effects of High Excess Concentration of Serum Vitamin B(12) in CKD Patients on Parenteral Administration.

    PubMed

    Basu, Surupa; Chaudhuri, Subimal

    2011-10-01

    Vitamin B(12) being water soluble is excreted in the urine when administered in excess. The probability of finding an abnormally excess serum concentration would be almost surreal. We report a peculiar clinical situation that may impact the vitamin B(12) immunoassay on the Roche Elecsys 2010 due to excess analyte concentration. In separate episodes (Feb and June 2010), the Biochemistry laboratory of a tertiary-care hospital, Kolkata, India, encountered two critically ill patients with background chronic kidney disease (CKD), low urine output, and on cyanocoabalamin supplementation, who had serum vitamin B(12) concentrations far exceeding expected values; even post dialysis. The B(12) assays (pmol/l) were performed using electrochemiluminiscence immunoassay on Roche Elecsys 2010, the assay validity confirmed by concomitant quality control runs. The immunoassays failed to deliver results, flagged with "signal level below limit". Biotin therapy was ruled out as a possible interferent. In the first episode, re-assay of a repeat draw yielded same outcome; outsourcing on Immulite provided concentration of >738 pmol/l. Serial dilution gave result of >29520 pmol/l on Elecsys 2010. In the second, we gained from past experience. Vitamin B(12) concentration >59040 pmol/l was conveyed to the treating nephrologist the very day. The B(12) immunoassay on the Elecsys 2010 employs sequential incubation steps for competitive binding that is compromised in the event of abnormally excess B(12) concentration in patient sera akin to the prozone effect. This knowledge may be beneficial while assaying sera of CKD patients to avoid financial loss due unnecessary repeats and delay in turnaround time. PMID:23024480

  11. Association between vitamin b12 levels and melancholic depressive symptoms: a Finnish population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An association between vitamin B12 levels and depressive symptoms (DS) has been reported in several epidemiological studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate vitamin B12 levels in population-based samples with melancholic or non-melancholic DS as the relationship between vitamin B12 levels and different subtypes of DS has not been evaluated in previous studies. Methods Subjects without previously known type 2 diabetes, aged 45–74 years were randomly selected from the National Population Register as a part of the Finnish diabetes prevention programme (FIN-D2D). The study population (N = 2806, participation rate 62%) consisted of 1328 men and 1478 women. The health examinations were carried out between October and December 2007 according to the WHO MONICA protocol. The assessment of DS was based on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, cut-off ≥10 points). A DSM-IV- criteria based summary score of melancholic items in the BDI was used in dividing the participants with DS (N = 429) into melancholic (N = 138) and non-melancholic DS (N = 291) subgroups. In the statistical analysis we used chi-squared test, t-test, permutation test, analysis of covariance, multivariate logistic regression analysis and multinomial regression model. Results The mean vitamin B12 level was 331±176 pmol/L in those without DS while the subjects with non-melancholic DS had a mean vitamin B12 level of 324 ± 135 pmol/L, and those with melancholic DS had the lowest mean vitamin B12 level of 292±112 pmol/L (p < 0.001 after adjusted for age, sex, use of antidepressive medication and chronic diseases sum index). The adjusted difference of vitamin B12 levels between the non-melancholic and the melancholic group was 33 pmol/L (95%CI 8 to 57, p = 0.008). Melancholic DS and vitamin B12 levels showed an independent linearly inverse association. The relative risk ratio (RRR) for melancholic DS was 2.75 (95%CI 1.66 to 4.56) in the lowest vitamin B12 level tertile versus the highest (p for linearity <0.001) when those without DS formed the reference group. The RRR in the non-melancholic subgroup was nonsignificant. Conclusions The vitamin B12 level was associated with melancholic DS but not with non-melancholic DS. PMID:23705786

  12. Enhancing vitamin B12 content in soy-yogurt by Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qing; Zhang, Chen; Song, Dafeng; Li, Ping; Zhu, Xuan

    2015-08-01

    More attention from the aged and vegetarians has been paid to soy-product due to its taste, easy digestibility, as well as the association with health. However, soy-product has a defect of low vitamin content, mainly the water-soluble vitamin B12. This study was to investigate co-fermentation of glycerol and fructose in soy-yogurt to enhance vitamin B12 production by Lactobacillus reuteri. After a serial combination experiments, the co-fermentation was confirmed to enhance the production of vitamin B12 up to 18 μg/100mL. Both supplementations induced the expression of cobT and cbiA and functioned to balance the redox reaction. Meanwhile, high content of fructose supplementation reduced the production of vitamin B12 and suppressed expression of cobT in bacteria. It was proved that the vitamin B12 content of this soy-yogurt is higher than other fermented soybean based food and thus can be served as an alternative food for the aged and vegetarians. PMID:25955289

  13. Anchoring Secreted Proteins in Endoplasmic Reticulum by Plant Oleosin: The Example of Vitamin B12 Cellular Sequestration by Transcobalamin

    PubMed Central

    Alberto, Jean-Marc; Arango-Rodriguez, Martha Ligia; Dumas, Dominique; Martinez-Fong, Daniel; Freund, Jean-Noel; Gueant, Jean-Louis

    2009-01-01

    Background Oleosin is a plant protein localized to lipid droplets and endoplasmic reticulum of plant cells. Our idea was to use it to target functional secretory proteins of interest to the cytosolic side of the endoplasmic reticulum of mammalian cells, through expressing oleosin-containing chimeras. We have designed this approach to create cellular models deficient in vitamin B12 (cobalamin) because of the known problematics associated to the obtainment of effective vitamin B12 deficient cell models. This was achieved by the overexpression of transcobalamin inside cells through anchoring to oleosin. Methodology chimera gene constructs including transcobalamin-oleosin (TC-O), green fluorescent protein-transcobalamin-oleosin (GFP-TC-O) and oleosin-transcobalamin (O-TC) were inserted into pAcSG2 and pCDNA3 vectors for expression in sf9 insect cells, Caco2 (colon carcinoma), NIE-115 (mouse neuroblastoma), HEK (human embryonic kidney), COS-7 (Green Monkey SV40-transfected kidney fibroblasts) and CHO (Chinese hamster ovary cells). The subcellular localization, the changes in vitamin B12 binding activity and the metabolic consequences were investigated in both Caco2 and NIE-115 cells. Principal findings vitamin B12 binding was dramatically higher in TC-O than that in O-TC and wild type (WT). The expression of GFP-TC-O was observed in all cell lines and found to be co-localized with an ER-targeted red fluorescent protein and calreticulin of the endoplasmic reticulum in Caco2 and COS-7 cells. The overexpression of TC-O led to B12 deficiency, evidenced by impaired conversion of cyano-cobalamin to ado-cobalamin and methyl-cobalamin, decreased methionine synthase activity and reduced S-adenosyl methionine to S-adenosyl homocysteine ratio, as well as increases in homocysteine and methylmalonic acid concentration. Conclusions/Significance the heterologous expression of TC-O in mammalian cells can be used as an effective strategy for investigating the cellular consequences of vitamin B12 deficiency. More generally, expression of oleosin-anchored proteins could be an interesting tool in cell engineering for studying proteins of pharmacological interest. PMID:19623264

  14. Vitamin B12 Status in Children with Cystic Fibrosis and Pancreatic Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Maqbool, Asim; Schall, Joan I.; Mascarenhas, Maria R.; Dougherty, Kelly A.; Stallings, Virginia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Unexpectedly high serum B12 concentrations were noted in most study subjects with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) participating in a nutrition intervention at the baseline evaluation. The objectives of this study were to determine dietary, supplement-based and enzyme-based B12 intake, serum B12 concentrations, and predictors of vitamin B12 status in children with CF and PI. Study Design Serum B12 status was assessed in subjects (5-18 yrs) and categorized as elevated (Hi-B12) or within reference range (RR-B12) for age and sex. Serum homocysteine, plasma B6, red blood cell folate, height, weight, and body mass index Z scores, pulmonary function, energy, dietary and supplement-based vitamin intake were assessed. Results 106 subjects, mean age 10.4 ± 3.0 years participated. Median serum B12 was 1083 pg/ml, with 56% in the Hi-B12 group. Dietary and supplement-based B12 intake were both high representing 376% and 667% Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). The Hi-B12 group had significantly greater supplement-based B12 intake than the RR-B12 group (1000 vs. 583% RDA, p<0.001). By multiple logistic regression analysis, high supplement-based B12 intake and age >12 years increased risk for Hi-B12, while higher FEV1 decreased risk (Pseudo-R2=0.18, P<0.001). Conclusions Serum B12 was elevated in the majority of children with CF and PI. Supplement-based B12 intake was 6 to 10 times the RDA, and strongly predicted elevated serum B12 status. The health consequences of lifelong high supplement-based B12 intake and high serum B12 are unknown and require further study, as does the inversed correlation between serum B12 and FEV1. PMID:24445504

  15. The influence of vitamin B12 supplementation on the level of white blood cells and lymphocytes phenotype in rats fed a low-protein diet

    PubMed Central

    Lewicka, Aneta; Kalicki, Bolesław; Kłos, Anna; Bertrandt, Jerzy; Zdanowski, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Protein malnutrition has a negative effect on body composition and some blood parameters, especially in the young growing organism. One of nutritional factors which could protect against negative consequences of protein deficiency may be B group vitamins. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of vitamin B12 supplementation on the immune system in rats fed a standard and a low-protein diet. Rats were fed a control (20% of energy from protein) or a protein-deficient diet (4.5% of energy from protein). Half of animals in each group were additionally supplemented with vitamin B12 (300% of the daily intake). The white blood cells analysis and lymphocytes immunophenotyping (number and percentage) were performed. Low-protein diets caused disturbances in WBC and lymphocyte subpopulations in both short- (30-day) as well as long-term periods (90-day). Vitamin B12 supplementation significantly reduced the negative impact of protein malnutrition after 30 days, however had no effect on long-term malnutrition. Furthermore, vitamin B12 addition in rats fed a control diet did not affect the studied parameters. This observation opens the promise of use of vitamin B12 supplementation to improve immune system parameters in protein malnourished organisms. PMID:26155157

  16. Vitamin B12-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles as a drug carrier in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Genç, Lütfi; Kutlu, H Mehtap; Güney, Gamze

    2015-05-01

    Nanostructure-mediated drug delivery, a key technology for the realization of nanomedicine, has the potential to improve drug bioavailability, ameliorate release deviation of drug molecules and enable precision drug targeting. Due to their multifunctional properties, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have received great attention of scientists to find a solution to cancer. Vitamin supplements may contribute to a reduction in the risk of cancer. Vitamin B12 has several characteristics that make it an attractive entity for cancer treatment and possible therapeutic applications. The aim of this study was to produce B12-loaded SLNs (B12-SLNs) and determine the cytotoxic effects of B12-SLNs on H-Ras 5RP7 and NIH/3T3 control cell line. Results obtained by MTT assay, transmission electron and confocal microscopy showed that B12-loaded SLNs are more effective than free vitamin B12 on cancer cells. In addition, characterization studies indicate that while the average diameter of the B12 was about 650 nm, B12-SLNs were about 200 nm and the drug release efficiency of vit. B12 by means of SLNs increased up to 3 h. These observations point to the fact that B12-SLNs could be used as carrier systems due to the therapeutic effects on cancer. PMID:24344935

  17. DIETARY FOLATE, VITAMIN B-12, VITAMIN B-6 AND INCIDENT ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE: THE CACHE COUNTY MEMORY, HEALTH, AND AGING STUDY

    PubMed Central

    NELSON, C.; WENGREEN, H.J.; MUNGER, R.G.; CORCORAN, C.D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between dietary and supplemental folate, vitamin B-12 and vitamin B-6 and incident Alzheimer’s disease (AD) among elderly men and women. Design, Setting and Participants Data collected were from participants of the Cache County Memory, Health and Aging Study, a longitudinal study of 5092 men and women 65 years and older who were residents of Cache County, Utah in 1995. Measurements Multistage clinical assessment procedures were used to identify incident cases of AD. Dietary data were collected using a 142-item food frequency questionnaire. Cox Proportional Hazards (CPH) modeling was used to determine hazard ratios across quintiles of micronutrient intake. Results 202 participants were diagnosed with incident AD during follow-up (1995–2004). In multivariable CPH models that controlled for the effects of gender, age, education, and other covariates there were no observed differences in risk of AD or dementia by increasing quintiles of total intake of folate, vitamin B-12, or vitamin B-6. Similarly, there were no observed differences in risk of AD by regular use of either folate or B6 supplements. Conclusion Dietary intake of B-vitamins from food and supplemental sources appears unrelated to incidence of dementia and AD. Further studies examining associations between dietary intakes of B-vitamins, biomarkers of B-vitamin status and cognitive endpoints are warranted. PMID:19924351

  18. Vitamin B12 Levels of Subjects Aged 0-24 Year(s) in Konya, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Haluk; Bodur, Said; Kiyici, Aysel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Research reports indicate that vitamin B12 levels show racial differences, which suggests that using the reference ranges of varied populations may lead to inaccurate results. This study aimed to determine normal serum levels of vitamin B12 among children and young people in the Konya region of Turkey. It evaluated 1,109 samples; 54 were from cord-blood and 1,055 were from healthy subjects aged 0-24 year(s), who were admitted to primary healthcare centres. The normal reference levels obtained for vitamin B12 at 2.5-97.5 percentile (P2.5-P97.5) range were 127-606 pg/mL for girls, 127-576 pg/mL for boys, and 127-590 pg/mL for the entire study group. The reported reference values for vitamin B12 in other studies were higher than the current results. Vitamin B12 levels vary from country to country; comparisons between countries may not be valid, and normal levels for each population should be obtained. PMID:25895195

  19. Stability of added and in situ-produced vitamin B12 in breadmaking.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, Minnamari; Chamlagain, Bhawani; Santin, Marco; Kariluoto, Susanna; Piironen, Vieno

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin B12 exists naturally in foods of animal origin and is synthesised only by certain bacteria. New food sources are needed to ensure vitamin B12 intake in risk groups. This study aimed to investigate the stability of added cyanocobalamin (CNCbl, chemically modified form) and hydroxocobalamin (OHCbl, natural form) and in situ-synthesised vitamin B12 in breadmaking. Samples were analysed both with a microbiological (MBA) and a liquid chromatographic (UHPLC) method to test applicability of these two methods. Proofing did not affect CNCbl and OHCbl levels. By contrast, 21% and 31% of OHCbl was lost in oven-baking steps in straight- and sponge-dough processes, respectively, whereas CNCbl remained almost stable. In sourdough baking, 23% of CNCbl and 44% of OHCbl were lost. In situ-produced vitamin B12 was almost as stable as added CNCbl and more stable than OHCbl. The UHPLC method showed its superiority to the MBA in determining the active vitamin B12. PMID:26988471

  20. Intergenotypic variation of Vitamin B12 and Folate in AD: In north indian population

    PubMed Central

    Chhillar, Neelam; Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Bala, Kiran; Basu, Mitra; Sharma, Deepika

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Changes in lifestyle habits such as diet modification or supplementation have been indicated as probable protective factors for a number of chronic conditions including Alzheimer's disease (AD). With this background, we aim to hypothesize that whether C677T polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene contributes towards the risk of developing AD and its association with vitamin B12 and folate levels. Materials and Methods: A case-control study comprising of total 200 subjects, within the age group of 50-85 years. Their blood samples were analyzed for serum folate, vitamin B12 levels, and MTHFR C677T polymorphism by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Results: The mean plasma levels of vitamin B12 and folate were significantly lower in study group when compared to the control group (P < 0.001). Genotypic and allelic frequency of MTHFR gene in both groups was found to be significant (P < 0.05). The intergenotypic variations of vitamin B12 and folate were found to be significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: We concluded that the subjects with homozygous mutated alleles are more prone to AD and also pointed out the influence of presence/absence of MTHFR T allelic variants on serum folate and vitamin B12 levels. PMID:25221401

  1. Studies on the spin Hamiltonian parameters of vitamin B 12r

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shao-Yi; Wei, Li-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Xue-Feng

    2009-01-01

    The spin Hamiltonian parameters g factors gi ( i = x, y, z) and the hyperfine structure constants Ai of vitamin B 12r have been theoretically studied from the perturbation formulas of these parameters for a Co 2+(3d 7) ion with low spin ( S = 1/2) in rhombically distorted octahedra. The related crystal-field parameters are determined from the point-charge-dipole model and the local structure around Co 2+ in vitamin B 12r. The theoretical spin Hamiltonian parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  2. Folate and Vitamin B12 Transport Systems in the Developing Infant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    B vitamin transport systems in infants are not as well studied as those for amino acids and glucose. For most B vitamins, a 2-step process allows for digestion of coenzyme forms of the vitamins in food, followed by specific transport systems for the free vitamin in the intestine. Folate and vitamin ...

  3. Folate and vitamin B-12 status in relation to anemia, macrocytosis, and cognitive impairment in older Americans in the age of folic acid fortification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historic data on folic acid treatment of pernicious anemia suggested that high-level fortification would delay diagnosis or exacerbate effects of vitamin B12 deficiency, which affects many seniors. This idea is controversial, however, because observational data are few and inconclusive and experime...

  4. Pulmonary hypertension associated with scurvy and vitamin deficiencies in an autistic child.

    PubMed

    Duvall, Melody G; Pikman, Yana; Kantor, David B; Ariagno, Katelyn; Summers, Lisa; Sectish, Theodore C; Mullen, Mary P

    2013-12-01

    Restricted dietary intake is common among children with behavioral issues. Here we report a case of a severely autistic child who presented initially with limp but who soon developed cough, tachypnea, hypoxia, and tachycardia. An echocardiogram revealed evidence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) with severely dilated right ventricle and elevated right-sided pressures. The etiology of his PH was unclear but further laboratory evaluation demonstrated severe nutritional deficiencies, in particular an undetectable ascorbic acid (vitamin C) level as well as deficient levels of thiamine (vitamin B1), pyridoxine (vitamin B6), cobalamin (vitamin B12), and vitamin D. Repletion of these vitamins was associated with resolution of his PH and his musculoskeletal complaints. We report this case and a review of the relevant literature as a clinical lesson to expand the differential diagnosis of limp in children who may be difficult to assess as well as to report on an unusual association between severe vitamin deficiencies and PH. PMID:24190688

  5. Unraveling Vitamin B12-Responsive Gene Regulation in Algae1[W

    PubMed Central

    Helliwell, Katherine E.; Scaife, Mark A.; Sasso, Severin; Araujo, Ana Paula Ulian; Purton, Saul; Smith, Alison G.

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic microalgae play a vital role in primary productivity and biogeochemical cycling in both marine and freshwater systems across the globe. However, the growth of these cosmopolitan organisms depends on the bioavailability of nutrients such as vitamins. Approximately one-half of all microalgal species requires vitamin B12 as a growth supplement. The major determinant of algal B12 requirements is defined by the isoform of methionine synthase possessed by an alga, such that the presence of the B12-independent methionine synthase (METE) enables growth without this vitamin. Moreover, the widespread but phylogenetically unrelated distribution of B12 auxotrophy across the algal lineages suggests that the METE gene has been lost multiple times in evolution. Given that METE expression is repressed by the presence of B12, prolonged repression by a reliable source of the vitamin could lead to the accumulation of mutations and eventually gene loss. Here, we probe METE gene regulation by B12 and methionine/folate cycle metabolites in both marine and freshwater microalgal species. In addition, we identify a B12-responsive element of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii METE using a reporter gene approach. We show that complete repression of the reporter occurs via a region spanning −574 to −90 bp upstream of the METE start codon. A proteomics study reveals that two other genes (S-Adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase and Serine hydroxymethyltransferase2) involved in the methionine-folate cycle are also repressed by B12 in C. reinhardtii. The strong repressible nature and high sensitivity of the B12-responsive element has promising biotechnological applications as a cost-effective regulatory gene expression tool. PMID:24627342

  6. Low serum vitamin B12 levels among psychiatric patients admitted in Butabika mental hospital in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychiatric manifestations have been noted in patients with low serum vitamin B12 levels even in the absence of other neurologic and/or haematologic abnormalities. There is no literature on low serum B12 prevalence among Ugandans with psychiatric illnesses. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence, risk factors, and clinical manifestations of low serum vitamin B12 among psychiatric patients admitted in a Mental Health Hospital in Uganda. Method Using a cross sectional descriptive study design, 280 in-patients selected by systematic sampling were studied using a standardized protocol. Low serum vitamin B12 was defined as a level < 240 pg /mL. Results We found a prevalence of low serum B12 in 28.6% of the participants. Absent vibration sense which was significantly associated (58.3% Vs. 26.7%: OR = 3.84 (95% C.I. 1.18, 12.49); p-value = 0.025) with low vitamin B12 was observed among 12 participants. Macro-ovalocytes present among 23 participants on peripheral film were significantly associated with low serum levels (73.9% Vs. 26.2%: OR = 7.99 (95% C.I. 3.01, 21.19) p-value < 0.0001). Factors significantly associated with low serum B12 levels included psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia (AOR 1.74 (95% C.I. 1.00, 3.02); p-value = 0.049), duration of psychiatric illness > or = 3 years (AOR 2.27 (95% C.I. 1.29, 3.98); p-value = 0.004), and hospitalization < 3 weeks (AOR 4.01 (95% C.I. 1.02, 15.79); p-value = 0.047). Female participants were associated with protection from low serum levels (AOR 0.4 (95% C.I. 0.22, 0.73); p-value = 0.003). Conclusion Low serum B12 is common among hospitalized psychiatric patients with the majority having no haematological findings. Associated risk factors included having a psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia, a shorter duration of hospitalization and longer duration of psychiatric illness. Female participants were less likely to have low serum vitamin B12 levels. Routine screening for serum vitamin B12 levels should be adopted by all hospitals for admitted psychiatric patients. PMID:24533701

  7. LOW ERYTHROCYTE FOLATE, BUT NOT PLASMA VITAMIN B-12 OR HOMOCYSTEINE, IS ASSOCIATED WITH DEMENTIA IN ELDERLY LATINOS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between B vitamin status and cognitive function has been of interest for many years. There is evidence of relationships between intake and status of folate and vitamin B-12 with neurological, cognitive, and memory impairment, but results have been inconsistent. Plasma B-12, erythroc...

  8. Effect of amino acid availability on vitamin B12 production in Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Santos, Filipe; Teusink, Bas; Molenaar, Douwe; van Heck, Maurice; Wels, Michiel; Sieuwerts, Sander; de Vos, Willem M; Hugenholtz, Jeroen

    2009-06-01

    Recent functional genomics and genome-scale modeling approaches indicated that B(12) production in Lactobacillus reuteri could be improved by optimization of the medium. Here we show that a series of systematic single-amino-acid omissions could significantly modulate the production of B(12) from nearly undetectable levels (with omission of isoleucine) to levels 20-fold higher than the levels previously reported (with omission of cysteine). Using cDNA microarray experiments, we analyzed the transcriptional response of L. reuteri to medium lacking cysteine. The results supported the observed high level of B(12) production and provided new avenues for future improvement of production of vitamin B(12). PMID:19376900

  9. Folate and vitamin B12-related genes and risk for omphalocele.

    PubMed

    Mills, James L; Carter, Tonia C; Kay, Denise M; Browne, Marilyn L; Brody, Lawrence C; Liu, Aiyi; Romitti, Paul A; Caggana, Michele; Druschel, Charlotte M

    2012-05-01

    Both taking folic acid-containing vitamins around conception and consuming food fortified with folic acid have been reported to reduce omphalocele rates. Genetic factors are etiologically important in omphalocele as well; our pilot study showed a relationship with the folate metabolic enzyme gene methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). We studied 169 non-aneuploid omphalocele cases and 761 unaffected, matched controls from all New York State births occurring between 1998 and 2005 to look for associations with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) known to be important in folate, vitamin B12, or choline metabolism. In the total study population, variants in the transcobalamin receptor gene (TCblR), rs2232775 (p.Q8R), and the MTHFR gene, rs1801131 (c.1298A>C), were significantly associated with omphalocele. In African-Americans, significant associations were found with SNPs in genes for the vitamin B12 transporter (TCN2) and the vitamin B12 receptor (TCblR). A SNP in the homocysteine-related gene, betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT), rs3733890 (p.R239Q), was significantly associated with omphalocele in both African-Americans and Asians. Only the TCblR association in the total population remained statistically significant if Bonferroni correction was applied. The finding that transcobalamin receptor (TCblR) and transporter (TCN2) SNPs and a BHMT SNP were associated with omphalocele suggests that disruption of methylation reactions, in which folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine play critical parts, may be a risk factor for omphalocele. Our data, if confirmed, suggest that supplements containing both folic acid and vitamin B12 may be beneficial in preventing omphaloceles. PMID:22116453

  10. Maternal Folate and Vitamin B12 Status and Neural Tube Defects in Northern Iran: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Mobasheri, Elahm; Keshtkar, Abbasali; Golalipour, Mohammad-Jafar

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to determine the serum level of folic acid and vitamin B12 in neural tube defects pregnancies (NTD) and healthy controls in Northern Iran. Methods This case-control study was performed on women with neural tube defects pregnancies and controls with unaffected pregnancies in Northern Iran during 2006. Twenty three pregnant women whose pregnancies were diagnosed as NTD by a second-trimester ultrasonographic examination were recruited as cases. The control group (n=23) consisted of women who were selected among socio-economic status (SES) matched women who had a normal targeted ultrasound during the second trimester with documented normal fet al outcome. Fetal NTD was suspected with targeted second-trimester ultrasound during the 16th week of gestation and confirmed with high maternal serum ?-fetoprotein levels. Folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine and alpha fetoprotein were evaluated after target ultrasonography. Findings Serum alpha fetoprotein level (meanSD) in cases and controls was 120.264.1 and 5033.5 iu/ml, respectively (P<0.05). The meanSD folate in cases and controls was 8.44.2 versus 9.34.2 ng/ml, respectively. This difference was not significant. Folate deficiency was found in 30.4% of the cases and 13% of the controls (OR=2.9, 95%: 0.5419.8). Vitamin B12 deficiency was found in 13% of cases and 17.7% of the controls (OR=0.7, 95%: 0.1-4.9). Conclusion This study showed that the probability of having a newborn with NTDs in maternal folate deficiency is three times higher than with normal folate in Northern Iran. PMID:23056699

  11. Vitamin B12 supplementation in end stage renal diseases: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Maryam; Khosravi, Maryam; Baradaran, Hamid Reza; Atlasi, Rasha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease particularly in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Vitamin B12 supplementation on its own still remains as a controversial issue for clinicians in decreasing the level of homcysteine in this group of patients. Methods: Using all randomized controlled trials (RCTs), clinical trials and pre-post-trial studies found during January 1999 to March 2014, we conducted a systematic review which assessed the effects of vitamin B12 in decreasing homocysteine levels in patients with ESRD. Results: The findings of this study revealed that, overall, the greatest effect of B12 supplementation on decreasing homocysteine levels in patients with ESRDs occurred when it was combined with folate supplementation. It was also demonstrated that injection treatments might be more beneficial than oral intake treatments. Conclusion: More rigorous studies are needed to draw a firm conclusion about B12 therapy and the level of homocyteine in patients with ESRD. PMID:26000261

  12. Potential cobalt limitation of vitamin B12 synthesis in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzeca, C.; Beck, A. J.; Leblanc, K.; Taylor, G. T.; Hutchins, D. A.; SaUdo-Wilhelmy, S. A.

    2008-06-01

    While recent studies have confirmed the ecological importance of vitamin B12, it is unclear whether the production of this vitamin could be limited by dissolved Co, a trace metal required for B12 biosynthesis, but found at only subnanomolar concentrations in the open ocean. Herein, we demonstrate that the spatial distribution of dissolved B12 (range: 0.13-5 pmol L-1) in the North Atlantic Ocean follows the abundance of total dissolved Co (range: 15-81 pmol L-1). Similar patterns were observed for bacterial productivity (range: 20-103 pmol 3H leucine L-1 hr-1) and algal biomass (range: 0.4-3.9 ?g L-1). In contrast, vitamin B1 concentrations (range: 0.7-30 pM) were decoupled from both Co and B12 concentrations. Cobalt amendment experiments carried out in low-dissolved Co waters (20 pmol L-1) enhanced B12 production two-fold over unamended controls. This study provides evidence that B12 synthesis could be limited by the availability of Co in some regions of the world ocean.

  13. Central and peripheral SEP defects in neurologically symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects with low vitamin B12 levels.

    PubMed

    Jones, S J; Yu, Y L; Rudge, P; Kriss, A; Gilois, C; Hirani, N; Nijhawan, R; Norman, P; Will, R

    1987-12-01

    Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) following median nerve stimulation were abnormal in 7 patients with sensory impairment due to vitamin B12 deficiency. Extensor plantar reflexes indicated a central sensory pathway lesion in 4 cases and absent tendon jerks suggested peripheral neuropathy in 4, but median nerve SEPs indicated a predominantly central lesion without marked peripheral nerve involvement in 6 and an axonal neuropathy without CNS involvement in 1. The latter had evidence of central slowing of conduction in SEPs following posterior tibial nerve stimulation. Consequently, it is suggested that the brunt of sensory pathway involvement usually falls on the CNS, although peripheral neuropathy may occur as the major abnormality in some cases. In 2 patients SEPs showed a marked improvement following treatment with vitamin B12 injections, one consistent with restored central conduction and the other with recovery from peripheral neuropathy. No peripheral or central SEP abnormalities were seen in 18 dairy-produce eating vegetarians with low vitamin B12 levels, although 6 reported mild sensory symptoms suggestive of peripheral neuropathy and 3 had corroborative clinical signs. PMID:2831310

  14. Sunlamp Therapy for the Treatment of Vitamin D Deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D deficiency may result from inadequate intake, malabsorption or from inadequate sun light exposure. Ultraviolet B radiation can be used in the treatment of vitamin D deficiency. Three subjects with intolerance to oral vitamin D or low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels despite high ...

  15. Short communication: Factors affecting vitamin B12 concentration in milk of commercial dairy herds: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Duplessis, M; Pellerin, D; Cue, R I; Girard, C L

    2016-06-01

    Only bacteria can synthesize vitamin B12, and this requires adequate Co supply. The natural source of vitamin B12 in human diets comes from animal products, especially those from ruminants. This study aimed to describe variability regarding vitamin B12 concentration in milk among and within commercial dairy herds in early lactation. A secondary objective was to explore potential causes for this variability such as genetic variation and diet characteristics. In total, 399 dairy cows (135 primiparous and 264 multiparous; 386 Holstein and 13 Jersey cows) in 15 commercial herds were involved. Milk samples were taken at 27.4±4.1 and 55.4±4.1d in milk. Neither parity (primiparous vs. multiparous) nor sampling time affected milk concentrations of vitamin B12. Nevertheless, vitamin B12 concentration in milk was highly variable among and within dairy herds. The lowest vitamin B12 concentration in milk of cows was observed in the Jersey herd. Among herds, vitamin B12 concentration in milk ranged from 2,309 to 3,878 pg/mL; one glass (250mL) of milk from those herds would provide between 23 and 40% of the vitamin B12 recommended daily allowance. Among individual cows, however, this provision varied between 16 and 57% of the recommendation. In spite of the limited size of the studied population, the heritability value was 0.23, suggesting that genetic selection could modify milk vitamin B12 concentration. We observed a positive relationship between milk vitamin B12 concentration and dietary acid detergent fiber content and a negative relationship between milk concentration of vitamin B12 and dietary crude protein content. PMID:27040783

  16. Beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin B12 supplementation on brain docosahexaenoic acid, brain derived neurotrophic factor, and cognitive performance in the second-generation Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Richa S; Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2015-01-01

    In vegetarian population, vitamin B12 deficiency coexists with suboptimal levels of omega-3 fatty acids. Studies indicate a need for supplementation/fortification of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids to reduce the risk of brain disorders. We have described the effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain development in F1 generation animals. The current study investigates the effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on brain function and cognition. Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned the following groups: control, vitamin B12 deficient (BD), vitamin B12 deficient + omega-3 fatty acid (BDO), vitamin B12 supplemented (BS), vitamin B12 supplemented + omega-3 fatty acid (BSO). The same diets were continued for two generations. BDO group showed higher (P < 0.05) levels of BDNF (brain derived neurotrophic factor) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) in the cortex and hippocampus as compared with the BD group. The cognitive performance was also normalized in this group. BS showed comparable levels of DHA, BDNF (protein and mRNA), and CREB mRNA (cAMP response element-binding protein) to that of control group while Tropomyosin receptor kinase mRNA levels were higher. The combined vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation further enhanced the levels of DHA (P < 0.05) and BDNF (P < 0.05) in the hippocampus and CREB mRNA (P < 0.01) in the cortex as compared with BS group. The cognitive performance of these animals was higher (P < 0.05) as compared with BS group. Our data indicates the beneficial effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation across two generations on brain development and function. PMID:26249019

  17. Copper control of bacterial nitrous oxide emission and its impact on vitamin B12-dependent metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Matthew J; Gates, Andrew J; Appia-Ayme, Corinne; Rowley, Gary; Richardson, David J

    2013-12-01

    Global agricultural emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) have increased by around 20% over the last 100 y, but regulation of these emissions and their impact on bacterial cellular metabolism are poorly understood. Denitrifying bacteria convert nitrate in soils to inert di-nitrogen gas (N2) via N2O and the biochemistry of this process has been studied extensively in Paracoccus denitrificans. Here we demonstrate that expression of the gene encoding the nitrous oxide reductase (NosZ), which converts N2O to N2, is regulated in response to the extracellular copper concentration. We show that elevated levels of N2O released as a consequence of decreased cellular NosZ activity lead to the bacterium switching from vitamin B12-dependent to vitamin B12-independent biosynthetic pathways, through the transcriptional modulation of genes controlled by vitamin B12 riboswitches. This inhibitory effect of N2O can be rescued by addition of exogenous vitamin B12. PMID:24248380

  18. Enhanced pharmacological activity of Vitamin B12 and Penicillin as nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Yariv, Inbar; Lipovsky, Anat; Gedanken, Aharon; Lubart, Rachel; Fixler, Dror

    2015-01-01

    Sonochemistry has become a well-known technique for fabricating nanomaterials. Since one of the advantages of nanomaterials is that they have higher chemical activities compared with particles in the bulk form, efforts are being made to produce nano organic compounds with enhanced biological activities that could be exploited in the medical area. This study uses the sonication technique to prepare nano Vitamin B12 and nano Penicillin, and demonstrates their enhanced biological and pharmacological activity. The size and morphology of the nano Penicillin and nano Vitamin B12 were investigated using electron microscopy as well as dynamic light scattering techniques. The sizes of Penicillin and Vitamin B12 nanoparticles (NPs) were found to be 70 and 120–180 nm, respectively. The bactericidal effect of nano Penicillin was studied and found to be higher than that of the bulk form. Reducing the size of Vitamin B12 resulted in their enhanced antioxidative activity as observed using the electron paramagnetic spectroscopy technique. The penetration depth of these organic NPs can be detected by an optical iterative method. It is believed that nano organic drugs fabrication will have a great impact on the medical field. PMID:26028970

  19. Hyperhomocysteinemia, Folateo and B12 Vitamin in Iranian Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Omrani, Hoseinali Qeilichnia; Qabai, Mojdeh; Chaman, Reza; Fard, Hamed Amiri; Qaffarpoor, Majid

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of some factors such as serum levels of homocysteine, folate and B12 vitamin with stroke in acute ischemic stroke patients. METHODS In this case control study, serum levels of homocysteine, folate and B12 vitamin in 93 patients with acute ischemic stroke admitted to Imam Khomeini Hospital between September 2008 and January 2010, and 93 healthy controls were measured. Cerebrovascular risk factors including age, sex, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption, coronary artery disease and obesity were recorded. The results were compared between the case and control groups. RESULTS The mean ± standard deviation (SD) of fasting total homocysteine (tHcy) level in acute ischemic stroke patients was 20.58 ± 19.6 µmol/l, which was significantly higher than that of control group being 14.11 ± 9.5 µmol/l (P = 0.002). 39 (41.9%) stroke cases and 25 (26.8%) controls had hyperhomocysteinemia. There were no significant relationships between tHcy, folate and B12 vitamin levels with the above mentioned cerebrovascular risk factors except for smoking (p> 0.05). No significant difference in B12 vitamin and folate levels between patients and healthy controls were detected (P> 0.05). CONCLUSION Hyperhomocysteinemia is common in Iranian patients with acute ischemic stroke and might play a role as an independent risk factor in stroke. PMID:22577454

  20. Improved vitamin B12 fermentation process by adding rotenone to regulate the metabolism of Pseudomonas denitrificans.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xin; Chen, Wei; Peng, Wei-Fu; Li, Kun-Tai

    2014-06-01

    Our previous research had revealed that the dissolved oxygen limitation was more favorable for vitamin B12 fermentation, due to its inducement to the increased glycolytic flux in Pseudomonas denitrificans. In this paper, a novel strategy was implemented to further investigate the metabolic characteristics of P. denitrificans under different oxygen supply levels, by exogenously adding rotenone (a respiratory chain inhibitor interfering with the oxygen consumption) to the fermentation broths. Compared to the fermentation process without rotenone treatment, it was observed that 5 mg/L rotenone treatment could significantly strengthen the glycolytic flux of P. denitrificans via activating the key glycolytic enzymes (phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase), resulting in the accelerated generations of anterior precursors (glutamate and 5-aminolevulinic acid) for vitamin B12 biosynthesis. Although 5 mg/L rotenone treatment had a negative effect on cell growth of P. denitrificans, the vitamin B12 yield was increased from 48.28 ± 0.62 mg/L to 54.70 ± 0.45 mg/L, which further proved that an increased glycolytic flux in P. denitrificans was a consequence of higher vitamin B12 production. PMID:24687557

  1. Mesoporous carbon derived from vitamin B12: a high-performance bifunctional catalyst for imine formation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Shang, Sensen; Wang, Lianyue; Zhang, Yi; Gao, Shuang

    2016-01-11

    Mesoporous carbon derived from natural vitamin B12 is applied for the first time in organic synthesis and exhibits exceptionally high dual activity for imine formation via the cross-coupling of alcohols with amines and the self-coupling of primary amines using molecular oxygen or air as the terminal oxidant. PMID:26529323

  2. Effects of vitamin B12 supplementation on the quality of Ovine spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Hamedani, M.A.; Tahmasbi, A.M.; Ahangari, Y.J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of various levels of vitamin B12 in Tris extender on semen quality of Dallagh rams following the cooling and freeze/thawing process. Semen was collected from six healthy and mature rams with an average body weight of 60.0 ± 5.0 Kg using an electro ejaculator. High quality samples were mixed and diluted in Tris extender supplemented with different concentrations of vitamin B12 (0, 1, 2 and 3 mg/ml). The semen aliquots were cooled and preserved at 5°C and their qualities were evaluated during pre-freezing and then the cooled semen samples were packaged into 0.25 ml straws. Straws were frozen in the vapor of liquid nitrogen, and were then stored at -196ºC. Straws were thawed seven days later and the characteristics of spermatozoa were examined. Results of this study showed that the effect of vitamin B12 on characteristics such as viability, motility, progressive motility and normality of spermatozoa were significant in pre and post freezing conditions (P<0.05). In conclusion, for long term storage of semen of Dallagh rams, we recommend using 2 mg/ml of vitamin B12 in semen extender. PMID:26623328

  3. Copper control of bacterial nitrous oxide emission and its impact on vitamin B12-dependent metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Matthew J.; Gates, Andrew J.; Appia-Ayme, Corinne; Rowley, Gary; Richardson, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Global agricultural emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) have increased by around 20% over the last 100 y, but regulation of these emissions and their impact on bacterial cellular metabolism are poorly understood. Denitrifying bacteria convert nitrate in soils to inert di-nitrogen gas (N2) via N2O and the biochemistry of this process has been studied extensively in Paracoccus denitrificans. Here we demonstrate that expression of the gene encoding the nitrous oxide reductase (NosZ), which converts N2O to N2, is regulated in response to the extracellular copper concentration. We show that elevated levels of N2O released as a consequence of decreased cellular NosZ activity lead to the bacterium switching from vitamin B12-dependent to vitamin B12-independent biosynthetic pathways, through the transcriptional modulation of genes controlled by vitamin B12 riboswitches. This inhibitory effect of N2O can be rescued by addition of exogenous vitamin B12. PMID:24248380

  4. Genomic Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae IIEMP-3, a Vitamin B12-Producing Strain from Indonesian Tempeh

    PubMed Central

    Yulandi, Adi; Sugiokto, Febri Gunawan; Febrilina

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae strain IIEMP-3, isolated from Indonesian tempeh, is a vitamin B12-producing strain that exhibited a different genetic profile from pathogenic isolates. Here we report the draft genome sequence of strain IIEMP-3, which may provide insights on the nature of fermentation, nutrition, and immunological function of Indonesian tempeh. PMID:26950331

  5. Expeditious synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles using Vitamin B12 under microwave irradiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    A greener synthesis protocol for noble nanometals is developed using vitamin B12 as a reducing and capping agent in conjunction with the use of microwaves. Successful assembly of nanoparticles or microparticles with varied shapes and sizes have been demonstrated. The synthesized ...

  6. Genomic Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae IIEMP-3, a Vitamin B12-Producing Strain from Indonesian Tempeh.

    PubMed

    Yulandi, Adi; Sugiokto, Febri Gunawan; Febrilina; Suwanto, Antonius

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae strain IIEMP-3, isolated from Indonesian tempeh, is a vitamin B12-producing strain that exhibited a different genetic profile from pathogenic isolates. Here we report the draft genome sequence of strain IIEMP-3, which may provide insights on the nature of fermentation, nutrition, and immunological function of Indonesian tempeh. PMID:26950331

  7. Vitamin B12-binders in human body fluids. I. Antigenic and physico-chemical characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Hurlimann, J.; Zuber, Cecile

    1969-01-01

    Three factors binding vitamin B12 are detected in human gastric juice by autoradiographs of immunoelectrophoresis. Binder 1 is present only in gastric juice and gastric mucosa extract and corresponds to intrinsic factor. Binder 2 is present also in other excretions such as bile, lactoserum, saliva, in serum and leucocyte extracts. Binder 3 present in saliva and gastric juice in lower quantity than binder 2, seems derived from this last one by attachment of sialic acid molecules. There is no immunological identity between intrinsic factor and the other binders without intrinsic factor activity. Binder 3 is resistant to proteolysis in vivo and in vitro. Binder 2 is modified by peptic digestion in vivo but not in vitro. Binder 1 is insensitive to proteolysis if saturated by vitamin B12, but loses its binding capacity and/or immunological properties if the digestion takes place before fixation of vitamin B12. The three binders seem to have the same affinity for vitamin B12 as judged by dialysis experiments, and the same molecular weight of 60,000 as judged by volume exclusion on Sephadex G-200. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:5819225

  8. Competitive chemiluminescent anzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent discoveries of matrix interferences by haptocorrin (HC) in human milk and serum show that past analyses of vitamin B12 in samples with high HC content might have been inaccurate (Lildballe et al., 2009; Carmel & Agrawal, 2012). We evaluated two competitive enzyme-binding immunoassays for seru...

  9. Variability in the carbon isotope fractionation of trichloroethene on its reductive dechlorination by vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Gan, Yiqun; Yu, Tingting; Zhou, Aiguo; Liu, Yunde; Yu, Kai; Han, Li

    2014-08-01

    Stable carbon isotope fractionation through the reductive dechlorination of trichloroethylene by vitamin B12 was determined to assess the possibility of using stable carbon isotope analysis to determine the efficacy of remediation of trichloroethylene using vitamin B12. We elucidated the effects of environmental conditions, including the pH, reaction temperature, and vitamin B12 concentration, on the carbon isotope enrichment factor (ε). The ε values were relatively insensitive to the reaction temperature and vitamin B12 concentration, ranging from -15.7‰ to -16.2‰, with a mean of -15.9 ± 0.2‰, at different temperatures and vitamin B12 concentrations. Such a reproducible ε value could be particularly useful for estimating the extent of degradation in reactions in which a mass balance is difficult to achieve. However, changing the initial solution pH from 6.5 to 9.0 caused a notable change in the ε values, from -14.0‰ to -18.0‰. Reactions were investigated by calculating the apparent kinetic isotope effects for carbon, which, at 1.029-1.037, were smaller than the kinetic isotope effect values previously found for C-Cl bond cleavage. This indicates that a reaction other than the elimination of chloride may be a competitive degradation pathway. The dominant degradation pathway may be different for different initial solution pH values, and this will clearly influence carbon isotope fractionation. Therefore, if the ε value varies with reaction conditions, such as the solution pH, the calculations should take into account the actual environmental conditions that affect the rate limiting pathways. PMID:24889017

  10. Chronic Maternal Vitamin B12 Restriction Induced Changes in Body Composition & Glucose Metabolism in the Wistar Rat Offspring Are Partly Correctable by Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kalle Anand; Lalitha, Anumula; Reddy, Umakar; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Sengupta, Shantanu; Raghunath, Manchala

    2014-01-01

    Maternal under-nutrition increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. We studied the effects of chronic maternal dietary vitamin B12 restriction on lean body mass (LBM), fat free mass (FFM), muscle function, glucose tolerance and metabolism in Wistar rat offspring. Prevention/reversibility of changes by rehabilitating restricted mothers from conception or parturition and their offspring from weaning was assessed. Female weaning Wistar rats (n = 30) were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks, a control diet (n = 6) or the same with 40% restriction of vitamin B12 (B12R) (n = 24); after confirming deficiency, were mated with control males. Six each of pregnant B12R dams were rehabilitated from conception and parturition and their offspring weaned to control diet. While offspring of six B12R dams were weaned to control diet, those of the remaining six B12R dams continued on B12R diet. Biochemical parameters and body composition were determined in dams before mating and in male offspring at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of their age. Dietary vitamin B12 restriction increased body weight but decreased LBM% and FFM% but not the percent of tissue associated fat (TAF%) in dams. Maternal B12R decreased LBM% and FFM% in the male offspring, but their TAF%, basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake by diaphragm were unaltered. At 12 months age, B12R offspring had higher (than controls) fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and impaired glucose tolerance. Their hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme activities were increased. B12R offspring had increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant status. Changes in body composition, glucose metabolism and stress were reversed by rehabilitating B12R dams from conception, whereas rehabilitation from parturition and weaning corrected them partially, highlighting the importance of vitamin B12 during pregnancy and lactation on growth, muscle development, glucose tolerance and metabolism in the offspring. PMID:25398136

  11. Vitamin D Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... RDA through supplements and the foods you eat. Foods with natural vitamin D include: • Certain fish: salmon, sardines, mackerel, tuna • Cod liver oil • Shiitake mushrooms • Egg yolks Foods that often have added vitamin D include: • Dairy ...

  12. Vitamin D Deficiency Predicts Prostate Biopsy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Adam B.; Nyame, Yaw; Martin, Iman K.; Catalona, William J.; Hollowell, Courtney M.P.; Nadler, Robert B.; Kozlowski, James M.; Perry, Kent T.; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Kittles, Rick A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The association between vitamin D and prostate biopsy outcomes has not been evaluated. We examine serum vitamin D levels with prostate biopsy results in men with abnormal PSA and/or digital rectal examination. Experimental Design Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D) was obtained from 667 men, age 40-79, prospectively enrolled from Chicago urology clinics undergoing first prostate biopsy. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations between 25-OH D status and incident prostate cancer (PCa), Gleason score, and tumor stage. Results Among European American (EA) men, there was an association of 25-OH D < 12 ng/ml with higher Gleason score ≥ 4+4 (OR = 3.66 [1.41, 9.50], p = 0.008) and tumor stage (stage ≥ cT2b vs. ≤ cT2a, OR = 2.42 [1.14, 5.10], p = 0.008). In African American (AA) men, we find increased odds of PCa diagnosis on biopsy with 25-OH D < 20 ng/ml (OR = 2.43 [1.20, 4.94], p = 0.01). AA men demonstrated an association between 25-OH D < 12ng/ml and Gleason ≥ 4+4 (OR = 4.89 [1.59, 15.07]; p = 0.006). There was an association with tumor stage ≥ cT2b vs. ≤ cT2a (OR: 4.22, [1.52 – 11.74], p = 0.003). Conclusions In AA men, vitamin D deficiency was associated with increased odds of PCa diagnosis on biopsy. In both EA and AA men, severe deficiency was positively associated with higher Gleason grade and tumor stage. PMID:24789033

  13. Geographical gradients of dissolved Vitamin B12 in the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, S.; Tovar-Sánchez, A.; Panzeca, C.; Duarte, C. M.; Ortega-Retuerta, E.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Most eukaryotic phytoplankton require vitamin B12 to grow. However, the cycling of this organic growth factor has received substantially less attention than other bioactive substances such as trace metals in the marine environment. This is especially true in the Mediterranean Sea, where direct measurements of dissolved vitamins have never been reported. We report here the first direct measurements of dissolved vitamin B12 across longitudinal gradients in Mediterranean waters. The range of vitamin B12 concentrations measured over the whole transect was 0.5–6.2 pM, which is slightly higher than the range (undetectable—4 pM) of ambient concentrations measured in other open ocean basins in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The concentrations measured in the western basin were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those of the eastern basin. They were positively correlated with chlorophyll concentrations in the most western part of the basin, and did not show any significant correlation with any other biological variables in other regions of the sampling transect. PMID:23772225

  14. Distributions of dissolved vitamin B 12 and Co in coastal and open-ocean environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzeca, Caterina; Beck, Aaron J.; Tovar-Sanchez, Antonio; Segovia-Zavala, Jose; Taylor, Gordon T.; Gobler, Christopher J.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.

    2009-11-01

    Distributions of dissolved vitamin B 12 and total dissolved Co were measured to gain an understanding of the cycling of these interdependent micronutrients in six marine settings including; an upwelling location, a semi-enclosed bay, two urban coastal systems, and two open ocean locations. Along the coast of Baja California, Mexico, concentrations of B 12 and dissolved Co varied from 0.2 to 11 pM and 180 to 990 pM, respectively. At a nearby upwelling station, vitamin B 12 and Co concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 7.0 pM and 22 to 145 pM, and concentrations did not correlate with upwelling intensity. Concentrations of B 12 were highest within Todos Santos Bay, a semi-enclosed bay off the coast of Baja California, Mexico, during a dinoflagellate bloom, ranging from 2 to 61 pM, while Co concentrations varied between 61 and 194 pM. In the anthropogenically impacted Long Island Sound, NY, U.S.A., B 12 levels were between 0.1 and 23 pM and Co concentrations varied from 60 to 1900 pM. However, anthropogenic inputs were not evident in B 12 levels in the San Pedro Basin, located outside Los Angeles, Ca, U.S.A., where concentrations of B 12 were 0.2-1.8 pM, approximating observed open ocean B 12 concentrations. In the Southern Ocean and North Atlantic Ocean, B 12 levels were 0.4-4 pM and 0.2-2 pM, respectively. Total Co concentrations in the Southern Ocean and North Atlantic tended to be low; measuring 26-59 pM and 15-80 pM, respectively. These low Co concentrations may limit B 12 synthesis and its availability to B 12-requiring phytoplankton because the total dissolved Co pool is not necessarily entirely bioavailable.

  15. An appraisal of the value of vitamin B12 in the prevention of motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, R. L.; Lacey, C. L.; Homick, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    It has been suggested that vitamin B12 given by intramuscular injection can significantly reduce the occurrence of motion sickness in susceptible individuals (Banks, 1980). Since it is known that B12 influences the metabolism of histidine and choline, dietary precursors to neurotransmitters with established roles in motion sickness, an experimental evaluation has been undertaken of the efficacy of B12 in the prevention of motion sickness induced by controlled coriolis simulation. Subjects executed standardized head movements at successively higher rpm until a malaise III endpoint was reached. Following two baseline tests with this motion stressor, subjects received a B12 injection, a second injection two weeks later, and a final motion sickness test three weeks later. No significant differences in the susceptibility to motion sickness were noted after B12.

  16. Vitamin C Deficiency of Korean Homeless Patients Visiting to Emergency Department with Acute Alcohol Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Vitamins are essential micronutrients for maintenance of tissue functions. Vitamin deficiency is one of the most serious and common health problems among both chronic alcoholics and the homeless. However, the vitamin-level statuses of such people have been little studied. We evaluated the actual vitamin statuses of alcoholic homeless patients who visited an emergency department (ED). In this study the blood levels of vitamins B1, B12, B6, and C of 217 alcoholic homeless patients were evaluated retrospectively in a single urban teaching hospital ED. Vitamin C deficiency was observed in 84.3% of the patients. The vitamin B1, B12, and B6 deficiency rates, meanwhile, were 2.3%, 2.3%, and 23.5%, respectively. Comparing the admitted patients with those who were discharged, only the vitamin C level was lower. (P=0.003) In fact, the patients' vitamin C levels were markedly diminished, vitamin C replacement therapy for homeless patients should be considered in EDs. PMID:26713065

  17. Effects of maternal vitamin B6 deficiency and over-supplementation on DNA damage and oxidative stress in rat dams and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Mara Ribeiro; Venâncio, Vinícius Paula; Aissa, Alexandre Ferro; Darin, Joana Darc Castania; Pires Bianchi, Maria Lourdes; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin B6 is a cofactor for more than 140 essential enzymes and plays an important role in maternal health and fetal development. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal vitamin B6 on DNA damage and oxidative stress status in rat dams and their offspring. Female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to three dietary groups fed a standard diet (control diet), a diet supplemented with 30 mg/kg of vitamin B6, or a deficient diet (0 mg/kg of vitamin B6) for 10 weeks before and during mating, pregnancy and lactation. The dams were euthanized at weaning, and their male pups were euthanized either 10 days or 100 days after birth. We found that maternal vitamin B6 deficiency increased the micronucleus frequency in peripheral blood and bone marrow cells and also increased the concentration of hepatic TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) in newborn pups (10 days old). In conclusion, maternal 5- to 6-fold over-supplementation of vitamin B6 had no adverse effects, however its deficiency may induce chromosomal damage and hepatic lipid peroxidation in the offspring. PMID:25818462

  18. Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Improve Gross Motor and Problem-Solving Skills in Young North Indian Children: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kvestad, Ingrid; Taneja, Sunita; Kumar, Tivendra; Hysing, Mari; Refsum, Helga; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Bhandari, Nita; Strand, Tor A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Deficiencies of vitamin B12 and folate are associated with delayed development and neurological manifestations. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of daily supplementation of vitamin B12 and/or folic acid on development in young North Indian children. Methods In a randomized, double blind trial, children aged six to 30 months, received supplement with placebo or vitamin B12 and/or folic acid for six months. Children were allocated in a 1:1:1:1 ratio in a factorial design and in blocks of 16. We measured development in 422 children by the Ages and Stages Questionnaire 3rd ed. at the end of the intervention. Results Compared to placebo, children who received both vitamin B12 and folic acid had 0.45 (95% CI 0.19, 0.73) and 0.28 (95% CI 0.02, 0.54) higher SD-units in the domains of gross motor and problem solving functioning, respectively. The effect was highest in susceptible subgroups consisting of stunted children, those with high plasma homocysteine (> 10 μmol/L) or in those who were younger than 24 at end study. With the exception of a significant improvement on gross motor scores by vitamin B12 alone, supplementation of either vitamin alone had no effect on any of the outcomes. Conclusion Our findings suggest that supplementation of vitamin B12 and folic acid benefit development in North Indian Children. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00717730 PMID:26098427

  19. Vitamin B12 status of pregnant Indian women and cognitive function in their 9-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Bhate, Vidya; Deshpande, Swapna; Bhat, Dattatray; Joshi, Niranjan; Ladkat, Rasika; Watve, Sujala; Fall, Caroline; de Jager, Celeste A.; Refsum, Helga; Yajnik, Chittaranjan

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent research has highlighted the influence of maternal factors on the health of the offspring. Intrauterine experiences may program metabolic, cardiovascular, and psychiatric disorders. We have shown that maternal vitamin B12 status affects adiposity and insulin resistance in the child. Vitamin B12 is important for brain development and function. Objective We investigated the relationship between maternal plasma vitamin B12 status during pregnancy and the child's cognitive function at 9 years of age. Methods We studied children born in the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study. Two groups of children were selected on the basis of maternal plasma vitamin B12 concentration at 28 weeks of gestation: group 1 (n = 49) included children of mothers with low plasma vitamin B12 (lowest decile, < 77 pM) and group 2 (n = 59) children of mothers with high plasma vitamin B12 (highest decile, > 224 pM). Results Children from group 1 performed more slowly than those from group 2 on the Color Trail A test (sustained attention, 182 vs. 159 seconds; p < .05) and the Digit Span Backward test (short-term memory, p <.05), after appropriate adjustment for confounders. There were no differences between group 1 and group 2 on other tests of cognitive function (intelligence, visual agnosia). Conclusions Maternal vitamin B12 status in pregnancy influences cognitive function in offspring. PMID:19227049

  20. Effect of vitamin B12 on functional recovery and histopathologic changes of tibial nerve-crushed rats.

    PubMed

    Tamaddonfard, E; Farshid, A A; Samadi, F; Eghdami, K

    2014-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested a neuroprotective effect for vitamin B12. The present study investigated the effects of vitamin B12, diclofenac and celecoxib in separate and combined treatments on functional recovery of crushed tibial nerve in rats. In ketamine plus xylazin anesthetized rats, right tibial nerve was crushed using a small hemoatatic forceps. Footprints were recorded 1 day before and on days 7, 14 and 21 after induction of nerve injury. Tibial functional index (TFI) was used to evaluate the recovery of tibial nerve function. Histological changes of tibial nerve were investigated by light microscopy. The recovery of TFI values were significantly accelerated with 10 consecutive days treatments with 0.1 and 0.5?mg/kg of vitamin B12, 5?mg/kg of diclofenac and 1 and 5?mg/kg of celecoxib. The severity of Wallerian degeneration was reduced by above-mentioned doses of vitamin B12, diclofenac and celecoxib. Documented effects were observed when 0.1?mg/kg of vitamin B12 was concurrently used with 1?mg/kg of diclofenac and or 0.2?mg/kg of celecoxib. In the present study, vitamin B12, celecoxib and diclofenac (at a high dose) showed neuroprotective effects. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 pathways may be involved in neuroprotective effect of vitamin B12. PMID:24470311

  1. STM investigations of Au(1 1 1) electrodes coated with vitamin B 12 derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szőcs, E.; Durrer, L.; Luginbühl, R.; Simic, N.; Viana, A. S.; Abrantes, L. M.; Keese, R.; Siegenthaler, H.

    2006-01-01

    Vitamin B 12 derivatives immobilized at flame-annealed Au(1 1 1) electrode surfaces have been investigated in close correlation with their structural properties and spatial arrangement at the electrode substrate by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) in air and in aqueous 0.1 M NaClO 4 solution. The investigated compounds were symmetrical (B 12C 10S-SC 10B 12) and nonsymmetrical (B 12C 10S-SC 10) dialkyl disulfide derivatives of vitamin B 12, attached to the electrode surfaces by the S-Au bond. The ex situ and in situ STM experiments show the formation of a surface layer, whose packing density and structure is presumably controlled by the spatial arrangement of the large cobyrinate head groups. In presence of the symmetrical B 12 compound, a disordered surface layer is observed. Voltammetric investigations show that, in 0.1 M NaClO 4, this layer becomes unstable at potentials approximately ⩽ -1000 mV vs. MSE and is almost completely removed at more negative potentials. The STM imaging properties of the nonsymmetrical B 12 surface layer show a significant dependence on the tunneling distance. In particular, at small tunneling distances, a highly regular hexagonal surface pattern is observed that suggests strongly the presence of an ordered surface assembly. Modeling of the B 12 head group has been performed to provide information for a structure-related interpretation of the high-resolution STM images. The investigations are first STM results obtained at such B 12 modified electrodes.

  2. Comparison of two modes of vitamin B12 supplementation on neuroconduction and cognitive function among older people living in Sandiago, Chile: A cluster randomized controlled trial. A study protocol(ISRCTN 02694183)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Older people have a high risk of vitamin B12 deficiency; this can lead to varying degrees of cognitive and neurological impairment. CBL deficiency may present as macrocytic anemia, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, or as neuropathy, but is often asymptomatic in older peo...

  3. Gestational Vitamin B Deficiency Leads to Homocysteine-Associated Brain Apoptosis and Alters Neurobehavioral Development in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Blaise, Sébastien A.; Nédélec, Emmanuelle; Schroeder, Henri; Alberto, Jean-Marc; Bossenmeyer-Pourié, Carine; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Daval, Jean-Luc

    2007-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia has been identified as a risk factor for neurological disorders. To study the influence of early deficiency in nutritional determinants of hyperhomocysteinemia on the developing rat brain, dams were fed a standard diet or a diet lacking methyl groups during gestation and lactation. Homocysteinemia progressively increased in the offspring of the deficient group and at 21 days reached 13.3 ± 3.7 μmol/L versus 6.8 ± 0.3 μmol/L in controls. Homocysteine accumulated in both neurons and astrocytes of selective brain structures including the hippocampus, the cerebellum, the striatum, and the neurogenic subventricular zone. Most homocysteine-positive cells expressed p53 and displayed fragmented DNA indicative of apoptosis. Righting reflex and negative geotaxis revealed a delay in the onset of integration capacities in the deficient group. Between 19 and 21 days, a poorer success score was recorded in deficient animals in a locomotor coordination test. A switch to normal food after weaning allowed restoration of normal homocysteinemia. Nevertheless, at 80 days of age, the exploratory behavior in the elevated-plus maze and the learning and memory behavior in the eight-arm maze revealed that early vitamin B deprivation is associated with persistent functional disabilities, possibly resulting from the ensuing neurotoxic effects of homocysteine. PMID:17255334

  4. Vitamin B/sub 12/ and eicosanoids in insects. [Musca domestica, Coptotermes formosanus

    SciTech Connect

    Wakayama, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Vitamin B/sub 12/ was not detected in the house fly, Musca domestica, which apparently cannot interconvert propionate and succinate. In contrast, the termite readily interconverts succinate and methylmalonate, and contains high amounts of vitamin B/sub 12/. The intestinal bacteria were the major source of vitamin B/sub 12/ in the termite, Coptotermes formosanus. The presence of arachidonic acid (20:4) and eicosatrienoic acid (20:3,n-6) at low levels in adult male and female house flies was demonstrated by chemical ionization-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. After injection, over 80% of 20:4 was rapidly incorporated into the phospholipid (PL) fraction. Over 80% of the sequestered 20:4 was in the 2-position of PLs. The 20:4 was injected into the insect or was included in the diet prior to administration of (/sup 3/H) 20:4; large amounts of radioactivity were recovered in the triacylglycerol and free fatty acid fractions. Arachidonic acid (20:4) injected into house flies was rapidly converted to prostaglandins, and was also catabolized rapidly. Radiolabeled 20:4 injected into the hemolymph was incorporated into the reproductive tissues of male insects. About 2.1% of the total radioactivity from (/sup 3/H) 20:4 injected into males just prior to mating was transferred to females during mating.

  5. Disposable pencil graphite electrode modified with peptide nanotubes for Vitamin B12 analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pala, Betül Bozdoğan; Vural, Tayfun; Kuralay, Filiz; Çırak, Tamer; Bolat, Gülçin; Abacı, Serdar; Denkbaş, Emir Baki

    2014-06-01

    In this study, peptide nanostructures from diphenylalanine were synthesized in various solvents with various polarities and characterized with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD) techniques. Formation of peptide nanofibrils, nanovesicles, nanoribbons, and nanotubes was observed in different solvent mediums. In order to investigate the effects of peptide nanotubes (PNT) on electrochemical behavior of disposable pencil graphite electrodes (PGE), electrode surfaces were modified with fabricated peptide nanotubes. Electrochemical activity of the pencil graphite electrode was increased with the deposition of PNTs on the surface. The effects of the solvent type, the peptide nanotube concentration, and the passive adsorption time of peptide nanotubes on pencil graphite electrode were studied. For further electrochemical studies, electrodes were modified for 30 min by immobilizing PNTs, which were prepared in water at 6 mg/mL concentration. Vitamin B12 analyses were performed by the Square Wave (SW) voltammetry method using modified PGEs. The obtained data showed linearity over the range of 0.2 μM and 9.50 μM Vitamin B12 concentration with high sensitivity. Results showed that PNT modified PGEs were highly simple, fast, cost effective, and feasible for the electro-analytical determination of Vitamin B12 in real samples.

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyl reductive dechlorination by vitamin B{sub 12s}: Thermodynamics and regiospecificity

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, S.L.; Trobaugh, D.J.; Carter, K.J.

    1999-03-15

    Microbial reductive dechlorination reactions play an important role in determining the environmental fate of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), especially for PCB congeners with more than four chlorines. Powerful chemical catalysts such as vitamin B{sub 12s} provide an effective tool for the study of reductive dechlorination reactions. The reductive dechlorination of PCBs by titanium(III) citrate-reduced vitamin B{sub 12s} was studied in batch reactors. Long-term experiments demonstrated reductive dechlorination of aqueous and sediment-sorbed 2,3,4,5,6-pentachlorobiphenyl (2,3,4,5,6-PeCB) to tetra-, tri-, di-, and monochlorobiphenyl products. Approximately 10% chlorine removal was observed in 36 days in aqueous experiments at 20 C; the sediment experiment showed 40% chlorine removal in 42 days at 30 C. Nearly all possible intermediates were produced and reductively dechlorinated, with no apparent accumulation of individual congeners. Short-term experiments were conducted to determine the pathway for vitamin B{sub 12s}-catalyzed reductive dechlorination of aqueous 2,3,4,5,6-PeCB and its dechlorinated products; relative product distributions were measured for all possible tetra- and trichlorobiphenyl reductive dechlorination reactions. Theoretical product distributions based on free energies of formation agreed with observed product distributions for short- and long-term experiments. Reductive dechlorination was favored at positions with adjacent chlorines; on average, chlorines were removed equally from ortho, meta, and para positions.

  7. Effect of Folic Acid, Betaine, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on Homocysteine and Dimethylglycine Levels in Middle-Aged Men Drinking White Wine

    PubMed Central

    Rajdl, Daniel; Racek, Jaroslav; Trefil, Ladislav; Stehlik, Pavel; Dobra, Jana; Babuska, Vaclav

    2016-01-01

    Moderate regular consumption of alcoholic beverages is believed to protect against atherosclerosis but can also increase homocysteine or dimethylglycine, which are putative risk factors for atherosclerosis. We aimed (1) to investigate the effect of alcohol consumption on vitamins and several metabolites involved in one-carbon metabolism; and (2) to find the most effective way of decreasing homocysteine during moderate alcohol consumption. Methods: Male volunteers (n = 117) were randomly divided into five groups: the wine-only group (control, 375 mL of white wine daily for one month) and four groups combining wine consumption with one of the supplemented substances (folic acid, betaine, and vitamins B12 or B6). Significant lowering of homocysteine concentration after the drinking period was found in subjects with concurrent folate and betaine supplementation. Vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 supplementation did not lead to a statistically significant change in homocysteine. According to a multiple linear regression model, the homocysteine change in the wine-only group was mainly determined by the interaction between the higher baseline homocysteine concentration and the change in dimethylglycine levels. Folate and betaine can attenuate possible adverse effects of moderate alcohol consumption. Dimethylglycine should be interpreted together with data on alcohol consumption and homocysteine concentration. PMID:26771632

  8. Kinetic determination of vitamin B12 in pharmaceuticals by the continuous addition of reagent technique.

    PubMed

    Márquez, M; Silva, M; Pérez-Bendito, D

    1990-01-01

    An automatic kinetic method for the determination of micro amounts of vitamin B12 in pharmaceutical samples based on the fast formation of a coloured complex between the cobalt contained by this vitamin and PAR [4-(2-pyridilazo)resorcinol] in a weakly alkaline medium and on the use of the continuous addition of reagent technique for the mixing of sample and reagent is reported. The reaction is monitored by measuring the changes in the absorbance at 510 nm characteristic of the complex formed. The linear range of the determination is 1.1-34.5 micrograms ml-1 and the relative standard deviation is 1.2%. The sample throughput is 75 h-1 (triplicate runs). The results obtained in analyses of pharmaceutical samples showed excellent correlation with nominal contents and the results of atomic absorption spectrophotometric analyses. PMID:2100217

  9. Molecular and cellular effects of vitamin B12 in brain, myocardium and liver through its role as co-factor of methionine synthase.

    PubMed

    Guéant, Jean-Louis; Caillerez-Fofou, Maatem; Battaglia-Hsu, Shyuefang; Alberto, Jean-Marc; Freund, Jean-Noel; Dulluc, Isabelle; Adjalla, Charles; Maury, Florence; Merle, Carole; Nicolas, Jean-Pierre; Namour, Fares; Daval, Jean-Luc

    2013-05-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, cbl) is a cofactor of methionine synthase (MTR) in the synthesis of methionine, the precursor of the universal methyl donor S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM), which is involved in epigenomic regulatory mechanisms. We have established a neuronal cell model with stable expression of a transcobalamin-oleosin chimer and subsequent decreased cellular availability of vitamin B12, which produces reduced proliferation, increased apoptosis and accelerated differentiation through PP2A, NGF and TACE pathways. Anti-transcobalamin antibody or impaired transcobalamin receptor expression produce also impaired proliferation in other cells. Consistently, the transcription, protein expression and activity of MTR are increased in proliferating cells of skin and intestinal epitheliums, in rat intestine crypts and in proliferating CaCo2 cells, while MTR activity correlates with DNA methylation in rat intestine villi. Exposure to nitrous oxide in animal models identified impairment of MTR reaction as the most important metabolic cause of neurological manifestations of B12 deficiency. Early vitamin B12 and folate deprivation during gestation and lactation of a 'dam-progeny' rat model developed in our laboratory is associated with long-lasting disabilities of behavior and memory capacities, with persisting hallmarks related to increased apoptosis, impaired neurogenesis and altered plasticity. We found also an epigenomic deregulation of energy metabolism and fatty acids beta-oxidation in myocardium and liver, through imbalanced methylation/acetylation of PGC-1alpha and decreased expression of SIRT1. These nutrigenomic effects display similarities with the molecular mechanisms of fetal programming. Beside deficiency, B12 loading increases the expression of MTR through internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) and down-regulates MDR-1 gene expression. In conclusion, vitamin B12 influences cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in brain. Vitamin B12 and folate combined deficiency impairs fatty acid oxidation and energy metabolism in liver and heart through epigenomic mechanisms related to imbalanced acetylation/methylation. Some but not all of these effects reflect the upstream role of vitamin B12 in SAM synthesis. PMID:23415654

  10. Vitamin A deficiency in quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, R.B.; Bailey, W.W.

    1943-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the symptoms of avitaminosis A in growing and adolescent bobwhites. Chicks from parents that have received a diet rich in vitamin A may have enough stored to carry them a week or ten days on a growing diet deficient in vitamin A before symptoms of deficiency occur. The first sign is ruffled feathering, with the wing primaries standing out from the body and drooping. Ophthalmia in one or both eyes occurs and may close the eyes completely, but this condition is not severe in all cases and may not even be noticeable. Birds show poor growth, loss of appetite, and weakness before death. Under the conditions of the experiments discussed herein, death may occur in the fourth or fifth week, and mortality is high......Postmortem examination may reveal visceral gout with thick deposits of urates on the kidneys, in the ureters, on the heart, in the proventriculus, and occasionally covering all the viscera. There may also be hemorrhage of the heart and other organs....Adolescent quail reared on a diet rich in vitamin A may be able to live through the winter on a maintenance diet low in this vitamin without showing symptoms of avitaminosis, but some individuals whose storage of vitamin A in the liver is not as great as that of others may succumb to visceral gout.....A growing mash for quail which contains sufficient vitamin A when fresh may, after a period of storage, lose enough of the vitamin to cause the characteristic symptoms of avitaminosis A to appear.

  11. Vitamin B12 production by Citrobacter freundii or Klebsiella pneumoniae during tempeh fermentation and proof of enterotoxin absence by PCR.

    PubMed

    Keuth, S; Bisping, B

    1994-05-01

    The influence of some fermentation parameters on vitamin B12 formation by strains of Citrobacter freundii and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from Indonesian tempeh samples during tempeh fermentation was investigated. A decrease in fermentation temperature from 32 to 24 degrees C led to a decrease in vitamin B12 formation. Inoculation of soybeans with different numbers of cells of C. freundii at the beginning of solid-substrate fermentation showed that only the velocity of vitamin formation and not the final amount of vitamin formed depended on the number of cells. The addition of cobalt and 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole increased the vitamin B12 content of tempeh. Nevertheless, levels of incorporation of the two precursors into the vitamin B12 molecule were very low. Neither C. freundii nor K. pneumoniae possessed the genes encoding the enterotoxins Shiga-like toxin SLT IIA, heat-labile enterotoxin LT Ih, and heat-stable enterotoxin ST Ih, as indicated by PCR. This result supports the suggested use of these two strains to form vitamin B12 during tempeh fermentation in Indonesia. PMID:8017933

  12. Influence of heme and vitamin B12 on growth and fermentations of Bacteroides species.

    PubMed

    Chen, M; Wolin, M J

    1981-01-01

    We examined the effects of heme on the growth and fermentations of Bacteroides species. Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 25285 required heme for growth and produced malate and lactate as major products of glucose fermentation when the concentration of heme was 1 ng/ml. With 1 microgram of heme per ml, malate was not formed, lactate production decreased, and succinate and acetate were the major fermentation products. B. eggerthii ATCC 27754 grew without heme, with the production of mainly malate and lactate from glucose. Its fermentation with 1 microgram of heme per ml was similar to that of B. fragilis grown with the same concentration of heme. B. splanchicus VPI 6842 grew without heme, with the production of mainly malate, acetate, and H2 from glucose. With 1 microgram of heme per ml, malate disappeared, H2 decreased significantly, and succinate, acetate, and butyrate were the major products. The addition of vitamin B12 to media containing 1 microgram of heme per ml caused all species to produce propionate at the expense of succinate and, with B. splanchnicus, also at the expense of butyrate. Thus, the concentration of heme and the presence of vitamin B12 significantly influenced the course of glucose fermentation by these bacteria. PMID:7462148

  13. Comparison of two modes of vitamin B12 supplementation on neuroconduction and cognitive function among older people living in Santiago, Chile: a cluster randomized controlled trial. a study protocol [ISRCTN 02694183

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Older people have a high risk of vitamin B12 deficiency; this can lead to varying degrees of cognitive and neurological impairment. CBL deficiency may present as macrocytic anemia, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, or as neuropathy, but is often asymptomatic in older people. Less is known about subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency and concurrent neuroconduction and cognitive impairment. A Programme of Complementary Feeding for the Older Population (PACAM) in Chile delivers 2 complementary fortified foods that provide approximately 1.4 μg/day of vitamin B12 (2.4 μg/day elderly RDA). The aim of the present study is to assess whether supplementation with vitamin B12 will improve neuroconduction and cognitive function in older people who have biochemical evidence of vitamin B12 insufficiency in the absence of clinical deficiency. Methods We designed a cluster double-blind placebo-controlled trial involving community dwelling people aged 70-79 living in Santiago, Chile. We randomized 15 clusters (health centers) involving 300 people (20 per cluster). Each cluster will be randomly assigned to one of three arms: a) a 1 mg vitamin B12 pill taken daily and a routine PACAM food; b) a placebo pill and the milk-PACAM food fortified to provide 1 mg of vitamin B12; c) the routine PACAM food and a placebo pill. The study has been designed as an 18 month follow up period. The primary outcomes assessed at baseline, 4, 9 and 18 months will be: serum levels of vitamin B12, neuroconduction and cognitive function. Conclusions In view of the high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in later life, the present study has potential public health interest because since it will measure the impact of the existing program of complementary feeding as compared to two options that provide higher vitamin B12 intakes that might potentially may contribute in preserving neurophysiologic and cognitive function and thus improve quality of life for older people in Chile. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN02694183 PMID:21952034

  14. Improved propionic acid and 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole control strategy for vitamin B12 fermentation by Propionibacterium freudenreichii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Zhang, Zhiwei; Jiao, Youjing; Liu, Shouxin; Wang, Yunshan

    2015-01-10

    An efficient fermentation-strengthening approach was developed to improve the anaerobic production of vitamin B12 by cultivation process optimization with Propionibacterium freudenreichii. The effects of the byproduct propionic acid and the precursor 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB) on vitamin B12 biosynthesis were investigated. Byproduct inhibition experiments showed that maintaining propionic acid concentration in broth below 10-20 g/L in the early stage and 20-30 g/L in the late stage can efficiently improve vitamin B12 biosynthesis. Batch fermentation indicated the occurrence of feed-back inhibition in intracellular intermediate biosynthesis. In addition, the incorporation of the precursor DMB depended on the fermentation level of the vitamin B12 intermediate. High vitamin B12 concentration (58.8 mg/L) and production (0.37 mg/g) were obtained with an expanded bed adsorption bioreactor by using the propionic acid and DMB control method. The optimum concentration and production of 59.5 and 0.59 mg/L h for vitamin B12 production were respectively achieved after five continuous batches. PMID:25455014

  15. Effects of supplements of folic acid, vitamin B12, and rumen-protected methionine on whole body metabolism of methionine and glucose in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Preynat, A; Lapierre, H; Thivierge, M C; Palin, M F; Matte, J J; Desrochers, A; Girard, C L

    2009-02-01

    The present experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of dietary supplements of rumen-protected methionine and intramuscular injections of folic acid and vitamin B(12), given 3 wk before to 16 wk after calving, on glucose and methionine metabolism of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 6 blocks of 4 cows each according to their previous milk production. Within each block, 2 cows were fed a diet estimated to supply methionine as 1.83% metabolizable protein, equivalent to 76% of methionine requirement, whereas the 2 other cows were fed the same diet supplemented daily with 18 g of rumen-protected methionine. Within each diet, the cows were administrated either no vitamin supplement or weekly intramuscular injections of 160 mg of folic acid plus 10 mg of vitamin B(12.) To investigate metabolic changes at 12 wk of lactation, glucose and methionine kinetics were measured by isotope dilution using infusions of 3[U-(13)C]glucose, [(13)C]NaHCO(3) and 3[1-(13)C,(2)H(3)] methionine. Milk and plasma concentrations of folic acid and vitamin B(12) increased with vitamin injections. Supplementary B-vitamins increased milk production from 34.7 to 38.9 +/- 1.0 kg/d and increased milk lactose, protein, and total solids yields. Whole-body glucose flux tended to increase with vitamin supplementation with a similar quantitative magnitude as the milk lactose yield increase. Vitamin supplementation increased methionine utilization for protein synthesis through increased protein turnover when methionine was deficient and through decreased methionine oxidation when rumen-protected methionine was fed. Vitamin supplementation decreased plasma concentrations of homocysteine independently of rumen-protected methionine feeding, although no effect of vitamin supplementation was measured on methionine remethylation, but this could be due to the limitation of the technique used. Therefore, the effects of these B-vitamins on lactation performance were not mainly explained by methionine economy because of a more efficient methylneogenesis but were rather related to increased glucose availability and changes in methionine metabolism. PMID:19164680

  16. Iron Limitation of a Springtime Bacterial and Phytoplankton Community in the Ross Sea: Implications for Vitamin B12 Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Erin M.; Saito, Mak A.; Lee, Peter A.; Dunbar, Robert B.; Sedwick, Peter N.; DiTullio, Giacomo R.

    2011-01-01

    The Ross Sea is home to some of the largest phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean. Primary production in this system has previously been shown to be iron limited in the summer and periodically iron and vitamin B12 colimited. In this study, we examined trace metal limitation of biological activity in the Ross Sea in the austral spring and considered possible implications for vitamin B12 nutrition. Bottle incubation experiments demonstrated that iron limited phytoplankton growth in the austral spring while B12, cobalt, and zinc did not. This is the first demonstration of iron limitation in a Phaeocystis antarctica-dominated, early season Ross Sea phytoplankton community. The lack of B12 limitation in this location is consistent with previous Ross Sea studies in the austral summer, wherein vitamin additions did not stimulate P. antarctica growth and B12 was limiting only when bacterial abundance was low. Bottle incubation experiments and a bacterial regrowth experiment also revealed that iron addition directly enhanced bacterial growth. B12 uptake measurements in natural water samples and in an iron fertilized bottle incubation demonstrated that bacteria serve not only as a source for vitamin B12, but also as a significant sink, and that iron additions enhanced B12 uptake rates in phytoplankton but not bacteria. Additionally, vitamin uptake rates did not become saturated upon the addition of up to 95 pM B12. A rapid B12 uptake rate was observed after 13 min, which then decreased to a slower constant uptake rate over the next 52 h. Results from this study highlight the importance of iron availability in limiting early season Ross Sea phytoplankton growth and suggest that rates of vitamin B12 production and consumption may be impacted by iron availability. PMID:21886638

  17. Pyridoxine supplementation corrects vitamin B6 deficiency but does not improve inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis have subnormal vitamin B6 status, both quantitatively and functionally. Abnormal vitamin B6 status in rheumatoid arthritis has been associated with spontaneous tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production and markers of inflammation, including C-reactive protein an...

  18. Optimization of Vitamin Suppletion After Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery Can Lower Postoperative Deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Kemal; Aarts, Edo O.; Koehestanie, Parweez; Betzel, Bark; Ploeger, Nadine; de Boer, Hans; Aufenacker, Theo J.; van Laarhoven, Kees J.H.M.; Janssen, Ignace M.C.; Berends, Frits J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid deficiencies are among the most common deficiencies occurring after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB). The present study evaluates the effectiveness of a specially designed multivitamin supplement (WLS Forte, FitForMe, Rotterdam, the Netherlands) specifically developed for LRYGB patients. A triple-blind, randomized, 12-month study was conducted comparing WLS forte with a standard multivitamin supplement (sMVS) containing approximately 100% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) for iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid. WLS Forte contains vitamin B12 14000% RDA, iron 500% RDA, and folic acid 300% RDA. In total, 148 patients (74 in each group) underwent a LRYGB procedure. Baseline characteristics were similar for both groups. Per protocol analysis demonstrated that sMVS treatment was associated with a decline in ferritin (−24.4 ± 70.1 μg/L) and vitamin B12 (−45.9 ± 150.3 pmol/L) over 12 months, whereas in WLS Forte patients, ferritin remained stable (+3.2 ± 93.2 μg/L) and vitamin B12 increased significantly (+55.1 ± 144.2 pmol/L). The number of patients developing ferritin or vitamin B12 deficiency was significantly lower with WLS Forte compared with sMVS (P < 0.05). Iron deficiency (ID) was reduced by 88% after WLS Forte compared with sMVS. Adverse events related to supplement use did not occur. An optimized multivitamin supplement is safe and reduces the development of iron and vitamin B12 deficiencies after LRYGB. PMID:25437032

  19. A Nampt inhibitor FK866 mimics vitamin B3 deficiency by causing senescence of human fibroblastic Hs68 cells via attenuation of NAD(+)-SIRT1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Song, Tuzz-Ying; Yeh, Shu-Lan; Hu, Miao-Lin; Chen, Mei-Yau; Yang, Nae-Cherng

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin B3 (niacin) deficiency can cause pellagra with symptoms of dermatitis, diarrhea and dementia. However, it is unclear whether the vitamin B3 deficiency causes human aging. FK866 (a Nampt inhibitor) can reduce intracellular NAD(+) level and induce senescence of human Hs68 cells. However, the mechanisms underlying FK866-induced senescence of Hs68 cells are unclear. In this study, we used FK866 to mimic the effects of vitamin B3 deficiency to reduce the NAD(+) level and investigated the mechanisms of FK866-induced senescence of Hs68 cells. We hypothesized that FK866 induced the senescence of Hs68 cells via an attenuation of NAD(+)-silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1) signaling. We found that FK866 induced cell senescence and diminished cellular NAD(+) levels and SIRT1 activity (detected by acetylation of p53), and these effects were dramatically antagonized by co-treatment with nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, or NAD(+). In contrast, the protein expression of SIRT1, AMP-activated protein kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) was not affected by FK866. In addition, the role of GSH in the FK866-induced cells senescence may be limited, as N-acetylcysteine did not antagonize FK866-induced cell senescence. These results suggest that FK866 induces cell senescence via attenuation of NAD(+)-SIRT1 signaling. The effects of vitamin B3 deficiency on human aging warrant further investigation. PMID:26330291

  20. Iron, folacin, vitamin B/sub 12/ and zinc status and immune response in elderly subjects in the Washington D. C. metropolitan area

    SciTech Connect

    Henry-Christian, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The iron, folacin, vitamin B/sub 12/, and zinc status of a group of economically and socially disadvantaged elderly persons in the Washington Metropolitan Area was evaluated. Factors related to deficiencies of these nutrients, the relationships between the status of these nutrients and cell-mediated immunity, and the relationships of iron, folacin and vitamin B/sub 12/ status to hemoglobin levels in the subjects were also examined. It was also determined whether there were any interactions among iron, folacin, vitamin B/sub 12/ and zinc status in their relationships to cell-mediated immunity. Socio-demographic and nutritional data on the subjects were obtained using a questionnaire. Dietary data were obtained using a dietary record. A fasting blood sample was drawn and the levels of ferritin, folate and vitamin B/sub 12/, and the erythrocyte levels of folate were determined by radioassay. Plasma and hair zinc levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Cell-mediated immune response was determined by transformation of peripheral blood lymphocytes after stimulation by mitogens, and by allogenic lymphocytes in the mixed lymphocyte reaction.

  1. Fundamental shift in vitamin B12 eco-physiology of a model alga demonstrated by experimental evolution

    PubMed Central

    Helliwell, Katherine E.; Collins, Sinéad; Kazamia, Elena; Purton, Saul; Wheeler, Glen L.; Smith, Alison G.

    2014-01-01

    A widespread and complex distribution of vitamin requirements exists over the entire tree of life, with many species having evolved vitamin dependence, both within and between different lineages. Vitamin availability has been proposed to drive selection for vitamin dependence, in a process that links an organism’s metabolism to the environment, but this has never been demonstrated directly. Moreover, understanding the physiological processes and evolutionary dynamics that influence metabolic demand for these important micronutrients has significant implications in terms of nutrient acquisition, and in microbial organisms, can affect community composition and metabolic exchange between coexisting species. Here, we investigate the origins of vitamin dependence, using an experimental evolution approach with the vitamin B12-independent model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In fewer than 500 generations of growth in the presence of vitamin B12, we observe the evolution of a B12-dependent clone that rapidly displaces its ancestor. Genetic characterization of this line reveals a type-II Gulliver-related transposable element (GR-TE) integrated into the B12-independent methionine synthase gene (METE), knocking out gene function and critically altering the physiology of the alga. PMID:25526368

  2. Fundamental shift in vitamin B12 eco-physiology of a model alga demonstrated by experimental evolution.

    PubMed

    Helliwell, Katherine E; Collins, Sinéad; Kazamia, Elena; Purton, Saul; Wheeler, Glen L; Smith, Alison G

    2015-06-01

    A widespread and complex distribution of vitamin requirements exists over the entire tree of life, with many species having evolved vitamin dependence, both within and between different lineages. Vitamin availability has been proposed to drive selection for vitamin dependence, in a process that links an organism's metabolism to the environment, but this has never been demonstrated directly. Moreover, understanding the physiological processes and evolutionary dynamics that influence metabolic demand for these important micronutrients has significant implications in terms of nutrient acquisition and, in microbial organisms, can affect community composition and metabolic exchange between coexisting species. Here we investigate the origins of vitamin dependence, using an experimental evolution approach with the vitamin B(12)-independent model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In fewer than 500 generations of growth in the presence of vitamin B(12), we observe the evolution of a B(12)-dependent clone that rapidly displaces its ancestor. Genetic characterization of this line reveals a type-II Gulliver-related transposable element integrated into the B(12)-independent methionine synthase gene (METE), knocking out gene function and fundamentally altering the physiology of the alga. PMID:25526368

  3. Carbon tetrachloride degradation: Effect of microbial growth substrate and vitamin B{sub 12} content

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, S.; Stensel, H.D.; Ferguson, J.F.

    2000-05-01

    Microbial degradation kinetics of carbon tetrachloride (CT) under reducing conditions were investigated for different cultures, fed with 1,2-propanediol, dextrose, propionalde-hyde, or acetate and nitrate, in the anaerobic step of an anaerobic/aerobic operation sequence. Methanogenesis was inhibited due to the aerobic step. CT biodegradation rates followed first-order kinetics with respect to CT concentration and biomass and were not affected by the presence of growth substrate. CT degradation rates increased linearly with higher intracellular vitamin B{sub 12} content. The culture fed 1,2-propanediol had the highest vitamin B{sub 12} content, which was 3.8, 4.7, and 16 times that of the propionaldehyde-,dextrose-, and acetate-fed cultures, respectively, and its first-order degradation rate constant was 2.8, 4.5, 6.0 times that for those cultures, respectively. No CT degradation occurred with culture liquid, suggesting that intracellular factors were responsible for CT degradation. The propanediol culture was able to sustain a constant CT degradation rate for a 16-day test period without substrate addition. Compared to a propanediol-fed culture grown only under anaerobic conditions, the propanediol culture grown under the sequential anaerobic/aerobic condition resulted in more biomass growth and a greater CT degradation rate per unit of propanediol fed, although its CT degradation rate per unit of biomass was lower.

  4. Rapid determination of vitamin B12 concentration with a chemiluminescence lab on a chip.

    PubMed

    Lok, Khoi Seng; Abdul Muttalib, Siti Zubaidah binte; Lee, Peter Peng Foo; Kwok, Yien Chian; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports a novel method for the rapid determination of vitamin B(12) concentration in a continuous-flow lab-on-a-chip system. This new method is based on luminol-peroxide chemiluminescence (CL) assays for the detection of cobalt(II) ions in vitamin B(12) molecules. The lab-on-a-chip device consisted of two passive micromixers acting as microreactors and a double spiral microchannel network serving as an optical detection region. This system could operate in two modes. In the first mode, samples are acidified and evaluated directly in the microchip. In the second mode, samples are treated externally by acidification prior to detection in the microchip. In the first mode, the linear range obtained was between 1.00 ng ml(-1) to 10 μg ml(-1), R(2) = 0.996, with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.23 to 2.31% (n = 5) and a limit of detection (lod) of 0.368 pg ml(-1). The minimum sample volume required and the analytical time were 30 μl and 3.6 s, respectively. In the second mode, the linear range obtained was between 0.10 ng ml(-1) to 10 μg ml(-1), R(2) = 0.994, with the RSD of 0.90 to 2.32% (n = 6) and a lod of 0.576 pg ml(-1). The minimum sample and the analytical time required were 50 μl and 6 s, respectively. The lab on a chip working in mode II was successfully used for the determination of vitamin B(12) concentrations in nutritional supplemental tablets and hen egg yolks. PMID:22513799

  5. Regiospecificity of chlorophenol reductive dechlorination by vitamin B{sub 12s}

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.H.; Woods, S.L.

    1994-11-01

    Natural and engineered biological systems can transform environmental pollutants into less-noxious compounds. A thorough understanding of the biochemical reactions involved in these transformations may lead to improved processes for bioremediation of hazardous waste sites. A transformation of particular interest is reductive dechlorination since a large number of hazardous substances of environmental concern are chlorinated hydrocarbons. This study examines the reductive dechlorination of Pentachlorophenol and all of the tetrachlorophenols and trichlorophenols by vitamin B{sub 12} and compares the regiospecificity with that of anaerobic microbial consortia. 22 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Vitamin D deficiency in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ashraf T.; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania; Bedair, Said; Kassem, Islam

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in adolescents is variable but considerably high in many countries, especially in Middle-east and Southeast Asia. Different factors attribute to this deficiency including lack of sunlight exposure due to cultural dress codes and veiling or due to pigmented skin, and less time spent outdoors, because of hot weather, and lower vitamin D intake. A potent adaptation process significantly modifies the clinical presentation and therefore clinical presentations may be subtle and go unnoticed, thus making true prevalence studies difficult. Adolescents with severe VDD may present with vague manifestations including pain in weight-bearing joints, back, thighs and/or calves, difficulty in walking and/or climbing stairs, or running and muscle cramps. Adaptation includes increased parathormone (PTH) and deceased insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) secretion. PTH enhances the tubular reabsorption of Ca and stimulates the kidneys to produce 1, 25-(OH) 2D3 that increases intestinal calcium absorption and dissolves the mineralized collagen matrix in bone, causing osteopenia and osteoporosis to provide enough Ca to prevent hypocalcaemia. Decreased insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) delays bone growth to economize calcium consumption. Radiological changes are not uncommon and include osteoporosis/osteopenia affecting long bones as well as vertebrae and ribs, bone cysts, decalcification of the metaphysis of the long bones and pseudo fractures. In severe cases pathological fractures and deformities may occur. Vitamin D treatment of adolescents with VDD differs considerably in different studies and proved to be effective in treating all clinical, biochemical, and radiological manifestations. Different treatment regiments for VDD have been discussed and presented in this mini-review for practical use. Adequate vitamin D replacement after treating VDD, improving calcium intake (milk and dairy products), encouraging adequate exposure to the sun and possible enrichment of the stable food with vitamin D in areas with high prevalence of VDD are important measures to prevent the harmful consequences of VDD. PMID:25538884

  7. Vitamin D deficiency in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ashraf T; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania; Bedair, Said; Kassem, Islam

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in adolescents is variable but considerably high in many countries, especially in Middle-east and Southeast Asia. Different factors attribute to this deficiency including lack of sunlight exposure due to cultural dress codes and veiling or due to pigmented skin, and less time spent outdoors, because of hot weather, and lower vitamin D intake. A potent adaptation process significantly modifies the clinical presentation and therefore clinical presentations may be subtle and go unnoticed, thus making true prevalence studies difficult. Adolescents with severe VDD may present with vague manifestations including pain in weight-bearing joints, back, thighs and/or calves, difficulty in walking and/or climbing stairs, or running and muscle cramps. Adaptation includes increased parathormone (PTH) and deceased insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) secretion. PTH enhances the tubular reabsorption of Ca and stimulates the kidneys to produce 1, 25-(OH) 2D3 that increases intestinal calcium absorption and dissolves the mineralized collagen matrix in bone, causing osteopenia and osteoporosis to provide enough Ca to prevent hypocalcaemia. Decreased insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) delays bone growth to economize calcium consumption. Radiological changes are not uncommon and include osteoporosis/osteopenia affecting long bones as well as vertebrae and ribs, bone cysts, decalcification of the metaphysis of the long bones and pseudo fractures. In severe cases pathological fractures and deformities may occur. Vitamin D treatment of adolescents with VDD differs considerably in different studies and proved to be effective in treating all clinical, biochemical, and radiological manifestations. Different treatment regiments for VDD have been discussed and presented in this mini-review for practical use. Adequate vitamin D replacement after treating VDD, improving calcium intake (milk and dairy products), encouraging adequate exposure to the sun and possible enrichment of the stable food with vitamin D in areas with high prevalence of VDD are important measures to prevent the harmful consequences of VDD. PMID:25538884

  8. CdTe quantum dot as a fluorescence probe for vitamin B12 in dosage form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaishnavi, E.; Renganathan, R.

    2013-11-01

    We here report the CdTe quantum dot (CdTe QDs)-based sensor for probing vitamin B12 derivatives in aqueous solution. In this paper, simple and sensitive fluorescence quenching measurements has been employed. The Stern-Volmer constant (KSV), quenching rate constant (kq) and binding constant (K) were rationalized from fluorescence quenching measurement. Furthermore, the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism was discussed. This method was applicable over the concentration ranging from 1 to 14 μg/mL (VB12) with correlation coefficient of 0.993. The limit of detection (LOD) of VB12 was found to be 0.15 μg/mL. Moreover, the present approach opens a simple pathway for developing cost-effective, sensitive and selective QD-based fluorescence sensors/probes for biologically significant VB12 in pharmaceutical sample with mean recoveries in the range of 100-102.1%.

  9. Vitamin A Deficiency Impairs Adaptive B and T Cell Responses to a Prototype Monovalent Attenuated Human Rotavirus Vaccine and Virulent Human Rotavirus Challenge in a Gnotobiotic Piglet Model

    PubMed Central

    Chattha, Kuldeep S.; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Vlasova, Anastasia N.; Saif, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RV) are a major cause of gastroenteritis in children. Widespread vitamin A deficiency is associated with reduced efficacy of vaccines and higher incidence of diarrheal infections in children in developing countries. We established a vitamin A deficient (VAD) gnotobiotic piglet model that mimics subclinical vitamin A deficiency in children to study its effects on an oral human rotavirus (HRV) vaccine and virulent HRV challenge. Piglets derived from VAD and vitamin A sufficient (VAS) sows were orally vaccinated with attenuated HRV or mock, with/without supplemental vitamin A and challenged with virulent HRV. Unvaccinated VAD control piglets had significantly lower hepatic vitamin A, higher severity and duration of diarrhea and HRV fecal shedding post-challenge as compared to VAS control pigs. Reduced protection coincided with significantly higher innate (IFNα) cytokine and CD8 T cell frequencies in the blood and intestinal tissues, higher pro-inflammatory (IL12) and 2-3 fold lower anti-inflammatory (IL10) cytokines, in VAD compared to VAS control pigs. Vaccinated VAD pigs had higher diarrhea severity scores compared to vaccinated VAS pigs, which coincided with lower serum IgA HRV antibody titers and significantly lower intestinal IgA antibody secreting cells post-challenge in the former groups suggesting lower anamnestic responses. A trend for higher serum HRV IgG antibodies was observed in VAD vs VAS vaccinated groups post-challenge. The vaccinated VAD (non-vitamin A supplemented) pigs had significantly higher serum IL12 (PID2) and IFNγ (PID6) compared to vaccinated VAS groups suggesting higher Th1 responses in VAD conditions. Furthermore, regulatory T-cell responses were compromised in VAD pigs. Supplemental vitamin A in VAD pigs did not fully restore the dysregulated immune responses to AttHRV vaccine or moderate virulent HRV diarrhea. Our findings suggest that that VAD in children in developing countries may partially contribute to more severe rotavirus infection and lower HRV vaccine efficacy. PMID:24312675

  10. Simultaneous determination of vitamin B12 and its derivatives using some of multivariate calibration 1 (MVC1) techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadi-Maybodi, Abdolraouf; Darzi, S. K. Hassani Nejad

    2008-10-01

    Resolution of binary mixtures of vitamin B12, methylcobalamin and B12 coenzyme with minimum sample pre-treatment and without analyte separation has been successfully achieved by methods of partial least squares algorithm with one dependent variable (PLS1), orthogonal signal correction/partial least squares (OSC/PLS), principal component regression (PCR) and hybrid linear analysis (HLA). Data of analysis were obtained from UV-vis spectra. The UV-vis spectra of the vitamin B12, methylcobalamin and B12 coenzyme were recorded in the same spectral conditions. The method of central composite design was used in the ranges of 10-80 mg L -1 for vitamin B12 and methylcobalamin and 20-130 mg L -1 for B12 coenzyme. The models refinement procedure and validation were performed by cross-validation. The minimum root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 2.26 mg L -1 for vitamin B12 with PLS1, 1.33 mg L -1 for methylcobalamin with OSC/PLS and 3.24 mg L -1 for B12 coenzyme with HLA techniques. Figures of merit such as selectivity, sensitivity, analytical sensitivity and LOD were determined for three compounds. The procedure was successfully applied to simultaneous determination of three compounds in synthetic mixtures and in a pharmaceutical formulation.

  11. Electrochemistry and catalytic properties of amphiphilic vitamin B12 derivatives in nonaqueous media.

    PubMed

    Giedyk, M; Shimakoshi, H; Goliszewska, K; Gryko, D; Hisaeda, Y

    2016-05-17

    The reduction pathway of cobalester (CN)Cble, an amphiphilic vitamin B12 derivative, was investigated in organic solvents under electrochemical conditions and compared with mono- and dicyanocobyrinates. The redox characteristics were determined using cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemical methods. The presence of a nucleotide moiety in B12-derivative impedes the in situ formation of dicyano-species thus facilitating the (CN)Co(iii) to Co(i) reduction. The (CN)Cble shows stepwise reduction to Co(i) via (CN)Co(ii). The reduction of (CN)Co(ii)/Co(i) was found to depend on cyanide-solvent exchange equilibrium with weakly coordinating solvents and bulky peripheral chains promoting intact (CN)Co(ii) species existence. The studied complexes were also utilized as catalysts in bulk electrolysis of benzyl bromide affording bibenzyl in very good yield. PMID:26974051

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of vitamin B12-related metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Young, Douglas B.; Comas, Iñaki; de Carvalho, Luiz P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Comparison of genome sequences from clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with phylogenetically-related pathogens Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium kansasii, and Mycobacterium leprae reveals diversity amongst genes associated with vitamin B12-related metabolism. Diversity is generated by gene deletion events, differential acquisition of genes by horizontal transfer, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with predicted impact on protein function and transcriptional regulation. Differences in the B12 synthesis pathway, methionine biosynthesis, fatty acid catabolism, and DNA repair and replication are consistent with adaptations to different environmental niches and pathogenic lifestyles. While there is no evidence of further gene acquisition during expansion of the M. tuberculosis complex, the emergence of other forms of genetic diversity provides insights into continuing host-pathogen co-evolution and has the potential to identify novel targets for disease intervention. PMID:25988174

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of vitamin B12-related metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Young, Douglas B; Comas, Iñaki; de Carvalho, Luiz P S

    2015-01-01

    Comparison of genome sequences from clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with phylogenetically-related pathogens Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium kansasii, and Mycobacterium leprae reveals diversity amongst genes associated with vitamin B12-related metabolism. Diversity is generated by gene deletion events, differential acquisition of genes by horizontal transfer, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with predicted impact on protein function and transcriptional regulation. Differences in the B12 synthesis pathway, methionine biosynthesis, fatty acid catabolism, and DNA repair and replication are consistent with adaptations to different environmental niches and pathogenic lifestyles. While there is no evidence of further gene acquisition during expansion of the M. tuberculosis complex, the emergence of other forms of genetic diversity provides insights into continuing host-pathogen co-evolution and has the potential to identify novel targets for disease intervention. PMID:25988174

  14. Disseminated BCG in an infant with interleukin-12 receptor B1 (IL12RB1) deficiency.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, Manouri P; Kumararatne, D S; Doffinger, Rainer; Barcenas-Morales, Gabriela

    2015-02-01

    Although neonatal vaccination with bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is considered to be safe, complications with disseminated disease are associated with underlying immuno-deficiency disorders. A BCG-vaccinated 4-month-old girl of Sri Lankan parentage developed progressive left axillary lymphadenopathy and severe bronchopneumonia. Lymph node biopsy demonstrated epithelioid granulomata and acid-fast bacilli. An older sibling had had a similar clinical presentation and the outcome had been fatal. Investigation for immuno-deficiency detected complete IL12RB1 deficiency. Full recovery followed a prolonged course of anti-tuberculous chemotherapy. She was put on lifelong isoniazid prophylaxis. In HIV-negative infants with unusual complications related to BCG vaccination, a primary immuno-deficiency disorder should be considered. PMID:24863105

  15. Vitamin B12[c-lactone], a biologically inactive corrinoid compound, occurs in cultured and dried lion's mane mushroom (Hericium erinaceus) fruiting bodies.

    PubMed

    Teng, Fei; Bito, Tomohiro; Takenaka, Shigeo; Yabuta, Yukinori; Watanabe, Fumio

    2014-02-19

    This study determined the vitamin B12 content of the edible medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus, lion's mane mushroom fruiting body, using a microbiological assay based on Lactobacillus delbrueckii ATCC 7830. Trace levels (0.04-0.36 μg/100 g dry weight) of vitamin B12 were found in most of the dried mushroom samples, and two samples contained slightly higher levels (0.56 and 1.04 μg/100 g dry weight, respectively) of vitamin B12. We purified the corrinoid compounds from the extracts of dried lion's mane mushroom fruiting bodies using an immunoaffinity column and identified them as vitamin B12 or vitamin B12[c-lactone] (or both) based on LC/ESI-MS/MS chromatograms. This is the first report on an unnatural corrinoid, vitamin B12[c-lactone], occurring in foods. Vitamin B12[c-lactone] was simple to produce during incubation of authentic vitamin B12 and chloramine-T, an antimicrobial agent, at varying pH values (3.0-7.0) and was completely inactive in the vitamin B12-dependent bacteria that are generally used in vitamin B12 bioassays. PMID:24506286

  16. Gender and age influence blood folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, and homocysteine levels in European adolescents: the Helena Study.

    PubMed

    González-Gross, Marcela; Benser, Jasmin; Breidenassel, Christina; Albers, Ulrike; Huybrechts, Inge; Valtueña, Jara; Spinneker, Andre; Segoviano, Miriam; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnar, Denes; Moreno, Luis A; Stehle, Peter; Pietrzik, Klaus

    2012-11-01

    It is important to be able to evaluate vitamin status correctly at any age, but this is especially vital during adolescence since there are higher requirements for healthy growth and development. However, there are no currently available B-vitamin reference values for healthy adolescents. The aim of the present study is to assess the vitamin B status in European adolescents in order to contribute to the development of reference values for selected B-vitamins and total homocysteine (tHcy). Within the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) cross-sectional study, a sub sample of 1051 (499 males, 552 females) adolescents from ten European cities aged 12.5 to 17.49 were analyzed for fasting plasma folate (PF), red blood cell (RBC) folate, serum cobalamin (Cbl), holo-transcobalamin (Holo-TC), Vitamin B(6) (PLP), and tHcy. The level of significance was set at P < .05. Following the current cut-off for adults, 2% had low Cbl and 5% had low holo-TC concentrations. Low concentrations of both PF and RBC folate were identified in 10%. Five percent had PLP concentrations <20 nmol/L and 20% <30 nmol/L. Moreover, 5% had high tHcy; median values for the whole sample were: PF 16.0 nmol/L, RBC folate 721.9 nmol/L, Cbl 319 pmol/L, Holo-TC 57.8 pmol/L, and tHcy 6.7 μmol/L. Females had significantly higher median Cbl but lower PLP and tHcy concentrations (P < .01). THcy increased (P < .001) and PF (P < .001) concentrations decreased across age categories. Subjects showed significantly higher tHcy values at the fifth percentile of PF, corresponding with 7.5 nmol/L. Sex and age had an influence on most of the studied biomarkers and should be taken into account. The HELENA percentile distribution is consistent with data from smaller studies and could be used as reference value to characterize B-vitamin status of European adolescents. PMID:23176792

  17. Structural Basis of Multifunctionality in a Vitamin B[subscript 12]-processing Enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Koutmos, Markos; Gherasim, Carmen; Smith, Janet L.; Banerjee, Ruma

    2012-07-11

    An early step in the intracellular processing of vitamin B{sub 12} involves CblC, which exhibits dual reactivity, catalyzing the reductive decyanation of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B{sub 12}), and the dealkylation of alkylcobalamins (e.g. methylcobalamin; MeCbl). Insights into how the CblC scaffold supports this chemical dichotomy have been unavailable despite it being the most common locus of patient mutations associated with inherited cobalamin disorders that manifest in both severe homocystinuria and methylmalonic aciduria. Herein, we report structures of human CblC, with and without bound MeCbl, which provide novel biochemical insights into its mechanism of action. Our results reveal that CblC is the most divergent member of the NADPH-dependent flavin reductase family and can use FMN or FAD as a prosthetic group to catalyze reductive decyanation. Furthermore, CblC is the first example of an enzyme with glutathione transferase activity that has a sequence and structure unrelated to the GST superfamily. CblC thus represents an example of evolutionary adaptation of a common structural platform to perform diverse chemistries. The CblC structure allows us to rationalize the biochemical basis of a number of pathological mutations associated with severe clinical phenotypes.

  18. Electronic structure of vitamin B12 within the framework of the Haldane-Anderson impurity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandemir, Zafer; Mayda, Selma; Bulut, Nejat

    2015-03-01

    We study the electronic structure of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamine C63H88CoN14O14P) by using the framework of the multi-orbital single-impurity Haldane-Anderson model of a transition-metal impurity in a semiconductor host. Here, our purpose is to understand the many-body effects originating from the transition-metal impurity. In this approach, the cobalt 3 d orbitals are treated as the impurity states placed in a semiconductor host which consists of the rest of the molecule. The parameters of the resulting effective Haldane-Anderson model are obtained within the Hartree-Fock approximation for the electronic structure of the molecule. The quantum Monte Carlo technique is then used to calculate the one-electron and magnetic correlation functions of this effective Haldane-Anderson model for vitamin B12. We find that new states form inside the semiconductor gap due to the on-site Coulomb interaction at the impurity 3 d orbitals and that these states become the highest occupied molecular orbitals. In addition, we present results on the charge distribution and spin correlations around the Co atom. We compare the results of this approach with those obtained by the density-functional theory calculations.

  19. Microbial production of propionic acid and vitamin B12 using molasses or sugar.

    PubMed

    Quesada-Chanto, A; Afschar, A S; Wagner, F

    1994-06-01

    With a cell concentration of 125 g dry biomass l-1 and a dilution rate of 0.1 h-1, Propionibacterium acidipropionici produces 30 g propionic acid l-1 from sugar with a productivity of 3 g l-1 h-1. The yield of propionic acid is approx. 0.36-0.45 g propionic acid g-1 sucrose and is independent of the dilution rate and cell concentration. Acetic acid is an unwanted by-product in the production of propionic acid. The concentration of acetic acid only increases slightly when the cell concentration is increased. A two-stage fermentation process was developed for the conversion of sugar or molasses of various types to propionic acid and vitamin B12. By fermentation of blackstrap molasses (from sugar beet and sugar cane) in the first fermentation stage 17.7 g propionic acid l-1 with a yield of 0.5 g propionic acid g-1 carbohydrate was produced with a dilution rate of 0.25 h-1. In the second stage 49 mg vitamin B12 1-1 was produced at a dilution rate of 0.03 h-1. PMID:7765100

  20. Reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene catalyzed by vitamin B{sub 12} in homogeneous and heterogeneous systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, D.R.; Smith, M.H.; Delcomyn, C.A.; Roberts, A.L.

    1996-10-01

    The reduction of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) catalyzed by vitamin B{sub 12} was examined in homogeneous and heterogeneous (B{sub 12} bound to agarose) batch systems using titanium(III) citrate as the bulk reductant. The solution and surface-mediated reaction rates at similar B{sub 12} loadings were comparable, indicating that binding vitamin B{sub 12} to a surface did not lower catalytic activity. No loss in PCE reducing activity was observed with repeated usage of surface-bound vitamin B{sub 12}. Carbon mass recoveries were 81-84% for PCE reduction and 89% for TCE reduction, relative to controls. In addition to sequential hydrogenolysis, a second competing reaction mechanism for the reduction of PCE and TCE by B{sub 12}, reductive {beta}-elimination, is proposed to account for the observation of acetylene as a significant reaction intermediate. Reductive {beta}-elimination should be considered as a potential pathway in other reactive systems involving the reduction of vicinal polyhaloethenes. Surface-bound catalysts such as vitamin B{sub 12} may have utility in the engineered degradation of aqueous phase chlorinated ethenes. 19 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Biological Variability and Impact of Oral Contraceptives on Vitamins B6, B12 and Folate Status in Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, Jennifer O.; Tang, HoMan; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Vitamins B6, B12 and folate play crucial metabolic roles especially during the reproductive years for women. There is limited reporting of within-subject variability of these vitamins. This study aimed to determine the within and between subject variability in serum vitamins B6, B12, folate and erythrocyte folate concentrations in young women; identify factors that contribute to variability; and determine dietary intakes and sources of these vitamins. Data were obtained from the control group of a trial aimed at investigating the effect of iron on the nutritional status of young women (age 25.2 ± 4.2 year; BMI 21.9 ± 2.2 kg/m2). The coefficients of variability within-subject (CVI) and between-subject (CVG) for serum vitamins B6, B12 and folate, and erythrocyte folate were calculated. Food frequency questionnaires provided dietary data. CVI and CVG were in the range 16.1%–25.7% and 31.7%–62.2%, respectively. Oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use was associated (P = 0.042) with lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations. Initial values were 172 ± 16 pmol/L and 318 ± 51 pmol/L for OCP and non-OCP users, respectively; with differences maintained at four time points over 12 weeks. BMI, age, physical activity, alcohol intake and haematological variables did not affect serum or erythrocyte vitamin concentrations. Vitamin B12 intakes were derived from traditional and unexpected sources including commercial energy drinks. Young women using OCP had significantly lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations. This should be considered in clinical decision making and requires further investigation. PMID:24067390

  2. Novel fermentation process strengthening strategy for production of propionic acid and vitamin B12 by Propionibacterium freudenreichii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Jiao, Youjing; Liu, Shouxin

    2014-12-01

    An efficient fermentation-strengthening approach was developed to improve the anaerobic production of propionic acid and vitamin B12 by co-fermentation with Propionibacterium freudenreichii. Vitamin B12 production from glucose resulted in relatively high productivity (0.35 mg/L h) but a low propionic acid yield (0.55 g/g). By contrast, glycerol gave a high propionic acid yield (0.63 g/g) but low productivity (0.16 g/L h). Co-fermentation of glycerol and glucose with a gradual addition strategy gave high yields (propionic acid: 0.71 g/g; vitamin B12: 0.72 mg/g) and productivities (propionic acid: 0.36 g/L h; vitamin B12: 0.36 mg/L h). Finally, the integrated feedstock and fermentation system strengthening strategy was demonstrated as an efficient method for the economic production of bio-based propionic acid and vitamin B12. PMID:25261985

  3. Plasma Homocysteine, Vitamin B12 and Folate Levels in Multiple System Atrophy: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Chengyuan; Song, Bo; Hou, Haiman; Wu, Jun; Liu, Xinjing; Luo, Haiyang; Sun, Shilei; Xu, Yuming

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disease, and its pathological hallmark is the accumulation of α-synuclein proteins. Homocysteine (Hcy) is an intermediate amino acid generated during the metabolism of methionine. Hcy may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Vitamin B12 and folate are cofactors necessary for the methylation of homocysteine. Methods This study compared the levels of serum Hcy, vitamin B12 and folate in patients with MSA with those in healthy people to reveal the possible association between MSA and plasma levels of Hcy, vitamin B12 and folate. We enrolled 161 patients with MSA and 161 healthy people in this study. The association between MSA and the levels of Hcy, vitamin B12 and folate were analyzed using binary logistic regression. Results The mean level of Hcy in patients with MSA was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (16.23 ± 8.09 umol/l vs 14.04 ± 4.25 umol/l, p < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex and medical history, the odds ratio for Hcy was 1.07 (95% CI = 1.01–1.13, p < 0.05) for patients with MSA. Vitamin B12 and folate levels were not significantly different between patients with MSA and controls. Conclusion Our data suggest that higher levels of Hcy may be associated with an increased risk for MSA. PMID:26291976

  4. Effect of vitamin B12 pulse addition on the performance of cobalt deprived anaerobic granular sludge bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Fermoso, Fernando G; Bartacek, Jan; Lens, Piet N L

    2010-07-01

    The effect of a pulse addition of vitamin B(12) as cobalt source to restore the performance of cobalt depleted methanol-fed bioreactors was investigated. One upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor was supplied with a pulse of vitamin B(12), and its operation was compared to that of another cobalt depleted UASB reactor to which a pulse of CoCl(2) was given. The addition of cobalt in the form of CoCl(2) supplies enough cobalt to restore methanogenesis and maintain full methanol degradation coupled to methane production during more than 35 days after the CoCl(2) pulse. Similar to CoCl(2), pulse addition of vitamin B(12) supplies enough cobalt to maintain full methanol degradation during more than 35 days after the pulse. However, the specific methanogenic activities (SMAs) of the sludge in the vitamin B(12) supplied reactor were around 3 times higher than the SMA of the sludge from the CoCl(2) supplied reactor at the same sampling times. An appropriate dosing strategy (repeated pulse dosing) combined with the choice of vitamin B(12) as the cobalt species is suggested as a promising dosing strategy for methanol-fed anaerobic bioreactors limited by the micronutrient cobalt. PMID:20304635

  5. Supplementing lactating dairy cows with a vitamin B12 precursor, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole, increases the apparent ruminal synthesis of vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Brito, A; Chiquette, J; Stabler, S P; Allen, R H; Girard, C L

    2015-01-01

    Cobalamin (CBL), the biologically active form of vitamin B12, and its analogs, are produced by bacteria only if cobalt supply is adequate. The analogs differ generally by the nucleotide moiety of the molecule. In CBL, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (5,6-DMB) is the base in the nucleotide moiety. The present study aimed to determine if a supplement of 5,6-DMB could increase utilization of dietary cobalt for synthesis of CBL and change ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, omasal flow of nutrients and ruminal protozoa counts. Eight ruminally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows (mean±standard deviation=238±21 days in milk and 736±47 kg of BW) were used in a crossover design. Cows were randomly assigned to a daily supplement of a gelatin capsule containing 1.5 g of 5,6-DMB via the rumen cannula or no supplement. Each period lasted 29 days and consisted of 21 days for treatment adaptation and 8 days for data and samples collection. Five corrinoids, CBL and four cobamides were detected in the total mixed ration and the omasal digesta from both treatments. The dietary supplement of 5,6-DMB increased (P=0.02) apparent ruminal synthesis of CBL from 14.6 to 19.6 (s.e.m. 0.8) mg/day but had no effect (P>0.1) on apparent ruminal synthesis of the four analogs. The supplement of 5,6-DMB had no effect (P>0.1) on milk production and composition, or on protozoal count, ruminal pH and concentrations of volatile fatty acids and ammonia nitrogen in rumen content. The supplement had also no effect (P>0.1) on intake, omasal flow and apparent ruminal digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, NDF, ADF and nitrogenous fractions. Plasma concentration of CBL was not affected by treatments (P=0.98). Providing a preformed part of the CBL molecule, that is, 5,6-DMB, increased by 34% the apparent ruminal synthesis of CBL by ruminal bacteria but had no effect on ruminal fermentation or protozoa count and it was not sufficient to increase plasma concentrations of the vitamin. Even though the efficiency of cobalt utilization for apparent synthesis of CBL was increased from 2.0% to 2.7% by the 5,6-DMB supplement, this improved efficiency was still very low. Further research is needed to identify the factors affecting efficiency of utilization of cobalt for synthesis of CBL by the bacterial populations in rumen. PMID:25171056

  6. Effects of dietary supplements of folic acid and vitamin B12 on metabolism of dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Graulet, B; Matte, J J; Desrochers, A; Doepel, L; Palin, M-F; Girard, C L

    2007-07-01

    The present experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of dietary supplements of folic acid and vitamin B12 given from 3 wk before to 8 wk after calving on lactational performance and metabolism of 24 multiparous Holstein cows assigned to 6 blocks of 4 cows each according to their previous milk production. Supplementary folic acid at 0 or 2.6 g/d and vitamin B12 at 0 or 0.5 g/d were used in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Supplementary folic acid increased milk production from 38.0 +/- 0.9 to 41.4 +/- 1.0 kg/d and milk crude protein yield from 1.17 +/- 0.02 to 1.25 +/- 0.03 kg/d. It also increased plasma Gly, Ser, Thr, and total sulfur AA, decreased Asp, and tended to increase plasma Met. Supplementary B12 decreased milk urea N, plasma Ile, and Leu and tended to decrease Val but increased homocysteine, Cys, and total sulfur AA. Liver concentration of phospholipids was higher in cows fed supplementary B12. Plasma and liver concentrations of folates and B12 were increased by their respective supplements, but the increase in plasma folates and plasma and liver B12 was smaller for cows fed the 2 vitamins together. In cows fed folic acid supplements, supplementary B12 increased plasma glucose and alanine, tended to decrease plasma biotin, and decreased Km of the methylmalonyl-coenzyme A mutase in hepatic tissues following addition of deoxyadenosylcobalamin, whereas it had no effect when cows were not fed folic acid supplements. There was no treatment effect on plasma nonesterified fatty acids as well as specific activity and gene expression of Met synthase and methylmalonyl-coenzyme A mutase in the liver. Ingestion of folic acid supplements by cows fed no supplementary B12 increased total lipid and triacylglycerols in liver, whereas these supplements had no effect in cows supplemented with B12. The increases in milk and milk protein yields due to folic acid supplements did not seem to be dependent on the vitamin B12 supply. However, when vitamin B12 was given in combination with folic acid, utilization of the 2 vitamins seems to be increased, probably more so in extrahepatic tissues. Metabolic efficiency seems also to be improved as suggested by similar lactational performance and dry matter intake for cows fed supplementary folic acid but increased plasma glucose and decreased hepatic lipids in cows fed folic acid and vitamin B12 together. PMID:17582128

  7. Reduced folate and serum vitamin metabolites in patients with rectal carcinoma: an open-label feasibility study of pemetrexed with folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation.

    PubMed

    Stoffregen, Clemens C; Odin, Elisabeth A; Carlsson, Göran U; Kurlberg, Göran K; Björkqvist, Hillevi G; Tångefjord, Maria T; Gustavsson, Bengt G

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this single-center, open-label, phase II study were to evaluate (a) the feasibility and safety of neoadjuvant administration of pemetrexed with oral folic acid and vitamin B12 (FA/B12) in newly diagnosed patients with resectable rectal cancer and (b) intracellular and systemic vitamin metabolism. Patients were treated with three cycles of pemetrexed (500 mg/m, every 3 weeks) and FA/B12 before surgery. The reduced folates tetrahydrofolate, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate were evaluated from biopsies in tumor tissue and in adjacent mucosa. Serum levels of homocysteine, cystathionine, and methylmalonic acid were also measured. All 37 patients received three cycles of pemetrexed; 89.2% completed their planned dosage within a 9-week feasibility time frame. Neither dose reductions nor study drug-related serious adverse events were reported. Reduced folate levels were significantly higher in tumor tissue compared with adjacent mucosa at baseline. After FA/B12 administration, tissue levels of reduced folates increased significantly and remained high during treatment in both tumor and mucosa until surgery. Serum levels of cystathionine increased significantly compared with baseline after FA/B12 administration, but then decreased, fluctuating cyclically during pemetrexed therapy. Homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels decreased significantly after FA/B12 administration, and remained below baseline levels during the study. These results indicate that administration of three neoadjuvant cycles of single-agent pemetrexed, every 3 weeks, with FA/B12 in patients with resectable rectal cancer is feasible and tolerable. Tissue and serum vitamin metabolism results demonstrate the influence of pemetrexed and FA/B12 on vitamin metabolism and warrant further study. PMID:26825869

  8. Reduced folate and serum vitamin metabolites in patients with rectal carcinoma: an open-label feasibility study of pemetrexed with folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Odin, Elisabeth A.; Carlsson, Göran U.; Kurlberg, Göran K.; Björkqvist, Hillevi G.; Tångefjord, Maria T.; Gustavsson, Bengt G.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this single-center, open-label, phase II study were to evaluate (a) the feasibility and safety of neoadjuvant administration of pemetrexed with oral folic acid and vitamin B12 (FA/B12) in newly diagnosed patients with resectable rectal cancer and (b) intracellular and systemic vitamin metabolism. Patients were treated with three cycles of pemetrexed (500 mg/m2, every 3 weeks) and FA/B12 before surgery. The reduced folates tetrahydrofolate, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate were evaluated from biopsies in tumor tissue and in adjacent mucosa. Serum levels of homocysteine, cystathionine, and methylmalonic acid were also measured. All 37 patients received three cycles of pemetrexed; 89.2% completed their planned dosage within a 9-week feasibility time frame. Neither dose reductions nor study drug-related serious adverse events were reported. Reduced folate levels were significantly higher in tumor tissue compared with adjacent mucosa at baseline. After FA/B12 administration, tissue levels of reduced folates increased significantly and remained high during treatment in both tumor and mucosa until surgery. Serum levels of cystathionine increased significantly compared with baseline after FA/B12 administration, but then decreased, fluctuating cyclically during pemetrexed therapy. Homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels decreased significantly after FA/B12 administration, and remained below baseline levels during the study. These results indicate that administration of three neoadjuvant cycles of single-agent pemetrexed, every 3 weeks, with FA/B12 in patients with resectable rectal cancer is feasible and tolerable. Tissue and serum vitamin metabolism results demonstrate the influence of pemetrexed and FA/B12 on vitamin metabolism and warrant further study. PMID:26825869

  9. Lactobacillus rossiae, a Vitamin B12 Producer, Represents a Metabolically Versatile Species within the Genus Lactobacillus

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Maria; Bottacini, Francesca; Fosso, Bruno; Kelleher, Philip; Calasso, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Ventura, Marco; Picardi, Ernesto; van Sinderen, Douwe; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus rossiae is an obligately hetero-fermentative lactic acid bacterium, which can be isolated from a broad range of environments including sourdoughs, vegetables, fermented meat and flour, as well as the gastrointestinal tract of both humans and animals. In order to unravel distinctive genomic features of this particular species and investigate the phylogenetic positioning within the genus Lactobacillus, comparative genomics and phylogenomic approaches, followed by functional analyses were performed on L. rossiae DSM 15814T, showing how this type strain not only occupies an independent phylogenetic branch, but also possesses genomic features underscoring its biotechnological potential. This strain in fact represents one of a small number of bacteria known to encode a complete de novo biosynthetic pathway of vitamin B12 (in addition to other B vitamins such as folate and riboflavin). In addition, it possesses the capacity to utilize an extensive set of carbon sources, a characteristic that may contribute to environmental adaptation, perhaps enabling the strain's ability to populate different niches. PMID:25264826

  10. High frequency of low serum levels of vitamin 12 among patients attending Jordan University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Barghouti, F F; Younes, N A; Halaseh, L J; Said, T T; Ghraiz, S M

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the status of serum vitamin B12 level in patients attending Jordan University Hospital in Amman, and to examine the relationship with demographic data, chronic illness, dietary habits, haematological parameters and symptoms related to vitamin B12 levels. A total of 838 patients completed a questionnaire and gave blood samples; 44.6% were vitamin B12 deficient (< 180 pg/mL) and 34.2% had hypovitaminosis (180-300 pg/mL). Vitamin B12 deficiency was associated with memory impairment, low meat intake and strict vegetarian (vegan) diets. The high frequency of low vitamin B12 warrants the development of a strategy to correct this problem in Jordan. PMID:20187536

  11. Vitamin B12 supplementation during pregnancy and postpartum improves B12 status of both mothers and infants but vaccine response in mothers only: a randomized clinical trial in Bangladesh

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose Poor vitamin B12 (B12) status is associated with adverse outcomes in pregnancy and infancy. Little is known about effects of B12 supplementation on immune function. The present study aimed to evaluate effects of pre- and postnatal B12 supplementation on biomarkers of B12 status and vaccine-s...

  12. A novel vitamin B12-nanosphere conjugate carrier system for peroral delivery of insulin.

    PubMed

    Chalasani, Kishore B; Russell-Jones, G J; Yandrapu, Sarath K; Diwan, Prakash V; Jain, Sanjay K

    2007-02-26

    In spite of great potential, effective oral delivery of many vitamin B(12)-peptide/protein drug conjugates does not occur due to the limited uptake capacity of the VB(12) transport system, loss of bioactivity of native protein and/or intrinsic factor affinity of VB(12) and liability to GI degradation. In order to overcome these shortcomings in a two pronged way, we have endeavoured to develop a VB(12)-Nanoparticles (NPs) system to enhance the uptake capacity of both NPs and VB(12) transport to deliver orally effective insulin. NPs were prepared using different molecular weight dextrans and epichlorohydrin as cross-linker by an emulsion method. NPs surface was modified with succinic anhydride, and conjugated with amino VB(12) derivatives of carbamate linkage. VB(12) attachment was confirmed by IR, XPS analysis, and was quantified by HPLC (4.0 to 4.4% w/w of NPs). The pre-formed NPs conjugates (Zave=160-250 nm; polydisperse) were loaded with 2, 3 and 4% w/w of insulin, and the entrapment was found to be 45-70%. NPs conjugates were found to protect 65-83% of entrapped insulin against in vitro gut proteases. In vitro release studies exhibit an initial burst followed by diffusion controlled first order kinetics with 75-95% release within 48 h. After oral administration of these carriers (20 IU/kg), a nadir of 70-75% reduction in plasma glucose was found in 5 h, reached basal levels in 8-10 h, and a prolonged second phase was found until 54 h. The % pharmacological availability (PA) of 70 K NPs conjugate containing 2, 3 and 4% w/w insulin was 1.1, 1.9 and 2.6 fold higher, respectively compared to NPs without VB(12); consistent with the hypothesis that uptake was mediated by the vitamin B(12) transport. NPs of 70 K dextran showed 1.4 fold PA compared to 10 K while negligible action was observed with 200 K. The potential utilities of VB(12)-NPs carrier as an oral delivery platform of proteins, especially insulin via dextran-coated particles necessities further elaborate investigations. PMID:17239471

  13. Use of cheese whey for vitamin B12 production. 3. Growth studies and dry-weight activity.

    PubMed

    Bullerman, L B; Berry, E C

    1966-05-01

    The patterns of growth and vitamin formation by Propionibacterium shermanii in whey were similar to the patterns established in other substrates. The vitamin formation was observed during the latter part of the fermentation after the organism approached maximal growth. Lactose utilization by the organism corresponded to the logarithmic-growth phase of the organism. Analyses of the dried culture showed a large increase of vitamin B(12) in the fermentation solids compared with unfermented dried whey. A feed analysis showed a notable increase of protein and a large decrease in nitrogen-free extract of the dried fermentation solid compared with dried whey. PMID:5970819

  14. Improvement of vitamin B(12) fermentation by reducing the inhibitory metabolites by cell recycle system and a mixed culture.

    PubMed

    Miyano; Ye; Shimizu

    2000-12-01

    The major problem in vitamin B(12) production using Propionibacterium is the growth inhibition of the cell due to the accumulation of inhibitory metabolites such as propionic acid and acetic acid. In the present paper, we considered several approaches of controlling the propionic acid concentration at low level. Namely: (1) the periodic cultivation of Propionibacterium where dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was alternatively changed between 0 and 1ppm; (2) cell recycle system using hollow fiber module; and (3) mixed culture using Propionibacterium and Ralstonia eutropha where the latter microorganism assimilates the propionic acid produced by the former. It was found that the productivity of vitamin B(12) was the highest for the cell recycle system, while if the performance was evaluated based on the amount of vitamin B(12) produced per medium used, the mixed culture system gave the far highest value. PMID:11080651

  15. Multiple micronutrient supplementation improves vitamin B12 and folate concentrations of HIV infected children in Uganda: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation on vitamin B12 and folate has hither to not been reported in African HIV infected children. This paper describes vitamin B12 and folate status of Ugandan HIV infected children aged 1-5 years and reports the effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation on serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations. Methods Of 847 children who participated in a multiple micronutrient supplementation trial, 214 were assessed for vitamin B12 and folate concentrations pre and post supplementation. One hundred and four children were randomised to two times the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of a 14 multiple micronutrient supplement (MMS) and 114 to a 'standard of care' supplement of 6 multivitamins (MV). Serum vitamin B12 was measured by an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay and folate by a competitive protein-binding assay using Modular E (Roche) automatic analyzer. Vitamin B12 concentrations were considered low if less than 221picomoles per litre (pmol/L) and folate if < 13.4 nanomoles per litre (nmol/L). The Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test was used to measure the difference between pre and post supplementation concentrations. Results Vitamin B12 was low in 60/214 (28%) and folate in 62/214 (29.0%) children. In the MMS group, the median concentration (IQR) of vitamin B12 at 6 months was 401.5 (264.3 - 518.8) pmol/L compared to the baseline of 285.5 (216.5 - 371.8) pmol/L, p < 0.001. The median (IQR) folate concentrations increased from 17.3 (13.5 - 26.6) nmol/L to 27.7 (21.1 - 33.4) nmol/L, p < 0.001. In the 'standard of care' MV supplemented group, the median concentration (IQR) of vitamin B12 at 6 months was 288.5 (198.8 - 391.0) pmol/L compared to the baseline of 280.0 (211.5 - 386.3) pmol/L while the median (IQR) folate concentrations at 6 months were 16.5 (11.7 - 22.1) nmol/L compared to 15.7 (11.9 - 22.1) nmol/L at baseline. There was a significant difference in the MMS group in both vitamin B12 and folate concentrations but no difference in the MV group. Conclusions Almost a third of the HIV infected Ugandan children aged 1-5 years had low serum concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate. Multiple micronutrient supplementation compared to the 'standard of care' supplement of 6 multivitamins improved the vitamin B12 and folate status of HIV infected children in Uganda. Trial registration http://ClinicalTrials.govNCT00122941) PMID:21600005

  16. Rickets–vitamin D deficiency and dependency

    PubMed Central

    Sahay, Manisha; Sahay, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    Rickets is an important problem even in countries with adequate sun exposure. The causes of rickets/osteomalacia are varied and include nutritional deficiency, especially poor dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. Non-nutritional causes include hypophosphatemic rickets primarily due to renal phosphate losses and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis. In addition, some varieties are due to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism and are called vitamin D dependent rickets. This chapter highlights rickets/osteomalacia related to vitamin D deficiency or to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism. Hypophosphatemic rickets and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis are discussed in other sections of the journal. PMID:22470851

  17. Solution Structure and Constrained Molecular Dynamics Study of Vitamin B12 Conjugates of the Anorectic Peptide PYY(3-36).

    PubMed

    Henry, Kelly E; Kerwood, Deborah J; Allis, Damian G; Workinger, Jayme L; Bonaccorso, Ron L; Holz, George G; Roth, Christian L; Zubieta, Jon; Doyle, Robert P

    2016-05-01

    Vitamin B12 -peptide conjugates have considerable therapeutic potential through improved pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic properties imparted on the peptide upon covalent attachment to vitamin B12 (B12 ). There remains a lack of structural studies investigating the effects of B12 conjugation on peptide secondary structure. Determining the solution structure of a B12 -peptide conjugate or conjugates and measuring functions of the conjugate(s) at the target peptide receptor may offer considerable insight concerning the future design of fully optimized conjugates. This methodology is especially useful in tandem with constrained molecular dynamics (MD) studies, such that predictions may be made about conjugates not yet synthesized. Focusing on two B12 conjugates of the anorectic peptide PYY(3-36), one of which was previously demonstrated to have improved food intake reduction compared with PYY(3-36), we performed NMR structural analyses and used the information to conduct MD simulations. The study provides rare structural insight into vitamin B12 conjugates and validates the fact that B12 can be conjugated to a peptide without markedly affecting peptide secondary structure. PMID:27027248

  18. Vitamin B12 and derivatives-In vitro permeation studies across Caco-2 cell monolayers and freshly excised rat intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Netsomboon, Kesinee; Feßler, Andrea; Erletz, Lena; Prüfert, Felix; Ruetz, Markus; Kieninger, Christoph; Kräutler, Bernhard; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2016-01-30

    The purpose of this study was to compare the intestinal permeation of vitamin B12 and various derivatives thereof. Permeation behavior and cytotoxicity of four derivatives (coenzyme B12, hydroxocobalamin, methylcobalamin and 4-ethylphenylcobalamin) in comparison to vitamin B12 were evaluated in two different in vitro models, Caco-2 cells and freshly excised rat intestinal mucosa. Resazurin assay was used to evaluate cytotoxicity of the test substances. All test compounds were used at a concentration of 200μg/ml. Permeation experiments were carried out for 3h and test compounds were quantified via reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Cytotoxicity studies showed all test compounds are not toxic to cells. HPLC analyses of test compounds revealed the following rank order of increasing hydrophobicity: hydroxocobalamin<vitamin B12B12B12, hydroxocobalamin, methylcobalamin and 4-ethylphenylcobalamin were 10.2, 0.3, 9.4 and 31.3 fold of vitamin B12 on Caco-2 cells while 0.2, 0.4, 2.6 and 1.9 fold of vitamin B12 on rat intestine, respectively. As various vitamin B12 derivatives showed a significantly higher permeation coefficient than vitamin B12, the use of certain derivatives might be a promising strategy for oral vitamin B12 substitution. PMID:26638881

  19. Kinetics of tetrachloroethylene-reductive dechlorination catalyzed by vitamin B{sub 12}

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, D.R.; Deng, B.; Buck, L.E.; Hatfield, K.

    1998-09-01

    Reductive dechlorination kinetics of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) to ethylene catalyzed by vitamin B{sub 12} using Ti[III] citrate as the bulk reductant was examined in a vapor-water batch system. A kinetic model incorporating substrate-B{sub 12} electron-transfer complex formation and subsequent product release was developed. The model also accounted for the primary reductive dechlorination pathways (hydrogenolysis and reductive {beta} elimination) and vapor/water-phase partitioning. Reaction rate constants were sequentially determined by fitting the model to experimental kinetic data while moving upward through consecutive reaction pathways. The release of product from the complex was found to be second order with respect to substrate concentration for both PCE and acetylene; all other substrates appeared to release by first order. Reductive {beta} elimination was found to be a significant reaction pathway for trichloroethylene (TCE), and chloroacetylene was observed as a reactive intermediate. Acetylene production appears to be primarily due to the reduction of chloroacetylene derived from TCE. The reduction of cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE), the primary DCE isomer formed, was extremely slow, leading to a significant buildup of cis-DCE. The kinetics of acetylene and vinyl chloride reduction appeared to be limited by the formation of relatively stable substrate-B{sub 12} complexes. The relatively simple model examined appears to adequately represent the main features of the experimental data.

  20. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding: a case study.

    PubMed

    Woods, Christopher W; Woods, Amanda G; Cederholm, Carmen K

    2013-12-01

    Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB), formerly known as hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDN), is a bleeding disorder in neonates that is caused by inadequate serum levels of vitamin K. Vitamin K is a nutrient essential for adequate function of the coagulation cascade. Certain internal and external factors place newborn infants at higher risk for VKDB. Therefore, vitamin K prophylaxis has become the standard of care for newborns. Although the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the administration of vitamin K to newborns, some parents are choosing to withhold vitamin K administration at birth. This case study describes an infant who developed VKDB in the absence of vitamin K prophylaxis. Although parents ultimately have the right to choose whether or not to administer vitamin K, as healthcare professionals, it is important to provide education regarding the potential complications of withholding vitamin K and the signs of VKDB if vitamin K prophylaxis at birth is withheld. PMID:24300958

  1. Vitamin B12 and folate concentrations during pregnancy and insulin resistance in the offspring: the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, S. S.; Jackson, A. A.; Refsum, H.; Rao, S.; Fisher, D. J.; Bhat, D. S.; Naik, S. S.; Coyaji, K. J.; Joglekar, C. V.; Joshi, N.; Lubree, H. G.; Deshpande, V. U.; Rege, S. S.; Fall, C. H. D.

    2007-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Raised maternal plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations predict small size at birth, which is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. We studied the association between maternal vitamin B12, folate and tHcy status during pregnancy, and offspring adiposity and insulin resistance at 6 years. Methods In the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study we studied 700 consecutive eligible pregnant women in six villages. We measured maternal nutritional intake and circulating concentrations of folate, vitamin B12, tHcy and methylmalonic acid (MMA) at 18 and 28 weeks of gestation. These were correlated with offspring anthropometry, body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan) and insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-R]) at 6 years. Results Two-thirds of mothers had low vitamin B12 (<150 pmol/l), 90% had high MMA (>0.26 μmol/l) and 30% had raised tHcy concentrations (>10 μmol/l); only one had a low erythrocyte folate concentration. Although short and thin (BMI), the 6-year-old children were relatively adipose compared with the UK standards (skinfold thicknesses). Higher maternal erythrocyte folate concentrations at 28 weeks predicted higher offspring adiposity and higher HOMA-R (both p < 0.01). Low maternal vitamin B12 (18 weeks; p = 0.03) predicted higher HOMA-R in the children. The offspring of mothers with a combination of high folate and low vitamin B12 concentrations were the most insulin resistant. Conclusions/interpretation Low maternal vitamin B12 and high folate status may contribute to the epidemic of adiposity and type 2 diabetes in India. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-007-0793-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorised users. PMID:17851649

  2. Vitamin D Deficiency: Time for Inaction?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In 1998, the British Medical Journal boldly stated in an editorial headline, “Vitamin D Deficiency: Time for Action.”1 The urgency was clear: vitamin D deficiency was going undiagnosed and untreated in large numbers of people. Patients were at risk and suffering needlessly. A simple, extremely low-cost, low-toxicity intervention was readily available. All that was required was vitamin D advocacy. PMID:24381820

  3. Vitamin B6 deficiency experimentally-induced bone and joint disorder: microscopic, radiographic and biochemical evidence.

    PubMed

    Massé, P G; Pritzker, K P; Mendes, M G; Boskey, A L; Weiser, H

    1994-06-01

    In the present study the effect of pyridoxine deficiency on the ultrastructure and morphology of bone and its metabolism was examined in the rapidly growing chick. Pyridoxine-deficient animals had tibias of reduced dry weight and cortical thickness. Histomorphometry demonstrated a disproportionately high eroded surface, lower amount of osteoid tissue and reduced mineralized trabecular width. Anterior-posterior radiographs of the tibiotarsometatarsal joint showed reduced secondary ossification centres and coarse trabeculation. Decalcified metaphyseal cartilage showed irregular trabeculas and a markedly reduced amount of Fast-green counterstain matrix suggesting that there is less collagen present and in turn less availability for matrix to be laid down for later calcification. Plasma activity of the bone alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme (EC 3.1.3.1) was decreased. Plasma Ca and PO4 levels did not vary. The present bone study referring to a pseudo-lathyritic state in which collagen maturation is not completely achieved supports the hypothesis that pyridoxine is an essential nutrient for the connective tissue matrix. PMID:8031739

  4. The cis influence of the corrin in vitamin B12 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, Penny P.; Navizet, Isabelle; Perry, Christopher B.; Marques, Helder M.

    2012-10-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) calculations on [NH3[Co(III)(C10-X-corrin)]-CH3]+, where the C10-H of corrin is replaced by electron-donating or -withdrawing groups, X, explore the cis influence in these vitamin B12 models. As the electron donating ability of X increases, a normal trans influence is observed: the Co-NH3 bond weakens while the Co-CH3 bond strengthens. Surprisingly, though, the Co-CH3 bond dissociation energy decreases monotonically as the Co-C bond strengthens. This is found to be a consequence of the extent of shortening of the Co-NH3 during the homolysis reaction.

  5. Distribution of vitamin B12 R-binder in carcinomas of the digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Kudo, H; Ohshio, G; Ogawa, K; Kim, Y C; Wakatsuki, Y; Nakashima, Y; Yamabe, H; Inada, M

    1988-03-01

    To evaluate whether the increase in serum transcobalamin I, seen in patients with carcinoma, is caused by synthesis of R-binder to tumour cells, the distribution of vitamin B12 R-binder in 125 malignant growths of the digestive tract was studied. Positive staining for R-binder with immunoperoxidase was observed in 85 (70%) carcinomas. Positive staining for R-binder was observed in all four cholangiocarcinomas studied, but was absent in nine hepatocellular carcinomas. These findings suggest that determination of R-binder in liver tumours may be of some value in differentiating hepatocellular carcinomas and cholangiocarcinoma, and that synthesis of R-binder by tumour cells causes an increase in serum transcobalamin I. PMID:2834423

  6. Euglena plasma membrane during normal and vitamin B12 starvation growth.

    PubMed

    Lefort-Tran, M; Bre, M H; Ranck, J L; Pouphile, M

    1980-02-01

    Freeze-fracture and optical diffraction techniques were used to study the organization of the Euglena pellicle during the normal and replicative stages of the cell cycle and during vitamin B12 starvation. It was shown that the diffuse layer underlying the tripartite structure has a fibrillar structure. Despite the absence of homology in the 2 fracture faces of the pellicle, the EF striated and the PF particulate ones appear complementary as shown by optical diffraction studies; it must therefore be considered as a true membrane. The grooves are free from such particles and striations. They appear as a specific pattern of the cortex, different from the ridges in their structural organization and their replicative capacity as observed during vitamin B12 starvation. This notion is confirmed by the mode of pellicular growth which is characterized by 2 steps. The first occurs during the early replicative stage (pre-mitotic phase of the cell cycle) when the formation of a new ridge is correlated with the appearance of the 'minor' orientation of a 2-dimensional lattice on the EF and the PF faces and the spread of the particles over the PF face of the space between the old ridges. The second takes place during the lengthening of the ridges from the initiating posterior side (non-replicative stage). During this second step, the 'major' orientation of the lattice is preferentially observed in control cells and exclusively in starved cells. The striking differences between the grooves and the ridges is discussed, as well as the 2 modes of growth and their significance in morphogenesis. PMID:6767733

  7. The changing of serum vitamin B12 and homocysteine levels after gastrectomy in patients with gastric cancer: do they associate with clinicopathological factors?

    PubMed

    Bilici, Ahmet; Sonkaya, Alper; Ercan, Serif; Ustaalioglu, Bala Basak Oven; Seker, Mesut; Aliustaoglu, Mehmet; Orcun, Asuman; Gumus, Mahmut

    2015-02-01

    After total (TG) or distal subtotal gastrectomy (DG), patients are at high risk of vitamin B12 (vit-B12) deficiency, which results in elevation of homocysteine levels. The changing of serum vit-B12 and homocysteine levels in patients with gastric cancer is not well known. Seventy-two patients with gastric cancer who had undergone currative gastrectomy and 50 healthy controls were included. Serum vit-B12 and homocysteine levels were analyzed in gastric cancer patients. In addition, these parameters were compared with those of healthy control subjects. While serum vit-B12 levels in gastrectomized patients were significantly lower than that of healthy controls (221.8 ± 125.6 pg/mL vs. 309.9 ± 174.3 pg/mL, p = 0.002), homocysteine levels were significantly higher in patients with gastric cancer (14.2 ± 6.7 μmol/L vs. 12.5 ± 6.1 μmol/L, p = 0.016). Mean serum folate level was found to be high in healthy controls (7.3 ng/mL) compared to patients (9.2 ng/mL, p = 0.027). Out of 72 patients, 40 patients (55.6 %) with gastric cancer developed vit-B12 deficiency after gastrectomy. Vit-B12 deficiency was found to be related with gastrectomy type (p = 0.02) and homocysteine levels (p = 0.014). In patients who underwent TG, the incidence of vit-B12 deficiency was significantly higher compared with those with DG (67.5 vs. 32.5 %). In addition, serum vit-B12 level in patients with DG was significantly higher than that of patients with TG (248.3 ± 122.0 pg/mL vs. 200.8 ± 126.7 pg/mL, p = 0.041), whereas homocysteine levels were significantly lower in DG group compared with TG group (12.1 ± 6.1 μmol/L vs. 15.8 ± 6.9 μmol/L, p = 0.014). A logistic regression analysis showed that the extent of gastrectomy was found to be an independent factor for predicting the occurrence of vit-B12 deficiency (p < 0.001, odds ratio 1.38). Our results showed that cumulative vit-B12 deficiency rate was significantly higher after TG compared with that after DG, while homocysteine levels were significantly higher in TG group compared with DG group. The extent of gastrectomy was found to be an independent factor for predicting the occurrence of vit-B12 deficiency. Vit-B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia are imperious clinical situation for patients with gastric cancer after surgery. Hence, both preoperative and regular postoperative monitoring of vit-B12 and homocysteine levels for all gastrectomized patients with gastric cancer are important and necessary for early detection and prevention of vit-B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25296737

  8. Vitamin D Deficiency Among Psychiatric Inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Richard A.; Orendain, Geraldine C. M.; Joseph, Michel D.; Abanishe, James O.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies in northern Europe and Australia have indicated that vitamin D deficiency is common in psychiatric patients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among psychiatric inpatients in a large North American city. The association of vitamin D status with clinical characteristics was also explored, and subgroups of patients that are more vulnerable to vitamin D deficiency were identified. Method: This descriptive study looked at 107 unselected consecutive admissions to a psychiatric inpatient service in New York City between September and early December 2010. All patients were aged 18 years and older. Psychiatric diagnoses were established by attending psychiatrists as part of the routine assessment using criteria from the DSM-IV. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry. A vitamin Ddeficient state was defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level ? 20 ng/mL. Results: Fifty-six (52.3%) patients were classified as deficient in vitamin D. Age and 25-hydroxyvitamin D level were significantly correlated (P = .001). Seventy-one percent of patients from age 18 to 34 years were deficient in vitamin D; this rate was significantly higher than the rate of deficiency in older patients (P = .017). No significant relationships were found between 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and gender, race/ethnicity, glycosylated hemoglobin, body mass index, and major psychiatric diagnostic categories. Conclusions: A high percentage of psychiatric inpatients are deficient in vitamin D. Younger patients were more at risk for deficiency. Screening for vitamin D deficiency should be part of the health assessment of patients with major psychiatric illnesses. PMID:22943031

  9. Effects of intramuscular administration of folic acid and vitamin B12 on granulosa cells gene expression in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, A; Khan, D R; Sirard, M-A; Girard, C L; Laforest, J-P; Richard, F J

    2015-11-01

    The fertility of dairy cows is challenged during early lactation, and better nutritional strategies need to be developed to address this issue. Combined supplementation of folic acid and vitamin B12 improve energy metabolism in the dairy cow during early lactation. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the effects of this supplement on gene expression in granulosa cells from the dominant follicle during the postpartum period. Multiparous Holstein cows received weekly intramuscular injection of 320 mg of folic acid and 10 mg of vitamin B12 (treated group) beginning 24 (standard deviation=4) d before calving until 56 d after calving, whereas the control group received saline. The urea plasma concentration was significantly decreased during the precalving period, and the concentration of both folate and vitamin B12 were increased in treated animals. Milk production and dry matter intake were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Plasma concentrations of folates and vitamin B12 were increased in treated animals. Daily dry matter intake was not significantly different between the 2 groups before [13.5 kg; standard error (SE)=0.5] and after (23.6 kg; SE=0.9) calving. Average energy-corrected milk tended to be greater in vitamin-treated cows, 39.7 (SE=1.4) and 38.1 (SE=1.3) kg/d for treated and control cows, respectively. After calving, average plasma concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate tended to be lower in cows injected with the vitamin supplement, 0.47 (SE=0.04) versus 0.55 (SE=0.03) for treated and control cows, respectively. The ovarian follicle ≥12 mm in diameter was collected by ovum pick-up after estrus synchronization. Recovered follicular fluid volumes were greater in the vitamin-treated group. A microarray platform was used to investigate the effect of treatment on gene expression of granulosa cells. Lower expression of genes involved in the cell cycle and higher expression of genes associated with granulosa cell differentiation before ovulation were observed. Selected candidate genes were analyzed by reverse transcription quantitative PCR. Although the effects of intramuscular injections of folic acid and vitamin B12 on lactational performance and metabolic status of animals were limited, ingenuity pathway analysis of gene expression in granulosa cells suggests a stimulation of cell differentiation in vitamin-treated cows, which may be the result of an increase in LH secretion. PMID:26298749

  10. Development and validation of PCR, PLS, and TLC densitometric methods for the simultaneous determination of vitamins B(1), B(6) AND B(12) in pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Elzanfaly, Eman S; Nebsen, Marianne; Ramadan, Nesreen K

    2010-10-01

    This work represents the simultaneous determination of thiamine hydrochloride (B(1)), pyridoxine hydrochloride (B(6)) and cyanocobalamine (B(12)) by two different methods namely spectrophotometry multivariate calibration and densitometry. The spectrophotometric numerical method depends on the use of spectrophotometric data coupled to PLS and PCR multivariate calibration methods for the simultaneous determination of (B(1)) and (B(6)) in the presence of (B(12)) in laboratory prepared mixtures and commercial tablets. A calibration set was prepared, where the three vitamins were modeled using a full factorial 23 with three center points experimental design. This calibration set was used to build the PLS and PCR models. The models were validated by testing their predictive ability on a validation set where low RMSEP, RSEP % were obtained for both models. Figures of merit were determined using the net analyte signal concept. The proposed models were applied successfully to simultaneous determination of B1 and B6 in presence of a low concentration of B12 in pharmaceutical dosage forms that contain simple excipients. The TLC densitometric method was based on the use of a developing system of chloroform: ethanol: water: acetic acid solution (2: 8: 2: 0.5 v/v) to separate the three vitamins. The separated spots were scanned at 242nm, 291nm and 360nm for B(1), B(6) and B(12) respectively. The proposed method was applied successfully to simultaneous determination of the three vitamins in their pure powder form in the range 0.1-1.5 (g/spot), 0.5-3.5 (g/spot), 0.1-1.5 (g/spot) for B(1), B(6), and B(12) respectively and in their pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:20884455

  11. Maternal dietary intake of folate and vitamins B6 and B12 during pregnancy and risk of childhood brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Greenop, Kathryn R; Miller, Margaret; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Scott, Rodney J; Attia, John; Ashton, Lesley J; Dalla-Pozza, Luciano; Bower, Carol; Armstrong, Bruce K; Milne, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Childhood brain tumors (CBT) are the second most common childhood cancers, yet their etiology is largely unknown. We investigated whether maternal gestational intake of folate and vitamins B6 and B12 was associated with CBT risk in a nationwide case-control study conducted 2005-2010. Case children 0-14 years were recruited from all 10 Australian pediatric oncology centers. Control children were recruited by national random digit dialing, frequency matched to cases on age, sex, and state of residence. Dietary intake was ascertained using food frequency questionnaires and adjusted for total energy intake. Data from 293 case and 726 control mothers were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. The odds ratio (OR) for the highest versus lowest tertile of folate intake was 0.70 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48, 1.02]. The ORs appeared lower in mothers who drank alcohol during pregnancy (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.93), mothers who took folic acid (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.42, 1.06) or B6/B12 supplements (OR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.25, 1.06) and in children younger than 5 years (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.93). These findings are consistent with folate's crucial role in maintenance of genomic integrity and DNA methylation. Dietary intake of B6 and B12 was not associated with risk of CBT. PMID:24897174

  12. [Diagnostic criteria for vitamin D-deficient rickets and hypocalcemia-].

    PubMed

    Ozono, Keiichi

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin D deficiency causes rickets or osteomalacia, which is associated with hypomineralization of bone and chondrocytes, and/or hypocalcemia. Accumulating evidence indicates increase in frequency of vitamin D deficiency due to insufficient intake of vitamin D and calcium and decrease in sunshine. It is necessary for clinician to diagnose vitamin D deficiency accurately and treat patients with vitamin D deficiency adequately. For the purpose, clinical guideline or expert opinion on vitamin D deficiency has been reported. PMID:26813501

  13. A Potential Epigenetic Marker Mediating Serum Folate and Vitamin B12 Levels Contributes to the Risk of Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Keat Wei, Loo; Sutherland, Heidi; Au, Anthony; Camilleri, Emily; Haupt, Larisa M.; Gan, Siew Hua; Griffiths, Lyn R.

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is a multifactorial disease that may be associated with aberrant DNA methylation profiles. We investigated epigenetic dysregulation for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene among ischemic stroke patients. Cases and controls were recruited after obtaining signed written informed consents following a screening process against the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Serum vitamin profiles (folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine) were determined using immunoassays. Methylation profiles for CpGs A and B in the MTHFR gene were determined using a bisulfite-pyrosequencing method. Methylation of MTHFR significantly increased the susceptibility risk for ischemic stroke. In particular, CpG A outperformed CpG B in mediating serum folate and vitamin B12 levels to increase ischemic stroke susceptibility risks by 4.73-fold. However, both CpGs A and B were not associated with serum homocysteine levels or ischemic stroke severity. CpG A is a potential epigenetic marker in mediating serum folate and vitamin B12 to contribute to ischemic stroke. PMID:25705649

  14. Vitamin D Deficiency in Pediatric Critical Illness

    PubMed Central

    Hebbar, Kiran B.; Wittkamp, Michael; Alvarez, Jessica A.; McCracken, Courtney E.; Tangpricha, Vin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The potential role for vitamin D in infection has been well described in adults. The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and to evaluate the relationship between vitamin D status and markers of innate immunity and infection in critically ill children. Hypothesis Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent in children with critical illness and correlated with the severity of illness and dysfunction in innate immunity. Methods We performed a prospective clinical observational study with both case and control groups in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Vitamin D status was defined as vitamin D sufficient (25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D? 20 ng/mL), vitamin D insufficient (25(OH)D 10 to 20 ng/mL), and vitamin D deficient (25(OH)D <10 ng/mL). Vitamin D status, severity of illness scores, and cathelicidin, and other clinical data were collected. Results Sixty-one PICU patients and 46 control patients were enrolled. Over 60% of the PICU cases were found to be vitamin D insufficient while less than 1/3 of the controls were insufficient (p < 0.0001). No significant correlation was seen between plasma 25(OH)D and any severity of illness scores. Cases with asthma had a significantly lower median level 25(OH)D (16.9 ng/mL) than cases without asthma (18.7 ng/mL). Over 50% of patients hospitalized during the fall and winter were considered vitamin D deficient or insufficient whereas in the sunnier seasons (spring and summer) the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency decreased to about 30% (p = 0.003). Conclusions The overall finding of profound vitamin D deficiency in the pediatric critical care population is an important finding. Significant seasonal differences were noted even in the critically ill. Certain diseases like asthma in critically ill children merit further study. PMID:25580380

  15. VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY AND THE CLINICAL CONSEQUENCES.

    PubMed

    Galesanu, Corina; Mocanu, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D is important for good health, growth and strong bones. Vitamin D is mostly made in the skin by exposure to sunlight. Most foods contain very little vitamin D naturally, though some are fortified with added vitamin D. Hypovitaminosis D is associated with cardiovascular disease, the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer as well as with increased mortality. Further, Vitamin D deficiency is related to depression and impaired cognitive function. Increasing age and elevated body fat mass contribute to an increased risk of Vitamin D deficiency. A mild lack of vitamin D may not cause symptoms but can cause tiredness and general aches and pains. A more severe lack can cause s rious problems such as rickets (in children) and osteomalacia in adults). During menopause, the decline of estrogens results in increased bone turnover, a decrease in bone mineral density and elevated fracture risk. Treatment is with vitamin D supplements. Some people are more at risk of vitamin D deficiency, and so are recommended to take vitamin D supplements routinely. These include all pregnant and breastfeeding women, all infants (babies) and young children aged 6 months to 5 years, people aged 65 and over, and people who are not exposed to much sun. There are precise recommendations regarding a sufficient Vitamin D intake in order to prevent bone loss in peri- and postmenopausal women. It is also recommend routine supplements for certain people with darker skin, and for people with certain gut, liver or kidney diseases. PMID:26204630

  16. [Influence of combined vitamin deficiency on unconditioned reflexes and learning in growing rats].

    PubMed

    Vrzhesinskaya, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Beketova, N A; Pereverzeva, O G; Kosheleva, O V; Sidorova, Yu S; Zorin, S N; Mazo, V K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of combined deficiency of all vitamins on the manifestation of unconditioned reflex and learning (in response to an electric current) in growing Wistar rats with initial body weight 53.4 ± 1.2 g (45.5-62.0 g). 20 of 46 tested male rats (latent period of transition from the illuminated chamber to the dark compartment did not exceed 60 s) were included in the experiment. Rats were randomly divided into 2 groups (control and experimental) for the duration of the latent period and body mass. Within 23 days the rats of the control group received a complete semisynthetic diet. Combined vitamin deficiency in tested rats was caused by 5-fold diet decrease of the amount of vitamin mixture without vitamin E. On the 12th day the second phase of testing was performed, during which the rat received electrocutaneous irritation on paws (current 0.4 mA, 8 seconds) after transition to the dark compartment of the chamber. Preservation of the conducted reflex was performed 24 h and 9 days after training. On the 23rd day pre-anesthetized with ether rats were taken out from the experiment by decapitation. The content of vitamin A (retinol and retinol palmitate) and E (tocopherols) in plasma and liver and in the sunflower oil was analyzed by HPLC, the level of vitamins B1 and B2 in liver and casein by fluorimetric method, blood serum malondialdehyde content--by spectrophotometric method. Reducing of vitamin mixture amount of the diet lead to significant reduction in liver vitamin A, E, B1, and B2 level and in blood plasma vitamin A and E concentration by the end of the experiment, but had no effect on blood plasma MDA concentration. On the 12th day of vitamin deficiency in rats manifestation of unconditioned reflex (photophobia) has been deteriorated, as evidenced by the significant 3,2-fold increase of latent period of transition to the dark compartment compared with animals fed a complete diet (47.8 ± 15.8 vs 14.8 ± 3.6 sec), but their ability to learn hadn't been effected. Based on the data that vitamin deficiency, especially of vitamin-antioxidants, causes oxidative stress, and that increase of corticosterone level in hippocampus during aging significantly inhibits the function of the brain, we can assume that increasing of corticosterone level may be one of the cause of the detected cognitive impairment, as isolated vitamin A deficiency in rats increases tissue corticosterone levels. PMID:26402940

  17. Effects of supplementary folic acid and vitamin B(12) on hepatic metabolism of dairy cows according to methionine supply.

    PubMed

    Preynat, A; Lapierre, H; Thivierge, M C; Palin, M F; Cardinault, N; Matte, J J; Desrochers, A; Girard, C L

    2010-05-01

    The present experiment was undertaken to study the interactions between dietary supplements of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) and intramuscular injections of folic acid and vitamin B(12), given from 3 wk before calving to 16 wk of lactation, on hepatic metabolism of lactating dairy cows. Sixty multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 10 blocks of 6 cows each according to their previous milk production. Within each block, 3 cows were fed a diet calculated to supply Met as 1.83% of metabolizable protein, whereas the 3 other cows were fed the same diet supplemented with 18g of RPM calculated to provide Met as 2.23% of metabolizable protein. Within each level of Met, the cows received no vitamin supplement or weekly intramuscular injections of 160mg of folic acid alone or combined with 10mg of vitamin B(12). Liver biopsies were taken at 2, 4, 8, and 16 wk of lactation. Liver concentrations of folates and vitamin B(12) were increased by their respective supplements but this response to vitamin supplements was altered by methionine supply. Concentrations of total lipids and triglycerides increased in livers of cows fed RPM, whereas concentrations of cholesterol ester, cholesterol, diglycerides, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylcholine were not affected. Folic acid, alone or combined with vitamin B(12), tended to increase the ratio of phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylethanolamine. Gene expression of 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase, microsomal transfer protein, and phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase were higher in liver of cows fed RPM supplements. The relative mRNA abundance of 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase were increased by the combined injections of folic acid and vitamin B(12), whereas those of methionine synthase and methionine synthase reductase were not affected by treatments. These results suggest that increasing supply of methyl groups, as preformed labile methyl groups or through methylneogenesis, affected the methylation cycle but had a limited effect on dairy cow performance. The observed effects of the combined supplement of folic acid and vitamin B(12) on lactational performance of dairy cows probably result from an improvement of energy metabolism during early lactation. PMID:20412928

  18. Transcobalamin derived from bovine milk stimulates apical uptake of vitamin B12 into human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hine, Brad; Boggs, Irina; Green, Ralph; Miller, Joshua W; Hovey, Russell C; Humphrey, Rex; Wheeler, Thomas T

    2014-11-01

    Intestinal uptake of vitamin B12 (hereafter B12) is impaired in a significant proportion of the human population. This impairment is due to inherited or acquired defects in the expression or function of proteins involved in the binding of diet-derived B12 and its uptake into intestinal cells. Bovine milk is an abundant source of bioavailable B12 wherein it is complexed with transcobalamin. In humans, transcobalamin functions primarily as a circulatory protein, which binds B12 following its absorption and delivers it to peripheral tissues via its cognate receptor, CD320. In the current study, the transcobalamin-B12 complex was purified from cows' milk and its ability to stimulate uptake of B12 into cultured bovine, mouse and human cell lines was assessed. Bovine milk-derived transcobalamin-B12 complex was absorbed by all cell types tested, suggesting that the uptake mechanism is conserved across species. Furthermore, the complex stimulated the uptake of B12 via the apical surface of differentiated Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells. These findings suggest the presence of an alternative transcobalamin-mediated uptake pathway for B12 in the human intestine other than that mediated by the gastric glycoprotein, intrinsic factor. Our findings highlight the potential for transcobalamin-B12 complex derived from bovine milk to be used as a natural bioavailable alternative to orally administered free B12 to overcome B12 malabsorption. PMID:24913691

  19. Vitamin B12, Folate, Homocysteine, and Bone Health in Adults and Elderly People: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analyses

    PubMed Central

    van Wijngaarden, J. P.; Doets, E. L.; Szczecińska, A.; Souverein, O. W.; Duffy, M. E.; Dullemeijer, C.; Cavelaars, A. E. J. M.; Pietruszka, B.; van't Veer, P.; Brzozowska, A.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R. A. M.; de Groot, C. P. G. M.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated homocysteine levels and low vitamin B12 and folate levels have been associated with deteriorated bone health. This systematic literature review with dose-response meta-analyses summarizes the available scientific evidence on associations of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine status with fractures and bone mineral density (BMD). Twenty-seven eligible cross-sectional (n = 14) and prospective (n = 13) observational studies and one RCT were identified. Meta-analysis on four prospective studies including 7475 people showed a modest decrease in fracture risk of 4% per 50 pmol/L increase in vitamin B12 levels, which was borderline significant (RR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.92 to 1.00). Meta-analysis of eight studies including 11511 people showed an increased fracture risk of 4% per μmol/L increase in homocysteine concentration (RR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.07). We could not draw a conclusion regarding folate levels and fracture risk, as too few studies investigated this association. Meta-analyses regarding vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine levels, and BMD were possible in female populations only and showed no associations. Results from studies regarding BMD that could not be included in the meta-analyses were not univocal. PMID:23509616

  20. Effect of Vitamin B 12 supplementation on serum homocysteine in patients undergoing hemodialysis: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tayebi, Ali; Biniaz, Vajihe; Savari, Samira; Ebadi, Abbas; Shermeh, Mahdi Sadeghi; Einollahi, Behzad; Rahimi, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that hyper-homocysteinemia is a potent independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and many different methods have been investigated for lowering it in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Our study investigated the effect of Vitamin B 12 supplementation on serum homocysteine levels in these patients. This randomized trial was conducted on 140 HD patients. They were randomly distributed by lottery method into two groups: intervention and control. In the intervention group, 100 μg/mL of Vitamin B 12 was intravenously injected two times a week, for eight weeks. No intervention was performed in the control group. Serum levels of homocysteine, hemoglobin (Hb), and hematocrit (Hct) were measured at the beginning and again after eight weeks (2 months) of treatment. About 91% of the patients had hyperhomocysteinemia (serum homocysteine >15 μmol/L). The median baseline levels of serum homocysteine in the intervention and control groups were 31.9 and 26.9 μmol/L, respectively (P = 0.1). After eight weeks, the median homocysteine level reduced significantly in the Vitamin B 12 group to 22.2 versus 28.4 μmol/L in control group (P = 0.006). The mean Hb and Hct also changed significantly during our study (12.3 vs. 11.4 g/dL; P = 0.003 and 37.9 vs. 35.3%; P = 0.02, respectively). Our results demonstrated the existence of a statistical negative relationship between Vitamin B 12 and serum levels of homocysteine. Detailed investigations with larger sample sizes and longer-term use of Vitamin B 12 are recommended. PMID:26997378

  1. Acupuncture and vitamin B12 injection for Bell’s palsy: no high-quality evidence exists

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-li; Guan, Ling; Hao, Peng-liang; Du, Jin-long; Zhang, Meng-xue

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of acupuncture combined with vitamin B12 acupoint injection versus acupuncture alone to reduce incomplete recovery in patients with Bell’s palsy. DATA RETRIEVAL: A computer-based online retrieval of Medline, Web of Science, CNKI, CBM databases until April 2014 was performed for relevant trials, using the key words “Bell’s palsy or idiopathic facial palsy or facial palsy” and “acupuncture or vitamin B12 or methylcobalamin”. STUDY SELECTION: All randomized controlled trials that compared acupuncture with acupuncture combined with vitamin B12 in patients with Bell’s palsy were included in the meta-analysis. The initial treatment lasted for at least 4 weeks. The outcomes of incomplete facial recovery were monitored. The scoring index varied and the definition of healing was consistent. The combined effect size was calculated by using relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) using the fixed effect model of Review Manager. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incomplete recovery rates were chosen as the primary outcome. RESULTS: Five studies involving 344 patients were included in the final analysis. Results showed that the incomplete recovery rate of Bell’s palsy patients was 44.50% in the acupuncture combined with vitamin B12 group but 62.57% in the acupuncture alone group. The major acupoints were Taiyang (EX-HN5), Jiache (ST6), Dicang (ST4) and Sibai (ST2). The combined effect size showed that acupuncture combined with vitamin B12 was better than acupuncture alone for the treatment of Bell’s palsy (RR = 0.71, 95%CI: 0.58–0.87; P = 0.001), this result held true when 8 patients lost to follow up in one study were included into the analyses (RR = 0.70, 95%CI: 0.58–0.86; P = 0.0005). In the subgroup analyses, the therapeutic effect in patients of the electroacupuncture subgroup was better than in the non-electroacupuncture subgroup (P = 0.024). There was no significant difference in the incomplete recovery rate by subgroup analysis on drug types and treatment period. Most of the included studies were moderate or low quality, and bias existed. CONCLUSION: In patients with Bell’s palsy, acupuncture combined with vitamin B12 can reduce the risk of incomplete recovery compared with acupuncture alone in our meta-analysis. Because of study bias and methodological limitations, this conclusion is uncertain and the clinical application of acupuncture combined with vitamin B12 requires further exploration. PMID:26109959

  2. The Vitamin B1 and B12 Required by the Marine Dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum Can be Provided by its Associated Bacterial Community in Culture.

    PubMed

    Cruz-López, Ricardo; Maske, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    In this study we established the B1 and B12 vitamin requirement of the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum and the vitamin supply by its associated bacterial community. In previous field studies the B1 and B12 demand of this species was suggested but not experimentally verified. When the axenic vitamin un-supplemented culture (B-ns) of L. polyedrum was inoculated with a coastal bacterial community, the dinoflagellate's vitamin growth limitation was overcome, reaching the same growth rates as the culture growing in vitamin B1B7B12-supplemented (B-s) medium. Measured B12 concentrations in the B-s and B-ns cultures were both higher than typical coastal concentrations and B12 in the B-s culture was higher than in the B-ns culture. In both B-s and B-ns cultures, the probability of dinoflagellate cells having bacteria attached to the cell surface was similar and in both cultures an average of six bacteria were attached to each dinoflagellate cell. In the B-ns culture the free bacterial community showed significantly higher cell abundance suggesting that unattached bacteria supplied the vitamins. The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) protocol allowed the quantification and identification of three bacterial groups in the same samples of the free and attached epibiotic bacteria for both treatments. The relative composition of these groups was not significantly different and was dominated by Alphaproteobacteria (>89%). To complement the FISH counts, 16S rDNA sequencing targeting the V3-V4 regions was performed using Illumina-MiSeq technology. For both vitamin amendments, the dominant group found was Alphaproteobacteria similar to FISH, but the percentage of Alphaproteobacteria varied between 50 and 95%. Alphaproteobacteria were mainly represented by Marivita sp., a member of the Roseobacter clade, followed by the Gammaproteobacterium Marinobacter flavimaris. Our results show that L. polyedrum is a B1 and B12 auxotroph, and acquire both vitamins from the associated bacterial community in sufficient quantity to sustain the maximum growth rate. PMID:27199906

  3. The Vitamin B1 and B12 Required by the Marine Dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum Can be Provided by its Associated Bacterial Community in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-López, Ricardo; Maske, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    In this study we established the B1 and B12 vitamin requirement of the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum and the vitamin supply by its associated bacterial community. In previous field studies the B1 and B12 demand of this species was suggested but not experimentally verified. When the axenic vitamin un-supplemented culture (B-ns) of L. polyedrum was inoculated with a coastal bacterial community, the dinoflagellate’s vitamin growth limitation was overcome, reaching the same growth rates as the culture growing in vitamin B1B7B12-supplemented (B-s) medium. Measured B12 concentrations in the B-s and B-ns cultures were both higher than typical coastal concentrations and B12 in the B-s culture was higher than in the B-ns culture. In both B-s and B-ns cultures, the probability of dinoflagellate cells having bacteria attached to the cell surface was similar and in both cultures an average of six bacteria were attached to each dinoflagellate cell. In the B-ns culture the free bacterial community showed significantly higher cell abundance suggesting that unattached bacteria supplied the vitamins. The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) protocol allowed the quantification and identification of three bacterial groups in the same samples of the free and attached epibiotic bacteria for both treatments. The relative composition of these groups was not significantly different and was dominated by Alphaproteobacteria (>89%). To complement the FISH counts, 16S rDNA sequencing targeting the V3–V4 regions was performed using Illumina-MiSeq technology. For both vitamin amendments, the dominant group found was Alphaproteobacteria similar to FISH, but the percentage of Alphaproteobacteria varied between 50 and 95%. Alphaproteobacteria were mainly represented by Marivita sp., a member of the Roseobacter clade, followed by the Gammaproteobacterium Marinobacter flavimaris. Our results show that L. polyedrum is a B1 and B12 auxotroph, and acquire both vitamins from the associated bacterial community in sufficient quantity to sustain the maximum growth rate. PMID:27199906

  4. Response to Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Regland, Björn; Forsmark, Sara; Halaouate, Lena; Matousek, Michael; Peilot, Birgitta; Zachrisson, Olof; Gottfries, Carl-Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME, also called chronic fatigue syndrome) may respond most favorably to frequent vitamin B12 injections, in vital combination with oral folic acid. However, there is no established algorithm for individualized optimal dosages, and rate of improvement may differ considerably between responders. Objective To evaluate clinical data from patients with ME, with or without fibromyalgia, who had been on B12 injections at least once a week for six months and up to several years. Methods 38 patients were included in a cross-sectional survey. Based on a validated observer’s rating scale, they were divided into Good (n = 15) and Mild (n = 23) responders, and the two groups were compared from various clinical aspects. Results Good responders had used significantly more frequent injections (p<0.03) and higher doses of B12 (p<0.03) for a longer time (p<0.0005), higher daily amounts of oral folic acid (p<0.003) in good relation with the individual MTHFR genotype, more often thyroid hormones (p<0.02), and no strong analgesics at all, while 70% of Mild responders (p<0.0005) used analgesics such as opioids, duloxetine or pregabalin on a daily basis. In addition to ME, the higher number of patients with fibromyalgia among Mild responders was bordering on significance (p<0.09). Good responders rated themselves as “very much” or “much” improved, while Mild responders rated “much” or “minimally” improved. Conclusions Dose-response relationship and long-lasting effects of B12/folic acid support a true positive response in the studied group of patients with ME/fibromyalgia. It’s important to be alert on co-existing thyroid dysfunction, and we suspect a risk of counteracting interference between B12/folic acid and certain opioid analgesics and other drugs that have to be demethylated as part of their metabolism. These issues should be considered when controlled trials for ME and fibromyalgia are to be designed. PMID:25902009

  5. Effects of folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation on culling rate, diseases, and reproduction in commercial dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Duplessis, M; Girard, C L; Santschi, D E; Laforest, J-P; Durocher, J; Pellerin, D

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of a combined folic acid and vitamin B12 supplement given in early lactation on culling rate, metabolic disorders and other diseases, and reproduction in commercial dairy herds. A total of 805 cows (271 primiparous and 534 multiparous cows) in 15 commercial dairy herds were involved. Every 2mo from February to December 2010 and within each herd, cows were assigned according to parity, previous 305-d milk production, and calving interval to 5mL of either (1) saline 0.9% NaCl (control group) or (2) 320mg of folic acid + 10mg of vitamin B12 (vitamin group). Treatments were administered weekly by intramuscular injections starting 3wk before the expected calving date until 8wk after parturition. A total of 221 cows were culled before the next dry period. Culling rate was not affected by treatment and was 27.5%; culling rate was greater for multiparous (32.2%) than for primiparous cows (18.8%). Within the first 60d in milk (DIM), 47 cows were culled, representing 21.3% of total culling, and no treatment effect was noted. Ketosis incidence based on a threshold ≥100µmol/L of β-hydroxybutyrate in milk was 38.3±2.9% for the vitamin group and 41.8±3.0% for the control group and was not affected by treatment. The combined supplement of folic acid and vitamin B12 did not decrease incidence of retained placenta, displaced abomasum, milk fever, metritis, or mastitis. However, the incidence of dystocia decreased by 50% in multiparous cows receiving the vitamin supplement, although no effect was observed in primiparous cows. The first breeding postpartum for multiparous cows occurred 3.8d earlier with the vitamin supplement compared with controls, whereas no treatment effect was seen for primiparous cows. Days open, first- and second-breeding conception rates, number of breedings per conception, and percentage of cows pregnant at 150 DIM were not affected by treatment. The reduced percentage of dystocia combined with the earlier DIM at first breeding for multiparous cows receiving the combined supplementation in folic acid and vitamin B12 indicates that the vitamin supplement had a positive effect in older cows. PMID:24485680

  6. Analyzing B-vitamins in Human Milk: Methodological Approaches.

    PubMed

    Hampel, Daniela; Allen, Lindsay H

    2016-02-17

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life. However, there is insufficient information about the concentration of nutrients in human milk. For some nutrients, including B-vitamins, maternal intake affects their concentration in human milk but the extent to which inadequate maternal diets affect milk B-vitamin content is poorly documented. Little is known about infant requirements for B-vitamins; recommendations are generally set as Adequate Intakes (AI) calculated on the basis of the mean volume of milk (0.78 L/day) consumed by infants exclusively fed with human milk from well-nourished mothers during the first six months, and the concentration of each vitamin in milk based on reported values. Methods used for analyzing B-vitamins, commonly microbiological, radioisotope dilution or more recently chromatographic, coupled with UV, fluorometric and MS detection, have rarely been validated for the complex human milk matrix. Thus the validity, accuracy, and sensitivity of analytical methods is important for understanding infant requirements for these nutrients, the maternal intakes needed to support adequate concentrations in breast milk. This review summarizes current knowledge on methods used for analyzing the B-vitamins thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-6 and pantothenic acid, vitamin B-12, folate, biotin, and choline in human milk, their chemical and physical properties, the different forms and changes in concentration during lactation, and the effects of deficiency on the infant. PMID:25591052

  7. Methylmalonic acidemia: 6 years' clinical experience with two variants unresponsive to vitamin B12 therapy

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, Donald T.; Ryan, Eamonn; Spate, Marilyn; Morris, Marsha; Hurley, R. Morrison; Hill, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Two infants with lethargy, vomiting, convulsions, coma and marked metabolic acidosis were found to have very high concentrations of methylmalonic acid in their serum and urine. In vitro studies of fibroblasts demonstrated that the infants had different variants of methylmalonic acidemia. Vitamin B12 was given in two different forms at 1 month of age and at 12 months of age. Each trial continued for 4 months but neither infant showed a clinical or biochemical response. In both infants hyperglycinemia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia developed during acute metabolic crises only. Hypoglycemia was found in patient 2. Hyperammonemia was severe in patient 2 during acute crises but never appeared in patient 1. When clinically well, both infants continued to excrete abnormal amounts of methylmalonic acid in the urine and both had persistent compensated metabolic acidosis. Marked hyperuricemia developed in patient 1 at 18 months of age and led to progressive renal failure. Allopurinol therapy was necessary to keep the uric acid concentration within the normal range. Renal function returned to normal, as indicated by a marked increase in the renal clearance of creatinine and uric acid. Patient 1 is physically and mentally retarded, and has moderate hypotonia, hepatomegaly and persistent vomiting. Patient 2 has developed normally. The urine concentrations of methylmalonic acid in the four parents were normal. PMID:36217

  8. Role for Vitamin B12 in Light Induction of Gene Expression in the Bacterium Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Cervantes, María; Murillo, Francisco J.

    2002-01-01

    A light-inducible promoter (PB) drives the carB operon (carotenoid genes) of the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. A gene encoding a regulator of carotenoid biosynthesis was identified by studying mutant strains carrying a transcriptional fusion to PB and deletions in three candidate genes. Our results prove that the identified gene, named carA, codes for a repressor of the PB promoter in the dark. They also show that the carA gene product does not participate in the light activation of two other promoters connected with carotenoid synthesis or its regulation in M. xanthus. CarA is a novel protein consisting of a DNA-binding domain of the family of MerR helix-turn-helix transcriptional regulators, directly joined to a cobalamin-binding domain. In support of this, we report here that the presence of vitamin B12 or some other cobalamin derivatives is absolutely required for activation of the PB promoter by light. PMID:11914353

  9. Effects of folate and vitamin B12 on cognitive function in adult and elderly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-related neurocognitive disorders, primarily Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD), have a major impact on health and well-being. Separate lines of evidence have suggested that B vitamin status may be associated with risk and progression of AD and PD. This report summarizes the ev...

  10. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cordarone)Amiodarone (Cordarone) might increase your sensitivity to sunlight. Taking vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) along with amiodarone (Cordarone) ... or rashes on areas of skin exposed to sunlight. Be sure to wear sunblock and protective clothi