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Sample records for vitamin b 12 deficiency

  1. How common is vitamin B12 deficiency?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In considering the vitamin B-12 fortification of flour, it is important to know who is at risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency and whether those individuals would benefit from flour fortification.This article reviews current knowledge of the prevalence and causes of vitamin B-12 deficiency and considers ...

  2. [Vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Leischker, A H; Kolb, G F

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency increases with age. Patients with dementia and spouses of patients with dementia are at special risk for the development of vitamin B12 deficiency. In a normal diet this vitamin is present only in animal source foods; therefore, vegans frequently develop vitamin B12 deficiency if not using supplements or foods fortified with cobalamin. Apart from dementia, most of these manifestations are completely reversible under correct therapy; therefore it is crucial to identify and to treat even atypical presentations of vitamin B12 deficiency as early as possible. This article deals with the physiology and pathophysiology of vitamin B12 metabolism. A practice-oriented algorithm which also considers health economic aspects for a rational laboratory diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency is presented. In cases with severe neurological symptoms, therapy should be parenteral, especially initially. For parenteral treatment, hydroxocobalamin is the drug of choice. PMID:25586321

  3. Generalised hyperpigmentation in vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Santra, Gouranga; Paul, Rudrajit; Ghosh, Sumit Kr; Chakraborty, Debojyoti; Das, Shubhabrata; Pradhan, Sourav; Das, Abhishek

    2014-08-01

    In developing countries like India, nutritional deficiencies are prevalent and hyperpigmentation due to protein energy malnutrition, zinc deficiency and pellagra are common. Indian women, especially vegetarian are prone to vitamin B12 deficiency. Vitamin B12 deficiency can present as anaemia, neurological defect, gastrointestinal symptoms or dementia. Hyperpigmentation as the first presentation of Vitamin B12 deficiency is rare. Our patient, a 45 year-old Hindu vegetarian female presented to us with generalized hyperpigmentation. Examination revealed associated anaemia and peripheral neuropathy. Laboratory investigation confirmed vitamin B12 deficiency. Clinical features along with hyperpigmentation improved with vitamin B12 supplementation. We report this case to highlight this rare manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency. A high index of clinical suspicion is warranted to diagnose the case. Since India is a country with a large number of potential vitamin B12 deficiency cases, the physicians need to be aware of all the varied manifestations of this vitamin deficiency. In case of hyperpigmentation, nutritional aspect must be ruled out as it is reversible. Early replacement therapy may also help to prevent morbidities like dementia and neuropathy. PMID:25856944

  4. [Approaches to vitamin B12 deficiency].

    PubMed

    Russcher, Henk; Heil, Sandra G; Slobbe, Lennert; Lindemans, Jan

    2012-01-01

    A 28-year-old female vegetarian was referred to a specialist in internal medicine with persistent iron deficiency. Laboratory analysis revealed microcytic anaemia with low ferritin levels but normal total vitamin B12 levels. The red blood cell distribution width, however, showed a very wide variation in red blood cell sizes, indicating a coexisting vitamin B12 deficiency, which was confirmed by the low concentration of active vitamin B12. Another patient, a 69-year-old woman with a history of previous gastric surgery and renal insufficiency as a complication of diabetes mellitus, was suspected to be deficient in vitamin B12, as she had low total vitamin B12 levels and an accumulation of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine in her blood. Testing the total concentration of vitamin B12 alone has insufficient diagnostic accuracy and no accepted gold standard is available for diagnosing vitamin B12 deficiency. With the development of newer tests, such as measuring holotranscobalamin II (concentration of active vitamin B12), atypical and subclinical deficiency states can be recognized. A new approach to diagnosing vitamin B12 deficiency is presented, based upon these 2 case descriptions. PMID:22217304

  5. Vitamin B12 deficiency: the great masquerader.

    PubMed

    Dobrozsi, Sarah; Flood, Veronica H; Panepinto, Julie; Scott, J Paul; Brandow, Amanda

    2014-04-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is rare in children, with nonspecific symptoms including failure to thrive, vomiting, anorexia, and neurologic changes with or without hematologic disturbances. The neuropathy can be severe and irreversible. We report four cases of children with B12 deficiency secondary to adult type pernicious anemia, a presumed transport protein abnormality, and a metabolic defect. All demonstrated neurologic compromise that improved after initiation of B12 therapy. Hematologic manifestations may be preceded by constitutional, gastrointestinal, or neurologic changes, and must raise concern for B12 deficiency. Therapy should be initiated promptly in this setting to prevent irreversible neuropathy. PMID:24115632

  6. [Vitamin B12 deficiency: what's new?].

    PubMed

    Braillard, O; Casini, A; Samii, K; Rufenacht, P; Junod, Perron N

    2012-09-26

    Vitamin B12 screening is only recommended among symptomatic patients or in those with risk factors. The main cause of vitamin B12 deficiency is the food cobalamin malabsorption syndrom. Holotranscobalamin is a more reliable marker than cyanocobalamin to confirm vitamin B12 deficiency, but it has not been validated yet in complex situations. An autoimmune gastritis must be excluded in the absence of risk factors but in the presence of a probable deficiency. Oral substitution treatment is effective but requires excellent therapeutic compliance and close follow-up to monitor the response to treatment. It has not yet been studied among patients suffering from severe symptoms, inflammatory bowel disease and ileal resection. PMID:23097863

  7. Vitamin B12 deficiency - A 21st century perspective?.

    PubMed

    Shipton, Michael J; Thachil, Jecko

    2015-04-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is a common condition which can present with non-specific clinical features, and in severe cases with neurological or haematological abnormalities. Although classically caused by pernicious anaemia, this condition now accounts for a minority of cases and vitamin B12 deficiency occurs most often due to food-bound cobalamin malabsorption. Since missing the diagnosis can result in potentially severe complications, including degeneration of the spinal cord and pancytopaenia, vitamin B12 deficiency must be diagnosed early and managed appropriately. Intramuscular injections have been the mainstay of treatment, but oral replacement therapy can be effective in many cases. There is accumulating evidence that high vitamin B12 levels (values varied from 350-1,200 pmol/l) are associated with haematological and hepatic disorders, in particular with malignancy. This review focuses on the developments in the clinical features and management of vitamin B12 deficiency over the last decade. PMID:25824066

  8. Determining Functional Vitamin B12 Deficiency in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Khodabandehloo, Niloofar; Vakili, Masoud; Hashemian, Zahra; Zare Zardini, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Elevated concentration of serum total homocysteine usually occurs in vitamin B-12 deficiency. This metabolite can be measured and used for screening functional vitamin B-12 deficiency. Objectives: We assessed functional vitamin B12 deficiency in Tehranian elderly admitted to elderly research center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences. Patients and Materials: A cross-sectional study was performed on 232 elderly admitted to elderly research center in Tehran, Iran in 2012. According to other studies, individuals were classified into two groups: high risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency (< 220 pmol/L) and borderline vitamin B-12 (220–258 pmol/L) accompanied by elevated homocysteine (> 15 micmol/L). Results: Cut-off of 15.0 pmol/L for homocysteine was identified for persons with normal or elevated concentrations. Among persons aged 65–74 and ? 75 years, respectively, 56% and 93% were at high risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency. Conclusions: The prevalence of B12 deficiency was higher in this study compared to other studies, so more attention and massive efficacious policy should be designed to reduce the deficiency of this vitamin. PMID:26430518

  9. Vitamin B12 deficiency after irradiation for bladder carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kinn, A.C.; Lantz, B.

    1984-05-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency was found in 10 of 41 patients who underwent radiotherapy before cystectomy with Bricker urinary diversion for carcinoma of the bladder. Of 13 patients given full irradiation because of inoperable bladder cancer 5 had malabsorption of vitamin B12. Serum folic acid was normal in these patients, indicating predominantly ileal irradiation sequelae. Routine evaluation of serum vitamin B12 after radiotherapy is recommended so that appropriate medication can be given, if possible before neurological symptoms appear.

  10. Nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency in hospitalized young children.

    PubMed

    Cetinkaya, Feyzullah; Yildirmak, Yildiz; Kutluk, Gunsel; Erdem, Ela

    2007-01-01

    The authors sought to determine prevalence, social, economic, and dietary patterns of young children (n = 20) identified as having vitamin B12 deficiency anemia after admission to their hospital in the last 3 years. The diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency was based on symptoms and clinical findings, findings on peripheral blood films and bone marrow aspirates, and serum levels of vitamin B12. The children had been exclusively breast-fed without any animal food supplementation. Serum vitamin B12 levels were also measured in the sera of mothers and found to be low. The authors concluded that vitamin B12 deficiency might be an important health problem among children of mothers who do not consume animal foods adequately. PMID:17130110

  11. Causes of Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review describes current knowledge of the main causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The most common explanations for poor B12 status are a low dietary intake of the vitamin (i.e., a low intake of animal-source foods) and malabsorption. Although it has long been known that strict vegetar...

  12. MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL VITAMIN B12 AND HOLOTRANSCOBALAMIN, SINGLY AND IN COBMINATION, IN SCREENING FOR METABOLIC VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The standard screening test for vitamin B12 deficiency, measurement of total plasma vitamin B12, has limitations of sensitivity and specificity. Plasma vitamin B12 bound to transcobalamin (holoTC) is the fraction of total vitamin B12 available for tissue uptake and therefore has been pro...

  13. [Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in infants breastfed by vegans].

    PubMed

    Roed, Casper; Skovby, Flemming; Lund, Allan Meldgaard

    2009-10-19

    Weight loss and reduction of motor skills resulted in paediatric evaluation of a 10-month-old girl and a 12-month-old boy. Both children suffered form anaemia and delayed development due to vitamin B12 deficiency caused by strict maternal vegan diet during pregnancy and nursing. Therapy with cyanocobalamin was instituted with remission of symptoms. Since infants risk irreversible neurologic damage following severe vitamin B12 deficiency, early diagnosis and treatment are mandatory. Vegan and vegetarian women should take vitamin B12 supplementation during the pregnancy and nursing period. PMID:19852900

  14. Causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency.

    PubMed

    Allen, Lindsay H

    2008-06-01

    This review describes current knowledge of the main causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The most common explanations for poor vitamin B12 status are a low dietary intake of the vitamin (i.e., a low intake of animal-source foods) and malabsorption. Although it has long been known that strict vegetarians (vegans) are at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency, evidence now indicates that low intakes of animal-source foods, such as occur in some lacto-ovo vegetarians and many less-industrialized countries, cause vitamin B12 depletion. Malabsorption of the vitamin is most commonly observed as food-bound cobalamin malabsorption due to gastric atrophy in the elderly, and probably as a result of Helicobacter pylori infection. There is growing evidence that gene polymorphisms in transcobalamins affect plasma vitamin B12 concentrations. The primary cause of folate deficiency is low intake of sources rich in the vitamin, such as legumes and green leafy vegetables, and the consumption of these foods may explain why folate status can be adequate in relatively poor populations. Other situations in which the risk of folate deficiency increases include lactation and alcoholism. PMID:18709879

  15. A rare case of vitamin B12 deficiency with ascites.

    PubMed

    Rajsekhar, Putta; Reddy, Mugannagari Maheshwar; Vaddera, Sameeraja; Rajini, G; Tikeli, Vinil

    2014-07-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is widespread than assumed in population. At risk are older people, pregnant women, vegans, patients with renal and intestinal diseases. Vitamin B12 deficiency can present with various hematological, gastrointestinal and neurological manifestations. In the population, the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in younger people is 5% to 7% which is less compared to elderly people. In developing countries, deficiency is much more common, starting in early life and persisting across the life span. Here, we present a 16-year-old female patient presenting with ascites since 2 months who was subsequently investigated and diagnosed to have nutritional megaloblastic anaemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency after exclusion of other infective, neoplastic, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Inspite, patient was treated with antitubercular drugs but she did not respond. After supplementation of Vitamin B12, ascites responded well. Inadequate intake due to low consumption of animal source foods is the main cause of low serum vitamin B12 in younger adults and likely the main cause in poor population worldwide. PMID:25177593

  16. A Rare Case of Vitamin B12 Deficiency with Ascites

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Mugannagari Maheshwar; Vaddera, Sameeraja; Rajini, G; Tikeli, Vinil

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is widespread than assumed in population. At risk are older people, pregnant women, vegans, patients with renal and intestinal diseases. Vitamin B12 deficiency can present with various hematological, gastrointestinal and neurological manifestations. In the population, the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in younger people is 5% to 7% which is less compared to elderly people. In developing countries, deficiency is much more common, starting in early life and persisting across the life span. Here, we present a 16-year-old female patient presenting with ascites since 2 months who was subsequently investigated and diagnosed to have nutritional megaloblastic anaemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency after exclusion of other infective, neoplastic, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Inspite, patient was treated with antitubercular drugs but she did not respond. After supplementation of Vitamin B12, ascites responded well. Inadequate intake due to low consumption of animal source foods is the main cause of low serum vitamin B12 in younger adults and likely the main cause in poor population worldwide. PMID:25177593

  17. Vitamin-B12 deficiency following therapy in gynecologic oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Bandy, L.C.; Clarke-Pearson, D.L.; Creasman, W.T.

    1984-03-01

    Vitamin-B12 deficiency results from inadequate absorption of the vitamin by the distal ileum and depletion of available stores. Both radiotherapy and intestinal resection can contribute to development of this condition. The significance of this problem in gynecologic oncology is discussed and two patients are described.

  18. Neurological consequences of vitamin B12 deficiency and its treatment.

    PubMed

    Chalouhi, Christel; Faesch, Sabine; Anthoine-Milhomme, Marie-Constance; Fulla, Yvonne; Dulac, Olivier; Chéron, Gérard

    2008-08-01

    In developed countries, the vitamin B12 deficiency usually occurs in children exclusively breast-fed, whose mothers are vegetarians, causing low stores of vitamin B12. Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency appear during the second trimester of life and include failure to thrive, lethargy, hypotonia, and arrest or regression of developmental skills. A megaloblastic anemia can be present. One half of the infants exhibit abnormal movements before the start of treatment with intramuscular cobalamin, which disappear 1 or 2 days after. More rarely, movement disorders appear a few days after treatment, whereas neurological symptoms are improving. These abnormal movements can last for 2 to 6 weeks. If not treated, vitamin B12 deficiency can cause lasting neurodisability. Therefore, efforts should be directed to preventing deficiency in pregnant and breast-feeding women on vegan diets and their infants by giving them vitamin B12 supplements. When preventive supplementation has failed, one should recognize and treat quickly an infant presenting with failure to thrive and delayed development. PMID:18708898

  19. [Megaloblastic-vitamin B12 deficiency anemia in childhood].

    PubMed

    Mtvarelidze, Z G; Kvezereli-Kopadze, A N; Kvezereli-Kopadze, M A

    2009-05-01

    Megaloblastic anemias are basically caused by vitamin B(12) and/or folic acid deficiency. Childhood vitamin B(12) deficiency is extremely rare. There are congenital and acquired forms of vitamin B(12)-deficiency anemias. The article captures findings of 10 year observation of 3 patients with Imerslund-Gräsbeck Syndrome (congenital chronic megaloblastic anemia with proteinuria), in which the diagnosis was established by us in early childhood and due to correct treatment and prevention complete clinical-laboratory remission is kept so far. We have also observed rare case of acquired megaloblastic anemia - 14 years old vegetarian patient, who was diagnosed with vitamin B(12)-deficiency anemia based on history, clinical and para-clinical data. It was caused by strict vegetarianism of the patient. Therefore first of all the diet was corrected. In 5 days of specific treatment with vitamin B(12) "reticulocyte crisis" was manifested (proving the correctness of diagnosis and treatment) and complete clinical-hematological remission was achieved in 2 weeks. The given cases are interesting as megaloblastic anemias in childhood are both rare and difficult to diagnose. In such cases timely diagnosis, treatment and prevention tactics should be based on cause-and-effect relation of disease. PMID:19556642

  20. Involuntary movements due to vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Aaron; Moloi, M W

    2014-12-01

    Deficiency of vitamin B12 produces protean effects on the nervous system, most commonly neuropathy, myelopathy, cognitive and behavioural symptoms, and optic atrophy. Involuntary movements comprise a relatively rare manifestation of this readily treatable disorder. Both adults and infants deficient in vitamin B12 may present with chorea, tremor, myoclonus, Parkinsonism, dystonia, or a combination of these, which may precede diagnosis or become apparent only a few days after parenteral replacement therapy has begun. The pathogenesis of these movement disorders shows interesting parallels to certain neurodegenerative conditions. The clinical syndrome responds well to vitamin B12 supplementation in most cases, and an early diagnosis is essential to reverse the haematological and neurological dysfunction characteristic of this disorder. In this article, we elucidate the association of vitamin B12 deficiency with movement disorders in adults and in infants, discuss the pathogenesis of this association, review previously reported cases, and present a young adult male with severe generalized chorea that showed a salutary response to vitamin B12 supplementation. PMID:24852503

  1. How prevalent is vitamin B(12) deficiency among vegetarians?

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Roman; Parrott, Scott James; Raj, Sudha; Cullum-Dugan, Diana; Lucus, Debbie

    2013-02-01

    Vegetarians are at risk for vitamin B(12) (B12) deficiency due to suboptimal intake. The goal of the present literature review was to assess the rate of B12 depletion and deficiency among vegetarians and vegans. Using a PubMed search to identify relevant publications, 18 articles were found that reported B12 deficiency rates from studies that identified deficiency by measuring methylmalonic acid, holo-transcobalamin II, or both. The deficiency rates reported for specific populations were as follows: 62% among pregnant women, between 25% and almost 86% among children, 21-41% among adolescents, and 11-90% among the elderly. Higher rates of deficiency were reported among vegans compared with vegetarians and among individuals who had adhered to a vegetarian diet since birth compared with those who had adopted such a diet later in life. The main finding of this review is that vegetarians develop B12 depletion or deficiency regardless of demographic characteristics, place of residency, age, or type of vegetarian diet. Vegetarians should thus take preventive measures to ensure adequate intake of this vitamin, including regular consumption of supplements containing B12. PMID:23356638

  2. Vitamin B12

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 deficiency. Taking vitamin B12 by mouth, through the nose, or as a shot is ... of homocysteine in the blood (Hyperhomocysteinemia). Taking vitamin B12 by mouth, along with folic acid and sometimes pyridoxine (vitamin ...

  3. Vitamin B12 deficiency in relation to functional disabilities.

    PubMed

    Oberlin, Breanna S; Tangney, Christy C; Gustashaw, Kristin A R; Rasmussen, Heather E

    2013-11-01

    This study was designed to assess whether symptoms, functional measures, and reported disabilities were associated with vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency when defined in three ways. Participants, aged 60 or more years of age, in 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were categorized in relation to three previously used definitions of B12 deficiency: (1) serum B12 < 148 pmol/L; (2) serum B12 < 200 pmol/L and serum homocysteine > 20 ?mol/L; and (3) serum B12 < 258 pmol/L or serum methylmalonic acid > 0.21 ?mol/L. Functional measures of peripheral neuropathy, balance, cognitive function, gait speed, along with self-reported disability (including activities of daily living) were examined with standardized instruments by trained NHANES interviewers and technicians. Individuals identified as B12 deficient by definition 2 were more likely to manifest peripheral neuropathy OR (odds) (95% confidence intervals), p value: 9.70 (2.24, 42.07), 0.004 and report greater total disability, 19.61 (6.22, 61.86) 0.0001 after adjustments for age, sex, race, serum creatinine, and ferritin concentrations, smoking, diabetes, and peripheral artery disease. Smaller, but significantly increased, odds of peripheral neuropathy and total disability were also observed when definition 3 was applied. Functional measures and reported disabilities were associated with B12 deficiency definitions that include B12 biomarkers (homocysteine or methylmalonic acid). Further study of these definitions is needed to alert clinicians of possible subclinical B12 deficiency because functional decline amongst older adults may be correctable if the individual is B12 replete. PMID:24225845

  4. Vitamin B12 deficiency among patients with diabetes mellitus: is routine screening and supplementation justified?

    PubMed

    Kibirige, Davis; Mwebaze, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is an essential micronutrient required for optimal hemopoetic, neuro-cognitive and cardiovascular function. Biochemical and clinical vitamin B12 deficiency has been demonstrated to be highly prevalent among patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It presents with diverse clinical manifestations ranging from impaired memory, dementia, delirium, peripheral neuropathy, sub acute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, megaloblastic anemia and pancytopenia. This review article offers a current perspective on the physiological roles of vitamin B12, proposed pathophysiological mechanisms of vitamin B12 deficiency, screening for vitamin B12 deficiency and vitamin B12 supplementation among patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:23651730

  5. Rare Case of Strongyloides stercoralis with Vitamin B12 Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kad?lar, Özlem; Bozkurt, Berna; Karakeçe, Engin; Kaya, Tezcan; Çiftçi, ?hsan Hakk?; Tamer, Ali

    2015-09-01

    Strongyloidiyasis is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions, and mostly soil transmitted nematode disease that is seen as sporadic cases in Turkey. As may be asymptomatic in healthy individuals, it may even cause death in immunosuppressive people. We report a case of Strongyloides stercoralis infection in a patient, 29 years old young male was admitted to our institution with diarrhea who has got vitamin B12 deficiency and eosinophilia. The case represents an extremely rare and in our knowledge, it is the first case in Sakarya. PMID:26470934

  6. Vitamin B12 deficiency in the institutionalized elderly: A regional study.

    PubMed

    Wong, C W; Ip, C Y; Leung, C P; Leung, C S; Cheng, J N; Siu, C Y

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency increases with age and is suggested to be even higher in the elderly living in institutions. This retrospective study evaluated the vitamin B12 and folate status of 1996 institutionalized elderly residents aged over 65years. Among them, 34.9% had vitamin B12 deficiency (serum vitamin B12 <150pmol/L), 11.8% had folate deficiency (serum folate <6.8nmol/L), and 4.9% had both. The majority of vitamin B12 deficient residents (68%) had serum vitamin B12 between 100pmol/L and 149pmol/L. Macrocytosis was found in 24.2% of vitamin B12 deficient residents. A significant increase in macrocytosis was associated with a decrease in serum vitamin B12 below 100pmol/L. Macrocytosis was most common in those with vitamin B12 ?69pmol/L (50.9%). Overall, vitamin B12 deficiency is common in the institutionalized elderly, however macrocytosis cannot predict deficiency. More liberal testing for vitamin B12 status in the institutionalized elderly may be warranted. PMID:26122132

  7. Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as acute ataxia.

    PubMed

    Crawford, John Ross; Say, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    A previously healthy 7-year-old Caucasian boy was hospitalised for evaluation of acute ataxia and failure to thrive, initially suspicious for an intracranial mass. Weight and body mass index were below the third percentile and he demonstrated loss of joint position and vibratory sense on examination. Laboratory studies revealed megaloblastic anaemia while an initial MRI of the brain showed no evidence of mass lesions or other abnormalities. A dietary history revealed the child subscribed to a restrictive vegan diet with little to no intake of animal products or other fortified foods. The child was diagnosed with presumed vitamin B12 deficiency and was treated with intramuscular B12 injections. Neurological symptoms resolved promptly within several days after starting therapy. This case underlines the importance of assessing nutritional status in the evaluation of neurological dysfunction in the pediatric patient. PMID:23536622

  8. Update: vitamin B12 deficiency among Bhutanese refugees resettling in the United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    Cuffe, Kendra; Stauffer, William; Painter, John; Shetty, Sharmila; Montour, Jessica; Zhou, Weigong

    2014-07-18

    In 2008, clinicians performing routine medical examinations in the United States reported high rates of hematologic and neurologic disorders caused by vitamin B12 deficiency in resettled Bhutanese refugees. To confirm this finding, CDC screened Bhutanese refugees' serum samples for vitamin B12 levels and found vitamin B12 deficiency in 64% (n = 99) of samples obtained before departure and 27% (n = 64) of samples obtained after arrival in the United States. In response, CDC recommended that arriving Bhutanese refugees receive oral vitamin B12 supplements and nutrition advice. In 2012, based on anecdotal reports of decreasing rates of vitamin B12 deficiency in this population, CDC worked with select domestic refugee health programs to determine if the recommendations had reduced the vitamin B12 deficiency rate among Bhutanese refugees. PMID:25029113

  9. Vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly: is it worth screening?

    PubMed

    Wong, C W

    2015-04-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common among the elderly. Elderly people are particularly at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency because of the high prevalence of atrophic gastritis-associated food-cobalamin (vitamin B12) malabsorption, and the increasing prevalence of pernicious anaemia with advancing age. The deficiency most often goes unrecognised because the clinical manifestations are highly variable, often subtle and non-specific, but if left undiagnosed the consequences can be serious. Diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency, however, is not straightforward as laboratory tests have certain limitations. Setting a cut-off level to define serum vitamin B12 deficiency is difficult; though homocysteine and methylmalonic acid are more sensitive for vitamin B12 deficiency, it may give false result in some conditions and the reference intervals are not standardised. At present, there is no consensus or guideline for diagnosis of this deficiency. It is most often based on the clinical symptoms together with laboratory assessment (low serum vitamin B12 level and elevated serum homocysteine or methylmalonic acid level) and the response to treatment to make definitive diagnosis. Treatment and replacement with oral vitamin B12 can be as effective as parenteral administration even in patients with pernicious anaemia. The suggested oral vitamin B12 dose is 1 mg daily for a month, and then maintenance dose of 125 to 250 µg for patients with dietary insufficiency and 1 mg daily for those with pernicious anaemia. Vitamin B12 replacement is safe and without side-effects, but prompt treatment is required to reverse the damage before it becomes extensive or irreversible. At present, there is no recommendation for mass screening for vitamin B12 in the elderly. Nevertheless, the higher prevalence with age, increasing risk of vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly, symptoms being difficult to recognise, and availability of safe treatment options make screening a favourable option. However, the unavailability of reliable diagnostic tool or gold standard test makes screening difficult to carry out. PMID:25756278

  10. Long term use of metformin leading to vitamin B 12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tung, Moon Ley; Tan, Lip Kun

    2014-06-01

    Metformin is a commonly used oral hypoglycaemic agent worldwide. Gastrointestinal side effects and lactic acidosis related to metformin usage are commonly recognized. However, the associated vitamin B12 deficiency is less well known. We present a case of long term metformin use resulting in vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:24674102

  11. [Vitamin B12 (cobalamin)].

    PubMed

    Guilland, Jean-Claude; Aimone-Gastin, Isabelle

    2013-10-01

    The term "vitamin B12" refers to four cobalamins (Cbl), including methyl-Cbl and adenosyl-Cbl, the two enzyme co-factors of methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, respectively. Vitamin B12 deficiency produces clinical disorders that include mainly megaloblastic anaemia, peripheral and central neurological manifestations. The clinical significance of low blood B12 concentrations in the absence of manifestations of deficiency is a matter of debate. The biochemical diagnosis of the subclinical and clinical deficiency of vitamin B12 has been enriched by several parameters, including serum methylmalonic acid, homocysteine, and holo-transcobalamine, which have been evaluated over the past two decades. PMID:24298826

  12. Folate–vitamin B-12 interaction in relation to cognitive impairment, anemia, and biochemical indicators of vitamin B-12 deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous reports on pernicious anemia treatment suggested that high folic acid intake adversely influences the natural history of vitamin B-12 deficiency, which affects many elderly individuals. However, experimental investigation of this hypothesis is unethical, and the few existing observational d...

  13. Delirium as a result of vitamin B12 deficiency in a vegetarian female patient.

    PubMed

    Mavrommati, K; Sentissi, O

    2013-09-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency can manifest with haematological, gastrointestinal and neuropsychiatric signs. The neuropsychiatric symptoms may be concurrent or precede the other symptoms. The reported case is a clinical case of delirium due to vitamin B12 deficiency in a female vegetarian patient. The patient was treated with vitamin B12 supplementation. Initially, it was difficult to diagnose this patient, who presented with delirium that could have been due to multiple causes. The finding underlines the importance of conducting a complete laboratory test panel for delirium, including the blood levels of vitamin B12. PMID:23859997

  14. VITAMIN B-12 SUPPLEMENTATION OF DEFICIENT LACTATING GUATEMALAN WOMEN IMPROVES MATERNAL BUT NOT INFANT STATUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin B-12 deficiency is common in mothers and infants where maternal intake of animals source foods is low. The first six months post-partum is a critical period of neurological development requiring vitamin B-12. A pilot study was designed to determine the dose of B-12 to the mothers that would ...

  15. Acute bilateral useless hand syndrome: a rare presenting manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Biyani, Sumant; Jha, Sneh Kumar; Pandey, Suchit; Shukla, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of bilateral useless hand syndrome, a rare presenting manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency. A 38-year-old man, a strict vegetarian and a teacher by occupation, presented with acute onset clumsiness of both hands while performing fine movements. Detailed history-taking, examination of the patient and relevant investigations (complete blood count, serum vitamin B12 and MRI of the cervical spinal cord) were carried out. Laboratory analysis was suggestive of vitamin B12 deficiency and MRI demonstrated a lesion involving the posterior columns of the cervical cord. The patient was diagnosed as a case of non-compressive cervical myelopathy predominantly involving the posterior column due to vitamin B12 deficiency. Acute bilateral useless hand syndrome can be a rare presenting feature of vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:26475874

  16. Vitamin B12

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hyperhomocysteinemia). Taking vitamin B12 by mouth, along with folic acid and sometimes pyridoxine (vitamin B6), can lower blood ... that taking vitamin B12 with other vitamins, including folic acid and vitamin B6, might help prevent an eye ...

  17. Is vitamin B12 deficiency a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in vegetarians?

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Roman

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe the role of vitamin B12 deficiency in cardiovascular disease development among vegetarians. Vegetarians have a high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Deficiency of this vitamin is associated with a variety of atherogenic processes that are mainly, but not exclusively, due to vitamin B12 deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinemia. Each 5-?mol/L increase above 10 ?mol/L of serum homocysteine is associated with a 20% increased risk of circulatory health problems. Mean homocysteine concentration >10 ?mol/L among vegetarians was reported in 32 of 34 reports. Macrocytosis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency is also associated with fatal and non-fatal coronary disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, and other circulatory health problems. Compared with non-vegetarians, vegetarians have an improved profile of the traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, including serum lipids, blood pressure, serum glucose concentration, and weight status. However, not all studies that assessed cardiovascular disease incidence among vegetarians reported a protective effect. Among studies that did show a lower prevalence of circulatory health problems, the effect was not as pronounced as expected, which may be a result of poor vitamin B12 status due to a vegetarian diet. Vitamin B12 deficiency may negate the cardiovascular disease prevention benefits of vegetarian diets. In order to further reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, vegetarians should be advised to use vitamin B12 supplements. PMID:25998928

  18. Biologically active vitamin B12 compounds in foods for preventing deficiency among vegetarians and elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Tanioka, Yuri; Bito, Tomohiro

    2013-07-17

    The usual dietary sources of vitamin B12 are animal-source based foods, including meat, milk, eggs, fish, and shellfish, although a few plant-based foods such as certain types of dried lavers (nori) and mushrooms contain substantial and considerable amounts of vitamin B12, respectively. Unexpectedly, detailed characterization of vitamin B12 compounds in foods reveals the presence of various corrinoids that are inactive in humans. The majority of edible blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) and certain edible shellfish predominately contain an inactive corrinoid known as pseudovitamin B12. Various factors affect the bioactivity of vitamin B12 in foods. For example, vitamin B12 is partially degraded and loses its biological activity during cooking and storage of foods. The intrinsic factor-mediated gastrointestinal absorption system in humans has evolved to selectively absorb active vitamin B12 from naturally occurring vitamin B12 compounds, including its degradation products and inactive corrinoids that are present in daily meal foods. The objective of this review is to present up-to-date information on various factors that can affect the bioactivity of vitamin B12 in foods. To prevent vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians and elderly subjects, it is necessary to identify plant-source foods that contain high levels of bioactive vitamin B12 and, in conjunction, to prepare the use of crystalline vitamin B12-fortified foods. PMID:23782218

  19. Prevalent vitamin B-12 deficiency in twelve-month-old Guatemalan infants is predicted by maternal B-12 deficiency and infant diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marginal (<148 pmol/L) or deficient (148-220 pmol/L) plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations were reported previously in approximately one third of low-income women and children studied in Guatemala. Since vitamin B-12 deficiency can adversely affect infant development and cognitive function, this study ...

  20. Neglect-induced pseudo-thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura due to vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Asano, Takeshi; Narazaki, Hidehiko; Kaizu, Kiyohiko; Matsukawa, Shouhei; Takema-Tochikubo, Yuki; Fujii, Shuichi; Saitoh, Nobuyuki; Mashiko, Kunihiko; Fujino, Osamu

    2015-10-01

    Although thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is rare, early diagnosis and treatment are important for decreasing the mortality rate. Acquired vitamin B12 deficiency is frequently overlooked because of its rarity in developed countries, particularly in children and adolescents. The hematological changes in vitamin B12 deficiency present as megaloblastic anemia, increased lactate dehydrogenase, vasoconstriction, increased platelet aggregation, and abnormal activation of the coagulation followed by microangiopathy as well as neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. We report herein the case of a 15-year-old girl who had been neglected, which might have caused pseudo-TTP through malnutrition, particularly vitamin B12 deficiency. When we encounter cases of TTP in children, clinicians must be aware of the possibility of malnutrition, particularly with vitamin B12 deficiency, even in developed countries, and investigate the cause of malnutrition including neglect. PMID:26387768

  1. Effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on neurodevelopment in infants: current knowledge and possible mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Severe vitamin B12 deficiency produces a cluster of neurological symptoms in infants, including irritability, failure to thrive, apathy, anorexia, and developmental regression, which respond remarkably rapidly to supplementation. The underlying mechanisms may involve delayed myelination or demyelina...

  2. Treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency-methylcobalamine? Cyancobalamine? Hydroxocobalamin?-clearing the confusion.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, K; Billa, G

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cyancobalamin, Cbl) has two active co-enzyme forms, methylcobalamin (MeCbl) and adenosylcobalamin (AdCbl). There has been a paradigm shift in the treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency such that MeCbl is being extensively used and promoted. This is despite the fact that both MeCbl and AdCbl are essential and have distinct metabolic fates and functions. MeCbl is primarily involved along with folate in hematopiesis and development of the brain during childhood. Whereas deficiency of AdCbl disturbs the carbohydrate, fat and amino-acid metabolism, and hence interferes with the formation of myelin. Thereby, it is important to treat vitamin B12 deficiency with a combination of MeCbl and AdCbl or hydroxocobalamin or Cbl. Regarding the route, it has been proved that the oral route is comparable to the intramuscular route for rectifying vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:25117994

  3. Cerebral atrophy in a vitamin B12-deficient infant of a vegetarian mother.

    PubMed

    Kocaoglu, Celebi; Akin, Fatih; Caksen, Hüseyin; Böke, Saltuk Bu?ra; Arslan, Sükrü; Aygün, Serhat

    2014-06-01

    In developed countries, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency usually occurs in children, exclusively breastfed ones whose mothers are vegetarian, causing low body stores of vitamin B12. The haematologic manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anaemia. It is a megaloblastic anaemia with high mean corpuscular volume and typical morphological features, such as hyperlobulation of the nuclei of the granulocytes. In advanced cases, neutropaenia and thrombocytopaenia can occur, simulating aplastic anaemia or leukaemia. In addition to haematological symptoms, infants may experience weakness, fatigue, failure to thrive, and irritability. Other common findings include pallor, glossitis, vomiting, diarrhoea, and icterus. Neurological symptoms may affect the central nervous system and, in severe cases, rarely cause brain atrophy. Here, we report an interesting case, a 12-month old infant, who was admitted with neurological symptoms and diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:25076673

  4. Vitamin B12 deficiency in persons with intellectual disability in a vegetarian residential care community.

    PubMed

    Morad, Mohammed; Gringols, Mark; Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav

    2005-01-21

    The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency among intellectually disabled persons in a vegetarian remedial community in Israel. In this community, 47 individuals with intellectual disability (ID) live in 7 enlarged families in a kibbutz style agricultural setting. These 47 individuals and 17 of their caregivers were screened for vitamin B12 deficiency. There were 25.5% of the disabled vs. 11.8% of the caregivers found to have levels of vitamin B12 lower than 157 pg/ml. It is concluded that persons with ID in this vegetarian residential care community seemed to be at a higher risk for vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:15674451

  5. Vitamin B-12

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Vitamin B-12 Vitamin B-12 What is vitamin B-12? Vitamin B-12 is an important nutrient that is found naturally ... shellfish, meat, eggs, dairy products, and fortified foods. Vitamin B-12 helps make red blood cells and ...

  6. Effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on neurodevelopment in infants: current knowledge and possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Dror, Daphna K; Allen, Lindsay H

    2008-05-01

    Severe vitamin B(12) deficiency produces a cluster of neurological symptoms in infants, including irritability, failure to thrive, apathy, anorexia, and developmental regression, which respond remarkably rapidly to supplementation. The underlying mechanisms may involve delayed myelination or demyelination of nerves; alteration in the S-adenosylmethionine:S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio; imbalance of neurotrophic and neurotoxic cytokines; and/or accumulation of lactate in brain cells. This review summarizes the current knowledge concerning infantile vitamin B(12) deficiency, including a pooled analysis of case studies of infants born to mothers with untreated pernicious anemia or a strict vegetarian lifestyle and a discussion of the mechanisms that may underlie the manifestations of deficiency. PMID:18454811

  7. Vitamin B12 level

    MedlinePLUS

    The vitamin B12 level is a blood test that measures how much vitamin B12 is in your blood. ... a form of megaloblastic anemia caused by poor vitamin B12 absorption. This can occur when the stomach makes ...

  8. Review of the magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies worldwide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human deficiencies of folate and vitamin B12 result in adverse effects which may be of public health significance, but the magnitude of these deficiencies is unknown. Therefore, we examine the prevalence data currently available, assess global coverage of surveys, determine the frequency with which...

  9. Neurology of Nutritional Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Infants: Case Series From India and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Goraya, Jatinder Singh; Kaur, Sukhjot; Mehra, Bharat

    2015-11-01

    We studied 27 infants aged 6 to 27 months with vitamin B12 deficiency also known as "infantile tremor syndrome" in India. All were exclusively breast-fed by vegetarian mothers. Developmental delay or regression, pallor, skin hyperpigmentation, and sparse brown hair were present in all. Majority were hypotonic and involuntary movements were encountered in 18. Anemia and macrocytosis was found in 83% and 71% infants, respectively. Low serum vitamin B12 was present in 12 of 21 infants. Seven of the 9 infants with normal serum vitamin B12 had received vitamin B12 before referral. Twelve mothers had low serum vitamin B12. Cerebral atrophy was present in all the 9 infants who underwent neuroimaging. Treatment with vitamin B12 resulted in dramatic improvement in general activity and appetite within 48 to 72 hours followed by return of lost milestones. Tremors resolved in all by 3 to 4 weeks. Nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency is a treatable cause of neurologic dysfunction in infants. PMID:25953825

  10. Pigmentation in vitamin B12 deficiency masquerading Addison's pigmentation: A rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Agrawala, Ritesh Kumar; Sahoo, Srikanta Kumar; Choudhury, Arun Kumar; Mohanty, Binoy Kumar; Baliarsinha, Anoj Kumar

    2013-10-01

    A 35-year-female presented with generalized weakness, weight loss, and progressive pigmentation was worked up for suspicion of Addisons disease. On examination hyper pigmentation was noted on both palmar and dorsal aspect of hands involving knuckles, creases, feet, tongue, oral mucosa and gluteal region. There was no evidence of hypocortisolemia as initially suspected, and literature search revealed a possibility of vitamin B12 deficiency. She had megaloblastic anemia with a low serum vitamin B12, mostly due to poor dietary intake. Her hyper pigmentation resolved with vitamin B12 supplementation. Skin biopsy showed increased pigmentation at stratum spinosum and basal-layer. The mechanism of hyper pigmentation in vitamin B12 deficiency was due to an increase in melanin synthesis. PMID:24251178

  11. Isolated cerebellar involvement in vitamin B12 deficiency: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Biswaroop; Dubey, Rachana; Gulati, Sheffali; Yoganathan, Sangeetha; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Atin

    2014-11-01

    Deficiency of vitamin B12 causes megaloblastic anemia and nervous system demyelination. Structures affected in the nervous system include spinal cord, cranial and peripheral nerves, and brain white matter. A 9-year-old boy presented with knuckle hyperpigmentation and oral ulcers for 3 years, pallor and easy fatigability for 6 months, gait abnormalities for 3 months, and abnormal speech and behavioral abnormalities for 3 days. On examination, he had physical signs of megaloblastic anemia, mood swings with intermittent hallucinations, and features of cerebellar impairment. Blood investigations revealed megaloblastic anemia, and pernicious anemia was ruled out. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed bilateral cerebellar signal changes. He received treatment for vitamin B12 deficiency and appropriate nutritional counseling. Three months later, he showed significant clinical and radiologic resolution. To our knowledge, isolated cerebellar involvement as the sole neurologic manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency has not been described previously in children. PMID:24346315

  12. Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as pancytopenia and retinopathy in a young boy-Helicobacter pylori, a novel causative agent.

    PubMed

    Anitha, Palaniyandi; Sasitharan, Rajendraprasad; Thambarasi, Thalavaisundaram; Krithika, Prabaharan; Mohan, Madhuvanthi; Venkataraman, Paramasivam; James, Saji; Vinoth, Ponnurangam Nagarajan

    2014-01-01

    Deficiency of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a well-known cause of megaloblastic anaemia. It is a reversible cause of bone marrow failure and demyelinating nervous system disorder, hence early detection and prompt treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency is essential. After diagnosing vitamin B12 deficiency, tracking down its root cause is important in individualising the treatment approach. Helicobacter pylorirelated (H. pylori) B12 deficiency presenting as pancytopenia in pediatric age groups has been reported. However, vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as retinopathy in paediatric age groups has been rarely reported in the medical literature. We herein present the case of an adolescent male with pancytopenia and retinopathy, secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency-associated H. pylori infection. PMID:24719649

  13. West Syndrome in an Infant with Vitamin B[subscript 12] Deficiency in the Absence of Macrocytic Anaemia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erol, Ilknur; Alehan, Fusun; Gumus, Ayten

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin B[subscript 12] deficiency in infants often produces haematological and neurological deficits, including macrocytic anaemia, neurodevelopmental delay or regression, irritability, weakness, hypotonia, ataxia, apathy, tremor, and seizures. The diagnosis of vitamin B[subscript 12] deficiency can be difficult when the typical macrocytic…

  14. The prevalence of cobalamin deficiency among vegetarians assessed by serum vitamin B12: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, R; Lester, S E; Babatunde, T

    2014-05-01

    Individuals following vegetarian diets are at risk for developing vitamin B12 deficiency owing to suboptimal intake. As vitamin B12 is essential for the synthesis of nucleic acids, erythrocytes and in the maintenance of myelin, deficiency may result in a variety of symptoms. Some of these symptoms may be severe while others may be irreversible. The objective of this review was to assess vitamin B12 deficiency, based on reported serum vitamin B12, among individuals adhering to different types of vegetarian diets. A systematic literature search was carried out using multiple search engines including PubMed, Medline, CINAHL plus, ERIC, Nursing and Allied Health Collection and Nursing/Academic Edition. The inclusion criteria consisted of original studies that assessed serum vitamin B12, studies written in English, non-case studies and studies that reported actual percentages of vitamin B12 deficiency. Forty research studies were included. The deficiency prevalence among infants reached 45%. The deficiency among the children and adolescents ranged from 0 to 33.3%. Deficiency among pregnant women ranged from 17 to 39%, dependent on the trimester. Adults and elderly individuals had a deficiency range of 0-86.5%. Higher deficiency prevalence was reported in vegans than in other vegetarians. Thus, with few exceptions, the reviewed studies documented relatively high deficiency prevalence among vegetarians. Vegans who do not ingest vitamin B12 supplements were found to be at especially high risk. Vegetarians, especially vegans, should give strong consideration to the use of vitamin B12 supplements to ensure adequate vitamin B12 intake. Vegetarians, regardless of the type of vegetarian diet they adhere to, should be screened for vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:24667752

  15. Brief Report: Childhood Disintegrative Disorder as a Likely Manifestation of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Savita; Subodh, B. N.; Parakh, Preeti; Lahariya, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder is a rare disorder, characterized by regression of acquired skills after a period of normal development. The case of childhood disintegrative disorder presented here was found to have vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia on extensive evaluation to find a probable cause for regression. This case…

  16. Vitamin B12 deficiency with intrinsic factor antibodies in an infant with poor growth and developmental delay.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Kathleen; Chowdhury, Dhiman; Penney, Lynette; Rashid, Mohsin

    2014-02-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is very rare in infants and may lead to serious hematological and neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The present article describes a case involving a seven-month-old boy with severe vitamin B12 deficiency, likely caused by juvenile pernicious anemia, an entity rarely described. The child presented with feeding intolerance, poor growth and developmental delay. He was noted to have macrocytic anemia, a markedly low serum vitamin B12 level, and elevated homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels. Antibodies to intrinsic factor were positive. The mother was healthy, with normal vitamin B12 status. Therapy with vitamin B12 supplements led to excellent recovery of symptoms. Vitamin B12 deficiency should be considered in children presenting with failure to thrive, especially when compounded with neurological symptoms. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment is essential to avoid serious complications. PMID:24596481

  17. Vitamin B12

    MedlinePLUS

    ... these vitamins actually help prevent or treat dementia. Energy and athletic performance Advertisements often promote vitamin B12 supplements as a way to increase energy or endurance. Except in people with a vitamin ...

  18. Vitamin B12 and Vitamin D Deficiencies: An Unusual Cause of Fever, Severe Hemolytic Anemia and Thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Vikas A.; Harbada, Rishit; Sharma, Akhilesh

    2015-01-01

    The array of diagnostic workup for pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) generally revolves in searching for infections, inflammatory/autoimmune, and endocrine etiologies. A differential diagnosis of fever, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia can have etiologies varying from infections like malaria, dengue, cytomegalovirus, Ebstein barr virus, Parvovirus, infective endocarditis, to autoimmune disorder (systemic lupus erythromatosis), vasculitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), autoimmune hemolytic anemia/Evan's syndrome, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuri (PNH), or drugs. Nutritional deficiencies (especially vitamin B12 deficiency) as a cause of fever, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia are very rare and therefore rarely thought of. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency may cause fever and if accompanied by concurrent hyper-homocysteinemia and hypophosphatemia can sometimes lead to severe hemolysis mimicking the above-mentioned conditions. We present a case that highlights vitamin B12 and vitamin D deficiency as an easily treatable cause of PUO, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia, which should be actively looked for and treated before proceeding with more complicated and expensive investigation or starting empiric treatments. PMID:25811010

  19. Elevation of urinary methylmolonic acid induces the suppression of megalin-mediated endocytotic cycles during vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Takahiro; Kawata, Tetsunori; Furusho, Tadasu; Tadokoro, Tadahiro; Suzuki, Tsukasa; Yamamoto, Yuji

    2015-09-18

    Megalin is a scavenger receptor that serves in the endocytosis of a highly diverse group of ligands that includes Vitamin B12. We found an accumulation of megalin closed to apical region in renal proximal tubule cells of Vitamin B12-deficient rats. Interestingly, Vitamin B12 levels also controlled resorption of renal retinol binding protein. Using L2 yolk sac cells, megalin localized to the submembrane compartment by methylmalonic acid (MMA), which accumulates during vitamin B12 deficiency. In addition, MMA inhibited megalin-mediated endocytosis via YWTD repeats motif in an ectodomain of megalin. Therefore, megalin endocytosis may be regulated by MMA. PMID:26248135

  20. A Study of the Prevalence of Serum Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Deficiency in Western Maharashtra

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Sanket K.; Aundhakar, Swati C.

    2015-01-01

    Context: This study summarizes the prevalence of vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency in the population coming to tertiary care center in Western Maharashtra along with the main presenting symptom routinely misinterpreted in daily practice. Aims and Objectives: 1. To study the prevalence of vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency in the population of western Maharashtra. 2. To correlate the symptoms with serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. Materials and Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional observation study carried out on patients from western Maharashtra seeking medical attention on outpatient and inpatient basis in the medicine department of a teaching institute in Karad. One-hundred patients were selected on basis of below mentioned symptoms viz. tingling and numbness in extremities, dizziness, unsteady gait, early tiredness, forgetfulness, proximal weakness, distal weakness, chronic headache, less interest in work, chronic loose stools, strict vegetarians, alcoholics, intake of medications like anti-tubercular treatment, surgery involving terminal ileum. Serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels of these patients were observed. Deficiency of vitamin B12 and folic acid was studied in 4 groups: (a) Absolute vitamin B12 deficiency; (b) Absolute folic acid deficiency; (c) Borderline vitamin B12 deficiency; (d) Combined vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency. Results: Of the 100 cases, 33% patients were vegetarian. Folic acid deficiency formed the major chunk of deficiency group. Six percent patients had neuropsychiatric manifestations. Depressive illness in 1% patients, dementia in 0% patients, forgetfulness in 1% patients, mania/hallucination in 0% patients each, and chronic headache in 1% patients. Neuropathy in form of loss of reflexes, decreased touch sensation was present in 9% patients. Posterior column involvement viz. Loss of joint position, vibration, positive Romberg's sign were present in 34% patients of vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency. Conclusion: In a small study, it was found that megaloblastic anemia may have symptoms and signs referable to several systems including hematology, dermatology, gastrointestinal, neurology, and neuropsychiatry. PMID:25810991

  1. Vitamin B12

    MedlinePLUS

    ... over age 50 lose the ability to absorb vitamin B12 from foods. People who follow a vegetarian or vegan diet should try to eat vitamin B12-fortified foods or talk to their health care provider about ...

  2. How I treat cobalamin (vitamin B12) deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The challenges in medical management of cobalamin deficiency lie in attention to the unique pathophysiology that underlies cobalamin deficiency, more than in the mechanics of therapy. The central physiologic principles are that clinically important deficiency is more likely to occur (and progress) when intrinsic factor–driven absorption fails than when diet is poor and that most causes take years to produce clinically obvious deficiency. Transient defects have little clinical impact. The key management principle is the importance of follow-up, which also requires knowing how the deficiency arose. The virtues of these principles are not always fully appreciated. Recent developments have made diagnosis and management more difficult by diminishing the ability to determine cobalamin absorption status. Clinicians must also grapple with premature medicalization of isolated, mild biochemical changes that added many asymptomatic cases of still undetermined medical relevance to their caseload, often expanded by inflated cobalamin level criteria. The potential for misattribution of cobalamin-unrelated presentations to nongermane cobalamin and metabolite abnormalities has grown. Pathophysiologically based management requires systematic attention to each of its individual components: correctly diagnosing cobalamin deficiency, reversing it, defining its underlying cause, preventing relapse, managing the underlying disorder and its complications, and educating the patient. PMID:18606874

  3. Localised Skin Hyperpigmentation as a Presenting Symptom of Vitamin B12 Deficiency Complicating Chronic Atrophic Gastritis

    PubMed Central

    El-Shafie, Kawther; Samir, Nafisa; Lakhtakia, Ritu; Davidson, Robin; Al-Waili, Ahmed; Al-Mamary, Muna; Al-Shafee, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in developing countries and should be suspected in patients with unexplained anaemia or neurological symptoms. Dermatological manifestations associated with this deficiency include skin hyper- or hypopigmentation, angular stomatitis and hair changes. We report a case of a 28-year-old man who presented to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Oman, in November 2013 with localised hyperpigmentation of the palmar and dorsal aspects of both hands of two months’ duration. Other symptoms included numbness of the hands, anorexia, weight loss, dizziness, fatigability and a sore mouth and tongue. There was no evidence of hypocortisolaemia and a literature search revealed a possible B12 deficiency. The patient had low serum B12 levels and megaloblastic anaemia. An intrinsic factor antibody test was negative. A gastric biopsy revealed chronic gastritis. After B12 supplementation, the patient’s symptoms resolved. Family physicians should familiarise themselves with atypical presentations of B12 deficiency. Many symptoms of this deficiency are reversible if detected and treated early. PMID:26357561

  4. Localised Skin Hyperpigmentation as a Presenting Symptom of Vitamin B12 Deficiency Complicating Chronic Atrophic Gastritis.

    PubMed

    El-Shafie, Kawther; Samir, Nafisa; Lakhtakia, Ritu; Davidson, Robin; Al-Waili, Ahmed; Al-Mamary, Muna; Al-Shafee, Mohammed

    2015-08-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in developing countries and should be suspected in patients with unexplained anaemia or neurological symptoms. Dermatological manifestations associated with this deficiency include skin hyper- or hypopigmentation, angular stomatitis and hair changes. We report a case of a 28-year-old man who presented to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Oman, in November 2013 with localised hyperpigmentation of the palmar and dorsal aspects of both hands of two months' duration. Other symptoms included numbness of the hands, anorexia, weight loss, dizziness, fatigability and a sore mouth and tongue. There was no evidence of hypocortisolaemia and a literature search revealed a possible B12 deficiency. The patient had low serum B12 levels and megaloblastic anaemia. An intrinsic factor antibody test was negative. A gastric biopsy revealed chronic gastritis. After B12 supplementation, the patient's symptoms resolved. Family physicians should familiarise themselves with atypical presentations of B12 deficiency. Many symptoms of this deficiency are reversible if detected and treated early. PMID:26357561

  5. Recreational nitrous oxide abuse-induced vitamin B12 deficiency in a patient presenting with hyperpigmentation of the skin.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Tsung-Ta; Hung, Chih-Tsung; Wang, Wei-Ming; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Yang, Fu-Chi

    2013-05-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency causes skin hyperpigmentation, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, and megaloblastic anemia. Although vitamin B12 deficiency rarely occurs in well-nourished, healthy, young people, nitrous oxide (N2O) intoxication is an important cause of vitamin B12 deficiency in this cohort. N2O, a colorless gas used as an anesthetic since the late 19th century because of its euphoric and analgesic qualities, is now used as a recreational drug and is available via the Internet and at clubs. Here, we describe the case of a 29-year-old woman presenting with skin hyperpigmentation as her only initial symptom after N2O abuse for approximately 2 years. N2O intoxication-induced vitamin B12 deficiency was diagnosed based on the skin pigmentation that had manifested over the dorsa of her fingers, toes, and trunk, coupled with myeloneuropathy of the posterior and lateral columns, a low serum vitamin B12 level, an elevated serum homocysteine level, and the N2O exposure revealed while establishing the patient's history. Symptoms improved significantly with vitamin B12 treatment. We recommend that dermatologists consider N2O intoxication-induced vitamin B12 deficiency as a potential cause of skin hyperpigmentation and myeloneuropathy of the posterior and lateral columns in young, otherwise healthy patients. Failure to recognize this presentation may result in inappropriate treatment, thus affecting patients' clinical outcomes. PMID:23898268

  6. Helicobacter pylori associated vitamin B12 deficiency, pernicious anaemia and subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Gowdappa, H Basavana; Mahesh, M; Murthy, K V K S N; Narahari, M G

    2013-01-01

    A 23-year-old man presented with weakness in the lower limbs, numbness in hands and feet over past 6 months. Examination revealed a combination of absent ankle jerk, extensor plantar response and reduced sensations in a glove and stocking distribution. MRI of the spinal cord was distinctive of subacute combined degeneration (SACD) of the spinal cord. Serum vitamin B12 was low and anti-intrinsic factor antibodies were positive. A biopsy of the stomach revealed intense inflammatory infiltrates in lamina propria with grade III Helicobacter pylori infection. Other work-up for the cause of vitamin B12 deficiency was unremarkable. H pylori infection triggers autoantibodies by a mechanism of molecular mimicry. This case report highlights H pylori as a causative agent in vitamin B12 deficiency and culminating in SACD of the spinal cord. H pylori treatment reverses the underlying pathogenesis and corrects vitamin B12 deficient state in selected individuals. PMID:24081591

  7. Vitamin B-12

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin B-12 is a cofactor for 2 enzymes. In the cytoplasm, methionine synthase requires vitamin B-12 in the form of methylcobalamin and catalyzes the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate.This enzyme links the methylation pathway through ...

  8. Bioavailability of vitamin B12

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in people of all ages who consume a low intake of animal-source foods, including populations in developing countries. It is also prevalent among the elderly, even in wealthier countries, due to their malabsorption of B12 from food. Several methods have been applied t...

  9. Nutritional megaloblastic anemia in young Turkish children is associated with vitamin B-12 deficiency and psychomotor retardation.

    PubMed

    Katar, Selahattin; Nuri Ozbek, Mehmet; Yarami?, Ahmet; Ecer, Sultan

    2006-09-01

    We aimed to investigate the presence of psychomotor retardation, physical and laboratory examination in infants with megaloblastic anemia. Inclusion criteria for the study were; age 9 to 36 months, refusal of food except for breast and cow milk, loss of appetite, developmental delay, significant pallor, and hypersegmentation neutrophils in the peripheral blood smear. A total of 33 children fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled among 3368 patients attending Pediatric Outpatient Clinics of ?irnak-Cizre State Hospital between January 25, 2004 and May 5, 2004. Mean age was 16.4 months. Thirty-two patients had Vitamin B12 deficiency, 1 patient had folate deficiency, and 10 patients had combined vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. Statistically, a positive significant relationship was detected between serum vitamin B12 levels and mean corpuscular volume (P = 0.001, r = 0.56), and between vitamin B12 levels and hemoglobin (P = 0.004, r = 0.49). We believe that preventative measures such as fortification of flour with vitamin B12, nutritional support with vitamin B12 for the mother during pregnancy and nursing, provision of adequate primary preventive health services, and starting complementary food after 6 months of age are important determinants for preventing megaloblastic anemia. PMID:17006260

  10. A Study of Clinical Profile of Vitamin B12 Deficiency with Special Reference to Dermatologic Manifestations in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Sub-Himalayan Bengal

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Kaushik; Sinhamahapatra, Pradyot; Lalhmachhuana, Joseph; Ray, Subhabrata

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitamin B12 deficiency is thought to be uncommon in the eastern parts of India including Bengal and the eastern states as compared to the northern and southern parts of India. The importance of cutaneous features in relation to vitamin B12 deficiency is not well described in literature. Aim: To know the clinical profile of vitamin B12 deficiency in this region and to find out if there is any relationship between dermatologic manifestations with vitamin B12 deficiency. Materials and Methods: All symptomatic patients of anemia requiring blood transfusions who had either raised mean corpuscular volume (MCV) or bicytopenia/pancytopenia on complete blood count or were symptomatic in the form of skin hyperpigmentation were screened for vitamin B12 deficiency. Results: Twenty-five patients were tested for vitamin B12 deficiency. Of them 19 patients were found to be having vitamin B12 deficiency. Conclusions: Vitamin B12 deficiency is not uncommon in the eastern parts of India, contrasting the previous thoughts that it was uncommon in this area, though larger studies are required to know it better. This study included only those requiring blood transfusions, thus a much higher prevalence is expected in this area. Patients with vitamin B12 deficiency do present with severe anemia requiring blood transfusions and often have skin hyperpigmentation. PMID:26288424

  11. Nutritional Supplementation with Chlorella pyrenoidosa Lowers Serum Methylmalonic Acid in Vegans and Vegetarians with a Suspected Vitamin B12 Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Randall Edward; Phillips, Todd W; Udani, Jay

    2015-12-01

    Since vitamin B12 occurs in substantial amounts only in foods derived from animals, vegetarians and particularly vegans are at risk of developing deficiencies of this essential vitamin. The chlorella used for this study is a commercially available whole-food supplement, which is believed to contain the physiologically active form of the vitamin. This exploratory open-label study was performed to determine if adding 9?g of Chlorella pyrenoidosa daily could help mitigate a vitamin B12 deficiency in vegetarians and vegans. Seventeen vegan or vegetarian adults (26-57 years of age) with a known vitamin B12 deficiency, as evidenced by a baseline serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) level above 270?nmol/L at screening, but who otherwise appeared healthy were enrolled in the study. Each participant added 9?g of C. pyrenoidosa to their daily diet for 60?±?5 days and their serum MMA, vitamin B12, homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as mean corpuscular volume (MCV), hemoglobin (Hgb), and hematocrit (Hct) were measured at 30 and 60 days from baseline. After 30 and 60 days, the serum MMA level fell significantly (P?vitamin B12 trended upward, while MCV, Hgb, and Hct appeared unchanged. The results of this work suggest that the vitamin B12 in chlorella is bioavailable and such dietary supplementation is a natural way for vegetarians and vegans to get the vitamin B12 they need. PMID:26485478

  12. Vitamin B12

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's food guidance system, ChooseMyPlate . Where can I find ... food sources of vitamin B12: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for vitamin ...

  13. The role of metformin on vitamin B12 deficiency: a meta-analysis review.

    PubMed

    Niafar, Mitra; Hai, Faizi; Porhomayon, Jahan; Nader, Nader Djalal

    2015-02-01

    Metformin is the only biguanide oral hypoglycemic drug, that is used to treat patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. There are some reports of metformin being associated with decreased serum levels of vitamin B12 (VB12). The objective of this study is to systematically analyze the impact of metformin on the frequency of VB12 deficiency and serum levels of VB12. A search of various databases provided 18 retrospective cohort studies and 11 randomized controlled trials. Pooled estimates of odds ratio with 95% confidence interval using random effect model were conducted. Studies were examined for heterogeneity, publication bias and sensitivity analysis. Separate analysis of randomized control trials (RCTs) including both low-risk and high-risk bias was also conducted. 29 studies were selected with a total of 8,089 patients. 19 studies were rated intermediate or high quality. Primary outcome suggested increased incidence of VB12 deficiency in metformin group (OR = 2.45, 95% CI 1.74-3.44, P < 0.0001.) Heterogeneity was relatively high (I(2) = 53%), with minor publication bias. Secondary outcome suggested lower serum VB12 concentrations in metformin group (Mean difference = -65.8, 95% CI -78.1 to -53.6 pmol/L, P < 0.00001) with high heterogeneity (I(2) = 98%,) and low publication bias. RCTs analysis of low-and high-risk group revealed similar trends. We conclude that metformin treatment is significantly associated with an increase in incidence of VB12 deficiency and reduced serum VB12 levels. PMID:25502588

  14. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency with pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly and leukoerythroblastosis in two Syrian refugee infants: a challenge to differentiate from acute leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Belen, Burcu; Hismi, Burcu Ozturk; Kocak, Ulker

    2014-01-01

    Megaloblastic anaemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency is rare in childhood. However, as most cases are due to maternal insufficiency, it is mainly seen in breastfed infants especially when the mother's socioeconomic status is low and the nutrition is not adequate. We present case of two Syrian refugee infants with severe vitamin B12 deficiency with pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly and leukoerythroblastosis. PMID:24599434

  15. Isotope-dilution assay for urinary methylmalonic acid in the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency. A prospective clinical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Matchar, D.B.; Feussner, J.R.; Millington, D.S.; Wilkinson, R.H. Jr.; Watson, D.J.; Gale, D.

    1987-05-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is a frequently considered diagnosis for which there is no single, commonly available and accurate test. A urinary methylmalonic acid assay using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been proposed as the preferred test. We reviewed vitamin B12 assays on 1599 consecutive patients and prospectively studied all patients with low serum B12 levels (n = 75) and a random sample of patients with normal levels (n = 68). Of 96 evaluable patients, 7 had clinical deficiency. All 7 deficient patients had urinary methylmalonic acid levels greater than 5 micrograms/mg creatine (sensitivity, 100%; confidence interval, 65% to 100%). Of the 89 patients who were not clinically deficient, 88 had urinary methylmalonic acid levels less than or equal to 5 micrograms/mg creatinine (specificity, 99%). The overall test accuracy in this population was 99%. If the high sensitivity and specificity of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay for urinary methylmalonic acid is supported by other clinical studies, the methylmalonic acid assay may become the reference standard for the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency.

  16. Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Elevated Folate Levels: An Unusual Cause of Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure

    PubMed Central

    Lubana, Sandeep Singh; Alfishawy, Mostafa; Singh, Navdeep; Atkinson, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 49 Final Diagnosis: Generalized tonic-clonic seizures in the setting of vitamin B12 deficiency and elevated folate levels Symptoms: Seizures Medication: — Clinical Procedure: None Specialty: Neurology Objective: Unknown ethiology Background: Vitamin B12 deficiency leads to abnormal myelination or demyelination, resulting in sub-acute combined degeneration, peripheral neuropathy, and psychiatric problems, including delusions, hallucinations, cognitive changes, depression, and dementia. Vitamin B12 deficiency also leads to brain shrinkage and neurodegenerative disorders. Case Report: We report the case of a 49-year-old man presenting with new-onset seizures one and a half years following subtotal gastrectomy due to stage IV gastric adenocarcinoma. The patient did not have any history of head injury. Laboratory tests were negative for any metabolic derangements. There were no signs of infection. MRI brain and EEG were normal and there were no changes in medications. Conclusions: In case of unexplained new-onset seizures, patients should be tested for vitamin B12 and folic acid levels and these should be done as part of the initial work-up. PMID:26101427

  17. Response to Quinlivan: Post-fortification, folate intake in vitamin B12 deficiency is positively related to homocysteine and methylmalonic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With cross-sectional data, causes and effects are difficult to distinguish, and Quinlivan suggests that high circulating concentrations of homcysteine (Hcy), methylmalonic acid (MMA), and folate observed among vitamin B12-deficient survey participants all resulted from a lack of vitamin B12 (1). How...

  18. Plasma folate, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and risk of breast cancer in women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: B vitamins such as folate, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 are coenzymes that are important for DNA integrity and stability. Deficiency in these B vitamins may promote tumor carcinogenesis. Objective: We prospectively evaluated plasma concentrations of folate, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP; ...

  19. Vitamin B-12 and Perinatal Health.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Julia L; Layden, Alexander J; Stover, Patrick J

    2015-09-01

    Vitamin B-12 deficiency (<148 pmol/L) is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, including developmental anomalies, spontaneous abortions, preeclampsia, and low birth weight (<2500 g). The importance of adequate vitamin B-12 status periconceptionally and during pregnancy cannot be overemphasized, given its fundamental role in neural myelination, brain development, and growth. Infants born to vitamin B-12-deficient women may be at increased risk of neural tube closure defects, and maternal vitamin B-12 insufficiency (<200 pmol/L) can impair infant growth, psychomotor function, and brain development, which may be irreversible. However, the underlying causal mechanisms are unknown. This review was conducted to examine the evidence that links maternal vitamin B-12 status and perinatal outcomes. Despite the high prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency and associated risk of pregnancy complications, few prospective studies and, to our knowledge, only 1 randomized trial have examined the effects of vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy. The role of vitamin B-12 in the etiology of adverse perinatal outcomes needs to be elucidated to inform public health interventions. PMID:26374177

  20. Oral versus intramuscular administration of vitamin B12 for the treatment of patients with vitamin B12 deficiency: a pragmatic, randomised, multicentre, non-inferiority clinical trial undertaken in the primary healthcare setting (Project OB12)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The oral administration of vitamin B12 offers a potentially simpler and cheaper alternative to parenteral administration, but its effectiveness has not been definitively demonstrated. The following protocol was designed to compare the effectiveness of orally and intramuscularly administered vitamin B12 in the treatment of patients ≥65 years of age with vitamin B12 deficiency. Methods/design The proposed study involves a controlled, randomised, multicentre, parallel, non-inferiority clinical trial lasting one year, involving 23 primary healthcare centres in the Madrid region (Spain), and patients ≥65 years of age. The minimum number of patients required for the study was calculated as 320 (160 in each arm). Bearing in mind an estimated 8-10% prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency among the population of this age group, an initial sample of 3556 patients will need to be recruited. Eligible patients will be randomly assigned to one of the two treatment arms. In the intramuscular treatment arm, vitamin B12 will be administered as follows: 1 mg on alternate days in weeks 1 and 2, 1 mg/week in weeks 3–8,and 1 mg/month in weeks 9–52. In the oral arm, the vitamin will be administered as: 1 mg/day in weeks 1–8 and 1 mg/week in weeks 9–52. The main outcome variable to be monitored in both treatment arms is the normalisation of the serum vitamin B12 concentration at weeks 8, 26 and 52; the secondary outcome variables include the serum concentration of vitamin B12 (in pg/ml), adherence to treatment, quality of life (EuroQoL-5D questionnaire), patient 3satisfaction and patient preferences. All statistical tests will be performed with intention to treat and per protocol. Logistic regression with random effects will be used to adjust for prognostic factors. Confounding factors or factors that might alter the effect recorded will be taken into account in analyses. Discussion The results of this study should help establish, taking quality of life into account, whether the oral administration of vitamin B12 is an effective alternative to its intramuscular administration. If this administration route is effective, it should provide a cheaper means of treating vitamin B12 deficiency while inducing fewer adverse effects. Having such an alternative would also allow patient preferences to be taken into consideration at the time of prescribing treatment. Trial registration This trial has been registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT 01476007, and under EUDRACT number 2010-024129-20. PMID:22650964

  1. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in a breast fed infant with pancytopenia.

    PubMed

    Citak, Funda Erkasar; Citak, Elvan Caglar

    2011-02-01

    We report the case of a 7-month-old breast fed infant who presented with a nose bleed and bruises. Investigation showed severe nutritional B12 deficiency anemia with a pancytopenia. It is important to take the nutritional history of both the infant and the mother for early prevention and treatment. PMID:19617270

  2. Vitamin B12 benefits (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Vitamin B12 is important for metabolism. Metabolism within the body includes the processes of energy generation and use; including nutrition, digestion, absorption, elimination, respiration, circulation, and temperature ...

  3. Maternal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to a vitamin B12 deficient diet normalizes angiogenic markers in the pup brain at birth.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Richa S; Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids are critical for normal brain development and function and their deficiencies during pregnancy could have adverse effects on cognitive performance in children. Our earlier studies indicate that both maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids influence brain development by regulating the levels of neurotrophins. Literature suggests that there exists a cross talk between neurotrophins like nerve growth factor (NGF) and angiogenic factors like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). It remains to be established whether maternal nutrients like vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids influence the levels of angiogenic markers like VEGF and NGF in the brain of the offspring. Therefore the present study examines the effect of maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids on protein and mRNA levels of VEGF, HIF-1 alpha (hypoxia inducible factor alpha) and NGF in the pup brain at birth. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided into five dietary groups (n=8 each): control, vitamin B12 deficient, vitamin B12 deficient+omega-3 fatty acid, vitamin B12 supplemented, vitamin B12 supplemented+omega-3 fatty acid. At birth the pups were dissected to collect the brain tissue. Maternal vitamin B12 deficiency showed lower (p<0.05) pup brain mRNA and protein levels (p<0.01) of VEGF, higher (p<0.01) HIF-1 alpha protein levels, lower (p<0.05) NGF protein levels while NGF mRNA levels were not altered. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to a vitamin B12 deficient group normalized the VEGF mRNA levels, NGF protein levels and HIF-1 alpha protein levels. Vitamin B12 supplementation showed similar protein and mRNA levels of VEGF and NGF as well as HIF-1 alpha protein levels as compared to control. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to the vitamin B12 supplemented group showed higher (p<0.01) protein and mRNA levels of NGF but the protein and mRNA levels of VEGF were comparable to control. In conclusion maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids both influence the levels and expression of neurotrophins and angiogenic factors in the offspring brain suggesting a possible benefit of combined maternal supplementation of these vital nutrients. PMID:25889224

  4. Multiple vascular abnormalities and a paradoxical combination of vitamin B12 deficiency and thrombocytosis in a case with POEMS syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lewerenz, J; Gocht, A; Hoeger, P H; von den Driesch, P; Eckert, B; Lamszus, K; Stuerenburg, H-J; Methner, A

    2003-12-01

    POEMS/Crow-Fukase syndrome is a rare multisystem disorder associated with elevated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which clinically presents with polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein, and skin changes. We report a case of POEMS syndrome due to a gammopathy of undetermined significance with thrombocytosis, vitamin B(12) deficiency, highly elevated VEGF and in addition to glomeruloid angiomas two previously undescribed proliferative vascular lesions: a spinal arteriovenous fistula and a plexogenic pulmonary arteriopathy, which ultimately resulted in lethal pulmonary hypertension. We assume that the high VEGF levels caused the vascular abnormalities observed in our patient. PMID:14673584

  5. [Clinical, biological and therapeutic profile of anemia by vitamin B12 deficiency in the department of hematology of Marrakech (Morocco)].

    PubMed

    Nafil, H; Tazi, I; Sifessalam, M; Bouchtia, M; Mahmal, L

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study is to examine retrospectively the clinical, biological and treatment features of anemia by vitamin B12 deficiency in the Hematology department of CHU Mohamed VI Marrakech. We report the results of a retrospective study conducted during six years (2005-2010). It included all patients with anemia (with or without thrombocytopenia or leukopenia) associated with vitamin B12 levels <200 pg / ml. One hundred twenty one cases were analyzed. The average age of patients was 62 years (38-89 years) with a female predominance (sex ratio F/M: 1.3). The clinical symptomatology is dominated by pallor (97.5%), cardiovascular signs (46%) and digestive symptoms (34.7%). Neurological signs were noted in 17.3% of cases. The blood count showed anemia (hemoglobin: mean= 6.9 g/dl), macrocythemia (MCV: mean= 109 fl). Leukopenia was noted in 35 patients (29%), thrombocytopenia in 34 patients (28%) and pancytopenia in 21 patients (17,3%). The average vitamin B12 was 72 pg/ml. The causes of B12 deficiency are pernicious anemia (43%), food-cobalamin malabsorption (43%), and in 14% of cases no etiology was found. Gastritis was found in 82.7% of our patients and Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection in 72.7% of cases. Reticulocyte crisis was observed after parenteral administration of hydroxocobalamine within an average of 8 days and normalization of blood counts, in all patients, within an average of 51 days. In patients with HP infection, eradication therapy of HP was performed. The cure rate of the HP is 90%. PMID:23536425

  6. A high prevalence of biochemical evidence of vitamin B12 or folate deficiency does not translate into a comparable prevalence of anemia.

    PubMed

    Metz, Jack

    2008-06-01

    Based on biochemical evidence, a high prevalence of biochemical evidence of vitamin B12 or folate deficiency has been reported in a number of areas in the world. The evidence that these biochemical abnormalities lead to a comparable prevalence of anemia is reviewed. The overall contribution of vitamin B12 deficiency to the global burden of anemia is probably not significant, except perhaps in women and their infants and children in vegetarian communities. In developed countries, folate-deficiency anemia is uncommon. In some developing countries, this anemia is still seen, but there are no comprehensive data on the relative prevalence compared with anemia due to malaria, iron-deficiency, hemoglobinopathy, and HIV disease. It seems unlikely that folate deficiency makes a major contribution to the burden of anemia in developing countries. Iron-deficiency anemia may coexist with vitamin B12 and especially folate deficiency, and may confound the hematological features of the vitamin deficiencies whose prevalence would then be underestimated. Supplementation of the diet of pregnant women with folic acid can virtually eliminate folate-deficiency anemia in these women. There are very few data on the hematological effect of vitamin B12 supplementation or fortification at the population level. The addition of vitamin B12 to the supplementation of the diet of pregnant women with iron and folic acid does not produce an increased hematological response, at least in nonvegetarian populations. There are numerous reports of the effect of folic acid fortification of food on tests of folate status, but only a single published report on the hematological response was found. PMID:18709883

  7. Higher Prevalence of Metformin-Induced Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Sulfonylurea Combination Compared with Insulin Combination in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Donghoon; Yun, Jae-Seung; Ko, Sun-Hye; Lim, Tae-Seok; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Park, Yong-Moon; Ko, Seung-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Long-term and high-dose treatment with metformin is known to be associated with vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether the prevalence of B12 deficiency was different in patients treated with different combination of hypoglycemic agents with metformin during the same time period. A total of 394 patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin and sulfonylurea (S+M group, n?=?299) or metformin and insulin (I+M group, n?=?95) were consecutively recruited. The vitamin B12 and folate levels were quantified using the chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. Vitamin B12 deficiency was defined as vitamin B12?300 pg/mL without folate deficiency (folate>4 ng/mL). The mean age of and duration of diabetes in the subjects were 59.4±10.5 years and 12.2±6.7 years, respectively. The mean vitamin B12 level of the total population was 638.0±279.6 pg/mL. The mean serum B12 levels were significantly lower in the S+M group compared with the I+M group (600.0±266.5 vs. 757.7±287.6 pg/mL, P<0.001). The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in the metformin-treated patients was significantly higher in the S+M group compared with the I+M group (17.4% vs. 4.2%, P?=?0.001). After adjustment for various factors, such as age, sex, diabetic duration, duration or daily dose of metformin, diabetic complications, and presence of anemia, sulfonylurea use was a significant independent risk factor for B12 deficiency (OR?=?4.74, 95% CI 1.41–15.99, P?=?0.012). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that patients with type 2 diabetes who were treated with metformin combined with sulfonylurea require clinical attention for vitamin B12 deficiency and regular monitoring of their vitamin B12 levels. PMID:25299054

  8. Deficiency or dementia? Exploring B12 deficiency after urostomy.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Michelle; Bryan, Sandra; Dukes, Suzie

    Vitamin B12 deficiency can be misdiagnosed as a variety of other illnesses, and if left untreated can lead to irreversible damage to the brain and nervous system. This article discusses the case of a 70-year-old female with a urostomy, well known to the stoma care department, who shortly after a routine parastomal hernia repair developed severe confusion, immobility and was unable to communicate. Subsequent investigations ruled out a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) and a diagnosis of rapidly progressing vascular dementia was made. An incidental finding of a low vitamin B12 level was identified and treatment commenced. She was transferred to a community hospital and her family were told to 'prepare for the worst'. It was, in fact, the vitamin B12 deficiency that was causing her symptoms of vascular dementia, and once treatment was established she underwent a 'miraculous' improvement, returning to normal life. This article discusses vitamin B12 deficiency and why patients with a urostomy are at risk of developing it; highlights the key role of the stoma care nurse and his or her knowledge of the patient; explores the importance of testing vitamin B12 levels in this group of patients; and discusses key learning and recommendations for practice. PMID:26067796

  9. Vegan diet, subnormal vitamin B-12 status and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Woo, Kam S; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Celermajer, David S

    2014-08-01

    Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products). Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians in Australia, Germany, Italy and Austria, and in vegans (80%) in Hong Kong and India, where vegans rarely take vitamin B-12 fortified food or vitamin B-12 supplements. Similar deficiencies exist in northern Chinese rural communities consuming inadequate meat, egg or dairy products due to poverty or dietary habits. Vascular studies have demonstrated impaired arterial endothelial function and increased carotid intima-media thickness as atherosclerosis surrogates in such metabolic vitamin B-12 deficient populations, but not in lactovegetarians in China. Vitamin B-12 supplementation has a favourable impact on these vascular surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China. Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 status is thus potentially beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency in vegans, and possibly for prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases. PMID:25195560

  10. Considering the case for vitamin B12 fortification of flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reasons to fortify flour with vitamin B12 are considered, which include the high prevalence of depletion and deficiency of this vitamin that occurs in persons of all ages in resource-poor countries and in elderly in wealthier countries, as well as the adverse functional consequences of poor vitamin ...

  11. Vitamin B12--folate interrelations.

    PubMed

    Das, K C; Herbert, V

    1976-10-01

    Megaloblastic anaemia is due to a derangement of DNA synthesis caused by insufficient supply of one or other of the four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) precursors of DNA synthesis or by direct inhibition of one or other DNA polymerase. Reduced supply of the pyrimidine deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) may be caused by folate or vitamin B12 deficiencies or by the action of dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors (e.g. methotrexate, pyrimethamine or trimethoprim), all of which cause reduced supply of the coenzyme 5, 10 methylene tetrahydrofolate (pentaglutamate) needed for thymidylate synthetase. Reduced dTTP supply may also be caused by direct inhibition of thymidylate synthetase by 5-fluorouracil. Reduced supply of both purines, deoxyadenosine triphosphate (dATP) and deoxyguanosine triphosphate (dGTP), may be caused by hydroxyurea, 6-mercaptopurine (and probably by another purine antagonist azaserine), whilst reduced supply of both pyrimidine DNA precursors, dTTP and dCTP (deoxycytidine triphosphate) may be due to inherited orotic aciduria or to treatment with azauridine. Cytosine arabinoside directly inhibits DNA polymerase. DNA replication is a discontinuous process and a number of enzymes are concerned with different aspects of the process. The parental strands partly unwind and a large number of initiation points or origins are activated on both strands. A primer RNA is first synthesised using the parental strand of DNA as template. Fragments of new DNA are then synthesised on the parental DNA template, starting at the RNA primer, under the action of one or other DNA polymerase (probably gamma). The RNA primer is then removed and the gap left is filled by further DNA synthesis under the action of a different DNA polymerase (probably alpha). The fragments of new DNA are joined to give newly synthesised stretches of DNA (replicons) which are then liigated together to form bulk DNA of enormous molecular weight. It is suggested here that reduced supply of one or other of the four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) during the 'S' phase of the cell cycle (due to vitamin B12 or folate deficiency, drug treatment or other congenital or acquired abnormality in synthesis of the dNTP) impairs the cell's ability to elongate newly initiated DNA fragments by preventing gap-filling, the polymerase needed for gap-filling requiring substantially greater concentrations of the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates than the polymerase involved in chain initiation. Cytosine arabinoside, which also may cause megaloblastosis, may affect principally the synthesis of new DNA fragments. Since active protein synthesis is needed for the cell to enter the S phase and RNA synthesis is needed to prime new DNA synthesis, megaloblastic anaemia may be expected to occur only when DNA synthesis is inhibited but protein and RNA synthesis are relatively unimpaired... PMID:10122

  12. [Hemolytic anemias and vitamin B12 deficieny].

    PubMed

    Dietzfelbinger, Hermann; Hubmann, Max

    2015-08-01

    Hemolytic anemias consist of corpuscular, immun-hemolytic and toxic hemolytic anemias. Within the group of corpuscular hemolytic anemias, except for the paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), all symptoms are caused by underlying heredetiary disorders within the red blood cell membran (hereditary spherocytosis), deficiencies of red cell enzymes (G6PDH- and pyrovatkinase deficiency) or disorders in the hemoglobin molecule (thalassaemia and sickle cell disease). Immune-hemolytic anemias are acquired hemolytic anemias and hemolysis is caused by auto- or allo-antibodies which are directed against red blood cell antigens. They are classified as warm, cold, mixed type or drug-induced hemolytic anemia. Therapy consists of glucocorticoids and other immunsuppressive drugs. Pernicious anemia is the most important vitamin B12 deficiency disorder. Diagnosis relies on cobalamin deficiency and antibodies to intrinsic factor. The management should focus on a possibly life-long replacement treatment with cobalamin. PMID:26306021

  13. Vitamin B12-Containing Plant Food Sources for Vegetarians

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Bito, Tomohiro; Teng, Fei

    2014-01-01

    The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori) is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups. PMID:24803097

  14. Genome-wide Association Study of Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Folate,

    E-print Network

    Abecasis, Goncalo

    REPORT Genome-wide Association Study of Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Folate, and Homocysteine Blood Schlessinger,12 Manuela Uda,6 and Luigi Ferrucci2 The B vitamins are components of one-carbon metabolism (OCM circulating vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine, a genome-wide association analysis was conducted

  15. Seizures Related to Vitamin B6 Deficiency in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Gun; Lee, Yeonkyung; Shin, Hyeeun; Kang, Kyusik; Park, Jong-Moo; Kim, Byung-Kun; Kwon, Ohyun; Lee, Jung-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B6 is closely associated with functions of the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems. Its deficiency may result in neurological disorders including convulsions and epileptic encephalopathy. Until today, this has only been reported in infants, children, and critically ill adult patients. We report a case of a 36year-old man with chronic alcoholism who presented with seizures after gastrointestinal disturbance. His seizures persisted even after treatment with antiepileptic drugs, but eventually disappeared after administration of pyridoxine. Hence, vitamin B6 deficiency may cause seizures in adult patients with chronic alcoholism. PMID:26157671

  16. Vitamin B12 assays compared by use of patients sera with low vitamin B12 content

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, B.L.; Pearce, L.C.

    1985-05-01

    The authors compared four radioisotope dilution (RD) methods and a microbiological assay for measuring concentrations of vitamin B12 in a selected panel of serum samples from patients known to be deficient in the vitamin. Low (less than 100 ng/L) and borderline (100-180 ng/L) results were similar between methods, but use of the manufacturers recommended ranges for borderline results would have changed the diagnostic classifications for 22 of 38 samples. Results of all the RD methods inter-correlated well, but less so with the microbiological assay. Borderline, nondiagnostic results were common to all methods, and no apparent advantage was gained from using the microbiological assay.

  17. Refractory epileptic seizures due to vitamin B6 deficiency in a patient with Parkinson's disease under duodopa® therapy.

    PubMed

    Skodda, Sabine; Müller, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    Levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) infusion for the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) has been suspected to provoke polyneuropathy in conjunction with vitamin B6, B12 and folate deficiency and elevated homocysteine levels. We describe a PD patient under LCIG therapy developing refractory epileptic seizures obviously promoted by vitamin B6 deficiency. PMID:22798026

  18. Vitamin B12 and homocysteine status in asymptomatic Indian toddlers.

    PubMed

    Hanumante, N M; Wadia, R S; Deshpande, S S; Sanwalka, N J; Vaidya, M V; Khadilkar, A V

    2008-07-01

    Low serum vitamin B(12) (V B(12)) and hyperhomocysteinemia have been reported in asymptomatic Asian Indian men. We studied the prevalence of V B(12) deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia in 51 asymptomatic toddlers, from Pune, India. V B(12) levels were low and total serum homocysteine was high in 14% and homocysteine levels were significantly higher in boys. Programming for cardiovascular risk in adulthood possibly starts at a very young age through the homocysteine axis. PMID:18716749

  19. Breast milk vitamin B-12 concentrations of Guatemalan women are correlated with maternal but not infant vitamin B12 status at 12 months postpartum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our previous studies one third of lactating Guatemalan women, infants and children had deficient or marginal serum vitamin B-12 concentrations. Relationships among maternal and infant status and breast milk vitamin B-12, however, have not been investigated in such populations. Our purpose was to ...

  20. Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Hemoglobin H Disease Early Misdiagnosed as Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura: A Series of Unfortunate Events

    PubMed Central

    Andreadis, Panagiotis; Theodoridou, Stamatia; Pasakiotou, Marily; Arapoglou, Stergios; Gigi, Eleni; Vetsiou, Evaggelia; Vlachaki, Efthymia

    2015-01-01

    We herein would like to report an interesting case of a patient who presented with anemia and thrombocytopenia combined with high serum Lactic Dehydrogenase where Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura was originally considered. As indicated a central venous catheter was inserted in his subclavian vein which led to mediastinal hematoma and finally intubation and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) hospitalization. After further examination patient was finally diagnosed with B12 deficiency in a setting of H hemoglobinopathy. There have been previous reports where pernicious anemia was originally diagnosed and treated as Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura but there has been none to our knowledge that was implicated with hemothorax and ICU hospitalization or correlated with thalassemia and we discuss the significance of accurate diagnosis in order to avoid adverse reactions and therapy implications. PMID:26609455

  1. Assay for vitamin B12 absorption and method of making labeled vitamin B12

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Peter J. (Davis, CA); Dueker, Stephen (Davis, CA); Miller, Joshua (Davis, CA); Green, Ralph (Elmacero, CA); Roth, John (Davis, CA); Carkeet, Colleen (Silver Spring, MD); Buchholz,; Bruce A. (Orinda, CA)

    2012-06-19

    The invention provides methods for labeling vitamin B12 with .sup.14C, .sup.13C, tritium, and deuterium. When radioisotopes are used, the invention provides for methods of labeling B12 with high specific activity. The invention also provides labeled vitamin B12 compositions made in accordance with the invention.

  2. Folate- and vitamin B12-deficient diet during gestation and lactation alters cerebellar synapsin expression via impaired influence of estrogen nuclear receptor ?.

    PubMed

    Pourié, Grégory; Martin, Nicolas; Bossenmeyer-Pourié, Carine; Akchiche, Nassila; Guéant-Rodriguez, Rosa Maria; Geoffroy, Andréa; Jeannesson, Elise; El Hajj Chehadeh, Sarah; Mimoun, Khalid; Brachet, Patrick; Koziel, Violette; Alberto, Jean-Marc; Helle, Deborah; Debard, Renée; Leininger, Brigitte; Daval, Jean-Luc; Guéant, Jean-Louis

    2015-09-01

    Deficiency in the methyl donors vitamin B12 and folate during pregnancy and postnatal life impairs proper brain development. We studied the consequences of this combined deficiency on cerebellum plasticity in offspring from rat mothers subjected to deficient diet during gestation and lactation and in rat neuroprogenitor cells expressing cerebellum markers. The major proteomic change in cerebellum of 21-d-old deprived females was a 2.2-fold lower expression of synapsins, which was confirmed in neuroprogenitors cultivated in the deficient condition. A pathway analysis suggested that these proteomic changes were related to estrogen receptor ? (ER-?)/Src tyrosine kinase. The influence of impaired ER-? pathway was confirmed by abnormal negative geotaxis test at d 19-20 and decreased phsophorylation of synapsins in deprived females treated by ER-? antagonist 1,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-methyl-5-[4-(2-piperidinylethoxy)phenol]-1H-pyrazole dihydrochloride (MPP). This effect was consistent with 2-fold decreased expression and methylation of ER-? and subsequent decreased ER-?/PPAR-? coactivator 1 ? (PGC-1?) interaction in deficiency condition. The impaired ER-? pathway led to decreased expression of synapsins through 2-fold decreased EGR-1/Zif-268 transcription factor and to 1.7-fold reduced Src-dependent phosphorylation of synapsins. The treatment of neuroprogenitors with either MPP or PP1 (4-(4'-phenoxyanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline, 6,7-dimethoxy-N-(4-phenoxyphenyl)-4-quinazolinamine, SKI-1, Src-l1) Src inhibitor produced similar effects. In conclusion, the deficiency during pregnancy and lactation impairs the expression of synapsins through a deregulation of ER-? pathway. PMID:26018677

  3. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin B12 test system. 862.1810 Section 862.1810....1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B 12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin B 12 test system. 862.1810 Section 862....1810 Vitamin B 12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin B12 test system. 862.1810 Section 862.1810....1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B 12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin B 12 test system. 862.1810 Section 862....1810 Vitamin B 12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin B12 test system. 862.1810 Section 862.1810....1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  8. A review of vitamin B12 in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Brescoll, Jennifer; Daveluy, Steven

    2015-02-01

    Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is important in the hematological and nervous systems, and it has a complex relationship with the skin. Altered cobalamin levels can lead to dermatological manifestations, which may indicate a deficiency or excess of this vitamin. The biochemistry and metabolism of cobalamin is complex, and diseases can be associated with alterations of this metabolic pathway. The cutaneous manifestations of cobalamin deficiency include hyperpigmentation (most commonly); hair and nail changes; and oral changes, including glossitis. Additionally, several dermatologic conditions, including vitiligo, aphthous stomatitis, atopic dermatitis, and acne are related to cobalamin excess or deficiency. The cutaneous complications of cobalamin therapy include acne, rosacea, and allergic site reactions, or anaphylaxis with cobalamin injections. As cobalt is a component of cobalamin, patients with cobalt sensitivity have been reported to have cutaneous manifestations when receiving cobalamin replacement therapy. PMID:25559140

  9. B Vitamins

    MedlinePLUS

    ... get B vitamins from proteins such as fish, poultry, meat, eggs, and dairy products. Leafy green vegetables, beans, and peas also have B vitamins. Many cereals and some breads have added B vitamins. Not getting enough of certain B vitamins can cause diseases. A lack of B12 or B6 can cause ...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B 12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1810 Vitamin B 12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure...and treatment of anemias of gastrointestinal malabsorption. (b)...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B 12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1810 Vitamin B 12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure...and treatment of anemias of gastrointestinal malabsorption. (b)...

  12. Vitamin B6 deficient plants display increased sensitivity to high light and photo-oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Havaux, Michel; Ksas, Brigitte; Szewczyk, Agnieszka; Rumeau, Dominique; Franck, Fabrice; Caffarri, Stefano; Triantaphylidès, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Background Vitamin B6 is a collective term for a group of six interconvertible compounds: pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine and their phosphorylated derivatives. Vitamin B6 plays essential roles as a cofactor in a range of biochemical reactions. In addition, vitamin B6 is able to quench reactive oxygen species in vitro, and exogenously applied vitamin B6 protects plant cells against cell death induced by singlet oxygen (1O2). These results raise the important question as to whether plants employ vitamin B6 as an antioxidant to protect themselves against reactive oxygen species. Results The pdx1.3 mutation affects the vitamin B6 biosynthesis enzyme, pyridoxal synthase (PDX1), and leads to a reduction of the vitamin B6 concentration in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. Although leaves of the pdx1.3 Arabidopsis mutant contained less chlorophyll than wild-type leaves, we found that vitamin B6 deficiency did not significantly impact photosynthetic performance or shoot and root growth. Chlorophyll loss was associated with an increase in the chlorophyll a/b ratio and a selective decrease in the abundance of several PSII antenna proteins (Lhcb1/2, Lhcb6). These changes were strongly dependent on light intensity, with high light amplifying the difference between pdx1.3 and the wild type. When leaf discs were exposed to exogenous 1O2, lipid peroxidation in pdx1.3 was increased relative to the wild type; this effect was not observed with superoxide or hydrogen peroxide. When leaf discs or whole plants were exposed to excess light energy, 1O2-mediated lipid peroxidation was enhanced in leaves of the pdx1.3 mutant relative to the wild type. High light also caused an increased level of 1O2 in vitamin B6-deficient leaves. Combining the pdx1.3 mutation with mutations affecting the level of 'classical' quenchers of 1O2 (zeaxanthin, tocopherols) resulted in a highly photosensitive phenotype. Conclusion This study demonstrates that vitamin B6 has a function in the in vivo antioxidant defense of plants. Thus, the antioxidant activity of vitamin B6 inferred from in vitro studies is confirmed in planta. Together with the finding that chloroplasts contain vitamin B6 compounds, the data show that vitamin B6 functions as a photoprotector that limits 1O2 accumulation in high light and prevents 1O2-mediated oxidative damage. PMID:19903353

  13. Folate, vitamin B12 and human health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past decade the role of folate and vitamin B12 in human nutrition have been under constant re-examination. Basic knowledge on the metabolism and interactions between these essential nutrients has expanded and multiple complexities have been unraveled. These micronutrients have shared func...

  14. Seizures caused by pyridoxine (vitamin B6) deficiency in adults: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yisha

    2014-05-01

    Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) deficiency is a recognised cause of intractable seizures in neonates. However, pyridoxine deficiency related seizures in adults were rarely reported. This article reports a case of a 79 year old lady who suffered from new-onset seizures and was successfully treated with vitamin B6. The patient had chronic renal disease and weight loss due to anepithymia following a pelvic fracture. This article also reviews literatures of seizures caused by pyridoxine deficiency in adults. Seizures caused by vitamin B6 deficiency in adults may result from dietary deficiency, liver disease, pregnancy and certain medications and can be easily treated by vitamin B6 with excellent outcome. Clinicians should consider vitamin B6 deficiency as a potential aetiology of seizures, even in patients who suffer from other underlying diseases which can cause seizures. PMID:25343127

  15. Seizures caused by pyridoxine (vitamin B6) deficiency in adults: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Yisha

    2014-01-01

    Summary Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) deficiency is a recognised cause of intractable seizures in neonates. However, pyridoxine deficiency related seizures in adults were rarely reported. This article reports a case of a 79 year old lady who suffered from new-onset seizures and was successfully treated with vitamin B6. The patient had chronic renal disease and weight loss due to anepithymia following a pelvic fracture. This article also reviews literatures of seizures caused by pyridoxine deficiency in adults. Seizures caused by vitamin B6 deficiency in adults may result from dietary deficiency, liver disease, pregnancy and certain medications and can be easily treated by vitamin B6 with excellent outcome. Clinicians should consider vitamin B6 deficiency as a potential aetiology of seizures, even in patients who suffer from other underlying diseases which can cause seizures. PMID:25343127

  16. Effect of combined folic acid, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on colorectal adenoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Folic acid, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) act in concert in the one-carbon metabolism and may protect against colorectal neoplasia. We examined the effect of combined B-vitamin treatment on the occurrence of colorectal adenoma. The Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study was a rand...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12 . (b) Conditions of use....

  18. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin B 12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B 12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin B 12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B 12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  3. An Escherichia coli K-12 tktA tktB mutant deficient in transketolase activity requires pyridoxine (vitamin B6) as well as the aromatic amino acids and vitamins for growth.

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, G; Winkler, M E

    1994-01-01

    We show that a tktA tktB double mutant, which is devoid of the two known transketolase isoenzymes of Escherichia coli K-12, requires pyridoxine (vitamin B6) as well as the aromatic amino acids and vitamins for growth. This pyridoxine requirement can also be satisfied by 4-hydroxy-L-threonine or glycolaldehyde. These results provide direct evidence that D-erythrose-4-phosphate is a precursor of the pyridine ring of pyridoxine. In addition, they show that the two major E. coli transketolase isoenzymes are not required for the biosynthesis of D-1-deoxyxylulose, which is thought to be another precursor of pyridoxine. PMID:7928977

  4. Addisonian pigmentation and vitamin B?? deficiency: a case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jithendriya, Madhukara; Kumaran, Sendhil; P, Ishwara B

    2013-08-01

    Skin changes associated with vitamin B?? deficiency are common. In most cases, patients present primarily with systemic involvement (eg, megaloblastic anemia and/or neurologic effects), and additional cutaneous changes related to the diagnosis are noted as incidental findings. The role of vitamin B?? deficiency in the etiology of Addisonian pigmentation has not been well studied. We discuss the importance of testing vitamin B?? levels in patients who present for evaluation of generalized hyperpigmentation. Various cutaneous changes associated with vitamin B?? deficiency also are reviewed. PMID:24087784

  5. Vitamin B12 absorption in some neurological and neuroendocrine disorders

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, D.; Lascelles, P. T.

    1970-01-01

    An assessment of vitamin B12 absorption in neurological patients has been made by both serum and urine counting of 57Co cyanocobalamin during the conventional Schilling test. Although patients with pernicious anaemia, some with subacute combined degeneration of the cord, have been studied, emphasis in the discussion is placed on the significantly increased excretion of the radioactive vitamin in a group of patients with pituitary insufficiency. Results are also given for epileptic patients who have developed folate deficiency (as assessed by serum folate levels) coincidental with anticonvulsant therapy, as well as for some patients who have had neurological symptoms or signs following partial gastrectomy operations. PMID:5483383

  6. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and....1945 Vitamin B12. (a) Vitamin B12, also known as cyanocobalamin (C63H88CoN14O14P, CAS Reg. No. 68-0919... exceed current good manufacturing practice. Vitamin B12 also may be used in infant formula in...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B12. (a) Vitamin B12, also known as cyanocobalamin (C63H88Co... is used in food at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Vitamin B12 also may...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B 12..

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin B 12.. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B 12.. (a) Vitamin B12, also known as cyanocobalamin (C63H88Co... is used in food at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Vitamin B12 also may...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B12. (a) Vitamin B12, also known as cyanocobalamin (C63H88Co... is used in food at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Vitamin B12 also may...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin B12. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B12. (a) Vitamin B12, also known as cyanocobalamin (C63H88Co... is used in food at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Vitamin B12 also may...

  11. Metabolic evidence of vitamin B-12 deficiency, including high homocysteine and methylmalonic acid and low holotranscobalamin, is more pronounced in older adults with elevated plasma folate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: An analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey indicated that in older adults exposed to folic acid fortification, the combination of low serum vitamin B-12 and elevated folate is associated with higher concentrations of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid ...

  12. In vitamin B12 deficiency, higher serum folate is assoicated with increased total homocysteine (tHcy) and methlmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a recent study of older participants (age >/= 60 y) in the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we showed that a combination of high serum folate and low vitamin B-12 status was associated with higher prevalence of cognitive impairment and anemia than other combina...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin B12. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B12. (a) Vitamin B12 , also known as cyanocobalamin (C63...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin B12 test system. 862.1810 Section...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B 12..

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin B 12.. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B 12 .. (a) Vitamin B12 , also known as cyanocobalamin (C63...

  16. False-normal vitamin B12 results in a patient with pernicious anaemia.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, P; Narayanan, S; Cook, P

    2015-12-01

    Pernicious anaemia is a common autoimmune disorder with a prevalence of approximately 4% amongst Europeans. If untreated, it can result in permanent neurological disability or death. Central to the diagnosis is establishing the presence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Concern has been raised recently regarding false-normal results obtained with competitive-binding vitamin B12 assays performed on automated biochemistry platforms in patients with pernicious anaemia due to the presence of interfering anti-intrinsic factor antibodies in the patient sample. We report a case in which diagnosis of pernicious anaemia was delayed due to false-normal vitamin B12 results. Questioning the results in light of high pre-test probability, and knowledge of the role of functional markers of vitamin B12 deficiency enabled the correct diagnosis to be made so that effective treatment could be initiated. It is crucial that those who frequently request vitamin B12 are aware of the potential problems with the available assays and how these problems can be addressed. We suggest that all patients with normal vitamin B12 levels where there is a high clinical suspicion for deficiency such as a macrocytic anaemia, neurological symptoms or megaloblastic bone marrow should have a functional assay of vitamin B12 (plasma homocysteine or methylmalonic acid) checked to further investigate for vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:26277634

  17. Radiolysis of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B 12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juanchi, X.; Albarran, G.; Negron-Mendoza, A.

    2000-03-01

    Research on the radiolysis of vitamins is of considerable interest since these compounds are important nutritional constituents in foods and in dietetic supplements. In spite of these considerations there are few data and very often difficult to compare for the radiolytic behavior of vitamins. In this work we focused our attention on to the study of the radiolysis of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B 12) in solid state and in aqueous solutions. The procedure was followed by HPLC and UV-spectroscopy. The results obtained in aqueous solutions showed a dependence of the decomposition as a linear function of the dose. The G of decomposition for a 1×10 -5 M solution was 3.3. In the solid state the vitamin was very stable towards the irradiation in the conditions used in this study with a G=2.1×10 -3. A study made with Serratia marcescens as a microbiological contaminant showed that at the sterilization dose there is a destruction of the vitamin in aqueous solution. In the solid state the degree of decomposition was 7%.

  18. Vitamin B-12 supplementation of rural Mexican women changes biochemical B-12 status indicators but does not affect hematology or a bone turnover marker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on the high prevalence of low serum vitamin B-12 concentrations and low dietary intake of the vitamin in Latin American studies including research in Mexico, it appears that vitamin B-12 deficiency is common. Whether this is associated with adverse effects on human function is unknown. To eval...

  19. Vitamin B-12, serum folate, and cognitive change between 11 and 79 years 

    E-print Network

    Starr, John M; Pattie, Alison; Whiteman, Martha C; Deary, Ian J; Whalley, Lawrence J

    2005-01-01

    A recent Cochrane review reported that although vitamin B-12 deficiency is known to be associated with cognitive impairment in old age, benefits of supplementation on mental ability are unclear. The situation is similar ...

  20. Severe vitamin B?? deficiency in a 15-year-old boy: presentation with haemolysis and pancytopenia.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Ebru Y?lmaz; Keskin, Mahmut

    2015-01-01

    A 15-year-old boy on a vegetarian diet presented with severe macrocytic anaemia (haemoglobin, 5.1?g/dL; mean corpuscular volume, 116?fL) in addition to leucopenia and thrombocytopaenia (pancytopenia), icterus secondary to haemolysis and splenomegaly. Laboratory investigations revealed severe vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency. Following cobalamin replacement therapy, the patient reported increased well-being, including appetite and weight gain, and his icterus resolved. In the follow-up laboratory examinations, leucocyte and platelet counts in addition to serum bilirubin and lactate dehydrogenase levels normalised. At the end of 2?months, laboratory findings, including haemoglobin level, were all within the normal range. We present this case as a reminder that severe vitamin B12 deficiency may present with findings mimicking acute leukaemia (pancytopenia and splenomegaly) and findings suggestive of pseudothrombotic microangiopathy. PMID:25976204

  1. The effect of vitamin B sub 12 on selenium metabolism in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.L.; Whanger, P.D. )

    1991-03-11

    Since animal methylate selenium (Se) and vitamin B{sub 12} is involved in methylation reactions, weaning rats were fed diets with or without vitamin B{sub 12} to evaluate its effect on Se metabolism. Plasma vitamin B{sub 12} of vitamin B{sub 12} depleted rats were below detection while vitamin B{sub 12} levels in plasma of control rats ranged from 3-6 ng/ml after 4 weeks feeding. After {sup 75}Se-selenite injection, vitamin B{sub 12} depleted rats exhaled 16% of the dose and excreted 22-28% as trimethylselenonium in urine as compared to 45% and 45-54% respectively in control rats. Se methylation experiments with rat liver supernatants from vitamin B{sub 12} depleted rats volatilized only 45% as the control rat liver preparation. When rats were fed various levels of Se as selenite, blood and heart Se levels were higher in vitamin B{sub 12} supplemented rats, but lower in liver, kidney, spleen and testis than the deficient rats. This difference in liver between supplemented and deficient rats became greater with higher dietary levels of Se. It is concluded that vitamin B{sub 12} affects Se metabolism through the methylation of this element.

  2. Combined dietary folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 intake influences plasma docosahexaenoic acid concentration in rats

    E-print Network

    van Wijk, Nick

    Background: Folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 are essential nutritional components in one-carbon metabolism and are required for methylation capacity. The availability of these vitamins may therefore modify methylation ...

  3. Intestinal synthesis and absorption of vitamin B-12 in channel catfish

    SciTech Connect

    Limsuwan, T.; Lovell, R.T.

    1981-12-01

    A feeding experiment conducted in a controlled environment and using a vitamin B12-deficient, but otherwise nutritionally complete, purified diet revealed that intestinal microorganisms in channel catfish synthesized approximately 1.4 ng of vitamin B12 per gram of bodyweight per day. Removal of cobalt from the diet or supplementation with an antibiotic (succinylsulfathiazole) significantly reduced the rate of intestinal synthesis and liver stores of vitamin B12. Radiolabeled vitamin B12 in the blood, liver, kidneys, and spleen of fish fed 60Co in the diet indicated that the intestinally synthesized vitamin was absorbed by the fish. The primary route of absorption was directly from the digestive tract into the blood because coprophagy was prevented in the rearing aquariums and the amount of vitamin B12 dissolved in the aquarium water was too low for gill absorption. Dietary supplementation of vitamin B12 was not necessary for normal growth and erythrocyte formation in channel catfish in a 24-week feeding period. A longer period, however, may have caused a vitamin deficiency since liver-stored vitamin B 12 decreased between the 2nd and 24th weeks.

  4. Vitamin B-12 and homocysteine status among vegetarians: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Singer, Ingrid

    2009-05-01

    Evidence exists that well-planned vegetarian diets provide numerous health benefits and are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle. It is also known that animal foods provide micronutrients that are nonexistent or available only in limited amounts in plant foods. Restriction or exclusion of all animal foods may therefore result in low intake of certain micronutrients such as vitamin B-12, thereby affecting vitamin B-12 status and elevating plasma homocysteine concentrations. Overall, the studies we reviewed showed reduced mean vitamin B-12 status and elevated mean homocysteine concentrations in vegetarians, particularly among vegans. Low vitamin B-12 intake may lead to decreased bioavailability and functional deficiency of cobalamin. Although early noticeable symptoms of vitamin B-12 deficiency are nonspecific (unusual fatigue, digestion problems, frequent upper respiratory infections), the best-known clinical manifestations of cobalamin malabsorption are hematologic (pernicious anemia) and neurologic symptoms. Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Given these health concerns, vegetarians, particularly vegans, must be advised to carefully plan their diets, to monitor their plasma vitamin B-12 on a regular basis to facilitate early detection of low cobalamin status, and to use vitamin B-12-fortified foods or take vitamin B-12 supplements if necessary. PMID:19357223

  5. Cobalamin and folate evaluation: measurement of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine vs vitamin B(12) and folate.

    PubMed

    Klee, G G

    2000-08-01

    Vitamin B(12) and folate are two vitamins that have interdependent roles in nucleic acid synthesis. Deficiencies of either vitamin can cause megaloblastic anemia; however, inappropriate treatment of B(12) deficiency with folate can cause irreversible nerve degeneration. Inadequate folate nutrition during early pregnancy can cause neural tube defects in the developing fetus. In addition, folate and vitamin B(12) deficiency and the compensatory increase in homocysteine are a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Laboratory support for the diagnosis and management of these multiple clinical entities is controversial and somewhat problematic. Automated ligand binding measurements of vitamin B(12) and folate are easiest to perform and widely used. Unfortunately, these tests are not the most sensitive indicators of disease. Measurement of red cell folate is less dependent on dietary fluctuations, but these measurements may not be reliable. Homocysteine and methylmalonic acid are better metabolic indicators of deficiencies at the tissue level. There are no "gold standards" for the diagnosis of these disorders, and controversy exists regarding the best diagnostic approach. Healthcare strategies that consider the impact of laboratory tests on the overall costs and quality of care should consider the advantages of including methylmalonic acid and homocysteine in the early evaluation of patients with suspected deficiencies of vitamin B(12) and folate. PMID:10926922

  6. [Effects of Vitamin B12 in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Peripheral Neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Nodera, Hiroyuki; Izumi, Yuishin; Kaji, Ryuji

    2015-09-01

    Vitamin B(12)(vB(12)) deficient is regarded as iatrogenic in some cases. Although the recommended oral intake of vB(12) has been determined, administration of vB(12) exceeding the recommended dose could have multiple pharmacological effects. "Ultra-high dose" vB(12) therapy has been used for peripheral neuropathy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, suggesting its promising neuroprotective effects. PMID:26329154

  7. Folate (vitamin B9) and vitamin B12 and their function in the maintenance of nuclear and mitochondrial genome integrity.

    PubMed

    Fenech, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Folate plays a critical role in the prevention of uracil incorporation into DNA and hypomethylation of DNA. This activity is compromised when vitamin B12 concentration is low because methionine synthase activity is reduced, lowering the concentration of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) which in turn may diminish DNA methylation and cause folate to become unavailable for the conversion of dUMP to dTMP. The most plausible explanation for the chromosome-breaking effect of low folate is excessive uracil misincorporation into DNA, a mutagenic lesion that leads to strand breaks in DNA during repair. Both in vitro and in vivo studies with human cells clearly show that folate deficiency causes expression of chromosomal fragile sites, chromosome breaks, excessive uracil in DNA, micronucleus formation, DNA hypomethylation and mitochondrial DNA deletions. In vivo studies show that folate and/or vitamin B12 deficiency and elevated plasma homocysteine (a metabolic indicator of folate deficiency) are significantly correlated with increased micronucleus formation and reduced telomere length respectively. In vitro experiments indicate that genomic instability in human cells is minimised when folic acid concentration in culture medium is greater than 100nmol/L. Intervention studies in humans show (a) that DNA hypomethylation, chromosome breaks, uracil incorporation and micronucleus formation are minimised when red cell folate concentration is greater than 700nmol/L and (b) micronucleus formation is minimised when plasma concentration of vitamin B12 is greater than 300pmol/L and plasma homocysteine is less than 7.5?mol/L. These concentrations are achievable at intake levels at or above current recommended dietary intakes of folate (i.e. >400?g/day) and vitamin B12 (i.e. >2?g/day) depending on an individual's capacity to absorb and metabolise these vitamins which may vary due to genetic and epigenetic differences. PMID:22093367

  8. Low plasma vitamin B-12 in Kenyan school children is highly prevalent and improved by supplemental animal source foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in many regions of the world is becoming recognized as a widespread public health problem, but it is not known to what extent this deficiency results from a low intake of the vitamin or from its malabsorption from food. In rural Kenya, where a previous ...

  9. Dietary Sources of Vitamin B-12 and Their Association with Vitamin B-12 Status Markers in Healthy Older Adults in the B-PROOF Study

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A. M.; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P.; van der Zwaluw, Nikita L.; van der Velde, Nathalie; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Low vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations between dietary sources of vitamin B-12 (meat, fish and shellfish, eggs, dairy) and serum vitamin B-12, using cross-sectional data of 600 Dutch community-dwelling adults (?65 years). Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Vitamin B-12 concentrations were measured in serum. Associations were studied over tertiles of vitamin B-12 intake using P for trend, by calculating prevalence ratios (PRs), and splines. Whereas men had significantly higher vitamin B-12 intakes than women (median (25th–75th percentile): 4.18 (3.29–5.38) versus 3.47 (2.64–4.40) ?g/day), serum vitamin B-12 did not differ between the two sexes (mean ± standard deviation (SD): 275 ± 104 pmol/L versus 290 ± 113 pmol/L). Higher intakes of dairy, meat, and fish and shellfish were significantly associated with higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations, where meat and dairy—predominantly milk were the most potent sources. Egg intake did not significantly contribute to higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations. Thus, dairy and meat were the most important contributors to serum vitamin B-12, followed by fish and shellfish. PMID:26389945

  10. Dietary Sources of Vitamin B-12 and Their Association with Vitamin B-12 Status Markers in Healthy Older Adults in the B-PROOF Study.

    PubMed

    Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P; Zwaluw, Nikita L van der; Velde, Nathalie van der; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2015-09-01

    Low vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations between dietary sources of vitamin B-12 (meat, fish and shellfish, eggs, dairy) and serum vitamin B-12, using cross-sectional data of 600 Dutch community-dwelling adults (?65 years). Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Vitamin B-12 concentrations were measured in serum. Associations were studied over tertiles of vitamin B-12 intake using P for trend, by calculating prevalence ratios (PRs), and splines. Whereas men had significantly higher vitamin B-12 intakes than women (median (25th-75th percentile): 4.18 (3.29-5.38) versus 3.47 (2.64-4.40) ?g/day), serum vitamin B-12 did not differ between the two sexes (mean ± standard deviation (SD): 275 ± 104 pmol/L versus 290 ± 113 pmol/L). Higher intakes of dairy, meat, and fish and shellfish were significantly associated with higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations, where meat and dairy-predominantly milk were the most potent sources. Egg intake did not significantly contribute to higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations. Thus, dairy and meat were the most important contributors to serum vitamin B-12, followed by fish and shellfish. PMID:26389945

  11. Folate and vitamin B12 status of adolescent girls in northern Nigeria.

    PubMed Central

    VanderJagt, D. J.; Spelman, K.; Ambe, J.; Datta, P.; Blackwell, W.; Crossey, M.; Glew, R. H.

    2000-01-01

    The diets of populations in many developing countries are low in folate and vitamin B12 and a deficiency of either of these vitamins results in increased risk for cardiovascular disease and neural tube defects. The rates of neural tube defects in Nigeria are among the highest reported worldwide. Since many girls marry at an early age in northern Nigeria, we therefore determined the folate and vitamin B12 status of adolescent girls between 12 and 16 years of age in Maiduguri, Nigeria. The mean serum folate concentration for subjects was 15.3 +/- 5.2 nmol/L. Whereas only four subjects (2.4%) had serum folate concentrations lower than 6.8 nmol/L, a level indicative of negative folate balance, 9% of the subjects had serum vitamin B12 concentrations at or below 134 pmol/L, the lower limit of the reference range for their age group. Serum homocysteine was measured in 56 of the 162 subjects and the mean level was 15.9 +/- 5.0 mumol/L. The majority of subjects had serum homocysteine concentrations above the upper limit of the reference range for their age group. We conclude that the adolescent girls we studied were at greater risk for vitamin B12 deficiency than folate deficiency. This conclusion is consistent with the fact that their diet included few foods that contained vitamin B12. PMID:10946529

  12. MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF CORRINOIDS I. Vitamin B12

    PubMed Central

    Scott, W. M.; Burgus, R. C.; Hufham, J. B.; Pfiffner, J. J.

    1964-01-01

    Scott, W. M. (Wayne State University, Detroit, Mich.), R. C. Burgus, J. B. Hufham, and J. J. Pfiffner. Microbial degradation of corrinoids. I. Vitamin B12. J. Bacteriol. 88:581–585. 1964.—Microorganisms isolated from a variety of soil, sewage, and mud samples, and stock cultures, were examined for the ability to degrade vitamin B12. More than 200 isolates which attack the vitamin were examined, and they all demonstrated reversible fading of the red vitamin. The color was restored by aeration. Very few microorganisms were able to degrade the vitamin to permanently colorless products, although many were able to degrade it partially, to produce new pigments. Some of these pigments appeared similar, if not identical, although they were produced by different bacteria. Radiotracer and electrophoretic mobility data are presented to show that the transformation products are derived from the vitamin. All the degradative microorganisms isolated were bacteria, and the most active was Pseudomonas rubescens. PMID:14208491

  13. Vitamin B12 and ageing: current issues and interaction with folate.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Catherine F; Ward, Mary; Hoey, Leane; McNulty, Helene

    2013-07-01

    A compromised vitamin B12 status is common in older people despite dietary intakes that typically far exceed current recommendations. The maintenance of an optimal status of vitamin B12 is not only dependent on adequate dietary intake but more critically on effective absorption which diminishes with age. The measurement of vitamin B12 is complicated by the lack of a gold standard assay. There are a number of direct and functional indicators of vitamin B12 status; however, none of these are without limitations and should be used in combination. Vitamin B12 is of public health importance, not only because deficiency leads to megaloblastic anaemia and irreversible nerve damage, but also because emerging evidence links low B12 to an increased risk of a number of age-related diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cognitive dysfunction, dementia and osteoporosis. Furthermore, there are concerns relating to potential adverse effects for older adults with low vitamin B12 status of over-exposure to folic acid in countries where there is mandatory fortification of food with folic acid. The aim of this review is to examine the known and emerging issues related to vitamin B12 in ageing, its assessment and inter-relationship with folate. PMID:23592803

  14. Use of Cheese Whey for Vitamin B12 Production

    PubMed Central

    Bullerman, L. B.; Berry, E. C.

    1966-01-01

    The suitability of cheese whey as a substrate for vitamin B12 production by Propionibacterium shermanii was studied. It was found that with a given level of whey solids a definite amount of yeast extract was required to give maximal yields of vitamin B12. Of the levels of materials studied, 10% whey solids and 1.5% yeast extract gave the best yields of vitamin B12. Most of the lactose of the whey had been utilized in all flask cultures after 168 hr at 29 C. Images Fig. 1 PMID:5970817

  15. Regulation of phytoplankton dynamics by vitamin B12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.; Gobler, C. J.; Okbamichael, M.; Taylor, G. T.

    2006-02-01

    Despite the biological necessity of vitamin B12 (cobalamin), its importance in phytoplankton ecology has been ignored for nearly three decades. Here we report strong and selective responses of phytoplankton communities to varying low levels (5-87 pM) of dissolved B12 in several coastal embayments. The ecological importance of this vitamin is inferred from observed declines in dissolved B12 levels as field populations of large (>5 ?m) phytoplankton increased. In contrast, biomass of small (<5 ?m) phytoplankton varied independently of B12 concentrations. These observations were corroborated by field-based nutrient amendment experiments, in which B12 additions stimulated growth of large phytoplankton taxa 6-fold over unamended controls. In contrast, small taxa (<5 ?m) were largely unaffected. This study provides the first evidence of vitamin B12's influence on phytoplankton field population dynamics based on direct chemical measurements of cobalamin, and implicates B12 as an important organic regulator of photoautotrophic fertility in marine systems.

  16. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A...

  18. Vol. 171, No. 6 Functions Required for Vitamin B12-Dependent Ethanolamine

    E-print Network

    Roth, John R.

    Vol. 171, No. 6 Functions Required for Vitamin B12-Dependent Ethanolamine Utilization in SalmonellaE gene) can catalyze the same reaction (16). Vitamin B12 is also required for formation of the modified encountered in nature is probably hydroxy-B12 (HO- B12). While cyano-B12 (CN-B12; commercial vitamin B12

  19. Reductive dechlorination of chlorophenols by vitamin B[sub 12

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    The reductive dechlorination of chlorinated phenols by vitamin B[sub 12], supported by the reductant Ti(III) citrate, was examined. Procedures were developed, including a novel reactor system, for conducting these experiments. Most of the experiments were conducted in either hermetically-sealed glass ampoules, which could maintain vitamin B[sub 12] in the fully-reduced vitamin B[sub 12s] state for months, or in the novel two-chambered reactor (TCR), which could also support vitamin B[sub 12s] for extended periods, and could easily be sampled to perform kinetic studies. Vitamin B[sub 12s] reductively dechlorinates chlorinated phenols by nucleophilic aromatic substitution of the cobalamin for a chlorine, followed by reductive cleavage of the arylcobalamin to form the reductively-dechlorinated product. Dechlorination occurs chiefly at positions ortho to another chlorine, but the 2 and 6 positions are extremely recalcitrant, even when another chlorine is adjacent. The proposed mechanism accounts for the observed regiospecificity, consistent with bond charge density and thermodynamic considerations. Pentachlorophenol, all of the tetrachlorophenols, and all of the trichlorophenols were challenged with vitamin B[sub 12s], and all were reductively dechlorinated to some extent. A sequential dechlorination pathway was constructed and compared to patterns exhibited by anaerobic microbial consortia. On the basis of this comparison, it was concluded that any involvement of vitamin B[sub 12] in biological reductive dechlorination of chlorinated phenols requires the intimate participation of apoenzymes to direct the regiospecificity toward the 2 and 6 chlorines on the ring. The observed kinetics of the reductive dechlorination of pentachlorophenol by vitamin B[sub 12s] can be described with a first order approximation. A threefold variability in rate constants was observed.

  20. Vitamin B12, folate and iron levels in primary nocturnal enuresis

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Sebahattin; Zengin, Kürsad; Tanik, Serhat; Daar, Ghaniya; Ozdamar, Mustafa Yasar; Bakirtas, Hasan; Imamoglu, M. Abdurrahim; Gurdal, Mesut

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Folate, vitamin B12 and iron are important vitamin and minerals which play role in the development of nervous system. The aim of this study was looking at the presence of folate, vitamin B12 and iron deficiency among patients with Primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) and possible relation between the delay of central nervous system (CNS) development, PNE and folate, vitamin B12 and iron states. Methods: Consecutively applied forty patients with PNE (23 girls and 17 boys) and otherwise normal thirty control subjects (17 girls and 13 boys) were included in the study. Average ages (in range) of PNE and the control group were 9.2(6-12) years and 9.3 (6-12) years accordingly. Age, height, weight, complete blood count, blood vitamin B12, folate, ferritin and iron values of both groups were recorded and compared to each other. Results: Average vitamin B12 and folate levels of patients with PNE were significantly and statistically lower compared to those of the control group. Average blood iron of patients with PNE was significantly higher than that of the control group and also average ferritin level of the PNE group was detected to be higher than the control group but this relation was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Primary nocturnal enuresis is related to the delay in CNS maturation so it was thought that low vitamin B12 and folate which were found in patients with PNE may have role in the delay of CNS maturation. Additionally, further studies are needed to investigate the role of vitamin B12 and folate either alone or as combination in treatment of patients with PNE who have low vitamin B12and folate level. PMID:25878620

  1. Subacute axonal neuropathy in Parkinson's disease with cobalamin and vitamin B6 deficiency under duodopa therapy.

    PubMed

    Urban, Peter P; Wellach, Ingmar; Faiss, Siegbert; Layer, Peter; Rosenkranz, Thorsten; Knop, Karl; Weis, Joachim

    2010-08-15

    We describe two patients who developed subacute axonal peripheral neuropathy under duodopa treatment. Comprehensive diagnostic workup including muscle and sural nerve biopsy revealed that the most probable cause of subacute axonal peripheral neuropathy was cobalamin and vitamin B6 deficiency in both the patients. PMID:20740570

  2. Electron densities of three B12 vitamins.

    PubMed

    Mebs, Stefan; Henn, Julian; Dittrich, Birger; Paulmann, Carsten; Luger, Peter

    2009-07-23

    The electron densities of the three natural B(12)-vitamins, two of them being essential cofactors for animal life, were determined in a procedure combining high-order X-ray data collection at low to very low temperatures with high-level density functional calculations. In a series of extensive experimental attempts, a high-order data set of adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) could be collected to a resolution of sin theta/lambda = 1.00 A(-1) at 25 K. This modification contains only minor disorder at the solvent bulk. For methylcobalamin (MeCbl), only a severely disordered modification was found (sin theta/lambda = 1.00 A(-1), 100 K, measured with synchrotron radiation). The already published data set of cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) (sin theta/lambda = 1.25 A(-1), 100 K) was reintegrated to guarantee similar treatment of the three compounds and cut to sin theta/lambda = 1.11 A(-1) to obtain a higher degree of completeness and redundancy. On the basis of these accurate experimental geometries of AdoCbl, MeCbl, and CNCbl, state-of-the-art density functional calculations, single-point calculations, and geometry optimizations were performed on model compounds at the BP86/TZVP level of theory to evaluate the electronic differences of the three compounds. AdoCbl and MeCbl are known to undergo different reaction paths in the body. Thus, the focus was directed toward the characterization of the dative Co-C(ax) and Co-N(ax) bonds, which were quantifed by topological parameters, including energy densities; the source function including local source; and the electron localizability indicator (ELI-D), respectively. The source function reveals the existence of delocalized interactions between the corrin macrocycle and the axial ligands. The ELI-D indicates unsaturated Co-C(ax) bonding basins for the two biochemically active cofactors, but not for CNCbl, where a population of 2.2e is found. This may be related to significant pi-backbonding, which is supported by the delocalization index, delta, of 0.15 between the Co atom and the N atom of the cyano ligand. Considering all results, the inherent electronic differences between AdoCbl and MeCbl are found to be small thus, supporting earlier findings that the interaction with the protein site mainly controls the type of Co-C(ax) bond cleavage. PMID:19569666

  3. Effects of vitamin B-12 supplementation on neurologic and cognitive function in older people: a randomized controlled trial12

    PubMed Central

    Dangour, Alan D; Allen, Elizabeth; Clarke, Robert; Elbourne, Diana; Fletcher, Astrid E; Letley, Louise; Richards, Marcus; Whyte, Ken; Uauy, Ricardo; Mills, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Background: Moderate vitamin B-12 deficiency is relatively common in older people. However, there is little robust evidence on the effect of vitamin B-12 supplementation on neurologic and cognitive outcomes in later life. Objective: We investigated whether vitamin B-12 supplementation benefits neurologic and cognitive function in moderately vitamin B-12deficient older people. Design: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 7 general practices in South East England, United Kingdom. Study participants were aged ?75 y and had moderate vitamin B-12 deficiency (serum vitamin B-12 concentrations: 107–210 pmol/L) in the absence of anemia and received 1 mg crystalline vitamin B-12 or a matching placebo as a daily oral tablet for 12 mo. Peripheral motor and sensory nerve conduction, central motor conduction, a clinical neurologic examination, and cognitive function were assessed before and after treatment. Results: A total of 201 participants were enrolled in the trial, and 191 subjects provided outcome data. Compared with baseline, allocation to vitamin B-12 was associated with a 177% increase in serum concentration of vitamin B-12 (641 compared with 231 pmol/L), a 331% increase in serum holotranscobalamin (240 compared with 56 pmol/L), and 17% lower serum homocysteine (14.2 compared with 17.1 ?mol/L). In intention-to-treat analysis of covariance models, with adjustment for baseline neurologic function, there was no evidence of an effect of supplementation on the primary outcome of the posterior tibial compound muscle action potential amplitude at 12 mo (mean difference: ?0.2 mV; 95% CI: –0.8, 0.3 mV). There was also no evidence of an effect on any secondary peripheral nerve or central motor function outcome, or on cognitive function or clinical examination. Conclusion: Results of the trial do not support the hypothesis that the correction of moderate vitamin B-12 deficiency, in the absence of anemia and of neurologic and cognitive signs or symptoms, has beneficial effects on neurologic or cognitive function in later life. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN54195799. PMID:26135351

  4. LOW PLASMA VITAMIN B12 AND HIGH FOLATE CONCENTRATIONS IN PREGNANCY ARE ASSOCIATED WITH GESTATIONAL DIABESITY AND INCIDENT DIABETES

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaveni, GV; Hill, JC; Veena, SR; Bhat, DS; Wills, AK; Chachyamma, KJ; Karat, SC; Yajnik, CS; Fall, CHD

    2012-01-01

    Aim To test the hypothesis that low plasma vitamin B12 concentrations combined with high folate concentrations in pregnancy are associated with higher incidence of gestational diabetes (GDM) and later diabetes. Methods Women (N=785) attending the antenatal clinics of the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India had their anthropometry, insulin resistance (Homeostasis Model Assessment) and glucose tolerance assessed at 30 weeks gestation (100g Oral Glucose Tolerance Test/ OGTT; Carpenter-Coustan criteria), and five years after delivery (75g OGTT, WHO 1999). Vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in pregnancy were measured in stored frozen plasma samples. Results Low vitamin B12 concentrations (<150 pmol/l, B12 deficiency) were observed in 43% of women and low folate concentrations (<7 nmol/l) in 4%. Women with vitamin B12 deficiency had higher body mass index (BMI; P<0.001), sum of skinfolds (P<0.001), insulin resistance (P=0.02) and a higher incidence of GDM (8.7% v 4.6%; OR=2.14, P=0.02; P=0.1 after adjusting for maternal BMI) than non-deficient women. Among vitamin B12-deficient women the incidence of GDM increased with folate concentration (5.6%, 8.8%, 12.8% respectively from lowest to highest third; P for interaction=0.2). B12 deficiency during pregnancy predicted larger skinfolds, increased insulin resistance (P<0.05) and incident diabetes at 5-year follow-up (P=0.02, after adjusting for current BMI). Conclusion Maternal vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with increased adiposity and, in turn, with increased insulin resistance and GDM, especially in the presence of high folate concentrations. Vitamin B12 deficiency may be an important factor underlying the high risk of diabesity in south Asian Indians. PMID:19707742

  5. Connective tissue integrity is lost in vitamin B-6-deficient chicks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masse, P. G.; Yamauchi, M.; Mahuren, J. D.; Coburn, S. P.; Muniz, O. E.; Howell, D. S.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to characterize further the connective tissue disorder produced by pyridoxine (vitamin B-6) deficiency, as previously evidenced by electron microscopy. Following the second post-natal week, fast growing male chicks were deprived of pyridoxine for a 1-mo period. Six weeks post-natally, blood concentrations in the experimental deficiency group had declined to deficiency levels as registered by low concentrations of pyridoxal phosphate (coenzyme form) in erythrocytes, but did not reach levels associated with neurological symptoms. Light microscopic study showed abnormalities in the extracellular matrix of the connective tissues. Collagen cross-links and the aldehyde contents were not significantly lower in cartilage and tendon collagens of vitamin B-6-deficient animals than in age-matched controls; also, their proteoglycan degrading protease and collagenase activities measured in articular cartilages were not greater. Thus, proteolysis was an unlikely alternative mechanism to account for the loss of connective tissue integrity. These results point to the need for further investigation into adhesive properties of collagen associated proteoglycans or other proteins in vitamin B-6-deficient connective tissue.

  6. The electronic structure and chemical bonding of vitamin B12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurmaev, E. Z.; Moewes, A.; Ouyang, L.; Randaccio, L.; Rulis, P.; Ching, W. Y.; Bach, M.; Neumann, M.

    2003-05-01

    The electronic structure and chemical bonding of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) and B12-derivative (methylcobalamin) are studied by means of X-ray emission (XES) and photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy. The obtained results are compared with ab initio electronic structure calculations using the orthogonalized linear combination of the atomic orbital method (OLCAO). We show that the chemical bonding in vitamin B12 is characterized by the strong Co-C bond and relatively weak axial Co-N bond. It is further confirmed that the Co-C bond in cyanocobalamin is stronger than that of methylcobalamin resulting in their different biological activity.

  7. Vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine levels in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Türksoy, Nuray; Bilici, Rabia; Yalç?ner, Altan; Özdemir, Y Özay; Örnek, Ibrahim; Tufan, Ali Evren; Kara, Ay?e

    2014-01-01

    It is known that elevated serum homocysteine, decreased folate, and low vitamin B12 serum levels are associated with poor cognitive function, cognitive decline, and dementia. Current literature shows that some psychiatric disorders, mainly affective and psychotic ones, can be related to the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine. These results can be explained by the importance of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine in carbon transfer metabolism (methylation), which is required for the production of serotonin as well as for other monoamine neurotransmitters and catecholamines. Earlier studies focused on the relationship between folate deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and depressive disorders. Although depressive and anxiety disorders show a common comorbidity pattern, there are few studies addressing the effect of impaired one-carbon metabolism in anxiety disorders – especially in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). This study aimed to measure the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine specifically in order to see if eventual alterations have an etiopathogenetic significance on patients with OCD. Serum vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine concentrations were measured in 35 patients with OCD and 22 controls. In addition, the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety were conducted for each patient. It was found that vitamin B12 levels were decreased and homocysteine levels were increased in some OCD patients. Homocysteine levels were positively correlated with Yale–Brown compulsion and Yale–Brown total scores. In conclusion, findings of this study suggest that some OCD patients might have vitamin B12 deficiency and higher homocysteine levels. PMID:25228807

  8. Vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine levels in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Türksoy, Nuray; Bilici, Rabia; Yalç?ner, Altan; Ozdemir, Y Özay; Ornek, Ibrahim; Tufan, Ali Evren; Kara, Ay?e

    2014-01-01

    It is known that elevated serum homocysteine, decreased folate, and low vitamin B12 serum levels are associated with poor cognitive function, cognitive decline, and dementia. Current literature shows that some psychiatric disorders, mainly affective and psychotic ones, can be related to the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine. These results can be explained by the importance of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine in carbon transfer metabolism (methylation), which is required for the production of serotonin as well as for other monoamine neurotransmitters and catecholamines. Earlier studies focused on the relationship between folate deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and depressive disorders. Although depressive and anxiety disorders show a common comorbidity pattern, there are few studies addressing the effect of impaired one-carbon metabolism in anxiety disorders - especially in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study aimed to measure the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine specifically in order to see if eventual alterations have an etiopathogenetic significance on patients with OCD. Serum vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine concentrations were measured in 35 patients with OCD and 22 controls. In addition, the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety were conducted for each patient. It was found that vitamin B12 levels were decreased and homocysteine levels were increased in some OCD patients. Homocysteine levels were positively correlated with Yale-Brown compulsion and Yale-Brown total scores. In conclusion, findings of this study suggest that some OCD patients might have vitamin B12 deficiency and higher homocysteine levels. PMID:25228807

  9. PREVALENCE OF VITAMINS E AND B12 IN DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS REPORTED IN NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EVALUATION SURVEY (NHANES)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: Public health concerns regarding excessive Vitamin E and deficient Vitamin B12 intake warrant evaluation of total dietary intake for these nutrients. A Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database is being developed by the Nutrient Data Laboratory with the Office of Dietary Supplements and oth...

  10. The Status of Vitamin B12 and Folate among Chinese Women: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Shaonong; Yan, Hong; Zeng, Lingxia; Wang, Quanli; Li, Qiang; Xiao, Shengbin; Fan, Xiaojing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the status of the vitamin B12 and folate of Chinese women living in northwest China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008 among Chinese women aged 10–49 years living in Shaanxi province of northwest China. A stratified multistage random sampling method was adopted to obtain a sample of 1170 women. The women were interviewed for collection of their background information and their plasma vitamin B12 and folate were measured with the immunoassay method. The status of both vitamins was evaluated and the prevalence of deficiency was estimated. Results The median value of the women was 214.5 pg/mL for vitamin B12 and 4.6 ng/mL for folate. The urban women had a significantly higher vitamin B12 (254.1 vs. 195.9 pg/mL) but lower folate (4.4 vs. 4.7 ng/mL) than rural women. Total prevalence of deficiency was 45.5% (95% CI: 42.6%?48.4%) for vitamin B12 and 14.7% (95% CI: 12.6%?16.8%) for folate. About 36% of women presented vitamin B12 deficiency alone, 5.2% belonged to folate deficiency alone and 9.5% was combined deficiency in both vitamins. More than 25% of the women were in marginal vitamin B12 status (200–299 pg/mL) and 60% in marginal status of folate (3–6 ng/mL). About 75.2% of rural women with folate deficiency were deficient in vitamin B12 and 46% for urban women. Quantile regression model found decreasing coefficient of folate status across 73 different quantiles of vitamin B12, which indicated that the women with folate deficiency had lower vitamin B12 significantly compared with those with no deficiency. Conclusions The deficiency of vitamin B12 and folate is still prevalent among the Chinese women in northwest China. Vitamin B12 deficiency could be more serious and the improvement of poor vitamin B12 status should be invoked when practicing the supplementation of folate against the neural tube defects in northwest China. PMID:25390898

  11. Vitamin D deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Gani, Linsey Utami; How, Choon How

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common and may contribute to osteopenia, osteoporosis and falls risk in the elderly. Screening for vitamin D deficiency is important in high-risk patients, especially for patients who suffered minimal trauma fractures. Vitamin D deficiency should be treated according to the severity of the deficiency. In high-risk adults, follow-up serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration should be measured 3–4 months after initiating maintenance therapy to confirm that the target level has been achieved. All patients should maintain a calcium intake of at least 1,000 mg for women aged ? 50 years and men ? 70 years, and 1,300 mg for women > 50 years and men > 70 years. PMID:26311908

  12. Combined deficiencies of vitamins b1 and C in well-nourished patients.

    PubMed

    Veerapaneni, Karthika; Brown, Thomas M; Dooley, David P

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin deficiencies such as scurvy and Wernicke's encephalopathy are poorly recognized in Western populations. Inadequate intake of these micronutrients and low levels when measured are more frequent than expected. Cases of combined vitamin deficiencies such as that of ascorbic acid and thiamine are seldom reported. Two patients with clinical and biochemical evidence of vitamin deficiencies are described. Signs and symptoms rapidly responded to vitamin replacement. Neither patient was overtly malnourished, but nutritional histories and physical examination were strongly suggestive. Vitamin replacement may require large intravenous doses but is inexpensive and potentially of great benefit. PMID:25664204

  13. Combined Deficiencies of Vitamins B1 and C in Well-Nourished Patients

    PubMed Central

    Veerapaneni, Karthika; Dooley, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin deficiencies such as scurvy and Wernicke’s encephalopathy are poorly recognized in Western populations. Inadequate intake of these micronutrients and low levels when measured are more frequent than expected. Cases of combined vitamin deficiencies such as that of ascorbic acid and thiamine are seldom reported. Two patients with clinical and biochemical evidence of vitamin deficiencies are described. Signs and symptoms rapidly responded to vitamin replacement. Neither patient was overtly malnourished, but nutritional histories and physical examination were strongly suggestive. Vitamin replacement may require large intravenous doses but is inexpensive and potentially of great benefit. PMID:25664204

  14. Iron, folate, and vitamin B12 nutrition in pregnancy: a study of 1 000 women from southern India*

    PubMed Central

    Yusufji, D.; Mathan, V. I.; Baker, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    As part of a WHO collaborative programme the prevalence of anaemia was studied and the serum concentrations of iron, folate, and vitamin B12 were measured in 1 000 pregnant women from southern India. The results of the study show a high prevalence of anaemia, resulting from iron and folate deficiency with iron deficiency predominating. Interrelationships between these nutrients and their effect on pregnancy and the fetus were investigated. The results indicate that, in comparison with populations in developed countries, there was a high prevalence of iron and vitamin B12 deficiency in the community, but the state of folate nutrition was similar to that found elsewhere. PMID:4541142

  15. Interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C in pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The water-soluble vitamins B6, B12 and C play important roles in maternal health as well as fetal development and physiology during gestation. This systematic review evaluates the risks and benefits of interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C during pregnancy on maternal, neonatal and child health ...

  16. Vitamin B12 and Folate Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a person with signs and symptoms of significant malnutrition or dietary malabsorption. This may include people with, ... deficiency, such as people with a history of malnutrition or a condition related to malabsorption . These tests ...

  17. Total serum homocysteine as an indicator of vitamin B12 and folate status

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, R.C.; Hall, C.A.

    1988-10-01

    Presented is a modification of an assay for total serum homocysteine (Hcy) in which the Hcy plus radioactive adenosine is converted enzymatically to labeled S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy). The modifications included a commerical source for the AdoHcy hydrolase, adenosine labeled with either /sup 14/C or /sup 3/H, and separation of the AdoHcy by thin layer chromatography. The assay was sensitive to 25 pmol. Hcy levels in sera from 18 controls ranged from 6.9 to 12.1 mumol/L with a mean of 9.1 and a SD of 1.5 mumol/L. The total serum Hcy was increased in vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The level was high in congenital defects of vitamin B12 metabolism, blocking the methylation of Hcy regardless of the serum vitamin B12 levels, but was normal in the absence of tissue deficiency even if the serum vitamin B12 levels were low. The procedure has been found practical in two years of use and requires only 0.1 mL of serum.

  18. An amphiphilic, catalytically active, vitamin B12 derivative.

    PubMed

    Giedyk, M; Fedosov, S N; Gryko, D

    2014-05-11

    We performed the reaction of vitamin B12 with N,N-dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal for primary amide activation, and added MeOH as a nucleophile, to afford cobalester, the first amphiphilic cobalamin derivative. The unique combination of redox properties and solubility represents an asset for its use as a catalyst in C-C bond forming reactions. PMID:24623153

  19. Isolation of Vitamin B12 Transport Mutants of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Di Girolamo, Paula M.; Kadner, Robert J.; Bradbeer, Clive

    1971-01-01

    Escherichia coli KBT001, a methionine-vitamin B12 auxotroph, was found to require a minimum of 20 molecules of vitamin B12 (CN-B12) per cell for aerobic growth in the absence of methionine. After mutagenesis with N-methyl-N?-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and penicillin selection, two kinds of B12 transport mutant were isolated from this strain. Mutants of class I, such as KBT069, were defective in the initial rapid binding of CN-B12 to the cell and were unable to grow in the absence of methionine even with CN-B12 concentrations as high as 100 ng/ml. The class II mutants possessed intact initial phases of CN-B12 uptake but were defective in the secondary energy-dependent phase. These strains were also unable to convert the CN-B12 taken up into other cobalamins. In the absence of methionine, some of these strains (e.g., KBT103) were able to grow on media containing 1 ng of CN-B12/ml, whereas others (e.g., KBT041) were unable to grow with any of the CN-B12 concentrations used. Osmotic shock treatment did not affect the initial rate of uptake of CN-B12 but gave a substantial decrease in the secondary rate. Trace amounts of B12-binding macromolecules were released from the cells by the osmotic shock, but only from strains such as KBT001 and KBT041 which possessed an active initial phase of CN-B12 uptake. These results are interpreted as being consistent with the view that the initial CN-B12 binding site which functions in this transport system is probably bound to the cell membrane. PMID:4326741

  20. Isolation of vitamin B 12 transport mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, P M; Kadner, R J; Bradbeer, C

    1971-06-01

    Escherichia coli KBT001, a methionine-vitamin B(12) auxotroph, was found to require a minimum of 20 molecules of vitamin B(12) (CN-B(12)) per cell for aerobic growth in the absence of methionine. After mutagenesis with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and penicillin selection, two kinds of B(12) transport mutant were isolated from this strain. Mutants of class I, such as KBT069, were defective in the initial rapid binding of CN-B(12) to the cell and were unable to grow in the absence of methionine even with CN-B(12) concentrations as high as 100 ng/ml. The class II mutants possessed intact initial phases of CN-B(12) uptake but were defective in the secondary energy-dependent phase. These strains were also unable to convert the CN-B(12) taken up into other cobalamins. In the absence of methionine, some of these strains (e.g., KBT103) were able to grow on media containing 1 ng of CN-B(12)/ml, whereas others (e.g., KBT041) were unable to grow with any of the CN-B(12) concentrations used. Osmotic shock treatment did not affect the initial rate of uptake of CN-B(12) but gave a substantial decrease in the secondary rate. Trace amounts of B(12)-binding macromolecules were released from the cells by the osmotic shock, but only from strains such as KBT001 and KBT041 which possessed an active initial phase of CN-B(12) uptake. These results are interpreted as being consistent with the view that the initial CN-B(12) binding site which functions in this transport system is probably bound to the cell membrane. PMID:4326741

  1. [Vitamin B9].

    PubMed

    Guilland, Jean-Claude; Aimone-Gastin, Isabelle

    2013-10-01

    Vitamin B9 is represented by the group of folate, whose structure is derived from folic acid. The biologically active form is reduced tetrahydrofolates, serving as an essential cofactor in methylation reactions, including the vitamin B12-dependent formation of methionine from homocysteine, and as a carrier of one-carbon units involved in the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines. Folate deficiency is associated with hyperhomocysteinemia, megaloblastic anemia, leuco- and thrombocytopenia, cardiovascular disease, embryonic defects, in particular neural tube defects, and, possibly, malignancies, depression and cognitive impairment. PMID:24298825

  2. High prevalence of suboptimal vitamin B12 status in young adult women of South Asian and European ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Quay, Teo A W; Schroder, Theresa H; Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Li, Wangyang; Devlin, Angela M; Barr, Susan I; Lamers, Yvonne

    2015-12-01

    Suboptimal vitamin B12 (B12) status has been associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies, preterm birth, and childhood insulin resistance. South Asians - Canada's largest minority group - and women of reproductive age are vulnerable to B12 deficiency. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with B12 deficiency and suboptimal B12 status in a convenience sample of young adult women of South Asian and European descent in Metro Vancouver. We measured serum B12, holotranscobalamin, plasma methylmalonic acid, red blood cell and plasma folate, and hematologic parameters in 206 nonpregnant, healthy women aged 19-35 years. Categorization for B12 status adhered to serum B12 cutoffs for deficiency (<148 pmol/L) and suboptimal B12 status (148-220 pmol/L). We collected demographic, lifestyle, and dietary intake data and conducted genotyping for common genetic variants linked to B-vitamin metabolism. The prevalence of deficiency and suboptimal B12 status were 14% and 20%, respectively. Serum vitamin B12 concentrations were negatively associated with oral contraceptive use and first-generation immigrant status, and positively with dietary B12 intake and B12 supplement use. The prevalence of B12 inadequacy in this sample of highly educated women is higher than in the general Canadian population. In light of maternal and fetal health risks associated with B12 inadequacy in early-pregnancy, practitioners should consider monitoring B12 status before and during early pregnancy, especially in immigrants and women with low dietary B12 intakes including non-users of vitamin supplements. PMID:26579949

  3. Vitamin D Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Alshishtawy, Moeness Moustafa

    2012-01-01

    Recently, scientists have generated a strong body of evidence providing new information about the preventive effect of vitamin D on a broad range of disorders. This evidence suggests that vitamin D is much more than a nutrient needed for bone health; it is an essential hormone required for regulation of a large number of physiological functions. Sufficient concentration of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is essential for optimising human health. This article reviews the present state-of-the-art knowledge about vitamin D’s status worldwide and refers to recent articles discussing some of the general background of vitamin D, including sources, benefits, deficiencies, and dietary requirements, especially in pregnancy. They offer evidence that vitamin D deficiency could be a major public health burden in many parts of the world, mostly because of sun deprivation. The article also discusses the debate about optimal concentration of circulating serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and explores different views on the amount of vitamin D supplementation required to achieve and maintain this concentration. PMID:22548132

  4. Common variant in FUT2 gene is associated with levels of vitamin B(12) in Indian population.

    PubMed

    Tanwar, Vinay Singh; Chand, Mandeep P; Kumar, Jitender; Garg, Gaurav; Seth, Sandeep; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Sengupta, Shantanu

    2013-02-15

    Vitamin B(12) is an essential micronutrient synthesized by microorganisms. Mammals including humans have evolved ways for transport and absorption of this vitamin. Deficiency of vitamin B(12) (either due to low intake or polymorphism in genes involved in absorption and intracellular transport of this vitamin) has been associated with various complex diseases. Genome-wide association studies have recently identified several common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in fucosyl transferase 2 gene (FUT2) to be associated with levels of vitamin B(12)-the strongest association was with a non-synonymous SNP rs602662 in this gene. In the present study, we attempted to replicate the association of this SNP (rs602662) in an Indian population since a significant proportion has been reported to have low levels of vitamin B(12) in this population. A total of 1146 individuals were genotyped for this SNP using a single base extension method and association with levels of vitamin B(12) was assessed in these individuals. Regression analysis was performed to analyze the association considering various confounding factors like for age, sex, diet, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease status. We found that the SNP rs602662 was significantly associated with the levels of vitamin B(12) (p value<0.0001). We also found that individuals adhering to a vegetarian diet with GG (homozygous major genotype) have significantly lower levels of vitamin B(12) in these individuals. Thus, our study reveals that vegetarian diet along with polymorphism in the FUT2 gene may contribute significantly to the high prevalence of vitamin B(12) deficiency in India. PMID:23201895

  5. Human vitamin B12 absorption measurement by accelerator mass spectrometry using specifically

    E-print Network

    Roth, John R.

    Human vitamin B12 absorption measurement by accelerator mass spectrometry using specifically to assimilate dietary vitamin B12. Assaying and understanding absorption and uptake of B12 is important because and showed plasma appearance and clearance curves consistent with the predicted behavior of the pure vitamin

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Direct exchange of vitamin B12 is demonstrated by

    E-print Network

    Cicuta, Pietro

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Direct exchange of vitamin B12 is demonstrated by modelling the growth dynamics Mesorhizobium loti supplies vitamin B12 (cobalamin) to the freshwater green alga Lobomonas rostrata, which surveyed (from fresh, marine and brackish habitats) are auxotrophic for cobalamin (vitamin B12) that is

  7. A Multinuclear Solid-State NMR Analysis of Vitamin B12 in Its Different Polymorphic Forms

    E-print Network

    Frydman, Lucio

    A Multinuclear Solid-State NMR Analysis of Vitamin B12 in Its Different Polymorphic Forms Ales of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) polymorphs. These studies involved recrystallizing a series of samples under structures described by Hodgkin and co-workers in their seminal vitamin B12 crystallographic analyses. Most

  8. Vitamin B12 as a modulator of gut microbial ecology

    PubMed Central

    Degnan, Patrick H.; Taga, Michiko E.; Goodman, Andrew L.

    2014-01-01

    The microbial mechanisms and key metabolites that shape the composition of the human gut microbiota are largely unknown, impeding efforts to manipulate dysbiotic microbial communities towards stability and health. Vitamins, which by definition are not synthesized in sufficient quantities by the host and can mediate fundamental biological processes in microbes, represent an attractive target for reshaping microbial communities. Here, we discuss how vitamin B12 (cobalamin) impacts diverse host-microbe symbioses. Although cobalamin is synthesized by some human gut microbes, it is a precious resource in the gut and is likely not provisioned to the host in significant quantities. However, this vitamin may make an unrecognized contribution in shaping the structure and function of human gut microbial communities. PMID:25440056

  9. Vitamin B-12 and folate status in relation to decline in scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination in the Framingham Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochemical evidence of low vitamin B-12 status is common in seniors, but its clinical relevance is unclear. Vitamin B-12 deficiency can result in rapid, irreversible cognitive decline – a phenomenon that has been linked to high folate status. Our objective was to investigate the cognitive significa...

  10. The use of blood concentrations of vitamins and their respective functional indicators to define folate and vitamin B12 status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years there has been growing interest in the vitamins folic acid and vitamin B12 because of the realization that the status of these vitamins in populations is less than adequate, and that such inadequacy may be linked to adverse public health outcomes. This concern has prompted the United...

  11. Alteration in the phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis of rat liver microsomes caused by vitamin B6 deficiency.

    PubMed

    She, Q B; Hayakawa, T; Tsuge, H

    1995-02-01

    Rats fed with a vitamin B6-deficient 70% casein diet for 5 weeks were found to have decreased considerably in the content of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in liver microsomes, presumably because of the depressed PC biosynthesis from choline or phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The activities of choline phosphokinase and choline phosphotransferase in liver decreased, apparently, as compared with the pair-fed control or control rats. The hepatic level of the PE methyltransferase co-substrate, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), decreased about 1/3, but the level of the inhibitory metabolite, S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), was elevated due to the marked reduction in the activities of cystathionine beta-synthase and gamma-cystathionase. The resultant molar ratio of SAM/SAH decreased drastically such that the methylation of PE to PC was decreased in vivo, as confirmed by lowering the activity of PE methyltransferase in vitro in response to a decreased molar ratio of SAM/SAH. A similar effect on the PE methylation was also observed in the pair-fed control rats, but the PC biosynthesis from choline clearly compensated for the drop of PC biosynthesis from PE. Results of this study demonstrate that vitamin B6 deficiency modified methionine metabolism and decreased choline utilization, and thus indirectly affected the biosynthesis of PC in liver microsomes. PMID:7766014

  12. Enhancing the vitamin B12 production and growth of Propionibacterium freudenreichii in tofu wastewater via a light-induced vitamin B12 riboswitch.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Zhu, Xuan; Shen, Yubiao; Yao, Huanghong; Wang, Peiheng; Ye, Kun; Wang, Xiaofeng; Gu, Qing

    2015-12-01

    The vitamin B12-dependent riboswitch is a crucial factor that regulates gene transcription to mediate the growth of and vitamin B12 synthesis by Propionibacterium freudenreichii. In this study, the effect of various wavelengths of light on the growth rate and vitamin B12 synthesis was studied. Red, green, and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were selected, and a dark condition was used as the control. The microorganism growth rate was measured using a spectrophotometer and plate counting, while the vitamin B12 content was determined using an HPLC-based method. The optical density at 600 nm (OD600) values indicated that P. freudenreichii grew better under the continuous and discontinuous blue light conditions. Moreover, under the blue light condition, P. freudenreichii tended to have a higher growth rate (0.332 h(-1)) and vitamin B12 synthesis (ca. 10 ?g/mL) in tofu wastewater than in dark conditions. HPLC analysis also showed that more methylcobalamin was produced under the blue light conditions than in the other conditions. The cbiB gene transcription results showed that blue light induced the synthesis of this vitamin B12 synthesis enzyme. Moreover, the results of inhibiting the expression of green fluorescent protein indicated that blue light removed the inhibition by the vitamin B12-dependent riboswitch. This method can be used to reduce fermentation time and produce more vitamin B12 in tofu wastewater. PMID:26373724

  13. Decyanation of vitamin B12 by a trafficking chaperone

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jihoe; Gherasim, Carmen; Banerjee, Ruma

    2008-01-01

    The mystery of how the cyanide group in vitamin B12 or cyanocobalamin, discovered 60 years ago, is removed, has been solved by the demonstration that the trafficking chaperone, MMACHC, catalyzes a reductive decyanation reaction. Electrons transferred from NADPH via cytosolic flavoprotein oxidoreductases are used to cleave the cobalt–carbon bond with reductive elimination of the cyanide ligand. The product, cob(II)alamin, is a known substrate for assimilation into the active cofactor forms, methylcobalamin and 5?-deoxyadenosylcobalamin, and is bound in the “base-off” state that is needed by the two B12-dependent target enzymes, methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Defects in MMACHC represent the most common cause of inborn errors of B12 metabolism, and our results explain the observation that fibroblasts from these patients are poorly responsive to vitamin B12 but show some metabolic correction with aquocobalamin, a cofactor form lacking the cyanide ligand, which is mirrored by patients showing poorer clinical responsiveness to cyano- versus aquocobalamin. PMID:18779575

  14. Genetic Architecture of Vitamin B12 and Folate Levels Uncovered Applying Deeply Sequenced Large Datasets

    E-print Network

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    Genetic Architecture of Vitamin B12 and Folate Levels Uncovered Applying Deeply Sequenced Large architecture of serum levels of vitamin B12 (B12) and folate. Up to 22.9 million sequence variants were analyzed in combined samples of 45,576 and 37,341 individuals with serum B12 and folate measurements

  15. Insights into the Evolution of Vitamin B12 Auxotrophy from Sequenced Algal Genomes

    E-print Network

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    Insights into the Evolution of Vitamin B12 Auxotrophy from Sequenced Algal Genomes Katherine E Abstract Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a dietary requirement for humans because it is an essential cofactor microalgal species need the vitamin as a growth supplement, but there is no phylogenetic relationship between

  16. Micronutrient Status in Female University Students: Iron, Zinc, Copper, Selenium, Vitamin B12 and Folate

    PubMed Central

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Young women are at an increased risk of micronutrient deficiencies, particularly due to higher micronutrient requirements during childbearing years and multiple food group avoidances. The objective of this study was to investigate biomarkers of particular micronutrients in apparently healthy young women. Female students (n = 308; age range 18–35 year; Body Mass Index 21.5 ± 2.8 kg/m2; mean ± SD) were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Blood samples were obtained from participants in the fasted state and analysed for biomarkers of iron status, vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine, selenium, zinc, and copper. The results show iron deficiency anaemia, unspecified anaemia, and hypoferritinemia in 3%, 7% and 33.9% of participants, respectively. Low vitamin B12 concentrations (<120 pmol/L) were found in 11.3% of participants, while 4.7% showed sub-clinical deficiency based on serum methylmalonic acid concentrations >0.34 ?mol/L. Folate concentrations below the reference range were observed in 1.7% (serum) or 1% (erythrocytes) of participants, and 99.7% of the participant had erythrocyte-folate concentrations >300 nmol/L. Serum zinc concentrations <10.7 ?mol/L were observed in 2% of participants. Serum copper and selenium concentrations were below the reference range in 23% and 11% of participants, respectively. Micronutrient deficiencies including iron and vitamin B12, and apparent excess of folate are present in educated Australian female students of childbearing age, including those studying nutrition. The effects of dietary behaviours and food choices on markers of micronutrient status require further investigation. PMID:25401503

  17. Studies on the biosynthesis of vitamin B sub 2 and vitamin B sub 12

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    Feeding experiments with Ashbya gossypii followed by NMR analysis of the resulting riboflavin showed incorporation of deuterium from D-(2-{sup 2}H)ribose at C-2{prime} and from D-(1-{sup 2}H)ribose in the pro-R position at C-1{prime} of the ribityl side chain. The results rule out an Amadori rearrangement mechanism for the reduction of the ribosylamino to the ribitylamino linkage and point to formation of a Schiff base that is reduced stereospecifically opposite to the face from which the oxygen has departed. As prerequisite for the analysis, the {sup 1}H NMR signals for the pro-R and pro-S hydrogens at C-1{prime} of riboflavin and its tetraacetate were assigned with the aid of synthetic stereospecifically deuteriated samples. Feeding experiments with Propionibacterium shermianii followed by NMR analysis of the resulting vitamin B{sub 12} showed: (1) 5-methylbenzimidazole (5MBI) incorporated and only one regioisomer (B6-demethylcyanocobalamin)formed. (2) 8-demethylriboflavin incorporated and the same regioisomer was obtained as 5MBI experiment. (3) (1{prime}-{sup 13}C, 5-{sup 15}N)riboflavin incorporated and {sup 13}C-NMR showed that {sup 13}C at the B2 position of cyanocobalamin coupled to both adjacent nitrogen-15 atoms at about the same ratio.

  18. Chapter 30: historical aspects of the major neurological vitamin deficiency disorders: the water-soluble B vitamins.

    PubMed

    Lanska, Douglas J

    2010-01-01

    This historical review addresses major neurological disorders associated with deficiencies of water-soluble B vitamins: beriberi, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, pellagra, neural tube defects, and subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord. Beriberi: Beriberi was known for millennia in Asia, but was not described by a European until the 17th century when Brontius in the Dutch East Indies reported the progressive sensorimotor polyneuropathy. The prevalence of beriberi increased greatly in Asia with a change in the milling process for rice in the late 19th century. In the 1880s, Takaki demonstrated the benefits of dietary modification in sailors, and later instituted dietary reforms in the Japanese Navy, which largely eradicated beriberi from the Japanese Navy by 1887. In 1889 Eijkman in Java serendipitously identified dietary factors as a major contributor to "chicken polyneuritis," which he took to be an animal model for beriberi; the polyneuritis could be cured or prevented by feeding the chickens either unpolished rice or rice polishings. By 1901, Grijns, while continuing studies of beriberi in Java, suggested a dietary deficiency explanation for beriberi after systematically eliminating deficiencies of known dietary components and excluding a toxic effect. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome: In the late 1870s, Wernicke identified a clinicopathological condition with ophthalmoparesis, nystagmus, ataxia, and encephalopathy, associated with punctate hemorrhages symmetrically arranged in the grey matter around the third and fourth ventricles and the aqueduct of Sylvius. In the late 1880s, Korsakoff described a spectrum of cognitive disorders, including a confabulatory amnestic state following an agitated delirium, occurring in conjunction with peripheral polyneuropathy. Beginning around 1900, investigators recognized the close relationship between Korsakoff's psychosis, delirium tremens, and Wernicke's encephalopathy, but not until several decades later were Wernicke's encephalopathy, Korsakoff's psychosis, and beriberi all linked to the deficiency of a specific dietary factor, i.e. thiamin. Thiamin: Thiamin was crystallized from rice polishings by Jansen and Donath in 1926, and synthesized by Williams and Cline in 1936. In the late 1930s and early 1940s, characteristic pathological changes of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome were produced in animal models, the biochemical roles of thiamin in intermediary carbohydrate metabolism were elaborated by Peters and others, and the therapeutic benefits of thiamin for Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and beriberi were demonstrated. By the 1950s synthetic forms of the vitamin were produced cheaply, allowing both therapeutic administration and prevention with food enrichment. Pellagra and niacin: Pellagra was unknown prior to the introduction of maize into Europe from the New World. In the 18th century, Casàl and Frapolli described the clinical features of pellagra in Europe, and linked it with poverty and subsistence on nutritionally marginal corn-based diets. In the United States, pellagra became epidemic among poor Southerners in the early 20th century, in part because of economically-driven reliance on monotonous, nutritionally inadequate diets, combined with new manufacturing methods that removed vitamins from processed grain. From 1914-1929, Goldberger completed well-designed epidemiologic investigations, tested theories with human experiments, and utilized an animal model ("black tongue" in dogs) - all strongly supporting a dietary deficiency explanation for pellagra over prevailing toxic and infectious theories. Initial prevention and treatment approaches proved inadequate because of complex social issues linked to poverty, even after Goldberger and colleagues established that dried brewer's yeast could cure or prevent pellagra less expensively than dietary modification. During the depression, the collapse of cotton as an economically viable crop facilitated crop diversification, which contributed to an abrupt decline in pellagra mortality in the early 1930s. In 1937

  19. Congenital disorders of vitamin B12 transport and their contributions to concepts. II.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    Congenital deficiencies of Transcobalamin II (TC II) and R binders of vitamin B12 (B12, cobalamin, Cbl) have been described in several families. The deficiency of TC II exists as at least three variants. The deficiency of TC II is expressed by a profound megaloblastic pancytopenia during the first few weeks of life, but the serum Cbl is normal. In contrast, the deficiency of R binder is asymptomatic, tissues are replete in Cbl, but the serum Cbl is low. All of the R binder in the several body sources is under the same genetic control. Studies of the congenital deficiency TC II suggest the following: (1) The function of TC II is the promotion of cell uptake of physiologic amounts of Cbl, which can also be accomplished by very large amounts of Cbl, and not in any intracellular process. (2) TC II is essential for the absorption, postabsorptive distribution, and recycling of TC II. (3) The metabolic consequences of TC II deficiency are expressed primarily in rapidly dividing cells probably because they are dependent upon the constant need for new Cbl. PMID:7342493

  20. The effect of vitamin C deficiency and chronic ultraviolet-B exposure on corneal ultrastructure: a preliminary investigation

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Sally; Cafaro, Thamara A.; Boguslawska, Patrycja J.; Kamma-Lorger, Christina S.; Boote, Craig; Harris, Jonathan; Young, Robert; Hiller, Jennifer; Terrill, Nicholas; Meek, Keith M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose In the visually debilitating condition of climatic droplet keratopathy, corneal transparency is progressively lost. Although the precise cause of the disease and the mechanism by which it progresses are not known, a lifetime exposure to high solar radiation and a vitamin C–deficient diet may be involved in its development. This study examines the effect of dietary ascorbate levels and ultraviolet (UV)-B exposure on corneal stromal structure. Methods Eight guinea pigs were divided into four treatment groups (A, B, C, and D). For 15 weeks, Groups A and C were fed an ascorbate-rich diet (2 mg/100 g bodyweight/day), while Groups B and D received an ascorbate-deficient diet (0.07 mg/100 g bodyweight/day). For the last 12 weeks of the study, Groups C and D also experienced chronic UVB exposure (0.12 J/cm2 for 40 min/day). Following euthanasia, the corneas were enucleated and their stromal ultrastructure examined using X-ray scattering and electron microscopy. Results UVB exposure resulted in an increased corneal thickness (p<0.001), but this was not accompanied by a widespread expansion of the collagen fibrillar array, and in the case of ascorbate-deficient animals, stromal thickening was associated with the compaction of collagen fibrils (p<0.01). Neither UVB exposure nor ascorbic acid deficiency caused any change in the average diameter or D-periodicity of the stromal collagen fibrils. Conclusions UVB-induced changes in the corneal ultrastructure were most pronounced in animals fed an ascorbic acid–deficient diet. This suggests that ascorbic acid may play a vital role in protecting the corneal stroma from the harmful effects of UVB. PMID:22171156

  1. Discovery of novel sources of vitamin b(12) in traditional korean foods from nutritional surveys of centenarians.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Lee, Mee Sook; Oh, Se In; Park, Sang Chul

    2010-01-01

    Human longevity can be explained by a variety of factors, among them, nutritional factor would play an important role. In our study of Korean centenarians for their longevity, the apparent nutritional imbalance in the traditional semi-vegetarian diet raised a special attention, especially on vitamin B(12) status, supplied by animal foods. Interestingly, we found that the prevalence of vitamin B(12) deficient Korean centenarians was not higher compared with those from Western nations with animal-oriented traditional foods. We assumed that there might be some unveiled sources for vitamin B(12) in the Korean traditional foods. Screening of vitamin B(12) contents has revealed that some traditional soybean-fermented foods, such as Doenjang and Chunggukjang, and seaweeds contain considerable amounts of vitamin B(12). Taken together, it can be summarized that the traditional foods, especially of fermentation, might be evaluated for compensation of the nutritional imbalance in the vegetable-oriented dietary pattern by supplying vitamin B(12), resulting in maintenance of health status. PMID:21436999

  2. Deficiency of PdxR in Streptococcus mutans affects vitamin B6 metabolism, acid tolerance response and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Liao, S; Bitoun, J P; Nguyen, A H; Bozner, D; Yao, X; Wen, Z T

    2015-08-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a key etiological agent of the human dental caries, lives primarily on the tooth surface in tenacious biofilms. The SMU864 locus, designated pdxR, is predicted to encode a member of the novel MocR/GabR family proteins, which are featured with a winged helix DNA-binding N-terminal domain and a C-terminal domain highly homologous to the pyridoxal phosphate-dependent aspartate aminotransferases. A pdxR-deficient mutant, TW296, was constructed using allelic exchange. PdxR deficiency in S. mutans had little effect on cell morphology and growth when grown in brain heart infusion. However, when compared with its parent strain, UA159, the PdxR-deficient mutant displayed major defects in acid tolerance response and formed significantly fewer biofilms (P < 0.01). When analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction, PdxR deficiency was found to drastically reduce expression of an apparent operon encoding a pyridoxal kinase (SMU865) and a pyridoxal permease (SMU866) of the salvage pathway of vitamin B6 biosynthesis. In addition, PdxR deficiency also altered the expression of genes for ClpL protease, glucosyltransferase B and adhesin SpaP, which are known to play important roles in stress tolerance and biofilm formation. Consistently, PdxR-deficiency affected the growth of the deficient mutant when grown in defined medium with and without vitamin B6 . Further studies revealed that although S. mutans is known to require vitamin B6 to grow in defined medium, B6 vitamers, especially pyridoxal, were strongly inhibitory at millimolar concentrations, against S. mutans growth and biofilm formation. Our results suggest that PdxR in S. mutans plays an important role in regulation of vitamin B6 metabolism, acid tolerance response and biofilm formation. PMID:25421565

  3. Effect of yeast extract and vitamin B sub 12 on ethanol production from cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Kanji; Goto, Shingo; Yonemura, Sotaro; Sekine, Kenji; Okuma, Emiko; Takagi, Yoshio; Honnami, Koyu; Saiki, Takashi )

    1992-02-01

    Addition to media of yeast extract, a vitamin mixture containing vitamin B{sub 12}, biotin, pyridoxamine, and p-aminobenzoic acid, or vitamin B{sub 12} alone enhanced formation of ethanol but decreased lactate production in the fermentation of cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B. A similar effect was not observed with C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 and JW20.

  4. Single versus multiple deficiencies of methionine, zinc, riboflavin, vitamin B-6 and choline elicit surprising growth responses in young chicks.

    PubMed

    Baker, D H; Edwards, H M; Strunk, C S; Emmert, J L; Peter, C M; Mavromichalis, I; Parr, T M

    1999-12-01

    A soy-protein isolate diet that was deficient in methionine (Met), zinc (Zn), riboflavin, vitamin B-6 and choline for chick growth (Assay 1) was used to study individual or multiple deficiencies of several of these nutrients. In all cases, adding all three deficient nutrients together resulted in growth responses that were superior to those resulting from supplementation with any pairs of deficient nutrients. In Assay 2, single addition of Zn but not of methionine or riboflavin produced a growth response, but the combination of either Zn and Met or Zn and riboflavin resulted in growth responses that were greater than the response elicited by Zn alone. Assay 3 involved individual or multiple deficiencies of choline, riboflavin and vitamin B-6, and individual additions suggested that choline was first limiting. Choline + riboflavin supplementation, however, produced marked growth and gain:food responses that were far greater than those resulting from supplemental choline or riboflavin alone. Moreover, the growth response to a combination of choline + pyridoxine (PN) was also greater than that obtained from any of the three nutrients fed alone; even PN + riboflavin (in the absence of choline) produced responses greater than those observed with the unsupplemented negative-control diet. In Assay 4, chicks responded to individual additions of riboflavin, PN or Met, and in Assay 5, to either riboflavin or PN; all two-way combinations resulted in growth rates that were far greater than those occurring with any single addition. The data from these experiments show that unlike the situation with three deficient amino acids, the expected responses to first-, second- and third-limiting B-vitamins or deficient vitamins combined with deficient levels of Zn or Met do not follow the expected pattern of response to first-, further response to first- and second- and an even further response to first-, second- and third-limiting nutrients. PMID:10573557

  5. Anaerobic biosynthesis of the lower ligand of vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Amrita B; Han, Andrew W; Mehta, Angad P; Mok, Kenny C; Osadchiy, Vadim; Begley, Tadhg P; Taga, Michiko E

    2015-08-25

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is required by humans and other organisms for diverse metabolic processes, although only a subset of prokaryotes is capable of synthesizing B12 and other cobamide cofactors. The complete aerobic and anaerobic pathways for the de novo biosynthesis of B12 are known, with the exception of the steps leading to the anaerobic biosynthesis of the lower ligand, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB). Here, we report the identification and characterization of the complete pathway for anaerobic DMB biosynthesis. This pathway, identified in the obligate anaerobic bacterium Eubacterium limosum, is composed of five previously uncharacterized genes, bzaABCDE, that together direct DMB production when expressed in anaerobically cultured Escherichia coli. Expression of different combinations of the bza genes revealed that 5-hydroxybenzimidazole, 5-methoxybenzimidazole, and 5-methoxy-6-methylbenzimidazole, all of which are lower ligands of cobamides produced by other organisms, are intermediates in the pathway. The bza gene content of several bacterial and archaeal genomes is consistent with experimentally determined structures of the benzimidazoles produced by these organisms, indicating that these genes can be used to predict cobamide structure. The identification of the bza genes thus represents the last remaining unknown component of the biosynthetic pathway for not only B12 itself, but also for three other cobamide lower ligands whose biosynthesis was previously unknown. Given the importance of cobamides in environmental, industrial, and human-associated microbial metabolism, the ability to predict cobamide structure may lead to an improved ability to understand and manipulate microbial metabolism. PMID:26246619

  6. Vitamin D Deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sunlight, which triggers the skin to make this vitamin. Very few foods naturally contain vitamin D. Milk and a few ... can cause skin cancer. In supplements and fortified foods, vitamin D comes in two forms: D2 and D3. ...

  7. BluB cannibalizes flavin to form the lower ligand of vitamin B12

    PubMed Central

    Taga, Michiko E.; Larsen, Nicholas A.; Howard-Jones, Annaleise R.; Walsh, Christopher T.; Walker, Graham C.

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is among the largest known non-polymeric natural products, and the only vitamin synthesized exclusively by microorganisms1. The biosynthesis of the lower ligand of vitamin B12, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB), is poorly understood1–3. Recently, we discovered that a Sinorhizobium meliloti gene, bluB, is necessary for DMB biosynthesis4. Here we show that BluB triggers the unprecedented fragmentation and contraction of the bound flavin mononucleotide cofactor and cleavage of the ribityl tail to form DMB and D-erythrose 4-phosphate. Our structural analysis shows that BluB resembles an NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductase, except that its unusually tight binding pocket accommodates flavin mononucleotide but not NAD(P)H. We characterize crystallographically an early intermediate along the reaction coordinate, revealing molecular oxygen poised over reduced flavin. Thus, BluB isolates and directs reduced flavin to activate molecular oxygen for its own cannibalization. This investigation of the biosynthesis of DMB provides clarification of an aspect of vitamin B12 that was otherwise incomplete, and may contribute to a better understanding of vitamin B12-related disease. PMID:17377583

  8. BluB cannibalizes flavin to form the lower ligand of vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Taga, Michiko E; Larsen, Nicholas A; Howard-Jones, Annaleise R; Walsh, Christopher T; Walker, Graham C

    2007-03-22

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is among the largest known non-polymeric natural products, and the only vitamin synthesized exclusively by microorganisms. The biosynthesis of the lower ligand of vitamin B(12), 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB), is poorly understood. Recently, we discovered that a Sinorhizobium meliloti gene, bluB, is necessary for DMB biosynthesis. Here we show that BluB triggers the unprecedented fragmentation and contraction of the bound flavin mononucleotide cofactor and cleavage of the ribityl tail to form DMB and D-erythrose 4-phosphate. Our structural analysis shows that BluB resembles an NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductase, except that its unusually tight binding pocket accommodates flavin mononucleotide but not NAD(P)H. We characterize crystallographically an early intermediate along the reaction coordinate, revealing molecular oxygen poised over reduced flavin. Thus, BluB isolates and directs reduced flavin to activate molecular oxygen for its own cannibalization. This investigation of the biosynthesis of DMB provides clarification of an aspect of vitamin B12 that was otherwise incomplete, and may contribute to a better understanding of vitamin B12-related disease. PMID:17377583

  9. Biochemical and Hematologic Manifestations of Gastric Intrinsic Factor (GIF) Deficiency: A Treatable Cause of B12 Deficiency in the Old Order Mennonite Population of Southwestern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Ferrand, A; Siu, V M; Rupar, C A; Napier, M P; Al-Dirbashi, O Y; Chakraborty, P; Prasad, C

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic factor deficiency (OMIM #261000, IFD) is a rare inherited disorder of vitamin B12 metabolism due to mutations in the gastric intrinsic factor (GIF) gene.We report three individuals from an Old Order Mennonite community who presented with B12 deficiency. Two cases are siblings born to consanguineous parents and the third case is not known to be closely related. The older male sib presented at 4 years with gastrointestinal symptoms, listlessness, and pallor. He had pancytopenia with megaloblastic anemia. Serum B12 was 61 (198-615 pmol/L). Methylmalonic aciduria was present. C3 was elevated on acylcarnitine profile. Homocysteine was high at 16.7 (5.0-12.0 umol/L). His asymptomatic female sibling was also found to have B12 deficiency. Genetic testing for methylmalonic aciduria (MMAA), transcobalamin deficiency (TCN2), and Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (AMN) showed no mutation in both siblings. The third patient, a 34-year-old woman, had presented in infancy with a diagnosis of pernicious anemia. Mutation analysis of GIF revealed compound heterozygosity for a c.79+1G>A substitution and a c.973delG deletion in all three individuals. Oral or parenteral vitamin B12 has led to complete recovery of clinical parameters and vitamin B12 levels. Newborn screening samples on the siblings revealed normal methylcitrate, C3, and C3/C2 ratios thus indicating no disruption of propionic or methylmalonic acid metabolism.A high index of suspicion should be maintained if children present with megaloblastic anemia since GIF deficiency is a treatable disorder and newborn screening may not be able to detect this condition. PMID:25308559

  10. Competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND Few accurate data exist on the concentration of vitamin B12 in human milk. Binding of the vitamin to haptocorrin (HC) can interfere with the assay if not removed by pretreatment, and very low values can occur in women with poor B12 status. This study evaluated two competitive enzyme bind...

  11. Pulmonary hypertension associated with scurvy and vitamin deficiencies in an autistic child.

    PubMed

    Duvall, Melody G; Pikman, Yana; Kantor, David B; Ariagno, Katelyn; Summers, Lisa; Sectish, Theodore C; Mullen, Mary P

    2013-12-01

    Restricted dietary intake is common among children with behavioral issues. Here we report a case of a severely autistic child who presented initially with limp but who soon developed cough, tachypnea, hypoxia, and tachycardia. An echocardiogram revealed evidence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) with severely dilated right ventricle and elevated right-sided pressures. The etiology of his PH was unclear but further laboratory evaluation demonstrated severe nutritional deficiencies, in particular an undetectable ascorbic acid (vitamin C) level as well as deficient levels of thiamine (vitamin B1), pyridoxine (vitamin B6), cobalamin (vitamin B12), and vitamin D. Repletion of these vitamins was associated with resolution of his PH and his musculoskeletal complaints. We report this case and a review of the relevant literature as a clinical lesson to expand the differential diagnosis of limp in children who may be difficult to assess as well as to report on an unusual association between severe vitamin deficiencies and PH. PMID:24190688

  12. Vitamin B12 Metabolism during Pregnancy and in Embryonic Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Garcia, Maira A.; Rosenblatt, David S.; Jerome-Majewska, Loydie A.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) is required for cellular metabolism. It is an essential coenzyme in mammals for two reactions: the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by the enzyme methionine synthase and the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Symptoms of Cbl deficiency are hematological, neurological and cognitive, including megaloblastic anaemia, tingling and numbness of the extremities, gait abnormalities, visual disturbances, memory loss and dementia. During pregnancy Cbl is essential, presumably because of its role in DNA synthesis and methionine synthesis; however, there are conflicting studies regarding an association between early pregnancy loss and Cbl deficiency. We here review the literature about the requirement for Cbl during pregnancy, and summarized what is known of the expression pattern and function of genes required for Cbl metabolism in embryonic mouse models. PMID:24025485

  13. Vitamin B(12) metabolism during pregnancy and in embryonic mouse models.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Garcia, Maira A; Rosenblatt, David S; Jerome-Majewska, Loydie A

    2013-09-01

    Vitamin B(12) (cobalamin, Cbl) is required for cellular metabolism. It is an essential coenzyme in mammals for two reactions: the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by the enzyme methionine synthase and the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Symptoms of Cbl deficiency are hematological, neurological and cognitive, including megaloblastic anaemia, tingling and numbness of the extremities, gait abnormalities, visual disturbances, memory loss and dementia. During pregnancy Cbl is essential, presumably because of its role in DNA synthesis and methionine synthesis; however, there are conflicting studies regarding an association between early pregnancy loss and Cbl deficiency. We here review the literature about the requirement for Cbl during pregnancy, and summarized what is known of the expression pattern and function of genes required for Cbl metabolism in embryonic mouse models. PMID:24025485

  14. Sunlamp Therapy for the Treatment of Vitamin D Deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D deficiency may result from inadequate intake, malabsorption or from inadequate sun light exposure. Ultraviolet B radiation can be used in the treatment of vitamin D deficiency. Three subjects with intolerance to oral vitamin D or low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels despite high ...

  15. A relationship between vitamin B sub 12 , folate, ascorbic acid, and mercury metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Zorn, N.E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of megadoses of vitamin B{sub 12}, folate, and vitamin C on the in vivo methylation of mercuric chloride was studied in guinea pigs. The incorporation of high levels of vitamin B{sub 12}, folate, and vitamin C resulted in a decrease in both inorganic mercury and methylmercury concentrations in all tissues except the lungs and heart compared to controls. However, percent methylmercury levels tended to increase with vitamin treatment. The addition of megadoses of vitamin B{sub 12} fed either singularly or in combination with the other vitamins resulted in increased methylmercury concentrations in the liver, spleen, and kidney tissues of the guinea pig. Moreover, percent methylmercury levels increased with B{sub 12} treatment in the liver, heart, and kidney. Incorporation of high levels of folate into the dietary regime also affected the mercury methylation process particularly in the liver, heart, kidney and hair tissues. However, this effect was observed most often in animals fed both B{sub 12} and folate. Vitamin C appears to play a synergistic role with vitamin B{sub 12} and/or folate in the methylation of mercury.

  16. A relationship between vitamin B sub 12 , folic acid, ascorbic acid, and mercury uptake and methylation

    SciTech Connect

    Zorn, N.E.; Smith, J.T. )

    1990-01-01

    Ingestion of megadoses of certain vitamins appears to influence the in vivo methylation of mercuric chloride in guinea pigs. The addition of megadoses of vitamin B{sub 12} fed either singularly or in combination with folic acid resulted in increased methylmercury concentrations in the liver. Moreover, percent methylmercury levels were significantly increased with B{sub 12} treatment in the liver (B{sub 12} only and B{sub 12}/folic acid) and brain (B{sub 12}/vitamin C). Incorporation of high levels of folic acid into the dietary regime also increased the methylmercury concentration particularly in the liver and hair tissues. The addition of vitamin C in the diet, particularly in combination with B{sub 12} (brain) or folic acid (muscle) resulted in increased methylmercury levels in these tissues and percent methylmercury values with B{sub 12} in the muscle and brain tissue.

  17. Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia in a Turkish Cohort: Association of Vitamin B12

    PubMed Central

    Eroglu, Nilgun; Kandur, Yasar; Kalay, Salih; Kalay, Zuhal; Guney, Ozgur

    2015-01-01

    Background Deficiency of vitamin B12 (VitB12) causes failure of erytrocyte maturation leading to cell lysis. Red blood cell lysis causes excess heme production that ends with hyperbilirubinemia. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the role of VitB12 in neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (NNH) with prolonged jaundice and to compare patients with control group who did not develop hyperbilirubinemia. Methods A total of 20 patients (M/F = 13/7) with jaundice and 20 healthy controls (M/F = 11/9) were included in the study. Results The mean indirect bilirubin level of patient group was 9.91 ± 1.90 mg/dL (6.71 - 15.2 mg/dL) and control group was 3.18 ± 1.24 mg/dL (1.16 - 4.96 mg/dL). The mean VitB12 level of patient group was 119.9 ± 43.9 ng/L (42.35 - 178 ng/L) and the control group was 286.17 ± 97.43 ng/L (207.90 - 624.10 ng/L). There was a statistically significant difference in terms of VitB12 level (< 0.001) between the study groups. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study is the first study showing that low VitB12 level has been observed as a risk factor in NNH for the first time in the literature. We suggest that prophylactic use of VitB12 by pregnant women so will greatly benefit to prevent VitB12 deficiency and its complications in the first years of life such as NNH. PMID:26015822

  18. Subjective well-being in older adults: folate and vitamin B12 independently predict positive affect.

    PubMed

    Edney, Laura C; Burns, Nicholas R; Danthiir, Vanessa

    2015-10-01

    Vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine have long been implicated in mental illness, and growing evidence suggests that they may play a role in positive mental health. Elucidation of these relationships is confounded due to the dependence of homocysteine on available levels of vitamin B12 and folate. Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and subjective well-being were assessed in a sample of 391 older, community-living adults without clinically diagnosed depression. Levels of vitamin B12, but not folate, influenced homocysteine levels 18 months later. Vitamin B12, folate and their interaction significantly predicted levels of positive affect (PA) 18 months later, but had no impact on the levels of negative affect or life satisfaction. Cross-sectional relationships between homocysteine and PA were completely attenuated in the longitudinal analyses, suggesting that the cross-sectional relationship is driven by the dependence of homocysteine on vitamin B12 and folate. This is the first study to offer some evidence of a causal link between levels of folate and vitamin B12 on PA in a large, non-clinical population. PMID:26346363

  19. Vitamin B6

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin B6 Fact Sheet for Consumers What is vitamin B6 and what does it do? Vitamin B6 ... out more about vitamin B6? Disclaimer How much vitamin B6 do I need? The amount of vitamin ...

  20. VITAMIN B6, B12 AND FOLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF RANDOMIZED TRIALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite their important role in cognitive function, the value of B vitamin supplementation is unknown. A systematic review of the effect of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation on cognitive function was performed. Literature search conducted in MEDLINE with supplemental articles from re...

  1. HETEROGENEITY AND LACK OF GOOD QUALITY STUDIES LIMIT ASSOCIATION BETWEEN FOLATE, VITAMIN B-6 AND B-12, AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite their important role in cognitive function, the value of B vitamin supplementation is unknown. A systematic review of the effect of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation on cognitive function was performed. Literature search conducted in MEDLINE with supplemental articles from rev...

  2. Vitamin C Deficiency of Korean Homeless Patients Visiting to Emergency Department with Acute Alcohol Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Vitamins are essential micronutrients for maintenance of tissue functions. Vitamin deficiency is one of the most serious and common health problems among both chronic alcoholics and the homeless. However, the vitamin-level statuses of such people have been little studied. We evaluated the actual vitamin statuses of alcoholic homeless patients who visited an emergency department (ED). In this study the blood levels of vitamins B1, B12, B6, and C of 217 alcoholic homeless patients were evaluated retrospectively in a single urban teaching hospital ED. Vitamin C deficiency was observed in 84.3% of the patients. The vitamin B1, B12, and B6 deficiency rates, meanwhile, were 2.3%, 2.3%, and 23.5%, respectively. Comparing the admitted patients with those who were discharged, only the vitamin C level was lower. (P=0.003) In fact, the patients' vitamin C levels were markedly diminished, vitamin C replacement therapy for homeless patients should be considered in EDs. PMID:26713065

  3. The influence of vitamin B12 supplementation on the level of white blood cells and lymphocytes phenotype in rats fed a low-protein diet

    PubMed Central

    Lewicka, Aneta; Kalicki, Boles?aw; K?os, Anna; Bertrandt, Jerzy; Zdanowski, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Protein malnutrition has a negative effect on body composition and some blood parameters, especially in the young growing organism. One of nutritional factors which could protect against negative consequences of protein deficiency may be B group vitamins. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of vitamin B12 supplementation on the immune system in rats fed a standard and a low-protein diet. Rats were fed a control (20% of energy from protein) or a protein-deficient diet (4.5% of energy from protein). Half of animals in each group were additionally supplemented with vitamin B12 (300% of the daily intake). The white blood cells analysis and lymphocytes immunophenotyping (number and percentage) were performed. Low-protein diets caused disturbances in WBC and lymphocyte subpopulations in both short- (30-day) as well as long-term periods (90-day). Vitamin B12 supplementation significantly reduced the negative impact of protein malnutrition after 30 days, however had no effect on long-term malnutrition. Furthermore, vitamin B12 addition in rats fed a control diet did not affect the studied parameters. This observation opens the promise of use of vitamin B12 supplementation to improve immune system parameters in protein malnourished organisms. PMID:26155157

  4. [Homocysteine, vitamin B-12, folic acid and the cognitive decline in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Smach, M A; Naffeti, S; Charfeddine, B; Ben Abdallah, J; Othmen, L B; Letaef, A; Limem, K

    2013-10-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for neurological diseases, but the underlying pathophysiology has not been adequately explained. Mild hyperhomocysteinemia, which is sometimes associated with a low plasma level of vitamin B9, B12 and folic acid, is responsible in the toxicity in neural cell by activating NMDA receptor. Indeed, even if vitamin supplementation has clearly proven its efficiency on lowering plasma levels of homocysteine, recent studies do not show any positive effect of vitamin therapy on cognitive function. The hypothesis that this therapy is inefficient has been recently reinforced by two randomized trials on the effects of vitamin supplementation. Several hypotheses still need to be explored: Mechanisms of homocysteine toxicity and that of total uselessness of vitamin supplementation; the possible need to complete the actual data with further, more powerful studies in order to prove the role of homocysteine in the development of neurodegenerative diseases and a clinical effect of vitamin therapy. PMID:22647793

  5. Genetic Associations with Plasma B12, B6, and Folate Levels in an Ischemic Stroke Population from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Keene, Keith L.; Chen, Wei-Min; Chen, Fang; Williams, Stephen R.; Elkhatib, Stacey D.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Pugh, Elizabeth W.; Ling, Hua; Laurie, Cathy C.; Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Madden, Ebony B.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Sale, Michele M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: B vitamins play an important role in homocysteine metabolism, with vitamin deficiencies resulting in increased levels of homocysteine and increased risk for stroke. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 2,100 stroke patients from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) trial, a clinical trial designed to determine whether the daily intake of high-dose folic acid, vitamins B6, and B12 reduce recurrent cerebral infarction. Methods: Extensive quality control (QC) measures resulted in a total of 737,081 SNPs for analysis. Genome-wide association analyses for baseline quantitative measures of folate, Vitamins B12, and B6 were completed using linear regression approaches, implemented in PLINK. Results: Six associations met or exceeded genome-wide significance (P???5?×?10?08). For baseline Vitamin B12, the strongest association was observed with a non-synonymous SNP (nsSNP) located in the CUBN gene (P?=?1.76?×?10?13). Two additional CUBN intronic SNPs demonstrated strong associations with B12 (P?=?2.92?×?10?10 and 4.11?×?10?10), while a second nsSNP, located in the TCN1 gene, also reached genome-wide significance (P?=?5.14?×?10?11). For baseline measures of Vitamin B6, we identified genome-wide significant associations for SNPs at the ALPL locus (rs1697421; P?=?7.06?×?10?10 and rs1780316; P?=?2.25?×?10?08). In addition to the six genome-wide significant associations, nine SNPs (two for Vitamin B6, six for Vitamin B12, and one for folate measures) provided suggestive evidence for association (P???10?07). Conclusion: Our GWAS study has identified six genome-wide significant associations, nine suggestive associations, and successfully replicated 5 of 16 SNPs previously reported to be associated with measures of B vitamins. The six genome-wide significant associations are located in gene regions that have shown previous associations with measures of B vitamins; however, four of the nine suggestive associations represent novel finding and warrant further investigation in additional populations. PMID:25147783

  6. FRACTION OF TOTAL PLASMA VITAMIN B12 BOUND TO TRANSCOBALAMIN CORRELATES WITH COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN ELDERLY LATINOS WITH DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The fraction of total plasma vitamin B12 bound to transcobalamin (holoTC/B12 ratio) may reflect tissue levels of the vitamin, but its clinical relevance is unclear. Methods: associations between cognitive function and total B12, holoTC, and holoTC/B12 ratio were assessed in a cohort of ...

  7. Vitamin B??-containing plant food sources for vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Bito, Tomohiro; Teng, Fei

    2014-05-01

    The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori) is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups. PMID:24803097

  8. Effect of a Klamath algae product ("AFA-B12") on blood levels of vitamin B12 and homocysteine in vegan subjects: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Luciana; Scoglio, Stefano; Benedetti, Serena; Bonetto, Chiara; Pagliarani, Silvia; Benedetti, Yanina; Rocchi, Marco; Canestrari, Franco

    2009-03-01

    Vitamin B12 is a critical nutrient that is often inadequate in a plant-based (vegan) diet, thus the inclusion of a reliable vitamin B12 source in a vegan diet is recommended as essential. Unfortunately, many natural sources of vitamin B12 have been proven to contain biologically inactive vitamin B12 analogues, inadequate for human supplementation. The aim of this non-randomized open trial was to determine whether supplementation with a natural Klamath algae-based product ("AFA-B12", Aphanizomenon flos-aquae algae plus a proprietary mix of enzymes) could favorably affect the vitamin B12 status of a group of 15 vegan subjects. By assessing blood concentration of vitamin B12, folate, and more importantly homocysteine (Hcy, a reliable marker in vegans of their B12 absorption), the vitamin B12 status of the participants at the end of the 3-month intervention period, while receiving the Klamath-algae supplement (T2), was compared with their vitamin B12 status at the end of the 3-month control period (T1), when they were not receiving any supplement, having stopped taking their usual vitamin B12 supplement at the beginning of the study (T0). Compared to the control period, in the intervention period participants improved their vitamin B12 status, significantly reducing Hcy blood concentration (p=0.003). In conclusion, the Klamath algae product AFA-B12 appears to be, in a preliminary study, an adequate and reliable source of vitamin B12 in humans. PMID:20108213

  9. Enhancing vitamin B12 content in soy-yogurt by Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qing; Zhang, Chen; Song, Dafeng; Li, Ping; Zhu, Xuan

    2015-08-01

    More attention from the aged and vegetarians has been paid to soy-product due to its taste, easy digestibility, as well as the association with health. However, soy-product has a defect of low vitamin content, mainly the water-soluble vitamin B12. This study was to investigate co-fermentation of glycerol and fructose in soy-yogurt to enhance vitamin B12 production by Lactobacillus reuteri. After a serial combination experiments, the co-fermentation was confirmed to enhance the production of vitamin B12 up to 18 ?g/100mL. Both supplementations induced the expression of cobT and cbiA and functioned to balance the redox reaction. Meanwhile, high content of fructose supplementation reduced the production of vitamin B12 and suppressed expression of cobT in bacteria. It was proved that the vitamin B12 content of this soy-yogurt is higher than other fermented soybean based food and thus can be served as an alternative food for the aged and vegetarians. PMID:25955289

  10. Vitamin A deficiency in quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, R.B.; Bailey, W.W.

    1943-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the symptoms of avitaminosis A in growing and adolescent bobwhites. Chicks from parents that have received a diet rich in vitamin A may have enough stored to carry them a week or ten days on a growing diet deficient in vitamin A before symptoms of deficiency occur. The first sign is ruffled feathering, with the wing primaries standing out from the body and drooping. Ophthalmia in one or both eyes occurs and may close the eyes completely, but this condition is not severe in all cases and may not even be noticeable. Birds show poor growth, loss of appetite, and weakness before death. Under the conditions of the experiments discussed herein, death may occur in the fourth or fifth week, and mortality is high......Postmortem examination may reveal visceral gout with thick deposits of urates on the kidneys, in the ureters, on the heart, in the proventriculus, and occasionally covering all the viscera. There may also be hemorrhage of the heart and other organs....Adolescent quail reared on a diet rich in vitamin A may be able to live through the winter on a maintenance diet low in this vitamin without showing symptoms of avitaminosis, but some individuals whose storage of vitamin A in the liver is not as great as that of others may succumb to visceral gout.....A growing mash for quail which contains sufficient vitamin A when fresh may, after a period of storage, lose enough of the vitamin to cause the characteristic symptoms of avitaminosis A to appear.

  11. Folate and vitamin B-12 status in relation to anemia, macrocytosis, and cognitive impairment in older Americans in the age of folic acid fortification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historic data on folic acid treatment of pernicious anemia suggested that high-level fortification would delay diagnosis or exacerbate effects of vitamin B12 deficiency, which affects many seniors. This idea is controversial, however, because observational data are few and inconclusive and experime...

  12. Effects of maternal vitamin B6 deficiency and over-supplementation on DNA damage and oxidative stress in rat dams and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Mara Ribeiro; Venâncio, Vinícius Paula; Aissa, Alexandre Ferro; Darin, Joana Darc Castania; Pires Bianchi, Maria Lourdes; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin B6 is a cofactor for more than 140 essential enzymes and plays an important role in maternal health and fetal development. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal vitamin B6 on DNA damage and oxidative stress status in rat dams and their offspring. Female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to three dietary groups fed a standard diet (control diet), a diet supplemented with 30?mg/kg of vitamin B6, or a deficient diet (0?mg/kg of vitamin B6) for 10 weeks before and during mating, pregnancy and lactation. The dams were euthanized at weaning, and their male pups were euthanized either 10 days or 100 days after birth. We found that maternal vitamin B6 deficiency increased the micronucleus frequency in peripheral blood and bone marrow cells and also increased the concentration of hepatic TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) in newborn pups (10 days old). In conclusion, maternal 5- to 6-fold over-supplementation of vitamin B6 had no adverse effects, however its deficiency may induce chromosomal damage and hepatic lipid peroxidation in the offspring. PMID:25818462

  13. Vitamin D deficiency in patients with Behcet’s disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Behcet’s disease is an autoimmune, recurrent and multisystem disease. Vitamin D has immunomodulator role in immune system. So that vitamin D deficiency was reported in some autoimmune diseases. Behcet’s disease as a Silk Road disease is common in Iran. The aim of this study was to detect the serum level of 25(OH) vitamin D in Behcet’s patients and control group. Methods In this case–control study, 112 Behcet’s patients as cases group and 112 healthy individuals as controls group were enrolled. Any subject on vitamin D supplement, steroid, and immunosuppressors during the last 6 months were excluded. The serum level of 25(OH) vitamin D was measured in the two groups by ELISA method. The findings were compared via SPSS software. Results About 57% and 17% of Behcet’s patients had vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency respectively. Vitamin D deficiency was significantly more common in controls than cases group (P?Vitamin D levels were significantly lower in controls (P?B5, and HLA-B51 with vitamin D level in Behcet’s patients. Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency is common among Behcet’s patients. However, our results revealed vitamin D deficiency was significantly more common in healthy controls in comparison with Behcet’s cases. PMID:24451043

  14. Vitamin B12 absorption capacity in healthy children

    SciTech Connect

    Hjelt, K.; Krasilnikoff, P.A.

    1986-03-01

    B12 absorption was investigated in 47 healthy children aged 7 months to 15.8 years (median 4.9 years). The patients had either recovered from giardiasis, the post-gastroenteritis syndrome, or had celiac disease in remission (treated with a gluten-free diet). The B12 absorption was measured by a double-isotope technique using /sup 57/CoB12 and /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/, the latter being the inabsorbable marker. The radiation dose was minimal. The results were presented as fractional absorption of B12 (FAB12). Within the different age groups, the absorption test was performed by means of the following oral amounts of B12: 0- less than 1 year, 0.5 microgram; 1-3 years: 1.7 micrograms, 4-6 years, 2.5 micrograms; 7-10 years; 3.3 micrograms; and 11-15 years, 4.5 micrograms. When using these oral amounts of B12, the medians (and ranges) of FAB12 were found to be: 1-3 years (n = 18), 37% (16-80%); 4-6 years (n = 10), 27% (19-40%); 7-10 years (n = 9), 32% (21-44%); and 11-15 years (n = 8), 27% (19-59%). The FAB12 in two children aged 7 and 11 months was 31% and 32%, respectively. These results may be interpretated as reference values for B12 absorption in children. Further absorption tests were performed in seven children representing the four age groups from 1 to 15 years. When a high oral amount of B12 was given (i.e., three times the saturation dose), the FAB12 ranged from 0 to 20% (median 9%), whereas a low amount (i.e., one-ninth of the saturation dose) produced fractional absorptions from 65 to 82% (median 74%).

  15. The nutritional status of iron, folate, and vitamin B-12 of Buddhist vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yujin; Krawinkel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional status of iron, folate, and vitamin B-12 in vegetarians were assessed and compared with those of non- vegetarians in Korea. The vegetarian subjects were 54 Buddhist nuns who ate no animal source food except for dairy products. The non-vegetarians were divided into two groups: 31 Catholic nuns and 31 female college students. Three-day dietary records were completed, and the blood samples were collected for analyzing a complete blood count, and serum levels of ferritin, folate, and vitamin B-12. There was no difference in hemoglobin among the diet groups. The serum ferritin and hematocrit levels of vegetarians did not differ from that of non- vegetarian students with a high intake of animal source food but low intake of vitamin C, and the levels were lower than that of non-vegetarian Catholic nuns with a modest consumption of animal source food and a high intake of vitamin C. The serum vitamin B-12 levels of all subjects except one vegetarian and the serum folate levels of all subjects except one non-vegetarian student fell within a normal range. In vegetarians, there was a positive correlation between the vitamin C intake and serum ferritin levels as well as between the laver intake and serum vitamin B-12 levels. In order to achieve an optimal iron status, both an adequate amount of iron intake and its bioavailability should be considered. Sufficient intake of vegetables and fruits was reflected in adequate serum folate status. Korean laver can be a good source of vitamin B-12 for vegetarians. PMID:21393109

  16. Vitamin B12 Status in Children with Cystic Fibrosis and Pancreatic Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Maqbool, Asim; Schall, Joan I.; Mascarenhas, Maria R.; Dougherty, Kelly A.; Stallings, Virginia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Unexpectedly high serum B12 concentrations were noted in most study subjects with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) participating in a nutrition intervention at the baseline evaluation. The objectives of this study were to determine dietary, supplement-based and enzyme-based B12 intake, serum B12 concentrations, and predictors of vitamin B12 status in children with CF and PI. Study Design Serum B12 status was assessed in subjects (5-18 yrs) and categorized as elevated (Hi-B12) or within reference range (RR-B12) for age and sex. Serum homocysteine, plasma B6, red blood cell folate, height, weight, and body mass index Z scores, pulmonary function, energy, dietary and supplement-based vitamin intake were assessed. Results 106 subjects, mean age 10.4 ± 3.0 years participated. Median serum B12 was 1083 pg/ml, with 56% in the Hi-B12 group. Dietary and supplement-based B12 intake were both high representing 376% and 667% Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). The Hi-B12 group had significantly greater supplement-based B12 intake than the RR-B12 group (1000 vs. 583% RDA, p<0.001). By multiple logistic regression analysis, high supplement-based B12 intake and age >12 years increased risk for Hi-B12, while higher FEV1 decreased risk (Pseudo-R2=0.18, P<0.001). Conclusions Serum B12 was elevated in the majority of children with CF and PI. Supplement-based B12 intake was 6 to 10 times the RDA, and strongly predicted elevated serum B12 status. The health consequences of lifelong high supplement-based B12 intake and high serum B12 are unknown and require further study, as does the inversed correlation between serum B12 and FEV1. PMID:24445504

  17. Folate and Vitamin B12 Transport Systems in the Developing Infant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    B vitamin transport systems in infants are not as well studied as those for amino acids and glucose. For most B vitamins, a 2-step process allows for digestion of coenzyme forms of the vitamins in food, followed by specific transport systems for the free vitamin in the intestine. Folate and vitamin ...

  18. Beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin B12 supplementation on brain docosahexaenoic acid, brain derived neurotrophic factor, and cognitive performance in the second-generation Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Richa S; Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2015-01-01

    In vegetarian population, vitamin B12 deficiency coexists with suboptimal levels of omega-3 fatty acids. Studies indicate a need for supplementation/fortification of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids to reduce the risk of brain disorders. We have described the effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain development in F1 generation animals. The current study investigates the effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on brain function and cognition. Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned the following groups: control, vitamin B12 deficient (BD), vitamin B12 deficient + omega-3 fatty acid (BDO), vitamin B12 supplemented (BS), vitamin B12 supplemented + omega-3 fatty acid (BSO). The same diets were continued for two generations. BDO group showed higher (P < 0.05) levels of BDNF (brain derived neurotrophic factor) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) in the cortex and hippocampus as compared with the BD group. The cognitive performance was also normalized in this group. BS showed comparable levels of DHA, BDNF (protein and mRNA), and CREB mRNA (cAMP response element-binding protein) to that of control group while Tropomyosin receptor kinase mRNA levels were higher. The combined vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation further enhanced the levels of DHA (P < 0.05) and BDNF (P < 0.05) in the hippocampus and CREB mRNA (P < 0.01) in the cortex as compared with BS group. The cognitive performance of these animals was higher (P < 0.05) as compared with BS group. Our data indicates the beneficial effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation across two generations on brain development and function. PMID:26249019

  19. Vitamin B12 uptake by intestinal microorganisms: mechanism and relevance to syndromes of intestinal bacterial overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Giannella, R. A.; Broitman, S. A.; Zamcheck, N.

    1971-01-01

    The mechanism of bacterial uptake of vitamin B12, the spectrum of microorganisms capable of such uptake, and the factors involved were the subject of this study. Bacterial uptake of vitamin B12 was found to be at least a two stage process. A primary uptake phase which was rapid (1 min or less), pH dependent, nontemperature dependent, did not require viable organisms and was insensitive to either the metabolic inhibitor dinitrophenol or to the sulfhydryl inhibitor N-ethyl-maleimide. Protein denaturation (formalin treatment or autoclaving) abolished all B12 uptake. This primary uptake phase is thought to represent adsorption to binding or “receptor” sites on the cell wall. Second stage uptake was slower, pH and temperature dependent, required living bacteria, and was abolished by either dinitrophenol or N-ethyl-maleimide. This phase is dependent upon metabolic processes and may reflect transfer of B12 from surface “receptor” sites into the bacterial cell. Although differences among organisms were observed in total 1 hr uptake, number of surface “receptor” sites, and relative avidities for B12, all organisms except Streptococcus fecalis shared the two stage mechanism. Two Gram-positive organisms. Bacillus subtilis and Group A streptococcus, demonstrated the highest 1 hr vitamin B12 uptake values; Gram-negative bacteria required 2,000-10,000 the number of organisms for comparable uptake. Binding constants (Km) varied from 5.05 ±1.67 × 10-10M for B. subtilis to 6.18 ±3.08 × 10-9M for Klebsiella pneumoniae which approximate the Km for human intrinsic factor (0.38 × 10-10M). Competition between bacteria and intrinsic factor for vitamin B12 may be inferred from the similarity of these constants. These observations suggest that a variety of enteric and nonenteric organisms, not requiring exogenous B12, may play a role in the pathogenesis of the vitamin B12 malabsorption found in the intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndromes. PMID:4994753

  20. Vitamin D deficiency in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ashraf T; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania; Bedair, Said; Kassem, Islam

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in adolescents is variable but considerably high in many countries, especially in Middle-east and Southeast Asia. Different factors attribute to this deficiency including lack of sunlight exposure due to cultural dress codes and veiling or due to pigmented skin, and less time spent outdoors, because of hot weather, and lower vitamin D intake. A potent adaptation process significantly modifies the clinical presentation and therefore clinical presentations may be subtle and go unnoticed, thus making true prevalence studies difficult. Adolescents with severe VDD may present with vague manifestations including pain in weight-bearing joints, back, thighs and/or calves, difficulty in walking and/or climbing stairs, or running and muscle cramps. Adaptation includes increased parathormone (PTH) and deceased insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) secretion. PTH enhances the tubular reabsorption of Ca and stimulates the kidneys to produce 1, 25-(OH) 2D3 that increases intestinal calcium absorption and dissolves the mineralized collagen matrix in bone, causing osteopenia and osteoporosis to provide enough Ca to prevent hypocalcaemia. Decreased insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) delays bone growth to economize calcium consumption. Radiological changes are not uncommon and include osteoporosis/osteopenia affecting long bones as well as vertebrae and ribs, bone cysts, decalcification of the metaphysis of the long bones and pseudo fractures. In severe cases pathological fractures and deformities may occur. Vitamin D treatment of adolescents with VDD differs considerably in different studies and proved to be effective in treating all clinical, biochemical, and radiological manifestations. Different treatment regiments for VDD have been discussed and presented in this mini-review for practical use. Adequate vitamin D replacement after treating VDD, improving calcium intake (milk and dairy products), encouraging adequate exposure to the sun and possible enrichment of the stable food with vitamin D in areas with high prevalence of VDD are important measures to prevent the harmful consequences of VDD. PMID:25538884

  1. Folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and methionine intakes and risk for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Chinese adults: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fang-Fang; Liu, Yuan-Ting; Lin, Xiao-Ling; Fan, Yu-Ying; Zhang, Xing-Lan; Xu, Chun-Hua; Chen, Yu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have suggested that folate-related one-carbon metabolism-related nutrients may play a role in certain cancer risks, but few studies have assessed their associations with the risk for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In this study, we investigated the association between four folate-related one-carbon metabolism-related nutrients (folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and methionine) and NPC risk in Chinese adults. A total of 600 patients newly diagnosed (within 3 months) with NPC were individually matched with 600 hospital-based controls by age, sex and household type (urban v. rural). Folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and methionine intakes were measured using a validated seventy-eight-item FFQ. A higher dietary folate or vitamin B6 intake was associated with a lower NPC risk after adjusting for potential confounders. The adjusted OR of NPC for quartiles 2-4 (v. 1) were 0·66 (95 % CI 0·48, 0·91), 0·52 (95 % CI 0·37, 0·74) and 0·34 (95 % CI 0·23, 0·50) (P trend<0·001) for folate and 0·72 (95 % CI 0·52, 1·00), 0·55 (95 % CI 0·39, 0·78) and 0·44 (95 % CI 0·30, 0·63) (P trend<0·001) for vitamin B6. No significant association with NPC risk was observed for dietary vitamin B12 or methionine intake. The risk for NPC with dietary folate intake was more evident in the participants who were not exposed to toxic substances than in those who were exposed (P interaction=0·014). This study suggests that dietary folate and vitamin B6 may be protective for NPC in a high-risk population. PMID:26515433

  2. Effects of altered maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and docosahexaenoic acid on placental global DNA methylation patterns in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Asmita; Dangat, Kamini; Kale, Anvita; Sable, Pratiksha; Chavan-Gautam, Preeti; Joshi, Sadhana

    2011-01-01

    Potential adverse effects of excess maternal folic acid supplementation on a vegetarian population deficient in vitamin B(12) are poorly understood. We have previously shown in a rat model that maternal folic acid supplementation at marginal protein levels reduces brain omega-3 fatty acid levels in the adult offspring. We have also reported that reduced docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels may result in diversion of methyl groups towards DNA in the one carbon metabolic pathway ultimately resulting in DNA methylation. This study was designed to examine the effect of normal and excess folic acid in the absence and presence of vitamin B(12) deficiency on global methylation patterns in the placenta. Further, the effect of maternal omega 3 fatty acid supplementation on the above vitamin B(12) deficient diets was also examined. Our results suggest maternal folic acid supplementation in the absence of vitamin B(12) lowers plasma and placental DHA levels (p<0.05) and reduces global DNA methylation levels (p<0.05). When this group was supplemented with omega 3 fatty acids there was an increase in placental DHA levels and subsequently DNA methylation levels revert back to the levels of the control group. Our results suggest for the first time that DHA plays an important role in one carbon metabolism thereby influencing global DNA methylation in the placenta. PMID:21423696

  3. Vitamin D: Deficiency, Sufficiency and Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Alshahrani, Fahad; Aljohani, Naji

    2013-01-01

    The plethora of vitamin D studies over the recent years highlight the pleomorphic effects of vitamin D outside its conventional role in calcium and bone homeostasis. Vitamin D deficiency, though common and known, still faces several challenges among the medical community in terms of proper diagnosis and correction. In this review, the different levels of vitamin D and its clinical implications are highlighted. Recommendations and consensuses for the appropriate dose and duration for each vitamin D status are also emphasized. PMID:24067388

  4. LOW ERYTHROCYTE FOLATE, BUT NOT PLASMA VITAMIN B-12 OR HOMOCYSTEINE, IS ASSOCIATED WITH DEMENTIA IN ELDERLY LATINOS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between B vitamin status and cognitive function has been of interest for many years. There is evidence of relationships between intake and status of folate and vitamin B-12 with neurological, cognitive, and memory impairment, but results have been inconsistent. Plasma B-12, erythroc...

  5. Biosynthesis of vitamin B12: concerning the origin of the methine protons of the corrin nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, A.I.; Kajiwara, M.; Santander, P.J.

    1987-10-01

    13C NMR spectroscopy has been used to locate six deuterium atoms incorporated biosynthetically on the periphery of the corrin nucleus of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) derived from cells of Propionibacterium shermanii grown in a medium containing 50% /sup 2/H/sub 2/O and /sup 13/C-enriched delta-aminolevulinic acid. The implications of these results for the mechanism of vitamin B12 biosynthesis are discussed, and it is concluded that the same oxidation level of the intermediates is maintained throughout the biosynthetic pathway, from delta-aminolevulinic acid to corrin.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency On this page: Description Genetic changes ... definitions Reviewed April 2008 What is ataxia with vitamin E deficiency? Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency is ...

  7. Vitamin B?? and vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Zeuschner, Carol L; Hokin, Bevan D; Marsh, Kate A; Saunders, Angela V; Reid, Michelle A; Ramsay, Melinda R

    2013-08-19

    Vitamin B?? is found almost exclusively in animal-based foods and is therefore a nutrient of potential concern for those following a vegetarian or vegan diet. Vegans, and anyone who significantly limits intake of animal-based foods, require vitamin B??-fortified foods or supplements. Vitamin B?? deficiency has several stages and may be present even if a person does not have anaemia. Anyone following a vegan or vegetarian diet should have their vitamin B?? status regularly assessed to identify a potential problem. A useful process for assessing vitamin B?? status in clinical practice is the combination of taking a diet history, testing serum vitamin B?? level and testing homocysteine, holotranscobalamin II or methylmalonic acid serum levels. Pregnant and lactating vegan or vegetarian women should ensure an adequate intake of vitamin B?? to provide for their developing baby. In people who can absorb vitamin B??, small amounts (in line with the recommended dietary intake) and frequent (daily) doses appear to be more effective than infrequent large doses, including intramuscular injections. Fortification of a wider range of foods products with vitamin B??, particularly foods commonly consumed by vegetarians, is likely to be beneficial, and the feasibility of this should be explored by relevant food authorities. PMID:25369926

  8. A Nampt inhibitor FK866 mimics vitamin B3 deficiency by causing senescence of human fibroblastic Hs68 cells via attenuation of NAD(+)-SIRT1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Song, Tuzz-Ying; Yeh, Shu-Lan; Hu, Miao-Lin; Chen, Mei-Yau; Yang, Nae-Cherng

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin B3 (niacin) deficiency can cause pellagra with symptoms of dermatitis, diarrhea and dementia. However, it is unclear whether the vitamin B3 deficiency causes human aging. FK866 (a Nampt inhibitor) can reduce intracellular NAD(+) level and induce senescence of human Hs68 cells. However, the mechanisms underlying FK866-induced senescence of Hs68 cells are unclear. In this study, we used FK866 to mimic the effects of vitamin B3 deficiency to reduce the NAD(+) level and investigated the mechanisms of FK866-induced senescence of Hs68 cells. We hypothesized that FK866 induced the senescence of Hs68 cells via an attenuation of NAD(+)-silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1) signaling. We found that FK866 induced cell senescence and diminished cellular NAD(+) levels and SIRT1 activity (detected by acetylation of p53), and these effects were dramatically antagonized by co-treatment with nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, or NAD(+). In contrast, the protein expression of SIRT1, AMP-activated protein kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) was not affected by FK866. In addition, the role of GSH in the FK866-induced cells senescence may be limited, as N-acetylcysteine did not antagonize FK866-induced cell senescence. These results suggest that FK866 induces cell senescence via attenuation of NAD(+)-SIRT1 signaling. The effects of vitamin B3 deficiency on human aging warrant further investigation. PMID:26330291

  9. Comparison of two modes of vitamin B12 supplementation on neuroconduction and cognitive function among older people living in Sandiago, Chile: A cluster randomized controlled trial. A study protocol(ISRCTN 02694183)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Older people have a high risk of vitamin B12 deficiency; this can lead to varying degrees of cognitive and neurological impairment. CBL deficiency may present as macrocytic anemia, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, or as neuropathy, but is often asymptomatic in older peo...

  10. Unraveling Vitamin B12-Responsive Gene Regulation in Algae1[W

    PubMed Central

    Helliwell, Katherine E.; Scaife, Mark A.; Sasso, Severin; Araujo, Ana Paula Ulian; Purton, Saul; Smith, Alison G.

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic microalgae play a vital role in primary productivity and biogeochemical cycling in both marine and freshwater systems across the globe. However, the growth of these cosmopolitan organisms depends on the bioavailability of nutrients such as vitamins. Approximately one-half of all microalgal species requires vitamin B12 as a growth supplement. The major determinant of algal B12 requirements is defined by the isoform of methionine synthase possessed by an alga, such that the presence of the B12-independent methionine synthase (METE) enables growth without this vitamin. Moreover, the widespread but phylogenetically unrelated distribution of B12 auxotrophy across the algal lineages suggests that the METE gene has been lost multiple times in evolution. Given that METE expression is repressed by the presence of B12, prolonged repression by a reliable source of the vitamin could lead to the accumulation of mutations and eventually gene loss. Here, we probe METE gene regulation by B12 and methionine/folate cycle metabolites in both marine and freshwater microalgal species. In addition, we identify a B12-responsive element of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii METE using a reporter gene approach. We show that complete repression of the reporter occurs via a region spanning ?574 to ?90 bp upstream of the METE start codon. A proteomics study reveals that two other genes (S-Adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase and Serine hydroxymethyltransferase2) involved in the methionine-folate cycle are also repressed by B12 in C. reinhardtii. The strong repressible nature and high sensitivity of the B12-responsive element has promising biotechnological applications as a cost-effective regulatory gene expression tool. PMID:24627342

  11. Recognition and management of vitamin D deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bordelon, Paula; Ghetu, Maria V; Langan, Robert C

    2009-10-15

    Vitamin D deficiency affects persons of all ages. Common manifestations of vitamin D deficiency are symmetric low back pain, proximal muscle weakness, muscle aches, and throbbing bone pain elicited with pressure over the sternum or tibia. A 25-hydroxyvitamin D level should be obtained in patients with suspected vitamin D deficiency. Deficiency is defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of less than 20 ng per mL (50 nmol per L), and insufficiency is defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 20 to 30 ng per mL (50 to 75 nmol per L). The goal of treatment is to normalize vitamin D levels to relieve symptoms and decrease the risk of fractures, falls, and other adverse health outcomes. To prevent vitamin D deficiency, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that infants and children receive at least 400 IU per day from diet and supplements. Evidence shows that vitamin D supplementation of at least 700 to 800 IU per day reduces fracture and fall rates in adults. In persons with vitamin D deficiency, treatment may include oral ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) at 50,000 IU per week for eight weeks. After vitamin D levels normalize, experts recommend maintenance dosages of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) at 800 to 1,000 IU per day from dietary and supplemental sources. PMID:19835345

  12. Vitamin D Deficiency Treatment Patterns in Academic Urban Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Paulette D.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Williams, Michelle A.; LeBoff, Meryl S.; Bates, David W.; Hicks, LeRoi S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Assess racial/ethnic and sex differences in treatment of vitamin D deficiency with high dose ergocalciferol (‘vitamin D2’) or other forms of vitamin D in a northeastern U.S. ambulatory clinic of an academic urban medical center. STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional observational review of electronic medication prescribing records of patients with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) deficiency (25OHD < 20 ng/ml) from 2004–2008. METHODS Using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for patients’ demographics, and Elixhauser comorbidity score, we examined the association of sex and race/ethnicity with prescription for at least one dose of vitamin D. RESULTS Among 2,140 patients without renal disease and tested for 25OHD deficiency (25OHD < 20 ng/ml), 66.2% received no vitamin D prescription for vitamin D deficiency. Blacks and Hispanics received vitamin D prescriptions at a higher frequency than whites, 37.8% 38.4% and 30.9%, respectively, p=0.003. The vitamin D prescription rate for women versus men was 26.3% and 7.5%, respectively, p=0.04. In a fully adjusted model, no difference in prescription likelihood for blacks and whites [OR=1.18 95% CI, 0.88–1.58; p=0.29] or Hispanics and whites was noted [OR=1.01 95% CI, 0.70–1.45;p=0.73]. Similarly, fully adjusted model showed no difference in prescription likelihood for females and males [OR=1.23 95% CI, 0.93–1.63; p=0.12]. CONCLUSIONS Among primary care patients with vitamin D deficiency, vitamin D supplementation was low and white patients were less likely to receive vitamin D treatment than blacks or Hispanics. Interventions to correct the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency should address the markedly low rate of vitamin D prescribing when 25OHD levels are measured. PMID:25328637

  13. Chronic Maternal Vitamin B12 Restriction Induced Changes in Body Composition & Glucose Metabolism in the Wistar Rat Offspring Are Partly Correctable by Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kalle Anand; Lalitha, Anumula; Reddy, Umakar; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Sengupta, Shantanu; Raghunath, Manchala

    2014-01-01

    Maternal under-nutrition increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. We studied the effects of chronic maternal dietary vitamin B12 restriction on lean body mass (LBM), fat free mass (FFM), muscle function, glucose tolerance and metabolism in Wistar rat offspring. Prevention/reversibility of changes by rehabilitating restricted mothers from conception or parturition and their offspring from weaning was assessed. Female weaning Wistar rats (n?=?30) were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks, a control diet (n?=?6) or the same with 40% restriction of vitamin B12 (B12R) (n?=?24); after confirming deficiency, were mated with control males. Six each of pregnant B12R dams were rehabilitated from conception and parturition and their offspring weaned to control diet. While offspring of six B12R dams were weaned to control diet, those of the remaining six B12R dams continued on B12R diet. Biochemical parameters and body composition were determined in dams before mating and in male offspring at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of their age. Dietary vitamin B12 restriction increased body weight but decreased LBM% and FFM% but not the percent of tissue associated fat (TAF%) in dams. Maternal B12R decreased LBM% and FFM% in the male offspring, but their TAF%, basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake by diaphragm were unaltered. At 12 months age, B12R offspring had higher (than controls) fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and impaired glucose tolerance. Their hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme activities were increased. B12R offspring had increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant status. Changes in body composition, glucose metabolism and stress were reversed by rehabilitating B12R dams from conception, whereas rehabilitation from parturition and weaning corrected them partially, highlighting the importance of vitamin B12 during pregnancy and lactation on growth, muscle development, glucose tolerance and metabolism in the offspring. PMID:25398136

  14. Mesoporous carbon derived from vitamin B12: a high-performance bifunctional catalyst for imine formation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Shang, Sensen; Wang, Lianyue; Zhang, Yi; Gao, Shuang

    2016-01-11

    Mesoporous carbon derived from natural vitamin B12 is applied for the first time in organic synthesis and exhibits exceptionally high dual activity for imine formation via the cross-coupling of alcohols with amines and the self-coupling of primary amines using molecular oxygen or air as the terminal oxidant. PMID:26529323

  15. Effects of vitamin B12 supplementation on the quality of Ovine spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Hamedani, M.A.; Tahmasbi, A.M.; Ahangari, Y.J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of various levels of vitamin B12 in Tris extender on semen quality of Dallagh rams following the cooling and freeze/thawing process. Semen was collected from six healthy and mature rams with an average body weight of 60.0 ± 5.0 Kg using an electro ejaculator. High quality samples were mixed and diluted in Tris extender supplemented with different concentrations of vitamin B12 (0, 1, 2 and 3 mg/ml). The semen aliquots were cooled and preserved at 5°C and their qualities were evaluated during pre-freezing and then the cooled semen samples were packaged into 0.25 ml straws. Straws were frozen in the vapor of liquid nitrogen, and were then stored at -196ºC. Straws were thawed seven days later and the characteristics of spermatozoa were examined. Results of this study showed that the effect of vitamin B12 on characteristics such as viability, motility, progressive motility and normality of spermatozoa were significant in pre and post freezing conditions (P<0.05). In conclusion, for long term storage of semen of Dallagh rams, we recommend using 2 mg/ml of vitamin B12 in semen extender.

  16. Enhanced pharmacological activity of Vitamin B12 and Penicillin as nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Yariv, Inbar; Lipovsky, Anat; Gedanken, Aharon; Lubart, Rachel; Fixler, Dror

    2015-01-01

    Sonochemistry has become a well-known technique for fabricating nanomaterials. Since one of the advantages of nanomaterials is that they have higher chemical activities compared with particles in the bulk form, efforts are being made to produce nano organic compounds with enhanced biological activities that could be exploited in the medical area. This study uses the sonication technique to prepare nano Vitamin B12 and nano Penicillin, and demonstrates their enhanced biological and pharmacological activity. The size and morphology of the nano Penicillin and nano Vitamin B12 were investigated using electron microscopy as well as dynamic light scattering techniques. The sizes of Penicillin and Vitamin B12 nanoparticles (NPs) were found to be 70 and 120–180 nm, respectively. The bactericidal effect of nano Penicillin was studied and found to be higher than that of the bulk form. Reducing the size of Vitamin B12 resulted in their enhanced antioxidative activity as observed using the electron paramagnetic spectroscopy technique. The penetration depth of these organic NPs can be detected by an optical iterative method. It is believed that nano organic drugs fabrication will have a great impact on the medical field. PMID:26028970

  17. Vitamin B12 and its binding proteins in the serum of some wild game species.

    PubMed

    Green, R; Keep, M E; Colman, N; Metz, J

    1975-01-01

    The concentration of vitamin B12 and its binding proteins was measured in the impala, nyala, wildebeest, zebra, bushpig, warthog, and rhino, all existing in their natural state. Marked differences were found between some species. The variations observed are probably true species differences, unrelated to environmental factors. PMID:1162511

  18. Competitive chemiluminescent anzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent discoveries of matrix interferences by haptocorrin (HC) in human milk and serum show that past analyses of vitamin B12 in samples with high HC content might have been inaccurate (Lildballe et al., 2009; Carmel & Agrawal, 2012). We evaluated two competitive enzyme-binding immunoassays for seru...

  19. Expeditious synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles using Vitamin B12 under microwave irradiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    A greener synthesis protocol for noble nanometals is developed using vitamin B12 as a reducing and capping agent in conjunction with the use of microwaves. Successful assembly of nanoparticles or microparticles with varied shapes and sizes have been demonstrated. The synthesized ...

  20. Pyridoxine supplementation corrects vitamin B6 deficiency but does not improve inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis have subnormal vitamin B6 status, both quantitatively and functionally. Abnormal vitamin B6 status in rheumatoid arthritis has been associated with spontaneous tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production and markers of inflammation, including C-reactive protein an...

  1. Hepatoprotective role of vitamin B(12) and folic acid in arsenic intoxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Deb, Bimal; Maiti, Smarajit

    2012-01-01

    The present study elucidated the protective role of vitamin B(12) with folic acid against arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity in female rats. Ingestion of sodium-arsenite- contaminated water [0.4?ppm/100?g body weight (b.w.)/day] in combination with vitamin B(12) plus folic acid (0.07 and 4.0 ?g, respectively/100?g b.w./day) for 24 days to Wistar rats offered a significant protection against alone arsenic-induced distorted liver function, damaged histoarchitecture, elevated oxidative stress, and DNA fragmentation of hepatic tissues. Arsenic only exposure decreased hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase activities, and the level of nonprotein-soluble thiol (NPSH), with a concomitant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and conjugated dienes (CDs) in the liver. Vitamin supplementation restrained the increase of TBARS and CDs by restoring catalase, SOD, and NPSH levels. Restricted generation of free radicals may be correlated to the protection of DNA stability and hepatic morphology. This study explains the decisive role of vitamin B(12) with folic acid to ameliorate arsenic-mediated liver injuries. PMID:21848401

  2. Vitamin B12: one carbon metabolism, fetal growth and programming for chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Rush, E C; Katre, P; Yajnik, C S

    2014-01-01

    This review brings together human and animal studies and reviews that examine the possible role of maternal vitamin B12 (B12) on fetal growth and its programming for susceptibility to chronic disease. A selective literature review was undertaken to identify studies and reviews that investigate these issues, particularly in the context of a vegetarian diet that may be low in B12 and protein and high in carbohydrate. Evidence is accumulating that maternal B12 status influences fetal growth and development. Low maternal vitamin B12 status and protein intake are associated with increased risk of neural tube defect, low lean mass and excess adiposity, increased insulin resistance, impaired neurodevelopment and altered risk of cancer in the offspring. Vitamin B12 is a key nutrient associated with one carbon metabolic pathways related to substrate metabolism, synthesis and stability of nucleic acids and methylation of DNA which regulates gene expression. Understanding of factors regulating maternal-fetal one carbon metabolism and its role in fetal programming of non communicable diseases could help design effective interventions, starting with maternal nutrition before conception. PMID:24219896

  3. Vitamin D deficiency in older people.

    PubMed

    Gloth, F M; Tobin, J D

    1995-07-01

    Because of changes that occur with aging, older people with any other risk factors for vitamin D deficiency are likely to have inadequate stores of this vitamin. The consequences of vitamin D deficiency are likely to be losses in bone, strength, and function and the development of pain. Many questions remain regarding screening, prevention, and treatment of vitamin D deficiency. Supplementation may be unnecessary in most healthy, ambulatory seniors. Excessive supplementation in this group may lead to vitamin D toxicity. There does seem to be a role for supplementation in homebound older people who will not get adequate vitamin D from sunlight exposure. This population is at particular risk of developing vitamin D deficiency. Issues such as inadequate diet, physiologic changes with aging, polypharmacy, and diseases that interfere with vitamin D metabolism contribute to this risk. In such circumstances, a recommendation of 800 IU per day is reasonable. An alternative to daily dosing is a single oral dose of 100,000 IU of vitamin D (ergocalciferol or cholecalciferol) every 3 to 6 months. A simple maneuver is for geriatricians, who see many chronically ill patients with low vitamin D stores (who are likely to be seen in the office every 3 to 6 months), to administer vitamin D during the office visits. These dosing schedules have not been associated with toxicity and can be considered safe in homebound (sunlight-deprived) older adults.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7602040

  4. Development of a two-step cultivation strategy for the production of vitamin B12 by Bacillus megaterium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitamin B12 is a fascinating molecule which acts as a co-factor in the metabolism of many organisms, especially affecting DNA synthesis and regulation, fatty acid synthesis and energy production. The synthesis of vitamin B12 is limited to a few of bacteria and archaea. Therefore, industrial microbial fermentation is used to meet annual demands worldwide of vitamin B12 and as an alternative method to the chemical synthesis which requires at least 60 steps that is uneconomical. Bacillus megaterium is one of vitamin B12 producers and an ideal host for many biotechnology applications and being one of the best tools for the industrial production of several enzymes. Therefore, a two-step optimization strategy was established to produce high yield of vitamin B12 by B. megaterium through the provision of the production requirements and the suitable conditions for the biosynthesis of vitamin B12. Results We achieved the optimum conditions for the fermentation process of B. megaterium to produce high yield of vitamin B12 in a practical way based on statistical design and analysis which allowed vitamin B12 production to increase up to 759-fold (204.46 ?g/l) as compared with control without parameters (0.26 ?g/L). High performance liquid chromatography coupled to variable wavelength detector and mass spectrometry has been used to identify vitamin B12 forms and confirm the results. Conclusions We developed the fermentation process of B. megaterium to enhance the production of vitamin B12 by providing the required supplements for the synthesis of vitamin B12 (CoCl2, ?-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB)) and dividing the fermentation process into three stages. In addition, the optimum incubation times of the three fermentation stages were investigated and performed with reducing number of experimental and evaluated multiple parameters and their interactions by using statistical experimental design and analysis. All of these strategies has proven successful in enhancing the production of vitamin B12 up to 204.46 ?g/l and demonstrated that B. megaterium could be a good candidate for the industrial production of vitamin B12. PMID:25023574

  5. Contribution of Food Sources to the Vitamin B12 Status of South Indian Children from a Birth Cohort Recruited in the City of Mysore

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective There is evidence that sub-clinical vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency is common in India. Vegetarianism is prevalent and therefore meat consumption is low. Our objective was to explore the contribution of B12 source-foods and maternal B12 status during pregnancy to plasma B12 concentrations. Design Maternal plasma B12 concentrations were measured during pregnancy. Children’s dietary intakes and plasma B12 concentrations were measured at age 9.5 years; B12 and total energy intakes were calculated using food composition databases. We used linear regression to examine associations between maternal B12 status and children’s intakes of B12 and B12 source-foods, and children’s plasma B12 concentrations. Setting South Indian city of Mysore and surrounding rural areas. Subjects Children from the Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort (n=512, 47.1% male). Results Three percent of children were B12 deficient (<150 pmol/l). A further 14% had ‘marginal’ B12 concentrations (150-221 pmol/l). Children’s total daily B12 intake and consumption frequency of meat and fish, and micronutrient-enriched beverages were positively associated with plasma B12 concentrations (p=0.006, p=0.01 and p=0.04, adjusted for socio-economic indicators and maternal B12 status). Maternal pregnancy plasma B12 was associated with children’s plasma B12 concentrations, independent of current B12 intakes (p<0.001). Milk and curd (yoghurt) intakes were unrelated to B12 status. Conclusions Meat and fish are important B12 sources in this population. Micronutrient-enriched beverages appear to be important sources in our cohort, but their high sugar content necessitates care in their recommendation. Improving maternal B12 status in pregnancy may improve Indian children’s status. PMID:24866058

  6. Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Improve Gross Motor and Problem-Solving Skills in Young North Indian Children: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kvestad, Ingrid; Taneja, Sunita; Kumar, Tivendra; Hysing, Mari; Refsum, Helga; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Bhandari, Nita; Strand, Tor A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Deficiencies of vitamin B12 and folate are associated with delayed development and neurological manifestations. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of daily supplementation of vitamin B12 and/or folic acid on development in young North Indian children. Methods In a randomized, double blind trial, children aged six to 30 months, received supplement with placebo or vitamin B12 and/or folic acid for six months. Children were allocated in a 1:1:1:1 ratio in a factorial design and in blocks of 16. We measured development in 422 children by the Ages and Stages Questionnaire 3rd ed. at the end of the intervention. Results Compared to placebo, children who received both vitamin B12 and folic acid had 0.45 (95% CI 0.19, 0.73) and 0.28 (95% CI 0.02, 0.54) higher SD-units in the domains of gross motor and problem solving functioning, respectively. The effect was highest in susceptible subgroups consisting of stunted children, those with high plasma homocysteine (> 10 ?mol/L) or in those who were younger than 24 at end study. With the exception of a significant improvement on gross motor scores by vitamin B12 alone, supplementation of either vitamin alone had no effect on any of the outcomes. Conclusion Our findings suggest that supplementation of vitamin B12 and folic acid benefit development in North Indian Children. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00717730 PMID:26098427

  7. Vitamin D deficiency and disease risk among aboriginal Arctic populations.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sangita; Barr, Alison B; Macdonald, Helen M; Sheehy, Tony; Novotny, Rachel; Corriveau, Andre

    2011-08-01

    Aboriginal populations living above the Arctic Circle are at particularly high risk of vitamin D deficiency due to limited ultraviolet B exposure (related to geographic latitude) and inadequate dietary intake (recently related to decreased traditional food consumption). Major changes in diet and lifestyle over the past 50 years in these populations have coincided with increased prevalence rates of rickets, cancer, diabetes, and obesity, each of which may be associated with vitamin D inadequacy. This review examines the risk factors for vitamin D inadequacy, the associations between vitamin D and disease risk at high geographic latitudes, and the recommendations for improving vitamin D status particularly among aboriginal Arctic populations. Traditional foods, such as fatty fish and marine mammals, are rich sources of vitamin D and should continue to be promoted to improve dietary vitamin D intake. Supplementation protocols may also be necessary to ensure adequate vitamin D status in the Arctic. PMID:21790613

  8. Biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxypropionate) from glycerol using engineered Klebsiella pneumoniae strain without vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xinjun; Xian, Mo; Liu, Wei; Xu, Chao; Zhang, Haibo; Zhao, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Poly(3-hydroxypropionate) (P3HP) is a biodegradable and biocompatible thermoplastic. Previous studies demonstrated that engineered Escherichia coli strains can produce P3HP with supplementation of expensive vitamin B12. The present study examined the production of P3HP from glycerol in the recombinant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain, which naturally synthesizes vitamin B12. The genes glycerol dehydratase and its reactivation factor (dhaB123, gdrA, and gdrB from K. pneumoniae), aldehyde dehydrogenase (aldH from E. coli) were cloned and expressed in K. pneumoniae to produce 3-hydroxypropionate (3HP), with 2 genes (dhaT and yqhD) for biosynthesis of 1,3-propanediol were deleted. To obtain P3HP production, propionyl-CoA synthetase (prpE from E. coli) and polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase (phaC from Ralstonia eutropha) were introduced. Under the appropriate aeration condition, the cell yield and P3HP content were 0.24 g/L and 12.7% (wt/wt [cell dry weight]) respectively along with 2.03 g/L 3HP after 48 h cultivation. Although the yield is relatively low, this study shows the feasibility of producing P3HP in K. pneumoniae from glycerol without vitamin B12 for the first time. The results also suggest that the aeration conditions should be optimized carefully for the efficient production of P3HP. PMID:25621933

  9. Association between dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, B12 & MTHFR, MTR Genotype and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Weiwei, Zheng; Liping, Chen; Dequan, Li

    2014-01-01

    Objective: we conducted a case-control study to investigate the association between dietary folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 intake, MTHFR and MTR genotype, and breast cancer risk. Methods: Genotyping for MTHFR C677T and A1298C and MTR A2756G polymorphisms were performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP) method. The intake of folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 were calculated by each food item from questionnaire. Results: Subjects with breast cancer tended to have more first-degree relatives (?2=30.77, P<0.001) and have high intake of folate (t=2.42, P=0.008) and Vitamin B6 (t=2.94, P=0.002). Compared to the reference group, women with MTHFR 677 TT genotype and T allele had a significantly increased risk of breast cancer, with ORs (95%CI) of 1.8(1.08-2.27) and 1.39(1.02-1.92), respectively. For those who had folate intake?450 ug/day, MTHFR 667TT genotype was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer (OR=2.45, 95% CI=1.09-5.82, P=0.02). Similarly, subjects with Vitamin B6 intake?0.84 mg/day and MTHFR 667T allele genotype was correlated with a marginally increased risk of breast cancer. A significant interaction was observed between MTHFR C667T polymorphism and folate intake on the risk of breast cancer (P for interaction was 0.025). Conclusion: This case-control study found a significant association between MTHFR C667T polymorphism, folate intake and vitamin B6 and breast cancer risk, and a significant interaction was observed between MTHFR C667T polymorphism and folate intake on the risk of breast cancer. PMID:24639841

  10. Severe Vitamin D Deficiency Causing Kyphoscoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Singhai, Abhishek; Banzal, Subodh

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common among Indian population. Women are especially at risk for severe vitamin D deficiency. The risk is higher for those who are multiparous and postmenopausal. Poor exposure to sunlight, higher latitude, winter season, inadequate diet, older age, obesity and malabsorption are also important risk factors. Symptoms of hypovitaminosis D, including diffuse or migratory pain affecting several sites (especially the shoulder, pelvis, ribcage and lower back) have also been misdiagnosed as musculoskeletal disorders, including fibromyalgia, polymyalgia rheumatica and ankylosing spondylitis. Here, we report two cases presented with kyphoscoliosis, diagnosed to have severe vitamin D deficiency.

  11. Oral exposure to the anti-pyridoxine compound 1-amino D-proline further perturbs homocysteine metabolism through the transsulfuration pathway in moderately vitamin B? deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Mayengbam, Shyamchand; Raposo, Sara; Aliani, Michel; House, James D

    2015-03-01

    Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP; a B? vitamer) serves as an important cofactor in a myriad of metabolic reactions, including the transsulfuration (TS) pathway, which converts homocysteine (Hcy) to cysteine. While overt vitamin B? deficiency is rare, moderate deficiency is common and may be exacerbated by anti-pyridoxine factors in the food supply. To this end, we developed a model of moderate B? deficiency and a study was conducted to examine the in vivo effect of 1-amino D-proline (1ADP), an anti-pyridoxine factor found in flaxseed, on indices of Hcy metabolism through the TS pathway in moderately B? deficient rats. Male weaning rats received a semi-purified diet containing either 7 mg/kg (control; CD) or 0.7 mg/kg (moderately deficient; MD) diet of pyridoxine·hydrochloride (PN?HCl), each with 1 of 4 levels of 1ADP, viz. 0, 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg diet for 5 weeks. Perturbations in vitamin B? biomarkers were more pronounced in the MD group. Plasma PLP was significantly reduced, while plasma Hcy (8-fold) and cystathionine (11-fold) were increased in rats consuming the highest amount of 1ADP in the MD group. The activities of hepatic cystathionine ?-synthase and cystathionine ?-lyase enzymes were significantly reduced in rats consuming the highest 1ADP compared to the lowest, for both levels of PN?HCl. Dilation of hepatic central veins and sinusoids, mild steatosis and increased liver triglycerides were present in MD rats consuming the highest 1ADP level. The current data provide evidence that the consumption of an anti-pyridoxine factor linked to flaxseed may pose a risk for subjects who are moderate/severe vitamin B? deficient. PMID:25524630

  12. Clinical implications of vitamin D deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Lenart-Lipi?ska, Monika; Wo?niakowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a common medical problem worldwide and its prevalence rises along with latitude, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, limited sunlight exposure and aging. A great body of evidence has shown that patients with vitamin D deficiency have increased cardiovascular risks and total mortality. Conversely, the presence of comorbidities progressive with age such as abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and hypertension places the patients at an increased risk of vitamin D deficiency. The multidirectional effect of vitamin D deficiency is present in different phases of the aging process. Based on the literature review, the risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency most often found in post-menopausal women include limited sun exposure and time spent outdoors, inadequate dietary vitamin D intake, winter season and increased age. Vitamin D supplementation in this group might offer prevention of falls and fractures and may be beneficial for cardiovascular health, what may be especially important in osteoporotic and elderly populations. Prevention and treatment processes involve education regarding sunlight exposure and pharmacological cholecalciferol supplementation according to the recommendations for Central Europe. This manuscript reviews the role of vitamin D and its deficiency and considers their clinical implications, with particular regard to peri- and postmenopausal women. PMID:26327893

  13. Distributions of dissolved vitamin B 12 and Co in coastal and open-ocean environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzeca, Caterina; Beck, Aaron J.; Tovar-Sanchez, Antonio; Segovia-Zavala, Jose; Taylor, Gordon T.; Gobler, Christopher J.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.

    2009-11-01

    Distributions of dissolved vitamin B 12 and total dissolved Co were measured to gain an understanding of the cycling of these interdependent micronutrients in six marine settings including; an upwelling location, a semi-enclosed bay, two urban coastal systems, and two open ocean locations. Along the coast of Baja California, Mexico, concentrations of B 12 and dissolved Co varied from 0.2 to 11 pM and 180 to 990 pM, respectively. At a nearby upwelling station, vitamin B 12 and Co concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 7.0 pM and 22 to 145 pM, and concentrations did not correlate with upwelling intensity. Concentrations of B 12 were highest within Todos Santos Bay, a semi-enclosed bay off the coast of Baja California, Mexico, during a dinoflagellate bloom, ranging from 2 to 61 pM, while Co concentrations varied between 61 and 194 pM. In the anthropogenically impacted Long Island Sound, NY, U.S.A., B 12 levels were between 0.1 and 23 pM and Co concentrations varied from 60 to 1900 pM. However, anthropogenic inputs were not evident in B 12 levels in the San Pedro Basin, located outside Los Angeles, Ca, U.S.A., where concentrations of B 12 were 0.2-1.8 pM, approximating observed open ocean B 12 concentrations. In the Southern Ocean and North Atlantic Ocean, B 12 levels were 0.4-4 pM and 0.2-2 pM, respectively. Total Co concentrations in the Southern Ocean and North Atlantic tended to be low; measuring 26-59 pM and 15-80 pM, respectively. These low Co concentrations may limit B 12 synthesis and its availability to B 12-requiring phytoplankton because the total dissolved Co pool is not necessarily entirely bioavailable.

  14. Insights into dechlorination of PCE and TCE from carbon isotope fractionation by vitamin B12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, G.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Lesage, S.; Brown, S.

    2003-04-01

    Reductive dechlorination of perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) by vitamin B12 is both a potential remediation technique and an analogue of the microbial reductive dechlorination reaction. Stable carbon isotopic analysis, an effective and powerful tool for the investigation and monitoring of contaminant remediation, was used to characterize the isotopic effects of reductive dechlorination of PCE and TCE by vitamin B12 in laboratory microcosms. 10 mg/L vitamin B12 degraded greater than 90% of an initial concentration of PCE of 20 mg/L. TCE, the primary product of PCE degradation, accounted for between 64 - 72% of the PCE degraded. In experiments with TCE, 147 mg/L vitamin B12 degraded greater than 90% of an initial concentration of TCE of 20 mg/L. Cis-dichloroethene (cDCE), the primary product of TCE degradation, accounted for between 30 - 35% of the TCE degraded. Degradation of both PCE and TCE exhibited first order kinetics. Strong isotopic fractionation of the reactant PCE and of the reactant TCE was observed over the course of degradation. This fractionation could be described by a Rayleigh model with enrichment factors between -16.5 ppm and -15.8 ppm for PCE, and -17.2 ppm and -16.6 ppm for TCE. Fractionation was similar in all four experiments, with a mean enrichment factor of -16.5 +/- 0.6 ppm. These large enrichment factors indicate that isotopic analysis can be used to assess the occurrence of dechlorination of PCE and TCE by vitamin B12 in remediation situations. Significantly, the Rayleigh model could be used to predict the isotopic compositions of the major products of the reaction as well as the reactant, notwithstanding the lack of complete mass balance observed between product and reactant. This evidence suggests that isotopic fractionation is taking place during complexation of the chlorinated ethenes to vitamin B12, as has been suggested for reductive dechlorination by zero valent iron. The differences between e for this reaction and those observed for microbial biodegradation of the chlorinated ethenes suggest that there may be differences in the rate determining step for these two processes. Determining which steps are rate determining during degradation may allow optimization of contaminant remediation.

  15. Radioisotope dilution technique for determination of vitamin B/sub 12/ in foods

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, P.J.; Speckman, K.R.; Ebert, F.J.; Hobbs, W.E.

    1982-01-01

    A radioisotope dilution (RID) method for the determination of vitamin B/sub 12/ is presented. The method combines a standard extraction procedure (AOAC 43.108, 12th ed.) with a commercially available RID assay kit. The method was evaluated on a wide range of fortified and unfortified food products. Recovery studies on both groups yielded average recoveries of 98.1 and 95.8%, respectively. Reproducibility data generated from replicate analysis on both groups gave a relative standard deviation of 6.9% for the fortified group and 9.2% for the unfortified group. For the samples studied, the mean vitamin B/sub 12/ content determined by the RID method was 8.01 ..mu../100 g vs a mean of 7.54 ..mu..g/100 g by the AOAC microbiological method; the correlation coefficient was r = 0.983.

  16. An appraisal of the value of vitamin B12 in the prevention of motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, R. L.; Lacey, C. L.; Homick, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    It has been suggested that vitamin B12 given by intramuscular injection can significantly reduce the occurrence of motion sickness in susceptible individuals (Banks, 1980). Since it is known that B12 influences the metabolism of histidine and choline, dietary precursors to neurotransmitters with established roles in motion sickness, an experimental evaluation has been undertaken of the efficacy of B12 in the prevention of motion sickness induced by controlled coriolis simulation. Subjects executed standardized head movements at successively higher rpm until a malaise III endpoint was reached. Following two baseline tests with this motion stressor, subjects received a B12 injection, a second injection two weeks later, and a final motion sickness test three weeks later. No significant differences in the susceptibility to motion sickness were noted after B12.

  17. [Vitamin K: biochemistry, function, and deficiency. Review].

    PubMed

    Mijares, M E; Nagy, E; Guerrero, B; Arocha-Piñango, C L

    1998-09-01

    Vitamin K is a cofactor for the synthesis of blood coagulation Factors II, VII, IX and X, and inhibitors such as Protein C and S and bone matrix protein. Its active form is a coenzyme in the glutamic acid carboxylation. Vitamin K-dependent factors form enzymatic complexes with calcium and membrane phospholipids. The insufficiency of gamma glutamic carboxylation impairs the hemostatic function. Hereditary deficiencies, antibiotics and oral anticoagulants, decrease the capacity of complex formation giving way to hemorrhage or thrombosis, or bone mass disturbances which are easily treated with administration of Vitamin K. The main causes of Vitamin K deficiency are lack of hepatic storage in newborns, liver insufficiency, malabsorption, dietetic deficiency, therapy with the antibiotics and coumarin administration. For the study of Vitamin K there are methods to measure the Vit K dependent proteins and as well methods to measure specifically the quinonas. PMID:9780555

  18. Vitamin D Deficiency in Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Flood-Nichols, Shannon K.; Tinnemore, Deborah; Huang, Raywin R.; Napolitano, Peter G.; Ippolito, Danielle L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Vitamin D deficiency is a common problem in reproductive-aged women in the United States. The effect of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy is unknown, but has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between vitamin D deficiency in the first trimester and subsequent clinical outcomes. Study Design This is a retrospective cohort study. Plasma was collected in the first trimester from 310 nulliparous women with singleton gestations without significant medical problems. Competitive enzymatic vitamin D assays were performed on banked plasma specimens and pregnancy outcomes were collected after delivery. Logistic regression was performed on patients stratified by plasma vitamin D concentration and the following combined clinical outcomes: preeclampsia, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth restriction, gestational diabetes, and spontaneous abortion. Results Vitamin D concentrations were obtained from 235 patients (mean age 24.3 years, range 18-40 years). Seventy percent of our study population was vitamin D insufficient with a serum concentration less than 30 ng/mL (mean serum concentration 27.6 ng/mL, range 13-71.6 ng/mL). Logistic regression was performed adjusting for age, race, body mass index, tobacco use, and time of year. Adverse pregnancy outcomes included preeclampsia, growth restriction, preterm delivery, gestational diabetes, and spontaneous abortion. There was no association between vitamin D deficiency and composite adverse pregnancy outcomes with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.01 (p value 0.738, 95% confidence intervals 0.961-1.057). Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency did not associate with adverse pregnancy outcomes in this study population. However, the high percentage of affected individuals highlights the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in young, reproductive-aged women. PMID:25898021

  19. The bluF gene of Rhodobacter capsulatus is involved in conversion of cobinamide to cobalamin (vitamin B12).

    PubMed Central

    Pollich, M; Wersig, C; Klug, G

    1996-01-01

    The bluF gene of Rhodobacter capsulatus is the first gene of the bluFEDCB operon which is involved in late steps of the cobalamin synthesis. To determine the function of the bluF gene product, a bluF::omega-Km mutant strain was constructed and characterized. This vitamin B12 auxotrophic mutant strain shows a 3.5-times higher vitamin B12 requirement under phototrophic growth conditions than under chemotrophic growth conditions. Surprisingly, the bluF promoter activity does not respond to alterations to the oxygen tension or vitamin B12 concentration. PMID:8955417

  20. Theoretical analysis of electronic absorption spectra of vitamin B12 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andruniow, Tadeusz; Kozlowski, Pawel M.; Zgierski, Marek Z.

    2001-10-01

    Time-dependent density-functional theory (TD-DFT) is applied to analyze the electronic absorption spectra of vitamin B12. To accomplish this two model systems were considered: CN-[CoIII-corrin]-CN (dicyanocobinamide, DCC) and imidazole-[CoIII-corrin]-CN (cyanocobalamin, ImCC). For both models 30 lowest excited states were calculated together with transition dipole moments. When the results of TD-DFT calculations were directly compared with experiment it was found that the theoretical values systematically overestimate experimental data by approximately 0.5 eV. The uniform adjustment of the calculated transition energies allowed detailed analysis of electronic absorption spectra of vitamin B12 models. All absorption bands in spectral range 2.0-5.0 eV were readily assigned. In particular, TD-DFT calculations were able to explain the origin of the shift of the lowest absorption band caused by replacement of the-CN axial ligand by imidazole.

  1. Vitamin D Deficiency and Gallbladder Stasis.

    PubMed

    Onal, Eda Demir; Berker, Dilek; Guler, Serdar

    2015-12-01

    Cholelithiasis or presence of calculi/gallstones in the gallbladder occurs more frequently in pregnant women. Vitamin D deficiency is suggested to be associated with gallbladder stasis, and a role for vitamin D supplementation is thought to have potential to prevent gallstones in this special population. PMID:26507741

  2. Studies in the biosynthesis of vitamin B12 

    E-print Network

    Anousis, Nick

    1994-01-01

    catalyzing the C-2 and C-7 methylations of Uroporphyrinogen III to precorrin-2, without performing an extra methylation at C-12 of precorrin-2 to trimethylpyrrocorphin. The function of the S.typhimurium cbid gene product has not yet been identified. The C...

  3. Disposable pencil graphite electrode modified with peptide nanotubes for Vitamin B12 analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pala, Betül Bozdo?an; Vural, Tayfun; Kuralay, Filiz; Ç?rak, Tamer; Bolat, Gülçin; Abac?, Serdar; Denkba?, Emir Baki

    2014-06-01

    In this study, peptide nanostructures from diphenylalanine were synthesized in various solvents with various polarities and characterized with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD) techniques. Formation of peptide nanofibrils, nanovesicles, nanoribbons, and nanotubes was observed in different solvent mediums. In order to investigate the effects of peptide nanotubes (PNT) on electrochemical behavior of disposable pencil graphite electrodes (PGE), electrode surfaces were modified with fabricated peptide nanotubes. Electrochemical activity of the pencil graphite electrode was increased with the deposition of PNTs on the surface. The effects of the solvent type, the peptide nanotube concentration, and the passive adsorption time of peptide nanotubes on pencil graphite electrode were studied. For further electrochemical studies, electrodes were modified for 30 min by immobilizing PNTs, which were prepared in water at 6 mg/mL concentration. Vitamin B12 analyses were performed by the Square Wave (SW) voltammetry method using modified PGEs. The obtained data showed linearity over the range of 0.2 ?M and 9.50 ?M Vitamin B12 concentration with high sensitivity. Results showed that PNT modified PGEs were highly simple, fast, cost effective, and feasible for the electro-analytical determination of Vitamin B12 in real samples.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyl reductive dechlorination by vitamin B{sub 12s}: Thermodynamics and regiospecificity

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, S.L.; Trobaugh, D.J.; Carter, K.J.

    1999-03-15

    Microbial reductive dechlorination reactions play an important role in determining the environmental fate of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), especially for PCB congeners with more than four chlorines. Powerful chemical catalysts such as vitamin B{sub 12s} provide an effective tool for the study of reductive dechlorination reactions. The reductive dechlorination of PCBs by titanium(III) citrate-reduced vitamin B{sub 12s} was studied in batch reactors. Long-term experiments demonstrated reductive dechlorination of aqueous and sediment-sorbed 2,3,4,5,6-pentachlorobiphenyl (2,3,4,5,6-PeCB) to tetra-, tri-, di-, and monochlorobiphenyl products. Approximately 10% chlorine removal was observed in 36 days in aqueous experiments at 20 C; the sediment experiment showed 40% chlorine removal in 42 days at 30 C. Nearly all possible intermediates were produced and reductively dechlorinated, with no apparent accumulation of individual congeners. Short-term experiments were conducted to determine the pathway for vitamin B{sub 12s}-catalyzed reductive dechlorination of aqueous 2,3,4,5,6-PeCB and its dechlorinated products; relative product distributions were measured for all possible tetra- and trichlorobiphenyl reductive dechlorination reactions. Theoretical product distributions based on free energies of formation agreed with observed product distributions for short- and long-term experiments. Reductive dechlorination was favored at positions with adjacent chlorines; on average, chlorines were removed equally from ortho, meta, and para positions.

  5. Beyond catalysis: vitamin B12 as a cofactor in gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Klug, Gabriele

    2014-02-01

    Vitamin B12 is well known as an enzyme cofactor in the catalysis of many important biological reactions, and the role of B12 in regulation of bacterial gene expression as a ligand of riboswitches is well established. Only recently evidence has emerged that B12 can also affect bacterial gene expression by acting as a cofactor of regulatory proteins. In 2011 a role of B12 as a cofactor of the transcriptional repressor of carotenogenesis, CarH, in Myxococcus xanthus was reported. B12 is required for light-dependent DNA binding by CarH, which can therefore be considered to be a new type of photoreceptor. Cheng et al. (2014) report the identification of B12 as a cofactor of the AerR protein in Rhodobacter capsulatus. AerR acts as an antirepressor of the CrtJ protein, which represses photosynthesis genes when binding to its target promoters. As in Myxococcus B12 may have the role of a chromophore in photoreception, but it is suggested that a main function of AerR is the sensing of B12. The co-regulation of the pathways is beneficial because the syntheses of B12 , haem and bacteriochlorophylls share common precursors and the accumulation of the free molecules is toxic. PMID:24330414

  6. Pyridoxine supplementation corrects vitamin B6 deficiency but does not improve inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, En-Pei I; Selhub, Jacob; Bagley, Pamela J; Dallal, Gerard; Roubenoff, Ronenn

    2005-01-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis have subnormal vitamin B6 status, both quantitatively and functionally. Abnormal vitamin B6 status in rheumatoid arthritis has been associated with spontaneous tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? production and markers of inflammation, including C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Impaired vitamin B6 status could be a result of inflammation, and these patients may have higher demand for vitamin B6. The aim of this study was to determine if daily supplementation with 50 mg of pyridoxine for 30 days can correct the static and/or the functional abnormalities of vitamin B6 status seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and further investigate if pyridoxine supplementation has any effects on the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-? or IL-6 production of arthritis. This was a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study involving patients with rheumatoid arthritis with plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate below the 25th percentile of the Framingham Heart Cohort Study. Vitamin B6 status was assessed via plasma and erythrocyte pyridoxal 5'-phosphate concentrations, the erythrocyte aspartate aminotransferase activity coefficient (?EAST), net homocysteine increase in response to a methionine load test (?tHcy), and 24 h urinary xanthurenic acid (XA) excretion in response to a tryptophan load test. Urinary 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA) was measured to examine the impact of pyridoxine treatment on vitamin B6 excretion in these patients. Pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-? and IL-6) production, C-reactive protein levels and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate before and after supplementation were also examined. Pyridoxine supplementation significantly improved plasma and erythrocyte pyridoxal 5'-phosphate concentrations, erythrocyte ?EAST, urinary 4-PA, and XA excretion. These improvements were apparent regardless of baseline B6 levels. Pyridoxine supplementation also showed a trend (p < 0.09) towards a reduction in post-methionine load ?tHcy. Supplementation did not affect pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Although pyridoxine supplementation did not suppress pro-inflammatory cytokine production in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, the suboptimal vitamin B6 status seen in rheumatoid arthritis can be corrected by 50 mg pyridoxine supplementation for 30 days. Data from the present study suggest that patients with rheumatoid arthritis may have higher requirements for vitamin B6 than those in a normal healthy population. PMID:16277693

  7. High frequency of low serum levels of vitamin 12 among patients attending Jordan University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Barghouti, F F; Younes, N A; Halaseh, L J; Said, T T; Ghraiz, S M

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the status of serum vitamin B12 level in patients attending Jordan University Hospital in Amman, and to examine the relationship with demographic data, chronic illness, dietary habits, haematological parameters and symptoms related to vitamin B12 levels. A total of 838 patients completed a questionnaire and gave blood samples; 44.6% were vitamin B12 deficient (< 180 pg/mL) and 34.2% had hypovitaminosis (180-300 pg/mL). Vitamin B12 deficiency was associated with memory impairment, low meat intake and strict vegetarian (vegan) diets. The high frequency of low vitamin B12 warrants the development of a strategy to correct this problem in Jordan. PMID:20187536

  8. Insights into the evolution of vitamin B12 auxotrophy from sequenced algal genomes.

    PubMed

    Helliwell, Katherine E; Wheeler, Glen L; Leptos, Kyriacos C; Goldstein, Raymond E; Smith, Alison G

    2011-10-01

    Vitamin B(12) (cobalamin) is a dietary requirement for humans because it is an essential cofactor for two enzymes, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase (METH). Land plants and fungi neither synthesize or require cobalamin because they do not contain methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, and have an alternative B(12)-independent methionine synthase (METE). Within the algal kingdom, approximately half of all microalgal species need the vitamin as a growth supplement, but there is no phylogenetic relationship between these species, suggesting that the auxotrophy arose multiple times through evolution. We set out to determine the underlying cellular mechanisms for this observation by investigating elements of B(12) metabolism in the sequenced genomes of 15 different algal species, with representatives of the red, green, and brown algae, diatoms, and coccolithophores, including both macro- and microalgae, and from marine and freshwater environments. From this analysis, together with growth assays, we found a strong correlation between the absence of a functional METE gene and B(12) auxotrophy. The presence of a METE unitary pseudogene in the B(12)-dependent green algae Volvox carteri and Gonium pectorale, relatives of the B(12)-independent Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, suggest that B(12) dependence evolved recently in these lineages. In both C. reinhardtii and the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, growth in the presence of cobalamin leads to repression of METE transcription, providing a mechanism for gene loss. Thus varying environmental conditions are likely to have been the reason for the multiple independent origins of B(12) auxotrophy in these organisms. Because the ultimate source of cobalamin is from prokaryotes, the selective loss of METE in different algal lineages will have had important physiological and ecological consequences for these organisms in terms of their dependence on bacteria. PMID:21551270

  9. Comparative genomics of the vitamin B12 metabolism and regulation in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Rodionov, Dmitry A; Vitreschak, Alexey G; Mironov, Andrey A; Gelfand, Mikhail S

    2003-10-17

    Using comparative analysis of genes, operons, and regulatory elements, we describe the cobalamin (vitamin B12) biosynthetic pathway in available prokaryotic genomes. Here we found a highly conserved RNA secondary structure, the regulatory B12 element, which is widely distributed in the upstream regions of cobalamin biosynthetic/transport genes in eubacteria. In addition, the binding signal (CBL-box) for a hypothetical B12 regulator was identified in some archaea. A search for B12 elements and CBL-boxes and positional analysis identified a large number of new candidate B12-regulated genes in various prokaryotes. Among newly assigned functions associated with the cobalamin biosynthesis, there are several new types of cobalt transporters, ChlI and ChlD subunits of the CobN-dependent cobaltochelatase complex, cobalt reductase BluB, adenosyltransferase PduO, several new proteins linked to the lower ligand assembly pathway, l-threonine kinase PduX, and a large number of other hypothetical proteins. Most missing genes detected within the cobalamin biosynthetic pathways of various bacteria were identified as nonorthologous substitutes. The variable parts of the cobalamin metabolism appear to be the cobalt transport and insertion, the CobG/CbiG- and CobF/CbiD-catalyzed reactions, and the lower ligand synthesis pathway. The most interesting result of analysis of B12 elements is that B12-independent isozymes of the methionine synthase and ribonucleotide reductase are regulated by B12 elements in bacteria that have both B12-dependent and B12-independent isozymes. Moreover, B12 regulons of various bacteria are thought to include enzymes from known B12-dependent or alternative pathways. PMID:12869542

  10. Possible association between vitamin D deficiency and restless legs syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Oran, Mustafa; Unsal, Cuneyt; Albayrak, Yakup; Tulubas, Feti; Oguz, Keriman; Avci, Okan; Turgut, Nilda; Alp, Recep; Gurel, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Background and aim Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a distressing sleep disorder that occurs worldwide. Although there have been recent developments in understanding the pathophysiology of RLS, the exact mechanism of the disease has not been well elucidated. An increased prevalence of neurologic and psychiatric diseases involving dopaminergic dysfunction in vitamin D–deficient patients led us to hypothesize that vitamin D deficiency might result in dopaminergic dysfunction and consequently, the development of RLS (in which dopaminergic dysfunction plays a pivotal role). Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and RLS. Methods One hundred and fifty-five consecutive patients, 18–65 years of age, who were admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine with musculoskeletal symptoms and who subsequently underwent neurological and electromyography (EMG) examination by the same senior neurologist, were included in this study. The patients were divided into two groups according to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) (a vitamin D metabolite used as a measure of vitamin D status) level: 36 patients with serum 25(OH)D levels ?20 ng/mL comprised the normal vitamin D group, and 119 patients with serum 25(OH)D levels <20 ng/mL comprised the vitamin D deficiency group. The two groups were compared for the presence of RLS and associated factors. Results The two groups were similar in terms of mean age, sex, mean body mass index (BMI), and serum levels of calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and ferritin. The presence of RLS was significantly higher in the vitamin D deficiency group (?2=12.87, P<0.001). Regression analysis showed vitamin D deficiency and serum 25(OH)D level to be significantly associated with the presence of RLS (odds ratio [OR] 5.085, P<0.001 and OR 1.047, P=0.006, respectively). Conclusion The present study demonstrated a possible association between vitamin D deficiency and RLS. Given the dopaminergic effects of vitamin D, 25(OH)D depletion may lead to dopaminergic dysfunction and may have a place in the etiology of RLS. Prospective vitamin D treatment studies are needed to confirm this relationship and to evaluate the efficacy of vitamin D as a treatment for RLS patients. PMID:24899811

  11. Higher maternal plasma folate but not vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy are associated with better cognitive function scores in 9- to 10- year-old children in South India.

    PubMed

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Wills, Andrew K; Muthayya, Sumithra; Kurpad, Anura V; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Fall, Caroline H D

    2010-05-01

    Folate and vitamin B-12 are essential for normal brain development. Few studies have examined the relationship of maternal folate and vitamin B-12 status during pregnancy and offspring cognitive function. To test the hypothesis that lower maternal plasma folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations and higher plasma homocysteine concentrations during pregnancy are associated with poorer neurodevelopment, 536 children (aged 9-10 y) from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort underwent cognitive function assessment during 2007-2008 using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery, and additional tests measuring learning, long-term storage/retrieval, attention and concentration, and visuo-spatial and verbal abilities. Maternal folate, vitamin B-12, and homocysteine concentrations were measured at 30 +/- 2 wk gestation. During pregnancy, 4% of mothers had low folate concentrations (<7 nmol/L), 42.5% had low vitamin B-12 concentrations (<150 pmol/L), and 3% had hyperhomocysteinemia (>10 micromol/L). The children's cognitive test scores increased by 0.1-0.2 SD per SD increase across the entire range of maternal folate concentrations (P < 0.001 for all), with no apparent associations at the deficiency level. The associations with learning, long-term storage/retrieval, visuo-spatial ability, attention, and concentration were independent of the parents' education, socioeconomic status, religion, and the child's sex, age, current size, and folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations. There were no consistent associations of maternal vitamin B-12 and homocysteine concentrations with childhood cognitive performance. In this Indian population, higher maternal folate, but not vitamin B-12, concentrations during pregnancy predicted better childhood cognitive ability. It also suggests that, in terms of neurodevelopment, the concentration used to define folate deficiency may be set too low. PMID:20335637

  12. Fundamental shift in vitamin B12 eco-physiology of a model alga demonstrated by experimental evolution

    E-print Network

    Helliwell, Katherine E.; Collins, Sinéad; Kazamia, Elena; Purton, Saul; Wheeler, Glen L.; Smith, Alison G.

    2014-01-01

    and Dietrich, 2007). Among algae - 61 taxonomically diverse photosynthetic eukaryotes - vitamin auxotrophy is also a highly 62 variable trait. Approximately 50%, 22% and 5% of species surveyed require vitamin B12 63 (cobalamin), B1 (thiamine) and B7 (biotin... , in patches of elevated microbial activity – i.e. non-specific interactions with 75 prokaryote producers (Karl et al, 2002; Azam et al, 2007). Based on genome analyses 76 prokaryotic taxa implicated in cobalamin synthesis include members of the 77...

  13. Improved propionic acid and 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole control strategy for vitamin B12 fermentation by Propionibacterium freudenreichii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Zhang, Zhiwei; Jiao, Youjing; Liu, Shouxin; Wang, Yunshan

    2015-01-10

    An efficient fermentation-strengthening approach was developed to improve the anaerobic production of vitamin B12 by cultivation process optimization with Propionibacterium freudenreichii. The effects of the byproduct propionic acid and the precursor 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB) on vitamin B12 biosynthesis were investigated. Byproduct inhibition experiments showed that maintaining propionic acid concentration in broth below 10-20 g/L in the early stage and 20-30 g/L in the late stage can efficiently improve vitamin B12 biosynthesis. Batch fermentation indicated the occurrence of feed-back inhibition in intracellular intermediate biosynthesis. In addition, the incorporation of the precursor DMB depended on the fermentation level of the vitamin B12 intermediate. High vitamin B12 concentration (58.8 mg/L) and production (0.37 mg/g) were obtained with an expanded bed adsorption bioreactor by using the propionic acid and DMB control method. The optimum concentration and production of 59.5 and 0.59 mg/L h for vitamin B12 production were respectively achieved after five continuous batches. PMID:25455014

  14. Vitamin D deficiency in chronic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Iruzubieta, Paula; Terán, Álvaro; Crespo, Javier; Fábrega, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D is an important secosteroid hormone with known effect on calcium homeostasis, but recently there is increasing recognition that vitamin D also is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Vitamin D deficiency has been frequently reported in many causes of chronic liver disease and has been associated with the development and evolution of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and chronic hepatitis C (CHC) virus infection. The role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and CHC is not completely known, but it seems that the involvement of vitamin D in the activation and regulation of both innate and adaptive immune systems and its antiproliferative effect may explain its importance in these liver diseases. Published studies provide evidence for routine screening for hypovitaminosis D in patients with liver disease. Further prospectives studies demonstrating the impact of vitamin D replacement in NAFLD and CHC are required. PMID:25544877

  15. Folate, Vitamin B12, and Homocysteine as Risk Factors for Cognitive Decline in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Yang, Su-Jin; Park, Woo-Young; Kim, Sung-Jin; Shin, Hee-Young

    2008-01-01

    Objective Cross-sectional studies have shown that the dysregulation of one-carbon metabolism is associated with cognitive impairment. However, the findings of longitudinal studies investigating this association have been inconsistent. This study investigated the prospective associations between cognitive decline and the levels of folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine both at baseline and over course of the study period. Methods A total of 607 (83%) elderly individuals were selected from a group of 732 elderly individuals without dementia at baseline and followed over a 2.4-year study period. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was administered to the subjects, and the serum levels of folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine were assayed both at baseline and at follow-up examinations. Covariates included demographic data, disability, depression, alcohol consumption, physical activity, vascular risk factors, serum creatinine level, vitamin intake, and apolipoprotein E genotype. Results Cognitive decline was associated with decreasing quintiles of folate at baseline, a relative decline in folate and an increase in homocysteine across the two examinations after adjustment for relevant covariates. Conclusion These results suggest that folate and homocysteine are involved in the etiology of cognitive decline in the elderly. PMID:20046406

  16. Regulation of the vitamin B12 metabolism and transport in bacteria by a conserved RNA structural element

    PubMed Central

    VITRESCHAK, ALEXEY G.; RODIONOV, DMITRY A.; MIRONOV, ANDREY A.; GELFAND, MIKHAIL S.

    2003-01-01

    Cobalamin in the form of adenosylcobalamin (Ado-CBL) is known to repress expression of genes for vitamin B12 biosynthesis and be transported by a posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism, which involves direct binding of Ado-CBL to 5?untranslated gene regions (5?UTR). Using comparative analysis of genes and regulatory regions, we identified a highly conserved RNA structure, the B12-element, which is widely distributed in 5?UTRs of vitamin B12-related genes in eubacteria. Multiple alignment of approximately 200 B12-elements from 66 bacterial genomes reveals their common secondary structure and several extended regions of sequence conservation, including the previously known B12-box motif. In analogy to the model of regulation of the riboflavin and thiamin biosynthesis, we suggest Ado-CBL-mediated regulation based on formation of alternative RNA structures including the B12-element. In Gram-negative proteobacteria, as well as in cyanobacteria, actinobacteria, and the CFB group, the cobalamin biosynthesis and vitamin B12 transport genes are predicted to be regulated by inhibition of translation initiation, whereas in the Bacillus/Clostridium group of Gram-positive bacteria, these genes seem to be regulated by transcriptional antitermination. Phylogenetic analysis of the B12-elements reveals a large number of likely duplications of B12-elements in several bacterial genomes. These lineage-specific duplications of RNA regulatory elements seem to be a major evolutionary mechanism for expansion of the vitamin B12 regulon. PMID:12923257

  17. Iron limitation of a springtime bacterial and phytoplankton community in the ross sea: implications for vitamin b(12) nutrition.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Erin M; Saito, Mak A; Lee, Peter A; Dunbar, Robert B; Sedwick, Peter N; Ditullio, Giacomo R

    2011-01-01

    The Ross Sea is home to some of the largest phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean. Primary production in this system has previously been shown to be iron limited in the summer and periodically iron and vitamin B(12) colimited. In this study, we examined trace metal limitation of biological activity in the Ross Sea in the austral spring and considered possible implications for vitamin B(12) nutrition. Bottle incubation experiments demonstrated that iron limited phytoplankton growth in the austral spring while B(12), cobalt, and zinc did not. This is the first demonstration of iron limitation in a Phaeocystis antarctica-dominated, early season Ross Sea phytoplankton community. The lack of B(12) limitation in this location is consistent with previous Ross Sea studies in the austral summer, wherein vitamin additions did not stimulate P. antarctica growth and B(12) was limiting only when bacterial abundance was low. Bottle incubation experiments and a bacterial regrowth experiment also revealed that iron addition directly enhanced bacterial growth. B(12) uptake measurements in natural water samples and in an iron fertilized bottle incubation demonstrated that bacteria serve not only as a source for vitamin B(12), but also as a significant sink, and that iron additions enhanced B(12) uptake rates in phytoplankton but not bacteria. Additionally, vitamin uptake rates did not become saturated upon the addition of up to 95?pM B(12). A rapid B(12) uptake rate was observed after 13?min, which then decreased to a slower constant uptake rate over the next 52?h. Results from this study highlight the importance of iron availability in limiting early season Ross Sea phytoplankton growth and suggest that rates of vitamin B(12) production and consumption may be impacted by iron availability. PMID:21886638

  18. Iron Limitation of a Springtime Bacterial and Phytoplankton Community in the Ross Sea: Implications for Vitamin B12 Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Erin M.; Saito, Mak A.; Lee, Peter A.; Dunbar, Robert B.; Sedwick, Peter N.; DiTullio, Giacomo R.

    2011-01-01

    The Ross Sea is home to some of the largest phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean. Primary production in this system has previously been shown to be iron limited in the summer and periodically iron and vitamin B12 colimited. In this study, we examined trace metal limitation of biological activity in the Ross Sea in the austral spring and considered possible implications for vitamin B12 nutrition. Bottle incubation experiments demonstrated that iron limited phytoplankton growth in the austral spring while B12, cobalt, and zinc did not. This is the first demonstration of iron limitation in a Phaeocystis antarctica-dominated, early season Ross Sea phytoplankton community. The lack of B12 limitation in this location is consistent with previous Ross Sea studies in the austral summer, wherein vitamin additions did not stimulate P. antarctica growth and B12 was limiting only when bacterial abundance was low. Bottle incubation experiments and a bacterial regrowth experiment also revealed that iron addition directly enhanced bacterial growth. B12 uptake measurements in natural water samples and in an iron fertilized bottle incubation demonstrated that bacteria serve not only as a source for vitamin B12, but also as a significant sink, and that iron additions enhanced B12 uptake rates in phytoplankton but not bacteria. Additionally, vitamin uptake rates did not become saturated upon the addition of up to 95?pM B12. A rapid B12 uptake rate was observed after 13?min, which then decreased to a slower constant uptake rate over the next 52?h. Results from this study highlight the importance of iron availability in limiting early season Ross Sea phytoplankton growth and suggest that rates of vitamin B12 production and consumption may be impacted by iron availability. PMID:21886638

  19. Fundamental shift in vitamin B12 eco-physiology of a model alga demonstrated by experimental evolution

    PubMed Central

    Helliwell, Katherine E.; Collins, Sinéad; Kazamia, Elena; Purton, Saul; Wheeler, Glen L.; Smith, Alison G.

    2014-01-01

    A widespread and complex distribution of vitamin requirements exists over the entire tree of life, with many species having evolved vitamin dependence, both within and between different lineages. Vitamin availability has been proposed to drive selection for vitamin dependence, in a process that links an organism’s metabolism to the environment, but this has never been demonstrated directly. Moreover, understanding the physiological processes and evolutionary dynamics that influence metabolic demand for these important micronutrients has significant implications in terms of nutrient acquisition, and in microbial organisms, can affect community composition and metabolic exchange between coexisting species. Here, we investigate the origins of vitamin dependence, using an experimental evolution approach with the vitamin B12-independent model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In fewer than 500 generations of growth in the presence of vitamin B12, we observe the evolution of a B12-dependent clone that rapidly displaces its ancestor. Genetic characterization of this line reveals a type-II Gulliver-related transposable element (GR-TE) integrated into the B12-independent methionine synthase gene (METE), knocking out gene function and critically altering the physiology of the alga. PMID:25526368

  20. Corneal proteoglycan changes under vitamin A deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Twining, S.S.; Wilson, P.M.

    1986-05-01

    The vitamin A-deficient keratinized cornea is very susceptible to ulceration possibly due to altered stromal components. In this study the proteoglycans present in the corneal stroma of vitamin A-deficient, pair-fed and normal rabbits were compared. Rabbits after weaning were placed on a vitamin A deficient diet, the same diet with retinyl palmitate added (pair-fed) or normal rabbit chow. After 5 months, the corneas of the vitamin A-deficient animals became keratinized. The corneal components were then labeled by injection of /sup 3/H-leucine and Na/sup 35/SO/sub 4/ into the anterior chamber of the eyes on 3 successive days. On the 4th day the animals were sacrificed the corneas removed and dissected. The labeled corneal stromas were extracted with 4 M GuHCl and the components separated on a DEAE-Sepharose column. The proteoglycans were eluted with 0.5 M and 1.0 M NaCl. The 1.0 M NaCl fraction (mainly keratin sulfate proteoglycans) was increased 25% in the vitamin A-deficient corneas over that for the pair-fed and normal corneas. These proteoglycans from the deficient corneas gave a different elution pattern on Octyl-Sepharose eluted with a Triton X-100 gradient than those from the pair-fed corneas. The total labeled proteoglycans were similar in the stromas from the 3 types of rabbits. These results indicate the various corneal proteoglycan ratios differ under vitamin A deficiency conditions.

  1. Folate, vitamin B??, and S-adenosylmethionine.

    PubMed

    Bottiglieri, Teodoro

    2013-03-01

    Folate (vitamin B9) and cobalamin (vitamin B12) are essential for the normal development and function of the central nervous system. The metabolism of these vitamins is intimately linked and supports the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the major methyl group donor in methylation reactions. This article reviews the metabolic and clinical importance of folate, vitamin B12, and SAMe, as well as clinical trials in relation to depression and dementia. PMID:23538072

  2. Progressive hyperpigmentation in a Taiwanese child due to an inborn error of vitamin B12 metabolism (cblJ).

    PubMed

    Takeichi, T; Hsu, C-K; Yang, H-S; Chen, H-Y; Wong, T-W; Tsai, W-L; Chao, S-C; Lee, J Y-Y; Akiyama, M; Simpson, M A; McGrath, J A

    2015-04-01

    The physiology of human skin pigmentation is varied and complex, with an extensive melanogenic paracrine network involving mesenchymal and epithelial cells, contributing to the regulation of melanocyte survival and proliferation and melanogenesis. Mutations in several genes, involving predominantly the KIT ligand/c-Kit and Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways, have been implicated in a spectrum of diseases in which there is hyperpigmentation, hypopigmentation or both. Here, we report on a 12-year-old girl from Taiwan with a 6-year history of diffuse progressive skin hyperpigmentation resulting from a different aetiology: an inborn metabolic disorder of vitamin B12 (cobalamin), designated cblJ. Using whole-exome sequencing we identified a homozygous mutation in ABCD4 (c.423C>G; p.Asn141Lys), which encodes an ATP-binding cassette transporter with a role in the intracellular processing of cobalamin. The patient had biochemical and haematological evidence of cobalamin deficiency but no other clinical abnormalities apart from a slight lightening of her previously black hair. Of note, she had no neurological symptoms or signs. Treatment with oral cobalamin (3 mg daily) led to metabolic correction and some reduction in the skin hyperpigmentation at the 3-month follow-up. This case demonstrates that defects or deficiencies of cobalamin should be remembered in the differential diagnosis of diffuse hyperpigmentary skin disorders. PMID:25234635

  3. A riboswitch sensor to determine vitamin B12 in fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuan; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Xiaoqi; Gu, Qing

    2015-05-15

    We describe a sensitive and selective method for determination of vitamin B12 content in fermented foods using riboswitch sensor. A riboswitch amplicon from Propionibacterium freudenreichii was cloned in p519NGFP vector in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The expression of green fluorescence protein was revers correlated to the concentrations of adenosylcobalamin. Adenosylcobalamin directly binds to riboswitch region leading to conformational changes in the secondary structure of mRNA, thus inhibiting expression. After various examinations, a standard curve was obtained from 10 to 1000 ng/mL of cyanocobalamin. The limit of determination is 10 ng/mL. The inter-assay coefficients of variation were 7.5% for the range of 10-1000 ng/mL. The recovery of this method was 92.3%. This method has no or less responses to nucleic acid, pseudovitamin B12, vitamin B12 bound to intrinsic factor and haptocorrin. The riboswitch sensor results were similar with HPLC, but they were Ca. 24% lower than the microbiological assay results. PMID:25577115

  4. Vitamin B12 biosynthesis over waste frying sunflower oil as a cost effective and renewable substrate.

    PubMed

    Hajfarajollah, Hamidreza; Mokhtarani, Babak; Mortaheb, Hamidreza; Afaghi, Ali

    2015-06-01

    Statistical experimental designs were used to develop a medium based on waste frying sunflower oil (WFO) and other nutrient sources for production of vitamin B12 (VB12) by Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. freudenreichii PTCC 1674. The production of acetic acid and propionic acid were also evaluated using the same microorganism. The amount of WFO in the media was initially optimized. The amount of 4 % w/v of oil found to be an appropriate amount for production of VB12. A Plackett Burman design was then employed to identify nutrients that have significant effect on the production of VB12 in the WFO media. Dimethylbenzimidazolyl (DMB), cobalt chloride, ferrous sulfate, and calcium chloride were the most important compounds. The level optimization of nutrients as the significant factors was finally performed using response surface methodology based on a central composite design. The model predicted that a medium containing 35.56 mg/L DMB, 14.69 mg/L CoCl2.6H2O, 5.82 mg/L FeSO4.7H2O, and 11.41 mg/L CaCl2.2H2O gives the maximum VB12 production of 2.60 mg/L. The optimized medium provides a final concentration of vitamin 170 % higher than that by the original medium. This study offers valuable insights on a cost-effective carbon source for industrial production of food-grade VB12. PMID:26028708

  5. Carbon tetrachloride degradation: Effect of microbial growth substrate and vitamin B{sub 12} content

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, S.; Stensel, H.D.; Ferguson, J.F.

    2000-05-01

    Microbial degradation kinetics of carbon tetrachloride (CT) under reducing conditions were investigated for different cultures, fed with 1,2-propanediol, dextrose, propionalde-hyde, or acetate and nitrate, in the anaerobic step of an anaerobic/aerobic operation sequence. Methanogenesis was inhibited due to the aerobic step. CT biodegradation rates followed first-order kinetics with respect to CT concentration and biomass and were not affected by the presence of growth substrate. CT degradation rates increased linearly with higher intracellular vitamin B{sub 12} content. The culture fed 1,2-propanediol had the highest vitamin B{sub 12} content, which was 3.8, 4.7, and 16 times that of the propionaldehyde-,dextrose-, and acetate-fed cultures, respectively, and its first-order degradation rate constant was 2.8, 4.5, 6.0 times that for those cultures, respectively. No CT degradation occurred with culture liquid, suggesting that intracellular factors were responsible for CT degradation. The propanediol culture was able to sustain a constant CT degradation rate for a 16-day test period without substrate addition. Compared to a propanediol-fed culture grown only under anaerobic conditions, the propanediol culture grown under the sequential anaerobic/aerobic condition resulted in more biomass growth and a greater CT degradation rate per unit of propanediol fed, although its CT degradation rate per unit of biomass was lower.

  6. Is there an association of vitamin B12 status with neurological function in older people? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Miles, Lisa M; Mills, Kerry; Clarke, Robert; Dangour, Alan D

    2015-08-28

    Low vitamin B12 status is common in older people; however, its public health significance in terms of neurological manifestations remains unclear. The present systematic review evaluated the association of vitamin B12 status with neurological function and clinically relevant neurological outcomes in adults aged 50+ years. A systematic search of nine bibliographic databases (up to March 2013) identified twelve published articles describing two longitudinal and ten cross-sectional analyses. The included study populations ranged in size (n 28-2287) and mean/median age (range 65-81 years). Studies reported various neurological outcomes: nerve function; clinically measured signs and symptoms of nerve function; self-reported neurological symptoms. Studies were assessed for risk of bias, and results were synthesised qualitatively. Among the general population groups of older people, one longitudinal study reported no association, and four of seven cross-sectional studies reported limited evidence of an association of vitamin B12 status with some, but not all, neurological outcomes. Among groups with clinical and/or biochemical evidence of low vitamin B12 status, one longitudinal study reported an association of vitamin B12 status with some, but not all, neurological outcomes and three cross-sectional analyses reported no association. Overall, there is limited evidence from observational studies to suggest an association of vitamin B12 status with neurological function in older people. The heterogeneity and quality of the evidence base preclude more definitive conclusions, and further high-quality research is needed to better inform understanding of public health significance in terms of neurological function of vitamin B12 status in older people. PMID:26202329

  7. Reductive dechlorination of a polychlorinated biphenyl congener and hexachlorobenzene by vitamin B sub 12

    SciTech Connect

    Assaf-Anid, N.; Nies, L.; Vogel, T.M. )

    1992-03-01

    The polychlorinated biphenyl congener 2,3,4,5,6-pentachlorobiphenyl and hexachlorobenzene were reductively dechlorinated in an aqueous biomimetic model system containing vitamin B{sub 12}. The products of 2,3,4,5,6-pentachlorobiphenyl dechlorination were 2,3,5,6- and 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorobiphenyl. Hexachlorobenzene dechlorinated to pentachlorobenzene and a mixture of 1,2,4,5- and 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene. The proton from water was shown to be the source of the hydrogen atom used for the replacement of chlorine on the biphenyl ring.

  8. Simultaneous determination of vitamin B12 and its derivatives using some of multivariate calibration 1 (MVC1) techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadi-Maybodi, Abdolraouf; Darzi, S. K. Hassani Nejad

    2008-10-01

    Resolution of binary mixtures of vitamin B12, methylcobalamin and B12 coenzyme with minimum sample pre-treatment and without analyte separation has been successfully achieved by methods of partial least squares algorithm with one dependent variable (PLS1), orthogonal signal correction/partial least squares (OSC/PLS), principal component regression (PCR) and hybrid linear analysis (HLA). Data of analysis were obtained from UV-vis spectra. The UV-vis spectra of the vitamin B12, methylcobalamin and B12 coenzyme were recorded in the same spectral conditions. The method of central composite design was used in the ranges of 10-80 mg L -1 for vitamin B12 and methylcobalamin and 20-130 mg L -1 for B12 coenzyme. The models refinement procedure and validation were performed by cross-validation. The minimum root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 2.26 mg L -1 for vitamin B12 with PLS1, 1.33 mg L -1 for methylcobalamin with OSC/PLS and 3.24 mg L -1 for B12 coenzyme with HLA techniques. Figures of merit such as selectivity, sensitivity, analytical sensitivity and LOD were determined for three compounds. The procedure was successfully applied to simultaneous determination of three compounds in synthetic mixtures and in a pharmaceutical formulation.

  9. Nitrous Oxide Abuse and Vitamin B12 Action in a 20-Year-Old Woman: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Duque, Miriam Andrea; Kresak, Jesse L; Falchook, Adam; Harris, Neil S

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report a case of a 20-year-old (ethnicity not reported) woman with a history of nitrous oxide abuse and clinical symptoms consistent with spinal cord subacute combined degeneration with associated low serum concentrations of vitamin B12, elevated methylmalonic acid levels, and radiologic evidence of demyelination of the dorsal region of the spinal column. The health of the patient improved dramatically with B12 supplementation. In this case, we discuss the interaction of nitrous oxide with the enzymatic pathways involved in the biochemistry of vitamin B12. PMID:26489675

  10. CdTe quantum dot as a fluorescence probe for vitamin B12 in dosage form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaishnavi, E.; Renganathan, R.

    2013-11-01

    We here report the CdTe quantum dot (CdTe QDs)-based sensor for probing vitamin B12 derivatives in aqueous solution. In this paper, simple and sensitive fluorescence quenching measurements has been employed. The Stern-Volmer constant (KSV), quenching rate constant (kq) and binding constant (K) were rationalized from fluorescence quenching measurement. Furthermore, the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism was discussed. This method was applicable over the concentration ranging from 1 to 14 ?g/mL (VB12) with correlation coefficient of 0.993. The limit of detection (LOD) of VB12 was found to be 0.15 ?g/mL. Moreover, the present approach opens a simple pathway for developing cost-effective, sensitive and selective QD-based fluorescence sensors/probes for biologically significant VB12 in pharmaceutical sample with mean recoveries in the range of 100-102.1%.

  11. Associations between B Vitamins and Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Shen, Liang

    2015-09-01

    B vitamins may correlate with Parkinson's disease (PD) through regulating homocysteine level. However, there is no comprehensive assessment on the associations between PD and B vitamins. The present study was designed to perform a meta-analytic assessment of the associations between folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 and PD, including the status of B vitamins in PD patients compared with controls, and associations of dietary intakes of B vitamins and risk of PD. A literature search using Medline database obtained 10 eligible studies included in the meta-analyses. Stata 12.0 statistical software was used to perform the meta-analysis. Pooled data revealed that there was no obvious difference in folate level between PD patients and healthy controls, and PD patients had lower level of vitamin B12 than controls. Available data suggested that higher dietary intake of vitamin B6 was associated with a decreased risk of PD (odds ratio (OR) = 0.65, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = (0.30, 1.01)), while no significant association was observed for dietary intake of folate and vitamin B12 and risk of PD. PD patients had lower level of vitamin B12 and similar level of folate compared with controls. Dietary intake of vitamin B6 exhibited preventive effect of developing PD based on the available data. As the number of included studies is limited, more studies are needed to confirm the findings and elucidate the underpinning underlying these associations. PMID:26343714

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of vitamin B12-related metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Young, Douglas B.; Comas, Iñaki; de Carvalho, Luiz P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Comparison of genome sequences from clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with phylogenetically-related pathogens Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium kansasii, and Mycobacterium leprae reveals diversity amongst genes associated with vitamin B12-related metabolism. Diversity is generated by gene deletion events, differential acquisition of genes by horizontal transfer, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with predicted impact on protein function and transcriptional regulation. Differences in the B12 synthesis pathway, methionine biosynthesis, fatty acid catabolism, and DNA repair and replication are consistent with adaptations to different environmental niches and pathogenic lifestyles. While there is no evidence of further gene acquisition during expansion of the M. tuberculosis complex, the emergence of other forms of genetic diversity provides insights into continuing host-pathogen co-evolution and has the potential to identify novel targets for disease intervention. PMID:25988174

  13. Novel fermentation process strengthening strategy for production of propionic acid and vitamin B12 by Propionibacterium freudenreichii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Jiao, Youjing; Liu, Shouxin

    2014-12-01

    An efficient fermentation-strengthening approach was developed to improve the anaerobic production of propionic acid and vitamin B12 by co-fermentation with Propionibacterium freudenreichii. Vitamin B12 production from glucose resulted in relatively high productivity (0.35 mg/L h) but a low propionic acid yield (0.55 g/g). By contrast, glycerol gave a high propionic acid yield (0.63 g/g) but low productivity (0.16 g/L h). Co-fermentation of glycerol and glucose with a gradual addition strategy gave high yields (propionic acid: 0.71 g/g; vitamin B12: 0.72 mg/g) and productivities (propionic acid: 0.36 g/L h; vitamin B12: 0.36 mg/L h). Finally, the integrated feedstock and fermentation system strengthening strategy was demonstrated as an efficient method for the economic production of bio-based propionic acid and vitamin B12. PMID:25261985

  14. Vitamin B12 production from crude glycerol by Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii: optimization of medium composition through statistical experimental designs.

    PubMed

    Ko?mider, Alicja; Bia?as, Wojciech; Kubiak, Piotr; Dro?d?y?ska, Agnieszka; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

    2012-02-01

    A two-step statistical experimental design was employed to optimize the medium for vitamin B(12) production from crude glycerol by Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii. In the first step, using Plackett-Burman design, five of 13 tested medium components (calcium pantothenate, NaH(2)PO(4)·2H(2)O, casein hydrolysate, glycerol and FeSO(4)·7H(2)O) were identified as factors having significant influence on vitamin production. In the second step, a central composite design was used to optimize levels of medium components selected in the first step. Valid statistical models describing the influence of significant factors on vitamin B(12) production were established for each optimization phase. The optimized medium provided a 93% increase in final vitamin concentration compared to the original medium. PMID:22178491

  15. Reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene catalyzed by vitamin B{sub 12} in homogeneous and heterogeneous systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, D.R.; Smith, M.H.; Delcomyn, C.A.; Roberts, A.L.

    1996-10-01

    The reduction of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) catalyzed by vitamin B{sub 12} was examined in homogeneous and heterogeneous (B{sub 12} bound to agarose) batch systems using titanium(III) citrate as the bulk reductant. The solution and surface-mediated reaction rates at similar B{sub 12} loadings were comparable, indicating that binding vitamin B{sub 12} to a surface did not lower catalytic activity. No loss in PCE reducing activity was observed with repeated usage of surface-bound vitamin B{sub 12}. Carbon mass recoveries were 81-84% for PCE reduction and 89% for TCE reduction, relative to controls. In addition to sequential hydrogenolysis, a second competing reaction mechanism for the reduction of PCE and TCE by B{sub 12}, reductive {beta}-elimination, is proposed to account for the observation of acetylene as a significant reaction intermediate. Reductive {beta}-elimination should be considered as a potential pathway in other reactive systems involving the reduction of vicinal polyhaloethenes. Surface-bound catalysts such as vitamin B{sub 12} may have utility in the engineered degradation of aqueous phase chlorinated ethenes. 19 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Treatment of Vitamin D deficient states

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    UpToDate performs a continuous review of over 330 journals and other resources to synthesize and provide the latest medical information for clinicians. Updates are added as important new information is published. This document reviews the prevalence and treatment of vitamin D deficient states. Sever...

  17. The use of labelled vitamin B12 in the measurement of glomerular filtration rate.

    PubMed

    Ekins, R P; Nashat, F S; Portal, R W; Sgherzi, A M

    1966-10-01

    1. Two preparations of radioactive vitamin B(12) labelled respectively with (57)Co and (58)Co have been employed in the estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (G.F.R.) in dogs. The intravenous injection of these preparations at an interval of 20 min resulted in a changing ratio of their activities in plasma and urine and so permitted a relation in time to be established between the urine and the plasma from which it was filtered.2. When urine and plasma were sampled at short intervals an effective renal delay or transit time could be derived from their isotope ratio curves and used as a correction in the clearance equation. This allowed serial clearances of either isotope to be calculated despite a falling plasma concentration.3. This method was applied to the study of the G.F.R. in fourteen dogs using short urine collections of 2 or 4 min for periods up to 80 min. The results under stable conditions and with deliberately induced changes in the G.F.R. are illustrated and discussed.4. Application of the technique in four patients undergoing differential renal function studies gave results comparable with those in the experimental work.5. The plasma binding of administered vitamin B(12) in serial blood samples in dogs and man was investigated. PMID:5972113

  18. Electronic structure of vitamin B12 within the framework of the Haldane-Anderson impurity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandemir, Zafer; Mayda, Selma; Bulut, Nejat

    2015-03-01

    We study the electronic structure of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamine C63H88CoN14O14P) by using the framework of the multi-orbital single-impurity Haldane-Anderson model of a transition-metal impurity in a semiconductor host. Here, our purpose is to understand the many-body effects originating from the transition-metal impurity. In this approach, the cobalt 3 d orbitals are treated as the impurity states placed in a semiconductor host which consists of the rest of the molecule. The parameters of the resulting effective Haldane-Anderson model are obtained within the Hartree-Fock approximation for the electronic structure of the molecule. The quantum Monte Carlo technique is then used to calculate the one-electron and magnetic correlation functions of this effective Haldane-Anderson model for vitamin B12. We find that new states form inside the semiconductor gap due to the on-site Coulomb interaction at the impurity 3 d orbitals and that these states become the highest occupied molecular orbitals. In addition, we present results on the charge distribution and spin correlations around the Co atom. We compare the results of this approach with those obtained by the density-functional theory calculations.

  19. Structural Basis of Multifunctionality in a Vitamin B[subscript 12]-processing Enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Koutmos, Markos; Gherasim, Carmen; Smith, Janet L.; Banerjee, Ruma

    2012-07-11

    An early step in the intracellular processing of vitamin B{sub 12} involves CblC, which exhibits dual reactivity, catalyzing the reductive decyanation of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B{sub 12}), and the dealkylation of alkylcobalamins (e.g. methylcobalamin; MeCbl). Insights into how the CblC scaffold supports this chemical dichotomy have been unavailable despite it being the most common locus of patient mutations associated with inherited cobalamin disorders that manifest in both severe homocystinuria and methylmalonic aciduria. Herein, we report structures of human CblC, with and without bound MeCbl, which provide novel biochemical insights into its mechanism of action. Our results reveal that CblC is the most divergent member of the NADPH-dependent flavin reductase family and can use FMN or FAD as a prosthetic group to catalyze reductive decyanation. Furthermore, CblC is the first example of an enzyme with glutathione transferase activity that has a sequence and structure unrelated to the GST superfamily. CblC thus represents an example of evolutionary adaptation of a common structural platform to perform diverse chemistries. The CblC structure allows us to rationalize the biochemical basis of a number of pathological mutations associated with severe clinical phenotypes.

  20. Structural Basis of Multifunctionality in a Vitamin B12-processing Enzyme*

    PubMed Central

    Koutmos, Markos; Gherasim, Carmen; Smith, Janet L.; Banerjee, Ruma

    2011-01-01

    An early step in the intracellular processing of vitamin B12 involves CblC, which exhibits dual reactivity, catalyzing the reductive decyanation of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12), and the dealkylation of alkylcobalamins (e.g. methylcobalamin; MeCbl). Insights into how the CblC scaffold supports this chemical dichotomy have been unavailable despite it being the most common locus of patient mutations associated with inherited cobalamin disorders that manifest in both severe homocystinuria and methylmalonic aciduria. Herein, we report structures of human CblC, with and without bound MeCbl, which provide novel biochemical insights into its mechanism of action. Our results reveal that CblC is the most divergent member of the NADPH-dependent flavin reductase family and can use FMN or FAD as a prosthetic group to catalyze reductive decyanation. Furthermore, CblC is the first example of an enzyme with glutathione transferase activity that has a sequence and structure unrelated to the GST superfamily. CblC thus represents an example of evolutionary adaptation of a common structural platform to perform diverse chemistries. The CblC structure allows us to rationalize the biochemical basis of a number of pathological mutations associated with severe clinical phenotypes. PMID:21697092

  1. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)

    MedlinePLUS

    Pantothenic acid is a vitamin, also known as vitamin B5. It is widely found in both plants and animals ... Vitamin B5 is commercially available as D-pantothenic acid, as well as dexpanthenol and calcium pantothenate, which ...

  2. Vitamin K Deficiency Embryopathy from Hyperemesis Gravidarum

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Andrew S.; Stallworth, Jennifer L.; Eichelberger, Kacey Y.; Trofatter, Kenneth F.

    2015-01-01

    A 21-year-old primigravida had a pregnancy complicated by hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) beginning at 7-week gestation. Despite medical therapy, she lost 18% of her prepregnancy weight. Early ultrasound at 14 weeks demonstrated a flattened facial profile with nasal hypoplasia (Binder phenotype) consistent with vitamin K deficiency from HG. She had a percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy tube placed for enteral feeding at 15-week gestation. At repeated anatomy ultrasound at 21-week gestation, delivery, and postnatal pediatric genetics exam, nasal hypoplasia was consistent with vitamin K deficiency embryopathy from HG. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy is a common condition. HG, the most severe form, has many maternal and fetal effects. Evaluation of vitamin K status could potentially prevent this rare and disfiguring embryopathy. PMID:26347836

  3. Vitamin D deficiency and posterior subcapsular cataract

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Craig J; Akaichi, Faical

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate risk factors associated with posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC) development and the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and etiology of PSC. Methods Of 195 consecutive patients from a private ophthalmology practice, diagnosed with PSC, serum vitamin D3 (25-OH D) levels were obtained for 175, and associations among risk factors, comorbidities, and PSC were assessed. Results In all 175 PSC patients, mean 25-OH D levels were low (24 ng/mL ±11 SD) compared with age/sex-matched standards. Significant differences in 25-OH D levels were noted between PSC subjects taking/not taking calcium supplements, systemic steroids, osteoporosis medications, etc. Alone, smoking status and calcium channel blockers and/or topical steroids use made no significant difference in PSC subjects 25-OH D levels, but two or more of these factors were associated with lowered levels of 25-OH D (P<0.001). Low vitamin D was correlated with female sex, autoimmune disease, and non-skin cancer diagnosis, but not with age, or other comorbidities or medication use. In five early-stage PSC patients taking 5,000 IU of 25-OH D daily for vitamin D deficiency, there was resolution of their cataracts during the 2-year follow-up period. Conclusion Vitamin D levels for most PSC patients fell below the 30 ng/mL calcium homeostasis threshold. Some comorbidities and non-ophthalmic interventions are associated with the development of PSC at less depressed levels of 25-OH D. In this series, vitamin D deficiency was associated with PSC cataract, suggesting that raising the level of vitamin D intake may reduce PSC incidence. PMID:26124632

  4. Vitamin B6

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's food guidance system, ChooseMyPlate . Where can I find ... food sources of vitamin B6: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for vitamin ...

  5. Vitamin B12 and derivatives-In vitro permeation studies across Caco-2 cell monolayers and freshly excised rat intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Netsomboon, Kesinee; Feßler, Andrea; Erletz, Lena; Prüfert, Felix; Ruetz, Markus; Kieninger, Christoph; Kräutler, Bernhard; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2016-01-30

    The purpose of this study was to compare the intestinal permeation of vitamin B12 and various derivatives thereof. Permeation behavior and cytotoxicity of four derivatives (coenzyme B12, hydroxocobalamin, methylcobalamin and 4-ethylphenylcobalamin) in comparison to vitamin B12 were evaluated in two different in vitro models, Caco-2 cells and freshly excised rat intestinal mucosa. Resazurin assay was used to evaluate cytotoxicity of the test substances. All test compounds were used at a concentration of 200?g/ml. Permeation experiments were carried out for 3h and test compounds were quantified via reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Cytotoxicity studies showed all test compounds are not toxic to cells. HPLC analyses of test compounds revealed the following rank order of increasing hydrophobicity: hydroxocobalamin<vitamin B12B12B12, hydroxocobalamin, methylcobalamin and 4-ethylphenylcobalamin were 10.2, 0.3, 9.4 and 31.3 fold of vitamin B12 on Caco-2 cells while 0.2, 0.4, 2.6 and 1.9 fold of vitamin B12 on rat intestine, respectively. As various vitamin B12 derivatives showed a significantly higher permeation coefficient than vitamin B12, the use of certain derivatives might be a promising strategy for oral vitamin B12 substitution. PMID:26638881

  6. Vitamin paradox in obesity: Deficiency or excess?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shi-Sheng; Li, Da; Chen, Na-Na; Zhou, Yiming

    2015-08-25

    Since synthetic vitamins were used to fortify food and as supplements in the late 1930s, vitamin intake has significantly increased. This has been accompanied by an increased prevalence of obesity, a condition associated with diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, asthma and cancer. Paradoxically, obesity is often associated with low levels of fasting serum vitamins, such as folate and vitamin D. Recent studies on folic acid fortification have revealed another paradoxical phenomenon: obesity exhibits low fasting serum but high erythrocyte folate concentrations, with high levels of serum folate oxidation products. High erythrocyte folate status is known to reflect long-term excess folic acid intake, while increased folate oxidation products suggest an increased folate degradation because obesity shows an increased activity of cytochrome P450 2E1, a monooxygenase enzyme that can use folic acid as a substrate. There is also evidence that obesity increases niacin degradation, manifested by increased activity/expression of niacin-degrading enzymes and high levels of niacin metabolites. Moreover, obesity most commonly occurs in those with a low excretory reserve capacity (e.g., due to low birth weight/preterm birth) and/or a low sweat gland activity (black race and physical inactivity). These lines of evidence raise the possibility that low fasting serum vitamin status in obesity may be a compensatory response to chronic excess vitamin intake, rather than vitamin deficiency, and that obesity could be one of the manifestations of chronic vitamin poisoning. In this article, we discuss vitamin paradox in obesity from the perspective of vitamin homeostasis. PMID:26322161

  7. Vitamin paradox in obesity: Deficiency or excess?

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shi-Sheng; Li, Da; Chen, Na-Na; Zhou, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    Since synthetic vitamins were used to fortify food and as supplements in the late 1930s, vitamin intake has significantly increased. This has been accompanied by an increased prevalence of obesity, a condition associated with diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, asthma and cancer. Paradoxically, obesity is often associated with low levels of fasting serum vitamins, such as folate and vitamin D. Recent studies on folic acid fortification have revealed another paradoxical phenomenon: obesity exhibits low fasting serum but high erythrocyte folate concentrations, with high levels of serum folate oxidation products. High erythrocyte folate status is known to reflect long-term excess folic acid intake, while increased folate oxidation products suggest an increased folate degradation because obesity shows an increased activity of cytochrome P450 2E1, a monooxygenase enzyme that can use folic acid as a substrate. There is also evidence that obesity increases niacin degradation, manifested by increased activity/expression of niacin-degrading enzymes and high levels of niacin metabolites. Moreover, obesity most commonly occurs in those with a low excretory reserve capacity (e.g., due to low birth weight/preterm birth) and/or a low sweat gland activity (black race and physical inactivity). These lines of evidence raise the possibility that low fasting serum vitamin status in obesity may be a compensatory response to chronic excess vitamin intake, rather than vitamin deficiency, and that obesity could be one of the manifestations of chronic vitamin poisoning. In this article, we discuss vitamin paradox in obesity from the perspective of vitamin homeostasis. PMID:26322161

  8. Prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Akash; Cheetham, Tim D; Pearce, Simon H S

    2013-02-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency are widespread in many countries. We review the evidence pertaining to its prevention and treatment. Deficiency may be adequately treated with many different therapeutic regimens of either cholecalciferol or ergocalciferol, owing to the high therapeutic index of both compounds. Nevertheless, the current evidence suggests that regular dosing with oral cholecalciferol (e.g., 60,000 IU weekly) may have slight advantages over other regimens when replenishing vitamin D stores following deficiency. For long-term supplementation, smaller regular doses, such as cholecalciferol 1,000 IU daily, or 10,000 IU weekly, are suitable. Giving reliable and specific advice about appropriate sunlight exposure remains difficult because of differing interindividual skin pigmentation and variable sunlight UVB content at different latitudes, at different times of year, and in different terrestrial environments. PMID:23124916

  9. Supplementing lactating dairy cows with a vitamin B12 precursor, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole, increases the apparent ruminal synthesis of vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Brito, A; Chiquette, J; Stabler, S P; Allen, R H; Girard, C L

    2015-01-01

    Cobalamin (CBL), the biologically active form of vitamin B12, and its analogs, are produced by bacteria only if cobalt supply is adequate. The analogs differ generally by the nucleotide moiety of the molecule. In CBL, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (5,6-DMB) is the base in the nucleotide moiety. The present study aimed to determine if a supplement of 5,6-DMB could increase utilization of dietary cobalt for synthesis of CBL and change ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, omasal flow of nutrients and ruminal protozoa counts. Eight ruminally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows (mean±standard deviation=238±21 days in milk and 736±47 kg of BW) were used in a crossover design. Cows were randomly assigned to a daily supplement of a gelatin capsule containing 1.5 g of 5,6-DMB via the rumen cannula or no supplement. Each period lasted 29 days and consisted of 21 days for treatment adaptation and 8 days for data and samples collection. Five corrinoids, CBL and four cobamides were detected in the total mixed ration and the omasal digesta from both treatments. The dietary supplement of 5,6-DMB increased (P=0.02) apparent ruminal synthesis of CBL from 14.6 to 19.6 (s.e.m. 0.8) mg/day but had no effect (P>0.1) on apparent ruminal synthesis of the four analogs. The supplement of 5,6-DMB had no effect (P>0.1) on milk production and composition, or on protozoal count, ruminal pH and concentrations of volatile fatty acids and ammonia nitrogen in rumen content. The supplement had also no effect (P>0.1) on intake, omasal flow and apparent ruminal digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, NDF, ADF and nitrogenous fractions. Plasma concentration of CBL was not affected by treatments (P=0.98). Providing a preformed part of the CBL molecule, that is, 5,6-DMB, increased by 34% the apparent ruminal synthesis of CBL by ruminal bacteria but had no effect on ruminal fermentation or protozoa count and it was not sufficient to increase plasma concentrations of the vitamin. Even though the efficiency of cobalt utilization for apparent synthesis of CBL was increased from 2.0% to 2.7% by the 5,6-DMB supplement, this improved efficiency was still very low. Further research is needed to identify the factors affecting efficiency of utilization of cobalt for synthesis of CBL by the bacterial populations in rumen. PMID:25171056

  10. Lactobacillus rossiae, a Vitamin B12 Producer, Represents a Metabolically Versatile Species within the Genus Lactobacillus

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Maria; Bottacini, Francesca; Fosso, Bruno; Kelleher, Philip; Calasso, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Ventura, Marco; Picardi, Ernesto; van Sinderen, Douwe; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus rossiae is an obligately hetero-fermentative lactic acid bacterium, which can be isolated from a broad range of environments including sourdoughs, vegetables, fermented meat and flour, as well as the gastrointestinal tract of both humans and animals. In order to unravel distinctive genomic features of this particular species and investigate the phylogenetic positioning within the genus Lactobacillus, comparative genomics and phylogenomic approaches, followed by functional analyses were performed on L. rossiae DSM 15814T, showing how this type strain not only occupies an independent phylogenetic branch, but also possesses genomic features underscoring its biotechnological potential. This strain in fact represents one of a small number of bacteria known to encode a complete de novo biosynthetic pathway of vitamin B12 (in addition to other B vitamins such as folate and riboflavin). In addition, it possesses the capacity to utilize an extensive set of carbon sources, a characteristic that may contribute to environmental adaptation, perhaps enabling the strain's ability to populate different niches. PMID:25264826

  11. Spatial periodicity in growth plate shear mechanical properties is disrupted by vitamin D deficiency

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Itai

    Spatial periodicity in growth plate shear mechanical properties is disrupted by vitamin D modulus Vitamin D a b s t r a c t The growth plate is a highly organized section of cartilage in the long disruption caused by a dietary deficiency of vitamin D. The shear mechanical properties of the proximal

  12. Genetic Architecture of Vitamin B12 and Folate Levels Uncovered Applying Deeply Sequenced Large Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Bjarnason, Helgi; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Magnusson, Olafur T.; Sparsø, Thomas; Albrechtsen, Anders; Kong, Augustine; Masson, Gisli; Tian, Geng; Cao, Hongzhi; Nie, Chao; Kristiansen, Karsten; Husemoen, Lise Lotte; Thuesen, Betina; Li, Yingrui; Nielsen, Rasmus; Linneberg, Allan; Olafsson, Isleifur; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur I.; Jørgensen, Torben; Wang, Jun; Hansen, Torben; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefánsson, Kari; Pedersen, Oluf

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have mainly relied on common HapMap sequence variations. Recently, sequencing approaches have allowed analysis of low frequency and rare variants in conjunction with common variants, thereby improving the search for functional variants and thus the understanding of the underlying biology of human traits and diseases. Here, we used a large Icelandic whole genome sequence dataset combined with Danish exome sequence data to gain insight into the genetic architecture of serum levels of vitamin B12 (B12) and folate. Up to 22.9 million sequence variants were analyzed in combined samples of 45,576 and 37,341 individuals with serum B12 and folate measurements, respectively. We found six novel loci associating with serum B12 (CD320, TCN2, ABCD4, MMAA, MMACHC) or folate levels (FOLR3) and confirmed seven loci for these traits (TCN1, FUT6, FUT2, CUBN, CLYBL, MUT, MTHFR). Conditional analyses established that four loci contain additional independent signals. Interestingly, 13 of the 18 identified variants were coding and 11 of the 13 target genes have known functions related to B12 and folate pathways. Contrary to epidemiological studies we did not find consistent association of the variants with cardiovascular diseases, cancers or Alzheimer's disease although some variants demonstrated pleiotropic effects. Although to some degree impeded by low statistical power for some of these conditions, these data suggest that sequence variants that contribute to the population diversity in serum B12 or folate levels do not modify the risk of developing these conditions. Yet, the study demonstrates the value of combining whole genome and exome sequencing approaches to ascertain the genetic and molecular architectures underlying quantitative trait associations. PMID:23754956

  13. Genetic architecture of vitamin B12 and folate levels uncovered applying deeply sequenced large datasets.

    PubMed

    Grarup, Niels; Sulem, Patrick; Sandholt, Camilla H; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Bjarnason, Helgi; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Magnusson, Olafur T; Sparsø, Thomas; Albrechtsen, Anders; Kong, Augustine; Masson, Gisli; Tian, Geng; Cao, Hongzhi; Nie, Chao; Kristiansen, Karsten; Husemoen, Lise Lotte; Thuesen, Betina; Li, Yingrui; Nielsen, Rasmus; Linneberg, Allan; Olafsson, Isleifur; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur I; Jørgensen, Torben; Wang, Jun; Hansen, Torben; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefánsson, Kari; Pedersen, Oluf

    2013-06-01

    Genome-wide association studies have mainly relied on common HapMap sequence variations. Recently, sequencing approaches have allowed analysis of low frequency and rare variants in conjunction with common variants, thereby improving the search for functional variants and thus the understanding of the underlying biology of human traits and diseases. Here, we used a large Icelandic whole genome sequence dataset combined with Danish exome sequence data to gain insight into the genetic architecture of serum levels of vitamin B(12) (B12) and folate. Up to 22.9 million sequence variants were analyzed in combined samples of 45,576 and 37,341 individuals with serum B(12) and folate measurements, respectively. We found six novel loci associating with serum B(12) (CD320, TCN2, ABCD4, MMAA, MMACHC) or folate levels (FOLR3) and confirmed seven loci for these traits (TCN1, FUT6, FUT2, CUBN, CLYBL, MUT, MTHFR). Conditional analyses established that four loci contain additional independent signals. Interestingly, 13 of the 18 identified variants were coding and 11 of the 13 target genes have known functions related to B(12) and folate pathways. Contrary to epidemiological studies we did not find consistent association of the variants with cardiovascular diseases, cancers or Alzheimer's disease although some variants demonstrated pleiotropic effects. Although to some degree impeded by low statistical power for some of these conditions, these data suggest that sequence variants that contribute to the population diversity in serum B(12) or folate levels do not modify the risk of developing these conditions. Yet, the study demonstrates the value of combining whole genome and exome sequencing approaches to ascertain the genetic and molecular architectures underlying quantitative trait associations. PMID:23754956

  14. Vitamin B12 and folate concentrations during pregnancy and insulin resistance in the offspring: the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, S. S.; Jackson, A. A.; Refsum, H.; Rao, S.; Fisher, D. J.; Bhat, D. S.; Naik, S. S.; Coyaji, K. J.; Joglekar, C. V.; Joshi, N.; Lubree, H. G.; Deshpande, V. U.; Rege, S. S.; Fall, C. H. D.

    2007-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Raised maternal plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations predict small size at birth, which is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. We studied the association between maternal vitamin B12, folate and tHcy status during pregnancy, and offspring adiposity and insulin resistance at 6 years. Methods In the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study we studied 700 consecutive eligible pregnant women in six villages. We measured maternal nutritional intake and circulating concentrations of folate, vitamin B12, tHcy and methylmalonic acid (MMA) at 18 and 28 weeks of gestation. These were correlated with offspring anthropometry, body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan) and insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-R]) at 6 years. Results Two-thirds of mothers had low vitamin B12 (<150 pmol/l), 90% had high MMA (>0.26 ?mol/l) and 30% had raised tHcy concentrations (>10 ?mol/l); only one had a low erythrocyte folate concentration. Although short and thin (BMI), the 6-year-old children were relatively adipose compared with the UK standards (skinfold thicknesses). Higher maternal erythrocyte folate concentrations at 28 weeks predicted higher offspring adiposity and higher HOMA-R (both p?vitamin B12 (18 weeks; p?=?0.03) predicted higher HOMA-R in the children. The offspring of mothers with a combination of high folate and low vitamin B12 concentrations were the most insulin resistant. Conclusions/interpretation Low maternal vitamin B12 and high folate status may contribute to the epidemic of adiposity and type 2 diabetes in India. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-007-0793-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorised users. PMID:17851649

  15. Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy - still a public health issue.

    PubMed

    McAree, Trixie; Jacobs, Benjamin; Manickavasagar, Thubeena; Sivalokanathan, Suganthinie; Brennan, Lauren; Bassett, Paul; Rainbow, Sandra; Blair, Mitch

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in pregnancy, explore associated risk factors and discuss the public health implications. The study used retrospective analysis of randomly selected data. This is the first report on serum vitamin D levels in an unselected multi-ethnic population of pregnant women collected between April 2008 and March 2009. Women with sufficient stored serum were randomly selected from among all women who delivered between April 2008 and March 2009. Serum vitamin D levels were determined using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Vitamin D levels were analysed with respect to ethnicity (marking skin tone), calendar quartile, body mass index (BMI), trimester and parity. Deficiency was defined as <25?nmol?L(-1) , insufficiency 25-75?nmol?L(-1) and adequacy >75?nmol?L(-1) . Three hundred and forty-six women were included and represented the total population regarding skin tone, quartile, BMI, gestation and parity. Overall, 18% [95% confidence interval (CI): 15-23%] of sample women had adequate vitamin D levels; 36% were deficient, 45% insufficient. Among women with dark skin, only 8% (95% CI: 5-12%) had adequate levels compared with 43% (95% CI: 33-53%) of those with light skin. Obese women were found have significantly lower vitamin D levels than non-obese women. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are prevalent year-round among pregnant women in North West London, especially those with darker skin. Existing supplementation guidelines should be supported; however, other measures are required to improve status among all women. PMID:23230904

  16. Vitamin B1

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sound: No High score: Yes Credits » Chicken Farm Game - Why do we need vitamin B1? - What food ... What is the disease beriberi? This fast-paced game relies on a keen knowledge of food containing ...

  17. Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin enhanced determination for the Vitamin B12 by fluorescence quenching method.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Zhu, Xiashi; Wu, Ming

    2007-05-01

    A novel fluorescence quenching method for the determination of Vitamin B12(VB12) had been developed. It was based on that the fluorescence intensity of erythrosine sodium(ES) could be enhanced by Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin(HP-beta-CD) due to the formation of inclusion complex (HP-beta-CD-ES), while the fluorescence intensity of HP-beta-CD-ES was diminished after adding VB12 into the system, and there was a linear relationship between the fluorescence quenching value of the system (DeltaF) and the concentration of VB12 (c). The mechanism of the determination of VB12 was discussed. The results showed that under the optimal conditions, the linear range of calibration curve for the determination of VB12 was 0.0 approximately 2.1 x 10(-5) mol/L, and the detection limit was 1.8 x 10(-7) mol/ L. It could be satisfactorily applied to the determination of VB12 in injections. PMID:17393288

  18. Vitamin B12 supplementation during pregnancy and postpartum improves B12 status of both mothers and infants but vaccine response in mothers only: a randomized clinical trial in Bangladesh

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose Poor vitamin B12 (B12) status is associated with adverse outcomes in pregnancy and infancy. Little is known about effects of B12 supplementation on immune function. The present study aimed to evaluate effects of pre- and postnatal B12 supplementation on biomarkers of B12 status and vaccine-s...

  19. Effects of intramuscular administration of folic acid and vitamin B12 on granulosa cells gene expression in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, A; Khan, D R; Sirard, M-A; Girard, C L; Laforest, J-P; Richard, F J

    2015-11-01

    The fertility of dairy cows is challenged during early lactation, and better nutritional strategies need to be developed to address this issue. Combined supplementation of folic acid and vitamin B12 improve energy metabolism in the dairy cow during early lactation. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the effects of this supplement on gene expression in granulosa cells from the dominant follicle during the postpartum period. Multiparous Holstein cows received weekly intramuscular injection of 320 mg of folic acid and 10 mg of vitamin B12 (treated group) beginning 24 (standard deviation=4) d before calving until 56 d after calving, whereas the control group received saline. The urea plasma concentration was significantly decreased during the precalving period, and the concentration of both folate and vitamin B12 were increased in treated animals. Milk production and dry matter intake were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Plasma concentrations of folates and vitamin B12 were increased in treated animals. Daily dry matter intake was not significantly different between the 2 groups before [13.5 kg; standard error (SE)=0.5] and after (23.6 kg; SE=0.9) calving. Average energy-corrected milk tended to be greater in vitamin-treated cows, 39.7 (SE=1.4) and 38.1 (SE=1.3) kg/d for treated and control cows, respectively. After calving, average plasma concentration of ?-hydroxybutyrate tended to be lower in cows injected with the vitamin supplement, 0.47 (SE=0.04) versus 0.55 (SE=0.03) for treated and control cows, respectively. The ovarian follicle ?12 mm in diameter was collected by ovum pick-up after estrus synchronization. Recovered follicular fluid volumes were greater in the vitamin-treated group. A microarray platform was used to investigate the effect of treatment on gene expression of granulosa cells. Lower expression of genes involved in the cell cycle and higher expression of genes associated with granulosa cell differentiation before ovulation were observed. Selected candidate genes were analyzed by reverse transcription quantitative PCR. Although the effects of intramuscular injections of folic acid and vitamin B12 on lactational performance and metabolic status of animals were limited, ingenuity pathway analysis of gene expression in granulosa cells suggests a stimulation of cell differentiation in vitamin-treated cows, which may be the result of an increase in LH secretion. PMID:26298749

  20. The cis influence of the corrin in vitamin B12 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, Penny P.; Navizet, Isabelle; Perry, Christopher B.; Marques, Helder M.

    2012-10-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) calculations on [NH3[Co(III)(C10-X-corrin)]-CH3]+, where the C10-H of corrin is replaced by electron-donating or -withdrawing groups, X, explore the cis influence in these vitamin B12 models. As the electron donating ability of X increases, a normal trans influence is observed: the Co-NH3 bond weakens while the Co-CH3 bond strengthens. Surprisingly, though, the Co-CH3 bond dissociation energy decreases monotonically as the Co-C bond strengthens. This is found to be a consequence of the extent of shortening of the Co-NH3 during the homolysis reaction.

  1. Association of vitamin D deficiency with hypertension in uninsured women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D deficiency is an epidemic in the United States. Uninsured women are at high risk due to a lower intake of vitamin D and limited sun exposure. We examined the association between vitamin D deficiency and hypertension in 96 uninsured women at a County Free Medical Clinic in urban Michigan. Q...

  2. Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Uninsured Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D deficiency, an important risk factor for osteoporosis and other chronic medical conditions, is epidemic in the United States. Uninsured women may be at an even higher risk for vitamin D deficiency than others due to low intake of dietary and supplemental vitamin D and limited sun exposure....

  3. A potential epigenetic marker mediating serum folate and vitamin B12 levels contributes to the risk of ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Wei, Loo Keat; Sutherland, Heidi; Au, Anthony; Camilleri, Emily; Haupt, Larisa M; Gan, Siew Hua; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is a multifactorial disease that may be associated with aberrant DNA methylation profiles. We investigated epigenetic dysregulation for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene among ischemic stroke patients. Cases and controls were recruited after obtaining signed written informed consents following a screening process against the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Serum vitamin profiles (folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine) were determined using immunoassays. Methylation profiles for CpGs A and B in the MTHFR gene were determined using a bisulfite-pyrosequencing method. Methylation of MTHFR significantly increased the susceptibility risk for ischemic stroke. In particular, CpG A outperformed CpG B in mediating serum folate and vitamin B12 levels to increase ischemic stroke susceptibility risks by 4.73-fold. However, both CpGs A and B were not associated with serum homocysteine levels or ischemic stroke severity. CpG A is a potential epigenetic marker in mediating serum folate and vitamin B12 to contribute to ischemic stroke. PMID:25705649

  4. Parallel computing and first-principles calculations: Applications to complex ceramics and Vitamin B12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Lizhi

    A systematic improvement and extension of the orthogonalized linear combinations of atomic orbitals method was carried out using a combined computational and theoretical approach. For high performance parallel computing, a Beowulf class personal computer cluster was constructed. It also served as a parallel program development platform that helped us to port the programs of the method to the national supercomputer facilities. The program, received a language upgrade from Fortran 77 to Fortran 90, and a dynamic memory allocation feature. A preliminary parallel High Performance Fortran version of the program has been developed as well. To be of more benefit though, scalability improvements are needed. In order to circumvent the difficulties of the analytical force calculation in the method, we developed a geometry optimization scheme using the finite difference approximation based on the total energy calculation. The implementation of this scheme was facilitated by the powerful general utility lattice program, which offers many desired features such as multiple optimization schemes and usage of space group symmetry. So far, many ceramic oxides have been tested with the geometry optimization program. Their optimized geometries were in excellent agreement with the experimental data. For nine ceramic oxide crystals, the optimized cell parameters differ from the experimental ones within 0.5%. Moreover, the geometry optimization was recently used to predict a new phase of TiNx. The method has also been used to investigate a complex Vitamin B12-derivative, the OHCbl crystals. In order to overcome the prohibitive disk I/O demand, an on-demand version of the method was developed. Based on the electronic structure calculation of the OHCbl crystal, a partial density of states analysis and a bond order analysis were carried out. The calculated bonding of the corrin ring of OHCbl model was coincident with the big open-ring pi bond. One interesting find of the calculation was that the Co-OH bond was weak. This, together with the ongoing projects studying different Vitamin B12 derivatives, might help us to answer questions about the Co-C cleavage of the B12 coenzyme, which is involved in many important B12 enzymatic reactions.

  5. Plasma folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine and cancers of the esophagus, stomach, and liver in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shen-Chih; Goldstein, Binh Y; Mu, Lina; Cai, Lin; You, Nai-Chieh Y; He, Na; Ding, Bao-Guo; Zhao, Jin-Kou; Yu, Shun-Zhang; Heber, David; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Lu, Qing-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating regarding a role of micronutrients in folate metabolism in cancer risk. We investigated the associations of plasma folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine with upper gastrointestinal (GI) cancers in a population-based case-control study in Taixing City, China. With informed consent, we recruited cases with cancers of esophagus (n = 218), stomach (n = 206), and liver (n = 204), and one common healthy control group (n = 405). A standardized epidemiologic questionnaire was used in face-to-face interviews, and blood samples were collected during interviews. We observed an inverse association between plasma folate levels and liver cancer. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) was 0.46 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.24-0.88] comparing individuals in the highest quartile to those in the lowest. We found a positive association between plasma vitamin B12 levels and all three cancers. The aORs for those in the highest quartile were 2.80 (95% CI = 1.51-5.18) for esophageal cancer, 2.17 (1.21-3.89) for stomach cancer, and 9.97 (4.82-20.60) for liver cancer, comparing to those in the lowest quartile. We further observed interaction between plasma folate and vitamin B12 on these cancers. Our data indicated associations between plasma folate and vitamin B12 with upper GI cancers in Chinese population. Further research is warranted considering the debate over the necessity of food fortification. PMID:25607998

  6. Effects of Chemical and Physical Enhancement Techniques on Transdermal Delivery of Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12) In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ye; Kalluri, Haripriya; Banga, Ajay K.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency, which may result in anemia and nerve damage if left untreated, is currently treated by administration of cyanocobalamin via oral or intramuscular routes. However, these routes are associated with absorption and compliance issues which have prompted us to investigate skin as an alternative site of administration. Delivery through skin, however, is restricted to small and moderately lipophilic molecules due to the outermost barrier, the stratum corneum (SC). In this study, we have investigated the effect of different enhancement techniques, chemical enhancers (ethanol, oleic acid, propylene glycol), iontophoresis (anodal iontophoresis) and microneedles (soluble maltose microneedles), which may overcome this barrier and improve cyanocobalamin delivery. Studies with different chemical enhancer formulations indicated that ethanol and oleic acid decreased the lag time while propylene glycol based formulations increased the lag time. The formulation with ethanol (50%), oleic acid (10%) and propylene glycol (40%) showed the maximum improvement in delivery. Iontophoresis and microneedle treatments resulted in enhanced permeation levels compared to passive controls. These enhancement approaches can be explored further to develop alternative treatment regimens. PMID:24310591

  7. Effects of folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation on culling rate, diseases, and reproduction in commercial dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Duplessis, M; Girard, C L; Santschi, D E; Laforest, J-P; Durocher, J; Pellerin, D

    2014-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of a combined folic acid and vitamin B12 supplement given in early lactation on culling rate, metabolic disorders and other diseases, and reproduction in commercial dairy herds. A total of 805 cows (271 primiparous and 534 multiparous cows) in 15 commercial dairy herds were involved. Every 2mo from February to December 2010 and within each herd, cows were assigned according to parity, previous 305-d milk production, and calving interval to 5mL of either (1) saline 0.9% NaCl (control group) or (2) 320mg of folic acid + 10mg of vitamin B12 (vitamin group). Treatments were administered weekly by intramuscular injections starting 3wk before the expected calving date until 8wk after parturition. A total of 221 cows were culled before the next dry period. Culling rate was not affected by treatment and was 27.5%; culling rate was greater for multiparous (32.2%) than for primiparous cows (18.8%). Within the first 60d in milk (DIM), 47 cows were culled, representing 21.3% of total culling, and no treatment effect was noted. Ketosis incidence based on a threshold ?100µmol/L of ?-hydroxybutyrate in milk was 38.3±2.9% for the vitamin group and 41.8±3.0% for the control group and was not affected by treatment. The combined supplement of folic acid and vitamin B12 did not decrease incidence of retained placenta, displaced abomasum, milk fever, metritis, or mastitis. However, the incidence of dystocia decreased by 50% in multiparous cows receiving the vitamin supplement, although no effect was observed in primiparous cows. The first breeding postpartum for multiparous cows occurred 3.8d earlier with the vitamin supplement compared with controls, whereas no treatment effect was seen for primiparous cows. Days open, first- and second-breeding conception rates, number of breedings per conception, and percentage of cows pregnant at 150 DIM were not affected by treatment. The reduced percentage of dystocia combined with the earlier DIM at first breeding for multiparous cows receiving the combined supplementation in folic acid and vitamin B12 indicates that the vitamin supplement had a positive effect in older cows. PMID:24485680

  8. Vitamin B12-Mediated Restoration of Defective Anaerobic Growth Leads to Reduced Biofilm Formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kang-Mu; Go, Junhyeok; Yoon, Mi Young; Park, Yongjin; Kim, Sang Cheol; Yong, Dong Eun

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa undergoes cell elongation and forms robust biofilms during anaerobic respiratory growth using nitrate (NO3?) as an alternative electron acceptor. Understanding the mechanism of cell shape change induced upon anaerobiosis is crucial to the development of effective treatments against P. aeruginosa biofilm infection. Here, we uncovered the molecular basis of anaerobiosis-triggered cell elongation and identified vitamin B12 to be a molecule that can reinstate defective anaerobic growth of P. aeruginosa. The ratio of total cellular DNA content to protein content was significantly decreased in the PAO1 strain grown under anaerobic conditions, indicating that DNA replication is impaired during anaerobic growth. Anaerobic growth of PAO1 reached a higher cell density in the presence of vitamin B12, an essential coenzyme of class II ribonucleotide reductase. In addition, cell morphology returned to a normal rod shape and transcription of stress-response genes was downregulated under the same anaerobic growth conditions. These results suggest that vitamin B12, the production of which was suppressed during anaerobic growth, can restore cellular machineries for DNA replication and therefore facilitate better anaerobic growth of P. aeruginosa with normal cell division. Importantly, biofilm formation was substantially decreased when grown with vitamin B12, further demonstrating that anaerobiosis-induced cell elongation is responsible for robust biofilm formation. Taken together, our data reveal mechanistic details of a morphological change that naturally occurs during anaerobic growth of P. aeruginosa and illustrates the ability of vitamin B12 to modulate the biofilm-forming capacity of P. aeruginosa under such condition. PMID:22371376

  9. Maternal dietary intake of folate and vitamins B6 and B12 during pregnancy and risk of childhood brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Greenop, Kathryn R; Miller, Margaret; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Scott, Rodney J; Attia, John; Ashton, Lesley J; Dalla-Pozza, Luciano; Bower, Carol; Armstrong, Bruce K; Milne, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Childhood brain tumors (CBT) are the second most common childhood cancers, yet their etiology is largely unknown. We investigated whether maternal gestational intake of folate and vitamins B6 and B12 was associated with CBT risk in a nationwide case-control study conducted 2005-2010. Case children 0-14 years were recruited from all 10 Australian pediatric oncology centers. Control children were recruited by national random digit dialing, frequency matched to cases on age, sex, and state of residence. Dietary intake was ascertained using food frequency questionnaires and adjusted for total energy intake. Data from 293 case and 726 control mothers were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. The odds ratio (OR) for the highest versus lowest tertile of folate intake was 0.70 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48, 1.02]. The ORs appeared lower in mothers who drank alcohol during pregnancy (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.93), mothers who took folic acid (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.42, 1.06) or B6/B12 supplements (OR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.25, 1.06) and in children younger than 5 years (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.93). These findings are consistent with folate's crucial role in maintenance of genomic integrity and DNA methylation. Dietary intake of B6 and B12 was not associated with risk of CBT. PMID:24897174

  10. Dual isotope Schilling test for measuring absorption of food-bound and free vitamin B12 simultaneously

    SciTech Connect

    Doscherholmen, A.; Silvis, S.; McMahon, J.

    1983-10-01

    A prototype food-bound vitamin B12 (food-B12) absorption test has been developed in which /sup 57/Co-B12 was incorporated in vitro into egg yolk (yolk-B12) and served to volunteers in 50-g cooked portions together with toast and coffee for breakfast. Six hours later, 1 mg nonlabeled B12 was given intramuscularly and 24-hour urine was collected for radioactivity measurement. In separate tests, the absorption of yolk-B12 and crystalline /sup 57/Co-B12 was equally poor in patients with pernicious anemia. However, in patients with simple gastric achlorhydria and those who had undergone gastric surgery, the assimilation of yolk-B12 was impaired greatly, whereas the absorption of crystalline radio-B12 was normal. Egg yolk labeled with /sup 58/Co-B12 was administered together with crystalline /sup 57/Co-B12 in a dual isotope test with results similar to those obtained when the tests were prepared separately. This yolk-/sup 58/Co-B12 test with its ability to detect malabsorption of food-B12 may be considered as an addition to the first part of the Schilling test.

  11. Effects of folate and vitamin B12 on cognitive function in adult and elderly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-related neurocognitive disorders, primarily Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD), have a major impact on health and well-being. Separate lines of evidence have suggested that B vitamin status may be associated with risk and progression of AD and PD. This report summarizes the ev...

  12. Response to Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Regland, Björn; Forsmark, Sara; Halaouate, Lena; Matousek, Michael; Peilot, Birgitta; Zachrisson, Olof; Gottfries, Carl-Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME, also called chronic fatigue syndrome) may respond most favorably to frequent vitamin B12 injections, in vital combination with oral folic acid. However, there is no established algorithm for individualized optimal dosages, and rate of improvement may differ considerably between responders. Objective To evaluate clinical data from patients with ME, with or without fibromyalgia, who had been on B12 injections at least once a week for six months and up to several years. Methods 38 patients were included in a cross-sectional survey. Based on a validated observer’s rating scale, they were divided into Good (n = 15) and Mild (n = 23) responders, and the two groups were compared from various clinical aspects. Results Good responders had used significantly more frequent injections (p<0.03) and higher doses of B12 (p<0.03) for a longer time (p<0.0005), higher daily amounts of oral folic acid (p<0.003) in good relation with the individual MTHFR genotype, more often thyroid hormones (p<0.02), and no strong analgesics at all, while 70% of Mild responders (p<0.0005) used analgesics such as opioids, duloxetine or pregabalin on a daily basis. In addition to ME, the higher number of patients with fibromyalgia among Mild responders was bordering on significance (p<0.09). Good responders rated themselves as “very much” or “much” improved, while Mild responders rated “much” or “minimally” improved. Conclusions Dose-response relationship and long-lasting effects of B12/folic acid support a true positive response in the studied group of patients with ME/fibromyalgia. It’s important to be alert on co-existing thyroid dysfunction, and we suspect a risk of counteracting interference between B12/folic acid and certain opioid analgesics and other drugs that have to be demethylated as part of their metabolism. These issues should be considered when controlled trials for ME and fibromyalgia are to be designed. PMID:25902009

  13. Deficient IL-12p70 secretion by dendritic cells based on IL12B promoter genotype.

    PubMed

    Müller-Berghaus, J; Kern, K; Paschen, A; Nguyen, X D; Klüter, H; Morahan, G; Schadendorf, D

    2004-08-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12), a heterodimeric cytokine, is important in the generation of a Th1-biased immune response. Several polymorphisms have been described in IL12B, the gene encoding the p40 subunit of IL-12. A bi-allelic polymorphism within the IL12B promoter region has been reported to show association with diseases as diverse as severe childhood asthma and fatal cerebral malaria. In order to define the molecular basis for these disease associations, we investigated the secretion of IL-12 by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Homozygotes for the IL12B promoter polymorphism showed a 10-fold difference in median p70 secretion in response to CD40 ligation. Remarkably, this difference resulted from the inability of most allele 1 homozygotes to secrete heterodimeric IL-12. In contrast, most of the donors homozygous for allele 2 had detectable secretion. These findings are important for the understanding of the highly complex regulation of IL-12 secretion, and its consequent impact on disease susceptibility, in humans. PMID:15175646

  14. Vitamin D Deficiency Is an Independent Risk Factor for Urinary Tract Infections After Renal Transplants

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Young Eun; Kim, Hyunwook; Oh, Hyung Jung; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung Hyeok; Ryu, Dong-Ryeol; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Vitamin D deficiency is frequently found in patients with renal transplants (RTxs). Because vitamin D plays indispensable roles in the immune system, there may be an association between vitamin D deficiency and infection in these patients, but this has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, this study investigated the impact of pre-RTx vitamin D deficiency on urinary tract infection (UTI) development after RTx. We measured 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) levels in 410 patients 2 weeks before they underwent RTx. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OH)D3 <10?ng/mL. The primary outcome was UTI occurrence after RTx. Cox proportional hazard analysis determined whether vitamin D deficiency was independently associated with UTI. The mean 25(OH)D3 level was 12.8?±?6.9?ng/mL, and 171 patients (41.7%) were vitamin D deficient. During a median follow-up duration of 7.3 years, the UTI incidence was significantly higher in vitamin D-deficient patients (52 patients, 30.4%) compared with vitamin D-nondeficient patients (40 patients, 16.7%) (P?=?0.001). Moreover, multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that vitamin D deficiency was an independent predictor of UTI after RTx (hazard ratio 1.81, 95% confidence interval 1.11–2.97, P?=?0.02). Vitamin D deficiency was an independent risk factor for UTI after RTx; hence, determining 25(OH)D3 levels might help to predict infectious complications after RTx. PMID:25738483

  15. Vitamin D deficiency is an independent risk factor for urinary tract infections after renal transplants.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Young Eun; Kim, Hyunwook; Oh, Hyung Jung; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung Hyeok; Ryu, Dong-Ryeol; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2015-03-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is frequently found in patients with renal transplants (RTxs). Because vitamin D plays indispensable roles in the immune system, there may be an association between vitamin D deficiency and infection in these patients, but this has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, this study investigated the impact of pre-RTx vitamin D deficiency on urinary tract infection (UTI) development after RTx.We measured 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) levels in 410 patients 2 weeks before they underwent RTx. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OH)D3 <10?ng/mL. The primary outcome was UTI occurrence after RTx. Cox proportional hazard analysis determined whether vitamin D deficiency was independently associated with UTI.The mean 25(OH)D3 level was 12.8?±?6.9?ng/mL, and 171 patients (41.7%) were vitamin D deficient. During a median follow-up duration of 7.3 years, the UTI incidence was significantly higher in vitamin D-deficient patients (52 patients, 30.4%) compared with vitamin D-nondeficient patients (40 patients, 16.7%) (P?=?0.001). Moreover, multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that vitamin D deficiency was an independent predictor of UTI after RTx (hazard ratio 1.81, 95% confidence interval 1.11-2.97, P?=?0.02).Vitamin D deficiency was an independent risk factor for UTI after RTx; hence, determining 25(OH)D3 levels might help to predict infectious complications after RTx. PMID:25738483

  16. Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women impairs regulatory T cell function.

    PubMed

    Vijayendra Chary, A; Hemalatha, R; Seshacharyulu, M; Vasudeva Murali, M; Jayaprakash, D; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-03-01

    Regulatory T cells and IgE receptors (CD23 and CD21) on B cells were assessed in vitamin D deficient pregnant women. For this, 153 pregnant women were recruited from a government hospital and were categorized into three groups based on 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) status. Regulatory T cell population (Treg cells) and CD23/CD21 expression on B cells were quantified by FACS ARIA II in maternal blood at third trimester; and the same parameters were evaluated in cord blood soon after delivery. In addition, TGF ? and IL-10 were quantified in maternal and cord blood by using Milliplex kits. In a representative sample of eight women from each group (vitamin D sufficient, insufficient and deficient), placental tissues were processed for mRNA expressions of vitamin D receptor (VDR), retinoic acid receptor (RXR), vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) and vitamin D regulating enzymes. Of the 153 pregnant women, 18 were sufficient (?30 ng/mL), 55 were insufficient (20-29 ng/mL) and 80 were deficient (?19 ng/mL) for 25(OH)D3 status. The maternal blood Treg cell population (mean (%)± SE) was lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.2 ± 0.01) pregnant women compared to insufficient (0.34 ± 0.01) and sufficient (0.45 ± 0.02) pregnant women. Similarly, cord blood Treg cell population (mean (%)± SE) was also lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.63 ± 0.03) pregnant women when compared to insufficient (1.05 ± 0.04) and sufficient (1.75 ± 0.02) pregnant women. Mean (%) ± SE of B cells with CD23 and CD21 in maternal blood was higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient pregnant women (0.35 ± 0.02; 1.65 ± 0.04) when compared to insufficient (0.22 ± 0.02; 0.55 ± 0.05) and sufficient (0.15 ± 0.02; 0.21 ± 0.01) pregnant women. Similarly, mean (%)± SE of B cell population with CD23 and CD21 in cord blood was also higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.41 ± 0.02; 1.2 ± 0.03) when compared to insufficient (0.32 ± 0.01; 0.6 ± 0.05) and sufficient (0.2 ± 0.01; 0.4 ± 0.02) pregnant women. Regulatory cytokines, TGF ? and IL-10 were lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 insufficient and deficient subjects. In the placenta tissue of women with 25(OH)D3 deficiency, the regulatory T cell transcription factor FOXP3, vitamin D receptor (VDR) and retinoic acid receptor (RXR) expressions were downregulated. In contrast, CD23, CD21 and VDBP expressions were upregulated in 25(OH)D3 deficient and insufficient women. Vitamin D regulating enzymes (CYP24A1, CYP2R1 and CYP27B1) expression were also altered in women with 25(OH)D3 deficiency. The current study shows that impaired maternal 25(OH)D3 during pregnancy influences the spectrum of immune cells such as regulatory T cells and B cells with IgE receptors and this in turn may be linked to allergy and asthma in neonates. PMID:25448751

  17. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii thermal tolerance enhancement mediated by a mutualistic interaction with vitamin B12-producing bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bo; Bishop, Shawn; Stessman, Dan; Wright, David; Spalding, Martin H; Halverson, Larry J

    2013-01-01

    Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors affecting the growth and survival of microorganisms and in light of current global patterns is of particular interest. Here, we highlight studies revealing how vitamin B12 (cobalamin)-producing bacteria increase the fitness of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii following an increase in environmental temperature. Heat stress represses C. reinhardtii cobalamin-independent methionine synthase (METE) gene expression coinciding with a reduction in METE-mediated methionine synthase activity, chlorosis and cell death during heat stress. However, in the presence of cobalamin-producing bacteria or exogenous cobalamin amendments C. reinhardtii cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase METH-mediated methionine biosynthesis is functional at temperatures that result in C. reinhardtii death in the absence of cobalamin. Artificial microRNA silencing of C. reinhardtii METH expression leads to nearly complete loss of cobalamin-mediated enhancement of thermal tolerance. This suggests that methionine biosynthesis is an essential cellular mechanism for adaptation by C. reinhardtii to thermal stress. Increased fitness advantage of METH under environmentally stressful conditions could explain the selective pressure for retaining the METH gene in algae and the apparent independent loss of the METE gene in various algal species. Our results show that how an organism acclimates to a change in its abiotic environment depends critically on co-occurring species, the nature of that interaction, and how those species interactions evolve. PMID:23486253

  18. Electronic structure and correlations of vitamin B12 studied within the Haldane-Anderson impurity model

    E-print Network

    Kandemir, Zafer; Bulut, Nejat

    2015-01-01

    We study the electronic structure and correlations of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamine) by using the framework of the multi-orbital single-impurity Haldane-Anderson model of a transition-metal impurity in a semiconductor host. In this approach, the cobalt 3d orbitals are treated as the impurity states placed in a semiconductor host where the host consists of the rest of the molecule. The parameters of the resulting effective Haldane-Anderson model are obtained within the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation. The quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) technique is then used to calculate the one-electron and magnetic correlation functions of this effective model. We observe that new states form inside the semiconductor gap found by HF due to the intra-orbital Coulomb interaction at the impurity 3d orbitals. In particular, the lowest unoccupied states correspond to an impurity bound state, which consists of the states from the CN axial ligand and the corring ring as well as the Co e_g orbitals. We present results on the charge distri...

  19. Ultrafast excited-state dynamics in vitamin B12 and related cob(III)alamins.

    PubMed

    Shiang, Joseph J; Cole, Allwyn G; Sension, Roseanne J; Hang, Kun; Weng, Yuxiang; Trommel, Jenna S; Marzilli, Luigi G; Lian, Tianquan

    2006-01-25

    Femtosecond transient IR and visible absorption spectroscopies have been employed to investigate the excited-state photophysics of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin, CNCbl) and the related cob(III)alamins, azidocobalamin (N3Cbl), and aquocobalamin (H2OCbl). Excitation of CNCbl, H2OCbl, or N3Cbl results in rapid formation of a short-lived excited state followed by ground-state recovery on time scales ranging from a few picoseconds to a few tens of picoseconds. The lifetime of the intermediate state is influenced by the sigma-donating ability of the axial ligand, decreasing in the order CNCbl > N3Cbl > H2OCbl, and by the polarity of the solvent, decreasing with increasing solvent polarity. The peak of the excited-state visible absorption spectrum is shifted to ca. 490 nm, and the shape of the spectrum is characteristic of weak axial ligands, similar to those observed for cob(II)alamin, base-off cobalamins, or cobinamides. Transient IR spectra of the upper CN and N3 ligands are red-shifted 20-30 cm(-1) from the ground-state frequencies, consistent with a weakened Co-upper ligand bond. These results suggest that the transient intermediate state can be attributed to a corrin ring pi to Co 3d(z2) ligand to metal charge transfer (LMCT) state. In this state bonds between the cobalt and the axial ligands are weakened and lengthened with respect to the corresponding ground states. PMID:16417369

  20. Basal Gnathostomes Provide Unique Insights into the Evolution of Vitamin B12 Binders

    PubMed Central

    Lopes-Marques, Mónica; Ruivo, Raquel; Delgado, Inês; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Aluru, Neelakanteswar; Castro, L. Filipe C.

    2015-01-01

    The uptake and transport of vitamin B12 (cobalamin; Cbl) in mammals involves a refined system with three evolutionarily related transporters: transcobalamin 1 (Tcn1), transcobalamin 2 (Tcn2), and the gastric intrinsic factor (Gif). Teleosts have a single documented binder with intermediate features to the human counterparts. Consequently, it has been proposed that the expansion of Cbl binders occurred after the separation of Actinopterygians. Here, we demonstrate that the diversification of this gene family took place earlier in gnathostome ancestry. Our data indicates the presence of single copy orthologs of the Sarcopterygii/Tetrapoda duplicates Tcn1 and Gif, and Tcn2, in Chondrichthyes. In addition, a highly divergent Cbl binder was found in the Elasmobranchii. We unveil a complex scenario forged by genome, tandem duplications and lineage-specific gene loss. Our findings suggest that from an ancestral transporter, exhibiting large spectrum and high affinity binding, highly specific Cbl transporters emerged through gene duplication and mutations at the binding pocket. PMID:25552533

  1. NIH Researchers Find Vitamin D Binding Protein May Help to Assess Vitamin D Deficiency in African and White Americans

    MedlinePLUS

    ... here Home NIH researchers find vitamin D binding protein may help to assess vitamin D deficiency in ... Americans November 21, 2013 Measuring vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) may be important for accurately determining vitamin ...

  2. Identification and sequence analysis of genes involved in late steps in cobalamin (vitamin B12) synthesis in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed Central

    Pollich, M; Klug, G

    1995-01-01

    A 6.4-kb region of a 6.8-kb BamHI fragment carrying Rhodobacter capsulatus genes involved in late steps of cobalamin synthesis has been sequenced. The nucleotide sequence and genetic analysis revealed that this fragment contains eight genes arranged in at least three operons. Five of these eight genes show homology to genes involved in the cobalamin synthesis of Pseudomonas denitrificans and Salmonella typhimurium. The arrangement of these homologous genes differs considerably in the three genera. Upstream of five overlapping genes (named bluFEDCB), a promoter activity could be detected by using lacZ fusions. This promoter shows no regulation by oxygen, vitamin B12 (cobalamin), or cobinamide. Disruption of the bluE gene by a Tn5 insertion (strain AH2) results in reduced expression of the puf and puc operons, which encode pigment-binding proteins of the photosynthetic apparatus. The mutant strain AH2 can be corrected to a wild-type-like phenotype by addition of vitamin B12 or cobinamide dicyanide. Disruption of the bluB gene by an interposon (strain BB1) also disturbs the formation of the photosynthetic apparatus. The mutation of strain BB1 can be corrected by vitamin B12 but not by cobinamide. We propose that a lack of cobalamin results in deregulation and a decreased formation of the photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:7635831

  3. Identification and sequence analysis of genes involved in late steps in cobalamin (vitamin B12) synthesis in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed

    Pollich, M; Klug, G

    1995-08-01

    A 6.4-kb region of a 6.8-kb BamHI fragment carrying Rhodobacter capsulatus genes involved in late steps of cobalamin synthesis has been sequenced. The nucleotide sequence and genetic analysis revealed that this fragment contains eight genes arranged in at least three operons. Five of these eight genes show homology to genes involved in the cobalamin synthesis of Pseudomonas denitrificans and Salmonella typhimurium. The arrangement of these homologous genes differs considerably in the three genera. Upstream of five overlapping genes (named bluFEDCB), a promoter activity could be detected by using lacZ fusions. This promoter shows no regulation by oxygen, vitamin B12 (cobalamin), or cobinamide. Disruption of the bluE gene by a Tn5 insertion (strain AH2) results in reduced expression of the puf and puc operons, which encode pigment-binding proteins of the photosynthetic apparatus. The mutant strain AH2 can be corrected to a wild-type-like phenotype by addition of vitamin B12 or cobinamide dicyanide. Disruption of the bluB gene by an interposon (strain BB1) also disturbs the formation of the photosynthetic apparatus. The mutation of strain BB1 can be corrected by vitamin B12 but not by cobinamide. We propose that a lack of cobalamin results in deregulation and a decreased formation of the photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:7635831

  4. Subclinical vitamin K deficiency in hemodialysis (HD) patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subclinical vitamin K deficiency has been increasingly associated with extraosseous calcification in healthy adults. Non-dietary determinants of vitamin K status include apolipoproteinE (apoE) genotype, which is believed to influence vitamin K transport to peripheral tissues. Phylloquinone and %u...

  5. The effects of vitamin D deficiency in athletes.

    PubMed

    Angeline, Michael E; Gee, Albert O; Shindle, Michael; Warren, Russell F; Rodeo, Scott A

    2013-02-01

    Vitamin D acts to maintain calcium and phosphate homeostasis within the body. It is now estimated that 1 billion people worldwide are vitamin D deficient. This problem is particularly important to athletes of all ages, as vitamin D plays a significant role in bone health, immune function, and physical performance. In the deficient state, the athlete may be at an increased risk for potential problems such as stress fractures, respiratory infections, and muscle injuries. The purpose of this article is to examine vitamin D deficiency and review its relationship to the athlete. PMID:23371942

  6. Investigation on the pH-dependent binding of vitamin B12 and lysozyme by fluorescence and absorbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Daojin; Yang, Yumin; Cao, Xinxiang; Xu, Chen; Ji, Baoming

    2012-01-01

    The binding reaction between vitamin B12 (B12, cyanocobalamin) and lysozyme (Lys) has been investigated by fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, ultraviolet-vis (UV) absorbance, and three-dimensional fluorescence. The intrinsic fluorescence of Lys was strongly quenched by the addition of B12 in different pH buffer solutions (pH 3.4, 7.4, and 9.0) and the spectroscopic observations are mainly rationalized in terms of a static quenching process at lower concentration of B12 ( CB12/ CLys < 5) and a combined quenching process at higher concentration of B12 ( CB12/ CLys > 5). The structural characteristics of B12 and Lys were probed, and their binding affinities were determined under different pH conditions (pH 3.4, 7.4, and 9.0). The effect of B12 on the conformation of Lys was analyzed using UV, synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence under different pH conditions. These results indicate that the binding of B12 to Lys causes apparent change in the secondary or tertiary structures of Lys. Furthermore, the effect of Zn 2+ on the binding constant of B12 with Lys under various pH conditions (pH 3.4, 7.4, and 9.0) was also studied.

  7. Simultaneous determination of cobalt and nickel in vitamin B12 samples using high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Adolfo, Franciele Rovasi; do Nascimento, Paulo Cícero; Bohrer, Denise; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado; Viana, Carine; Guarda, Ananda; Nunes Colim, Alexsandro; Mattiazzi, Patricia

    2016-01-15

    Nickel and cobalt were simultaneously assayed in vitamin B12 formulations by using atomic spectrometry. The proposed method is based on a compromise between the proximity of specific Ni and Co spectral lines and the relative abundances of the analytes in the samples. The analytes were found in concentrations ranging from 9.48 to 26.20µgL(-1) (Ni) and from 156.90 to 279.25mgL(-1) (Co) in the commercial samples of vitamin B12. The limits of detection and quantification were 1.21 and 3.64mgL(-1) for Co and 0.39 and 1.19µgL(-1) for Ni. Sample cleanup was not necessary for the determinations, and the interferences were discussed. PMID:26592602

  8. Vitamin B6: a challenging link between nutrition and inflammation in cardiovasular disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the present review is to highlight the relationship between low vitamin B6 status and cardiovascular disease (CVD) through its link with inflammation. While overt vitamin B6 deficiency is uncommon in clinical practice, increasing evidence suggests that mild vitamin B6 deficiency is ...

  9. Vitamin B12: A Tunable, Long Wavelength, Light-Responsive Platform for Launching Therapeutic Agents.

    PubMed

    Shell, Thomas A; Lawrence, David S

    2015-11-17

    Light-responsive agents offer the promise of targeted therapy, whose benefits include (i) prolonged action at the target site, (ii) overall reduced systemic dosage, (iii) reduced adverse effects, and (iv) localized delivery of multiple agents. Although photoactivated prodrugs have been reported, these species generally require short wavelengths (<450 nm) for activation. However, maximal tissue penetrance by light occurs within the "optical window of tissue" (600-900 nm), well beyond the wavelength range of most existing photocleavable functional groups. Furthermore, since multidrug therapy holds promise for the treatment of complex diseases, from cancer to neurological disorders, controlling the action of multiple drugs via wavelength modulation would take advantage of a property that is unique to light. However, discrimination between existing photoresponsive moieties has thus far proven to be limited. We have developed a vitamin B12/light-facilitated strategy for controlling drug action using red, far-red, and NIR light. The technology is based on a light-triggered reaction displayed by a subset of B12 derivatives: alkyl-cob(III)alamins suffer photohomolysis of the C-Co(III) bond. The C-Co(III) bond is weak (<30 kcal/mol), and therefore all wavelengths absorbed by the corrin ring (330-580 nm) induce photocleavage. In addition, by appending fluorophores to the corrin ring, long wavelength light (>600 nm) is readily captured and used to separate the Co-appended ligand (e.g., a drug) from B12. Consequently, it is now feasible to preassign the wavelength of homolysis by simply installing a fluorescent antenna with the desired photophysical properties. The wavelength malleability inherent within this strategy has been used to construct photoresponsive compounds that launch different drugs by simply modulating the wavelength of illumination. In addition, these phototherapeutics have been installed on the surface and interior of cells, such as erythrocytes or neural stem cells, and released upon expoure to the appropriate wavelength. We have shown that cytotoxic agents, such as doxorubicin, anti-inflammatories, such as dexamethasone, and anti- and pro-vascular agents are readily released from cellular vehicles as biologically active agents. We have also demonstrated that the concept of "optical window of tissue" phototherapeutics is not just limited to prodrugs. For example, stem cells have received considerable attention in the area of regenerative medicine. Hydrogels serve as scaffolds for stem cell growth and differentiation. We have shown that the formation of hydrogels can be triggered, in the presence of cells, using appropriately designed alkyl-cob(III)alamins and long wavelength light. The potential applications of phototherapeutics are broad and include drug delivery for a variety of indications, tissue engineering, and surgery. PMID:26479305

  10. B12 in fetal development.

    PubMed

    Pepper, M Reese; Black, Maureen M

    2011-08-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is necessary for development of the fetus and child. Pregnant women who are vegetarian or vegan, have Crohn's or celiac disease, or have undergone gastric bypass surgery are at increased risk of B12 deficiency. Low serum levels of B12 have been linked to negative impacts in cognitive, motor, and growth outcomes. Low cobalamin levels also may be related to depression in adults. Some studies indicate that B12 supplementation may improve outcomes in children, although more research is needed in this area. Overall, the mechanisms of B12 action in development remain unclear. Further studies in this area to elucidate the pathways of cobalamin influence on development, as well as to prevent B12 deficiency in pregnant women and children are indicated. PMID:21664980

  11. Socioeconomic factors are associated with folate and vitamin B12 intakes and related biomarkers concentrations in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study.

    PubMed

    Iglesia, Iris; Mouratidou, Theodora; González-Gross, Marcela; Novakovic, Romana; Breidenassel, Christina; Jiménez-Pavón, David; Huybrechts, Inge; De Henauw, Stefaan; Geelen, Anouk; Gottrand, Frédéric; Kafatos, Anthony; Mistura, Lorenza; de Heredia, Fátima Pérez; Widhalm, Kurt; Manios, Yanis; Molnar, Denes; Stehle, Peter; Gurinovic, Mirjana; Cavelaars, Adrienne E J M; Van't Veer, Pieter; Moreno, Luis A

    2014-03-01

    Because socioeconomic factors (SEFs) may influence dietary quality and vitamin intakes, this study aimed to examine associations between socioeconomic factors and folate and vitamin B12 intakes as well as their related biomarkers in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study. Vitamin intakes were obtained from two 24-hour recalls in 2253 participants (47% males). Vitamin B biomarkers were assessed in a subsample of 977 participants (46% males). Socioeconomic factors were assessed by questionnaire, and 1-way analysis of covariance and linear regression analysis were applied. For males and females, mean intakes of folate were 211.19 and 177.18 ?g/d, and for vitamin B12, 5.98 and 4.54 ?g/d, respectively. Levels of plasma folate, red blood cell folate, serum B12, and holotranscobalamin were 18.74, 807.19, 330.64, and 63.04 nmol/L in males, respectively, and 19.13, 770.16, 377.9, and 65.63 nmol/L in females, respectively. Lower folate intakes were associated with several SEFs, including maternal and paternal education in both sexes. Regarding folate biomarkers, lower plasma folate intakes were associated with single/shared care in males and with lower paternal occupation in females. Lower vitamin B12 intakes were associated with almost all the studied SEFs, except paternal occupation in both sexes. In females, when considering vitamin B12 biomarkers, lower plasma vitamin B12 was associated with lower maternal education and occupation, and lower holotranscobalamin was associated with lower maternal education and lower paternal occupation. In conclusion, from the set of socioeconomic determinants studied in a sample of European adolescents, maternal education and paternal occupation were more consistently associated with folate and vitamin B12 intakes and biomarkers concentrations. PMID:24655486

  12. Vitamin A supplementation in early life enhances the intestinal immune response of rats with gestational vitamin A deficiency by increasing the number of immune cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xia; Cui, Ting; Li, Yingying; Wang, Yuting; Wang, Qinghong; Li, Xin; Bi, Yang; Wei, Xiaoping; Liu, Lan; Li, Tingyu; Chen, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin A is a critical micronutrient for regulating immunity in many organisms. Our previous study demonstrated that gestational or early-life vitamin A deficiency decreases the number of immune cells in offspring. The present study aims to test whether vitamin A supplementation can restore lymphocyte pools in vitamin A-deficient rats and thereby improve the function of their intestinal mucosa; furthermore, the study aimed to identify the best time frame for vitamin A supplementation. Vitamin A-deficient pregnant rats or their offspring were administered a low-dose of vitamin A daily for 7 days starting on gestational day 14 or postnatal day 1, day 14 or day 28. Serum retinol concentrations increased significantly in all four groups that received vitamin A supplementation, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The intestinal levels of secretory immunoglobulin A and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor increased significantly with lipopolysaccharide challenge in the rats that received vitamin A supplementation starting on postnatal day 1. The rats in this group had higher numbers of CD8+ intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes, CD11C+ dendritic cells in the Peyer's patches and CD4+CD25+ T cells in the spleen compared with the vitamin A-deficient rats; flow cytometric analysis also demonstrated that vitamin A supplementation decreased the number of B cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Additionally, vitamin A supplementation during late gestation increased the numbers of CD8+ intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes and decreased the numbers of B lymphocytes in the mesenteric lymph nodes. However, no significant differences in lymphocyte levels were found between the rats in the other two vitamin A supplement groups and the vitamin A-deficient group. In conclusion, the best recovery of a subset of lymphocytes in the offspring of gestational vitamin A-deficient rats and the greatest improvement in the intestinal mucosal immune response are achieved when vitamin A supplementation occurs during the early postnatal period. PMID:25503794

  13. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis of active vitamin B12 in cells of Propionibacterium and fermented cereal matrices.

    PubMed

    Chamlagain, Bhawani; Edelmann, Minnamari; Kariluoto, Susanna; Ollilainen, Velimatti; Piironen, Vieno

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive and selective method is needed to analyse in situ produced vitamin B12 in plant-based materials, potential new dietary sources of vitamin B12. A UHPLC/UV method was developed and validated for the determination of human active vitamin B12 in cell extracts of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii and after immunoaffinity purification in extracts of cereal matrices fermented by P. freudenreichii. An Acquity HSS T3 C18 column resulted in a baseline separation, a calibration curve of excellent linearity and a low limit of detection (0.075 ng/5 ?L injection). As confirmed by UHPLC-MS, the active vitamin B12 could be separated from pseudovitamin B12. The recovery of vitamin B12 from purified spiked cereal matrices was good (>90%; RSD<5%). A nutritionally relevant amount of active vitamin B12 was produced by P. freudenreichii in cereal malt matrices (up to 1.9 ?g/100 g) in 24h at 28 °C. PMID:25053103

  14. Combined Spectroscopic/Computational Studies of Vitamin B12 Precursors: Geometric and Electronic Structures of Cobinamides

    PubMed Central

    Reig, Amanda J.; Conrad, Karen S.; Brunold, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) and its biologically active derivatives, methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin, are members of the family of corrinoids, which also includes cobinamides. As biological precursors to cobalamins, cobinamides possess the same structural core, consisting of a low-spin Co3+ ion that is ligated equatorially by the four nitrogens of a highly substituted tetrapyrrole macrocycle (the corrin ring), but differ with respect to the “lower” axial ligation. Specifically, cobinamides possess a water molecule instead of the nucleotide loop that coordinates axially to Co3+cobalamins via its dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB) base. Compared to the cobalamin species, cobinamides have proven much more difficult to study experimentally, thus far eluding characterization by X-ray crystallography. In this study, we have utilized combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) computations to generate complete structural models of a representative set of cobinamide species with varying upper axial ligands. To validate the use of this approach, analogous QM/MM geometry optimizations were carried out on entire models of the cobalamin counterparts, for which high-resolution X-ray structural data are available. The accuracy of the cobinamide structures was assessed further by comparing electronic absorption spectra computed using time-dependent density functional theory to those obtained experimentally. Collectively, the results obtained in this study indicate that the DMB?H2O lower axial ligand switch primarily affects the energies of the Co 3dz2-based molecular orbital (MO) and, to a lesser extent, the other Co 3d-based MOs as well as the corrin ?-based highest energy MO. Thus, while the energies of the lowest-energy electronic transition of cobalamins change considerably as a function of the upper axial ligand, they are nearly invariant for the cobinamides. PMID:22332807

  15. Structural Insights into the MMACHC-MMADHC Protein Complex Involved in Vitamin B12 Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Froese, D Sean; Kopec, Jolanta; Fitzpatrick, Fiona; Schuller, Marion; McCorvie, Thomas J; Chalk, Rod; Plessl, Tanja; Fettelschoss, Victoria; Fowler, Brian; Baumgartner, Matthias R; Yue, Wyatt W

    2015-12-01

    Conversion of vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) into the cofactor forms methyl-Cbl (MeCbl) and adenosyl-Cbl (AdoCbl) is required for the function of two crucial enzymes, mitochondrial methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and cytosolic methionine synthase, respectively. The intracellular proteins MMACHC and MMADHC play important roles in processing and targeting the Cbl cofactor to its destination enzymes, and recent evidence suggests that they may interact while performing these essential trafficking functions. To better understand the molecular basis of this interaction, we have mapped the crucial protein regions required, indicate that Cbl is likely processed by MMACHC prior to interaction with MMADHC, and identify patient mutations on both proteins that interfere with complex formation, via different mechanisms. We further report the crystal structure of the MMADHC C-terminal region at 2.2 Å resolution, revealing a modified nitroreductase fold with surprising homology to MMACHC despite their poor sequence conservation. Because MMADHC demonstrates no known enzymatic activity, we propose it as the first protein known to repurpose the nitroreductase fold solely for protein-protein interaction. Using small angle x-ray scattering, we reveal the MMACHC-MMADHC complex as a 1:1 heterodimer and provide a structural model of this interaction, where the interaction region overlaps with the MMACHC-Cbl binding site. Together, our findings provide novel structural evidence and mechanistic insight into an essential biological process, whereby an intracellular "trafficking chaperone" highly specific for a trace element cofactor functions via protein-protein interaction, which is disrupted by inherited disease mutations. PMID:26483544

  16. Role of vitamin B12 on methylmalonyl-CoA mutase activity.

    PubMed

    Takahashi-Iñiguez, Tóshiko; García-Hernandez, Enrique; Arreguín-Espinosa, Roberto; Flores, María Elena

    2012-06-01

    Vitamin B(12) is an organometallic compound with important metabolic derivatives that act as cofactors of certain enzymes, which have been grouped into three subfamilies depending on their cofactors. Among them, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM) has been extensively studied. This enzyme catalyzes the reversible isomerization of L-methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA using adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) as a cofactor participating in the generation of radicals that allow isomerization of the substrate. The crystal structure of MCM determined in Propionibacterium freudenreichii var. shermanii has helped to elucidate the role of this cofactor AdoCbl in the reaction to specify the mechanism by which radicals are generated from the coenzyme and to clarify the interactions between the enzyme, coenzyme, and substrate. The existence of human methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) due to the presence of mutations in MCM shows the importance of its role in metabolism. The recent crystallization of the human MCM has shown that despite being similar to the bacterial protein, there are significant differences in the structural organization of the two proteins. Recent studies have identified the involvement of an accessory protein called MMAA, which interacts with MCM to prevent MCM's inactivation or acts as a chaperone to promote regeneration of inactivated enzyme. The interdisciplinary studies using this protein as a model in different organisms have helped to elucidate the mechanism of action of this isomerase, the impact of mutations at a functional level and their repercussion in the development and progression of MMA in humans. It is still necessary to study the mechanisms involved in more detail using new methods. PMID:22661206

  17. Human Vitamin B12 Absorption and Metabolism are Measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Using Specifically Labeled 14C-Cobalamin

    SciTech Connect

    Carkeet, C; Dueker, S R; Lango, J; Buchholz, B A; Miller, J W; Green, R; Hammock, B D; Roth, J R; Anderson, P J

    2006-01-26

    There is need for an improved test of human ability to assimilate dietary vitamin B{sub 12}. Assaying and understanding absorption and uptake of B{sub 12} is important because defects can lead to hematological and neurological complications. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is uniquely suited for assessing absorption and kinetics of {sup 14}C-labeled substances after oral ingestion because it is more sensitive than decay counting and can measure levels of carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) in microliter volumes of biological samples, with negligible exposure of subjects to radioactivity. The test we describe employs amounts of B{sub 12} in the range of normal dietary intake. The B{sub 12} used was quantitatively labeled with {sup 14}C at one particular atom of the DMB moiety by exploiting idiosyncrasies of Salmonellametabolism. In order to grow aerobically on ethanolamine, S. entericamust be provided with either pre-formed B{sub 12} or two of its precursors: cobinamide and dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB). When provided with {sup 14}C-DMB specifically labeled in the C2 position, cells produced {sup 14}C-B{sub 12} of high specific activity (2.1 GBq/mmol, 58 mCi/mmol) and no detectable dilution of label from endogenous DMB synthesis. In a human kinetic study, a physiological dose (1.5 mg, 2.2 KBq/59 nCi) of purified {sup 14}C-B{sub 12} was administered and showed plasma appearance and clearance curves consistent with the predicted behavior of the pure vitamin. This method opens new avenues for study of B{sub 12} assimilation.

  18. Effect of vitamin B12 on cleft palate induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and dexamethasone in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shu-Fan; Chai, Mao-Zhou; Wu, Min; He, Yong-Hong; Meng, Tian; Shi, Bing

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin B12 on palatal development by co-administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and dexamethasone (DEX). We examined the morphological and histological features of the palatal shelf and expression levels of key signaling molecules (transforming growth factor-?3 (TGF-?3) and TGF-? type I receptor (activin receptor-like kinase 5, ALK5)) during palatogenesis among a control group (Group A), TCDD+DEX exposed group (Group B), and TCDD+DEX+vitamin B12 exposed group (Group C). While we failed to find that vitamin B12 decreased the incidence of cleft palate induced by TCDD+DEX treatment, the expression levels of key signaling molecules (TGF-?3 and ALK5) during palatogenesis were significantly modulated. In TCDD+DEX exposed and TCDD+DEX+vitamin B12 exposed groups, palatal shelves could not contact in the midline due to their small sizes. Our results suggest that vitamin B12 may inhibit the expression of some cleft palate inducers such as TGF-?3 and ALK5 in DEX+TCDD exposed mice, which may be beneficial against palatogenesis to some degree, even though we were unable to observe a protective role of vitamin B12 in morphological and histological alterations of palatal shelves induced by DEX and TCDD. PMID:24599693

  19. Enhanced Peptide Stability Against Protease Digestion Induced by Intrinsic Factor Binding of a Vitamin B12 Conjugate of Exendin-4

    PubMed Central

    Bonaccorso, Ron L.; Chepurny, Oleg G.; Becker-Pauly, Christoph; Holz, George G.; Doyle, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    Peptide digestion from proteases is a significant limitation in peptide therapeutic development. It has been hypothesized that the dietary pathway of vitamin B12 (B12) may be exploited in this area, but an open question is whether B12-peptide conjugates bound to the B12 gastric uptake protein intrinsic factor (IF) can provide any stability against proteases. Herein, we describe a new conjugate of B12 with the incretin peptide exendin 4 that demonstrates picomolar agonism of the glugacon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1-R). Stability studies reveal that Ex-4 is digested by pancreatic proteases trypsin and chymotrypsin and by the kidney endopeptidase meprin ?. Prebinding the B12 conjugate to IF, however, resulted in up to a 4-fold greater activity of the B12-Ex-4 conjugate relative to Ex-4, when the IF-B12-Ex-4 complex was exposed to 22 µg/mL of trypsin, 2.3-fold greater activity when exposed to 1.25 µg/mL of chymotrypsin, and there was no decrease in function at up to 5 µg/mL of meprin ?. PMID:26260673

  20. Enhanced Peptide Stability Against Protease Digestion Induced by Intrinsic Factor Binding of a Vitamin B12 Conjugate of Exendin-4.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorso, Ron L; Chepurny, Oleg G; Becker-Pauly, Christoph; Holz, George G; Doyle, Robert P

    2015-09-01

    Peptide digestion from proteases is a significant limitation in peptide therapeutic development. It has been hypothesized that the dietary pathway of vitamin B12 (B12) may be exploited in this area, but an open question is whether B12-peptide conjugates bound to the B12 gastric uptake protein intrinsic factor (IF) can provide any stability against proteases. Herein, we describe a new conjugate of B12 with the incretin peptide exendin 4 that demonstrates picomolar agonism of the glugacon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1-R). Stability studies reveal that Ex-4 is digested by pancreatic proteases trypsin and chymotrypsin and by the kidney endopeptidase meprin ?. Prebinding the B12 conjugate to IF, however, resulted in up to a 4-fold greater activity of the B12-Ex-4 conjugate relative to Ex-4, when the IF-B12-Ex-4 complex was exposed to 22 ?g/mL of trypsin, 2.3-fold greater activity when exposed to 1.25 ?g/mL of chymotrypsin, and there was no decrease in function at up to 5 ?g/mL of meprin ?. PMID:26260673

  1. Does Vitamin C Deficiency Affect Cognitive Development and Function?

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Stine Normann; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival in newborn SVCT2(?/?) mice and perinatal deficiency have shown to reduce hippocampal volume and neuron number and cause decreased spatial cognition in guinea pigs, suggesting that maternal vitamin C deficiency could have severe consequences for the offspring. Furthermore, vitamin C deficiency has been proposed to play a role in age-related cognitive decline and in stroke risk and severity. The present review discusses the available literature on effects of vitamin C deficiency on the developing and aging brain with particular focus on in vivo experimentation and clinical studies. PMID:25244370

  2. Vitamin D Deficiency in India: Prevalence, Causalities and Interventions

    PubMed Central

    G, Ritu; Gupta, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency prevails in epidemic proportions all over the Indian subcontinent, with a prevalence of 70%–100% in the general population. In India, widely consumed food items such as dairy products are rarely fortified with vitamin D. Indian socioreligious and cultural practices do not facilitate adequate sun exposure, thereby negating potential benefits of plentiful sunshine. Consequently, subclinical vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in both urban and rural settings, and across all socioeconomic and geographic strata. Vitamin D deficiency is likely to play an important role in the very high prevalence of rickets, osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer and infections such as tuberculosis in India. Fortification of staple foods with vitamin D is the most viable population based strategy to achieve vitamin D sufficiency. Unfortunately, even in advanced countries like USA and Canada, food fortification strategies with vitamin D have been only partially effective and have largely failed to attain vitamin D sufficiency. This article reviews the status of vitamin D nutrition in the Indian subcontinent and also the underlying causes for this epidemic. Implementation of population based educational and interventional strategies to combat this scourge require recognition of vitamin D deficiency as a public health problem by the governing bodies so that healthcare funds can be allocated appropriately. PMID:24566435

  3. Industrial vitamin B12 production by Pseudomonas denitrificans using maltose syrup and corn steep liquor as the cost-effective fermentation substrates.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wei; Chen, Wei; Peng, Wei-Fu; Li, Kun-Tai

    2015-06-01

    The aerobic Pseudomonas denitrificans is widely used for industrial and commercial vitamin B12 fermentation, due to its higher productivity compared to the anaerobic vitamin B12-producing microorganisms. This paper aimed to develop a cost-effective fermentation medium for industrial vitamin B12 production by P. denitrificans in 120,000-l fermenter. It was found that maltose syrup (a low-cost syrup from corn starch by means of enzymatic or acid hydrolysis) and corn steep liquor (CSL, a by-product of starch industry) were greatly applicable to vitamin B12 production by P. denitrificans. Under the optimal fermentation medium performed by response surface methodology, 198.27 ± 4.60 mg/l of vitamin B12 yield was obtained in 120,000-l fermenter, which was close to the fermentation with the refined sucrose (198.80 mg/l) and was obviously higher than that obtained under beet molasses utilization (181.75 mg/l). Therefore, maltose syrups and CSL were the efficient and economical substrates for industrial vitamin B12 fermentation by P. denitrificans. PMID:25561346

  4. The Effects of In Utero Vitamin D Deficiency on Airway Smooth Muscle Mass and Lung Function.

    PubMed

    Foong, Rachel E; Bosco, Anthony; Jones, Anya C; Gout, Alex; Gorman, Shelley; Hart, Prue H; Zosky, Graeme R

    2015-11-01

    We have previously demonstrated increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass and airway hyperresponsiveness in whole-life vitamin D-deficient female mice. In this study, we aimed to uncover the molecular mechanisms contributing to altered lung structure and function. RNA was extracted from lung tissue of whole-life vitamin D-deficient and -replete female mice, and gene expression patterns were profiled by RNA sequencing. The data showed that genes involved in embryonic organ development, pattern formation, branching morphogenesis, Wingless/Int signaling, and inflammation were differentially expressed in vitamin D-deficient mice. Network analysis suggested that differentially expressed genes were connected by the hubs matrix metallopeptidase 9; NF-? light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells inhibitor, ?; epidermal growth factor receptor; and E1A binding protein p300. Given our findings that developmental pathways may be altered, we investigated if the timing of vitamin D exposure (in utero vs. postnatal) had an impact on lung health outcomes. Gene expression was measured in in utero or postnatal vitamin D-deficient mice, as well as whole-life vitamin D-deficient and -replete mice at 8 weeks of age. Baseline lung function, airway hyperresponsiveness, and airway inflammation were measured and lungs fixed for lung structure assessment using stereological methods and quantification of ASM mass. In utero vitamin D deficiency was sufficient to increase ASM mass and baseline airway resistance and alter lung structure. There were increased neutrophils but decreased lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage. Expression of inflammatory molecules S100A9 and S100A8 was mainly increased in postnatal vitamin D-deficient mice. These observations suggest that in utero vitamin D deficiency can alter lung structure and function and increase inflammation, contributing to symptoms in chronic diseases, such as asthma. PMID:25867172

  5. Effect of pH on the interaction of vitamin B12 with bovine serum albumin by spectroscopic approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Daojin; Zhang, Tian; Xu, Chen; Ji, Baoming

    2011-12-01

    The interaction mechanism between vitamin B12 (B12, cyanocobalamin) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated by fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, ultraviolet-vis (UV) absorbance, and three-dimensional fluorescence. The intrinsic fluorescence of BSA was strongly quenched by the addition of B12 in different pH buffer solutions (pH 2.5, 3.5, 5.0, 7.4, and 9.0) and spectroscopic observations are mainly rationalized in terms of a static quenching process at lower concentration of B12 ( CB12/ CBSA < 5) and a combined quenching process at higher concentration of B12 ( CB12/ CBSA > 5). The structural characteristics of B12 and BSA were probed, and their binding affinities were determined under different pH conditions. The results indicated that the binding abilities of B12 to BSA in the acidic and basic pH regions (pH 2.5, 3.5, 5.0, and 9.0) were lower than that at simulating physiological condition (pH 7.4). In addition, the efficiency of energy transfer from tryptophan fluorescence to B12 was found to depend on the binding distance r between the donor and acceptor calculated using Förster's theory. The effect of B12 on the conformation of BSA was analyzed using UV, synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence under different pH conditions. These results showed that the binding of B12 to BSA causes apparent change in the secondary and tertiary structures of BSA.

  6. Crystallization and preliminary structure analysis of CobE, an essential protein of cobalamin (vitamin B{sub 12}) biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Vévodová, Jitka; Graham, Ross M.; Raux, Evelyne; Warren, Martin J.; Wilson, Keith S.

    2005-04-01

    P. aeruginosa CobE, a protein implicated in vitamin B{sub 12} biosynthesis, has been crystallized and data on the native and SeMet forms recorded to resolutions of 1.9 and 1.7 Å, respectively. The anomalous measurements will be used for phasing. CobE, a protein implicated in vitamin B{sub 12} biosynthesis, from Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using hanging-drop vapour diffusion. The crystals belong to the primitive orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 31.86, b = 41.07, c = 87.41 Å. The diffraction extends to a resolution of 1.9 Å. There is one molecule per asymmetric unit and the estimated solvent content is 35%. SeMet-labelled CobE has been prepared and crystallizes under the same conditions as the native protein with diffraction to 1.7 Å. The anomalous measurements will be used for phasing.

  7. Low Maternal Vitamin B12 Status Is Associated with Lower Cord Blood HDL Cholesterol in White Caucasians Living in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Adaikalakoteswari, Antonysunil; Vatish, Manu; Lawson, Alexander; Wood, Catherine; Sivakumar, Kavitha; McTernan, Philip G.; Webster, Craig; Anderson, Neil; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Tripathi, Gyanendra; Saravanan, Ponnusamy

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Studies in South Asian population show that low maternal vitamin B12 associates with insulin resistance and small for gestational age in the offspring. Low vitamin B12 status is attributed to vegetarianism in these populations. It is not known whether low B12 status is associated with metabolic risk of the offspring in whites, where the childhood metabolic disorders are increasing rapidly. Here, we studied whether maternal B12 levels associate with metabolic risk of the offspring at birth. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 91 mother-infant pairs (n = 182), of white Caucasian origin living in the UK. Blood samples were collected from white pregnant women at delivery and their newborns (cord blood). Serum vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine as well as the relevant metabolic risk factors were measured. Results: The prevalence of low serum vitamin B12 (<191 ng/L) and folate (<4.6 ?g/L) were 40% and 11%, respectively. Maternal B12 was inversely associated with offspring’s Homeostasis Model Assessment 2-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), triglycerides, homocysteine and positively with HDL-cholesterol after adjusting for age and BMI. In regression analysis, after adjusting for likely confounders, maternal B12 is independently associated with neonatal HDL-cholesterol and homocysteine but not triglycerides or HOMA-IR. Conclusions: Our study shows that low B12 status is common in white women and is independently associated with adverse cord blood cholesterol. PMID:25849948

  8. Vitamin D Deficiency and Replacement: Relationships to Cardiovascular Health

    E-print Network

    Vacek, James

    2010-04-11

    Abstract Background: Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality and morbidity in the United States as well as many other nations. Recent evidence supports an association of vitamin D deficiency with hypertension, peripheral...

  9. Vitamin D deficiency is common in psychogeriatric patients, independent of diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found an association between psychiatric disorders and vitamin D deficiency, but most studies have focused on depression. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in elderly patients with a wider range of psychiatric diagnoses. Method The study included elderly patients (>64 years) referred to a psychiatric hospital in Northern Norway and a control group from a population survey in the same area. An assessment of psychiatric and cognitive symptoms and diagnoses was conducted using the Montgomery and Aasberg Depression Rating Scale, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, the Mini Mental State Examination, the Clockdrawing Test, and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI+), as well as clinical interviews and a review of medical records. The patients’ mean level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency were compared with those of a control group, and a comparison of vitamin D deficiency across different diagnostic groups was also made. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L (<20 ng/ml). Results The mean levels of 25(OH)D in the patient group (n?=?95) and the control group (n?=?104) were 40.5 nmol/L and 65.9 nmol/L (p?vitamin D deficiency was found in the patient group compared with the control group (71.6% and 20.0%, respectively; p?vitamin D deficiency was still associated with patient status (OR: 12.95, CI (95%): 6.03-27.83, p?vitamin D deficiency were found between patients with different categories of psychiatric diagnoses, such as depression, bipolar disorders, psychosis, and dementia. Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency is very common among psychogeriatric patients, independent of diagnostic category. Even though the role of vitamin D in psychiatric disorders is still not clear, we suggest screening for vitamin D deficiency in this patient group due to the importance of vitamin D for overall health. PMID:24884774

  10. A Stability-Indicating HPLC Method for the Determination of Nitrosylcobalamin (NO-Cbl), a Novel Vitamin B12 Analog.

    PubMed

    Dunphy, Michael J; Sysel, Annette M; Lupica, Joseph A; Griffith, Kristie; Sherrod, Taylor; Bauer, Joseph A

    2014-04-01

    Nitrosylcobalamin (NO-Cbl), a novel vitamin B12 analog and anti-tumor agent, functions as a biologic 'Trojan horse', utilizing the vitamin B12 transcobalamin II transport protein and cell surface receptor to specifically target cancer cells. a stability-indicating HPLC method was developed for the detection of NO-Cbl during forced degradation studies. This method utilized an ascentis(®) RP-amide (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 ?m) column at 35 °C with a mobile phase (1.0 mL min(-1)) combining a gradient of methanol and an acetate buffer at pH 6.0. Detection wavelengths of 450 and 254 nm were used to detect corrin and non-corrin-based products, respectively. NO-Cbl, synthesized from hydroxocobalamin and pure nitric oxide gas, was subjected to degradative stress conditions including oxidation, hydrolysis and thermal and radiant energy challenge. The method was validated by assessing linearity, accuracy, precision, detection and quantitation limits and robustness. The method was applied successfully for purity assessment of synthesized NO-Cbl and for the determination of NO-Cbl during kinetic studies in aqueous solution and in solid-state degradation assessments. This HPLC method is suitable for the separation of cobalamins in aqueous and methanolic solutions, for routine detection of NO-Cbl and for purity assessment of synthesized NO-Cbl. additionally, this method has potential application in identification and monitoring of diseases involving altered nitric oxide homeostasis where vitamin B12 therapy is utilized to scavenge excess nitric oxide, subsequently resulting in the in vivo production of NO-Cbl. PMID:24855323

  11. A Stability-Indicating HPLC Method for the Determination of Nitrosylcobalamin (NO-Cbl), a Novel Vitamin B12 Analog

    PubMed Central

    Dunphy, Michael J.; Sysel, Annette M.; Lupica, Joseph A.; Griffith, Kristie; Sherrod, Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Nitrosylcobalamin (NO-Cbl), a novel vitamin B12 analog and anti-tumor agent, functions as a biologic ‘Trojan horse’, utilizing the vitamin B12 transcobalamin II transport protein and cell surface receptor to specifically target cancer cells. a stability-indicating HPLC method was developed for the detection of NO-Cbl during forced degradation studies. This method utilized an ascentis® RP-amide (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 ?m) column at 35 °C with a mobile phase (1.0 mL min?1) combining a gradient of methanol and an acetate buffer at pH 6.0. Detection wavelengths of 450 and 254 nm were used to detect corrin and non-corrin-based products, respectively. NO-Cbl, synthesized from hydroxocobalamin and pure nitric oxide gas, was subjected to degradative stress conditions including oxidation, hydrolysis and thermal and radiant energy challenge. The method was validated by assessing linearity, accuracy, precision, detection and quantitation limits and robustness. The method was applied successfully for purity assessment of synthesized NO-Cbl and for the determination of NO-Cbl during kinetic studies in aqueous solution and in solid-state degradation assessments. This HPLC method is suitable for the separation of cobalamins in aqueous and methanolic solutions, for routine detection of NO-Cbl and for purity assessment of synthesized NO-Cbl. additionally, this method has potential application in identification and monitoring of diseases involving altered nitric oxide homeostasis where vitamin B12 therapy is utilized to scavenge excess nitric oxide, subsequently resulting in the in vivo production of NO-Cbl. PMID:24855323

  12. Vitamin D Deficiency and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D receptors have a broad tissue distribution that includes vascular smooth muscle, endothelium, and cardiomyocytes. A growing body of evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency may adversely affect the cardiovascular system, but few prospective data exist. This study examined the relation...

  13. Citrus can help prevent vitamin A deficiency in developing countries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    California is a major producer of tangerines and oranges, which contain carotenoids that form vitamin A. Deficiencies of this vitamin are common in southern Asia and Africa, causing blindness and more than one-half million deaths each year. We evaluated the potential of tangerines and oranges to pre...

  14. Vitamin Requirements and Deficiencies: Theoretical and Practical Considerations for Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirota, Lorraine

    1991-01-01

    Research indicates athletes may require more of certain nutrients than other healthy individuals. The article discusses vitamin requirements and deficiencies and how to supply the needed nutrients. Since coaches, trainers, and physical education teachers influence their athletes' behaviors, they must examine the issues associated with vitamin

  15. Anterior Segment Findings in Vitamin A Deficiency: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Rubino, Pierangela; Mora, Paolo; Ungaro, Nicola; Gandolfi, Stefano A.; Orsoni, Jelka G.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a rare but vision threatening disorder in the developed world, which can lead to blindness for severe keratomalacia with cornea scarring and perforation or night blindness due to impaired dark adaptation. Conversely, the disease is quite common in developing countries, as a consequence of chronic malnutrition. The correct diagnosis and therapy with prompt vitamin A supplementation avoid blindness. We report a series of 3 local cases with different age and causes for vitamin A deficiency. The diagnostic workup, therapy, and prognosis are discussed. PMID:26509090

  16. Single high-dose vitamin D at birth corrects vitamin D deficiency in infants in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Amaran; Spector, Stephen A

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in mothers and infants in Tijuana, Mexico and determined the effect of a single oral dose of 50,000?IU vitamin D3 at birth on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels during infancy. Healthy infants were randomized to receive vitamin D3 or placebo at birth. At birth 23% of infants were vitamin D deficient and 77% had vitamin D insufficiency (mean 25[OH]D level 18.9?ng/ml); 10% of mothers were vitamin D deficient and 61% were insufficient. Infants receiving vitamin D3 had higher 25(OH)D levels at two months (N?=?29; 33.9 versus 24.2?ng/ml) and six months (N?=?21; 36.5 versus 27.4?ng/ml). Exclusively breastfed infants had lower 25(OH)D levels at two months (14.9 versus 33.4?ng/ml). Vitamin D deficiency is common in infants and mothers in Tijuana, Mexico. A single dose of vitamin D3 at birth was safe and significantly increased 25(OH)D levels during infancy. PMID:25582182

  17. Single High Dose Vitamin D at Birth Corrects Vitamin D Deficiency in Infants in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Moodley, Amaran; Spector, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in mothers and infants in Tijuana, Mexico and determined the effect of a single oral dose of 50,000 IU vitamin D3 at birth on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels during infancy. Healthy infants were randomized to receive vitamin D3 or placebo at birth. At birth 23% of infants were vitamin D deficient and 77% had vitamin D insufficiency (mean 25[OH]D level 18.9 ng/ml); 10% of mothers were vitamin D deficient and 61% were insufficient. Infants receiving vitamin D3 had higher 25(OH)D levels at 2 months (n=29; 33.9 vs. 24.2 ng/ml) and 6 months (n=21; 36.5 vs. 27.4 ng/ml). Exclusively breastfed infants had lower 25(OH)D levels at 2 months (14.9 vs. 33.4 ng/ml). Vitamin D deficiency is common in infants and mothers in Tijuana, Mexico. A single dose of vitamin D3 at birth was safe and significantly increased 25(OH)D levels during infancy. PMID:25582182

  18. Relationship between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Yan-Chiou; Liu, Mu-En; Ku, Chang-Sheng; Liu, Ta-Yuan; Lin, Shoa-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have found that low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels may be associated with coronary risk factors and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Additionally, vitamin D deficiency causes an increase in parathyroid hormone, which increases insulin resistance and is associated with diabetes, hypertension, inflammation, and increased cardiovascular risk. In this review, we analyze the association between vitamin D supplementation and the reduction in cardiovascular disease. The role of vitamin D deficiency in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is still controversial, and larger scale, randomized placebo controlled trials are needed to investigate whether oral vitamin D supplementation can reduce cardiovascular risk. Given the low cost, safety, and demonstrated benefit of higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, vitamin D supplementation should become a public health priority for combating common and costly chronic cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24109497

  19. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnant Women: A National Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Amsalkhir, Sihame; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is associated with multiple adverse health outcomes in mothers, neonates and children. There are no representative country data available on vitamin D status of pregnant women in Europe. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Belgian pregnant women and to assess the determinants of vitamin D status in the first and third trimester of pregnancy. The women were selected via a multi-stage proportionate-to-size sampling design. Blood samples were collected and a questionnaire was completed face-to-face. 55 obstetric clinics were randomly selected and 1311 pregnant women participated in the study. The median serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-(OH)D] concentration was significantly lower in the first trimester (20.4 ng/ml) than in third trimester (22.7 ng/ml). Of all women, 74.1% (95%CI?=?71.8–76.5%) were vitamin D insufficient (25-(OH)D <30 ng/ml), 44.6% (95%CI?=?41.9–47.3%) were vitamin D deficient (25-(OH)D <20 ng/ml), while 12.1% (95%CI?=?10.3–13.8%) were severely vitamin D deficient (25-(OH)D <10 ng/ml). Of all women included, 62.0% reported taking vitamin D-containing multivitamins, of which only 24.2% started taking those before pregnancy. The risk of vitamin D deficiency (25-(OH)D <20 ng/ml) was significantly higher for less educated women and women who reported not going on holidays to sunny climates. The risk of severe vitamin D deficiency (25-(OH)D <10 ng/ml) decreased for women who reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy, decreased with more frequent use of sunscreen lotion and increased for smokers and women who reported preference for shadow. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among pregnant women in Belgium and this raises concerns about the health consequences for the mother and the offspring. A targeted screening strategy to detect and treat women at high risk of severe vitamin D deficiency is needed in Belgium and in Europe. PMID:22937114

  20. Serum folate but not vitamin B-12 concentrations are positively associated with cognitive test scores in children aged 6-16 years.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Cathy T; Gracely, Edward J; Lee, Brian K

    2013-04-01

    Folate and vitamin B-12 are important for nervous system functioning at all ages, with important roles in functions such as neurotransmitter synthesis. Although studies suggest a relation between folate and vitamin B-12 and cognitive function in the elderly population, there is relatively less evidence regarding these vitamins and children's cognitive function. The purpose of the study was to examine the associations of serum folate and vitamin B-12 with cognitive performance in children 6-16 y old in the NHANES III, conducted from 1988 to 1994, prior to the implementation of folic acid fortification. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data on 5365 children 6-16 y old from NHANES III. Serum folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations were measured, along with performance, on the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. Associations of B vitamins with cognitive performance were assessed using linear regression models adjusted for various covariates. Higher serum concentrations of folate were associated with higher reading and block design scores after adjusting for various covariates. For example, compared with the lowest quartile of folate, children in the highest quartile scored 3.28 points or 0.19 SD units higher on the reading test (P < 0.05). Vitamin B-12 was not associated with any of the test scores. In the largest study to date, higher folate concentrations were associated with better reading and block design scores. These associations appear to be biologically plausible and merit further study. PMID:23390191

  1. High circulating folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations in women during pregnancy are associated with increased prevalence of atopic dermatitis in their offspring.

    PubMed

    Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Timmermans, Sarah; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A; de Jongste, Johan C; Moll, Henriette A

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that in utero exposure of methyl donors influences programming of the fetal immune system in favor of development of allergic disease. The aim of this study was to assess whether the MTHFR C677T polymorphism, folic acid supplementation, and circulating folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy were associated with wheezing, shortness of breath, and atopic dermatitis in offspring. The study was a population-based birth cohort from fetal life until 48 mo (n = 8742). The use of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy was assessed by questionnaire. Plasma folate and serum vitamin B-12 concentrations and the MTHFR C677T polymorphism were available from blood collected in early pregnancy. Atopic dermatitis, wheezing, and shortness of breath in the offspring were assessed by parental-derived questionnaires at 12, 24, 36, and 48 mo. Maternal folate >16.2 nmol/L and vitamin B-12 >178 pmol/L were positively associated with the development of atopic dermatitis [adjusted OR: 1.18 (95% CI: 1.05-1.33) and adjusted OR: 1.30 (95% CI: 1.06-1.60) for the highest quartiles of folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations, respectively] but not with wheezing and shortness of breath. Maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism and folic acid supplementation were not associated with wheezing, shortness of breath, and atopic dermatitis. No interactions were found by age, family history of atopy, folic acid supplementation, MTHFR C677T polymorphism, or maternal smoking (P-interaction > 0.10). High folate and vitamin B-12 levels during pregnancy are associated with increased prevalence of atopic dermatitis in the offspring. Potential risks of high folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations on allergic outcomes should be evaluated when discussing mandatory fortification programs. PMID:22399526

  2. B Vitamins as Regulators of Phytoplankton Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzeca, Caterina; Tovar-Sanchez, Antonio; Agustí, Susana; Reche, Isabel; Duarte, Carlos M.; Taylor, Gordon T.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.

    2006-12-01

    Without an adequate supply of dissolved vitamins, many species of phytoplankton do not grow. Additions of inorganic nutrients like phosphorus and nitrogen, and trace metals like iron, are not alone adequate to sustain life-a practical lesson learned quickly by experimental biologists when they try to keep eukaryotic phytoplankton cultures alive in their labs. The reason is that coenzymes such as B vitamins are also required for many metabolic pathways. For example, vitamin B1 serves as a cofactor for a large number of enzymatic systems, including the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex required for the metabolism of carbohydrates (glycolysis) and amino acid synthesis [Vandamme, 1989]. Vitamin B12 is used primarily to assist two enzymes: methionine synthase, which is involved in DNA synthesis, and methylmalonyl CoA mutase, which is required for inorganic carbon assimilation [Lindemans and Abels, 1985].

  3. Vitamin D Deficiency and Its Association with Thyroid Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mackawy, Amal Mohammed Husein; Al-ayed, Bushra Mohammed; Al-rashidi, Bashayer Mater

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Vitamin D deficiency is a global health problem, its role as an immune modulator has been recently emphasized. The evidence is increasingly pointing towards vitamin D significant role in reducing the incidence of autoimmune diseases. However, at this time the research on its role in autoimmune and thyroid disease is not conclusive. We aimed to examine the relationship between hypothyroidism and vitamin D deficiency and to clarify the relation between serum calcium levels with hypothyroid disease. Subjects and Methods Serum vitamin D (25-OH) levels were measured in 30 patients with hypothyroidism and 30 healthy subjects, utilizing the spectrophotometric method. Vitamin D deficiency was designated at levels lower than 20 ng/ml. Thyroid hormones (TSH, T3 and T4) and calcium levels were evaluated in all participants. Results Serum 25(OH) vit D was significantly lower in hypothyroid patients than in controls (t=?11.128, P =0.000). Its level was insignificantly decreased in females than male patients (t=? 1.32, P >0.05). Moreover, serum calcium levels recorded a significant decrease in hypothyroid patients when compared to controls (t= ?5.69, P = 0.000). Conclusion Our results indicated that patients with hypothyroidism suffered from hypovitaminosis D with hypocalcaemia that is significantly associated with the degree and severity of the hypothyroidism. That encourages the advisability of vit D supplementation and recommends the screening for Vitamin D deficiency and serum calcium levels for all hypothyroid patients. PMID:24533019

  4. [Vitamin D deficiency rickets complicating Dorfman-Chanarin syndrome].

    PubMed

    Barraud, C; Cano, A; Boulay, C; Milh, M; Bollini, G; Chabrol, B

    2015-04-01

    Vitamin D deficiency rickets remains a public health issue in many parts of the world. In France, this diagnosis has almost disappeared since 1992 with routine vitamin D supplementation for children. Therefore, it is more difficult for doctors to identify risk factors and early signs of this disease. In this article, we report a rickets diagnosis acquired by vitamin D deficiency in a child who presented with the onset of a genu valgum and difficulty walking at the age of 9½ years. This patient was a Comorian child followed up from his birth for Dorfman-Chanarin syndrome. Dorfman-Chanarin syndrome is a rare disease, with about 80 cases reported in the literature. It belongs to the group of neutral lipid storage diseases (NLSD) characterized especially on the skin by ichthyosis. This child presented risk factors for vitamin D deficiency (dark skin color, prolonged and exclusive breastfeeding, premature end of supplementation, and particularly severe ichthyosis) that should have alerted us to the risk of vitamin D deficiency and the need for supplementation. This case highlights the importance of vitamin D, especially if there are risk factors such as ichthyosis, and the need to remain watchful in monitoring all chronic diseases. PMID:25753274

  5. Prevention of vitamin D deficiency in mothers and infants worldwide — a paradigm shift

    PubMed Central

    Dawodu, A.; Wagner, C. L.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency in mothers and infants is a global health disorder despite recognition that it is preventable. Recent data support the theory that vitamin D deficiency in adults and children may increase the risk of infections and auto-immune diseases. In most cases, vitamin D deficiency is caused by sunlight deprivation and inadequate corrective vitamin D intake. There is a strong mother/infant vitamin D relationship that affects vitamin D status both in utero and in infancy. Recognition that vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide mother/infant health problem is a basis on which to modify public health strategies to reduce the burden of disease and improve maternal and child vitamin D nutrition. This review provides an update on vitamin D function and the global scope and implications of vitamin D deficiency as it relates to pregnancy and infancy. It also addresses a combined strategy to prevent vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy, lactation and infancy. PMID:22525442

  6. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in pediatric renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Ebbert, Kirsten; Chow, Josephine; Krempien, Jennifer; Matsuda-Abedini, Mina; Dionne, Janis

    2015-08-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in the pediatric CKD population. Recognizing that renal transplant recipients have CKD, we assessed the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in pediatric renal transplant recipients, compared to a healthy pediatric population. We prospectively studied 25(OH)D levels in 29 pediatric renal transplant recipients and 45 control patients over one yr. The overall prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency was common in both populations, at 76% (95% CI: 61, 87%) in the pediatric renal transplant recipients and 91% (95% CI: 80, 98%) in the control group. In the paired renal transplant samples, the mean 25(OH)D level was 52.3 ± 17.9 nmol/L in the winter and 65.6 ± 18.8 nmol/L in the summer (95% CI diff.: 3.9, 22.7), in keeping with a significant seasonal difference. The mean dietary intake of vitamin D in the renal transplant recipients, assessed by three-day dietary record, was 5.7 ?g/day, with a vitamin D intake below the EAR in the majority. We did not find an association between vitamin D intake and 25(OH)D levels in this study, likely due to the low dietary intake of vitamin D within the transplant population, identifying a potential area for intervention and improvement. PMID:26011664

  7. The relationship between vitamin D deficiency and coronary artery ectasia

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Canan; Keçeo?lu, Serdar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The pathophysiology of coronary artery ectasia (CAE) has not been clearly identified although multiple abnormalities including arteritis, endothelial dysfunction, and atherothrombosis have been reported. The role of vitamin D deficiency suggests cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, and hypertension. Vitamin D deficiency activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which affects the cardiovascular system. For this reason, it could be suggested that there is a relationship between vitamin D deficiency and CAE. Aim We aimed to compare the 25-OH vitamin D levels of CAE patients with those of controls. Material and methods This study included 50 CAE patients (20 male, mean age: 60.26 ±10.6 years) and 30 controls (10 males, mean age: 57.86 ±11.6 years). Along with routine tests, 25 OH vitamin D and parathormone (PTH) levels were analysed. Twenty-five OH vitamin D and PTH levels were compared. Results No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of basic characteristics. The average PTH level of the group of patients with CAE was higher than the average PTH level of the controls (97.8 ±46.3 pg/ml vs. 59.1 ±23.7 pg/ml; p < 0.001). The average 25 OH vitamin D level of the group of the patients with CAE was lower than the average 25 OH vitamin D level of the control group (18.9 ±8.5 ng/ml vs. 31.3 ±11.2 ng/ml; p < 0.001). Conclusions An association between CAE and vitamin D deficiency was found in our study. PMID:25489316

  8. Potential role of vitamin D deficiency on Fabry cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Drechsler, Christiane; Schmiedeke, Benjamin; Niemann, Markus; Schmiedeke, Daniel; Krämer, Johannes; Turkin, Irina; Blouin, Katja; Emmert, Andrea; Pilz, Stefan; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Weidemann, Frank; Breunig, Frank; Wanner, Christoph

    2014-03-01

    Patients with Fabry disease frequently develop left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and renal fibrosis. Due to heat intolerance and an inability to sweat, patients tend to avoid exposure to sunlight. We hypothesized that subsequent vitamin D deficiency may contribute to Fabry cardiomyopathy. This study investigated the vitamin D status and its association with LV mass and adverse clinical symptoms in patients with Fabry disease. 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) was measured in 111 patients who were genetically proven to have Fabry disease. LV mass and cardiomyopathy were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography. In cross-sectional analyses, associations with adverse clinical outcomes were determined by linear and binary logistic regression analyses, respectively, and were adjusted for age, sex, BMI and season. Patients had a mean age of 40?±?13 years (42% males), and a mean 25(OH)D of 23.5?±?11.4 ng/ml. Those with overt vitamin D deficiency (25[OH]D???15 ng/ml) had an adjusted six fold higher risk of cardiomyopathy, compared to those with sufficient 25(OH)D levels >30 ng/ml (p?=?0.04). The mean LV mass was distinctively different with 170?±?75 g in deficient, 154?±?60 g in moderately deficient and 128?±?58 g in vitamin D sufficient patients (p?=?0.01). With increasing severity of vitamin D deficiency, the median levels of proteinuria increased, as well as the prevalences of depression, edema, cornea verticillata and the need for medical pain therapy. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency was strongly associated with cardiomyopathy and adverse clinical symptoms in patients with Fabry disease. Whether vitamin D supplementation improves complications of Fabry disease, requires a randomized controlled trial. PMID:24141790

  9. Links between Vitamin D Deficiency and Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Marginean, Otilia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to review the most important mechanisms explaining the possible association of vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular diseases, focusing on recent experimental and clinical data. Low vitamin D levels favor atherosclerosis enabling vascular inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, formation of foam cells, and proliferation of smooth muscle cells. The antihypertensive properties of vitamin D include suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, renoprotective effects, direct effects on endothelial cells and calcium metabolism, inhibition of growth of vascular smooth muscle cells, prevention of secondary hyperparathyroidism, and beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors. Vitamin D is also involved in glycemic control, lipid metabolism, insulin secretion, and sensitivity, explaining the association between vitamin D deficiency and metabolic syndrome. Vitamin D deficit was associated in some studies with the number of affected coronary arteries, postinfarction complications, inflammatory cytokines and cardiac remodeling in patients with myocardial infarction, direct electromechanical effects and inflammation in atrial fibrillation, and neuroprotective effects in stroke. In peripheral arterial disease, vitamin D status was related to the decline of the functional performance, severity, atherosclerosis and inflammatory markers, arterial stiffness, vascular calcifications, and arterial aging. Vitamin D supplementation should further consider additional factors, such as phosphates, parathormone, renin, and fibroblast growth factor 23 levels. PMID:26000280

  10. Vitamin D Deficiency Reduces the Immune Response, Phagocytosis Rate, and Intracellular Killing Rate of Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Onken, Marie Luise; Schütze, Sandra; Redlich, Sandra; Götz, Alexander; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Bertsch, Thomas; Ribes, Sandra; Hanenberg, Andrea; Schneider, Simon; Bollheimer, Cornelius; Sieber, Cornel; Nau, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Meningitis and meningoencephalitis caused by Escherichia coli are associated with high rates of mortality and neurological sequelae. A high prevalence of neurological disorders has been observed in geriatric populations at risk of hypovitaminosis D. Vitamin D has potent effects on human immunity, including induction of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and suppression of T-cell proliferation, but its influence on microglial cells is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of vitamin D deficiency on the phagocytosis rate, intracellular killing, and immune response of murine microglial cultures after stimulation with the Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists tripalmitoyl-S-glyceryl-cysteine (TLR1/2), poly(I·C) (TLR3), lipopolysaccharide (TLR4), and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (TLR9). Upon stimulation with high concentrations of TLR agonists, the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) was decreased in vitamin D-deficient compared to that in vitamin D-sufficient microglial cultures. Phagocytosis of E. coli K1 after stimulation of microglial cells with high concentrations of TLR3, -4, and -9 agonists and intracellular killing of E. coli K1 after stimulation with high concentrations of all TLR agonists were lower in vitamin D-deficient microglial cells than in the respective control cells. Our observations suggest that vitamin D deficiency may impair the resistance of the brain against bacterial infections. PMID:24686054

  11. Identification of structural markers for vitamin B12 and other corrinoid derivatives in solution using FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Taraszka, K S; Chen, E; Metzger, T; Chance, M R

    1991-02-01

    The identification of structural markers for B12/protein interactions is crucial to a complete understanding of vitamin B12 transport and metabolic reaction mechanisms of B12 coenzymes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy can provide direct measurements of changes in the side chains and corrin ring resulting from B12/protein interactions. Using FTIR spectroscopy in various solvent systems, we have identified structural markers for corrinoids in the physiological state. We assign the major band (denoted B), which occurs at ca. 1630 cm-1 in D2O and ca. 1675 cm-1 in ethanol, to the amide I C=O stretching mode of the propionamide side chains of the corrin ring. The lower frequency of band B in D2O versus ethanol is due to the greater hydrogen-bonding properties of D2O that stabilize the charged amide resonance form. Since the propionamides are known to be important in protein binding, band B is a suitable marker for monitoring the interaction of these side chains with proteins. We assign bands at ca. 1575 and 1545 cm-1 (denoted C and D) as breathing modes of the corrin ring on the basis of the bands' solvent independence and their sensitivity to changes in axial ligation. As the sigma-donating strength of the axial ligands increases, the frequencies of bands C and D decrease, possibly indicating a lengthening of the corrin conjugated system. Band A, the known cyanide stretching frequency at ca. 2130 cm-1, probes the cobalt-carbon distance in cyanocorrinoids. As the frequency of band A increases, the cobalt-carbon bond strength should decrease. PMID:1991101

  12. A novel rat model of vitamin D deficiency: safe and rapid induction of vitamin D and calcitriol deficiency without hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Stavenuiter, Andrea W D; Arcidiacono, Maria Vittoria; Ferrantelli, Evelina; Keuning, Eelco D; Vila Cuenca, Marc; ter Wee, Piet M; Beelen, Robert H J; Vervloet, Marc G; Dusso, Adriana S

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a range of clinical disorders. To study the mechanisms involved and improve treatments, animal models are tremendously useful. Current vitamin D deficient rat models have important practical limitations, including time requirements when using, exclusively, a vitamin D deficient diet. More importantly, induction of hypovitaminosis D causes significant fluctuations in parathyroid hormone (PTH) and mineral levels, complicating the interpretation of study results. To overcome these shortcomings, we report the successful induction of vitamin D deficiency within three weeks, with stable serum PTH and minerals levels, in Wistar rats. We incorporated two additional manoeuvres compared to a conventional diet. Firstly, the vitamin D depleted diet is calcium (Ca) enriched, to attenuate the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Secondly, six intraperitoneal injections of paricalcitol during the first two weeks are given to induce the rapid degradation of circulating vitamin D metabolites. After three weeks, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) levels had dropped below detection limits, with unchanged serum PTH, Ca, and phosphate (P) levels. Therefore, this model provides a useful tool to examine the sole effect of hypovitaminosis D, in a wide range of research settings, without confounding changes in PTH, Ca, and P. PMID:25815325

  13. A Novel Rat Model of Vitamin D Deficiency: Safe and Rapid Induction of Vitamin D and Calcitriol Deficiency without Hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Stavenuiter, Andrea W. D.; Arcidiacono, Maria Vittoria; Ferrantelli, Evelina; Keuning, Eelco D.; Vila Cuenca, Marc; ter Wee, Piet M.; Beelen, Robert H. J.; Vervloet, Marc G.; Dusso, Adriana S.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a range of clinical disorders. To study the mechanisms involved and improve treatments, animal models are tremendously useful. Current vitamin D deficient rat models have important practical limitations, including time requirements when using, exclusively, a vitamin D deficient diet. More importantly, induction of hypovitaminosis D causes significant fluctuations in parathyroid hormone (PTH) and mineral levels, complicating the interpretation of study results. To overcome these shortcomings, we report the successful induction of vitamin D deficiency within three weeks, with stable serum PTH and minerals levels, in Wistar rats. We incorporated two additional manoeuvres compared to a conventional diet. Firstly, the vitamin D depleted diet is calcium (Ca) enriched, to attenuate the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Secondly, six intraperitoneal injections of paricalcitol during the first two weeks are given to induce the rapid degradation of circulating vitamin D metabolites. After three weeks, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) levels had dropped below detection limits, with unchanged serum PTH, Ca, and phosphate (P) levels. Therefore, this model provides a useful tool to examine the sole effect of hypovitaminosis D, in a wide range of research settings, without confounding changes in PTH, Ca, and P. PMID:25815325

  14. Management of vitamin D deficiency in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Musson, Pauline; Collin, Jacqueline

    2015-11-12

    There are some children and young people who will need specialist management for vitamin D deficiency in paediatric endocrine services. However, health problems caused by vitamin D deficiency are generally preventable, hence the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence recommendations for the provision of NHS Healthy Start vitamins to be available to all pregnant and breastfeeding women and children under five years of age. All health professionals, not just specialist services, need to be confident in their knowledge and understanding of the importance of vitamin D in normal growth and development to enable early identification of children and young people at risk who are in need of early intervention and education. PMID:26558984

  15. [Metabolism and effects of vitamin D. Definition of vitamin D deficiency].

    PubMed

    Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing interest for vitamin D in the medical and scientific community as well as in the public media as illustrated by a huge number of publications. Most experts claim that vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is widespread with potential important public health consequences. It may seem surprising for many persons that a deficiency in a vitamin may be so frequent in countries where food is so diversified and easily available. In fact, vitamin D is not a vitamin stricto sensu as it is mainly synthesized in the skin under the action of UVB rays, while its food sources are scarce. Furthermore, UVB rays are absent during a marked part of the year at latitudes greater than 35-40°, while pollution, cloud cover reduce the number of UVB reaching the earth, and many factors such as age, skin pigmentation, covering clothes, sun creams reduce the capacity of the skin to synthesize vitamin D3. Vitamin D must be hydroxylated to form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25OH2D), the active metabolite. As 1,25OH2D is released into the bloodstream and binds to a receptor present in several distant tissues, it may be considered as a hormone, vitamin D being thus a pre-prohormone. In the present article, we review briefly the metabolism and various effects of vitamin D as well as vitamin D treatments. We define vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency considering separately the population and the patient level and propose our opinion according to which patients may beneficiate from vitamin D testing. PMID:24948019

  16. Association of vitamin D deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and heterotopic ossification in spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Oleson, Christina V; Seidel, Benjamin J; Zhan, Tingting

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to explore the relationship between low vitamin D, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and heterotopic ossification (HO) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Ninety-six subjects with acute or chronic motor complete SCI participated. Levels of serum vitamin D25(OH), calcium, and intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) were collected, and information regarding nutritional patterns and fracture history was obtained from subjects. Evidence of current or previous HO was ascertained through chart review. Of the 96 subjects, 12 were found to have developed HO, 11 with serum vitamin D25(OH) between 5 and 17 ng/mL. Nine subjects exhibited secondary hyperparathyroidism in the range of 72 to 169 pg/mL. Only one subject demonstrated HO in the absence of low vitamin D. However, many subjects with low vitamin D (5-31 ng/mL) did not have hyperparathyroidism or HO. Statistical testing demonstrated a correlation between hyperparathyroidism and HO (p < 0.001) as well as hyperparathyroidism and vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL). Direct correlation between HO and low vitamin D was not observed, but hyperparathyroidism may increase this risk. We believe that those patients who demonstrate low vitamin D and elevated PTH should be screened for HO in addition to beginning vitamin supplementation. Initiating early treatment of low vitamin D to restore therapeutic levels may prevent development of HO. PMID:24458959

  17. Direct exchange of vitamin B12 is demonstrated by modelling the growth dynamics of algal–bacterial cocultures

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Matthew AA; Kazamia, Elena; Cicuta, Pietro; Smith, Alison G

    2014-01-01

    The growth dynamics of populations of interacting species in the aquatic environment is of great importance, both for understanding natural ecosystems and in efforts to cultivate these organisms for industrial purposes. Here we consider a simple two-species system wherein the bacterium Mesorhizobium loti supplies vitamin B12 (cobalamin) to the freshwater green alga Lobomonas rostrata, which requires this organic micronutrient for growth. In return, the bacterium receives photosynthate from the alga. Mathematical models are developed that describe minimally the interdependence between the two organisms, and that fit the experimental observations of the consortium. These models enable us to distinguish between different mechanisms of nutrient exchange between the organisms, and provide strong evidence that, rather than undergoing simple lysis and release of nutrients into the medium, M. loti regulates the levels of cobalamin it produces, resulting in a true mutualism with L. rostrata. Over half of all microalgae are dependent on an exogenous source of cobalamin for growth, and this vitamin is synthesised only by bacteria; it is very likely that similar symbiotic interactions underpin algal productivity more generally. PMID:24522262

  18. Serum levels of homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 in patients with vitiligo before and after treatment with narrow band ultraviolet B phototherapy and in a group of controls.

    PubMed

    Ata?, Hatice; Cemil, Bengü Çevirgen; Gönül, Müzeyyen; Ba?türk, Eda; Çiçek, Emel

    2015-07-01

    The association between vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and vitiligo were studied in several studies, but the results are contradictory. Narrow-band ultraviolet B (NBUVB) phototherapy is now considered as a gold standard for the treatment of diffuse vitiligo. The effects of NBUVB phototherapy on both vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine levels have not been studied in vitiligo patients yet. Serum levels of vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine were measured in vitiligo patients and control group and also both before and after NBUVB phototherapy in vitiligo patients. While levels of homocysteine in patients with vitiligo were significantly higher than controls (16.9±8.4 vs. 10. 9±3.4 ?mol/L; p<0,001) vitamin B12 and folate levels were not different (p>0.05). NBUVB phototherapy led to a 33.7±21.9% (0-75%) response in patients with vitiligo after 80 seccions. Treatment with NBUVB improved vitiligo and decreased serum levels of vitamin B12 (375±151 vs. 346±119 pg/ml, p=0.024), while serum levels of folate and homocysteine did not change significantly after treatment (p=0.914, p=0.127). Further studies are needed to clarify the influence of NBUVB phototherapy on folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine levels in patients with vitiligo. Furthermore, studies with the analysis of skin levels of homocysteine rather than circulating levels may be useful to elucidate the effects of phototherapy on homocysteine levels. PMID:25941975

  19. Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated with Pulmonary Exacerbations in Children with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, William; Laguna, Theresa A.; Regelmann, Warren E.; Moran, Antoinette; Polgreen, Lynda E.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Recent literature suggests vitamin D has an effect on lung function and on the lung’s ability to fight infection, both important in the cystic fibrosis (CF) population as predictors of morbidity and mortality. Objectives: Our study assessed associations between vitamin D and % predicted lung function, pulmonary exacerbations, and first Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in children with CF. We hypothesized that children with CF who have 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) levels less than 30 ?g/L would have lower % predicted lung function and more pulmonary exacerbations than those with 25-OHD greater than or equal to 30 ?g/L. Methods: This retrospective longitudinal study of 130 children aged 6 to 18 years between 2000 and 2012 examined 25-OHD levels classed in three vitamin D groups: sufficient (?30 ?g/L), insufficient (20–29 ?g/L), and deficient (<20 ?g/L). Longitudinal models followed individuals’ changing vitamin D groups over time to compare numbers of pulmonary exacerbations (defined by hospitalization), incidence of first P. aeruginosa infection, and % predicted lung function. Cross-sectional comparisons between vitamin D groups were performed at ages 8, 12, and 16 years. Measurements and Main Results: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency increased slowly through adolescence. The rate of exacerbations for the deficient vitamin D group, aged 15 to 18 years, was 13.1 per 10 patient-years, significantly higher than 4.3 per 10 patient-years for the insufficient and sufficient vitamin D groups (P < 0.05), which were not significantly different There were no differences between vitamin D groups in pulmonary function or incidence of first P. aeruginosa infection, which was about 2 per 10 patient-years. Conclusions: Higher 25-OHD levels in children with CF were associated with lower rates of pulmonary exacerbations and, in adolescents, higher FEV1. PMID:24083951

  20. Maternal micronutrient deficiency leads to alteration in the kidney proteome in rat pups.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shadab; Basak, Trayambak; Anand Kumar, K; Bhardwaj, Gourav; Lalitha, A; Yadav, Dilip K; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Raghunath, Manchala; Sengupta, Shantanu

    2015-09-01

    Maternal nutritional deficiency significantly perturbs the offspring's physiology predisposing them to metabolic diseases during adulthood. Vitamin B12 and folate are two such micronutrients, whose deficiency leads to elevated homocysteine levels. We earlier generated B12 and/or folate deficient rat models and using high-throughput proteomic approach, showed that maternal vitamin B12 deficiency modulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in the liver of pups through regulation of PPAR signaling pathway. In this study, using similar approach, we identified 26 differentially expressed proteins in the kidney of pups born to mothers fed with vitamin B12 deficient diet while only four proteins were identified in the folate deficient group. Importantly, proteins like calreticulin, cofilin 1 and nucleoside diphosphate kinase B that are involved in the functioning of the kidney were upregulated in B12 deficient group. Our results hint towards a larger effect of vitamin B12 deficiency compared to that of folate presumably due to greater elevation of homocysteine in vitamin B12 deficient group. In view of widespread vitamin B12 and folate deficiency and its association with several diseases like anemia, cardiovascular and renal diseases, our results may have large implications for kidney diseases in populations deficient in vitamin B12 especially in vegetarians and the elderly people.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics in India. PMID:25982389

  1. Conformational Cycle of the Vitamin B12 ABC Importer in Liposomes Detected by Double Electron-Electron Resonance (DEER)*

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Benesh; Korkhov, Vladimir M.; Yulikov, Maxim; Jeschke, Gunnar; Bordignon, Enrica

    2014-01-01

    Double electron-electron resonance is used here to investigate intermediates of the transport cycle of the Escherichia coli vitamin B12 ATP-binding cassette importer BtuCD-F. Previously, we showed the ATP-induced opening of the cytoplasmic gate I in TM5 helices, later confirmed by the AMP-PNP-bound BtuCD-F crystal structure. Here, other key residues are analyzed in TM10 helices (positions 307 and 322) and in the cytoplasmic gate II, i.e. the loop between TM2 and TM3 (positions 82 and 85). Without BtuF, binding of ATP induces detectable changes at positions 307 and 85 in BtuCD in liposomes. Together with BtuF, ATP triggers the closure of the cytoplasmic gate II in liposomes (reported by both positions 82 and 85). This forms a sealed cavity in the translocation channel in agreement with the AMP-PNP·BtuCD-F x-ray structure. When vitamin B12 and AMP-PNP are simultaneously present, the extent of complex formation is reduced, but the short 82–82 interspin distance detected indicates that the substrate does not affect the closed conformation of this gate. The existence of the BtuCD-F complex under these conditions is verified with spectroscopically orthogonal nitroxide and Gd(III)-based labels. The cytoplasmic gate II remains closed also in the vanadate-trapped state, but it reopens in the ADP-bound state of the complex. Therefore, we suggest that the substrate likely trapped in ATP·BtuCD-F can be released after ATP hydrolysis but before the occluded ADP-bound conformation is reached. PMID:24362024

  2. Vitamin D receptor overexpression in osteoblasts and osteocytes prevents bone loss during vitamin D-deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lam, Nga N; Triliana, Rahma; Sawyer, Rebecca K; Atkins, Gerald J; Morris, Howard A; O'Loughlin, Peter D; Anderson, Paul H

    2014-10-01

    There are several lines of evidence that demonstrate the ability of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3), acting via the vitamin D receptor (VDR) to mediate negative or positive effects in bone. Transgenic over-expression of VDR in osteoblasts and osteocytes in a mouse model (OSVDR) has been previously shown to inhibit processes of bone resorption and enhance bone formation, under conditions of adequate calcium intake. While these findings suggest that vitamin D signalling in osteoblasts and osteocytes promotes bone mineral accrual, the vitamin D requirement for this action is not well understood. In this study, 4 week old female OSVDR and wild-type (WT) mice were fed either a vitamin D-replete (1000IU/kg diet, D+) or vitamin D-deficient (D-) diet for 4 months to observe changes to bone mineral homeostasis. Tibial bone mineral volume was analysed by micro-CT and changes to bone cell activities were measured using standard dynamic histomorphometric techniques. While vitamin D-deplete WT mice demonstrated a reduction in periosteal bone accrual and overall bone mineral volume, OSVDR mice, however, displayed increased cortical and cancellous bone volume in mice which remained higher during vitamin D-depletion due to a reduced osteoclast number and increased bone formation rate. These data suggest that increased VDR-mediated activity in osteoblast and osteocytes prevents bone loss due to vitamin D-deficiency. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '16th Vitamin D Workshop'. PMID:24434283

  3. Vitamin deficiencies during the Spanish Civil War in Madrid: a reminiscence.

    PubMed

    Grande Covian, F

    1982-01-01

    During the second winter of the war (1937-38) most of the patients showed a picture of classic pellagra, with a number of neurological disorders which in same cases appeared with no other manifestations of Pellagra. The clinical picture was dominated by the appearance of famine edema, with less manifestations of specific vitamin deficiencies, with neurological manifestations called similar to those "burning feet" syndrome and described by us as Paresthetic and Paresthetic-causalgic syndrome. The prominent features were: acroparesthesia, dysestesia dolorosa, sensation of cold, sensation of wetness, hyperpathia and causalgic pain. Treatment with nicotinic acid was very effective for the classical manifestations of Pellagra (dermatitis, diarrhea and dementia), but had no significant effect on the neurological manifestations. No effect of vitamin B1 was observed, but some improvement following the administration of autoclaved brewers yeast. It was concluded that the neurological manifestations often associated with the classical picture of Pellagra are not due to nicotinic acid deficiency, but to the deficiency of some component of the vitamin B complex which was neither vitamin B1, nor vitamin B2. PMID:6751052

  4. The entropic contributions in vitamin B12 enzymes still reflect the electrostatic paradigm.

    PubMed

    Schopf, Patrick; Mills, Matthew J L; Warshel, Arieh

    2015-04-01

    The catalytic power of enzymes containing coenzyme B12 has been, in some respects, the "last bastion" for the strain hypothesis. Our previous study of this system established by a careful sampling that the major part of the catalytic effect is due to the electrostatic interaction between the ribose of the ado group and the protein and that the strain contribution is very small. This finding has not been sufficiently appreciated due to misunderstandings of the power of the empirical valence bond (EVB) calculations and the need of sufficient sampling. Furthermore, some interesting new experiments point toward entropic effects as the source of the catalytic power, casting doubt on the validity of the electrostatic idea, at least, in the case of B12 enzymes. Here, we focus on the observation of the entropic effects and on analyzing their origin. We clarify that our EVB approach evaluates free energies rather than enthalpies and demonstrate by using the restraint release (RR) approach that the observed entropic contribution to the activation barrier is of electrostatic origin. Our study illustrates the power of the RR approach by evaluating the entropic contributions to catalysis and provides further support to our paradigm for the origin of the catalytic power of B12 enzymes. Overall, our study provides major support to our electrostatic preorganization idea and also highlights the basic requirements from ab initio quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations of activation free energies of enzymatic reactions. PMID:25805820

  5. The entropic contributions in vitamin B12 enzymes still reflect the electrostatic paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Schopf, Patrick; Mills, Matthew J. L.; Warshel, Arieh

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic power of enzymes containing coenzyme B12 has been, in some respects, the “last bastion” for the strain hypothesis. Our previous study of this system established by a careful sampling that the major part of the catalytic effect is due to the electrostatic interaction between the ribose of the ado group and the protein and that the strain contribution is very small. This finding has not been sufficiently appreciated due to misunderstandings of the power of the empirical valence bond (EVB) calculations and the need of sufficient sampling. Furthermore, some interesting new experiments point toward entropic effects as the source of the catalytic power, casting doubt on the validity of the electrostatic idea, at least, in the case of B12 enzymes. Here, we focus on the observation of the entropic effects and on analyzing their origin. We clarify that our EVB approach evaluates free energies rather than enthalpies and demonstrate by using the restraint release (RR) approach that the observed entropic contribution to the activation barrier is of electrostatic origin. Our study illustrates the power of the RR approach by evaluating the entropic contributions to catalysis and provides further support to our paradigm for the origin of the catalytic power of B12 enzymes. Overall, our study provides major support to our electrostatic preorganization idea and also highlights the basic requirements from ab initio quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations of activation free energies of enzymatic reactions. PMID:25805820

  6. A Semi-Experimental Study to Assess Whether the Current Recommended Protocol for Treating Vitamin D Deficiency is Enough?

    PubMed Central

    Jozanikohan, Zahra; Kazemi Saleh, Davood

    2015-01-01

    Background: Urbanization and diet change have increased the prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency. Unfortunately, none of the suggested treatments is widely accepted. Objectives: Therefore, we evaluated the most used and suggested protocol for treating Vitamin D deficiency in Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) candidate patients referred to our hospital in a short-term clinical trial. Patients and Methods: All patients with coronary artery disease, referred to our hospital and candidates for PCI (drug eluted stents) were included. Deficient patients were randomly assigned to treatment (Vitamin D3 pearls of 50,000 IU; one per week for 10 weeks then one pearl every month for maintenance) and non-treatment groups. Vitamin D was measured after nine months. Results: After initial evaluation, 116 cases were found to be deficient, and were divided into two equal groups of 58. No significant difference was found between the normal, treated and non-treated groups regarding age and gender. Thirty-two out of 58 (55.1%) subjects were vitamin D deficient and reached normal levels by taking supplements and seven out of 58 (12%) were deficient and reached normal levels without taking supplements, with the difference being significant (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The used protocol is not enough for treating Vitamin D deficiency. Furthermore, the protocol should be revised according to baseline Vitamin D classification. PMID:26421174

  7. Vitamin A Deficiency Is Associated with Gastrointestinal and Respiratory Morbidity in School-Age Children123

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Kathryn A.; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Marín, Constanza; Villamor, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Infection is an important cause of morbidity throughout childhood. Poor micronutrient status is a risk factor for infection-related morbidity in young children, but it is not clear whether these associations persist during school-age years. We examined the relation between blood concentrations of micronutrient status biomarkers and risk of gastrointestinal and respiratory morbidity in a prospective study of 2774 children aged 5–12 y from public schools in Bogotá, Colombia. Retinol, zinc, ferritin, mean corpuscular volume, hemoglobin, erythrocyte folate, and vitamin B-12 concentrations were measured in blood at enrollment into the cohort. Children were followed for 1 academic year for incidence of morbidity, including diarrhea with vomiting, cough with fever, earache or ear discharge with fever, and doctor visits. Compared with adequate vitamin A status (?30.0 ?g/dL), vitamin A deficiency (<10.0 ?g/dL) was associated with increased risk of diarrhea with vomiting [unadjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR): 2.17; 95% CI: 0.95, 4.96; P-trend = 0.03] and cough with fever (unadjusted IRR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.30, 4.31; P-trend = 0.05). After adjustment for several sociodemographic characteristics and hemoglobin concentrations, every 10 ?g/dL plasma retinol was associated with 18% fewer days of diarrhea with vomiting (P < 0.001), 10% fewer days of cough with fever (P < 0.001), and 6% fewer doctor visits (P = 0.01). Every 1 g/dL of hemoglobin was related to 17% fewer days with ear infection symptoms (P < 0.001) and 5% fewer doctor visits (P = 0.009) after controlling for sociodemographic factors and retinol concentrations. Zinc, ferritin, mean corpuscular volume, erythrocyte folate, and vitamin B-12 status were not associated with morbidity or doctor visits. Vitamin A and hemoglobin concentrations were inversely related to rates of morbidity in school-age children. Whether vitamin A supplementation reduces the risk or severity of infection in children over 5 y of age needs to be determined. PMID:24500929

  8. The Effectiveness of Vitamin B12 for Relieving Pain in Aphthous Ulcers: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsin-Li; Chiu, Shu-Chin

    2015-06-01

    Aphthous ulcers, the most common oral mucosal lesions seen in primary care, occur in up to ?2%-50% of the general population. Our objective was to confirm the analgesic benefit of treatment of mouth ulcers with vitamin B12 as adjunctive therapy. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed with primary care patients. The intervention group received vitamin B12 ointment for 2 days. In total, 42 patients suffering from aphthous ulcers participated in the study: 22 were included in the intervention group and 20 in the control group. All parameters of aphthous ulcers of patients in the intervention group were recorded and compared with those in the control group. We assessed the patients' pain levels before and after treatment using a visual analog scale. The statistical analyses were performed using a nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. Statistically significant differences in pain levels were found between the intervention group and the control group after 2 days of treatment (mean visual analog scale, 0.36 [95% CI, 0.01-0.71] vs. 1.80 [1.16-2.44]; p < .001). In conclusion, the results of this research study provide evidence that vitamin B12 is an effective analgesic treatment for aphthous ulcers. This study indicates that healthcare providers could use vitamin B12 as an adjunctive therapy for mouth ulcers, providing more effective pain management and improving the quality of life for patients with mouth ulcers. PMID:26025792

  9. Vitamin Deficiencies in Humans: Can Plant Science Help?[W

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Teresa B.; Basset, Gilles J.C.; Borel, Patrick; Carrari, Fernando; DellaPenna, Dean; Fraser, Paul D.; Hellmann, Hanjo; Osorio, Sonia; Rothan, Christophe; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Fernie, Alisdair R.

    2012-01-01

    The term vitamin describes a small group of organic compounds that are absolutely required in the human diet. Although for the most part, dependency criteria are met in developed countries through balanced diets, this is not the case for the five billion people in developing countries who depend predominantly on a single staple crop for survival. Thus, providing a more balanced vitamin intake from high-quality food remains one of the grandest challenges for global human nutrition in the coming decade(s). Here, we describe the known importance of vitamins in human health and current knowledge on their metabolism in plants. Deficits in developing countries are a combined consequence of a paucity of specific vitamins in major food staple crops, losses during crop processing, and/or overreliance on a single species as a primary food source. We discuss the role that plant science can play in addressing this problem and review successful engineering of vitamin pathways. We conclude that while considerable advances have been made in understanding vitamin metabolic pathways in plants, more cross-disciplinary approaches must be adopted to provide adequate levels of all vitamins in the major staple crops to eradicate vitamin deficiencies from the global population. PMID:22374394

  10. Vitamin D deficiency leads to sensory and sympathetic denervation of the rat synovium

    PubMed Central

    Tague, Sarah E.; Smith, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased susceptibility to inflammatory arthritis. Sensory and sympathetic synovial nerves are critical to the development of inflammatory arthritis and spontaneously degenerate in the early phases of disease. These nerves contain vitamin D receptors and vitamin D influences nerve growth and neurotrophin expression. We therefore examined the density of synovial nerves and neurotrophin-containing cells in vitamin D deficient rats. Seven week old Sprague Dawley rats were fed either control or vitamin D deficient diets for four weeks. Knee synovium sections extending from patella to meniscus were immunostained for total nerves, myelinated and unmyelinated nerves, sympathetic nerves, peptidergic and non-peptidergic sensory nerves, and neurotrophins and immune cell markers. In control rats, intimal innervation by unmyelinated sensory fibers was denser than subintimal innervation. In contrast, sympathetic innervation was confined to the subintima. Many sensory axons contained markers for both peptidergic and non-peptidergic nerves. NGF was primarily expressed by intimal CD163-negative type B synoviocytes, while neurturin, a ligand selective for non-peptidergic sensory neurons, was expressed by synovial mast cells. In vitamin D deficient rats, there were significant reductions in sensory nerves in the intima and sympathetic nerves in the subintima. While there was no significant change in NGF-immunoreactivity, the number of neurturin-expressing mast cells was significantly reduced in the intima, suggesting that intimal reductions in sensory nerves may be related to reductions in neurturin. Vitamin D deficiency therefore may increase susceptibility to inflammatory arthritis by depleting sensory and sympathetic synovial nerves as a result of reduced synovial neurotrophin content. PMID:25193239

  11. Vitamin C deficiency and risk of myocardial infarction: prospective population study of men from eastern Finland.

    PubMed Central

    Nyyssönen, K.; Parviainen, M. T.; Salonen, R.; Tuomilehto, J.; Salonen, J. T.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between plasma vitamin C concentrations and the risk of acute myocardial infarction. DESIGN: Prospective population study. SETTING: Eastern Finland. SUBJECTS: 1605 randomly selected men aged 42, 48, 54, or 60 who did not have either symptomatic coronary heart disease or ischaemia on exercise testing at entry to the Kuopio ischaemic heart disease risk factor study in between 1984 and 1989. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of acute myocardial infarctions; fasting plasma vitamin C concentrations at baseline. RESULTS: 70 of the men had a fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction between March 1984 and December 1992.91 men had vitamin C deficiency (plasma ascorbate < 11.4 mumol/l, or 2.0 mg/l), of whom 12 (13.2%) had a myocardial infarction; 1514 men were not deficient in vitamin C, of whom 58 (3.8%) had a myocardial infarction. In a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for age, year of examination, and season of the year examined (August to October v rest of the year) men who had vitamin C deficiency had a relative risk of acute myocardial infarction of 3.5 (95% confidence interval 1.8 to 6.7, P = 0.0002) compared with those who were not deficient. In another model adjusted additionally for the strongest risk factors for myocardial infarction and for dietary intakes of tea fibre, carotene, and saturated fats men with a plasma ascorbate concentration < 11.4 mumol/l had a relative risk of 2.5 (1.3 to 5.2, P = 0.0095) compared with men with higher plasma vitamin C concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin C deficiency, as assessed by low plasma ascorbate concentration, is a risk factor for coronary heart disease. PMID:9066474

  12. Vitamin A Deficiency and Alterations in the Extracellular Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Teresa; Esteban-Pretel, Guillermo; Marín, María Pilar; Timoneda, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin A or retinol which is the natural precursor of several biologically active metabolites can be considered the most multifunctional vitamin in mammals. Its deficiency is currently, along with protein malnutrition, the most serious and common nutritional disorder worldwide. It is necessary for normal embryonic development and postnatal tissue homeostasis, and exerts important effects on cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. These actions are produced mainly by regulating the expression of a variety of proteins through transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms. Extracellular matrix proteins are among those whose synthesis is known to be modulated by vitamin A. Retinoic acid, the main biologically active form of vitamin A, influences the expression of collagens, laminins, entactin, fibronectin, elastin and proteoglycans, which are the major components of the extracellular matrix. Consequently, the structure and macromolecular composition of this extracellular compartment is profoundly altered as a result of vitamin A deficiency. As cell behavior, differentiation and apoptosis, and tissue mechanics are influenced by the extracellular matrix, its modifications potentially compromise organ function and may lead to disease. This review focuses on the effects of lack of vitamin A in the extracellular matrix of several organs and discusses possible molecular mechanisms and pathologic implications. PMID:25389900

  13. A novel spectral resolution and simultaneous determination of multicomponent mixture of Vitamins B1, B6, B12, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac in tablets and capsules by derivative and MCR-ALS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegazy, Maha A.; Abdelwahab, Nada S.; Fayed, Ahmed S.

    2015-04-01

    A novel method was developed for spectral resolution and further determination of five-component mixture including Vitamin B complex (B1, B6, B12 and Benfotiamine) along with the commonly co-formulated Diclofenac. The method is simple, sensitive, precise and could efficiently determine the five components by a complementary application of two different techniques. The first is univariate second derivative method that was successfully applied for determination of Vitamin B12. The second is Multivariate Curve Resolution using the Alternating Least Squares method (MCR-ALS) by which an efficient resolution and quantitation of the quaternary spectrally overlapped Vitamin B1, Vitamin B6, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac sodium were achieved. The effect of different constraints was studied and the correlation between the true spectra and the estimated spectral profiles were found to be 0.9998, 0.9983, 0.9993 and 0.9933 for B1, B6, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac, respectively. All components were successfully determined in tablets and capsules and the results were compared to HPLC methods and they were found to be statistically non-significant.

  14. Vitamin E deficiency in developing countries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to its role as a potent antioxidant, vitamin E is involved in a wide range of physiological processes, ranging from immune function and control of inflammation to regulation of gene expression and cognitive performance. Results from multiple studies suggest that poor nutritional status a...

  15. Combined Selenium and Vitamin C Deficiency Causes Cell Death in Guinea Pig Skeletal Muscle1

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kristina E.; Motley, Amy K.; May, James M.; Burk, Raymond F.

    2009-01-01

    Combined antioxidant deficiencies of selenium and vitamin E or vitamin E and vitamin C in guinea pigs result in clinical illness. We hypothesized that combined selenium and vitamin C deficiency would have clinical consequences because in vitro interactions of these antioxidant nutrients have been reported. Since guinea pigs are dependent on dietary vitamin C, weanling male guinea pigs were fed selenium-deficient or control diet for 15 weeks prior to imposing vitamin C deficiency. Four dietary groups were formed and studied 3 weeks later: controls, vitamin C deficient, selenium deficient, and doubly deficient. Deficiencies were confirmed by determinations of glutathione peroxidase activity and vitamin C concentration in liver and skeletal muscle. Plasma creatine phosphokinase (CPK) activity and liver, kidney, heart, and quadriceps histopathology were determined. Doubly deficient animals had moderately severe skeletal muscle cell death as judged by histopathology and plasma CPK activity of 6630 ± 4400 IU/L (control 70 ± 5; vitamin C deficient 95 ± 110; selenium deficient 280 ± 250). Liver, kidney, and heart histology was normal in all groups. Muscle ?-tocopherol levels were not depressed in the doubly deficient group but muscle F2 isoprostane concentrations were elevated in them and correlated with markers of cell death. We conclude that combining selenium and vitamin C deficiencies in the guinea pig causes cell death in skeletal muscle that is more severe than the injury caused by selenium deficiency. The elevation of muscle F2 isoprostanes is compatible with the cell death being caused by oxidative stress. PMID:19358936

  16. A Combined Supplementation of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Micronutrients (Folic Acid, Vitamin B12) Reduces Oxidative Stress Markers in a Rat Model of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kemse, Nisha G.; Kale, Anvita A.; Joshi, Sadhana R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Our earlier studies have highlighted that an altered one carbon metabolism (vitamin B12, folic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) is associated with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is also known to be associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. The current study examines whether maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation given either individually or in combination can ameliorate the oxidative stress markers in a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). Materials and Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned to control and five treatment groups: PIH; PIH + vitamin B12; PIH + folic acid; PIH + Omega-3 fatty acids and PIH + combined micronutrient supplementation (vitamin B12 + folic acid + omega-3 fatty acids). L-Nitroarginine methylester (L-NAME; 50 mg/kg body weight/day) was used to induce hypertension during pregnancy. Blood Pressure (BP) was recorded during pregnancy and dams were dissected at d20 of gestation. Results Animals from the PIH group demonstrated higher (p<0.01 for both) systolic and diastolic BP; lower (p<0.01) pup weight; higher dam plasma homocysteine (p<0.05) and dam and offspring malondialdehyde (MDA) (p<0.01), lower (p<0.05) placental and offspring liver DHA and higher (p<0.01) tumor necrosis factor–alpha (TNF–?) levels as compared to control. Individual micronutrient supplementation did not offer much benefit. In contrast, combined supplementation lowered systolic BP, homocysteine, MDA and placental TNF-? levels in dams and liver MDA and protein carbonyl in the offspring as compared to PIH group. Conclusion Key constituents of one carbon cycle (folic acid, vitamin B12 and DHA) may play a role in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in preeclampsia. PMID:25405347

  17. [A patient with vitamin E deficient, myopathy presenting with amyotrophy].

    PubMed

    Osoegawa, M; Ohyagi, Y; Inoue, I; Tsuruta, Y; Iwaki, T; Taniwaki, T; Kira, J

    2001-07-01

    We report a 61-year-old man with vitamin E deficiency, presenting with, myopathy as an only clinical symptom. In 1997, at 59 years of age, he noted mild proxymal-muscle weakness and atrophy in the four extremities, nine years after he received a Billroth II partial gastrectomy for a gastric ulcer. His muscle weakness slowly exacerbated, and he was admitted to our hospital in 1999. On admission, neurological examination confirmed mild proximal-muscle weakness and atrophy in the four extremities. Intelligence, cranial nerves, coordination, sensation and tendon reflexes were all normal. Laboratory examination showed normochromic anemia (Hb 9.9 g/dl, Ht 30.9%, MCV 97.5 fl, MCHC 31.2 pg), hypoproteinemia (5.0 g/dl), and hypocholesterolemia (107 mg/dl). The levels of serum CK, lactate and pyruvate were normal. The serum vitamin E level was markedly reduced (0.17 mg/dl; normal 0.75-1.41). Cerebrospinal fluid was normal. Nerve conduction, sensory evoked potentials (SEP), electromyography (EMG), head CT and electroencephalography (EEG) were all normal. Muscle biopsy from the right deltoid muscle showed both mild myogenic and neurogenic changes. Remarkably, type 1 muscle fiber predominance and granular accumulation of autofluorescent lipofuscin granules in the muscle fibers were found. These pathological findings were compatible with those of vitamin E-deficient myopathy. Thus, he was diagnosed as having vitamin E-deficient myopathy, which was confirmed by apparent effective supplementation of vitamin E. Interestingly, our present case did not show any other neurological manifestations such as deep sensory disturbance, sensory ataxia or polyneuropathy. A long-term workload due to hard physical labor and smoking in our patient may have accelerated oxidative muscle damage, resulting in amyotrophy mainly due to vitamin E deficient myopathy. PMID:11808355

  18. Vitamin D deficiency rickets due to soybean milk.

    PubMed

    Imataka, G; Mikami, T; Yamanouchi, H; Kano, K; Eguchi, M

    2004-03-01

    We describe vitamin D deficiency rickets in an infant nursed with soybean milk (not specifically designed for infants) instead of cow's milk-based infant formula. Symptoms included irritability and carpopedal spasm when crying. The infant's condition improved with nutrition by vitamin-enriched cow's milk-based infant formula, oral administration 1 alpha-hydroxy vitamin D3 and exposure to sunlight. Content analysis of the milk showed very low calcium, phosphate, magnesium and vitamin D levels compared to cow's milk-based infant milk formulas. This case highlights the unsuitability of soybean milk as the sole provider of infant nutrition and demonstrates the false perception that soybean milk is a healthy food for infants. It is necessary to be cautious about not only health claims for soybean milk, but also today's health and natural food booms. Social enlightenment and correction of such misperceptions are necessary. PMID:15009584

  19. Vitamin B??-dependent taurine synthesis regulates growth and bone mass.

    PubMed

    Roman-Garcia, Pablo; Quiros-Gonzalez, Isabel; Mottram, Lynda; Lieben, Liesbet; Sharan, Kunal; Wangwiwatsin, Arporn; Tubio, Jose; Lewis, Kirsty; Wilkinson, Debbie; Santhanam, Balaji; Sarper, Nazan; Clare, Simon; Vassiliou, George S; Velagapudi, Vidya R; Dougan, Gordon; Yadav, Vijay K

    2014-07-01

    Both maternal and offspring-derived factors contribute to lifelong growth and bone mass accrual, although the specific role of maternal deficiencies in the growth and bone mass of offspring is poorly understood. In the present study, we have shown that vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency in a murine genetic model results in severe postweaning growth retardation and osteoporosis, and the severity and time of onset of this phenotype in the offspring depends on the maternal genotype. Using integrated physiological and metabolomic analysis, we determined that B12 deficiency in the offspring decreases liver taurine production and associates with abrogation of a growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF1) axis. Taurine increased GH-dependent IGF1 synthesis in the liver, which subsequently enhanced osteoblast function, and in B12-deficient offspring, oral administration of taurine rescued their growth retardation and osteoporosis phenotypes. These results identify B12 as an essential vitamin that positively regulates postweaning growth and bone formation through taurine synthesis and suggests potential therapies to increase bone mass. PMID:24911144

  20. Embryonic phenotype, ?-carotene and retinoid metabolism upon maternal supplementation of ?-carotene in a mouse model of severe vitamin A deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Wassef, L.; Spiegler, E.; Quadro, L.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effect of ?-carotene (bC) supplementation during pregnancy in a mouse model of severe vitamin A deficiency, i.e. Lrat?/?Rbp?/? dams maintained on a vitamin A-deficient diet during gestation. bC, a provitamin A carotenoid, can be enzymatically cleaved to form vitamin A for use by the developing embryo. We found that an acute supplementation (13.5 days post coitum, dpc) of bC to Lrat?/?Rbp?/? dams on a vitamin A-deficient diet activated transcriptional mechanisms in the developing tissues to maximize the utilization of bC provided to the dams. Nevertheless, these regulatory mechanisms are inefficient under this regimen, as the embryonic phenotype was not improved. We further investigated the effect of a repeated supplementation of bC during a crucial developmental period (6.5–9.5 dpc) on the above-mentioned mouse model. This treatment improved the embryonic abnormalities, as 40% of the embryos showed a normal phenotype. In addition, analysis of retinoic acid-responsive genes, such as Cyp26a1 in these embryos suggests that bC cleavage results in the production of retinoic acid which then can be used by the embryo. Taken together, these in vivo studies show that bC can be used as a source of vitamin A for severely vitamin A-deficient mammalian embryos. PMID:23871845

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Transcobalamin deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Transcobalamin deficiency is a disorder that impairs the transport of cobalamin (also known as vitamin B12) within ... as meat, eggs, and shellfish. An inability to transport cobalamin within the body results in cells that ...

  2. Vitamin C supplementation does not protect L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase-deficient mice from Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis and gastric premalignancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In human studies, low vitamin C intake has been associated with more severe Helicobacter pylori gastritis and a higher incidence of gastric cancer. However, vitamin C supplementation has not been definitively shown to protect against gastric cancer. Using vitamin C-deficient B6.129P2-Gulo tm1Umc/mmc...

  3. Erythrocyte fatty acid profiles and plasma homocysteine, folate and vitamin B6 and B12 in recurrent depression: Implications for co-morbidity with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Assies, Johanna; Mocking, Roel J T; Lok, Anja; Koeter, Maarten W J; Bockting, Claudi L H; Visser, Ieke; Pouwer, François; Ruhé, Henricus G; Schene, Aart H

    2015-10-30

    Oxidative stress induced interactions between fatty acid (FA) and one-carbon metabolism may be involved in co-occurrence of major depressive disorder (MDD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), which have been scarcely studied together. In 137 recurrent MDD-patients vs. 73 age- and sex-matched healthy controls, we simultaneously measured key components of one-carbon metabolism in plasma (homocysteine, folate, vitamins B6 and B12), and of FA-metabolism in red blood cell membranes [main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (AA) and structural FA-indices (chain length, unsaturation, peroxidation)]. Results show significant positive associations of folate with EPA, DHA, and the peroxidation index, which were similar in patients and controls. After correction for confounders, these associations were lost except for EPA. Associations between B-vitamins and FA-parameters were non-significant, but also similar in patients and controls. Homocysteine and DHA were significantly less negatively associated in patients than in controls. In conclusion, these data indicate similarities but also differences in associations between parameters of one-carbon and FA-metabolism in recurrent MDD patients vs. controls, which may reflect differences in handling of oxidative stress. Further research should test the consequences of these differences, particularly the premature development of CVD in MDD. PMID:26260568

  4. B vitamin polymorphisms and behavior: evidence of associations with neurodevelopment, depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, E Siobhan; Conus, Nelly; Kaput, Jim

    2014-11-01

    The B vitamins folic acid, vitamin B12 and B6 are essential for neuronal function, and severe deficiencies have been linked to increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, psychiatric disease and dementia. Polymorphisms of genes involved in B vitamin absorption, metabolism and function, such as methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), cystathionine ? synthase (C?S), transcobalamin 2 receptor (TCN2) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), have also been linked to increased incidence of psychiatric and cognitive disorders. However, the effects of these polymorphisms are often quite small and many studies failed to show any meaningful or consistent associations. This review discusses previous findings from clinical studies and highlights gaps in knowledge. Future studies assessing B vitamin-associated polymorphisms must take into account not just traditional demographics, but subjects' overall diet, relevant biomarkers of nutritional status and also analyze related genetic factors that may exacerbate behavioral effects or nutritional status. PMID:25173634

  5. Vitamin D Deficiency and Cardiometabolic Risks: A Juxtaposition of Arab Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Al-Saleh, Yousef; Aljohani, Naji; Alokail, Majed; Al-Attas, Omar; Alnaami, Abdullah M.; Sabico, Shaun; Alsulaimani, Maha; Al-Harbi, Mohammed; Alfawaz, Hanan; Chrousos, George P.

    2015-01-01

    The recent exponential surge in vitamin D research reflects the global epidemic of vitamin D deficiency and its potential impact on several chronic diseases in both children and adults. Several subpopulations, including Arab adolescent boys and girls, remain understudied. This study aims to fill this gap. A total of 2225 apparently healthy Saudi adolescents (1187 boys and 1038 girls, aged 13-17 years old) and 830 adults (368 men and 462 women, aged 18-50 years old) were respectively recruited from different public schools and medical practices within Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Anthropometrics were taken and fasting blood samples withdrawn to examine serum glucose and lipid profile by routine analysis and 25-hydroxyvitamin D by ELISA. Almost half of the girls (47.0%) had vitamin D deficiency as compared to only 19.4% of the boys (p<0.001), 36.8% of the adult women and 17.7% of the adult men (p<0.001). Furthermore, in boys there were more significant inverse associations between serum 25(OH)vitamin D levels and cardiometabolic indices than girls, while in contrast women had more significant associations than men. Vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) [OR 3.47 (CI1.26-5.55); p<0.05] and pre-DM [OR 2.47 (CI 1.48-4.12); p<0.01] in boys. Furthermore, vitamin D insufficiency was significantly associated with abdominal obesity in boys [OR 2.75 (CI 1.1-7.1); p<0.05]. These associations for DMT2 and abdominal obesity were not observed in adult males, girls and adult women. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency and hyperglycemia is high among Arab adolescents. Vitamin D deficiency is mostly associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescent Arab boys. This indicates a sex- and age-related disadvantage for boys with low vitamin D status and challenges the extra-skeletal protection of vitamin D correction in adolescent females. PMID:26186591

  6. Regulation of Calcitriol Biosynthesis and Activity: Focus on Gestational Vitamin D Deficiency and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Olmos-Ortiz, Andrea; Avila, Euclides; Durand-Carbajal, Marta; Díaz, Lorenza

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D has garnered a great deal of attention in recent years due to a global prevalence of vitamin D deficiency associated with an increased risk of a variety of human diseases. Specifically, hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women is highly common and has important implications for the mother and lifelong health of the child, since it has been linked to maternal and child infections, small-for-gestational age, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, as well as imprinting on the infant for life chronic diseases. Therefore, factors that regulate vitamin D metabolism are of main importance, especially during pregnancy. The hormonal form and most active metabolite of vitamin D is calcitriol. This hormone mediates its biological effects through a specific nuclear receptor, which is found in many tissues including the placenta. Calcitriol synthesis and degradation depend on the expression and activity of CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 cytochromes, respectively, for which regulation is tissue specific. Among the factors that modify these cytochromes expression and/or activity are calcitriol itself, parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23, cytokines, calcium and phosphate. This review provides a current overview on the regulation of vitamin D metabolism, focusing on vitamin D deficiency during gestation and its impact on pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25584965

  7. Comparison of directly compressed vitamin B12 tablets prepared from micronized rotary-spun microfibers and cast films.

    PubMed

    Sebe, István; Bodai, Zsolt; Eke, Zsuzsanna; Kállai-Szabó, Barnabás; Szabó, Péter; Zelkó, Romána

    2015-01-01

    Fiber-based dosage forms are potential alternatives of conventional dosage forms from the point of the improved extent and rate of drug dissolution. Rotary-spun polymer fibers and cast films were prepared and micronized in order to direct compress after homogenization with tabletting excipients. Particle size distribution of powder mixtures of micronized fibers and films homogenized with tabletting excipients were determined by laser scattering particle size distribution analyzer. Powder rheological behavior of the mixtures containing micronized fibers and cast films was also compared. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy was applied for the microstructural characterization of micronized fibers and films. The water-soluble vitamin B12 release from the compressed tablets was determined. It was confirmed that the rotary spinning method resulted in homogeneous supramolecularly ordered powder mixture, which was successfully compressed after homogenization with conventional tabletting excipients. The obtained directly compressed tablets showed uniform drug release of low variations. The results highlight the novel application of micronized rotary-spun fibers as intermediate for further processing reserving the original favorable powder characteristics of fibrous systems. PMID:25190153

  8. Selective intestinal malabsorption of vitamin B12 displays recessive Mendelian inheritance: Assignment of a locus to chromosome 10 by linkage

    SciTech Connect

    Aminoff, M.; Tahvanainen, E.; Chapelle, A. de la

    1995-10-01

    Juvenile megaloblastic anemia caused by selective intestinal malabsorption of vitamin B12 has been considered a distinct condition displaying autosomal recessive inheritance. It appears to have a worldwide distribution, and comparatively high incidences were reported 30 years ago in Finland and Norway. More recently, the Mendelian inheritance of the condition has been questioned because almost no new cases have occurred in these populations. Here we report linkage studies assigning a recessive-gene locus for the disease to chromosome 10 in previously diagnosed multiplex families from Finland and Norway, proving the Mendelian mode of inheritance. The locus is tentatively assigned to the 6-cM interval between markers D10S548 and D10S466, with a multipoint maximum lod score (Z{sub max}) of 5.36 near marker D10S1477. By haplotype analysis, the healthy sibs in these families did not appear to constitute any examples of nonpenetrance. We hypothesize that the paucity of new cases in these populations is due either to a dietary effect on the gene penetrance that has changed with time, or to a drop in the birth rate in subpopulations showing enrichment of the mutation, or to both of these causes. 38 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. In-situ biochemical remediation of chlorinated organic compounds present as DNAPL using vitamin B12 and reduced titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Lesage, S.; Sorel, D.; Cherry, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of using a biochemical treatment for the cleanup of DNAPL solvents in the saturated zone was tested using an in-situ large vertical column. Laboratory column studies have shown that a mixture of vitamin B12 and titanium citrate pumped through a column containing 100 {mu}L of tetrachloroethene can completely dissolve and degrade the residual to ethene in a few days. A vertical test column, 80 cm in diameter was installed within a sheet-pile cell isolating a portion of aquifer at CFB Borden. An equimolar mixture of tetrachloroethene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane was injected below the water table to form a residual DNAPL. The injection withdrawal system was operated in an upward flow mode over a 2 m height. In order for the reaction to be proceed, the in-situ pH must be greater than 7 and the Eh lower than -480 mV. The redox of the aquifer and the formation of reaction products was monitored on site, through 8 side pods equipped with stainless steel tubing terminated with 40 {mu}m porous cups, installed at different heights in the test column. The volatile products at the withdrawal well were monitored on-line by dynamic headspace analysis/gas chromatography.

  10. Prevalence and correlates of vitamin K deficiency in children with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Jan K; Grzybowska-Chlebowczyk, Urszula; Landowski, Piotr; Szaflarska-Poplawska, Anna; Klincewicz, Beata; Adamczak, Daria; Banasiewicz, Tomasz; Plawski, Andrzej; Walkowiak, Jaroslaw

    2014-01-01

    Although vitamin K deficiency has been implicated in adult inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), its prevalence in pediatric IBD remains unknown. We carried out a cross-sectional study in 63 children with Crohn's disease (CD) and 48 with ulcerative colitis (UC) to assess the prevalence of vitamin K deficiency and to search for potential correlation between vitamin K status and pediatric IBD activity. Vitamin K status was assessed using protein induced by vitamin K absence-II (PIVKA-II; ELISA). Prevalence of vitamin K deficiency was 54.0% in CD and 43.7% in UC. Vitamin K deficiency was more common in patients with higher CD activity, in CD patients with higher mass Z-scores, and less common among children with CD treated with infliximab. Relation of vitamin K deficiency to pediatric IBD clinical course and treatment demand further research. PMID:24759680

  11. Peripheral Neuropathy Due to Vitamin Deficiency, Toxins, and Medications

    PubMed Central

    Staff, Nathan P.; Windebank, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of Review: Peripheral neuropathies secondary to vitamin deficiencies, medications, or toxins are frequently considered but can be difficult to definitively diagnose. Accurate diagnosis is important since these conditions are often treatable and preventable. This article reviews the key features of different types of neuropathies caused by these etiologies and provides a comprehensive list of specific agents that must be kept in mind. Recent Findings: While most agents that cause peripheral neuropathy have been known for years, newly developed medications that cause peripheral neuropathy are discussed. Summary: Peripheral nerves are susceptible to damage by a wide array of toxins, medications, and vitamin deficiencies. It is important to consider these etiologies when approaching patients with a variety of neuropathic presentations; additionally, etiologic clues may be provided by other systemic symptoms. While length-dependent sensorimotor axonal peripheral neuropathy is the most common presentation, several examples present in a subacute severe fashion, mimicking Guillain-Barré syndrome. PMID:25299283

  12. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnant Korean Women: The First Trimester and the Winter Season as Risk Factors for Vitamin D Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Rihwa; Kim, Seonwoo; Yoo, Heejin; Cho, Yoon Young; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon; Oh, Soo-young; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the vitamin D status of Korean women during pregnancy and assessed the effects of vitamin D deficiency on two pregnancy outcomes; preterm births and the births of small for gestational age. We measured the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in 220 pregnant Korean women who were recruited prospectively and compared these levels with those of 500 healthy non-pregnant women. We analyzed vitamin D status according to patient demographics, season, and obstetrical characteristics; moreover, we also assessed pregnancy outcomes. The overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency(<20 ng/mL) in pregnant women and healthy non-pregnant women was 77.3% and 79.2%; respectively; and the prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency (<10 ng/mL) was 28.6% and 7.2%; respectively (p < 0.05). Vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent in the winter (100%) than in the summer (45.5%) in pregnant Korean women. A higher risk of vitamin D deficiency was observed in the first trimester than in the third trimester (adjusted OR 4.3; p < 0.05). No significant association was observed between vitamin D deficiency and any of the pregnancy outcomes examined. Further research focusing on the long-term consequences of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy in Korean women is warranted. PMID:25970148

  13. Maternal B vitamin supplementation from preconception through weaning suppresses intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc1638N mouse offspring

    PubMed Central

    Ciappio, Eric D; Liu, Zhenhua; Brooks, Ryan S; Mason, Joel B; Bronson, Roderick T; Crott, Jimmy W

    2014-01-01

    Objective Variations in the intake of folate are capable of modulating colorectal tumorigenesis; however, the outcome appears to be dependent on timing. This study sought to determine the effect of altering folate (and related B vitamin) availability during in-utero development and the suckling period on intestinal tumorigenesis. Design Female wildtype mice were fed diets either mildly deficient, replete or supplemented with vitamins B2, B6, B12 and folate for 4 weeks before mating to Apc1638N males. Females remained on their diet throughout pregnancy and until weaning. After weaning, all Apc1638N offspring were maintained on replete diets for 29 weeks. Results At 8 months of age tumour incidence was markedly lower among offspring of supplemented mothers (21%) compared with those of replete (59%) and deficient (55%) mothers (p=0.03). Furthermore, tumours in pups born to deficient dams were most likely to be invasive (p=0.03). The expression of Apc, Sfrp1, Wif1 and Wnt5a—all of which are negative regulatory elements of the Wnt signalling cascade—in the normal small intestinal mucosa of pups decreased with decreasing maternal B vitamin intake, and for Sfrp1 this was inversely related to promoter methylation. ?-Catenin protein was elevated in offspring of deficient dams. Conclusions These changes indicate a de-repression of the Wnt pathway in pups of deficient dams and form a plausible mechanism by which maternal B vitamin intake modulates tumorigenesis in offspring. These data indicate that maternal B vitamin supplementation suppresses, while deficiency promotes, intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc1638N offspring. PMID:21659408

  14. Mild depletion of dietary folate combined with other B vitamins alters multiple components of the Wnt pathway in mouse colon.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenhua; Choi, Sang-Woon; Crott, Jimmy W; Keyes, Mary K; Jang, Hyeran; Smith, Donald E; Kim, Myungjin; Laird, Peter W; Bronson, Roderick; Mason, Joel B

    2007-12-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that diminished folate status increases the risk of colorectal carcinogenesis. However, many biochemical functions of folate are dependent on the adequate availability of other 1-carbon nutrients, including riboflavin, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12. Aberrations in the Wnt pathway are thought to play an important role in human colorectal cancers. This study therefore investigated if mild depletion of folate combined with depletion of riboflavin, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 could induce alterations in the Wnt pathway in the colonic mucosa. Ninety-six mice were pair-fed diets with different combinations of B vitamin depletion for 10 wk. Genomic DNA methylation and uracil misincorporation were measured by LC/MS and GC/MS. Gene-specific methylation, strand breaks, and expressions were measured by real-time PCR and immunoblotting. Proliferation and apoptosis were determined by immunohistochemistry. DNA strand breaks within the Apc mutation cluster region were induced by folate depletion combined with inadequacies of riboflavin, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 (P < 0.05), but such effects were not induced by folate depletion alone. Similarly, minor changes in the expression of Apc, beta-catenin, and cyclin D1 produced by mild folate depletion were significantly magnified by multiple vitamin depletion. Apoptosis, which can be suppressed by increased Wnt-signaling, was attenuated by the combined deficiency state (P < 0.05) but not by singlet or doublet deficiencies. These findings indicate that a mild depletion of folate that is of insufficient magnitude by itself to induce alterations in components of the Wnt pathway may produce such effects when present in conjunction with mild inadequacies of other 1-carbon nutrients. PMID:18029487

  15. Vitamin B9 is Higher in Developmentally Younger Potato Tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Folate (Vitamin B9) deficiency is a global nutritional problem and is problematic even in the developed world. Several studies have shown that because of their large consumption potatoes are an important source of dietary folate. New or baby potatoes constitute a valuable niche market th...

  16. Laryngeal spasm mimicking asthma and vitamin d deficiency.

    PubMed

    Masoero, Monica; Bellocchia, Michela; Ciuffreda, Antonio; Ricciardolo, Fabio Lm; Rolla, Giovanni; Bucca, Caterina

    2014-05-01

    We present a woman with heterozygous carnitine palmitoyl transferase 2 (CPT-2) deficiency who in the last 6 months suffered from episodic dyspnea and choking. Symptoms could not be attributed to her muscular energy defect, since heterozygous CPT-2 deficiency is usually asymptomatic or causes only mild muscle fatigability. Myopathy is usually triggered by concurrent factors, either genetic (additional muscle enzymes defects) or acquired (metabolic stress). The patient was referred to our respiratory clinic for suspect bronchial asthma. Spirometry showed mild decrease in inspiratory flows. Methacholine challenge was negative. Dyspnea was triggered by hyperventilation-induced hypocapnia, which produced marked decrease in airflow rates, particularly in inspiratory flows, consistent with laryngospasm. Nutritional assessment of the patient showed low serum level of calcium and vitamin D, attributable to avoidance of milk and dairy products for lactose intolerance and to insufficient sunlight exposure. After calcium and vitamin D supplementation episodic laryngospasm disappeared and hypocapnic hyperventilation test induced very mild change in airflow rates. Calcium and vitamin D deficiency may favour laryngeal spasm mimicking asthma, particularly in subjects with underlying myopathy. PMID:24843804

  17. Laryngeal Spasm Mimicking Asthma and Vitamin D Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Masoero, Monica; Bellocchia, Michela; Ciuffreda, Antonio; Ricciardolo, Fabio LM; Rolla, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    We present a woman with heterozygous carnitine palmitoyl transferase 2 (CPT-2) deficiency who in the last 6 months suffered from episodic dyspnea and choking. Symptoms could not be attributed to her muscular energy defect, since heterozygous CPT-2 deficiency is usually asymptomatic or causes only mild muscle fatigability. Myopathy is usually triggered by concurrent factors, either genetic (additional muscle enzymes defects) or acquired (metabolic stress). The patient was referred to our respiratory clinic for suspect bronchial asthma. Spirometry showed mild decrease in inspiratory flows. Methacholine challenge was negative. Dyspnea was triggered by hyperventilation-induced hypocapnia, which produced marked decrease in airflow rates, particularly in inspiratory flows, consistent with laryngospasm. Nutritional assessment of the patient showed low serum level of calcium and vitamin D, attributable to avoidance of milk and dairy products for lactose intolerance and to insufficient sunlight exposure. After calcium and vitamin D supplementation episodic laryngospasm disappeared and hypocapnic hyperventilation test induced very mild change in airflow rates. Calcium and vitamin D deficiency may favour laryngeal spasm mimicking asthma, particularly in subjects with underlying myopathy. PMID:24843804

  18. B vitamins in breast milk: relative importance of maternal status and intake, and effects on infant status and function.

    PubMed

    Allen, Lindsay H

    2012-05-01

    Infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 mo of life. However, maternal deficiency of some micronutrients, conveniently classified as Group I micronutrients during lactation, can result in low concentrations in breast milk and subsequent infant deficiency preventable by improving maternal status. This article uses thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and choline as examples and reviews the evidence for risk of inadequate intakes by infants in the first 6 mo of life. Folate, a Group II micronutrient, is included for comparison. Information is presented on forms and concentrations in human milk, analytical methods, the basis of current recommended intakes for infants and lactating women, and effects of maternal supplementation. From reports of maternal and/or infant deficiency, concentrations in milk were noted as well as any consequences for infant function. These milk values were used to estimate the percent of recommended daily intake that infants fed by a deficient mother could obtain from her milk. Estimates were 60% for thiamin, 53% for riboflavin, 80% for vitamin B-6, 16% for vitamin B-12, and 56% for choline. Lack of data limits the accuracy and generalizability of these conclusions, but the overall picture that emerges is consistent across nutrients and points to an urgent need to improve the information available on breast milk quality. PMID:22585913

  19. Age-Related Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated with Reduced Macular Ganglion Cell Complex: A Cross-Sectional High-Definition Optical Coherence Tomography Study

    PubMed Central

    Uro, Mathieu; Beauchet, Olivier; Cherif, Mehdi; Graffe, Alix; Milea, Dan; Annweiler, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    Background Vitamin D deficiency is associated with smaller volume of optic chiasm in older adults, indicating a possible loss of the visual axons and their cellular bodies. Our objective was to determine whether vitamin D deficiency in older adults is associated with reduced thickness of the ganglion cell complex(GCC) and of the retinal nerve fibre layer(RNFL), as measured with high-definition optical coherence tomography(HD-OCT). Methods Eighty-five French older community-dwellers without open-angle glaucoma and patent age-related macular degeneration(mean, 71.1±4.7years; 45.9%female) from the GAIT study were separated into 2 groups according to serum 25OHD level(i.e., deficient?25nmol/L or sufficient>25nmol/L). Measurements of GCC and RNFL thickness were performed using HD-OCT. Age, gender, body mass index, number of comorbidities, dementia, functional autonomy, intracranial volume, visual acuity, serum calcium concentration and season of testing were considered as potential confounders. Results Mean serum 25OHD concentration was 58.4±26.8nmol/L. Mean logMAR visual acuity was 0.03±0.06. Mean visual field mean deviation was -1.25±2.29dB. Patients with vitamin D deficiency(n=11) had a reduced mean GCC thickness compared to those without vitamin D deficiency(72.1±7.4?m versus 77.5±7.5?m, P=0.028). There was no difference of the mean RNFL thickness in these two groups(P=0.133). After adjustment for potential confounders, vitamin D deficiency was associated with reduced GCC thickness(ß=-5.12, P=0.048) but not RNFL thickness(ß=-9.98, P=0.061). Specifically, vitamin D deficiency correlated with the superior medial GCC area(P=0.017) and superior temporal GCC area(P=0.010). Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency in older patients is associated with reduced mean GCC thickness, which can represent an early stage of optic nerve damage, prior to RNFL loss. PMID:26090872

  20. Reprint of "Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women impairs regulatory T cell function".

    PubMed

    Vijayendra Chary, A; Hemalatha, R; Seshacharyulu, M; Vasudeva Murali, M; Jayaprakash, D; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-04-01

    Regulatory T cells and IgE receptors (CD23 and CD21) on B cells were assessed in vitamin D deficient pregnant women. For this, 153 pregnant women were recruited from a government hospital and were categorized into three groups based on 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) status. Regulatory T cell population (Treg cells) and CD23/CD21 expression on B cells were quantified by FACS ARIA II in maternal blood at third trimester; and the same parameters were evaluated in cord blood soon after delivery. In addition, TGF ? and IL-10 were quantified in maternal and cord blood by using Milliplex kits. In a representative sample of eight women from each group (vitamin D sufficient, insufficient and deficient), placental tissues were processed for mRNA expressions of vitamin D receptor (VDR), retinoic acid receptor (RXR), vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) and vitamin D regulating enzymes. Of the 153 pregnant women, 18 were sufficient (?30ng/mL), 55 were insufficient (20-29ng/mL) and 80 were deficient (?19ng/mL) for 25(OH)D3 status. The maternal blood Treg cell population (mean (%)±SE) was lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.2±0.01) pregnant women compared to insufficient (0.34±0.01) and sufficient (0.45±0.02) pregnant women. Similarly, cord blood Treg cell population (mean (%)±SE) was also lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.63±0.03) pregnant women when compared to insufficient (1.05±0.04) and sufficient (1.75±0.02) pregnant women. Mean (%)±SE of B cells with CD23 and CD21 in maternal blood was higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient pregnant women (0.35±0.02; 1.65±0.04) when compared to insufficient (0.22±0.02; 0.55±0.05) and sufficient (0.15±0.02; 0.21±0.01) pregnant women. Similarly, mean (%)±SE of B cell population with CD23 and CD21 in cord blood was also higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.41±0.02; 1.2±0.03) when compared to insufficient (0.32±0.01; 0.6±0.05) and sufficient (0.2±0.01; 0.4±0.02) pregnant women. Regulatory cytokines, TGF ? and IL-10 were lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 insufficient and deficient subjects. In the placenta tissue of women with 25(OH)D3 deficiency, the regulatory T cell transcription factor FOXP3, vitamin D receptor (VDR) and retinoic acid receptor (RXR) expressions were downregulated. In contrast, CD23, CD21 and VDBP expressions were upregulated in 25(OH)D3 deficient and insufficient women. Vitamin D regulating enzymes (CYP24A1, CYP2R1 and CYP27B1) expression were also altered in women with 25(OH)D3 deficiency. The current study shows that impaired maternal 25(OH)D3 during pregnancy influences the spectrum of immune cells such as regulatory T cells and B cells with IgE receptors and this in turn may be linked to allergy and asthma in neonates. PMID:25644204

  1. Determination of vitamin B12 in infant formula and adult nutritionals by liquid chromatography/UV detection with immunoaffinity extraction: First Action 2011.08.

    PubMed

    Campos-Giménez, Esther; Fontannaz, Patric; Trisconi, Marie-José; Kilinc, Tamara; Gimenez, Catherine; Andrieux, Pierre; Nelson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    At the "Standards Development and International Harmonization: AOAC INTERNATIONAL Mid-Year Meeting," on June 29, 2011, an Expert Review Panel agreed that the method "Determination of Vitamin B12 in Infant Formulas and Adult Nutritionals by Liquid Chromatography/UV Detection with Immunoaffinity Extraction" be adopted AOAC Official First Action status. The method is applicable for the determination of vitamin B12, which includes added cyanocobalamin and natural forms, making it applicable to both fortified and nonfortified products. Vitamin B12 is extracted from the sample in sodium acetate buffer in the presence of sodium cyanide (100 degrees C, 30 min). After purification and concentration with an immunoaffinity column, vitamin B12 is determined by LC with UV detection (361 nm). A single-laboratory validation study was conducted on a range of products, including milk- and soy-based infant formulas, cereals, cocoa beverages, health care products, and polyvitamin premixes. The method demonstrated linear response over a large range of concentrations, recovery rates of 100.8 +/- 7.5% (average +/- SD), repeatability RSD (RSDr) of 2.1%, and intermediate reproducibility (RSD(iR)) of 4.3%. LOD and LOQ values were 0.10 and 0.30 microg/100 g, respectively, and correlation with the reference microbiological assay was good (R2 = 0.9442). The results of the study were published in J. AOAC Int. 91, 786-793 (2008). The performance characteristics of the method met the standard method performance requirements set forth by the Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals; thus, the method was determined to be appropriate for First Action status. PMID:22649911

  2. Preliminary evidence for vitamin D deficiency in nodulocystic acne

    PubMed Central

    Yildizgören, Mustafa Turgut; Togral, Arzu Karatas

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease, and hormonal influences, follicular plugging and follicular hyperkeratinization, increased sebum secretion, Propionibacterium acnes colonization, and inflammation are involved in its pathogenesis. Recently, a significant body of evidence has accumulated that describes the comedolytic properties of vitamin D and its roles as a modulator of the immune system, a regulator of the proliferation and differentiation of sebocytes and keratinocytes, and as an antioxidant. In this study, we aimed to compare serum vitamin D levels in a group of patients with nodulocystic acne with vitamin D levels in a group of control subjects to determine whether there was any relationship between the vitamin D and acne. Methods: Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) were measured in 43 patients with newly diagnosed nodulocystic acne and in 46 healthy control subjects, and participants were grouped according to their 25[OH]D levels as follows: normal/sufficient (>20 ng/mL) or insufficient/deficient (<20 ng/mL). Serum concentrations of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were measured. Results: Forty-three patients and 46 control individuals, with mean ages of 23.13 (± 5.78) years and 25.23 (± 4.73) years, respectively, were included in this study. There were no significant differences between the groups in relation to their body mass indices and Ca, P, ALP, and PTH levels. However, the patients with nodulocystic acne had significantly lower 25[OH]D levels than the subjects in the control group (P< 0.05). Conclusion: The patients with nodulocystic acne had relatively low serum vitamin D levels compared with the subjects in the control group. The findings from this study suggest that there is a connection between low vitamin D levels and acne. Larger epidemiologic studies are needed to confirm the status of vitamin D levels in patients with acne. PMID:26413187

  3. Learning behaviour and cerebral protein kinase C, antioxidant status, lipid composition in senescence-accelerated mouse: influence of a phosphatidylcholine-vitamin B12 diet.

    PubMed

    Hung, M C; Shibasaki, K; Yoshida, R; Sato, M; Imaizumi, K

    2001-08-01

    Our objective was to determine whether dietary supplementation with phosphatidylcholine (PC) plus vitamin B12 could afford beneficial effects on biochemical and biophysical events in the brain of senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) substrain SAMP8. We measured learning behaviour, hippocampal protein kinase C (PKC) activity, cerebral antioxidant status, phospholipid composition and fatty acid composition in 6-month-old SAMP8 and in age-matched controls (SAM substrain SAMR1). In comparison with SAMR1, SAMP8 showed a significant elevation in total grading score of senescence and a significant decline in acquisition SAMP8 had a lower hippocampal PKC activity and cerebral PKC-beta mRNA abundance than SAMR1. SAMP8 had increased cerebral lipid peroxide levels and proportion of sphingomyelin, and a lower proportion of 20 : 4n-6 and 22 : 6n-3 in cerebral phosphtidylethanolamine than SAMR1. SAMP8 fed the PC combined with vitamin B12 diet had an increased PKC activity and a higher proportion of 22 : 6n-3 than SAMP8 fed the control diet. These results indicate the potential benefit of PC combined with vitamin B12 as a dietary supplement. PMID:11502229

  4. Reduced folic acid, vitamin B12 and docosahexaenoic acid and increased homocysteine and cortisol in never-medicated schizophrenia patients: implications for altered one-carbon metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kale, Anvita; Naphade, Nilesh; Sapkale, Swati; Kamaraju, Marellasv; Pillai, Anilkumar; Joshi, Sadhana; Mahadik, Sahebarao

    2010-01-30

    Abnormal one-carbon metabolism has long been suggested as one of the mechanisms for neuropathology and psychopathology of schizophrenia. Variable levels of components of one-carbon metabolism (folic acid and vitamin B12) and consequent altered levels of homocysteine and phospholipid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been independently reported, mostly in medicated patients. This study examined the simultaneous levels of these key components of one-carbon metabolism and its consequences in unique, medication-naïve first-episode psychotic patients (FEP, n=31) and healthy controls (HC, n=48) matched for confounds such as race, diet and lifestyle to reduce the variability. Significantly lower levels of folate and vitamin B12 in plasma and folate in red blood cells were observed in FEP compared to HC. These reductions paralleled the significant increase in plasma homocysteine and cortisol levels. Significantly reduced levels of membrane DHA were also observed in FEP compared to HC. This study, using a unique cohort, provided a broader mechanism (disturbed folic acid-vitamin B12-DHA balance) of altered one-carbon metabolism and one of its key consequential components, an increased homocysteine level that together with cortisol, can contribute to the neuropathology of psychosis. These data may have important implications for the amelioration of psychopathology in schizophrenia. PMID:19969375

  5. Novel in situ product removal technique for simultaneous production of propionic acid and vitamin B12 by expanded bed adsorption bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Yunshan; Liu, Yongdong; Shi, Hong; Su, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    A new type of in situ product removal (ISPR) technique of expanded bed adsorption (EBA) bioreactor was studied to simultaneously produce extracellular propionic acid and intracellular vitamin B12 by Propionibacterium freudenreichii CICC 10019. Resin screening experiments showed that the ZGA330 resin have the best biocompatibility and highest adsorption for propionic acid. Through the EBA bioreactor, propionic acid could be recovered efficiently by semi-continuous recirculation of the unfiltered broth, which eliminated the feedback inhibition of propionic acid. Fed-batch fermentation was carried out using the EBA system, resulting in a propionic acid concentration of 52.5 g L(-1) and vitamin B12 concentration of 43.04 mg L(-1) at 160 h, which correspond to product yields of 0.66 g g(-1) and 0.54 mg g(-1), respectively. The present study suggests that the EBA bioreactor can be utilized for the simple and economical production of propionic acid and vitamin B12 in a single fermentation process. PMID:22082511

  6. Efficacy of Supplementation with B Vitamins for Stroke Prevention: A Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hongli; Pi, Fuhua; Ding, Zan; Chen, Wei; Pang, Shaojie; Dong, Wenya; Zhang, Qingying

    2015-01-01

    Background Supplementation with B vitamins for stroke prevention has been evaluated over the years, but which combination of B vitamins is optimal for stroke prevention is unclear. We performed a network meta-analysis to assess the impact of different combinations of B vitamins on risk of stroke. Methods A total of 17 trials (86 393 patients) comparing 7 treatment strategies and placebo were included. A network meta-analysis combined all available direct and indirect treatment comparisons to evaluate the efficacy of B vitamin supplementation for all interventions. Results B vitamin supplementation was associated with reduced risk of stroke and cerebral hemorrhage. The risk of stroke was lower with folic acid plus vitamin B6 as compared with folic acid plus vitamin B12 and was lower with folic acid plus vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 as compared with placebo or folic acid plus vitamin B12. The treatments ranked in order of efficacy for stroke, from higher to lower, were folic acid plus vitamin B6 > folic acid > folic acid plus vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 > vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 > niacin > vitamin B6 > placebo > folic acid plus vitamin B12. Conclusions B vitamin supplementation was associated with reduced risk of stroke; different B vitamins and their combined treatments had different efficacy on stroke prevention. Folic acid plus vitamin B6 might be the optimal therapy for stroke prevention. Folic acid and vitamin B6 were both valuable for stroke prevention. The efficacy of vitamin B12 remains to be studied. PMID:26355679

  7. Serum sclerostin is decreased following vitamin D treatment in young vitamin D-deficient female adults.

    PubMed

    Cidem, Muharrem; Karacan, Ilhan; Arat, Neval Bozok; Zengi, Oguzhan; Ozkaya, Murat; Guzel, Saadet Pilten; Ozkan, Cansu; Beytemur, Ozan

    2015-10-01

    Sclerostin is produced almost exclusively by osteocytes, which also express receptors for 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin D3 treatment on serum sclerostin levels in young adult females with severe vitamin D deficiency. A total of 26 subjects were treated orally with calcium (1.200 mg/day for 2 months) and vitamin D3 (300.000 IU/week for 1 month). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and sclerostin levels were measured before and after treatment. Baseline serum 25(OH)D and sclerostin levels were at 5.7 ± 2.4 ng/mL and 39.1 ± 14.4 pg/mL, respectively. Serum 25(OH)D was significantly increased, to 62.4 ± 18.7 ng/mL, following treatment; serum sclerostin was significantly decreased, to 29.3 ± 8.8 pg/mL. We conclude that serum sclerostin level is decreased following vitamin D3 treatment in patients with vitamin D deficiency. PMID:26007153

  8. Vitamin D deficiency contributes directly to the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

    PubMed Central

    Dancer, Rachel C A; Parekh, Dhruv; Lax, Sian; D'Souza, Vijay; Zheng, Shengxing; Bassford, Chris R; Park, Daniel; Bartis, D G; Mahida, Rahul; Turner, Alice M; Sapey, Elizabeth; Wei, Wenbin; Naidu, Babu; Stewart, Paul M; Fraser, William D; Christopher, Kenneth B; Cooper, Mark S; Gao, Fang; Sansom, David M; Martineau, Adrian R; Perkins, Gavin D; Thickett, David R

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated as a pathogenic factor in sepsis and intensive therapy unit mortality but has not been assessed as a risk factor for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Causality of these associations has never been demonstrated. Objectives To determine if ARDS is associated with vitamin D deficiency in a clinical setting and to determine if vitamin D deficiency in experimental models of ARDS influences its severity. Methods Human, murine and in vitro primary alveolar epithelial cell work were included in this study. Findings Vitamin D deficiency (plasma 25(OH)D levels <50?nmol/L) was ubiquitous in patients with ARDS and present in the vast majority of patients at risk of developing ARDS following oesophagectomy. In a murine model of intratracheal lipopolysaccharide challenge, dietary-induced vitamin D deficiency resulted in exaggerated alveolar inflammation, epithelial damage and hypoxia. In vitro, vitamin D has trophic effects on primary human alveolar epithelial cells affecting >600 genes. In a clinical setting, pharmacological repletion of vitamin D prior to oesophagectomy reduced the observed changes of in vivo measurements of alveolar capillary damage seen in deficient patients. Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency is common in people who develop ARDS. This deficiency of vitamin D appears to contribute to the development of the condition, and approaches to correct vitamin D deficiency in patients at risk of ARDS should be developed. Trial registration UKCRN ID 11994. PMID:25903964

  9. B Vitamins Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the body produce energy, is involved in glucose, amino acid, and alcohol metabolism, and is required for the ... pyridoxal Role: B6 is a coenzyme involved in amino acid metabolism and hemoglobin synthesis. It is also necessary ...

  10. Arsenic-Induced Antioxidant Depletion, Oxidative DNA Breakage, and Tissue Damages are Prevented by the Combined Action of Folate and Vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Acharyya, Nirmallya; Deb, Bimal; Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Maiti, Smarajit

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic is a grade I human carcinogen. It acts by disrupting one-carbon (1C) metabolism and cellular methyl (-CH3) pool. The -CH3 group helps in arsenic disposition and detoxification of the biological systems. Vitamin B12 and folate, the key promoters of 1C metabolism were tested recently (daily 0.07 and 4.0 ?g, respectively/100 g b.w. of rat for 28 days) to evaluate their combined efficacy in the protection from mutagenic DNA-breakage and tissue damages. The selected tissues like intestine (first-pass site), liver (major xenobiotic metabolizer) and lung (major arsenic accumulator) were collected from arsenic-ingested (0.6 ppm/same schedule) female rats. The hemo-toxicity and liver and kidney functions were monitored. Our earlier studies on arsenic-exposed humans can correlate carcinogenesis with DNA damage. Here, we demonstrate that the supplementation of physiological/therapeutic dose of vitamin B12 and folate protected the rodents significantly from arsenic-induced DNA damage (DNA fragmentation and comet assay) and hepatic and renal tissue degeneration (histo-architecture, HE staining). The level of arsenic-induced free-radical products (TBARS and conjugated diene) was significantly declined by the restored actions of several antioxidants viz. urate, thiol, catalase, xanthine oxidase, lactoperoxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the tissues of vitamin-supplemented group. The alkaline phosphatase, transaminases, urea and creatinine (hepatic and kidney toxicity marker), and lactate dehydrogenase (tissue degeneration marker) were significantly impaired in the arsenic-fed group. But a significant protection was evident in the vitamin-supplemented group. In conclusion, the combined action of folate and B12 results in the restitution in the 1C metabolic pathway and cellular methyl pool. The cumulative outcome from the enhanced arsenic methylation and antioxidative capacity was protective against arsenic induced mutagenic DNA breakages and tissue damages. PMID:25850544

  11. Radioassay for cobalamin (vitamin B12) requiring no pretreatment of serum

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, T.M.; Carney, J.A.

    1981-02-01

    Researchers describe a radioassay for cobalamin in human serum or plasma that requires no boiling or other pretreatment of the sample. Normal chicken serum covalently coupled to magnetizable particles is used as the binding agent. The assay is performed at pH 12.9, at which pH all cobalamin in human serum is released from its binding proteins, whereas the binding agent maintains a high affinity for cobalamin. Under these assay conditions the binding protein shows a specificity for cobalamin similar to that of purified intrinsic factor. The assay is simple, rapid, and precise, and results correlate well with those of the Euglena gracilis microbiological assay and an intrinsic-factor binding assay.

  12. Vitamin D Deficiency and Depressive Symptomatology in Psychiatric Patients Hospitalized with a Current Depressive Episode: A Factor Analytic Study

    PubMed Central

    von Känel, Roland; Fardad, Nasser; Steurer, Nadine; Horak, Nicole; Hindermann, Esther; Fischer, Franz; Gessler, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Background Low vitamin D levels have been associated with depressive symptoms in population-based studies and non-clinical samples as well as with clinical depression. This study aimed to examine the association of vitamin D levels with the severity and dimensions of depressive symptoms in hospitalized patients with a current episode of depression taking into account confounding variables. Methods We investigated 380 patients (mean age 47±12 years, 70% women) who were consecutively hospitalized with a main diagnosis of an ICD-10 depressive episode. All patients self-rated depressive symptom severity with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and the Brief Symptom Inventory. A principal component analysis was performed with all 34 items of these questionnaires and serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH D) were measured. Results Vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/l), insufficiency (50–75 nmol/l), and sufficiency (>75 nmol/l) were present in 55.5%, 31.8% and 12.6%, respectively, of patients. Patients with vitamin D deficiency scored higher on the HADS-D scale and on an anhedonia symptom factor than those with insufficient (p-values ?0.023) or sufficient (p-values ?0.008) vitamin D. Vitamin D deficient patients also scored higher on the BDI-II scale than those with sufficient vitamin D (p = 0.007); BDI-II cognitive/affective symptoms, but not somatic/affective symptoms, were higher in patients with vitamin D deficiency (p = 0.005) and insufficiency (p = 0.041) relative to those with sufficient vitamin D. Effect sizes suggested clinically relevant findings. Conclusions Low vitamin D levels are frequent in hospitalized patients with a current episode of depression. Especially 25-OH D levels <50 nmol/l were associated with cognitive/affective depressive symptoms, and anhedonia symptoms in particular. PMID:26397113

  13. Risk Factors for Vitamin D Deficiency among HIV-Infected and Uninfected Injection Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Allison A.; Drummond, M. Bradley; Mehta, Shruti H.; Brown, Todd T.; Lucas, Gregory M.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Estrella, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent and is associated with bone disease, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome and malignancy. Injection drug users (IDUs), with or without HIV infection, are at risk for these conditions; however, limited data on vitamin D deficiency exist in this population. We determined the prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency among urban IDUs in the AIDS Linked to the IntraVenous Experience (ALIVE) Study cohort. Methods For this cross-sectional sub-study, vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum 25(OH)-vitamin D level <20 ng/mL. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with vitamin D deficiency. Results Of 950 individuals analyzed, 29% were HIV-infected. The median age was 49 years; 65% were male, and 91% were black. The median vitamin D level was 13.5 ng/mL (IQR, 9.0–20.3); 74% were deficient (68% in HIV-infected vs. 76% in HIV-uninfected, p?=?0.01). Non-black race, fall/winter season, multivitamin intake, higher serum albumin, HCV seropositivity and HIV-infection were associated with significantly lower odds of vitamin D deficiency. Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among IDUs. Notably, HIV-infected IDUs were less likely to be vitamin D deficient. Higher vitamin D levels were associated with multivitamin intake and with higher albumin levels, suggesting that nutritional status contributes substantially to deficiency. The association between HCV serostatus and vitamin D level remains unclear. Further investigation is needed to define the clinical implications of the heavy burden of vitamin D deficiency in this high-risk, aging population with significant co-morbidities. PMID:24756000

  14. Surge in US Outpatient Vitamin D Deficiency Diagnoses: National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Karen E.; Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Davis, Scott A.; Feldman, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In light of the growing medical interest in the potential consequences of vitamin D deficiency, it is important that clinicians are informed about the varying factors that may complicate the assessment of vitamin D status and the diagnosis of deficiency. To better understand the frequency of vitamin D deficien