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1

How common is vitamin B12 deficiency?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In considering the vitamin B-12 fortification of flour, it is important to know who is at risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency and whether those individuals would benefit from flour fortification.This article reviews current knowledge of the prevalence and causes of vitamin B-12 deficiency and considers ...

2

CARDIOVASCULAR LESIONS IN COBALT-VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENT SHEEP  

E-print Network

CARDIOVASCULAR LESIONS IN COBALT-VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENT SHEEP R. MOHAMMED M. LAMAND Laboratoire des to 0.10 mg/kg of dry matter is known to induce vitamin B 12 deficiency in sheep (Marston, 1970; Smith (Underwood, 1977). Adult sheep are considered vitamin B 12 deficient when serum vitamin B12 levels attains

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

3

THE DIAGNOSIS OF VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY IN SHEEP: COMPARISON OF SERUM VITAMIN B12 LEVELS  

E-print Network

THE DIAGNOSIS OF VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY IN SHEEP: COMPARISON OF SERUM VITAMIN B12 LEVELS MEASURED Nutritionnelles, INRA, CRZV de Theix, 63122 Ceyrat, France Résumé DIAGNOSTIC DE LA CARENCE EN VITAMINE B12 CHEZ LE MOUTON: COMPARAISON DES TAUX DE VITAMINE B12 S?RIQUE MESUR?S PAR DES TECHNIQUES MICROBIOLOGIQUES ET DE

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

4

Vitamin B12 deficiencyneed for a new guideline  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: Many patients with vitamin B12 deficiency do not have anemia or macrocytosis, but the prevalence of B12 deficiency in patients without macrocytosis is not known.METHODS: We investigated the prevalence of B12 deficiency among patients with normocytosis and microcytosis and recommended a screening strategy. All patients (n = 3714) with serum B12 measured at the Prince of Wales Hospital in

Chung Hin Chui; Fung Yi Lau; Raymond Wong; Oi Yan Soo; Chuk Kwan Lam; Pui Wai Lee; Ho Kei Leung; Chiu Kui So; Wai Chiu Tsoi; Nelson Tang; Wai Kei Lam; Gregory Cheng

2001-01-01

5

MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL VITAMIN B12 AND HOLOTRANSCOBALAMIN, SINGLY AND IN COBMINATION, IN SCREENING FOR METABOLIC VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: The standard screening test for vitamin B12 deficiency, measurement of total plasma vitamin B12, has limitations of sensitivity and specificity. Plasma vitamin B12 bound to transcobalamin (holoTC) is the fraction of total vitamin B12 available for tissue uptake and therefore has been pro...

6

An update of vitamin B12 metabolism and deficiency states.  

PubMed

Vitamin B12 deficiency may be underestimated in the general population. High-risk groups for the deficiency syndrome include the elderly, patients taking ulcer medications over long periods, patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, vegetarians, patients who have undergone stomach resection or small bowel resection, or both, and patients with dementia. The vitamin B12 deficiency syndrome is characterized by five stages, the fifth of which results in irreversible neuropsychiatric manifestations. Although the deficiency is easily treated, diagnosis is somewhat complicated by the shortcomings of the various tests. Current state-of-the-art testing uses serum cobalamin levels as a screening test and serum or urine homocysteine and methylmalonic acid determinations as confirmatory tests. Vitamin B12 deficiency is treatable with monthly injections, large doses of daily oral supplement tablets, or an intranasal gel, which is far better absorbed than comparable oral supplements. PMID:7500070

Swain, R

1995-12-01

7

THE POTENTIAL COCARCINOGENIC EFFECT OF VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since vitamin B12 serves as a cofactor in the synthesis of methyl precursors for biological methylation and enables methylfolate to be recycled for nucleotide synthesis, B12 deficiency has been known to induce hyperhomocysteinemia and inadequate DNA synthesis along with 'methylfolate trap'. Even tho...

8

Vitamin B12 deficiency in relation to functional disabilities.  

PubMed

This study was designed to assess whether symptoms, functional measures, and reported disabilities were associated with vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency when defined in three ways. Participants, aged 60 or more years of age, in 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were categorized in relation to three previously used definitions of B12 deficiency: (1) serum B12 < 148 pmol/L; (2) serum B12 < 200 pmol/L and serum homocysteine > 20 ?mol/L; and (3) serum B12 < 258 pmol/L or serum methylmalonic acid > 0.21 ?mol/L. Functional measures of peripheral neuropathy, balance, cognitive function, gait speed, along with self-reported disability (including activities of daily living) were examined with standardized instruments by trained NHANES interviewers and technicians. Individuals identified as B12 deficient by definition 2 were more likely to manifest peripheral neuropathy OR (odds) (95% confidence intervals), p value: 9.70 (2.24, 42.07), 0.004 and report greater total disability, 19.61 (6.22, 61.86) 0.0001 after adjustments for age, sex, race, serum creatinine, and ferritin concentrations, smoking, diabetes, and peripheral artery disease. Smaller, but significantly increased, odds of peripheral neuropathy and total disability were also observed when definition 3 was applied. Functional measures and reported disabilities were associated with B12 deficiency definitions that include B12 biomarkers (homocysteine or methylmalonic acid). Further study of these definitions is needed to alert clinicians of possible subclinical B12 deficiency because functional decline amongst older adults may be correctable if the individual is B12 replete. PMID:24225845

Oberlin, Breanna S; Tangney, Christy C; Gustashaw, Kristin A R; Rasmussen, Heather E

2013-11-01

9

Utility of measuring vitamin B 12 and its active fraction, holotranscobalamin, in neurological vitamin B 12 deficiency syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitamin B12 (VitB12, cobalamin) deficiency has been associated with various neuropsychiatric conditions, such as peripheral neuropathy, subacute\\u000a combined degeneration, affective disorders, and cognitive impairment. Current assays analyze vitamin B12, of which only a small percentage is metabolically active. Measurement of its active fraction, holotranscobalamin, might\\u000a be of greater relevance, but data in populations with neuropsychiatric populations are lacking. In this

Wiebke Schrempf; Marco Eulitz; Volker Neumeister; Gabriele Siegert; Rainer Koch; Heinz Reichmann; Alexander Storch

2011-01-01

10

Vitamin B-12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia are partly ameliorated by cobalt and nickel supplementation in pigs.  

PubMed

Vitamin B-12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia alter the metabolism of trace elements. This study tested the hypothesis that there is a reverse relationship in which diets high in iron, copper, nickel and cobalt would influence vitamin B-12 deficiency outcomes including hyperhomocysteinemia. Piglets (German Landrace x Pietrain) were assigned to six groups of 8 and fed one of the following diets for 166 d: a vitamin B-12-adequate and folate-fortified diet (30 microg/kg vitamin B-12 and 0.5 mg/kg folate) with normal trace element concentrations or one of five vitamin B-12-free, folate nonsupplemented diets (0.36 mg/kg), with either normal trace element concentrations or high concentrations of iron (300 mg/kg), copper (30 mg/kg), cobalt (1 mg/kg) or nickel (6 mg/kg). Feed intake and weight gain did not differ significantly among the groups. Vitamin B-12-deficient pigs developed diminished serum and liver concentrations of vitamin B-12 and folate, an accumulation of iron in the liver and hyperhomocysteinemia. The magnitude of changes differed among vitamin B-12-deficient groups. Vitamin B-12-deficient pigs fed 6 mg/kg nickel had distinctly higher vitamin B-12 concentrations in liver and serum and 45% lower serum concentration of homocysteine than the corresponding deficiency group fed 1 mg/kg nickel; iron concentration in liver was completely normalized. Vitamin B-12-deficient pigs fed 1 mg/kg cobalt had 47% lower homocysteine concentrations in serum than the vitamin B-12-deficient group fed 0.13 mg/kg cobalt, but the vitamin B-12 status was unaffected. Supplementation of iron and copper did not affect these variables. The dietary manipulations had no detrimental effects on variables symptomatic of oxidative stress. The findings indicate a collaborative relationship between vitamin B-12 metabolism and the trace elements nickel and cobalt. PMID:11110865

Stangl, G I; Roth-Maier, D A; Kirchgessner, M

2000-12-01

11

Metabolie Changes in Golden Hamsters Fed Vitamin B12Deficient Diets12  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various metabolic changes were observed in male hamsters fed vitamin B-12-deficient diets with or without supplements of cobalt, methionine, and a previously untested cobalt-free pseudovitamin B-12. The effects observed after 31 weeks of consuming the vitamin B-12-defìcient diets included a marked increase in the urinary excretion of both methyl- malonic acid and formiminoglutamic acid, slight increases in red blood cell

ROSE Y. L. TSENG; NINA L. COH

12

Folatevitamin B-12 interaction in relation to cognitive impairment, anemia, and biochemical indicators of vitamin B-12 deficiency  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous reports on pernicious anemia treatment suggested that high folic acid intake adversely influences the natural history of vitamin B-12 deficiency, which affects many elderly individuals. However, experimental investigation of this hypothesis is unethical, and the few existing observational d...

13

VITAMIN B-12 SUPPLEMENTATION OF DEFICIENT LACTATING GUATEMALAN WOMEN IMPROVES MATERNAL BUT NOT INFANT STATUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vitamin B-12 deficiency is common in mothers and infants where maternal intake of animals source foods is low. The first six months post-partum is a critical period of neurological development requiring vitamin B-12. A pilot study was designed to determine the dose of B-12 to the mothers that would ...

14

[Vitamin B12 and iron deficiencies: from diagnostic to follow-up].  

PubMed

Vitamin B12 and iron deficiencies are common problems in consultations of general internal medicine. They cause different symptoms that can be non-specific. This article makes it possible, from a clinical frame of reference, to answer the following questions: What value of vitamin B12 should we consider a "deficiency", and what is the role of methylmalonate? What is the role of vitamin B12 oral supplements? How should we interpret values of ferritine? How should iron deficiency be investigated? What is the place of intravenous iron administration? PMID:22792601

Bosco, C; Favrat, B; Cheseaux, M

2012-06-20

15

Solid food refusal as the presenting sign of vitamin B 12 deficiency in a breastfed infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary vitamin B12 (vitB12) deficiency, although common in the elderly, is rare in childhood. We report on an exclusively breastfed 8-month-old infant,\\u000a presenting with persistent refusal of solid foods. Three months later, developmental regression and failure to thrive led\\u000a to the diagnosis of vitB12 deficiency, as a consequence of a subclinical pernicious anaemia with vitB12 deficiency in the mother. Treating

Els Ide; Stephanie Van Biervliet; Joke Thijs; Saskia Vande Velde; Ruth De Bruyne; Myriam Van Winckel

16

Prevalent vitamin B-12 deficiency in twelve-month-old Guatemalan infants is predicted by maternal B-12 deficiency and infant diet  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Marginal (<148 pmol/L) or deficient (148-220 pmol/L) plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations were reported previously in approximately one third of low-income women and children studied in Guatemala. Since vitamin B-12 deficiency can adversely affect infant development and cognitive function, this study ...

17

Vitamin B12  

MedlinePLUS

... along with other B vitamins, such as niacin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and magnesium. A prescription form of ... Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, ...

18

Persistence of neurological damage induced by dietary vitamin B-12 deficiency in infancy  

PubMed Central

Accepted 9 April 1997? A case is reported of a 14 month old boy with severe dietary vitamin B-12 deficiency caused by his mother's vegan diet. Cinical, electroencephalography (EEG), and haematological findings are described. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed severe frontal and frontoparietal cranial atrophy. Vitamin B-12 supplements led to a rapid improvement of haematological and neurological symptoms. Serum vitamin B-12 and urinary methylmalonate excretion were normal 10 days after treatment began. After six weeks, EEG was normal and cranial MRI after 10 weeks showed complete disappearance of all structural abnormalities. Cognitive and language development, however, remained seriously retarded at the age of 2 years. It is concluded that infantile vitamin B-12 deficiency induced by maternal vegan diets may cause lasting neurodisability even though vitamin B-12 supplementation leads to rapid resolution of cerebral atrophy and electroencephalographic abnormality.?? PMID:9301352

von Schenck, U.; Bender-Gotze, C.; Koletzko, B.

1997-01-01

19

Cerebral Atrophy in a Vitamin B12-deficient Infant of a Vegetarian Mother  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT In developed countries, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency usually occurs in children, exclusively breastfed ones whose mothers are vegetarian, causing low body stores of vitamin B12. The haematologic manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anaemia. It is a megaloblastic anaemia with high mean corpuscular volume and typical morphological features, such as hyperlobulation of the nuclei of the granulocytes. In advanced cases, neutropaenia and thrombocytopaenia can occur, simulating aplastic anaemia or leukaemia. In addition to haematological symptoms, infants may experience weakness, fatigue, failure to thrive, and irritability. Other common findings include pallor, glossitis, vomiting, diarrhoea, and icterus. Neurological symptoms may affect the central nervous system and, in severe cases, rarely cause brain atrophy. Here, we report an interesting case, a 12-month old infant, who was admitted with neurological symptoms and diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:25076673

Akin, Fatih; aksen, Hseyin; Bke, Saltuk Bu?ra; Arslan, ?kr; Aygn, Serhat

2014-01-01

20

Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as pancytopenia and retinopathy in a young boy-Helicobacter pylori, a novel causative agent.  

PubMed

Deficiency of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a well-known cause of megaloblastic anaemia. It is a reversible cause of bone marrow failure and demyelinating nervous system disorder, hence early detection and prompt treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency is essential. After diagnosing vitamin B12 deficiency, tracking down its root cause is important in individualising the treatment approach. Helicobacter pylorirelated (H. pylori) B12 deficiency presenting as pancytopenia in pediatric age groups has been reported. However, vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as retinopathy in paediatric age groups has been rarely reported in the medical literature. We herein present the case of an adolescent male with pancytopenia and retinopathy, secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency-associated H. pylori infection. PMID:24719649

Anitha, Palaniyandi; Sasitharan, Rajendraprasad; Thambarasi, Thalavaisundaram; Krithika, Prabaharan; Mohan, Madhuvanthi; Venkataraman, Paramasivam; James, Saji; Vinoth, Ponnurangam Nagarajan

2014-01-01

21

Vitamin B12 deficiency with combined hematological and neuropsychiatric derangements: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Although vitamin B12 deficiency is a well-known cause of hematological and neuropsychiatric illness, the presentation of combined severe pancytopenia, demyelination and prominent psychiatric impairment is rare. Case presentation We present a case of a previously healthy 55-year-old East African man with severe vitamin B12 deficiency (serum vitamin B12 22pmol/L) secondary to pernicious anemia. He had a severe hypoproliferative megaloblastic anemia with hemolysis (hemoglobin 61g/L, mean corpuscular volume 99fL, reticulocytes 0.8%, haptoglobin undetectable), leukopenia (2.7109/L), thrombocytopenia (96109/L), ataxia with central demyelination, and megaloblastic madness. The patients anemia, myelopathy and psychiatric condition responded well to parenteral vitamin B12 replacement therapy, with significant improvement seen within weeks. Conclusion Hematological manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency are typically inversely correlated with the presence and severity of neuropsychiatric impairment. Although uncommon, a presentation with severe hematological and neuropsychiatric disease can occur, as illustrated by this case. Its presence may help guide diagnosis as well as provide clinically important prognostic information. PMID:25128288

2014-01-01

22

West Syndrome in an Infant with Vitamin B[subscript 12] Deficiency in the Absence of Macrocytic Anaemia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vitamin B[subscript 12] deficiency in infants often produces haematological and neurological deficits, including macrocytic anaemia, neurodevelopmental delay or regression, irritability, weakness, hypotonia, ataxia, apathy, tremor, and seizures. The diagnosis of vitamin B[subscript 12] deficiency can be difficult when the typical macrocytic

Erol, Ilknur; Alehan, Fusun; Gumus, Ayten

2007-01-01

23

Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Hyperhomocysteinemia Are Partly Ameliorated by Cobalt and Nickel Supplementation in Pigs1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitamin B-12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia alter the metabolism of trace elements. This study tested the hypothesis that there is a reverse relationship in which diets high in iron, copper, nickel and cobalt would influence vitamin B-12 deficiency outcomes including hyperhomocysteinemia. Piglets (German Landrace x Pietrain) were assigned to six groups of 8 and fed one of the following diets for

G. I. Stangl; D. A. Roth-Maier; M. Kirchgessner

24

Vitamin B12 deficiency with intrinsic factor antibodies in an infant with poor growth and developmental delay.  

PubMed

Vitamin B12 deficiency is very rare in infants and may lead to serious hematological and neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The present article describes a case involving a seven-month-old boy with severe vitamin B12 deficiency, likely caused by juvenile pernicious anemia, an entity rarely described. The child presented with feeding intolerance, poor growth and developmental delay. He was noted to have macrocytic anemia, a markedly low serum vitamin B12 level, and elevated homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels. Antibodies to intrinsic factor were positive. The mother was healthy, with normal vitamin B12 status. Therapy with vitamin B12 supplements led to excellent recovery of symptoms. Vitamin B12 deficiency should be considered in children presenting with failure to thrive, especially when compounded with neurological symptoms. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment is essential to avoid serious complications. PMID:24596481

McNeil, Kathleen; Chowdhury, Dhiman; Penney, Lynette; Rashid, Mohsin

2014-02-01

25

Vitamin B12  

MedlinePLUS

... B12 is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in various vitamin B complex products. ... food and supplements, along with taking folic acid, thiamine, and riboflavin, might help to prevent cervical cancer. ...

26

Lessons to be learned: a case study approach. Vitamin B12 deficiency of nutritional origin.  

PubMed

The case is presented of a 14 year old boy who developed severe anaemia at the onset of puberty caused by nutritional deficiency of vitamin B12 of about 10 years duration. The dietary intake comprised mainly chips, ice-cream, fruit and Coca-Cola--with small amounts of vitamin B12 from occasional slices of chicken meat. His denial of abnormal nutritional intake, supported by his mother, delayed confirmation of the correct diagnosis. However, the true situation was eventually confessed--and following implementation of a normal diet he rapidly improved clinically, the haemoglobin value rose to normal and he subsequently remained well. PMID:9519663

Donaldson, D

1997-10-01

27

The effect of cobalt supplementation on the immune response in vitamin B 12 deficient Texel lambs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of cobalt supplementation on the immune reactivity in vitamin B12 deficient lambs was measured by comparing the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against bovine herpes virus type 1 and Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. In addition, faecal egg counts were performed after natural infection with gastrointestinal nematodes.The experiments were performed with registered Texel twin lambs of the same sex. One lamb

P. Vellema; V. P. M. G. Rutten; A. Hoek; L. Moll; G. H. Wentink

1996-01-01

28

Recreational Nitrous Oxide Abuse-Induced Vitamin B12 Deficiency in a Patient Presenting with Hyperpigmentation of the Skin  

PubMed Central

Vitamin B12 deficiency causes skin hyperpigmentation, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, and megaloblastic anemia. Although vitamin B12 deficiency rarely occurs in well-nourished, healthy, young people, nitrous oxide (N2O) intoxication is an important cause of vitamin B12 deficiency in this cohort. N2O, a colorless gas used as an anesthetic since the late 19th century because of its euphoric and analgesic qualities, is now used as a recreational drug and is available via the Internet and at clubs. Here, we describe the case of a 29-year-old woman presenting with skin hyperpigmentation as her only initial symptom after N2O abuse for approximately 2 years. N2O intoxication-induced vitamin B12 deficiency was diagnosed based on the skin pigmentation that had manifested over the dorsa of her fingers, toes, and trunk, coupled with myeloneuropathy of the posterior and lateral columns, a low serum vitamin B12 level, an elevated serum homocysteine level, and the N2O exposure revealed while establishing the patient's history. Symptoms improved significantly with vitamin B12 treatment. We recommend that dermatologists consider N2O intoxication-induced vitamin B12 deficiency as a potential cause of skin hyperpigmentation and myeloneuropathy of the posterior and lateral columns in young, otherwise healthy patients. Failure to recognize this presentation may result in inappropriate treatment, thus affecting patients clinical outcomes. PMID:23898268

Chiang, Tsung-Ta; Hung, Chih-Tsung; Wang, Wei-Ming; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Yang, Fu-Chi

2013-01-01

29

Vitamin B-12  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vitamin B-12 is a cofactor for 2 enzymes. In the cytoplasm, methionine synthase requires vitamin B-12 in the form of methylcobalamin and catalyzes the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate.This enzyme links the methylation pathway through ...

30

The Chilean flour folic acid fortification program reduces serum homocysteine levels and masks vitamin B-12 deficiency in elderly people.  

PubMed

Hyperhomocysteinemia is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is prevalent in the elderly. Supplementation with folic acid, vitamin B-6 and B-12 lowers homocysteine levels. In January 2000, the Chilean government initiated a flour folic acid fortification program to decrease the occurrence of neural tube defects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of this program on serum homocysteine and folate levels in elderly subjects after 6 mo. A total of 108 elderly people were studied. We measured serum folate, homocysteine and vitamin B-12 levels before the fortification started and 6 mo later. At baseline, folate deficiency (<6.8 nmol/L) was present in 1.8%, vitamin B-12 deficiency (<165 pmol/L) in 27.6% and hyperhomocysteinemia (>14 micromol/L) in 31% of the sample. Six months later, serum folate levels increased from 16.2 +/- 6.2 to 32.7 +/- 7.1 nmol/L (P < 0.001), homocysteine levels decreased from 12.95 +/- 3.7 to 11.43 +/- 3.6 micromol/L (P < 0.001) and vitamin B-12 levels were unchanged. Flour fortification with folic acid had a moderate lowering effect on homocysteine levels. Given that vitamin B-12 deficiency was more common than folate deficiency, it may be more appropriate to add vitamin B-12 to food, at least in foods for this age group. PMID:11823592

Hirsch, Sandra; de la Maza, Pa; Barrera, Gladys; Gatts, Vivian; Petermann, Margarita; Bunout, Daniel

2002-02-01

31

The role of metformin on vitamin B12 deficiency: a meta-analysis review.  

PubMed

Metformin is the only biguanide oral hypoglycemic drug, that is used to treat patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. There are some reports of metformin being associated with decreased serum levels of vitamin B12 (VB12). The objective of this study is to systematically analyze the impact of metformin on the frequency of VB12 deficiency and serum levels of VB12. A search of various databases provided 18 retrospective cohort studies and 11 randomized controlled trials. Pooled estimates of odds ratio with 95% confidence interval using random effect model were conducted. Studies were examined for heterogeneity, publication bias and sensitivity analysis. Separate analysis of randomized control trials (RCTs) including both low-risk and high-risk bias was also conducted. 29 studies were selected with a total of 8,089 patients. 19 studies were rated intermediate or high quality. Primary outcome suggested increased incidence of VB12 deficiency in metformin group (OR=2.45, 95% CI 1.74-3.44, P<0.0001.) Heterogeneity was relatively high (I (2)=53%), with minor publication bias. Secondary outcome suggested lower serum VB12 concentrations in metformin group (Mean difference=-65.8, 95% CI -78.1 to -53.6pmol/L, P<0.00001) with high heterogeneity (I (2)=98%,) and low publication bias. RCTs analysis of low-and high-risk group revealed similar trends. We conclude that metformin treatment is significantly associated with an increase in incidence of VB12 deficiency and reduced serum VB12 levels. PMID:25502588

Niafar, Mitra; Hai, Faizi; Porhomayon, Jahan; Nader, Nader Djalal

2015-02-01

32

Vitamin B12 and Cognitive Function  

PubMed Central

Background More than 2.9 million serum vitamin B12 tests were performed in 2010 in Ontario at a cost of $40 million. Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with a few neurocognitive disorders. Objective To determine the clinical utility of B12 testing in patients with suspected dementia or cognitive decline. Methods Three questions were addressed: Is there an association between vitamin B12 deficiency and the onset of dementia or cognitive decline? Does treatment with vitamin B12 supplementation improve cognitive function in patients with dementia or cognitive decline and vitamin B12 deficiency? What is the effectiveness of oral versus parenteral vitamin B12 supplementation in those with confirmed vitamin B12 deficiency? A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Embase, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database, from January 2002 until August 2012. Results Eighteen studies (7 systematic reviews and 11 observational studies) were identified to address the question of the association between B12 and the onset of dementia. Four systematic reviews were identified to address the question of the treatment of B12 on cognitive function. Finally, 3 randomized controlled trials were identified that compared oral B12 to intramuscular B12. Conclusions Based on very low quality evidence, there does appear to be an association between elevated plasma homocysteine levels (a by-product of B vitamins) and the onset of dementia. Based on moderate quality evidence, but with less than optimal duration of follow-up, treatment with B12 supplementation does not appreciably change cognitive function. Based on low to moderate quality of evidence, treatment with vitamin B12 and folate in patients with mild cognitive impairment seems to slow the rate of brain atrophy. Based on moderate quality evidence, oral vitamin B12 is as effective as parenteral vitamin B12 in patients with confirmed B12 deficiency. Plain Language Summary Low levels of vitamin B12 have been associated with neurocognitive disorders. This evidence-based analysis assessed the usefulness of serum vitamin B12 testing as it relates to brain function. This review found very low quality evidence that suggests a connection between high plasma homocysteine levels (a by-product of B vitamin metabolism in the body) and the onset of dementia. Moderate quality of evidence indicates treatment with vitamin B12 does not improve brain function. Moderate quality of evidence also indicates treatment using oral vitamin B12 supplements is as effective as injections of vitamin B12. PMID:24379897

2013-01-01

33

Severe vitamin B12 deficiency with pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly and leukoerythroblastosis in two Syrian refugee infants: a challenge to differentiate from acute leukaemia.  

PubMed

Megaloblastic anaemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency is rare in childhood. However, as most cases are due to maternal insufficiency, it is mainly seen in breastfed infants especially when the mother's socioeconomic status is low and the nutrition is not adequate. We present case of two Syrian refugee infants with severe vitamin B12 deficiency with pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly and leukoerythroblastosis. PMID:24599434

Belen, Burcu; Hismi, Burcu Ozturk; Kocak, Ulker

2014-01-01

34

Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids during gestation and lactation to a vitamin B12-deficient or -supplemented diet improves pregnancy outcome and metabolic variables in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Maternal vitamin B12 deficiency leads to an adverse pregnancy outcome and increases the risk for developing diabetes and metabolic syndrome in mothers in later life. Our earlier studies have demonstrated that vitamin B12 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are interlinked in the one carbon cycle. The present study for the first time examines the effect of maternal n-3 PUFA supplementation to vitamin B12 deficient or supplemented diets on pregnancy outcome, fatty-acid status and metabolic variables in Wistar rats. Pregnant dams were assigned to one of the following groups: control, vitamin B12 deficient, vitamin B12 supplemented, vitamin B12 deficient + n-3 PUFA or vitamin B12 supplemented + n-3 PUFA. The amount of vitamin B12 in the supplemented group was 0.50?gkg(-1) diet and n-3 PUFA was alpha linolenic acid (ALA) 1.68, eicosapentaenoic acid 5.64, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 3.15 (g per 100g fatty acids per kg diet). Our findings indicate that maternal vitamin B12 supplementation did not affect the weight gain of dams during pregnancy but reduced litter size and weight and was ameliorated by n-3 PUFA supplementation. Vitamin B12 deficiency or supplementation resulted in a low percentage distribution of plasma arachidonic acid and DHA. n-3 PUFA supplementation to these diets improved the fatty-acid status. Vitamin B12 deficiency resulted in higher homocysteine and insulin levels, which were normalised by supplementation with either vitamin B12 or n-3 PUFA. Our study suggests that maternal vitamin B12 status is critical in determining pregnancy outcome and metabolic variables in dams and that supplementation with n-3 PUFA is beneficial. PMID:24355403

Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Kemse, Nisha; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

2015-01-01

35

Sequential changes in plasma methylmalonic acid and vitamin B12 in sheep eating cobalt-deficient grass.  

PubMed

Methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations are elevated in plasma as a result of vitamin B12 deficiency. This study reports the sequential changes in plasma MMA in lambs maintained on a cobalt-deficient pasture compared with supplemented controls. The results indicate that MMA is elevated in the early stages of deficiency, preceding the onset of loss of production and clinical signs of disease. It remains elevated as long as the lambs are unsupplemented with cobalt (Co). The most striking clinical sign was a loss of body condition as opposed to weight. The defect in the methylmalonyl CoA mutase is obviously an early defect in cobalt deficiency. PMID:2484236

Rice, D A; McLoughlin, M; Blanchflower, W J; McMurray, C H; Goodall, E A

1989-11-01

36

Homocysteine and vitamin B12 status and iron deficiency anemia in female university students from Gaza Strip, Palestine  

PubMed Central

Objective Nutritional deficiencies are very significant to the overall health of humans at all ages and for both genders, yet in infants, children and women of childbearing age these deficiencies can seriously affect growth and development. The present work is aimed to assess homocysteine and vitamin B12 status in females with iron deficiency anemia from the Gaza Strip. Methods Venous blood samples were randomly collected from 240 female university students (1822 years old) and parameters of the complete blood count, serum ferritin, homocysteine and vitamin B12 were measured. Statistical analysis included the t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the IBM SPSS software (version 18). Statistical significance was set for p-values <0.05. Results The results revealed that 20.4% of the students have iron deficiency anemia. The mean serum vitamin B12 level in females with iron deficiency anemia (212.962.8pg/mL) was significantly lower than in normal controls (286.957.1pg/mL) and subjects with microcytic anemia and normal ferritin (256.771.1pg/mL). Significantly higher serum homocysteine levels were reported in the iron deficiency anemia group (27.04.6?mol/L) compared to normal controls (15.52.9?mol/L) and in subjects with microcytic anemia and normal ferritin (18.12.7?mol/L). Statistically significant negative correlations were reported for serum homocysteine with serum ferritin, vitamin B12, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels. Conclusion Important associations were found between serum homocysteine and markers of iron deficiency. Monitoring homocysteine levels might be essential to understand the development of different clinical conditions including anemia. It seems necessary to conduct prospective trials to determine whether treating anemia ameliorates homocysteine levels. PMID:25031061

Sirdah, Mahmoud Mohammed; Yassin, Maged M.; El Shekhi, Sabreen; Lubbad, Abdel Monem

2014-01-01

37

Mood disorder with mixed, psychotic features due to vitamin b12 deficiency in an adolescent: case report  

PubMed Central

Vitamin B12 is one of the essential vitamins affecting various systems of the body. Reports of psychiatric disorders due to its deficiency mostly focus on middle aged and elderly patients. Here we report a case of vitamin B 12 deficiency in a 16-year old, male adolescent who presented with mixed mood disorder symptoms with psychotic features. Chief complaints were irritability, regressive behavior, apathy, crying and truancy which lasted for a year. Premorbid personality was unremarkable with no substance use/exposure or infections. No stressors were present. The patient was not vegetarian. Past medical history and family history was normal. Neurological examination revealed glossitis, ataxia, rigidity in both shoulders, cog-wheel rigidity in the left elbow, bilateral problems of coordination in cerebellar examination, reduced swinging of the arms and masked face. Rombergs sign was present. Laboratory evaluations were normal. Endoscopy and biopsy revealed atrophy of the gastric mucosa with Helicobacter Pylori colonization. Schilling test was suggestive of malabsorbtion. He was diagnosed with Mood disorder with Mixed, Psychotic Features due to Vitamin B12 Deficiency and risperidone 0.5?mg/day and intramuscular vitamin B12 500 mcg/day were started along with referral for treatment of Helicobacter pylori. A visit on the second week revealed no psychotic features. Rombergs sign was negative and cerebellar tests were normal. Extrapyramidal symptoms were reduced while Vitamin B12 levels were elevated. Risperidone was stopped and parenteral Vitamin B12 treatment was continued with monthly injections for 3?months. Follow-up endoscopy and biopsy at the first month demonstrated eradication of H. pylori. He was followed monthly for another 6?months and psychiatric symptoms did not recur at the time of last evaluation. Despite limitations, this case may underline the observation that mood disorders with psychotic features especially with accompanying extrapyramidal symptoms lacking a clear etiology may be rare manifestation of vitamin B12 and/or folate deficiency in children and adolescents and be potentially amenable to treatment. PMID:22726236

2012-01-01

38

Plasma folate, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and risk of breast cancer in women  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: B vitamins such as folate, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 are coenzymes that are important for DNA integrity and stability. Deficiency in these B vitamins may promote tumor carcinogenesis. Objective: We prospectively evaluated plasma concentrations of folate, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP; ...

39

Response to Quinlivan: Post-fortification, folate intake in vitamin B12 deficiency is positively related to homocysteine and methylmalonic acid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

With cross-sectional data, causes and effects are difficult to distinguish, and Quinlivan suggests that high circulating concentrations of homcysteine (Hcy), methylmalonic acid (MMA), and folate observed among vitamin B12-deficient survey participants all resulted from a lack of vitamin B12 (1). How...

40

Vitamin B12 benefits (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Vitamin B12 is important for metabolism. Metabolism within the body includes the processes of energy generation and use; including nutrition, digestion, absorption, elimination, respiration, circulation, and temperature ...

41

Hypomethylation of Serum Blood Clot DNA, but Not Plasma EDTA-Blood Cell Pellet DNA, from Vitamin B12-Deficient Subjects  

PubMed Central

Vitamin B12, a co-factor in methyl-group transfer, is important in maintaining DNA (deoxycytidine) methylation. Using two independent assays we examined the effect of vitamin B12-deficiency (plasma vitamin B12<148 pmol/L) on DNA methylation in women of childbearing age. Coagulated blood clot DNA from vitamin B12-deficient women had significantly (p<0.001) lower percentage deoxycytidine methylation (3.230.66%; n?=?248) and greater [3 H]methyl-acceptance (42,8599,699 cpm; n?=?17) than DNA from B12-replete women (4.440.18%; n?=?128 and 26,0492,814 cpm; n?=?11) [correlation between assays: r?=?0.8538; p<0.001; n?=?28]. In contrast, uncoagulated EDTA-blood cell pellet DNA from vitamin B12-deficient and B12-replete women exhibited similar percentage methylation (4.450.15%; n?=?77 vs. 4.470.15%; n?=?47) and [3 H]methyl-acceptance (27,3784,094 cpm; n?=?17 vs. 26,6102,292 cpm; n?=?11). Therefore, in simultaneously collected paired blood samples, vitamin B12-deficiency was associated with decreased DNA methylation only in coagulated samples. These findings highlight the importance of sample collection methods in epigenetic studies, and the potential impact biological processes can have on DNA methylation during collection. PMID:23785415

Zhu, Jiang-Hui; Maneval, David R.; Hao, Ling; Li, Zhu; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Berry, R. J.; Bailey, Lynn B.

2013-01-01

42

Hypomethylation of serum blood clot DNA, but not plasma EDTA-blood cell pellet DNA, from vitamin B12-deficient subjects.  

PubMed

Vitamin B12, a co-factor in methyl-group transfer, is important in maintaining DNA (deoxycytidine) methylation. Using two independent assays we examined the effect of vitamin B12-deficiency (plasma vitamin B12<148 pmol/L) on DNA methylation in women of childbearing age. Coagulated blood clot DNA from vitamin B12-deficient women had significantly (p<0.001) lower percentage deoxycytidine methylation (3.230.66%; n?=?248) and greater [3 H]methyl-acceptance (42,8599,699 cpm; n?=?17) than DNA from B12-replete women (4.440.18%; n?=?128 and 26,0492,814 cpm; n?=?11) [correlation between assays: r?=?-0.8538; p<0.001; n?=?28]. In contrast, uncoagulated EDTA-blood cell pellet DNA from vitamin B12-deficient and B12-replete women exhibited similar percentage methylation (4.450.15%; n?=?77 vs. 4.470.15%; n?=?47) and [3 H]methyl-acceptance (27,3784,094 cpm; n?=?17 vs. 26,6102,292 cpm; n?=?11). Therefore, in simultaneously collected paired blood samples, vitamin B12-deficiency was associated with decreased DNA methylation only in coagulated samples. These findings highlight the importance of sample collection methods in epigenetic studies, and the potential impact biological processes can have on DNA methylation during collection. PMID:23785415

Quinlivan, Eoin P; Crider, Krista S; Zhu, Jiang-Hui; Maneval, David R; Hao, Ling; Li, Zhu; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Berry, R J; Bailey, Lynn B

2013-01-01

43

Neurologic aspects of cobalamin (B12) deficiency.  

PubMed

Optimal functioning of the central and peripheral nervous system is dependent on a constant supply of appropriate nutrients. Particularly important for optimal functioning of the nervous system is cobalamin (vitamin B12). Cobalamin deficiency is particularly common in the elderly and after gastric surgery. Many patients with clinically expressed cobalamin deficiency have intrinsic factor-related malabsorption such as that seen in pernicious anemia. The commonly recognized neurological manifestations of cobalamin deficiency include a myelopathy with or without an associated neuropathy. This review deals with neurological aspects of vitamin B12 deficiency and attempts to highlight recent developments. PMID:24365360

Kumar, Neeraj

2014-01-01

44

B-vitamin deficiency in hospitalized patients with heart failure.  

PubMed

The impact of heart failure and its treatment on specific nutrient requirements is unknown. Furthermore, depletion of water-soluble B vitamins that play key roles in the production of cellular energy in patients with heart failure can contribute to depletion of energy reserves observed in the failing heart. A cross-sectional study recently reported that approximately one third of hospitalized patients with heart failure had tissue levels suggestive of thiamin deficiency (vitamin B-1). Riboflavin (vitamin B-2) and pyridoxine (vitamin B-6) are similar to thiamin in that they are water-soluble, subject to renal excretion, have limited tissue storage, and are dependent on intake. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the status of these B vitamins may also be adversely affected by heart failure. As a result, the prevalence of patients at risk of vitamin B-2 (erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient > or = 1.2) and B-6 deficiency (plasma B-6 < or = 20 nmol/L) was determined in a cross-section of 100 patients hospitalized with heart failure between April 2001 and June 2002 as well as in a group of volunteers without heart failure. Twenty-seven percent of patients with heart failure had biochemical evidence of vitamin B-2 deficiency, while 38% had evidence of B-6 deficiency. These prevalence rates were significantly higher than those observed in the volunteers without heart failure (2% and 19%, respectively; P < or = 0.02). Use of common B-vitamin-containing supplements by patients with heart failure did not significantly reduce deficiency rates in comparison with those who did not use supplements (B-2 P=0.38 or B-6 P=0.18)). Finally, while 80% of patients with heart failure took diuretics, neither the dose nor the duration of furosemide use was related to the presence of either B-2 or B-6 deficiency. Given the physiologic importance of these vitamins, further investigations aimed at determining the effect of heart failure on specific nutrient requirements as well as the safety and efficacy of B-vitamin supplementation are warranted. PMID:19631047

Keith, Mary E; Walsh, Natalie A; Darling, Pauline B; Hanninen, Stacy A; Thirugnanam, Subarna; Leong-Poi, Howard; Barr, Aiala; Sole, Michael J

2009-08-01

45

Higher prevalence of metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency in sulfonylurea combination compared with insulin combination in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Long-term and high-dose treatment with metformin is known to be associated with vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether the prevalence of B12 deficiency was different in patients treated with different combination of hypoglycemic agents with metformin during the same time period. A total of 394 patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin and sulfonylurea (S+M group, n?=?299) or metformin and insulin (I+M group, n?=?95) were consecutively recruited. The vitamin B12 and folate levels were quantified using the chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. Vitamin B12 deficiency was defined as vitamin B12?300 pg/mL without folate deficiency (folate>4 ng/mL). The mean age of and duration of diabetes in the subjects were 59.410.5 years and 12.26.7 years, respectively. The mean vitamin B12 level of the total population was 638.0279.6 pg/mL. The mean serum B12 levels were significantly lower in the S+M group compared with the I+M group (600.0266.5 vs. 757.7287.6 pg/mL, P<0.001). The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in the metformin-treated patients was significantly higher in the S+M group compared with the I+M group (17.4% vs. 4.2%, P?=?0.001). After adjustment for various factors, such as age, sex, diabetic duration, duration or daily dose of metformin, diabetic complications, and presence of anemia, sulfonylurea use was a significant independent risk factor for B12 deficiency (OR?=?4.74, 95% CI 1.41-15.99, P?=?0.012). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that patients with type 2 diabetes who were treated with metformin combined with sulfonylurea require clinical attention for vitamin B12 deficiency and regular monitoring of their vitamin B12 levels. PMID:25299054

Kang, Donghoon; Yun, Jae-Seung; Ko, Sun-Hye; Lim, Tae-Seok; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Park, Yong-Moon; Ko, Seung-Hyun

2014-01-01

46

Penicillin and Vitamin B12  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The WebWare Molecules for July are mentioned in the article "The History of Molecular Structure Determination Viewed through the Nobel Prizes", by Jensen, Palenik, and Suh. One of the recipients discussed, Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin, won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in part for determining the structures of penicillin and vitamin B12.

47

The discovery of vitamin B(12).  

PubMed

The discovery of vitamin B(12), the elucidation of its role in metabolism, and the effects and treatment of its deficiency occurred in distinct phases over more than 100 years, and it was the subject of two separate Nobel Prizes. The valuable contribution of clinical reports and studies of patients with pernicious anemia throughout the 19th century resulted in enough clinical definition to allow Minot and Murphy to put together the first hallmark study on treatment of the condition, leading them to a Nobel Prize. These researchers were not the first to suggest that an inadequacy of nutrients was the cause of pernicious anemia, but their particular input was a carefully designed intervention in well-characterized pernicious anemia patients, of a special diet containing large amounts of liver. They found consistent improvement in the clinical and blood status of all subjects, most of whom remained on remission indefinitely. After the successful intervention studies, the next advance was made by Castle who discovered that a gastric component, which he called intrinsic factor, was missing in pernicious anemia. Many years later, intrinsic factor was found to be a glycoprotein that formed a complex with vitamin B(12), promoting its absorption through ileal receptors. The vitamin was isolated by two groups simultaneously and was crystallized and characterized in the laboratory of Dorothy Hodgkin, contributing to her Nobel Prize in 1964. Subsequently, the various biochemical roles of vitamin B(12) were elucidated, including its important interaction with folate and their common link with megaloblastic anemia. Many of the early clinical studies recognized that vitamin B(12) deficiency also caused a severe neuropathy leading to paralysis and death, while post mortem analysis demonstrated spinal cord demyelination. Vitamin B(12) is still the subject of intense research and, in particular, its role in preventing these irreversible neurological lesions remains unclear. PMID:23183296

Scott, John M; Molloy, Anne M

2012-01-01

48

Vegan diet, subnormal vitamin B-12 status and cardiovascular health.  

PubMed

Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products). Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians in Australia, Germany, Italy and Austria, and in vegans (80%) in Hong Kong and India, where vegans rarely take vitamin B-12 fortified food or vitamin B-12 supplements. Similar deficiencies exist in northern Chinese rural communities consuming inadequate meat, egg or dairy products due to poverty or dietary habits. Vascular studies have demonstrated impaired arterial endothelial function and increased carotid intima-media thickness as atherosclerosis surrogates in such metabolic vitamin B-12 deficient populations, but not in lactovegetarians in China. Vitamin B-12 supplementation has a favourable impact on these vascular surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China. Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 status is thus potentially beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency in vegans, and possibly for prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases. PMID:25195560

Woo, Kam S; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Celermajer, David S

2014-08-01

49

Considering the case for vitamin B12 fortification of flour  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reasons to fortify flour with vitamin B12 are considered, which include the high prevalence of depletion and deficiency of this vitamin that occurs in persons of all ages in resource-poor countries and in elderly in wealthier countries, as well as the adverse functional consequences of poor vitamin ...

50

Modern Society and Prospects of Low Vitamin B12 Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Vitamin B12 deficiency can occur in individuals with dietary patterns that exclude animal foods and patients who are unable to absorb vitamin B12 in food. Material and Method: Our clinic serves a high-income population living in Southern Israel. We hypothesize that a tendency to decrease of level of vitamin B12 in our population is caused by a premeditated decrease

Ilia Volkov; Inna Rudoy; Mochamed Machagna; Inna Glezer; Uri Ganel; Anna Orenshtein

2007-01-01

51

The influence of cobalt/vitamin B12 deficiency as a stressor affecting adrenal cortex  

E-print Network

measurement and the pituitary gland and corpus luteum for LH and progesterone determinations, respectively corticosteroids were persistently high in cobalt-deficient goats as compared to the controls, and pituitary LH to irregular cycles, the action site being located in the hypothalamo-pituitary axis. Introduction. The effects

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

52

Vitamin B12-Containing Plant Food Sources for Vegetarians  

PubMed Central

The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori) is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups. PMID:24803097

Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Bito, Tomohiro; Teng, Fei

2014-01-01

53

Skin and mucosal manifestations in vitamin deficiency.  

PubMed

The skin and mucosal changes in vitamin deficiency are described. Pellagra, which is the oldest known cutaneous manifestation among vitamin deficiencies, is reviewed. Cutaneous alterations caused by deficiency of the water-soluble vitamins B6, C, B1 and biotin, B12, folic acid, and riboflavin result in more mucosal alterations and are discussed. Alterations caused by fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies (vitamins A and K) are also considered. PMID:2948974

Barthelemy, H; Chouvet, B; Cambazard, F

1986-12-01

54

Changes in serum concentrations of methylmalonic acid and vitamin B12 in cobalt-supplemented ewes and their lambs on two cobalt-deficient properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To determine concurrent changes in serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) and vitamin B12 concentrations of ewes and their lambs on cobalt-deficient properties, subsequent to cobalt supplementation.METHODS: Three experiments were carried out on two farms. Groups of ewes (n=25?50) were either supplemented with cobalt bullets during late pregnancy, 2347 days before the mean lambing date, or left unsupplemented. In two experiments,

TM Gruner; JR Sedcole; JM Furlong; ND Grace; SD Williams; G Sinclair; AR Sykes

2004-01-01

55

Genome-wide Association Study of Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Folate,  

E-print Network

REPORT Genome-wide Association Study of Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Folate, and Homocysteine Blood Schlessinger,12 Manuela Uda,6 and Luigi Ferrucci2 The B vitamins are components of one-carbon metabolism (OCM circulating vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine, a genome-wide association analysis was conducted

Abecasis, Goncalo

56

Vitamin B12 replacement. To B12 or not to B12?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence for an expanded approach to identifying and treating patients with cobalamin deficiency. Controversy surrounds this issue. Some authors claim that seven times more patients are treated than have true deficiency. New diagnostic tests and identification of patients who have neurologic consequences without hematologic abnormalities suggest that some of these patients have a vitamin B12 tissue deficiency. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search of English-language literature from 1990 to 1995 revealed retrospective and prospective studies of diagnostic tests; prospective surveys; a cohort study; and retrospective and prospective case series, some with control groups. No double-blind controlled trials of treatment were found. MAIN FINDINGS: Some patients with neuropsychiatric abnormalities develop a cobalamin tissue deficiency that can be detected by elevated serum homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels despite normal serum vitamin B12 levels without macrocytic anemia. Serum cobalamin testing is neither sensitive nor specific in the low normal range for cobalamin deficiency. Treatment recommendations vary because no controlled trials support any recommendations. Oral cobalamin is an underused alternative to parenteral treatment. CONCLUSION: Until the newer diagnostic tests become widely available, family physicians must continue to take a traditional approach to diagnosing vitamin B12 deficiency. There is, however, support for a clinical trial of treatment in patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms. PMID:9154363

Delva, M. D.

1997-01-01

57

Vitamin Deficiencies and Your Mouth  

MedlinePLUS

... that might affect your mouth and teeth. Vitamin B Vitamin B deficiencies are one of the most common ... and may break apart easily and slough off. B-vitamin deficiencies also can lead to anemia (too few ...

58

Breast milk vitamin B-12 concentrations of Guatemalan women are correlated with maternal but not infant vitamin B12 status at 12 months postpartum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In our previous studies one third of lactating Guatemalan women, infants and children had deficient or marginal serum vitamin B-12 concentrations. Relationships among maternal and infant status and breast milk vitamin B-12, however, have not been investigated in such populations. Our purpose was to ...

59

Assay for vitamin B12 absorption and method of making labeled vitamin B12  

DOEpatents

The invention provides methods for labeling vitamin B12 with .sup.14C, .sup.13C, tritium, and deuterium. When radioisotopes are used, the invention provides for methods of labeling B12 with high specific activity. The invention also provides labeled vitamin B12 compositions made in accordance with the invention.

Anderson, Peter J. (Davis, CA); Dueker, Stephen (Davis, CA); Miller, Joshua (Davis, CA); Green, Ralph (Elmacero, CA); Roth, John (Davis, CA); Carkeet, Colleen (Silver Spring, MD); Buchholz,; Bruce A. (Orinda, CA)

2012-06-19

60

Molecular Structure of Vitamin B12  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) has many uses as a nutritional supplement in both humans and livestock. It is used in humans to treat pernicious anemia, hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver, and to help maintain the body's metabolism. In its long-effect form (hydroxocobalamin), vitamin B12 is used to treat anemia, growth impediment, improvement in the function of the heart, liver, kidneys and nerves, and general strengthening of the body. In livestock, it is used to improve feed production.

2002-08-13

61

High-dose compared with low-dose vitamin B-12 supplement use is not associated with higher vitamin B-12 status in children, adolescents, and older adults.  

PubMed

Over-the-counter vitamin supplements on the Canadian market are permitted to contain a daily vitamin B-12 dose of up to 1000 ?g. Our objective was to determine the association between total daily vitamin B-12 supplement dose and markers of vitamin B-12 status in Canadians. Blood collected from a nationally representative sample aged 6-79 y (n = ?5600) in the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007-2009) was analyzed for serum vitamin B-12 and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy). Total daily intake of vitamin B-12 from single and multivitamin supplements was calculated. Individuals that indicated proton pump inhibitor or vitamin B-12 injection treatment were excluded from the supplement dose and tHcy analyses; folate-deficient individuals were also excluded from the tHcy analysis. Twenty-three percent of children, 12.3% of adolescents, and 25.5% of adults consumed a vitamin B-12-containing supplement. Supplement users had 33% higher serum vitamin B-12 and 4.2% higher prevalence of adequacy than did non-supplement users. Children and adolescents consuming >10 ?g/d supplemental vitamin B-12 did not demonstrate higher serum vitamin B-12, higher prevalence of serum vitamin B-12 adequacy, or lower tHcy than did those consuming >0-10 ?g/d. The association between serum vitamin B-12 reached a plateau at doses of >25 and >10-25 ?g/d in adults aged 46-59 and 60-79 y, respectively. The prevalences of serum vitamin B-12 adequacy and normal tHcy, and tHcy did not differ by vitamin B-12 supplement dose in adults >45 y. In this cross-sectional study, vitamin B-12 supplement doses >10-25 ?g/d were not associated with higher vitamin B-12 status in children, adolescents, or older adults compared with lower doses. PMID:24699807

MacFarlane, Amanda J; Shi, Yipu; Greene-Finestone, Linda S

2014-06-01

62

A vitamin B-12 supplement of 500 ?g/d for eight weeks does not normalize urinary methylmalonic acid or other biomarkers of vitamin B-12 status in elderly people with moderately poor vitamin B-12 status.  

PubMed

Plasma vitamin B-12 is the most commonly used biomarker of vitamin B-12 status, but the predictive value for low vitamin B-12 status is poor. The urinary methylmalonic acid (uMMA) concentration has potential as a functional biomarker of vitamin B-12 status, but the response to supplemental vitamin B-12 is uncertain. A study was conducted to investigate the responsiveness of uMMA to supplemental vitamin B-12 in comparison with other biomarkers of vitamin B-12 status [plasma vitamin B-12, serum holotranscobalamin (holoTC), plasma MMA] in elderly people with moderately poor vitamin B-12 status. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized 8-wk intervention study was carried out using vitamin B-12 supplements (500 ?g/d, 100 ?g/d, and 10 ?g/d cyanocobalamin) in 100 elderly people with a combined plasma vitamin B-12 <250 pmol/L and uMMA ratio (?mol MMA/mmol creatinine) >1.5. All biomarkers had a dose response to supplemental vitamin B-12. Improvements in plasma vitamin B-12 and serum holoTC were achieved at cobalamin supplements of 10 ?g/d, but even 500 ?g/d for 8 wk did not normalize plasma vitamin B-12 in 8% and serum holoTC in 12% of people. The response in uMMA was comparable with plasma MMA; 15-25% of people still showed evidence of metabolic deficiency after 500 ?g/d cobalamin for 8 wk. There was a differential response in urinary and plasma MMA according to smoking behavior; the response was enhanced in ex-smokers compared with never-smokers. uMMA offers an alternative marker of metabolic vitamin-B12 status, obviating the need for blood sampling. PMID:23236022

Hill, Marilyn H; Flatley, Janet E; Barker, Margo E; Garner, Clare M; Manning, Nigel J; Olpin, Simon E; Moat, Stuart J; Russell, Jean; Powers, Hilary J

2013-02-01

63

Vitamin B6  

MedlinePLUS

... only vitamin B6, or vitamin B6 with other B vitamins, are also available. Am I getting enough vitamin ... Heart disease Some scientists had thought that certain B vitamins (such as folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin ...

64

A review of vitamin B12 in dermatology.  

PubMed

Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is important in the hematological and nervous systems, and it has a complex relationship with the skin. Altered cobalamin levels can lead to dermatological manifestations, which may indicate a deficiency or excess of this vitamin. The biochemistry and metabolism of cobalamin is complex, and diseases can be associated with alterations of this metabolic pathway. The cutaneous manifestations of cobalamin deficiency include hyperpigmentation (most commonly); hair and nail changes; and oral changes, including glossitis. Additionally, several dermatologic conditions, including vitiligo, aphthous stomatitis, atopic dermatitis, and acne are related to cobalamin excess or deficiency. The cutaneous complications of cobalamin therapy include acne, rosacea, and allergic site reactions, or anaphylaxis with cobalamin injections. As cobalt is a component of cobalamin, patients with cobalt sensitivity have been reported to have cutaneous manifestations when receiving cobalamin replacement therapy. PMID:25559140

Brescoll, Jennifer; Daveluy, Steven

2015-02-01

65

Involuntary movements misdiagnosed as seizure during vitamin B12 treatment.  

PubMed

Seizures and epilepsy are a common problem in childhood. Nonepileptic paroxysmal events are conditions that can mimic seizure and frequent in early childhood. Nonepileptic paroxysmal events can be due to physiological or exaggerated physiological responses, parasomnias, movement disorders, behavioral or psychiatric disturbances, or to hemodynamic, respiratory, or gastrointestinal dysfunction. Vitamin B12 deficiency is a treatable cause of failure to thrive and developmental regression, involuntary movements, and anemia. Involuntary movements rarely may appear a few days after the initiation of vitamin B12 treatments and might be misdiagnosed as seizure. Here, we report 2 patients who presented with involuntary movements with his video image. PMID:24196096

Carman, Kursat Bora; Belgemen, Tugba; Yis, Uluc

2013-11-01

66

Vitamin B12-induced acneiform eruption.  

PubMed

Drug-induced acne is a specific subset of acne that usually has some specific features, namely monomorphic pattern, unusual location of the lesions beyond the seborrheic areas, uncommon age of onset, a resistance to conventional acne treatment. Several drugs have been associated with the development of eruptions that may simulate acne vulgaris. However, so far, there are a few cases of vitamin B12-induced acne. We report a case of acneiform eruption induced by vitamin B12 injection in a 37-year-old female patient. PMID:23815241

Balta, Ilknur; Ozuguz, Pinar

2014-06-01

67

Vitamin B12 derivatives for orthogonal functionalization.  

PubMed

The synthesis of vitamin B12 derivatives for selective orthogonal conjugation at both the Co center and 5'-OH is reported. Newly developed, reduction-free, direct alkynylation of vitamin B12 at the central cobalt ion proved to be versatile, with the formed acetylides, unlike other metalloorganic derivatives, showing remarkable heat and light stability, thus making them promising candidates as a drug carrier. Subsequently, high-yielding functionalization can be achieved via a sequence of selective [1,3] dipolar azide-alkyne cycloadditions (AACs) or carbamate formation followed by AAC. PMID:25046078

Chromi?ski, Miko?aj; Lewalska, Agnieszka; Karczewski, Maksymilian; Gryko, Dorota

2014-08-15

68

INTAKES OF ADDED VITAMINS - FOLATE, VITAMIN B12, AND VITAMIN E  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As foods in the marketplace continue to be fortified with nutrients, it necessitates separation of added forms of some vitamins from natural forms. The USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) now includes added forms of folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin E. Folic acid, the added fo...

69

Combined dietary folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 intake influences plasma docosahexaenoic acid concentration in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 are essential nutritional components in one-carbon metabolism and are required for methylation capacity. The availability of these vitamins may therefore modify methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) to phosphatidylcholine (PC) by PE-N-methyltransferase (PEMT) in the liver. It has been suggested that PC synthesis by PEMT plays an important role in the transport of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) like docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from the liver to plasma and possibly other tissues. We hypothesized that if B-vitamin supplementation enhances PEMT activity, then supplementation could also increase the concentration of plasma levels of PUFAs such as DHA. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effect of varying the combined dietary intake of these three B-vitamins on plasma DHA concentration in rats. Methods In a first experiment, plasma DHA and plasma homocysteine concentrations were measured in rats that had consumed a B-vitamin-poor diet for 4?weeks after which they were either continued on the B-vitamin-poor diet or switched to a B-vitamin-enriched diet for another 4?weeks. In a second experiment, plasma DHA and plasma homocysteine concentrations were measured in rats after feeding them one of four diets with varying levels of B-vitamins for 4?weeks. The diets provided 0% (poor), 100% (normal), 400% (enriched), and 1600% (high) of the laboratory rodent requirements for each of the three B-vitamins. Results Plasma DHA concentration was higher in rats fed the B-vitamin-enriched diet than in rats that were continued on the B-vitamin-poor diet (P?=?0.005; experiment A). Varying dietary B-vitamin intake from deficient to supra-physiologic resulted in a non-linear dose-dependent trend for increasing plasma DHA (P?=?0.027; experiment B). Plasma DHA was lowest in rats consuming the B-vitamin-poor diet (P?>?0.05 vs. normal, P?B-vitamin-high diet (P??0.05 vs. enriched). B-vitamin deficiency significantly increased plasma total homocysteine but increasing intake above normal did not significantly reduce it. Nevertheless, in both experiments plasma DHA was inversely correlated with plasma total homocysteine. Conclusion These data demonstrate that dietary folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 intake can influence plasma concentration of DHA. PMID:22647268

2012-01-01

70

Development and application of an alpha-face-specific radioimmunoassay for vitamin B12.  

PubMed

The first development of an alpha-face-specific radioimmunoassay for vitamin B12 is described. Sheep, fed a cobalt-deficient diet, and immunized with a conjugate between Co-beta carboxypropyl cobalamin and keyhole limpet hemocyanin, were used to produce antisera. The antisera crossreacted with Co-beta derivatives of vitamin B12, but did not crossreact with the alpha-face vitamin B12 analog cobinamide. The antisera were used to develop a sensitive and reproducible radioimmunoassay that was free from contamination with the nonspecific vitamin B12 binding protein, R-protein. Both the radioimmunoassay and measurements of plasma concentrations of methylmalonic acid were applied to the diagnosis of cobalt/vitamin B12 deficiency in sheep. The assay correlated well with a commercially available radioassay and did not falsely detect normal vitamin B12 concentration in plasma samples containing elevated concentrations of methylmalonic acid. PMID:1280981

Kennedy, D G; Blanchflower, W J; Young, P B; Davidson, W B

1992-11-01

71

The Chilean Flour Folic Acid Fortification Program Reduces Serum Homocysteine Levels and Masks Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Elderly People1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperhomocysteinemia is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is prevalent in the elderly. Supplementation with folic acid, vitamin B-6 and B-12 lowers homocysteine levels. In January 2000, the Chil- ean government initiated a flour folic acid fortification pro- gram to decrease the occurrence of neural tube defects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of

Sandra Hirsch; Pia de la Maza; Gladys Barrera; Vivian Gattas; Margarita Petermann; Daniel Bunout

72

Effect of combined folic acid, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on colorectal adenoma  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Folic acid, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) act in concert in the one-carbon metabolism and may protect against colorectal neoplasia. We examined the effect of combined B-vitamin treatment on the occurrence of colorectal adenoma. The Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study was a rand...

73

Development and application of an ?-face-specific radioimmunoassay for vitamin B 12  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first development of an ?-face-specific radioimmunoassay for vitamin B12 is described. Sheep, fed a cobalt-deficient diet, and immunized with a conjugate between Co-? carboxypropyl cobalamin and\\u000a keyhole limpet hemocyanin, were used to produce antisera. The antisera crossreacted with Co-? derivatives of vitamin B12, but did not crossreact with the ?-face vitamin B12 analog cobinamide. The antisera were used to

D. Glenn Kennedy; W. John Blanchflower; Paul B. Young; W. Brian Davidson

1992-01-01

74

Intestinal Synthesis and Dietary Nonessentiality of Vitamin B12 for Tilapia nilotica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feeding experiment with purified diets was conducted in a controlled environment to study intestinal synthesis and dietary essentiality of vitamin B12 in Tilapia nilotica. Intestinal microorganisms in T. nilotica fed a vitamin B12-deficient diet synthesized at least 11.2 ng of vitamin B12 per g of body weight per day. Removal of cobalt from the diet or supplementation with an

Richard T. Lovell; Tasanee Limsuwan

1982-01-01

75

Sequential changes in propionate metabolism during the development of cobalt\\/vitamin B 12 deficiency in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in propionate metabolism that accompany cobalt deficiency in sheep are described. Two groups of sheep, fed either\\u000a a cobalt sufficient or deficient diet, were given an iv propionate load at intervals during a 14 w experiment. There was a\\u000a tendency towards increased propionate half-life as the animals became cobalt deficient. However, significant changes in the\\u000a area under the

D. Glenn Kennedy; Finbarr P. M. O'Harte; W. John Blanchflower; Desmond A. Rice

1991-01-01

76

Sequential changes in propionate metabolism during the development of cobalt/vitamin B12 deficiency in sheep.  

PubMed

The changes in propionate metabolism that accompany cobalt deficiency in sheep are described. Two groups of sheep, fed either a cobalt sufficient or deficient diet, were given an iv propionate load at intervals during a 14 w experiment. There was a tendency towards increased propionate half-life as the animals became cobalt deficient. However, significant changes in the area under the plasma methylmalonic acid-time curve occurred very early, indicating significant impairment of propionate metabolism. Despite this, the area under the plasma glucose-time curve was unaffected by cobalt deficiency, suggesting that the impairment of propionate metabolism, although significant, is not extensive. PMID:1713046

Kennedy, D G; O'Harte, F P; Blanchflower, W J; Rice, D A

1991-03-01

77

21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B 12..  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin B 12.. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS 184.1945 Vitamin B 12 .. (a) Vitamin B12 , also known as cyanocobalamin (C63...

2013-04-01

78

21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin B12. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS 184.1945 Vitamin B12. (a) Vitamin B12 , also known as cyanocobalamin (C63...

2010-04-01

79

21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin B12 test system. 862.1810 Section...Chemistry Test Systems 862.1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended...

2010-04-01

80

21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin B12 test system. 862.1810 Section...Chemistry Test Systems 862.1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended...

2012-04-01

81

Radiolysis of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B 12)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on the radiolysis of vitamins is of considerable interest since these compounds are important nutritional constituents in foods and in dietetic supplements. In spite of these considerations there are few data and very often difficult to compare for the radiolytic behavior of vitamins. In this work we focused our attention on to the study of the radiolysis of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B 12) in solid state and in aqueous solutions. The procedure was followed by HPLC and UV-spectroscopy. The results obtained in aqueous solutions showed a dependence of the decomposition as a linear function of the dose. The G of decomposition for a 110 -5 M solution was 3.3. In the solid state the vitamin was very stable towards the irradiation in the conditions used in this study with a G=2.110 -3. A study made with Serratia marcescens as a microbiological contaminant showed that at the sterilization dose there is a destruction of the vitamin in aqueous solution. In the solid state the degree of decomposition was 7%.

Juanchi, X.; Albarran, G.; Negron-Mendoza, A.

2000-03-01

82

Metabolic evidence of vitamin B-12 deficiency, including high homocysteine and methylmalonic acid and low holotranscobalamin, is more pronounced in older adults with elevated plasma folate  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: An analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey indicated that in older adults exposed to folic acid fortification, the combination of low serum vitamin B-12 and elevated folate is associated with higher concentrations of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid ...

83

In vitamin B12 deficiency, higher serum folate is assoicated with increased total homocysteine (tHcy) and methlmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In a recent study of older participants (age >/= 60 y) in the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we showed that a combination of high serum folate and low vitamin B-12 status was associated with higher prevalence of cognitive impairment and anemia than other combina...

84

Vitamin B-12 supplementation of rural Mexican women changes biochemical B-12 status indicators but does not affect hematology or a bone turnover marker  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Based on the high prevalence of low serum vitamin B-12 concentrations and low dietary intake of the vitamin in Latin American studies including research in Mexico, it appears that vitamin B-12 deficiency is common. Whether this is associated with adverse effects on human function is unknown. To eval...

85

The effect of vitamin B sub 12 on selenium metabolism in the rat  

SciTech Connect

Since animal methylate selenium (Se) and vitamin B{sub 12} is involved in methylation reactions, weaning rats were fed diets with or without vitamin B{sub 12} to evaluate its effect on Se metabolism. Plasma vitamin B{sub 12} of vitamin B{sub 12} depleted rats were below detection while vitamin B{sub 12} levels in plasma of control rats ranged from 3-6 ng/ml after 4 weeks feeding. After {sup 75}Se-selenite injection, vitamin B{sub 12} depleted rats exhaled 16% of the dose and excreted 22-28% as trimethylselenonium in urine as compared to 45% and 45-54% respectively in control rats. Se methylation experiments with rat liver supernatants from vitamin B{sub 12} depleted rats volatilized only 45% as the control rat liver preparation. When rats were fed various levels of Se as selenite, blood and heart Se levels were higher in vitamin B{sub 12} supplemented rats, but lower in liver, kidney, spleen and testis than the deficient rats. This difference in liver between supplemented and deficient rats became greater with higher dietary levels of Se. It is concluded that vitamin B{sub 12} affects Se metabolism through the methylation of this element.

Chen, C.L.; Whanger, P.D. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (United States))

1991-03-11

86

The Role of the Pancreas in Vitamin B12 Absorption: Studies of Vitamin B12 Absorption in Partially Pancreatectomized Rats  

PubMed Central

The effect of partial pancreatectomy (80-90%) on vitamin B12 absorption was studied in the rat. The absorption of 5 ng of 57Co-labeled vitamin B12 was significantly reduced from 70 2.5% (mean SE) in control and sham-operated rats to 32 2.6% in partially pancreatectomized rats. Hog pancreatic extract (0.17 g/kg) improved vitamin B12 absorption from 30.0 to 61.0% in partially pancreatectomized rats but did not alter vitamin B12 absorption in control rats. Chloramphenicol did not enhance vitamin B12 absorption in partially pancreatectomized rats with pancreatic extract-improved vitamin B12 malabsorption. The partially pancreatectomized rats with pancreatic extract-improved vitamin B12 malabsorption were sacrificed and the stomach and small bowel studied in vitro to further define the pathogenesis of the vitamin B12 malabsorption. Rat gastric intrinsic factor stimulated vitamin B12 uptake by intestinal sacs prepared from partially pancreatectomized rats 3.1-fold. Gastric intrinsic factor prepared from partially pancreatectomized rats was as effective in promoting vitamin B12 uptake by rat intestinal sacs as intrinsic factor prepared from control rats. These data indicate that partially pancreatectomized rats develop an abnormality in the absorption of labeled vitamin B12 which can be corrected by pancreatic extract. The vitamin B12 malabsorption is due to neither an alteration in gastric intrinsic factor activity nor an impairment of the intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 receptor in the intestine. It is suggested that in the partially pancreatectomized rats the intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complex exists in a form which is not available for absorption. PMID:5009110

Toskes, Philip P.; Deren, Julius J.

1972-01-01

87

Biomarkers of vitamin B-12 status in NHANES: a roundtable summary123456  

PubMed Central

A roundtable to discuss the measurement of vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) status biomarkers in NHANES took place in July 2010. NHANES stopped measuring vitamin B-12related biomarkers after 2006. The roundtable reviewed 3 biomarkers of vitamin B-12 status used in past NHANESserum vitamin B-12, methylmalonic acid (MMA), and total homocysteine (tHcy)and discussed the potential utility of measuring holotranscobalamin (holoTC) for future NHANES. The roundtable focused on public health considerations and the quality of the measurement procedures and reference methods and materials that past NHANES used or that are available for future NHANES. Roundtable members supported reinstating vitamin B-12 status measures in NHANES. They noted evolving concerns and uncertainties regarding whether subclinical (mild, asymptomatic) vitamin B-12 deficiency is a public health concern. They identified the need for evidence from clinical trials to address causal relations between subclinical vitamin B-12 deficiency and adverse health outcomes as well as appropriate cutoffs for interpreting vitamin B-12related biomarkers. They agreed that problems with sensitivity and specificity of individual biomarkers underscore the need for including at least one biomarker of circulating vitamin B-12 (serum vitamin B-12 or holoTC) and one functional biomarker (MMA or tHcy) in NHANES. The inclusion of both serum vitamin B-12 and plasma MMA, which have been associated with cognitive dysfunction and anemia in NHANES and in other population-based studies, was preferable to provide continuity with past NHANES. Reliable measurement procedures are available, and National Institute of Standards and Technology reference materials are available or in development for serum vitamin B-12 and MMA. PMID:21593512

Pfeiffer, Christine M; Phinney, Karen W; Bailey, Regan L; Blackmore, Sheena; Bock, Jay L; Brody, Lawrence C; Carmel, Ralph; Curtin, L Randy; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramn A; Eckfeldt, John H; Green, Ralph; Gregory, Jesse F; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Jacobsen, Donald W; Jacques, Paul F; Lacher, David A; Molloy, Anne M; Massaro, Joseph; Mills, James L; Nexo, Ebba; Rader, Jeanne I; Selhub, Jacob; Sempos, Christopher; Shane, Barry; Stabler, Sally; Stover, Patrick; Tamura, Tsunenobu; Tedstone, Alison; Thorpe, Susan J; Johnson, Clifford L; Picciano, Mary Frances

2011-01-01

88

Combined dietary folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 intake influences plasma docosahexaenoic acid concentration in rats  

E-print Network

Background: Folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 are essential nutritional components in one-carbon metabolism and are required for methylation capacity. The availability of these vitamins may therefore modify methylation ...

van Wijk, Nick

89

Intestinal synthesis and absorption of vitamin B-12 in channel catfish  

SciTech Connect

A feeding experiment conducted in a controlled environment and using a vitamin B12-deficient, but otherwise nutritionally complete, purified diet revealed that intestinal microorganisms in channel catfish synthesized approximately 1.4 ng of vitamin B12 per gram of bodyweight per day. Removal of cobalt from the diet or supplementation with an antibiotic (succinylsulfathiazole) significantly reduced the rate of intestinal synthesis and liver stores of vitamin B12. Radiolabeled vitamin B12 in the blood, liver, kidneys, and spleen of fish fed 60Co in the diet indicated that the intestinally synthesized vitamin was absorbed by the fish. The primary route of absorption was directly from the digestive tract into the blood because coprophagy was prevented in the rearing aquariums and the amount of vitamin B12 dissolved in the aquarium water was too low for gill absorption. Dietary supplementation of vitamin B12 was not necessary for normal growth and erythrocyte formation in channel catfish in a 24-week feeding period. A longer period, however, may have caused a vitamin deficiency since liver-stored vitamin B 12 decreased between the 2nd and 24th weeks.

Limsuwan, T.; Lovell, R.T.

1981-12-01

90

Decreased Vitamin B12 Levels in Children with Nocturnal Enuresis  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Nocturnal enuresis is a common pediatric problem, the etiology of which is unclear. In the present study, vitamin B12 and folate levels were measured in children with nocturnal enuresis and compared with those in healthy control group children to investigate whether there was any relation with enuresis and neurogenic maturation as a first time in the literature. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we included thirty children (16 girls, 14 boys) who had presented with primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) complaints in the study group and 31 children (13 girls, 18 boys) in the control group. Body weight and height measurements were obtained and complete blood counts and vitamin B12 and folate levels were measured in all children. Results. No difference was found in age, height, and weight between study and control groups. Also the mean levels of the hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were not different between the two groups. Significantly lower mean vitamin B12 and folate levels were found in the enuresis group compared with the control group. Conclusions. Further studies are needed to clarify B12 and folate deficiency in larger series so that these tests can be included in routine investigations of enuretic children. PMID:22523715

Altunoluk, Blent; Davutoglu, Mehmet; Garipardic, Mesut; Bakan, Vedat

2012-01-01

91

Low Vitamin B12 Levels among Newly-Arrived Refugees from Bhutan, Iran and Afghanistan: A Multicentre Australian Study  

PubMed Central

Background Vitamin B12 deficiency is prevalent in many countries of origin of refugees. Using a threshold of 5% above which a prevalence of low Vitamin B12 is indicative of a population health problem, we hypothesised that Vitamin B12 deficiency exceeds this threshold among newly-arrived refugees resettling in Australia, and is higher among women due to their increased risk of food insecurity. This paper reports Vitamin B12 levels in a large cohort of newly arrived refugees in five Australian states and territories. Methods In a cross-sectional descriptive study, we collected Vitamin B12, folate and haematological indices on all refugees (n?=?916; response rate 94% of eligible population) who had been in Australia for less than one year, and attended one of the collaborating health services between July 2010 and July 2011. Results 16.5% of participants had Vitamin B12 deficiency (<150 pmol/L). One-third of participants from Iran and Bhutan, and one-quarter of participants from Afghanistan had Vitamin B12 deficiency. Contrary to our hypothesis, low Vitamin B12 levels were more prevalent in males than females. A higher prevalence of low Vitamin B12 was also reported in older age groups in some countries. The sensitivity of macrocytosis in detecting Vitamin B12 deficiency was only 4.6%. Conclusion Vitamin B12 deficiency is an important population health issue in newly-arrived refugees from many countries. All newly-arrived refugees should be tested for Vitamin B12 deficiency. Ongoing research should investigate causes, treatment, and ways to mitigate food insecurity, and the contribution of such measures to enhancing the health of the refugee communities. PMID:23469126

Benson, Jill; Phillips, Christine; Kay, Margaret; Webber, Murray T.; Ratcliff, Alison J.; Correa-Velez, Ignacio; Lorimer, Michelle F.

2013-01-01

92

[Anemias due to disorder of folate, vitamin B12 and transcobalamin metabolism].  

PubMed

Macrocytic megaloblastic anemia is the most typical but the latest sign of a cobalamin (vitamin B12) and/or folic acid deficiency or of a congenital abnormality of cobalamin and folate metabolism. Macrocytosis in blood and megaloblastosis in bone marrow are the morphological features of a disturbance in cell division related to a defect in DNA biosynthesis. Macrocytosis without anemia, normocytic normochronic anemia with a low reticulocyte cell count or microcytic hypochromic anemia in case of associated iron deficiency do not exclude a vitamin deficiency. Neurological or psychiatric disorders and immune abnormalities have been reported in patients with vitamin B12 or folate deficiencies or in children with congenital abnormalities of these 2 vitamins; such manifestations may even occur without anemia. PMID:8235383

Zittoun, J

1993-06-01

93

Vitamin B12 content in raw and cooked beef.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to evaluate the vitamin B12 content and profile of cobalamin bioactive forms in raw and cooked beef. The study showed that vitamin B12 distribution is unequal among beef muscles. The content of this nutrient ranges from 0.7 to 1.5 ?g/100 g of tissue. In beef, three biologically active forms of vitamin B12 were determined, i.e.: methylcobalamin, adenosylcobalamin and hydroxycobalamin; the dominating form of vitamin B12 was adenosylcobalamin (68% of total cobalamins). The process of roasting and grilling had little effect on the vitamin B12 content in the final product as compared to the raw meat. The fried product was characterised by about a 32% lower content of cobalamins than in raw meat. PMID:24361556

Czerwonka, Ma?gorzata; Szterk, Arkadiusz; Waszkiewicz-Robak, Bo?ena

2014-03-01

94

Intestinal synthesis and absorption of vitamin B12 in channel catfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feeding experiment conducted in a controlled environment and using a vitamin B12-deficient, but otherwise nutritionally complete, purified diet revealed that intestinal microorganisms in channel catfish synthesized approximately 1.4 ng of vitamin B12 per gram of bodyweight per day. Removal of cobalt from the diet or supplementation with an antibiotic (succinylsulfathiazole) significantly reduced the rate of intestinal synthesis and liver

T. Limsuwan; R. T. Lovell

1981-01-01

95

Low plasma vitamin B-12 in Kenyan school children is highly prevalent and improved by supplemental animal source foods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The high prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in many regions of the world is becoming recognized as a widespread public health problem, but it is not known to what extent this deficiency results from a low intake of the vitamin or from its malabsorption from food. In rural Kenya, where a previous ...

96

Hooked to vitamin B12 since 1955: a historical perspective.  

PubMed

In our pioneering work in 1956, two binders of vitamin B12 (B12) alias cobalamin (Cbl) were identified in gastric juice, S with slow electrophoretic mobility, a 70 kD protein with intrinsic factor (IF) activity and another rapid (R), not IF active but probable digestion product. Numerous sources contained a protein immunologically identical to R (haptocorrin, Hc). Another IF-active component (I) was found. Isoelectric focusing showed that S, I and R were assemblies of "isoproteins" with different pI's due to varying glycosidation. Isolation of S, I and R in microquantities was achieved in 1962 using a series of ion exchange chromatographies and gel filtration. Ponderable products were obtained in 1965-1966. The B12-IF complex was a dimer, contained 13% carbohydrate and showed a different absorption spectrum than B12. Using the Schilling test, B12 absorption was shown to require Ca(++), bound invitro to the ileal receptor and IF, but most of Ca(++) could be removed with sialidase. The receptor-substrate complex contained Ca(++) and carbohydrate. The purified receptor was shown to contain two main subunits. The Imerslund-Grsbeck syndrome was discovered 1958-1960; it is caused by mutations in either of two genes, cubilin or amnionless, which form the multiligand receptor cubam. Testicular biopsies during and after B12-treated deficiency showed remarkable improvement after therapy. Studies of the turnover of radioactive B12 revealed biliary and fecal excretion, enterohepatic circulation and allowed calculation of biological half-life and daily need. The B12 coenzymes largely behaved like B12. To study whether radiocobalt in B12 was representative of the rest of the B12 molecule, (32)P and (57)Co labeled hydroxocobalamins were biosynthesized and shown to behave identically when given simultaneously to rats. The complex metabolism of B12 explains the pathogenesis of B12 deficiencies. Some of its mechanisms are not restricted to B12, e.g. the endocytosis of B12-IF also applies to other macromolecules. PMID:23274132

Grsbeck, Ralph

2013-05-01

97

21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B 12 test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of anemias of gastrointestinal malabsorption. (b) Classification. Class...

2013-04-01

98

21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B 12 test system.  

...measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of anemias of gastrointestinal malabsorption. (b) Classification. Class...

2014-04-01

99

Folate and vitamin B12 status of adolescent girls in northern Nigeria.  

PubMed Central

The diets of populations in many developing countries are low in folate and vitamin B12 and a deficiency of either of these vitamins results in increased risk for cardiovascular disease and neural tube defects. The rates of neural tube defects in Nigeria are among the highest reported worldwide. Since many girls marry at an early age in northern Nigeria, we therefore determined the folate and vitamin B12 status of adolescent girls between 12 and 16 years of age in Maiduguri, Nigeria. The mean serum folate concentration for subjects was 15.3 +/- 5.2 nmol/L. Whereas only four subjects (2.4%) had serum folate concentrations lower than 6.8 nmol/L, a level indicative of negative folate balance, 9% of the subjects had serum vitamin B12 concentrations at or below 134 pmol/L, the lower limit of the reference range for their age group. Serum homocysteine was measured in 56 of the 162 subjects and the mean level was 15.9 +/- 5.0 mumol/L. The majority of subjects had serum homocysteine concentrations above the upper limit of the reference range for their age group. We conclude that the adolescent girls we studied were at greater risk for vitamin B12 deficiency than folate deficiency. This conclusion is consistent with the fact that their diet included few foods that contained vitamin B12. PMID:10946529

VanderJagt, D. J.; Spelman, K.; Ambe, J.; Datta, P.; Blackwell, W.; Crossey, M.; Glew, R. H.

2000-01-01

100

21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems 862.1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

101

Reductive dechlorination of chlorophenols by vitamin B[sub 12  

SciTech Connect

The reductive dechlorination of chlorinated phenols by vitamin B[sub 12], supported by the reductant Ti(III) citrate, was examined. Procedures were developed, including a novel reactor system, for conducting these experiments. Most of the experiments were conducted in either hermetically-sealed glass ampoules, which could maintain vitamin B[sub 12] in the fully-reduced vitamin B[sub 12s] state for months, or in the novel two-chambered reactor (TCR), which could also support vitamin B[sub 12s] for extended periods, and could easily be sampled to perform kinetic studies. Vitamin B[sub 12s] reductively dechlorinates chlorinated phenols by nucleophilic aromatic substitution of the cobalamin for a chlorine, followed by reductive cleavage of the arylcobalamin to form the reductively-dechlorinated product. Dechlorination occurs chiefly at positions ortho to another chlorine, but the 2 and 6 positions are extremely recalcitrant, even when another chlorine is adjacent. The proposed mechanism accounts for the observed regiospecificity, consistent with bond charge density and thermodynamic considerations. Pentachlorophenol, all of the tetrachlorophenols, and all of the trichlorophenols were challenged with vitamin B[sub 12s], and all were reductively dechlorinated to some extent. A sequential dechlorination pathway was constructed and compared to patterns exhibited by anaerobic microbial consortia. On the basis of this comparison, it was concluded that any involvement of vitamin B[sub 12] in biological reductive dechlorination of chlorinated phenols requires the intimate participation of apoenzymes to direct the regiospecificity toward the 2 and 6 chlorines on the ring. The observed kinetics of the reductive dechlorination of pentachlorophenol by vitamin B[sub 12s] can be described with a first order approximation. A threefold variability in rate constants was observed.

Smith, M.H.

1993-01-01

102

Vitamin B deficiencies in a critically ill autistic child with a restricted diet.  

PubMed

An 11-year-old male with autism became less responsive and was hospitalized with hepatomegaly and liver dysfunction, as well as severe lactic acidosis. His diet for several years was self-limited exclusively to a single "fast food"-a particular type of fried chicken-and was deficient in multiple micronutrients, including the B vitamins thiamine and pyridoxine. Lactic acidosis improved rapidly with thiamine; 2 weeks later, status epilepticus-with low serum pyridoxine-resolved rapidly with pyridoxine. Dietary B vitamin deficiencies complicated the care of this critically ill autistic child and should be considered in this setting. PMID:25112945

Baird, J Scott; Ravindranath, Thyyar M

2015-02-01

103

Binding interactions of ?-conglycinin and glycinin with vitamin B12.  

PubMed

Vitamin B12 deficiency is a problem for many elderly people around the world that is caused by food-cobalamin malabsorption syndrome due to gastrointestinal problems. In this study, the molecular interactions of VB12 with two major soy protein fractions, ?-conglycinin (7S) and glycinin (11S), were studied using fluorescence and far-UV circular dichroism spectroscopic techniques. The results show that the fluorescence of 7S and 11S was quenched by VB12 through binding-related quenching after correcting for the inner-filter effect. Both 7S and 11S had a good affinity to VB12 as indicated by their high binding constant 1.252 (0.085) 10(4) M(-1) for 7S and 0.952 (0.04) 10(4) M(-1) for 11S at 292 K, respectively. Such binding induced a more organized protein confirmation with increased ?-sheet and ?-turn structure components and a more folded tertiary structure. It is deduced that VB12 was bound in the interior of protein three-dimensional network mainly via hydrophobic interactions to form 7S-VB12 and 11S-VB12 complexes. The results suggest that soy protein has potential to be used as carrier of VB12. PMID:24131217

Zhang, Jing; Tian, Zhigang; Liang, Li; Subirade, Muriel; Chen, Lingyun

2013-11-14

104

Low Initial Vitamin B12 Levels in Helicobacter pylori-Positive Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Helicobacter pylori has been identified as a possible cause of vitamin B12 deficiency in the general population. We assessed any potential relationship between low cyanocobalamin serum levels and Helicobacter pylori status in hemodialysis patients and subsequently correlated these results with the existence of anemia (a common complication in hemodialysis patients), and macrocytosis. Methods: In 29 chronic hemodialysis patients, active H.

H. Trimarchi; M. Forrester; J. Schropp; H. Pereyra; E. A. Freixas

2004-01-01

105

Differential regulation of hepatic transcription factors in the Wistar rat offspring born to dams fed folic acid, vitamin B12 deficient diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids.  

PubMed

Nutritional status of the mother is known to influence various metabolic adaptations required for optimal fetal development. These may be mediated by transcription factors like peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), which are activated by long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The objective of the current study was to examine the expression of different hepatic transcription factors and the levels of global methylation in the liver of the offspring born to dams fed micronutrient deficient (folic acid and vitamin B12) diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids. Female rats were divided into five groups (n = 8/group) as follows; control, folic acid deficient (FD), vitamin B12 deficient (BD) and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented groups (FDO and BDO). Diets were given starting from pre-conception and continued throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups were dissected at the end of lactation. Liver tissues were removed; snap frozen and stored at -80C. Maternal micronutrients deficiency resulted in lower (p<0.05) levels of pup liver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) as compared to the control group. Pup liver PPAR? and PPAR? expression was lower (p<0.05) in the BD group although there were no differences in the expression of SREBP-1c, LXR? and RXR? expression. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group normalized (p<0.05) levels of both PPAR? and PPAR? but reduced (p<0.05) SREBP-1c, LXR? and RXR? expression. There was no change in any of the transcription factors in the pup liver in the FD group. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group reduced (p<0.05) PPAR?, SREBP-1c and RXR? expression. Pup liver global methylation levels were higher (p<0.01) in both the micronutrients deficient groups and could be normalized (p<0.05) by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Our novel findings suggest a role for omega-3 fatty acids in the one carbon cycle in influencing the hepatic expression of transcription factors in the offspring. PMID:24587285

Meher, Akshaya; Joshi, Asmita; Joshi, Sadhana

2014-01-01

106

Differential Regulation of Hepatic Transcription Factors in the Wistar Rat Offspring Born to Dams Fed Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 Deficient Diets and Supplemented with Omega-3 Fatty Acids  

PubMed Central

Nutritional status of the mother is known to influence various metabolic adaptations required for optimal fetal development. These may be mediated by transcription factors like peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), which are activated by long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The objective of the current study was to examine the expression of different hepatic transcription factors and the levels of global methylation in the liver of the offspring born to dams fed micronutrient deficient (folic acid and vitamin B12) diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids. Female rats were divided into five groups (n?=?8/group) as follows; control, folic acid deficient (FD), vitamin B12 deficient (BD) and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented groups (FDO and BDO). Diets were given starting from pre-conception and continued throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups were dissected at the end of lactation. Liver tissues were removed; snap frozen and stored at ?80C. Maternal micronutrients deficiency resulted in lower (p<0.05) levels of pup liver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) as compared to the control group. Pup liver PPAR? and PPAR? expression was lower (p<0.05) in the BD group although there were no differences in the expression of SREBP-1c, LXR? and RXR? expression. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group normalized (p<0.05) levels of both PPAR? and PPAR? but reduced (p<0.05) SREBP-1c, LXR? and RXR? expression. There was no change in any of the transcription factors in the pup liver in the FD group. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group reduced (p<0.05) PPAR?, SREBP-1c and RXR? expression. Pup liver global methylation levels were higher (p<0.01) in both the micronutrients deficient groups and could be normalized (p<0.05) by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Our novel findings suggest a role for omega-3 fatty acids in the one carbon cycle in influencing the hepatic expression of transcription factors in the offspring. PMID:24587285

Meher, Akshaya; Joshi, Asmita; Joshi, Sadhana

2014-01-01

107

Vitamins  

MedlinePLUS

... Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K Vitamin B1 ( thiamine ) Vitamin B2 ( riboflavin ) Vitamin B3 ( niacin ) Pantothenic acid ... in the body. Vitamin B12 , like the other B vitamins, is important for metabolism. It also helps form ...

108

Exacerbating effect of dietary 12-keto oleic acid on vitamin E deficiency in the rat.  

PubMed

12-Keto oleic acid, possibly one of the oxidation products of long-chain, unsaturated fatty acids, was added to the feed of weanling male rats at the 1% level. Their growth curves, tissue weights, plasma alkaline phosphatase, GOT, and GPT activities, and plasma and liver lipid (cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipid) levels were investigated and compared with those of weanlings fed a vitamin E deficient diet. Both the diet containing 12-keto oleic acid and the diet deficient in vitamin E decreased the growth rate of body weight and tissue weight, and increased the liver triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Parallel with these, increased hemolysis and stimulation of lipid peroxidation and fluorescent production in the liver homogenate were observed. Elevated plasma alkaline phosphatase and GOT activities which may be considered to be due to a functional disorder of the liver were also observed. PMID:1151507

Furuzawa, K; Sato, M

1975-01-01

109

PREVALENCE OF VITAMINS E AND B12 IN DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS REPORTED IN NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EVALUATION SURVEY (NHANES)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objectives: Public health concerns regarding excessive Vitamin E and deficient Vitamin B12 intake warrant evaluation of total dietary intake for these nutrients. A Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database is being developed by the Nutrient Data Laboratory with the Office of Dietary Supplements and oth...

110

Most harmful algal bloom species are vitamin B1 and B12 auxotrophs  

PubMed Central

Eutrophication can play a central role in promoting harmful algal blooms (HABs), and therefore many HAB studies to date have focused on macronutrients (N, P, Si). Although a majority of algal species require exogenous B vitamins (i.e., auxotrophic for B vitamins), the possible importance of organic micronutrients such as B vitamins (B1, B7, B12) in regulating HABs has rarely been considered. Prior investigations of vitamins and algae have examined a relatively small number of dinoflagellates (n = 26) and a paucity of HAB species (n = 4). In the present study, the vitamin B1, B7, and B12 requirements of 41 strains of 27 HAB species (19 dinoflagellates) were investigated. All but one species (two strains) of harmful algae surveyed required vitamin B12, 20 of 27 species required B1, and 10 of 27 species required B7, all proportions higher than the previously reported for non-HAB species. Half-saturation (Ks) constants of several HAB species for B1 and B12 were higher than those previously reported for other phytoplankton and similar to vitamin concentrations reported in estuaries. Cellular quotas for vitamins suggest that, in some cases, HAB demands for vitamins may exhaust standing stocks of vitamins in hours to days. The sum of these findings demonstrates the potentially significant ecological role of B-vitamins in regulating the dynamics of HABs. PMID:21068377

Tang, Ying Zhong; Koch, Florian; Gobler, Christopher J.

2010-01-01

111

Biochemical studies of vitamin B?? deficiency in the domestic fowl  

E-print Network

. Machlin et al. (75) and Hsu and Combs ( J6 ) noted that vitamin Bi2 increased the blood level of uric acid in chicks when diets containing excessive amounts of certain amino acids were fed. In chicks fed a diet of similar composition, but without excess... amino acids, the blood uric acid was not consistently affected by vitamin Big (77)- These results did not indicate whether vitamin Big stimulates uric acid bio? synthesis directly or increases the catabolism of excess amino acids to ammonia, which...

Mohan, Vallury Surya

2013-10-04

112

Connective tissue integrity is lost in vitamin B-6-deficient chicks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the present investigation was to characterize further the connective tissue disorder produced by pyridoxine (vitamin B-6) deficiency, as previously evidenced by electron microscopy. Following the second post-natal week, fast growing male chicks were deprived of pyridoxine for a 1-mo period. Six weeks post-natally, blood concentrations in the experimental deficiency group had declined to deficiency levels as registered by low concentrations of pyridoxal phosphate (coenzyme form) in erythrocytes, but did not reach levels associated with neurological symptoms. Light microscopic study showed abnormalities in the extracellular matrix of the connective tissues. Collagen cross-links and the aldehyde contents were not significantly lower in cartilage and tendon collagens of vitamin B-6-deficient animals than in age-matched controls; also, their proteoglycan degrading protease and collagenase activities measured in articular cartilages were not greater. Thus, proteolysis was an unlikely alternative mechanism to account for the loss of connective tissue integrity. These results point to the need for further investigation into adhesive properties of collagen associated proteoglycans or other proteins in vitamin B-6-deficient connective tissue.

Masse, P. G.; Yamauchi, M.; Mahuren, J. D.; Coburn, S. P.; Muniz, O. E.; Howell, D. S.

1995-01-01

113

[Malabsorption and vitamin B1 deficiency in familial acrodystrophic neuropathies (author's transl)].  

PubMed

9 members of 4 families with familial acrodystrophic neuropathies were investigated. Lowered levels of vitamin B1 (thiamine pyrophosphate) were found in all cases except one. In this patient, as in 10 healthy control persons, normal values were obtained. The D-xylose test, which was carried out in 4 patients from 3 families, revealed intestinal malabsorption in all cases. It is suggested that malabsorption and deficiency of vitamin B1 as demonstrated in this report play a role in the development of these familial disorders. PMID:941458

Partsch, H; Washttl, J

1976-06-11

114

Unraveling vitamin B12-responsive gene regulation in algae.  

PubMed

Photosynthetic microalgae play a vital role in primary productivity and biogeochemical cycling in both marine and freshwater systems across the globe. However, the growth of these cosmopolitan organisms depends on the bioavailability of nutrients such as vitamins. Approximately one-half of all microalgal species requires vitamin B12 as a growth supplement. The major determinant of algal B12 requirements is defined by the isoform of methionine synthase possessed by an alga, such that the presence of the B12-independent methionine synthase (METE) enables growth without this vitamin. Moreover, the widespread but phylogenetically unrelated distribution of B12 auxotrophy across the algal lineages suggests that the METE gene has been lost multiple times in evolution. Given that METE expression is repressed by the presence of B12, prolonged repression by a reliable source of the vitamin could lead to the accumulation of mutations and eventually gene loss. Here, we probe METE gene regulation by B12 and methionine/folate cycle metabolites in both marine and freshwater microalgal species. In addition, we identify a B12-responsive element of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii METE using a reporter gene approach. We show that complete repression of the reporter occurs via a region spanning -574 to -90 bp upstream of the METE start codon. A proteomics study reveals that two other genes (S-Adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase and Serine hydroxymethyltransferase2) involved in the methionine-folate cycle are also repressed by B12 in C. reinhardtii. The strong repressible nature and high sensitivity of the B12-responsive element has promising biotechnological applications as a cost-effective regulatory gene expression tool. PMID:24627342

Helliwell, Katherine E; Scaife, Mark A; Sasso, Severin; Araujo, Ana Paula Ulian; Purton, Saul; Smith, Alison G

2014-05-01

115

Vitamin deficiencies and excesses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vitamins are essential nutrients that must be supplied exogenously either as part of a well balanced diet or as supplements. Deficiency states are uncommon in developed countries except, perhaps, among some food insecure families. In contrast, deficiency states are quite common in many developing ...

116

Vitamin B1 and B12 Uptake and Cycling by Plankton Communities in Coastal Ecosystems  

PubMed Central

While vitamin B12 has recently been shown to co-limit the growth of coastal phytoplankton assemblages, the cycling of B-vitamins in coastal ecosystems is poorly understood as planktonic uptake rates of vitamins B1 and B12 have never been quantified in tandem in any aquatic ecosystem. The goal of this study was to establish the relationships between plankton community composition, carbon fixation, and B-vitamin assimilation in two contrasting estuarine systems. We show that, although B-vitamin concentrations were low (pM), vitamin concentrations and uptake rates were higher within a more eutrophic estuary and that vitamin B12 uptake rates were significantly correlated with rates of primary production. Eutrophic sites hosted larger bacterial and picoplankton abundances with larger carbon normalized vitamin uptake rates. Although the >2??m phytoplankton biomass was often dominated by groups with a high incidence of vitamin auxotrophy (dinoflagellates and diatoms), picoplankton (<2??m) were always responsible for the majority of B12-vitamin uptake. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that heterotrophic bacteria were the primary users of vitamins among the picoplankton during this study. Nutrient/vitamin amendment experiments demonstrated that, in the Summer and Fall, vitamin B12 occasionally limited or co-limited the accumulation of phytoplankton biomass together with nitrogen. Combined with prior studies, these findings suggest that picoplankton are the primary producers and users of B-vitamins in some coastal ecosystems and that rapid uptake of B-vitamins by heterotrophic bacteria may sometimes deprive larger phytoplankton of these micronutrients and thus influence phytoplankton species succession. PMID:23091470

Koch, Florian; Hattenrath-Lehmann, Theresa K.; Goleski, Jennifer A.; Saudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio; Fisher, Nicholas S.; Gobler, Christopher J.

2012-01-01

117

Iron, folate and vitamin B12 levels in first trimester pregnancies in the Southwest region of Turkey  

PubMed Central

Objective Iron, folate and vitamin B12 play important roles in the healthy development of the fetus in pregnancy. Preconceptional levels of these micronutrients is influenced by dietary habits. The purpose of this study was to investigate the status of iron, vitamin B12 and folate in first trimester pregnancies in the southwest region of Turkey where the Mediterranean Cuisine, rich in fresh fruit and vegetables is commonly consumed. Material and Methods Two hundred and one low-middle income pregnant women were recruited during their first prenatal visit. Hemoglobin, ferritin, folate and vitamin B12 levels were evaluated and a structured questionnaire was given to gather information including age, gravida, parity, frequency of pregnancy, history of abortion, and intrauterine device usage. Based on WHO and international guidelines, anemia was defined as hemoglobin <11 g/dl, and iron deficiency as ferritin <15 ?g/L. Serum folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies were defined as levels below 3 ng/ml and 200 pg/ml respectively. Results The mean age and gestational week were 26.45.3 years and 93 weeks respectively. Mean plasma concentrations were 12.89.7 g/dl for hemoglobin, 22.717.2 ?g/L for ferritin, 12.25.6 ng/ml for folate and 266.6100.2 pg/ml for vitamin B12. Anemia was detected in 4.5% of pregnant women, iron deficiency in 40.3%, vitamin B12 deficiency in 29.8% and folate deficiency in 0.5% of patients. In 10.9% of patients, both vitamin B12 and iron iron deficiency was detected. There was no significant difference for age, body mass index, gravida, parity, frequency of pregnancy, history of abortion, and intrauterine device usage between women with low and normal levels of vitamin B12 and Ferritin (p>0.05). Conclusion Iron and vitamin B12 deficiencies were relatively common in the pregnant population consuming vegetable based diets. Iron and vitamin B12 supplementation in addition to folate must be considered for the wellbeing of the fetus in pregnant women living in areas where dietary patterns are mainly vegetable based. PMID:24591983

Karabulut, Aysun; ?evket, Osman; Acun, Ayhan

2011-01-01

118

Dietary pectin shortens the biologic half-life of vitamin B-12 in rats by increasing fecal and urinary losses  

SciTech Connect

As little as 5% of pectin added to a fiber-free diet elevates urinary methylmalonic acid (MMA) severalfold in vitamin B-12--deprived rats. The present study examines whether increased urinary MMA reflects lower vitamin B-12 status or occurs only because of fermentation of pectin by intestinal bacteria and increased production of propionate, a precursor of MMA. By monitoring urinary and fecal excretion of {sup 57}Co after a tracer dose of ({sup 57}Co)vitamin B-12, we found the biologic half-life of vitamin B-12 to be 59 d for rats fed a fiber-free diet and only 19 d for rats fed a 5% pectin diet. Also, pectin-fed rats oxidized only 12% of a 1-mmol dose of ({sup 14}C)propionate to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in 2 h, whereas rats fed the fiber-free diet expired 33% of the dose. Finally, high urinary MMA persisted even after the removal of pectin from the diet. We conclude that dietary pectin accelerates vitamin B-12 depletion in rats, possibly by interfering with enterohepatic recycling of vitamin B-12. By stimulating microbial propionate production, pectin and other fermentable fibers may also contribute to increased urinary MMA in vitamin B-12 deficiency, but a larger propionate pool does not account for the other effects of pectin on vitamin B-12 status.

Cullen, R.W.; Oace, S.M. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

1989-08-01

119

Failure to obtain a weight gain response to vitamin B12 treatment in young goats grazing pasture that was cobalt deficient for sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractMadam: The current upsurge in the farming of goats has resulted in an increased interest in trace elements in this species. In some areas goats are being farmed on soil types known to be marginally or moderately cobalt deficient for sheep. The susceptibility of goats to cobalt deficiency is not well documented. In one study cobalt deficiency was induced in

R. G. Clark; L. Mantleman; G. A. Verkerk

1987-01-01

120

The effect of antiepileptic drugs on vitamin B12 metabolism.  

PubMed

The effects of antiepileptic drugs (AED) on the serum concentration of vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine (HMC), and erythrocyte folic acid levels were determined in 45 epileptic patients (30 women, 15 men; mean age 31.7 years) and 23 healthy volunteers (control group; 18 women, five men; mean age 33.4 years). All patients were either on carbamazepine (CMZ), oxcarbazepine (OXZ), or valporate (VP) monotherapy. Serum vitamin B12 levels were low in 17.8% of patients and 8.7% of the controls (P = 0.299). Serum homocysteine levels were high in 17.8% of the patients (P = 0.008). Fifty percent of the patients who had hyperhomocysteinemia, and 75% of the patients who had low serum vitamin B12 level were on CMZ monotherapy. Peripheral blood smears showed hypersegmented neutrophils and macrocytosis in 13.3%, hypochromia and microcytosis in 26.7%, acanthocytes in 2.2%, and thrombocytosis in 2.2% of all patients. The control group had normal peripheral blood smears, except in four cases that showed hypocromia and microcytosis. Long-term administration of AED may cause elevation of homocysteine and development of subnormal serum vitamin B12 levels. Peripheral blood smear abnormalities were frequently seen in patients receiving antiepileptic treatment (P = 0.022), particularly in patients on CMZ monotherapy (P = 0.281). However, homocysteine, vitamin B12, folic acid levels and peripheral blood smear findings did not correlate with the drugs used (P = 0.665, 0.336, 0.249 for CMZ, OXZ, VP, respectively). PMID:18190464

Aslan, K; Bozdemir, H; Unsal, C; Gvenc, B

2008-02-01

121

Vitamin B12 and pteroylglutamic acid studies in the domestic fowl  

E-print Network

of folinic acid would tend to increase further the list of the functions of vitamin B12 ? Ling and Chow (f51) found that vitamin B12 influenced the glutathione concentrations in the liver and blood of the 2 rat. Vitamin B12 tlirough its effect... B-j g and methionine on the glutathione content of chick blood and liver................................. 51 Chapter 5. Summary ................................ 64 TABLE OF CONTENTS Tables Table 1. Effect of various levels of vitamin B12...

Reid, Bobby Leroy

2013-10-04

122

Folate, vitamin B12 and postmenopausal breast cancer in a prospective study of French women.  

E-print Network

Folate, vitamin B12 and postmenopausal breast cancer in a prospective study of French women. Martin and examine whether the relation is affected by alcohol and intake of vitamin B2 and B12. Methods intake. The decreasing trend was most marked in women with higher folate and vitamin B12 intake. However

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

123

Folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 status of a group of high socioeconomic status women in the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort.  

PubMed

Folic acid supplementation and food fortification policies have improved folate status in North American women of child bearing age. Recent studies have reported the possible inadequacy of vitamin B12 and B6 in the etiology of neural tube defects in folate-fortified populations. The aims of this study were to describe folate status and its relationship to supplementation and to assess vitamin B12 and B6 status in a cohort of pregnant women. Supplement intake data were collected in each trimester from the first cohort (n = 599) of the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study. Red blood cell folate (RBCF) and plasma folate, holotranscobalamin, and pyridoxal 5-phosphate were measured. Overt folate deficiency was rare (3%) but 24% of women in their first trimester had suboptimal RBCF concentration (<906 nmolL(-1)). The proportion of the cohort in this category declined substantially in second (9%) and third (7%) trimesters. High RBCF (>1360 nmolL(-1)) was observed in approximately half of the women during each pregnancy trimester. Vitamin B12 and B6 deficiencies were rare (<1% of the cohort). Women consuming folic acid supplements above the upper level had significantly higher RBCF and plasma folate concentrations. In conclusion, the prevalence of vitamin B12 and B6 deficiency was very low. A quarter of the women had suboptimal folate status in the first trimester of pregnancy and over half the women had abnormally high RBCF, suggesting that supplementation during pregnancy is not appropriate in a cohort of women considered to be healthy and a low risk for nutritional deficiencies. PMID:25386981

Fayyaz, Faiqa; Wang, Flora; Jacobs, Ren L; O'Connor, Deborah L; Bell, Rhonda C; Field, Catherine J

2014-12-01

124

Human vitamin B12 absorption measurement by accelerator mass spectrometry using specifically  

E-print Network

Human vitamin B12 absorption measurement by accelerator mass spectrometry using specifically to assimilate dietary vitamin B12. Assaying and understanding absorption and uptake of B12 is important because and showed plasma appearance and clearance curves consistent with the predicted behavior of the pure vitamin

California at Davis, University of

125

Minerals and Trace Elements Rumen Succinate Production May Ameliorate the Effects of Cobalt-Vitamin B12 Deficiency on Methylmalonyl CoA Mutase in Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

When lambs were fed a cobalt-deficient whole bailey diet there was a rapid and massive increase in rumen succhiate concentrations. Within 2 d of feeding the Co-deficient diet, the rumen succhiate concentra tions rose 200-fold and peaked at a level 1000-fold higher than that in Co-sufficient controls. Rumen propi- onate concentrations decreased, suggesting that an al teration in the balance

D. GLENN KENNEDY; PAUL B. YOUNG; W. JOHN; SEAMCIS KENNEDY' ANDW; JOHN BLANCHFLOWER

126

Dietary source of vitamin B(12) intake and vitamin B(12) status in female elderly Koreans aged 85 and older living in rural area.  

PubMed

Recently, we found and analyzed vitamin B(12) in some Korean traditional plant foods which had not reported, yet. This study was to investigate vitamin B(12) intake and its dietary sources and the vitamin B(12) status in the very old elderly Koreans. We measured serum vitamin B(12) level and estimated the amounts of vitamin B(12) intake from different dietary sources in female elderly Koreans aged 85 and over who had consumed a relatively low animal traditional diet for the whole life. The average age of the subjects (n = 127) was 98.0 years (85-108 years). The assessment on energy and nutrient intake involved a one-day 24-hour recall, and serum vitamin B(12) concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay. Overall diet pattern was not different between the 85-99 yr-old group and centenarians, except centenarians were taking more dairy product. The average ratio of plant food to animal food consumption was 87.5:12.5 in weight. The average vitamin B(12) intake of our subjects was 3.2 microg/day, and 52.7% of subjects consumed under estimated average requirement, 2.0 microg/day. On dietary source, 67.3% of dietary vitamin B(12) was from meat, eggs and fishes and 30.6% was from plant foods, such as soybean-fermented foods, seaweeds, and kimchi. The average serum vitamin B(12) concentration was 450.5 pg/mL, and low serum vitamin B(12) (< 200 pg/mL) was found in 9.6% of subjects. Dietary vitamin B(12) intake was significantly lower in subjects with low serum vitamin B(12) (0.79 microg/day) than those with normal serum vitamin B(12) (3.47 microg/day). There were no significant difference in vitamin B(12) intake and its dietary sources and serum vitamin B(12) level between the 85-99 yr-old group and centenarians. In conclusion, several plant-origin foods including seaweed, soybean-fermented foods, and kimchi, may contribute significantly to good vitamin B(12) status in very old elderly Koreans. PMID:20607069

Kwak, Chung Shil; Lee, Mee Sook; Lee, Hae Jeung; Whang, Jin Yong; Park, Sang Chul

2010-06-01

127

Vitamin B-12 and folate status in relation to decline in scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination in the Framingham Heart Study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biochemical evidence of low vitamin B-12 status is common in seniors, but its clinical relevance is unclear. Vitamin B-12 deficiency can result in rapid, irreversible cognitive decline a phenomenon that has been linked to high folate status. Our objective was to investigate the cognitive significa...

128

Antiparasitic Effect of Vitamin B12 on Trypanosoma cruzi.  

PubMed

A nutritional characteristic of trypanosomatid protozoa is that they need a heme compound as a growth factor. Because of the cytotoxic activity of heme and its structural similarity to cobalamins, we have investigated the in vitro and in vivo effect of vitamin B(12) (or cyanocobalamin) on the different forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Cyanocobalamin showed a marked antiparasitic activity against epimastigotes (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)], 2.42 ?M), amastigotes (IC(50), 10.69 ?M), and trypomastigotes (IC(50), 9.46 ?M). Anti-epimastigote and -trypomastigote values were 1.7 to 4 times lower than those obtained with the reference drug benznidazole (Bnz). We also found that B(12) and hemin do not interact with each other in their modes of action. Our results show that B(12) increases intracellular oxidative activity and stimulates both superoxide dismutase (50%) and ascorbate peroxidase (20%) activities, while the activity of trypanothione reductase was not modified. In addition, we found that the antioxidants dithiothreitol and ascorbic acid increase the susceptibility of the parasite to the cytotoxic action of B(12). We propose that vitamin B(12) exerts its growth-inhibitory effect through the generation of reactive oxygen species. In an in vivo assay, a significant reduction in the number of circulating parasites was found in T. cruzi-infected mice treated with cyanocobalamin and ascorbic acid. The reduction of parasitemia in benznidazole-treated mice was improved by the addition of these vitamins. According to our results, a combination of B(12) and Bnz should be further investigated due to its potential as a new therapeutic modality for the treatment of Chagas' disease. PMID:22869565

Ciccarelli, Alejandra B; Frank, Fernanda M; Puente, Vanesa; Malchiodi, Emilio L; Batlle, Alcira; Lombardo, Maria Elisa

2012-10-01

129

Antiparasitic Effect of Vitamin B12 on Trypanosoma cruzi  

PubMed Central

A nutritional characteristic of trypanosomatid protozoa is that they need a heme compound as a growth factor. Because of the cytotoxic activity of heme and its structural similarity to cobalamins, we have investigated the in vitro and in vivo effect of vitamin B12 (or cyanocobalamin) on the different forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Cyanocobalamin showed a marked antiparasitic activity against epimastigotes (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 2.42 ?M), amastigotes (IC50, 10.69 ?M), and trypomastigotes (IC50, 9.46 ?M). Anti-epimastigote and -trypomastigote values were 1.7 to 4 times lower than those obtained with the reference drug benznidazole (Bnz). We also found that B12 and hemin do not interact with each other in their modes of action. Our results show that B12 increases intracellular oxidative activity and stimulates both superoxide dismutase (50%) and ascorbate peroxidase (20%) activities, while the activity of trypanothione reductase was not modified. In addition, we found that the antioxidants dithiothreitol and ascorbic acid increase the susceptibility of the parasite to the cytotoxic action of B12. We propose that vitamin B12 exerts its growth-inhibitory effect through the generation of reactive oxygen species. In an in vivo assay, a significant reduction in the number of circulating parasites was found in T. cruzi-infected mice treated with cyanocobalamin and ascorbic acid. The reduction of parasitemia in benznidazole-treated mice was improved by the addition of these vitamins. According to our results, a combination of B12 and Bnz should be further investigated due to its potential as a new therapeutic modality for the treatment of Chagas' disease. PMID:22869565

Ciccarelli, Alejandra B.; Frank, Fernanda M.; Puente, Vanesa; Malchiodi, Emilio L.

2012-01-01

130

Vitamin B1 deficiency inhibits the increased conversion of tryptophan to nicotinamide in severe food-restricted rats.  

PubMed

The conversion of tryptophan (Trp) ? nicotinamide (Nam) is an important pathway for supplying vitamin niacin. We reported the following two phenomena: (1) severe food restriction led to an increase in the Trp ? Nam conversion compared with free-access control group; (2) the conversion of Trp ? Nam is also increased by vitamin B1 deficiency compared with free-access control group. The present study was done to clarify whether or not a true reason about an increase in the Trp ? Nam conversion is a vitamin B1 deficiency or severe food restriction. The present results showed that vitamin B1 deficiency suppressed the increased conversion of Trp ? Nam induced by severe food restriction, probably by suppressing 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid 3,4-dioxygenase protein synthesis in liver. PMID:25253514

Shibata, Katsumi; Kobayashi, Ryoko; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

2014-09-25

131

The kidney in vitamin B12 and folate homeostasis: characterization of receptors for tubular uptake of vitamins and carrier proteins.  

PubMed

Over the past 10 years, animal studies have uncovered the molecular mechanisms for the renal tubular recovery of filtered vitamin and vitamin carrier proteins. Relatively few endocytic receptors are responsible for the proximal tubule uptake of a number of different vitamins, preventing urinary losses. In addition to vitamin conservation, tubular uptake by endocytosis is important to vitamin metabolism and homeostasis. The present review focuses on the receptors involved in renal tubular recovery of folate, vitamin B12, and their carrier proteins. The multiligand receptor megalin is important for the uptake and tubular accumulation of vitamin B12. During vitamin load, the kidney accumulates large amounts of free vitamin B12, suggesting a possible storage function. In addition, vitamin B12 is metabolized in the kidney, suggesting a role in vitamin homeostasis. The folate receptor is important for the conservation of folate, mediating endocytosis of the vitamin. Interaction between the structurally closely related, soluble folate-binding protein and megalin suggests that megalin plays an additional role in the uptake of folate bound to filtered folate-binding protein. A third endocytic receptor, the intrinsic factor-B12 receptor cubilin-amnionless complex, is essential to the renal tubular uptake of albumin, a carrier of folate. In conclusion, uptake is mediated by interaction with specific endocytic receptors also involved in the renal uptake of other vitamins and vitamin carriers. Little is known about the mechanisms regulating intracellular transport and release of vitamins, and whereas tubular uptake is a constitutive process, this may be regulated, e.g., by vitamin status. PMID:16760376

Birn, Henrik

2006-07-01

132

The use of blood concentrations of vitamins and their respective functional indicators to define folate and vitamin B12 status  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In recent years there has been growing interest in the vitamins folic acid and vitamin B12 because of the realization that the status of these vitamins in populations is less than adequate, and that such inadequacy may be linked to adverse public health outcomes. This concern has prompted the United...

133

Rapid determination of vitamin B2 and B12 in human urine by isocratic liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

A simple and rapid method for the identification and quantification of vitamin B(2) and B(12) in human urine has been developed using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the peaks identity were confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). HPLC separation was performed in single wavelength detector (lambda(365)) mode and separated isocratically using mobile phase methanol: 1mM aqueous TFA (1:4) in C18 column. The calibration graphs plotted with different concentrations of vitamin B(2) and B(12) was linear with a correlation coefficients (r(2))=0.9975 and 0.9985, respectively. The recoveries of vitamin B(2) and B(12) were above 87% and 90%, respectively. The results of this present study suggest that the proposed method may be simple and convenient way of identifying and quantifying vitamin B(2) and B(12) from human urine. PMID:19362629

Mandal, Santi M; Mandal, Mahitosh; Ghosh, Ananta K; Dey, Satyahari

2009-04-27

134

Folate, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, and Methionine Intakes and Risk of Stroke Subtypes in Male Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The associations of dietary folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and methionine intakes with risk of stroke subtypes were examined among 26,556 male Finnish smokers, aged 50-69 years, enrolled in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta- Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline by using a validated food frequency questionnaire. During a mean follow-up of 13.6 years, from 1985 through 2004,

Susanna C. Larsson; Satu Mannisto; Mikko J. Virtanen; Jukka Kontto; Demetrius Albanes; Jarmo Virtamo

2008-01-01

135

Vitamin B12 levels in ewe colostrum and milk and in lamb serum  

E-print Network

Short note Vitamin B12 levels in ewe colostrum and milk and in lamb serum JJ Ramos T Saez JP Bueso 1993; accepted 4 February 1994) Summary ― Vitamin B!2 was measured in samples of normal ovine d. Colostrum obtained within 24 h of lambing contained high concentrations of vitamin B!2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

136

Decreased vitamin B12 availability induces ER stress through impaired SIRT1-deacetylation of HSF1.  

PubMed

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a key determinant of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-dependent epigenomic cellular regulations related to methylation/acetylation and its deficiency produces neurodegenerative disorders by elusive mechanisms. Sirtuin 1 deacetylase (SIRT1) triggers cell response to nutritional stress through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Recently, we have established a N1E115 dopaminergic cell model by stable expression of a transcobalamin-oleosin chimera (TO), which impairs cellular availability of vitamin B12, decreases methionine synthase activity and SAM level, and reduces cell proliferation. In contrast, oleosin-transcobalamin chimera (OT) does not modify the phenotype of transfected cells. Presently, the impaired cellular availability of vitamin B12 in TO cells activated irreversible ER stress pathways, with increased P-eIF-2?, P-PERK, P-IRE1?, ATF6, ATF4, decreased chaperon proteins and increased pro-apoptotic markers, CHOP and cleaved caspase 3, through reduced SIRT1 expression and consequently greater acetylation of heat-shock factor protein 1 (HSF1). Adding either B12, SIRT1, or HSF1 activators as well as overexpressing SIRT1 or HSF1 dramatically reduced the activation of ER stress pathways in TO cells. Conversely, impairing SIRT1 and HSF1 by siRNA, expressing a dominant negative form of HSF1, or adding a SIRT1 inhibitor led to B12-dependent ER stress in OT cells. Addition of B12 abolished the activation of stress transducers and apoptosis, and increased the expression of protein chaperons in OT cells subjected to thapsigargin, a strong ER stress stimulator. AdoX, an inhibitor of methyltransferase activities, produced similar effects than decreased B12 availability on SIRT1 and ER stress by a mechanism related to increased expression of hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1). Taken together, these data show that cellular vitamin B12 has a strong modulating influence on ER stress in N1E115 dopaminergic cells. The impaired cellular availability in vitamin B12 induces irreversible ER stress by greater acetylation of HSF1 through decreased SIRT1 expression, whereas adding vitamin B12 produces protective effects in cells subjected to ER stress stimulation. PMID:23519122

Ghemrawi, R; Pooya, S; Lorentz, S; Gauchotte, G; Arnold, C; Gueant, J-L; Battaglia-Hsu, S-F

2013-01-01

137

Micronutrient status in female university students: iron, zinc, copper, selenium, vitamin B12 and folate.  

PubMed

Young women are at an increased risk of micronutrient deficiencies, particularly due to higher micronutrient requirements during childbearing years and multiple food group avoidances. The objective of this study was to investigate biomarkers of particular micronutrients in apparently healthy young women. Female students (n = 308; age range 18-35 year; Body Mass Index 21.5 2.8 kg/m2; mean SD) were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Blood samples were obtained from participants in the fasted state and analysed for biomarkers of iron status, vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine, selenium, zinc, and copper. The results show iron deficiency anaemia, unspecified anaemia, and hypoferritinemia in 3%, 7% and 33.9% of participants, respectively. Low vitamin B12 concentrations (<120 pmol/L) were found in 11.3% of participants, while 4.7% showed sub-clinical deficiency based on serum methylmalonic acid concentrations >0.34 ?mol/L. Folate concentrations below the reference range were observed in 1.7% (serum) or 1% (erythrocytes) of participants, and 99.7% of the participant had erythrocyte-folate concentrations >300 nmol/L. Serum zinc concentrations <10.7 ?mol/L were observed in 2% of participants. Serum copper and selenium concentrations were below the reference range in 23% and 11% of participants, respectively. Micronutrient deficiencies including iron and vitamin B12, and apparent excess of folate are present in educated Australian female students of childbearing age, including those studying nutrition. The effects of dietary behaviours and food choices on markers of micronutrient status require further investigation. PMID:25401503

Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

2014-11-01

138

Discovery of Novel Sources of Vitamin B12 in Traditional Korean Foods from Nutritional Surveys of Centenarians  

PubMed Central

Human longevity can be explained by a variety of factors, among them, nutritional factor would play an important role. In our study of Korean centenarians for their longevity, the apparent nutritional imbalance in the traditional semi-vegetarian diet raised a special attention, especially on vitamin B12 status, supplied by animal foods. Interestingly, we found that the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficient Korean centenarians was not higher compared with those from Western nations with animal-oriented traditional foods. We assumed that there might be some unveiled sources for vitamin B12 in the Korean traditional foods. Screening of vitamin B12 contents has revealed that some traditional soybean-fermented foods, such as Doenjang and Chunggukjang, and seaweeds contain considerable amounts of vitamin B12. Taken together, it can be summarized that the traditional foods, especially of fermentation, might be evaluated for compensation of the nutritional imbalance in the vegetable-oriented dietary pattern by supplying vitamin B12, resulting in maintenance of health status. PMID:21436999

Kwak, Chung Shil; Lee, Mee Sook; Oh, Se In; Park, Sang Chul

2010-01-01

139

Folate, vitamin B(6) , vitamin B(12) , methionine and alcohol intake in relation to ovarian cancer risk.  

PubMed

Folate, methionine, vitamin B(6) and vitamin B(12) may influence carcinogenesis due to their roles in the one-carbon metabolism pathway, which is critical for DNA synthesis, methylation and repair. Low intake of these nutrients has been associated with an increased risk of breast, colon and endometrial cancers. Previous studies that have examined the relation between these nutrients and ovarian cancer risk have been inconsistent and have had limited power to examine the relation by histologic subtype. We investigated the association between folate, methionine, vitamin B(6) , vitamin B(12) and alcohol among 1910 women with ovarian cancer and 1989 controls from a case-control study conducted in eastern Massachusetts and New Hampshire from 1992 to 2008. Diet was assessed via food frequency questionnaire. Participants were asked to recall diet one-year before diagnosis or interview. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). We also examined whether the associations varied by ovarian cancer histologies using polytomous logistic regression. We observed an inverse association between dietary vitamin B(6) (covariate-adjusted OR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.64-0.92; p(trend) = 0.002) and methionine intake (covariate-adjusted OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.60-0.87; p(trend) < 0.001) and ovarian cancer risk comparing the highest to lowest quartile. The association with dietary vitamin B(6) was strongest for serous borderline (covariate-adjusted OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.32-0.77; p(trend) = 0.001) and serous invasive (covariate-adjusted OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.58-0.94; p(trend) = 0.012) subtypes. Overall, we observed no significant association between folate and ovarian cancer risk. One-carbon metabolism related nutrients, especially vitamin B(6) and methionine, may lower ovarian cancer risk. PMID:21953625

Harris, Holly R; Cramer, Daniel W; Vitonis, Allison F; DePari, Mary; Terry, Kathryn L

2012-08-15

140

Separation of Vitamin B2 and B12 by Impregnate HPTLC Plates with Boric Acid  

E-print Network

AbstractA high performance thin layer chromatography system (HPTLC) for the separation of vitamin B2 and B12 has been developed. The separation was successfully using a solvent system of methanol, water, ammonia 7.3.1 (V/V) as mobile phase on HPTLC plates impregnated with boric acid. The effect of other mobile phases on the separation of vitamins was also examined. The method is based on different behavior of investigated compounds in impregnated TLC plates with different amount of boric acid. The Rf values of vitamin B2 and B12 are considered on non impregnated and impregnated silica gel HPTLC plate with boric acid. The effect of boric acid in the mobile phase and on HPTLC plates on the RF values of the vitamins has also been studied. KeywordsHigh performance thin layer chromatography,

Homayon Ahmad Panahi; Hossein Sid Kalal; Atyeh Rahimi

141

B Vitamins in Breast Milk: Relative Importance of Maternal Status and Intake, and Effects on Infant Status and Function12  

PubMed Central

Infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 mo of life. However, maternal deficiency of some micronutrients, conveniently classified as Group I micronutrients during lactation, can result in low concentrations in breast milk and subsequent infant deficiency preventable by improving maternal status. This article uses thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and choline as examples and reviews the evidence for risk of inadequate intakes by infants in the first 6 mo of life. Folate, a Group II micronutrient, is included for comparison. Information is presented on forms and concentrations in human milk, analytical methods, the basis of current recommended intakes for infants and lactating women, and effects of maternal supplementation. From reports of maternal and/or infant deficiency, concentrations in milk were noted as well as any consequences for infant function. These milk values were used to estimate the percent of recommended daily intake that infants fed by a deficient mother could obtain from her milk. Estimates were 60% for thiamin, 53% for riboflavin, 80% for vitamin B-6, 16% for vitamin B-12, and 56% for choline. Lack of data limits the accuracy and generalizability of these conclusions, but the overall picture that emerges is consistent across nutrients and points to an urgent need to improve the information available on breast milk quality. PMID:22585913

Allen, Lindsay H.

2012-01-01

142

The effect of vitamin C deficiency and chronic ultraviolet-B exposure on corneal ultrastructure: a preliminary investigation  

PubMed Central

Purpose In the visually debilitating condition of climatic droplet keratopathy, corneal transparency is progressively lost. Although the precise cause of the disease and the mechanism by which it progresses are not known, a lifetime exposure to high solar radiation and a vitamin Cdeficient diet may be involved in its development. This study examines the effect of dietary ascorbate levels and ultraviolet (UV)-B exposure on corneal stromal structure. Methods Eight guinea pigs were divided into four treatment groups (A, B, C, and D). For 15 weeks, Groups A and C were fed an ascorbate-rich diet (2 mg/100 g bodyweight/day), while Groups B and D received an ascorbate-deficient diet (0.07 mg/100 g bodyweight/day). For the last 12 weeks of the study, Groups C and D also experienced chronic UVB exposure (0.12 J/cm2 for 40 min/day). Following euthanasia, the corneas were enucleated and their stromal ultrastructure examined using X-ray scattering and electron microscopy. Results UVB exposure resulted in an increased corneal thickness (p<0.001), but this was not accompanied by a widespread expansion of the collagen fibrillar array, and in the case of ascorbate-deficient animals, stromal thickening was associated with the compaction of collagen fibrils (p<0.01). Neither UVB exposure nor ascorbic acid deficiency caused any change in the average diameter or D-periodicity of the stromal collagen fibrils. Conclusions UVB-induced changes in the corneal ultrastructure were most pronounced in animals fed an ascorbic aciddeficient diet. This suggests that ascorbic acid may play a vital role in protecting the corneal stroma from the harmful effects of UVB. PMID:22171156

Hayes, Sally; Cafaro, Thamara A.; Boguslawska, Patrycja J.; Kamma-Lorger, Christina S.; Boote, Craig; Harris, Jonathan; Young, Robert; Hiller, Jennifer; Terrill, Nicholas; Meek, Keith M.

2011-01-01

143

Deficiency of PdxR in Streptococcus mutans Affects Vitamin B6 Metabolism, Acid Tolerance Response and Biofilm Formation.  

PubMed

Streptococcus mutans, a key etiological agent of the human dental caries, lives primarily on the tooth surface in tenacious biofilms. The SMU864 locus, designated pdxR, is predicted to encode a member of the novel MocR/GabR family proteins, which are featured with a winged helix DNA-binding N-terminal domain and a C-terminal domain highly homologous to the pyridoxal phosphate-dependent aspartate aminotransferases. A pdxR-deficient mutant, TW296, was constructed using allelic exchange. PdxR-deficiency in S. mutans had little effect on cell morphology and growth when grown in brain heart infusion. However, when compared to its parent strain, UA159, the PdxR-deficient mutant displayed major defects in acid tolerance response and formed significantly less biofilms (P<0.01). When analyzed by RealTime-PCR, PdxR-deficiency was found to drastically reduce expression of an apparent operon encoding a pyridoxal kinase (SMU865) and a pyridoxal permease (SMU866) of the salvage pathway of vitamin B6 biosynthesis. In addition, PdxR-deficiency also altered the expression of genes for ClpL protease, glucosyltransferase B and adhesin SpaP, which are known to play important roles in stress tolerance and biofilm formation. Consistently, PdxR-deficiency affected growth of the deficient mutant when grown in defined medium with and without vitamin B6 . Further studies revealed that while S. mutans is known to require vitamin B6 to grow in defined medium, B6 vitamers, especially pyridoxal, were strongly inhibitory at millimolar concentrations, against S. mutans growth and biofilm formation. Our results suggest that PdxR in S. mutans plays an important role in regulation of vitamin B6 metabolism, acid tolerance response and biofilm formation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25421565

Liao, Sumei; Bitoun, Jacob P; Nguyen, Anne H; Bozner, Diana; Yao, Xin; Wen, Zezhang T

2014-11-25

144

Plasma vitamins B2, B6, B12, and related genetic variants as predictors of colorectal cancer risk  

PubMed Central

Background B-vitamins are essential for one-carbon metabolism and have been linked to colorectal cancer (CRC). Although associations with folate have frequently been studied, studies on other plasma vitamins B2, B6, and B12 and CRC are scarce or inconclusive. Methods Nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, including 1365 incident CRC cases and 2319 controls matched for study center, age, and sex. We measured the sum of B2 species riboflavin and flavin mononucleotide, and the sum of B6 species pyridoxal 5?-phosphate, pyridoxal, and 4-pyridoxic acid as indicators for vitamin B2 and B6 status, as well as vitamin B12 in plasma samples collected at baseline. In addition, we determined eight polymorphisms related to one-carbon metabolism. Relative risks (RRs) for CRC were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for smoking, education, physical activity, BMI, alcohol consumption, and intakes of fiber, red- and processed meat. Results RRs comparing highest to lowest quintile (95% confidence interval, Ptrend) were: 0.71 (0.560.91, 0.02) for vitamin B2, 0.68 (0.530.87, <0.001) for vitamin B6, and 1.02 (0.801.29, 0.19) for vitamin B12. The associations for vitamin B6 were stronger in males who consumed ? 30g alcohol/day. The polymorphisms were not associated with CRC. Conclusions Higher plasma concentrations of vitamins B2 and B6 are associated with a lower CRC risk. Impact This European population-based study is the first to indicate that vitamin B2 is inversely associated with CRC, and is in agreement to previously suggested inverse associations of vitamin B6 with CRC. PMID:20813848

Eussen, Simone JPM; Vollset, Stein Emil; Hustad, Steinar; Midttun, ivind; Meyer, Klaus; Fredriksen, se; Ueland, Per Magne; Jenab, Mazda; Slimani, Nadia; Boffetta, Paolo; Overvad, Kim; Thorlacius-Ussing, Ole; Tjnneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Clavel-Chapelon, Franoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Morois, Sophie; Weikert, Cornelia; Pischon, Tobias; Linseisen, Jakob; Kaaks, Rudolf; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Zilis, Demosthenes; Katsoulis, Michael; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra HM; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Duijnhoven, Frnzel JB; Skeie, Guri; Muoz, Xavier; Martnez, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Ardanaz, Eva; Navarro, Carmen; Rodrguez, Laudina; Van Guelpen, Bethany; Palmqvist, Richard; Manjer, Jonas; Ericson, Ulrika; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio

2010-01-01

145

The effect of Helicobacter pylori on vitamin B 12 blood levels in chronic renal failure patients: a single blind control trial.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori (HP) is a common infection worldwide and has been associated with severe morbidity. The level of vitamin B 12 in HP-infected chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is reported to be lower than in the general population. The present study has been designed to evaluate the vitamin B 12 level in HP-infected CKD patients. We assessed the serum levels of vitamin B 12 in 50 CKD patients with positive HP serology, one and three months after the eradication of HP infection. There were significant differences between the serum levels of vitamin B 12 in the study patients before (806.98 466.82) and after (760.36 433.93) eradication treatment (P <0.001). We conclude that our study suggests the correlation between vitamin B 12 deficiency in CKD patients and the HP infection status. PMID:23816726

Khedmat, Hossein; Amini, Mohsen; Karbasi, Ashraf; Azizi, Reza

2013-07-01

146

Synthesis and characterization of polypyrrolemagnetitevitamin B12 hybrid composite electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study vitamin B12 covered magnetite nanoparticles have been incorporated into a conducting polypyrrole. This polymer\\u000a was electrochemically synthesized in the presence of the B12-coated magnetite. The adsorption of B12 was demonstrated by the\\u000a decrease in absorbance of the vitamin in the supernatant liquid after B12 has been in contact with magnetite sol overnight.\\u000a The composition of the layers

Csaba Janaky; Balazs Endrodi; Angela Hajdu; Csaba Visy

2010-01-01

147

A deficiency of vitamin B6 is a plausible molecular basis of the retinopathy of patients with diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Eighteen patients with diabetes mellitus, some of whom had variously retinopathy, pregnancy, and the carpal tunnel syndrome, and were variously treated with steroids and vitamin B6, have been overviewed for periods of 8 months to 28 years. We have established an association of a deficiency of vitamin B6 with diabetes by monitoring the specific activity of the erythrocyte glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and again by the association with the carpal tunnel syndrome (C.T.S.). It has been known for a decade that C.T.S. is caused by a B6 deficiency. The absence of retinopathy in vitamin B6-treated diabetic patients over periods of 8 months - 28 years appears monumental. These observations are like discovery and constitute a basis for a new protocol to establish the apparent relationship of a deficiency of vitamin B6 as a molecular cause of diabetic neuropathy. Blindness and vision are so important that the strength or weakness of the observations are not important; the conduct of a new protocol is important. PMID:1883384

Ellis, J M; Folkers, K; Minadeo, M; VanBuskirk, R; Xia, L J; Tamagawa, H

1991-08-30

148

Competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

BACKGROUND Few accurate data exist on the concentration of vitamin B12 in human milk. Binding of the vitamin to haptocorrin (HC) can interfere with the assay if not removed by pretreatment, and very low values can occur in women with poor B12 status. This study evaluated two competitive enzyme bind...

149

Harvard study finds folic acid, vitamins B6 and 12 do not affect colorectal adenoma risk  

Cancer.gov

Combined folic acid, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 supplements had no statistically significant effect on the risk of colorectal adenoma among women who were at high risk for cardiovascular disease, according to a Harvard Medical School study published October 12 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. The Harvard Medical School is a component of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute.

150

Metabolic Vitamin B12 Status on a Mostly Raw Vegan Diet with Follow-Up Using Tablets, Nutritional Yeast, or Probiotic Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Pure vegetarian diets might cause cobalamin deficiency due to lack of dietary intake. It was hypothesized that a population following a vegan diet consuming mostly raw fruits and vegetables, carrot juice, and dehydrated barley grass juice would be able to avoid vitamin B12 deficiency naturally. Methods: Subjects were recruited at a health ministers reunion based on adherence to the

Michael S. Donaldson

2000-01-01

151

A relationship between vitamin B sub 12 , folate, ascorbic acid, and mercury metabolism  

SciTech Connect

The effect of megadoses of vitamin B{sub 12}, folate, and vitamin C on the in vivo methylation of mercuric chloride was studied in guinea pigs. The incorporation of high levels of vitamin B{sub 12}, folate, and vitamin C resulted in a decrease in both inorganic mercury and methylmercury concentrations in all tissues except the lungs and heart compared to controls. However, percent methylmercury levels tended to increase with vitamin treatment. The addition of megadoses of vitamin B{sub 12} fed either singularly or in combination with the other vitamins resulted in increased methylmercury concentrations in the liver, spleen, and kidney tissues of the guinea pig. Moreover, percent methylmercury levels increased with B{sub 12} treatment in the liver, heart, and kidney. Incorporation of high levels of folate into the dietary regime also affected the mercury methylation process particularly in the liver, heart, kidney and hair tissues. However, this effect was observed most often in animals fed both B{sub 12} and folate. Vitamin C appears to play a synergistic role with vitamin B{sub 12} and/or folate in the methylation of mercury.

Zorn, N.E.

1988-01-01

152

A relationship between vitamin B sub 12 , folic acid, ascorbic acid, and mercury uptake and methylation  

SciTech Connect

Ingestion of megadoses of certain vitamins appears to influence the in vivo methylation of mercuric chloride in guinea pigs. The addition of megadoses of vitamin B{sub 12} fed either singularly or in combination with folic acid resulted in increased methylmercury concentrations in the liver. Moreover, percent methylmercury levels were significantly increased with B{sub 12} treatment in the liver (B{sub 12} only and B{sub 12}/folic acid) and brain (B{sub 12}/vitamin C). Incorporation of high levels of folic acid into the dietary regime also increased the methylmercury concentration particularly in the liver and hair tissues. The addition of vitamin C in the diet, particularly in combination with B{sub 12} (brain) or folic acid (muscle) resulted in increased methylmercury levels in these tissues and percent methylmercury values with B{sub 12} in the muscle and brain tissue.

Zorn, N.E.; Smith, J.T. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (USA))

1990-01-01

153

Nutritional value of meat: the influence of nutrition and physical activity on vitamin B12 concentrations in ruminant tissues.  

PubMed

An important nutritional characteristic of ruminant meat is its high content in vitamin B12. The variability of these contents is not known. Three studies were been set up in order to test the influence of the animal species (2 studies on Charolais steers slaughtered at 30-32 months of age, n = 24 and n = 30 and a third one on lambs slaughtered at 4.5 months of age, n = 21), of the nature of the diet (grass vs. maize silage, lucerne or concentrate diets) and of physical activity (without or with walking) on the vitamin B12 contents of different muscle types (rather oxidative (Rectus Abdominis, RA), intermediate (Longissimus Dorsi, LD), or glycolytic (Semi Tendinosus, ST)) and on the liver. The animals were supplemented in macro and trace minerals according to usual feeding practices in France in order to theoretically avoid any risk of deficiency. For this reason, cobalt allowances, which are necessary for the ruminal synthesis of vitamin B12, could differ among treatments. The results indicate the following: (1) cobalt allowances varied widely among treatments, from (sub-)deficient to plethoric allowances, influencing vitamin B12 contents of the liver, and muscles (only in case of deficiency), (2) the effects of dietary treatments or of physical exercise were essentially related to differences in cobalt allowances, (3) the oxidative type muscle (RA) showed contents which were double those in glycolytic type muscle (RA 10.8 vs. ST 5.0 ng.g(-1)) and (4) vitamin B12 contents of raw muscles were lower than the values indicated in tables of feed composition for humans for cooked meat (0.5 to 1 vs. 2 to 3 microg.100 g(-1)). PMID:16045893

Ortigues-Marty, Isabelle; Micol, Didier; Prache, Sophie; Dozias, Dominique; Girard, Christiane L

2005-01-01

154

UTILIZATION OF DIETARY VITAMIN B12 AND COBALT ~: BY MATURE HORSES 1.2  

Microsoft Academic Search

activity per kilogram during the control period and then fed a diet that contained only 1.14 ~g of vitamin B12 activity per kilo- gram. The composition of the experimental diet is presented in table 1. Redistilled water was provided in stainless steel pails and food in aluminum trays. Both were offered ad libitum. Daily food consumption was recorded. Blood, urine

M. C. STILLIONS; S. M. TEETER; W. E. NELSON

155

Vitamins Deficiencies and Brain Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The consequences of malnutrition on the central nervous system are diverse and depend to a significant extent on the stage\\u000a of development or maturity of the brain as well as on the severity of the nutritional deficiency. For example, vitamin deficiencies\\u000a result in a wide range of neuropathology and neuropsychiatric symptomatology depending upon the nature and extent of the vitamin

Chantal Bmeur; Jane A. Montgomery; Roger F. Butterworth

156

Should vitamin B12 tablets be included in more Canadian drug formularies? An economic model of the cost-saving potential from increased utilisation of oral versus intramuscular vitamin B12 maintenance therapy for Alberta seniors  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-savings attainable if all patients aged ?65 years in Alberta, Canada, currently on intramuscular therapy were switched to oral therapy, from the perspective of a provincial ministry of health. Setting Primary care setting in Alberta, Canada. Participants Seniors of age 65 years and older currently receiving intramuscular vitamin B12 therapy. Intervention Oral vitamin B12 therapy at 1000??g/day versus intramuscular therapy at 1000??g/month. Primary and secondary outcome measures Cost saving from oral therapy over intramuscular therapy, from the perspective of the Alberta Ministry of Health, including drug costs, dispensing fees, injection administration fees, additional laboratory monitoring and physician visit fees. Results Over 5?years, if all Albertans aged 65 years and older who currently receive intramuscular B12 are switched to oral therapy, our model found that $C13?975?883 can be saved. Even if no additional physician visits are billed for among patients receiving intramuscular therapy, $C8?444?346 could be saved from reduced administration costs alone. Conclusions Oral B12 therapy has been shown to be an effective therapeutic option for patients with vitamin B12 deficiency, yet only three provinces and the Non-Insured Health Benefits program include oral tablets on their formulary rather than the parenteral preparation. To ensure judicious use of limited health resources, clinicians and formulary committees are encouraged to adopt oral B12 therapy as a clinically and cost-effective first-line therapy for vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:24793247

Houle, Sherilyn K D; Kolber, Michael R; Chuck, Anderson W

2014-01-01

157

Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)  

MedlinePLUS

... acid is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex formulations. Vitamin B complex generally includes vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B3 (niacin/niacinamide), vitamin ...

158

Serious adverse drug reaction in a woman with hyperemesis gravidarum after first exposure to vitamin B complex containing vitamins B1, B6 and B12.  

PubMed

We report the case of a pregnant woman who suffered from hypotension after first exposure to intravenous administration of a combination drug containing vitamins B1, B6 and B12 (Vitamedin; Daiichi-Sankyo, Tokyo, Japan). A 27-year-old Japanese woman received an intravenous infusion of fluid containing a vitamin B complex due to hyperemesis gravidarum. Thirty minutes after the start of infusion she was found to be in hypotension. The patient had stupor, general sweating, blood pressure of 82/50 mmHg, and low percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) of 88%. We immediately stopped the infusion, lifted her legs and administered oxygen. Three minutes after these treatments, she quickly recovered to a good general condition. A skin prick test for vitamin B12 was positive, but tests for B1, B6, mannitol and saline were negative, indicating this adverse reaction was one of drug hypersensitivity due to the vitamin B12 in Vitamedin. Patients should be observed carefully immediately after the administration of Vitamedin. PMID:19751344

Kuwata, Yoshimine; Tsuruoka, Shuichi; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Matsubara, Shigeki; Izumi, Akio; Suzuki, Mitsuaki

2009-08-01

159

Multiple micronutrient-fortified rice affects physical performance and plasma vitamin B-12 and homocysteine concentrations of Indian school children.  

PubMed

Fortifying rice with multiple micronutrients could be a promising strategy for combat micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries. We determined the efficacy of extruded rice grains fortified with multiple micronutrients on the prevalence of anemia, micronutrient status, and physical and cognitive performance in 6- to 12-y-old, low-income school children in Bangalore, India. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, 258 children were assigned to 1 of 3 intervention groups to receive rice-based lunch meals fortified with multiple micronutrients with either low-iron (6.25 mg) or high-iron (12.5 mg) concentrations or identical meals with unfortified rice. The meals were provided 6 d/wk for 6 mo. Anthropometric, biochemical, physical performance, and cognitive assessments were taken at baseline and endpoint. At baseline, study groups were comparable, with 61% of the children being anemic. However, only <10% were deficient in iron, vitamin A, and zinc. After 6 mo, plasma vitamin B-12 and homocysteine concentrations (both P < 0.001) as well as physical performance (P < 0.05) significantly improved in the intervention arms. No between-group differences were observed in hemoglobin concentration, anemia, and deficiencies of other micronutrients or cognitive function after 6 mo, but paired analyses revealed a small reduction in anemia prevalence in children in the low-iron group. The fortified rice was efficacious in improving vitamin B-12 status and physical performance in Indian school children. PMID:22437556

Thankachan, Prashanth; Rah, Jee Hyun; Thomas, Tinku; Selvam, Sumithra; Amalrajan, Vani; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Steiger, Georg; Kurpad, Anura V

2012-05-01

160

TENEUR EN VITAMINE B12 DU FOIE ET DU CONTENU DE L'INTESTIN  

E-print Network

V. - TENEUR EN VITAMINE B12 DU FOIE ET DU CONTENU DE L'INTESTIN R. F?VRIER, J. P. VACHEL M. MICHEL relations encore mal connues entre l'action des antibiotiques et le métabolisme de la vitamine Bi2. Pour obtenir des informations plus complètes sur ce point, nous avons effectué des dosages de vitamine Bi2 sur

Boyer, Edmond

161

Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and methionine synthase polymorphisms with breast cancer risk and interaction with folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B 12 intakes.  

PubMed

We assessed the association between dietary intake of folate and the MTHFR genotype with breast cancer in a Chinese population, with additional analysis of the interactions of gene polymorphisms and dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. A case-control study was performed, and 535 patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer and 673 controls were enrolled into this study. The MTHFR 667TT genotype (odds ratio (OR)?=?1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?1.24-2.97) and T allele (OR0=?1.48, 95% CI?=?1.15-1.78) were correlated with a moderately significant increased risk of breast cancer when compared with the CC genotype. Individuals carrying the MTR 2756GG genotype (OR?=?1.66, 95% CI?=?1.16-2.56) and G allele (OR?=?1.42, 95% CI?=?1.26-1.81) had a higher risk of breast cancer when compared with subjects with the AA genotype. The MTHFR 667 T allele and MTR 2756 G allele were associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in individuals with low folate intake, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12, but the association disappeared among subjects with moderate and high intake of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. This case-control study found that the MTHFR C677T and MTR A2756G polymorphisms are associated with risk of breast cancer, and folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 intakes influence these associations. PMID:25217320

Jiang-Hua, Qiao; De-Chuang, Jiao; Zhen-Duo, Lu; Shu-de, Cui; Zhenzhen, Liu

2014-12-01

162

THE EFFECT OF DIETARY COBALT INTAKE ON THE PLASMA VITAMIN B12 CONCENTRATION OF SHEEP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma vitamin B12 concentration of sheep progressively increased as the dietary cobalt level was raised from 004 parts per million to 034 parts per million. With rations containing more than 010 parts per million cobalt (81 ?g. Co\\/day) plasma vitamin B12 concentrations of sheep were more variable than those with lower cobalt intakes. This variability may have been due

M Somers; JM Gawthorne

1969-01-01

163

Nutritional B vitamin deficiency alters the expression of key proteins associated with vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration in the aorta of atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E null mice.  

PubMed

Low B vitamin status is linked with human vascular disease. We employed a proteomic and biochemical approach to determine whether nutritional folate deficiency and/or hyperhomocysteinemia altered metabolic processes linked with atherosclerosis in ApoE null mice. Animals were fed either a control fat (C; 4% w/w lard) or a high-fat [HF; 21% w/w lard and cholesterol (0/15% w/w)] diet with different B vitamin compositions for 16weeks. Aorta tissue was prepared and global protein expression, B vitamin, homocysteine and lipoprotein status measured. Changes in the expression of aorta proteins were detected in response to multiple B vitamin deficiency combined with a high-fat diet (P<0.05) and were strongly linked with lipoprotein concentrations measured directly in the aorta adventitia (P<0.001). Pathway analysis revealed treatment effects in the aorta-related primarily to cytoskeletal organisation, smooth muscle cell adhesion and invasiveness (e.g., fibrinogen, moesin, transgelin, vimentin). Combined B vitamin deficiency induced striking quantitative changes in the expression of aorta proteins in atherosclerotic ApoE null mice. Deregulated expression of these proteins is associated with human atherosclerosis. Cellular pathways altered by B vitamin status included cytoskeletal organisation, cell differentiation and migration, oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. These findings provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms through which B vitamin deficiency may accelerate atherosclerosis. PMID:25446494

Duthie, Susan J; Beattie, John H; Gordon, Margaret-J; Pirie, Lynn P; Nicol, Fergus; Reid, Martin D; Duncan, Gary J; Cantlay, Louise; Horgan, Graham; McNeil, Christopher J

2015-01-01

164

ber das Vitamin B 12 -Bedrfnis phototropher Schwefelbakterien  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.10 von 19 Chlorobium-Stmmen, die mit einer Vit. B12-haltigen Nhrlsung aus verschiedenen Gewssern in Kalifornien, Norwegen und Deutschland isoliert waren, erwiesen sich als Vit. B12-bedrftig.2.Bei Vit. B12-bedrftigen Chlorobium- und Chromatium-Stmmen wurde der Chlorophyllgehalt der Kulturen in Abhngigkeit von der Vit. B12-Konzentration quantitativ bestimmt. Zur Bildung vergleichbarer Ertrge bentigten alle untersuchten Chlorobium-Stmme gegenber den Chromatium-Stmmen etwa zehnmal hhere Vit. B12-Konzentrationen.3.Der Vergleich

Norbert Pfennig; Klaus Dieter Lippert

1966-01-01

165

Evaluation of vitamin B12 effects on DNA damage induced by paclitaxel.  

PubMed

Paclitaxel (PAC) is an anticancer drug that has been shown to generate free radicals leading to irreversible cell injury. Vitamin B12 has antioxidative properties and can protect DNA from free radicals. In this study, we examined the possible genotoxic effect of PAC on DNA as well as the possible protective effect of vitamin B12 on DNA damage induced by paclitaxel. Sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels were measured in cultured human blood lymphocytes treated with PAC (10 M) and/or vitamin B12 (2.7 mg/mL). Our results showed that PAC significantly increased the frequencies of SCEs (p < 0.001) and CAs (p < 0.001) in human blood lymphocytes, as compared to controls. These DNA damages, caused by PAC drug, were prevented by pretreatment of cells with vitamin B12. In addition, we showed that PAC induced an increase in 8-OHdG, a marker of oxidative DNA damage, and that this increase was prevented by vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 seems to protect against genotoxicity induced by PAC in human blood lymphocytes. PMID:24215581

Alzoubi, Karem; Khabour, Omar; Khader, Manal; Mhaidat, Nizar; Al-Azzam, Sayer

2014-07-01

166

Effects of Formulation Variables and Storage Conditions on Light Protected Vitamin B12 Mixed Parenteral Formulations  

PubMed Central

Purpose: In this research the effect of vitamin B1 and B6 on cyanocobalamin stability in commercial light protected parenteral formulations and upon adding stabilizing agents will be investigated and best formulation composition and proper storage condition will be introduced. Methods: In this research some additives such as co solvents and tonicity adjusters, surfactants, antioxidants and chelating agents as well as buffer solutions, were used to improve the stability of the parenteral mixed formulations of B12 in the presence of other B vitamins (B1 and B6). Screening tests and accelerated stability tests were performed according to ICH guidelines Q1A (R2). Results: Shelf life evaluation revealed the best formulation and the proper storage condition. The results indicated the first kinetic models for all tested formulations and the optimum pH value was determined to be 5.8. There was no evidence of B12 loss when mixed with B1 and B6 in a medical syringe at room temperature for maximum of 8 hours. Conclusion: It is necessary to formulate vitamin B12 mixed parenteral solutions using proper phosphate buffers (pH=5.8) and to indicate Store in refrigerator on the mixed parenteral formulations of vitamin B12 with other B vitamins, which has not been expressed on the label of tested Brand formulations at the time of this study. PMID:25436187

Monajjemzadeh, Farnaz; Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin; Valizadeh, Hadi

2014-01-01

167

FRACTION OF TOTAL PLASMA VITAMIN B12 BOUND TO TRANSCOBALAMIN CORRELATES WITH COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN ELDERLY LATINOS WITH DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: The fraction of total plasma vitamin B12 bound to transcobalamin (holoTC/B12 ratio) may reflect tissue levels of the vitamin, but its clinical relevance is unclear. Methods: associations between cognitive function and total B12, holoTC, and holoTC/B12 ratio were assessed in a cohort of ...

168

Relation between vitamin B12 and folate status, and hemoglobin concentration and parasitemia during acute malaria infections in Colombia.  

PubMed

Anemia is a common complication of human malaria. Since micronutrient deficiencies are highly prevalent in malaria-endemic areas and appear to contribute to anemia etiology, we conducted a cross-sectional study in Tumaco, Colombia, to examine the associations between plasma vitamin B12 or erythrocyte folate concentrations and hemoglobin (Hb) among 96 adults with predominantly Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Prevalence of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies was 26.0 and 26.6%, respectively. There was an inverse, linear relation between folate and Hb concentrations. Adjusted difference in Hb between lowest and highest folate quartiles was 1g/dL (p=0.04; p, test for trend=0.01). Vitamin B12 was not associated with Hb concentrations and did not modify the associations between folate and Hb. Incidentally, body mass index (BMI) was inversely associated with parasitemia and risk of clinical malaria. Future longitudinal studies are warranted to determine the potential pathophysiological role of folate in malaria-related anemia. PMID:19931503

Caicedo, Olga; Villamor, Eduardo; Forero, Yibby; Ziade, Jos; Prez, Pilar; Quiones, Francisco; Arvalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Scrates

2010-04-01

169

Relation between Vitamin B12 and Folate Status, and Hemoglobin Concentration and Parasitemia during Acute Malaria Infections in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Anemia is a common complication of human malaria. Since micronutrient deficiencies are highly prevalent in malaria-endemic areas and appear to contribute to anemia etiology, we conducted a cross-sectional study in Tumaco, Colombia, to examine the associations between plasma vitamin B12 or erythrocyte folate concentrations and hemoglobin (Hb) among 96 adults with predominantly Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Prevalence of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies were 26.0% and 26.6%, respectively. There was an inverse, linear relation between folate and Hb concentrations. Adjusted difference in Hb between lowest and highest folate quartiles was 1 g/dL (p = 0.04; p, test for trend = 0.01). Vitamin B12 was not associated with Hb concentrations and did not modify the associations between folate and Hb. Incidentally, body mass index (BMI) was inversely associated with parasitemia and risk of clinical malaria. Future longitudinal studies are warranted to determine the potential pathophysiological role of folate in malaria-related anemia. PMID:19931503

Caicedo, Olga; Villamor, Eduardo; Forero, Yibby; Ziade, Jos; Prez, Pilar; Quiones, Francisco; Arvalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Scrates

2010-01-01

170

Vitamin B(12) synthesis and salvage pathways were acquired by horizontal gene transfer to the Thermotogales.  

PubMed

The availability of genome sequences of Thermotogales species from across the order allows an examination of the evolutionary origins of phenotypic characteristics in this lineage. Several studies have shown that the Thermotogales have acquired large numbers of genes from distantly related lineages, particularly Firmicutes and Archaea. Here, we report the finding that some Thermotogales acquired the ability to synthesize vitamin B(12) by acquiring the requisite genes from these distant lineages. Thermosipho species, uniquely among the Thermotogales, contain genes that encode the means to synthesize vitamin B(12) de novo from glutamate. These genes are split into two gene clusters: the corrinoid synthesis gene cluster, that is unique to the Thermosipho and the cobinamide salvage gene cluster. The corrinoid synthesis cluster was acquired from the Firmicutes lineage, whereas the salvage pathway is an amalgam of bacteria- and archaea-derived proteins. The cobinamide salvage gene cluster has a patchy distribution among Thermotogales species, and ancestral state reconstruction suggests that this pathway was present in the common Thermotogales ancestor. We show that Thermosipho africanus can grow in the absence of vitamin B(12), so its de novo pathway is functional. We detected vitamin B(12) in the extracts of T. africanus cells to verify the synthetic pathway. Genes in T. africanus with apparent B(12) riboswitches were found to be down-regulated in the presence of vitamin B(12) consistent with their roles in B(12) synthesis and cobinamide salvage. PMID:22798452

Swithers, Kristen S; Petrus, Amanda K; Secinaro, Michael A; Nesb, Camilla L; Gogarten, J Peter; Noll, Kenneth M; Butzin, Nicholas C

2012-01-01

171

Influence of vitamin B 12 and light on the formation of chlorosomes in green- and brown-colored Chlorobium species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specific Bchl a and c content of the vitamin B12-dependent Chlorobium limicola strain 1230 decreased strongly under vitamin B12 limitation. In comparison to a regularly grown culture (20 g vitamin B12\\/l) the specific Bchl c content of a B12-limited culture was reduced to 20% and the specific Bchl a content to 42%. By ultrathin sections it could be clearly

Sabine Fuhrmann; Jiirg Overmann; Norbert Pfennig; Ulrich Fischer

1993-01-01

172

Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)  

MedlinePLUS

... for Alzheimer's disease, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Down syndrome, autism, diabetes and related nerve pain, sickle cell ... acid and vitamin B12.Preventing re-blockage of blood vessels after angioplasty. Boosting the immune system. Muscle cramps. ...

173

Folate and vitamin B-12 status in relation to anemia, macrocytosis, and cognitive impairment in older Americans in the age of folic acid fortification  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Historic data on folic acid treatment of pernicious anemia suggested that high-level fortification would delay diagnosis or exacerbate effects of vitamin B12 deficiency, which affects many seniors. This idea is controversial, however, because observational data are few and inconclusive and experime...

174

Folate and Vitamin B12 Transport Systems in the Developing Infant  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

B vitamin transport systems in infants are not as well studied as those for amino acids and glucose. For most B vitamins, a 2-step process allows for digestion of coenzyme forms of the vitamins in food, followed by specific transport systems for the free vitamin in the intestine. Folate and vitamin ...

175

Vitamin A deficiency in quail  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two experiments were conducted to determine the symptoms of avitaminosis A in growing and adolescent bobwhites. Chicks from parents that have received a diet rich in vitamin A may have enough stored to carry them a week or ten days on a growing diet deficient in vitamin A before symptoms of deficiency occur. The first sign is ruffled feathering, with the wing primaries standing out from the body and drooping. Ophthalmia in one or both eyes occurs and may close the eyes completely, but this condition is not severe in all cases and may not even be noticeable. Birds show poor growth, loss of appetite, and weakness before death. Under the conditions of the experiments discussed herein, death may occur in the fourth or fifth week, and mortality is high......Postmortem examination may reveal visceral gout with thick deposits of urates on the kidneys, in the ureters, on the heart, in the proventriculus, and occasionally covering all the viscera. There may also be hemorrhage of the heart and other organs....Adolescent quail reared on a diet rich in vitamin A may be able to live through the winter on a maintenance diet low in this vitamin without showing symptoms of avitaminosis, but some individuals whose storage of vitamin A in the liver is not as great as that of others may succumb to visceral gout.....A growing mash for quail which contains sufficient vitamin A when fresh may, after a period of storage, lose enough of the vitamin to cause the characteristic symptoms of avitaminosis A to appear.

Nestler, R.B.; Bailey, W.W.

1943-01-01

176

Intergenotypic variation of Vitamin B12 and Folate in AD: In north indian population  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Changes in lifestyle habits such as diet modification or supplementation have been indicated as probable protective factors for a number of chronic conditions including Alzheimer's disease (AD). With this background, we aim to hypothesize that whether C677T polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene contributes towards the risk of developing AD and its association with vitamin B12 and folate levels. Materials and Methods: A case-control study comprising of total 200 subjects, within the age group of 50-85 years. Their blood samples were analyzed for serum folate, vitamin B12 levels, and MTHFR C677T polymorphism by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Results: The mean plasma levels of vitamin B12 and folate were significantly lower in study group when compared to the control group (P < 0.001). Genotypic and allelic frequency of MTHFR gene in both groups was found to be significant (P < 0.05). The intergenotypic variations of vitamin B12 and folate were found to be significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: We concluded that the subjects with homozygous mutated alleles are more prone to AD and also pointed out the influence of presence/absence of MTHFR T allelic variants on serum folate and vitamin B12 levels. PMID:25221401

Chhillar, Neelam; Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Bala, Kiran; Basu, Mitra; Sharma, Deepika

2014-01-01

177

Investigation of a vitamin B12 conjugate as a PET imaging probe.  

PubMed

Nutrient demand is a fundamental characteristic of rapidly proliferating cells. Vitamin B12 is vital for cell proliferation; thus neoplastic cells have an increased demand for this essential nutrient. In this study we exploited the vitamin B12 uptake pathway to probe the nutritional demand of proliferating cells with a radiolabeled B12 derivative in various preclinical tumor models. We describe the synthesis and biological evaluations of copper-64-labeled B12 -ethylenediamine-benzyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N',N''-triacetic acid (B12 -en-Bn-NOTA-(64) Cu), the first example of a B12 derivative for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Small-animal imaging and pharmacological evaluation show high tumor uptake ranging from 2.20 to 4.84%?ID g(-1) at 6 h post-administration. Competition studies with excess native B12 resulted in a 95% decrease in tumor accumulation, indicating the specificity of this radiopharmaceutical for B12 endocytotic transport proteins. These results show that a vitamin B12 PET radiopharmaceutical has potential utility for non-invasive imaging of enhanced nutrient demand in proliferating cells. PMID:24753453

Ikotun, Oluwatayo F; Marquez, Bernadette V; Fazen, Christopher H; Kahkoska, Anna R; Doyle, Robert P; Lapi, Suzanne E

2014-06-01

178

Isolated vitamin E deficiency and progressive ataxia.  

PubMed Central

A case of progressive spinocerebellar syndrome due to isolated vitamin E deficiency is reported. Measurement of the vitamin E concentration in serum should be included when investigating all children with unexplained, progressive ataxia, even in the absence of malabsorption. Replacement treatment in patients with a vitamin E deficiency can arrest or improve the associated neurological disorder. Images PMID:8257187

Rayner, R J; Doran, R; Roussounis, S H

1993-01-01

179

Synthesis of a B ring opened 7,8-seco-vitamin B12 derivative with Grob fragmentation.  

PubMed

A synthetic route toward B ring opened 7,8-seco-cyanocobalamins is described. Hydrolysis of a novel c-lactone vitamin B12 (B12) derivative generates a cobalamin (Cbl) with a ?-bromo alcoholate subunit that reacts in situ via Grob fragmentation to the secocorrin. PMID:23991712

Oetterli, Ren M; Prieto, Lucas; Spingler, Bernhard; Zelder, Felix

2013-09-20

180

LOW ERYTHROCYTE FOLATE, BUT NOT PLASMA VITAMIN B-12 OR HOMOCYSTEINE, IS ASSOCIATED WITH DEMENTIA IN ELDERLY LATINOS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The relationship between B vitamin status and cognitive function has been of interest for many years. There is evidence of relationships between intake and status of folate and vitamin B-12 with neurological, cognitive, and memory impairment, but results have been inconsistent. Plasma B-12, erythroc...

181

Some histological manifestations in the early postnatal vitamin B?? deficient albino rat  

E-print Network

100 gns, 70, 0 20, 5 3, 6 4&O vitamins D Renadione Alpha tocopherol Biotin Choline Niacin Calcium pantothenate Riboi'lavin- Thiamin hydrochloride Pyridoxine -- 2000 I. U. 250 I, U. 2 ~ 5 Alg~ 1. 0 mg, 20. 0 mg. 100, 0 mgi 5. 0 mg... ltensdi one Biotin Thiamin hydrochloride Riboflavin- Pyridoxine hydrochloride Calcium pantothenate Alpha tocopherol Niacin Inositol Choline para-Amino bensoic acid Folic acid 12 2000 I, U, 250 I. U, -" ~, & mg, 0, 02 mgr 1, 0 mg. 1. 0 mg...

Johnson, Elmer Marshall

1955-01-01

182

Effects of cobalt/vitamin B12 status in ewes on ovum development and lamb viability at birth.  

PubMed

Scottish Blackface ewes from cobalt-deficient farmland were fed a diet containing 0.06 mg cobalt per kg dry matter from approximately 30 days before embryo recovery/transfer until lambing. Ewes remained untreated (-Co; n = 82) or were given an intraruminal cobalt-containing bolus to compensate for the dietary deficit (+Co; n = 82). Ewes used as embryo donors (-Co, n = 17; +Co, n = 16) were artificially inseminated with semen from a single Suffolk sire. Day 6 embryos obtained from -Co and +Co donors were transferred in singleton to -Co and +Co recipients in a 2 x 2 factorial-designed experiment to determine the effects of cobalt/vitamin B12 status during the periconception period (factor 1) and pregnancy (factor 2) on lamb viability at birth. Mean (+/- s.e.m.) circulating concentrations of vitamin B12 in -Co and +Co donors at ovum recovery were 182 +/- 10 and 1288 +/- 64 pmol L(-1), respectively (P < 0.001), and the number of corpora lutea per ewe ovulating was 9.9 +/- 1.6 and 14.4 +/- 1.3, respectively (P < 0.05). Treatment did not affect the proportion of recovered ova that contained >32 cells (viable) or the median stage of development (late morula), but viable ova recovered from -Co v. +Co ewes had a better morphological grade (2.0 +/- 0.1 v. 2.20 +/- 0.04, respectively; P < 0.01). There was no effect of treatment on the proportion of recipient ewes that became pregnant. Circulating concentrations of vitamin B12 were lower in -Co than +Co ewes during pregnancy (P < 0.001) and at birth in lambs born to -Co ewes compared with those born to +Co ewes (P < 0.001). There was no effect of donor or recipient cobalt/vitamin B12 status on lamb birthweight, neonatal vigour or neonatal rectal temperatures, but lambs derived from +Co v. -Co embryo donors were more active in the first 3 days after birth (P < 0.05). Results show that sub-clinical cobalt/vitamin B12 deficiency reduces ovulatory response in superovulated ewes and that periconception nutrition can affect neonatal lamb behaviour. PMID:17524300

Mitchell, Linda M; Robinson, John J; Watt, Robert G; McEvoy, Thomas G; Ashworth, Cheryl J; Rooke, John A; Dwyer, Cathy M

2007-01-01

183

Vitamin D deficiency in adolescents.  

PubMed

The prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in adolescents is variable but considerably high in many countries, especially in Middle-east and Southeast Asia. Different factors attribute to this deficiency including lack of sunlight exposure due to cultural dress codes and veiling or due to pigmented skin, and less time spent outdoors, because of hot weather, and lower vitamin D intake. A potent adaptation process significantly modifies the clinical presentation and therefore clinical presentations may be subtle and go unnoticed, thus making true prevalence studies difficult. Adolescents with severe VDD may present with vague manifestations including pain in weight-bearing joints, back, thighs and/or calves, difficulty in walking and/or climbing stairs, or running and muscle cramps. Adaptation includes increased parathormone (PTH) and deceased insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) secretion. PTH enhances the tubular reabsorption of Ca and stimulates the kidneys to produce 1, 25-(OH) 2D3 that increases intestinal calcium absorption and dissolves the mineralized collagen matrix in bone, causing osteopenia and osteoporosis to provide enough Ca to prevent hypocalcaemia. Decreased insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) delays bone growth to economize calcium consumption. Radiological changes are not uncommon and include osteoporosis/osteopenia affecting long bones as well as vertebrae and ribs, bone cysts, decalcification of the metaphysis of the long bones and pseudo fractures. In severe cases pathological fractures and deformities may occur. Vitamin D treatment of adolescents with VDD differs considerably in different studies and proved to be effective in treating all clinical, biochemical, and radiological manifestations. Different treatment regiments for VDD have been discussed and presented in this mini-review for practical use. Adequate vitamin D replacement after treating VDD, improving calcium intake (milk and dairy products), encouraging adequate exposure to the sun and possible enrichment of the stable food with vitamin D in areas with high prevalence of VDD are important measures to prevent the harmful consequences of VDD. PMID:25538884

Soliman, Ashraf T; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania; Bedair, Said; Kassem, Islam

2014-11-01

184

Vitamin D deficiency in adolescents  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in adolescents is variable but considerably high in many countries, especially in Middle-east and Southeast Asia. Different factors attribute to this deficiency including lack of sunlight exposure due to cultural dress codes and veiling or due to pigmented skin, and less time spent outdoors, because of hot weather, and lower vitamin D intake. A potent adaptation process significantly modifies the clinical presentation and therefore clinical presentations may be subtle and go unnoticed, thus making true prevalence studies difficult. Adolescents with severe VDD may present with vague manifestations including pain in weight-bearing joints, back, thighs and/or calves, difficulty in walking and/or climbing stairs, or running and muscle cramps. Adaptation includes increased parathormone (PTH) and deceased insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) secretion. PTH enhances the tubular reabsorption of Ca and stimulates the kidneys to produce 1, 25-(OH) 2D3 that increases intestinal calcium absorption and dissolves the mineralized collagen matrix in bone, causing osteopenia and osteoporosis to provide enough Ca to prevent hypocalcaemia. Decreased insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) delays bone growth to economize calcium consumption. Radiological changes are not uncommon and include osteoporosis/osteopenia affecting long bones as well as vertebrae and ribs, bone cysts, decalcification of the metaphysis of the long bones and pseudo fractures. In severe cases pathological fractures and deformities may occur. Vitamin D treatment of adolescents with VDD differs considerably in different studies and proved to be effective in treating all clinical, biochemical, and radiological manifestations. Different treatment regiments for VDD have been discussed and presented in this mini-review for practical use. Adequate vitamin D replacement after treating VDD, improving calcium intake (milk and dairy products), encouraging adequate exposure to the sun and possible enrichment of the stable food with vitamin D in areas with high prevalence of VDD are important measures to prevent the harmful consequences of VDD. PMID:25538884

Soliman, Ashraf T.; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania; Bedair, Said; Kassem, Islam

2014-01-01

185

Vitamin D deficiency in systemic lupus erythematosus.  

PubMed

Evidence from animal models and prospective studies of RA, multiple sclerosis, and type-1 diabetes suggest an important role for vitamin D as a modifiable environmental factor in autoimmune disease. This role has not been well studied in human SLE. We compared serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels between recently diagnosed SLE cases and matched controls, and examined disease characteristics in relationship to 25(OH)D among cases. Data from a population-based cohort of 123 recently diagnosed SLE patients and 240 controls were used. We found a trend toward lower 25(OH)D levels in cases compared to controls, which was statistically significant in Caucasians (p=0.04), controlling for age, sex, season, and smoking. Overall, 67% of the subjects were vitamin D deficient, with mean levels significantly lower among African Americans (15.9 ng/ml) compared to Caucasians (31.3 ng/ml). Critically low vitamin D levels (<10 ng/ml) were found in 22 of the SLE cases, with presence of renal disease being the strongest predictor (OR 13.3, p<0.01) followed by photosensitivity (OR 12.9, p<0.01). These results suggest vitamin D deficiency as a possible risk factor for SLE and provide guidance for future studies looking at a potential role of vitamin D in the prevention and/or treatment of SLE. PMID:16431339

Kamen, Diane L; Cooper, Glinda S; Bouali, Henda; Shaftman, Stephanie R; Hollis, Bruce W; Gilkeson, Gary S

2006-02-01

186

Low serum vitamin B12 levels among psychiatric patients admitted in Butabika mental hospital in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Psychiatric manifestations have been noted in patients with low serum vitamin B12 levels even in the absence of other neurologic and/or haematologic abnormalities. There is no literature on low serum B12 prevalence among Ugandans with psychiatric illnesses. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence, risk factors, and clinical manifestations of low serum vitamin B12 among psychiatric patients admitted in a Mental Health Hospital in Uganda. Method Using a cross sectional descriptive study design, 280 in-patients selected by systematic sampling were studied using a standardized protocol. Low serum vitamin B12 was defined as a level?B12 in 28.6% of the participants. Absent vibration sense which was significantly associated (58.3% Vs. 26.7%: OR?=?3.84 (95% C.I. 1.18, 12.49); p-value?=?0.025) with low vitamin B12 was observed among 12 participants. Macro-ovalocytes present among 23 participants on peripheral film were significantly associated with low serum levels (73.9% Vs. 26.2%: OR?=?7.99 (95% C.I. 3.01, 21.19) p-value?B12 levels included psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia (AOR 1.74 (95% C.I. 1.00, 3.02); p-value?=?0.049), duration of psychiatric illness?>?or?=?3years (AOR 2.27 (95% C.I. 1.29, 3.98); p-value?=?0.004), and hospitalization?B12 is common among hospitalized psychiatric patients with the majority having no haematological findings. Associated risk factors included having a psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia, a shorter duration of hospitalization and longer duration of psychiatric illness. Female participants were less likely to have low serum vitamin B12 levels. Routine screening for serum vitamin B12 levels should be adopted by all hospitals for admitted psychiatric patients. PMID:24533701

2014-01-01

187

Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)  

MedlinePLUS

Riboflavin is a B vitamin. It can be found in certain foods such as milk, meat, eggs, nuts, enriched flour, and green vegetables. Riboflavin is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex products. Vitamin B complex ...

188

Response in Vitamin B12Production and Absorption to Increasing Cobalt Intake in the Sheep 1-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three sheep, fitted with intestinal reentrant and rumen cannulas, were used to estimate ruminai production of vitamin B-12 when fed diets differing in cobalt concentrations. The basal diet, which was in pelleted form, consisted of 30% ground corn, 69% ground hay and 1% sodium chloride. At daily cobalt intakes averag ing 0.047, 0.41 and 0.83 mg, mean estimates of vitamin

M. F. HEDRICH; J. M. ELLIOT; ANDJ. E. LOWE

2010-01-01

189

J. LENOIR. -NOTE SUR LA DGRADATION From the results obtained after the sur vey of vitamin B12  

E-print Network

of vitamin B12 content during the fabrication and ripening of kefir, the following conclusions can be drawn : The fabrication and ripening of Kefir involve some losses in vitamin B12. In the product being made with milk in which Kefir fungi have been added, such losses reached an average proportion of 22,09 per cent after

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

190

Comparison of two modes of vitamin B12 supplementation on neuroconduction and cognitive function among older people living in Sandiago, Chile: A cluster randomized controlled trial. A study protocol(ISRCTN 02694183)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

BACKGROUND: Older people have a high risk of vitamin B12 deficiency; this can lead to varying degrees of cognitive and neurological impairment. CBL deficiency may present as macrocytic anemia, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, or as neuropathy, but is often asymptomatic in older peo...

191

Competitive chemiluminescent anzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent discoveries of matrix interferences by haptocorrin (HC) in human milk and serum show that past analyses of vitamin B12 in samples with high HC content might have been inaccurate (Lildballe et al., 2009; Carmel & Agrawal, 2012). We evaluated two competitive enzyme-binding immunoassays for seru...

192

An autism cohort study of cobalt levels following vitamin B12 injections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of methylcobalamin (vitamin B12) injection (75 g kg) on cobalt levels in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and potential toxic effects of cobalt on human neurons were evaluated. A cohort of ASDs (n = 72) presenting to the Genetic Centers of America were evaluated for the frequency of methylcobalamin injections and cobalt levels using Laboratory Corporation of America (LabCorp)

David A. Geier; Mark R. Geier

2010-01-01

193

Vitamin B12 and its binding proteins in the serum of some wild game species.  

PubMed

The concentration of vitamin B12 and its binding proteins was measured in the impala, nyala, wildebeest, zebra, bushpig, warthog, and rhino, all existing in their natural state. Marked differences were found between some species. The variations observed are probably true species differences, unrelated to environmental factors. PMID:1162511

Green, R; Keep, M E; Colman, N; Metz, J

1975-01-01

194

Genetics Home Reference: Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... Reviewed April 2008 What is ataxia with vitamin E deficiency? Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency is a ...

195

Insights into the Evolution of Vitamin B12 Auxotrophy from Sequenced Algal Genomes  

E-print Network

over 20% require vitamin B1 (thiamine) and a smaller proportion (5%) require biotin (vitamin B7) (Croft. 2005). Biotin and thiamine auxotrophy are the result of the loss of one or more of the biosynthetic

Goldstein, Raymond E.

196

Some histological manifestations in the vitamin B b12 sdeficient newborn rat  

E-print Network

&dna;, . and spieen 1n duced by a materw?l v1tamin Rl? deficiency 1? the ?suborn albino rat, 4 secondary porno a Ips to co"lpga e the '?Jot'. , +t dif faro loca bot'i&en the hearts, livorn and '. . Tdnevs of novborn offspring oi' v'to oin Q 2 deficient mothers... newborn albino rats of a strain Inintained 25 years at the college, Females which had been reared on a soybean oQ. cnai diet (PQ44) . M+t was very low in vitamin SI2 were used as the matavnal pueuts. The coapositf?n of this diet is given belowi Xahim...

Jones, Carroll Christian

2012-06-07

197

Pyridoxine supplementation corrects vitamin B6 deficiency but does not improve inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Patients with rheumatoid arthritis have subnormal vitamin B6 status, both quantitatively and functionally. Abnormal vitamin B6 status in rheumatoid arthritis has been associated with spontaneous tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production and markers of inflammation, including C-reactive protein an...

198

Vitamin A deficiency impairs adaptive B and T cell responses to a prototype monovalent attenuated human rotavirus vaccine and virulent human rotavirus challenge in a gnotobiotic piglet model.  

PubMed

Rotaviruses (RV) are a major cause of gastroenteritis in children. Widespread vitamin A deficiency is associated with reduced efficacy of vaccines and higher incidence of diarrheal infections in children in developing countries. We established a vitamin A deficient (VAD) gnotobiotic piglet model that mimics subclinical vitamin A deficiency in children to study its effects on an oral human rotavirus (HRV) vaccine and virulent HRV challenge. Piglets derived from VAD and vitamin A sufficient (VAS) sows were orally vaccinated with attenuated HRV or mock, with/without supplemental vitamin A and challenged with virulent HRV. Unvaccinated VAD control piglets had significantly lower hepatic vitamin A, higher severity and duration of diarrhea and HRV fecal shedding post-challenge as compared to VAS control pigs. Reduced protection coincided with significantly higher innate (IFN?) cytokine and CD8 T cell frequencies in the blood and intestinal tissues, higher pro-inflammatory (IL12) and 2-3 fold lower anti-inflammatory (IL10) cytokines, in VAD compared to VAS control pigs. Vaccinated VAD pigs had higher diarrhea severity scores compared to vaccinated VAS pigs, which coincided with lower serum IgA HRV antibody titers and significantly lower intestinal IgA antibody secreting cells post-challenge in the former groups suggesting lower anamnestic responses. A trend for higher serum HRV IgG antibodies was observed in VAD vs VAS vaccinated groups post-challenge. The vaccinated VAD (non-vitamin A supplemented) pigs had significantly higher serum IL12 (PID2) and IFN? (PID6) compared to vaccinated VAS groups suggesting higher Th1 responses in VAD conditions. Furthermore, regulatory T-cell responses were compromised in VAD pigs. Supplemental vitamin A in VAD pigs did not fully restore the dysregulated immune responses to AttHRV vaccine or moderate virulent HRV diarrhea. Our findings suggest that that VAD in children in developing countries may partially contribute to more severe rotavirus infection and lower HRV vaccine efficacy. PMID:24312675

Chattha, Kuldeep S; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Saif, Linda J

2013-01-01

199

Vitamin A Deficiency Impairs Adaptive B and T Cell Responses to a Prototype Monovalent Attenuated Human Rotavirus Vaccine and Virulent Human Rotavirus Challenge in a Gnotobiotic Piglet Model  

PubMed Central

Rotaviruses (RV) are a major cause of gastroenteritis in children. Widespread vitamin A deficiency is associated with reduced efficacy of vaccines and higher incidence of diarrheal infections in children in developing countries. We established a vitamin A deficient (VAD) gnotobiotic piglet model that mimics subclinical vitamin A deficiency in children to study its effects on an oral human rotavirus (HRV) vaccine and virulent HRV challenge. Piglets derived from VAD and vitamin A sufficient (VAS) sows were orally vaccinated with attenuated HRV or mock, with/without supplemental vitamin A and challenged with virulent HRV. Unvaccinated VAD control piglets had significantly lower hepatic vitamin A, higher severity and duration of diarrhea and HRV fecal shedding post-challenge as compared to VAS control pigs. Reduced protection coincided with significantly higher innate (IFN?) cytokine and CD8 T cell frequencies in the blood and intestinal tissues, higher pro-inflammatory (IL12) and 2-3 fold lower anti-inflammatory (IL10) cytokines, in VAD compared to VAS control pigs. Vaccinated VAD pigs had higher diarrhea severity scores compared to vaccinated VAS pigs, which coincided with lower serum IgA HRV antibody titers and significantly lower intestinal IgA antibody secreting cells post-challenge in the former groups suggesting lower anamnestic responses. A trend for higher serum HRV IgG antibodies was observed in VAD vs VAS vaccinated groups post-challenge. The vaccinated VAD (non-vitamin A supplemented) pigs had significantly higher serum IL12 (PID2) and IFN? (PID6) compared to vaccinated VAS groups suggesting higher Th1 responses in VAD conditions. Furthermore, regulatory T-cell responses were compromised in VAD pigs. Supplemental vitamin A in VAD pigs did not fully restore the dysregulated immune responses to AttHRV vaccine or moderate virulent HRV diarrhea. Our findings suggest that that VAD in children in developing countries may partially contribute to more severe rotavirus infection and lower HRV vaccine efficacy. PMID:24312675

Chattha, Kuldeep S.; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Vlasova, Anastasia N.; Saif, Linda J.

2013-01-01

200

Combined Vitamins B12b and C Induce the Glutathione Depletion and the Death of Epidermoid Human Larynx Carcinoma Cells HEp2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of hydroxocobalamin (vitamin B12b) and ascorbicacid (vitamin C) can cause the death of tumor cells at the concentrationsof the components at which they are nontoxic when administeredseparately. This cytotoxic action on epidermoid human larynx carcinomacells HEp-2 in vitro is shown to be due to the hydrogen peroxidegenerated by the combination of vitamins B12b and C. The drop inthe

Vladimir S. Akatov; Yury V. Evtodienko; Violetta V. Leshchenko; Vera V. Teplova; Margarita M. Potselueva; Alexey G. Kruglov; Enric I. Lezhnev; Raisa I. Yakubovskaya

2000-01-01

201

Insights into dechlorination of PCE and TCE from carbon isotope fractionation by vitamin B12  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reductive dechlorination of perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) by vitamin B12 is both a potential remediation technique and an analogue of the microbial reductive dechlorination reaction. Stable carbon isotopic analysis, an effective and powerful tool for the investigation and monitoring of contaminant remediation, was used to characterize the isotopic effects of reductive dechlorination of PCE and TCE by vitamin B12 in laboratory microcosms. 10 mg/L vitamin B12 degraded greater than 90% of an initial concentration of PCE of 20 mg/L. TCE, the primary product of PCE degradation, accounted for between 64 - 72% of the PCE degraded. In experiments with TCE, 147 mg/L vitamin B12 degraded greater than 90% of an initial concentration of TCE of 20 mg/L. Cis-dichloroethene (cDCE), the primary product of TCE degradation, accounted for between 30 - 35% of the TCE degraded. Degradation of both PCE and TCE exhibited first order kinetics. Strong isotopic fractionation of the reactant PCE and of the reactant TCE was observed over the course of degradation. This fractionation could be described by a Rayleigh model with enrichment factors between -16.5 ppm and -15.8 ppm for PCE, and -17.2 ppm and -16.6 ppm for TCE. Fractionation was similar in all four experiments, with a mean enrichment factor of -16.5 +/- 0.6 ppm. These large enrichment factors indicate that isotopic analysis can be used to assess the occurrence of dechlorination of PCE and TCE by vitamin B12 in remediation situations. Significantly, the Rayleigh model could be used to predict the isotopic compositions of the major products of the reaction as well as the reactant, notwithstanding the lack of complete mass balance observed between product and reactant. This evidence suggests that isotopic fractionation is taking place during complexation of the chlorinated ethenes to vitamin B12, as has been suggested for reductive dechlorination by zero valent iron. The differences between e for this reaction and those observed for microbial biodegradation of the chlorinated ethenes suggest that there may be differences in the rate determining step for these two processes. Determining which steps are rate determining during degradation may allow optimization of contaminant remediation.

Slater, G.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Lesage, S.; Brown, S.

2003-04-01

202

Influence du cobalt et de la vitamine B12 sur la croissance et la survie des cilis du rumen in vitro,  

E-print Network

Influence du cobalt et de la vitamine B12 sur la croissance et la survie des ciliés du rumen, 94010 Créteil. Summary. lnfluence of cobalt and vitamin B12 on growth and survival of rumen ciliates of vitamin B12 was studied on the growth of rumen ciliates in the presence of normal bacterial population

Boyer, Edmond

203

Vitamin B Complex  

MedlinePLUS

... other needed substances. B vitamins are found in plant and animal food sources. Overview B vitamins are ... healthy foods -- with most of them coming from plant sources -- rather than relying on supplements. While it ...

204

B Vitamins Test  

MedlinePLUS

... of this website will be limited. Search Help? B Vitamins Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... What are the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for B vitamins? The RDA for adults, children, and other groups ...

205

Genome-wide association study identifies novel loci associated with serum level of vitamin B12 in Chinese men.  

PubMed

Vitamin B12 (VitB12 or cobalamin) is an essential cofactor in several metabolic pathways. Clinically, VitB12 deficiency is associated with pernicious anemia, neurodegenerative disorder, cardiovascular disease and gastrointestinal disease. Although previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified several genes, including FUT2, CUBN, TCN1 and MUT, that may influence VitB12 levels in European populations, common genetic determinants of VitB12 remain largely unknown, especially in Asian populations. Here we performed a GWAS in 1999 healthy Chinese men and replicated the top findings in an independent Chinese sample with 1496 subjects. We identified four novel genomic loci that were significantly associated with serum level of VitB12 at a genome-wide significance level of 5.00 10(-8). These four loci were MS4A3 (11q12.1; rs2298585; P= 2.64 10(-15)), CLYBL (13q32; rs41281112; P= 9.23 10(-10)), FUT6 (19p13.3; rs3760776; P= 3.68 10(-13)) and 5q32 region (rs10515552; P= 3.94 10(-8)). In addition, we also confirmed the association with the serum level of VitB12 for the previously reported FUT2 gene and identified one novel non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism in FUT2 gene in this Chinese population (19q13.33; rs1047781; P= 3.62 10(-36)). The new loci identified offer new insights into the biochemical pathways involved in determining the serum level of VitB12 and provide opportunities to better delineate the role of VitB12 in health and disease. PMID:22367966

Lin, Xiaoling; Lu, Daru; Gao, Yong; Tao, Sha; Yang, Xiaobo; Feng, Junjie; Tan, Aihua; Zhang, Haiying; Hu, Yanling; Qin, Xue; Kim, Seong-Tae; Peng, Tao; Li, Li; Mo, Linjian; Zhang, Shijun; Trent, Jeffrey M; Mo, Zengnan; Zheng, S Lilly; Xu, Jianfeng; Sun, Jielin

2012-06-01

206

Studies in the biosynthesis of vitamin B12  

E-print Network

catalyzing the C-2 and C-7 methylations of Uroporphyrinogen III to precorrin-2, without performing an extra methylation at C-12 of precorrin-2 to trimethylpyrrocorphin. The function of the S.typhimurium cbid gene product has not yet been identified. The C...

Anousis, Nick

2012-06-07

207

Folate, Vitamin B12, and Serum Total Homocysteine Levels in Confirmed Alzheimer Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent studies suggest that vascular dis- ease may contribute to the cause of Alzheimer disease (AD). Since elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) level is a risk factor for vascular disease, it may also be relevant to AD. Objective: To examine the association of AD with blood levels of tHcy, and its biological determinants folate and vitamin B12. Design: Case-control

Robert Clarke; A. David Smith; Kim A. Jobst; Helga Refsum; Lesley Sutton; Per M. Ueland

1998-01-01

208

Study on methane fermentation and production of vitamin B 12 from alcohol waste slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied biogas fermentation from alcohol waste fluid to evaluate the anaerobic digestion process and the production of\\u000a vitamin B12 as a byproduct. Anaerobic digestion using acclimated methanogens was performed using the continuously stirred tank reactor\\u000a (CSTR) and fixed-bed reactor packed with rock wool as carrier material at 55C. We also studied the effects of metal ions\\u000a added to the

Zhenya Zhang; Taisheng Quan; Pomin Li; Yansheng Zhang; Norio Sugiura; Takaaki Maekawa

2004-01-01

209

Production potency of folate, vitamin B(12), and thiamine by lactic acid bacteria isolated from Japanese pickles.  

PubMed

We investigated the extracellular production of folate, vitamin B(12), and thiamine in cultures of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from nukazuke, a traditional Japanese pickle, and the relationships between the vitamin production and such properties of LAB as tolerance to salts, ethanol, etc. Among the 180 isolates of LAB, two strains of Lactobacillus (Lb.) sakei and a strain of Lb. plantarum extracellularly produced high levels of folate (about 100 g/L). A strain of Lb. coryniformis and one of Lb. plantarum produced about 2 g/L of vitamin B(12), although the level was not high. No isolates produced a high level of thiamine. The type cultures of LBA (53 strains) did not show any higher production of these vitamins. Some isolates showed tolerance to high concentrations of salts and alcohol, and low initial pH. No significant relationships between folate or vitamin B(12) productions and these properties of LAB were apparent. PMID:23132566

Masuda, Misako; Ide, Mariko; Utsumi, Haruka; Niiro, Tae; Shimamura, Yuko; Murata, Masatsune

2012-01-01

210

Methylcobalamin--a form of vitamin B12 identified and characterised in Chlorella vulgaris.  

PubMed

Vitamin B12 is among the most essential biomolecules required for crucial metabolic processes in humans. Vitamin B12 was extracted from Chlorella vulgaris biomass under aqueous conditions, partially purified by passing the extract through amberlite XAD-2, Sep-Pak columns, and further purified by HPLC. The target peak eluent was subjected to characterisation by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), selected ion recording (SIR) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and identified as methylcobalamin (Me-Cbl). Quantification of Me-Cbl was carried out by microbiological and chemiluminescence methods, and found to be 29.872 ?g/100 g and 26.842 ?g/100 g dry weight, respectively. The presence of Me-Cbl was further substantiated using gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) based aptamer analysis, and found to be 28.022 ?g/100 g dry weight. Good similarity was observed among all the methods. Methylcobalamin, a form of vitamin B12 was identified in C. vulgaris and this finding enhances its use as a nutritional supplement. PMID:25306351

Kumudha, Anantharajappa; Selvakumar, Sagaya; Dilshad, Pullancheri; Vaidyanathan, Gopal; Thakur, Munna Singh; Sarada, Ravi

2015-03-01

211

Polychlorinated biphenyl reductive dechlorination by vitamin B{sub 12s}: Thermodynamics and regiospecificity  

SciTech Connect

Microbial reductive dechlorination reactions play an important role in determining the environmental fate of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), especially for PCB congeners with more than four chlorines. Powerful chemical catalysts such as vitamin B{sub 12s} provide an effective tool for the study of reductive dechlorination reactions. The reductive dechlorination of PCBs by titanium(III) citrate-reduced vitamin B{sub 12s} was studied in batch reactors. Long-term experiments demonstrated reductive dechlorination of aqueous and sediment-sorbed 2,3,4,5,6-pentachlorobiphenyl (2,3,4,5,6-PeCB) to tetra-, tri-, di-, and monochlorobiphenyl products. Approximately 10% chlorine removal was observed in 36 days in aqueous experiments at 20 C; the sediment experiment showed 40% chlorine removal in 42 days at 30 C. Nearly all possible intermediates were produced and reductively dechlorinated, with no apparent accumulation of individual congeners. Short-term experiments were conducted to determine the pathway for vitamin B{sub 12s}-catalyzed reductive dechlorination of aqueous 2,3,4,5,6-PeCB and its dechlorinated products; relative product distributions were measured for all possible tetra- and trichlorobiphenyl reductive dechlorination reactions. Theoretical product distributions based on free energies of formation agreed with observed product distributions for short- and long-term experiments. Reductive dechlorination was favored at positions with adjacent chlorines; on average, chlorines were removed equally from ortho, meta, and para positions.

Woods, S.L.; Trobaugh, D.J. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering] [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering; Carter, K.J. [Willamette Industries, Inc., Albany, OR (United States)] [Willamette Industries, Inc., Albany, OR (United States)

1999-03-15

212

Oral exposure to the anti-pyridoxine compound 1-amino d-proline further perturbs homocysteine metabolism through the transsulfuration pathway in moderately vitamin B6 deficient rats.  

PubMed

Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP; a B6 vitamer) serves as an important cofactor in a myriad of metabolic reactions, including the transsulfuration (TS) pathway, which converts homocysteine (Hcy) to cysteine. While overt vitamin B6 deficiency is rare, moderate deficiency is common and may be exacerbated by anti-pyridoxine factors in the food supply. To this end, we developed a model of moderate B6 deficiency and a study was conducted to examine the in vivo effect of 1-amino d-proline (1ADP), an anti-pyridoxine factor found in flaxseed, on indices of Hcy metabolism through the TS pathway in moderately B6 deficient rats. Male weaning rats received a semi-purified diet containing either 7mg/kg (control; CD) or 0.7mg/kg (moderately deficient; MD) diet of pyridoxinehydrochloride (PN?HCl), each with 1 of 4 levels of 1ADP, viz. 0, 0.1, 1 and 10mg/kg diet for 5weeks. Perturbations in vitamin B6 biomarkers were more pronounced in the MD group. Plasma PLP was significantly reduced, while plasma Hcy (8-fold) and cystathionine (11-fold) were increased in rats consuming the highest amount of 1ADP in the MD group. The activities of hepatic cystathionine ?-synthase and cystathionine ?-lyase enzymes were significantly reduced in rats consuming the highest 1ADP compared to the lowest, for both levels of PN?HCl. Dilation of hepatic central veins and sinusoids, mild steatosis and increased liver triglycerides were present in MD rats consuming the highest 1ADP level. The current data provide evidence that the consumption of an anti-pyridoxine factor linked to flaxseed may pose a risk for subjects who are moderate/severe vitamin B6 deficient. PMID:25524630

Mayengbam, Shyamchand; Raposo, Sara; Aliani, Michel; House, James D

2015-03-01

213

Effects of cobalt supplementation and vitamin B12 injections on lactation performance and metabolism of Holstein dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine lactation performance and metabolism of primiparous and multiparous dairy cows fed different levels and sources (inorganic and organic) of Co or given weekly vitamin B(12) injections. Forty-five primi- and multiparous cows at 60 d prepartum were blocked by expected calving date, and randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatments in a randomized complete block design with treatments starting at 60 d prepartum. The 5 treatments were (1) no supplemental dietary Co (control, CON), (2) 25mg/d of supplemental dietary Co from Co carbonate (CoCarb), (3) 25mg/d of supplemental dietary Co from Co glucoheptonate (LCoGH), (4) 75 mg/d of supplemental dietary Co from Co glucoheptonate (HCoGH), and (5) CON diet plus weekly 10mg i.m. of vitamin B(12) injections (IB12). Cows remained on their respective treatment until 150 d after calving. Cobalt concentrations (mg/kg of dry matter) in the lactating diets were 1.0, 1.9, 2.3, and 5.1 for CON/IB12, CoCarb, LCoGH, and HCoGH, respectively. Dry matter intake, body weight, and body condition score were not affected by treatment. The LCoGH treatment tended to have greater milk yield than CoCarb, and CON had similar milk yields to the mean of LCoGH and HCoGH. Cobalt supplementation or the use of vitamin B(12) injections did not influence plasma or liver measures of energy metabolism. Injections of vitamin B(12) increased plasma, liver, and milk vitamin B(12) contents. Dietary Co addition did not affect plasma vitamin B(12) concentrations; however, it did increase milk vitamin B(12) concentrations throughout lactation and liver vitamin B(12) at calving with no effect of source or level of Co. Folate status of cows in the study was low and possibly limited the effect of improved vitamin B(12) status on lactation performance. Overall, Co supplementation (inorganic and organic) or vitamin B(12) injections improved measures of vitamin B(12) status, but not lactation performance compared with CON possibly due to Co being above requirements in the CON diet. PMID:23312998

Akins, M S; Bertics, S J; Socha, M T; Shaver, R D

2013-03-01

214

Vitamin B12 in Obese Adolescents with Clinical Features of Insulin Resistance  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence indicates an association between obesity, metformin use and reduced vitamin B12 status, which can have serious hematologic, neurologic and psychiatric consequences. This study aimed to examine B12 status in obese adolescents with pre-diabetes and/or clinical features of insulin resistance. Serum B12 was measured using chemiluminescence immunoassay in 103 (43 male, 60 female) obese (mean body mass index (BMI) z-score SD (2.36 0.29)), adolescents aged 10 to 17 years, median (range) insulin sensitivity index of 1.27 (0.27 to 3.38) and 13.6% had pre-diabetes. Low B12 (<148 pmol/L) was identified in eight (7.8%) and borderline status (148 to 221 pmol/L) in an additional 25 (24.3%) adolescents. Adolescents with borderline B12 concentrations had higher BMI z-scores compared to those with normal concentrations (2.50 0.22 vs. 2.32 0.30, p = 0.008) or those with low B12 concentration (2.50 0.22 vs. 2.27 0.226, p = 0.041). In conclusion, nearly a third of obese adolescents with clinical insulin resistance had a low or borderline serum B12 status. Therefore, further investigations are warranted to explore the cause and the impact of low B12 status in obese pediatric populations. PMID:25486369

Ho, Mandy; Halim, Jocelyn H.; Gow, Megan L.; El-Haddad, Nouhad; Marzulli, Teresa; Baur, Louise A.; Cowell, Chris T.; Garnett, Sarah P.

2014-01-01

215

Vitamin-responsive disorders: cobalamin, folate, biotin, vitamins B1 and E.  

PubMed

The catalytic properties of many enzymes depend on the participation of vitamins as obligatory cofactors. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) and folic acid (folate) deficiencies in infants and children classically present with megaloblastic anemia and are often accompanied by neurological signs. A number of rare inborn errors of cobalamin and folate absorption, transport, cellular uptake, and intracellular metabolism have been delineated and identification of disease-causing mutations has improved our ability to diagnose and treat many of these conditions. Two inherited defects in biotin metabolism are known, holocarboxylase synthetase and biotinidase deficiency. Both lead to multiple carboxylase deficiency manifesting with metabolic acidosis, neurological abnormalities, and skin rash. Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia is characterized by megaloblastic anemia, non-type I diabetes, and sensorineural deafness that responds to pharmacological doses of thiamine (vitamin B1). Individuals affected with inherited vitamin E deficiencies including ataxia with isolated vitamin E deficiency and abetalipoproteinemia present with a spinocerebellar syndrome similar to patients with Friedreich's ataxia. If started early, treatment of these defects by oral or parenteral administration of the relevant vitamin often results in correction of the metabolic defect and reversal of the signs of disease, stressing the importance of early and correct diagnosis in these treatable conditions. PMID:23622402

Baumgartner, Matthias R

2013-01-01

216

Vitamin D deficiency and type 2 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 2 diabetes is a major public health problem, accounting for significant premature mortality and morbidity. The growth in prevalence of the condition appears to be closely linked with obesity. Over the last 5 years, a number of large observational studies have suggested an association between the onset of type 2 diabetes and Vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D has important

Zehra Ozfirat; Tahseen A Chowdhury

2010-01-01

217

Improved propionic acid and 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole control strategy for vitamin B12 fermentation by Propionibacterium freudenreichii.  

PubMed

An efficient fermentation-strengthening approach was developed to improve the anaerobic production of vitamin B12 by cultivation process optimization with Propionibacterium freudenreichii. The effects of the byproduct propionic acid and the precursor 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB) on vitamin B12 biosynthesis were investigated. Byproduct inhibition experiments showed that maintaining propionic acid concentration in broth below 10-20g/L in the early stage and 20-30g/L in the late stage can efficiently improve vitamin B12 biosynthesis. Batch fermentation indicated the occurrence of feed-back inhibition in intracellular intermediate biosynthesis. In addition, the incorporation of the precursor DMB depended on the fermentation level of the vitamin B12 intermediate. High vitamin B12 concentration (58.8mg/L) and production (0.37mg/g) were obtained with an expanded bed adsorption bioreactor by using the propionic acid and DMB control method. The optimum concentration and production of 59.5and 0.59mg/Lh for vitamin B12 production were respectively achieved after five continuous batches. PMID:25455014

Wang, Peng; Zhang, Zhiwei; Jiao, Youjing; Liu, Shouxin; Wang, Yunshan

2015-01-10

218

Cardiovascular risk in the Asia-Pacific region from a nutrition and metabolic point of view: vitamin deficiencies.  

PubMed

In the past, recommended vitamin or micronutrient intakes have often been based on levels that were adequate to prevent clinical deficiencies from developing. Once these levels were reached, clinicians and nutrition scientists generally attributed little value to higher vitamin intake from supplements or food sources. Evidence has continued to mount showing that the intake and serum concentration of certain vitamins above those necessary to prevent clinical deficiencies, might importantly influence health status. This paper discusses the association of anti-oxidant vitamins and cardiovascular disease, and the association of low intake or serum concentrations of folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12, and elevated serum homocysteine, resulting in an increase in vascular disease risk. PMID:11710347

Wattanapenpaiboon, N

2001-01-01

219

Regulation of the vitamin B12 metabolism and transport in bacteria by a conserved RNA structural element.  

PubMed

Cobalamin in the form of adenosylcobalamin (Ado-CBL) is known to repress expression of genes for vitamin B(12) biosynthesis and be transported by a posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism, which involves direct binding of Ado-CBL to 5'untranslated gene regions (5'UTR). Using comparative analysis of genes and regulatory regions, we identified a highly conserved RNA structure, the B12-element, which is widely distributed in 5'UTRs of vitamin B(12)-related genes in eubacteria. Multiple alignment of approximately 200 B12-elements from 66 bacterial genomes reveals their common secondary structure and several extended regions of sequence conservation, including the previously known B12-box motif. In analogy to the model of regulation of the riboflavin and thiamin biosynthesis, we suggest Ado-CBL-mediated regulation based on formation of alternative RNA structures including the B12-element. In Gram-negative proteobacteria, as well as in cyanobacteria, actinobacteria, and the CFB group, the cobalamin biosynthesis and vitamin B(12) transport genes are predicted to be regulated by inhibition of translation initiation, whereas in the Bacillus/Clostridium group of Gram-positive bacteria, these genes seem to be regulated by transcriptional antitermination. Phylogenetic analysis of the B12-elements reveals a large number of likely duplications of B12-elements in several bacterial genomes. These lineage-specific duplications of RNA regulatory elements seem to be a major evolutionary mechanism for expansion of the vitamin B(12) regulon. PMID:12923257

Vitreschak, Alexey G; Rodionov, Dmitry A; Mironov, Andrey A; Gelfand, Mikhail S

2003-09-01

220

Iron Limitation of a Springtime Bacterial and Phytoplankton Community in the Ross Sea: Implications for Vitamin B12 Nutrition  

PubMed Central

The Ross Sea is home to some of the largest phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean. Primary production in this system has previously been shown to be iron limited in the summer and periodically iron and vitamin B12 colimited. In this study, we examined trace metal limitation of biological activity in the Ross Sea in the austral spring and considered possible implications for vitamin B12 nutrition. Bottle incubation experiments demonstrated that iron limited phytoplankton growth in the austral spring while B12, cobalt, and zinc did not. This is the first demonstration of iron limitation in a Phaeocystis antarctica-dominated, early season Ross Sea phytoplankton community. The lack of B12 limitation in this location is consistent with previous Ross Sea studies in the austral summer, wherein vitamin additions did not stimulate P. antarctica growth and B12 was limiting only when bacterial abundance was low. Bottle incubation experiments and a bacterial regrowth experiment also revealed that iron addition directly enhanced bacterial growth. B12 uptake measurements in natural water samples and in an iron fertilized bottle incubation demonstrated that bacteria serve not only as a source for vitamin B12, but also as a significant sink, and that iron additions enhanced B12 uptake rates in phytoplankton but not bacteria. Additionally, vitamin uptake rates did not become saturated upon the addition of up to 95?pM B12. A rapid B12 uptake rate was observed after 13?min, which then decreased to a slower constant uptake rate over the next 52?h. Results from this study highlight the importance of iron availability in limiting early season Ross Sea phytoplankton growth and suggest that rates of vitamin B12 production and consumption may be impacted by iron availability. PMID:21886638

Bertrand, Erin M.; Saito, Mak A.; Lee, Peter A.; Dunbar, Robert B.; Sedwick, Peter N.; DiTullio, Giacomo R.

2011-01-01

221

Iron limitation of a springtime bacterial and phytoplankton community in the ross sea: implications for vitamin b(12) nutrition.  

PubMed

The Ross Sea is home to some of the largest phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean. Primary production in this system has previously been shown to be iron limited in the summer and periodically iron and vitamin B(12) colimited. In this study, we examined trace metal limitation of biological activity in the Ross Sea in the austral spring and considered possible implications for vitamin B(12) nutrition. Bottle incubation experiments demonstrated that iron limited phytoplankton growth in the austral spring while B(12), cobalt, and zinc did not. This is the first demonstration of iron limitation in a Phaeocystis antarctica-dominated, early season Ross Sea phytoplankton community. The lack of B(12) limitation in this location is consistent with previous Ross Sea studies in the austral summer, wherein vitamin additions did not stimulate P. antarctica growth and B(12) was limiting only when bacterial abundance was low. Bottle incubation experiments and a bacterial regrowth experiment also revealed that iron addition directly enhanced bacterial growth. B(12) uptake measurements in natural water samples and in an iron fertilized bottle incubation demonstrated that bacteria serve not only as a source for vitamin B(12), but also as a significant sink, and that iron additions enhanced B(12) uptake rates in phytoplankton but not bacteria. Additionally, vitamin uptake rates did not become saturated upon the addition of up to 95?pM B(12). A rapid B(12) uptake rate was observed after 13?min, which then decreased to a slower constant uptake rate over the next 52?h. Results from this study highlight the importance of iron availability in limiting early season Ross Sea phytoplankton growth and suggest that rates of vitamin B(12) production and consumption may be impacted by iron availability. PMID:21886638

Bertrand, Erin M; Saito, Mak A; Lee, Peter A; Dunbar, Robert B; Sedwick, Peter N; Ditullio, Giacomo R

2011-01-01

222

Pyridoxine supplementation corrects vitamin B6 deficiency but does not improve inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis  

PubMed Central

Patients with rheumatoid arthritis have subnormal vitamin B6 status, both quantitatively and functionally. Abnormal vitamin B6 status in rheumatoid arthritis has been associated with spontaneous tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? production and markers of inflammation, including C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Impaired vitamin B6 status could be a result of inflammation, and these patients may have higher demand for vitamin B6. The aim of this study was to determine if daily supplementation with 50 mg of pyridoxine for 30 days can correct the static and/or the functional abnormalities of vitamin B6 status seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and further investigate if pyridoxine supplementation has any effects on the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-? or IL-6 production of arthritis. This was a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study involving patients with rheumatoid arthritis with plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate below the 25th percentile of the Framingham Heart Cohort Study. Vitamin B6 status was assessed via plasma and erythrocyte pyridoxal 5'-phosphate concentrations, the erythrocyte aspartate aminotransferase activity coefficient (?EAST), net homocysteine increase in response to a methionine load test (?tHcy), and 24 h urinary xanthurenic acid (XA) excretion in response to a tryptophan load test. Urinary 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA) was measured to examine the impact of pyridoxine treatment on vitamin B6 excretion in these patients. Pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-? and IL-6) production, C-reactive protein levels and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate before and after supplementation were also examined. Pyridoxine supplementation significantly improved plasma and erythrocyte pyridoxal 5'-phosphate concentrations, erythrocyte ?EAST, urinary 4-PA, and XA excretion. These improvements were apparent regardless of baseline B6 levels. Pyridoxine supplementation also showed a trend (p < 0.09) towards a reduction in post-methionine load ?tHcy. Supplementation did not affect pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Although pyridoxine supplementation did not suppress pro-inflammatory cytokine production in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, the suboptimal vitamin B6 status seen in rheumatoid arthritis can be corrected by 50 mg pyridoxine supplementation for 30 days. Data from the present study suggest that patients with rheumatoid arthritis may have higher requirements for vitamin B6 than those in a normal healthy population. PMID:16277693

Chiang, En-Pei I; Selhub, Jacob; Bagley, Pamela J; Dallal, Gerard; Roubenoff, Ronenn

2005-01-01

223

The vitamin B 1 , B 2 , B 6 , B 12 , and E contents of hard red spring wheat as influenced by fertilization and cultivar  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the effects of fertilization and cultivar on the content of vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, and E in wheat, seven fertility treatments with three levels of N (0, 56, and 280 kg\\/ha), two levels of P (0 and 122 kg\\/ha), and two levels of K (0 and 465 kg\\/ha) were applied on split plots to two relatively unrelated

Paul W. Syltie; William C. Dahnke

1983-01-01

224

A riboswitch sensor to determine vitamin B12 in fermented foods.  

PubMed

We describe a sensitive and selective method for determination of vitamin B12 content in fermented foods using riboswitch sensor. A riboswitch amplicon from Propionibacterium freudenreichii was cloned in p519NGFP vector in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The expression of green fluorescence protein was revers correlated to the concentrations of adenosylcobalamin. Adenosylcobalamin directly binds to riboswitch region leading to conformational changes in the secondary structure of mRNA, thus inhibiting expression. After various examinations, a standard curve was obtained from 10 to 1000ng/mL of cyanocobalamin. The limit of determination is 10ng/mL. The inter-assay coefficients of variation were 7.5% for the range of 10-1000ng/mL. The recovery of this method was 92.3%. This method has no or less responses to nucleic acid, pseudovitamin B12, vitamin B12 bound to intrinsic factor and haptocorrin. The riboswitch sensor results were similar with HPLC, but they were Ca. 24% lower than the microbiological assay results. PMID:25577115

Zhu, Xuan; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Xiaoqi; Gu, Qing

2015-05-15

225

Competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk.  

PubMed

Recent discoveries of matrix interferences by haptocorrin (HC) in human milk and serum show that past analyses of vitamin B12 in samples with high HC content might have been inaccurate (Lildballe et al., 2009; Carmel & Agrawal, 2012). We evaluated two competitive enzyme-binding immunoassays for serum/plasma (IMMULITE and SimulTRAC-SNB) for B12 analysis in human milk. B12-recovery rates (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2007) were determined to be 78.9 9.1% with IMMULITE and 225 108% (range 116-553%) using SimulTRAC-SNB, most likely due to the presence of excess HC. HC-interferences were not observed with the IMMULITE assay, rendering previously reported mandatory HC-removal (Lildballe et al., 2009) unnecessary. Linearity continued at low B12-concentrations (24-193 pM; r(2)>0.985). Milk B12 concentrations from Bangladeshi women (72-959 pM) were significantly lower than those from California (154-933 pM; p<0.0001) showing IMMULITE's robustness against the complex milk matrix and its ability to measure low milk B12 concentrations. PMID:24491700

Hampel, Daniela; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Domek, Joseph M; Siddiqua, Towfida; Raqib, Rubhana; Allen, Lindsay H

2014-06-15

226

Serum folate, vitamin B-12 and homocysteine and their association with depressive symptoms among US adults  

PubMed Central

Background Several nutritional and physiological factors have been linked to depression in adults including low folate and vitamin B-12 and elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) levels. Methods Nationally representative data on US adults (aged 2085 years, n=2,524) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of the period 200506 were used. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) and elevated symptoms were defined as PHQ total score?10. Serum folate, vitamin B-12 and tHcy were mainly expressed as tertiles. Age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, poverty income ratio, marital status, smoking status, physical activity, body mass index and selected nutrient intakes (average of two 24-hr recalls) were considered as potential confounders. Multiple ordinary least square (OLS), logistic and zero-inflated Poisson regression models were conducted in the main analysis. Results Overall, mean PHQ score was significantly higher among women compared to men. Elevated depressive symptoms (PHQ?10) were inversely associated with folate status particularly among women [Fully adjusted odds ratio (Tertiles T3 vs. T1)=0.37 (95% CI = 0.170.86)], but not significantly related to tHcy or vitamin B-12. No interaction was noted between the three exposures in affecting depressive symptoms. In older adults (?50 years) and both sexes combined, total homocysteine was positively associated with elevated depressive symptoms [Fully adjusted odds ratio (Tertiles T2 vs. T1)=3.01 (95% CI = 1.019.03)], though no significant dose-response relationship was found. Conclusions Future interventions aiming at improving mental health outcomes among US adults should take into account dietary and other factors that would increase levels of serum folate. PMID:20841559

Beydoun, M. A.; Shroff, M. R.; Beydoun, H. A.; Zonderman, A. B.

2010-01-01

227

Carbon tetrachloride degradation: Effect of microbial growth substrate and vitamin B{sub 12} content  

SciTech Connect

Microbial degradation kinetics of carbon tetrachloride (CT) under reducing conditions were investigated for different cultures, fed with 1,2-propanediol, dextrose, propionalde-hyde, or acetate and nitrate, in the anaerobic step of an anaerobic/aerobic operation sequence. Methanogenesis was inhibited due to the aerobic step. CT biodegradation rates followed first-order kinetics with respect to CT concentration and biomass and were not affected by the presence of growth substrate. CT degradation rates increased linearly with higher intracellular vitamin B{sub 12} content. The culture fed 1,2-propanediol had the highest vitamin B{sub 12} content, which was 3.8, 4.7, and 16 times that of the propionaldehyde-,dextrose-, and acetate-fed cultures, respectively, and its first-order degradation rate constant was 2.8, 4.5, 6.0 times that for those cultures, respectively. No CT degradation occurred with culture liquid, suggesting that intracellular factors were responsible for CT degradation. The propanediol culture was able to sustain a constant CT degradation rate for a 16-day test period without substrate addition. Compared to a propanediol-fed culture grown only under anaerobic conditions, the propanediol culture grown under the sequential anaerobic/aerobic condition resulted in more biomass growth and a greater CT degradation rate per unit of propanediol fed, although its CT degradation rate per unit of biomass was lower.

Zou, S.; Stensel, H.D.; Ferguson, J.F.

2000-05-01

228

Vitamin B12[c-lactone], a biologically inactive corrinoid compound, occurs in cultured and dried lion's mane mushroom (Hericium erinaceus) fruiting bodies.  

PubMed

This study determined the vitamin B12 content of the edible medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus, lion's mane mushroom fruiting body, using a microbiological assay based on Lactobacillus delbrueckii ATCC 7830. Trace levels (0.04-0.36 ?g/100 g dry weight) of vitamin B12 were found in most of the dried mushroom samples, and two samples contained slightly higher levels (0.56 and 1.04 ?g/100 g dry weight, respectively) of vitamin B12. We purified the corrinoid compounds from the extracts of dried lion's mane mushroom fruiting bodies using an immunoaffinity column and identified them as vitamin B12 or vitamin B12[c-lactone] (or both) based on LC/ESI-MS/MS chromatograms. This is the first report on an unnatural corrinoid, vitamin B12[c-lactone], occurring in foods. Vitamin B12[c-lactone] was simple to produce during incubation of authentic vitamin B12 and chloramine-T, an antimicrobial agent, at varying pH values (3.0-7.0) and was completely inactive in the vitamin B12-dependent bacteria that are generally used in vitamin B12 bioassays. PMID:24506286

Teng, Fei; Bito, Tomohiro; Takenaka, Shigeo; Yabuta, Yukinori; Watanabe, Fumio

2014-02-19

229

Genetics Home Reference: Transcobalamin deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... impairs the transport of cobalamin (also known as vitamin B12) within the body. Cobalamin is obtained from the ... Genetic Testing Registry: Transcobalamin II deficiency MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Vitamin B12 Level You might also find information on the ...

230

Reductive dechlorination of a polychlorinated biphenyl congener and hexachlorobenzene by vitamin B12.  

PubMed Central

The polychlorinated biphenyl congener 2,3,4,5,6-pentachlorobiphenyl and hexachlorobenzene were reductively dechlorinated in an aqueous biomimetic model system containing vitamin B12. The products of 2,3,4,5,6-pentachlorobiphenyl dechlorination were 2,3,5,6- and 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorobiphenyl. Hexachlorobenzene dechlorinated to pentachlorobenzene and a mixture of 1,2,4,5- and 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene. The proton from water was shown to be the source of the hydrogen atom used for the replacement of chlorine on the biphenyl ring. PMID:1575479

Assaf-Anid, N; Nies, L; Vogel, T M

1992-01-01

231

Reductive dechlorination of a polychlorinated biphenyl congener and hexachlorobenzene by vitamin B sub 12  

SciTech Connect

The polychlorinated biphenyl congener 2,3,4,5,6-pentachlorobiphenyl and hexachlorobenzene were reductively dechlorinated in an aqueous biomimetic model system containing vitamin B{sub 12}. The products of 2,3,4,5,6-pentachlorobiphenyl dechlorination were 2,3,5,6- and 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorobiphenyl. Hexachlorobenzene dechlorinated to pentachlorobenzene and a mixture of 1,2,4,5- and 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene. The proton from water was shown to be the source of the hydrogen atom used for the replacement of chlorine on the biphenyl ring.

Assaf-Anid, N.; Nies, L.; Vogel, T.M. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States))

1992-03-01

232

Regiospecificity of chlorophenol reductive dechlorination by vitamin B{sub 12s}  

SciTech Connect

Natural and engineered biological systems can transform environmental pollutants into less-noxious compounds. A thorough understanding of the biochemical reactions involved in these transformations may lead to improved processes for bioremediation of hazardous waste sites. A transformation of particular interest is reductive dechlorination since a large number of hazardous substances of environmental concern are chlorinated hydrocarbons. This study examines the reductive dechlorination of Pentachlorophenol and all of the tetrachlorophenols and trichlorophenols by vitamin B{sub 12} and compares the regiospecificity with that of anaerobic microbial consortia. 22 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Smith, M.H.; Woods, S.L. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

1994-11-01

233

Vitamin D deficiency in chronic liver disease.  

PubMed

Vitamin D is an important secosteroid hormone with known effect on calcium homeostasis, but recently there is increasing recognition that vitamin D also is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Vitamin D deficiency has been frequently reported in many causes of chronic liver disease and has been associated with the development and evolution of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and chronic hepatitis C (CHC) virus infection. The role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and CHC is not completely known, but it seems that the involvement of vitamin D in the activation and regulation of both innate and adaptive immune systems and its antiproliferative effect may explain its importance in these liver diseases. Published studies provide evidence for routine screening for hypovitaminosis D in patients with liver disease. Further prospectives studies demonstrating the impact of vitamin D replacement in NAFLD and CHC are required. PMID:25544877

Iruzubieta, Paula; Tern, lvaro; Crespo, Javier; Fbrega, Emilio

2014-12-27

234

Vitamin D deficiency in chronic liver disease  

PubMed Central

Vitamin D is an important secosteroid hormone with known effect on calcium homeostasis, but recently there is increasing recognition that vitamin D also is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Vitamin D deficiency has been frequently reported in many causes of chronic liver disease and has been associated with the development and evolution of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and chronic hepatitis C (CHC) virus infection. The role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and CHC is not completely known, but it seems that the involvement of vitamin D in the activation and regulation of both innate and adaptive immune systems and its antiproliferative effect may explain its importance in these liver diseases. Published studies provide evidence for routine screening for hypovitaminosis D in patients with liver disease. Further prospectives studies demonstrating the impact of vitamin D replacement in NAFLD and CHC are required. PMID:25544877

Iruzubieta, Paula; Tern, lvaro; Crespo, Javier; Fbrega, Emilio

2014-01-01

235

Simultaneous determination of vitamin B12 and its derivatives using some of multivariate calibration 1 (MVC1) techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resolution of binary mixtures of vitamin B12, methylcobalamin and B12 coenzyme with minimum sample pre-treatment and without analyte separation has been successfully achieved by methods of partial least squares algorithm with one dependent variable (PLS1), orthogonal signal correction/partial least squares (OSC/PLS), principal component regression (PCR) and hybrid linear analysis (HLA). Data of analysis were obtained from UV-vis spectra. The UV-vis spectra of the vitamin B12, methylcobalamin and B12 coenzyme were recorded in the same spectral conditions. The method of central composite design was used in the ranges of 10-80 mg L -1 for vitamin B12 and methylcobalamin and 20-130 mg L -1 for B12 coenzyme. The models refinement procedure and validation were performed by cross-validation. The minimum root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 2.26 mg L -1 for vitamin B12 with PLS1, 1.33 mg L -1 for methylcobalamin with OSC/PLS and 3.24 mg L -1 for B12 coenzyme with HLA techniques. Figures of merit such as selectivity, sensitivity, analytical sensitivity and LOD were determined for three compounds. The procedure was successfully applied to simultaneous determination of three compounds in synthetic mixtures and in a pharmaceutical formulation.

Samadi-Maybodi, Abdolraouf; Darzi, S. K. Hassani Nejad

2008-10-01

236

Relationship of Normal Serum Vitamin B12 and Folate Levels to Cognitive Test Performance in Subtypes of Geriatric Major Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This retrospective study evaluated the relationships between normal serum vitamin B12 and folate levels and neuropsy chologic measures in a sample of 60 geriatric inpatients with psychotic depression, nonpsychotic depression, bipolar dis order, and dementiaall consecutively referred for cognitive testing. The psychotic depression subgroup demonstrated numerous significant positive correlations between B12 and cognitive subtests not seen in other diagnostic subgroups,

Iris R. Bell; Joel S. Edman; Joshua Miller; Nancy Hebben; Richard T. Linn; Diane Ray; Herbert L. Kayne

1990-01-01

237

Vitamin A deficiency modulates iron metabolism via ineffective erythropoiesis.  

PubMed

Vitamin A modulates inflammatory status, iron metabolism and erythropoiesis. Given that these factors modulate the expression of the hormone hepcidin (Hamp), we investigated the effect of vitamin A deficiency on molecular biomarkers of iron metabolism, the inflammatory response and the erythropoietic system. Five groups of male Wistar rats were treated: control (AIN-93G), the vitamin A-deficient (VAD) diet, the iron-deficient (FeD) diet, the vitamin A- and iron-deficient (VAFeD) diet or the diet with 12 mg atRA/kg diet replacing all-trans-retinyl palmitate by all-trans retinoic acid (atRA). Vitamin A deficiency reduced serum iron and transferrin saturation levels, increased spleen iron concentrations, reduced hepatic Hamp and kidney erythropoietin messenger RNA (mRNA) levels and up-regulated hepatic and spleen heme oxygenase-1 gene expression while reducing the liver HO-1 specific activity compared with the control. The FeD and VAFeD rats exhibited lower levels of serum iron and transferrin saturation, lower iron concentrations in tissues and lower hepatic Hamp mRNA levels compared with the control. The treatment with atRA resulted in lower serum iron and transferrin concentrations, an increased iron concentration in the liver, a decreased iron concentration in the spleen and in the gut, and decreased hepatic Hamp mRNA levels. In summary, these findings suggest that vitamin A deficiency leads to ineffective erythropoiesis by the down-regulation of renal erythropoietin expression in the kidney, resulting in erythrocyte malformation and the consequent accumulation of the heme group in the spleen. Vitamin A deficiency indirectly modulates systemic iron homeostasis by enhancing erythrophagocytosis of undifferentiated erythrocytes. PMID:24998947

da Cunha, Marcela S B; Siqueira, Egle M A; Trindade, Luciano S; Arruda, Sandra F

2014-10-01

238

Relationship of normal serum vitamin B12 and folate levels to cognitive test performance in subtypes of geriatric major depression.  

PubMed

This retrospective study evaluated the relationships between normal serum vitamin B12 and folate levels and neuropsychologic measures in a sample of 60 geriatric inpatients with psychotic depression, nonpsychotic depression, bipolar disorder, and dementia--all consecutively referred for cognitive testing. The psychotic depression subgroup demonstrated numerous significant positive correlations between B12 and cognitive subtests not seen in other diagnostic subgroups, especially those of IQ, and verbal and visual memory. Metabolic factors including vitamin B12 may play specific roles in the cognitive dysfunctions of different geropsychiatric disorders. PMID:2206265

Bell, I R; Edman, J S; Miller, J; Hebben, N; Linn, R T; Ray, D; Kayne, H L

1990-01-01

239

CdTe quantum dot as a fluorescence probe for vitamin B(12) in dosage form.  

PubMed

We here report the CdTe quantum dot (CdTe QDs)-based sensor for probing vitamin B12 derivatives in aqueous solution. In this paper, simple and sensitive fluorescence quenching measurements has been employed. The Stern-Volmer constant (KSV), quenching rate constant (kq) and binding constant (K) were rationalized from fluorescence quenching measurement. Furthermore, the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism was discussed. This method was applicable over the concentration ranging from 1 to 14?g/mL (VB12) with correlation coefficient of 0.993. The limit of detection (LOD) of VB12 was found to be 0.15?g/mL. Moreover, the present approach opens a simple pathway for developing cost-effective, sensitive and selective QD-based fluorescence sensors/probes for biologically significant VB12 in pharmaceutical sample with mean recoveries in the range of 100-102.1%. PMID:23872019

Vaishnavi, E; Renganathan, R

2013-11-01

240

Vitamin D Deficiency in Critically Ill Children  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D influences cardiovascular and immune function. We aimed to establish the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in critically ill children and identify factors influencing admission 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels. We hypothesized that levels would be lower with increased illness severity and in children with serious infections. METHODS: Participants were 511 severely or critically ill children admitted to the PICU from November 2009 to November 2010. Blood was collected near PICU admission and analyzed for 25(OH)D concentration by using Diasorin radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: We enrolled 511 of 818 (62.5%) eligible children. The median 25(OH)D level was 22.5 ng/mL; 40.1% were 25(OH)D deficient (level <20 ng/mL). In multivariate analysis, age and race were associated with 25(OH)D deficiency; summer season, vitamin D supplementation, and formula intake were protective; 25(OH)D levels were not lower in the 238 children (46.6%) admitted with a life-threatening infection, unless they had septic shock (n = 51, 10.0%) (median 25(OH)D level 19.2 ng/mL; P = .0008). After adjusting for factors associated with deficiency, lower levels were associated with higher admission day illness severity (odds ratio 1.19 for a 1-quartile increase in Pediatric Risk of Mortality III score per 5 ng/mL decrease in 25(OH)D, 95% confidence interval 1.101.28; P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: We found a high rate of vitamin D deficiency in critically ill children. Given the roles of vitamin D in bone development and immunity, we recommend screening of those critically ill children with risk factors for vitamin D deficiency and implementation of effective repletion strategies. PMID:22869836

Feldman, Henry A.; Smith, Ellen M.; Gordon, Catherine M.; Keisling, Shannon M.; Sullivan, Ryan M.; Hollis, Bruce W.; Agan, Anna A.; Randolph, Adrienne G.

2012-01-01

241

Structural Basis of Multifunctionality in a Vitamin B[subscript 12]-processing Enzyme  

SciTech Connect

An early step in the intracellular processing of vitamin B{sub 12} involves CblC, which exhibits dual reactivity, catalyzing the reductive decyanation of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B{sub 12}), and the dealkylation of alkylcobalamins (e.g. methylcobalamin; MeCbl). Insights into how the CblC scaffold supports this chemical dichotomy have been unavailable despite it being the most common locus of patient mutations associated with inherited cobalamin disorders that manifest in both severe homocystinuria and methylmalonic aciduria. Herein, we report structures of human CblC, with and without bound MeCbl, which provide novel biochemical insights into its mechanism of action. Our results reveal that CblC is the most divergent member of the NADPH-dependent flavin reductase family and can use FMN or FAD as a prosthetic group to catalyze reductive decyanation. Furthermore, CblC is the first example of an enzyme with glutathione transferase activity that has a sequence and structure unrelated to the GST superfamily. CblC thus represents an example of evolutionary adaptation of a common structural platform to perform diverse chemistries. The CblC structure allows us to rationalize the biochemical basis of a number of pathological mutations associated with severe clinical phenotypes.

Koutmos, Markos; Gherasim, Carmen; Smith, Janet L.; Banerjee, Ruma (Michigan)

2012-07-11

242

Vitamin B12 production from crude glycerol by Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii: optimization of medium composition through statistical experimental designs.  

PubMed

A two-step statistical experimental design was employed to optimize the medium for vitamin B(12) production from crude glycerol by Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii. In the first step, using Plackett-Burman design, five of 13 tested medium components (calcium pantothenate, NaH(2)PO(4)2H(2)O, casein hydrolysate, glycerol and FeSO(4)7H(2)O) were identified as factors having significant influence on vitamin production. In the second step, a central composite design was used to optimize levels of medium components selected in the first step. Valid statistical models describing the influence of significant factors on vitamin B(12) production were established for each optimization phase. The optimized medium provided a 93% increase in final vitamin concentration compared to the original medium. PMID:22178491

Ko?mider, Alicja; Bia?as, Wojciech; Kubiak, Piotr; Dro?d?y?ska, Agnieszka; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

2012-02-01

243

Novel fermentation process strengthening strategy for production of propionic acid and vitamin B12 by Propionibacterium freudenreichii.  

PubMed

An efficient fermentation-strengthening approach was developed to improve the anaerobic production of propionic acid and vitamin B12 by co-fermentation with Propionibacterium freudenreichii. Vitamin B12 production from glucose resulted in relatively high productivity (0.35mg/Lh) but a low propionic acid yield (0.55g/g). By contrast, glycerol gave a high propionic acid yield (0.63g/g) but low productivity (0.16g/Lh). Co-fermentation of glycerol and glucose with a gradual addition strategy gave high yields (propionic acid: 0.71g/g; vitamin B12: 0.72mg/g) and productivities (propionic acid: 0.36g/Lh; vitamin B12: 0.36mg/Lh). Finally, the integrated feedstock and fermentation system strengthening strategy was demonstrated as an efficient method for the economic production of bio-based propionic acid and vitamin B12. PMID:25261985

Wang, Peng; Jiao, Youjing; Liu, Shouxin

2014-12-01

244

Disseminated BCG in an infant with interleukin-12 receptor B1 (IL12RB1) deficiency.  

PubMed

Although neonatal vaccination with bacille Calmette-Gurin (BCG) is considered to be safe, complications with disseminated disease are associated with underlying immuno-deficiency disorders. A BCG-vaccinated 4-month-old girl of Sri Lankan parentage developed progressive left axillary lymphadenopathy and severe bronchopneumonia. Lymph node biopsy demonstrated epithelioid granulomata and acid-fast bacilli. An older sibling had had a similar clinical presentation and the outcome had been fatal. Investigation for immuno-deficiency detected complete IL12RB1 deficiency. Full recovery followed a prolonged course of anti-tuberculous chemotherapy. She was put on lifelong isoniazid prophylaxis. In HIV-negative infants with unusual complications related to BCG vaccination, a primary immuno-deficiency disorder should be considered. PMID:24863105

Senanayake, Manouri P; Kumararatne, D S; Doffinger, Rainer; Barcenas-Morales, Gabriela

2015-02-01

245

Reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene catalyzed by vitamin B{sub 12} in homogeneous and heterogeneous systems  

SciTech Connect

The reduction of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) catalyzed by vitamin B{sub 12} was examined in homogeneous and heterogeneous (B{sub 12} bound to agarose) batch systems using titanium(III) citrate as the bulk reductant. The solution and surface-mediated reaction rates at similar B{sub 12} loadings were comparable, indicating that binding vitamin B{sub 12} to a surface did not lower catalytic activity. No loss in PCE reducing activity was observed with repeated usage of surface-bound vitamin B{sub 12}. Carbon mass recoveries were 81-84% for PCE reduction and 89% for TCE reduction, relative to controls. In addition to sequential hydrogenolysis, a second competing reaction mechanism for the reduction of PCE and TCE by B{sub 12}, reductive {beta}-elimination, is proposed to account for the observation of acetylene as a significant reaction intermediate. Reductive {beta}-elimination should be considered as a potential pathway in other reactive systems involving the reduction of vicinal polyhaloethenes. Surface-bound catalysts such as vitamin B{sub 12} may have utility in the engineered degradation of aqueous phase chlorinated ethenes. 19 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Burris, D.R.; Smith, M.H. [Armstrong Lab., Tyndall Air Force Base, FL (United States)] [Armstrong Lab., Tyndall Air Force Base, FL (United States); Delcomyn, C.A. [Applied Research Associates, Inc., Tyndall Air Force Base, FL (United States)] [Applied Research Associates, Inc., Tyndall Air Force Base, FL (United States); Roberts, A.L. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)] [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

1996-10-01

246

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Direct exchange of vitamin B12 is demonstrated by  

E-print Network

, they are unable to grow in its absence. Similarly, 20% require thiamine (vitamin B1) and 5% require biotin genus there are both requirers and nonrequirers: the heterokont Navicula pelliculosa requires thiamine

Cicuta, Pietro

247

Supplementing lactating dairy cows with a vitamin B12 precursor, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole, increases the apparent ruminal synthesis of vitamin B12.  

PubMed

Cobalamin (CBL), the biologically active form of vitamin B12, and its analogs, are produced by bacteria only if cobalt supply is adequate. The analogs differ generally by the nucleotide moiety of the molecule. In CBL, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (5,6-DMB) is the base in the nucleotide moiety. The present study aimed to determine if a supplement of 5,6-DMB could increase utilization of dietary cobalt for synthesis of CBL and change ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, omasal flow of nutrients and ruminal protozoa counts. Eight ruminally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows (meanstandard deviation=23821 days in milk and 73647 kg of BW) were used in a crossover design. Cows were randomly assigned to a daily supplement of a gelatin capsule containing 1.5 g of 5,6-DMB via the rumen cannula or no supplement. Each period lasted 29 days and consisted of 21 days for treatment adaptation and 8 days for data and samples collection. Five corrinoids, CBL and four cobamides were detected in the total mixed ration and the omasal digesta from both treatments. The dietary supplement of 5,6-DMB increased (P=0.02) apparent ruminal synthesis of CBL from 14.6 to 19.6 (s.e.m. 0.8) mg/day but had no effect (P>0.1) on apparent ruminal synthesis of the four analogs. The supplement of 5,6-DMB had no effect (P>0.1) on milk production and composition, or on protozoal count, ruminal pH and concentrations of volatile fatty acids and ammonia nitrogen in rumen content. The supplement had also no effect (P>0.1) on intake, omasal flow and apparent ruminal digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, NDF, ADF and nitrogenous fractions. Plasma concentration of CBL was not affected by treatments (P=0.98). Providing a preformed part of the CBL molecule, that is, 5,6-DMB, increased by 34% the apparent ruminal synthesis of CBL by ruminal bacteria but had no effect on ruminal fermentation or protozoa count and it was not sufficient to increase plasma concentrations of the vitamin. Even though the efficiency of cobalt utilization for apparent synthesis of CBL was increased from 2.0% to 2.7% by the 5,6-DMB supplement, this improved efficiency was still very low. Further research is needed to identify the factors affecting efficiency of utilization of cobalt for synthesis of CBL by the bacterial populations in rumen. PMID:25171056

Brito, A; Chiquette, J; Stabler, S P; Allen, R H; Girard, C L

2015-01-01

248

Lactobacillus rossiae, a Vitamin B12 Producer, Represents a Metabolically Versatile Species within the Genus Lactobacillus  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus rossiae is an obligately hetero-fermentative lactic acid bacterium, which can be isolated from a broad range of environments including sourdoughs, vegetables, fermented meat and flour, as well as the gastrointestinal tract of both humans and animals. In order to unravel distinctive genomic features of this particular species and investigate the phylogenetic positioning within the genus Lactobacillus, comparative genomics and phylogenomic approaches, followed by functional analyses were performed on L. rossiae DSM 15814T, showing how this type strain not only occupies an independent phylogenetic branch, but also possesses genomic features underscoring its biotechnological potential. This strain in fact represents one of a small number of bacteria known to encode a complete de novo biosynthetic pathway of vitamin B12 (in addition to other B vitamins such as folate and riboflavin). In addition, it possesses the capacity to utilize an extensive set of carbon sources, a characteristic that may contribute to environmental adaptation, perhaps enabling the strain's ability to populate different niches. PMID:25264826

De Angelis, Maria; Bottacini, Francesca; Fosso, Bruno; Kelleher, Philip; Calasso, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Ventura, Marco; Picardi, Ernesto; van Sinderen, Douwe; Gobbetti, Marco

2014-01-01

249

Vitamin B1 - Nobel Prize Educational Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chicken Farm educational game and related reading are based on the 1929 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. No one had heard of vitamins until Christian Eijkman pointed out that a substance in rice skin was missing from the diet of beriberi patients, which was later discovered to be vitamin B1. This was the first time that an illness was linked with vitamin deficiency.

2009-01-01

250

Vitamin A and Vitamin B-12 Concentrations in Relation to Mortality and Morbidity among Children Born to HIV-Infected Women  

PubMed Central

Vitamin A supplementation starting at 6 months of age is an important child survival intervention; however, not much is known about the association between vitamin A status before 6 months and mortality among children born to HIV-infected women. Plasma concentrations of vitamins A and B-12 were available at 6 weeks of age (n = 576 and 529, respectively) for children born to HIV-infected women and they were followed up for morbidity and survival status until 24 months after birth. Children in the highest quartile of vitamin A had a 49% lower risk of death by 24 months of age compared to the lowest quartile (HR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.290.90; P-value for trend = 0.01). Higher vitamin A levels were protective in the sub-groups of HIV-infected and un-infected children but this was statistically significant only in the HIV-uninfected subgroup. Higher vitamin A concentrations in plasma are protective against mortality in children born to HIV-infected women. PMID:19502599

Bosch, Ronald J.; Hunter, David J.; Manji, Karim; Msamanga, Gernard I.; Fawzi, Wafaie W.

2010-01-01

251

Associations between Intake of Folate, Methionine, and Vitamins B-12, B-6 and Prostate Cancer Risk in American Veterans  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer (PC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in men. Recent reports suggest that excess of nutrients involved in the one-carbon metabolism pathway increases PC risk; however, empirical data are lacking. Veteran American men (272 controls and 144 PC cases) who attended the Durham Veteran American Medical Center between 20042009 were enrolled into a case-control study. Intake of folate, vitamin B12, B6, and methionine were measured using a food frequency questionnaire. Regression models were used to evaluate the association among one-carbon cycle nutrients, MTHFR genetic variants, and prostate cancer. Higher dietary methionine intake was associated with PC risk (OR = 2.1; 95%CI 1.13.9) The risk was most pronounced in men with Gleason sum <7 (OR = 2.75; 95%CI 1.32 5.73). The association of higher methionine intake and PC risk was only apparent in men who carried at least one MTHFR A1298C allele (OR = 6.7; 95%CI = 1.627.8), compared to MTHFR A1298A noncarrier men (OR = 0.9; 95%CI = 0.243.92) (p-interaction = 0.045). There was no evidence for associations between B vitamins (folate, B12, and B6) and PC risk. Our results suggest that carrying the MTHFR A1298C variants modifies the association between high methionine intake and PC risk. Larger studies are required to validate these findings. PMID:22927849

Vidal, Adriana C.; Grant, Delores J.; Williams, Christina D.; Masko, Elizabeth; Allott, Emma H.; Shuler, Kathryn; McPhail, Megan; Gaines, Alexis; Calloway, Elizabeth; Gerber, Leah; Chi, Jen-Tsan; Freedland, Stephen J.; Hoyo, Cathrine

2012-01-01

252

Genetic Engineering Challenge - Preventing Vitamin A Deficiency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Genetic Engineering Challenge - How can scientists develop a type of rice that could prevent vitamin A deficiency?" is an analysis and discussion activity. This activity begins with an introduction to vitamin A deficiency, rice seeds, and genetic engineering. Next, several questions challenge students to design a basic plan that could produce a genetically engineered rice plant that makes rice grains that contain pro-vitamin A. Subsequent information and questions guide students in developing an understanding of the basic techniques of genetic engineering. Students use fundamental molecular biology concepts as they think about how to solve a practical problem. This activity can be used to introduce students to genetic engineering or to reinforce basic understanding of genetic engineering.

Ingrid Waldron

253

Residual Type 1 Immunity in Patients Genetically Deficient for Interleukin 12 Receptor b 1 (IL12R b 1): Evidence for an IL12R b 1-independent Pathway of IL12 Responsiveness in Human T Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic lack of interleukin 12 receptor b 1 (IL-12R b 1) surface expression predisposes to severe infections by poorly pathogenic mycobacteria or Salmonella and causes strongly decreased, but not completely abrogated, interferon (IFN)- g production. To study IL-12R b 1-independent residual IFN- g production, we have generated mycobacterium-specific T cell clones (TCCs) from IL-12R b 1-deficient individuals. All TCCs displayed

Claudia E. Verhagen; Tjitske de Boer; Hermelijn H. Smits; Frank A. W. Verreck; Eddy A. Wierenga; M. Kurimoto; D. Anthony Lammas; Dinakanthe S. Kumararatne; Ozden Sanal; Frank P. Kroon; Jaap T. van Dissel; Francesco Sinigaglia

254

Apparent ruminal synthesis and intestinal disappearance of vitamin B12 and its analogs in dairy cows.  

PubMed

The aim of the project was to calculate the apparent synthesis or destruction of cobalamin (vitamin B(12)) and its analogs in the rumen as well as their apparent intestinal disappearance in dairy cows. Four lactating cows were fed a diet supplemented with cobalt alone (0.76 mg/kg of DM; control) or with cobalt and vitamin B(12) (cyanocobalamin, 500 mg/d; treated). In addition to cobalamin, the only biologically active molecule for the cow, 7 analogs were identified in duodenal and ileal digesta: cobinamide, which lacks the base, ribose, and phosphate groups; and 6 other molecules in which the base, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole, is replaced by cresol, 2-CH(3)-adenine, adenine, 2-CH(3)-S-adenine, or 5-OH-benzimidazole, or an unidentified cobamine. Small amounts of cobalamin and cobinamide were detected in the total mixed ration, but apparent synthesis of all forms took place in rumen. During the control period, cobalamin represented 38% of the total amounts of corrinoids produced in rumen. Approximately 11% of the average daily intake of cobalt was used for apparent ruminal synthesis of corrinoids, of which only 4% was incorporated into cobalamin. Only 20% of the supplement of cyanocobalamin was recovered at the duodenal level; cobinamide appeared to be the major product of degradation of supplementary cyanocobalamin in the rumen. During the control and treatment periods, there was an apparent intestinal disappearance of cobalamin and 5-OH-benzimidazole cobamide only; only the apparent intestinal disappearance of cobalamin differed between the 2 periods. Although cobalamin was not the major form synthesized by ruminal microflora and, even if supplementary cyanocobalamin was extensively destroyed by ruminal microflora, based on calculations of apparent intestinal disappearance, cobalamin seems to be the major form absorbed in the small intestine. PMID:19700714

Girard, C L; Santschi, D E; Stabler, S P; Allen, R H

2009-09-01

255

Effects of vitamin B 12 on bright light on cognitive and sleep-wake rhythm in Alzheimer-type dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the effects of vitamin B12 (VB12) on circadian rhythm in Alzheimer-type dementia (ATD). Twenty-eight ATD patients were treated with bright light therapy (BLT) for 8 weeks. For the latter 4 weeks, half were treated with VB12 with BLT (BLT + VB12). We evaluated the cognitive state with Mini-Mental State Examination and the circadian rhythm with actigraphy

Takao Ito; Hiroshi Yamadera; Ritsuko Ito; Hideaki Suzuki; Kentaro Asayama; Shunkichi Endo

2001-01-01

256

Parallel computing and first-principles calculations: Applications to complex ceramics and Vitamin B12  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic improvement and extension of the orthogonalized linear combinations of atomic orbitals method was carried out using a combined computational and theoretical approach. For high performance parallel computing, a Beowulf class personal computer cluster was constructed. It also served as a parallel program development platform that helped us to port the programs of the method to the national supercomputer facilities. The program, received a language upgrade from Fortran 77 to Fortran 90, and a dynamic memory allocation feature. A preliminary parallel High Performance Fortran version of the program has been developed as well. To be of more benefit though, scalability improvements are needed. In order to circumvent the difficulties of the analytical force calculation in the method, we developed a geometry optimization scheme using the finite difference approximation based on the total energy calculation. The implementation of this scheme was facilitated by the powerful general utility lattice program, which offers many desired features such as multiple optimization schemes and usage of space group symmetry. So far, many ceramic oxides have been tested with the geometry optimization program. Their optimized geometries were in excellent agreement with the experimental data. For nine ceramic oxide crystals, the optimized cell parameters differ from the experimental ones within 0.5%. Moreover, the geometry optimization was recently used to predict a new phase of TiNx. The method has also been used to investigate a complex Vitamin B12-derivative, the OHCbl crystals. In order to overcome the prohibitive disk I/O demand, an on-demand version of the method was developed. Based on the electronic structure calculation of the OHCbl crystal, a partial density of states analysis and a bond order analysis were carried out. The calculated bonding of the corrin ring of OHCbl model was coincident with the big open-ring pi bond. One interesting find of the calculation was that the Co-OH bond was weak. This, together with the ongoing projects studying different Vitamin B12 derivatives, might help us to answer questions about the Co-C cleavage of the B12 coenzyme, which is involved in many important B12 enzymatic reactions.

Ouyang, Lizhi

257

Spatial periodicity in growth plate shear mechanical properties is disrupted by vitamin D deficiency  

E-print Network

Spatial periodicity in growth plate shear mechanical properties is disrupted by vitamin D modulus Vitamin D a b s t r a c t The growth plate is a highly organized section of cartilage in the long disruption caused by a dietary deficiency of vitamin D. The shear mechanical properties of the proximal

Cohen, Itai

258

Vitamin B1  

MedlinePLUS

... Sound: No High score: Yes Credits Chicken Farm Game - Why do we need vitamin B1? - What food ... What is the disease beriberi? This fast-paced game relies on a keen knowledge of food containing ...

259

Vitamin D Deficiency in a Multiethnic Healthy Control Cohort and Altered Immune Response in Vitamin D Deficient European-American Healthy Controls  

PubMed Central

Objective In recent years, vitamin D has been shown to possess a wide range of immunomodulatory effects. Although there is extensive amount of research on vitamin D, we lack a comprehensive understanding of the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or the mechanism by which vitamin D regulates the human immune system. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency and the relationship between vitamin D and the immune system in healthy individuals. Methods Healthy individuals (n?=?774) comprised of European-Americans (EA, n?=?470), AfricanAmericans (AA, n?=?125), and Native Americans (NA, n?=?179) were screened for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels by ELISA. To identify the most noticeable effects of vitamin D on the immune system, 20 EA individuals with severely deficient (<11.3 ng/mL) and sufficient (>24.8 ng/mL) vitamin D levels were matched and selected for further analysis. Serum cytokine level measurement, immune cell phenotyping, and phosphoflow cytometry were performed. Results Vitamin D sufficiency was observed in 37.5% of the study cohort. By multivariate analysis, AA, NA, and females with a high body mass index (BMI, >30) demonstrate higher rates of vitamin D deficiency (p<0.05). Individuals with vitamin D deficiency had significantly higher levels of serum GM-CSF (p?=?0.04), decreased circulating activated CD4+ (p?=?0.04) and CD8+ T (p?=?0.04) cell frequencies than individuals with sufficient vitamin D levels. Conclusion A large portion of healthy individuals have vitamin D deficiency. These individuals have altered T and B cell responses, indicating that the absence of sufficient vitamin D levels could result in undesirable cellular and molecular alterations ultimately contributing to immune dysregulation. PMID:24727903

Shah, Hemangi B.; Robertson, Julie M.; Fife, Dustin A.; Maecker, Holden T.; Du, Hongwu; Fathman, Charles G.; Chakravarty, Eliza F.; Scofield, R. Hal; Kamen, Diane L.; Guthridge, Joel M.; James, Judith A.

2014-01-01

260

Effects of low concentrations of dietary cobalt on liveweight gains, haematology, serum vitamin B(12) and biochemistry of Omani goats.  

PubMed

Seventy-three, 10-week-old, newly weaned Omani goats of three different breeds, namely Dhofari (D), Batinah (B) and Jebel Akhdar (JA) were randomly divided into a control (n=38) and a treated group (n=35) for an experimental period of 10 months. Goats in both groups were fed 150 g/day per head of a pelleted concentrate, based on body weight and their requirements and Rhodes grass hay ad libitum, containing 0.12 and 0.10 mg/kg DM cobalt, respectively. Goats in the treated group also received bi-monthly subcutaneous injections of 2000 microg hydroxycobalamin. In contrast to the treated goats, the control animals of all breeds experienced a severe decrease in their serum vitamin B(12) levels, developed pale mucous membranes, appeared scruffy and two breeds (D and B) had significantly lower weight gains from month 5. Untreated kids of all breeds had significant decreases in their red blood cell counts and erythrocyte indices after approximately four months. Controls developed low total serum protein levels whilst activities of alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase significantly increased. Although it is widely assumed that goats are more resistant to cobalt deficiency than sheep this is apparently not true for Omani goats. Based on experimental data from previously reported studies and those from the present study it can be concluded that the reduction in weight gains in D and B goats is related to their lower digestibility coefficients for dry matter, crude protein and energy while the increase in alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase are associated with developing hepatic lipidosis. PMID:16324857

Al-Habsi, Khalid; Johnson, Eugene H; Kadim, Isam T; Srikandakumar, Anandarajah; Annamalai, Kanthi; Al-Busaidy, Rashid; Mahgoub, Osman

2007-01-01

261

Vitamin K deficiency bleeding presenting as impending brain herniation.  

PubMed

It is presently a universal practice to administer vitamin K at birth. Hence, the serious bleeding manifestations from vitamin K deficiency are nowadays very rare. We describe a case of late vitamin K deficiency bleeding presenting as intracranial hemorrhage with impending coning and the related review of literature. Such severe bleeding episodes due to vitamin K deficiency are associated with multiple cranial involvement and impending brain herniation is probably rare. PMID:21042512

Gopakumar, H; Sivji, R; Rajiv, P K

2010-01-01

262

Vitamin K deficiency bleeding presenting as impending brain herniation  

PubMed Central

It is presently a universal practice to administer vitamin K at birth. Hence, the serious bleeding manifestations from vitamin K deficiency are nowadays very rare. We describe a case of late vitamin K deficiency bleeding presenting as intracranial hemorrhage with impending coning and the related review of literature. Such severe bleeding episodes due to vitamin K deficiency are associated with multiple cranial involvement and impending brain herniation is probably rare. PMID:21042512

Gopakumar, H.; Sivji, R.; Rajiv, P. K.

2010-01-01

263

Influence of different dietary levels of zinc on performance, vitamin B12, and blood parameters in lambs.  

PubMed

This experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of different dietary levels of zinc (Zn) on performance, vitamin B12, and blood parameters in lambs. Thirty six cannulated Poll Dorset x Small-tailed Han wether lambs were assigned randomly to four treatment groups: The control group, which was supplemented with 0.30 mg Co/kg dry matter (DM) to the basal diet; and the low-, medium- and high-Zn supplemented groups, supplementation of 50, 100, and 150 mg Zn/kg DM to the control diet, respectively. Lambs were housed in individual pens and the experiment lasted for 70 days. There was no significant difference in body weight gain and feed/gain between different treatment groups. The high-Zn supplemented lambs showed lower vitamin B12 concentrations in both ruminal fluid and plasma, and higher methylmalonic acid and homocysteine concentrations in plasma compared with the control and low-Zn supplemented groups (p < 0.05). No significant difference was observed in these biochemical values between the control, the low-, and the medium-Zn supplemented groups (p > 0.05). Plasma folate concentration, glucose, and heme-dependent blood parameters were not influenced by dietary zinc level. It was concluded that the higher level of zinc supplementation had a negative effect on vitamin B12 in lambs. Higher inclusion level of dietary zinc could inhibit vitamin B12 synthesis in the rumen of lambs. PMID:17607954

Wang, Runlian; Zhu, Xiaoping; Guo, Fucun; Zhang, Wei; Jia, Zhihai

2006-11-01

264

Vitamin B12, Folate, Homocysteine, and Bone Health in Adults and Elderly People: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analyses  

PubMed Central

Elevated homocysteine levels and low vitamin B12 and folate levels have been associated with deteriorated bone health. This systematic literature review with dose-response meta-analyses summarizes the available scientific evidence on associations of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine status with fractures and bone mineral density (BMD). Twenty-seven eligible cross-sectional (n = 14) and prospective (n = 13) observational studies and one RCT were identified. Meta-analysis on four prospective studies including 7475 people showed a modest decrease in fracture risk of 4% per 50?pmol/L increase in vitamin B12 levels, which was borderline significant (RR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.92 to 1.00). Meta-analysis of eight studies including 11511 people showed an increased fracture risk of 4% per ?mol/L increase in homocysteine concentration (RR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.07). We could not draw a conclusion regarding folate levels and fracture risk, as too few studies investigated this association. Meta-analyses regarding vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine levels, and BMD were possible in female populations only and showed no associations. Results from studies regarding BMD that could not be included in the meta-analyses were not univocal. PMID:23509616

van Wijngaarden, J. P.; Doets, E. L.; Szczeci?ska, A.; Souverein, O. W.; Duffy, M. E.; Dullemeijer, C.; Cavelaars, A. E. J. M.; Pietruszka, B.; van't Veer, P.; Brzozowska, A.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R. A. M.; de Groot, C. P. G. M.

2013-01-01

265

Biosynthesis of vitamin B12: structure of precorrin-6x octamethyl ester.  

PubMed Central

13C-labeled precorrin-6x is biosynthesized by cell-free protein preparations from Pseudomonas denitrificans in separate experiments using delta-amino[5-13C]levulinic acid and the corresponding delta-amino[4-13C]- and delta-amino[3-13C]levulinic acid-labeled forms in conjunction with S-[methyl-13C]adenosylmethionine for the latter two experiments. These labeled precorrin-6x samples, as their octamethyl esters, are studied by a range of NMR techniques. In addition, nuclear Overhauser effect difference measurements are made on unlabeled precorrin-6x ester to determine connectivities. The structure 6a so established for precorrin-6x ester (i) confirms the results reported in the preceding paper that precorrin-6x has a ring-contracted macrocycle, still carries the C-12 acetate residue, and stands at the oxidation level of a dehydrocorrin; (ii) reveals the unexpected methylation at C-11 not C-12, leading to a structure with separated chromophores; and (iii) implies that methyl migration from C-11 to C-12 occurs when precorrin-6x is converted into hydrogenobyrinic acid. Proposals for the biosynthesis of the corrin macrocycle of hydrogenobyrinic acid and vitamin B12 are made. PMID:2247450

Thibaut, D; Blanche, F; Debussche, L; Leeper, F J; Battersby, A R

1990-01-01

266

Expression of Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in the One Carbon Cycle in Rat Placenta is Determined by Maternal Micronutrients (Folic Acid, Vitamin B12) and Omega-3 Fatty Acids  

PubMed Central

We have reported that folic acid, vitamin B12, and omega-3 fatty acids are interlinked in the one carbon cycle and have implications for fetal programming. Our earlier studies demonstrate that an imbalance in maternal micronutrients influence long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and global methylation in rat placenta. We hypothesize that these changes are mediated through micronutrient dependent regulation of enzymes in one carbon cycle. Pregnant dams were assigned to six dietary groups with varying folic acid and vitamin B12 levels. Vitamin B12 deficient groups were supplemented with omega-3 fatty acid. Placental mRNA levels of enzymes, levels of phospholipids, and glutathione were determined. Results suggest that maternal micronutrient imbalance (excess folic acid with vitamin B12 deficiency) leads to lower mRNA levels of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase , but higher cystathionine b-synthase (CBS) and Phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEMT) as compared to control. Omega-3 supplementation normalized CBS and MTHFR mRNA levels. Increased placental phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), in the same group was also observed. Our data suggests that adverse effects of a maternal micronutrient imbalanced diet may be due to differential regulation of key genes encoding enzymes in one carbon cycle and omega-3 supplementation may ameliorate most of these changes. PMID:25003120

Khot, Vinita; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Asmita; Chavan-Gautam, Preeti; Joshi, Sadhana

2014-01-01

267

Effects of folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation on culling rate, diseases, and reproduction in commercial dairy herds.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to determine the effect of a combined folic acid and vitamin B12 supplement given in early lactation on culling rate, metabolic disorders and other diseases, and reproduction in commercial dairy herds. A total of 805 cows (271 primiparous and 534 multiparous cows) in 15 commercial dairy herds were involved. Every 2mo from February to December 2010 and within each herd, cows were assigned according to parity, previous 305-d milk production, and calving interval to 5mL of either (1) saline 0.9% NaCl (control group) or (2) 320mg of folic acid + 10mg of vitamin B12 (vitamin group). Treatments were administered weekly by intramuscular injections starting 3wk before the expected calving date until 8wk after parturition. A total of 221 cows were culled before the next dry period. Culling rate was not affected by treatment and was 27.5%; culling rate was greater for multiparous (32.2%) than for primiparous cows (18.8%). Within the first 60d in milk (DIM), 47 cows were culled, representing 21.3% of total culling, and no treatment effect was noted. Ketosis incidence based on a threshold ?100mol/L of ?-hydroxybutyrate in milk was 38.32.9% for the vitamin group and 41.83.0% for the control group and was not affected by treatment. The combined supplement of folic acid and vitamin B12 did not decrease incidence of retained placenta, displaced abomasum, milk fever, metritis, or mastitis. However, the incidence of dystocia decreased by 50% in multiparous cows receiving the vitamin supplement, although no effect was observed in primiparous cows. The first breeding postpartum for multiparous cows occurred 3.8d earlier with the vitamin supplement compared with controls, whereas no treatment effect was seen for primiparous cows. Days open, first- and second-breeding conception rates, number of breedings per conception, and percentage of cows pregnant at 150 DIM were not affected by treatment. The reduced percentage of dystocia combined with the earlier DIM at first breeding for multiparous cows receiving the combined supplementation in folic acid and vitamin B12 indicates that the vitamin supplement had a positive effect in older cows. PMID:24485680

Duplessis, M; Girard, C L; Santschi, D E; Laforest, J-P; Durocher, J; Pellerin, D

2014-04-01

268

Vitamin D Binding Protein Gene Polymorphism as a Risk Factor for Vitamin D Deficiency in Thais.  

PubMed

Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is related to increased risks of a number of diseases. To date, at least three candidate genes, i.e. vitamin D binding protein gene (GC), CYP2R1 and DHCR7/NADSYN1, have been associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), but their influence on the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in relation to other known risk factors has not been clearly defined.Methods: Subjects consisted of 4,476 individuals aged 14-93 years from the Thailand 4th National Health Examination Survey (2008-2009) and the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) (2008) cohorts. The GC rs2282679 polymorphism on chromosome 4q12-q13 was genotyped by real-time PCR. Serum 25(OH)D was measured by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a 25(OH)D concentration lower than 20 ng/mL.Results: Data were expressed as mean SD. There were 2,747 (61.4%) males and 1,729 (38.6%) females in the study, with an average BMI of 23.7 4.2 kg/m2 and a mean total 25(OH)D of 28.9 9.0 ng/mL. Serum 25(OH)D levels decreased progressively with the presence of the C allele. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with the GC rs2282679 genotype (OR per C allele 1.80, 95% CI 1.57-2.01) independent of established risk factors for vitamin D deficiency including age, gender and body mass index.Conclusion: Vitamin D binding protein gene polymorphism is associated with lower 25(OH)D levels independent of age, gender and adiposity in Thais. PMID:25370324

Thongthai, Pranee; Chailurkit, La-Or; Chanprasertyothin, Suwannee; Nimitphong, Hataikarn; Sritara, Piyamitr; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Ongphiphadhanakul, Boonsong

2014-11-01

269

Development and validation of PCR, PLS, and TLC densitometric methods for the simultaneous determination of vitamins B(1), B(6) AND B(12) in pharmaceutical formulations.  

PubMed

This work represents the simultaneous determination of thiamine hydrochloride (B(1)), pyridoxine hydrochloride (B(6)) and cyanocobalamine (B(12)) by two different methods namely spectrophotometry multivariate calibration and densitometry. The spectrophotometric numerical method depends on the use of spectrophotometric data coupled to PLS and PCR multivariate calibration methods for the simultaneous determination of (B(1)) and (B(6)) in the presence of (B(12)) in laboratory prepared mixtures and commercial tablets. A calibration set was prepared, where the three vitamins were modeled using a full factorial 23 with three center points experimental design. This calibration set was used to build the PLS and PCR models. The models were validated by testing their predictive ability on a validation set where low RMSEP, RSEP % were obtained for both models. Figures of merit were determined using the net analyte signal concept. The proposed models were applied successfully to simultaneous determination of B1 and B6 in presence of a low concentration of B12 in pharmaceutical dosage forms that contain simple excipients. The TLC densitometric method was based on the use of a developing system of chloroform: ethanol: water: acetic acid solution (2: 8: 2: 0.5 v/v) to separate the three vitamins. The separated spots were scanned at 242nm, 291nm and 360nm for B(1), B(6) and B(12) respectively. The proposed method was applied successfully to simultaneous determination of the three vitamins in their pure powder form in the range 0.1-1.5 (g/spot), 0.5-3.5 (g/spot), 0.1-1.5 (g/spot) for B(1), B(6), and B(12) respectively and in their pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:20884455

Elzanfaly, Eman S; Nebsen, Marianne; Ramadan, Nesreen K

2010-10-01

270

Association of vitamin D deficiency with hypertension in uninsured women  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vitamin D deficiency is an epidemic in the United States. Uninsured women are at high risk due to a lower intake of vitamin D and limited sun exposure. We examined the association between vitamin D deficiency and hypertension in 96 uninsured women at a County Free Medical Clinic in urban Michigan. Q...

271

Effects of folate and vitamin B12 on cognitive function in adult and elderly  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Age-related neurocognitive disorders, primarily Alzheimers disease (AD) and Parkinsons disease (PD), have a major impact on health and well-being. Separate lines of evidence have suggested that B vitamin status may be associated with risk and progression of AD and PD. This report summarizes the ev...

272

Metabolic interrelationships between folic acid, vitamin B12 and the citrovorum factor  

E-print Network

citrovorum factor (rep rin t )....................................................................... Conversion of folic acid to citrovorum factor by avian liver homogenates. I . Influence of reducing agents and anaerobiosis................................................................... 7 Manometric studies on oxidation of choline by avian liver homogenates (rep rin t )............. Chapter 5* Conversion of folic acid to citrovorum factor by avian liver homogenates, I I . Influence of dietary vitamin B a n d folic a c id...

Doctor, Vasant Manilal

2013-10-04

273

Dietary cobalt can promote gastrointestinal bacterial production of vitamin B 12 in sufficient amounts to supply growth requirements of grouper, Epinephelus malabaricus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two growth trials were conducted to elucidate the dietary essentiality of cobalt (Co) and vitamin B12 for grouper, Epinephelus malabaricus. In Exp. 1, a vitamin B12-free basal diet was supplemented with 0.05, 6.5, 10.7, 20.7, 41.6, 82.7 and 153.1mgCo\\/kg; in Exp. 2, a vitamin B12-free basal diet with 10mgCo\\/kg was supplemented with 0, 8.3, 18.1, 54.0, 87.1 and 193.2?gB12\\/kg diet,

Yu-Hung Lin; Jing-Yun Wu; Shi-Yen Shiau

2010-01-01

274

Water structure in vitamin B12 coenzyme crystals. II. Structural characteristics of the solvent networks.  

PubMed Central

The geometrical details of the solvent structure in vitamin B12 coenzyme crystals with respect to hydrogen bonding and nonbonded contacts, are described. The individual H-bond geometries varied over wide ranges, similar to those observed in small molecule structures. Large deviations from tetrahedral coordination were found around a majority of the waters. The mutual positions and orientations of the water molecules could not be adequately explained in terms of the H-bonding relationships present in the structure. However, additional investigations, which focused on the short range nonbonded contacts around water positions in a variety of crystal hydrates, revealed several structural regularities (Savage, 1986b). These features relate to the nonbonded O...O, H...O, and H...H interactions, and give rise to a set of repulsive restrictions that are seen to be very much stronger stereochemical restraints than those associated with H-bonding. The short-range restrictions appear largely to govern the local orientational correlations and packing arrangements of the water structure within the coenzyme (and other hydrate) crystals. In more general terms, the inclusion of the nonbonding relationships as well as the attractive H-bonding interactions, leads to a significant increase in our understanding of water structure(s). The repulsive restrictions can be used as stereochemical restraints in the interpretation and refinement of solvent structures within larger hydrate systems, such as protein crystals. They may also be included in potential functions used to simulate solvent structures in aqueous solutions and hydrate systems. PMID:3790697

Savage, H

1986-01-01

275

Biochemical aspects of vitamin E deficiency in fowl  

E-print Network

in animals fed a vitamin E-deficient diet containing Torula yeast as the protein source. Serum protein changes would, therefore, be possible in view of the fact that the liver is generally throught to be the site of formation of most of the blood albumin... groups and studied with respect t? in vitro conversion. The results of these studies are EFFECT OF VI?AKIN 2 ON IN VITRO CONVERSION OP FOLIC ACID TO FOLINIC ACID TABLE 12 Added to flask Folinic Acid in Y/Gm. Liver Poult diet Poult diet - vitamin E...

Creech, Billy Gene

2013-10-04

276

Development of an ichthyosiform phenotype in Alox12b-deficient mouse skin transplants.  

PubMed

12R-lipoxygenase (12R-LOX) represents a key enzyme of a recently identified eicosanoid pathway in the skin that plays an essential role in the establishment and/or maintenance of the epidermal barrier function. Genetic studies show that loss-of-function mutations in ALOX12B, encoding 12R-LOX, and in ALOXE3, encoding another closely related LOX involved in this pathway, are the second most common cause for autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI). To investigate the pathomechanism of ARCI and the function of 12R-LOX, we recently generated a 12R-LOX knockout model. 12R-LOX-deficient mice die rapidly after birth from severe barrier dysfunction without exhibiting an obvious cutaneous phenotype. Thus, we analyzed the adult phenotype of 12R-LOX(-/-) skin transplanted onto nude mice. 12R-LOX(-/-) skin develops an ichthyosiform appearance with thickening of the epidermis, hyperproliferation, hypergranulosis, focal parakeratosis, and severe hyperkeratosis. The adult mutant mouse skin phenotype closely reproduces the ichthyosis phenotype seen in patients with ALOX12B mutations. Western blot analysis revealed restoration of profilaggrin processing that used to be disturbed in neonatal mutant skin and overexpression of filaggrin, involucrin, and repetin. The results indicate that 12R-LOX knockout mice may represent a useful animal model for a detailed analysis of mechanisms involved in ARCI forms that are associated with impaired LOX metabolism. PMID:19122646

de Juanes, Silvia; Epp, Nikolas; Latzko, Susanne; Neumann, Mareen; Frstenberger, Gerhard; Hausser, Ingrid; Stark, Hans-Jrgen; Krieg, Peter

2009-06-01

277

Methylmalonic acid quantified in dried blood spots provides a precise, valid, and stable measure of functional vitamin B-12 status in healthy women.  

PubMed

Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is a sensitive and specific functional biomarker of vitamin B-12 status, commonly assessed in plasma or serum. Dried blood spots (DBSs) allow simpler and more cost-efficient blood sampling than plasma. To facilitate convenient testing for vitamin B-12 deficiency in large-scale surveys and in population groups from remote areas, we developed a method for MMA quantification in DBSs and tested its applicability as well as the long-term stability of MMA in DBSs at various temperatures. MMA was extracted from an 8-mm DBS punch with water:methanol (95:5, v:v) and methyl-d3-malonic acid as the internal standard. After sample cleanup by ultrafiltration and hexane extraction, MMA was quantified by using reversed-phase LC-tandem mass spectrometry. Extraction conditions were optimized to maximize the detection signal and achieve DBS extract concentrations above the lowest limit of quantification (signal-to-noise ratio ? 10) of 10 nmol/L. Recovery was between 93% and 96%. Intra- and interassay variation (CV%) for DBS MMA was 0.49% and 2.3%, respectively. Calibrators showed linearity (R(2) = 0.998) between 10 and 10,000 nmol/L. In 94 healthy women, MMA concentrations in DBS extract (min-max: 10.2-80.5 nmol/L) and plasma (min-max: 68-950 nmol/L) were correlated (? = 0.90) (P < 0.001). MMA concentrations in DBSs were stable at room temperature for 1 wk, in the refrigerator for 8 wk, and at -80C for at least 1 y. This simple and robust method allows quantification of MMA in DBSs of healthy individuals. The linear relation between plasma and DBS MMA suggests that DBS MMA could predict plasma MMA, the current reference indicator for functional vitamin B-12 deficiency. With the advantages of minimally invasive specimen collection and no need for laborious blood processing steps, this method has the potential to be a reliable, convenient, and field-applicable alternative for assessment of vitamin B-12 status. PMID:25143369

Schroder, Theresa H; Quay, Teo A W; Lamers, Yvonne

2014-10-01

278

The effects of vitamin B12 and diclofenac and their combination on cold and mechanical allodynia in a neuropathic pain model in rats  

PubMed Central

The present study was performed to investigate the effects of long-term intraperitoneal (IP) injection of vitamin B12 and diclofenac in separate and combined treatments on cold and mechanical allodynia in a neuropathic pain model in rats. Neuropathic pain was induced by crush injury in right tibial nerve. Acetone spray and von Frey tests were used to obtain cold and mechanical allodynia responses, respectively, on day 11 after nerve crush. Normal saline, vitamin B12 and diclofenac were injected intraperitoneally for 10 consecutive days after surgery. Normal saline treated rats showed cold and mechanical allodynia responses after nerve crush. Vitamin B12 at doses of 50, 100 and 200 g kg-1 and diclofenac at a dose of 2 mg kg-1 produced antiallodynic effects. Antiallodynic effects were not observed when subanalgesic doses of vitamin B12 (25 g kg-1) and diclofenac (0.25 mg kg-1) were used together. By increasing the dose of vitamin B12 to an effective dose (100 g kg-1), antiallodynic effects were observed when compared with diclofenac (0.25 mg kg-1) alone. The results indicated that vitamin B12 and diclofenac produced neuropathic pain suppressing effects. Moreover, a potentiation effect was observed between vitamin B12 and diclofenac.

Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Samadi, Farzad; Egdami, Karim

2013-01-01

279

CO2 and vitamin B12 interactions determine bioactive trace metal requirements of a subarctic Pacific diatom  

PubMed Central

Phytoplankton growth can be limited by numerous inorganic nutrients and organic growth factors. Using the subarctic diatom Attheya sp. in culture studies, we examined how the availability of vitamin B12 and carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) influences growth rate, primary productivity, cellular iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) quotas, and the net use efficiencies (NUEs) of these bioactive trace metals (mol C fixed per mol cellular trace metal per day). Under B12-replete conditions, cells grown at high pCO2 had lower Fe, Zn and Cd quotas, and used those trace metals more efficiently in comparison with cells grown at low pCO2. At high pCO2, B12-limited cells had ?50% lower specific growth and carbon fixation rates, and used Fe ?15-fold less efficiently, and Zn and Cd ?3-fold less efficiently, in comparison with B12-replete cells. The observed higher Fe, Zn and Cd NUE under high pCO2/B12-replete conditions are consistent with predicted downregulation of carbon-concentrating mechanisms. Co quotas of B12-replete cells were ?5- to 14-fold higher in comparison with B12-limited cells, suggesting that >80% of cellular Co of B12-limited cells was likely from B12. Our results demonstrate that CO2 and vitamin B12 interactively influence growth, carbon fixation, trace metal requirements and trace metal NUE of this diatom. This suggests the need to consider complex feedback interactions between multiple environmental factors for this biogeochemically critical group of phytoplankton in the last glacial maximum as well as the current and future changing ocean. PMID:21248860

King, Andrew L; Saudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A; Leblanc, Karine; Hutchins, David A; Fu, Feixue

2011-01-01

280

Investigation on the pH-dependent binding of vitamin B12 and lysozyme by fluorescence and absorbance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The binding reaction between vitamin B12 (B12, cyanocobalamin) and lysozyme (Lys) has been investigated by fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, ultraviolet-vis (UV) absorbance, and three-dimensional fluorescence. The intrinsic fluorescence of Lys was strongly quenched by the addition of B12 in different pH buffer solutions (pH 3.4, 7.4, and 9.0) and the spectroscopic observations are mainly rationalized in terms of a static quenching process at lower concentration of B12 ( CB12/ CLys < 5) and a combined quenching process at higher concentration of B12 ( CB12/ CLys > 5). The structural characteristics of B12 and Lys were probed, and their binding affinities were determined under different pH conditions (pH 3.4, 7.4, and 9.0). The effect of B12 on the conformation of Lys was analyzed using UV, synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence under different pH conditions. These results indicate that the binding of B12 to Lys causes apparent change in the secondary or tertiary structures of Lys. Furthermore, the effect of Zn 2+ on the binding constant of B12 with Lys under various pH conditions (pH 3.4, 7.4, and 9.0) was also studied.

Li, Daojin; Yang, Yumin; Cao, Xinxiang; Xu, Chen; Ji, Baoming

2012-01-01

281

Osteomalacia as a result of vitamin D deficiency.  

PubMed

Osteomalacia is an end-stage bone disease of chronic and severe vitamin D or phosphate depletion of any cause. Its importance has increased because of the rising incidence of vitamin D deficiency. Yet, not all cases of osteomalacia are cured by vitamin D replacement, and furthermore, not all individuals with vitamin D deficiency develop osteomalacia. Although in the past osteomalacia was commonly caused by malabsorption, nutritional deficiency now is more common. In addition, recent literature suggests that nutritional vitamin D deficiency osteomalacia follows various bariatric surgeries for morbid obesity. Bone pain, tenderness, muscle weakness, and difficulty walking are all common clinical manifestations of osteomalacia. Diagnostic work-up involves biochemical assessment of vitamin D status and may also include a transiliac bone biopsy. Treatment is based on aggressive vitamin D repletion in most cases with follow-up biopsies if patients are started on antiresorptive or anabolic agents. PMID:20511054

Bhan, Arti; Rao, Ajay D; Rao, D Sudhaker

2010-06-01

282

Influence of Different Ratios of Cobalt and Copper Supplementation on Vitamin B 12 Status and Nutrient Utilization in Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study is aimed to investigate the effects of different ratios of cobalt (Co) and copper (Cu) supplementation on vitamin B12 status and nutrient utilization in sheep. Twenty wether lambs with an average weight (22.9 0.8) kg were randomly divided into five groups and fed with the control diet which was supplied with 0.3 mg kg-1 DM (dry

Run-lian WANG; Wei ZHANG; Xiao-ping ZHU; Zhi-hai JIA

2010-01-01

283

Continuous methane fermentation and the production of vitamin B 12 in a fixed-bed reactor packed with loofah  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fixed-bed reactor with acclimated methanogens immobilized on a loofah support was studied on a laboratory scale to evaluate the system producing methane from the mixture of CO2 and H2 gas, with the production of vitamin B12 as a by-product. Fermentation using CO2\\/H2 acclimated methanogens was conducted in a jar fermentor with hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of three and six

Yingnan Yang; Zhenya Zhang; Jun Lu; Takaaki Maekawa

2004-01-01

284

Comparative analysis of serum homocysteine, folic acid and Vitamin B 12 levels in patients with noise-induced hearing loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the levels of homocysteine, folic acid, and Vitamin B12 in subjects with noise-induced hearing loss. Furthermore, possible links between these parameters and noise-induced hearing loss were aimed to be evaluated. Methods: In the present study, blood samples were obtained from all subjects after overnight fasting for biochemical analysis. We examined

Uzeyir Gok; Ihsan Halifeoglu; Halit Canatan; Mucahit Yildiz; M. Ferit Gursu; Biray Gur

2004-01-01

285

A SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR THE URINARY EXCRETION TEST OF ABSORPTION OF COBALT 60 LABELLED VITAMIN B12  

PubMed Central

It is possible to do both radioiodine uptake studies and urinary excretion tests for absorption of Cobalt 60 vitamin B12 with the same basic equipment. If a spectrometer is used and the samples properly prepared, the latter procedure can be performed quickly, accurately and with a minimum of laboratory equipment. This is a distinct advantage to a small laboratory with limited facilities, and should help to make both of these useful tests available for clinical use. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:13608296

Corbus, Howard F.; Nielson, Henry

1958-01-01

286

Role of vitamin B12 on methylmalonyl-CoA mutase activity.  

PubMed

Vitamin B(12) is an organometallic compound with important metabolic derivatives that act as cofactors of certain enzymes, which have been grouped into three subfamilies depending on their cofactors. Among them, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM) has been extensively studied. This enzyme catalyzes the reversible isomerization of L-methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA using adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) as a cofactor participating in the generation of radicals that allow isomerization of the substrate. The crystal structure of MCM determined in Propionibacterium freudenreichii var. shermanii has helped to elucidate the role of this cofactor AdoCbl in the reaction to specify the mechanism by which radicals are generated from the coenzyme and to clarify the interactions between the enzyme, coenzyme, and substrate. The existence of human methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) due to the presence of mutations in MCM shows the importance of its role in metabolism. The recent crystallization of the human MCM has shown that despite being similar to the bacterial protein, there are significant differences in the structural organization of the two proteins. Recent studies have identified the involvement of an accessory protein called MMAA, which interacts with MCM to prevent MCM's inactivation or acts as a chaperone to promote regeneration of inactivated enzyme. The interdisciplinary studies using this protein as a model in different organisms have helped to elucidate the mechanism of action of this isomerase, the impact of mutations at a functional level and their repercussion in the development and progression of MMA in humans. It is still necessary to study the mechanisms involved in more detail using new methods. PMID:22661206

Takahashi-Iiguez, Tshiko; Garca-Hernandez, Enrique; Arregun-Espinosa, Roberto; Flores, Mara Elena

2012-06-01

287

Human Vitamin B12 Absorption and Metabolism are Measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Using Specifically Labeled 14C-Cobalamin  

SciTech Connect

There is need for an improved test of human ability to assimilate dietary vitamin B{sub 12}. Assaying and understanding absorption and uptake of B{sub 12} is important because defects can lead to hematological and neurological complications. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is uniquely suited for assessing absorption and kinetics of {sup 14}C-labeled substances after oral ingestion because it is more sensitive than decay counting and can measure levels of carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) in microliter volumes of biological samples, with negligible exposure of subjects to radioactivity. The test we describe employs amounts of B{sub 12} in the range of normal dietary intake. The B{sub 12} used was quantitatively labeled with {sup 14}C at one particular atom of the DMB moiety by exploiting idiosyncrasies of Salmonellametabolism. In order to grow aerobically on ethanolamine, S. entericamust be provided with either pre-formed B{sub 12} or two of its precursors: cobinamide and dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB). When provided with {sup 14}C-DMB specifically labeled in the C2 position, cells produced {sup 14}C-B{sub 12} of high specific activity (2.1 GBq/mmol, 58 mCi/mmol) and no detectable dilution of label from endogenous DMB synthesis. In a human kinetic study, a physiological dose (1.5 mg, 2.2 KBq/59 nCi) of purified {sup 14}C-B{sub 12} was administered and showed plasma appearance and clearance curves consistent with the predicted behavior of the pure vitamin. This method opens new avenues for study of B{sub 12} assimilation.

Carkeet, C; Dueker, S R; Lango, J; Buchholz, B A; Miller, J W; Green, R; Hammock, B D; Roth, J R; Anderson, P J

2006-01-26

288

Enantioselective syntheses of ring-C precursors of vitamin B12. Substrate control. A novel Si-assisted elimination of vinyl bromides.  

PubMed

Homochiral ring-C precursors 34 of Vitamin B(12) have been prepared by Ireland-Claisen rearrangement of allyl esters 32, followed by a novel Si-assisted elimination of HBr. [reaction: see text] PMID:14653697

Jacobi, Peter A; Tassa, Carlos

2003-12-11

289

Vitamin D Insufficiency and Deficiency in Chronic Kidney Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Kidney disease has been identified as a risk factor for vitamin D deficiency in hospitalized patients, and low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D have been suggested to be a risk factor for hyperparathyroidism in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, little is known about the magnitude of vitamin D deficiency in patients with CKD living in the United States.

Esther A. Gonzlez; Ashutosh Sachdeva; Dana A. Oliver; Kevin J. Martin

2004-01-01

290

Imaging of skeletal muscle in vitamin D deficiency  

PubMed Central

Elderly people are prone to accidental falls and one of the main risk factor is considered muscle weakness. Several studies focused on muscle weakness and muscle morphology changes in the elderly that may be associated with vitamin D deficiency. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is higher than previously though representing an important issue for public health and prevention. There is an increased interest in vitamin D effects in skeletal muscle and imaging modalities are particularly involved in this field. In patients with vitamin D deficiency, ultrasound, computed tomography, densitometry and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can efficiently describe changes in muscle morphology and size. Moreover, new imaging modalities, such as MRI spectroscopy, may improve knowledge about the metabolic effects of vitamin D in skeletal muscle. In this narrative review we will discuss the role of skeletal muscle imaging in vitamin D-deficient individuals. The aim of this paper is to improve and encourage the role of radiologists in this field. PMID:24778774

Bignotti, Bianca; Cadoni, Angela; Martinoli, Carlo; Tagliafico, Alberto

2014-01-01

291

Imaging of skeletal muscle in vitamin D deficiency.  

PubMed

Elderly people are prone to accidental falls and one of the main risk factor is considered muscle weakness. Several studies focused on muscle weakness and muscle morphology changes in the elderly that may be associated with vitamin D deficiency. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is higher than previously though representing an important issue for public health and prevention. There is an increased interest in vitamin D effects in skeletal muscle and imaging modalities are particularly involved in this field. In patients with vitamin D deficiency, ultrasound, computed tomography, densitometry and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can efficiently describe changes in muscle morphology and size. Moreover, new imaging modalities, such as MRI spectroscopy, may improve knowledge about the metabolic effects of vitamin D in skeletal muscle. In this narrative review we will discuss the role of skeletal muscle imaging in vitamin D-deficient individuals. The aim of this paper is to improve and encourage the role of radiologists in this field. PMID:24778774

Bignotti, Bianca; Cadoni, Angela; Martinoli, Carlo; Tagliafico, Alberto

2014-04-28

292

A preliminary study on the teratogenesis of dexamethasone and the preventive effect of vitamin B 12 on murine embryonic palatal shelf fusion in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive dexamethasone (Dex) administrated into pregnant mice during critical periods of palatal development can produce\\u000a a high incidence of cleft palate. Its mechanisms remain unknown. Vitamin B12 has been shown to antagonize the teratogenic effects of Dex, which, however, remains controversial. In this study, we investigated\\u000a the effects of Dex and vitamin B12 on murine embryonic palatal shelf fusion using

Sheng-jun Lu; Wei He; Bing Shi; Tian Meng; Xiao-yu Li; Yu-rong Liu

2008-01-01

293

Effect of pH on the interaction of vitamin B12 with bovine serum albumin by spectroscopic approaches.  

PubMed

The interaction mechanism between vitamin B12 (B12, cyanocobalamin) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated by fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, ultraviolet-vis (UV) absorbance, and three-dimensional fluorescence. The intrinsic fluorescence of BSA was strongly quenched by the addition of B12 in different pH buffer solutions (pH 2.5, 3.5, 5.0, 7.4, and 9.0) and spectroscopic observations are mainly rationalized in terms of a static quenching process at lower concentration of B12 (C(B12)/C(BSA)<5) and a combined quenching process at higher concentration of B12 (C(B12)/C(BSA)>5). The structural characteristics of B12 and BSA were probed, and their binding affinities were determined under different pH conditions. The results indicated that the binding abilities of B12 to BSA in the acidic and basic pH regions (pH 2.5, 3.5, 5.0, and 9.0) were lower than that at simulating physiological condition (pH 7.4). In addition, the efficiency of energy transfer from tryptophan fluorescence to B12 was found to depend on the binding distance r between the donor and acceptor calculated using Frster's theory. The effect of B12 on the conformation of BSA was analyzed using UV, synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence under different pH conditions. These results showed that the binding of B12 to BSA causes apparent change in the secondary and tertiary structures of BSA. PMID:21955947

Li, Daojin; Zhang, Tian; Xu, Chen; Ji, Baoming

2011-12-01

294

Vitamin A Supplementation in Early Life Enhances the Intestinal Immune Response of Rats with Gestational Vitamin A Deficiency by Increasing the Number of Immune Cells  

PubMed Central

Vitamin A is a critical micronutrient for regulating immunity in many organisms. Our previous study demonstrated that gestational or early-life vitamin A deficiency decreases the number of immune cells in offspring. The present study aims to test whether vitamin A supplementation can restore lymphocyte pools in vitamin A-deficient rats and thereby improve the function of their intestinal mucosa; furthermore, the study aimed to identify the best time frame for vitamin A supplementation. Vitamin A-deficient pregnant rats or their offspring were administered a low-dose of vitamin A daily for 7 days starting on gestational day 14 or postnatal day 1, day 14 or day 28. Serum retinol concentrations increased significantly in all four groups that received vitamin A supplementation, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The intestinal levels of secretory immunoglobulin A and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor increased significantly with lipopolysaccharide challenge in the rats that received vitamin A supplementation starting on postnatal day 1. The rats in this group had higher numbers of CD8+ intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes, CD11C+ dendritic cells in the Peyer's patches and CD4+CD25+ T cells in the spleen compared with the vitamin A-deficient rats; flow cytometric analysis also demonstrated that vitamin A supplementation decreased the number of B cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Additionally, vitamin A supplementation during late gestation increased the numbers of CD8+ intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes and decreased the numbers of B lymphocytes in the mesenteric lymph nodes. However, no significant differences in lymphocyte levels were found between the rats in the other two vitamin A supplement groups and the vitamin A-deficient group. In conclusion, the best recovery of a subset of lymphocytes in the offspring of gestational vitamin A-deficient rats and the greatest improvement in the intestinal mucosal immune response are achieved when vitamin A supplementation occurs during the early postnatal period. PMID:25503794

Liu, Xia; Cui, Ting; Li, Yingying; Wang, Yuting; Wang, Qinghong; Li, Xin; Bi, Yang; Wei, Xiaoping; Liu, Lan; Li, Tingyu; Chen, Jie

2014-01-01

295

Thermolability of mutant MMACHC protein in the vitamin B12-responsive cblC disorder.  

PubMed

Methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria, cblC type, is the most common inborn error of cellular vitamin B12 metabolism. We previously showed that the protein carrying the mutation responsible for late-onset cblC (MMACHC-R161Q), treatable with high dose OHCbl, is able to bind OHCbl with wild-type affinity, leaving undetermined the disease mechanism involved [Froese et al., Mechanism of responsiveness, Mol. Genet. Metab. (2009).]. To assess whether the mutation renders the protein unstable, we investigated the thermostability of the wild-type and mutant MMACHC proteins, either unbound or bound to different cobalamins (Cbl), using differential scanning fluorimetry. We found that MMACHC-wt and MMACHC-R161Q are both very thermolabile proteins in their apo forms, with melting temperatures (T(m)) of 39.3+/-1.0 and 37.1+/-0.7 degrees C, respectively; a difference confirmed by unfolding of MMACHC-R161Q but not MMACHC-wt by isothermal denaturation at 35 degrees C over 120 min. However, with the addition of OHCbl, MMACHC-wt becomes significantly stabilized (Delta T(m max)=8 degrees C, half-maximal effective ligand concentration, AC(50)=3 microM). We surveyed the effect of different cobalamins on the stabilization of the wild-type protein and found that AdoCbl was the most stabilizing, exerting a maximum increase in T(m) of approximately 16 degrees C, followed by MeCbl at approximately 13 degrees C, each evaluated at 50 microM cofactor. The other cobalamins stabilized in the order (CN)(2)Cbi>OHCbl>CNCbl. Interestingly, the AC(50)'s for AdoCbl, MeCbl, (CN)(2)Cbi and OHCbl were similar and ranged from 1-3 microM, which compares well with the K(d) of 6 microM for OHCbl [Froese et al., Mechanism of responsiveness, Mol. Genet. Metab. (2009).]. Unlike MMACHC-wt, the mutant protein MMACHC-R161Q is only moderately stabilized by OHCbl (Delta T(m max)=4 degrees C). The dose-response curve also shows a lower effectivity of OHCbl with respect to stabilization, with an AC(50) of 7 microM. MMACHC-R161Q showed the same order of stabilization as MMACHC-wt, but each cobalamin stabilized this mutant protein less than its wild-type counterpart. Additionally, MMACHC-R161Q had a higher AC(50) for each cobalamin form compared to MMACHC-wt. Finally, we show that MMACHC-R161Q is able to support the base-off transition for AdoCbl and CNCbl, indicating this mutant is not blocked in that respect. Taken together, our results suggest that protein stability, as well as propensity for ligand-induced stabilization, contributes to the disease mechanism in late-onset cblC disorder. Our results underscore the importance of cofactor stabilization of MMACHC and suggest that even small increases in the concentration of cobalamin complexed with MMACHC may have therapeutic benefit in children with the late-onset, vitamin responsive cblC disease. PMID:20219402

Froese, D S; Healy, S; McDonald, M; Kochan, G; Oppermann, U; Niesen, F H; Gravel, R A

2010-05-01

296

B complex vitamin patterns in geriatric and young adult inpatients with major depression.  

PubMed

This study compared the B complex vitamin status at time of admission of 20 geriatric and 16 young adult non-alcoholic inpatients with major depression. Twenty-eight percent of all subjects were deficient in B2 (riboflavin), B6 (pyridoxine), and/or B12 (cobalamin), but none in B1 (thiamine) or folate. The geriatric sample had significantly higher serum folate levels. Psychotic depressives had lower B12 than did non-psychotic depressives. Poorer blood vitamin status was not associated with higher scores on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale or lower scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination in either age group. The data support the hypothesis that poorer status in certain B vitamins is present in major depression, but blood measures may not reflect central nervous system vitamin function or severity of affective syndromes as measured by the assays and scales in the present study. PMID:2005338

Bell, I R; Edman, J S; Morrow, F D; Marby, D W; Mirages, S; Perrone, G; Kayne, H L; Cole, J O

1991-03-01

297

Effect of pH on the interaction of vitamin B12 with bovine serum albumin by spectroscopic approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction mechanism between vitamin B12 (B12, cyanocobalamin) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated by fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, ultraviolet-vis (UV) absorbance, and three-dimensional fluorescence. The intrinsic fluorescence of BSA was strongly quenched by the addition of B12 in different pH buffer solutions (pH 2.5, 3.5, 5.0, 7.4, and 9.0) and spectroscopic observations are mainly rationalized in terms of a static quenching process at lower concentration of B12 ( CB12/ CBSA < 5) and a combined quenching process at higher concentration of B12 ( CB12/ CBSA > 5). The structural characteristics of B12 and BSA were probed, and their binding affinities were determined under different pH conditions. The results indicated that the binding abilities of B12 to BSA in the acidic and basic pH regions (pH 2.5, 3.5, 5.0, and 9.0) were lower than that at simulating physiological condition (pH 7.4). In addition, the efficiency of energy transfer from tryptophan fluorescence to B12 was found to depend on the binding distance r between the donor and acceptor calculated using Frster's theory. The effect of B12 on the conformation of BSA was analyzed using UV, synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence under different pH conditions. These results showed that the binding of B12 to BSA causes apparent change in the secondary and tertiary structures of BSA.

Li, Daojin; Zhang, Tian; Xu, Chen; Ji, Baoming

2011-12-01

298

Ultrafast infrared spectral fingerprints of vitamin B12 and related cobalamins.  

PubMed

Vitamin B(12) (cyanocobalamin, CNCbl) and its derivatives are structurally complex and functionally diverse biomolecules. The excited state and radical pair reaction dynamics that follow their photoexcitation have been previously studied in detail using UV-visible techniques. Similar time-resolved infrared (TRIR) data are limited, however. Herein we present TRIR difference spectra in the 1300-1700 cm(-1) region between 2 ps and 2 ns for adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl), methylcobalamin (MeCbl), CNCbl, and hydroxocobalamin (OHCbl). The spectral profiles of all four cobalamins are complex, with broad similarities that suggest the vibrational excited states are related, but with a number of identifiable variations. The majority of the signals from AdoCbl and MeCbl decay with kinetics similar to those reported in the literature from UV-visible studies. However, there are regions of rapid (<10 ps) vibrational relaxation (peak shifts to higher frequencies from 1551, 1442, and 1337 cm(-1)) that are more pronounced in AdoCbl than in MeCbl. The AdoCbl data also exhibit more substantial changes in the amide I region and a number of more gradual peak shifts elsewhere (e.g., from 1549 to 1563 cm(-1)), which are not apparent in the MeCbl data. We attribute these differences to interactions between the bulky adenosyl and the corrin ring after photoexcitation and during radical pair recombination, respectively. Although spectrally similar to the initial excited state, the long-lived metal-to-ligand charge transfer state of MeCbl is clearly resolved in the kinetic analysis. The excited states of CNCbl and OHCbl relax to the ground state within 40 ps with few significant peak shifts, suggesting little or no homolysis of the bond between the Co and the upper axial ligand. Difference spectra from density functional theory calculations (where spectra from simplified cobalamins with an upper axial methyl were subtracted from those without) show qualitative agreement with the experimental data. They imply the excited state intermediates in the TRIR difference spectra resemble the dissociated states vibrationally (the cobalamin with the upper axial ligand missing) relative to the ground state with a methyl in this position. They also indicate that most of the TRIR signals arise from vibrations involving some degree of motion in the corrin ring. Such coupling of motions throughout the ring makes specific peak assignments neither trivial nor always meaningful, suggesting our data should be regarded as IR spectral fingerprints. PMID:22612868

Jones, Alex R; Russell, Henry J; Greetham, Gregory M; Towrie, Michael; Hay, Sam; Scrutton, Nigel S

2012-06-14

299

Vitamin D deficiency among newly resettled refugees in Massachusetts.  

PubMed

Previous studies have indicated that vitamin D deficiency is widespread among immigrants and refugees. This study sought to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among a large and diverse cohort of refugees in Massachusetts to assess its significance for routine refugee health screening of refugees. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels for 2,610 refugees screened between 2007 and 2009 were used to estimate vitamin D status and to examine the relationship between deficiency or insufficiency and age, gender, regional origin, and season of testing. Among those tested, 78% were either vitamin D insufficient or deficient. Insufficiency or deficiency was most prevalent in refugees from the Middle East (89%) and lowest in those from the Caribbean (59%). Risk was higher among women than among men from some regions, such as the Middle East, but not others. For women, the likelihood of deficiency increased with age, while for men, the likelihood of deficiency was similar for preschool children and men at the height of their working years. The high overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency suggests that empiric supplementation or treatment may be preferred to testing until more is known about the long-term epidemiology of vitamin D deficiency and its consequences. PMID:22411495

Penrose, Katherine; Hunter Adams, Jo; Nguyen, Thinh; Cochran, Jennifer; Geltman, Paul L

2012-12-01

300

Elevated Serum Vitamin B12 Levels in Association With Tumor Markers as the Prognostic Factors Predictive for Poor Survival in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated blood vitamin B12 (VitB12) level has recently been identified as a prognostic indicator for advanced cancer patients. The predictive value of blood VitB12 for survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Our objective was to examine the determinants of elevated serum VitB12 levels and their associations with prognosis of patients with HCC. The cohort study included 90

Ching-Yih Lin; Chang-Sheng Kuo; Chin-Li Lu; Meng-Ying Wu; Rwei-Fen Syu Huang

2010-01-01

301

Approaches to reduce vitamin A deficiency in Lagos State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A study conducted among 496 ophthalmologic patients in Nigeria's Lagos State revealed a 10.1% prevalence of vitamin A deficiency, defined on the basis of the clinical presence of keratomalacia and night blindness. Since patients with mild or subclinical deficiency were not counted, this rate underestimates the true occurrence of vitamin A deficiency. In response to these findings, Optonet International, Nigeria produced a leaflet: "Save a life from vitamin A deficiency and xerophthalmia--Give vitamin A." Also prepared was a poster emphasizing that vitamin A prevents death and blindness in children. The educational materials emphasize the importance of breast feeding in the first 6 months and a diet containing green leafy vegetables and fruits, yellow vegetables and fruits, liver, whole milk, eggs, and red palm oil. PMID:12293180

1997-12-01

302

Application of the SPE reversed phase HPLC/MS technique to determine vitamin B12 bio-active forms in beef.  

PubMed

Vitamin B12 is an animal origin nutrient of a substantial importance in human diet. Its concentration in foodstuffs is low and its chemical forms are diverse, which significantly hampers its precise determination. The determination method of choice is HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) coupled with inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The main disadvantage of this method is high instrumentation cost and complexity of handling. The aim of this work was to develop a novel approach for determination of vitamin B12 bio-active forms in beef and beef liver. The proposed method comprises the following steps: (i) vitamin B12 is cleaved off from peptides using thermal denaturation in a weakly acidic environment; (ii) sample is cleaned-up using liquid-liquid extraction and reversed phase solid phase extraction; and finally (iii) vitamin B12 is determined using HPLC and single-quadrupole mass spectrometer with ESI source. Vitamin B12 concentrations in various beef meats were in the 2.84-3.95 ?g 100g(-1) range. Average B12 concentration in beef liver was 153,60 ?g 100g(-1) (n = 15). Major forms of B12 present in beef meat include adenosine cobalamin (AdoCbl) and in smaller quantities hydroxycobalamin (OHCbl). Major forms of vitamin B12 present in beef liver include OHCbl (48.2%), AdoCbl (33.8%), methylocobalamin (MeCbl, 16.3%), and cyanocobalamin (CNCbl, 1.7%). Thermal treatment noticeably decreases B12 the content in meat. Depending on conditions of treatment, B12 concentrations in the 1.04-2.20 ?g 100g(-1) range were found in processed meats. PMID:22429804

Szterk, Arkadiusz; Roszko, Marek; Ma?ek, Krystian; Czerwonka, Ma?gorzata; Waszkiewicz-Robak, Bo?ena

2012-08-01

303

Vitamin D Deficiency in India: Prevalence, Causalities and Interventions  

PubMed Central

Vitamin D deficiency prevails in epidemic proportions all over the Indian subcontinent, with a prevalence of 70%100% in the general population. In India, widely consumed food items such as dairy products are rarely fortified with vitamin D. Indian socioreligious and cultural practices do not facilitate adequate sun exposure, thereby negating potential benefits of plentiful sunshine. Consequently, subclinical vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in both urban and rural settings, and across all socioeconomic and geographic strata. Vitamin D deficiency is likely to play an important role in the very high prevalence of rickets, osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer and infections such as tuberculosis in India. Fortification of staple foods with vitamin D is the most viable population based strategy to achieve vitamin D sufficiency. Unfortunately, even in advanced countries like USA and Canada, food fortification strategies with vitamin D have been only partially effective and have largely failed to attain vitamin D sufficiency. This article reviews the status of vitamin D nutrition in the Indian subcontinent and also the underlying causes for this epidemic. Implementation of population based educational and interventional strategies to combat this scourge require recognition of vitamin D deficiency as a public health problem by the governing bodies so that healthcare funds can be allocated appropriately. PMID:24566435

G, Ritu; Gupta, Ajay

2014-01-01

304

Ataxia with Vitamin E Deficiency in Norway  

PubMed Central

Objective Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED) is a rare autosomal recessive neurological disorder which usually starts in childhood. The clinical presentation is very similar to Friedreich ataxia, most patients have progressive truncal and extremity ataxia, areflexia, positive Babinski sign, dysarthria and sensory neuropathy. Methods We made an inquiry to our colleagues in Norway, we included information from a prevalence study published southern Norway and added data from our own known case. Results A newly published prevalence study of hereditary ataxias (total of 171 subjects) found only one subject with AVED in Southeast Norway. We describe two more patients, one from the Central part and one from the Northern part of Norway. All 3 cases had age of onset in early childhood (age of 45 years) and all experienced gait ataxia and dysarthria. The genetic testing confirmed that they had pathogenic mutations in the ?-tocopherol transfer protein gene (TTPA). All were carriers of the non-sense c.400C > T mutation, one was homozygous for that mutation and the others were compound heterozygous, either with c.358G > A or c.513_514insTT. The homozygous carrier was by far the most severely affected case. Conclusions We estimate the occurrence of AVED in Norway to be at least 0.6 per million inhabitants. We emphasize that all patients who develop ataxia in childhood should be routinely tested for AVED to make an early diagnosis for initiating treatment with high dose vitamin E to avoid severe neurological deficits. PMID:25614784

Elkamil, Areej; Johansen, Krisztina K.; Aasly, Jan

2015-01-01

305

Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency and Its Related Factors Among University Students in Shiraz, Iran  

PubMed Central

Backgrounds: Vitamin D deficiency is a public health concern even in sunny areas, so we decided to assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its related factors among university students in Shiraz. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 254 (128 male and 126 female) university students. Demographic questionnaires and a questionnaire on exposure to sun light and sun protection were completed by the participants. Serum 25OH-vitamin D was measured using a radioimmunoassay kit. Data analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software # 16. A P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Mean standard deviation (SD) of serum 25OH-vitamin D was 49.29 12.87 (nmol/l) and 27.46 10.37 (nmol/l) among male and female students, respectively. 51.2% of female students were vitamin D insufficient and 44% of them had vitamin D deficiency. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and marginal status among male students were 49.5 and 48%, respectively. Serum vitamin D of female students was significantly less than the males (P < 0.001). Serum vitamin D was negatively correlated to sun protection score (P < 0.001, r = 0.50), but there was no correlation between serum vitamin D and sun exposure. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency especially among female students is alarmingly prevalent. Increasing use of sunscreen lotion and clothing style could be the main factors inhibiting endogenous vitamin D synthesis which results in its deficiency. PMID:25013702

Faghih, Shiva; Abdolahzadeh, Maryam; Mohammadi, Mohsen; Hasanzadeh, Jafar

2014-01-01

306

A Stability-Indicating HPLC Method for the Determination of Nitrosylcobalamin (NO-Cbl), a Novel Vitamin B12 Analog.  

PubMed

Nitrosylcobalamin (NO-Cbl), a novel vitamin B12 analog and anti-tumor agent, functions as a biologic 'Trojan horse', utilizing the vitamin B12 transcobalamin II transport protein and cell surface receptor to specifically target cancer cells. a stability-indicating HPLC method was developed for the detection of NO-Cbl during forced degradation studies. This method utilized an ascentis() RP-amide (150 mm 4.6 mm, 5 ?m) column at 35 C with a mobile phase (1.0 mL min(-1)) combining a gradient of methanol and an acetate buffer at pH 6.0. Detection wavelengths of 450 and 254 nm were used to detect corrin and non-corrin-based products, respectively. NO-Cbl, synthesized from hydroxocobalamin and pure nitric oxide gas, was subjected to degradative stress conditions including oxidation, hydrolysis and thermal and radiant energy challenge. The method was validated by assessing linearity, accuracy, precision, detection and quantitation limits and robustness. The method was applied successfully for purity assessment of synthesized NO-Cbl and for the determination of NO-Cbl during kinetic studies in aqueous solution and in solid-state degradation assessments. This HPLC method is suitable for the separation of cobalamins in aqueous and methanolic solutions, for routine detection of NO-Cbl and for purity assessment of synthesized NO-Cbl. additionally, this method has potential application in identification and monitoring of diseases involving altered nitric oxide homeostasis where vitamin B12 therapy is utilized to scavenge excess nitric oxide, subsequently resulting in the in vivo production of NO-Cbl. PMID:24855323

Dunphy, Michael J; Sysel, Annette M; Lupica, Joseph A; Griffith, Kristie; Sherrod, Taylor; Bauer, Joseph A

2014-04-01

307

Assessment of thiamin (vitamin B1) and riboflavin (vitamin B2) status in an adult Mediterranean population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to assess the nutritional status for thiamin (vitamin B1) and riboflavin (vitamin B2) in an adult Mediterranean population, in order to identify patterns of intake, groups at risk for deficiency and factors that might influence this risk. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in Andalusia, a western Mediterranean region in southern Spain. Nutrient

J. Mataix; P. Aranda; C. Snchez; M. A. Montellano; E. Planells; J. Llopis

2003-01-01

308

Human gut microbes use multiple transporters to distinguish vitamin B12 analogs and compete in the gut  

PubMed Central

Summary Genomic and metagenomic sequencing efforts, including human microbiome projects, reveal that microbes often encode multiple systems that appear to accomplish the same task. Whether these predictions reflect actual functional redundancies is unclear. We report that the prominent human gut symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron employs three functional, homologous vitamin B12 transporters that in at least two cases confer a competitive advantage in the presence of distinct B12 analogs (corrinoids). In the mammalian gut, microbial fitness can be determined by the presence or absence of a single transporter. The total number of distinct corrinoid transporter families in the human gut microbiome likely exceeds those observed in B. thetaiotaomicron by an order of magnitude. These results demonstrate that human gut microbes use elaborate mechanisms to capture and differentiate corrinoids in vivo and that apparent redundancies observed in these genomes can instead reflect hidden specificities that determine whether a microbe will colonize its host. PMID:24439897

Degnan, Patrick H.; Barry, Natasha A.; Mok, Kenny C.; Taga, Michiko E.; Goodman, Andrew L.

2014-01-01

309

Effects of differences in serum total homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B 12 on cognitive impairment in stroke patients.  

PubMed

BackgroundVascular cognitive impairment-no dementia (VCIND) refers to the early or mild cognitive impairment induced by cerebral vascular injury. Research shows that serum total homocysteine (tHcy) level is an independent risk factor for cerebral vascular disease and may be closely related to cognitive function.Current studies on the tHcy level in VCIND patients are limited, and the relationship of tHcy with cognitive function remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the tHcy levels in patients with VCIND and to determine their correlation with cognitive function, as well as to provide useful clues for preventing and treating VCIND.MethodsThe tHcy, folate, and vitamin B12 levels in 82 patients with VCIND were reviewed retrospectively and compared with those of 80 stroke patients without cognitive impairment and 69 healthy controls by using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scale and the event-related potential P300 to evaluate cognitive function.ResultsThe tHcy levels in the VCIND group were higher than those in the other two groups, whereas the folate and Vitamin B12 levels in the VCIND group were lower than those of the other two groups. The tHcy levels in the stroke group were higher than those in the control group, and the folate and vitamin B12 levels in the stroke group were lower than those in the control group. The patients in the VCIND group with high tHcy exhibited lower MoCA scores and prolonged P300 latency than those in with normal tHcy. Correlation analysis showed that tHcy level is positively correlated with P300 latency period and negatively correlated with MoCA score.ConclusionThe tHcy levels were significantly higher and the vitamin B12 and folate levels were significantly lower in the patients with VCIND than those in the other groups. The high tHcy levels in the VCIND patients may be correlated with impaired cognitive function. PMID:25433800

Jiang, Bo; Chen, Yumei; Yao, Guoen; Yao, Cunshan; Zhao, Hongmei; Jia, Xiangdong; Zhang, Yunyan; Ge, Junling; Qiu, Enchao; Ding, Chengyun

2014-11-30

310

Influence of dietary cobalt source and concentration on performance, vitamin B12 status, and ruminal and plasma metabolites in growing and finishing steers1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty Angus steers, averaging 274 kg, were used to evaluate the effects of Co source and con- centration on performance, vitamin B12 status, and metabolic characteristics of steers. Treatments con- sisted of 0 (control, analyzed 0.04 mg Co\\/kg), 0.05, 0.10, and 1.0 mg of supplemental Co\\/kg of DM from CoCO3 or 0.05 and 0.10 mg of supplemental Co\\/kg of DM

M. E. Tiffany; J. W. Spears; L. Xi; J. Horton; Kemin Americas

2010-01-01

311

Vitamin D deficiency among children with epilepsy in South Queensland.  

PubMed

This study evaluated prevalence and risk factors for vitamin D deficiency among children with epilepsy on long-term antiepileptic drugs treated in South Queensland, Australia. Children with epilepsy seen in a tertiary neurology clinic were contacted requesting bone health blood tests during winter of 2011. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels <20 ng/mL, and insufficiency between 21 and 29 ng/mL. One hundred thirty letters were sent, with 111 (85%) subsequently having blood tests performed. Vitamin D deficiency was identified in 24 (22%) of 111 and an additional 45 (41%) of 111 had vitamin D insufficiency. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified children on >2 antiepileptic drugs or with underlying genetic etiologies were more likely to have vitamin D deficiency. High proportion of children on long-term antiepileptic drugs in Queensland risk vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency despite living in the subtropics. Vitamin D monitoring and supplementation is important in the management of children on long-term antiepileptic drugs requiring tertiary care in Queensland. PMID:23340082

Fong, Choong Yi; Riney, Catherine J

2014-03-01

312

Vitamin D deficiency in orthopaedic patients: a single center analysis.  

PubMed

Vitamin D is essential to bone health and is a major regulator of calcium homeostasis. Many recent reports demonstrated worldwide high rates of vitamin D deficiency, but few studies have been published on the vitamin D status of orthopaedic patients. The present study aimed to investigate the extent of hypovitaminosis D of orthopaedic patients and possible variations in vitamin D status according to the body region which was scheduled to undergo surgery. We measured the vitamin D level of 1119 patients consecutively admitted to an orthopaedic surgery department of a university hospital in Germany in 2011. The prevalence of normal (< or =30 ng/ml), insufficient (20-30 ng/ml) and deficient (< or =20 ng/ml) 25-OH-D levels was determined. Serum Vitamin D levels and rates of insufficiency and deficiency were compared between the different cohorts using two-tailed tests. The level of significance was set at p < or =0.05. The serum 25-OH-D levels for all participants were normally distributed, with a mean of 2057 ng/ml. Overall, we noted an alarmingly high rate of vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency among orthopaedic patients. No significant difference was found related with the various body regions scheduled to undergo surgery. Given the well-known effects of vitamin D on bone metabolism and muscle health, vitamin D insufficiency may negatively affect patients. PMID:24350523

Maier, Gerrit Steffen; Jakob, Philipp; Horas, Konstantin; Roth, Klaus Edgar; Kurth, Andreas Alois; Maus, Uwe

2013-10-01

313

Neutrophil cathepsin G is specifically decreased under vitamin A deficiency.  

PubMed

Vitamin A deficiency leads to an increased susceptibility to infections, increased severity of infections and increased mortality. Because the neutrophil is the first cell to respond to infection, this study explores the effect of vitamin A deficiency on neutrophil proteinases. We found that neutrophils from vitamin A-deficient rats had lower levels of two cathepsin G-like enzymes (28 and 24 kDa) when compared to neutrophils from weight-matched pair-fed rats, vitamin A-deficient rats which were repleted with retinyl palmitate and nonrestricted vitamin A complete diet rats. The 28 kDa cathepsin G-like enzyme, which migrated with the same mobility as elastase on SDS-polyacrylamide gels, was quantified using Western blots. The 24 kDa cathepsin G-like enzyme was quantified using zymogram gels. This activity was inhibited by chymostatin. Other neutrophil proteinases, elastase, plasminogen activators and gelatinase, were not altered significantly by vitamin A deficiency. The low levels of cathepsin G may contribute to differences in the inflammatory process observed under vitamin A deficiency. PMID:8950196

Twining, S S; Schulte, D P; Wilson, P M; Zhou, X; Fish, B L; Moulder, J E

1996-11-15

314

Mielopatia por deficincia de vitamina B12 apresentando-se como mielite transversa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitamin B12 deficiency may induce neuropathy, myelopathy, dementia and optic neuropathy. The diagnosis is established by vitamin B12, homocysteine and methylmalonic acid measurements. Myelin and axon destruction in the white matter of the spinal cord are observed. The posterior column of the cervical and thoracic level is the most common involved area. The involvement of the anterior column is restricted

Luiz Felipe Rocha Vasconcellos; Rosalie Branco Corra; Leila Chimelli; Fernanda Nascimento; Adriane Baptista Fonseca; Janaina Nagel; Sergio Augusto Pereira Novis; Maurice Vincent

2002-01-01

315

Vitamin D Deficiency and Replacement: Relationships to Cardiovascular Health  

E-print Network

Abstract Background: Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality and morbidity in the United States as well as many other nations. Recent evidence supports an association of vitamin D deficiency with hypertension, peripheral...

Vacek, James

2010-04-11

316

Vitamin D deficiency in refugee children from conflict zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitamin D deficiency is common in newly resettled refugee children and is associated with significant morbidity including\\u000a rickets. To determine risk factors and burden of vitamin D deficiency in newly resettled refugee children in Australia. A\\u000a descriptive epidemiological study and survey on refugee children attending an outpatient general health clinic at the Childrens\\u000a Hospital Westmead, Sydney. 215 patients were examined

Mohamud Sheikh; Shu Wang; Abhijit Pal; C. Raina MacIntyre; Nicholas Wood; Hasantha Gunesekera

2011-01-01

317

Vitamin Requirements and Deficiencies: Theoretical and Practical Considerations for Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates athletes may require more of certain nutrients than other healthy individuals. The article discusses vitamin requirements and deficiencies and how to supply the needed nutrients. Since coaches, trainers, and physical education teachers influence their athletes' behaviors, they must examine the issues associated with vitamin

Sirota, Lorraine

1991-01-01

318

MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS INFECTION OF VITAMIN D-DEFICIENT NOS -/- MICE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk for tuberculosis infection. Studies using in vitro systems indicate that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [i.e., 1,25(OH)2D3], the most active form of the vitamin, enhances mycobacterial killing by increasing nitric oxide (NO) production. To evaluate...

319

Citrus can help prevent vitamin A deficiency in developing countries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

California is a major producer of tangerines and oranges, which contain carotenoids that form vitamin A. Deficiencies of this vitamin are common in southern Asia and Africa, causing blindness and more than one-half million deaths each year. We evaluated the potential of tangerines and oranges to pre...

320

Vitamin B12-Impaired Metabolism Produces Apoptosis and Parkinson Phenotype in Rats Expressing the Transcobalamin-Oleosin Chimera in Substantia Nigra  

PubMed Central

Background Vitamin B12 is indispensable for proper brain functioning and cytosolic synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine. Whether its deficiency produces effects on viability and apoptosis of neurons remains unknown. There is a particular interest in investigating these effects in Parkinson disease where Levodopa treatment is known to increase the consumption of S-adenosylmethionine. To cause deprivation of vitamin B12, we have recently developed a cell model that produces decreased synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine by anchoring transcobalamin (TCII) to the reticulum through its fusion with Oleosin (OLEO). Methodology Gene constructs including transcobalamin-oleosin (TCII-OLEO) and control constructs, green fluorescent protein-transcobalamin-oleosin (GFP-TCII-OLEO), oleosin-transcobalamin (OLEO-TCII), TCII and OLEO were used for expression in N1E-115 cells (mouse neuroblastoma) and in substantia nigra of adult rats, using a targeted transfection with a Neurotensin polyplex system. We studied the viability and the apoptosis in the transfected cells and targeted tissue. The turning behavior was evaluated in the rats transfected with the different plasmids. Principal Findings The transfection of N1E-115 cells by the TCII-OLEO-expressing plasmid significantly affected cell viability and increased immunoreactivity of cleaved Caspase-3. No change in propidium iodide uptake (used as a necrosis marker) was observed. The transfected rats lost neurons immunoreactive to tyrosine hydroxylase. The expression of TCII-OLEO was observed in cells immunoreactive to tyrosine hydroxylase of the substantia nigra, with a superimposed expression of cleaved Caspase-3. These cellular and tissular effects were not observed with the control plasmids. Rats transfected with TCII-OLEO expressing plasmid presented with a significantly higher number of turns, compared with those transfected with the other plasmids. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, the TCII-OLEO transfection was responsible for apoptosis in N1E-115 cells and rat substantia nigra and for Parkinson-like phenotype. This suggests evaluating whether vitamin B12 deficit could aggravate the PD in patients under Levodopa therapy by impairing S-adenosylmethionine synthesis in substantia nigra. PMID:20027219

Orozco-Barrios, Carlos Enrique; Battaglia-Hsu, Shyue-Fang; Arango-Rodriguez, Martha Ligia; Ayala-Davila, Jose; Chery, Celine; Alberto, Jean-Marc; Schroeder, Henry; Daval, Jean-Luc

2009-01-01

321

Vitamins in Milk and Dairy Products: B-Group Vitamins  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The B-group of vitamins is composed of up to eight vitamins; however, in some cases pantothenic acid (B5), biotin (B7; vitamin\\u000a H) and folates are described without mentioning them as B-group members.

D. Nohr; H. K. Biesalski

322

Effect of folic acid and vitamin B12 on pemetrexed antifolate chemotherapy in nutrient lung cancer cells.  

PubMed

Pemetrexed (MTA) is a multitargeted antifolate drug approved for lung cancer therapy. Clinically, supplementation with high doses of folic acid (FA) and vitamin B12 (VB12) lowers MTA cytotoxicities. An antagonistic effect of FA/VB12 on MTA efficacy has been proposed. However, patients who receive FA/VB12 show better tolerance to MTA with improved survival. The aims of this study are to investigate the modulation of FA and VB12 on MTA drug efficacy in human nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. The sensitivities of cells, apoptosis, and MTA-regulated proteins were characterized to determine the possible effects of high doses of FA and VB12 on MTA efficacy. MTA has the lowest efficacy under 10% serum conditions. However, supplementation with FA and VB12 individually and additively reversed the insensitivity of NSCLC cells to MTA treatment with 10% serum. The enhanced sensitivities of cells following FA/VB12 treatment were correlated with increasing apoptosis and were specific to MTA but not to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Enhanced sensitivity was also associated with p21(WAF1/Cip1) expression level. Our results revealed no antagonistic effect of high doses of FA/VB12 on MTA efficacy in cancer cells grown in nutrient medium. Furthermore, these data may partially explain why supplementation of FA and VB12 resulted in better survival in MTA-treated patients. PMID:23984356

Yang, Tsung-Ying; Chang, Gee-Chen; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Huang, Yi-Rou; Chiu, Ling-Yen; Sheu, Gwo-Tarng

2013-01-01

323

Vitamin D supplementation and endothelial function in vitamin D deficient HIV-infected patients: a randomized placebo-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in HIV patients but the effect of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular risk in this population is unknown. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial among 45 HIV-infected adults in Cleveland (OH, USA) on stable antiretroviral therapy with durable virological suppression and a baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of ?20 ng/ml. Participants were randomized 2:1 to vitamin D3 4,000 IU daily or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was a change in flow-mediated brachial artery dilation (FMD). Results Baseline demographics were similar except for age (vitamin D versus placebo, mean SD 47 8 versus 40 10 years; P=0.009). Both groups had reduced FMD at baseline (median values 2.9% [IQR 1.64.8] for vitamin D versus 2.5% [IQR 1.76.4] for placebo; P=0.819). Despite an increase in the concentration of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D from baseline to 12 weeks (5.0 ng/ml [IQR ?0.97.4] versus ?1.9 ng/ml [IQR ?4.00.1] for vitamin D versus placebo, respectively; P=0.003), there was no difference in FMD change (0.55% [IQR ?1.052.13] versus 0.29% [IQR ?1.611.77]; P=0.748). Vitamin D supplementation was associated with a decrease in total and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and an increase in indices of insulin resistance. Conclusions Among HIV-infected individuals with vitamin D deficiency, supplementation with 4,000 IU vitamin D3 daily for 12 weeks modestly improved vitamin D status and cholesterol but worsened insulin resistance without change in endothelial function. The mechanisms of resistance to standard doses of vitamin D and the complex role of vitamin D in glucose metabolism in this population require further investigation. PMID:22293363

Longenecker, Chris T; Hileman, Corrilynn O; Carman, Teresa L; Ross, Allison C; Seydafkan, Shabnam; Brown, Todd T; Labbato, Danielle E; Storer, Norma; Tangpricha, Vin; McComsey, Grace A

2014-01-01

324

High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women: a national cross-sectional survey.  

PubMed

An increasing number of studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is associated with multiple adverse health outcomes in mothers, neonates and children. There are no representative country data available on vitamin D status of pregnant women in Europe. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Belgian pregnant women and to assess the determinants of vitamin D status in the first and third trimester of pregnancy. The women were selected via a multi-stage proportionate-to-size sampling design. Blood samples were collected and a questionnaire was completed face-to-face. 55 obstetric clinics were randomly selected and 1311 pregnant women participated in the study. The median serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-(OH)D] concentration was significantly lower in the first trimester (20.4 ng/ml) than in third trimester (22.7 ng/ml). Of all women, 74.1% (95%CI = 71.8-76.5%) were vitamin D insufficient (25-(OH)D <30 ng/ml), 44.6% (95%CI = 41.9-47.3%) were vitamin D deficient (25-(OH)D <20 ng/ml), while 12.1% (95%CI = 10.3-13.8%) were severely vitamin D deficient (25-(OH)D <10 ng/ml). Of all women included, 62.0% reported taking vitamin D-containing multivitamins, of which only 24.2% started taking those before pregnancy. The risk of vitamin D deficiency (25-(OH)D <20 ng/ml) was significantly higher for less educated women and women who reported not going on holidays to sunny climates. The risk of severe vitamin D deficiency (25-(OH)D <10 ng/ml) decreased for women who reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy, decreased with more frequent use of sunscreen lotion and increased for smokers and women who reported preference for shadow. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among pregnant women in Belgium and this raises concerns about the health consequences for the mother and the offspring. A targeted screening strategy to detect and treat women at high risk of severe vitamin D deficiency is needed in Belgium and in Europe. PMID:22937114

Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Amsalkhir, Sihame; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

2012-01-01

325

The Occurrence and Effects of Human Vitamin E Deficiency  

PubMed Central

The role of vitamin E in human nutrition was studied by investigation of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and associated pancreatic insufficiency. Vitamin E status was assessed by measurement of the plasma concentration of the principal circulating isomer, ?-tocopherol. Results of such determinations in 52 CF patients with pancreatogenic steatorrhea revealed that all were deficient in the vitamin. The extent of decreased plasma tocopherol varied markedly but correlated with indices of intestinal malabsorption, such as the serum carotene concentration and percentage of dietary fat absorbed. Supplementation with 5-10 times the recommended daily allowance of vitamin E in a water-miscible form increased the plasma ?-tocopherol concentrations to normal in all 19 CF patients so evaluated. Studies on the effects of vitamin E deficiency focused on possible hematologic alterations. An improved technique was developed to measure erythrocyte hemolysis in vitro in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. While erythrocyte suspensions from control subjects demonstrated resistance to hemolysis during a 3-h incubation, all samples from tocopherol-deficient CF patients showed abnormal oxidant susceptibility, evidenced by greater than 5% hemoglobin release. The degree of peroxide-induced hemolysis was related to the plasma ?-tocopherol concentration in an inverse, sigmoidal manner. The possibility of in vivo hemolysis was assessed by measuring the survival of 51Cr-labeled erythrocytes in 19 vitamin-E deficient patients. A moderate but statistically significant decrease in the mean 51Cr erythrocyte half-life value was found in this group. Measurement of erythrocyte survival before and after supplementation of 6 patients with vitamin E demonstrated that the shortened erythrocyte lifespan could be corrected to normal with this treatment. Other hematologic indices in deficient subjects, however, were normal and did not change upon supplementation with vitamin E. It is concluded that CF is invariably associated with vitamin E deficiency, provided that the patient in question has pancreatic achylia and is not taking supplementary doses of tocopherol. Concomitant hematologic effects consistent with mild hemolysis, but not anemia, occur and may be reversed with vitamin E therapy. Patients with CF should be given daily doses of a water-miscible form of vitamin E to correct the deficiency. PMID:874086

Farrell, Philip M.; Bieri, John G.; Fratantoni, Joseph F.; Wood, Robert E.; di Sant'Agnese, Paul A.

1977-01-01

326

B12 STORAGE DISEASE; COBALAMIN F DISEASE; cblF; METHYLMALONICACIDURIA DUE TO VITAMIN B12-RELEASE DEFECT)  

E-print Network

acidemia and homocystinemia, Genet Med. 1999 May-Jun;1(4):146-50. 2. Andersson H, Shapria E. Biochemical and clinical response to hydroxycobalamin versus cyanocobalamin treatment in patients with methylmalonic acidemia and homocystinuria (cblC), J Pediatr 1998; 132(1): 121-124. 3. Augoustides-Savvopoulou P, Mylonas I, Sewell AC, Rosenbaltt DS. Reversible dementia in adolescent with cblC disease: Clinical heterogeneity within the same family, J Inher Metab Dis 1999; 22: 756- 758. 4. Baumgartner ER, Fowler B, Wendel U. Hereditary defect of cobalamin metabolism (homocystinuria and methylmalonic aciduria) of juvenile onset, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1996; 60(1): 107-108.

Type Methylmalonicacidemia; Homocystinuria Cbld Vitamin B; Andersson Hc; Marble M; Brunelli Sm; Meyers Ke; Guttenberg M; Kaplan P; Kaplan Bs. co

327

Direct exchange of vitamin B12 is demonstrated by modelling the growth dynamics of algal-bacterial cocultures.  

PubMed

The growth dynamics of populations of interacting species in the aquatic environment is of great importance, both for understanding natural ecosystems and in efforts to cultivate these organisms for industrial purposes. Here we consider a simple two-species system wherein the bacterium Mesorhizobium loti supplies vitamin B12 (cobalamin) to the freshwater green alga Lobomonas rostrata, which requires this organic micronutrient for growth. In return, the bacterium receives photosynthate from the alga. Mathematical models are developed that describe minimally the interdependence between the two organisms, and that fit the experimental observations of the consortium. These models enable us to distinguish between different mechanisms of nutrient exchange between the organisms, and provide strong evidence that, rather than undergoing simple lysis and release of nutrients into the medium, M. loti regulates the levels of cobalamin it produces, resulting in a true mutualism with L. rostrata. Over half of all microalgae are dependent on an exogenous source of cobalamin for growth, and this vitamin is synthesised only by bacteria; it is very likely that similar symbiotic interactions underpin algal productivity more generally. PMID:24522262

Grant, Matthew A A; Kazamia, Elena; Cicuta, Pietro; Smith, Alison G

2014-07-01

328

A blue corrinoid from partial degradation of vitamin B12 in aqueous bicarbonate: spectra, structure, and interaction with proteins of B12 transport.  

PubMed

Cobalamin (Cbl) is a complex cofactor produced only by bacteria but used by all animals and humans. Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B(12), CNCbl) is one commonly isolated form of cobalamin. B(12) belongs to a large group of corrinoids, which are characterized by a distinct red color conferred by the system of conjugated double bonds of the corrin ring retaining a Co(III) ion. A unique blue Cbl derivative was produced by hydrolysis of CNCbl in a weakly alkaline aqueous solution of bicarbonate. This corrinoid was purified and isolated as dark blue crystals. Its spectroscopic analysis and X-ray crystallography revealed B-ring opening with formation of 7,8-seco-cyanocobalamin (7,8-sCNCbl). The unprecedented structural change was caused by cleavage of the peripheral C-C bond between saturated carbons 7 and 8 of the corrin macrocycle accompanied by formation of a C?C bond at C7 and a carbonyl group at C8. Additionally, the C-amide was hydrolyzed to a carboxylic acid. The extended conjugation of the ?-system caused a considerable red shift of the absorbance spectrum. Formation and degradation of 7,8-sCNCbl were analyzed qualitatively. Its interaction with the proteins of mammalian Cbl transport revealed both a slow binding kinetics and a low overall affinity. The binding data were compared to those of other monocarboxylic derivatives and agreed with the earlier proposed scheme for two-step ligand recognition. The obtained results are consistent with the structural models of 7,8-sCNCbl and the transport proteins intrinsic factor and transcobalamin. Potential applications of the novel derivative for drug conjugation are discussed. PMID:21851077

Fedosov, Sergey N; Ruetz, Markus; Gruber, Karl; Fedosova, Natalya U; Krutler, Bernhard

2011-09-20

329

Conformational cycle of the vitamin B12 ABC importer in liposomes detected by double electron-electron resonance (DEER).  

PubMed

Double electron-electron resonance is used here to investigate intermediates of the transport cycle of the Escherichia coli vitamin B12 ATP-binding cassette importer BtuCD-F. Previously, we showed the ATP-induced opening of the cytoplasmic gate I in TM5 helices, later confirmed by the AMP-PNP-bound BtuCD-F crystal structure. Here, other key residues are analyzed in TM10 helices (positions 307 and 322) and in the cytoplasmic gate II, i.e. the loop between TM2 and TM3 (positions 82 and 85). Without BtuF, binding of ATP induces detectable changes at positions 307 and 85 in BtuCD in liposomes. Together with BtuF, ATP triggers the closure of the cytoplasmic gate II in liposomes (reported by both positions 82 and 85). This forms a sealed cavity in the translocation channel in agreement with the AMP-PNPBtuCD-F x-ray structure. When vitamin B12 and AMP-PNP are simultaneously present, the extent of complex formation is reduced, but the short 82-82 interspin distance detected indicates that the substrate does not affect the closed conformation of this gate. The existence of the BtuCD-F complex under these conditions is verified with spectroscopically orthogonal nitroxide and Gd(III)-based labels. The cytoplasmic gate II remains closed also in the vanadate-trapped state, but it reopens in the ADP-bound state of the complex. Therefore, we suggest that the substrate likely trapped in ATPBtuCD-F can be released after ATP hydrolysis but before the occluded ADP-bound conformation is reached. PMID:24362024

Joseph, Benesh; Korkhov, Vladimir M; Yulikov, Maxim; Jeschke, Gunnar; Bordignon, Enrica

2014-02-01

330

Vision changes after spaceflight are related to alterations in folate- and vitamin B-12-dependent one-carbon metabolism.  

PubMed

Approximately 20% (7 of 38) of astronauts on International Space Station (ISS) missions have developed measurable ophthalmic changes after flight. This study was conducted to determine if the folate- and vitamin B-12-dependent 1-carbon metabolic pathway is altered in these individuals. Since 2006, we have conducted experiments on the ISS to evaluate nutritional status and related biochemical indices of astronauts before, during, and after flight. Data were modeled to evaluate differences between individuals with ophthalmic changes (n = 5) and those without them (n = 15), all of whom were on ISS missions of 48-215 d. We also determined whether mean preflight serum concentrations of the 1-carbon metabolites and changes in measured cycloplegic refraction after flight were associated. Serum homocysteine (Hcy), cystathionine, 2-methylcitric acid (2MCA), and methylmalonic acid concentrations were 25-45% higher (P < 0.001) in astronauts with ophthalmic changes than in those without them. These differences existed before, during, and after flight. Preflight serum concentrations of Hcy and cystathionine, and mean in-flight serum folate, were correlated with change (postflight relative to preflight) values in refraction (P < 0.05), and preflight serum concentrations of 2MCA tended to be associated (P = 0.06) with ophthalmic changes. The biochemical differences observed in crewmembers with vision issues strongly suggest that their folate- and vitamin B-12-dependent 1-carbon transfer metabolism was affected before and during flight. The consistent differences in markers of 1-carbon metabolism between those who did and those who did not develop changes in vision suggest that polymorphisms in enzymes of this pathway may interact with microgravity to cause these pathophysiologic changes. PMID:22298570

Zwart, Sara R; Gibson, C Robert; Mader, Thomas H; Ericson, Karen; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Heer, Martina; Smith, Scott M

2012-03-01

331

Vitamin D Deficiency and Its Association with Thyroid Disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives Vitamin D deficiency is a global health problem, its role as an immune modulator has been recently emphasized. The evidence is increasingly pointing towards vitamin D significant role in reducing the incidence of autoimmune diseases. However, at this time the research on its role in autoimmune and thyroid disease is not conclusive. We aimed to examine the relationship between hypothyroidism and vitamin D deficiency and to clarify the relation between serum calcium levels with hypothyroid disease. Subjects and Methods Serum vitamin D (25-OH) levels were measured in 30 patients with hypothyroidism and 30 healthy subjects, utilizing the spectrophotometric method. Vitamin D deficiency was designated at levels lower than 20 ng/ml. Thyroid hormones (TSH, T3 and T4) and calcium levels were evaluated in all participants. Results Serum 25(OH) vit D was significantly lower in hypothyroid patients than in controls (t=?11.128, P =0.000). Its level was insignificantly decreased in females than male patients (t=? 1.32, P >0.05). Moreover, serum calcium levels recorded a significant decrease in hypothyroid patients when compared to controls (t= ?5.69, P = 0.000). Conclusion Our results indicated that patients with hypothyroidism suffered from hypovitaminosis D with hypocalcaemia that is significantly associated with the degree and severity of the hypothyroidism. That encourages the advisability of vit D supplementation and recommends the screening for Vitamin D deficiency and serum calcium levels for all hypothyroid patients. PMID:24533019

Mackawy, Amal Mohammed Husein; Al-ayed, Bushra Mohammed; Al-rashidi, Bashayer Mater

2013-01-01

332

Vitamin B12 diffusion and binding in crosslinked poly(acrylic acid)s and poly(acrylic acid-co-N-vinyl pyrrolidinone)s.  

PubMed

The diffusion mechanism of vitamin B12 in two types of crosslinked hydrogels, poly(acrylic acid) (cPAA) and copolymers of acrylic acid and N-vinyl pyrrolidinone (cP(AA-NVP)) was studied. The PAA and P(AA-NVP) synthesized by three different degrees of crosslinking have limited water absorption capabilities ranging from 3% to 18%. In the copolymers permeability of B12 is controlled by both intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen-bonding between the pyrrolidinone and carboxylic acid side chains. The diffusion kinetic data in two types of polymers were best described by Peppas models instead of Higuchi models. Permeation from both crosslinked PAA and P(AA-co-NVP) copolymers followed a Super Case II transport mechanism, most likely driven by macromolecular chain relaxation and swelling of hydrophilic polymers. A special FTIR spectroscopic method for drug binding study, FTIR difference spectroscopy, is used to probe the strong interactions between vitamin B12 and the side chains of the hydrogels. The FTIR differential spectra of B12 in PAA hydrogels revealed dramatic changes of the spectral marker bands of B12 after binding in the crosslinked gels, indicating significant interactions occurring in the amide and phosphate moieties of B12. Such interactions retard the diffusion of vitamin B12. PMID:19138732

Jin, Lei; Lu, Ping; You, Huanhuan; Chen, Qiang; Dong, Jian

2009-04-17

333

The relationship between vitamin D deficiency and coronary artery ectasia  

PubMed Central

Introduction The pathophysiology of coronary artery ectasia (CAE) has not been clearly identified although multiple abnormalities including arteritis, endothelial dysfunction, and atherothrombosis have been reported. The role of vitamin D deficiency suggests cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, and hypertension. Vitamin D deficiency activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which affects the cardiovascular system. For this reason, it could be suggested that there is a relationship between vitamin D deficiency and CAE. Aim We aimed to compare the 25-OH vitamin D levels of CAE patients with those of controls. Material and methods This study included 50 CAE patients (20 male, mean age: 60.26 10.6 years) and 30 controls (10 males, mean age: 57.86 11.6 years). Along with routine tests, 25 OH vitamin D and parathormone (PTH) levels were analysed. Twenty-five OH vitamin D and PTH levels were compared. Results No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of basic characteristics. The average PTH level of the group of patients with CAE was higher than the average PTH level of the controls (97.8 46.3 pg/ml vs. 59.1 23.7 pg/ml; p < 0.001). The average 25 OH vitamin D level of the group of the patients with CAE was lower than the average 25 OH vitamin D level of the control group (18.9 8.5 ng/ml vs. 31.3 11.2 ng/ml; p < 0.001). Conclusions An association between CAE and vitamin D deficiency was found in our study. PMID:25489316

Demir, Canan; Keeo?lu, Serdar

2014-01-01

334

Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in peritoneal dialysis patients.  

PubMed

Peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients have a high risk of developing vitamin D deficiency as 25(OH) vitamin D, the precursor of active vitamin D, is lost during dialysis. This cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among adult Saudi patients on regular PD The data was collected in the summer of 2010 from patients who were on PD for more than six months at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh. We recorded the demographic and clinical parameters for all patients. Blood samples were taken for serum vitamin D level (25 OH), serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and other necessary biochemical parameters. There were 27 patients (11 males and 16 females) with a mean age of 46 (15-78 21) years. Five patients were on continuous ambulatory PD and 22 patients were using automated PD. The average time on PD was 27.5 (6-84 18.5) months. The mean serum vitamin D 25 (OH) level was 16.1 (4.9-41.5 8.23) nmol/L. Sixteen (59.2%) of the patients had levels below 15 nmol/L, while another eight patients (29.6%) had vitamin D levels between 15 and 25 nmol/L, indicating a marked deficiency. The mean serum calcium was 2.2 (1.7-2.6 0.2) mmol/L and the mean serum phosphorous was 1.48 (0.64-2.22 0.37) mmol/L. Fifteen patients (55.5%) had significant hyperparathyroidism (serum PTH levels above 30 pmol/L). Majority of the PD patients in our center had vitamin D deficiency. The possible reasons include chronic renal failure, dietary restrictions, loss of vitamin D and decreased exposure to sunlight. PMID:25193894

Alwakeel, Jamal S; Usama, Saira; Mitwalli, Ahmad H; Alsuwaida, Abdulkareem; Alghonaim, Mohammed

2014-09-01

335

Vitamin B6 nutriture and plasma diamine oxidase activity in pregnant Hispanic teenagers13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitamin B-6 status was assessed by measuring erythrocyte glutamic-pyruvic trans- aminase (EGPT) indices in 122 pregnant Hispanic teenagers. Seventeen percent were vitamin B-6 deficient(EGPT indices > 1.25) at the initial interview (first or second trimester). A daily supplement of5 mg vitamin B-6, beginningat initial interview, did not reduce prevalence ofvitamin B-6 deficiency at final interview (third trimester). No association was

Patricia M Martner-Hewes; Isabelle F Hunt; Norma J Murphy; Robert H Settlage

336

Vitamin D deficiency reduces the benefits of progesterone treatment after brain injury in aged rats.  

PubMed

Administration of the neurosteroid progesterone (PROG) has been shown to be beneficial in a number of brain injury models and in two recent clinical trials. Given widespread vitamin D deficiency and increasing traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) in the elderly, we investigated the interaction of vitamin D deficiency and PROG with cortical contusion injury in aged rats. Vitamin D deficient (VitD-deficient) animals showed elevated inflammatory proteins (TNF?, IL-1?, IL-6, NF?B p65) in the brain even without injury. VitD-deficient rats with TBI, whether given PROG or vehicle, showed increased inflammation and greater open-field behavioral deficits compared to VitD-normal animals. Although PROG was beneficial in injured VitD-normal animals, in VitD-deficient subjects neurosteroid treatment conferred no improvement over vehicle. A supplemental dose of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (VDH) given with the first PROG treatment dramatically improved results in VitD-deficient rats, but treatment with VDH alone did not. Our results suggest that VitD-deficiency can increase baseline brain inflammation, exacerbate the effects of TBI, and attenuate the benefits of PROG treatment; these effects may be reversed if the deficiency is corrected. PMID:19482377

Cekic, Milos; Cutler, Sarah M; VanLandingham, Jacob W; Stein, Donald G

2011-05-01

337

Vitamin D deficiency reduces the benefits of progesterone treatment after brain injury in aged rats  

PubMed Central

Administration of the neurosteroid progesterone (PROG) has been shown to be beneficial in a number of brain injury models and in two recent clinical trials. Given widespread vitamin D deficiency and increasing traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) in the elderly, we investigated the interaction of vitamin D deficiency and PROG with cortical contusion injury in aged rats. Vitamin D deficient (VitD-deficient) animals showed elevated inflammatory proteins (TNF?, IL-1?, IL-6, NF?B p65) in the brain even without injury. VitD-deficient rats with TBI, whether given PROG or vehicle, showed increased inflammation and greater open-field behavioral deficits compared to VitD-normal animals. Although PROG was beneficial in injured VitD-normal animals, in VitD-deficient subjects neurosteroid treatment conferred no improvement over vehicle. A supplemental dose of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VDH) given with the first PROG treatment dramatically improved results in VitD-deficient rats, but treatment with VDH alone did not. Our results suggest that VitD-deficiency can increase baseline brain inflammation, exacerbate the effects of TBI, and attenuate the benefits of PROG treatment; these effects may be reversed if the deficiency is corrected. PMID:19482377

Cekic, Milos; Cutler, Sarah M.; VanLandingham, Jacob W.; Stein, Donald G.

2013-01-01

338

Basic haematological parameters, serum gamma-glutamyl-transferase activity, and erythrocyte folate and serum vitamin B12 levels during carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine therapy.  

PubMed

Basic haematologic parameters and serum gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT) activity were evaluated in a five-year prospective follow-up study of 25 patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy starting treatment with carbamazepine. In addition, we evaluated the effects of replacing carbamazepine by oxcarbazepine on these parameters, erythrocyte folate concentrations and serum vitamin B12 levels in 12 male patients with epilepsy. The mean white blood cell count (WBC) and red blood cell count decreased after 2 months carbamazepine therapy, and remained at this lower level during the first 5 years of medication. The mean erythrocyte volume (MCV) and the serum GGT activity increased progressively during carbamazepine treatment. The serum GGT activity decreased after replacing carbamazepine by oxcarbazepine indicating a normalization of the liver P450 enzyme system induction. Concomitantly, the erythrocyte folate concentrations and serum levels of vitamin B12 increased, and the WBC increased and MCV decreased. It is probable that the changes in folate metabolism and serum vitamin B12 concentrations are due to normalization of the liver P450 enzyme system induction after the change of medication. The haematologic changes during carbamazepine medication, and their normalization after replacing carbamazepine by oxcarbazepine are possibly related to changes in folate and vitamin B12 metabolism. PMID:9203249

Isojrvi, J I; Pakarinen, A J; Myllyl, V V

1997-06-01

339

Vitamin D Deficiency Reduces the Immune Response, Phagocytosis Rate, and Intracellular Killing Rate of Microglial Cells  

PubMed Central

Meningitis and meningoencephalitis caused by Escherichia coli are associated with high rates of mortality and neurological sequelae. A high prevalence of neurological disorders has been observed in geriatric populations at risk of hypovitaminosis D. Vitamin D has potent effects on human immunity, including induction of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and suppression of T-cell proliferation, but its influence on microglial cells is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of vitamin D deficiency on the phagocytosis rate, intracellular killing, and immune response of murine microglial cultures after stimulation with the Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists tripalmitoyl-S-glyceryl-cysteine (TLR1/2), poly(IC) (TLR3), lipopolysaccharide (TLR4), and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (TLR9). Upon stimulation with high concentrations of TLR agonists, the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) was decreased in vitamin D-deficient compared to that in vitamin D-sufficient microglial cultures. Phagocytosis of E. coli K1 after stimulation of microglial cells with high concentrations of TLR3, -4, and -9 agonists and intracellular killing of E. coli K1 after stimulation with high concentrations of all TLR agonists were lower in vitamin D-deficient microglial cells than in the respective control cells. Our observations suggest that vitamin D deficiency may impair the resistance of the brain against bacterial infections. PMID:24686054

Onken, Marie Luise; Schtze, Sandra; Redlich, Sandra; Gtz, Alexander; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Bertsch, Thomas; Ribes, Sandra; Hanenberg, Andrea; Schneider, Simon; Bollheimer, Cornelius; Sieber, Cornel; Nau, Roland

2014-01-01

340

[Metabolism and effects of vitamin D. Definition of vitamin D deficiency].  

PubMed

There is a growing interest for vitamin D in the medical and scientific community as well as in the public media as illustrated by a huge number of publications. Most experts claim that vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is widespread with potential important public health consequences. It may seem surprising for many persons that a deficiency in a vitamin may be so frequent in countries where food is so diversified and easily available. In fact, vitamin D is not a vitamin stricto sensu as it is mainly synthesized in the skin under the action of UVB rays, while its food sources are scarce. Furthermore, UVB rays are absent during a marked part of the year at latitudes greater than 35-40, while pollution, cloud cover reduce the number of UVB reaching the earth, and many factors such as age, skin pigmentation, covering clothes, sun creams reduce the capacity of the skin to synthesize vitamin D3. Vitamin D must be hydroxylated to form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25OH2D), the active metabolite. As 1,25OH2D is released into the bloodstream and binds to a receptor present in several distant tissues, it may be considered as a hormone, vitamin D being thus a pre-prohormone. In the present article, we review briefly the metabolism and various effects of vitamin D as well as vitamin D treatments. We define vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency considering separately the population and the patient level and propose our opinion according to which patients may beneficiate from vitamin D testing. PMID:24948019

Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

2014-01-01

341

Unrecognized vitamin D3 deficiency is common in Parkinson disease  

PubMed Central

Objective: To conclusively test for a specific association between the biological marker 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3, a transcriptionally active hormone produced in human skin and liver, and the prevalence and severity of Parkinson disease (PD). Methods: We used liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry to establish an association specifically between deficiency of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 and PD in a cross-sectional and longitudinal case-control study of 388 patients (mean Hoehn and Yahr stage of 2.1 0.6) and 283 control subjects free of neurologic disease nested in the Harvard Biomarker Study. Results: Plasma levels of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 were associated with PD in both univariate and multivariate analyses with p values = 0.0034 and 0.047, respectively. Total 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels, the traditional composite measure of endogenous and exogenous vitamin D, were deficient in 17.6% of patients with PD compared with 9.3% of controls. Low 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 as well as total 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels were correlated with higher total Unified Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale scores at baseline and during follow-up. Conclusions: Our study reveals an association between 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 and PD and suggests that thousands of patients with PD in North America alone may be vitamin Ddeficient. This finding has immediate relevance for individual patients at risk of falls as well as public health, and warrants further investigation into the mechanism underlying this association. PMID:24068787

Ding, Hongliu; Dhima, Kaltra; Lockhart, Kaitlin C.; Locascio, Joseph J.; Hoesing, Ashley N.; Duong, Karen; Trisini-Lipsanopoulos, Ana; Hayes, Michael T.; Sohur, U. Shivraj; Wills, Anne-Marie; Mollenhauer, Brit; Flaherty, Alice W.; Hung, Albert Y.; Mejia, Nicte; Khurana, Vikram; Gomperts, Stephen N.; Selkoe, Dennis J.; Schwarzschild, Michael A.; Schlossmacher, Michael G.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Sudarsky, Lewis R.; Growdon, John H.

2013-01-01

342

Measured Electron Spin Relaxation Rates in Frozen Solutions of Azurin, VITAMIN-B12R, and Nitrosyl Ferrous Myoglobin.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rates in frozen glycerin/water solutions at temperatures between 1.4 K and 20 K are reported for a copper-containing protein, azurin, and a cobalt-containing biomolecular complex, vitamin B_{rm 12r}, the paramagnetic product of the photolysis of coenzyme B_{12}. Results are interpreted in terms of a spectral dimensionality. Rates are also reported for nitrosyl ferrous myoglobin in frozen water solution, which exhibits a dominant one-phonon relaxation process up to 20 K and thus does not reveal spectral dimensionality. The anomalous variation of rate with temperature observed in several iron-containing proteins is not conspicuous here. In a model two-phonon mechanism of relaxation, temperature dependence is fixed by a spectral dimensionality, m, which specifies the variation of vibrational density of states with frequency rho(nu ) ~ nu ^{rm m-1} and is named in analogy with the Debye density of states in 1-, 2-, and 3-dimensional crystals. At sufficiently high temperatures, a non-resonant two-phonon process (Raman) should dominate the relaxation of a paramagnetic ion unless low-lying (under ^{~}70 cm^ {-1}) electronic states are present, as in many rare earths and in high spin ferric complexes, including many ferric proteins. The temperature dependence of the Raman rate for a Kramers ion (odd number of electrons) is T^{rm 3+2m} if temperature is sufficiently lower than Theta = hnu_{rm max} /k, the Debye temperature. The values of m from relaxation data on frozen solutions of a protein have sometimes been dependent upon solvent conditions. The maximum values of m for heme proteins, iron-sulfur proteins, and one copper -and-iron-containing protein, have ranged from about 1.3 to 1.8. Pulse saturation/recovery was used. The recoveries were not exponential, but rates were estimated from semilogarithmic displays of signals or from numerical fitting. The temperature dependence of the rates for azurin between 1.5 K and 22 K can be fit with a spectral dimensionality of 3 and a rather low Debye temperature near 69 K, in contrast to iron proteins. Relaxation of vitamin B_{ rm 12r} differed between samples, indicating varied photolysis or freezing. The Raman relaxation was well fit by a simple power law in temperature, but the values of m varied from 1.14 to 1.48 between samples.

Muench, Philip James

343

Pivotal role of augmented ?B-crystallin in tumor development induced by deficient TSC1/2 complex.  

PubMed

Tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1) and TSC2 are suppressors of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). mTOR is the major component of two protein complexes: mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2. Inactive mutation of either TSC1 or TSC2 unleashes mTOR signaling and consequently causes TSC, a benign tumor syndrome affecting multiple organs. We report here that expression of ?B-crystallin was upregulated in Tsc1-/- or Tsc2-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts, Eker rat uterine leiomyoma-derived Tsc2-deficient ELT3 cells, mutant Tsc2-associated mouse kidney tumors, and human lung lymphangioleiomyomatosis nodules. ?B-crystallin was transcriptionally activated by mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2): nuclear factor-kappa B (NF?B) signaling cascade. The augmented ?B-crystallin was critical for the migration, invasion and apoptotic resistance of Tsc2-defective cells. Disruption of ?B-crystallin suppressed Tsc2-null cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Therefore, enhanced ?B-crystallin has an essential role in TSC1/2 complex deficiency-mediated tumorigenesis, and inhibition of ?B-crystallin may complement the current therapy for TSC. PMID:24077282

Wang, F; Chen, X; Li, C; Sun, Q; Chen, Y; Wang, Y; Peng, H; Liu, Z; Chen, R; Liu, K; Yan, H; Ye, B H; Kwiatkowski, D J; Zhang, H

2014-08-21

344

Preliminary Evidence for Cell Membrane Amelioration in Children with Cystic Fibrosis by 5-MTHF and Vitamin B12 Supplementation: A Single Arm Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common fatal autosomal recessive disorders in the Caucasian population caused by mutations of gene for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). New experimental therapeutic strategies for CF propose a diet supplementation to affect the plasma membrane fluidity and to modulate amplified inflammatory response. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) and vitamin B12 supplementation for ameliorating cell plasma membrane features in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis. Methodology and Principal Findings A single arm trial was conducted from April 2004 to March 2006 in an Italian CF care centre. 31 children with CF aged from 3 to 8 years old were enrolled. Exclusion criteria were diabetes, chronic infections of the airways and regular antibiotics intake. Children with CF were supplemented for 24 weeks with 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF, 7.5 mg /day) and vitamin B12 (0.5 mg/day). Red blood cells (RBCs) were used to investigate plasma membrane, since RBCs share lipid, protein composition and organization with other cell types. We evaluated RBCs membrane lipid composition, membrane protein oxidative damage, cation content, cation transport pathways, plasma and RBCs folate levels and plasma homocysteine levels at baseline and after 24 weeks of 5-MTHF and vitamin B12 supplementation. In CF children, 5-MTHF and vitamin B12 supplementation (i) increased plasma and RBC folate levels; (ii) decreased plasma homocysteine levels; (iii) modified RBC membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition; (iv) increased RBC K+ content; (v) reduced RBC membrane oxidative damage and HSP70 membrane association. Conclusion and Significance 5-MTHF and vitamin B12 supplementation might ameliorate RBC membrane features of children with CF. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00730509 PMID:19277125

Scambi, Cinzia; De Franceschi, Lucia; Guarini, Patrizia; Poli, Fabio; Siciliano, Angela; Pattini, Patrizia; Biondani, Andrea; La Verde, Valentina; Bortolami, Oscar; Turrini, Francesco; Carta, Franco; D'Orazio, Ciro; Assael, Baroukh M.; Faccini, Giovanni; Bambara, Lisa M.

2009-01-01

345

Moderate Dietary Vitamin B-6 Restriction Raises Plasma Glycine and Cystathionine Concentrations While Minimally Affecting the Rates of Glycine Turnover and Glycine Cleavage in Healthy Men and Women12  

PubMed Central

Glycine is a precursor of purines, protein, glutathione, and 1-carbon units as 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. Glycine decarboxylation through the glycine cleavage system (GCS) and glycine-serine transformation by serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) require pyridoxal 5?-phosphate (PLP; active form of vitamin B-6) as a coenzyme. The intake of vitamin B-6 is frequently low in humans. Therefore, we determined the effects of vitamin B-6 restriction on whole-body glycine flux, the rate of glycine decarboxylation, glycine-to-serine conversion, use of glycine carbons in nucleoside synthesis, and other aspects of 1-carbon metabolism. We used a primed, constant infusion of [1,2-13C2]glycine and [5,5,5-2H3]leucine to quantify in vivo kinetics in healthy adults (7 males, 6 females; 2039 y) of normal vitamin B-6 status or marginal vitamin B-6 deficiency. Vitamin B-6 restriction lowered the plasma PLP concentration from 55 4 nmol/L (mean SEM) to 23 1 nmol/L (P < 0.0001), which is consistent with marginal deficiency, whereas the plasma glycine concentration increased (P < 0.01). SHMT-mediated conversion of glycine to serine increased from 182 7 to 205 9 ?molkg?1h?1 (P < 0.05), but serine production using a GCS-derived 1-carbon unit (93 9 vs. 91 6 ?molkg?1h?1) and glycine cleavage (163 11 vs. 151 8 ?molkg?1h?1) were not changed by vitamin B-6 restriction. The GCS produced 1-carbon units at a rate (?140170 ?molkg?1h?1) that greatly exceeds the demand for remethylation and transmethylation processes (?47 ?molkg?1h?1). We conclude that the in vivo GCS and SHMT reactions are quite resilient to the effects of marginal vitamin B-6 deficiency, presumably through a compensatory effect of increasing substrate concentration. PMID:19158217

Lamers, Yvonne; Williamson, Jerry; Ralat, Maria; Quinlivan, Eoin P.; Gilbert, Lesa R.; Keeling, Christine; Stevens, Robert D.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Ueland, Per M.; Meyer, Klaus; Fredriksen, Ase; Stacpoole, Peter W.; Gregory, Jesse F.

2009-01-01

346

Metabolic and immunological consequences of vitamin d deficiency in obese children.  

PubMed

Numerous studies highlighted the link between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular, autoimmune, metabolic diseases, and obesity. However, a clear role of vitamin D in these disorders is still unknown. Vitamin D deficiency in children can be a potential risk factor for developing diseases at a later age. Early prevention and vitamin D supplementation should become a public health priority. This review highlights the clinical implications of vitamin D deficiency in adults and children with obesity. PMID:25315624

Pyr?ak, B; Witkowska-S?dek, E; Krajewska, M; Demkow, U; Kucharska, A M

2015-01-01

347

Osteomalacia and vitamin D deficiency in a psychiatric rehabilitation unit: case report and survey  

E-print Network

Abstract Background Vitamin D deficiency is common and predisposes to many serious diseases, yet often goes unrecognized. Findings We describe a case of severe vitamin D deficiency with osteomalacia in a patient resident in a psychiatric hospital...

Cardinal, Rudolf N; Gregory, Carol A

2009-05-09

348

A novel spectral resolution and simultaneous determination of multicomponent mixture of Vitamins B1, B6, B12, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac in tablets and capsules by derivative and MCR-ALS.  

PubMed

A novel method was developed for spectral resolution and further determination of five-component mixture including Vitamin B complex (B1, B6, B12 and Benfotiamine) along with the commonly co-formulated Diclofenac. The method is simple, sensitive, precise and could efficiently determine the five components by a complementary application of two different techniques. The first is univariate second derivative method that was successfully applied for determination of Vitamin B12. The second is Multivariate Curve Resolution using the Alternating Least Squares method (MCR-ALS) by which an efficient resolution and quantitation of the quaternary spectrally overlapped Vitamin B1, Vitamin B6, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac sodium were achieved. The effect of different constraints was studied and the correlation between the true spectra and the estimated spectral profiles were found to be 0.9998, 0.9983, 0.9993 and 0.9933 for B1, B6, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac, respectively. All components were successfully determined in tablets and capsules and the results were compared to HPLC methods and they were found to be statistically non-significant. PMID:25645231

Hegazy, Maha A; Abdelwahab, Nada S; Fayed, Ahmed S

2015-04-01

349

Carcinogenicity of diethylnitrosamine in vitamin-A-deficient mice.  

PubMed

The effect of suboptimal levels of dietary vitamin A on diethylnitrosamine (DEN) carcinogenesis was studied in BALB/c and Swiss mice. Two different dietary regimens were employed to induce vitamin A deficiency and DEN was administered by gavage at 2 dose levels: 0.6 mg/kg as a single dose and 200 mg/kg in 4 divided doses. Shark liver oil (SLO) which was the main source of vitamin A in the standard diet, was deleted in one regimen and reduced to 25% in the other. The mice maintained on the former diet were given a high dose of DEN and those on the latter diet received a low dose. In both strains the deficient mice had a greater tumour incidence than those on standard diet with a marginal reduction in the latent period. At the low level of DEN there was shift in organotrophy, i.e. from liver in controls to lung in the vitamin-A-deficient mice of BALB/c strain. With the higher dose, lung adenomas predominated in deficient as well as control groups in both the strains. Forestomach carcinomas appeared in deficient mice and not in the controls. PMID:3692624

Santhanam, U; Lalitha, V S; Bhide, S V

1987-12-15

350

Maternal Vitamin D Deficiency Increases the Risk of Preeclampsia  

PubMed Central

Context Vitamin D has direct influence on molecular pathways proposed to be important in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia, yet the vitamin D-preeclampsia relation has not been studied. Objectives We aimed to assess the effect of maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration on the risk of preeclampsia and to assess the vitamin D status of newborns of preeclamptic mothers. Design and Setting We conducted a nested case-control study of pregnant women followed from less than 16 wk gestation to delivery (19972001) at prenatal clinics and private practices. Patients Patients included nulliparous pregnant women with singleton pregnancies who developed preeclampsia (n = 55) or did not develop preeclampsia (n = 219). Womens banked sera were newly measured for 25(OH)D. Main Outcome Measure The main outcome measure was preeclampsia (new-onset gestational hypertension and proteinuria for the first time after 20 wk gestation). Our hypotheses were formulated before data collection. Results Adjusted serum 25(OH)D concentrations in early pregnancy were lower in women who subsequently developed preeclampsia compared with controls [geometric mean, 45.4 nmol/liter, and 95% confidence interval (CI), 38.6 53.4 nmol/liter, vs. 53.1 and 47.159.9 nmol/liter; P < 0.01]. There was a monotonic dose-response relation between serum 25(OH)D concentrations at less than 22 wk and risk of preeclampsia. After confounder adjustment, a 50-nmol/liter decline in 25(OH)D concentration doubled the risk of preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.15.4). Newborns of preeclamptic mothers were twice as likely as control newborns to have 25(OH)D less than 37.5 nmol/liter (adjusted odds ratio, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2 4.1). Conclusions Maternal vitamin D deficiency may be an independent risk factor for preeclampsia. Vitamin D supplementation in early pregnancy should be explored for preventing preeclampsia and promoting neonatal well-being. PMID:17535985

Bodnar, Lisa M.; Catov, Janet M.; Simhan, Hyagriv N.; Holick, Michael F.; Powers, Robert W.; Roberts, James M.

2015-01-01

351

Vitamin A deficiency is associated with gastrointestinal and respiratory morbidity in school-age children.  

PubMed

Infection is an important cause of morbidity throughout childhood. Poor micronutrient status is a risk factor for infection-related morbidity in young children, but it is not clear whether these associations persist during school-age years. We examined the relation between blood concentrations of micronutrient status biomarkers and risk of gastrointestinal and respiratory morbidity in a prospective study of 2774 children aged 5-12 y from public schools in Bogot, Colombia. Retinol, zinc, ferritin, mean corpuscular volume, hemoglobin, erythrocyte folate, and vitamin B-12 concentrations were measured in blood at enrollment into the cohort. Children were followed for 1 academic year for incidence of morbidity, including diarrhea with vomiting, cough with fever, earache or ear discharge with fever, and doctor visits. Compared with adequate vitamin A status (?30.0 ?g/dL), vitamin A deficiency (<10.0 ?g/dL) was associated with increased risk of diarrhea with vomiting [unadjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR): 2.17; 95% CI: 0.95, 4.96; P-trend = 0.03] and cough with fever (unadjusted IRR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.30, 4.31; P-trend = 0.05). After adjustment for several sociodemographic characteristics and hemoglobin concentrations, every 10 ?g/dL plasma retinol was associated with 18% fewer days of diarrhea with vomiting (P < 0.001), 10% fewer days of cough with fever (P < 0.001), and 6% fewer doctor visits (P = 0.01). Every 1 g/dL of hemoglobin was related to 17% fewer days with ear infection symptoms (P < 0.001) and 5% fewer doctor visits (P = 0.009) after controlling for sociodemographic factors and retinol concentrations. Zinc, ferritin, mean corpuscular volume, erythrocyte folate, and vitamin B-12 status were not associated with morbidity or doctor visits. Vitamin A and hemoglobin concentrations were inversely related to rates of morbidity in school-age children. Whether vitamin A supplementation reduces the risk or severity of infection in children over 5 y of age needs to be determined. PMID:24500929

Thornton, Kathryn A; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Marn, Constanza; Villamor, Eduardo

2014-04-01

352

Vitamin Deficiencies in Humans: Can Plant Science Help?[W  

PubMed Central

The term vitamin describes a small group of organic compounds that are absolutely required in the human diet. Although for the most part, dependency criteria are met in developed countries through balanced diets, this is not the case for the five billion people in developing countries who depend predominantly on a single staple crop for survival. Thus, providing a more balanced vitamin intake from high-quality food remains one of the grandest challenges for global human nutrition in the coming decade(s). Here, we describe the known importance of vitamins in human health and current knowledge on their metabolism in plants. Deficits in developing countries are a combined consequence of a paucity of specific vitamins in major food staple crops, losses during crop processing, and/or overreliance on a single species as a primary food source. We discuss the role that plant science can play in addressing this problem and review successful engineering of vitamin pathways. We conclude that while considerable advances have been made in understanding vitamin metabolic pathways in plants, more cross-disciplinary approaches must be adopted to provide adequate levels of all vitamins in the major staple crops to eradicate vitamin deficiencies from the global population. PMID:22374394

Fitzpatrick, Teresa B.; Basset, Gilles J.C.; Borel, Patrick; Carrari, Fernando; DellaPenna, Dean; Fraser, Paul D.; Hellmann, Hanjo; Osorio, Sonia; Rothan, Christophe; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Fernie, Alisdair R.

2012-01-01

353

B Vitamins May Not Boost Memory or Thinking  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. B Vitamins May Not Boost Memory or Thinking, Study Suggests ... Preidt Wednesday, November 12, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages B Vitamins Memory Seniors' Health WEDNESDAY, Nov. 12, 2014 (HealthDay ...

354

Calcemia regulation in the vitamin D deficient growing pig A. POINTILLART, J. M. GAREL L. GUEGUEN  

E-print Network

Calcemia regulation in the vitamin D deficient growing pig A. POINTILLART, J. M. GAREL L. GUEGUEN. Summary. Calcemia regulation in the vitamin D deficient growing pig. Four young growing pigs deficient in vitamin D since birth showed hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia and hypophosphatemia. Hypocalcemia

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

355

Crystal structure of putative CbiT from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii: an intermediate enzyme activity in cobalamin (vitamin B12) biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Background In the anaerobic pathway of cobalamin (vitamin B12) synthesis, the CbiT enzyme plays two roles, as a cobalt-precorrin-7 C15-methyltransferase and a C12-decarboxylase, to produce the intermediate, cobalt-precorrin 8. Results The primary structure of the hypothetical protein MJ0391, from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, suggested that MJ0391 is a putative CbiT. Here, we report the crystal structure of MJ0391, solved by the MAD procedure and refined to final R-factor and R-free values of 19.8 & 27.3%, respectively, at 2.3 resolution. The asymmetric unit contains two NCS molecules, and the intact tetramer generated by crystallographic symmetry may be functionally important. The overall tertiary structure and the tetrameric arrangements are highly homologous to those found in MT0146/CbiT from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. Conclusions The conservation of functional residues in the binding site for the co-factor, AdoMet, and in the putative precorrin-7 binding pocket suggested that MJ0391 may also possess CbiT activity. The putative function of MJ0391 is discussed, based on structural homology. PMID:23688113

2013-01-01

356

Comparative effects of low levels of dietary cobalt and parenteral injections of Vitamin B 12 on body dimensions in different breeds of Omani goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of low levels of dietary cobalt and parenteral Vitamin B12 supplementation on live body weight and the body dimensions of three breeds of Omani intact male goats, namely Batina (14 goats), Dhofari (14 goats) and Jabal Al-Akdhar (14 goats). The animals were fed Rhodes grass hay and a commercial diet containing 0.10 and 0.12mg\\/kgDM of cobalt, respectively, from

I. T. Kadim; O. Mahgoub; D. Al-Ajmi; K. R. Al-Habsi; E. H. Johnson

2006-01-01

357

Vitamin a deficiency and alterations in the extracellular matrix.  

PubMed

Vitamin A or retinol which is the natural precursor of several biologically active metabolites can be considered the most multifunctional vitamin in mammals. Its deficiency is currently, along with protein malnutrition, the most serious and common nutritional disorder worldwide. It is necessary for normal embryonic development and postnatal tissue homeostasis, and exerts important effects on cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. These actions are produced mainly by regulating the expression of a variety of proteins through transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms. Extracellular matrix proteins are among those whose synthesis is known to be modulated by vitamin A. Retinoic acid, the main biologically active form of vitamin A, influences the expression of collagens, laminins, entactin, fibronectin, elastin and proteoglycans, which are the major components of the extracellular matrix. Consequently, the structure and macromolecular composition of this extracellular compartment is profoundly altered as a result of vitamin A deficiency. As cell behavior, differentiation and apoptosis, and tissue mechanics are influenced by the extracellular matrix, its modifications potentially compromise organ function and may lead to disease. This review focuses on the effects of lack of vitamin A in the extracellular matrix of several organs and discusses possible molecular mechanisms and pathologic implications. PMID:25389900

Barber, Teresa; Esteban-Pretel, Guillermo; Marn, Mara Pilar; Timoneda, Joaqun

2014-11-01

358

Vitamin nutrition in older adults.  

PubMed

Proper vitamin nutrition is essential for all people but especially for elderly persons, because they are at higher risk for deficiency than younger adults. A review of the clinical effects of vitamin deficiency shows how easily deficiency can masquerade as other morbidities, such as skin, neurologic, and gait abnormalities. Given the numerous readily available forms and sources of supplementation, their low cost, and their rather limited potential for harm, the goal of good vitamin nutrition for the elderly is easily attainable. To be successful in this goal, physicians must look for patients at risk and for those with features of frank vitamin deficiency. Laboratory testing is most helpful with respect to vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. Given the great value of clinical assessment, the low cost of vitamins, and the higher cost of laboratory testing, the authors do not recommend testing before instituting multivitamin use or extra supplementation with individual vitamins unless the diagnosis of deficiency is in question or the use of supplementation would put the patient at risk. The authors' general recommendations are * one multivitamin daily * extra vitamin E for patients with cardiovascular risk factors or Alzheimer's dementia * extra vitamin D for patients with known osteoporosis, osteoporosis risk factors, or strong risk factors for vitamin D deficiency * extra folate for patients with cardiovascular risk factors (especially smokers) and alcoholics * extra thiamine for alcoholics. PMID:12608503

Johnson, Karin A; Bernard, Marie A; Funderburg, Karen

2002-11-01

359

Vitamin Deficiency-Induced Neurological Diseases of Poultry  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: Vitamins are organic compounds distinct from fats, carbohydrates and proteins, naturally found in most foods items in minute amounts for normal physiological function. Their essentiality in poultry nutrition is evidenced by diverse deficiency symptoms that manifest when they are lacking. They are intimately involved in a series of roles in organisms as antioxidant molecules, modulators of gene transcription,

2006-01-01

360

Combined Selenium and Vitamin C Deficiency Causes Cell Death in Guinea Pig Skeletal Muscle1  

PubMed Central

Combined antioxidant deficiencies of selenium and vitamin E or vitamin E and vitamin C in guinea pigs result in clinical illness. We hypothesized that combined selenium and vitamin C deficiency would have clinical consequences because in vitro interactions of these antioxidant nutrients have been reported. Since guinea pigs are dependent on dietary vitamin C, weanling male guinea pigs were fed selenium-deficient or control diet for 15 weeks prior to imposing vitamin C deficiency. Four dietary groups were formed and studied 3 weeks later: controls, vitamin C deficient, selenium deficient, and doubly deficient. Deficiencies were confirmed by determinations of glutathione peroxidase activity and vitamin C concentration in liver and skeletal muscle. Plasma creatine phosphokinase (CPK) activity and liver, kidney, heart, and quadriceps histopathology were determined. Doubly deficient animals had moderately severe skeletal muscle cell death as judged by histopathology and plasma CPK activity of 6630 4400 IU/L (control 70 5; vitamin C deficient 95 110; selenium deficient 280 250). Liver, kidney, and heart histology was normal in all groups. Muscle ?-tocopherol levels were not depressed in the doubly deficient group but muscle F2 isoprostane concentrations were elevated in them and correlated with markers of cell death. We conclude that combining selenium and vitamin C deficiencies in the guinea pig causes cell death in skeletal muscle that is more severe than the injury caused by selenium deficiency. The elevation of muscle F2 isoprostanes is compatible with the cell death being caused by oxidative stress. PMID:19358936

Hill, Kristina E.; Motley, Amy K.; May, James M.; Burk, Raymond F.

2009-01-01

361

Nutritional rickets: deficiency of vitamin D, calcium, or both?  

PubMed

Nutritional rickets remains a public health problem in many countries, despite dramatic declines in the prevalence of the condition in many developed countries since the discoveries of vitamin D and the role of ultraviolet light in prevention. The disease continues to be problematic among infants in many communities, especially among infants who are exclusively breast-fed, infants and children of dark-skinned immigrants living in temperate climates, infants and their mothers in the Middle East, and infants and children in many developing countries in the tropics and subtropics, such as Nigeria, Ethiopia, Yemen, and Bangladesh. Vitamin D deficiency remains the major cause of rickets among young infants in most countries, because breast milk is low in vitamin D and its metabolites and social and religious customs and/or climatic conditions often prevent adequate ultraviolet light exposure. In sunny countries such as Nigeria, South Africa, and Bangladesh, such factors do not apply. Studies indicated that the disease occurs among older toddlers and children and probably is attributable to low dietary calcium intakes, which are characteristic of cereal-based diets with limited variety and little access to dairy products. In such situations, calcium supplements alone result in healing of the bone disease. Studies among Asian children and African American toddlers suggested that low dietary calcium intakes result in increased catabolism of vitamin D and the development of vitamin D deficiency and rickets. Dietary calcium deficiency and vitamin D deficiency represent 2 ends of the spectrum for the pathogenesis of nutritional rickets, with a combination of the 2 in the middle. PMID:15585795

Pettifor, John M

2004-12-01

362

Vitamin D deficiency and benign paroxysmal positioning vertigo  

PubMed Central

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is a common cause of disabling vertigo with a high rate of recurrence. Although connections between vitamin D deficiency and osteoporosis, as well as between osteoporosis and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo have been suggested respectively in the literature, we are not aware of any publication linking vitamin D and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. As a hypothesis, we suggest that there is a relation between insufficient vitamin D level and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. In order to test this hypothesis, in a small retrospective pilot study, 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in serum of patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and frequency of recurrence after correction of serum level were assessed retrospectively. Patients with idiopathic positional vertigo had a low average serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (23 ng/mL) similar to that of the general Austrian population, which has a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D. In 4 cases with chronically recurrent severe vertigo episodes, average levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D were even significantly lower than in the other vertigo patients, who had their first episode. Vertigo attacks did not recur after supplementation with vitamin D. We raise the possibility that patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo who have low vitamin D levels may benefit from supplementation and suggest further epidemiological investigations to determine the effect of correcting vitamin D deficiency on the recurrence of vertigo. Given the many known benefits of vitamin D, the authors recommend the measurement of vitamin D in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and supplementation if necessary. PMID:23245911

Bki, Bela; Ecker, Michael; Jnger, Heinz; Lundberg, Yunxia Wang

2013-01-01

363

Comparison of directly compressed vitamin B12 tablets prepared from micronized rotary-spun microfibers and cast films.  

PubMed

Abstract Fiber-based dosage forms are potential alternatives of conventional dosage forms from the point of the improved extent and rate of drug dissolution. Rotary-spun polymer fibers and cast films were prepared and micronized in order to direct compress after homogenization with tabletting excipients. Particle size distribution of powder mixtures of micronized fibers and films homogenized with tabletting excipients were determined by laser scattering particle size distribution analyzer. Powder rheological behavior of the mixtures containing micronized fibers and cast films was also compared. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy was applied for the microstructural characterization of micronized fibers and films. The water-soluble vitamin B12 release from the compressed tablets was determined. It was confirmed that the rotary spinning method resulted in homogeneous supramolecularly ordered powder mixture, which was successfully compressed after homogenization with conventional tabletting excipients. The obtained directly compressed tablets showed uniform drug release of low variations. The results highlight the novel application of micronized rotary-spun fibers as intermediate for further processing reserving the original favorable powder characteristics of fibrous systems. PMID:25190153

Sebe, Istvn; Bodai, Zsolt; Eke, Zsuzsanna; Kllai-Szab, Barnabs; Szab, Pter; Zelk, Romna

2014-09-01

364

Selective intestinal malabsorption of vitamin B12 displays recessive Mendelian inheritance: Assignment of a locus to chromosome 10 by linkage  

SciTech Connect

Juvenile megaloblastic anemia caused by selective intestinal malabsorption of vitamin B12 has been considered a distinct condition displaying autosomal recessive inheritance. It appears to have a worldwide distribution, and comparatively high incidences were reported 30 years ago in Finland and Norway. More recently, the Mendelian inheritance of the condition has been questioned because almost no new cases have occurred in these populations. Here we report linkage studies assigning a recessive-gene locus for the disease to chromosome 10 in previously diagnosed multiplex families from Finland and Norway, proving the Mendelian mode of inheritance. The locus is tentatively assigned to the 6-cM interval between markers D10S548 and D10S466, with a multipoint maximum lod score (Z{sub max}) of 5.36 near marker D10S1477. By haplotype analysis, the healthy sibs in these families did not appear to constitute any examples of nonpenetrance. We hypothesize that the paucity of new cases in these populations is due either to a dietary effect on the gene penetrance that has changed with time, or to a drop in the birth rate in subpopulations showing enrichment of the mutation, or to both of these causes. 38 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Aminoff, M.; Tahvanainen, E.; Chapelle, A. de la [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)] [and others

1995-10-01

365

[Circadian rhythm disturbance after radiotherapy for brain tumor in infantile period--clinical effect of L-thyroxine and vitamin B12].  

PubMed

We reported here 19-year-old man suffering from circadian sleep-wake (S-W) rhythm disturbance after total tumor resection and whole brain irradiation. This 19-year-old man was diagnosed as having astrocytoma in the right temporal lobe by CT scan and angiography at the age of 6 months. After total tumor resection and whole brain irradiation (60Co 60 Gy), he showed profound psychomotor retardation, endocrinologic dysfunction including hypothyroidism and growth hormone deficiency, and sleep-wake rhythm disturbance. At the age of 19, brain MRI revealed asymmetrical low intensity in the hypothalamic region. On endocrinological examination panhypopituitarism due to primary hypothalamic lesion was evident. His S-W rhythm was disturbed showing a dispersed type sleep, i.e., sleep periods were dispersedly distributed throughout the 24 hours. So he showed a lethargic tendency in the daytime. All-day polysomnography revealed abnormal sleep structure such as the absence of sleep spindle and hump, peripheral apnea, snoring and low oxygen saturation. After L-thyroxine supplementation his daily activity improved gradually. The decrease in short time sleep and tendency of a free-running rhythm were observed and oxygen saturation improved remarkably. Peripheral apnea and snoring disappeared. The wakening effect of L-thyroxine administration may be due to improvement of hypothyroidism symptom such as myxoedematous pharynx. In addition, it seems related to the alteration of the central S-W rhythm regulation, because free-running rhythm appeared after L-thyroxine administration. Vitamin B12 (VB12), which has been reported to be effective for sleep-wake rhythm disorders, was not effective for our patient's free-running rhythm.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8217401

Kubota, M; Shinozaki, M; Sasaki, H

1993-08-01

366

Vitamin C supplementation does not protect L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase-deficient mice from Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis and gastric premalignancy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In human studies, low vitamin C intake has been associated with more severe Helicobacter pylori gastritis and a higher incidence of gastric cancer. However, vitamin C supplementation has not been definitively shown to protect against gastric cancer. Using vitamin C-deficient B6.129P2-Gulo tm1Umc/mmc...

367

Vitamin D Deficiency Promotes Skeletal Muscle Hypersensitivity and Sensory Hyperinnervation  

PubMed Central

Musculoskeletal pain affects nearly half of all adults, most of whom are vitamin D deficient. Previous findings demonstrated that putative nociceptors (pain-sensing nerves) express vitamin D receptors (VDRs), suggesting responsiveness to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. In the present study, rats receiving vitamin D-deficient diets for 2 4 weeks showed mechanical deep muscle hypersensitivity, but not cutaneous hypersensitivity. Muscle hypersensitivity was accompanied by balance deficits and occurred before onset of overt muscle or bone pathology. Hypersensitivity was not due to hypocalcemia and was actually accelerated by increased dietary calcium. Morphometry of skeletal muscle innervation showed increased numbers of presumptive nociceptor axons (peripherin-positive axons containing calcitonin gene-related peptide), without changes in sympathetic or skeletal muscle motor innervation. Similarly, there was no change in epidermal innervation. In culture, sensory neurons displayed enriched VDR expression in growth cones, and sprouting was regulated by VDR-mediated rapid response signaling pathways, while sympathetic outgrowth was not affected by different concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. These findings indicate that vitamin D deficiency can lead to selective alterations in target innervation, resulting in presumptive nociceptor hyperinnervation of skeletal muscle, which in turn is likely to contribute to muscular hypersensitivity and pain. PMID:21957236

Tague, Sarah E.; Clarke, Gwenalle L.; Winter, Michelle K.; McCarson, Kenneth E.; Wright, Douglas E.; Smith, Peter G.

2012-01-01

368

Determining the Effect of Gutkha on Serum Levels of Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid as Compared to Smoking among Chronic Periodontitis Subjects : A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Periodontitis, being a common inflammatory disease has a multifactorial origin , with smoking and gutkha as few of the causative entities. The role of smoking as a risk factor for periodontitis is been well documented in literature. Cigarette smoke also affects vitamin B12 and folic acid mechanisms. Nutritionally derived vitamin B12 occurs mainly as either hydroxycobalamin or deoxyadenosycobalmin. Folic acid is also heat sensitive and water soluble, closely linked to vitamin B12 in its metabolism. However, effect of smokeless tobacco in form of gutkha on serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid is yet to be explored. Aims and Objectives: To estimate and correlate serum vitamin B12 (VB12) and folic acid (FA) levels among periodontally healthy subjects and Chronic Periodontitis (CP) subjects with habit of smoking and gutkha chewing. Materials and Methods: The study included 111 subjects ranging in age from 18 to 60 y. Participants were divided into four groups: 30 healthy subjects (Group I), 29 subjects with CP (Group II), 25 smokers with CP (Group III) and 27 gutkha chewers with CP (Group IV). Clinical parameters included pocket probing depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) & gingival index (GI) following which VB12 and FA levels were estimated through UV-spectrophotometry method and data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Scientists software, Mann-Whitney U-test and Pearson correlation coefficient. p-values less than 0.05 were considered as significant. Results : Pairwise comparison by Mann-Whitney U-test showed an increase in the serum VB12 in Group IV when compared to Group I (p=0.01) and Group II (p=0.01). Although serum FA levels were found to be low in Group III (7.61 ug/ml) & Group IV (8.64 ug/ml), Group III was found to be statistically significant (P=0.046). The clinical parameters GI, PPD and CAL among the four groups of patients were also statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The study results suggested that among the patients with periodontal disease, serum VB12 levels are directly related while serum FA levels are inversely related to inflammation and tissue destruction in periodontium as occurred in Group IV. PMID:25654040

Warad, Shivaraj; Kalburgi, Nagaraj B; Kalburgi, Veena C; Koregol, Arati C; Patanashetti, Jyoti; Rao, Subramaniam; Kokatnur, M. Vijayalaxmi

2014-01-01

369

Mild vitamin A deficiency delays fetal lung maturation in the rat.  

PubMed

During late pregnancy, the fetal lung stores surfactant in preparation for extrauterine life. Surfactant deficiency, most often due to prematurity, precipitates respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of the neonate. Although vitamin A (retinol) and retinoic acid have been shown to enhance the synthesis of phospholipid surfactant components, their effect on surfactant-specific proteins is unclear. No attempt has been made to evaluate the consequences of vitamin A restriction on surfactant phospholipid storage or on the expression of the life-essential surfactant protein-B (SP-B). We induced in rats a partial vitamin A deficiency leading to a 30-60% reduction in blood retinol, a status compatible with maintenance of gestation and absence of gross abnormalities in offspring. At term, lung surfactant phospholipids were reduced by 21%, and the major surfactant phospholipid, disaturated phosphatidylcholine (DSPC), was reduced by 27% in vitamin A-deficient (VAD) fetuses. The decrease in surfactant phospholipids and DSPC correlated linearly with plasma retinol, and reached about 50% in fetuses with the lowest retinol concentrations; it was accompanied by reduced expression of the gene for fatty acid synthase, a key enzyme in the synthetic pathway for surfactant-phospholipid lipid precursors. The amounts of SP-A, SP-B, and SP-C messenger RNAs were decreased by 46%, 32%, and 28%, respectively, in VAD fetuses. Consistently, amounts of SP-A and SP-B proteins were diminished as assessed by Western blotting. The proportion of type II cells determined after SP-B labeling was unchanged in VAD as compared with control lungs. Vitamin A deficiency is therefore a cause of lung maturational delay. In view of its rather large incidence in human populations, it may represent an increased risk for RDS and an aggravating factor for prematurity. PMID:10385596

Chailley-Heu, B; Chelly, N; Lelivre-Pgorier, M; Barlier-Mur, A M; Merlet-Bnichou, C; Bourbon, J R

1999-07-01

370

Plasma exchange induces vitamin D deficiency  

PubMed Central

Background: Plasma exchange is used in the treatment of diseases mediated by pathogenic circulating proteins, or for transplant desensitization. Its non-targeted nature results in the depletion of physiologically important molecules, and it is often complicated by hypocalcaemia. Aim: To determine the effects of plasma exchange on vitamin D binding protein (DBP) and associated vitamin D metabolites. Design: Single-centre prospective cohort study of 11 patients. Methods: DBP and vitamin D metabolites were measured before and immediately after five plasma exchanges, and 7 and 28 days after discontinuation of plasma exchange. Results: Plasma exchange reduced plasma DBP concentration from 196.9 53.2 to 98.5 34 ?g/ml (P = 0.0001), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D from 103 52 to 42 4 pmol/l (P = 0.003) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D from 49.7 29 to 22 9.4 nmol/l (P = 0.0017), through their removal in effluent. After 7 days, DBP and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were not significantly different from baseline, but 25-hydroxyvitamin D remained significantly lower after 7 days (26.4 9.8 nmol/l, P = 0.02) and 28 days (30.8 15.5 nmol/l, P = 0.048). Corrected calcium decreased from 2.23 0.11 to 1.98 0.08 mmol/l (P = 0.0007) immediately after five treatments. Plasma calcium was significantly associated with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (r2 = 0.79, P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Plasma exchange induced an acute reversible decrease in plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, DBP, calcium and a sustained decrease in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D. PMID:24131546

Casian, A.; Boraks, P.; Jayne, D.R.; Schoenmakers, I.

2014-01-01

371

Vitamin D Deficiency Is Not Good for You I n  

E-print Network

et al. (1) demonstrate a strong association between severe vitamin D deficiency and increased mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes. This observation confirms previous findings in the general population and in subgroups at high cardiovascular risk such as patients with type 2 diabetes or renal impaired patients (24). The data by Joergensen et al. complete the picture while carefully avoiding possible criticisms that have made the vitamin D field so hazardous to tread in recent years. Indeed, rather than hard science, it is hype and media statements that crowd the scene. This article brings with

unknown authors

372

The importance of vitamin B12 and unidentified factors in the nutrition of the domestic fowl  

E-print Network

(*32), Reimann and Fritsch (*34), Fouts, et al. (*35) and Cheney ( T35) have shown that the anti- anemic properties of liver preparations can be greatly increased by incubation with gastric juice, gastric mucosa or mucosal scrapings from human.... Through Chem. Eng. News., 27: 3487. Fouts, P. J . , 0. M. Helmer, and L. G. Zerfas 1935 Quantitative studies on increased potency of liver extract by incubation with normal human gastric juice. Ann. Int. Med., 8: 790. Frommeyer, W. B ., Jr ., T. D...

Olcese, Orlando

2013-10-04

373

One-step induction of neurons from mouse embryonic stem cells in serum-free media containing vitamin B12 and heparin.  

PubMed

We present a simple method for neural cell fate specification directly from mouse embryonic stem cells (ES cells) in serum-free conditions in the absence of embryoid body formation. Dissociated ES cells were cultured in serum-free media supplemented with vitamin B12 and heparin, but without any expensive cytokines. After 14 days in culture, beta-tubulin type III (TuJ1) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive colonies were detected by immunocytochemical examinations. In addition, specific gene analyses by RT-PCR demonstrated expression of an early central nerve system, mature neuron, and midbrain dopaminergic neuron-specific molecules (i.e., nestin, middle molecular mass neurofilament protein, Nurr1, and TH, respectively). Dopamine was also detected in the culture media by reverse-phase HPLC analysis. These facts indicate that addition of vitamin B12/heparin to serum-free culture media induced neurons from ES cells, which included cells that released dopamine. Other supplements, such as putrescine, biotin, and Fe2+, could not induce neurons from ES cells by themselves, but produced synergistic effects with vitamin B12/heparin. The rate of TuJ1+/TH+ colony formation was increased threefold and the amounts of dopamine released increased 1.5-fold by the addition of a mixture of putrescine, biotin, and Fe2+ to vitamin B12/heparin culture media. Our method is a simple tool to differentiate ES cells to dopaminergic neurons for the preparation of dopamine-releasing cells for the cell transplantation therapy of Parkinson's disease. In addition, this method can facilitate the discovery of soluble factors and genes that can aid in the induction of the ES cell to its neural fate. PMID:16719047

Yamazoe, Hironori; Kobori, Masato; Murakami, Yoshinobu; Yano, Keiichi; Satoh, Mitsuo; Mizuseki, Kenji; Sasai, Yoshiki; Iwata, Hiroo

2006-01-01

374

Low maternal vitamin B12 status is associated with intrauterine growth retardation in urban South Indians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To assess the maternal sociodemographic, anthropometric, dietary and micronutrient status in apparently healthy pregnant women in order to determine their associations with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR).Design:Prospective observational study.Setting:Bangalore City, India.Subjects:A total of 478 women were recruited at 12.93.3 weeks of gestation and followed up at the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy and at delivery. The dropout rate was

S Muthayya; A V Kurpad; C P Duggan; R J Bosch; P Dwarkanath; A Mhaskar; R Mhaskar; A Thomas; M Vaz; S Bhat; W W Fawzi

2006-01-01

375

Regulation of Calcitriol Biosynthesis and Activity: Focus on Gestational Vitamin D Deficiency and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Vitamin D has garnered a great deal of attention in recent years due to a global prevalence of vitamin D deficiency associated with an increased risk of a variety of human diseases. Specifically, hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women is highly common and has important implications for the mother and lifelong health of the child, since it has been linked to maternal and child infections, small-for-gestational age, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, as well as imprinting on the infant for life chronic diseases. Therefore, factors that regulate vitamin D metabolism are of main importance, especially during pregnancy. The hormonal form and most active metabolite of vitamin D is calcitriol. This hormone mediates its biological effects through a specific nuclear receptor, which is found in many tissues including the placenta. Calcitriol synthesis and degradation depend on the expression and activity of CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 cytochromes, respectively, for which regulation is tissue specific. Among the factors that modify these cytochromes expression and/or activity are calcitriol itself, parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23, cytokines, calcium and phosphate. This review provides a current overview on the regulation of vitamin D metabolism, focusing on vitamin D deficiency during gestation and its impact on pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25584965

Olmos-Ortiz, Andrea; Avila, Euclides; Durand-Carbajal, Marta; Daz, Lorenza

2015-01-01

376

Novel in situ product removal technique for simultaneous production of propionic acid and vitamin B12 by expanded bed adsorption bioreactor.  

PubMed

A new type of in situ product removal (ISPR) technique of expanded bed adsorption (EBA) bioreactor was studied to simultaneously produce extracellular propionic acid and intracellular vitamin B12 by Propionibacterium freudenreichii CICC 10019. Resin screening experiments showed that the ZGA330 resin have the best biocompatibility and highest adsorption for propionic acid. Through the EBA bioreactor, propionic acid could be recovered efficiently by semi-continuous recirculation of the unfiltered broth, which eliminated the feedback inhibition of propionic acid. Fed-batch fermentation was carried out using the EBA system, resulting in a propionic acid concentration of 52.5 g L(-1) and vitamin B12 concentration of 43.04 mg L(-1) at 160 h, which correspond to product yields of 0.66 g g(-1) and 0.54 mg g(-1), respectively. The present study suggests that the EBA bioreactor can be utilized for the simple and economical production of propionic acid and vitamin B12 in a single fermentation process. PMID:22082511

Wang, Peng; Wang, Yunshan; Liu, Yongdong; Shi, Hong; Su, Zhiguo

2012-01-01

377

Vitamin D Deficiency Induces High Blood Pressure and Accelerates Atherosclerosis in Mice  

PubMed Central

Multiple epidemiological studies link vitamin D deficiency to increased cardiovascular disease (CVD), but causality and possible mechanisms underlying these associations are not established. To clarify the role of vitamin D-deficiency in CVD in vivo, we generated mouse models of diet-induced vitamin D deficiency in two backgrounds (LDL receptor- and ApoE-null mice) that resemble humans with diet-induced hypertension and atherosclerosis. Mice were fed vitamin D-deficient or -sufficient chow for 6 weeks and then switched to high fat (HF) vitamin D-deficient or sufficient diet for 810 weeks. Mice with diet-induced vitamin D deficiency showed increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, high plasma renin, and decreased urinary sodium excretion. Hypertension was reversed and renin was suppressed by returning chow-fed vitamin D-deficient mice to vitamin D-sufficient chow diet for 6 weeks. On a HF diet, vitamin D-deficient mice had ?2-fold greater atherosclerosis in the aortic arch and ?28-fold greater atherosclerosis in the thoracic and abdominal aorta compared to vitamin D-sufficient mice. In the aortic root, HF-fed vitamin D-deficient mice had increased macrophage infiltration with increased fat accumulation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activation, but a lower prevalence of the M1 macrophage phenotype within atherosclerotic plaques. Similarly, peritoneal macrophages from vitamin D-deficient mice displayed an M2-predominant phenotype with increased foam cell formation and ER stress. Treatment of vitamin D-deficient mice with the ER stress reliever PBA during HF feeding suppressed atherosclerosis, decreased peritoneal macrophage foam cell formation, and downregulated ER stress proteins without changing blood pressure. Thus, we suggest that vitamin D deficiency activates both the renin angiotensin system and macrophage ER stress to contribute to the development of hypertension and accelerated atherosclerosis, highlighting vitamin D replacement as a potential therapy to reduce blood pressure and atherosclerosis. PMID:23349943

Oh, Jisu; Riek, Amy E.; Chin, Kathleen; Garcia, Miguel; Bernal-Mizrachi, Carlos

2013-01-01

378

Vitamin D deficiency and anthropometric indicators of adiposity in school-age children: a prospective study123  

PubMed Central

Background: Cross-sectional studies have indicated that vitamin D serostatus is inversely associated with adiposity. It is unknown whether vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for the development of adiposity in children. Objective: We investigated the associations between vitamin D serostatus and changes in body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2), skinfold-thickness ratio (subscapular-to-triceps), waist circumference, and height in a longitudinal study in children from Bogota, Colombia. Design: We quantified plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in baseline samples of a randomly selected group of 479 schoolchildren aged 512 y and classified vitamin D status as deficient [25(OH)D concentrations <50 nmol/L], insufficient [25(OH)D concentrations ?50 and <75 nmol/L], or sufficient [25(OH)D concentrations ?75 nmol/L]. We measured anthropometric variables annually for a median of 30 mo. We estimated the average change in each anthropometric indicator according to baseline vitamin D status by using multivariate mixed linear regression models. Results: Vitamin Ddeficient children had an adjusted 0.1/y greater change in BMI than did vitamin Dsufficient children (P for trend = 0.05). Similarly, vitamin Ddeficient children had a 0.03/y (95% CI: 0.01, 0.05/y) greater change in subscapular-to-triceps skinfold-thickness ratio and a 0.8 cm/y (95% CI: 0.1, 1.6 cm/y) greater change in waist circumference than did vitamin Dsufficient children. Vitamin D deficiency was related to slower linear growth in girls (?0.6 cm/y, P = 0.04) but not in boys (0.3 cm/y, P = 0.34); however, an interaction with sex was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Vitamin D serostatus was inversely associated with the development of adiposity in school-age children. PMID:20926524

Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Baylin, Ana; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Marin, Constanza; Arsenault, Joanne E; Hughes, Michael D; Willett, Walter C; Villamor, Eduardo

2010-01-01

379

NAD(P)H: Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 Deficiency Conjoint with Marginal Vitamin C Deficiency Causes Cigarette Smoke Induced Myelodysplastic Syndromes  

PubMed Central

Background The etiology of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is largely unknown. Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) is reported to be associated with MDS risk. There is inconsistent evidence that deficiency of NAD(P)H-quinone: oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) increases the risk of MDS. Earlier we had shown that CS induces toxicity only in marginal vitamin C-deficient guinea pigs but not in vitamin C-sufficient ones. We therefore considered that NQO1 deficiency along with marginal vitamin C deficiency might produce MDS in CS-exposed guinea pigs. Methodology and Principal Findings Here we show that CS exposure for 21 days produces MDS in guinea pigs having deficiency of NQO1 (fed 3 mg dicoumarol/day) conjoint with marginal vitamin C deficiency (fed 0.5 mg vitamin C/day). As evidenced by morphology, histology and cytogenetics, MDS produced in the guinea pigs falls in the category of refractory cytopenia with unilineage dysplasia (RCUD): refractory anemia; refractory thrombocytopenia that is associated with ring sideroblasts, micromegakaryocytes, myeloid hyperplasia and aneuploidy. MDS is accompanied by increased CD34(+) cells and oxidative stress as shown by the formation of protein carbonyls and 8-oxodeoxyguanosine. Apoptosis precedes MDS but disappears later with marked decrease in the p53 protein. MDS produced in the guinea pigs are irreversible. MDS and all the aforesaid pathophysiological events do not occur in vitamin C-sufficient guinea pigs. However, after the onset of MDS vitamin C becomes ineffective. Conclusions and Significance CS exposure causes MDS in guinea pigs having deficiency of NQO1 conjoint with marginal vitamin C deficiency. The syndromes are not produced in singular deficiency of NQO1 or marginal vitamin C deficiency. Our results suggest that human smokers having NQO1 deficiency combined with marginal vitamin C deficiency are likely to be at high risk for developing MDS and that intake of a moderately large dose of vitamin C would prevent MDS. PMID:21655231

Das, Archita; Dey, Neekkan; Ghosh, Arunava; Das, Tanusree; Chatterjee, Indu B.

2011-01-01

380

The effect of vitamin B 12 and various levels of iodine in the diet of growing chicks and mature hens  

E-print Network

THF. EFFEC'I OF VITAMIN 8, , AND VARIOUS EKVK Lo OF IODINE IN THE DIET OF GBOV. ING CHICKS AND MAT URE HENS EDV ABD MACK SANTA A 'I'HgoIS oubmitted to tbe Gt aduate ochooi of tbe Agricultural and hiecbanical College of f'"xae in pertial fulf...Hhnent of tbe retlufremcnte for tbe dogree MASTER OF oCII. NCE ht a j o r oubject: sultry ociencc August 1957 'I HE E FFECT OF VITAMIN 9 . AND VABIUU& cEV E 1 o 12 OF IODINE IN THE DIET C F GI'On ING CHICKS AND MA'l UHE HENS A THEnle t DV. AND MAC K BA N...

Banta, Edward Mack

2012-06-07

381

The vitamin B12 analog cobinamide is an effective hydrogen sulfide antidote in a lethal rabbit model  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a highly toxic gas for which no effective antidotes exist. It acts, at least in part, by binding to cytochrome c oxidase, causing cellular asphyxiation and anoxia. We investigated the effects of three different ligand forms of cobinamide, a vitamin B12 analog, to reverse sulfide (NaHS) toxicity. Methods New Zealand white rabbits received a continuous intravenous (IV) infusion of NaHS (3 mg/min) until expiration or a maximum 270 mg dose. Animals received six different treatments, administered at the time when they developed signs of severe toxicity: Group 1saline (placebo group, N = 9); Group 2IV hydroxocobalamin (N = 7); Group 3IV aquohydroxocobinamide (N = 6); Group 4IV sulfitocobinamide (N = 6); Group 5intramuscular (IM) sulfitocobinamide (N = 6); and Group 6IM dinitrocobinamide (N = 8). Blood was sampled intermittently, and systemic blood pressure and deoxygenated and oxygenated hemoglobin were measured continuously in peripheral muscle and over the brain region; the latter were measured by diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS). Results Compared with the saline controls, all cobinamide derivatives significantly increased survival time and the amount of NaHS that was tolerated. Aquohydroxocobinamide was most effective (261.5 2.4 mg NaHS tolerated vs. 93.8 6.2 mg in controls, p < 0.0001). Dinitrocobinamide was more effective than sulfitocobinamide. Hydroxocobalamin was not significantly more effective than the saline control. Conclusions Cobinamide is an effective agent for inhibiting lethal sulfide exposure in this rabbit model. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal dose and form of cobinamide and route of administration. PMID:24716792

BRENNER, M.; BENAVIDES, S.; MAHON, S. B.; LEE, J.; YOON, D.; MUKAI, D.; VISEROI, M.; CHAN, A.; JIANG, J.; NARULA, N.; AZER, S. M.; ALEXANDER, C.; BOSS, G. R.

2014-01-01

382

Response of Cobalt-deficient Sheep to Oral Administration of Penicillin  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT is now generally acknowledged that a deficiency of cobalt in the diet of ruminant animals may induce a vitamin B12-deficiency, since without sufficient cobalt certain ruminal micro-organisms fail to synthesize the vitamin B12 needed by the host animal. Several workers have reported that the dietary vitamin B12 requirements of chicks and rats may be reduced by the oral administration

D. E. Tribe; Jillian M. Bond; A. D. Osborne

1954-01-01

383

Fibromyalgia syndrome: is it related to vitamin d deficiency in premenopausal female patients?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a number of studies that have evaluated the relationship between fibromyalgia (FM) and vitamin D deficiency with conflicting results. The aim of this study was to assess vitamin D deficiency in patients with FM and to evaluate the relationship with the common symptoms of FM and levels of serum vitaminD.Forty premenopausal female fibromyalgia patients and forty age and

M. Okumus; M. Koybas?; F. Tuncay; E. Ceceli; F. Ayhan; Z. R. Yorgancioglu; P. Borman

384

Effect of Vitamin D3 on Untreated Graves Disease with Vitamin D Deficiency  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Besides its classical role in calcium and bone homeostasis, vitamin D is considered a potent immunomodulator that can affect the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases. Our aim is to evaluate the effect of vitamin D correction to a patient with new onset Graves disease (GD) with an underlying vitamin D deficiency. METHOD We describe the effect of vitamin D3 on untreated Graves disease with vitamin D deficiency. RESULTS A healthy Saudi woman in her 40s sought consultation with a three-month history of palpitation. She denied any history of heat intolerance, weight loss, menstrual irregularity or sweating. She has a history of chronic muscle aches and pains. Physical examination revealed a mild diffusely enlarged and non-tender thyroid gland with no bruit. She had no signs of Graves ophthalmopathy. In laboratory examinations, the initial thyroid function test, which was done in an outside hospital, revealed a TSH, 0.01 mIU/L; FT4, 22.5 pmol/L and FT3, 6.5 pmol/L. Vitamin D 25-OH level was done in our hospital and showed a result of 26.0 nmol/L with a TSH, 0.013 mIU/L; FT4, 16.7 pmol/L; and FT3, 3.8 pmol/L. TSH receptor antibody was positive. TC-99 m thyroid scintigraphy demonstrated an enlarged thyroid gland with increased radiotracer trapping and heterogeneous distribution. The patient was given only oral cholecalciferol 4000 IU per day since November 2012 (prescribed by an outside hospital) then from May 2013 onwards she was given 50,000 IU per month. Follow-up laboratory exams revealed improved vitamin D levels as well as TSH and FT4. She eventually improved both clinically and biochemically with a satisfactory outcome. CONCLUSION Vitamin D deficiency may exacerbate the onset and/or development of GD and correction of the deficiency may be able to reverse it. However, further prospective clinical studies will be needed to define the role of vitamin D treatment in GD. PMID:25187748

Alhuzaim, Omar N; Aljohani, Naji

2014-01-01

385

Vitamin C Deficiency Activates the Purine Nucleotide Cycle in Zebrafish*  

PubMed Central

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid, AA) is a cofactor for many important enzymatic reactions and a powerful antioxidant. AA provides protection against oxidative stress by acting as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species, either directly or indirectly by recycling of the lipid-soluble antioxidant, ?-tocopherol (vitamin E). Only a few species, including humans, guinea pigs, and zebrafish, cannot synthesize AA. Using an untargeted metabolomics approach, we examined the effects of ?-tocopherol and AA deficiency on the metabolic profiles of adult zebrafish. We found that AA deficiency, compared with subsequent AA repletion, led to oxidative stress (using malondialdehyde production as an index) and to major increases in the metabolites of the purine nucleotide cycle (PNC): IMP, adenylosuccinate, and AMP. The PNC acts as a temporary purine nucleotide reservoir to keep AMP levels low during times of high ATP utilization or impaired oxidative phosphorylation. The PNC promotes ATP regeneration by converting excess AMP into IMP, thereby driving forward the myokinase reaction (2ADP ? AMP + ATP). On the basis of this finding, we investigated the activity of AMP deaminase, the enzyme that irreversibly deaminates AMP to form IMP. We found a 47% increase in AMP deaminase activity in the AA-deficient zebrafish, complementary to the 44-fold increase in IMP concentration. These results suggest that vitamin C is crucial for the maintenance of cellular energy metabolism. PMID:22170049

Kirkwood, Jay S.; Lebold, Katie M.; Miranda, Cristobal L.; Wright, Charlotte L.; Miller, Galen W.; Tanguay, Robert L.; Barton, Carrie L.; Traber, Maret G.; Stevens, Jan F.

2012-01-01

386

Vitamin C deficiency activates the purine nucleotide cycle in zebrafish.  

PubMed

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid, AA) is a cofactor for many important enzymatic reactions and a powerful antioxidant. AA provides protection against oxidative stress by acting as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species, either directly or indirectly by recycling of the lipid-soluble antioxidant, ?-tocopherol (vitamin E). Only a few species, including humans, guinea pigs, and zebrafish, cannot synthesize AA. Using an untargeted metabolomics approach, we examined the effects of ?-tocopherol and AA deficiency on the metabolic profiles of adult zebrafish. We found that AA deficiency, compared with subsequent AA repletion, led to oxidative stress (using malondialdehyde production as an index) and to major increases in the metabolites of the purine nucleotide cycle (PNC): IMP, adenylosuccinate, and AMP. The PNC acts as a temporary purine nucleotide reservoir to keep AMP levels low during times of high ATP utilization or impaired oxidative phosphorylation. The PNC promotes ATP regeneration by converting excess AMP into IMP, thereby driving forward the myokinase reaction (2ADP ? AMP + ATP). On the basis of this finding, we investigated the activity of AMP deaminase, the enzyme that irreversibly deaminates AMP to form IMP. We found a 47% increase in AMP deaminase activity in the AA-deficient zebrafish, complementary to the 44-fold increase in IMP concentration. These results suggest that vitamin C is crucial for the maintenance of cellular energy metabolism. PMID:22170049

Kirkwood, Jay S; Lebold, Katie M; Miranda, Cristobal L; Wright, Charlotte L; Miller, Galen W; Tanguay, Robert L; Barton, Carrie L; Traber, Maret G; Stevens, Jan F

2012-02-01

387

Laryngeal spasm mimicking asthma and vitamin d deficiency.  

PubMed

We present a woman with heterozygous carnitine palmitoyl transferase 2 (CPT-2) deficiency who in the last 6 months suffered from episodic dyspnea and choking. Symptoms could not be attributed to her muscular energy defect, since heterozygous CPT-2 deficiency is usually asymptomatic or causes only mild muscle fatigability. Myopathy is usually triggered by concurrent factors, either genetic (additional muscle enzymes defects) or acquired (metabolic stress). The patient was referred to our respiratory clinic for suspect bronchial asthma. Spirometry showed mild decrease in inspiratory flows. Methacholine challenge was negative. Dyspnea was triggered by hyperventilation-induced hypocapnia, which produced marked decrease in airflow rates, particularly in inspiratory flows, consistent with laryngospasm. Nutritional assessment of the patient showed low serum level of calcium and vitamin D, attributable to avoidance of milk and dairy products for lactose intolerance and to insufficient sunlight exposure. After calcium and vitamin D supplementation episodic laryngospasm disappeared and hypocapnic hyperventilation test induced very mild change in airflow rates. Calcium and vitamin D deficiency may favour laryngeal spasm mimicking asthma, particularly in subjects with underlying myopathy. PMID:24843804

Masoero, Monica; Bellocchia, Michela; Ciuffreda, Antonio; Ricciardolo, Fabio Lm; Rolla, Giovanni; Bucca, Caterina

2014-05-01

388

Vitamin B?? and unidentified factors in poultry nutrition  

E-print Network

VITAMIN B12 AND UNIDENTIFIED FACTORS II POULTRY NUTRITION A Dissertation by Billy E. Welch Approved as to s>/I^ and content by Chairman of Committee Heafcf of Department May 1954 L I B R A R Y A & M CoLLuCiS OF TEXAS VITAMIN B12..., Pearl River, N. Y ., for supplies of folic acid; Hoffmann-La Roche Inc., Nutley, M. J., for biotin; Merck and Co., Rahway, N. J., for the rest of the B-vitamins; and Buckeye Cotton Oil Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, for soybean oil. To Lou. ?Tj! I"7 r...

Welch, Billy E.

2013-10-04

389

Transcobalamin C776G genotype modifies the association between vitamin B12 and homocysteine in older hispanics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: A common polymorphism, C776G, in the plasma B12 transport protein transcobalamin (TC), encodes for either proline or arginine at codon 259. This polymorphism may affect the affinity of TC for B12 and subsequent delivery of B12 to tissues. Methods: TC genotype and its associations with i...