Sample records for vitamin b 12 deficiency

  1. Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as pyrexia.

    PubMed

    Negi, R C; Kumar, J; Kumar, V; Singh, K; Bharti, V; Gupta, D; Kashyap, R; Raina, S

    2011-06-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is an uncommon cause of pyrexia. We report the case of a patient who presented with pyrexia and anaemia, which after exclusion of infective, inflammatory or endocrine causes was attributed to megaloblastic anaemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency. The patient's fever responded to treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:21751594

  2. How common is vitamin B12 deficiency?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In considering the vitamin B-12 fortification of flour, it is important to know who is at risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency and whether those individuals would benefit from flour fortification.This article reviews current knowledge of the prevalence and causes of vitamin B-12 deficiency and considers ...

  3. Vitamin B12 deficiency: the great masquerader.

    PubMed

    Dobrozsi, Sarah; Flood, Veronica H; Panepinto, Julie; Scott, J Paul; Brandow, Amanda

    2014-04-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is rare in children, with nonspecific symptoms including failure to thrive, vomiting, anorexia, and neurologic changes with or without hematologic disturbances. The neuropathy can be severe and irreversible. We report four cases of children with B12 deficiency secondary to adult type pernicious anemia, a presumed transport protein abnormality, and a metabolic defect. All demonstrated neurologic compromise that improved after initiation of B12 therapy. Hematologic manifestations may be preceded by constitutional, gastrointestinal, or neurologic changes, and must raise concern for B12 deficiency. Therapy should be initiated promptly in this setting to prevent irreversible neuropathy. PMID:24115632

  4. THE DIAGNOSIS OF VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY IN SHEEP: COMPARISON OF SERUM VITAMIN B12 LEVELS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    THE DIAGNOSIS OF VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY IN SHEEP: COMPARISON OF SERUM VITAMIN B12 LEVELS MEASURED Nutritionnelles, INRA, CRZV de Theix, 63122 Ceyrat, France Résumé DIAGNOSTIC DE LA CARENCE EN VITAMINE B12 CHEZ LE MOUTON: COMPARAISON DES TAUX DE VITAMINE B12 SÉRIQUE MESURÉS PAR DES TECHNIQUES MICROBIOLOGIQUES ET DE

  5. Factors affecting formiminoglutamic acid excretion in vitamin B12 deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Marston, Hedley R.; Allen, Shirley H.

    1970-01-01

    1. Formiminoglutamic acid, a product of the catabolism of histidine, is excreted in abnormally large amounts in the urines of vitamin B12-deficient rats and of vitamin B12-deficient sheep; the excretion is reduced to negligible amounts after administration of vitamin B12. 2. After administration of certain methyl donors to vitamin B12-deficient rats or sheep urinary excretion of formiminoglutamic acid is temporarily decreased. 3. Irrespective of the pteroylglutamic acid status of the animals neither vitamin B12-deficient rats nor vitamin B12-deficient sheep have the ability to deal efficiently with histidine. 4. In sheep, urinary excretion of formiminoglutamic acid is increased after administration of aminopterin; treatment with pteroylglutamic acid restores the ability of the animal to deal with the catabolic products of histidine. 5. The possible functions of vitamin B12 and methionine in relieving a virtual deficiency of pteroylglutamic acid are discussed. PMID:5435494

  6. Neuro-regression in vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Sanwar; Nathani, Shweta

    2009-01-01

    Neuroregression in infants has varied aetiology and vitamin B12 deficiency is one of the uncommon causes. Infantile vitamin B12 deficiency is encountered in malnourished infants or in offspring of strict vegan mothers. We present two cases, both infants of 10 and 8 months of age, whose mothers had vitamin B12 deficiency. On admission, the patients were apathic, hypotonic and lethargic. Serum vitamin B12 levels were below normal limits. On cranial MRI, T2-weighted images revealed frontoparietal cortical atrophy. Both the infants responded to vitamin B12 treatment. PMID:21686891

  7. CARDIOVASCULAR LESIONS IN COBALT-VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENT SHEEP

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CARDIOVASCULAR LESIONS IN COBALT-VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENT SHEEP R. MOHAMMED M. LAMAND Laboratoire des LE MOUTON CARENCÉ EN COBALT-VITAMINE B12. ― Des lésions cardiovasculaires ont été observées à l'autopsie chez 5 des 6 moutons soumis à une carence expérimentale en cobalt-vitamine B12 pendant 34

  8. Vitamin B 12 deficiency in untreated celiac disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Dahele; Subrata Ghosh

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:Iron and folate malabsorption are common in untreated celiac disease as the proximal small intestine is predominantly affected. Vitamin B12 deficiency is thought to be uncommon, as the terminal ileum is relatively spared. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with untreated celiac disease.METHODS:Prospective study of 39 consecutive biopsy-proven celiac disease patients (32 women,

  9. Vitamin B12 deficiency in untreated celiac disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Dahele; Subrata Ghosh

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:Iron and folate malabsorption are common in untreated celiac disease as the proximal small intestine is predominantly affected. Vitamin B12 deficiency is thought to be uncommon, as the terminal ileum is relatively spared. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with untreated celiac disease.METHODS:Prospective study of 39 consecutive biopsy-proven celiac disease patients (32 women,

  10. Vitamin B12

    MedlinePLUS

    ... B12, or vitamin B12 with nutrients such as folic acid and other B vitamins, are also available. Check ... developmental milestones, and megaloblastic anemia. Large amounts of folic acid can hide a vitamin B12 deficiency by correcting ...

  11. Involuntary movements due to vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Aaron; Moloi, M W

    2014-12-01

    Deficiency of vitamin B12 produces protean effects on the nervous system, most commonly neuropathy, myelopathy, cognitive and behavioural symptoms, and optic atrophy. Involuntary movements comprise a relatively rare manifestation of this readily treatable disorder. Both adults and infants deficient in vitamin B12 may present with chorea, tremor, myoclonus, Parkinsonism, dystonia, or a combination of these, which may precede diagnosis or become apparent only a few days after parenteral replacement therapy has begun. The pathogenesis of these movement disorders shows interesting parallels to certain neurodegenerative conditions. The clinical syndrome responds well to vitamin B12 supplementation in most cases, and an early diagnosis is essential to reverse the haematological and neurological dysfunction characteristic of this disorder. In this article, we elucidate the association of vitamin B12 deficiency with movement disorders in adults and in infants, discuss the pathogenesis of this association, review previously reported cases, and present a young adult male with severe generalized chorea that showed a salutary response to vitamin B12 supplementation. PMID:24852503

  12. [Neurological signs due to isolated vitamin B12 deficiency].

    PubMed

    Martinez Estrada, K M; Cadabal Rodriguez, T; Miguens Blanco, I; García Méndez, L

    2013-01-01

    Isolated vitamin B12 deficiency is a common condition in elderly patients but uncommon in patients younger than 30 years, with an average age of onset between 60 and 70 years. This is because the dietary cobalamin, which is normally split by enzymes in meat in the presence of hydrochloric acid and pepsin in the stomach, is not released in the stomachs of elderly patients, usually due to achlorhydria. Although the body may be unable to release cobalamin it does retain the ability to absorb vitamin B12 in its crystalline form, which is present in multivitamin preparations. Other causes are due to drugs that suppress gastric acid production. Neurological signs of vitamin B12 deficiency can occur in patients with a normal haematocrit and red cell indices. They include paresthesia, loss of sensation and strength in the limbs, and ataxia. Reflexes may be slowed down or increased. Romberg and Babinsky signs may be positive, and vibration and position sensitivity often decreases. Behavoural disorders range from irritability and memory loss to severe dementia. The symptoms often do not fully respond to treatment. A case is presented of an isolated vitamin B12 deficiency in 27 year-old female patient who was seen in primary health care. During anamnesis she mentioned low back pain, to which she attributed the loss of strength and tenderness in the right side of the body, as well as the slow and progressive onset of accompanied headache for the previous 4 days. PMID:23834987

  13. Glossitis with linear lesions: an early sign of vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Graells, Jordi; Ojeda, Rosa Maria; Muniesa, Cristina; Gonzalez, Jesus; Saavedra, Jose

    2009-03-01

    The classic oral manifestations of vitamin B(12) deficiency are considered nonspecific. We describe 4 patients with oral linear lesions associated with vitamin B(12) deficiency. Patients were free of neurologic symptoms and anemia at diagnosis. We believe that glossitis with linear lesions is an early clinical sign of vitamin B(12) deficiency. We recommend the determination of vitamin B(12) in such patients, even in the absence of anemia. PMID:19231648

  14. Vitamin B12 deficiency: a case report of ongoing cutaneous hyperpigmentation.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Cindy F; Palmer, Debbie M; Papadopoulos, Dimitria

    2003-02-01

    We describe an interesting case of a man with recurrent cutaneous and hematologic manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency. In this deficiency, the skin, central nervous system, blood, and blood-forming tissues are commonly involved. We describe an overview of vitamin B12 deficiency and the successful treatment of a patient's ongoing cutaneous hyperpigmentation. PMID:12635892

  15. Vitamin B-12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia are partly ameliorated by cobalt and nickel supplementation in pigs.

    PubMed

    Stangl, G I; Roth-Maier, D A; Kirchgessner, M

    2000-12-01

    Vitamin B-12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia alter the metabolism of trace elements. This study tested the hypothesis that there is a reverse relationship in which diets high in iron, copper, nickel and cobalt would influence vitamin B-12 deficiency outcomes including hyperhomocysteinemia. Piglets (German Landrace x Pietrain) were assigned to six groups of 8 and fed one of the following diets for 166 d: a vitamin B-12-adequate and folate-fortified diet (30 microg/kg vitamin B-12 and 0.5 mg/kg folate) with normal trace element concentrations or one of five vitamin B-12-free, folate nonsupplemented diets (0.36 mg/kg), with either normal trace element concentrations or high concentrations of iron (300 mg/kg), copper (30 mg/kg), cobalt (1 mg/kg) or nickel (6 mg/kg). Feed intake and weight gain did not differ significantly among the groups. Vitamin B-12-deficient pigs developed diminished serum and liver concentrations of vitamin B-12 and folate, an accumulation of iron in the liver and hyperhomocysteinemia. The magnitude of changes differed among vitamin B-12-deficient groups. Vitamin B-12-deficient pigs fed 6 mg/kg nickel had distinctly higher vitamin B-12 concentrations in liver and serum and 45% lower serum concentration of homocysteine than the corresponding deficiency group fed 1 mg/kg nickel; iron concentration in liver was completely normalized. Vitamin B-12-deficient pigs fed 1 mg/kg cobalt had 47% lower homocysteine concentrations in serum than the vitamin B-12-deficient group fed 0.13 mg/kg cobalt, but the vitamin B-12 status was unaffected. Supplementation of iron and copper did not affect these variables. The dietary manipulations had no detrimental effects on variables symptomatic of oxidative stress. The findings indicate a collaborative relationship between vitamin B-12 metabolism and the trace elements nickel and cobalt. PMID:11110865

  16. Vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly: is it worth screening?

    PubMed

    Wong, C W

    2015-04-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common among the elderly. Elderly people are particularly at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency because of the high prevalence of atrophic gastritis-associated food-cobalamin (vitamin B12) malabsorption, and the increasing prevalence of pernicious anaemia with advancing age. The deficiency most often goes unrecognised because the clinical manifestations are highly variable, often subtle and non-specific, but if left undiagnosed the consequences can be serious. Diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency, however, is not straightforward as laboratory tests have certain limitations. Setting a cut-off level to define serum vitamin B12 deficiency is difficult; though homocysteine and methylmalonic acid are more sensitive for vitamin B12 deficiency, it may give false result in some conditions and the reference intervals are not standardised. At present, there is no consensus or guideline for diagnosis of this deficiency. It is most often based on the clinical symptoms together with laboratory assessment (low serum vitamin B12 level and elevated serum homocysteine or methylmalonic acid level) and the response to treatment to make definitive diagnosis. Treatment and replacement with oral vitamin B12 can be as effective as parenteral administration even in patients with pernicious anaemia. The suggested oral vitamin B12 dose is 1 mg daily for a month, and then maintenance dose of 125 to 250 µg for patients with dietary insufficiency and 1 mg daily for those with pernicious anaemia. Vitamin B12 replacement is safe and without side-effects, but prompt treatment is required to reverse the damage before it becomes extensive or irreversible. At present, there is no recommendation for mass screening for vitamin B12 in the elderly. Nevertheless, the higher prevalence with age, increasing risk of vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly, symptoms being difficult to recognise, and availability of safe treatment options make screening a favourable option. However, the unavailability of reliable diagnostic tool or gold standard test makes screening difficult to carry out. PMID:25756278

  17. Folate–vitamin B-12 interaction in relation to cognitive impairment, anemia, and biochemical indicators of vitamin B-12 deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous reports on pernicious anemia treatment suggested that high folic acid intake adversely influences the natural history of vitamin B-12 deficiency, which affects many elderly individuals. However, experimental investigation of this hypothesis is unethical, and the few existing observational d...

  18. VITAMIN B-12 SUPPLEMENTATION OF DEFICIENT LACTATING GUATEMALAN WOMEN IMPROVES MATERNAL BUT NOT INFANT STATUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin B-12 deficiency is common in mothers and infants where maternal intake of animals source foods is low. The first six months post-partum is a critical period of neurological development requiring vitamin B-12. A pilot study was designed to determine the dose of B-12 to the mothers that would ...

  19. Persistence of neurological damage induced by dietary vitamin B12 deficiency in infancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ursula von Schenck; Christine Bender-Götze; Berthold Koletzko

    1997-01-01

    A case is reported of a 14 month old boy with severe dietary vitamin B-12 deficiency caused by his mother’s vegan diet. Cinical, electroencephalography (EEG), and haematological findings are described. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed severe frontal and frontoparietal cranial atrophy. Vitamin B-12 supplements led to a rapid improvement of haematological and neurological symptoms. Serum vitamin B-12 and urinary

  20. Biologically active vitamin B12 compounds in foods for preventing deficiency among vegetarians and elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Tanioka, Yuri; Bito, Tomohiro

    2013-07-17

    The usual dietary sources of vitamin B12 are animal-source based foods, including meat, milk, eggs, fish, and shellfish, although a few plant-based foods such as certain types of dried lavers (nori) and mushrooms contain substantial and considerable amounts of vitamin B12, respectively. Unexpectedly, detailed characterization of vitamin B12 compounds in foods reveals the presence of various corrinoids that are inactive in humans. The majority of edible blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) and certain edible shellfish predominately contain an inactive corrinoid known as pseudovitamin B12. Various factors affect the bioactivity of vitamin B12 in foods. For example, vitamin B12 is partially degraded and loses its biological activity during cooking and storage of foods. The intrinsic factor-mediated gastrointestinal absorption system in humans has evolved to selectively absorb active vitamin B12 from naturally occurring vitamin B12 compounds, including its degradation products and inactive corrinoids that are present in daily meal foods. The objective of this review is to present up-to-date information on various factors that can affect the bioactivity of vitamin B12 in foods. To prevent vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians and elderly subjects, it is necessary to identify plant-source foods that contain high levels of bioactive vitamin B12 and, in conjunction, to prepare the use of crystalline vitamin B12-fortified foods. PMID:23782218

  1. Detection of Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Older People by Measuring Vitamin B12 or the Active Fraction of Vitamin B12, Holotranscobalamin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Clarke; Paul Sherliker; Harold Hin; Ebba Nexo; Anne Mette Hvas; Joern Schneede; Jacqueline Birks; Per M. Ueland; Kathleen Emmens; John M. Scott; Anne M. Molloy; John Grimley Evans

    2007-01-01

    Background: Impaired vitamin B12 function and de- creased vitamin B12 status have been associated with neurological and cognitive impairment. Current assays analyze total vitamin B12 concentration, only a small percentage of which is metabolically active. Concentra- tions of this active component, carried on holotransco- balamin (holoTC), may be of greater relevance than total vitamin B12. Methods: We compared the utility

  2. Complications of dietary deficiency of Vitamin B12 in young Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Gleeson, M. H.; Graves, P. S.

    1974-01-01

    The occurrence of dietary deficiency of Vitamin B12 is reported in two young caucasian adults. In one case megaloblastic anaemia occurred and in the other optic atrophy. The importance of the dietary history, the significance of folic acid intake and the inter-relationship of Vitamin B12 and cyanide detoxication are discussed. PMID:4469036

  3. Prevalent vitamin B-12 deficiency in twelve-month-old Guatemalan infants is predicted by maternal B-12 deficiency and infant diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marginal (<148 pmol/L) or deficient (148-220 pmol/L) plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations were reported previously in approximately one third of low-income women and children studied in Guatemala. Since vitamin B-12 deficiency can adversely affect infant development and cognitive function, this study ...

  4. Vitamin B-12

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Vitamin B-12 Vitamin B-12 What is vitamin B-12? Vitamin B-12 is an important vitamin that you usually get from your ... meat, eggs, dairy products and special fortified foods. Vitamin B-12 helps make red blood cells and DNA, and ...

  5. Brief report: childhood disintegrative disorder as a likely manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Savita; Subodh, B N; Parakh, Preeti; Lahariya, Sanjay

    2013-09-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder is a rare disorder, characterized by regression of acquired skills after a period of normal development. The case of childhood disintegrative disorder presented here was found to have vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia on extensive evaluation to find a probable cause for regression. This case illustrates the need for a thorough evaluation of all cases of childhood disintegrative disorder so that treatable causes of regression, like vitamin B12 deficiency, are not missed. PMID:23334842

  6. Persistence of neurological damage induced by dietary vitamin B-12 deficiency in infancy.

    PubMed

    von Schenck, U; Bender-Götze, C; Koletzko, B

    1997-08-01

    A case is reported of a 14 month old boy with severe dietary vitamin B-12 deficiency caused by his mother's vegan diet. Clinical, electroencephalography (EEG), and haematological findings are described. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed severe frontal and frontoparietal cranial atrophy. Vitamin B-12 supplements led to a rapid improvement of haematological and neurological symptoms. Serum vitamin B-12 and urinary methylmalonate excretion were normal 10 days after treatment began. After six weeks, EEG was normal and cranial MRI after 10 weeks showed complete disappearance of all structural abnormalities. Cognitive and language development, however, remained seriously retarded at the age of 2 years. It is concluded that infantile vitamin B-12 deficiency induced by maternal vegan diets may cause lasting neurodisability even though vitamin B-12 supplementation leads to rapid resolution of cerebral atrophy and electroencephalographic abnormality. PMID:9301352

  7. Cerebral atrophy in a vitamin B12-deficient infant of a vegetarian mother.

    PubMed

    Kocaoglu, Celebi; Akin, Fatih; Caksen, Hüseyin; Böke, Saltuk Bu?ra; Arslan, Sükrü; Aygün, Serhat

    2014-06-01

    In developed countries, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency usually occurs in children, exclusively breastfed ones whose mothers are vegetarian, causing low body stores of vitamin B12. The haematologic manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anaemia. It is a megaloblastic anaemia with high mean corpuscular volume and typical morphological features, such as hyperlobulation of the nuclei of the granulocytes. In advanced cases, neutropaenia and thrombocytopaenia can occur, simulating aplastic anaemia or leukaemia. In addition to haematological symptoms, infants may experience weakness, fatigue, failure to thrive, and irritability. Other common findings include pallor, glossitis, vomiting, diarrhoea, and icterus. Neurological symptoms may affect the central nervous system and, in severe cases, rarely cause brain atrophy. Here, we report an interesting case, a 12-month old infant, who was admitted with neurological symptoms and diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:25076673

  8. Vitamin B12 deficiency & levels of metabolites in an apparently normal urban south Indian elderly population

    PubMed Central

    Shobha, Vineeta; Tarey, Subhash D.; Singh, Ramya G.; Shetty, Priya; Unni, Uma S.; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Kurpad, Anura V.

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: There is no published literature on the extent of vitamin B12 deficiency in elderly Indians as determined by plasma vitamin B12 levels and methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels. Vitamin B12 deficiency is expected to be higher in elderly Indians due to vegetarianism, varied socio-economic strata and high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection. We therefore, studied the dietary habits of south Indian urban elderly population and measured vitamin B12, MMA red cell folate and homocysteine (Hcy) levels. Methods: Healthy elderly urban subjects (175, >60 yr) were recruited. Detailed history, physical examination and neurological assessment were carried out. Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) for dietary analysis for daily intake of calories, vitamin B12, folate and detailed psychological assessment for cognitive functions was carried out. Blood samples were analyzed for routine haematology and biochemistry, vitamin B12, red cell folate, MMA and Hcy. Results: The mean age of the study population was 66.3 yr. Median values for daily dietary intake of vitamin B12 and folate were 2.4 and 349.2 ?g/day respectively. Sixty two (35%) participants consumed multivitamin supplements. Plasma vitamin B12 level and the dietary intake of vitamin B12 was significantly correlated (P=0.157). Plasma vitamin B12 and Hcy were inversely correlated (P= -0.509). Red cell folate was inversely correlated with Hcy (P= -0.550). Significant negative correlation was observed between plasma vitamin B12 and MMA in the entire study population (P= -0.220). Subjects consuming vitamin supplements (n=62) had significantly higher plasma vitamin B12 levels, lower MMA levels and lower Hcy levels. There was no significant correlation between plasma vitamin B12, MMA, Hcy and red cell folate and any of the 10 cognitive tests including Hindi Mental Status Examination (HMSE). Interpretation & conclusions: Our study is indicative of higher vitamin B12 (2.4 ?g/day) intakes in urban south Indian population. Thirty five per cent of the study population consumed multivitamin supplements and therefore, low plasma vitamin B12 levels were seen only in 16 per cent of the study subjects. However, MMA was elevated in 55 per cent and Hcy in 13 per cent of the subjects. PMID:22089603

  9. Vitamin B12 level

    MedlinePLUS

    The vitamin B12 level is a blood test that measures how much vitamin B12 is in your blood. ... a form of megaloblastic anemia caused by poor vitamin B12 absorption. This can occur when the stomach makes ...

  10. Review of the magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies worldwide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human deficiencies of folate and vitamin B12 result in adverse effects which may be of public health significance, but the magnitude of these deficiencies is unknown. Therefore, we examine the prevalence data currently available, assess global coverage of surveys, determine the frequency with which...

  11. Pigmentation in vitamin B12 deficiency masquerading Addison's pigmentation: A rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Agrawala, Ritesh Kumar; Sahoo, Srikanta Kumar; Choudhury, Arun Kumar; Mohanty, Binoy Kumar; Baliarsinha, Anoj Kumar

    2013-10-01

    A 35-year-female presented with generalized weakness, weight loss, and progressive pigmentation was worked up for suspicion of Addisons disease. On examination hyper pigmentation was noted on both palmar and dorsal aspect of hands involving knuckles, creases, feet, tongue, oral mucosa and gluteal region. There was no evidence of hypocortisolemia as initially suspected, and literature search revealed a possibility of vitamin B12 deficiency. She had megaloblastic anemia with a low serum vitamin B12, mostly due to poor dietary intake. Her hyper pigmentation resolved with vitamin B12 supplementation. Skin biopsy showed increased pigmentation at stratum spinosum and basal-layer. The mechanism of hyper pigmentation in vitamin B12 deficiency was due to an increase in melanin synthesis. PMID:24251178

  12. Vitamin B12

    MedlinePLUS

    ... water-soluble vitamin. Water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water. After the body uses these vitamins, leftover amounts leave the body through the urine. The body can store vitamin B12 for years in the liver.

  13. [Vitamin B 12 deficiency in strict vegetarian diet. Why do some people choose such a diet, and what will they do in case of vitamin B 12 deficiency].

    PubMed

    Johnsen, J B; Fønnebø, V

    1991-01-10

    Nine persons in the county of Troms, Norway, were interviewed on their strict vegetarian diet. Improved health was indicated as the main reason for their choice of diet, but religion was a contributing reason for some. Most of the study persons would increase the intake of vitamin B12 if a deficiency state were to occur. One person reported, however, that she would not regard vitamin B12 deficiency as a health problem. The interviews disclosed beliefs regarding human physiology that are very far removed from standard scientific knowledge. The article indicates that communication between patient and the health care system may be difficult in such circumstances. Problems of communication would probably be minimized if the patient had a thorough understanding of human physiology and the health worker a thorough understanding of the reasons for the patient's choice of diet. PMID:2000592

  14. [Vitamin B(12) deficiency anaemia in a 7.5 months old girl].

    PubMed

    Jarosz, Malgorzata; Irga, Ninela; Wierzba, Jolanta

    2004-01-01

    Vitamin B(12) stores at birth are adequate for infants until the end of the first year of life even if it 's concentration in maternal breast milk is low. However, there are some situations in which infants have depleted vitamin B(12) stores and in addition have a low dietary intake of cobalamin. Vitamin B(12) depletion occurs in infants who are exclusively breastfed by mothers who have unrecognized pernicious anemia or are strict vegetarians for many years. In those infants symptoms of bone marrow disfunction and impaired development of the central nervous system appear already in the first months of life. Unrecognized cobalamin deficiency may lead to serious neurologic consequences, and even to the death of the child. The authors present a case of a 7.5 month old girl admitted to the Department of Paediatrics, Haematology, Oncology and Endocrinology. Gda?sk Medical University suspected of acute leukaemia. Based on a detailed diagnostic procedure a final diagnosis of vitamin B(12) deficiency anaemia was established. The child was exclusively breast-fed. Results of investigations into the reason for cobalamin deficiency in the patient s organism. Led to the diagnosis of pernicious anaemia in the mother. Such a suspicion had been made during pregnancy, but no continuation of investigations nor appropriate treatment were implemented. After treatment with vitamin B(12) supplements and modification of the diet the patient improved quickly and remarkably. A few months follow-up was enough to observe remarkable improvement of psychomotor development of this child. PMID:15738604

  15. Vitamin B12 deficiency with combined hematological and neuropsychiatric derangements: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although vitamin B12 deficiency is a well-known cause of hematological and neuropsychiatric illness, the presentation of combined severe pancytopenia, demyelination and prominent psychiatric impairment is rare. Case presentation We present a case of a previously healthy 55-year-old East African man with severe vitamin B12 deficiency (serum vitamin B12 22pmol/L) secondary to pernicious anemia. He had a severe hypoproliferative megaloblastic anemia with hemolysis (hemoglobin 61g/L, mean corpuscular volume 99fL, reticulocytes 0.8%, haptoglobin undetectable), leukopenia (2.7×109/L), thrombocytopenia (96×109/L), ataxia with central demyelination, and megaloblastic madness. The patient’s anemia, myelopathy and psychiatric condition responded well to parenteral vitamin B12 replacement therapy, with significant improvement seen within weeks. Conclusion Hematological manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency are typically inversely correlated with the presence and severity of neuropsychiatric impairment. Although uncommon, a presentation with severe hematological and neuropsychiatric disease can occur, as illustrated by this case. Its presence may help guide diagnosis as well as provide clinically important prognostic information. PMID:25128288

  16. Vitamin B12 Deficiency: An Important Reversible Co-Morbidity in Neuropsychiatric Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Issac, Thomas Gregor; Soundarya, Soundararajan; Christopher, Rita; Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitamin B12 deficiency is a common condition causing neurologic, cognitive, psychiatric, and mood symptoms. With varied religious, ethnic, and socioeconomic heterogeneity among the people in India greatly influencing their dietary habits and with the high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection, Vitamin B12 deficiency is not uncommon, but is often under recognized due to the lack of classical symptomatic presentation. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study on Vitamin B12 deficiency with neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients who attended neurology, psychiatry, and geriatric OPDs for a period of 1 year in a specialized neuropsychiatric institute in South India. Results: Out of 259 patients who had Vitamin B12 deficiency (<220 pmol/L), 60 had neuropsychiatric symptoms. Among them the Vitamin B12 levels were <150 (severe), 150-200 (moderate), and 201-220 pmol/L (mild) in 19, 24, 17 patients, respectively. Twenty one were diagnosed with Posterior dementias, 20 with frontotemporal dementia, 7 with Schizophrenia, 4 each with Parkinson's disease and alcohol-dependent syndromes (ADS), 3 with bipolar affective disorder, and 1 with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Eight patients also had hypothyroidism. First symptom of presentation was behavioral disturbances in 30 (50%), memory loss in 20 (33.9%), and sensorimotor and movement disorders in 9 (15.3%), and 56.7% were vegetarians while 43.3% were nonvegetarians. In our study, Vitamin B12 deficiency was more prevalent in elderly males (56.67%) and was associated with increased severity of behavioral disturbances (P = 0.043) which was the most common presentation. Memory loss was present in 16 (84.2%) patients of severe Vitamin B12 deficiency. Hindi mental status examination (HMSE) score was graded as <20, 20-24, 24-31 in 37 (61.7%), 10 (16.7%), and 13 (21.7%) patients, respectively. Cognitive decline in Vitamin B12 deficiency was significantly associated with increased serum cholesterol (P = 0.019) and was significantly prevalent in neurological disorders when compared with primary psychiatric illnesses (P = 0.001). Mean folate and mean homocysteine in our study was 11.7 ± 6.44 ng/ml and 17.77 ± 5.45 ?mol/L, respectively. Eighty percent of the population had normal folate levels whereas mean homocysteine values were much higher than that of the western population (10-12 ?mol/L). Conclusion: Vitamin B12 deficiency though common in India is often overlooked. It increases the load of cognitive decline and accentuates vascular risk factors in neuropsychiatric illnesses. Vitamin B12 deficiency also increases homocysteine levels contributing to the vascular comorbidity in cerebro and cardiovascular illnesses. So prevention, early detection, and management of this reversible Vitamin B12 deficiency state is of profound importance. PMID:25722508

  17. West Syndrome in an Infant with Vitamin B[subscript 12] Deficiency in the Absence of Macrocytic Anaemia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erol, Ilknur; Alehan, Fusun; Gumus, Ayten

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin B[subscript 12] deficiency in infants often produces haematological and neurological deficits, including macrocytic anaemia, neurodevelopmental delay or regression, irritability, weakness, hypotonia, ataxia, apathy, tremor, and seizures. The diagnosis of vitamin B[subscript 12] deficiency can be difficult when the typical macrocytic…

  18. Vitamin B12 deficiency in Caenorhabditis elegans results in loss of fertility, extended life cycle, and reduced lifespan?

    PubMed Central

    Bito, Tomohiro; Matsunaga, Yohei; Yabuta, Yukinori; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Fumio

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency has been linked to developmental disorders, metabolic abnormalities, and neuropathy; however, the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. Caenorhabditis elegans grown under B12-deficient conditions for five generations develop severe B12 deficiency associated with various phenotypes that include decreased egg-laying capacity (infertility), prolonged life cycle (growth retardation), and reduced lifespan. These phenotypes resemble the consequences of B12 deficiency in mammals, and can be induced in C. elegans in only 15 days. Thus, C. elegans is a suitable animal model for studying the biological processes induced by vitamin deficiency. PMID:23772381

  19. The prevalence of cobalamin deficiency among vegetarians assessed by serum vitamin B12: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, R; Lester, S E; Babatunde, T

    2014-05-01

    Individuals following vegetarian diets are at risk for developing vitamin B12 deficiency owing to suboptimal intake. As vitamin B12 is essential for the synthesis of nucleic acids, erythrocytes and in the maintenance of myelin, deficiency may result in a variety of symptoms. Some of these symptoms may be severe while others may be irreversible. The objective of this review was to assess vitamin B12 deficiency, based on reported serum vitamin B12, among individuals adhering to different types of vegetarian diets. A systematic literature search was carried out using multiple search engines including PubMed, Medline, CINAHL plus, ERIC, Nursing and Allied Health Collection and Nursing/Academic Edition. The inclusion criteria consisted of original studies that assessed serum vitamin B12, studies written in English, non-case studies and studies that reported actual percentages of vitamin B12 deficiency. Forty research studies were included. The deficiency prevalence among infants reached 45%. The deficiency among the children and adolescents ranged from 0 to 33.3%. Deficiency among pregnant women ranged from 17 to 39%, dependent on the trimester. Adults and elderly individuals had a deficiency range of 0-86.5%. Higher deficiency prevalence was reported in vegans than in other vegetarians. Thus, with few exceptions, the reviewed studies documented relatively high deficiency prevalence among vegetarians. Vegans who do not ingest vitamin B12 supplements were found to be at especially high risk. Vegetarians, especially vegans, should give strong consideration to the use of vitamin B12 supplements to ensure adequate vitamin B12 intake. Vegetarians, regardless of the type of vegetarian diet they adhere to, should be screened for vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:24667752

  20. Brief Report: Childhood Disintegrative Disorder as a Likely Manifestation of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Savita; Subodh, B. N.; Parakh, Preeti; Lahariya, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder is a rare disorder, characterized by regression of acquired skills after a period of normal development. The case of childhood disintegrative disorder presented here was found to have vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia on extensive evaluation to find a probable cause for regression. This case…

  1. Vitamin B12 and vitamin d deficiencies: an unusual cause of Fever, severe hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vikas A; Harbada, Rishit; Sharma, Akhilesh

    2015-01-01

    The array of diagnostic workup for pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) generally revolves in searching for infections, inflammatory/autoimmune, and endocrine etiologies. A differential diagnosis of fever, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia can have etiologies varying from infections like malaria, dengue, cytomegalovirus, Ebstein barr virus, Parvovirus, infective endocarditis, to autoimmune disorder (systemic lupus erythromatosis), vasculitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), autoimmune hemolytic anemia/Evan's syndrome, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuri (PNH), or drugs. Nutritional deficiencies (especially vitamin B12 deficiency) as a cause of fever, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia are very rare and therefore rarely thought of. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency may cause fever and if accompanied by concurrent hyper-homocysteinemia and hypophosphatemia can sometimes lead to severe hemolysis mimicking the above-mentioned conditions. We present a case that highlights vitamin B12 and vitamin D deficiency as an easily treatable cause of PUO, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia, which should be actively looked for and treated before proceeding with more complicated and expensive investigation or starting empiric treatments. PMID:25811010

  2. Vitamin B12 and Vitamin D Deficiencies: An Unusual Cause of Fever, Severe Hemolytic Anemia and Thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Vikas A.; Harbada, Rishit; Sharma, Akhilesh

    2015-01-01

    The array of diagnostic workup for pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) generally revolves in searching for infections, inflammatory/autoimmune, and endocrine etiologies. A differential diagnosis of fever, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia can have etiologies varying from infections like malaria, dengue, cytomegalovirus, Ebstein barr virus, Parvovirus, infective endocarditis, to autoimmune disorder (systemic lupus erythromatosis), vasculitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), autoimmune hemolytic anemia/Evan's syndrome, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuri (PNH), or drugs. Nutritional deficiencies (especially vitamin B12 deficiency) as a cause of fever, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia are very rare and therefore rarely thought of. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency may cause fever and if accompanied by concurrent hyper-homocysteinemia and hypophosphatemia can sometimes lead to severe hemolysis mimicking the above-mentioned conditions. We present a case that highlights vitamin B12 and vitamin D deficiency as an easily treatable cause of PUO, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia, which should be actively looked for and treated before proceeding with more complicated and expensive investigation or starting empiric treatments. PMID:25811010

  3. A Study of the Prevalence of Serum Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Deficiency in Western Maharashtra

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Sanket K.; Aundhakar, Swati C.

    2015-01-01

    Context: This study summarizes the prevalence of vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency in the population coming to tertiary care center in Western Maharashtra along with the main presenting symptom routinely misinterpreted in daily practice. Aims and Objectives: 1. To study the prevalence of vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency in the population of western Maharashtra. 2. To correlate the symptoms with serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. Materials and Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional observation study carried out on patients from western Maharashtra seeking medical attention on outpatient and inpatient basis in the medicine department of a teaching institute in Karad. One-hundred patients were selected on basis of below mentioned symptoms viz. tingling and numbness in extremities, dizziness, unsteady gait, early tiredness, forgetfulness, proximal weakness, distal weakness, chronic headache, less interest in work, chronic loose stools, strict vegetarians, alcoholics, intake of medications like anti-tubercular treatment, surgery involving terminal ileum. Serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels of these patients were observed. Deficiency of vitamin B12 and folic acid was studied in 4 groups: (a) Absolute vitamin B12 deficiency; (b) Absolute folic acid deficiency; (c) Borderline vitamin B12 deficiency; (d) Combined vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency. Results: Of the 100 cases, 33% patients were vegetarian. Folic acid deficiency formed the major chunk of deficiency group. Six percent patients had neuropsychiatric manifestations. Depressive illness in 1% patients, dementia in 0% patients, forgetfulness in 1% patients, mania/hallucination in 0% patients each, and chronic headache in 1% patients. Neuropathy in form of loss of reflexes, decreased touch sensation was present in 9% patients. Posterior column involvement viz. Loss of joint position, vibration, positive Romberg's sign were present in 34% patients of vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency. Conclusion: In a small study, it was found that megaloblastic anemia may have symptoms and signs referable to several systems including hematology, dermatology, gastrointestinal, neurology, and neuropsychiatry. PMID:25810991

  4. A review of the cut-off points for the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency in the general population.

    PubMed

    Aparicio-Ugarriza, Raquel; Palacios, Gonzalo; Alder, Monika; González-Gross, Marcela

    2015-07-01

    Vitamin B12 deficit is one of the most common vitamin deficiencies. However, there is no consensus on the cut-off points for vitamin B12 and its co-markers, such as folate, holotranscobalamin, methylmalonic acid and homocysteine. In order to establish the state of the art about cut-off points used to determine vitamin B12 deficiency in the last decades, the database MEDLINE was used for searching studies published in adults between December 1992 and May 2014 (69 articles), using search terms like 'vitamin B12', 'cobalamin', 'cut-off', 'deficiency' alone or in combinations. Broad ranges of cut-off points for vitamin B12 and its biomarkers were identified: vitamin B12 ranged between 100 pmol/L and 350 pmol/L, holotranscobalamin 20-50 pmol/L, methylmalonic acid 0.210-0.470 ?mol/L, homocysteine 10-21.6 ?mol/L, serum folate 3.7-15.9 nmol/L and red blood cell 124-397 nmol/L. For the majority of studies, the potential influence of age, analytical methods, gender and fortified food consumption was not taken in account when choosing cut-off values. This could explain the discrepancies between studies on vitamin B12 and folate deficiency prevalences. We conclude that there is inconsistency in the literature regarding vitamin B12 cut-offs. It would be necessary to establish different reference cut-offs according to age, considering the analytical methods used. PMID:25470607

  5. How I treat cobalamin (vitamin B12) deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The challenges in medical management of cobalamin deficiency lie in attention to the unique pathophysiology that underlies cobalamin deficiency, more than in the mechanics of therapy. The central physiologic principles are that clinically important deficiency is more likely to occur (and progress) when intrinsic factor–driven absorption fails than when diet is poor and that most causes take years to produce clinically obvious deficiency. Transient defects have little clinical impact. The key management principle is the importance of follow-up, which also requires knowing how the deficiency arose. The virtues of these principles are not always fully appreciated. Recent developments have made diagnosis and management more difficult by diminishing the ability to determine cobalamin absorption status. Clinicians must also grapple with premature medicalization of isolated, mild biochemical changes that added many asymptomatic cases of still undetermined medical relevance to their caseload, often expanded by inflated cobalamin level criteria. The potential for misattribution of cobalamin-unrelated presentations to nongermane cobalamin and metabolite abnormalities has grown. Pathophysiologically based management requires systematic attention to each of its individual components: correctly diagnosing cobalamin deficiency, reversing it, defining its underlying cause, preventing relapse, managing the underlying disorder and its complications, and educating the patient. PMID:18606874

  6. Recreational nitrous oxide abuse-induced vitamin B12 deficiency in a patient presenting with hyperpigmentation of the skin.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Tsung-Ta; Hung, Chih-Tsung; Wang, Wei-Ming; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Yang, Fu-Chi

    2013-05-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency causes skin hyperpigmentation, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, and megaloblastic anemia. Although vitamin B12 deficiency rarely occurs in well-nourished, healthy, young people, nitrous oxide (N2O) intoxication is an important cause of vitamin B12 deficiency in this cohort. N2O, a colorless gas used as an anesthetic since the late 19th century because of its euphoric and analgesic qualities, is now used as a recreational drug and is available via the Internet and at clubs. Here, we describe the case of a 29-year-old woman presenting with skin hyperpigmentation as her only initial symptom after N2O abuse for approximately 2 years. N2O intoxication-induced vitamin B12 deficiency was diagnosed based on the skin pigmentation that had manifested over the dorsa of her fingers, toes, and trunk, coupled with myeloneuropathy of the posterior and lateral columns, a low serum vitamin B12 level, an elevated serum homocysteine level, and the N2O exposure revealed while establishing the patient's history. Symptoms improved significantly with vitamin B12 treatment. We recommend that dermatologists consider N2O intoxication-induced vitamin B12 deficiency as a potential cause of skin hyperpigmentation and myeloneuropathy of the posterior and lateral columns in young, otherwise healthy patients. Failure to recognize this presentation may result in inappropriate treatment, thus affecting patients' clinical outcomes. PMID:23898268

  7. A child with vitamin B12 deficiency presenting with pancytopenia and hyperpigmentation.

    PubMed

    Sim?ek, Ozlem Pelin; Gönç, Nazli; Gümrük, Fatma; Cetin, Mualla

    2004-12-01

    The authors describe a 16-month-old infant presenting with neurologic developmental regression, severe pancytopenia, excessive skin pigmentation, and tremor resulting from nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency. She had been exclusively breast-fed and had refused to take any other food. Laboratory studies showed severe pancytopenia, a decrease in serum B12 levels, and an increase in urinary methylmalonic acid levels. Bone marrow aspiration was compatible with megaloblastic changes. Schilling test was normal. The serum B12 level of the mother was also low. Megaloblastic anemia resulting from inadequate B12 intake was diagnosed. Parenteral B12 therapy was initiated. The neurologic picture did not completely resolve, but pancytopenia, tremor, and hyperpigmentation of the extremities recovered completely. PMID:15591907

  8. Vitamin B-12

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin B-12 is a cofactor for 2 enzymes. In the cytoplasm, methionine synthase requires vitamin B-12 in the form of methylcobalamin and catalyzes the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate.This enzyme links the methylation pathway through ...

  9. Bioavailability of vitamin B12

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in people of all ages who consume a low intake of animal-source foods, including populations in developing countries. It is also prevalent among the elderly, even in wealthier countries, due to their malabsorption of B12 from food. Several methods have been applied t...

  10. The role of metformin on vitamin B12 deficiency: a meta-analysis review.

    PubMed

    Niafar, Mitra; Hai, Faizi; Porhomayon, Jahan; Nader, Nader Djalal

    2015-02-01

    Metformin is the only biguanide oral hypoglycemic drug, that is used to treat patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. There are some reports of metformin being associated with decreased serum levels of vitamin B12 (VB12). The objective of this study is to systematically analyze the impact of metformin on the frequency of VB12 deficiency and serum levels of VB12. A search of various databases provided 18 retrospective cohort studies and 11 randomized controlled trials. Pooled estimates of odds ratio with 95% confidence interval using random effect model were conducted. Studies were examined for heterogeneity, publication bias and sensitivity analysis. Separate analysis of randomized control trials (RCTs) including both low-risk and high-risk bias was also conducted. 29 studies were selected with a total of 8,089 patients. 19 studies were rated intermediate or high quality. Primary outcome suggested increased incidence of VB12 deficiency in metformin group (OR = 2.45, 95% CI 1.74-3.44, P < 0.0001.) Heterogeneity was relatively high (I(2) = 53%), with minor publication bias. Secondary outcome suggested lower serum VB12 concentrations in metformin group (Mean difference = -65.8, 95% CI -78.1 to -53.6 pmol/L, P < 0.00001) with high heterogeneity (I(2) = 98%,) and low publication bias. RCTs analysis of low-and high-risk group revealed similar trends. We conclude that metformin treatment is significantly associated with an increase in incidence of VB12 deficiency and reduced serum VB12 levels. PMID:25502588

  11. Vitamin B12 and Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background More than 2.9 million serum vitamin B12 tests were performed in 2010 in Ontario at a cost of $40 million. Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with a few neurocognitive disorders. Objective To determine the clinical utility of B12 testing in patients with suspected dementia or cognitive decline. Methods Three questions were addressed: Is there an association between vitamin B12 deficiency and the onset of dementia or cognitive decline? Does treatment with vitamin B12 supplementation improve cognitive function in patients with dementia or cognitive decline and vitamin B12 deficiency? What is the effectiveness of oral versus parenteral vitamin B12 supplementation in those with confirmed vitamin B12 deficiency? A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Embase, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database, from January 2002 until August 2012. Results Eighteen studies (7 systematic reviews and 11 observational studies) were identified to address the question of the association between B12 and the onset of dementia. Four systematic reviews were identified to address the question of the treatment of B12 on cognitive function. Finally, 3 randomized controlled trials were identified that compared oral B12 to intramuscular B12. Conclusions Based on very low quality evidence, there does appear to be an association between elevated plasma homocysteine levels (a by-product of B vitamins) and the onset of dementia. Based on moderate quality evidence, but with less than optimal duration of follow-up, treatment with B12 supplementation does not appreciably change cognitive function. Based on low to moderate quality of evidence, treatment with vitamin B12 and folate in patients with mild cognitive impairment seems to slow the rate of brain atrophy. Based on moderate quality evidence, oral vitamin B12 is as effective as parenteral vitamin B12 in patients with confirmed B12 deficiency. Plain Language Summary Low levels of vitamin B12 have been associated with neurocognitive disorders. This evidence-based analysis assessed the usefulness of serum vitamin B12 testing as it relates to brain function. This review found very low quality evidence that suggests a connection between high plasma homocysteine levels (a by-product of B vitamin metabolism in the body) and the onset of dementia. Moderate quality of evidence indicates treatment with vitamin B12 does not improve brain function. Moderate quality of evidence also indicates treatment using oral vitamin B12 supplements is as effective as injections of vitamin B12. PMID:24379897

  12. Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Elevated Folate Levels: An Unusual Cause of Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure.

    PubMed

    Singh Lubana, Sandeep; Alfishawy, Mostafa; Singh, Navdeep; Atkinson, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Vitamin B12 deficiency leads to abnormal myelination or demyelination, resulting in sub-acute combined degeneration, peripheral neuropathy, and psychiatric problems, including delusions, hallucinations, cognitive changes, depression, and dementia. Vitamin B12 deficiency also leads to brain shrinkage and neurodegenerative disorders. CASE REPORT We report the case of a 49-year-old man presenting with new-onset seizures one and a half years following subtotal gastrectomy due to stage IV gastric adenocarcinoma. The patient did not have any history of head injury. Laboratory tests were negative for any metabolic derangements. There were no signs of infection. MRI brain and EEG were normal and there were no changes in medications. CONCLUSIONS In case of unexplained new-onset seizures, patients should be tested for vitamin B12 and folic acid levels and these should be done as part of the initial work-up. PMID:26101427

  13. What should I know before ordering a bone marrow aspiration/biopsy in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency?

    PubMed Central

    Randhawa, Jaskirat; Ondrejka, Sarah L; Setrakian, Sebouh; Taylor, Harris

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is a well recognised cause of macrocytic anaemia and bone marrow failure. Bone marrow aspiration/biopsy is infrequently indicated for the diagnosis in this setting. However, if a bone marrow aspiration/biopsy is performed, it is important to recognise that it may show dysplastic changes mimicking myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute leukaemia. We report a case of a 66-year-old non-vegetarian man presenting with generalised weakness for 1?month and misdiagnosed on bone marrow biopsy as MDS. However, laboratory investigations revealed severe deficiency of vitamin B12. Four weeks after starting vitamin B12 replacement the patient's complete blood counts reverted to normal. PMID:23839610

  14. Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids during gestation and lactation to a vitamin B12-deficient or -supplemented diet improves pregnancy outcome and metabolic variables in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Kemse, Nisha; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2015-01-01

    Maternal vitamin B12 deficiency leads to an adverse pregnancy outcome and increases the risk for developing diabetes and metabolic syndrome in mothers in later life. Our earlier studies have demonstrated that vitamin B12 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are interlinked in the one carbon cycle. The present study for the first time examines the effect of maternal n-3 PUFA supplementation to vitamin B12 deficient or supplemented diets on pregnancy outcome, fatty-acid status and metabolic variables in Wistar rats. Pregnant dams were assigned to one of the following groups: control, vitamin B12 deficient, vitamin B12 supplemented, vitamin B12 deficient + n-3 PUFA or vitamin B12 supplemented + n-3 PUFA. The amount of vitamin B12 in the supplemented group was 0.50 ?g kg(-1) diet and n-3 PUFA was alpha linolenic acid (ALA) 1.68, eicosapentaenoic acid 5.64, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 3.15 (g per 100g fatty acids per kg diet). Our findings indicate that maternal vitamin B12 supplementation did not affect the weight gain of dams during pregnancy but reduced litter size and weight and was ameliorated by n-3 PUFA supplementation. Vitamin B12 deficiency or supplementation resulted in a low percentage distribution of plasma arachidonic acid and DHA. n-3 PUFA supplementation to these diets improved the fatty-acid status. Vitamin B12 deficiency resulted in higher homocysteine and insulin levels, which were normalised by supplementation with either vitamin B12 or n-3 PUFA. Our study suggests that maternal vitamin B12 status is critical in determining pregnancy outcome and metabolic variables in dams and that supplementation with n-3 PUFA is beneficial. PMID:24355403

  15. Isotope-dilution assay for urinary methylmalonic acid in the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency. A prospective clinical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Matchar, D.B.; Feussner, J.R.; Millington, D.S.; Wilkinson, R.H. Jr.; Watson, D.J.; Gale, D.

    1987-05-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is a frequently considered diagnosis for which there is no single, commonly available and accurate test. A urinary methylmalonic acid assay using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been proposed as the preferred test. We reviewed vitamin B12 assays on 1599 consecutive patients and prospectively studied all patients with low serum B12 levels (n = 75) and a random sample of patients with normal levels (n = 68). Of 96 evaluable patients, 7 had clinical deficiency. All 7 deficient patients had urinary methylmalonic acid levels greater than 5 micrograms/mg creatine (sensitivity, 100%; confidence interval, 65% to 100%). Of the 89 patients who were not clinically deficient, 88 had urinary methylmalonic acid levels less than or equal to 5 micrograms/mg creatinine (specificity, 99%). The overall test accuracy in this population was 99%. If the high sensitivity and specificity of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay for urinary methylmalonic acid is supported by other clinical studies, the methylmalonic acid assay may become the reference standard for the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency.

  16. A NEW 13C BREATH TEST TO DETECT VITAMIN B-12 DEFICIENCY: A PREVALENT AND POORLY DIAGNOSED HEALTH PROBLEM

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, David A.; Schatz, Richard; Coston, Richard; Curington, Cheryl; Bolt, Daniel; Toskes, Phillip P.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is emerging as a growing public health problem. The most commonly used diagnostic tests are limited in accuracy, sensitivity, and are non-specific for B12 deficiency. The aim of this study was to develop a simple B12 Breath Test (BBT) to more accurately evaluate vitamin B12 status as an alternative to the most common diagnostic test, serum B12 levels. The breath test is based on the metabolism of sodium 1-13C-propionate to 13CO2 which requires B12 as a cofactor. We initially compared the BBT to current B12 diagnostic methods in 58 subjects. Subjects also received a second BBT 1–3 days after initial testing to evaluate reproducibility of results. Propionate dosage, fasting times, and collection periods were compared respectively. The dose of sodium 1-13C-propionate (10 to 50 mg) gave equivalent results while an 8 hour fast was essential. Statistical analysis revealed that breath collection times could be reduced to just a baseline and 10 and 20 minutes following propionate dosing. We also measured the incidence of B12 deficiency with the BBT in 119 patients with chronic pancreatitis, Crohn’s disease, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and subjects over 65 years of age. The BBT results agreed with previous publications showing a higher incidence of B12 deficiency in these patients. The BBT may provide clinicians with a non-invasive, accurate, reliable, and reproducible diagnostic test to detect vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:21697586

  17. Homocysteine and vitamin B12 status and iron deficiency anemia in female university students from Gaza Strip, Palestine

    PubMed Central

    Sirdah, Mahmoud Mohammed; Yassin, Maged M.; El Shekhi, Sabreen; Lubbad, Abdel Monem

    2014-01-01

    Objective Nutritional deficiencies are very significant to the overall health of humans at all ages and for both genders, yet in infants, children and women of childbearing age these deficiencies can seriously affect growth and development. The present work is aimed to assess homocysteine and vitamin B12 status in females with iron deficiency anemia from the Gaza Strip. Methods Venous blood samples were randomly collected from 240 female university students (18–22 years old) and parameters of the complete blood count, serum ferritin, homocysteine and vitamin B12 were measured. Statistical analysis included the t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the IBM SPSS software (version 18). Statistical significance was set for p-values <0.05. Results The results revealed that 20.4% of the students have iron deficiency anemia. The mean serum vitamin B12 level in females with iron deficiency anemia (212.9 ± 62.8 pg/mL) was significantly lower than in normal controls (286.9 ± 57.1 pg/mL) and subjects with microcytic anemia and normal ferritin (256.7 ± 71.1 pg/mL). Significantly higher serum homocysteine levels were reported in the iron deficiency anemia group (27.0 ± 4.6 ?mol/L) compared to normal controls (15.5 ± 2.9 ?mol/L) and in subjects with microcytic anemia and normal ferritin (18.1 ± 2.7 ?mol/L). Statistically significant negative correlations were reported for serum homocysteine with serum ferritin, vitamin B12, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels. Conclusion Important associations were found between serum homocysteine and markers of iron deficiency. Monitoring homocysteine levels might be essential to understand the development of different clinical conditions including anemia. It seems necessary to conduct prospective trials to determine whether treating anemia ameliorates homocysteine levels. PMID:25031061

  18. Atypical B12 deficiency with nonresolving paraesthesia.

    PubMed

    Haider, S; Ahmad, N; Anaissie, E J; Abdel Karim, N

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency can present with various hematological, gastrointestinal and neurological manifestations. We report a case of elderly female who presented with neuropathy and vitamin B12 deficiency where the final work-up revealed polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes (POEMS). This case suggests that, although POEMS syndrome is a rare entity, it can present with vitamin-B12 deficiency and thus specific work up for early diagnosis of POEMS should be considered in patients with B12 deficiency unresponsive to therapy. PMID:24349810

  19. Atypical B12 Deficiency with Nonresolving Paraesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Haider, S.; Ahmad, N.; Anaissie, E. J.; Abdel Karim, N.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency can present with various hematological, gastrointestinal and neurological manifestations. We report a case of elderly female who presented with neuropathy and vitamin B12 deficiency where the final work-up revealed polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes (POEMS). This case suggests that, although POEMS syndrome is a rare entity, it can present with vitamin-B12 deficiency and thus specific work up for early diagnosis of POEMS should be considered in patients with B12 deficiency unresponsive to therapy. PMID:24349810

  20. Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Elevated Folate Levels: An Unusual Cause of Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure

    PubMed Central

    Lubana, Sandeep Singh; Alfishawy, Mostafa; Singh, Navdeep; Atkinson, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 49 Final Diagnosis: Generalized tonic-clonic seizures in the setting of vitamin B12 deficiency and elevated folate levels Symptoms: Seizures Medication: — Clinical Procedure: None Specialty: Neurology Objective: Unknown ethiology Background: Vitamin B12 deficiency leads to abnormal myelination or demyelination, resulting in sub-acute combined degeneration, peripheral neuropathy, and psychiatric problems, including delusions, hallucinations, cognitive changes, depression, and dementia. Vitamin B12 deficiency also leads to brain shrinkage and neurodegenerative disorders. Case Report: We report the case of a 49-year-old man presenting with new-onset seizures one and a half years following subtotal gastrectomy due to stage IV gastric adenocarcinoma. The patient did not have any history of head injury. Laboratory tests were negative for any metabolic derangements. There were no signs of infection. MRI brain and EEG were normal and there were no changes in medications. Conclusions: In case of unexplained new-onset seizures, patients should be tested for vitamin B12 and folic acid levels and these should be done as part of the initial work-up. PMID:26101427

  1. Mood disorder with mixed, psychotic features due to vitamin b12 deficiency in an adolescent: case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is one of the essential vitamins affecting various systems of the body. Reports of psychiatric disorders due to its deficiency mostly focus on middle aged and elderly patients. Here we report a case of vitamin B 12 deficiency in a 16-year old, male adolescent who presented with mixed mood disorder symptoms with psychotic features. Chief complaints were “irritability, regressive behavior, apathy, crying and truancy” which lasted for a year. Premorbid personality was unremarkable with no substance use/exposure or infections. No stressors were present. The patient was not vegetarian. Past medical history and family history was normal. Neurological examination revealed glossitis, ataxia, rigidity in both shoulders, cog-wheel rigidity in the left elbow, bilateral problems of coordination in cerebellar examination, reduced swinging of the arms and masked face. Romberg’s sign was present. Laboratory evaluations were normal. Endoscopy and biopsy revealed atrophy of the gastric mucosa with Helicobacter Pylori colonization. Schilling test was suggestive of malabsorbtion. He was diagnosed with Mood disorder with Mixed, Psychotic Features due to Vitamin B12 Deficiency and risperidone 0.5?mg/day and intramuscular vitamin B12 500 mcg/day were started along with referral for treatment of Helicobacter pylori. A visit on the second week revealed no psychotic features. Romberg’s sign was negative and cerebellar tests were normal. Extrapyramidal symptoms were reduced while Vitamin B12 levels were elevated. Risperidone was stopped and parenteral Vitamin B12 treatment was continued with monthly injections for 3?months. Follow-up endoscopy and biopsy at the first month demonstrated eradication of H. pylori. He was followed monthly for another 6?months and psychiatric symptoms did not recur at the time of last evaluation. Despite limitations, this case may underline the observation that mood disorders with psychotic features especially with accompanying extrapyramidal symptoms lacking a clear etiology may be rare manifestation of vitamin B12 and/or folate deficiency in children and adolescents and be potentially amenable to treatment. PMID:22726236

  2. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in a 15-year-old boy: presentation with haemolysis and pancytopenia.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Ebru Y?lmaz; Keskin, Mahmut

    2015-01-01

    A 15-year-old boy on a vegetarian diet presented with severe macrocytic anaemia (haemoglobin, 5.1?g/dL; mean corpuscular volume, 116?fL) in addition to leucopenia and thrombocytopaenia (pancytopenia), icterus secondary to haemolysis and splenomegaly. Laboratory investigations revealed severe vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency. Following cobalamin replacement therapy, the patient reported increased well-being, including appetite and weight gain, and his icterus resolved. In the follow-up laboratory examinations, leucocyte and platelet counts in addition to serum bilirubin and lactate dehydrogenase levels normalised. At the end of 2?months, laboratory findings, including haemoglobin level, were all within the normal range. We present this case as a reminder that severe vitamin B12 deficiency may present with findings mimicking acute leukaemia (pancytopenia and splenomegaly) and findings suggestive of pseudothrombotic microangiopathy. PMID:25976204

  3. Response to Quinlivan: Post-fortification, folate intake in vitamin B12 deficiency is positively related to homocysteine and methylmalonic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With cross-sectional data, causes and effects are difficult to distinguish, and Quinlivan suggests that high circulating concentrations of homcysteine (Hcy), methylmalonic acid (MMA), and folate observed among vitamin B12-deficient survey participants all resulted from a lack of vitamin B12 (1). How...

  4. Increased Plasma Methylmalonic Acid Level Does Not Predict Clinical Manifestations of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Mette Hvas; Jørgen Ellegaard; Ebba Nexø

    2001-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of vitamin B12 defi- ciency, defined as an elevated concentration of plasma methylmalonic acid (P-MMA), has been estimated to be 15% to 44% in the elderly. However, we do not know whether an increased P-MMA level actually indicates or predicts a clinical condition in need of treatment. Participants and Methods: In a follow-up study, 432 individuals not

  5. Vitamin B12 deficiency neurological syndromes: correlation of clinical, MRI and cognitive evoked potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kalita; U. K. Misra

    2008-01-01

    Objective\\u000a   To evaluate cognitive function in B12 deficiency neurological syndromes and response to B12 therapy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods\\u000a   Patients were diagnosed on the basis of low serum B12 or megaloblastic bone marrow or both. Detailed neurological examination\\u000a was performed and mental status was evaluated by the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Hemoglobin, RBC indices, blood\\u000a counts, serum chemistry, HIV, thyroid profile, antiparietal

  6. Maternal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to a vitamin B12 deficient diet normalizes angiogenic markers in the pup brain at birth.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Richa S; Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids are critical for normal brain development and function and their deficiencies during pregnancy could have adverse effects on cognitive performance in children. Our earlier studies indicate that both maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids influence brain development by regulating the levels of neurotrophins. Literature suggests that there exists a cross talk between neurotrophins like nerve growth factor (NGF) and angiogenic factors like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). It remains to be established whether maternal nutrients like vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids influence the levels of angiogenic markers like VEGF and NGF in the brain of the offspring. Therefore the present study examines the effect of maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids on protein and mRNA levels of VEGF, HIF-1 alpha (hypoxia inducible factor alpha) and NGF in the pup brain at birth. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided into five dietary groups (n=8 each): control, vitamin B12 deficient, vitamin B12 deficient+omega-3 fatty acid, vitamin B12 supplemented, vitamin B12 supplemented+omega-3 fatty acid. At birth the pups were dissected to collect the brain tissue. Maternal vitamin B12 deficiency showed lower (p<0.05) pup brain mRNA and protein levels (p<0.01) of VEGF, higher (p<0.01) HIF-1 alpha protein levels, lower (p<0.05) NGF protein levels while NGF mRNA levels were not altered. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to a vitamin B12 deficient group normalized the VEGF mRNA levels, NGF protein levels and HIF-1 alpha protein levels. Vitamin B12 supplementation showed similar protein and mRNA levels of VEGF and NGF as well as HIF-1 alpha protein levels as compared to control. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to the vitamin B12 supplemented group showed higher (p<0.01) protein and mRNA levels of NGF but the protein and mRNA levels of VEGF were comparable to control. In conclusion maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids both influence the levels and expression of neurotrophins and angiogenic factors in the offspring brain suggesting a possible benefit of combined maternal supplementation of these vital nutrients. PMID:25889224

  7. Multiple vascular abnormalities and a paradoxical combination of vitamin B12 deficiency and thrombocytosis in a case with POEMS syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lewerenz, J; Gocht, A; Hoeger, P H; von den Driesch, P; Eckert, B; Lamszus, K; Stuerenburg, H-J; Methner, A

    2003-12-01

    POEMS/Crow-Fukase syndrome is a rare multisystem disorder associated with elevated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which clinically presents with polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein, and skin changes. We report a case of POEMS syndrome due to a gammopathy of undetermined significance with thrombocytosis, vitamin B(12) deficiency, highly elevated VEGF and in addition to glomeruloid angiomas two previously undescribed proliferative vascular lesions: a spinal arteriovenous fistula and a plexogenic pulmonary arteriopathy, which ultimately resulted in lethal pulmonary hypertension. We assume that the high VEGF levels caused the vascular abnormalities observed in our patient. PMID:14673584

  8. Long term treatment with metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes and risk of vitamin B12 deficiency: randomised placebo controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jolien de Jager; Adriaan Kooy; Philippe Lehert; Michiel G Wulffelé; Jan van der Kolk; Daniël Bets; Joop Verburg; Ab J M Donker; Coen D A Stehouwer

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To study the effects of metformin on the incidence of vitamin B-12 deficiency (<150 pmol\\/l), low concentrations of vitamin B-12 (150-220 pmol\\/l), and folate and homocysteine concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving treatment with insulin.Design Multicentre randomised placebo controlled trial.Setting Outpatient clinics of three non-academic hospitals in the Netherlands.Participants 390 patients with type 2 diabetes receiving treatment

  9. The transcobalamin receptor knockout mouse: a model for vitamin B12 deficiency in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Shao-Chiang; Nakayama, Yasumi; Sequeira, Jeffrey M.; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan J.; Cabrera, Robert M.; Finnell, Richard H.; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Quadros, Edward V.

    2013-01-01

    The membrane receptor (TCblR/CD320) for transcobalamin (TC)-bound cobalamin (Cbl) facilitates the cellular uptake of Cbl. A genetically modified mouse model involving ablation of the CD320 gene was generated to study the effects on cobalamin homeostasis. The nonlethal nature of this knockout and the lack of systemic cobalamin deficiency point to other mechanisms for cellular Cbl uptake in the mouse. However, severe cobalamin depletion in the central nervous system (CNS) after birth (P<0.01) indicates that TCblR is the only receptor responsible for Cbl uptake in the CNS. Metabolic Cbl deficiency in the brain was evident from the increased methylmalonic acid (P<0.01–0.04), homocysteine (P<0.01), cystathionine (P<0.01), and the decreased S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosyl homocysteine ratio (P<0.01). The CNS pathology of Cbl deficiency seen in humans may not manifest in this mouse model; however, it does provide a model with which to evaluate metabolic pathways and genes affected.—Lai, S.-C., Nakayama, Y., Sequeira, J. M., Wlodarczyk, B. J., Cabrera, R. M., Finnell, R. H., Bottiglieri, T., Quadros, E. V. The transcobalamin receptor knockout mouse: a model for vitamin B12 deficiency in the central nervous system. PMID:23430977

  10. Cobalamin (Vitamin B_(12)) Deficiency in the Chinese Shar Pei – Evaluation of a Potential Hereditary Etiology 

    E-print Network

    Grü tzner, Niels

    2013-12-11

    predisposition for cobalamin deficiency has been described for Shar Peis in North America (Bishop et al., 2012). In the United Kingdom, cobalamin deficiency has been described for the Shar 22 Pei, Staffordshire Bull Terrier, as well as a group of mixed... Dog (German et al., 2000b), Irish Setter (Batt, 1985; Garden et al., 2000), and Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier (Littman et al., 2000). A comparison with data from the American Kennel Club (AKC), which shows the number of dogs of various breeds...

  11. Deficiency or dementia? Exploring B12 deficiency after urostomy.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Michelle; Bryan, Sandra; Dukes, Suzie

    2015-06-11

    Vitamin B12 deficiency can be misdiagnosed as a variety of other illnesses, and if left untreated can lead to irreversible damage to the brain and nervous system. This article discusses the case of a 70-year-old female with a urostomy, well known to the stoma care department, who shortly after a routine parastomal hernia repair developed severe confusion, immobility and was unable to communicate. Subsequent investigations ruled out a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) and a diagnosis of rapidly progressing vascular dementia was made. An incidental finding of a low vitamin B12 level was identified and treatment commenced. She was transferred to a community hospital and her family were told to 'prepare for the worst'. It was, in fact, the vitamin B12 deficiency that was causing her symptoms of vascular dementia, and once treatment was established she underwent a 'miraculous' improvement, returning to normal life. This article discusses vitamin B12 deficiency and why patients with a urostomy are at risk of developing it; highlights the key role of the stoma care nurse and his or her knowledge of the patient; explores the importance of testing vitamin B12 levels in this group of patients; and discusses key learning and recommendations for practice. PMID:26067796

  12. Cobalamin and Folate Evaluation: Measurement of Methylmalonic Acid and Homocysteine vs Vitamin B12 and Folate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George G. Klee

    2000-01-01

    Vitamin B12 and folate are two vitamins that have interdependent roles in nucleic acid synthesis. Deficien- cies of either vitamin can cause megaloblastic anemia; however, inappropriate treatment of B12 deficiency with folate can cause irreversible nerve degeneration. Inade- quate folate nutrition during early pregnancy can cause neural tube defects in the developing fetus. In addition, folate and vitamin B12 deficiency

  13. Penicillin and Vitamin B12

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The WebWare Molecules for July are mentioned in the article "The History of Molecular Structure Determination Viewed through the Nobel Prizes", by Jensen, Palenik, and Suh. One of the recipients discussed, Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin, won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in part for determining the structures of penicillin and vitamin B12.

  14. Vegan Diet, Subnormal Vitamin B-12 Status and Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Kam S.; Kwok, Timothy C.Y.; Celermajer, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products). Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians in Australia, Germany, Italy and Austria, and in vegans (80%) in Hong Kong and India, where vegans rarely take vitamin B-12 fortified food or vitamin B-12 supplements. Similar deficiencies exist in northern Chinese rural communities consuming inadequate meat, egg or dairy products due to poverty or dietary habits. Vascular studies have demonstrated impaired arterial endothelial function and increased carotid intima-media thickness as atherosclerosis surrogates in such metabolic vitamin B-12 deficient populations, but not in lactovegetarians in China. Vitamin B-12 supplementation has a favourable impact on these vascular surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China. Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 status is thus potentially beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency in vegans, and possibly for prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases. PMID:25195560

  15. Considering the case for vitamin B12 fortification of flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reasons to fortify flour with vitamin B12 are considered, which include the high prevalence of depletion and deficiency of this vitamin that occurs in persons of all ages in resource-poor countries and in elderly in wealthier countries, as well as the adverse functional consequences of poor vitamin ...

  16. Vitamin B12-Containing Plant Food Sources for Vegetarians

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Bito, Tomohiro; Teng, Fei

    2014-01-01

    The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori) is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups. PMID:24803097

  17. Good Sources of Nutrients: Vitamin B-12 

    E-print Network

    Scott, Amanda; Replogle, Jacqueline

    2008-08-28

    Vitamin B-12 is a water-soluble vitamin that helps the body form red blood cells, build genetic material, and metabolize protein and fat. This publication explains how people can get enough vitamin B-12 in their diets and how to prepare foods...

  18. The roles of vitamin B12 and vitamin D in children with intractable epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Hong; Hou, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) can cause vitamin B12 or D deficiency in children with intractable epilepsy. In this study, we measured salivary superoxide dismutase (SOD) and metalloproteinsases (MMP) levels in the patients with vitamin B12 and vitamin D treatment. Cytokines and chemokines were measured using ELISA. The mean salivary value of SOD activity in the control group was 1.75 ± 0.21 U/ml. In the treatment group, the value was 1.33 ± 0.18 U/ml. The salivary MMP 2, MMP 3, and MMP 9 levels of the patients with vitamin D and vitamin B12 treatment were lower than that in the patients without vitamin D and vitamin B12 treatment. Interleukin 1? (IL-1?), IL-6, IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein 1? (MIP-1?), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and IFN-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) were significantly decreased in the cortex of our patients with vitamin D and vitamin B12 treatment. In this study, a clear association between vitamin D and vitamin B12 treatment and epilepsy was identified. We now plan to investigate the genetic factors that underlie vitamin D and vitamin B12 treatment in patients treated with AEDs. PMID:25785055

  19. Neuroenhancement with vitamin B12-underestimated neurological significance.

    PubMed

    Gröber, Uwe; Kisters, Klaus; Schmidt, Joachim

    2013-12-01

    Vitamin B12 is a cofactor of methionine synthase in the synthesis of methionine, the precursor of the universal methyl donor S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe), which is involved in different epigenomic regulatory mechanisms and especially in brain development. A Vitamin B12 deficiency expresses itself by a wide variety of neurological manifestations such as paraesthesias, skin numbness, coordination disorders and reduced nerve conduction velocity. In elderly people, a latent Vitamin B12 deficiency can be associated with a progressive brain atrophy. Moderately elevated concentrations of homocysteine (>10 µmol/L) have been associated with an increased risk of dementia, notably Alzheimer's disease, in many cross-sectional and prospective studies. Raised plasma concentrations of homocysteine is also associated with both regional and whole brain atrophy, not only in Alzheimer's disease but also in healthy elderly people. Clinician awareness should be raised to accurately diagnose and treat early Vitamin B12 deficiency to prevent irreversible structural brain damage. PMID:24352086

  20. Seizures Related to Vitamin B6 Deficiency in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Gun; Lee, Yeonkyung; Shin, Hyeeun; Kang, Kyusik; Park, Jong-Moo; Kim, Byung-Kun; Kwon, Ohyun; Lee, Jung-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B6 is closely associated with functions of the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems. Its deficiency may result in neurological disorders including convulsions and epileptic encephalopathy. Until today, this has only been reported in infants, children, and critically ill adult patients. We report a case of a 36year-old man with chronic alcoholism who presented with seizures after gastrointestinal disturbance. His seizures persisted even after treatment with antiepileptic drugs, but eventually disappeared after administration of pyridoxine. Hence, vitamin B6 deficiency may cause seizures in adult patients with chronic alcoholism. PMID:26157671

  1. Vitamin B12 catalysed reactions.

    PubMed

    Giedyk, Maciej; Goliszewska, Katarzyna; Gryko, Dorota

    2015-05-26

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, ) is one of a few naturally occurring organometallic molecules. As a cofactor for adenosylcobalamin-dependent and methylcobalamin-dependent enzymes, it plays a crucial role in biological processes, including DNA synthesis and regulation, nervous system function, red blood cell formation, etc. Enzymatic reactions, such as isomerisation, dehalogenation, and methyl transfer, rely on the formation and cleavage of the Co-C bond. Because it is a natural, nontoxic, environmentally benign cobalt complex, cobalamin () has been successfully utilised in organic synthesis as a catalyst for Co-mediated reactions. This tutorial review concisely describes cobalamin-catalysed organic reactions that hold promise for environmentally friendly cobalt catalysis, leaving the reader with basic knowledge and the ability to harness the catalytic potential of this fascinating molecule. PMID:25945462

  2. Comparative Studies on the Effect of Vitamin A, B1 and B6 Deficiency on Oxalate Metabolism in Male Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sadhna Sharma; Harmeet Sidhu; Ravinder Narula; Swam K. Thind; Ravindra Nath

    1990-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the effect of vitamin A, B1 and B6 deficiency on oxalate metabolism in rats. A significant hyperoxaluria was the common observation in all the three vitamin deficiencies (vitamin B6> vitamin A > vitamin B1). The activities of hepatic glycolate oxidase and glycolate dehydrogenase were markedly enhanced in vitamin-A- and vitamin-B6-deficient rats. However, lactate dehydrogenase

  3. Anemia attributed to vitamin B6 deficiency in post-pancreaticoduodenectomy patients.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Hajime; Fujiwara, Noriko; Ishizaki, Yoichi; Komatsu, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies such as vitamin A, iron, zinc, and selenium have been known to occur as a consequence of pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), but vitamin B6 deficiency has not been previously reported. We report two post-PD patients who developed anemias attributed to vitamin B6 deficiency. Oral supplementations of vitamin B6 significantly improved anemias in both cases. Micronutrients including vitamin B6 should be monitored in post-PD patients, and supplementations should be carried out when necessary. PMID:25543166

  4. Breast milk vitamin B-12 concentrations of Guatemalan women are correlated with maternal but not infant vitamin B12 status at 12 months postpartum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our previous studies one third of lactating Guatemalan women, infants and children had deficient or marginal serum vitamin B-12 concentrations. Relationships among maternal and infant status and breast milk vitamin B-12, however, have not been investigated in such populations. Our purpose was to ...

  5. Vitamin B12 deficit and development of geriatric syndromes.

    PubMed

    Ocampo Chaparro, José Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency or cyanocobalamin is a common condition in the elderly. It is repeatedly overlooked due to multiple clinical manifestations that can affect the blood, neurological, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular systems, skin and mucous membranes. The various presentations of vitamin B12 deficiency are related to the development of geriatric syndromes like frailty, falls, cognitive impairment, and geriatric nutritional syndromes like protein-energy malnutrition and failure to thrive, in addition to enhancing aging anorexia and cachexia. Therefore, interventions must be developed to include their screening and diagnosis to make early and appropriate treatment to prevent its complications before they become irreversible. PMID:24892321

  6. Assay for vitamin B12 absorption and method of making labeled vitamin B12

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Peter J. (Davis, CA); Dueker, Stephen (Davis, CA); Miller, Joshua (Davis, CA); Green, Ralph (Elmacero, CA); Roth, John (Davis, CA); Carkeet, Colleen (Silver Spring, MD); Buchholz,; Bruce A. (Orinda, CA)

    2012-06-19

    The invention provides methods for labeling vitamin B12 with .sup.14C, .sup.13C, tritium, and deuterium. When radioisotopes are used, the invention provides for methods of labeling B12 with high specific activity. The invention also provides labeled vitamin B12 compositions made in accordance with the invention.

  7. Molecular Structure of Vitamin B12

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-13

    Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) has many uses as a nutritional supplement in both humans and livestock. It is used in humans to treat pernicious anemia, hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver, and to help maintain the body's metabolism. In its long-effect form (hydroxocobalamin), vitamin B12 is used to treat anemia, growth impediment, improvement in the function of the heart, liver, kidneys and nerves, and general strengthening of the body. In livestock, it is used to improve feed production.

  8. B-vitamin deficiency is protective in experimental colitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methionine (Met) cycle activity is critical for normal cell functions and requires B-vitamin (B6/B12) as cofactors. Sadenosylhomocysteine (SAH) is a Met cycle intermediates that is known to inhibit methyltransferases. Met metabolism is altered in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but M...

  9. Combined dietary folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 intake influences plasma docosahexaenoic acid concentration in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 are essential nutritional components in one-carbon metabolism and are required for methylation capacity. The availability of these vitamins may therefore modify methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) to phosphatidylcholine (PC) by PE-N-methyltransferase (PEMT) in the liver. It has been suggested that PC synthesis by PEMT plays an important role in the transport of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) like docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from the liver to plasma and possibly other tissues. We hypothesized that if B-vitamin supplementation enhances PEMT activity, then supplementation could also increase the concentration of plasma levels of PUFAs such as DHA. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effect of varying the combined dietary intake of these three B-vitamins on plasma DHA concentration in rats. Methods In a first experiment, plasma DHA and plasma homocysteine concentrations were measured in rats that had consumed a B-vitamin-poor diet for 4?weeks after which they were either continued on the B-vitamin-poor diet or switched to a B-vitamin-enriched diet for another 4?weeks. In a second experiment, plasma DHA and plasma homocysteine concentrations were measured in rats after feeding them one of four diets with varying levels of B-vitamins for 4?weeks. The diets provided 0% (poor), 100% (normal), 400% (enriched), and 1600% (high) of the laboratory rodent requirements for each of the three B-vitamins. Results Plasma DHA concentration was higher in rats fed the B-vitamin-enriched diet than in rats that were continued on the B-vitamin-poor diet (P?=?0.005; experiment A). Varying dietary B-vitamin intake from deficient to supra-physiologic resulted in a non-linear dose-dependent trend for increasing plasma DHA (P?=?0.027; experiment B). Plasma DHA was lowest in rats consuming the B-vitamin-poor diet (P?>?0.05 vs. normal, P?B-vitamin-high diet (P??0.05 vs. enriched). B-vitamin deficiency significantly increased plasma total homocysteine but increasing intake above normal did not significantly reduce it. Nevertheless, in both experiments plasma DHA was inversely correlated with plasma total homocysteine. Conclusion These data demonstrate that dietary folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 intake can influence plasma concentration of DHA. PMID:22647268

  10. Vitamin B12-induced acneiform eruption.

    PubMed

    Balta, Ilknur; Ozuguz, Pinar

    2014-06-01

    Drug-induced acne is a specific subset of acne that usually has some specific features, namely monomorphic pattern, unusual location of the lesions beyond the seborrheic areas, uncommon age of onset, a resistance to conventional acne treatment. Several drugs have been associated with the development of eruptions that may simulate acne vulgaris. However, so far, there are a few cases of vitamin B12-induced acne. We report a case of acneiform eruption induced by vitamin B12 injection in a 37-year-old female patient. PMID:23815241

  11. [Vitamin deficiencies in breastfed children due to maternal dietary deficiency].

    PubMed

    Kollée, L A A

    2006-03-01

    Dietary deficiencies of vitamin B12 and vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation may result in health problems in exclusively breastfed infants. Vitamin-B12 deficiency in these infants results in irritability, anorexia and failure to thrive during the first 4-8 months of life. Severe and permanent neurodevelopmental disturbances may occur. The most at risk for vitamin-B12 deficiency are breast-fed infants ofveganist and vegetarian mothers. Mothers who cover their skin prevent exposure to the sun and may consequently be at risk for vitamin-D deficiency, as well as putting their offspring at risk. In prenatal and perinatal care, it is important to take the maternal dietary history in order to be able to prevent or treat these disorders. Guidelines for obstetrical and neonatal care should include the topic of vitamin deficiency. PMID:16553044

  12. Vitamin B6: deficiency diseases and methods of analysis.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Iqbal; Mirza, Tania; Qadeer, Kiran; Nazim, Urooj; Vaid, Faiyaz Hm

    2013-09-01

    Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) is closely associated with the functions of the nervous, immune and endocrine systems. It also participates in the metabolic processes of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Pyridoxine deficiency may result in neurological disorders including convulsions and epileptic encephalopathy and may lead to infant abnormalities. The Intravenous administration of pyridoxine to patients results in a dramatic cessation of seizures. A number of analytical methods were developed for the determination of pyridoxine in different dosage forms, food materials and biological fluids. These include UV spectrometric, spectrofluorimetric, mass spectrometric, thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatographic, electrophoretic, electrochemical and enzymatic methods. Most of these methods are capable of determining pyridoxine in the presence of other vitamins and complex systems in µg quantities. The development and applications of these methods in pharmaceutical and clinical analysis mostly during the last decade have been reviewed. PMID:24035968

  13. Folate, vitamin B12 and human health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past decade the role of folate and vitamin B12 in human nutrition have been under constant re-examination. Basic knowledge on the metabolism and interactions between these essential nutrients has expanded and multiple complexities have been unraveled. These micronutrients have shared func...

  14. Vitamin B12 levels in ewe colostrum and milk and in lamb serum

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    adapted to veterinary medicine. A comparative study of vitamin Bi2levels has been made in the liver as an integral part of various enzymes in the body. Its deficiency affects red-blood-cell maturation, reduces nitrogen retention and limits the concentration in blood and liver. Vitamin B12 deficiency in ruminants

  15. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12 . (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12 . (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12 . (b) Conditions of use....

  18. Vitamin B12 Supplements May Not Help Some Seniors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_153630.html Vitamin B12 Supplements May Not Help Some Seniors They ... 16, 2015 THURSDAY, July 16, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Vitamin B12 supplements are known to benefit seniors with ...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B 12..

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin B 12.. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B 12 .. (a) Vitamin B12 , also known as cyanocobalamin (C63...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin B12. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B12. (a) Vitamin B12 , also known as cyanocobalamin (C63...

  1. Metabolic evidence of vitamin B-12 deficiency, including high homocysteine and methylmalonic acid and low holotranscobalamin, is more pronounced in older adults with elevated plasma folate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: An analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey indicated that in older adults exposed to folic acid fortification, the combination of low serum vitamin B-12 and elevated folate is associated with higher concentrations of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid ...

  2. In vitamin B12 deficiency, higher serum folate is assoicated with increased total homocysteine (tHcy) and methlmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a recent study of older participants (age >/= 60 y) in the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we showed that a combination of high serum folate and low vitamin B-12 status was associated with higher prevalence of cognitive impairment and anemia than other combina...

  3. Radiolysis of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B 12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juanchi, X.; Albarran, G.; Negron-Mendoza, A.

    2000-03-01

    Research on the radiolysis of vitamins is of considerable interest since these compounds are important nutritional constituents in foods and in dietetic supplements. In spite of these considerations there are few data and very often difficult to compare for the radiolytic behavior of vitamins. In this work we focused our attention on to the study of the radiolysis of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B 12) in solid state and in aqueous solutions. The procedure was followed by HPLC and UV-spectroscopy. The results obtained in aqueous solutions showed a dependence of the decomposition as a linear function of the dose. The G of decomposition for a 1×10 -5 M solution was 3.3. In the solid state the vitamin was very stable towards the irradiation in the conditions used in this study with a G=2.1×10 -3. A study made with Serratia marcescens as a microbiological contaminant showed that at the sterilization dose there is a destruction of the vitamin in aqueous solution. In the solid state the degree of decomposition was 7%.

  4. Markers of B-vitamin deficiency and frailty in older women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy M. Matteini; Jeremy D. Walston; M. D. Fallin; K. Bandeen-Roche; W. H. L. Kao; R. D. Semba; R. H. Allen; J. Guralnik; L. P. Fried; S. P. Stabler

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between markers of vitamins B12, B6 and folate deficiency and the geriatric syndrome of frailty.Design: Cross-sectional study of baseline measures from the combined Women’s Health and Aging Studies.Setting: Baltimore, Maryland.Participants: Seven hundred three community-dwelling women, aged 70–79.Measurements: Frailty was defined by five-component screening criteria that include weight, grip strength, endurance, physical activity\\u000a and walking speed

  5. Vitamin B-12, serum folate, and cognitive change between 11 and 79 years 

    E-print Network

    Starr, John M; Pattie, Alison; Whiteman, Martha C; Deary, Ian J; Whalley, Lawrence J

    2005-01-01

    A recent Cochrane review reported that although vitamin B-12 deficiency is known to be associated with cognitive impairment in old age, benefits of supplementation on mental ability are unclear. The situation is similar ...

  6. Effect of Vitamin B12and Folie Acid on the Metabolism of Formiminoglutamate, Formate, and Propionate in the Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. L. R. STOKSTAD; R. E. WEBB; ELLEN SHAH

    The effects of deficiencies of vitamin B12on excretion of formimino- glutamate (FIGLU), formate, and propionate were investigated. The excretion of FIGLU was increased in vitamin B12deficiency and was higher with a 30% soy pro tein diet than with a 70% soy protein diet, although the vitamin Bi2 deficiency was more severe with the diet at higher protein level. Excretion of

  7. The effect of vitamin B sub 12 on selenium metabolism in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.L.; Whanger, P.D. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Since animal methylate selenium (Se) and vitamin B{sub 12} is involved in methylation reactions, weaning rats were fed diets with or without vitamin B{sub 12} to evaluate its effect on Se metabolism. Plasma vitamin B{sub 12} of vitamin B{sub 12} depleted rats were below detection while vitamin B{sub 12} levels in plasma of control rats ranged from 3-6 ng/ml after 4 weeks feeding. After {sup 75}Se-selenite injection, vitamin B{sub 12} depleted rats exhaled 16% of the dose and excreted 22-28% as trimethylselenonium in urine as compared to 45% and 45-54% respectively in control rats. Se methylation experiments with rat liver supernatants from vitamin B{sub 12} depleted rats volatilized only 45% as the control rat liver preparation. When rats were fed various levels of Se as selenite, blood and heart Se levels were higher in vitamin B{sub 12} supplemented rats, but lower in liver, kidney, spleen and testis than the deficient rats. This difference in liver between supplemented and deficient rats became greater with higher dietary levels of Se. It is concluded that vitamin B{sub 12} affects Se metabolism through the methylation of this element.

  8. The Role of the Pancreas in Vitamin B12 Absorption: Studies of Vitamin B12 Absorption in Partially Pancreatectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Toskes, Philip P.; Deren, Julius J.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of partial pancreatectomy (80-90%) on vitamin B12 absorption was studied in the rat. The absorption of 5 ng of 57Co-labeled vitamin B12 was significantly reduced from 70 ±2.5% (mean ±SE) in control and sham-operated rats to 32 ±2.6% in partially pancreatectomized rats. Hog pancreatic extract (0.17 g/kg) improved vitamin B12 absorption from 30.0 to 61.0% in partially pancreatectomized rats but did not alter vitamin B12 absorption in control rats. Chloramphenicol did not enhance vitamin B12 absorption in partially pancreatectomized rats with pancreatic extract-improved vitamin B12 malabsorption. The partially pancreatectomized rats with pancreatic extract-improved vitamin B12 malabsorption were sacrificed and the stomach and small bowel studied in vitro to further define the pathogenesis of the vitamin B12 malabsorption. Rat gastric intrinsic factor stimulated vitamin B12 uptake by intestinal sacs prepared from partially pancreatectomized rats 3.1-fold. Gastric intrinsic factor prepared from partially pancreatectomized rats was as effective in promoting vitamin B12 uptake by rat intestinal sacs as intrinsic factor prepared from control rats. These data indicate that partially pancreatectomized rats develop an abnormality in the absorption of labeled vitamin B12 which can be corrected by pancreatic extract. The vitamin B12 malabsorption is due to neither an alteration in gastric intrinsic factor activity nor an impairment of the intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 receptor in the intestine. It is suggested that in the partially pancreatectomized rats the intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complex exists in a form which is not available for absorption. PMID:5009110

  9. B Vitamins

    MedlinePLUS

    The B vitamins are B1 (thiamine) B2 (riboflavin) B3 (niacin) B5 (pantothenic acid) B6 B7 (biotin) B12 Folic acid These ... help form red blood cells. You can get B vitamins from proteins such as fish, poultry, meat, eggs, ...

  10. Combined dietary folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 intake influences plasma docosahexaenoic acid concentration in rats

    E-print Network

    van Wijk, Nick

    Background: Folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 are essential nutritional components in one-carbon metabolism and are required for methylation capacity. The availability of these vitamins may therefore modify methylation ...

  11. Intestinal synthesis and absorption of vitamin B-12 in channel catfish

    SciTech Connect

    Limsuwan, T.; Lovell, R.T.

    1981-12-01

    A feeding experiment conducted in a controlled environment and using a vitamin B12-deficient, but otherwise nutritionally complete, purified diet revealed that intestinal microorganisms in channel catfish synthesized approximately 1.4 ng of vitamin B12 per gram of bodyweight per day. Removal of cobalt from the diet or supplementation with an antibiotic (succinylsulfathiazole) significantly reduced the rate of intestinal synthesis and liver stores of vitamin B12. Radiolabeled vitamin B12 in the blood, liver, kidneys, and spleen of fish fed 60Co in the diet indicated that the intestinally synthesized vitamin was absorbed by the fish. The primary route of absorption was directly from the digestive tract into the blood because coprophagy was prevented in the rearing aquariums and the amount of vitamin B12 dissolved in the aquarium water was too low for gill absorption. Dietary supplementation of vitamin B12 was not necessary for normal growth and erythrocyte formation in channel catfish in a 24-week feeding period. A longer period, however, may have caused a vitamin deficiency since liver-stored vitamin B 12 decreased between the 2nd and 24th weeks.

  12. Vitamin B-12 and homocysteine status among vegetarians: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Singer, Ingrid

    2009-05-01

    Evidence exists that well-planned vegetarian diets provide numerous health benefits and are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle. It is also known that animal foods provide micronutrients that are nonexistent or available only in limited amounts in plant foods. Restriction or exclusion of all animal foods may therefore result in low intake of certain micronutrients such as vitamin B-12, thereby affecting vitamin B-12 status and elevating plasma homocysteine concentrations. Overall, the studies we reviewed showed reduced mean vitamin B-12 status and elevated mean homocysteine concentrations in vegetarians, particularly among vegans. Low vitamin B-12 intake may lead to decreased bioavailability and functional deficiency of cobalamin. Although early noticeable symptoms of vitamin B-12 deficiency are nonspecific (unusual fatigue, digestion problems, frequent upper respiratory infections), the best-known clinical manifestations of cobalamin malabsorption are hematologic (pernicious anemia) and neurologic symptoms. Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Given these health concerns, vegetarians, particularly vegans, must be advised to carefully plan their diets, to monitor their plasma vitamin B-12 on a regular basis to facilitate early detection of low cobalamin status, and to use vitamin B-12-fortified foods or take vitamin B-12 supplements if necessary. PMID:19357223

  13. Genome-wide Association Study of Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Folate,

    E-print Network

    Abecasis, Goncalo

    ) with vitamin B12 serum levels. The association of MTHFR, a gene consistently associated with homocysteine is the 677T)C (rs1801133) in exon 5 of the 5,10-methylenete- trahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR [MIM 607093 to MTHFR, genetic variations in other genes have been linked to B vitamin and homocys- teine concentrations

  14. Vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids together regulate lipid metabolism in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2015-08-01

    Our recent study indicates that maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid status influence plasma and erythrocyte fatty acid profile in dams. The present study examines the effects of prenatal and postnatal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid status on lipid metabolism in the offspring. Pregnant dams were divided into five groups: Control; Vitamin B12 deficient (BD); Vitamin B12 supplemented (BS); Vitamin B12 deficient group supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids (BDO); Vitamin B12 supplemented group with omega-3 fatty acids (BSO). The offspring were continued on the same diets till 3 month of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency increased cholesterol levels (p<0.01) but reduced docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (p<0.05), liver mRNA levels of acetyl CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC-1) (p<0.05) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) (p<0.01) in the offspring. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to this group normalized cholesterol but not mRNA levels of ACC-1 and CPT-1. Vitamin B12 supplementation normalized the levels cholesterol to that of control but increased plasma triglyceride (p<0.01) and reduced liver mRNA levels of adiponectin, ACC-1, and CPT-1 (p<0.01 for all). Supplementation of both vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid normalized triglyceride and mRNA levels of all the above genes. Prenatal and postnatal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids together play a crucial role in regulating the genes involved in lipid metabolism in adult offspring. PMID:26003565

  15. Effect of Vitamin B6 and B1 Deficiencies on the Intestinal Uptake of Calcium, Zinc and Cadmium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Prasad; V. Lyall; R. Nath

    1982-01-01

    A chronic vitamin B6 deficiency in rats resulted in a non-specific increase (44–51 %) in the in vitro intestinal uptake of both essential (Ca and Zn) and non-essential toxic metal (Cd) ions, whereas an acute B6-deficient state only affected the Zn uptake rate. In vitamin B1 -deficient animals, a specific decrease (30–32%) was observed in Ca and Zn uptake with

  16. Is B vitamins deficiency associated with prevalence of Alzheimer's disease in Cuban elderly?

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Yeneisy Lanyau; Hernández, Manuel; Matos, Consuelo Macías; Zhou, Dequan

    2006-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a major public health problem among the elderly in industrialized countries and a growing problem in developing countries. In Cuba, 14,6% of the population is older than 60 years. The AD prevalence in Cuba lies between 5,13-7,14%. Several studies have shown the relationship between the low nutritional status of B vitamins, hyperhomocysteinaemia with loss of neuro-cognitive function and AD. In studies during the epidemic neuropathy that affected Cuba between 1992-1993, B vitamins deficiency and smoking habits were strongly associated with the epidemic. Some studies in healthy adults and elderly after this epidemic have shown a sub-clinical deficiency of some B vitamins and a high prevalence of infection by Helicobacter pylori. The possibility that B vitamin deficiencies could be an additional risk factor for the high prevalence of the AD in Cuba is discussed. PMID:16859173

  17. Low plasma vitamin B-12 in Kenyan school children is highly prevalent and improved by supplemental animal source foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in many regions of the world is becoming recognized as a widespread public health problem, but it is not known to what extent this deficiency results from a low intake of the vitamin or from its malabsorption from food. In rural Kenya, where a previous ...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B 12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of anemias of gastrointestinal malabsorption. (b) Classification. Class...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B 12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of anemias of gastrointestinal malabsorption. (b) Classification. Class...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of anemias of gastrointestinal malabsorption. (b) Classification. Class...

  1. Long-term ovo-lacto vegetarian diet impairs vitamin B-12 status in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Koebnick, Corinna; Hoffmann, Ingrid; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Heins, Ulrike A; Wickramasinghe, Sunitha N; Ratnayaka, Indrika D; Gruendel, Sindy; Lindemans, Jan; Leitzmann, Claus

    2004-12-01

    A well-planned vegetarian diet has been stated to be adequate during pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to compare serum vitamin B-12 and homocysteine concentrations in pregnant women (n = 109) consuming vegetarian and Western diets and to evaluate the adequacy of current dietary reference intakes of vitamin B-12 for these women. Pregnant women adhering to vegetarian diets for at least 3 y, with subgroups of ovo-lacto vegetarians (OLVs; n = 27), low-meat eaters (LME, n = 43), and women eating an average Western diet (control group, n = 39), were recruited. Dietary vitamin B-12 intake, serum vitamin B-12, and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations were measured in wk 9-12, 20-22, and 36-38 of pregnancy. During pregnancy serum vitamin B-12 concentrations of ovo-lacto vegetarians (P < 0.001) and low-meat eaters (P = 0.050) were lower than those of the control group. We observed the combination of low serum vitamin B-12 concentrations and elevated plasma tHcy in 22% of ovo-lacto vegetarians, in 10% of low-meat eaters, and in 3% of controls (P = 0.003). In OLVs, serum vitamin B-12 predicted 60% of the plasma tHcy variation (P < 0.001), but in LMEs and controls only <10% (NS). Serum vitamin B-12 concentrations increased and plasma tHcy decreased sharply with increasing dietary intake of vitamin B-12 toward a cutoff point of 3 mug/d. Pregnant women consuming a long-term predominantly vegetarian diet have an increased risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency. Current recommended dietary intakes urgently need reevaluation. PMID:15570032

  2. Competitive immunoassay for analysis of vitamin B(12).

    PubMed

    Selva Kumar, L Sagaya; Thakur, M S

    2011-11-15

    In the current work, direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for derivatized vitamin B(12) by generating chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) against derivatized vitamin B(12) and purified using affinity chromatography. Checkerboard assay was performed with vitamin B(12) antibody and vitamin B(12)-alkaline phosphatase conjugate followed by its conjugate characterization using ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The limit of detection was 10 ng/ml with a linear working range of 10 to 10,000 ng/ml. The affinity constant (K(a)) of the vitamin B(12) antibody was found to be 4.23×10(8) L/mol. Cross-reactivity with other water-soluble vitamins was found to be less than 0.01% except for analogs of vitamin B(12) that showed 12% to 35%. The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were found to be in the ranges from 0.0005% to 1.2% and 0.009% to 1.03%, respectively. The assay was validated with the HPLC method in terms of sensitivity, specificity, precision, and recovery of vitamin B(12) with spiked multivitamin injections, tablets, capsules, and chocolates. The HPLC method had a detection limit of 500 ng/ml with a linear working range of 1000 to 10,000 ng/ml. After extraction of vitamin B(12) using Amberlite XAD, the developed ELISA method correlated well with the established HPLC method with a correlation coefficient of 0.90. PMID:21816132

  3. Indicators for assessing folate and vitamin B12 status and for monitoring the efficacy of intervention strategies.

    PubMed

    Green, Ralph

    2008-06-01

    Deficiencies of folate or of vitamin B12 are widespread and constitute a major global burden of morbidity affecting all age groups. Detecting or confirming the presence of folate or vitamin B12 deficiency and distinguishing one from the other depends, ultimately, on laboratory testing. Tests to determine the presence of folate or vitamin B12 deficiency are used singly or in combination to establish the nutritional status and prevalence of deficiencies of the vitamins in various populations. The efficacy of interventions through the use of fortification or supplements is monitored using the same laboratory tests. Tests currently in use have limitations that can be either technical or have a biological basis. Consequently, each single test cannot attain perfect sensitivity, specificity, or predictive value. Laboratory indicators of vitamin B12 or folate status involve measurement of either the total or a physiologically relevant fraction of the vitamin in a compartment such as the blood. Thus, assays to measure vitamin B12 or folate in plasma or serum as well as folate in red blood cells are in widespread use, and more recently, methods to measure vitamin B12 associated with the plasma binding protein transcobalamin (holotranscobalamin) have been developed. Alternatively, levels of surrogate biochemical markers that reflect the metabolic function of the vitamin can be used. Surrogates most commonly used are plasma homocysteine, for detection of either vitamin B12 or folate deficiency and methylmalonic acid for detection of vitamin B12 deficiency. The general methods as well as their uses, indications, and limitations are presented. PMID:18709881

  4. Circulating antibody to transcobalamin II causing retention of vitamin B12 in the blood.

    PubMed

    Carmel, R; Tatsis, B; Baril, L

    1977-06-01

    A patient with recurrent pulmonary abscess, weight loss, and alcoholism was found to have extremely high serum vitamin B12 and unsaturated vitamin B12-binding capacity (UBBC) levels. While transcobalamin (TC) II was also increased, most of his UBBC was due to an abnormal binding protein which carried greater than 80% of the endogenous vitamin B12 and was not found in his saliva, granulocytes, or urine. This protein was shown to be a complex of TC II and a circulating immunoglobulin (IgGkappa and IgGlambda). Each IgG molecule appeared to bind two TC II molecules. The reacting site did not interfere with the ability of TC II to bind vitamin B12, but did interfere with its ability to transfer the vitamin to cells in vitro. The site was not identical to that reacting with anti-human TC II antibody produced in rabbits. Because of this abnormal complex, 57Co-vitamin B12 injected intravenously was cleared slowly by the patient. However, no metabolic evidence for vitamin B12 deficiency was demonstrable, although the patient initially had megaloblastic anemia apparently due to folate deficiency. The course of the vitamin B12-binding abnormalities was followed over 4 yr and appeared to fluctuate with the status of the patient's illness. The IgG-TC II complex resembled one induced in some patients with pernicious anemia by intensive treatment with long-acting vitamin B12 preparations. The mechanism of induction of the antibody formation in our patient is unknown. PMID:861380

  5. Breakfast cereal fortified with folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 increases vitamin concentrations and reduces homocysteine concentrations: a randomized trial1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine L Tucker; Beth Olson; Peter Bakun; Gerard E Dallal; Jacob Selhub; Irwin H Rosenberg

    Background: High homocysteine and low B vitamin concentrations have been linked to the risk of vascular disease, stroke, and dementia and are relatively common in older adults. Objective: We assessed the effect of breakfast cereal fortified with folic acid, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 on vitamin and homocys- teine status. Design: A randomized, double-blind trial was conducted in 189 volunteers

  6. Regiospecificity of Chlorophenol Reductive Dechlorination by Vitamin B12s

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Mark H.; Woods, Sandra L.

    1994-01-01

    Vitamin B12, reduced by titanium (III) citrate to vitamin B12s, catalyzes the reductive dechlorination of chlorophenols. Reductive dechlorination of pentachlorophenol and of all tetrachlorophenol and trichlorophenol isomers was observed. Reaction of various chlorophenols with vitamin B12 favored reductive dechlorination at positions adjacent to another chlorinated carbon, but chlorines ortho to the hydroxyl group of a phenol were particularly resistant to reductive dechlorination, even if they were also ortho to a chlorine. This resulted in a reductive dechlorination pattern favoring removal of para and meta chlorines, which differs substantially from the pattern exhibited by anaerobic microbial consortia. PMID:16349438

  7. Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Imbalance Modifies NK Cytotoxicity, Lymphocytes B and Lymphoprolipheration in Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Partearroyo, Teresa; Úbeda, Natalia; Montero, Ana; Achón, María; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2013-01-01

    Different vitamin B12 and folic acid concentrations could exacerbate the immune response. The aim was to evaluate different dietary folic acid and vitamin B12 levels on the immune response in aged rats. Male Sprague Dawley aged rats were assigned to three folic acid groups (deficient, control, supplemented) each in absence of vitamin B12 for 30 days. Several parameters of innate and acquired immune responses were measured. Serum and hepatic folate levels increased according to folic acid dietary level, while vitamin B12 levels decreased. There was a significant decrease in natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity in the spleen for the vitamin B12 deficient diet and folic acid control diet groups. Significant changes in CD45 lymphocyte subsets were also observed according to dietary imbalance. Lymphoproliferative response to concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin did not differ significantly between groups. The spleen response to lipopolysaccharide increased significantly, but was unmodified for the other organs. An imbalance between dietary vitamin B12 and folic acid concentrations alters some immunological parameters in aged rats. Therefore, the ratio between folate and vitamin B12 could be as important as their absolute dietary concentrations. PMID:24288024

  8. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A...

  10. Reductive dechlorination of chlorophenols by vitamin B[sub 12

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    The reductive dechlorination of chlorinated phenols by vitamin B[sub 12], supported by the reductant Ti(III) citrate, was examined. Procedures were developed, including a novel reactor system, for conducting these experiments. Most of the experiments were conducted in either hermetically-sealed glass ampoules, which could maintain vitamin B[sub 12] in the fully-reduced vitamin B[sub 12s] state for months, or in the novel two-chambered reactor (TCR), which could also support vitamin B[sub 12s] for extended periods, and could easily be sampled to perform kinetic studies. Vitamin B[sub 12s] reductively dechlorinates chlorinated phenols by nucleophilic aromatic substitution of the cobalamin for a chlorine, followed by reductive cleavage of the arylcobalamin to form the reductively-dechlorinated product. Dechlorination occurs chiefly at positions ortho to another chlorine, but the 2 and 6 positions are extremely recalcitrant, even when another chlorine is adjacent. The proposed mechanism accounts for the observed regiospecificity, consistent with bond charge density and thermodynamic considerations. Pentachlorophenol, all of the tetrachlorophenols, and all of the trichlorophenols were challenged with vitamin B[sub 12s], and all were reductively dechlorinated to some extent. A sequential dechlorination pathway was constructed and compared to patterns exhibited by anaerobic microbial consortia. On the basis of this comparison, it was concluded that any involvement of vitamin B[sub 12] in biological reductive dechlorination of chlorinated phenols requires the intimate participation of apoenzymes to direct the regiospecificity toward the 2 and 6 chlorines on the ring. The observed kinetics of the reductive dechlorination of pentachlorophenol by vitamin B[sub 12s] can be described with a first order approximation. A threefold variability in rate constants was observed.

  11. Vitamin B12 Excretion in Patients with Various Skin Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Janet; Shuster, Sam

    1970-01-01

    The excretion in the urine of 58Co after an oral dose of 58Co vitamin B12 given together with intrinsic factor has been found to be reduced in a number of patients with psoriasis, eczema, and other less common dermatoses. There is a correlation between the abnormality and the extent of the rash. A reduced glomerular filtration rate was found in a few of the patients in whom it was measured, and this must have been responsible, at least in part, for the reduced excretion of vitamin B12 in these patients, but abnormal vitamin B12 excretion also occurred in the absence of impaired renal function. Our evidence is insufficient to show whether malabsorption or increased tissue utilization of vitamin B12 was the explanation in other cases. Certainly a number of patients had steatorrhoea, and in these it is most likely that malabsorption was the major factor. In patients without steatorrhoea a lone malabsorption of vitamin B12 cannot be excluded. A decreased serum concentration of vitamin B12 was found in only one of the patients. PMID:5470089

  12. Homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 in patients receiving antiepileptic drug monotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsunenobu Tamura; Kenji Aiso; Kelley E Johnston; Lori Black; Edward Faught

    2000-01-01

    We hypothesized that elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations (hyperhomocysteinemia) exist in patients receiving antiepileptic drugs (AED), and a long-term administration of AED may result in an increased risk of occlusive vascular disease in these patients. A total of 62 patients who received AED monotherapy (phenytoin, lamotrigine, carbamazepine or valproate) participated in this study. Blood concentrations of homocysteine, folate, vitamin B-12 and

  13. Mutations in ABCD4 cause a new inborn error of vitamin B12 metabolism.

    PubMed

    Coelho, David; Kim, Jaeseung C; Miousse, Isabelle R; Fung, Stephen; du Moulin, Marcel; Buers, Insa; Suormala, Terttu; Burda, Patricie; Frapolli, Michele; Stucki, Martin; Nürnberg, Peter; Thiele, Holger; Robenek, Horst; Höhne, Wolfgang; Longo, Nicola; Pasquali, Marzia; Mengel, Eugen; Watkins, David; Shoubridge, Eric A; Majewski, Jacek; Rosenblatt, David S; Fowler, Brian; Rutsch, Frank; Baumgartner, Matthias R

    2012-10-01

    Inherited disorders of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) have provided important clues to how this vitamin, which is essential for hematological and neurological function, is transported and metabolized. We describe a new disease that results in failure to release vitamin B12 from lysosomes, which mimics the cblF defect caused by LMBRD1 mutations. Using microcell-mediated chromosome transfer and exome sequencing, we identified causal mutations in ABCD4, a gene that codes for an ABC transporter, which was previously thought to have peroxisomal localization and function. Our results show that ABCD4 colocalizes with the lysosomal proteins LAMP1 and LMBD1, the latter of which is deficient in the cblF defect. Furthermore, we show that mutations altering the putative ATPase domain of ABCD4 affect its function, suggesting that the ATPase activity of ABCD4 may be involved in intracellular processing of vitamin B12. PMID:22922874

  14. Differential Regulation of Hepatic Transcription Factors in the Wistar Rat Offspring Born to Dams Fed Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 Deficient Diets and Supplemented with Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Meher, Akshaya; Joshi, Asmita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional status of the mother is known to influence various metabolic adaptations required for optimal fetal development. These may be mediated by transcription factors like peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), which are activated by long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The objective of the current study was to examine the expression of different hepatic transcription factors and the levels of global methylation in the liver of the offspring born to dams fed micronutrient deficient (folic acid and vitamin B12) diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids. Female rats were divided into five groups (n?=?8/group) as follows; control, folic acid deficient (FD), vitamin B12 deficient (BD) and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented groups (FDO and BDO). Diets were given starting from pre-conception and continued throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups were dissected at the end of lactation. Liver tissues were removed; snap frozen and stored at ?80°C. Maternal micronutrients deficiency resulted in lower (p<0.05) levels of pup liver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) as compared to the control group. Pup liver PPAR? and PPAR? expression was lower (p<0.05) in the BD group although there were no differences in the expression of SREBP-1c, LXR? and RXR? expression. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group normalized (p<0.05) levels of both PPAR? and PPAR? but reduced (p<0.05) SREBP-1c, LXR? and RXR? expression. There was no change in any of the transcription factors in the pup liver in the FD group. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group reduced (p<0.05) PPAR?, SREBP-1c and RXR? expression. Pup liver global methylation levels were higher (p<0.01) in both the micronutrients deficient groups and could be normalized (p<0.05) by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Our novel findings suggest a role for omega-3 fatty acids in the one carbon cycle in influencing the hepatic expression of transcription factors in the offspring. PMID:24587285

  15. Some histological manifestations in the early postnatal vitamin B?? deficient albino rat 

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Elmer Marshall

    1955-01-01

    that vitamin B overcomes the de- leterious effects of a high protein diets Ferguson and Couch ('54) reported the accumulation of fat in the cardiac cells of vitamin B deficient chick embryos as well as in the convoluted tubules of the kidney and the hepatic... (geology) P SCIL XISCO1OSIXCAL NANIISSTATXOXS lX TEE EAXLT POSTXAWAL V1TAICX S~ SLFXClSXT ALXXXO 4g ' ACKNCNLBDGNKRTB The writer wishes to exyress his gratitude aa4 ayyroeiation te Ori 4+ B. Redlen for hia continued enccurageaent an4 yraotical adwice...

  16. The electronic structure and chemical bonding of vitamin B12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurmaev, E. Z.; Moewes, A.; Ouyang, L.; Randaccio, L.; Rulis, P.; Ching, W. Y.; Bach, M.; Neumann, M.

    2003-05-01

    The electronic structure and chemical bonding of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) and B12-derivative (methylcobalamin) are studied by means of X-ray emission (XES) and photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy. The obtained results are compared with ab initio electronic structure calculations using the orthogonalized linear combination of the atomic orbital method (OLCAO). We show that the chemical bonding in vitamin B12 is characterized by the strong Co-C bond and relatively weak axial Co-N bond. It is further confirmed that the Co-C bond in cyanocobalamin is stronger than that of methylcobalamin resulting in their different biological activity.

  17. Vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine levels in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Türksoy, Nuray; Bilici, Rabia; Yalç?ner, Altan; Özdemir, Y Özay; Örnek, Ibrahim; Tufan, Ali Evren; Kara, Ay?e

    2014-01-01

    It is known that elevated serum homocysteine, decreased folate, and low vitamin B12 serum levels are associated with poor cognitive function, cognitive decline, and dementia. Current literature shows that some psychiatric disorders, mainly affective and psychotic ones, can be related to the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine. These results can be explained by the importance of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine in carbon transfer metabolism (methylation), which is required for the production of serotonin as well as for other monoamine neurotransmitters and catecholamines. Earlier studies focused on the relationship between folate deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and depressive disorders. Although depressive and anxiety disorders show a common comorbidity pattern, there are few studies addressing the effect of impaired one-carbon metabolism in anxiety disorders – especially in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). This study aimed to measure the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine specifically in order to see if eventual alterations have an etiopathogenetic significance on patients with OCD. Serum vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine concentrations were measured in 35 patients with OCD and 22 controls. In addition, the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety were conducted for each patient. It was found that vitamin B12 levels were decreased and homocysteine levels were increased in some OCD patients. Homocysteine levels were positively correlated with Yale–Brown compulsion and Yale–Brown total scores. In conclusion, findings of this study suggest that some OCD patients might have vitamin B12 deficiency and higher homocysteine levels. PMID:25228807

  18. Low maternal vitamin B12 status during pregnancy is associated with reduced heart rate variability indices in young children.

    PubMed

    Sucharita, Sambashivaiah; Dwarkanath, Pratibha; Thomas, Tinku; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Kurpad, Anura V; Vaz, Mario

    2014-04-01

    Vitamin B12 plays a vital role in neuronal development, particularly in myelinogenesis. Demyelination of the autonomic nervous system occurs early in vitamin B12 deficiency. However, the impact of maternal vitamin B12 deficiency during pregnancy on neuronal function in the offspring is poorly documented. The objective of this study was to assess cardiac autonomic nervous activity in children born to mothers with low vitamin B12 status during pregnancy using heart rate variability (HRV) indices in the frequency domain. Seventy-nine healthy children between 3 and 8 years of age were evaluated from an ongoing birth cohort. The blood sample of the mother had been stored and was analysed for plasma vitamin B12 following enrolment of the child. Subjects were divided, based on the median maternal first trimester vitamin B12 status (114 pmol L(-1)), into lower (n = 40) and higher (n = 39) vitamin B12 status groups. A lead II electrocardiogram was recorded in the supine posture and subjected to HRV analysis. Low-frequency HRV in absolute units was reduced significantly in children of the lower vitamin B12 status group (P = 0.03) and was 53% that of the higher vitamin B12 status group. There was a significant association between low-frequency and total power HRV with cord blood vitamin B12 levels (? = 0.31 and 0.30, both P = 0.03). In summary, children born to mothers with a lower vitamin B12 status have a reduced cardiac sympathetic activity. The long-term implication of this needs to be evaluated by follow-up studies. PMID:22625423

  19. Most harmful algal bloom species are vitamin B1 and B12 auxotrophs.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ying Zhong; Koch, Florian; Gobler, Christopher J

    2010-11-30

    Eutrophication can play a central role in promoting harmful algal blooms (HABs), and therefore many HAB studies to date have focused on macronutrients (N, P, Si). Although a majority of algal species require exogenous B vitamins (i.e., auxotrophic for B vitamins), the possible importance of organic micronutrients such as B vitamins (B(1), B(7), B(12)) in regulating HABs has rarely been considered. Prior investigations of vitamins and algae have examined a relatively small number of dinoflagellates (n = 26) and a paucity of HAB species (n = 4). In the present study, the vitamin B(1), B(7), and B(12) requirements of 41 strains of 27 HAB species (19 dinoflagellates) were investigated. All but one species (two strains) of harmful algae surveyed required vitamin B(12), 20 of 27 species required B(1), and 10 of 27 species required B(7), all proportions higher than the previously reported for non-HAB species. Half-saturation (K(s)) constants of several HAB species for B(1) and B(12) were higher than those previously reported for other phytoplankton and similar to vitamin concentrations reported in estuaries. Cellular quotas for vitamins suggest that, in some cases, HAB demands for vitamins may exhaust standing stocks of vitamins in hours to days. The sum of these findings demonstrates the potentially significant ecological role of B-vitamins in regulating the dynamics of HABs. PMID:21068377

  20. Biochemical studies of vitamin B?? deficiency in the domestic fowl 

    E-print Network

    Mohan, Vallury Surya

    1959-01-01

    variety of methods, particularly by feeding diets containing vegetable proteins such as soybean oil meal (6) or alcohol-extracted casein (7) to rats and chickens. The effect of vitamin BI2 in alleviating thyrotoxic conditions induced by feeding thyroid...-catabolic action of cortisone was found to be counteracted by vitamin Big only in ad libitum experiments, but not under those of paired feeding conditions (53)* Meites and Feng (5*0 demonstrated that these differences were due to increased food intake when...

  1. Maximal Load of the Vitamin B12 Transport System: A Study on Mice Treated for Four Weeks with High-Dose Vitamin B12 or Cobinamide

    PubMed Central

    Lildballe, Dorte L.; Mutti, Elena; Birn, Henrik; Nexo, Ebba

    2012-01-01

    Several studies suggest that the vitamin B12 (B12) transport system can be used for the cellular delivery of B12-conjugated drugs, also in long-term treatment Whether this strategy will affect the endogenous metabolism of B12 is not known. To study the effect of treatment with excess B12 or an inert derivative, we established a mouse model using implanted osmotic minipumps to deliver saline, cobinamide (Cbi) (4.25 nmol/h), or B12 (1.75 nmol/h) for 27 days (n?=?7 in each group). B12 content and markers of B12 metabolism were analysed in plasma, urine, kidney, liver, and salivary glands. Both Cbi and B12 treatment saturated the transcobalamin protein in mouse plasma. Cbi decreased the content of B12 in tissues to 33–50% of the level in control animals but did not influence any of the markers examined. B12 treatment increased the tissue B12 level up to 350%. In addition, the transcript levels for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in kidneys and for transcobalamin and transcobalamin receptor in the salivary glands were reduced. Our study confirms the feasibility of delivering drugs through the B12 transport system but emphasises that B12 status should be monitored because there is a risk of decreasing the transport of endogenous B12. This risk may lead to B12 deficiency during prolonged treatment. PMID:23049711

  2. Maximal load of the vitamin B12 transport system: a study on mice treated for four weeks with high-dose vitamin B12 or cobinamide.

    PubMed

    Lildballe, Dorte L; Mutti, Elena; Birn, Henrik; Nexo, Ebba

    2012-01-01

    Several studies suggest that the vitamin B12 (B12) transport system can be used for the cellular delivery of B12-conjugated drugs, also in long-term treatment Whether this strategy will affect the endogenous metabolism of B12 is not known. To study the effect of treatment with excess B12 or an inert derivative, we established a mouse model using implanted osmotic minipumps to deliver saline, cobinamide (Cbi) (4.25 nmol/h), or B12 (1.75 nmol/h) for 27 days (n = 7 in each group). B12 content and markers of B12 metabolism were analysed in plasma, urine, kidney, liver, and salivary glands. Both Cbi and B12 treatment saturated the transcobalamin protein in mouse plasma. Cbi decreased the content of B12 in tissues to 33-50% of the level in control animals but did not influence any of the markers examined. B12 treatment increased the tissue B12 level up to 350%. In addition, the transcript levels for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in kidneys and for transcobalamin and transcobalamin receptor in the salivary glands were reduced. Our study confirms the feasibility of delivering drugs through the B12 transport system but emphasises that B12 status should be monitored because there is a risk of decreasing the transport of endogenous B12. This risk may lead to B12 deficiency during prolonged treatment. PMID:23049711

  3. Iron, folacin, vitamin B/sub 12/ and zinc status and immune response in the elderly

    SciTech Connect

    Henry-Christian, J.R.; Johnson, A.A.; Walters, C.S.; Greene, E.J.; Lindsey, A.A.

    1986-03-01

    The relationships of iron, folacin, vitamin B/sub 12/ and zinc status to cell-mediated immune response were investigated among 125 healthy, elderly persons (60-87 years of age). Plasma ferritin, plasma and red cell folate, and plasma vitamin B/sub 12/ levels were assayed immuno-radiometrically. Plasma and hair zinc levels were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Immune response was determined by transformation of peripheral blood lymphocytes after stimulation with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (con A), and in mixed lymphocyte reaction. Deficiencies of iron, folacin vitamin B/sub 12/ and zinc were each associated (independently) with significantly lower lymphocyte responses to PHA and con A, and mixed lymphocyte reaction (P < 0.01). These findings indicate a depression of cell-mediated immunity in elderly persons deficient in iron, folacin, vitamin B/sub 12/ or zinc. Further, they suggest that deficiencies of these nutrients may play a role in the depression of cell-mediated immunity with age, which in turn may lead to increased susceptibility to infectious diseases and cancer in the elderly.

  4. The Status of Vitamin B12 and Folate among Chinese Women: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Shaonong; Yan, Hong; Zeng, Lingxia; Wang, Quanli; Li, Qiang; Xiao, Shengbin; Fan, Xiaojing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the status of the vitamin B12 and folate of Chinese women living in northwest China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008 among Chinese women aged 10–49 years living in Shaanxi province of northwest China. A stratified multistage random sampling method was adopted to obtain a sample of 1170 women. The women were interviewed for collection of their background information and their plasma vitamin B12 and folate were measured with the immunoassay method. The status of both vitamins was evaluated and the prevalence of deficiency was estimated. Results The median value of the women was 214.5 pg/mL for vitamin B12 and 4.6 ng/mL for folate. The urban women had a significantly higher vitamin B12 (254.1 vs. 195.9 pg/mL) but lower folate (4.4 vs. 4.7 ng/mL) than rural women. Total prevalence of deficiency was 45.5% (95% CI: 42.6%?48.4%) for vitamin B12 and 14.7% (95% CI: 12.6%?16.8%) for folate. About 36% of women presented vitamin B12 deficiency alone, 5.2% belonged to folate deficiency alone and 9.5% was combined deficiency in both vitamins. More than 25% of the women were in marginal vitamin B12 status (200–299 pg/mL) and 60% in marginal status of folate (3–6 ng/mL). About 75.2% of rural women with folate deficiency were deficient in vitamin B12 and 46% for urban women. Quantile regression model found decreasing coefficient of folate status across 73 different quantiles of vitamin B12, which indicated that the women with folate deficiency had lower vitamin B12 significantly compared with those with no deficiency. Conclusions The deficiency of vitamin B12 and folate is still prevalent among the Chinese women in northwest China. Vitamin B12 deficiency could be more serious and the improvement of poor vitamin B12 status should be invoked when practicing the supplementation of folate against the neural tube defects in northwest China. PMID:25390898

  5. Effect of vitamin B6 deficiency on an antibody production in mice.

    PubMed

    Doke, S; Inagaki, N; Hayakawa, T; Tsuge, H

    1997-08-01

    To investigate the effects of vitamin B6 (B6) deficiency on an antibody production in BALB/c mice, the production of specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E antibody against dinitrophenylated ovalbumin (DNP-OVA) were measured by the methods of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The mice fed on on a B6 deficient diet for 4 weeks were immunized intraperitoneally with DNP-OVA absorbed to aluminum hydroxide gel. The contents of anti DNP-IgE antibodies in sera of B6 deficient mice significantly increased compared to that of control mice fed on a diet containing B6. In addition, Interleukin-4, which was known to induce IgE production in allergic reactions from splenocytes of B6 deficient mice, was approximately four-fold higher than that in control mice. According to the recovery test to the B6 deficient mice, that is feeding the control diet for 21 days, all values in terms of the body, thymus, and spleen weight, total serum protein, IgG, and anti DNP-IgE content, regained almost the same levels as those of control. These results suggest that B6 deficiency in mice would have relation to the stimulation of specific IgE antibody production against DNP-OVA. PMID:9301116

  6. No effect of vitamin B12 treatment on cognitive function and depression: a randomized placebo controlled study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Mette Hvas; Svend Juul; Lise Lauritzen; Ebba Nexø; Jørgen Ellegaard

    2004-01-01

    Background: Associations between vitamin B-12 deficiency and impaired cognitive function and depression have been reported. Methods: A randomized placebo controlled study including 140 individuals with an increased plasma methylmalonic acid (0.40–2.00 ?mol\\/l) not previously treated with vitamin B-12. Cognitive function was assessed by the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and a 12-words learning test. Symptoms of depression

  7. Effects of Zinc and Vitamin A Deficient Diets on the Hepatic Mobilization and Urinary Excretion of Vitamin A in Rats1'2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SUSAN M. CARNEY; BARBARA A. UNDERWOOD; ANDJOHN D. LOERCH

    Weanling rats were fed diets deficient in zinc (ZD), vitamin A (AD), or both (ZAD) for 3 weeks. Each then received 20 fig of ll,12-3H-retinyl acetate. Plasma retinol was monitored for radioactivity for 5 hours and urine for 6 days. Rats were killed and measurements made of plasma and liver vitamin A and plasma zinc. Plasma vitamin A was depressed

  8. Vitamin B6 deficient plants display increased sensitivity to high light and photo-oxidative stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Havaux; Brigitte Ksas; Agnieszka Szewczyk; Dominique Rumeau; Fabrice Franck; Stefano Caffarri; Christian Triantaphylidès

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin B6 is a collective term for a group of six interconvertible compounds: pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine and their phosphorylated derivatives. Vitamin B6 plays essential roles as a cofactor in a range of biochemical reactions. In addition, vitamin B6 is able to quench reactive oxygen species in vitro, and exogenously applied vitamin B6 protects plant cells against cell death induced

  9. Vitamin B12–dependent taurine synthesis regulates growth and bone mass

    PubMed Central

    Roman-Garcia, Pablo; Quiros-Gonzalez, Isabel; Mottram, Lynda; Lieben, Liesbet; Sharan, Kunal; Wangwiwatsin, Arporn; Tubio, Jose; Lewis, Kirsty; Wilkinson, Debbie; Santhanam, Balaji; Sarper, Nazan; Clare, Simon; Vassiliou, George S.; Velagapudi, Vidya R.; Dougan, Gordon; Yadav, Vijay K.

    2014-01-01

    Both maternal and offspring-derived factors contribute to lifelong growth and bone mass accrual, although the specific role of maternal deficiencies in the growth and bone mass of offspring is poorly understood. In the present study, we have shown that vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency in a murine genetic model results in severe postweaning growth retardation and osteoporosis, and the severity and time of onset of this phenotype in the offspring depends on the maternal genotype. Using integrated physiological and metabolomic analysis, we determined that B12 deficiency in the offspring decreases liver taurine production and associates with abrogation of a growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF1) axis. Taurine increased GH-dependent IGF1 synthesis in the liver, which subsequently enhanced osteoblast function, and in B12-deficient offspring, oral administration of taurine rescued their growth retardation and osteoporosis phenotypes. These results identify B12 as an essential vitamin that positively regulates postweaning growth and bone formation through taurine synthesis and suggests potential therapies to increase bone mass. PMID:24911144

  10. Folate, vitamin B12 and postmenopausal breast cancer in a prospective study of French women.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Folate, vitamin B12 and postmenopausal breast cancer in a prospective study of French women. Martin and examine whether the relation is affected by alcohol and intake of vitamin B2 and B12. Methods intake. The decreasing trend was most marked in women with higher folate and vitamin B12 intake. However

  11. ACETALDEHYDE-INDUCED CARDIAC CONTRACTILE DYSFUNCTION MAY BE ALLEVIATED BY VITAMIN B1 BUT NOT BY VITAMINS B6 OR B12

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NICHOLAS S. ABERLE; LARRY BURD; BONNIE H. ZHAO; JUN REN; Dakota Fetal

    2004-01-01

    Aims: Chronic alcohol exposure leads to a deficiency of group B vitamins and increased risk of alcoholic cardiomyopathy characterized by impaired ventricular contractility. This study was designed to examine the effect of group B vitamin supplementation on short-term exposure of the main alcohol metabolite acetaldehyde (ACA)-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction in rat ventricular myocytes. Methods: Mechanical contractile properties were evaluated by

  12. Vitamin D Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Alshishtawy, Moeness Moustafa

    2012-01-01

    Recently, scientists have generated a strong body of evidence providing new information about the preventive effect of vitamin D on a broad range of disorders. This evidence suggests that vitamin D is much more than a nutrient needed for bone health; it is an essential hormone required for regulation of a large number of physiological functions. Sufficient concentration of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is essential for optimising human health. This article reviews the present state-of-the-art knowledge about vitamin D’s status worldwide and refers to recent articles discussing some of the general background of vitamin D, including sources, benefits, deficiencies, and dietary requirements, especially in pregnancy. They offer evidence that vitamin D deficiency could be a major public health burden in many parts of the world, mostly because of sun deprivation. The article also discusses the debate about optimal concentration of circulating serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and explores different views on the amount of vitamin D supplementation required to achieve and maintain this concentration. PMID:22548132

  13. Thoughts on B-vitamins and dementia.

    PubMed

    Morris, Martha Clare; Schneider, Julie A; Tangney, Christine C

    2006-08-01

    The B-vitamins, including vitamins B12, B6, B1, B2, niacin (B3) and folate (B9), have been implicated as protective risk factors against cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. This commentary reviews the evidence to support protective relations of these vitamins, including consideration of known vitamin deficiency syndromes, theories of underlying biologic mechanisms, and the epidemiologic evidence. We also comment on the potential benefits and harms of vitamin supplementation as well as make recommendations for the direction of future studies. PMID:16917152

  14. [Stability of folic acid and vitamin B12 in TPN].

    PubMed

    Almodóvar, M J; Hernández Jaras, M V; León-Sanz, M; Ortuño, B; Estenoz, J; Negro Vega, E; Marfagón, N; Herreros de Tejada, A

    1991-01-01

    The stability of folic acid (FA) in mixtures of Total Parenteral Nutrition has been and is a controversial subject, with discussion concerning the influence of factors such as temperature, light and storage time. As regards the stability of the vitamin B12, there are few studies in scientific literature. For all those reasons, we consider it necessary to make a proper study to evaluate the influence of different factors in the stability of both vitamins. The study was made on 3 liter TPN bags of the EVA type, the composition of which was as follows: AA (85g), glucosa (225g), fat (50g), Na (86mEq), K (60 mEq), Ca (15 mEq), Cl (90 mEq), P (17 mmol) acetate (149 mEq) and 10 ml of MVI-12 which contain 400 micrograms of PA and 5 micrograms of Vitamin B 12. Consideration was also given to the stability of these two vitamins in the same diet, to which were added 10 ml of a commercial preparation of oligo-elements. Six TPN bags were prepared (without oligo-elements); two of them were kept in a fridge and protected from the light, two were kept at room temperature and protected from the light and the other two at room temperature without protection from the light. Samples were taken from all the bags immediately after their preparation and after 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The same process was carried with other TPN bags which did contain oligo-elements. The method for determining FA and Vitamin B12 was by radioassay.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1764534

  15. Human vitamin B12 absorption measurement by accelerator mass spectrometry using specifically

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    Human vitamin B12 absorption measurement by accelerator mass spectrometry using specifically to assimilate dietary vitamin B12. Assaying and understanding absorption and uptake of B12 is important because and showed plasma appearance and clearance curves consistent with the predicted behavior of the pure vitamin

  16. Vitamin B12 Activity of Chlorella vulgaris Beij and Anabaena cylindrical Lemm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Brown; W. F. J. Cuthbertson; G. E. FOGG

    1956-01-01

    MICROBIOLOGICAL tests by means of vitamin B12-dependent bacteria and Euglena gracilis have shown that higher plants contain only traces (less than 1 µgm. per 100 gm. dry weight) of vitamin B12, whereas microbiological activity corresponding to 10-50 µgm. vitamin B12 per 100 gm. dry weight has been reported in a number of algae.

  17. Vitamin B1 deficiency inhibits the increased conversion of tryptophan to nicotinamide in severe food-restricted rats.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Kobayashi, Ryoko; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    The conversion of tryptophan (Trp) ? nicotinamide (Nam) is an important pathway for supplying vitamin niacin. We reported the following two phenomena: (1) severe food restriction led to an increase in the Trp ? Nam conversion compared with free-access control group; (2) the conversion of Trp ? Nam is also increased by vitamin B1 deficiency compared with free-access control group. The present study was done to clarify whether or not a true reason about an increase in the Trp ? Nam conversion is a vitamin B1 deficiency or severe food restriction. The present results showed that vitamin B1 deficiency suppressed the increased conversion of Trp ? Nam induced by severe food restriction, probably by suppressing 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid 3,4-dioxygenase protein synthesis in liver. PMID:25253514

  18. Biochemical studies of vitamin B?? deficiency in the domestic fowl

    E-print Network

    Mohan, Vallury Surya

    1959-01-01

    of methionine in chicken liver xanthine dehydrogenase and betaine-homocys? teine transmethylase activity at eight weeks of age.... .........................................k-2 Effect of varying levels of methionine on the liver fat content of New Hampshire.............................. ....... 73 Table 6 Enzyme activity of whole embryo homogenates at 12 and 16 days of age.... ....... ....................... . 7^ Table 7 Betaine-homocysteine transmethylase and alkaline phosphatase activity of 16 day embryos. *,...........75 iii C H A P...

  19. Neonatal-Age Treatment with Vitamin A Delays Postweaning Vitamin A Deficiency and Increases the Antibody Response to T-cell Dependent Antigens in Young Adult Rats Fed a Vitamin A-Deficient Diet1,2

    PubMed Central

    Sankaranarayanan, Sandhya; Ma, Yifan; Bryson, Mary C.; Li, Nan-qian; Ross, A. Catharine

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin A supplementation for infants and young children is recommended by WHO/UNICEF for countries with a high prevalence of vitamin A deficiency, and vitamin A is often administered at immunization contacts. Using a rat model, we tested whether supplementation with vitamin A or other retinoids at the time of neonatal immunization has prospective benefit in terms of preventing postweaning vitamin A deficiency and promoting antibody responses to T-cell dependent (TD) antigens administered at the neonatal stage and at the young adult stage. Rats were treated orally on postnatal d 6–8 with oil (placebo control), vitamin A, retinoic acid, or a combination of both (VARA) (n ? 12/group), and immunized with tetanus toxoid (TT) on d 7. The primary anti-TT response was measured on d 21, after which weanling rats were fed the vitamin A-deficient diet until ~ 10 wk. At 8 wk, rats were immunized again with TT to determine the recall response, and with a novel TD antigen, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), to assess the adult primary response. None of the supplements affected the plasma titer of anti-TT immunoglobulinG (IgG) on d 21 (P = 0.25). However, neonatal-age supplementation with vitamin A or VARA at the young adult stage resulted in: >5 times higher anti-TT IgG recall response (P < 0.01); 5- and 9-times higher anti-KLH primary IgM and IgG responses, respectively (P < 0.05), and plasma retinol in the normal range (~1.0 µmol/L vs. ~0.35 µmol/L in retinoic acid-treated and control groups, P < 0.0001). We conclude that early-life supplementation with vitamin A or VARA can prospectively benefit the primary and recall antibody responses to TD antigens administered at the young adult stage, which may involve the maintenance of normal plasma retinol levels. PMID:17449586

  20. Vitamin B-12 and folate status in relation to decline in scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination in the Framingham Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochemical evidence of low vitamin B-12 status is common in seniors, but its clinical relevance is unclear. Vitamin B-12 deficiency can result in rapid, irreversible cognitive decline – a phenomenon that has been linked to high folate status. Our objective was to investigate the cognitive significa...

  1. Dose-response effects of long-acting injectable vitamin B12 plus selenium (Se) on the vitamin B12 and Se status of ewes and their lambs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ND Grace; SO Knowles

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of increasing doses of long-acting injectable vitamin B12 plus selenium (Se) given pre-mating on the vitamin B12 and Se status of ewes and their lambs from birth to weaning.METHODS: Four groups of 24 Poll Dorset ewes each were injected 4 weeks pre-mating with different doses of a long-acting vitamin B12 + Se product, containing 3

  2. Determination of Ternary Mixtures of Vitamins (B1; B6 ,B 12) by Zero-Crossing Derivative Spectrophotometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ikbal KOYUNCU

    A new method for determining ternary mixtures of vitamin B1; B6 and B12 using second derivative spectrophotometry is described. The procedure is accurate, nondestructive and does not require any separation step or the solving of equations. Calibration graphs were linear up to 20 gml 1 of vitamin B1 at 228.9 nm (r=0.9999), vitamin B6 at 309.6 nm (r=0.9999) and vitamin

  3. Sugar and Chromosome Stability: Clastogenic Effects of Sugars in Vitamin B6-Deficient Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gatti, Maurizio; Vernì, Fiammetta

    2014-01-01

    Pyridoxal 5?-phosphate (PLP), the active form of vitamin B6, has been implicated in preventing human pathologies, such as diabetes and cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of PLP are still unclear. Using Drosophila as a model system, we show that PLP deficiency, caused either by mutations in the pyridoxal kinase-coding gene (dPdxk) or by vitamin B6 antagonists, results in chromosome aberrations (CABs). The CAB frequency in PLP-depleted cells was strongly enhanced by sucrose, glucose or fructose treatments, and dPdxk mutant cells consistently displayed higher glucose contents than their wild type counterparts, an effect that is at least in part a consequence of an acquired insulin resistance. Together, our results indicate that a high intracellular level of glucose has a dramatic clastogenic effect if combined with PLP deficiency. This is likely due to an elevated level of Advanced Glycation End-products (AGE) formation. Treatment of dPdxk mutant cells with ?-lipoic acid (ALA) lowered both AGE formation and CAB frequency, suggesting a possible AGE-CAB cause-effect relationship. The clastogenic effect of glucose in PLP-depleted cells is evolutionarily conserved. RNAi-mediated silencing of PDXK in human cells or treatments with PLP inhibitors resulted in chromosome breakage, which was potentiated by glucose and reduced by ALA. These results suggest that patients with concomitant hyperglycemia and vitamin B6 deficiency may suffer chromosome damage. This might impact cancer risk, as CABs are a well-known tumorigenic factor. PMID:24651653

  4. The use of blood concentrations of vitamins and their respective functional indicators to define folate and vitamin B12 status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years there has been growing interest in the vitamins folic acid and vitamin B12 because of the realization that the status of these vitamins in populations is less than adequate, and that such inadequacy may be linked to adverse public health outcomes. This concern has prompted the United...

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Direct exchange of vitamin B12 is demonstrated by

    E-print Network

    Cicuta, Pietro

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Direct exchange of vitamin B12 is demonstrated by modelling the growth dynamics Mesorhizobium loti supplies vitamin B12 (cobalamin) to the freshwater green alga Lobomonas rostrata, which of all microalgae are dependent on an exogenous source of cobalamin for growth, and this vitamin

  6. Insights into the Evolution of Vitamin B12 Auxotrophy from Sequenced Algal Genomes

    E-print Network

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    Insights into the Evolution of Vitamin B12 Auxotrophy from Sequenced Algal Genomes Katherine E Abstract Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a dietary requirement for humans because it is an essential cofactor microalgal species need the vitamin as a growth supplement, but there is no phylogenetic relationship between

  7. Decreased vitamin B12 availability induces ER stress through impaired SIRT1-deacetylation of HSF1

    PubMed Central

    Ghemrawi, R; Pooya, S; Lorentz, S; Gauchotte, G; Arnold, C; Gueant, J-L; Battaglia-Hsu, S-F

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a key determinant of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-dependent epigenomic cellular regulations related to methylation/acetylation and its deficiency produces neurodegenerative disorders by elusive mechanisms. Sirtuin 1 deacetylase (SIRT1) triggers cell response to nutritional stress through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Recently, we have established a N1E115 dopaminergic cell model by stable expression of a transcobalamin–oleosin chimera (TO), which impairs cellular availability of vitamin B12, decreases methionine synthase activity and SAM level, and reduces cell proliferation. In contrast, oleosin-transcobalamin chimera (OT) does not modify the phenotype of transfected cells. Presently, the impaired cellular availability of vitamin B12 in TO cells activated irreversible ER stress pathways, with increased P-eIF-2?, P-PERK, P-IRE1?, ATF6, ATF4, decreased chaperon proteins and increased pro-apoptotic markers, CHOP and cleaved caspase 3, through reduced SIRT1 expression and consequently greater acetylation of heat-shock factor protein 1 (HSF1). Adding either B12, SIRT1, or HSF1 activators as well as overexpressing SIRT1 or HSF1 dramatically reduced the activation of ER stress pathways in TO cells. Conversely, impairing SIRT1 and HSF1 by siRNA, expressing a dominant negative form of HSF1, or adding a SIRT1 inhibitor led to B12-dependent ER stress in OT cells. Addition of B12 abolished the activation of stress transducers and apoptosis, and increased the expression of protein chaperons in OT cells subjected to thapsigargin, a strong ER stress stimulator. AdoX, an inhibitor of methyltransferase activities, produced similar effects than decreased B12 availability on SIRT1 and ER stress by a mechanism related to increased expression of hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1). Taken together, these data show that cellular vitamin B12 has a strong modulating influence on ER stress in N1E115 dopaminergic cells. The impaired cellular availability in vitamin B12 induces irreversible ER stress by greater acetylation of HSF1 through decreased SIRT1 expression, whereas adding vitamin B12 produces protective effects in cells subjected to ER stress stimulation. PMID:23519122

  8. Decreased vitamin B12 availability induces ER stress through impaired SIRT1-deacetylation of HSF1.

    PubMed

    Ghemrawi, R; Pooya, S; Lorentz, S; Gauchotte, G; Arnold, C; Gueant, J-L; Battaglia-Hsu, S-F

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a key determinant of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-dependent epigenomic cellular regulations related to methylation/acetylation and its deficiency produces neurodegenerative disorders by elusive mechanisms. Sirtuin 1 deacetylase (SIRT1) triggers cell response to nutritional stress through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Recently, we have established a N1E115 dopaminergic cell model by stable expression of a transcobalamin-oleosin chimera (TO), which impairs cellular availability of vitamin B12, decreases methionine synthase activity and SAM level, and reduces cell proliferation. In contrast, oleosin-transcobalamin chimera (OT) does not modify the phenotype of transfected cells. Presently, the impaired cellular availability of vitamin B12 in TO cells activated irreversible ER stress pathways, with increased P-eIF-2?, P-PERK, P-IRE1?, ATF6, ATF4, decreased chaperon proteins and increased pro-apoptotic markers, CHOP and cleaved caspase 3, through reduced SIRT1 expression and consequently greater acetylation of heat-shock factor protein 1 (HSF1). Adding either B12, SIRT1, or HSF1 activators as well as overexpressing SIRT1 or HSF1 dramatically reduced the activation of ER stress pathways in TO cells. Conversely, impairing SIRT1 and HSF1 by siRNA, expressing a dominant negative form of HSF1, or adding a SIRT1 inhibitor led to B12-dependent ER stress in OT cells. Addition of B12 abolished the activation of stress transducers and apoptosis, and increased the expression of protein chaperons in OT cells subjected to thapsigargin, a strong ER stress stimulator. AdoX, an inhibitor of methyltransferase activities, produced similar effects than decreased B12 availability on SIRT1 and ER stress by a mechanism related to increased expression of hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1). Taken together, these data show that cellular vitamin B12 has a strong modulating influence on ER stress in N1E115 dopaminergic cells. The impaired cellular availability in vitamin B12 induces irreversible ER stress by greater acetylation of HSF1 through decreased SIRT1 expression, whereas adding vitamin B12 produces protective effects in cells subjected to ER stress stimulation. PMID:23519122

  9. Esophageal and Gastric Cardia Cancer Risk and Folate and Vitamin B12-related Polymorphisms in Linxian, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachael Z. Stolzenberg-Solomon; You-Lin Qiao; Christian C. Abnet; D. Luke Ratnasinghe; Sanford M. Dawsey; Zhi Wei Dong; Philip R. Taylor; Steven D. Mark

    2003-01-01

    Linxian, a rural county in North Central China, has among the highest rates of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) in the world. Its inhabitants have documented chronic nutritional inadequacies, including folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies. Using a cohort we have been studying in Linxian since 1985, we examined the relationship between incident ESCC and GCA

  10. Bestimmung der wasserlöslichen Vitamine B 1 , B 2 , B 6 und B 12 in Milch durch HPLC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland Gauch; Urs Leuenberger; Urs Müller

    1992-01-01

    Summary Simple methods of determining the water-soluble vitamins B1, B2, B6 and B12 in milk by HPLC are described. Compared to existing procedures, the following improvements can be realized. The oxidation of vitamin B1 to thiochrome is stopped by the addition of sodium sulphite. This step significantly increases repeatability. Thiochrome is then extracted with butan-1-ol, which results in fewer co-extracts

  11. Discovery of Novel Sources of Vitamin B12 in Traditional Korean Foods from Nutritional Surveys of Centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Lee, Mee Sook; Oh, Se In; Park, Sang Chul

    2010-01-01

    Human longevity can be explained by a variety of factors, among them, nutritional factor would play an important role. In our study of Korean centenarians for their longevity, the apparent nutritional imbalance in the traditional semi-vegetarian diet raised a special attention, especially on vitamin B12 status, supplied by animal foods. Interestingly, we found that the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficient Korean centenarians was not higher compared with those from Western nations with animal-oriented traditional foods. We assumed that there might be some unveiled sources for vitamin B12 in the Korean traditional foods. Screening of vitamin B12 contents has revealed that some traditional soybean-fermented foods, such as Doenjang and Chunggukjang, and seaweeds contain considerable amounts of vitamin B12. Taken together, it can be summarized that the traditional foods, especially of fermentation, might be evaluated for compensation of the nutritional imbalance in the vegetable-oriented dietary pattern by supplying vitamin B12, resulting in maintenance of health status. PMID:21436999

  12. Modeling a methylmalonic acid–derived change point for serum vitamin B-12 for adults in NHANES1234

    PubMed Central

    Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Carmel, Ralph; Green, Ralph; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Sempos, Christopher T; Carriquiry, Alicia; Yetley, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    Background: No consensus exists about which cutoff point should be applied for serum vitamin B-12 (SB-12) concentrations to define vitamin B-12 status in population-based research. Objective: The study's aim was to identify whether a change point exists at which the relation between plasma methylmalonic acid (MMA) and SB-12 changes slope to differentiate between inadequate and adequate vitamin B-12 status by using various statistical models. Design: We used data on adults (?19 y; n = 12,683) from NHANES 1999–2004—a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey. We evaluated 6 piece-wise polynomial and exponential decay models that used different control levels for known covariates. Results: The MMA-defined change point for SB-12 varied depending on the statistical model used. A linear-splines model was determined to best fit the data, as determined by the approximate permutation test; 3 slopes relating SB-12 and MMA and resulting in 2 change points and 3 subgroups were shown. The first group (SB-12 <126 pmol/L) was small and had the highest MMA concentration (median: 281 nmol/L; 95% CI: 245, 366 nmol/L; n = 157, 1.2%); many in this group could be considered at high risk of severe deficiency because combined abnormalities of MMA and homocysteine were very frequent and the concentrations themselves were significantly higher. The highest SB-12 group (SB-12 >287 pmol/L; n = 8569, 67.6%) likely had adequate vitamin B-12 status (median MMA: 120 nmol/L; 95% CI: 119, 125 nmol/L). The vitamin B-12 status of the sizable intermediate group (n = 3957, 33%) was difficult to interpret. Conclusions: The 3 distinct slopes for the relation between SB-12 and MMA challenges the conventional use of one cutoff point for classifying vitamin B-12 status. In epidemiologic research, the use of one cutoff point would fail to separate the small, severely deficient group from the intermediate group that has neither normal nor clearly deficient vitamin B-12 concentrations (ie, unknown vitamin B-12 status). This intermediate group requires further characterization. PMID:23803883

  13. How Nature Builds the Pigments of Life: The Conquest of Vitamin B12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battersby, Alan R.

    1994-06-01

    In part because humans cannot synthesize vitamin B12 and must obtain it from organisms that produce it and because B12 deficiency leads to pernicious anemia, it has been important to understand how microorganisms build this quite complex substance. As shown here, an interdisciplinary attack was needed, which combined the strengths of genetics, molecular biology, enzymology, chemistry, and spectroscopy. This allowed the step-by-step synthetic pathway of B12 to be elucidated, and this approach has acted as a model for future research on the synthesis of substances in living organisms. One practical outcome of such an approach has been the improved availability of B12 for animal feedstuffs and human health.

  14. The effect of vitamin C deficiency and chronic ultraviolet-B exposure on corneal ultrastructure: a preliminary investigation

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Sally; Cafaro, Thamara A.; Boguslawska, Patrycja J.; Kamma-Lorger, Christina S.; Boote, Craig; Harris, Jonathan; Young, Robert; Hiller, Jennifer; Terrill, Nicholas; Meek, Keith M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose In the visually debilitating condition of climatic droplet keratopathy, corneal transparency is progressively lost. Although the precise cause of the disease and the mechanism by which it progresses are not known, a lifetime exposure to high solar radiation and a vitamin C–deficient diet may be involved in its development. This study examines the effect of dietary ascorbate levels and ultraviolet (UV)-B exposure on corneal stromal structure. Methods Eight guinea pigs were divided into four treatment groups (A, B, C, and D). For 15 weeks, Groups A and C were fed an ascorbate-rich diet (2 mg/100 g bodyweight/day), while Groups B and D received an ascorbate-deficient diet (0.07 mg/100 g bodyweight/day). For the last 12 weeks of the study, Groups C and D also experienced chronic UVB exposure (0.12 J/cm2 for 40 min/day). Following euthanasia, the corneas were enucleated and their stromal ultrastructure examined using X-ray scattering and electron microscopy. Results UVB exposure resulted in an increased corneal thickness (p<0.001), but this was not accompanied by a widespread expansion of the collagen fibrillar array, and in the case of ascorbate-deficient animals, stromal thickening was associated with the compaction of collagen fibrils (p<0.01). Neither UVB exposure nor ascorbic acid deficiency caused any change in the average diameter or D-periodicity of the stromal collagen fibrils. Conclusions UVB-induced changes in the corneal ultrastructure were most pronounced in animals fed an ascorbic acid–deficient diet. This suggests that ascorbic acid may play a vital role in protecting the corneal stroma from the harmful effects of UVB. PMID:22171156

  15. Deficiency of PdxR in Streptococcus mutans affects vitamin B6 metabolism, acid tolerance response and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Liao, S; Bitoun, J P; Nguyen, A H; Bozner, D; Yao, X; Wen, Z T

    2015-08-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a key etiological agent of the human dental caries, lives primarily on the tooth surface in tenacious biofilms. The SMU864 locus, designated pdxR, is predicted to encode a member of the novel MocR/GabR family proteins, which are featured with a winged helix DNA-binding N-terminal domain and a C-terminal domain highly homologous to the pyridoxal phosphate-dependent aspartate aminotransferases. A pdxR-deficient mutant, TW296, was constructed using allelic exchange. PdxR deficiency in S. mutans had little effect on cell morphology and growth when grown in brain heart infusion. However, when compared with its parent strain, UA159, the PdxR-deficient mutant displayed major defects in acid tolerance response and formed significantly fewer biofilms (P < 0.01). When analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction, PdxR deficiency was found to drastically reduce expression of an apparent operon encoding a pyridoxal kinase (SMU865) and a pyridoxal permease (SMU866) of the salvage pathway of vitamin B6 biosynthesis. In addition, PdxR deficiency also altered the expression of genes for ClpL protease, glucosyltransferase B and adhesin SpaP, which are known to play important roles in stress tolerance and biofilm formation. Consistently, PdxR-deficiency affected the growth of the deficient mutant when grown in defined medium with and without vitamin B6 . Further studies revealed that although S. mutans is known to require vitamin B6 to grow in defined medium, B6 vitamers, especially pyridoxal, were strongly inhibitory at millimolar concentrations, against S. mutans growth and biofilm formation. Our results suggest that PdxR in S. mutans plays an important role in regulation of vitamin B6 metabolism, acid tolerance response and biofilm formation. PMID:25421565

  16. B Vitamins in Breast Milk: Relative Importance of Maternal Status and Intake, and Effects on Infant Status and Function12

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Lindsay H.

    2012-01-01

    Infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 mo of life. However, maternal deficiency of some micronutrients, conveniently classified as Group I micronutrients during lactation, can result in low concentrations in breast milk and subsequent infant deficiency preventable by improving maternal status. This article uses thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and choline as examples and reviews the evidence for risk of inadequate intakes by infants in the first 6 mo of life. Folate, a Group II micronutrient, is included for comparison. Information is presented on forms and concentrations in human milk, analytical methods, the basis of current recommended intakes for infants and lactating women, and effects of maternal supplementation. From reports of maternal and/or infant deficiency, concentrations in milk were noted as well as any consequences for infant function. These milk values were used to estimate the percent of recommended daily intake that infants fed by a deficient mother could obtain from her milk. Estimates were 60% for thiamin, 53% for riboflavin, 80% for vitamin B-6, 16% for vitamin B-12, and 56% for choline. Lack of data limits the accuracy and generalizability of these conclusions, but the overall picture that emerges is consistent across nutrients and points to an urgent need to improve the information available on breast milk quality. PMID:22585913

  17. Effect of vitamin B complex on neurotransmission and neurite outgrowth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Fujii; Hiroko Matsumoto; Hirotsugu Yamamoto

    1996-01-01

    1.1. The effect of vitamin B complex (vitamin B1, B6 and B12) was studied on nerve conduction velocity in acrylamide-neuropathy rats maintained on refined semisynthetic complete vitamin and vitamin B-deficient diets in vivo and on neurite outgrowth in vitro using cells obtained from dorsal root ganglions of mice.2.2. Acrylamide neuropathy was clearer in the group maintained on a refined semisynthetic

  18. Contents of vitamins B 1, B 2, B 6, and B 12 in pork and meat products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J Esteve; R Farré; A Fr??gola; C Pilamunga

    2002-01-01

    The concentration of B vitamins (B1, B2, B6, and B12) was determined in three pork muscles (Longissimus dorsi, loin; Biceps femoris, ham; and Triceps brachii, shoulder) and in pork and other meat products (cooked, pickled, and cured), of importance because they are consumed in high quantities. The results were compared with values reported by other authors and their contribution to

  19. Juvenile paget's disease in an Iranian kindred with vitamin D deficiency and novel homozygous TNFRSF11B mutation.

    PubMed

    Saki, Forough; Karamizadeh, Zohreh; Nasirabadi, Shiva; Mumm, Steven; McAlister, William H; Whyte, Michael P

    2013-06-01

    Juvenile Paget's disease (JPD) is a rare heritable osteopathy characterized biochemically by markedly increased serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity emanating from generalized acceleration of skeletal turnover. Affected infants and children typically suffer bone pain and fractures and deformities, become deaf, and have macrocranium. Some who survive to young adult life develop blindness from retinopathy engendered by vascular microcalcification. Most cases of JPD are caused by osteoprotegerin (OPG) deficiency due to homozygous loss-of-function mutations within the TNFRSF11B gene that encodes OPG. We report a 3-year-old Iranian girl with JPD and craniosynostosis who had vitamin D deficiency in infancy. She presented with fractures during the first year-of-life followed by bone deformities, delayed development, failure-to-thrive, and pneumonias. At 1 year-of-age, biochemical studies of serum revealed marked hyperphosphatasemia together with low-normal calcium and low inorganic phosphate and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Several family members in previous generations of this consanguineous kindred may also have had JPD and vitamin D deficiency. Mutation analysis showed homozygosity for a unique missense change (c.130T>C, p.Cys44Arg) in TNFRSF11B that would compromise the cysteine-rich domain of OPG that binds receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL). Both parents were heterozygous for this mutation. The patient's serum OPG level was extremely low and RANKL level markedly elevated. She responded well to rapid oral vitamin D repletion followed by pamidronate treatment given intravenously. Our patient is the first Iranian reported with JPD. Her novel mutation in TNFRSF11B plus vitamin D deficiency in infancy was associated with severe JPD uniquely complicated by craniosynostosis. Pamidronate treatment with vitamin D sufficiency can be effective therapy for the skeletal disease caused by the OPG deficiency form of JPD. PMID:23322328

  20. Juvenile Paget’s Disease In An Iranian Kindred With Vitamin D Deficiency And Novel Homozygous TNFRSF11B Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Saki, Forough; Karamizadeh, Zohreh; Nasirabadi, Shiva; Mumm, Steven; McAlister, William H.; Whyte, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile Paget’s disease (JPD) is a rare heritable osteopathy characterized biochemically by markedly increased serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity emanating from generalized acceleration of skeletal turnover. Affected infants and children typically suffer bone pain and fractures and deformities, become deaf, and have macrocranium. Some who survive to young adult life develop blindness from retinopathy engendered by vascular microcalcification. Most cases of JPD are caused by osteoprotegerin (OPG) deficiency due to homozygous loss-of-function mutations within the TNFRSF11B gene that encodes OPG. We report a 3-year-old Iranian girl with JPD and craniosynostosis who had vitamin D deficiency in infancy. She presented with fractures during the first year-of-life followed by bone deformities, delayed development, failure-to-thrive, and pneumonias. At 1 year-of-age, biochemical studies of serum revealed marked hyperphosphatasemia together with low-normal calcium and low inorganic phosphate and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Several family members in previous generations of this consanguineous kindred may also have had JPD and vitamin D deficiency. Mutation analysis showed homozygosity for a unique missense change (c.130T>C, p.Cys44Arg) in TNFRSF11B that would compromise the cysteine-rich domain of OPG that binds receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL). Both parents were heterozygous for this mutation. The patient’s serum OPG level was extremely low and RANKL level markedly elevated. She responded well to rapid oral vitamin D repletion followed by pamidronate treatment given intravenously. Our patient is the first Iranian reported with JPD. Her novel mutation in TNFRSF11B plus vitamin D deficiency in infancy was associated with severe JPD uniquely complicated by craniosynostosis. Pamidronate treatment with vitamin D sufficiency can be effective treatment for the skeletal disease caused by the OPG deficiency form of JPD. PMID:23322328

  1. Vitamin C, vitamin B12, folate and the risk of osteoporotic fractures. A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ramírez, María José; Palma Pérez, Silvia; Delgado-Martínez, Alberto D; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; De la Fuente Arrillaga, Carmen; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel

    2007-11-01

    Water-soluble vitamins influence the development of an adequate structure of bone tissue, but there is scant information relating them with osteoporotic fractures. We analyze whether serum vitamin C, vitamin B12, and erythrocyte folate, or dietary intake of vitamin C and folate, are related with osteoporotic fractures in the elderly. A hospital-based case-control study was carried out at the Hospital of Jaén (167 cases, 167 controls), Spain. Cases were defined as patients aged 65 or more years with a low-energy fracture. Controls were people without fracture, matched for age and sex with cases. Diet was assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Serum vitamin C was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Folic acid and vitamin B12 were measured using procedures of competitive or immunometric immunoassay. Multivariable analyses were also fitted to adjust for confounding using analysis of covariance (for the comparison of adjusted means) and conditional logistic regression (for estimating adjusted odds ratios). A statistically significant difference between cases and controls for vitamin C blood levels was found, being higher for controls (p = 0.01). Analysis of the association between serum vitamin C and fracture risk showed a linear trend (p = 0.03) with a significantly reduced risk for the upper quartile (OR = 0.31; 95% CI 0.11-0.87). The intake of vitamin C, folic acid, and B12 was not related to fracture risk, nor was there any association with erythrocyte folate or serum vitamin B12. In conclusion, serum vitamin C levels were lower in cases with osteoporotic fractures than in controls. PMID:18622945

  2. B-vitamin deficiency is protective against DSS-induced colitis in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin deficiencies are common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Homocysteine (Hcys) is a thrombogenic amino acid produced from methionine (Met) and its increase in IBD patients indicates a disruption of Met metabolism, yet the role of Hcys and Met metabolism in IBD is not well und...

  3. Competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND Few accurate data exist on the concentration of vitamin B12 in human milk. Binding of the vitamin to haptocorrin (HC) can interfere with the assay if not removed by pretreatment, and very low values can occur in women with poor B12 status. This study evaluated two competitive enzyme bind...

  4. Pulmonary hypertension associated with scurvy and vitamin deficiencies in an autistic child.

    PubMed

    Duvall, Melody G; Pikman, Yana; Kantor, David B; Ariagno, Katelyn; Summers, Lisa; Sectish, Theodore C; Mullen, Mary P

    2013-12-01

    Restricted dietary intake is common among children with behavioral issues. Here we report a case of a severely autistic child who presented initially with limp but who soon developed cough, tachypnea, hypoxia, and tachycardia. An echocardiogram revealed evidence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) with severely dilated right ventricle and elevated right-sided pressures. The etiology of his PH was unclear but further laboratory evaluation demonstrated severe nutritional deficiencies, in particular an undetectable ascorbic acid (vitamin C) level as well as deficient levels of thiamine (vitamin B1), pyridoxine (vitamin B6), cobalamin (vitamin B12), and vitamin D. Repletion of these vitamins was associated with resolution of his PH and his musculoskeletal complaints. We report this case and a review of the relevant literature as a clinical lesson to expand the differential diagnosis of limp in children who may be difficult to assess as well as to report on an unusual association between severe vitamin deficiencies and PH. PMID:24190688

  5. Vitamin B12 Metabolism during Pregnancy and in Embryonic Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Garcia, Maira A.; Rosenblatt, David S.; Jerome-Majewska, Loydie A.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) is required for cellular metabolism. It is an essential coenzyme in mammals for two reactions: the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by the enzyme methionine synthase and the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Symptoms of Cbl deficiency are hematological, neurological and cognitive, including megaloblastic anaemia, tingling and numbness of the extremities, gait abnormalities, visual disturbances, memory loss and dementia. During pregnancy Cbl is essential, presumably because of its role in DNA synthesis and methionine synthesis; however, there are conflicting studies regarding an association between early pregnancy loss and Cbl deficiency. We here review the literature about the requirement for Cbl during pregnancy, and summarized what is known of the expression pattern and function of genes required for Cbl metabolism in embryonic mouse models. PMID:24025485

  6. A relationship between vitamin B sub 12 , folate, ascorbic acid, and mercury metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Zorn, N.E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of megadoses of vitamin B{sub 12}, folate, and vitamin C on the in vivo methylation of mercuric chloride was studied in guinea pigs. The incorporation of high levels of vitamin B{sub 12}, folate, and vitamin C resulted in a decrease in both inorganic mercury and methylmercury concentrations in all tissues except the lungs and heart compared to controls. However, percent methylmercury levels tended to increase with vitamin treatment. The addition of megadoses of vitamin B{sub 12} fed either singularly or in combination with the other vitamins resulted in increased methylmercury concentrations in the liver, spleen, and kidney tissues of the guinea pig. Moreover, percent methylmercury levels increased with B{sub 12} treatment in the liver, heart, and kidney. Incorporation of high levels of folate into the dietary regime also affected the mercury methylation process particularly in the liver, heart, kidney and hair tissues. However, this effect was observed most often in animals fed both B{sub 12} and folate. Vitamin C appears to play a synergistic role with vitamin B{sub 12} and/or folate in the methylation of mercury.

  7. Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia in a Turkish Cohort: Association of Vitamin B12

    PubMed Central

    Eroglu, Nilgun; Kandur, Yasar; Kalay, Salih; Kalay, Zuhal; Guney, Ozgur

    2015-01-01

    Background Deficiency of vitamin B12 (VitB12) causes failure of erytrocyte maturation leading to cell lysis. Red blood cell lysis causes excess heme production that ends with hyperbilirubinemia. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the role of VitB12 in neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (NNH) with prolonged jaundice and to compare patients with control group who did not develop hyperbilirubinemia. Methods A total of 20 patients (M/F = 13/7) with jaundice and 20 healthy controls (M/F = 11/9) were included in the study. Results The mean indirect bilirubin level of patient group was 9.91 ± 1.90 mg/dL (6.71 - 15.2 mg/dL) and control group was 3.18 ± 1.24 mg/dL (1.16 - 4.96 mg/dL). The mean VitB12 level of patient group was 119.9 ± 43.9 ng/L (42.35 - 178 ng/L) and the control group was 286.17 ± 97.43 ng/L (207.90 - 624.10 ng/L). There was a statistically significant difference in terms of VitB12 level (< 0.001) between the study groups. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study is the first study showing that low VitB12 level has been observed as a risk factor in NNH for the first time in the literature. We suggest that prophylactic use of VitB12 by pregnant women so will greatly benefit to prevent VitB12 deficiency and its complications in the first years of life such as NNH. PMID:26015822

  8. Genetic disorders of vitamin B12 metabolism: eight complementation groups – eight genes

    PubMed Central

    Froese, D. Sean; Gravel, Roy A.

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) is an essential nutrient in human metabolism. Genetic diseases of vitamin B12 utilisation constitute an important fraction of inherited newborn disease. Functionally, B12 is the cofactor for methionine synthase and methylmalonyl CoA mutase. To function as a cofactor, B12 must be metabolised through a complex pathway that modifies its structure and takes it through subcellular compartments of the cell. Through the study of inherited disorders of vitamin B12 utilisation, the genes for eight complementation groups have been identified, leading to the determination of the general structure of vitamin B12 processing and providing methods for carrier testing, prenatal diagnosis and approaches to treatment. PMID:21114891

  9. Coexistence of pernicious anemia and prostate cancer - 'an experiment of nature' involving vitamin B12 modulation of prostate cancer growth and metabolism: a case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn Tisman; Seth Kutik; Christa Rainville

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This report presents the clinical and laboratory course of a patient with prostate cancer and severe vitamin B12 deficiency undergoing watchful waiting for prostate cancer. The possible interaction between therapy for B12 deficiency and the natural course of prostate cancer is presented. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 75-year-old Chinese man with prostate cancer and pernicious anemia.

  10. RP-HPLC Determination of vitamins B1 ,B 3 ,B 6, folic acid and B12 in multivitamin tablets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JASMINA BRBORIC; SOTE VLADIMIROV

    2005-01-01

    A simple and sensitive reversed-phase, ion-pair HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of B-group vitamins, thiamine chloride hydro- chloride (B1), nicotinamide (B3), pyridoxine hydrochloride (B6) and folic acid in Pentovit ® coated tablets. The cyanocobalamine (B12) was determined separately, because of its low concentration in the investigated multivitamin preparation. RP-HPLC analysis was per- formed with a

  11. Folic Acid and Vitamin B12 Fortification of Flour: A Global Basic Food Security Requirement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Godfrey P. Oakley

    Folic acid is an essential water soluble B vitamin which has been used for decades in the prevention of folate deficiency anemia of pregnancy. In 1991, folic acid taken prior to the start of pregnancy was shown unequivocally to prevent spina bifida and anencephaly—two of the most serious and common birth (neural tube) defects. Soon governments recommended that women of

  12. Serious adverse drug reaction in a woman with hyperemesis gravidarum after first exposure to vitamin B complex containing vitamins B1, B6 and B12.

    PubMed

    Kuwata, Yoshimine; Tsuruoka, Shuichi; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Matsubara, Shigeki; Izumi, Akio; Suzuki, Mitsuaki

    2009-08-01

    We report the case of a pregnant woman who suffered from hypotension after first exposure to intravenous administration of a combination drug containing vitamins B1, B6 and B12 (Vitamedin; Daiichi-Sankyo, Tokyo, Japan). A 27-year-old Japanese woman received an intravenous infusion of fluid containing a vitamin B complex due to hyperemesis gravidarum. Thirty minutes after the start of infusion she was found to be in hypotension. The patient had stupor, general sweating, blood pressure of 82/50 mmHg, and low percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) of 88%. We immediately stopped the infusion, lifted her legs and administered oxygen. Three minutes after these treatments, she quickly recovered to a good general condition. A skin prick test for vitamin B12 was positive, but tests for B1, B6, mannitol and saline were negative, indicating this adverse reaction was one of drug hypersensitivity due to the vitamin B12 in Vitamedin. Patients should be observed carefully immediately after the administration of Vitamedin. PMID:19751344

  13. Vitamin B6

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin B6 Fact Sheet for Consumers What is vitamin B6 and what does it do? Vitamin B6 ... out more about vitamin B6? Disclaimer How much vitamin B6 do I need? The amount of vitamin ...

  14. Low-density lipoprotein apheresis decreases ferritin, transferrin and vitamin B12, which may cause anemia in serially treated patients.

    PubMed

    Bramlage, Carsten P; Armstrong, Victor W; Zapf, Antonia; Bramlage, Peter; Mueller, Gerhard A; Koziolek, Michael J

    2010-04-01

    Clinical observations revealed an increased prevalence of iron deficiency anemia without chronic bleeding in patients treated with serial low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis. Since several different proteins are adsorbed by LDL apheresis beside pro-atherogenic lipoproteins, we examined the modification of the full blood count, plasma iron, vitamin B12, folic acid, and hemolysis by LDL apheresis. Nineteen patients (55 (50-59) years, 4 female, 15 male) undergoing chronic LDL apheresis due to mixed dyslipidemia (N = 17), homozygous familiar hypercholesterolemia (N = 1) or isolated elevated lipoprotein(a) (N = 1) were included in this study. They were treated with direct adsorption of lipoproteins (DALI; N = 6), heparin-induced LDL-precipitation (HELP; N = 7) or double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP; N = 6). The patients' full blood count, iron metabolism (plasma iron, ferritin, transferrin, transferrin saturation), vitamins involved in erythropoiesis (vitamin B12 and folic acid), and markers of hemolysis (haptoglobin and free hemoglobin) were analyzed directly before and after LDL apheresis. A single LDL apheresis session significantly decreased the levels (reduction in the median [25(th)-75(th) percentiles] of: ferritin 9.8 [1.3-18] %; P = 0.004), transferrin (12.1 [10.0-15.96] %; P = 0.0005), and vitamin B12 (17.8 [16.2-20.8] %; P = 0.0005). Thereby, transferrin and vitamin B12 were decreased in all (N = 19) and ferritin in 74% (N = 14) of the patients. Twelve out of 19 patients (63.2%) had mild anemia despite iron administration in 14 out of 19 patients (73.7%). LDL apheresis had no significant influence on full blood count, plasma iron, transferrin saturation, folic acid, or hemolysis. Similar changes were observed in all LDL apheresis methods used. LDL apheresis significantly decreases ferritin, transferrin, and vitamin B12, suggesting an influence of serial LDL apheresis on erythropoiesis. PMID:20438534

  15. Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and methionine synthase polymorphisms with breast cancer risk and interaction with folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B 12 intakes.

    PubMed

    Jiang-Hua, Qiao; De-Chuang, Jiao; Zhen-Duo, Lu; Shu-de, Cui; Zhenzhen, Liu

    2014-12-01

    We assessed the association between dietary intake of folate and the MTHFR genotype with breast cancer in a Chinese population, with additional analysis of the interactions of gene polymorphisms and dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. A case-control study was performed, and 535 patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer and 673 controls were enrolled into this study. The MTHFR 667TT genotype (odds ratio (OR)?=?1.82, 95 % confidence interval (CI)?=?1.24-2.97) and T allele (OR 0=?1.48, 95 % CI?=?1.15-1.78) were correlated with a moderately significant increased risk of breast cancer when compared with the CC genotype. Individuals carrying the MTR 2756GG genotype (OR?=?1.66, 95 % CI?=?1.16-2.56) and G allele (OR?=?1.42, 95 % CI?=?1.26-1.81) had a higher risk of breast cancer when compared with subjects with the AA genotype. The MTHFR 667 T allele and MTR 2756 G allele were associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in individuals with low folate intake, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12, but the association disappeared among subjects with moderate and high intake of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. This case-control study found that the MTHFR C677T and MTR A2756G polymorphisms are associated with risk of breast cancer, and folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 intakes influence these associations. PMID:25217320

  16. HETEROGENEITY AND LACK OF GOOD QUALITY STUDIES LIMIT ASSOCIATION BETWEEN FOLATE, VITAMIN B-6 AND B-12, AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite their important role in cognitive function, the value of B vitamin supplementation is unknown. A systematic review of the effect of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation on cognitive function was performed. Literature search conducted in MEDLINE with supplemental articles from rev...

  17. VITAMIN B6, B12 AND FOLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF RANDOMIZED TRIALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite their important role in cognitive function, the value of B vitamin supplementation is unknown. A systematic review of the effect of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation on cognitive function was performed. Literature search conducted in MEDLINE with supplemental articles from re...

  18. Homocysteine and coronary artery disease in French Canadian subjects: Relation with vitamins B 12, B 6, pyridoxal phosphate, and folate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl Dalery; Suzanne Lussier-Cacan; Jacob Selhub; Jean Davignon; Yves Latour; Jacques Genest

    1995-01-01

    We determined plasma levels of homocysteine in 584 healthy subjects (380 men and 204 women) from a major utility company in the province of Que´bec, Canada, and in 150 subjects (123 men and 27 women) with angiographically documented coronary artery disease (CAD) (age < 60 years). Plasma levels of vitamins B12, B6, pyridoxal phosphate (a vitamin B6 derivative), and folate

  19. Vitamin B12 could be a "master key" in the regulation of multiple pathological processes.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Ilia; Press, Yan; Rudoy, Inna

    2006-04-01

    Multifunctional systems must maintain homeostasis. Man is an ideal example of a system that constantly aspires to attain optimal regulation, even under the stress of severe disease. We assume that there are universal, interchangeable (as required) biologically active substances that regulate the system and try to keep it in balance. We propose that one of these substances is vitamin B12. Why vitamin B12? The list of organs and body systems in which vitamin B12 plays a functional role is constantly being added to. Vitamin B12 affects the normal growth of children, the peripheral and central nervous systems, bone marrow, skin, mucous membranes, bones, and vessels. It is possible that even when the serum cobalamin level is normal, treatment with vitamin B12 could correct defects caused by other biologically active substances. We call this phenomenon the "Master Key" effect. We suggest that this "Master Key" concept can be tested by treating diseases, such as recurrent stomatitis, various forms of hyperpigmentation, trophic ulcers, and burns, with vitamin B12, even if the B12 serum level is normal. PMID:16641529

  20. An assay for serum vitamin-B12 and for intrinsic factor antibody type I by means of hog intrinsic factor.

    PubMed

    Hudák, J; Berger, Z; Varga, L

    1980-01-01

    A method of assay for the circulating intrinsic factor antibody type I (IFA1) and for the serum vitamin-B12 level by the use of hog intrinsic factor has been developed. The results, the sources of error being taken into consideration, are in agreement with the values obtained by the generally accepted methods of ARDEMAN--CHANARIN for IFA1 and of WIDE--KILLANDER for the serum vitamin-B12 level. Parallel with the increase in the frequency of circulating IFA1, the serum vitamin-B12 level was found to decline in normal individuals as well as in patients with atrophic gastritis or pernicious anaemia. The method is suitable for the assessment of vitamin-B12 deficiency and lends itself to screening of patients tending to pernicious anaemia. PMID:7457023

  1. The influence of vitamin B12 supplementation on the level of white blood cells and lymphocytes phenotype in rats fed a low-protein diet

    PubMed Central

    Lewicka, Aneta; Kalicki, Boles?aw; K?os, Anna; Bertrandt, Jerzy; Zdanowski, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Protein malnutrition has a negative effect on body composition and some blood parameters, especially in the young growing organism. One of nutritional factors which could protect against negative consequences of protein deficiency may be B group vitamins. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of vitamin B12 supplementation on the immune system in rats fed a standard and a low-protein diet. Rats were fed a control (20% of energy from protein) or a protein-deficient diet (4.5% of energy from protein). Half of animals in each group were additionally supplemented with vitamin B12 (300% of the daily intake). The white blood cells analysis and lymphocytes immunophenotyping (number and percentage) were performed. Low-protein diets caused disturbances in WBC and lymphocyte subpopulations in both short- (30-day) as well as long-term periods (90-day). Vitamin B12 supplementation significantly reduced the negative impact of protein malnutrition after 30 days, however had no effect on long-term malnutrition. Furthermore, vitamin B12 addition in rats fed a control diet did not affect the studied parameters. This observation opens the promise of use of vitamin B12 supplementation to improve immune system parameters in protein malnourished organisms.

  2. Genetic Associations with Plasma B12, B6, and Folate Levels in an Ischemic Stroke Population from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Keene, Keith L.; Chen, Wei-Min; Chen, Fang; Williams, Stephen R.; Elkhatib, Stacey D.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Pugh, Elizabeth W.; Ling, Hua; Laurie, Cathy C.; Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Madden, Ebony B.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Sale, Michele M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: B vitamins play an important role in homocysteine metabolism, with vitamin deficiencies resulting in increased levels of homocysteine and increased risk for stroke. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 2,100 stroke patients from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) trial, a clinical trial designed to determine whether the daily intake of high-dose folic acid, vitamins B6, and B12 reduce recurrent cerebral infarction. Methods: Extensive quality control (QC) measures resulted in a total of 737,081 SNPs for analysis. Genome-wide association analyses for baseline quantitative measures of folate, Vitamins B12, and B6 were completed using linear regression approaches, implemented in PLINK. Results: Six associations met or exceeded genome-wide significance (P???5?×?10?08). For baseline Vitamin B12, the strongest association was observed with a non-synonymous SNP (nsSNP) located in the CUBN gene (P?=?1.76?×?10?13). Two additional CUBN intronic SNPs demonstrated strong associations with B12 (P?=?2.92?×?10?10 and 4.11?×?10?10), while a second nsSNP, located in the TCN1 gene, also reached genome-wide significance (P?=?5.14?×?10?11). For baseline measures of Vitamin B6, we identified genome-wide significant associations for SNPs at the ALPL locus (rs1697421; P?=?7.06?×?10?10 and rs1780316; P?=?2.25?×?10?08). In addition to the six genome-wide significant associations, nine SNPs (two for Vitamin B6, six for Vitamin B12, and one for folate measures) provided suggestive evidence for association (P???10?07). Conclusion: Our GWAS study has identified six genome-wide significant associations, nine suggestive associations, and successfully replicated 5 of 16 SNPs previously reported to be associated with measures of B vitamins. The six genome-wide significant associations are located in gene regions that have shown previous associations with measures of B vitamins; however, four of the nine suggestive associations represent novel finding and warrant further investigation in additional populations. PMID:25147783

  3. LMBRD1 : the gene for the cblF defect of vitamin B 12 metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Rutsch; Susann Gailus; Terttu Suormala; Brian Fowler

    2011-01-01

    To date, only very few genetic disorders due to defects in lysosomal membrane transport are known. This paper reviews the\\u000a identification of the underlying molecular defect causing an intriguing inborn error of vitamin B12 metabolism, namely, defective lysosomal release of vitamin B12 (cblF defect). Using microcell-mediated chromosome transfer of wild-type human chromosomes into immortalized fibroblasts\\u000a from a cblF patient and

  4. Vitamin B12 modulates the transcriptome of the skin microbiota in acne pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dezhi; Shi, Baochen; Erfe, Marie C; Craft, Noah; Li, Huiying

    2015-06-24

    Various diseases have been linked to the human microbiota, but the underlying molecular mechanisms of the microbiota in disease pathogenesis are often poorly understood. Using acne as a disease model, we aimed to understand the molecular response of the skin microbiota to host metabolite signaling in disease pathogenesis. Metatranscriptomic analysis revealed that the transcriptional profiles of the skin microbiota separated acne patients from healthy individuals. The vitamin B12 biosynthesis pathway in the skin bacterium Propionibacterium acnes was significantly down-regulated in acne patients. We hypothesized that host vitamin B12 modulates the activities of the skin microbiota and contributes to acne pathogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the skin microbiota in healthy subjects supplemented with vitamin B12. We found that the supplementation repressed the expression of vitamin B12 biosynthesis genes in P. acnes and altered the transcriptome of the skin microbiota. One of the 10 subjects studied developed acne 1 week after vitamin B12 supplementation. To further understand the molecular mechanism, we revealed that vitamin B12 supplementation in P. acnes cultures promoted the production of porphyrins, which have been shown to induce inflammation in acne. Our findings suggest a new bacterial pathogenesis pathway in acne and provide one molecular explanation for the long-standing clinical observation that vitamin B12 supplementation leads to acne development in a subset of individuals. Our study discovered that vitamin B12, an essential nutrient in humans, modulates the transcriptional activities of skin bacteria, and provided evidence that metabolite-mediated interactions between the host and the skin microbiota play essential roles in disease development. PMID:26109103

  5. FRACTION OF TOTAL PLASMA VITAMIN B12 BOUND TO TRANSCOBALAMIN CORRELATES WITH COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN ELDERLY LATINOS WITH DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The fraction of total plasma vitamin B12 bound to transcobalamin (holoTC/B12 ratio) may reflect tissue levels of the vitamin, but its clinical relevance is unclear. Methods: associations between cognitive function and total B12, holoTC, and holoTC/B12 ratio were assessed in a cohort of ...

  6. Effects of Formulation Variables and Storage Conditions on Light Protected Vitamin B12 Mixed Parenteral Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Monajjemzadeh, Farnaz; Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin; Valizadeh, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this research the effect of vitamin B1 and B6 on cyanocobalamin stability in commercial light protected parenteral formulations and upon adding stabilizing agents will be investigated and best formulation composition and proper storage condition will be introduced. Methods: In this research some additives such as co solvents and tonicity adjusters, surfactants, antioxidants and chelating agents as well as buffer solutions, were used to improve the stability of the parenteral mixed formulations of B12 in the presence of other B vitamins (B1 and B6). Screening tests and accelerated stability tests were performed according to ICH guidelines Q1A (R2). Results: Shelf life evaluation revealed the best formulation and the proper storage condition. The results indicated the first kinetic models for all tested formulations and the optimum pH value was determined to be 5.8. There was no evidence of B12 loss when mixed with B1 and B6 in a medical syringe at room temperature for maximum of 8 hours. Conclusion: It is necessary to formulate vitamin B12 mixed parenteral solutions using proper phosphate buffers (pH=5.8) and to indicate “Store in refrigerator” on the mixed parenteral formulations of vitamin B12 with other B vitamins, which has not been expressed on the label of tested Brand formulations at the time of this study. PMID:25436187

  7. Über das Vitamin B 12 -Bedürfnis phototropher Schwefelbakterien

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norbert Pfennig; Klaus Dieter Lippert

    1966-01-01

    1.10 von 19 Chlorobium-Stämmen, die mit einer Vit. B12-haltigen Nährlösung aus verschiedenen Gewässern in Kalifornien, Norwegen und Deutschland isoliert waren, erwiesen sich als Vit. B12-bedürftig.2.Bei Vit. B12-bedürftigen Chlorobium- und Chromatium-Stämmen wurde der Chlorophyllgehalt der Kulturen in Abhängigkeit von der Vit. B12-Konzentration quantitativ bestimmt. Zur Bildung vergleichbarer Erträge benötigten alle untersuchten Chlorobium-Stämme gegenüber den Chromatium-Stämmen etwa zehnmal höhere Vit. B12-Konzentrationen.3.Der Vergleich

  8. Vitamin B??-containing plant food sources for vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Bito, Tomohiro; Teng, Fei

    2014-05-01

    The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori) is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups. PMID:24803097

  9. Enhancing vitamin B12 content in soy-yogurt by Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qing; Zhang, Chen; Song, Dafeng; Li, Ping; Zhu, Xuan

    2015-08-01

    More attention from the aged and vegetarians has been paid to soy-product due to its taste, easy digestibility, as well as the association with health. However, soy-product has a defect of low vitamin content, mainly the water-soluble vitamin B12. This study was to investigate co-fermentation of glycerol and fructose in soy-yogurt to enhance vitamin B12 production by Lactobacillus reuteri. After a serial combination experiments, the co-fermentation was confirmed to enhance the production of vitamin B12 up to 18?g/100mL. Both supplementations induced the expression of cobT and cbiA and functioned to balance the redox reaction. Meanwhile, high content of fructose supplementation reduced the production of vitamin B12 and suppressed expression of cobT in bacteria. It was proved that the vitamin B12 content of this soy-yogurt is higher than other fermented soybean based food and thus can be served as an alternative food for the aged and vegetarians. PMID:25955289

  10. Vitamin A deficiency in quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, R.B.; Bailey, W.W.

    1943-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the symptoms of avitaminosis A in growing and adolescent bobwhites. Chicks from parents that have received a diet rich in vitamin A may have enough stored to carry them a week or ten days on a growing diet deficient in vitamin A before symptoms of deficiency occur. The first sign is ruffled feathering, with the wing primaries standing out from the body and drooping. Ophthalmia in one or both eyes occurs and may close the eyes completely, but this condition is not severe in all cases and may not even be noticeable. Birds show poor growth, loss of appetite, and weakness before death. Under the conditions of the experiments discussed herein, death may occur in the fourth or fifth week, and mortality is high......Postmortem examination may reveal visceral gout with thick deposits of urates on the kidneys, in the ureters, on the heart, in the proventriculus, and occasionally covering all the viscera. There may also be hemorrhage of the heart and other organs....Adolescent quail reared on a diet rich in vitamin A may be able to live through the winter on a maintenance diet low in this vitamin without showing symptoms of avitaminosis, but some individuals whose storage of vitamin A in the liver is not as great as that of others may succumb to visceral gout.....A growing mash for quail which contains sufficient vitamin A when fresh may, after a period of storage, lose enough of the vitamin to cause the characteristic symptoms of avitaminosis A to appear.

  11. Antimutagenic evaluation of vitamins B1, B6 and B12 in vitro and in vivo, with the Ames test.

    PubMed

    Arriaga-Alba, Myriam; Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy Janett; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; de Angel, Beatriz López; Flores-Lozada, Jorge; Blasco, José Luis

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate vitamins B antimutagenic effect against alkylatings methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), ethyl-N-nitro-N'- nitrosoguanidine (ENNG), frameshift mutagens 2-aminoanthracene (2AA) and 2-acetyl-amino-fluorene (2AF) and ROS-generating antibiotics norfloxacin (NOR) and nalidixic acid (NLX), using the in vitro Ames test. In vivo antimutagenesis studies were performed against urinary mutagens induced by NOR (70 mg/kg) or NLX (100 mg/kg) in CD1 mice. Vitamin B1 was antimutagenic against alkylatings MNNG (P<0.05) or ENNG (P<0.001). In fact as per the results observed during the current study, none of the vitamins reduced mutagenesis caused by frameshift mutagens. All of them reduced mutagenesis of NOR or NLX (P<0.001). In vivo studies showed that vitamins B1 and B6 (10 or 100 mg/kg) reduced urinary mutagens from NOR (P<0.001) or NLX (P<0.02) either free or ?-glucoronidase-conjugates. None of the studied samples were toxic for the employed antimutagenic system. Vitamin B12 (4 mg/kg) reduced urinary mutagens of NOR or NLX (P<0.02). Vitamins B inhibited DNA mutations induced by ROS generated by NLX or NOR, both in vitro and in vivo. Vitamin B1is antimutagenic against mutations induced by the alkylating MNNG or ENNG. Based on the observations, employment of vitamins B in vivo can be a promising alternative to reduce genotoxic risk exposure to ROS. PMID:23201371

  12. Folate and vitamin B-12 status in relation to anemia, macrocytosis, and cognitive impairment in older Americans in the age of folic acid fortification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historic data on folic acid treatment of pernicious anemia suggested that high-level fortification would delay diagnosis or exacerbate effects of vitamin B12 deficiency, which affects many seniors. This idea is controversial, however, because observational data are few and inconclusive and experime...

  13. Coexistence of pernicious anemia and prostate cancer - 'an experiment of nature' involving vitamin B12 modulation of prostate cancer growth and metabolism: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction This report presents the clinical and laboratory course of a patient with prostate cancer and severe vitamin B12 deficiency undergoing watchful waiting for prostate cancer. The possible interaction between therapy for B12 deficiency and the natural course of prostate cancer is presented. Case presentation We present the case of a 75-year-old Chinese man with prostate cancer and pernicious anemia. His serum vitamin B12 level was 32 pg/ml (300-900 pg/ml) and holotranscobalamin was 0 pg/ml (>70 pg/ml). There was an unexpected rapid progression of Gleason's score during 10 months of watchful waiting. After the diagnosis of pernicious anemia was made, therapeutic injections of vitamin B12 were started. We observed a significant acceleration in prostate-specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase and a shortening of prostate-specific antigen doubling time after initiation of B12 therapy. Conclusion We propose that the relatively short period of watchful waiting before histological progression of Gleason's score (GS [3+2] = 5 to GS [3+4] = 7 over 10 months) may have been a result of depleted holotranscobalamin 'active' B12. Replacement of B12 was associated with an initial rapid increase in serum prostate-specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase followed by stabilization. The patient represents an 'experiment of nature' involving vitamin B12 metabolism and raises the question as to whether rapid histological progression of Gleason's score was related to absence of serum holotranscobalamin while prostate-specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase, markers of cell growth, were accelerated by vitamin B12 replacement. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a possible cellular kinetic interaction between an epithelial malignancy and vitamin B12 metabolism. PMID:20062784

  14. Vitamin D deficiency in patients with Behcet’s disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Behcet’s disease is an autoimmune, recurrent and multisystem disease. Vitamin D has immunomodulator role in immune system. So that vitamin D deficiency was reported in some autoimmune diseases. Behcet’s disease as a Silk Road disease is common in Iran. The aim of this study was to detect the serum level of 25(OH) vitamin D in Behcet’s patients and control group. Methods In this case–control study, 112 Behcet’s patients as cases group and 112 healthy individuals as controls group were enrolled. Any subject on vitamin D supplement, steroid, and immunosuppressors during the last 6 months were excluded. The serum level of 25(OH) vitamin D was measured in the two groups by ELISA method. The findings were compared via SPSS software. Results About 57% and 17% of Behcet’s patients had vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency respectively. Vitamin D deficiency was significantly more common in controls than cases group (P?Vitamin D levels were significantly lower in controls (P?B5, and HLA-B51 with vitamin D level in Behcet’s patients. Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency is common among Behcet’s patients. However, our results revealed vitamin D deficiency was significantly more common in healthy controls in comparison with Behcet’s cases. PMID:24451043

  15. Vitamin B 12 and vitamin B 6 supplementation is needed among adults with phenylketonuria (PKU)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Hvas; E. Nexo; J. B. Nielsen

    2006-01-01

    Summary  Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by an autosomal recessive deficiency of the enzyme phelnylalanine hydroxylase leading to a\\u000a failure to convert phenylalanine to tyrosine. To avoid irreversible neurological damage because of increased phenylalanine,\\u000a treatment is instituted rapidly after birth. We examined 31 adult PKU patients living on a less protein-restricted diet. Theoretically,\\u000a these PKU patients had an increased risk of developing

  16. Pyridoxine supplementation corrects vitamin B6 deficiency but does not improve inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    En-Pei I Chiang; Jacob Selhub; Pamela J Bagley; Gerard Dallal; Ronenn Roubenoff

    2005-01-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis have subnormal vitamin B6 status, both quantitatively and functionally. Abnormal vitamin\\u000a B6 status in rheumatoid arthritis has been associated with spontaneous tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? production and markers\\u000a of inflammation, including C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Impaired vitamin B6 status could be a result\\u000a of inflammation, and these patients may have higher demand for vitamin

  17. Vitamin B12 Status in Children with Cystic Fibrosis and Pancreatic Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Maqbool, Asim; Schall, Joan I.; Mascarenhas, Maria R.; Dougherty, Kelly A.; Stallings, Virginia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Unexpectedly high serum B12 concentrations were noted in most study subjects with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) participating in a nutrition intervention at the baseline evaluation. The objectives of this study were to determine dietary, supplement-based and enzyme-based B12 intake, serum B12 concentrations, and predictors of vitamin B12 status in children with CF and PI. Study Design Serum B12 status was assessed in subjects (5-18 yrs) and categorized as elevated (Hi-B12) or within reference range (RR-B12) for age and sex. Serum homocysteine, plasma B6, red blood cell folate, height, weight, and body mass index Z scores, pulmonary function, energy, dietary and supplement-based vitamin intake were assessed. Results 106 subjects, mean age 10.4 ± 3.0 years participated. Median serum B12 was 1083 pg/ml, with 56% in the Hi-B12 group. Dietary and supplement-based B12 intake were both high representing 376% and 667% Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). The Hi-B12 group had significantly greater supplement-based B12 intake than the RR-B12 group (1000 vs. 583% RDA, p<0.001). By multiple logistic regression analysis, high supplement-based B12 intake and age >12 years increased risk for Hi-B12, while higher FEV1 decreased risk (Pseudo-R2=0.18, P<0.001). Conclusions Serum B12 was elevated in the majority of children with CF and PI. Supplement-based B12 intake was 6 to 10 times the RDA, and strongly predicted elevated serum B12 status. The health consequences of lifelong high supplement-based B12 intake and high serum B12 are unknown and require further study, as does the inversed correlation between serum B12 and FEV1. PMID:24445504

  18. Vitamin B12-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles as a drug carrier in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Genç, Lütfi; Kutlu, H Mehtap; Güney, Gamze

    2015-05-01

    Nanostructure-mediated drug delivery, a key technology for the realization of nanomedicine, has the potential to improve drug bioavailability, ameliorate release deviation of drug molecules and enable precision drug targeting. Due to their multifunctional properties, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have received great attention of scientists to find a solution to cancer. Vitamin supplements may contribute to a reduction in the risk of cancer. Vitamin B12 has several characteristics that make it an attractive entity for cancer treatment and possible therapeutic applications. The aim of this study was to produce B12-loaded SLNs (B12-SLNs) and determine the cytotoxic effects of B12-SLNs on H-Ras 5RP7 and NIH/3T3 control cell line. Results obtained by MTT assay, transmission electron and confocal microscopy showed that B12-loaded SLNs are more effective than free vitamin B12 on cancer cells. In addition, characterization studies indicate that while the average diameter of the B12 was about 650?nm, B12-SLNs were about 200?nm and the drug release efficiency of vit. B12 by means of SLNs increased up to 3?h. These observations point to the fact that B12-SLNs could be used as carrier systems due to the therapeutic?effects on cancer. PMID:24344935

  19. Vitamin B12 levels of subjects aged 0-24 year(s) in Konya, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akin, Fatih; Yavuz, Haluk; Bodur, Said; Kiyici, Aysel

    2014-12-01

    Research reports indicate that vitamin B12 levels show racial differences, which suggests that using the reference ranges of varied populations may lead to inaccurate results. This study aimed to determine normal serum levels of vitamin B12 among children and young people in the Konya region of Turkey. It evaluated 1,109 samples; 54 were from cord-blood and 1,055 were from healthy subjects aged 0-24 year(s), who were admitted to primary healthcare centres. The normal reference levels obtained for vitamin B12 at 2.5-97.5 percentile (P2.5-P97.5) range were 127-606 pg/mL for girls, 127-576 pg/mL for boys, and 127-590 pg/mL for the entire study group. The reported reference values for vitamin B12 in other studies were higher than the current results. Vitamin B12 levels vary from country to country; comparisons between countries may not be valid, and normal levels for each population should be obtained. PMID:25895195

  20. Vitamin B12 Levels of Subjects Aged 0-24 Year(s) in Konya, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Haluk; Bodur, Said; Kiyici, Aysel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Research reports indicate that vitamin B12 levels show racial differences, which suggests that using the reference ranges of varied populations may lead to inaccurate results. This study aimed to determine normal serum levels of vitamin B12 among children and young people in the Konya region of Turkey. It evaluated 1,109 samples; 54 were from cord-blood and 1,055 were from healthy subjects aged 0-24 year(s), who were admitted to primary healthcare centres. The normal reference levels obtained for vitamin B12 at 2.5-97.5 percentile (P2.5-P97.5) range were 127-606 pg/mL for girls, 127-576 pg/mL for boys, and 127-590 pg/mL for the entire study group. The reported reference values for vitamin B12 in other studies were higher than the current results. Vitamin B12 levels vary from country to country; comparisons between countries may not be valid, and normal levels for each population should be obtained. PMID:25895195

  1. Carbon nanotube–chitosan modified disposable pencil graphite electrode for Vitamin B 12 analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Filiz Kuralay; Tayfun Vural; Cem Bayram; Emir Baki Denkbas; Serdar Abaci

    2011-01-01

    A single walled carbon nanotube–chitosan (SWCNT–chitosan) modified disposable pencil graphite electrode (PGE) was used in this study for the electrochemical detection of Vitamin B12. Electrochemical behaviors of SWCNT–chitosan PGE and chitosan modified PGE were compared by using cyclic voltammetry (CV), square-wave voltammetry (SWV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. SWCNT–chitosan modified electrode was also used for the quantification of Vitamin

  2. Vitamin D deficiency in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ashraf T; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania; Bedair, Said; Kassem, Islam

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in adolescents is variable but considerably high in many countries, especially in Middle-east and Southeast Asia. Different factors attribute to this deficiency including lack of sunlight exposure due to cultural dress codes and veiling or due to pigmented skin, and less time spent outdoors, because of hot weather, and lower vitamin D intake. A potent adaptation process significantly modifies the clinical presentation and therefore clinical presentations may be subtle and go unnoticed, thus making true prevalence studies difficult. Adolescents with severe VDD may present with vague manifestations including pain in weight-bearing joints, back, thighs and/or calves, difficulty in walking and/or climbing stairs, or running and muscle cramps. Adaptation includes increased parathormone (PTH) and deceased insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) secretion. PTH enhances the tubular reabsorption of Ca and stimulates the kidneys to produce 1, 25-(OH) 2D3 that increases intestinal calcium absorption and dissolves the mineralized collagen matrix in bone, causing osteopenia and osteoporosis to provide enough Ca to prevent hypocalcaemia. Decreased insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) delays bone growth to economize calcium consumption. Radiological changes are not uncommon and include osteoporosis/osteopenia affecting long bones as well as vertebrae and ribs, bone cysts, decalcification of the metaphysis of the long bones and pseudo fractures. In severe cases pathological fractures and deformities may occur. Vitamin D treatment of adolescents with VDD differs considerably in different studies and proved to be effective in treating all clinical, biochemical, and radiological manifestations. Different treatment regiments for VDD have been discussed and presented in this mini-review for practical use. Adequate vitamin D replacement after treating VDD, improving calcium intake (milk and dairy products), encouraging adequate exposure to the sun and possible enrichment of the stable food with vitamin D in areas with high prevalence of VDD are important measures to prevent the harmful consequences of VDD. PMID:25538884

  3. Vitamin D deficiency in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ashraf T.; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania; Bedair, Said; Kassem, Islam

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in adolescents is variable but considerably high in many countries, especially in Middle-east and Southeast Asia. Different factors attribute to this deficiency including lack of sunlight exposure due to cultural dress codes and veiling or due to pigmented skin, and less time spent outdoors, because of hot weather, and lower vitamin D intake. A potent adaptation process significantly modifies the clinical presentation and therefore clinical presentations may be subtle and go unnoticed, thus making true prevalence studies difficult. Adolescents with severe VDD may present with vague manifestations including pain in weight-bearing joints, back, thighs and/or calves, difficulty in walking and/or climbing stairs, or running and muscle cramps. Adaptation includes increased parathormone (PTH) and deceased insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) secretion. PTH enhances the tubular reabsorption of Ca and stimulates the kidneys to produce 1, 25-(OH) 2D3 that increases intestinal calcium absorption and dissolves the mineralized collagen matrix in bone, causing osteopenia and osteoporosis to provide enough Ca to prevent hypocalcaemia. Decreased insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) delays bone growth to economize calcium consumption. Radiological changes are not uncommon and include osteoporosis/osteopenia affecting long bones as well as vertebrae and ribs, bone cysts, decalcification of the metaphysis of the long bones and pseudo fractures. In severe cases pathological fractures and deformities may occur. Vitamin D treatment of adolescents with VDD differs considerably in different studies and proved to be effective in treating all clinical, biochemical, and radiological manifestations. Different treatment regiments for VDD have been discussed and presented in this mini-review for practical use. Adequate vitamin D replacement after treating VDD, improving calcium intake (milk and dairy products), encouraging adequate exposure to the sun and possible enrichment of the stable food with vitamin D in areas with high prevalence of VDD are important measures to prevent the harmful consequences of VDD. PMID:25538884

  4. Evaluation of serum vitamin B12 levels and its correlation with anti-thyroperoxidase antibody in patients with autoimmune thyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Jaya Kumari, S; Bantwal, Ganapathy; Devanath, Anitha; Aiyyar, Vageesh; Patil, Madhuri

    2015-04-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency has been reported in patients with Autoimmune thyroid disorders. However there is limited data on exact prevalence of low B12 and its correlation with anti-thyroperoxidase antibody (anti-TPO) levels in these patients. The aim of our study was to estimate serum vitamin B12 levels in autoimmune thyroid disorders and to correlate B12 levels with anti-TPO. 350 patients were selected by convenient sampling. Vitamin B12 levels and thyroid parameters were estimated using fully automated chemiluminescence method on Access 2. Results of our study shows that using the manufacturer's cut-off of 145 pg/mL, the prevalence of low serum vitamin B12 was found to be 45.50 %. Higher prevalence (55 %) was seen based on the published cut-off of 200 pg/mL The study however did not demonstrate any significant correlation between vitamin B12 levels and anti-TPO (r = -0.11 and p value of 0.30). PMID:25883432

  5. Homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels in psoriatic patients and correlation with disease severity.

    PubMed

    Brazzelli, V; Grasso, V; Fornara, L; Moggio, E; Gamba, G; Villani, S; Borroni, G

    2010-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinaemia represents an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, stroke, peripheral arterial occlusive disease and venous thrombosis. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease associated with increased atherothrombosis and cardiovascular risk profile. The aim of this study is to investigate homocysteine, folic acid and vitamin B12 levels in a cohort of psoriatic patients and its relationship with the severity of the disease. A retrospective observational study in 98 patients with chronic plaque psoriasis and 98 healthy controls was performed. Total plasma homocysteine level, folic acid, vitamin B12 and PASI index were assessed in every patient. Patients with psoriasis had plasma homocysteine levels higher than controls (57% of cases and 25% of controls; p<0.0001). Folic acid and vitamin B12 plasma levels were lower in psoriatic patients than in controls (p = NS), lower levels of vitamin B12 were found in patients with hyperhomocysteinaemia compared to patients with a normal value of homocysteine (p = 0.0009). The severity of psoriasis assessed according to PASI (19.51+/-16.26) did not directly correlate either with higher levels of homocysteine or with vitamin B12 and folic acid plasma levels. In conclusion, a significantly higher prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia was found in psoriatic patients compared to healthy controls. A significant correlation between hyperhomocysteinaemia and lower vitamin B12 levels, but not folic acid, was evidenced. On the contrary, our data do not correlate the high level of homocysteine with higher PASI scores or psoriasis type, suggesting that homocysteine level can be considered an independent risk factor in psoriatic patients. PMID:20943063

  6. Vitamin D: Deficiency, Sufficiency and Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Alshahrani, Fahad; Aljohani, Naji

    2013-01-01

    The plethora of vitamin D studies over the recent years highlight the pleomorphic effects of vitamin D outside its conventional role in calcium and bone homeostasis. Vitamin D deficiency, though common and known, still faces several challenges among the medical community in terms of proper diagnosis and correction. In this review, the different levels of vitamin D and its clinical implications are highlighted. Recommendations and consensuses for the appropriate dose and duration for each vitamin D status are also emphasized. PMID:24067388

  7. LOW ERYTHROCYTE FOLATE, BUT NOT PLASMA VITAMIN B-12 OR HOMOCYSTEINE, IS ASSOCIATED WITH DEMENTIA IN ELDERLY LATINOS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between B vitamin status and cognitive function has been of interest for many years. There is evidence of relationships between intake and status of folate and vitamin B-12 with neurological, cognitive, and memory impairment, but results have been inconsistent. Plasma B-12, erythroc...

  8. Intrinsic-factor Antibody and Absorption of Vitamin B12 in Pernicious Anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Rose, M. S.; Chanarin, I.

    1971-01-01

    The mean urinary excretion in a vitamin-B12 absorption (Schilling) test in control subjects was 19·2% and in pernicious anaemia when given with additional intrinsic factor was as follows: no intrinsic-factor antibodies demonstrable 19·3%, antibodies in serum only 14·4%, antibodies in gastric juice only 11·1%, and antibodies in both serum and gastric juice 8·4%. It is concluded that intrinsic-factor antibody exerts an adverse effect on vitamin-B12 absorption in most patients with pernicious anaemia. PMID:5539138

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency On this page: Description Genetic changes ... definitions Reviewed April 2008 What is ataxia with vitamin E deficiency? Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency is ...

  10. Comparison of two modes of vitamin B12 supplementation on neuroconduction and cognitive function among older people living in Sandiago, Chile: A cluster randomized controlled trial. A study protocol(ISRCTN 02694183)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Older people have a high risk of vitamin B12 deficiency; this can lead to varying degrees of cognitive and neurological impairment. CBL deficiency may present as macrocytic anemia, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, or as neuropathy, but is often asymptomatic in older peo...

  11. A pilot randomised controlled trial to reduce colorectal cancer risk markers associated with B-vitamin deficiency, insulin resistance and colonic inflammation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W R Bruce; M Cirocco; A Giacca; Y-I Kim; N Marcon; S Minkin

    2005-01-01

    Colorectal cancer risk is associated with biochemical markers for B-vitamin deficiency, insulin resistance and colonic inflammation, suggesting that these three conditions are each involved in colon carcinogenesis. We expected that dietary supplements of folic acid, n-3 fatty acids and calcium would reduce the markers and thus possibly cancer risk. We therefore randomised 98 participants, with previous colonic polyps or intramucosal

  12. Chronic Maternal Vitamin B12 Restriction Induced Changes in Body Composition & Glucose Metabolism in the Wistar Rat Offspring Are Partly Correctable by Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kalle Anand; Lalitha, Anumula; Reddy, Umakar; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Sengupta, Shantanu; Raghunath, Manchala

    2014-01-01

    Maternal under-nutrition increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. We studied the effects of chronic maternal dietary vitamin B12 restriction on lean body mass (LBM), fat free mass (FFM), muscle function, glucose tolerance and metabolism in Wistar rat offspring. Prevention/reversibility of changes by rehabilitating restricted mothers from conception or parturition and their offspring from weaning was assessed. Female weaning Wistar rats (n?=?30) were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks, a control diet (n?=?6) or the same with 40% restriction of vitamin B12 (B12R) (n?=?24); after confirming deficiency, were mated with control males. Six each of pregnant B12R dams were rehabilitated from conception and parturition and their offspring weaned to control diet. While offspring of six B12R dams were weaned to control diet, those of the remaining six B12R dams continued on B12R diet. Biochemical parameters and body composition were determined in dams before mating and in male offspring at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of their age. Dietary vitamin B12 restriction increased body weight but decreased LBM% and FFM% but not the percent of tissue associated fat (TAF%) in dams. Maternal B12R decreased LBM% and FFM% in the male offspring, but their TAF%, basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake by diaphragm were unaltered. At 12 months age, B12R offspring had higher (than controls) fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and impaired glucose tolerance. Their hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme activities were increased. B12R offspring had increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant status. Changes in body composition, glucose metabolism and stress were reversed by rehabilitating B12R dams from conception, whereas rehabilitation from parturition and weaning corrected them partially, highlighting the importance of vitamin B12 during pregnancy and lactation on growth, muscle development, glucose tolerance and metabolism in the offspring. PMID:25398136

  13. J. LENOIR. -NOTE SUR LA DGRADATION From the results obtained after the sur vey of vitamin B12

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of vitamin B12 content during the fabrication and ripening of kefir, the following conclusions can be drawn : The fabrication and ripening of Kefir involve some losses in vitamin B12. In the product being made with milk in which Kefir fungi have been added, such losses reached an average proportion of 22,09 per cent after

  14. The role of folic acid and Vitamin B12 in genomic stability of human cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Fenech

    2001-01-01

    Folic acid plays a critical role in the prevention of chromosome breakage and hypomethylation of DNA. This activity is compromised when Vitamin B12 (B12) concentration is low because methionine synthase activity is reduced, lowering the concentration of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) which in turn may diminish DNA methylation and cause folate to become unavailable for the conversion of dUMP to dTMP.

  15. Competitive chemiluminescent anzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent discoveries of matrix interferences by haptocorrin (HC) in human milk and serum show that past analyses of vitamin B12 in samples with high HC content might have been inaccurate (Lildballe et al., 2009; Carmel & Agrawal, 2012). We evaluated two competitive enzyme-binding immunoassays for seru...

  16. Comparative genomic analyses of nickel, cobalt and vitamin B12 utilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Zhang; Dmitry A Rodionov; Mikhail S Gelfand; Vadim N Gladyshev

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co) are trace elements required for a variety of biological processes. Ni is directly coordinated by proteins, whereas Co is mainly used as a component of vitamin B12. Although a number of Ni and Co-dependent enzymes have been characterized, systematic evolutionary analyses of utilization of these metals are limited. RESULTS: We carried out comparative genomic

  17. Copper control of bacterial nitrous oxide emission and its impact on vitamin B12-dependent metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Matthew J.; Gates, Andrew J.; Appia-Ayme, Corinne; Rowley, Gary; Richardson, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Global agricultural emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) have increased by around 20% over the last 100 y, but regulation of these emissions and their impact on bacterial cellular metabolism are poorly understood. Denitrifying bacteria convert nitrate in soils to inert di-nitrogen gas (N2) via N2O and the biochemistry of this process has been studied extensively in Paracoccus denitrificans. Here we demonstrate that expression of the gene encoding the nitrous oxide reductase (NosZ), which converts N2O to N2, is regulated in response to the extracellular copper concentration. We show that elevated levels of N2O released as a consequence of decreased cellular NosZ activity lead to the bacterium switching from vitamin B12-dependent to vitamin B12-independent biosynthetic pathways, through the transcriptional modulation of genes controlled by vitamin B12 riboswitches. This inhibitory effect of N2O can be rescued by addition of exogenous vitamin B12. PMID:24248380

  18. High-risk subjects for vitamin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Filiberti, R; Giacosa, A; Brignoli, O

    1997-03-01

    Chronic deficiency of various vitamins can influence the occurrence of some chronic degenerative diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular pathology, cataract, arthritis, disorders of the nervous system and photosensitivity. Similarly, vitamin intake can influence various disorders in infants and elderly people, in burns and in subjects following unbalanced diets or undergoing strenuous physical exercise. Among vitamins, beta-carotene, vitamin E and vitamin C have received most attention, particularly in the prevention of oxidative damage from free radicals. It is supposed that each vitamin plays a different role in the pathogenesis of various diseases, depending on the type of damage relevant to a specific disease. Results from different studies are still far from conclusive and the effects on longevity are not well defined. In industrialized countries, vitamin deficiencies seem to be related only to specific and clearly identifiable groups in the population: therefore, at the moment, it seems more advisable to target vitamin supplementation at risk groups. PMID:9167137

  19. Vitamin D Deficiency, Obesity and Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Li, Y-X; Zhou, L

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are main chronic diseases harming human health. Although the association between obesity and T2DM is well established, the molecular mechanism is still unclear. Accumulating evidence suggests vitamin D plays a role in the development of these diseases. Vitamin D is a necessary nutrient for humans. People usually do not pay attention to supplementing vitamin D, since vitamin D can be produced when their skin is exposed to the sunlight. Nevertheless, even in highly sunny regions, vitamin D deficiency exists, suggesting vitamin D deficiency is a global problem. Vitamin D deficiency has previously been considered only to influence bone metabolism. Accumulating evidence counters this opinion. In vivo studies have revealed that vitamin D deficiency reduces insulin secretion capacity of the islet beta cells in pancreas. Moreover, epidemiological studies have demonstrated that vitamin D deficiency is closely related to obesity and increased risk of T2DM. This review introduces the current work on vitamin D, obesity and diabetes. PMID:26068917

  20. Vitamin B intake and status in healthy Havanan men, 2 years after the Cuban neuropathy epidemic.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, J; Fleites-Mestre, P; Chassagne, M; Verdura, T; Garcia Garcia, I; Hernandez-Fernandez, T; Gautier, H; Favier, A; Pérez-Cristià, R; Barnouin, J

    2001-06-01

    A prospective epidemiological study was carried out over 1 year to evaluate vitamin B complex dietary intake and status in Cuba, 2 years after the Cuban neuropathy epidemic of 1993. Of the 199 healthy middle-aged men selected, 141 completed the study. Volunteers were followed up every 3 months for 1 year. Dietary intake and status of thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, folate and vitamin B12 were assessed each time. The dietary intake of vitamin B complex was low, particularly in June and July (folate), and October (thiamin). A deficient status was observed for vitamin B complex, except for vitamin B6. Vitamin B complex intake and status varied over the year. However, dietary intake and status were poorly related. The results prove that healthy Cuban men represent a vulnerable population in terms of vitamin B complex status and stress the necessity to both promote preventive multivitamin supplementation and produce local food rich in vitamin B complex. PMID:11430779

  1. Some histological manifestations in the early postnatal vitamin B?? deficient albino rat

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Elmer Marshall

    1955-01-01

    cells were seen in the liver. The deficient kidney showed dilation of the glomeruli and proximal convoluted tubules. The latter contained a marked abundance of fat droplets. The most striking changes seen in the deficient spleen were an increase... reduction in the number and siss of follicles. There was an over-all reduction of cytoplasmic ribonucleic acid in all deficient tissues studied. There was a reduction of glycogen in the deficient liver and kidney. No differences were observed in amyloid...

  2. Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Improve Gross Motor and Problem-Solving Skills in Young North Indian Children: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kvestad, Ingrid; Taneja, Sunita; Kumar, Tivendra; Hysing, Mari; Refsum, Helga; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Bhandari, Nita; Strand, Tor A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Deficiencies of vitamin B12 and folate are associated with delayed development and neurological manifestations. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of daily supplementation of vitamin B12 and/or folic acid on development in young North Indian children. Methods In a randomized, double blind trial, children aged six to 30 months, received supplement with placebo or vitamin B12 and/or folic acid for six months. Children were allocated in a 1:1:1:1 ratio in a factorial design and in blocks of 16. We measured development in 422 children by the Ages and Stages Questionnaire 3rd ed. at the end of the intervention. Results Compared to placebo, children who received both vitamin B12 and folic acid had 0.45 (95% CI 0.19, 0.73) and 0.28 (95% CI 0.02, 0.54) higher SD-units in the domains of gross motor and problem solving functioning, respectively. The effect was highest in susceptible subgroups consisting of stunted children, those with high plasma homocysteine (> 10 ?mol/L) or in those who were younger than 24 at end study. With the exception of a significant improvement on gross motor scores by vitamin B12 alone, supplementation of either vitamin alone had no effect on any of the outcomes. Conclusion Our findings suggest that supplementation of vitamin B12 and folic acid benefit development in North Indian Children. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00717730 PMID:26098427

  3. Vitamin A Deficiency Impairs Adaptive B and T Cell Responses to a Prototype Monovalent Attenuated Human Rotavirus Vaccine and Virulent Human Rotavirus Challenge in a Gnotobiotic Piglet Model

    PubMed Central

    Chattha, Kuldeep S.; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Vlasova, Anastasia N.; Saif, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RV) are a major cause of gastroenteritis in children. Widespread vitamin A deficiency is associated with reduced efficacy of vaccines and higher incidence of diarrheal infections in children in developing countries. We established a vitamin A deficient (VAD) gnotobiotic piglet model that mimics subclinical vitamin A deficiency in children to study its effects on an oral human rotavirus (HRV) vaccine and virulent HRV challenge. Piglets derived from VAD and vitamin A sufficient (VAS) sows were orally vaccinated with attenuated HRV or mock, with/without supplemental vitamin A and challenged with virulent HRV. Unvaccinated VAD control piglets had significantly lower hepatic vitamin A, higher severity and duration of diarrhea and HRV fecal shedding post-challenge as compared to VAS control pigs. Reduced protection coincided with significantly higher innate (IFN?) cytokine and CD8 T cell frequencies in the blood and intestinal tissues, higher pro-inflammatory (IL12) and 2-3 fold lower anti-inflammatory (IL10) cytokines, in VAD compared to VAS control pigs. Vaccinated VAD pigs had higher diarrhea severity scores compared to vaccinated VAS pigs, which coincided with lower serum IgA HRV antibody titers and significantly lower intestinal IgA antibody secreting cells post-challenge in the former groups suggesting lower anamnestic responses. A trend for higher serum HRV IgG antibodies was observed in VAD vs VAS vaccinated groups post-challenge. The vaccinated VAD (non-vitamin A supplemented) pigs had significantly higher serum IL12 (PID2) and IFN? (PID6) compared to vaccinated VAS groups suggesting higher Th1 responses in VAD conditions. Furthermore, regulatory T-cell responses were compromised in VAD pigs. Supplemental vitamin A in VAD pigs did not fully restore the dysregulated immune responses to AttHRV vaccine or moderate virulent HRV diarrhea. Our findings suggest that that VAD in children in developing countries may partially contribute to more severe rotavirus infection and lower HRV vaccine efficacy. PMID:24312675

  4. Water-soluble vitamin deficiencies in complicated peptic ulcer patients soon after ulcer onset in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Kazumasa; Akimoto, Teppei; Kusakabe, Makoto; Sato, Wataru; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Yamawaki, Hiroshi; Kodaka, Yasuhiro; Shinpuku, Mayumi; Nagoya, Hiroyuki; Shindo, Tomotaka; Ueki, Nobue; Kusunoki, Masafumi; Kawagoe, Tetsuro; Futagami, Seiji; Tsukui, Taku; Sakamoto, Choitsu

    2013-01-01

    We investigated over time whether contemporary Japanese patients with complicated peptic ulcers have any water-soluble vitamin deficiencies soon after the onset of the complicated peptic ulcers. In this prospective cohort study, fasting serum levels of water-soluble vitamins (vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, C, and folic acid) and homocysteine were measured at 3 time points (at admission, hospital discharge, and 3 mo after hospital discharge). Among the 20 patients who were enrolled in the study, 10 consecutive patients who completed measurements at all 3 time points were analyzed. The proportion of patients in whom any of the serum water-soluble vitamins that we examined were deficient was as high as 80% at admission, and remained at 70% at discharge. The proportion of patients with vitamin B6 deficiency was significantly higher at admission and discharge (50% and 60%, respectively, p<0.05) than at 3 mo after discharge (10%). In conclusion, most patients with complicated peptic ulcers may have a deficiency of one or more water-soluble vitamins in the early phase of the disease after the onset of ulcer complications, even in a contemporary Japanese population. PMID:24477246

  5. Contribution of Food Sources to the Vitamin B12 Status of South Indian Children from a Birth Cohort Recruited in the City of Mysore

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective There is evidence that sub-clinical vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency is common in India. Vegetarianism is prevalent and therefore meat consumption is low. Our objective was to explore the contribution of B12 source-foods and maternal B12 status during pregnancy to plasma B12 concentrations. Design Maternal plasma B12 concentrations were measured during pregnancy. Children’s dietary intakes and plasma B12 concentrations were measured at age 9.5 years; B12 and total energy intakes were calculated using food composition databases. We used linear regression to examine associations between maternal B12 status and children’s intakes of B12 and B12 source-foods, and children’s plasma B12 concentrations. Setting South Indian city of Mysore and surrounding rural areas. Subjects Children from the Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort (n=512, 47.1% male). Results Three percent of children were B12 deficient (<150 pmol/l). A further 14% had ‘marginal’ B12 concentrations (150-221 pmol/l). Children’s total daily B12 intake and consumption frequency of meat and fish, and micronutrient-enriched beverages were positively associated with plasma B12 concentrations (p=0.006, p=0.01 and p=0.04, adjusted for socio-economic indicators and maternal B12 status). Maternal pregnancy plasma B12 was associated with children’s plasma B12 concentrations, independent of current B12 intakes (p<0.001). Milk and curd (yoghurt) intakes were unrelated to B12 status. Conclusions Meat and fish are important B12 sources in this population. Micronutrient-enriched beverages appear to be important sources in our cohort, but their high sugar content necessitates care in their recommendation. Improving maternal B12 status in pregnancy may improve Indian children’s status. PMID:24866058

  6. Acute effects of vitamin B 6 and fixed combinations of vitamin B 1 , B 6 , B 12 on nociceptive activity evoked in the rat thalamus: Dose-response relationship and combinations with morphine and paracetamol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Jurna; K.-H. Carlsson; W. Kömen; D. Bonke

    1990-01-01

    Summary Nociceptive activity was elicited in neurones of the thalamus by supramaximal electrical stimulation of afferent C fibres in the sural nerve of rats under urethane anesthesia. The fixed combination of vitamin B1, B6, B12 (Neurobion®) as well as of vitamin B6 administered by i.p. injection dose-dependently reduced the evoked nociceptive activity. The ED50 of Neurobion® is 4.6 ml\\/kg (at

  7. Dipstick based immunochemiluminescence biosensor for the analysis of vitamin B12 in energy drinks: a novel approach.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, L S; Thakur, M S

    2012-04-13

    In this article, we describe a dipstick based immunochemiluminescence (immuno-CL) biosensor for the detection of vitamin B(12) in energy drinks. The method is a direct competitive type format involving the immobilization of vitamin B(12) antibody on nitrocellulose membrane (NC) followed by treatment with vitamin B(12) and vitamin B(12)-alkaline phosphatase conjugate to facilitate the competitive binding. The dipstick was further treated with substrate disodium 2-chloro-5-(4-methoxyspiro {1,2-dioxetane-3,2¢-(5¢-chloro)tricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]decan}-4-yl)-1-phenyl phosphate (CDP-Star) to generate chemiluminescence (CL). The number of photons generated was inversely proportional to the vitamin B(12) concentration. After systematic optimization, the limit of detection was 1 ng mL(-1). The coefficient of variation was below 0.2% for both intra- and inter-assay precision. Vitamin B(12) was extracted from energy drinks with recovery ranged from 90 to 99.4%. Two different energy drinks samples were analyzed, and a good correlation was observed when the data were compared with a reference enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) method. The developed method is suitable for an accurate, sensitive, and high-throughput screening of vitamin B(12) in energy drinks samples. The dipstick technique based on immuno-CL is suitable for the detection of several analyte in food and environmental samples. PMID:22444541

  8. Comparison of two modes of vitamin B12 supplementation on neuroconduction and cognitive function among older people living in Santiago, Chile: a cluster randomized controlled trial. a study protocol [ISRCTN 02694183

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Older people have a high risk of vitamin B12 deficiency; this can lead to varying degrees of cognitive and neurological impairment. CBL deficiency may present as macrocytic anemia, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, or as neuropathy, but is often asymptomatic in older people. Less is known about subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency and concurrent neuroconduction and cognitive impairment. A Programme of Complementary Feeding for the Older Population (PACAM) in Chile delivers 2 complementary fortified foods that provide approximately 1.4 ?g/day of vitamin B12 (2.4 ?g/day elderly RDA). The aim of the present study is to assess whether supplementation with vitamin B12 will improve neuroconduction and cognitive function in older people who have biochemical evidence of vitamin B12 insufficiency in the absence of clinical deficiency. Methods We designed a cluster double-blind placebo-controlled trial involving community dwelling people aged 70-79 living in Santiago, Chile. We randomized 15 clusters (health centers) involving 300 people (20 per cluster). Each cluster will be randomly assigned to one of three arms: a) a 1 mg vitamin B12 pill taken daily and a routine PACAM food; b) a placebo pill and the milk-PACAM food fortified to provide 1 mg of vitamin B12; c) the routine PACAM food and a placebo pill. The study has been designed as an 18 month follow up period. The primary outcomes assessed at baseline, 4, 9 and 18 months will be: serum levels of vitamin B12, neuroconduction and cognitive function. Conclusions In view of the high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in later life, the present study has potential public health interest because since it will measure the impact of the existing program of complementary feeding as compared to two options that provide higher vitamin B12 intakes that might potentially may contribute in preserving neurophysiologic and cognitive function and thus improve quality of life for older people in Chile. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN02694183 PMID:21952034

  9. Effectiveness of the National Program of Complementary Feeding for older adults in Chile on vitamin B12 status in older adults; secondary outcome analysis from the CENEX Study (ISRCTN48153354)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Older people are at increased risk of vitamin B12 deficiency and the provision of fortified foods may be an effective way to ensure good vitamin B12 status in later life. Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of a vitamin B12 fortified food provided by a national program of complementary food for older people on plasma vitamin B12 levels. Subjects and methods A random sub-sample of 351 subjects aged 65-67y from a large cluster randomised controlled trial provided blood samples at baseline and after 24 months of intervention. The intervention arm (10 clusters 186 participants) received a vitamin B12 fortified food designed to deliver 1.4 ?g/day, while the control arm did not receive complementary food (10 clusters, 165 participants). Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels determined by radioimmunoassay were used to estimate the effect of intervention on vitamin B12 levels, adjusting for baseline levels and sex. Results Attrition at 24 months was 16.7% and 23.6% in the intervention and control arms respectively (p?=?0.07). Over 24 months of intervention, mean (95% CI) serum vitamin B12 decreased from 392 (359–425) pmol/dL to 357 (300–414) pmol/dL (p?vitamin B12 as provided by Chile’s national programme for older people are insufficient to ensure adequate vitamin B12 levels in this population. Chile has a long and successful experience with nutrition intervention programs; however, the country’s changing demographic and nutritional profiles require a constant adjustment of the programs. PMID:24016218

  10. Molecular and cellular effects of vitamin B12 in brain, myocardium and liver through its role as co-factor of methionine synthase.

    PubMed

    Guéant, Jean-Louis; Caillerez-Fofou, Maatem; Battaglia-Hsu, Shyuefang; Alberto, Jean-Marc; Freund, Jean-Noel; Dulluc, Isabelle; Adjalla, Charles; Maury, Florence; Merle, Carole; Nicolas, Jean-Pierre; Namour, Fares; Daval, Jean-Luc

    2013-05-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, cbl) is a cofactor of methionine synthase (MTR) in the synthesis of methionine, the precursor of the universal methyl donor S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM), which is involved in epigenomic regulatory mechanisms. We have established a neuronal cell model with stable expression of a transcobalamin-oleosin chimer and subsequent decreased cellular availability of vitamin B12, which produces reduced proliferation, increased apoptosis and accelerated differentiation through PP2A, NGF and TACE pathways. Anti-transcobalamin antibody or impaired transcobalamin receptor expression produce also impaired proliferation in other cells. Consistently, the transcription, protein expression and activity of MTR are increased in proliferating cells of skin and intestinal epitheliums, in rat intestine crypts and in proliferating CaCo2 cells, while MTR activity correlates with DNA methylation in rat intestine villi. Exposure to nitrous oxide in animal models identified impairment of MTR reaction as the most important metabolic cause of neurological manifestations of B12 deficiency. Early vitamin B12 and folate deprivation during gestation and lactation of a 'dam-progeny' rat model developed in our laboratory is associated with long-lasting disabilities of behavior and memory capacities, with persisting hallmarks related to increased apoptosis, impaired neurogenesis and altered plasticity. We found also an epigenomic deregulation of energy metabolism and fatty acids beta-oxidation in myocardium and liver, through imbalanced methylation/acetylation of PGC-1alpha and decreased expression of SIRT1. These nutrigenomic effects display similarities with the molecular mechanisms of fetal programming. Beside deficiency, B12 loading increases the expression of MTR through internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) and down-regulates MDR-1 gene expression. In conclusion, vitamin B12 influences cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in brain. Vitamin B12 and folate combined deficiency impairs fatty acid oxidation and energy metabolism in liver and heart through epigenomic mechanisms related to imbalanced acetylation/methylation. Some but not all of these effects reflect the upstream role of vitamin B12 in SAM synthesis. PMID:23415654

  11. Hyperhomocysteinemia is related to a decreased blood level of vitamin B12 in the second and third trimester of normal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chéry, Céline; Barbé, Françoise; Lequere, Catherine; Abdelmouttaleb, Idrissia; Gérard, Philippe; Barbarino, Patricia; Boutroy, Jean-Louis; Guéant, Jean-Louis

    2002-11-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia has been associated with several pregnancy complications. We have investigated the variation of plasma total homocysteine (tHcys) during the 2 last trimesters of normal pregnancy and related it to blood vitamin B12 and folate and to the excretion of the degraded intrinsic factor receptor (IFCR) in urine, in a follow-up study of 15 cases. A significant rise in tHcys was observed between the beginning of the second trimester and the third trimester with respective values (median) 6.1, 5.8 and 6.7 micromol/l (p = 0.038). The tHcys/albumin ratio also increased significantly, while no correlation was found between albumin and folate blood concentration. In contrast, a significant decrease in vitamin B12 was observed (279, 225 and 199 pmol/l, between the 4th and 6th, and the 6th and 9th month, respectively (p = 0.017-0.002)). A significant negative correlation was found between tHcys between the 4th and 9th month of pregnancy and the ratio of vitamin B12 between the 4th and 9th month of pregnancy (r = 0.55, p = 0.037). The urine excretion of IFCR was increased and was not related to vitamin B12 and tHcys. In conclusion, we have observed a rise in tHcys between the beginning of the second trimester and the third trimester of pregnancy which was related to the decreased blood level of vitamin B12. Subclinical deficiency of vitamin B12 should be further investigated in pregnant women who remain on inadequate diet. PMID:12521226

  12. Vitamin B12 Production and Depletion in a Naturally Occurring Eutrophic Lake1

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Paul A.; Morita, Richard Y.

    1972-01-01

    The distribution of vitamin B12 within Upper Klamath Lake was surveyed at approximately monthly intervals during a period from September 1968 to November 1969. High concentrations (up to 1.8 ?g/g of dry sediment) characteristically occurred at the water-sediment interface, with a sharp decline below this area. A heavy bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae occurred from the latter part of May through October 1969. B12 concentrations of the uppermost sediments, from all but one sampling site, increased gradually through the bloom, followed by a drastic increase during the die-off period. B12 is probably not a limiting factor for primary productivity, since sufficient levels of this vitamin were found to occur throughout the year. Of 42 cultures isolated from Upper Klamath Lake water and sediments, 20 were found capable of producing 50 pg or more of B12/ml of medium. Phytoplankton samples were found to contain up to 5 ?g of B12/g of dry material. Degradation of B12 occurred in sterilized as well as fresh sediment samples. PMID:4622828

  13. Regulation of Vitamin C Homeostasis during Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Lindblad, Maiken; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Large cross-sectional population studies confirm that vitamin C deficiency is common in humans, affecting 5%–10% of adults in the industrialized world. Moreover, significant associations between poor vitamin C status and increased morbidity and mortality have consistently been observed. However, the absorption, distribution and elimination kinetics of vitamin C in vivo are highly complex, due to dose-dependent non-linearity, and the specific regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. Particularly, little is known about how adaptive mechanisms during states of deficiency affect the overall regulation of vitamin C transport in the body. This review discusses mechanisms of vitamin C transport and potential means of regulation with special emphasis on capacity and functional properties, such as differences in the Km of vitamin C transporters in different target tissues, in some instances demonstrating a tissue-specific distribution. PMID:23892714

  14. Theoretical analysis of electronic absorption spectra of vitamin B12 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andruniow, Tadeusz; Kozlowski, Pawel M.; Zgierski, Marek Z.

    2001-10-01

    Time-dependent density-functional theory (TD-DFT) is applied to analyze the electronic absorption spectra of vitamin B12. To accomplish this two model systems were considered: CN-[CoIII-corrin]-CN (dicyanocobinamide, DCC) and imidazole-[CoIII-corrin]-CN (cyanocobalamin, ImCC). For both models 30 lowest excited states were calculated together with transition dipole moments. When the results of TD-DFT calculations were directly compared with experiment it was found that the theoretical values systematically overestimate experimental data by approximately 0.5 eV. The uniform adjustment of the calculated transition energies allowed detailed analysis of electronic absorption spectra of vitamin B12 models. All absorption bands in spectral range 2.0-5.0 eV were readily assigned. In particular, TD-DFT calculations were able to explain the origin of the shift of the lowest absorption band caused by replacement of the-CN axial ligand by imidazole.

  15. Vitamin B12 and hepatitis C: Molecular biology and human pathology

    PubMed Central

    Lott, William B.; Takyar, Seyedtaghi S.; Tuppen, Joseph; Crawford, Darrell H. G.; Harrison, Michael; Sloots, Theo P.; Gowans, Eric J.

    2001-01-01

    Cobalamins are stored in high concentrations in the human liver and thus are available to participate in the regulation of hepatotropic virus functions. We show that cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) inhibited the HCV internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-dependent translation of a reporter gene in vitro in a dose-dependent manner without significantly affecting the cap-dependent mechanism. Vitamin B12 failed to inhibit translation by IRES elements from encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) or classical swine fever virus (CSFV). We also demonstrate a relationship between the total cobalamin concentration in human sera and HCV viral load (a measure of viral replication in the host). The mean viral load was two orders of magnitude greater when the serum cobalamin concentration was above 200 pM (P < 0.003), suggesting that the total cobalamin concentration in an HCV-infected liver is biologically significant in HCV replication. PMID:11296247

  16. Hyperhomocysteinemia, and low intakes of folic acid and vitamin B12 in urban North India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anoop Misra; Naval K. Vikram; R. M. Pandey; Manjari Dwivedi; Faiz Uddin Ahmad; Kalpana Luthra; Kajal Jain; Nidhi Khanna; J. Rama Devi; Rekha Sharma; Randeep Guleria

    2002-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a Background and Aim An adverse coronary risk profile has been reported amongst rural-to-urban migrant population living in urban slums undergoing\\u000a stressful socio-economic transition. These individuals are likely to have low intakes of folic acid and vitamin B12, which\\u000a may have an adverse impact on serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy). To test this hypothesis, we studied serum levels of Hcy

  17. Vitamin-responsive disorders: cobalamin, folate, biotin, vitamins B1 and E.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Matthias R

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic properties of many enzymes depend on the participation of vitamins as obligatory cofactors. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) and folic acid (folate) deficiencies in infants and children classically present with megaloblastic anemia and are often accompanied by neurological signs. A number of rare inborn errors of cobalamin and folate absorption, transport, cellular uptake, and intracellular metabolism have been delineated and identification of disease-causing mutations has improved our ability to diagnose and treat many of these conditions. Two inherited defects in biotin metabolism are known, holocarboxylase synthetase and biotinidase deficiency. Both lead to multiple carboxylase deficiency manifesting with metabolic acidosis, neurological abnormalities, and skin rash. Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia is characterized by megaloblastic anemia, non-type I diabetes, and sensorineural deafness that responds to pharmacological doses of thiamine (vitamin B1). Individuals affected with inherited vitamin E deficiencies including ataxia with isolated vitamin E deficiency and abetalipoproteinemia present with a spinocerebellar syndrome similar to patients with Friedreich's ataxia. If started early, treatment of these defects by oral or parenteral administration of the relevant vitamin often results in correction of the metabolic defect and reversal of the signs of disease, stressing the importance of early and correct diagnosis in these treatable conditions. PMID:23622402

  18. Studies in the biosynthesis of vitamin B12

    E-print Network

    Anousis, Nick

    1994-01-01

    catalyzing the C-2 and C-7 methylations of Uroporphyrinogen III to precorrin-2, without performing an extra methylation at C-12 of precorrin-2 to trimethylpyrrocorphin. The function of the S.typhimurium cbid gene product has not yet been identified. The C...

  19. Disposable pencil graphite electrode modified with peptide nanotubes for Vitamin B12 analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pala, Betül Bozdo?an; Vural, Tayfun; Kuralay, Filiz; Ç?rak, Tamer; Bolat, Gülçin; Abac?, Serdar; Denkba?, Emir Baki

    2014-06-01

    In this study, peptide nanostructures from diphenylalanine were synthesized in various solvents with various polarities and characterized with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD) techniques. Formation of peptide nanofibrils, nanovesicles, nanoribbons, and nanotubes was observed in different solvent mediums. In order to investigate the effects of peptide nanotubes (PNT) on electrochemical behavior of disposable pencil graphite electrodes (PGE), electrode surfaces were modified with fabricated peptide nanotubes. Electrochemical activity of the pencil graphite electrode was increased with the deposition of PNTs on the surface. The effects of the solvent type, the peptide nanotube concentration, and the passive adsorption time of peptide nanotubes on pencil graphite electrode were studied. For further electrochemical studies, electrodes were modified for 30 min by immobilizing PNTs, which were prepared in water at 6 mg/mL concentration. Vitamin B12 analyses were performed by the Square Wave (SW) voltammetry method using modified PGEs. The obtained data showed linearity over the range of 0.2 ?M and 9.50 ?M Vitamin B12 concentration with high sensitivity. Results showed that PNT modified PGEs were highly simple, fast, cost effective, and feasible for the electro-analytical determination of Vitamin B12 in real samples.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyl reductive dechlorination by vitamin B{sub 12s}: Thermodynamics and regiospecificity

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, S.L.; Trobaugh, D.J. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering] [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering; Carter, K.J. [Willamette Industries, Inc., Albany, OR (United States)] [Willamette Industries, Inc., Albany, OR (United States)

    1999-03-15

    Microbial reductive dechlorination reactions play an important role in determining the environmental fate of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), especially for PCB congeners with more than four chlorines. Powerful chemical catalysts such as vitamin B{sub 12s} provide an effective tool for the study of reductive dechlorination reactions. The reductive dechlorination of PCBs by titanium(III) citrate-reduced vitamin B{sub 12s} was studied in batch reactors. Long-term experiments demonstrated reductive dechlorination of aqueous and sediment-sorbed 2,3,4,5,6-pentachlorobiphenyl (2,3,4,5,6-PeCB) to tetra-, tri-, di-, and monochlorobiphenyl products. Approximately 10% chlorine removal was observed in 36 days in aqueous experiments at 20 C; the sediment experiment showed 40% chlorine removal in 42 days at 30 C. Nearly all possible intermediates were produced and reductively dechlorinated, with no apparent accumulation of individual congeners. Short-term experiments were conducted to determine the pathway for vitamin B{sub 12s}-catalyzed reductive dechlorination of aqueous 2,3,4,5,6-PeCB and its dechlorinated products; relative product distributions were measured for all possible tetra- and trichlorobiphenyl reductive dechlorination reactions. Theoretical product distributions based on free energies of formation agreed with observed product distributions for short- and long-term experiments. Reductive dechlorination was favored at positions with adjacent chlorines; on average, chlorines were removed equally from ortho, meta, and para positions.

  1. Methylcobalamin--a form of vitamin B12 identified and characterised in Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Kumudha, Anantharajappa; Selvakumar, Sagaya; Dilshad, Pullancheri; Vaidyanathan, Gopal; Thakur, Munna Singh; Sarada, Ravi

    2015-03-01

    Vitamin B12 is among the most essential biomolecules required for crucial metabolic processes in humans. Vitamin B12 was extracted from Chlorella vulgaris biomass under aqueous conditions, partially purified by passing the extract through amberlite XAD-2, Sep-Pak columns, and further purified by HPLC. The target peak eluent was subjected to characterisation by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), selected ion recording (SIR) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and identified as methylcobalamin (Me-Cbl). Quantification of Me-Cbl was carried out by microbiological and chemiluminescence methods, and found to be 29.87±2 ?g/100 g and 26.84±2 ?g/100 g dry weight, respectively. The presence of Me-Cbl was further substantiated using gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) based aptamer analysis, and found to be 28.02±2 ?g/100 g dry weight. Good similarity was observed among all the methods. Methylcobalamin, a form of vitamin B12 was identified in C. vulgaris and this finding enhances its use as a nutritional supplement. PMID:25306351

  2. A simple assay of intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complex employing the binding intrinsic factor antibody

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Elizabeth; O'Brien, H. A. W.

    1972-01-01

    The reaction between binding intrinsic factor antibody and intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complex has been studied. Initially in the zone of antibody excess, the relationship between the amount of antigen present and the amount of antigen-antibody complex adsorbed onto zirconium phosphate gel was linear. With increasing amounts of antigen, the curve departed from linearity and reached a plateau. The linear portion of the reaction forms the basis of a simple and reproducible assay for quantitating intrinsic factor to which vitamin B12 has already been bound. The assay provides a method for studying the fate of intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complex during digestion and absorption. In two normal subjects given radioactive vitamin B12 orally, aspiration of ileal contents showed that only 50 to 70% of the radioactivity was bound to intrinsic factor at that level. PMID:5028639

  3. Insights into the evolution of vitamin B12 auxotrophy from sequenced algal genomes.

    PubMed

    Helliwell, Katherine E; Wheeler, Glen L; Leptos, Kyriacos C; Goldstein, Raymond E; Smith, Alison G

    2011-10-01

    Vitamin B(12) (cobalamin) is a dietary requirement for humans because it is an essential cofactor for two enzymes, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase (METH). Land plants and fungi neither synthesize or require cobalamin because they do not contain methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, and have an alternative B(12)-independent methionine synthase (METE). Within the algal kingdom, approximately half of all microalgal species need the vitamin as a growth supplement, but there is no phylogenetic relationship between these species, suggesting that the auxotrophy arose multiple times through evolution. We set out to determine the underlying cellular mechanisms for this observation by investigating elements of B(12) metabolism in the sequenced genomes of 15 different algal species, with representatives of the red, green, and brown algae, diatoms, and coccolithophores, including both macro- and microalgae, and from marine and freshwater environments. From this analysis, together with growth assays, we found a strong correlation between the absence of a functional METE gene and B(12) auxotrophy. The presence of a METE unitary pseudogene in the B(12)-dependent green algae Volvox carteri and Gonium pectorale, relatives of the B(12)-independent Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, suggest that B(12) dependence evolved recently in these lineages. In both C. reinhardtii and the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, growth in the presence of cobalamin leads to repression of METE transcription, providing a mechanism for gene loss. Thus varying environmental conditions are likely to have been the reason for the multiple independent origins of B(12) auxotrophy in these organisms. Because the ultimate source of cobalamin is from prokaryotes, the selective loss of METE in different algal lineages will have had important physiological and ecological consequences for these organisms in terms of their dependence on bacteria. PMID:21551270

  4. Vitamin B12 Treatment Normalizes Metabolic Markers But Has Limited Clinical Effect: A Randomized Placebo-controlled Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Mette Hvas; Jørgen Ellegaard; Ebba Nexø

    2001-01-01

    Background: The clinical significance of increased plasma methylmalonic acid (P-MMA) is unclear. We assessed the efficacy of vitamin B12 treatment in reduc- ing P-MMA and plasma total homocysteine compared with the clinical benefits of treatment. Methods: We studied 140 individuals with mildly to modestly increased P-MMA (0.40 -2.00 mmol\\/L), not pre- viously treated with vitamin B12, in a randomized, placebo-controlled

  5. Vitamin D Deficiency and Insufficiency in Hospitalized COPD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mekov, Evgeni; Slavova, Yanina; Tsakova, Adelina; Genova, Marianka; Kostadinov, Dimitar; Minchev, Delcho; Marinova, Dora; Tafradjiiska, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction 31–77% of patients with COPD have vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency, with results being highly variable between studies. Vitamin D may also correlate with disease characteristics. Aim To find out the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in patients with COPD admitted for exacerbation and a risk factors for lower vitamin D levels among comorbidities and COPD characteristics. Methods 152 patients were studied for vitamin D serum levels (25(OH)D). All of them were also assessed for diabetes mellitus (DM) and metabolic syndrome (MS). Data were gathered also for smoking status and exacerbations in last year. All patients completed CAT and mMRC questionnaires and underwent spirometry. Results A total of 83,6% of patients have reduced levels of vitamin D. 42,8% (65/152) have vitamin D insufficiency (defined as 25–50 nmol/L) and 40,8% (62/152) have vitamin D deficiency (<25 nmol/L). The mean level of 25(OH)D for all patients is 31,97 nmol/L (95%CI 29,12–34,68). Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are more prevalent in females vs. males (97,7 vs 77,8%; p = 0.003). The prevalence and severity of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in this study is significantly higher when compared to an unselected Bulgarian population (prevalence 75,8%; mean level 38,75 nmol/L). Vitamin D levels correlate with quality of life (measured by the mMRC scale) and lung function (FVC, FEV1, FEV6, FEF2575, FEV3, but not with FEV1/FVC ratio and PEF), it does not correlate with the presence of arterial hypertension, DM, MS and number of moderate, severe and total exacerbations. Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for longer hospital stay. Conclusions The patients with COPD admitted for exacerbation are a risk group for vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency, which is associated with worse disease characteristics. PMID:26047485

  6. Possible association between vitamin D deficiency and restless legs syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Oran, Mustafa; Unsal, Cuneyt; Albayrak, Yakup; Tulubas, Feti; Oguz, Keriman; Avci, Okan; Turgut, Nilda; Alp, Recep; Gurel, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Background and aim Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a distressing sleep disorder that occurs worldwide. Although there have been recent developments in understanding the pathophysiology of RLS, the exact mechanism of the disease has not been well elucidated. An increased prevalence of neurologic and psychiatric diseases involving dopaminergic dysfunction in vitamin D–deficient patients led us to hypothesize that vitamin D deficiency might result in dopaminergic dysfunction and consequently, the development of RLS (in which dopaminergic dysfunction plays a pivotal role). Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and RLS. Methods One hundred and fifty-five consecutive patients, 18–65 years of age, who were admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine with musculoskeletal symptoms and who subsequently underwent neurological and electromyography (EMG) examination by the same senior neurologist, were included in this study. The patients were divided into two groups according to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) (a vitamin D metabolite used as a measure of vitamin D status) level: 36 patients with serum 25(OH)D levels ?20 ng/mL comprised the normal vitamin D group, and 119 patients with serum 25(OH)D levels <20 ng/mL comprised the vitamin D deficiency group. The two groups were compared for the presence of RLS and associated factors. Results The two groups were similar in terms of mean age, sex, mean body mass index (BMI), and serum levels of calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and ferritin. The presence of RLS was significantly higher in the vitamin D deficiency group (?2=12.87, P<0.001). Regression analysis showed vitamin D deficiency and serum 25(OH)D level to be significantly associated with the presence of RLS (odds ratio [OR] 5.085, P<0.001 and OR 1.047, P=0.006, respectively). Conclusion The present study demonstrated a possible association between vitamin D deficiency and RLS. Given the dopaminergic effects of vitamin D, 25(OH)D depletion may lead to dopaminergic dysfunction and may have a place in the etiology of RLS. Prospective vitamin D treatment studies are needed to confirm this relationship and to evaluate the efficacy of vitamin D as a treatment for RLS patients. PMID:24899811

  7. Purification and interaction analyses of two human lysosomal vitamin B12 transporters: LMBD1 and ABCD4.

    PubMed

    Deme, Justin C; Hancock, Mark A; Xia, Xiaobing; Shintre, Chitra A; Plesa, Maria; Kim, Jaeseung C; Carpenter, Elisabeth P; Rosenblatt, David S; Coulton, James W

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in human LMBRD1 and ABCD4 prevent lysosomal export of vitamin B(12) to the cytoplasm, impairing the vitamin B(12)-dependent enzymes methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. The gene products of LMBRD1 and ABCD4 are implicated in vitamin B(12) transport at the lysosomal membrane and are proposed to act in complex. To address the mechanism for lysosomal vitamin B(12) transport, we report the novel recombinant production of LMBD1 and ABCD4 for detailed biophysical analyses. Using blue native PAGE, chemical crosslinking, and size exclusion chromatography coupled to multi-angle light scattering (SEC-MALS), we show that both detergent-solubilized LMBD1 and detergent-solubilized ABCD4 form homodimers. To examine the functional binding properties of these proteins, label-free surface plasmon resonance (SPR) provides direct in vitro evidence that: (i) LMBD1 and ABCD4 interact with low nanomolar affinity; and (ii) the cytoplasmic vitamin B(12)-processing protein MMACHC also interacts with LMBD1 and ABCD4 with low nanomolar affinity. Accordingly, we propose a model whereby membrane-bound LMBD1 and ABCD4 facilitate the vectorial delivery of lysosomal vitamin B(12) to cytoplasmic MMACHC, thus preventing cofactor dilution to the cytoplasmic milieu and protecting against inactivating side reactions. PMID:25535791

  8. Regulation of the vitamin B12 metabolism and transport in bacteria by a conserved RNA structural element

    PubMed Central

    VITRESCHAK, ALEXEY G.; RODIONOV, DMITRY A.; MIRONOV, ANDREY A.; GELFAND, MIKHAIL S.

    2003-01-01

    Cobalamin in the form of adenosylcobalamin (Ado-CBL) is known to repress expression of genes for vitamin B12 biosynthesis and be transported by a posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism, which involves direct binding of Ado-CBL to 5?untranslated gene regions (5?UTR). Using comparative analysis of genes and regulatory regions, we identified a highly conserved RNA structure, the B12-element, which is widely distributed in 5?UTRs of vitamin B12-related genes in eubacteria. Multiple alignment of approximately 200 B12-elements from 66 bacterial genomes reveals their common secondary structure and several extended regions of sequence conservation, including the previously known B12-box motif. In analogy to the model of regulation of the riboflavin and thiamin biosynthesis, we suggest Ado-CBL-mediated regulation based on formation of alternative RNA structures including the B12-element. In Gram-negative proteobacteria, as well as in cyanobacteria, actinobacteria, and the CFB group, the cobalamin biosynthesis and vitamin B12 transport genes are predicted to be regulated by inhibition of translation initiation, whereas in the Bacillus/Clostridium group of Gram-positive bacteria, these genes seem to be regulated by transcriptional antitermination. Phylogenetic analysis of the B12-elements reveals a large number of likely duplications of B12-elements in several bacterial genomes. These lineage-specific duplications of RNA regulatory elements seem to be a major evolutionary mechanism for expansion of the vitamin B12 regulon. PMID:12923257

  9. Iron Limitation of a Springtime Bacterial and Phytoplankton Community in the Ross Sea: Implications for Vitamin B12 Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Erin M.; Saito, Mak A.; Lee, Peter A.; Dunbar, Robert B.; Sedwick, Peter N.; DiTullio, Giacomo R.

    2011-01-01

    The Ross Sea is home to some of the largest phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean. Primary production in this system has previously been shown to be iron limited in the summer and periodically iron and vitamin B12 colimited. In this study, we examined trace metal limitation of biological activity in the Ross Sea in the austral spring and considered possible implications for vitamin B12 nutrition. Bottle incubation experiments demonstrated that iron limited phytoplankton growth in the austral spring while B12, cobalt, and zinc did not. This is the first demonstration of iron limitation in a Phaeocystis antarctica-dominated, early season Ross Sea phytoplankton community. The lack of B12 limitation in this location is consistent with previous Ross Sea studies in the austral summer, wherein vitamin additions did not stimulate P. antarctica growth and B12 was limiting only when bacterial abundance was low. Bottle incubation experiments and a bacterial regrowth experiment also revealed that iron addition directly enhanced bacterial growth. B12 uptake measurements in natural water samples and in an iron fertilized bottle incubation demonstrated that bacteria serve not only as a source for vitamin B12, but also as a significant sink, and that iron additions enhanced B12 uptake rates in phytoplankton but not bacteria. Additionally, vitamin uptake rates did not become saturated upon the addition of up to 95?pM B12. A rapid B12 uptake rate was observed after 13?min, which then decreased to a slower constant uptake rate over the next 52?h. Results from this study highlight the importance of iron availability in limiting early season Ross Sea phytoplankton growth and suggest that rates of vitamin B12 production and consumption may be impacted by iron availability. PMID:21886638

  10. The vitamin B 1 , B 2 , B 6 , B 12 , and E contents of hard red spring wheat as influenced by fertilization and cultivar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul W. Syltie; William C. Dahnke

    1983-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of fertilization and cultivar on the content of vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, and E in wheat, seven fertility treatments with three levels of N (0, 56, and 280 kg\\/ha), two levels of P (0 and 122 kg\\/ha), and two levels of K (0 and 465 kg\\/ha) were applied on split plots to two relatively unrelated

  11. Activity of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in the liver of rats with multi-vitamin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tutelyan, Victor A; Kravchenko, Lidia V; Aksenov, Ilya V; Trusov, Nikita V; Guseva, Galina V; Kodentsova, Vera M; Vrzhesinskaya, Oksana A; Beketova, Nina A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine how multi-vitamin deficiency affects xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme (XME) activities in the rat liver. Vitamin levels and XME activities were studied in the livers of male Wistar rats who were fed for 4 weeks with semi-synthetic diets containing either adequate (100 % of recommended vitamin intake) levels of vitamins (control), or decreased vitamin levels (50 % or 20 % of recommended vitamin intake). The study results have shown that moderate vitamin deficiency (50 %) leads to a decrease of vitamin A levels only, and to a slight increase, as compared with the control, in the following enzyme activities: methoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (MROD) activity of CYP1 A2 - by 34 % (p < 0.05), UDP-glucuronosyl transferase - by 26 % (p < 0.05), and quinone reductase - by 55 % (p < 0.05). Profound vitamin deficiency (20 %) led to a decrease of vitamins A, E, B1, B2, and C, and enzyme activities in the liver: MROD - to 78 % of the control level (p < 0.05), 4-nitrophenol hydroxylase - to 74 % (p < 0.05), heme oxygenase-1 - to 83 % (p < 0.05), and quinone reductase - to 60 % (p < 0.05). At the same time, the UDP-glucuronosyl transferase activity and ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activity of CYP1A1, pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activity of CYP2B1/2 and 6?-testosterone hydroxylase, as well as the total activity of glutathione transferase did not differ from the control levels. The study has demonstrated that profound multi-vitamin deficiency is associated with a decrease in the expression of CYP1A2 and CYP3A1 mRNAs to 62 % and 79 %, respectively. These data indicated that a short-term but profound multi-vitamin deficiency in rats leads to a decrease in the activities and expression of the some XME that play an important role in detoxification of xenobiotics and metabolism of drugs and antioxidant protection. PMID:24220160

  12. Vitamin B12[c-lactone], a biologically inactive corrinoid compound, occurs in cultured and dried lion's mane mushroom (Hericium erinaceus) fruiting bodies.

    PubMed

    Teng, Fei; Bito, Tomohiro; Takenaka, Shigeo; Yabuta, Yukinori; Watanabe, Fumio

    2014-02-19

    This study determined the vitamin B12 content of the edible medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus, lion's mane mushroom fruiting body, using a microbiological assay based on Lactobacillus delbrueckii ATCC 7830. Trace levels (0.04-0.36 ?g/100 g dry weight) of vitamin B12 were found in most of the dried mushroom samples, and two samples contained slightly higher levels (0.56 and 1.04 ?g/100 g dry weight, respectively) of vitamin B12. We purified the corrinoid compounds from the extracts of dried lion's mane mushroom fruiting bodies using an immunoaffinity column and identified them as vitamin B12 or vitamin B12[c-lactone] (or both) based on LC/ESI-MS/MS chromatograms. This is the first report on an unnatural corrinoid, vitamin B12[c-lactone], occurring in foods. Vitamin B12[c-lactone] was simple to produce during incubation of authentic vitamin B12 and chloramine-T, an antimicrobial agent, at varying pH values (3.0-7.0) and was completely inactive in the vitamin B12-dependent bacteria that are generally used in vitamin B12 bioassays. PMID:24506286

  13. Progressive hyperpigmentation in a Taiwanese child due to an inborn error of vitamin B12 metabolism (cblJ).

    PubMed

    Takeichi, T; Hsu, C-K; Yang, H-S; Chen, H-Y; Wong, T-W; Tsai, W-L; Chao, S-C; Lee, J Y-Y; Akiyama, M; Simpson, M A; McGrath, J A

    2015-04-01

    The physiology of human skin pigmentation is varied and complex, with an extensive melanogenic paracrine network involving mesenchymal and epithelial cells, contributing to the regulation of melanocyte survival and proliferation and melanogenesis. Mutations in several genes, involving predominantly the KIT ligand/c-Kit and Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways, have been implicated in a spectrum of diseases in which there is hyperpigmentation, hypopigmentation or both. Here, we report on a 12-year-old girl from Taiwan with a 6-year history of diffuse progressive skin hyperpigmentation resulting from a different aetiology: an inborn metabolic disorder of vitamin B12 (cobalamin), designated cblJ. Using whole-exome sequencing we identified a homozygous mutation in ABCD4 (c.423C>G; p.Asn141Lys), which encodes an ATP-binding cassette transporter with a role in the intracellular processing of cobalamin. The patient had biochemical and haematological evidence of cobalamin deficiency but no other clinical abnormalities apart from a slight lightening of her previously black hair. Of note, she had no neurological symptoms or signs. Treatment with oral cobalamin (3 mg daily) led to metabolic correction and some reduction in the skin hyperpigmentation at the 3-month follow-up. This case demonstrates that defects or deficiencies of cobalamin should be remembered in the differential diagnosis of diffuse hyperpigmentary skin disorders. PMID:25234635

  14. Vitamin K Deficiency Is Associated with Incident Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Devyani; Booth, Sarah L.; Tolstykh, Irina; Felson, David T.; Nevitt, Michael C.; Lewis, Cora E.; Torner, James; Neogi, Tuhina

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, with knee osteoarthritis being the leading cause of lower extremity disability among older adults in the US. There are no treatments available to prevent the structural pathology of osteoarthritis. Because of vitamin K’s role in regulating skeletal mineralization, it has potential to be a preventative option for osteoarthritis. We therefore examined the relation of vitamin K to new-onset radiographic knee osteoarthritis and early osteoarthritis changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS Subjects from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis (MOST) Study had knee radiographs and MRI scans obtained at baseline and 30 months later, and plasma phylloquinone (vitamin K) measured at baseline. We examined the relationship of subclinical vitamin K deficiency to incident radiographic knee osteoarthritis and MRI-based cartilage lesions and osteophytes, respectively, using log binomial regression with generalized estimating equations, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS Among 1180 participants (62% women, mean age 62 ± 8 years, mean body mass index 30.1 ± 5.1 kg/m2), subclinical vitamin K deficiency was associated with incident radiographic knee osteoarthritis (risk ratio [RR] 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08–2.25) and cartilage lesions (RR 2.39; 95% CI, 1.05–5.40) compared with no deficiency, but not with osteophytes (RR 2.35; 95% CI, 0.54–10.13). Subclinically vitamin K-deficient subjects were more likely to develop osteoarthritis in one or both knees than neither knee (RR 1.33; 95% CI, 1.01–1.75 and RR 2.12; 95% CI, 1.06-4.24, respectively). CONCLUSION In the first such longitudinal study, subclinical vitamin K deficiency was associated with increased risk of developing radiographic knee osteoarthritis and MRI-based cartilage lesions. Further study of vitamin K is warranted given its therapeutic/prophylactic potential for osteoarthritis. PMID:23410565

  15. Carbon tetrachloride degradation: Effect of microbial growth substrate and vitamin B{sub 12} content

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, S.; Stensel, H.D.; Ferguson, J.F.

    2000-05-01

    Microbial degradation kinetics of carbon tetrachloride (CT) under reducing conditions were investigated for different cultures, fed with 1,2-propanediol, dextrose, propionalde-hyde, or acetate and nitrate, in the anaerobic step of an anaerobic/aerobic operation sequence. Methanogenesis was inhibited due to the aerobic step. CT biodegradation rates followed first-order kinetics with respect to CT concentration and biomass and were not affected by the presence of growth substrate. CT degradation rates increased linearly with higher intracellular vitamin B{sub 12} content. The culture fed 1,2-propanediol had the highest vitamin B{sub 12} content, which was 3.8, 4.7, and 16 times that of the propionaldehyde-,dextrose-, and acetate-fed cultures, respectively, and its first-order degradation rate constant was 2.8, 4.5, 6.0 times that for those cultures, respectively. No CT degradation occurred with culture liquid, suggesting that intracellular factors were responsible for CT degradation. The propanediol culture was able to sustain a constant CT degradation rate for a 16-day test period without substrate addition. Compared to a propanediol-fed culture grown only under anaerobic conditions, the propanediol culture grown under the sequential anaerobic/aerobic condition resulted in more biomass growth and a greater CT degradation rate per unit of propanediol fed, although its CT degradation rate per unit of biomass was lower.

  16. Vitamin B12 biosynthesis over waste frying sunflower oil as a cost effective and renewable substrate.

    PubMed

    Hajfarajollah, Hamidreza; Mokhtarani, Babak; Mortaheb, Hamidreza; Afaghi, Ali

    2015-06-01

    Statistical experimental designs were used to develop a medium based on waste frying sunflower oil (WFO) and other nutrient sources for production of vitamin B12 (VB12) by Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. freudenreichii PTCC 1674. The production of acetic acid and propionic acid were also evaluated using the same microorganism. The amount of WFO in the media was initially optimized. The amount of 4 % w/v of oil found to be an appropriate amount for production of VB12. A Plackett Burman design was then employed to identify nutrients that have significant effect on the production of VB12 in the WFO media. Dimethylbenzimidazolyl (DMB), cobalt chloride, ferrous sulfate, and calcium chloride were the most important compounds. The level optimization of nutrients as the significant factors was finally performed using response surface methodology based on a central composite design. The model predicted that a medium containing 35.56 mg/L DMB, 14.69 mg/L CoCl2.6H2O, 5.82 mg/L FeSO4.7H2O, and 11.41 mg/L CaCl2.2H2O gives the maximum VB12 production of 2.60 mg/L. The optimized medium provides a final concentration of vitamin 170 % higher than that by the original medium. This study offers valuable insights on a cost-effective carbon source for industrial production of food-grade VB12. PMID:26028708

  17. Hydrosoluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Jasvinder; Kvarnberg, David

    2014-01-01

    The hydrosoluble vitamins are a group of organic substances that are required by humans in small amounts to prevent disorders of metabolism. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the biochemical, physiologic and nutritional aspects of the water-soluble vitamins. Deficiency of these particular vitamins, most commonly due to inadequate nutrition, can result in disorders of the nervous system. Many of these disorders have been successfully prevented in developed countries; however, they are still common in developing countries. Of the hydrosoluble vitamins, the nervous system depends the most on vitamins B and C (ascorbic acid) for proper functioning. The B group vitamins include thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin or niacinamide (vitamin B3), pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), pyridoxine or pyridoxal (vitamin B6) and cobalamin (vitamin B12). Clinical findings depend upon the deficiency of the underlying vitamin; generally, deficiency symptoms are seen from a combination rather than an isolated vitamin deficiency. True hereditary metabolic disorders and serious deficiency-associated diseases are rare and in general limited to particular geographic regions and high-risk groups. Their recognition is truly important as that determines the appropriate therapeutic management. The general availability of vitamins to practically everyone and several national health programs have saved many lives and prevented complications. However, there has been some apprehension for several decades about how harmless generous dosages of these vitamins are. Overt overdosages can cause vitamin toxicity affecting various body systems including the nervous system. Systemically, vitamin toxicity is associated with nonspecific symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and skin rash which are common with any acute or chronic vitamin overdose. At a national level, recommended daily allowances for vitamins become policy statements. Nutrition policy has far reaching implications in the food industry, in agriculture, and in food provision programs. Overall, water-soluble vitamins are complex molecular structures and even today, many areas of vitamin biochemistry still need to be explored. Many readers might be of the opinion that the classic forms of nutritional deficiency diseases have faded into the background of interesting history. This has caused their diverse symptoms to be neglected by most modern physicians since vitamin enrichment of many foods automatically erases them from their consideration in differential diagnosis. Vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiencies are discussed in other chapters. PMID:24365359

  18. Voltammetry of Vitamin B 12 on a thin self-assembled monolayer modified electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nianjun Yang; Qijin Wan; Xiaoxia Wang

    2005-01-01

    Vitamin B12 showed three reduction waves at a thin self-assembled monolayer of mercaptoacetic acid modified gold electrode at 0.21, 0.16, ?0.41V in a 0.01moll?1 HCl solution at a scan rate of 100mVs?1. The overall electrode reaction followed an ECE mechanism, leading to a total two-electron exchange. The predominant Co(III) form was reduced directly at 0.21V by a one-electron transfer accomplished

  19. Simultaneous determination of vitamin B12 and its derivatives using some of multivariate calibration 1 (MVC1) techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadi-Maybodi, Abdolraouf; Darzi, S. K. Hassani Nejad

    2008-10-01

    Resolution of binary mixtures of vitamin B12, methylcobalamin and B12 coenzyme with minimum sample pre-treatment and without analyte separation has been successfully achieved by methods of partial least squares algorithm with one dependent variable (PLS1), orthogonal signal correction/partial least squares (OSC/PLS), principal component regression (PCR) and hybrid linear analysis (HLA). Data of analysis were obtained from UV-vis spectra. The UV-vis spectra of the vitamin B12, methylcobalamin and B12 coenzyme were recorded in the same spectral conditions. The method of central composite design was used in the ranges of 10-80 mg L -1 for vitamin B12 and methylcobalamin and 20-130 mg L -1 for B12 coenzyme. The models refinement procedure and validation were performed by cross-validation. The minimum root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 2.26 mg L -1 for vitamin B12 with PLS1, 1.33 mg L -1 for methylcobalamin with OSC/PLS and 3.24 mg L -1 for B12 coenzyme with HLA techniques. Figures of merit such as selectivity, sensitivity, analytical sensitivity and LOD were determined for three compounds. The procedure was successfully applied to simultaneous determination of three compounds in synthetic mixtures and in a pharmaceutical formulation.

  20. Effect of B Vitamin (Folate, B6, and B12) Supplementation on Osteoporotic Fracture and Bone Turnover Markers: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Jianwei; Gong, Xiaokang; Kong, Jinsong; Wang, Haibao; Zheng, Xin; Chen, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Background B vitamins (including folate, B6, and B12) supplementation can effectively and easily modify high plasma homocysteine (Hcy). However, the role of Hcy in the pathogenesis of osteoporotic fracture and bone turnover is still controversial. This meta-analysis aimed to assess the impact of B vitamin supplementation on occurrence of any osteoporotic fracture and bone turnover by pooling the results of previous studies. Material/Methods Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were searched in databases. Data integration and analysis were done by using Review Manager 5.3 (the Cochrane Collaboration). The risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) of fracture (intervention vs. control) were estimated. Changes in bone turnover indicators (continuous data), weighted mean difference (WMD), and corresponding 95% (CI) were pooled for estimation. Results Based on the results of 4 RCTs, this meta-analysis failed to identify a risk-reducing effect of daily supplementation of B vitamins on osteoporotic fracture in patients with vascular disease and with relatively normal plasma Hcy. In addition, we also did not find any positive effects of B vitamin supplementation on bone turnover. Conclusions B vitamin supplementation might not be effective in preventing fracture and improving bone turnover. However, the possible benefits in selective populations, such as populations with very high plasma Hcy and from regions without B vitamin fortification should be explored in the future. PMID:25805360

  1. CdTe quantum dot as a fluorescence probe for vitamin B12 in dosage form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaishnavi, E.; Renganathan, R.

    2013-11-01

    We here report the CdTe quantum dot (CdTe QDs)-based sensor for probing vitamin B12 derivatives in aqueous solution. In this paper, simple and sensitive fluorescence quenching measurements has been employed. The Stern-Volmer constant (KSV), quenching rate constant (kq) and binding constant (K) were rationalized from fluorescence quenching measurement. Furthermore, the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism was discussed. This method was applicable over the concentration ranging from 1 to 14 ?g/mL (VB12) with correlation coefficient of 0.993. The limit of detection (LOD) of VB12 was found to be 0.15 ?g/mL. Moreover, the present approach opens a simple pathway for developing cost-effective, sensitive and selective QD-based fluorescence sensors/probes for biologically significant VB12 in pharmaceutical sample with mean recoveries in the range of 100-102.1%.

  2. Gastric acid secretion and vitamin B12 absorption after vertical Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, C D; Herkes, S B; Behrns, K E; Fairbanks, V F; Kelly, K A; Sarr, M G

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine the basal and peak-stimulated acid secretion from the proximal gastric pouch and its relationship to absorption of free and food-bound vitamin B12 after gastric bypass for morbid obesity. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Gastric bypass can be performed safely and provides acceptable weight loss, but concerns remain about possible long-term complications such as vitamin B12 malabsorption. The authors hypothesized that by constructing a small pouch of gastric cardia, acid secretion into the pouch would be low, leading to maldigestion of food-bound vitamin B12 with subsequent malabsorption. METHODS: Basal and pentagastrin-stimulated peak acid outputs from the proximal gastric pouch were measured in ten patients after vertical Roux-en-Y gastric bypass using a perfused orogastric tube technique. Absorption of free and food-bound 57Co-vitamin B12 was evaluated separately using 24-hour urinary excretion. RESULTS: Basal (mEq/hr, mean +/- standard error of the mean [SEM]) and peak-stimulated (mEq/30 min) acid secretions from the proximal gastric pouch were markedly decreased compared to those for age- and sex-matched hospital control subjects (0.01 +/- 0.01 vs. 4.97 +/- 0.66 and 0.08 +/- 0.04 vs. 12.11 +/- 1.34, respectively; p < 0.001 for each). While absorption of free vitamin B12 was not statistically different from that of control subjects (11 +/- 2 vs. 15 +/- 2%; p > 0.05), absorption of food-bound vitamin B12 was decreased (0.8 +/- 0.2 vs. 3.7 +/- 0.5%; p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: After vertical Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity, acid secretion is virtually absent and food-bound vitamin B12 is maldigested and subsequently malabsorbed. The results of this study suggest that postoperative vitamin B12 supplementation is important and can be achieved with either monthly parenteral vitamin B12 or daily oral crystalline preparations. Images Figure 3. PMID:8328834

  3. Oxygen reduction mediated by single nanodroplets containing attomoles of vitamin?b12 : electrocatalytic nano-impacts method.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Compton, Richard G

    2015-06-01

    We report the use of single Vitamin?B12 nanodroplets to mediate the reduction of oxygen in neutral buffer. Electron transfer to single Vitamin?B12 nanodroplets is observed using the nano-impacts method and shown to be quantitative. The mechanism of mediated oxygen reduction by single VB12 droplets is revealed as via both Co(II) and Co(I) reduced from Co(III) in VB12 through one or two electron transfer followed by the four-electron reduction of oxygen. PMID:25917121

  4. Vitamin B1 - Nobel Prize Educational Game

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-01-01

    The Chicken Farm educational game and related reading are based on the 1929 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. No one had heard of vitamins until Christian Eijkman pointed out that a substance in rice skin was missing from the diet of beriberi patients, which was later discovered to be vitamin B1. This was the first time that an illness was linked with vitamin deficiency.

  5. B Vitamins Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this website will be limited. Search Help? B Vitamins Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... name: B1 (thiamine or thiamin); B2 (riboflavin); B3 (niacin); B5 (pantothenic acid); B6 (pyridoxal phosphate); B7 (biotin) ...

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of vitamin B12-related metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Young, Douglas B; Comas, Iñaki; de Carvalho, Luiz P S

    2015-01-01

    Comparison of genome sequences from clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with phylogenetically-related pathogens Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium kansasii, and Mycobacterium leprae reveals diversity amongst genes associated with vitamin B12-related metabolism. Diversity is generated by gene deletion events, differential acquisition of genes by horizontal transfer, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with predicted impact on protein function and transcriptional regulation. Differences in the B12 synthesis pathway, methionine biosynthesis, fatty acid catabolism, and DNA repair and replication are consistent with adaptations to different environmental niches and pathogenic lifestyles. While there is no evidence of further gene acquisition during expansion of the M. tuberculosis complex, the emergence of other forms of genetic diversity provides insights into continuing host-pathogen co-evolution and has the potential to identify novel targets for disease intervention. PMID:25988174

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of vitamin B12-related metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Young, Douglas B.; Comas, Iñaki; de Carvalho, Luiz P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Comparison of genome sequences from clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with phylogenetically-related pathogens Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium kansasii, and Mycobacterium leprae reveals diversity amongst genes associated with vitamin B12-related metabolism. Diversity is generated by gene deletion events, differential acquisition of genes by horizontal transfer, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with predicted impact on protein function and transcriptional regulation. Differences in the B12 synthesis pathway, methionine biosynthesis, fatty acid catabolism, and DNA repair and replication are consistent with adaptations to different environmental niches and pathogenic lifestyles. While there is no evidence of further gene acquisition during expansion of the M. tuberculosis complex, the emergence of other forms of genetic diversity provides insights into continuing host-pathogen co-evolution and has the potential to identify novel targets for disease intervention. PMID:25988174

  8. Novel fermentation process strengthening strategy for production of propionic acid and vitamin B12 by Propionibacterium freudenreichii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Jiao, Youjing; Liu, Shouxin

    2014-12-01

    An efficient fermentation-strengthening approach was developed to improve the anaerobic production of propionic acid and vitamin B12 by co-fermentation with Propionibacterium freudenreichii. Vitamin B12 production from glucose resulted in relatively high productivity (0.35 mg/L h) but a low propionic acid yield (0.55 g/g). By contrast, glycerol gave a high propionic acid yield (0.63 g/g) but low productivity (0.16 g/L h). Co-fermentation of glycerol and glucose with a gradual addition strategy gave high yields (propionic acid: 0.71 g/g; vitamin B12: 0.72 mg/g) and productivities (propionic acid: 0.36 g/L h; vitamin B12: 0.36 mg/L h). Finally, the integrated feedstock and fermentation system strengthening strategy was demonstrated as an efficient method for the economic production of bio-based propionic acid and vitamin B12. PMID:25261985

  9. [Correction of the combined vitamin deficiency in growing rats fed fiber enriched diets with different doses of vitamins].

    PubMed

    Beketova, N A; Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Sokol'nikov, A A; Aksenov, I V

    2014-01-01

    The effect of 5% dietary wheat bran (WB) on the correction of combined vitamin deficiency by two doses of vitamins (physiological and enhanced) has been analyzed using a rat model (8 groups, n = 8/group). Vitamin deficiency in male weanling Wistar rats (58.1 ± 0.5 g) was induced by 5-fold reduction of vitamin mixture amount in the feed and complete vitamin E, B1 and B2 exclusion from the mixture for 30 days, then deficit was corrected within 5 days. Rats from control group were fed a complete semisynthetic diet containing microcrystalline cellulose 2%. Vitamin deficient diet for 35 days resulted in reduced (p < 0.05) levels of vitamin A in the liver by 25 fold, vitamin E and B1--2.0-2.3 fold, vitamin B2--by 40%, 25(OH)D blood plasma concentration--by 21% compared with the control. Feed consumption of the animals treated with vitamin deficient diet and WB was higher by 43% than in rats with vitamin deficit. Their rate of weight occupied the intermediate position between the rates of weight in deficit and in control animals, and they could not serve a full control to evaluate the WB impact on vitamin sufficiency. After filling the vitamin diet content to an adequate level vitamin E liver content was fully restored. To restore vitamins B1 and B2 liver level higher doses of vitamins (120-160% of adequate content) were required, and to restore the reduced levels of vitamin A in rat liver even 2-fold increased dose of vitamin A was insufficient. The diet enrichment with WB had no effect on vitamin B1 and B2 liver content, regardless of the amount of vitamins in the diet. Adding fiber to the diet of animals adequately provided with vitamins resulted in significantly 1,3-fold increase of 25(OH)D blood plasma concentration and a slight but significant decrease of ?-tocopherol liver level by 16% as compared to rats not receiving WB. The enrichment of rat diet with dietary fibers worsened restoration of the reduced vitamin E status not only by filling vitamin content in the diet to an adequate level, but also by using 2-fold enhanced dose of vitamin. Within 5 days deficiency of vitamins A, B1, B2 was not eliminated with increasing vitamin diet content to an adequate level. Higher doses of vitamins are needed for the complete correction of vitamin status. The addition of vitamins to an adequate level was sufficient to normalize the elevated liver levels of MDA in rats with combined vitamin deficiency that may be associated with vitamin E status improvement. The diet enrichment with fiber did not affect on the intensity of lipid peroxidation in rat liver regardless of their provision with vitamins. PMID:25549472

  10. Electronic structure of vitamin B12 within the framework of the Haldane-Anderson impurity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandemir, Zafer; Mayda, Selma; Bulut, Nejat

    2015-03-01

    We study the electronic structure of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamine C63H88CoN14O14P) by using the framework of the multi-orbital single-impurity Haldane-Anderson model of a transition-metal impurity in a semiconductor host. Here, our purpose is to understand the many-body effects originating from the transition-metal impurity. In this approach, the cobalt 3 d orbitals are treated as the impurity states placed in a semiconductor host which consists of the rest of the molecule. The parameters of the resulting effective Haldane-Anderson model are obtained within the Hartree-Fock approximation for the electronic structure of the molecule. The quantum Monte Carlo technique is then used to calculate the one-electron and magnetic correlation functions of this effective Haldane-Anderson model for vitamin B12. We find that new states form inside the semiconductor gap due to the on-site Coulomb interaction at the impurity 3 d orbitals and that these states become the highest occupied molecular orbitals. In addition, we present results on the charge distribution and spin correlations around the Co atom. We compare the results of this approach with those obtained by the density-functional theory calculations.

  11. The use of labelled vitamin B12 in the measurement of glomerular filtration rate

    PubMed Central

    Ekins, R. P.; Nashat, F. S.; Portal, R. W.; Sgherzi, A. M.

    1966-01-01

    1. Two preparations of radioactive vitamin B12 labelled respectively with 57Co and 58Co have been employed in the estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (G.F.R.) in dogs. The intravenous injection of these preparations at an interval of 20 min resulted in a changing ratio of their activities in plasma and urine and so permitted a relation in time to be established between the urine and the plasma from which it was filtered. 2. When urine and plasma were sampled at short intervals an effective renal delay or transit time could be derived from their isotope ratio curves and used as a correction in the clearance equation. This allowed serial clearances of either isotope to be calculated despite a falling plasma concentration. 3. This method was applied to the study of the G.F.R. in fourteen dogs using short urine collections of 2 or 4 min for periods up to 80 min. The results under stable conditions and with deliberately induced changes in the G.F.R. are illustrated and discussed. 4. Application of the technique in four patients undergoing differential renal function studies gave results comparable with those in the experimental work. 5. The plasma binding of administered vitamin B12 in serial blood samples in dogs and man was investigated. PMID:5972113

  12. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)

    MedlinePLUS

    Pantothenic acid is a vitamin, also known as vitamin B5. It is widely found in both plants and animals ... Vitamin B5 is commercially available as D-pantothenic acid, as well as dexpanthenol and calcium pantothenate, which ...

  13. Biological Variability and Impact of Oral Contraceptives on Vitamins B6, B12 and Folate Status in Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, Jennifer O.; Tang, HoMan; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Vitamins B6, B12 and folate play crucial metabolic roles especially during the reproductive years for women. There is limited reporting of within-subject variability of these vitamins. This study aimed to determine the within and between subject variability in serum vitamins B6, B12, folate and erythrocyte folate concentrations in young women; identify factors that contribute to variability; and determine dietary intakes and sources of these vitamins. Data were obtained from the control group of a trial aimed at investigating the effect of iron on the nutritional status of young women (age 25.2 ± 4.2 year; BMI 21.9 ± 2.2 kg/m2). The coefficients of variability within-subject (CVI) and between-subject (CVG) for serum vitamins B6, B12 and folate, and erythrocyte folate were calculated. Food frequency questionnaires provided dietary data. CVI and CVG were in the range 16.1%–25.7% and 31.7%–62.2%, respectively. Oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use was associated (P = 0.042) with lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations. Initial values were 172 ± 16 pmol/L and 318 ± 51 pmol/L for OCP and non-OCP users, respectively; with differences maintained at four time points over 12 weeks. BMI, age, physical activity, alcohol intake and haematological variables did not affect serum or erythrocyte vitamin concentrations. Vitamin B12 intakes were derived from traditional and unexpected sources including commercial energy drinks. Young women using OCP had significantly lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations. This should be considered in clinical decision making and requires further investigation. PMID:24067390

  14. Disseminated BCG in an infant with interleukin-12 receptor B1 (IL12RB1) deficiency.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, Manouri P; Kumararatne, D S; Doffinger, Rainer; Barcenas-Morales, Gabriela

    2015-02-01

    Although neonatal vaccination with bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is considered to be safe, complications with disseminated disease are associated with underlying immuno-deficiency disorders. A BCG-vaccinated 4-month-old girl of Sri Lankan parentage developed progressive left axillary lymphadenopathy and severe bronchopneumonia. Lymph node biopsy demonstrated epithelioid granulomata and acid-fast bacilli. An older sibling had had a similar clinical presentation and the outcome had been fatal. Investigation for immuno-deficiency detected complete IL12RB1 deficiency. Full recovery followed a prolonged course of anti-tuberculous chemotherapy. She was put on lifelong isoniazid prophylaxis. In HIV-negative infants with unusual complications related to BCG vaccination, a primary immuno-deficiency disorder should be considered. PMID:24863105

  15. Vitamin D deficiency and posterior subcapsular cataract

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Craig J; Akaichi, Faical

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate risk factors associated with posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC) development and the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and etiology of PSC. Methods Of 195 consecutive patients from a private ophthalmology practice, diagnosed with PSC, serum vitamin D3 (25-OH D) levels were obtained for 175, and associations among risk factors, comorbidities, and PSC were assessed. Results In all 175 PSC patients, mean 25-OH D levels were low (24 ng/mL ±11 SD) compared with age/sex-matched standards. Significant differences in 25-OH D levels were noted between PSC subjects taking/not taking calcium supplements, systemic steroids, osteoporosis medications, etc. Alone, smoking status and calcium channel blockers and/or topical steroids use made no significant difference in PSC subjects 25-OH D levels, but two or more of these factors were associated with lowered levels of 25-OH D (P<0.001). Low vitamin D was correlated with female sex, autoimmune disease, and non-skin cancer diagnosis, but not with age, or other comorbidities or medication use. In five early-stage PSC patients taking 5,000 IU of 25-OH D daily for vitamin D deficiency, there was resolution of their cataracts during the 2-year follow-up period. Conclusion Vitamin D levels for most PSC patients fell below the 30 ng/mL calcium homeostasis threshold. Some comorbidities and non-ophthalmic interventions are associated with the development of PSC at less depressed levels of 25-OH D. In this series, vitamin D deficiency was associated with PSC cataract, suggesting that raising the level of vitamin D intake may reduce PSC incidence. PMID:26124632

  16. Vitamin D Deficiency Induces Cardiac Hypertrophy and Inflammation in Epicardial Adipose Tissue in Hypercholesterolemic Swine

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Gaurav K.; Agrawal, Tanupriya; DelCore, Michael G.; Mohiuddin, Syed M.; Agrawal, Devendra K.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Vitamin D is a sectosteroid that functions through Vitamin D receptor (VDR), a transcription factor, which controls the transcription of many targets genes. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked with cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure and coronary artery disease. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)3 regulates different biological processes such as inflammation and cellular differentiation and is an endogenous negative regulator of cardiac hypertrophy. Objective The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency causes cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and increased proinflammatory profile in epicardial adipose tissue(EAT), and this correlates with decreased expression of SOCS3 in cardiomyocytes and EAT. Methods Eight female Yucatan miniswine were fed vitamin D-sufficient (900 IU/d) or vitamin D-deficient hypercholesterolemic diet. Lipid profile, metabolic panel, and serum 25(OH)D levels were regularly measured. After 12 months animals were euthanized and histological, immunohistochemical and qPCR studies were performed on myocardium and epicardial fat. Results Histological studies showed cardiac hypertrophy, as judged by cardiac myocyte cross sectional area, in vitamin D-deficient group. Immunohistochemical and qPCR analyses showed significantly decreased mRNA and protein expression of VDR and SOCS3 in cardiomyocytes of vitamin D-deficient animals. EAT from vitamin D-deficient group had significantly higher expression of TNF-?, IL-6, MCP-1, and decreased adiponectin in association with increased inflammatory cellular infiltrate. Interestingly, EAT from vitamin D-deficient group had significantly decreased expression of SOCS3. Conclusion These data suggest that vitamin D deficiency induces hypertrophy in cardiomyocytes which is associated with decreased expression of VDR and SOCS3. Vitamin D deficiency is also associated with increased inflammatory markers in EAT. Activity of VDR in the body is controlled through regulation of vitamin D metabolites. Therefore, restoration of VDR function by supplementation of VDR ligands in vitamin D- deficient population might be helpful in reducing inflammation and cardiovascular risk. PMID:22537546

  17. Inflammatory Markers: C-Reactive Protein, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate, and Leukocyte Count in Vitamin D Deficient Patients with and without Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Ibrahim; Hur, Ender; Kokturk, Furuzan

    2013-01-01

    Although some studies revealed a positive relationship between vitamin D3 deficiency and inflammatory markers, there have been also many studies that failed to find this relationship. The aim of this large scaled study is to determine the association between the level of plasma 25 hydroxy vitamin D3 [25-(OH) D3] and inflammatory markers in the general population without chronic kidney disease (CKD) and in patients with CKD. Participants with simultaneously measured inflammatory markers and 25-(OH) D3 levels were retrospectively analyzed (n = 1897). The incidence of all-cause inflammation infection, hospitalization, chronic renal failure, and vitamin B12 deficiency was evaluated. The medians of serum creatinine levels in subjects without renal failure were lower in 25-(OH) D3 deficient group. Patients with CKD were more likely to have vitamin D3 deficiency compared with normal GFR. 25-(OH) D3 levels were associated with a greater incidence of all-cause hospitalization, hypoalbuminemia, and vitamin B12 deficiency. However, there was no relationship between inflammatory markers and vitamin D3 levels. In 25-(OH) D3 deficient patients, inflammatory markers can be related to other inflammatory and infectious status such as malnutrition and cachexia. We believed that there must be a relationship between vitamin deficiency and inflammatory markers due to other causes than low 25-(OH) D3 status. PMID:23878538

  18. A novel mutation in LMBRD1 causes the cblF defect of vitamin B 12 metabolism in a Turkish patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susann Gailus; Terttu Suormala; Ayse Gül Malerczyk-Aktas; Mohammad R. Toliat; Tanja Wittkampf; Martin Stucki; Peter Nürnberg; Brian Fowler; Julia B. Hennermann; Frank Rutsch

    2010-01-01

    In the cblF defect of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) metabolism, cobalamin is trapped in lysosomes. Consequently, cobalamin coenzyme synthesis is blocked, and cofactors\\u000a for methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) mutase are deficient. We recently identified LMBRD1 as the causative gene located on chromosome 6q13 and showed that 18 out of 24 alleles in unrelated patients carried the deletion\\u000a c.1056delG (p.L352fsX18)

  19. Spatial periodicity in growth plate shear mechanical properties is disrupted by vitamin D deficiency

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Itai

    Spatial periodicity in growth plate shear mechanical properties is disrupted by vitamin D modulus Vitamin D a b s t r a c t The growth plate is a highly organized section of cartilage in the long disruption caused by a dietary deficiency of vitamin D. The shear mechanical properties of the proximal

  20. Vitamin D Deficiency in a Multiethnic Healthy Control Cohort and Altered Immune Response in Vitamin D Deficient European-American Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Hemangi B.; Robertson, Julie M.; Fife, Dustin A.; Maecker, Holden T.; Du, Hongwu; Fathman, Charles G.; Chakravarty, Eliza F.; Scofield, R. Hal; Kamen, Diane L.; Guthridge, Joel M.; James, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In recent years, vitamin D has been shown to possess a wide range of immunomodulatory effects. Although there is extensive amount of research on vitamin D, we lack a comprehensive understanding of the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or the mechanism by which vitamin D regulates the human immune system. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency and the relationship between vitamin D and the immune system in healthy individuals. Methods Healthy individuals (n?=?774) comprised of European-Americans (EA, n?=?470), African–Americans (AA, n?=?125), and Native Americans (NA, n?=?179) were screened for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels by ELISA. To identify the most noticeable effects of vitamin D on the immune system, 20 EA individuals with severely deficient (<11.3 ng/mL) and sufficient (>24.8 ng/mL) vitamin D levels were matched and selected for further analysis. Serum cytokine level measurement, immune cell phenotyping, and phosphoflow cytometry were performed. Results Vitamin D sufficiency was observed in 37.5% of the study cohort. By multivariate analysis, AA, NA, and females with a high body mass index (BMI, >30) demonstrate higher rates of vitamin D deficiency (p<0.05). Individuals with vitamin D deficiency had significantly higher levels of serum GM-CSF (p?=?0.04), decreased circulating activated CD4+ (p?=?0.04) and CD8+ T (p?=?0.04) cell frequencies than individuals with sufficient vitamin D levels. Conclusion A large portion of healthy individuals have vitamin D deficiency. These individuals have altered T and B cell responses, indicating that the absence of sufficient vitamin D levels could result in undesirable cellular and molecular alterations ultimately contributing to immune dysregulation. PMID:24727903

  1. The changing of serum vitamin B12 and homocysteine levels after gastrectomy in patients with gastric cancer: do they associate with clinicopathological factors?

    PubMed

    Bilici, Ahmet; Sonkaya, Alper; Ercan, Serif; Ustaalioglu, Bala Basak Oven; Seker, Mesut; Aliustaoglu, Mehmet; Orcun, Asuman; Gumus, Mahmut

    2015-02-01

    After total (TG) or distal subtotal gastrectomy (DG), patients are at high risk of vitamin B12 (vit-B12) deficiency, which results in elevation of homocysteine levels. The changing of serum vit-B12 and homocysteine levels in patients with gastric cancer is not well known. Seventy-two patients with gastric cancer who had undergone currative gastrectomy and 50 healthy controls were included. Serum vit-B12 and homocysteine levels were analyzed in gastric cancer patients. In addition, these parameters were compared with those of healthy control subjects. While serum vit-B12 levels in gastrectomized patients were significantly lower than that of healthy controls (221.8?±?125.6 pg/mL vs. 309.9?±?174.3 pg/mL, p?=?0.002), homocysteine levels were significantly higher in patients with gastric cancer (14.2?±?6.7 ?mol/L vs. 12.5?±?6.1 ?mol/L, p?=?0.016). Mean serum folate level was found to be high in healthy controls (7.3 ng/mL) compared to patients (9.2 ng/mL, p?=?0.027). Out of 72 patients, 40 patients (55.6 %) with gastric cancer developed vit-B12 deficiency after gastrectomy. Vit-B12 deficiency was found to be related with gastrectomy type (p?=?0.02) and homocysteine levels (p?=?0.014). In patients who underwent TG, the incidence of vit-B12 deficiency was significantly higher compared with those with DG (67.5 vs. 32.5 %). In addition, serum vit-B12 level in patients with DG was significantly higher than that of patients with TG (248.3?±?122.0 pg/mL vs. 200.8?±?126.7 pg/mL, p?=?0.041), whereas homocysteine levels were significantly lower in DG group compared with TG group (12.1?±?6.1 ?mol/L vs. 15.8?±?6.9 ?mol/L, p?=?0.014). A logistic regression analysis showed that the extent of gastrectomy was found to be an independent factor for predicting the occurrence of vit-B12 deficiency (p?B12 deficiency rate was significantly higher after TG compared with that after DG, while homocysteine levels were significantly higher in TG group compared with DG group. The extent of gastrectomy was found to be an independent factor for predicting the occurrence of vit-B12 deficiency. Vit-B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia are imperious clinical situation for patients with gastric cancer after surgery. Hence, both preoperative and regular postoperative monitoring of vit-B12 and homocysteine levels for all gastrectomized patients with gastric cancer are important and necessary for early detection and prevention of vit-B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25296737

  2. Biochemical aspects of vitamin E deficiency in fowl

    E-print Network

    Creech, Billy Gene

    1957-01-01

    .; thiamine, 5*0 mg?5 folic acid, 2.0 mg.; para-aminobenzoic acid, 20.0 mg0; inositol, 1 .0 gm.; biotin, 0.2 mg.; choline, 2.0 gm.; vitamin K, 0.5 mg.; vitamin B12, 50 meg.; methionine, 4.0 gm.: arginine, *+.0 gm.; vitamin A, 10,000 I.U.; and vitamin D...; glycine, k gm,; thiamine, 20 mg.; riboflavin, 6 mg.; calcium pantothenate, 15 nig.; niacin, 100 mg.; pyridoxine? if mg.; para-aminobenzoic acid, 20 mg.; biotin, 2 mg.; peni cillin, 22 mg.; D-alpha-tocopheryl acetate., hk mg.; vita? min Bnp, 22 meg...

  3. Comparative genomic analyses of nickel, cobalt and vitamin B12 utilization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Rodionov, Dmitry A; Gelfand, Mikhail S; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2009-01-01

    Background Nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co) are trace elements required for a variety of biological processes. Ni is directly coordinated by proteins, whereas Co is mainly used as a component of vitamin B12. Although a number of Ni and Co-dependent enzymes have been characterized, systematic evolutionary analyses of utilization of these metals are limited. Results We carried out comparative genomic analyses to examine occurrence and evolutionary dynamics of the use of Ni and Co at the level of (i) transport systems, and (ii) metalloproteomes. Our data show that both metals are widely used in bacteria and archaea. Cbi/NikMNQO is the most common prokaryotic Ni/Co transporter, while Ni-dependent urease and Ni-Fe hydrogenase, and B12-dependent methionine synthase (MetH), ribonucleotide reductase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase are the most widespread metalloproteins for Ni and Co, respectively. Occurrence of other metalloenzymes showed a mosaic distribution and a new B12-dependent protein family was predicted. Deltaproteobacteria and Methanosarcina generally have larger Ni- and Co-dependent proteomes. On the other hand, utilization of these two metals is limited in eukaryotes, and very few of these organisms utilize both of them. The Ni-utilizing eukaryotes are mostly fungi (except saccharomycotina) and plants, whereas most B12-utilizing organisms are animals. The NiCoT transporter family is the most widespread eukaryotic Ni transporter, and eukaryotic urease and MetH are the most common Ni- and B12-dependent enzymes, respectively. Finally, investigation of environmental and other conditions and identity of organisms that show dependence on Ni or Co revealed that host-associated organisms (particularly obligate intracellular parasites and endosymbionts) have a tendency for loss of Ni/Co utilization. Conclusion Our data provide information on the evolutionary dynamics of Ni and Co utilization and highlight widespread use of these metals in the three domains of life, yet only a limited number of user proteins. PMID:19208259

  4. Low Serum Vitamin B12 Concentrations Are Associated With Faster Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV1) Disease Progression1,2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alice M. Tang; Neil M. H. Graham; Ranjit K. Chandra; Alfred J. Saah

    We conducted a nonconcurrent prospective cohort study to examine associations between serum concentrations of vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and folate and the risk of progression to first acquired immunodefi- ciency syndrome (AIDS) diagnosis and CD4\\/ cell decline to õ 2 1 108 cells\\/L. The study population was drawn from a cohort of homosexual and bisexual men in the Baltimore-Washington, DC,

  5. Quantitative determination of drugs by means of densitometry of thin-layer chromatograms. Part 5: Determination of the Vitamins B1, B2, B6 and B12 in mixture and in pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Joneidi, M; Koleva, M; Budevsky, O

    1975-07-01

    A quantitative t.l.c. densitometric method for the simultaneous determination of the water-soluble vitamins B1, B2, B6, and B12 is proposed. The four vitamins are determined on one and the same plate by direct densitometry of the t.l.c. spots. A preliminary separation of the vitamins one from another, as well as a preliminary separation from other pharmaceuticals is not necessary. The determination is performed quickly and easily. The relative standard deviations of a single determination are the following: for thiamine 6,6%, for riboflavin 5,5%, for pyridoxine 6,4%, and for cyanocobalamin 5,8%. The proposed method is applied to the determination of B-vitamins in three pharmaceutical preparations: ampoules B12 with B1, ampoules B-complex, and antisclerol dragee. The presence of other pharmaceuticals (vitamins C and PP, urethane, aminophenazone, phytin, rutin, theobromine, etc.) does not interfere with the determination. PMID:1178761

  6. Bone maturation in the vitamin D, phosphate deficient rat and the response to acid loading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Russell; L. V. Avioli

    1979-01-01

    Summary  Vitamin D and phosphate deficiency were produced in rats in order (a) to evaluate the degree of bone mineral and matrix maturation\\u000a using a bromoform\\/toluene density gradient technique; and (b) to compare the aforementioned bone maturational changes due\\u000a to vitamin D and phosphate deprivation to those produced with superimposed severe acidosis. Rats were fed a diet deficient\\u000a in vitamin D

  7. Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Uninsured Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D deficiency, an important risk factor for osteoporosis and other chronic medical conditions, is epidemic in the United States. Uninsured women may be at an even higher risk for vitamin D deficiency than others due to low intake of dietary and supplemental vitamin D and limited sun exposure....

  8. Parallel computing and first-principles calculations: Applications to complex ceramics and Vitamin B12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Lizhi

    A systematic improvement and extension of the orthogonalized linear combinations of atomic orbitals method was carried out using a combined computational and theoretical approach. For high performance parallel computing, a Beowulf class personal computer cluster was constructed. It also served as a parallel program development platform that helped us to port the programs of the method to the national supercomputer facilities. The program, received a language upgrade from Fortran 77 to Fortran 90, and a dynamic memory allocation feature. A preliminary parallel High Performance Fortran version of the program has been developed as well. To be of more benefit though, scalability improvements are needed. In order to circumvent the difficulties of the analytical force calculation in the method, we developed a geometry optimization scheme using the finite difference approximation based on the total energy calculation. The implementation of this scheme was facilitated by the powerful general utility lattice program, which offers many desired features such as multiple optimization schemes and usage of space group symmetry. So far, many ceramic oxides have been tested with the geometry optimization program. Their optimized geometries were in excellent agreement with the experimental data. For nine ceramic oxide crystals, the optimized cell parameters differ from the experimental ones within 0.5%. Moreover, the geometry optimization was recently used to predict a new phase of TiNx. The method has also been used to investigate a complex Vitamin B12-derivative, the OHCbl crystals. In order to overcome the prohibitive disk I/O demand, an on-demand version of the method was developed. Based on the electronic structure calculation of the OHCbl crystal, a partial density of states analysis and a bond order analysis were carried out. The calculated bonding of the corrin ring of OHCbl model was coincident with the big open-ring pi bond. One interesting find of the calculation was that the Co-OH bond was weak. This, together with the ongoing projects studying different Vitamin B12 derivatives, might help us to answer questions about the Co-C cleavage of the B12 coenzyme, which is involved in many important B12 enzymatic reactions.

  9. Vitamin B12 and pteroylglutamic acid studies in the domestic fowl

    E-print Network

    Reid, Bobby Leroy

    1955-01-01

    of chicks to betaine and choline. J. Nutrition, 43: 295-301. Jukes, T. H., E. L. R. Stokstad and H. P. Broquist 1950 Effect of vitamin B^g on the response to homocystine in chicks. Arch. Biochem., 2?: 453-462. Ling, C. T. and B. P. Chow 1951...

  10. [Effect of betaine hydrochloride on broiler chickens when used alone or in combination with vitamin B12].

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, M; Filipova, R; Tsvetkov, S

    1976-01-01

    The studies were carried out with 2287 broilers aged from 3 to 56 days, divided when one-day-old into four equal groups. The first group were fed the common ration and served as controls. The remaining three groups were experimental, the broilers of the second group being offered the basic common ration enriched with 0.2 per cent betaine. The third group were also given the ordinary ration, however, they received in the drinking water some 10 mug vitamin BUI per one kilogram feed each. The fourth group received both betaine and vitamin B12 at the rates indicated. Results showed that betaine hydrochloride offered either alone or in combination with vitamin B12 contributes to increasing the liveweight gain of broilers in the course of the starter period, but its use in doses of 0.2 per cent in the finishing period is not effective. PMID:1014365

  11. Maternal micronutrients (folic acid and vitamin B 12) and omega 3 fatty acids: Implications for neurodevelopmental risk in the rat offspring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suchitra Roy; Anvita Kale; Kamini Dangat; Pratiksha Sable; Asmita Kulkarni; Sadhana Joshi

    Altered maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) are suggested to be at the heart of intra-uterine programming of adult diseases. We have recently described interactions of folic acid, vitamin B12 and docosahexaenoic acid in one carbon metabolism that is considered to play a key role in regulation oxidative stress and chromatin methylation. However its impact on fetal oxidative stress and

  12. in hereditary muscular dystrophy and vitamin E deficiency1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Eugene Olson

    Although the myopathy of vitamin E deficiency imitates many features of hereditary muscular dystrophy, the molecular basis of these similarities remains unexplained. Unlike the water-soluble vitamins that act as coenzyme precursors in mammalian tissues, the fat-soluble vitamins appear to regulate the synthesis of specific proteins required by highly differentiated organisms. To test the hypothesis that vitamin E does regulate the

  13. A Common Variant in Methionine Synthase Reductase Combined with Low Cobalamin (Vitamin B 12) Increases Risk for Spina Bifida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron Wilson; Robert Platt; Qing Wu; Daniel Leclerc; Benedicte Christensen; Hong Yang; Roy A. Gravel; Rima Rozen

    1999-01-01

    Impairment of folate and cobalamin (vitamin B12) metabolism has been observed in families with neural tube defects (NTDs). Genetic variants of enzymes in the homocysteine remethylation pathway might act as predisposing factors contributing to NTD risk. The first polymorphism linked to increased NTD risk was the 677C?T mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). We now report a polymorphism in methionine synthase

  14. The importance of vitamin B12 and unidentified factors in the nutrition of the domestic fowl 

    E-print Network

    Olcese, Orlando

    1950-01-01

    ................................... ................................... Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Studies along several lines had shown that some factor or factors were necessary for growth in chicks and other species, as well as for prevention and cure of pernicious anemia in humans, when Rickes et al. ( f48) and Smith... of other species* Identity of vitamin B-^g with the anti-pernicious anemia factor of liver extract was reported by West ( f48) simultaneously with the report of the isolation of crystalline vitamin B-^g Rickes et al. (*48), Since chicks and laying...

  15. Acupuncture and vitamin B12 injection for Bell’s palsy: no high-quality evidence exists

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-li; Guan, Ling; Hao, Peng-liang; Du, Jin-long; Zhang, Meng-xue

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of acupuncture combined with vitamin B12 acupoint injection versus acupuncture alone to reduce incomplete recovery in patients with Bell’s palsy. DATA RETRIEVAL: A computer-based online retrieval of Medline, Web of Science, CNKI, CBM databases until April 2014 was performed for relevant trials, using the key words “Bell’s palsy or idiopathic facial palsy or facial palsy” and “acupuncture or vitamin B12 or methylcobalamin”. STUDY SELECTION: All randomized controlled trials that compared acupuncture with acupuncture combined with vitamin B12 in patients with Bell’s palsy were included in the meta-analysis. The initial treatment lasted for at least 4 weeks. The outcomes of incomplete facial recovery were monitored. The scoring index varied and the definition of healing was consistent. The combined effect size was calculated by using relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) using the fixed effect model of Review Manager. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incomplete recovery rates were chosen as the primary outcome. RESULTS: Five studies involving 344 patients were included in the final analysis. Results showed that the incomplete recovery rate of Bell’s palsy patients was 44.50% in the acupuncture combined with vitamin B12 group but 62.57% in the acupuncture alone group. The major acupoints were Taiyang (EX-HN5), Jiache (ST6), Dicang (ST4) and Sibai (ST2). The combined effect size showed that acupuncture combined with vitamin B12 was better than acupuncture alone for the treatment of Bell’s palsy (RR = 0.71, 95%CI: 0.58–0.87; P = 0.001), this result held true when 8 patients lost to follow up in one study were included into the analyses (RR = 0.70, 95%CI: 0.58–0.86; P = 0.0005). In the subgroup analyses, the therapeutic effect in patients of the electroacupuncture subgroup was better than in the non-electroacupuncture subgroup (P = 0.024). There was no significant difference in the incomplete recovery rate by subgroup analysis on drug types and treatment period. Most of the included studies were moderate or low quality, and bias existed. CONCLUSION: In patients with Bell’s palsy, acupuncture combined with vitamin B12 can reduce the risk of incomplete recovery compared with acupuncture alone in our meta-analysis. Because of study bias and methodological limitations, this conclusion is uncertain and the clinical application of acupuncture combined with vitamin B12 requires further exploration.

  16. Effects of folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation on culling rate, diseases, and reproduction in commercial dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Duplessis, M; Girard, C L; Santschi, D E; Laforest, J-P; Durocher, J; Pellerin, D

    2014-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of a combined folic acid and vitamin B12 supplement given in early lactation on culling rate, metabolic disorders and other diseases, and reproduction in commercial dairy herds. A total of 805 cows (271 primiparous and 534 multiparous cows) in 15 commercial dairy herds were involved. Every 2mo from February to December 2010 and within each herd, cows were assigned according to parity, previous 305-d milk production, and calving interval to 5mL of either (1) saline 0.9% NaCl (control group) or (2) 320mg of folic acid + 10mg of vitamin B12 (vitamin group). Treatments were administered weekly by intramuscular injections starting 3wk before the expected calving date until 8wk after parturition. A total of 221 cows were culled before the next dry period. Culling rate was not affected by treatment and was 27.5%; culling rate was greater for multiparous (32.2%) than for primiparous cows (18.8%). Within the first 60d in milk (DIM), 47 cows were culled, representing 21.3% of total culling, and no treatment effect was noted. Ketosis incidence based on a threshold ?100µmol/L of ?-hydroxybutyrate in milk was 38.3±2.9% for the vitamin group and 41.8±3.0% for the control group and was not affected by treatment. The combined supplement of folic acid and vitamin B12 did not decrease incidence of retained placenta, displaced abomasum, milk fever, metritis, or mastitis. However, the incidence of dystocia decreased by 50% in multiparous cows receiving the vitamin supplement, although no effect was observed in primiparous cows. The first breeding postpartum for multiparous cows occurred 3.8d earlier with the vitamin supplement compared with controls, whereas no treatment effect was seen for primiparous cows. Days open, first- and second-breeding conception rates, number of breedings per conception, and percentage of cows pregnant at 150 DIM were not affected by treatment. The reduced percentage of dystocia combined with the earlier DIM at first breeding for multiparous cows receiving the combined supplementation in folic acid and vitamin B12 indicates that the vitamin supplement had a positive effect in older cows. PMID:24485680

  17. A patient with an inborn error of vitamin B12 metabolism (cblF) detected by newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Armour, Christine M; Brebner, Alison; Watkins, David; Geraghty, Michael T; Chan, Alicia; Rosenblatt, David S

    2013-07-01

    A neonate, who was found to have an elevated C3/C2 ratio and minimally elevated propionylcarnitine on newborn screening, was subsequently identified as having the rare cblF inborn error of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) metabolism. This disorder is characterized by the retention of unmetabolized cobalamin in lysosomes such that it is not readily available for cellular metabolism. Although cultured fibroblasts from the patient did not show the expected functional abnormalities of the cobalamin-dependent enzymes, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase, they did show reduced synthesis of the active cobalamin cofactors adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin. Mutation analysis of LMBRD1 established that the patient had the cblF disorder. Treatment was initiated promptly, and the patient showed a robust response to regular injections of cyanocobalamin, and she was later switched to hydroxocobalamin. Currently, at 3 years of age, the child is clinically well, with appropriate development. Adjusted newborn screening cutoffs in Ontario allowed detection of a deficiency that might not have otherwise been identified, allowing early treatment and perhaps preventing the adverse sequelae seen in some untreated patients. PMID:23776111

  18. Effects of chemical and physical enhancement techniques on transdermal delivery of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ye; Kalluri, Haripriya; Banga, Ajay K

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency, which may result in anemia and nerve damage if left untreated, is currently treated by administration of cyanocobalamin via oral or intramuscular routes. However, these routes are associated with absorption and compliance issues which have prompted us to investigate skin as an alternative site of administration. Delivery through skin, however, is restricted to small and moderately lipophilic molecules due to the outermost barrier, the stratum corneum (SC). In this study, we have investigated the effect of different enhancement techniques, chemical enhancers (ethanol, oleic acid, propylene glycol), iontophoresis (anodal iontophoresis) and microneedles (soluble maltose microneedles), which may overcome this barrier and improve cyanocobalamin delivery. Studies with different chemical enhancer formulations indicated that ethanol and oleic acid decreased the lag time while propylene glycol based formulations increased the lag time. The formulation with ethanol (50%), oleic acid (10%) and propylene glycol (40%) showed the maximum improvement in delivery. Iontophoresis and microneedle treatments resulted in enhanced permeation levels compared to passive controls. These enhancement approaches can be explored further to develop alternative treatment regimens. PMID:24310591

  19. The effect of vitamin B?? on the embryonic development of the chick

    E-print Network

    Ferguson, Thomas Morgan

    1954-01-01

    produced by such deficiency through the administration of vitamin B12. It was felt that such observations would provide further insight into the physiological action of vitamin B12 in em? bryonic stages of development. Congenital anomalies in the chick... of biotin, noted skeletal deformities, ataxia, and congenital perosis in chicks from hens fed on a low biotin diet. These deformities were prevented by the feeding of biotin or by injecting biotin into the egg. Skeletal deformities due to biotin...

  20. Development and validation of PCR, PLS, and TLC densitometric methods for the simultaneous determination of vitamins B(1), B(6) AND B(12) in pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Elzanfaly, Eman S; Nebsen, Marianne; Ramadan, Nesreen K

    2010-10-01

    This work represents the simultaneous determination of thiamine hydrochloride (B(1)), pyridoxine hydrochloride (B(6)) and cyanocobalamine (B(12)) by two different methods namely spectrophotometry multivariate calibration and densitometry. The spectrophotometric numerical method depends on the use of spectrophotometric data coupled to PLS and PCR multivariate calibration methods for the simultaneous determination of (B(1)) and (B(6)) in the presence of (B(12)) in laboratory prepared mixtures and commercial tablets. A calibration set was prepared, where the three vitamins were modeled using a full factorial 23 with three center points experimental design. This calibration set was used to build the PLS and PCR models. The models were validated by testing their predictive ability on a validation set where low RMSEP, RSEP % were obtained for both models. Figures of merit were determined using the net analyte signal concept. The proposed models were applied successfully to simultaneous determination of B1 and B6 in presence of a low concentration of B12 in pharmaceutical dosage forms that contain simple excipients. The TLC densitometric method was based on the use of a developing system of chloroform: ethanol: water: acetic acid solution (2: 8: 2: 0.5 v/v) to separate the three vitamins. The separated spots were scanned at 242nm, 291nm and 360nm for B(1), B(6) and B(12) respectively. The proposed method was applied successfully to simultaneous determination of the three vitamins in their pure powder form in the range 0.1-1.5 (µg/spot), 0.5-3.5 (µg/spot), 0.1-1.5 (µg/spot) for B(1), B(6), and B(12) respectively and in their pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:20884455

  1. Maternal dietary intake of folate and vitamins B6 and B12 during pregnancy and risk of childhood brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Greenop, Kathryn R; Miller, Margaret; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Scott, Rodney J; Attia, John; Ashton, Lesley J; Dalla-Pozza, Luciano; Bower, Carol; Armstrong, Bruce K; Milne, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Childhood brain tumors (CBT) are the second most common childhood cancers, yet their etiology is largely unknown. We investigated whether maternal gestational intake of folate and vitamins B6 and B12 was associated with CBT risk in a nationwide case-control study conducted 2005-2010. Case children 0-14 years were recruited from all 10 Australian pediatric oncology centers. Control children were recruited by national random digit dialing, frequency matched to cases on age, sex, and state of residence. Dietary intake was ascertained using food frequency questionnaires and adjusted for total energy intake. Data from 293 case and 726 control mothers were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. The odds ratio (OR) for the highest versus lowest tertile of folate intake was 0.70 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48, 1.02]. The ORs appeared lower in mothers who drank alcohol during pregnancy (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.93), mothers who took folic acid (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.42, 1.06) or B6/B12 supplements (OR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.25, 1.06) and in children younger than 5 years (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.93). These findings are consistent with folate's crucial role in maintenance of genomic integrity and DNA methylation. Dietary intake of B6 and B12 was not associated with risk of CBT. PMID:24897174

  2. The Influence of Certain Derivatives of Vitamin B12 upon the Groth of MicroOrganisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. FORD

    1959-01-01

    SUMMARY: Seven analogues of vitamin B,, were examined for their influence upon the growth of Ochromonas malhumensis, Euglena gracilis, Lactobacillus leichmannii ATCC 4797 and Escherichia coli 113-3. The analogues were active in promoting the growth of E. gracilis and L. leichmannii, but were essentially inactive for 0. mal- hamensis. For E. coti three of the analogues were active and four

  3. Esophageal and gastric cardia cancer risk and folate- and vitamin B(12)-related polymorphisms in Linxian, China.

    PubMed

    Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Qiao, You-Lin; Abnet, Christian C; Ratnasinghe, D Luke; Dawsey, Sanford M; Dong, Zhi Wei; Taylor, Philip R; Mark, Steven D

    2003-11-01

    Linxian, a rural county in North Central China, has among the highest rates of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) in the world. Its inhabitants have documented chronic nutritional inadequacies, including folate and vitamin B(12) deficiencies. Using a cohort we have been studying in Linxian since 1985, we examined the relationship between incident ESCC and GCA cancers and three polymorphisms in two genes that code for enzymes that require folate and B(12) as cofactors: methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C. We conducted a case-cohort study among 4005 individuals in our cohort who were alive and cancer free in 1991 and had blood samples adequate for DNA extraction. Polymorphisms were measured on all 219 incident cancers (129 ESCCs and 90 GCAs) that developed through May 1996 and on 398 controls. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Individuals with the MTHFR 677TT genotype had significantly higher combined ESCC/GCA risks (RR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.02-2.05) than those with CC or CT genotypes. The only subjects to have MTHFR 1298CC were three ESCC cases (P = 0.03). Compared with subjects with the MTRR 66AA genotype, subjects with the AG or GG genotypes had significantly higher risk of ESCC (RR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.04-2.42). No association was observed for GCA. Our results suggest that the MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G polymorphisms influence the risk of ESCC and GCA in this population. PMID:14652285

  4. Osteomalacia induced by vitamin D deficiency in hemodialysis patients: the crucial role of vitamin D correction.

    PubMed

    Mac-Way, Fabrice; Azzouz, Linda; Noel, Christian; Lafage-Proust, Marie-Hélène

    2014-03-01

    Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is significantly prevalent in chronic kidney disease. Data in the literature are however scarce about the effects of this deficiency on bone metabolism in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Moreover, it is still debated whether low vitamin D levels should be normalized in HD patients. In this paper, we report two cases showing the deleterious consequences of vitamin D deficiency in HD patients which is characterised by hypophosphatemia, hypocalcemia and osteomalacia (OM) leading to bone fractures. As vitamin D repletion is an easy way to treat OM, this report underlines the importance of monitoring and correction of vitamin D deficiency in this population. PMID:23794122

  5. Response to Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Regland, Björn; Forsmark, Sara; Halaouate, Lena; Matousek, Michael; Peilot, Birgitta; Zachrisson, Olof; Gottfries, Carl-Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME, also called chronic fatigue syndrome) may respond most favorably to frequent vitamin B12 injections, in vital combination with oral folic acid. However, there is no established algorithm for individualized optimal dosages, and rate of improvement may differ considerably between responders. Objective To evaluate clinical data from patients with ME, with or without fibromyalgia, who had been on B12 injections at least once a week for six months and up to several years. Methods 38 patients were included in a cross-sectional survey. Based on a validated observer’s rating scale, they were divided into Good (n = 15) and Mild (n = 23) responders, and the two groups were compared from various clinical aspects. Results Good responders had used significantly more frequent injections (p<0.03) and higher doses of B12 (p<0.03) for a longer time (p<0.0005), higher daily amounts of oral folic acid (p<0.003) in good relation with the individual MTHFR genotype, more often thyroid hormones (p<0.02), and no strong analgesics at all, while 70% of Mild responders (p<0.0005) used analgesics such as opioids, duloxetine or pregabalin on a daily basis. In addition to ME, the higher number of patients with fibromyalgia among Mild responders was bordering on significance (p<0.09). Good responders rated themselves as “very much” or “much” improved, while Mild responders rated “much” or “minimally” improved. Conclusions Dose-response relationship and long-lasting effects of B12/folic acid support a true positive response in the studied group of patients with ME/fibromyalgia. It’s important to be alert on co-existing thyroid dysfunction, and we suspect a risk of counteracting interference between B12/folic acid and certain opioid analgesics and other drugs that have to be demethylated as part of their metabolism. These issues should be considered when controlled trials for ME and fibromyalgia are to be designed. PMID:25902009

  6. Some histological manifestations in the vitamin B b12 sdeficient newborn rat 

    E-print Network

    Jones, Carroll Christian

    1954-01-01

    &dna;, . and spieen 1n duced by a materw?l v1tamin Rl? deficiency 1? the ?suborn albino rat, 4 secondary porno a Ips to co"lpga e the '?Jot'. , +t dif faro loca bot'i&en the hearts, livorn and '. . Tdnevs of novborn offspring oi' v'to oin Q2 deficient mothers...

  7. Methylmalonic acid quantified in dried blood spots provides a precise, valid, and stable measure of functional vitamin B-12 status in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Schroder, Theresa H; Quay, Teo A W; Lamers, Yvonne

    2014-10-01

    Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is a sensitive and specific functional biomarker of vitamin B-12 status, commonly assessed in plasma or serum. Dried blood spots (DBSs) allow simpler and more cost-efficient blood sampling than plasma. To facilitate convenient testing for vitamin B-12 deficiency in large-scale surveys and in population groups from remote areas, we developed a method for MMA quantification in DBSs and tested its applicability as well as the long-term stability of MMA in DBSs at various temperatures. MMA was extracted from an 8-mm DBS punch with water:methanol (95:5, v:v) and methyl-d3-malonic acid as the internal standard. After sample cleanup by ultrafiltration and hexane extraction, MMA was quantified by using reversed-phase LC-tandem mass spectrometry. Extraction conditions were optimized to maximize the detection signal and achieve DBS extract concentrations above the lowest limit of quantification (signal-to-noise ratio ? 10) of 10 nmol/L. Recovery was between 93% and 96%. Intra- and interassay variation (CV%) for DBS MMA was 0.49% and 2.3%, respectively. Calibrators showed linearity (R(2) = 0.998) between 10 and 10,000 nmol/L. In 94 healthy women, MMA concentrations in DBS extract (min-max: 10.2-80.5 nmol/L) and plasma (min-max: 68-950 nmol/L) were correlated (? = 0.90) (P < 0.001). MMA concentrations in DBSs were stable at room temperature for 1 wk, in the refrigerator for 8 wk, and at -80°C for at least 1 y. This simple and robust method allows quantification of MMA in DBSs of healthy individuals. The linear relation between plasma and DBS MMA suggests that DBS MMA could predict plasma MMA, the current reference indicator for functional vitamin B-12 deficiency. With the advantages of minimally invasive specimen collection and no need for laborious blood processing steps, this method has the potential to be a reliable, convenient, and field-applicable alternative for assessment of vitamin B-12 status. PMID:25143369

  8. Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women impairs regulatory T cell function.

    PubMed

    Vijayendra Chary, A; Hemalatha, R; Seshacharyulu, M; Vasudeva Murali, M; Jayaprakash, D; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-03-01

    Regulatory T cells and IgE receptors (CD23 and CD21) on B cells were assessed in vitamin D deficient pregnant women. For this, 153 pregnant women were recruited from a government hospital and were categorized into three groups based on 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) status. Regulatory T cell population (Treg cells) and CD23/CD21 expression on B cells were quantified by FACS ARIA II in maternal blood at third trimester; and the same parameters were evaluated in cord blood soon after delivery. In addition, TGF ? and IL-10 were quantified in maternal and cord blood by using Milliplex kits. In a representative sample of eight women from each group (vitamin D sufficient, insufficient and deficient), placental tissues were processed for mRNA expressions of vitamin D receptor (VDR), retinoic acid receptor (RXR), vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) and vitamin D regulating enzymes. Of the 153 pregnant women, 18 were sufficient (?30 ng/mL), 55 were insufficient (20-29 ng/mL) and 80 were deficient (?19 ng/mL) for 25(OH)D3 status. The maternal blood Treg cell population (mean (%)± SE) was lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.2 ± 0.01) pregnant women compared to insufficient (0.34 ± 0.01) and sufficient (0.45 ± 0.02) pregnant women. Similarly, cord blood Treg cell population (mean (%)± SE) was also lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.63 ± 0.03) pregnant women when compared to insufficient (1.05 ± 0.04) and sufficient (1.75 ± 0.02) pregnant women. Mean (%) ± SE of B cells with CD23 and CD21 in maternal blood was higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient pregnant women (0.35 ± 0.02; 1.65 ± 0.04) when compared to insufficient (0.22 ± 0.02; 0.55 ± 0.05) and sufficient (0.15 ± 0.02; 0.21 ± 0.01) pregnant women. Similarly, mean (%)± SE of B cell population with CD23 and CD21 in cord blood was also higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.41 ± 0.02; 1.2 ± 0.03) when compared to insufficient (0.32 ± 0.01; 0.6 ± 0.05) and sufficient (0.2 ± 0.01; 0.4 ± 0.02) pregnant women. Regulatory cytokines, TGF ? and IL-10 were lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 insufficient and deficient subjects. In the placenta tissue of women with 25(OH)D3 deficiency, the regulatory T cell transcription factor FOXP3, vitamin D receptor (VDR) and retinoic acid receptor (RXR) expressions were downregulated. In contrast, CD23, CD21 and VDBP expressions were upregulated in 25(OH)D3 deficient and insufficient women. Vitamin D regulating enzymes (CYP24A1, CYP2R1 and CYP27B1) expression were also altered in women with 25(OH)D3 deficiency. The current study shows that impaired maternal 25(OH)D3 during pregnancy influences the spectrum of immune cells such as regulatory T cells and B cells with IgE receptors and this in turn may be linked to allergy and asthma in neonates. PMID:25448751

  9. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii thermal tolerance enhancement mediated by a mutualistic interaction with vitamin B12-producing bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bo; Bishop, Shawn; Stessman, Dan; Wright, David; Spalding, Martin H; Halverson, Larry J

    2013-01-01

    Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors affecting the growth and survival of microorganisms and in light of current global patterns is of particular interest. Here, we highlight studies revealing how vitamin B12 (cobalamin)-producing bacteria increase the fitness of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii following an increase in environmental temperature. Heat stress represses C. reinhardtii cobalamin-independent methionine synthase (METE) gene expression coinciding with a reduction in METE-mediated methionine synthase activity, chlorosis and cell death during heat stress. However, in the presence of cobalamin-producing bacteria or exogenous cobalamin amendments C. reinhardtii cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase METH-mediated methionine biosynthesis is functional at temperatures that result in C. reinhardtii death in the absence of cobalamin. Artificial microRNA silencing of C. reinhardtii METH expression leads to nearly complete loss of cobalamin-mediated enhancement of thermal tolerance. This suggests that methionine biosynthesis is an essential cellular mechanism for adaptation by C. reinhardtii to thermal stress. Increased fitness advantage of METH under environmentally stressful conditions could explain the selective pressure for retaining the METH gene in algae and the apparent independent loss of the METE gene in various algal species. Our results show that how an organism acclimates to a change in its abiotic environment depends critically on co-occurring species, the nature of that interaction, and how those species interactions evolve. PMID:23486253

  10. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii thermal tolerance enhancement mediated by a mutualistic interaction with vitamin B12-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bo; Bishop, Shawn; Stessman, Dan; Wright, David; Spalding, Martin H; Halverson, Larry J

    2013-08-01

    Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors affecting the growth and survival of microorganisms and in light of current global patterns is of particular interest. Here, we highlight studies revealing how vitamin B12 (cobalamin)-producing bacteria increase the fitness of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii following an increase in environmental temperature. Heat stress represses C. reinhardtii cobalamin-independent methionine synthase (METE) gene expression coinciding with a reduction in METE-mediated methionine synthase activity, chlorosis and cell death during heat stress. However, in the presence of cobalamin-producing bacteria or exogenous cobalamin amendments C. reinhardtii cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase METH-mediated methionine biosynthesis is functional at temperatures that result in C. reinhardtii death in the absence of cobalamin. Artificial microRNA silencing of C. reinhardtii METH expression leads to nearly complete loss of cobalamin-mediated enhancement of thermal tolerance. This suggests that methionine biosynthesis is an essential cellular mechanism for adaptation by C. reinhardtii to thermal stress. Increased fitness advantage of METH under environmentally stressful conditions could explain the selective pressure for retaining the METH gene in algae and the apparent independent loss of the METE gene in various algal species. Our results show that how an organism acclimates to a change in its abiotic environment depends critically on co-occurring species, the nature of that interaction, and how those species interactions evolve. PMID:23486253

  11. Basal gnathostomes provide unique insights into the evolution of vitamin B12 binders.

    PubMed

    Lopes-Marques, Mónica; Ruivo, Raquel; Delgado, Inês; Wilson, Jonathan M; Aluru, Neelakanteswar; Castro, L Filipe C

    2015-02-01

    The uptake and transport of vitamin B12 (cobalamin; Cbl) in mammals involves a refined system with three evolutionarily related transporters: transcobalamin 1 (Tcn1), transcobalamin 2 (Tcn2), and the gastric intrinsic factor (Gif). Teleosts have a single documented binder with intermediate features to the human counterparts. Consequently, it has been proposed that the expansion of Cbl binders occurred after the separation of Actinopterygians. Here, we demonstrate that the diversification of this gene family took place earlier in gnathostome ancestry. Our data indicates the presence of single copy orthologs of the Sarcopterygii/Tetrapoda duplicates Tcn1 and Gif, and Tcn2, in Chondrichthyes. In addition, a highly divergent Cbl binder was found in the Elasmobranchii. We unveil a complex scenario forged by genome, tandem duplications and lineage-specific gene loss. Our findings suggest that from an ancestral transporter, exhibiting large spectrum and high affinity binding, highly specific Cbl transporters emerged through gene duplication and mutations at the binding pocket. PMID:25552533

  12. Vitamin B biosynthesis in plants.

    PubMed

    Roje, Sanja

    2007-07-01

    The vitamin B complex comprises water-soluble enzyme cofactors and their derivatives that are essential contributors to diverse metabolic processes in plants as well as in animals and microorganisms. Seven vitamins form this complex: B1 (thiamin (1)), B2 (riboflavin (2)), B3 (niacin (3)), B5 (pantothenic acid (4)), B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal (5), and pyridoxamine), B8 (biotin (6)), and B9 (folate (7)). All seven B vitamins are required in the human diet for proper nutrition because humans lack enzymes to synthesize these compounds de novo. This review aims to summarize the present knowledge of vitamin B biosynthesis in plants. PMID:17512961

  13. CO2 and vitamin B12 interactions determine bioactive trace metal requirements of a subarctic Pacific diatom

    PubMed Central

    King, Andrew L; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A; Leblanc, Karine; Hutchins, David A; Fu, Feixue

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplankton growth can be limited by numerous inorganic nutrients and organic growth factors. Using the subarctic diatom Attheya sp. in culture studies, we examined how the availability of vitamin B12 and carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) influences growth rate, primary productivity, cellular iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) quotas, and the net use efficiencies (NUEs) of these bioactive trace metals (mol C fixed per mol cellular trace metal per day). Under B12-replete conditions, cells grown at high pCO2 had lower Fe, Zn and Cd quotas, and used those trace metals more efficiently in comparison with cells grown at low pCO2. At high pCO2, B12-limited cells had ?50% lower specific growth and carbon fixation rates, and used Fe ?15-fold less efficiently, and Zn and Cd ?3-fold less efficiently, in comparison with B12-replete cells. The observed higher Fe, Zn and Cd NUE under high pCO2/B12-replete conditions are consistent with predicted downregulation of carbon-concentrating mechanisms. Co quotas of B12-replete cells were ?5- to 14-fold higher in comparison with B12-limited cells, suggesting that >80% of cellular Co of B12-limited cells was likely from B12. Our results demonstrate that CO2 and vitamin B12 interactively influence growth, carbon fixation, trace metal requirements and trace metal NUE of this diatom. This suggests the need to consider complex feedback interactions between multiple environmental factors for this biogeochemically critical group of phytoplankton in the last glacial maximum as well as the current and future changing ocean. PMID:21248860

  14. Lack of megalin expression in adult human terminal ileum suggests megalin-independent cubilin/amnionless activity during vitamin B12 absorption.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Louise L; Andersen, Rikke K; Hager, Henrik; Madsen, Mette

    2014-07-01

    Cubilin plays an essential role in terminal ileum and renal proximal tubules during absorption of vitamin B12 and ligands from the glomerular ultrafiltrate. Cubilin is coexpressed with amnionless, and cubilin and amnionless are mutually dependent on each other for correct processing to the plasma membrane upon synthesis. Patients with defects in either protein suffer from vitamin B12-malabsorption and in some cases proteinuria. Cubilin lacks a transmembrane region and signals for endocytosis and is dependent on a transmembrane coreceptor during internalization. Amnionless has been shown to be able to mediate internalization of cubilin in a cell-based model system. Cubilin has additionally been suggested to function together with megalin, and a recent study of megalin-deficient patients indicates that uptake of cubilin ligands in the kidney is critically dependent on megalin. To further investigate the potential role of amnionless and megalin in relation to cubilin function in terminal ileum and vitamin B12 uptake, we initiated a study of CUBN/cubilin, AMN/amnionless, and LRP2/megalin expression in adult human terminal ileum. Our study is the first to reveal the expression pattern of cubilin, amnionless, and megalin in adult human terminal ileum, where cubilin and amnionless localize to the epithelial cells. Surprisingly, we did not detect any megalin protein in adult terminal ileum and consistently, only extremely low amounts of LRP2 mRNA. Our data therefore advocate that cubilin and amnionless act independently of megalin in adult terminal ileum and that the cubilin-megalin interdependency accordingly should be considered as tissue and ligand specific. PMID:25052491

  15. Lack of megalin expression in adult human terminal ileum suggests megalin?independent cubilin/amnionless activity during vitamin B12 absorption

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Louise L.; Andersen, Rikke K.; Hager, Henrik; Madsen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cubilin plays an essential role in terminal ileum and renal proximal tubules during absorption of vitamin B12 and ligands from the glomerular ultrafiltrate. Cubilin is coexpressed with amnionless, and cubilin and amnionless are mutually dependent on each other for correct processing to the plasma membrane upon synthesis. Patients with defects in either protein suffer from vitamin B12?malabsorption and in some cases proteinuria. Cubilin lacks a transmembrane region and signals for endocytosis and is dependent on a transmembrane coreceptor during internalization. Amnionless has been shown to be able to mediate internalization of cubilin in a cell?based model system. Cubilin has additionally been suggested to function together with megalin, and a recent study of megalin?deficient patients indicates that uptake of cubilin ligands in the kidney is critically dependent on megalin. To further investigate the potential role of amnionless and megalin in relation to cubilin function in terminal ileum and vitamin B12 uptake, we initiated a study of CUBN/cubilin, AMN/amnionless, and LRP2/megalin expression in adult human terminal ileum. Our study is the first to reveal the expression pattern of cubilin, amnionless, and megalin in adult human terminal ileum, where cubilin and amnionless localize to the epithelial cells. Surprisingly, we did not detect any megalin protein in adult terminal ileum and consistently, only extremely low amounts of LRP2 mRNA. Our data therefore advocate that cubilin and amnionless act independently of megalin in adult terminal ileum and that the cubilin?megalin interdependency accordingly should be considered as tissue and ligand specific. PMID:25052491

  16. Cognitive Performance and Plasma Levels of Homocysteine, Vitamin B12, Folate and Lipids in Patients with Alzheimer Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ling Li; Dongfeng Cao; Renee Desmond; Atiq Rahman; James J. Lah; Allan I. Levey; Edward Zamrini

    2008-01-01

    Background: Conflicting results have been reported on the association of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and cholesterol levels in Alzheimer disease (AD). The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between cognitive performance and plasma levels of tHcy and its biological determinants folate and vitamin B12, and lipids in clinically diagnosed AD patients. Methods: A cross-sectional database review was

  17. Diethylnitrosamine and acetoxymethyl methylnitrosamine-induced carcinogenesis in mice and vitamin A deficiency.

    PubMed

    Santhanam, U; Lalitha, V S; Bhide, S V

    1989-01-01

    The modulating influence of vitamin A deficiency on carcinogenesis induced by two potent carcinogens, diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and acetoxymethyl methylnitrosamine (AMMN), was studied in BALB/c mice. DEN was administered intragastrically every 30 days at a total dose of 200 mg/kg body weight, split into four doses. AMMN was applied continuously every 14 days on the tongue, at a dose of 2 mg/kg body weight. AMMN and DEN treated animals fed the vitamin A deficient diet had a significantly higher tumor incidence that mice fed the normal diet (p less than 0.05). Studies on the levels of vitamins A, C, B2 and folic acid in the liver and plasma of mice treated with the two carcinogens revealed that both the carcinogens increased vitamin C in both tissues, decreased folic acid and had no effect on vitamin A, while hepatic vitamin B2 was lowered by treatment with AMMN by not by DEN. PMID:2519857

  18. B vitamins alleviate indices of neuropathic pain in diabetic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corinne G. Jolivalt; Leah M. Mizisin; Austin Nelson; Joice M. Cunha; Khara M. Ramos; Dieter Bonke; Nigel A. Calcutt

    2009-01-01

    There are sporadic reports that assorted combinations of B vitamins can alleviate pain in diabetic patients, but there is neither agreement on the relative efficacy of individual B vitamins nor understanding of the mechanisms involved. We therefore investigated the efficacy of a cocktail of the vitamins B1, B6 and B12 in alleviating behavioral indices of sensory dysfunction such as allodynia

  19. Fundamental shift in vitamin B12 eco-physiology of a model alga demonstrated by experimental evolution

    E-print Network

    Helliwell, Katherine E.; Collins, Sinéad; Kazamia, Elena; Purton, Saul; Wheeler, Glen L.; Smith, Alison G.

    2014-01-01

    1 TITLE: Fundamental shift in vitamin B12 eco-physiology of a model alga demonstrated 1 by experimental evolution 2 Katherine E. Helliwell1*, Sinéad Collins2, Elena Kazamia1, Saul Purton3, Glen L. Wheeler4,5, 3 Alison G. Smith1 4 1... , 2012). Moreover, levels of B12 are 373 reportedly less than 10 ng/L (~10 pM) in some freshwater habitats (Kurata, 1986). However, 374 since this molecule will likely be rapidly consumed as it becomes available within the water 375 column...

  20. A polymorphism of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and methionine synthase gene in CAD patients: association with plasma folate, vitamin B 12 and homocysteine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yangsoo Jang; Hyun Young Park; Jong Ho Lee; Ha Jung Ryu; Ji Young Kim; Oh Yoen Kim

    2002-01-01

    Elevated plasma total homocysteine (hcy), a risk factor for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), is due to defects in genes encoding for enzymes involved in hcy metabolism or from inadequate status of vitamins involved in hcy disposal. The present study was designed to examine the relationship between the genetic factors, folate and vitamin B12 status. Relationship between plasma total homocysteine, folate,

  1. An update on vitamin D deficiency and at risk groups.

    PubMed

    Blann, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D is required for healthy bones. We need sunlight and good renal and liver function for the synthesis of vitamin D, although it can also be taken in diet. Severe deficiency causes the bone diseases rickets and osteomalacia. Supplementation with vitamin D can help prevent low birth weight and non-vertebral fractures. Roles for vitamin D in other aspects of health are controversial. PMID:26118289

  2. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis of active vitamin B12 in cells of Propionibacterium and fermented cereal matrices.

    PubMed

    Chamlagain, Bhawani; Edelmann, Minnamari; Kariluoto, Susanna; Ollilainen, Velimatti; Piironen, Vieno

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive and selective method is needed to analyse in situ produced vitamin B12 in plant-based materials, potential new dietary sources of vitamin B12. A UHPLC/UV method was developed and validated for the determination of human active vitamin B12 in cell extracts of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii and after immunoaffinity purification in extracts of cereal matrices fermented by P. freudenreichii. An Acquity HSS T3 C18 column resulted in a baseline separation, a calibration curve of excellent linearity and a low limit of detection (0.075 ng/5 ?L injection). As confirmed by UHPLC-MS, the active vitamin B12 could be separated from pseudovitamin B12. The recovery of vitamin B12 from purified spiked cereal matrices was good (>90%; RSD<5%). A nutritionally relevant amount of active vitamin B12 was produced by P. freudenreichii in cereal malt matrices (up to 1.9 ?g/100 g) in 24h at 28 °C. PMID:25053103

  3. Vitamin A deficiency among adolescent female garment factory workers in Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Ahmed; N Hasan; Y Kabir

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among adolescent female factory workers in Bangladesh, and examine the association between various factors and vitamin A status. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: Garment factories in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Subjects: Three hundred and eighty eight adolescent girls aged 12–19 y from ten garment factories were selected randomly for the present study.

  4. Combined spectroscopic/computational studies of vitamin B12 precursors: geometric and electronic structures of cobinamides.

    PubMed

    Reig, Amanda J; Conrad, Karen S; Brunold, Thomas C

    2012-03-01

    Vitamin B(12) (cyanocobalamin) and its biologically active derivatives, methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin, are members of the family of corrinoids, which also includes cobinamides. As biological precursors to cobalamins, cobinamides possess the same structural core, consisting of a low-spin Co(3+) ion that is ligated equatorially by the four nitrogens of a highly substituted tetrapyrrole macrocycle (the corrin ring), but differ with respect to the lower axial ligation. Specifically, cobinamides possess a water molecule instead of the nucleotide loop that coordinates axially to Co(3+)cobalamins via its dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB) base. Compared to the cobalamin species, cobinamides have proven much more difficult to study experimentally, thus far eluding characterization by X-ray crystallography. In this study, we have utilized combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) computations to generate complete structural models of a representative set of cobinamide species with varying upper axial ligands. To validate the use of this approach, analogous QM/MM geometry optimizations were carried out on entire models of the cobalamin counterparts for which high-resolution X-ray structural data are available. The accuracy of the cobinamide structures was assessed further by comparing electronic absorption spectra computed using time-dependent density functional theory to those obtained experimentally. Collectively, the results obtained in this study indicate that the DMB ? H(2)O lower axial ligand switch primarily affects the energies of the Co 3d(z(2))-based molecular orbital (MO) and, to a lesser extent, the other Co 3d-based MOs as well as the corrin ?-based highest energy MO. Thus, while the energy of the lowest-energy electronic transition of cobalamins changes considerably as a function of the upper axial ligand, it is nearly invariant for the cobinamides. PMID:22332807

  5. Enantioselective syntheses of ring-C precursors of vitamin B12. Substrate control. A novel Si-assisted elimination of vinyl bromides.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Peter A; Tassa, Carlos

    2003-12-11

    Homochiral ring-C precursors 34 of Vitamin B(12) have been prepared by Ireland-Claisen rearrangement of allyl esters 32, followed by a novel Si-assisted elimination of HBr. [reaction: see text] PMID:14653697

  6. Meta-analysis of plasma homocysteine, serum folate, serum vitamin B 12, and thermolabile MTHFR genotype as risk factors for retinal vascular occlusive disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark T Cahill; Sandra S Stinnett; Sharon Fekrat

    2003-01-01

    PurposeTo assess the role of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) levels, serum folate and vitamin B12levels, and homozygosity for the thermolabile methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype (TT) as risk factors for retinal vascular occlusive disease.

  7. Human Vitamin B12 Absorption and Metabolism are Measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Using Specifically Labeled 14C-Cobalamin

    SciTech Connect

    Carkeet, C; Dueker, S R; Lango, J; Buchholz, B A; Miller, J W; Green, R; Hammock, B D; Roth, J R; Anderson, P J

    2006-01-26

    There is need for an improved test of human ability to assimilate dietary vitamin B{sub 12}. Assaying and understanding absorption and uptake of B{sub 12} is important because defects can lead to hematological and neurological complications. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is uniquely suited for assessing absorption and kinetics of {sup 14}C-labeled substances after oral ingestion because it is more sensitive than decay counting and can measure levels of carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) in microliter volumes of biological samples, with negligible exposure of subjects to radioactivity. The test we describe employs amounts of B{sub 12} in the range of normal dietary intake. The B{sub 12} used was quantitatively labeled with {sup 14}C at one particular atom of the DMB moiety by exploiting idiosyncrasies of Salmonellametabolism. In order to grow aerobically on ethanolamine, S. entericamust be provided with either pre-formed B{sub 12} or two of its precursors: cobinamide and dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB). When provided with {sup 14}C-DMB specifically labeled in the C2 position, cells produced {sup 14}C-B{sub 12} of high specific activity (2.1 GBq/mmol, 58 mCi/mmol) and no detectable dilution of label from endogenous DMB synthesis. In a human kinetic study, a physiological dose (1.5 mg, 2.2 KBq/59 nCi) of purified {sup 14}C-B{sub 12} was administered and showed plasma appearance and clearance curves consistent with the predicted behavior of the pure vitamin. This method opens new avenues for study of B{sub 12} assimilation.

  8. Identification of a putative lysosomal cobalamin exporter altered in the cblF defect of vitamin B12 metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rutsch, Frank; Gailus, Susann; Miousse, Isabelle R; Suormala, Terttu; Sagné, Corinne; Toliat, Mohammad Reza; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Wittkampf, Tanja; Buers, Insa; Sharifi, Azita; Stucki, Martin; Becker, Christian; Baumgartner, Matthias; Robenek, Horst; Marquardt, Thorsten; Höhne, Wolfgang; Gasnier, Bruno; Rosenblatt, David S; Fowler, Brian; Nürnberg, Peter

    2009-02-01

    Vitamin B(12) (cobalamin) is essential in animals for metabolism of branched chain amino acids and odd chain fatty acids, and for remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. In the cblF inborn error of vitamin B(12) metabolism, free vitamin accumulates in lysosomes, thus hindering its conversion to cofactors. Using homozygosity mapping in 12 unrelated cblF individuals and microcell-mediated chromosome transfer, we identified a candidate gene on chromosome 6q13, LMBRD1, encoding LMBD1, a lysosomal membrane protein with homology to lipocalin membrane receptor LIMR. We identified five different frameshift mutations in LMBRD1 resulting in loss of LMBD1 function, with 18 of the 24 disease chromosomes carrying the same mutation embedded in a common 1.34-Mb haplotype. Transfection of fibroblasts of individuals with cblF with wild-type LMBD1 rescued cobalamin coenzyme synthesis and function. This work identifies LMBRD1 as the gene underlying the cblF defect of cobalamin metabolism and suggests that LMBD1 is a lysosomal membrane exporter for cobalamin. PMID:19136951

  9. Vitamin D Deficiency in India: Prevalence, Causalities and Interventions

    PubMed Central

    G, Ritu; Gupta, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency prevails in epidemic proportions all over the Indian subcontinent, with a prevalence of 70%–100% in the general population. In India, widely consumed food items such as dairy products are rarely fortified with vitamin D. Indian socioreligious and cultural practices do not facilitate adequate sun exposure, thereby negating potential benefits of plentiful sunshine. Consequently, subclinical vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in both urban and rural settings, and across all socioeconomic and geographic strata. Vitamin D deficiency is likely to play an important role in the very high prevalence of rickets, osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer and infections such as tuberculosis in India. Fortification of staple foods with vitamin D is the most viable population based strategy to achieve vitamin D sufficiency. Unfortunately, even in advanced countries like USA and Canada, food fortification strategies with vitamin D have been only partially effective and have largely failed to attain vitamin D sufficiency. This article reviews the status of vitamin D nutrition in the Indian subcontinent and also the underlying causes for this epidemic. Implementation of population based educational and interventional strategies to combat this scourge require recognition of vitamin D deficiency as a public health problem by the governing bodies so that healthcare funds can be allocated appropriately. PMID:24566435

  10. Methionine, folic acid, vitamin B b12 sand unidentified factors in the nutrition of the growing chick 

    E-print Network

    Welch, Billy E

    1951-01-01

    KETHIONINE ~ FOLIC ACID ~ VITAMIN Big AND UNIDENTIFIED FACTORS IN THE NUTRITION OF THE GROWING CHICK A Thesis by Billy E. Welch Appr ed o tyls and content by Chairman oi Committee YATHIONINE y FOLIC ACID ~ VITAMIN Big AND UNIDENTIFIED... FACTORS IN THE NUTRITION OF THE GROWING CHICK by B1lly E. Welch A Thesis Submitted to ths Graduate School of the Agr1cultural and Mschan1oal College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of :lASTER OF SCIENCE Na...

  11. Coupling on-line of a dialyser with a flow-continuous system to separate Vitamin B(12) from milk.

    PubMed

    Medina-Alonso, Gustavo; Carrasco-Fuentes, Minerva; Del Pilar Cañizares-Macías, María

    2005-12-15

    The use of membranes for on-line separations in flow-through dialyser as a part of a flow system is extremely useful for automated samples preparation. In this paper a method to couple the dialysis and the UV detection on-line of Vitamin B(12) from milk is proposed. Firstly, the milk samples were pre-treated with trichloroacetic and centrifuged (to eliminate proteins and fats) and later, using a dialyser coupled a flow-continuous manifold was possible dialyse the Vitamin B(12), which was monitored spectrophotometrically at 361nm. On the other hand, the milk samples were also dialysed on-line but without the acid treatment and the results were compared. The influence of various parameters, including the pump speed for both the donor and acceptor stream, dialysis time, donor and acceptor loop volume on dialysis efficiency was studied. The method was applied to different kinds of milk (skimmed and semi-skimmed milk, evaporated milk, lactose free milk and liquid and powder whole milk). The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of the proposed method was of 0.45% and the obtained dialysis percentage was of 5.8%. The proposed method very easy permit a pre-treatment of the sample, quick and on-line with the detection. The dialysis process permitted the pass of vitamin and avoided the pass of other analytes as proteins in the case of the milk samples without acid treatment. PMID:18970320

  12. Role of vitamin B/sub 12/ in methyl transfer for methane biosynthesis by Methanosarcina barkeri

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.M. (Univ. of Minnesota, Navarre); Moura, I.; Moura, J.J.G.; Santos, M.H.; Xavier, A.V.; LeGall, J.; Scandellari, M.

    1982-04-16

    When Methanosarcina barkeri is grown on methanol as the sole carbon source, a B/sub 12/-containing protein is synthesized by this organism. This B/sub 12/-protein contains bound aquocobalamin, and when this cofactor is reduced and methylated with (/sup 14/C)methyl iodide, the resultant (/sup 14/C)methyl B/sub 12/ protein is extremely active in the biosynthesis of /sup 14/C-labeled methane. These findings indicate that a B/sub 12/-dependent system is operative in the biological formation of methane in addition to other systems that are B/sub 12/-independent.

  13. Vitamin B biosynthesis in plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanja Roje

    2007-01-01

    The vitamin B complex comprises water-soluble enzyme cofactors and their derivatives that are essential contributors to diverse metabolic processes in plants as well as in animals and microorganisms. Seven vitamins form this complex: B1 (thiamin (1)), B2 (riboflavin (2)), B3 (niacin (3)), B5 (pantothenic acid (4)), B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal (5), and pyridoxamine), B8 (biotin (6)), and B9 (folate (7)). All

  14. Thermolability of mutant MMACHC protein in the vitamin B12-responsive cblC disorder

    PubMed Central

    Froese, D.S.; Healy, S.; McDonald, M.; Kochan, G.; Oppermann, U.; Niesen, F.H.; Gravel, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria, cblC type, is the most common inborn error of cellular vitamin B12 metabolism. We previously showed that the protein carrying the mutation responsible for late-onset cblC (MMACHC-R161Q), treatable with high dose OHCbl, is able to bind OHCbl with wild-type affinity, leaving undetermined the disease mechanism involved [Froese et al., Mechanism of responsiveness, Mol. Genet. Metab. (2009).]. To assess whether the mutation renders the protein unstable, we investigated the thermostability of the wild-type and mutant MMACHC proteins, either unbound or bound to different cobalamins (Cbl), using differential scanning fluorimetry. We found that MMACHC-wt and MMACHC-R161Q are both very thermolabile proteins in their apo forms, with melting temperatures (Tm) of 39.3 ± 1.0 and 37.1 ± 0.7 °C, respectively; a difference confirmed by unfolding of MMACHC-R161Q but not MMACHC-wt by isothermal denaturation at 35 °C over 120 min. However, with the addition of OHCbl, MMACHC-wt becomes significantly stabilized (?Tm max = 8 °C, half-maximal effective ligand concentration, AC50 = 3 ?M). We surveyed the effect of different cobalamins on the stabilization of the wild-type protein and found that AdoCbl was the most stabilizing, exerting a maximum increase in Tm of ?16 °C, followed by MeCbl at ?13 °C, each evaluated at 50 ?M cofactor. The other cobalamins stabilized in the order (CN)2Cbi > OHCbl > CNCbl. Interestingly, the AC50’s for AdoCbl, MeCbl, (CN)2Cbi and OHCbl were similar and ranged from 1–3 ?M, which compares well with the Kd of 6 ?M for OHCbl [Froese et al., Mechanism of responsiveness, Mol. Genet. Metab. (2009).]. Unlike MMACHC-wt, the mutant protein MMACHC-R161Q is only moderately stabilized by OHCbl (?Tm max = 4 °C). The dose–response curve also shows a lower effectivity of OHCbl with respect to stabilization, with an AC50 of 7 ?M. MMACHC-R161Q showed the same order of stabilization as MMACHC-wt, but each cobalamin stabilized this mutant protein less than its wild-type counterpart. Additionally, MMACHC-R161Q had a higher AC50 for each cobalamin form compared to MMACHC-wt. Finally, we show that MMACHC-R161Q is able to support the base-off transition for AdoCbl and CNCbl, indicating this mutant is not blocked in that respect. Taken together, our results suggest that protein stability, as well as propensity for ligand-induced stabilization, contributes to the disease mechanism in late-onset cblC disorder. Our results underscore the importance of cofactor stabilization of MMACHC and suggest that even small increases in the concentration of cobalamin complexed with MMACHC may have therapeutic benefit in children with the late-onset, vitamin responsive cblC disease. PMID:20219402

  15. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method with coulometric electrochemical and ultraviolet detection for the quantification of vitamins B 1 (thiamine), B 6 (pyridoxamine, pyridoxal and pyridoxine) and B 12 in animal and plant foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Lebiedzi?ska; Marcin Leszek Marsza??; Jadwiga Kuta; Piotr Szefer

    2007-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with coulometric electrochemical and ultraviolet detections for analysis of vitamin B (B1, B6 and B12) in animal and plant foods has been developed. A combination of acid digestion and enzymatic extraction to release protein bound and phosphorylated vitamins followed by HPLC analysis was applied. The analyses were carried out on a

  16. Serum fat-soluble vitamin deficiency and abnormal calcium metabolism after malabsorptive bariatric surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Slater GH; Siegel N; Williams T; Barr D; Wolfe B; Dolan K

    2004-01-01

    RESULTS: The incidence of vitamin A deficiency was 69%, vitamin K deficiency 68%, and vitamin D deficiency 63% by the fourth year after surgery. The incidence of vitamin E and zinc deficiency did not increase with time after surgery. The incidence of hypocalcemia increased from 15% to 48% over the study period with a corresponding increase in serum parathyroid hormone

  17. Some histological manifestations in the vitamin B b12 sdeficient newborn rat

    E-print Network

    Jones, Carroll Christian

    1954-01-01

    Iaotobaoilli tested (Skeggs~ '51) ~ In the rat a vita~ H12 defioisnoy deoreases the liver nanthins oxidase and betaine homooysteine tranamsthyiass aotivity (Milliams~ '. son son~ Harper snd KLvah)em~ '53) ~ These ensymss are believed to be in volved...

  18. Urinary excretion of B-group vitamins reflects the nutritional status of B-group vitamins in rats.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Sugita, Chisa; Sano, Mitsue; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    We have reported previously that the urinary excretion of B-group vitamins reflects recent dietary intakes of these vitamins. We also proposed reference values for the urinary levels of B-group vitamins for human subjects, and used these for evaluating human nutritional status. However, the question arises as to whether the urinary excretion of B-group vitamins in animals or human subjects decreases immediately before they become B-group vitamin insufficient or when fed a diet low in vitamins. In the present study, rats were fed a vitamin-free diet for 5 d, and changes in the levels of B-group vitamins in urine and blood were monitored. Urinary excretion of vitamin B1, vitamin B2, 4-pyridoxic acid (a catabolite of vitamin B6), pantothenic acid, folate and biotin steeply decreased, and all of the values reached zero within 1-2 d. With respect to blood, the concentrations of only three of the eight B-group vitamins (vitamin B1, pyridoxal phosphate and biotin) decreased to 15 % (P < 0·0001), 7 % (P < 0·0001) and 2 % (P < 0·0001) on day 5, respectively, compared with the values at the beginning of the experiment. The decrease was more rapid and the changes were greater in the urine samples than in the blood samples. The present data complement our previous proposal that the urinary excretion of B-group vitamins reflects the nutritional status of these vitamins. PMID:25191560

  19. Effect of Vegetarianism and Smoking on Vitamin B12, Thiocyanate, and Folate Levels in the Blood of Normal Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Dastur, D. K.; Quadros, E. V.; Wadia, N. H.; Desai, M. M.; Bharucha, E. P.

    1972-01-01

    Vitamin B12, thiocyanate, and folate levels in the blood were estimated in 69 apparently normal subjects, of whom 26 were non-vegetarian non-smokers, 19 non-vegetarian smokers, 15 vegetarian non-smokers, and nine vegetarian smokers. The serum total (cyanide-extracted) B12 level (value A) ranged from 105 to 728 pg/ml, with a mean of 292 pg/ml. The highest values were found in non-vegetarian non-smokers and the lowest in vegetarian smokers. There was no significant difference in value A between smokers as a group and non-smokers as a group. On the other hand, in vegetarians value A was very significantly lower than in non-vegetarians regardless of their smoking habits. It is suggested that A may represent both the protein-bound and free forms of vitamin B12 in the blood, and B mainly the free B12, which may be the physiologically active form. The plasma thiocyanate level varied from 1·0 to 15 ?mol/100 ml, being, as expected, much higher in smokers (mean 8·20 ?mol/100 ml) than in non-smokers (mean 2·02 ?mol/100 ml). There was a rough correlation between falling B12 levels and rising thiocyanate levels. The serum folate level ranged from 2·75 to 15·75 ng/ml, and was slightly but significantly higher in vegetarians (mean 6·60 ng/ml) than in non-vegetarians (mean 4·79 ng/ml), reflecting the greater content of folate in a vegetarian diet. PMID:5046479

  20. NIH Researchers Find Vitamin D Binding Protein May Help to Assess Vitamin D Deficiency in African and White Americans

    MedlinePLUS

    NIH researchers find vitamin D binding protein may help to assess vitamin D deficiency in African and white Americans November 21, 2013 Measuring vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) may be important for ...

  1. Human gut microbes use multiple transporters to distinguish vitamin B12 analogs and compete in the gut

    PubMed Central

    Degnan, Patrick H.; Barry, Natasha A.; Mok, Kenny C.; Taga, Michiko E.; Goodman, Andrew L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Genomic and metagenomic sequencing efforts, including human microbiome projects, reveal that microbes often encode multiple systems that appear to accomplish the same task. Whether these predictions reflect actual functional redundancies is unclear. We report that the prominent human gut symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron employs three functional, homologous vitamin B12 transporters that in at least two cases confer a competitive advantage in the presence of distinct B12 analogs (corrinoids). In the mammalian gut, microbial fitness can be determined by the presence or absence of a single transporter. The total number of distinct corrinoid transporter families in the human gut microbiome likely exceeds those observed in B. thetaiotaomicron by an order of magnitude. These results demonstrate that human gut microbes use elaborate mechanisms to capture and differentiate corrinoids in vivo and that apparent redundancies observed in these genomes can instead reflect hidden specificities that determine whether a microbe will colonize its host. PMID:24439897

  2. Vitamin D deficiency: Diagnosis and patient centred management.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Aggarwal, Sameer

    2015-05-01

    This comprehensive review addresses the issue of Vitamin D deficiency and its management in adults. Briefly describing the history of Vitamin D development and its role in human physiology, it discusses D deficiency in adults. Pragmatic suggestion for diagnosis, choice of therapy, and monitoring are presented from a patient-centred viewpoint, keeping socioeconomic realities in perspective. The review adds to current medical literature by collating evidence in a format that will be useful to practicing clinicians. PMID:26028397

  3. Excited state electron transfer after visible light absorption by the Co(I) state of vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Achey, Darren; Brigham, Erinn C; DiMarco, Brian N; Meyer, Gerald J

    2014-11-11

    The first example of excited state electron transfer from cob(I)alamin is reported herein. Vitamin B12 was anchored to a mesoporous TiO2 thin film and electrochemically reduced to the cob(I)alamin form. Pulsed laser excitation resulted in rapid excited state electron transfer, ket > 10(8) s(-1), followed by microsecond interfacial charge recombination to re-form cob(I)alamin. The supernucleophilic cob(I)alamin was found to be a potent photoreductant. The yield of excited state electron transfer was found to be excitation wavelength dependent. The implications of this dependence are discussed. PMID:25232558

  4. Vitamin B6

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The RDA for vitamins may be used to help create goals for each person. How much of each vitamin is needed depends on a person's age and gender. Other factors, such as pregnancy and illnesses, are ...

  5. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-motor neuron disease, monoclonal gammopathy, hyperparathyroidism, and B12 deficiency: case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (the most common form of motor neuron disease) is a progressive and devastating disease involving both lower and upper motor neurons, typically following a relentless path towards death. Given the gravity of this diagnosis, all efforts must be made by the clinician to exclude alternative and more treatable entities. Frequent serology testing involves searching for treatable disorders, including vitamin B12 deficiency, parathyroid anomalies, and monoclonal gammopathies. Case presentation We present the case of a 78-year-old Caucasian man with all three of the aforementioned commonly searched for disorders during an investigation for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Conclusions The clinical utility of these common tests and what they ultimately mean in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is discussed, along with a review of the literature. PMID:20809955

  6. Vitamin A Deficiency Induces Congenital Spinal Deformities in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Shen, Jianxiong; Wu, William Ka Kei; Wang, Xiaojuan; Liang, Jinqian; Qiu, Guixing; Liu, Jiaming

    2012-01-01

    Most cases of congenital spinal deformities were sporadic and without strong evidence of heritability. The etiology of congenital spinal deformities is still elusive and assumed to be multi-factorial. The current study seeks to elucidate the effect of maternal vitamin A deficiency and the production of congenital spinal deformities in the offsping. Thirty two female rats were randomized into two groups: control group, which was fed a normal diet; vitamin A deficient group, which were given vitamin A-deficient diet from at least 2 weeks before mating till delivery. Three random neonatal rats from each group were killed the next day of parturition. Female rats were fed an AIN-93G diet sufficient in vitamin A to feed the rest of neonates for two weeks until euthanasia. Serum levels of vitamin A were assessed in the adult and filial rats. Anteroposterior (AP) spine radiographs were obtained at week 2 after delivery to evaluate the presence of the skeletal abnormalities especially of spinal deformities. Liver and vertebral body expression of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDHs) and RARs mRNA was assessed by reverse transcription-real time PCR. VAD neonates displayed many skeletal malformations in the cervical, thoracic, the pelvic and sacral and limbs regions. The incidence of congenital scoliosis was 13.79% (8/58) in the filial rats of vitamin A deficiency group and 0% in the control group. Furthermore, vitamin A deficiency negatively regulate the liver and verterbral body mRNA levels of RALDH1, RALDH2, RALDH3, RAR-?, RAR-? and RAR-?. Vitamin A deficiency in pregnancy may induce congenital spinal deformities in the postnatal rats. The decreases of RALDHs and RARs mRNA expression induced by vitamin A deprivation suggest that vertebral birth defects may be caused by a defect in RA signaling pathway during somitogenesis. PMID:23071590

  7. Mitochondrial function and toxicity: role of the B vitamin family on mitochondrial energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Depeint, Flore; Bruce, W Robert; Shangari, Nandita; Mehta, Rhea; O'Brien, Peter J

    2006-10-27

    The B vitamins are water-soluble vitamins required as coenzymes for enzymes essential for cell function. This review focuses on their essential role in maintaining mitochondrial function and on how mitochondria are compromised by a deficiency of any B vitamin. Thiamin (B1) is essential for the oxidative decarboxylation of the multienzyme branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes of the citric acid cycle. Riboflavin (B2) is required for the flavoenzymes of the respiratory chain, while NADH is synthesized from niacin (B3) and is required to supply protons for oxidative phosphorylation. Pantothenic acid (B5) is required for coenzyme A formation and is also essential for alpha-ketoglutarate and pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes as well as fatty acid oxidation. Biotin (B7) is the coenzyme of decarboxylases required for gluconeogenesis and fatty acid oxidation. Pyridoxal (B6), folate and cobalamin (B12) properties are reviewed elsewhere in this issue. The experimental animal and clinical evidence that vitamin B therapy alleviates B deficiency symptoms and prevents mitochondrial toxicity is also reviewed. The effectiveness of B vitamins as antioxidants preventing oxidative stress toxicity is also reviewed. PMID:16765926

  8. Vitamin D deficiency is independently associated with mortality among critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Rafael Barberena; Friedman, Gilberto; Wawrzeniak, Iuri Christmann; Marques, Leonardo S.; Nagel, Fabiano Márcio; Lisboa, Thiago Costa; Czepielewski, Mauro Antonio

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Studies suggest an association between vitamin D deficiency and morbidity/mortality in critically ill patients. Several issues remain unexplained, including which vitamin D levels are related to morbidity and mortality and the relevance of vitamin D kinetics to clinical outcomes. We conducted this study to address the association of baseline vitamin D levels and vitamin D kinetics with morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. METHOD: In 135 intensive care unit (ICU) patients, vitamin D was prospectively measured on admission and weekly until discharge from the ICU. The following outcomes of interest were analyzed: 28-day mortality, mechanical ventilation, length of stay, infection rate, and culture positivity. RESULTS: Mortality rates were higher among patients with vitamin D levels <12 ng/mL (versus vitamin D levels >12 ng/mL) (32.2% vs. 13.2%), with an adjusted relative risk of 2.2 (95% CI 1.07-4.54; p< 0.05). There were no differences in the length of stay, ventilation requirements, infection rate, or culture positivity. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that low vitamin D levels on ICU admission are an independent risk factor for mortality in critically ill patients. Low vitamin D levels at ICU admission may have a causal relationship with mortality and may serve as an indicator for vitamin D replacement among critically ill patients. PMID:26039948

  9. Single high-dose vitamin D at birth corrects vitamin D deficiency in infants in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Amaran; Spector, Stephen A

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in mothers and infants in Tijuana, Mexico and determined the effect of a single oral dose of 50?000?IU vitamin D3 at birth on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels during infancy. Healthy infants were randomized to receive vitamin D3 or placebo at birth. At birth 23% of infants were vitamin D deficient and 77% had vitamin D insufficiency (mean 25[OH]D level 18.9?ng/ml); 10% of mothers were vitamin D deficient and 61% were insufficient. Infants receiving vitamin D3 had higher 25(OH)D levels at two months (N?=?29; 33.9 versus 24.2?ng/ml) and six months (N?=?21; 36.5 versus 27.4?ng/ml). Exclusively breastfed infants had lower 25(OH)D levels at two months (14.9 versus 33.4?ng/ml). Vitamin D deficiency is common in infants and mothers in Tijuana, Mexico. A single dose of vitamin D3 at birth was safe and significantly increased 25(OH)D levels during infancy. PMID:25582182

  10. Vitamin D deficiency in a patient with HDR syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kostoglou-Athanassiou, Ifigenia; Stefanopoulos, Dimitrios; Karfi, Areti; Athanassiou, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    The case of a patient with clinical symptoms, laboratory and imaging findings of hypoparathyroidism, sensorineural deafness, renal dysplasia HDR, or Barakat syndrome (hypoparathyroidism, deafness, renal dysplasia), and vitamin D deficiency, is presented. A Caucasian man aged 51?years with a history of chronic hypocalcaemia since childhood, was admitted with hypertonia of the body and extremities, and loss of consciousness. On admission, he was found to have severe hypocalcaemia, hyperphosphataemia, severe hypoparathyroidism, low serum magnesium and mild renal insufficiency. Calcium gluconate was administered intravenously supplemented with magnesium, and the patient recovered consciousness while clinical and laboratory findings improved. Evaluation revealed left renal aplasia and sensorineural deafness affecting both ears. Vitamin D deficiency was also present. He was given calcium and vitamin D supplements orally, and the hypocalcaemia was corrected. This case is described as it is an extremely rare case of HDR syndrome with concurrent vitamin D deficiency. PMID:26156834

  11. Relationship between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Yan-Chiou; Liu, Mu-En; Ku, Chang-Sheng; Liu, Ta-Yuan; Lin, Shoa-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have found that low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels may be associated with coronary risk factors and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Additionally, vitamin D deficiency causes an increase in parathyroid hormone, which increases insulin resistance and is associated with diabetes, hypertension, inflammation, and increased cardiovascular risk. In this review, we analyze the association between vitamin D supplementation and the reduction in cardiovascular disease. The role of vitamin D deficiency in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is still controversial, and larger scale, randomized placebo controlled trials are needed to investigate whether oral vitamin D supplementation can reduce cardiovascular risk. Given the low cost, safety, and demonstrated benefit of higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, vitamin D supplementation should become a public health priority for combating common and costly chronic cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24109497

  12. Vitamin D deficiency in children living in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Maha M. H. K.; Alhadidi, Khaled M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is an unrecognized epidemic and a common health problem worldwide. This study was conducted to evaluate the vitamin D status in children living in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and to study its relation to various variables. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the pediatric clinic in Jeddah Clinic Hospital-Kandarah, Jeddah, KSA, from October through December 2010, in which 510 healthy children aged 4–15 years were enrolled. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were measured. Dietary vitamin D intake and duration of daily sunlight exposure were determined. 25(OH)D levels <20 ng/mL and <7 ng/mL were defined as relative and severe vitamin D deficiency, respectively. Results: The mean concentration of 25(OH)D was 13.07 ± 7.81 ng/mL. Seventy subjects (13.72%) had normal 25(OH)D level ranging 20–70 ng/mL. Three hundred (58.82%) had relative 25(OH)D deficiency and 140 (27.45%) had severe deficiency (P=0.000). 220 (43.14%) subjects were males and 290 (56.86%) were females having a statistically significant higher incidence of 25(OH)D deficiency (P=0.019). 54.9% were Saudis, 27.45% were Yemenis and 11.76% were Egyptians. Saudis and Yemenis were more subjected to 25(OH)D deficiency in comparison to Egyptians and other nationalities (P=0.01). There were significant inverse correlations between 25(OH)D levels and bony aches (P=0.000). 56.25% of asymptomatic children had vitamin D deficiency (P=0.000). Duration of sunlight exposure and daily intake of vitamin D had significant effects on serum level of vitamin D (P=0.000). Conclusions: A high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children living in Jeddah was observed in this study. Vitamin D supplementation of food products can prevent vitamin D deficiency in these children. PMID:22470865

  13. Dietary intake of the water-soluble vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12 and C in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Olsen; J Halkjær; C H van Gils; B Buijsse; H Verhagen; M Jenab; M C Boutron-Ruault; U Ericson; M C Ocké; P H M Peeters; M Touvier; M Niravong; M Waaseth; G Skeie; K T Khaw; R Travis; P Ferrari; M J Sanchez; A Agudo; K Overvad; J Linseisen; C Weikert; C Sacerdote; A Evangelista; D Zylis; K Tsiotas; J Manjer; B van Guelpen; E Riboli; N Slimani; S Bingham

    2009-01-01

    Objectives:To describe the intake of vitamins thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), B6 (pyridoxine), B12 (cobalamine) and C (ascorbic acid) and their food sources among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.Methods:Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons aged between 35 and 74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall using

  14. Permeability of the blood-brain-barrier in lymphostatic encephalopathy combined with complex vitamin B deficiency. The protective effect of vitamin (factor) P treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ethel Földi-Börcsök; M. Földi

    1973-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Die bereits bekannte Permeabilitätszunahme der Blut-Hirnschranke bei der lymphostatitischen Enzephalopathie wurde mittels einer neuen Methode bestätigt: i.v. infundiertes PVP, mit einem Molekulargewicht von 40.000, drang bei normalen Kontrollratten in die Hirnsubstanz nicht ein; bei Tieren mit einer lymphostatischen Enzephalopathie war PVP in der Hirnsubstanz nachweisbar. Eine komplexe B-Avitaminose führt ebenfalls zum Eindringen von PVP in die Hirnsubstanz; eine Kombination

  15. Effect of Folic Acid and Vitamin B12 on Pemetrexed Antifolate Chemotherapy in Nutrient Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tsung-Ying; Chang, Gee-Chen; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Huang, Yi-Rou; Chiu, Ling-Yen

    2013-01-01

    Pemetrexed (MTA) is a multitargeted antifolate drug approved for lung cancer therapy. Clinically, supplementation with high doses of folic acid (FA) and vitamin B12 (VB12) lowers MTA cytotoxicities. An antagonistic effect of FA/VB12 on MTA efficacy has been proposed. However, patients who receive FA/VB12 show better tolerance to MTA with improved survival. The aims of this study are to investigate the modulation of FA and VB12 on MTA drug efficacy in human nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. The sensitivities of cells, apoptosis, and MTA-regulated proteins were characterized to determine the possible effects of high doses of FA and VB12 on MTA efficacy. MTA has the lowest efficacy under 10% serum conditions. However, supplementation with FA and VB12 individually and additively reversed the insensitivity of NSCLC cells to MTA treatment with 10% serum. The enhanced sensitivities of cells following FA/VB12 treatment were correlated with increasing apoptosis and were specific to MTA but not to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Enhanced sensitivity was also associated with p21WAF1/Cip1 expression level. Our results revealed no antagonistic effect of high doses of FA/VB12 on MTA efficacy in cancer cells grown in nutrient medium. Furthermore, these data may partially explain why supplementation of FA and VB12 resulted in better survival in MTA-treated patients. PMID:23984356

  16. EXPERIMENTAL VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY IN MALLARDS (ANAS PLATYRHYNCHOS): LESIONS AND TISSUE VITAMIN A LEVELS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra M. Honour; Suzanne Trudeau; Sean Kennedy; Gary Wobeser

    Captive mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), fed an all-grain diet for up to 5 months during the winters of 1991 to 1992 and 1992 to 1993, developed lesions of squamous metaplasia; some had no detectable hepatic vitamin A. Vitamin A deficiency in mallards was defined as hepatic levels of retinyl palmitate <2 sg\\/g liver, Lesions were found only in ducks with low

  17. B Vitamins as Regulators of Phytoplankton Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzeca, Caterina; Tovar-Sanchez, Antonio; Agustí, Susana; Reche, Isabel; Duarte, Carlos M.; Taylor, Gordon T.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.

    2006-12-01

    Without an adequate supply of dissolved vitamins, many species of phytoplankton do not grow. Additions of inorganic nutrients like phosphorus and nitrogen, and trace metals like iron, are not alone adequate to sustain life-a practical lesson learned quickly by experimental biologists when they try to keep eukaryotic phytoplankton cultures alive in their labs. The reason is that coenzymes such as B vitamins are also required for many metabolic pathways. For example, vitamin B1 serves as a cofactor for a large number of enzymatic systems, including the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex required for the metabolism of carbohydrates (glycolysis) and amino acid synthesis [Vandamme, 1989]. Vitamin B12 is used primarily to assist two enzymes: methionine synthase, which is involved in DNA synthesis, and methylmalonyl CoA mutase, which is required for inorganic carbon assimilation [Lindemans and Abels, 1985].

  18. Prevention of vitamin D deficiency in mothers and infants worldwide — a paradigm shift

    PubMed Central

    Dawodu, A.; Wagner, C. L.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency in mothers and infants is a global health disorder despite recognition that it is preventable. Recent data support the theory that vitamin D deficiency in adults and children may increase the risk of infections and auto-immune diseases. In most cases, vitamin D deficiency is caused by sunlight deprivation and inadequate corrective vitamin D intake. There is a strong mother/infant vitamin D relationship that affects vitamin D status both in utero and in infancy. Recognition that vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide mother/infant health problem is a basis on which to modify public health strategies to reduce the burden of disease and improve maternal and child vitamin D nutrition. This review provides an update on vitamin D function and the global scope and implications of vitamin D deficiency as it relates to pregnancy and infancy. It also addresses a combined strategy to prevent vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy, lactation and infancy. PMID:22525442

  19. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in pediatric renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Ebbert, Kirsten; Chow, Josephine; Krempien, Jennifer; Matsuda-Abedini, Mina; Dionne, Janis

    2015-08-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in the pediatric CKD population. Recognizing that renal transplant recipients have CKD, we assessed the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in pediatric renal transplant recipients, compared to a healthy pediatric population. We prospectively studied 25(OH)D levels in 29 pediatric renal transplant recipients and 45 control patients over one yr. The overall prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency was common in both populations, at 76% (95% CI: 61, 87%) in the pediatric renal transplant recipients and 91% (95% CI: 80, 98%) in the control group. In the paired renal transplant samples, the mean 25(OH)D level was 52.3 ± 17.9 nmol/L in the winter and 65.6 ± 18.8 nmol/L in the summer (95% CI diff.: 3.9, 22.7), in keeping with a significant seasonal difference. The mean dietary intake of vitamin D in the renal transplant recipients, assessed by three-day dietary record, was 5.7 ?g/day, with a vitamin D intake below the EAR in the majority. We did not find an association between vitamin D intake and 25(OH)D levels in this study, likely due to the low dietary intake of vitamin D within the transplant population, identifying a potential area for intervention and improvement. PMID:26011664

  20. Relation of severe deficiency of vitamin D to cardiovascular mortality during acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Correia, Luis C L; Sodré, Fábio; Garcia, Guilherme; Sabino, Michael; Brito, Mariana; Kalil, Felipe; Barreto, Bruno; Lima, José C; Noya-Rabelo, Márcia M

    2013-02-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with risk for a first cardiovascular event in the general population, possibly because of inflammation, insulin resistance, and neurohumoral activation. However, its relation with outcomes in acute coronary syndromes has not been reported. To test the hypothesis that severe deficiency of vitamin D is independently associated with cardiovascular mortality during ACS, 206 patients admitted for unstable angina, non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, or ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction had 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels measured at admission. Severe vitamin D deficiency was defined a priori as a value ?10 ng/ml. The average concentration of vitamin D was 20 ± 8.2 ng/ml, and 10% of patients were severely deficient (95% confidence interval 6.6% to 15%). Cardiovascular mortality during hospitalization took place in 14 patients, an incidence of 6.8%. Patients with severe vitamin D deficiency had in-hospital cardiovascular mortality of 24%, significantly higher than the 4.9% observed in the remaining patients (relative risk 4.3, 95% confidence interval 1.8 to 10, p = 0.001). After adjustment for Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score, Gensini angiographic score, and potential confounding variables, severe deficiency of vitamin D remained an independent predictor of in-hospital cardiovascular mortality (odds ratio 14, 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 158, p = 0.03). In conclusion, severe vitamin D deficiency is independently associated with in-hospital cardiovascular mortality in patients with acute coronary syndromes. PMID:23174181

  1. Dietary Calcium and Vitamin D Modulate 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine-inducedColonie Carcinogenesis in the Rat1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Sitrin; Allan G. Halline; Cyril Abrahams; Thomas A. Brasitus

    To determine whether supplemental dietary calcium and\\/or vitamin D deficiency are involved in modulating colon cancer induced by 1,2-dime- thylhydrazine (DMH), Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing either: (a) a normal content of calcium (0.87%) and phosphorus (0.60%) with 2.2 ID of vitamin Dj per g of feed (group A); (b) the same diet as group A, but with calcium

  2. The effect of high levels of fat, choline, vitamin B12, and vitamin E on the occurrence of fatty livers in caged layers 

    E-print Network

    Smith, Daniel Newton

    1959-01-01

    L 8 Y .. ,a .- - . A & M COLLEGE. CARjPVS. TEXAS AfiRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY. TEXAS -- - BULLETIN NO. 473 DECEMBER, 1932 Sorghum Silage as a Source c Vitamin A for Dairy Cows... of Agriculture. 7 ?On leave. $In cooperation with Texas Extension Service. Butter fat from a cow fed only cottonseed meal and hulls over a long period of time contained only about 2% units of vitamin A to the gram. Cows restricted to cottonseed meal and hulls...

  3. Neuropathological and neuroprotective features of vitamin B12 on the dorsal spinal ganglion of rats after the experimental crush of sciatic nerve: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Spinal motoneuron neuroprotection by vitaminB12 was previously reported; the present study was carried out to evaluate neuroprotectivity in the dorsal root ganglion sensory neuron. Methods In present study thirty-six Wister-Albino rats (aged 8–9 weeks and weighing 200–250 g) were tested. The animals were randomly divided into 6 groups which every group contained 6 rats. Group A: received normal saline (for 42 days); Group B: vitamin B12 was administered (0.5 mg/kg/day for 21 days); Group C: received vitamin B12 (1 mg/kg/day for 21days); Group D: received vitamin B12 (0.5 mg/kg/day for 42 days); Group E; received vitamin B12 (1 mg/kg/day for 42 days); Group F; received no treatment. The L5 Dorsal Root Ganglion (DRG) neurons count compared to the number of left and right neurons .Furthermore, DRG sensory neurons for regeneration were evaluated 21 or 42 days after injury (each group was analyzed by One-Way ANOVA test). Results (1): The comparison of left crushed neurons (LCN) number with right non-crushed neurons in all experimental groups (B, C, D and C), indicating a significant decline in their neurons enumeration (p<0/05). (2): The comparison of test group’s LCN with the control group’s LCN revealed a significant rise in the number of experimental group neurons (p<0/05). (3): Moreover, comparing the number of right neurons in experimental groups with the number of neurons in crushed neurons indicated that the average number of right neurons showed a significant increase in experimental groups (p<0/05). Conclusion Consequently, the probability of nerve regeneration will be increased by the increment of the administered drug dosage and duration. On the other hand, the regeneration and healing in Dorsal Spinal Ganglion will be improved by increase of administration time and vitamin B12 dose, indicating that such vitamin was able to progress recovery process of peripheral nerves damage in experimental rats. Finally, our results have important implications for elucidating the mechanisms of nerve regeneration. Moreover, the results showed that vitaminB12 had a proliferative effect on the dorsal root ganglion sensory neuron. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/7395141841009256 PMID:23902646

  4. Vitamin D Deficiency Reduces the Immune Response, Phagocytosis Rate, and Intracellular Killing Rate of Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Onken, Marie Luise; Schütze, Sandra; Redlich, Sandra; Götz, Alexander; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Bertsch, Thomas; Ribes, Sandra; Hanenberg, Andrea; Schneider, Simon; Bollheimer, Cornelius; Sieber, Cornel; Nau, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Meningitis and meningoencephalitis caused by Escherichia coli are associated with high rates of mortality and neurological sequelae. A high prevalence of neurological disorders has been observed in geriatric populations at risk of hypovitaminosis D. Vitamin D has potent effects on human immunity, including induction of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and suppression of T-cell proliferation, but its influence on microglial cells is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of vitamin D deficiency on the phagocytosis rate, intracellular killing, and immune response of murine microglial cultures after stimulation with the Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists tripalmitoyl-S-glyceryl-cysteine (TLR1/2), poly(I·C) (TLR3), lipopolysaccharide (TLR4), and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (TLR9). Upon stimulation with high concentrations of TLR agonists, the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) was decreased in vitamin D-deficient compared to that in vitamin D-sufficient microglial cultures. Phagocytosis of E. coli K1 after stimulation of microglial cells with high concentrations of TLR3, -4, and -9 agonists and intracellular killing of E. coli K1 after stimulation with high concentrations of all TLR agonists were lower in vitamin D-deficient microglial cells than in the respective control cells. Our observations suggest that vitamin D deficiency may impair the resistance of the brain against bacterial infections. PMID:24686054

  5. A Novel Rat Model of Vitamin D Deficiency: Safe and Rapid Induction of Vitamin D and Calcitriol Deficiency without Hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Stavenuiter, Andrea W. D.; Arcidiacono, Maria Vittoria; Ferrantelli, Evelina; Keuning, Eelco D.; Vila Cuenca, Marc; ter Wee, Piet M.; Beelen, Robert H. J.; Vervloet, Marc G.; Dusso, Adriana S.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a range of clinical disorders. To study the mechanisms involved and improve treatments, animal models are tremendously useful. Current vitamin D deficient rat models have important practical limitations, including time requirements when using, exclusively, a vitamin D deficient diet. More importantly, induction of hypovitaminosis D causes significant fluctuations in parathyroid hormone (PTH) and mineral levels, complicating the interpretation of study results. To overcome these shortcomings, we report the successful induction of vitamin D deficiency within three weeks, with stable serum PTH and minerals levels, in Wistar rats. We incorporated two additional manoeuvres compared to a conventional diet. Firstly, the vitamin D depleted diet is calcium (Ca) enriched, to attenuate the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Secondly, six intraperitoneal injections of paricalcitol during the first two weeks are given to induce the rapid degradation of circulating vitamin D metabolites. After three weeks, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) levels had dropped below detection limits, with unchanged serum PTH, Ca, and phosphate (P) levels. Therefore, this model provides a useful tool to examine the sole effect of hypovitaminosis D, in a wide range of research settings, without confounding changes in PTH, Ca, and P. PMID:25815325

  6. Prevalence of Vitamin D 3 Deficiency in Orange County Residents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moiz Horani; Azriel Dror; Dustin Holland; Fred Caporaso; Ken D. Sumida; Frank Frisch

    With the prevalence of sunlight exposure in Orange County, California, one would expect it to be rare and unusual to find\\u000a high incidence of Vitamin D deficiencies among its residents. This study evaluated the concentration of Vitamin D3 as part\\u000a of a larger study to evaluate bone health in Orange County residents. Our preliminary data shows that 19.2% of the

  7. The importance of vitamin B12 and unidentified factors in the nutrition of the domestic fowl

    E-print Network

    Olcese, Orlando

    1950-01-01

    acid 0.025, biotin 0.01, inositol 10, choline 100, and p-aminobenzoic acid 25 mg. Vitamins A and D were administered as oleum percomorphum diluted 1:4 with corn oil and fed at the rate of 2 drops per week. The procedure described by these workers...

  8. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency with stages of chronic kidney disease in an Asian population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with proteinuria and could be a risk factor for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, few studies have examined the significance of vitamin D insufficiency as a contributing factor for the development of ESRD in the Asian chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. Methods Authors examined the relationship between vitamin D status and the staging of CKD using data from an outpatient clinic-based screening in 2,895 Thai CKD patients. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were analyzed according to CKD stages. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration < 10 ng/mL and 10–30 ng/mL, respectively. Results The mean (SD) 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were significantly lower according to severity of renal impairment (CKD stage 3a: 27.84±14.03 ng/mL, CKD stage 3b: 25.86±11.14 ng/mL, CKD stage 4: 24.09±11.65 and CKD stage 5: 20.82±9.86 ng/mL, p<0.001). The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency was from CKD stage 3a, 3b, 4 to 5, 66.6%, 70.9%, 74.6%, and 84.7% (p<0.001). The odds ratio (95% CI) of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D ? 30 ng/mL) and vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D < 10 ng/mL) for developing ESRD, after adjustment for age, gender, hemoglobin, serum albumin, calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase were 2.19 (95% CI 1.07 to 4.48) and 16.76 (95% CI 4.89 to 57.49), respectively. Conclusion This study demonstrates that 25-hydroxyvitamin D insufficiency and deficiency are more common and associated with the level of kidney function in the Thai CKD population especially advanced stage of CKD. PMID:24083392

  9. Serum levels of homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 in patients with vitiligo before and after treatment with narrow band ultraviolet B phototherapy and in a group of controls.

    PubMed

    Ata?, Hatice; Cemil, Bengü Çevirgen; Gönül, Müzeyyen; Ba?türk, Eda; Çiçek, Emel

    2015-07-01

    The association between vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and vitiligo were studied in several studies, but the results are contradictory. Narrow-band ultraviolet B (NBUVB) phototherapy is now considered as a gold standard for the treatment of diffuse vitiligo. The effects of NBUVB phototherapy on both vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine levels have not been studied in vitiligo patients yet. Serum levels of vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine were measured in vitiligo patients and control group and also both before and after NBUVB phototherapy in vitiligo patients. While levels of homocysteine in patients with vitiligo were significantly higher than controls (16.9±8.4 vs. 10. 9±3.4?mol/L; p<0,001) vitamin B12 and folate levels were not different (p>0.05). NBUVB phototherapy led to a 33.7±21.9% (0-75%) response in patients with vitiligo after 80 seccions. Treatment with NBUVB improved vitiligo and decreased serum levels of vitamin B12 (375±151 vs. 346±119pg/ml, p=0.024), while serum levels of folate and homocysteine did not change significantly after treatment (p=0.914, p=0.127). Further studies are needed to clarify the influence of NBUVB phototherapy on folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine levels in patients with vitiligo. Furthermore, studies with the analysis of skin levels of homocysteine rather than circulating levels may be useful to elucidate the effects of phototherapy on homocysteine levels. PMID:25941975

  10. Vitamin a deficiency in pregnancy: perspectives after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Cristiane Barbosa; Saunders, Cláudia; Pereira, Silvia; Silva, Jacqueline; Saboya, Carlos; Ramalho, Andréa

    2013-02-01

    This study aims to describe the clinical consequences of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in pregnant women after bariatric surgery. Included are studies on VAD during pregnancy and after bariatric surgery conducted in humans from 1993 to 2011. There are few investigations on the relationship between pregnancy and bariatric surgery and on the damage to the binomial mother-child resulting from VAD in this relationship. The high percentage of VAD in the postoperative period is a cause for concern, especially considering the function of this vitamin in certain biological moments and in moments of intense nutritional demand. This vitamin serum evaluation is recommended during the prenatal period. PMID:23232823

  11. Conformational Cycle of the Vitamin B12 ABC Importer in Liposomes Detected by Double Electron-Electron Resonance (DEER)*

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Benesh; Korkhov, Vladimir M.; Yulikov, Maxim; Jeschke, Gunnar; Bordignon, Enrica

    2014-01-01

    Double electron-electron resonance is used here to investigate intermediates of the transport cycle of the Escherichia coli vitamin B12 ATP-binding cassette importer BtuCD-F. Previously, we showed the ATP-induced opening of the cytoplasmic gate I in TM5 helices, later confirmed by the AMP-PNP-bound BtuCD-F crystal structure. Here, other key residues are analyzed in TM10 helices (positions 307 and 322) and in the cytoplasmic gate II, i.e. the loop between TM2 and TM3 (positions 82 and 85). Without BtuF, binding of ATP induces detectable changes at positions 307 and 85 in BtuCD in liposomes. Together with BtuF, ATP triggers the closure of the cytoplasmic gate II in liposomes (reported by both positions 82 and 85). This forms a sealed cavity in the translocation channel in agreement with the AMP-PNP·BtuCD-F x-ray structure. When vitamin B12 and AMP-PNP are simultaneously present, the extent of complex formation is reduced, but the short 82–82 interspin distance detected indicates that the substrate does not affect the closed conformation of this gate. The existence of the BtuCD-F complex under these conditions is verified with spectroscopically orthogonal nitroxide and Gd(III)-based labels. The cytoplasmic gate II remains closed also in the vanadate-trapped state, but it reopens in the ADP-bound state of the complex. Therefore, we suggest that the substrate likely trapped in ATP·BtuCD-F can be released after ATP hydrolysis but before the occluded ADP-bound conformation is reached. PMID:24362024

  12. Vitamin D receptor overexpression in osteoblasts and osteocytes prevents bone loss during vitamin D-deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lam, Nga N; Triliana, Rahma; Sawyer, Rebecca K; Atkins, Gerald J; Morris, Howard A; O'Loughlin, Peter D; Anderson, Paul H

    2014-10-01

    There are several lines of evidence that demonstrate the ability of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3), acting via the vitamin D receptor (VDR) to mediate negative or positive effects in bone. Transgenic over-expression of VDR in osteoblasts and osteocytes in a mouse model (OSVDR) has been previously shown to inhibit processes of bone resorption and enhance bone formation, under conditions of adequate calcium intake. While these findings suggest that vitamin D signalling in osteoblasts and osteocytes promotes bone mineral accrual, the vitamin D requirement for this action is not well understood. In this study, 4 week old female OSVDR and wild-type (WT) mice were fed either a vitamin D-replete (1000IU/kg diet, D+) or vitamin D-deficient (D-) diet for 4 months to observe changes to bone mineral homeostasis. Tibial bone mineral volume was analysed by micro-CT and changes to bone cell activities were measured using standard dynamic histomorphometric techniques. While vitamin D-deplete WT mice demonstrated a reduction in periosteal bone accrual and overall bone mineral volume, OSVDR mice, however, displayed increased cortical and cancellous bone volume in mice which remained higher during vitamin D-depletion due to a reduced osteoclast number and increased bone formation rate. These data suggest that increased VDR-mediated activity in osteoblast and osteocytes prevents bone loss due to vitamin D-deficiency. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '16th Vitamin D Workshop'. PMID:24434283

  13. Congestive heart failure caused by vitamin D deficiency?

    PubMed

    Brunvand, L; Hågå, P; Tangsrud, S E; Haug, E

    1995-01-01

    We describe a child, 3.5 months old, with severe vitamin D deficiency, profound hypocalcaemia, hyperphosphataemia, dilated left ventricle, severely reduced myocardial contractility and congestive heart failure. She also had depressed thyroid function with subnormal thyroxine and non-detectable serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels. The child promptly responded to calcium infusions, conventional anticongestive therapy and calcitriol. She is now 3 years old and received no medication. Myocardial function is normal but she has motor delay. We believe that her transitory congestive heart failure was caused by severe vitamin D deficiency with profound hypocalcaemia. PMID:7734890

  14. Osteomalacia and vitamin D deficiency in a psychiatric rehabilitation unit: case report and survey

    E-print Network

    Cardinal, Rudolf N; Gregory, Carol A

    2009-05-09

    Abstract Background Vitamin D deficiency is common and predisposes to many serious diseases, yet often goes unrecognized. Findings We describe a case of severe vitamin D deficiency with osteomalacia in a patient resident in a psychiatric hospital...

  15. Metabolic and immunological consequences of vitamin D deficiency in obese children.

    PubMed

    Pyr?ak, B; Witkowska-S?dek, E; Krajewska, M; Demkow, U; Kucharska, A M

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies highlighted the link between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular, autoimmune, metabolic diseases, and obesity. However, a clear role of vitamin D in these disorders is still unknown. Vitamin D deficiency in children can be a potential risk factor for developing diseases at a later age. Early prevention and vitamin D supplementation should become a public health priority. This review highlights the clinical implications of vitamin D deficiency in adults and children with obesity. PMID:25315624

  16. Vitamin D Deficiency is Prevalent in Females with Rett Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Motil, Kathleen J.; Barrish, Judy O.; Lane, Jane; Geerts, Suzanne P.; Annese, Fran; McNair, Lauren; Percy, Alan K.; Skinner, Steven A; Neul, Jeffrey L.; Glaze, Daniel G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and identify the relation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and the consumption of dietary sources of vitamin D or exposure to anticonvulsants in females with Rett syndrome (RTT). Study design Retrospective review of the medical records of 284 females with RTT to determine serum 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone levels, nutritional status, dietary sources of vitamin D, exposure to anticonvulsants, degree of mobility, and MECP2 status. Results Twenty percent of females who were tested (n=157) had 25(OH)D levels <50 nmol/L. Multivitamin supplements, vitamin D fortified milk, and commercial formulas were consumed by 40%, 52%, and 54%. Anticonvulsants were used by 57% and 39% ambulated independently. Median 25(OH)D levels were lower in individuals who did not receive multivitamin supplements (p<0.05) or commercial formulas (p<0.001) than in those who did. Median 25(OH)D levels differed (p<0.01) among racial and ethnic groups, but the number in some groups was small. Nutritional status, use of anticonvulsants, degree of mobility, and MECP2 status did not influence 25(OH)D levels. Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in females with RTT. The use of multivitamin supplements or commercial formulas is associated with improved vitamin D levels. Attention to vitamin D may enhance bone mineral deposition and reduce the frequency of bone fractures in these individuals. PMID:21637127

  17. The entropic contributions in vitamin B12 enzymes still reflect the electrostatic paradigm.

    PubMed

    Schopf, Patrick; Mills, Matthew J L; Warshel, Arieh

    2015-04-01

    The catalytic power of enzymes containing coenzyme B12 has been, in some respects, the "last bastion" for the strain hypothesis. Our previous study of this system established by a careful sampling that the major part of the catalytic effect is due to the electrostatic interaction between the ribose of the ado group and the protein and that the strain contribution is very small. This finding has not been sufficiently appreciated due to misunderstandings of the power of the empirical valence bond (EVB) calculations and the need of sufficient sampling. Furthermore, some interesting new experiments point toward entropic effects as the source of the catalytic power, casting doubt on the validity of the electrostatic idea, at least, in the case of B12 enzymes. Here, we focus on the observation of the entropic effects and on analyzing their origin. We clarify that our EVB approach evaluates free energies rather than enthalpies and demonstrate by using the restraint release (RR) approach that the observed entropic contribution to the activation barrier is of electrostatic origin. Our study illustrates the power of the RR approach by evaluating the entropic contributions to catalysis and provides further support to our paradigm for the origin of the catalytic power of B12 enzymes. Overall, our study provides major support to our electrostatic preorganization idea and also highlights the basic requirements from ab initio quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations of activation free energies of enzymatic reactions. PMID:25805820

  18. Towards a cell factory for vitamin B12 production in Bacillus megaterium: bypassing of the cobalamin riboswitch control elements.

    PubMed

    Moore, Simon J; Mayer, Matthias J; Biedendieck, Rebekka; Deery, Evelyne; Warren, Martin J

    2014-12-25

    Bacillus megaterium is a bacterium that has been used in the past for the industrial production of vitamin B12 (cobalamin), the anti-pernicious anaemia factor. Cobalamin is a modified tetrapyrrole with a cobalt ion coordinated within its macrocycle. More recently, B. megaterium has been developed as a host for the high-yield production of recombinant proteins using a xylose inducible promoter system. Herein, we revisit cobalamin production in B. megaterium DSM319. We have investigated the importance of cobalt for optimum growth and cobalamin production. The cobaltochelatase (CbiX(L)) is encoded within a 14-gene cobalamin biosynthetic (cbi) operon, whose gene-products oversee the transformation of uroporphyrinogen III into adenosylcobyrinic acid a,c-diamide, a key precursor of cobalamin synthesis. The production of CbiX(L) in response to exogenous cobalt was monitored. The metal was found to stimulate cobalamin biosynthesis and decrease the levels of CbiX(L). From this we were able to show that the entire cbi operon is transcriptionally regulated by a B12-riboswitch, with a switch-off point at approximately 5 nM cobalamin. To bypass the effects of the B12-riboswitch the cbi operon was cloned without these regulatory elements. Growth of these strains on minimal media supplemented with glycerol as a carbon source resulted in significant increases in cobalamin production (up to 200 ?g L(-1)). In addition, a range of partially amidated intermediates up to adenosylcobyric acid was detected. These findings outline a potential way to develop B. megaterium as a cell factory for cobalamin production using cheap raw materials. PMID:24657453

  19. Study on relationships among deep vein thrombosis, homocysteine & related B group vitamins

    PubMed Central

    Ekim, Meral; Ekim, Hasan; Yilmaz, Yunus Keser; Kulah, Bahadir; Polat, M. Fevzi; Gocmen, A. Yesim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Hyperhomocysteinemia has been considered as a potential risk factor for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) but it is still controversy. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with DVT. Our second objective was to document the prevalence of folate, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 level in this patient population. Methods: Sixty patients with DVT aged from 23 to 84 years, were assessed regarding demographic characteristics, serum levels of homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6. The diagnosis of DVT was based upon Wells scoring system and serum D-dimer level and confirmed by deep venous Doppler ultrasonography of the lower limbs. Results: Mean serum homocysteine levels were found significantly higher in patients over the age of 40 years (10.81±4.26 µmol/L vs 9.13±3.23 µmol/L). Of all the patients, 9 patients had homocysteine level above the 15µmol/L, 26 had folic acid level below 3 ng/ml, one had vitamin B12 level below 150 pmol/L, and two had vitamin B6 level below 30 nmol/L. In the hyperhomocysteinemic group, five patients had low folic acid level, one had low vitamin B12 level, and two had low vitamin B6 level. Conclusions: Hyperhomocysteinemia, in women older than 40 years, may be a risk factor for DVT. Folic acid deficiency may also influence serum homocysteine concentrations. Folate therapy may be offered to the patients with DVT. However further studies are required to clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms.

  20. Comparative Hematology during Deficiencies of Iron and Vitamin A in the Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EZZAT K. AMINE; JOYCE COREY; D. M. HEGSTED; K. C. HAYES

    Male weanling rats were used in three experiments to study the hématologieresponse during deficiencies of iron and vitamin A, or both deficiencies together. In the first study 24 animals were divided into four groups and fed an iron-low, vitamin A-low, iron- and vitamin A-low, or a control diet. Iron deficiency resulted in hypochromic microcytic anemia, whereas vitamin A deficiency produced

  1. Immunological dysregulation of lung cells in response to vitamin E deficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Sabat; Ingrid Kolleck; Wolfgang Witt; Hans-Dieter Volk; Pranav Sinha; Bernd Rüstow

    2001-01-01

    Vitamin E supplementation exhibits anti-inflammatory properties. In the lung, the beneficial effects of vitamin E supplementation on inflammation and infections are well documented, but potential consequences of alimentary vitamin E deficiency to the immunological status of lung cells are not known. It is unclear if temporary vitamin E deficiency exhibits deleterious consequences or can be compensated for by other cellular

  2. The Role of 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Deficiency in Iron Deficient Children of North India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shikha; Jain, Rahul; Dabla, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Extensive data from animal and human studies indicate a role of vitamin D in erythropoiesis. Iron and vitamin D deficiencies are implicated with adverse health effects in children even if they are asymptomatic. The potential relationship between the two remains poorly understood. A cross-sectional study was performed in the period from 1st May 2012 through 30th April 2013 and subjects were classified into vitamin D deficiency (VDD), vitamin D insufficiency (VDI) and vitamin D sufficiency (VDS) groups according to their 25(OH) D levels. A total of 263 children were included in the analysis. Anaemia was present in 66 % of 25(OH) D deficient subjects compared with 35 % in vitamin D sufficient individuals (p < 0.0001). The association of breast feeding and development of VDD was also significant (p < 0.05). Serum levels of 25(OH) D were found lower in female sex and if the analysis was performed in the winter/spring season. Physicians should therefore assess vitamin D levels in all anaemic children and ensure adequate supplementation to prevent deficiencies. PMID:26089618

  3. Vitamin D Deficiency and Replacement: Relationships to Cardiovascular Health

    E-print Network

    Vacek, James

    2010-04-11

    was 185.7 +/-52.0 lbs and BMI was 29.9 +/- 7.7 Ejection fraction was 57.2 +/- 10.4%. Mean vitamin D was 24.1 +/- 13.6 ng/ml.. 3294 (29.7%) subjects were in normal range (?30ng/ml) and 7665 (70.3%) were deficient (30ng/ml) or deficient. Descriptive...

  4. Vitamin A Deficiency Is Associated with Gastrointestinal and Respiratory Morbidity in School-Age Children123

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Kathryn A.; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Marín, Constanza; Villamor, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Infection is an important cause of morbidity throughout childhood. Poor micronutrient status is a risk factor for infection-related morbidity in young children, but it is not clear whether these associations persist during school-age years. We examined the relation between blood concentrations of micronutrient status biomarkers and risk of gastrointestinal and respiratory morbidity in a prospective study of 2774 children aged 5–12 y from public schools in Bogotá, Colombia. Retinol, zinc, ferritin, mean corpuscular volume, hemoglobin, erythrocyte folate, and vitamin B-12 concentrations were measured in blood at enrollment into the cohort. Children were followed for 1 academic year for incidence of morbidity, including diarrhea with vomiting, cough with fever, earache or ear discharge with fever, and doctor visits. Compared with adequate vitamin A status (?30.0 ?g/dL), vitamin A deficiency (<10.0 ?g/dL) was associated with increased risk of diarrhea with vomiting [unadjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR): 2.17; 95% CI: 0.95, 4.96; P-trend = 0.03] and cough with fever (unadjusted IRR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.30, 4.31; P-trend = 0.05). After adjustment for several sociodemographic characteristics and hemoglobin concentrations, every 10 ?g/dL plasma retinol was associated with 18% fewer days of diarrhea with vomiting (P < 0.001), 10% fewer days of cough with fever (P < 0.001), and 6% fewer doctor visits (P = 0.01). Every 1 g/dL of hemoglobin was related to 17% fewer days with ear infection symptoms (P < 0.001) and 5% fewer doctor visits (P = 0.009) after controlling for sociodemographic factors and retinol concentrations. Zinc, ferritin, mean corpuscular volume, erythrocyte folate, and vitamin B-12 status were not associated with morbidity or doctor visits. Vitamin A and hemoglobin concentrations were inversely related to rates of morbidity in school-age children. Whether vitamin A supplementation reduces the risk or severity of infection in children over 5 y of age needs to be determined. PMID:24500929

  5. A radioisotope dilution assay for unlabelled vitamin B12-intrinsic factor complex employing the binding intrinsic factor antibody: probable evidence for two types of binding antibody.

    PubMed

    Jacob, E; O'Brien, H A; Mollin, D L

    1977-08-01

    A new radioisotope dilution assay for vitamin B12-intrinsic factor complex is described. The method is based on the use of the binding type intrinsic factor antibody (the binding reagent), which when combined with the intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complex (labelled ligand), is quantitatively adsorbed onto zirconium phosphate gel at pH 6.25. The new assay has been shown to provide a measure of intrinsic factor comparable with other intrinsic factor assays, but it has the important advantage of being able to measure the unlabelled vitamin B12-intrinsic factor complex (unlabelled ligand), and will, therefore, be valuable in the study of physiological events in the gastrointestinal tract. During the study, it was found that there is some evidence for a least two types of binding intrinsic factor antibody: One which combines preferentially with the intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complex and one which combines equally well with this complex or with free intrinsic factor. PMID:897560

  6. The Effectiveness of Vitamin B12 for Relieving Pain in Aphthous Ulcers: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsin-Li; Chiu, Shu-Chin

    2015-06-01

    Aphthous ulcers, the most common oral mucosal lesions seen in primary care, occur in up to ?2%-50% of the general population. Our objective was to confirm the analgesic benefit of treatment of mouth ulcers with vitamin B12 as adjunctive therapy. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed with primary care patients. The intervention group received vitamin B12 ointment for 2 days. In total, 42 patients suffering from aphthous ulcers participated in the study: 22 were included in the intervention group and 20 in the control group. All parameters of aphthous ulcers of patients in the intervention group were recorded and compared with those in the control group. We assessed the patients' pain levels before and after treatment using a visual analog scale. The statistical analyses were performed using a nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. Statistically significant differences in pain levels were found between the intervention group and the control group after 2 days of treatment (mean visual analog scale, 0.36 [95% CI, 0.01-0.71] vs. 1.80 [1.16-2.44]; p < .001). In conclusion, the results of this research study provide evidence that vitamin B12 is an effective analgesic treatment for aphthous ulcers. This study indicates that healthcare providers could use vitamin B12 as an adjunctive therapy for mouth ulcers, providing more effective pain management and improving the quality of life for patients with mouth ulcers. PMID:26025792

  7. Calcemia regulation in the vitamin D deficient growing pig A. POINTILLART, J. M. GAREL L. GUEGUEN

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Calcemia regulation in the vitamin D deficient growing pig A. POINTILLART, J. M. GAREL L. GUEGUEN. Summary. Calcemia regulation in the vitamin D deficient growing pig. Four young growing pigs deficient in vitamin D since birth showed hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia and hypophosphatemia. Hypocalcemia

  8. The prevalence of vitamin K deficiency in chronic gastrointestinal disorders1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen D Krasinski; Robert M Russell; Barbara C Furie; Steven F Kruger; Paul F Jacques; Bruce Furie

    Vitamin K deficiency results in the appearance of abnormal prothrombin, deficient in 7-carboxyglutamic acid, in the blood. The presence of abnormal prothrombin can be eliminated or lowered by the administration of vitamin K. Since the abnormal prothrombin antigen assay is approximately 1000-fold more sensitive than the prothrombin time for the diagnosis of vitamin K deficiency, this assay was used to

  9. Structure and binding of peptide-dendrimer ligands to vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Uhlich, Nicolas A; Natalello, Antonino; Kadam, Rameshwar U; Doglia, Silvia M; Reymond, Jean-Louis; Darbre, Tamis

    2010-02-15

    The third-generation peptide-dendrimer B1 (AcES)8(BEA)4(K-Amb-Y)2BCD-NH2 (B=branching (S)-2,3-diaminopropanoic acid, K=branching lysine, Amb=4-aminomethyl-benzoic acid) is the first synthetic model for cobalamin-binding proteins and binds cobalamin strongly (K(a)=5.0 x 10(6) M(-1)) and rapidly (k(2)=346 M(-1) s(-1)) by coordination of cobalt to the cysteine residue at the dendrimer core. A structure-activity relationship study is reported concerning the role of negative charges in binding. Substituting glutamates (E) for glutamines (Q) in the outer branches of B1 to form N3 (AcQS)8(BQA)4(B-Amb-Y)(2)BCD-NH2 leads to stronger (K(a)=12.0 x 10(6) M(-1)) but slower (k(2)=67 M(-1) s(-1)) cobalamin binding. CD and FTIR spectra show that the dendrimers and their cobalamin complexes exist as random-coil structures without aggregation in solution. The hydrodynamic radii of the dendrimers determined by diffusion NMR either remains constant or slightly decreases upon binding to cobalamin; this indicates the formation of compact, presumably hydrophobically collapsed complexes. PMID:20014271

  10. Familial deficiency of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors.

    PubMed

    Weston, B W; Monahan, P E

    2008-11-01

    Combined deficiency of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors II, VII, IX and X (and proteins C, S, and Z) is usually an acquired clinical problem, often resulting from liver disease, malabsorption, or warfarin overdose. A rare inherited form of defective gamma-carboxylation resulting in early onset of bleeding was first described by McMillan and Roberts in 1966 and subsequently has been termed 'vitamin K-dependent clotting factor deficiency' (VKCFD). Biochemical and molecular studies identify two variants of this autosomal recessive disorder: VKCFD1, which is associated with point mutations in the gamma-glutamylcarboxylase gene (GGCX), and VKCFD2, which results from point mutations in the vitamin K epoxide reductase gene (VKOR). Bleeding ranges in severity from mild to severe. Therapy includes high oral doses of vitamin K for prophylaxis, usually resulting in partial correction of factor deficiency, and episodic use of plasma infusions or prothrombin complex concentrate. Recent molecular studies have the potential to further our understanding of vitamin K metabolism, gamma-carboxylation, and the functional role this post-translational modification has for other proteins. The results may also provide potential targets for molecular therapeutics and pharmacogenetics. PMID:19141161

  11. A novel mutation in LMBRD1 causes the cblF defect of vitamin B(12) metabolism in a Turkish patient.

    PubMed

    Gailus, Susann; Suormala, Terttu; Malerczyk-Aktas, Ayse Gül; Toliat, Mohammad R; Wittkampf, Tanja; Stucki, Martin; Nürnberg, Peter; Fowler, Brian; Hennermann, Julia B; Rutsch, Frank

    2010-02-01

    In the cblF defect of vitamin B(12) (cobalamin) metabolism, cobalamin is trapped in lysosomes. Consequently, cobalamin coenzyme synthesis is blocked, and cofactors for methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) mutase are deficient. We recently identified LMBRD1 as the causative gene located on chromosome 6q13 and showed that 18 out of 24 alleles in unrelated patients carried the deletion c.1056delG (p.L352fsX18) (Rutsch et al. (Nat Genet 41:234-239, 2009). LMBRD1 encodes the lysosomal membrane protein LMBD1, which presumably facilitates lysosomal cobalamin export. Our patient is the second child of consanguineous Turkish parents. He presented on the second day of life with cerebral seizures due to intraventricular hemorrhage. Plasma homocysteine and urinary methylmalonic acid levels were elevated, and serum cobalamin level was decreased. Synthesis of both cobalamin coenzymes was deficient in cultured skin fibroblasts. The cblF defect was confirmed by somatic complementation analysis. Sequencing of LMBRD1 revealed the novel deletion c.1405delG (p.D469fsX38) on both alleles. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed reduced messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in patient fibroblasts compared with controls. Transfection of patient fibroblasts with the LMBD1 wild-type complement DNA (cDNA) rescued coenzyme synthesis and function, confirming this new deletion as an additional cause of the cblF defect. This case adds to the spectrum of clinical presentations and mutations of this rare disorder of lysosomal transport. PMID:20127417

  12. A new paradigm for electrostatic catalysis of radical reactions in vitamin B12 enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pankaz K.; Chu, Zhen T.; Olsson, Mats H. M.; Warshel, Arieh

    2007-01-01

    The catalytic power of enzymes containing coenzyme B12 cofactor has been, in some respects, the “last bastion” for the strain hypothesis. The present work explores the origin of this effect by using simulation methods that overcome the sampling difficulties of previous energy minimization studies. It is found that the major part of the catalytic effect is due to the electrostatic interaction between the ribose and the protein, and that the strain contribution is very small. Remarkably, enzymes can use electrostatic effects even in a radical process, when the charge distribution of the reacting fragments does not change significantly during the reaction. Electrostatic catalysis can, in such cases, be obtained by attaching a polar group to the leaving fragment and designing an active site that interacts more strongly with this group in the product state than in the reactant state. The finding that evolution had to use this trick provides further evidence to the observation that it is extremely hard to catalyze enzymatic reactions by nonelectrostatic factors. The trick used by B12 enzymes may, in fact, be a very powerful new strategy in enzyme design. PMID:17517615

  13. Vitamin nutrition in older adults.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Karin A; Bernard, Marie A; Funderburg, Karen

    2002-11-01

    Proper vitamin nutrition is essential for all people but especially for elderly persons, because they are at higher risk for deficiency than younger adults. A review of the clinical effects of vitamin deficiency shows how easily deficiency can masquerade as other morbidities, such as skin, neurologic, and gait abnormalities. Given the numerous readily available forms and sources of supplementation, their low cost, and their rather limited potential for harm, the goal of good vitamin nutrition for the elderly is easily attainable. To be successful in this goal, physicians must look for patients at risk and for those with features of frank vitamin deficiency. Laboratory testing is most helpful with respect to vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. Given the great value of clinical assessment, the low cost of vitamins, and the higher cost of laboratory testing, the authors do not recommend testing before instituting multivitamin use or extra supplementation with individual vitamins unless the diagnosis of deficiency is in question or the use of supplementation would put the patient at risk. The authors' general recommendations are * one multivitamin daily * extra vitamin E for patients with cardiovascular risk factors or Alzheimer's dementia * extra vitamin D for patients with known osteoporosis, osteoporosis risk factors, or strong risk factors for vitamin D deficiency * extra folate for patients with cardiovascular risk factors (especially smokers) and alcoholics * extra thiamine for alcoholics. PMID:12608503

  14. Vitamin A Deficiency Decreases and High Dietary Vitamin A Increases Disease Severity in the Mouse Model of Asthma1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gertrud U. Schuster; Nicholas J. Kenyon; Charles B. Stephensen

    The Th1\\/Th2 paradigm has become an important issue in the pathogenesis of asthma, characterized by normal Th1 and elevated Th2 cytokine expression. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) can produce a Th1 bias, whereas high-level dietary vitamin A can promote a Th2 bias. We used the OVA exposure mouse model to determine the contributions of vitamin A-deficient, control (4IU\\/g), and high-level vitamin

  15. Vitamin Deficiency-Induced Neurological Diseases of Poultry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2006-01-01

    2 Abstract: Vitamins are organic compounds distinct from fats, carbohydrates and proteins, naturally found in most foods items in minute amounts for normal physiological function. Their essentiality in poultry nutrition is evidenced by diverse deficiency symptoms that manifest when they are lacking. They are intimately involved in a series of roles in organisms as antioxidant molecules, modulators of gene transcription,

  16. A novel spectral resolution and simultaneous determination of multicomponent mixture of Vitamins B1, B6, B12, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac in tablets and capsules by derivative and MCR-ALS.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, Maha A; Abdelwahab, Nada S; Fayed, Ahmed S

    2015-04-01

    A novel method was developed for spectral resolution and further determination of five-component mixture including Vitamin B complex (B1, B6, B12 and Benfotiamine) along with the commonly co-formulated Diclofenac. The method is simple, sensitive, precise and could efficiently determine the five components by a complementary application of two different techniques. The first is univariate second derivative method that was successfully applied for determination of Vitamin B12. The second is Multivariate Curve Resolution using the Alternating Least Squares method (MCR-ALS) by which an efficient resolution and quantitation of the quaternary spectrally overlapped Vitamin B1, Vitamin B6, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac sodium were achieved. The effect of different constraints was studied and the correlation between the true spectra and the estimated spectral profiles were found to be 0.9998, 0.9983, 0.9993 and 0.9933 for B1, B6, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac, respectively. All components were successfully determined in tablets and capsules and the results were compared to HPLC methods and they were found to be statistically non-significant. PMID:25645231

  17. A novel spectral resolution and simultaneous determination of multicomponent mixture of Vitamins B1, B6, B12, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac in tablets and capsules by derivative and MCR-ALS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegazy, Maha A.; Abdelwahab, Nada S.; Fayed, Ahmed S.

    2015-04-01

    A novel method was developed for spectral resolution and further determination of five-component mixture including Vitamin B complex (B1, B6, B12 and Benfotiamine) along with the commonly co-formulated Diclofenac. The method is simple, sensitive, precise and could efficiently determine the five components by a complementary application of two different techniques. The first is univariate second derivative method that was successfully applied for determination of Vitamin B12. The second is Multivariate Curve Resolution using the Alternating Least Squares method (MCR-ALS) by which an efficient resolution and quantitation of the quaternary spectrally overlapped Vitamin B1, Vitamin B6, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac sodium were achieved. The effect of different constraints was studied and the correlation between the true spectra and the estimated spectral profiles were found to be 0.9998, 0.9983, 0.9993 and 0.9933 for B1, B6, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac, respectively. All components were successfully determined in tablets and capsules and the results were compared to HPLC methods and they were found to be statistically non-significant.

  18. Vitamin E deficiency in developing countries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to its role as a potent antioxidant, vitamin E is involved in a wide range of physiological processes, ranging from immune function and control of inflammation to regulation of gene expression and cognitive performance. Results from multiple studies suggest that poor nutritional status a...

  19. Radical Synthesis Opens Access to Organometallic Aryl-Cobaltcorrins - 4-Ethylphenyl-cobalamin, a Potential ‘Antivitamin-B12

    PubMed Central

    Ruetz, Markus; Gherasim, Carmen; Gruber, Karl; Fedosov, Sergey; Banerjee, Ruma

    2013-01-01

    4-Ethylphenyl-cobalamin, a novel organometallic aryl-cobalamin, was synthesized in a radical reaction. This organometallic B12 features a strong (Co-C)-bond, and represents a ‘locked’ form of vitamin B12. This B12-antimetabolite may be used in animal studies to induce ‘functional’ B12-deficiency artificially. Such studies may help to clarify still controversial issues related to the pathophysiology of B12-deficiency in humans. PMID:23404623

  20. Metabolic studies in congenital vitamin D deficiency rickets.

    PubMed

    Teotia, M; Teotia, S P; Nath, M

    1995-01-01

    Congenital rickets in 3 newborns of mothers with advanced nutritional osteomalacia, healed with maternal breast milk feeding when mothers alone were given calcium supplements and 7.5 mg of intravenous D2 and the mother baby pair protected from sunlight. Maternal plasma biochemistry indicated more severe vitamin D deficiency compared to their newborns (intrauterine foetal priority). The first dose of 7.5 mg of vitamin D3 and calcium supplements to mother healed osteomalacia but did not appear to heal the rickets of their breast fed infants (extrauterine maternal priority for vitamin D). A second dose given at 3 months interval healed the rickets in their infants and the biochemistry of the mother and baby returned towards normal. Congenital rickets developed when maternal bone mineral and vitamin D stores had been completely exhausted. Raised IPTH levels in the newborn suggested that foetal parathyroids were responsive to hypocalcaemic stimulus. PMID:10829844

  1. Low Dietary Intake of Vitamin D and Vitamin D Deficiency in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Krassilnikova, Maria; Ostrow, Katya; Bader, Amanda; Heeger, Peter; Mehrotra, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that decreased dietary intake of Vitamin D contributes to Vitamin D deficiency in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on hemodialysis (HD). Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 58 hemodialysis outpatients from two Mount Sinai Medical Center (MSMC)-affiliated outpatient HD units in New York City and 648 outpatients at MSMC with CKD stages I-IV. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured from August 2010 to July of 2011 in recruited hemodialysis patients (n=58) and linked with results of dietary and lifestyle surveys. The Mount Sinai Data Warehouse (electronic medical record) was used to capture 25(OH) Vitamin D levels for outpatients with CKD stages I-IV who had Vitamin D testing during the same time period. Results The prevalence of Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency in the HD cohort was 96.6%. Mean (SD) and median (IQR) 25(OH)D concentrations were 15.65 (6.82) and 13.55 (10.15) ng/mL, respectively. Dietary surveys showed a median weekly Vitamin D intake of 1044 IU (IQR=808, vs. a recommended weekly allowance of 4200 IU) and specific avoidance of foods containing both Vitamin D and phosphorus. In contrast, mean and median 25(OH)D concentrations in patients with CKD stages I-IV were 25.66 (13.44) and 23.60 (15.48) ng/mL (p<0.001 vs. HD patients). Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency is more prevalent in HD patients than in pre-dialysis patients with CKD and is associated with decreased dietary intake of Vitamin D. Dialysis restrictions imposed to reduce dietary phosphorus intake likely contributes to the development of hypovitaminosis D in ESRD patients. PMID:25068077

  2. Secretory IgA does not enhance the bacteriostatic effects of iron-binding or vitamin B12-binding proteins in human colostrum.

    PubMed Central

    Samson, R R; Mirtle, C; McClelland, D B

    1979-01-01

    Human milk contains an unsaturated iron-binding protein (lactoferrin) and an unsaturated vitamin B12-binding protein. Lactoferrin has bacteriostatic properties, and a bacteriostatic role for the B12-binding protein has been postulated. In this study the bacteriostatic effect of lactoferrin was confirmed for strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas and Proteus. Growth inhibition attributable to the unsaturated B12-binding protein could be demonstrated only with a known vitamin B12-dependent E. coli. It has previously been shown that the bacteriostatic effect of lactoferrin is potentiated by horse IgG antibody, and a similar potentiating effect of secretory IgA antibody in colostrum and milk would have obvious importance. An attempt was therefore made to demonstrate potentiation of bacteriostatic effects by naturally occurring secretory IgA antibody to E. coli. The results obtained indicate that secretory IgA antibody does not enhance the growth-inhibiting effects of either lactoferrin or the vitamin B12-binding protein. PMID:389788

  3. Vitamin D deficiency following Billroth II surgery - How much vitamin D is enough?: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Vitamin D deficiency with all its consequences is a global health problem. Case Presentation We reported a 62-year-old Caucasian woman with alcohol-related liver cirrhosis (Child class A) and a medical history of Billroth II surgery. Although she has taken an oral dose of 16 800 IU vitamin D daily for six weeks to normalise her 25-hydroxyvitamin D level the raise was only moderate. Conclusion High-dose oral or parenteral vitamin D therapy is necessary to gain sufficient 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels in patients following gastric surgery. PMID:20180946

  4. Neonatal-age treatment with vitamin A delays postweaning vitamin A deficiency and increases the antibody response to T-cell dependent antigens in young adult rats fed a vitamin A-deficient diet.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, Sandhya; Ma, Yifan; Bryson, Mary C; Li, Nan-qian; Ross, A Catharine

    2007-05-01

    Vitamin A supplementation for infants and young children is recommended by WHO/UNICEF for countries with a high prevalence of vitamin A deficiency, and vitamin A is often administered at immunization contacts. Using a rat model, we tested whether supplementation with vitamin A or other retinoids at the time of neonatal immunization has prospective benefit in terms of preventing postweaning vitamin A deficiency and promoting antibody responses to T-cell dependent (TD) antigens administered at the neonatal stage and at the young adult stage. Rats were treated orally on postnatal d 6-8 with oil (placebo control), vitamin A, retinoic acid, or a combination of both (VARA) (n > or = 12/group), and immunized with tetanus toxoid (TT) on d 7. The primary anti-TT response was measured on d 21, after which weanling rats were fed the vitamin A-deficient diet until approximately 10 wk. At 8 wk, rats were immunized again with TT to determine the recall response, and with a novel TD antigen, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), to assess the adult primary response. None of the supplements affected the plasma titer of anti-TT immunoglobulin G (IgG) on d 21 (P = 0.25). However, neonatal-age supplementation with vitamin A or VARA at the young adult stage resulted in: >5 times higher anti-TT IgG recall response (P < 0.01); 5- and 9-times higher anti-KLH primary IgM and IgG responses, respectively (P < 0.05), and plasma retinol in the normal range (approximately 1.0 micromol/L vs. approximately 0.35 micromol/L in retinoic acid-treated and control groups, P < 0.0001). We conclude that early-life supplementation with vitamin A or VARA can prospectively benefit the primary and recall antibody responses to TD antigens administered at the young adult stage, which may involve the maintenance of normal plasma retinol levels. PMID:17449586

  5. Interrelationship of dietary vitamin B12 or fat with thyrotoxicosis in certain adaptive changes in respiratory enzymes of rat liver

    E-print Network

    Crawford, Wid Philips

    1957-01-01

    choline oxidase (202) f alkaline phosphatase (126), depa decarboxylase (258), creatine phosphokinase (5)? betaine-homocysteine transmethylase (252) , and the transaminase-tautomerase activity of the tyrosine oxidase system (141). Tipton and Nixon (242... is confined to increasing their TE novo synthesis., Young et a l . (276) found that vitamin B-j2 was not required for trans? methylation in chicks. In the absence of sufficient betaine to wethylate the precursors of choline or methionines B|2 gave a marked...

  6. Juvenile selective vitamin B12 malabsorption: 50 years after its description – 10 years of genetic testing

    PubMed Central

    Gräsbeck, Ralph; Tanner, Stephan M.

    2011-01-01

    Fifty years have passed since the description of juvenile selective malabsorption of cobalamin (Cbl). Quality of life improvements have dramatically reduced the incidence of parasite-induced or nutritional Cbl deficiency. Consequently, inherited defects have become a leading cause of Cbl deficiency in children which is not always expressed as anemia. Unfortunately, the gold-standard for clinical diagnosis, the Schilling test, has increasingly become unavailable and replacement tests are only in their infancy. Genetic testing is complicated by genetic heterogeneity and differential diagnosis. This review documents the history, research, and advances in genetics that have elucidated the causes of juvenile cobalamin malabsorption. Genetic research has unearthed many cases in the past decade, mostly in Europe and North America, often among immigrants from the Middle East or North Africa. Lack of suitable clinical testing potentially leaves many patients inadequately diagnosed. The consequences of suboptimal Cbl levels for neurological development are well-documented. By raising awareness, we wish to push for fast-track development of better clinical tools and suitable genetic testing. Clinical awareness must include attention to ethnicity, a sensitive topic but effective for fast diagnosis. The treatment with monthly parenteral Cbl for life offers a simple and cost-effective solution once proper diagnosis is made. PMID:21623254

  7. Micronutrient Deficiencies in Pediatric Celiac Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy Friedman

    2012-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune enteropathy that occurs in response to gluten ingestion in predisposed individuals. The autoimmune response results in villous atrophy in the small intestine, the primary site of nutrient absorption. Consequently, micronutrient deficiencies may occur in undiagnosed CD. Deficiencies in calcium, vitamin D, iron, folate, vitamin B12, and zinc have all been demonstrated in children with

  8. Vitamin D Deficiency and Cardiometabolic Risks: A Juxtaposition of Arab Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Al-Saleh, Yousef; Aljohani, Naji; Alokail, Majed; Al-Attas, Omar; Alnaami, Abdullah M.; Sabico, Shaun; Alsulaimani, Maha; Al-Harbi, Mohammed; Alfawaz, Hanan; Chrousos, George P.

    2015-01-01

    The recent exponential surge in vitamin D research reflects the global epidemic of vitamin D deficiency and its potential impact on several chronic diseases in both children and adults. Several subpopulations, including Arab adolescent boys and girls, remain understudied. This study aims to fill this gap. A total of 2225 apparently healthy Saudi adolescents (1187 boys and 1038 girls, aged 13-17 years old) and 830 adults (368 men and 462 women, aged 18-50 years old) were respectively recruited from different public schools and medical practices within Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Anthropometrics were taken and fasting blood samples withdrawn to examine serum glucose and lipid profile by routine analysis and 25-hydroxyvitamin D by ELISA. Almost half of the girls (47.0%) had vitamin D deficiency as compared to only 19.4% of the boys (p<0.001), 36.8% of the adult women and 17.7% of the adult men (p<0.001). Furthermore, in boys there were more significant inverse associations between serum 25(OH)vitamin D levels and cardiometabolic indices than girls, while in contrast women had more significant associations than men. Vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) [OR 3.47 (CI1.26-5.55); p<0.05] and pre-DM [OR 2.47 (CI 1.48-4.12); p<0.01] in boys. Furthermore, vitamin D insufficiency was significantly associated with abdominal obesity in boys [OR 2.75 (CI 1.1-7.1); p<0.05]. These associations for DMT2 and abdominal obesity were not observed in adult males, girls and adult women. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency and hyperglycemia is high among Arab adolescents. Vitamin D deficiency is mostly associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescent Arab boys. This indicates a sex- and age-related disadvantage for boys with low vitamin D status and challenges the extra-skeletal protection of vitamin D correction in adolescent females. PMID:26186591

  9. Evaluation of vitamin B6 intake and status of 20- to 64-year-old Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Nam

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Recent research regarding vitamin B6 status including biochemical index is limited. Thus, this study estimated intakes and major food sources of vitamin B6; determined plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP); and assessed vitamin B6 status of Korean adults. MATERIALS/METHODS Three consecutive 24-h diet recalls and fasting blood samples were collected from healthy 20- to 64-year-old adults (n = 254) living in the Seoul metropolitan area, cities of Kwangju and Gumi, Korea. Vitamin B6 intake and plasma PLP were analyzed by gender and by vitamin B6 supplementation. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine associations of vitamin B6 intake and plasma PLP. RESULTS The mean dietary and total (dietary plus supplemental) vitamin B6 intake was 1.94 ± 0.64 and 2.41 ± 1.45 mg/day, respectively. Median (50th percentile) dietary intake of men and women was 2.062 and 1.706 mg/day. Foods from plant sources provided 70.61% of dietary vitamin B6 intake. Only 6.3% of subjects consumed total vitamin B6 less than Estimated Average Requirements. Plasma PLP concentration of all subjects was 40.03 ± 23.71 nmol/L. The concentration of users of vitamin B6 supplements was significantly higher than that of nonusers (P < 0.001). Approximately 16% of Korean adults had PLP levels < 20 nmol/L, indicating a biochemical deficiency of vitamin B6, while 19.7% had marginal vitamin B6 status. Plasma PLP concentration showed positive correlation with total vitamin B6 intake (r = 0.40984, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS In this study, vitamin B6 intake of Korean adults was generally adequate. However, one-third of subjects had vitamin B6 deficiency or marginal status. Therefore, in some adults in Korea, consumption of vitamin B6-rich food sources should be encouraged. PMID:25489409

  10. Regulation of calcitriol biosynthesis and activity: focus on gestational vitamin D deficiency and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Olmos-Ortiz, Andrea; Avila, Euclides; Durand-Carbajal, Marta; Díaz, Lorenza

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D has garnered a great deal of attention in recent years due to a global prevalence of vitamin D deficiency associated with an increased risk of a variety of human diseases. Specifically, hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women is highly common and has important implications for the mother and lifelong health of the child, since it has been linked to maternal and child infections, small-for-gestational age, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, as well as imprinting on the infant for life chronic diseases. Therefore, factors that regulate vitamin D metabolism are of main importance, especially during pregnancy. The hormonal form and most active metabolite of vitamin D is calcitriol. This hormone mediates its biological effects through a specific nuclear receptor, which is found in many tissues including the placenta. Calcitriol synthesis and degradation depend on the expression and activity of CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 cytochromes, respectively, for which regulation is tissue specific. Among the factors that modify these cytochromes expression and/or activity are calcitriol itself, parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23, cytokines, calcium and phosphate. This review provides a current overview on the regulation of vitamin D metabolism, focusing on vitamin D deficiency during gestation and its impact on pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25584965

  11. Regulation of Calcitriol Biosynthesis and Activity: Focus on Gestational Vitamin D Deficiency and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Olmos-Ortiz, Andrea; Avila, Euclides; Durand-Carbajal, Marta; Díaz, Lorenza

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D has garnered a great deal of attention in recent years due to a global prevalence of vitamin D deficiency associated with an increased risk of a variety of human diseases. Specifically, hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women is highly common and has important implications for the mother and lifelong health of the child, since it has been linked to maternal and child infections, small-for-gestational age, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, as well as imprinting on the infant for life chronic diseases. Therefore, factors that regulate vitamin D metabolism are of main importance, especially during pregnancy. The hormonal form and most active metabolite of vitamin D is calcitriol. This hormone mediates its biological effects through a specific nuclear receptor, which is found in many tissues including the placenta. Calcitriol synthesis and degradation depend on the expression and activity of CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 cytochromes, respectively, for which regulation is tissue specific. Among the factors that modify these cytochromes expression and/or activity are calcitriol itself, parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23, cytokines, calcium and phosphate. This review provides a current overview on the regulation of vitamin D metabolism, focusing on vitamin D deficiency during gestation and its impact on pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25584965

  12. Vitamin D Deficiency Induces High Blood Pressure and Accelerates Atherosclerosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jisu; Riek, Amy E.; Chin, Kathleen; Garcia, Miguel; Bernal-Mizrachi, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Multiple epidemiological studies link vitamin D deficiency to increased cardiovascular disease (CVD), but causality and possible mechanisms underlying these associations are not established. To clarify the role of vitamin D-deficiency in CVD in vivo, we generated mouse models of diet-induced vitamin D deficiency in two backgrounds (LDL receptor- and ApoE-null mice) that resemble humans with diet-induced hypertension and atherosclerosis. Mice were fed vitamin D-deficient or -sufficient chow for 6 weeks and then switched to high fat (HF) vitamin D-deficient or –sufficient diet for 8–10 weeks. Mice with diet-induced vitamin D deficiency showed increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, high plasma renin, and decreased urinary sodium excretion. Hypertension was reversed and renin was suppressed by returning chow-fed vitamin D-deficient mice to vitamin D-sufficient chow diet for 6 weeks. On a HF diet, vitamin D-deficient mice had ?2-fold greater atherosclerosis in the aortic arch and ?2–8-fold greater atherosclerosis in the thoracic and abdominal aorta compared to vitamin D-sufficient mice. In the aortic root, HF-fed vitamin D-deficient mice had increased macrophage infiltration with increased fat accumulation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activation, but a lower prevalence of the M1 macrophage phenotype within atherosclerotic plaques. Similarly, peritoneal macrophages from vitamin D-deficient mice displayed an M2-predominant phenotype with increased foam cell formation and ER stress. Treatment of vitamin D-deficient mice with the ER stress reliever PBA during HF feeding suppressed atherosclerosis, decreased peritoneal macrophage foam cell formation, and downregulated ER stress proteins without changing blood pressure. Thus, we suggest that vitamin D deficiency activates both the renin angiotensin system and macrophage ER stress to contribute to the development of hypertension and accelerated atherosclerosis, highlighting vitamin D replacement as a potential therapy to reduce blood pressure and atherosclerosis. PMID:23349943

  13. Interrelationship of dietary vitamin B12 or fat with thyrotoxicosis in certain adaptive changes in respiratory enzymes of rat liver 

    E-print Network

    Crawford, Wid Philips

    1957-01-01

    INTERRELATIONSHIP OF DIETARY VITAMIN B12 0R FAT WITH THYROTOXICOSIS IN CERTAIN ADAPTIVE CHANGES IN RESPIRATORY ENZYMES OF RAT LIVER I NTEERLAOATSH PF DYN VMYBYV1 20IDWX0N 1CGZTAARa AS AgR eLOaCOAR 14gSS5 S6 AgR I8LT4C5ACLO5 OHa 9R4gOHT4O5 2S...55R8R S6 rRiOE TH nOLATO5 6C56T55ZRHA S6 AgR LRtCTLRZRHA 6SL AgR aR8LRR S6 NX2rX0 XW VMYBX1XVMo 9OFd ()sy 9OhSL 1CGhR4AEz PYX2M,9Y1r0o IvN vfr0YrYXv A Dissertation By WIS PHILIPS CRAWFORD Approved as to style and content by: INTERRELATIONSHIP...

  14. Substitution of Co alpha-(5-hydroxybenzimidazolyl)cobamide (factor III) by vitamin B12 in Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum.

    PubMed Central

    Stupperich, E; Steiner, I; Eisinger, H J

    1987-01-01

    Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum grown on mineral medium contains 120 nmol of Co alpha-(5-hydroxybenzimidazolyl)cobamides (derivatives of factor III) per g of dry cell mass as the sole cobamide. The bacterium assimilated several corrinoids and benzimidazole bases during autotrophic growth. The corrinoids were converted into factor III; however, after three transfers in 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (200 microM)-supplemented mineral medium, derivatives of factor III were completely replaced by derivatives of vitamin B12, which is atypical for methanogens. The total cobamide content of these cells and their growth rate were not affected compared with factor III-containing cells. Therefore, the high cobamide content rather than a particular type of cobamide is required for metabolism of methanogens. Derivatives of factor III are not essential cofactors of cobamide-containing enzymes from methanogenic bacteria, but they are the result of a unique biosynthetic ability of these archaebacteria. The cobamide biosynthesis include unspecific enzymes, which made it possible either to convert non-species-derived corrinoids into derivatives of factor III or to synthesize other types of cobamides than factor III. The cobamide biosynthesis is regulated by its end product. In addition, the uptake of extracellular cobamides is controlled, and the assimilated corrinoids regulate cellular cobamide biosynthesis. PMID:3597318

  15. Prevalence and correlates of vitamin K deficiency in children with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Jan K; Grzybowska-Chlebowczyk, Urszula; Landowski, Piotr; Szaflarska-Poplawska, Anna; Klincewicz, Beata; Adamczak, Daria; Banasiewicz, Tomasz; Plawski, Andrzej; Walkowiak, Jaroslaw

    2014-01-01

    Although vitamin K deficiency has been implicated in adult inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), its prevalence in pediatric IBD remains unknown. We carried out a cross-sectional study in 63 children with Crohn's disease (CD) and 48 with ulcerative colitis (UC) to assess the prevalence of vitamin K deficiency and to search for potential correlation between vitamin K status and pediatric IBD activity. Vitamin K status was assessed using protein induced by vitamin K absence-II (PIVKA-II; ELISA). Prevalence of vitamin K deficiency was 54.0% in CD and 43.7% in UC. Vitamin K deficiency was more common in patients with higher CD activity, in CD patients with higher mass Z-scores, and less common among children with CD treated with infliximab. Relation of vitamin K deficiency to pediatric IBD clinical course and treatment demand further research. PMID:24759680

  16. Prevalence and correlates of vitamin K deficiency in children with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Jan K.; Grzybowska-Chlebowczyk, Urszula; Landowski, Piotr; Szaflarska-Poplawska, Anna; Klincewicz, Beata; Adamczak, Daria; Banasiewicz, Tomasz; Plawski, Andrzej; Walkowiak, Jaroslaw

    2014-01-01

    Although vitamin K deficiency has been implicated in adult inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), its prevalence in pediatric IBD remains unknown. We carried out a cross-sectional study in 63 children with Crohn's disease (CD) and 48 with ulcerative colitis (UC) to assess the prevalence of vitamin K deficiency and to search for potential correlation between vitamin K status and pediatric IBD activity. Vitamin K status was assessed using protein induced by vitamin K absence-II (PIVKA-II; ELISA). Prevalence of vitamin K deficiency was 54.0% in CD and 43.7% in UC. Vitamin K deficiency was more common in patients with higher CD activity, in CD patients with higher mass Z-scores, and less common among children with CD treated with infliximab. Relation of vitamin K deficiency to pediatric IBD clinical course and treatment demand further research. PMID:24759680

  17. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnant Korean Women: The First Trimester and the Winter Season as Risk Factors for Vitamin D Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Rihwa; Kim, Seonwoo; Yoo, Heejin; Cho, Yoon Young; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon; Oh, Soo-young; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the vitamin D status of Korean women during pregnancy and assessed the effects of vitamin D deficiency on two pregnancy outcomes; preterm births and the births of small for gestational age. We measured the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in 220 pregnant Korean women who were recruited prospectively and compared these levels with those of 500 healthy non-pregnant women. We analyzed vitamin D status according to patient demographics, season, and obstetrical characteristics; moreover, we also assessed pregnancy outcomes. The overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency(<20 ng/mL) in pregnant women and healthy non-pregnant women was 77.3% and 79.2%; respectively; and the prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency (<10 ng/mL) was 28.6% and 7.2%; respectively (p < 0.05). Vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent in the winter (100%) than in the summer (45.5%) in pregnant Korean women. A higher risk of vitamin D deficiency was observed in the first trimester than in the third trimester (adjusted OR 4.3; p < 0.05). No significant association was observed between vitamin D deficiency and any of the pregnancy outcomes examined. Further research focusing on the long-term consequences of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy in Korean women is warranted. PMID:25970148

  18. Metabolic studies in congenital vitamin D deficiency rickets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Teotia; S. P. S. Teotia; M. Nath

    1995-01-01

    Congenital rickets in 3 newborns of mothers with advanced nutritional osteomalacia, healed with maternal breast milk feeding\\u000a when mothers alone were given calcium supplements and 7.5 mg of intravenous D2 and the mother baby pair protected from sunlight. Maternal plasma biochemistry indicated more severe vitamin D deficiency\\u000a compared to their newborns (intrauterine foetal priority). The first dose of 7.5 mg

  19. Vitamin B9 is Higher in Developmentally Younger Potato Tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Folate (Vitamin B9) deficiency is a global nutritional problem and is problematic even in the developed world. Several studies have shown that because of their large consumption potatoes are an important source of dietary folate. New or baby potatoes constitute a valuable niche market th...

  20. Advances in standardization of laboratory measurement procedures: implications for measuring biomarkers of folate and vitamin B-12 status in NHANES1234

    PubMed Central

    Eckfeldt, John H

    2011-01-01

    Population studies such as NHANES analyze large numbers of laboratory measurements and are often performed in different laboratories using different measurement procedures and over an extended period of time. Correct clinical and epidemiologic interpretations of the results depend on the accuracy of those measurements. Unfortunately, considerable variability has been observed among assays for folate, vitamin B-12, and related biomarkers. In the past few decades, the science of metrology has advanced considerably, with the development of improved primary reference measurement procedures and high-level reference materials, which can serve as the basis for accurate measurement. A rigorous approach has been established for making field methods traceable to the highest-level reference measurement procedures and reference materials. This article reviews some basic principles of metrology and describes their recent application to measurements of folate and vitamin B-12. PMID:21562088

  1. Bioavailability and efficacy of vitamin D2 from UV-irradiated yeast in growing, vitamin D-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Hohman, Emily E; Martin, Berdine R; Lachcik, Pamela J; Gordon, Dennis T; Fleet, James C; Weaver, Connie M

    2011-03-23

    New food sources are needed to bridge the gap between vitamin D intake and recommended intake. We assessed the bioavailability and efficacy of vitamin D in an 8 week dose-response study of bread made with vitamin D2-rich yeast compared to vitamin D3 in growing, vitamin D-deficient rats. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels increased in a curvilinear, dose-dependent manner with both forms of vitamin D, but rats fed vitamin D2-rich yeast achieved lower levels than rats fed vitamin D3. Rats fed the highest doses of vitamin D had significantly greater (p<0.05) trabecular BMC, BMD, bone volume, and connectivity density, and greater midshaft total cross-sectional area, compared to rats on the vitamin D-deficient diets, with no significant difference due to vitamin D source. Vitamin D2-rich yeast baked into bread is bioavailable and improves bone quality in vitamin D-deficient animals. PMID:21332187

  2. Laryngeal spasm mimicking asthma and vitamin d deficiency.

    PubMed

    Masoero, Monica; Bellocchia, Michela; Ciuffreda, Antonio; Ricciardolo, Fabio Lm; Rolla, Giovanni; Bucca, Caterina

    2014-05-01

    We present a woman with heterozygous carnitine palmitoyl transferase 2 (CPT-2) deficiency who in the last 6 months suffered from episodic dyspnea and choking. Symptoms could not be attributed to her muscular energy defect, since heterozygous CPT-2 deficiency is usually asymptomatic or causes only mild muscle fatigability. Myopathy is usually triggered by concurrent factors, either genetic (additional muscle enzymes defects) or acquired (metabolic stress). The patient was referred to our respiratory clinic for suspect bronchial asthma. Spirometry showed mild decrease in inspiratory flows. Methacholine challenge was negative. Dyspnea was triggered by hyperventilation-induced hypocapnia, which produced marked decrease in airflow rates, particularly in inspiratory flows, consistent with laryngospasm. Nutritional assessment of the patient showed low serum level of calcium and vitamin D, attributable to avoidance of milk and dairy products for lactose intolerance and to insufficient sunlight exposure. After calcium and vitamin D supplementation episodic laryngospasm disappeared and hypocapnic hyperventilation test induced very mild change in airflow rates. Calcium and vitamin D deficiency may favour laryngeal spasm mimicking asthma, particularly in subjects with underlying myopathy. PMID:24843804

  3. Structure of AMP-PNP-bound BtuCD and mechanism of ATP-powered vitamin B12 transport by BtuCD-F.

    PubMed

    Korkhov, Vladimir M; Mireku, Samantha A; Veprintsev, Dmitry B; Locher, Kaspar P

    2014-12-01

    The reaction mechanism of BtuCD-F-catalyzed vitamin B12 transport into Escherichia coli is currently unclear. Here we present the structure of the last missing state in the form of AMP-PNP-bound BtuCD, trapped by a disulfide cross-link. Our structural and biochemical data allow a consistent mechanism to be formulated, thus rationalizing the roles of substrate, ATP and substrate-binding protein. PMID:25402482

  4. Age-Related Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated with Reduced Macular Ganglion Cell Complex: A Cross-Sectional High-Definition Optical Coherence Tomography Study

    PubMed Central

    Uro, Mathieu; Beauchet, Olivier; Cherif, Mehdi; Graffe, Alix; Milea, Dan; Annweiler, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    Background Vitamin D deficiency is associated with smaller volume of optic chiasm in older adults, indicating a possible loss of the visual axons and their cellular bodies. Our objective was to determine whether vitamin D deficiency in older adults is associated with reduced thickness of the ganglion cell complex(GCC) and of the retinal nerve fibre layer(RNFL), as measured with high-definition optical coherence tomography(HD-OCT). Methods Eighty-five French older community-dwellers without open-angle glaucoma and patent age-related macular degeneration(mean, 71.1±4.7years; 45.9%female) from the GAIT study were separated into 2 groups according to serum 25OHD level(i.e., deficient?25nmol/L or sufficient>25nmol/L). Measurements of GCC and RNFL thickness were performed using HD-OCT. Age, gender, body mass index, number of comorbidities, dementia, functional autonomy, intracranial volume, visual acuity, serum calcium concentration and season of testing were considered as potential confounders. Results Mean serum 25OHD concentration was 58.4±26.8nmol/L. Mean logMAR visual acuity was 0.03±0.06. Mean visual field mean deviation was -1.25±2.29dB. Patients with vitamin D deficiency(n=11) had a reduced mean GCC thickness compared to those without vitamin D deficiency(72.1±7.4?m versus 77.5±7.5?m, P=0.028). There was no difference of the mean RNFL thickness in these two groups(P=0.133). After adjustment for potential confounders, vitamin D deficiency was associated with reduced GCC thickness(ß=-5.12, P=0.048) but not RNFL thickness(ß=-9.98, P=0.061). Specifically, vitamin D deficiency correlated with the superior medial GCC area(P=0.017) and superior temporal GCC area(P=0.010). Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency in older patients is associated with reduced mean GCC thickness, which can represent an early stage of optic nerve damage, prior to RNFL loss. PMID:26090872

  5. Reprint of "Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women impairs regulatory T cell function".

    PubMed

    Vijayendra Chary, A; Hemalatha, R; Seshacharyulu, M; Vasudeva Murali, M; Jayaprakash, D; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-04-01

    Regulatory T cells and IgE receptors (CD23 and CD21) on B cells were assessed in vitamin D deficient pregnant women. For this, 153 pregnant women were recruited from a government hospital and were categorized into three groups based on 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) status. Regulatory T cell population (Treg cells) and CD23/CD21 expression on B cells were quantified by FACS ARIA II in maternal blood at third trimester; and the same parameters were evaluated in cord blood soon after delivery. In addition, TGF ? and IL-10 were quantified in maternal and cord blood by using Milliplex kits. In a representative sample of eight women from each group (vitamin D sufficient, insufficient and deficient), placental tissues were processed for mRNA expressions of vitamin D receptor (VDR), retinoic acid receptor (RXR), vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) and vitamin D regulating enzymes. Of the 153 pregnant women, 18 were sufficient (?30ng/mL), 55 were insufficient (20-29ng/mL) and 80 were deficient (?19ng/mL) for 25(OH)D3 status. The maternal blood Treg cell population (mean (%)±SE) was lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.2±0.01) pregnant women compared to insufficient (0.34±0.01) and sufficient (0.45±0.02) pregnant women. Similarly, cord blood Treg cell population (mean (%)±SE) was also lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.63±0.03) pregnant women when compared to insufficient (1.05±0.04) and sufficient (1.75±0.02) pregnant women. Mean (%)±SE of B cells with CD23 and CD21 in maternal blood was higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient pregnant women (0.35±0.02; 1.65±0.04) when compared to insufficient (0.22±0.02; 0.55±0.05) and sufficient (0.15±0.02; 0.21±0.01) pregnant women. Similarly, mean (%)±SE of B cell population with CD23 and CD21 in cord blood was also higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.41±0.02; 1.2±0.03) when compared to insufficient (0.32±0.01; 0.6±0.05) and sufficient (0.2±0.01; 0.4±0.02) pregnant women. Regulatory cytokines, TGF ? and IL-10 were lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 insufficient and deficient subjects. In the placenta tissue of women with 25(OH)D3 deficiency, the regulatory T cell transcription factor FOXP3, vitamin D receptor (VDR) and retinoic acid receptor (RXR) expressions were downregulated. In contrast, CD23, CD21 and VDBP expressions were upregulated in 25(OH)D3 deficient and insufficient women. Vitamin D regulating enzymes (CYP24A1, CYP2R1 and CYP27B1) expression were also altered in women with 25(OH)D3 deficiency. The current study shows that impaired maternal 25(OH)D3 during pregnancy influences the spectrum of immune cells such as regulatory T cells and B cells with IgE receptors and this in turn may be linked to allergy and asthma in neonates. PMID:25644204

  6. [Vitamin D levels in ankylosing spondylitis: does deficiency correspond to disease activity?].

    PubMed

    Pokhai, Gabriel G; Bandagi, Sabiha; Abrudescu, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an inflammatory disorder that presents with arthritis of the axial skeleton, including sacroiliac joints. Vitamin D is a secosteroid hormone with a long-established role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis, and in the regulation of bone formation and resorption. It is now known that vitamin D plays an immunosuppressive role in the body, and there is interest of late in the role of vitamin D in autoimmune diseases. Inflammation may be responsible for some of the loss of bone mineral density seen in AS. We reviewed the literature for studies assessing vitamin D level as a marker of AS disease activity and those examining vitamin D levels in AS in comparison to healthy controls. Four of 7 studies found a significant negative correlation between vitamin D levels and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Index (BASDAI), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP). In a review of 8 case-control studies, the mean level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was 22.8 ± 14.1 ng/mL in 555 AS patients versus 26.6 ± 12.5 ng/mL in 557 healthy controls. When compared with a 2-sample t test, vitamin D levels were significantly higher in healthy controls (p < 0.01). We conclude that patients with AS appear to have lower vitamin D levels versus healthy controls; however, the cause is unclear. Existing studies do not demonstrate a consistent link between vitamin D levels and disease activity in AS. Further studies are in need to determine if a causative link exists between vitamin D deficiency and AS. PMID:25627231

  7. Effect of cooking on the concentration of Vitamins B in fortified meat products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fortuna Riccio; Carmela Mennella; Vincenzo Fogliano

    2006-01-01

    B vitamins fortification of meat products is useful to compensate the loss of these compounds occurring during the heat treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of heat treatments on the B vitamins concentration in fortified meat products. A rapid and reliable method for the simultaneous determination of Vitamins B1, B6 and B12 in homogenized boiled

  8. Functional identification in Lactobacillus reuteri of a PocR-like transcription factor regulating glycerol utilization and vitamin B12 synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lactobacillus reuteri harbors the genes responsible for glycerol utilization and vitamin B12 synthesis within a genetic island phylogenetically related to gamma-Proteobacteria. Within this island, resides a gene (lreu_1750) that based on its genomic context has been suggested to encode the regulatory protein PocR and presumably control the expression of the neighboring loci. However, this functional assignment is not fully supported by sequence homology, and hitherto, completely lacks experimental confirmation. Results In this contribution, we have overexpressed and inactivated the gene encoding the putative PocR in L. reuteri. The comparison of these strains provided metabolic and transcriptional evidence that this regulatory protein controls the expression of the operons encoding glycerol utilization and vitamin B12 synthesis. Conclusions We provide clear experimental evidence for assigning Lreu_1750 as PocR in Lactobacillus reuteri. Our genome-wide transcriptional analysis further identifies the loci contained in the PocR regulon. The findings reported here could be used to improve the production-yield of vitamin B12, 1,3-propanediol and reuterin, all industrially relevant compounds. PMID:21777454

  9. Reduced folic acid, vitamin B12 and docosahexaenoic acid and increased homocysteine and cortisol in never-medicated schizophrenia patients: implications for altered one-carbon metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kale, Anvita; Naphade, Nilesh; Sapkale, Swati; Kamaraju, Marellasv; Pillai, Anilkumar; Joshi, Sadhana; Mahadik, Sahebarao

    2010-01-30

    Abnormal one-carbon metabolism has long been suggested as one of the mechanisms for neuropathology and psychopathology of schizophrenia. Variable levels of components of one-carbon metabolism (folic acid and vitamin B12) and consequent altered levels of homocysteine and phospholipid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been independently reported, mostly in medicated patients. This study examined the simultaneous levels of these key components of one-carbon metabolism and its consequences in unique, medication-naïve first-episode psychotic patients (FEP, n=31) and healthy controls (HC, n=48) matched for confounds such as race, diet and lifestyle to reduce the variability. Significantly lower levels of folate and vitamin B12 in plasma and folate in red blood cells were observed in FEP compared to HC. These reductions paralleled the significant increase in plasma homocysteine and cortisol levels. Significantly reduced levels of membrane DHA were also observed in FEP compared to HC. This study, using a unique cohort, provided a broader mechanism (disturbed folic acid-vitamin B12-DHA balance) of altered one-carbon metabolism and one of its key consequential components, an increased homocysteine level that together with cortisol, can contribute to the neuropathology of psychosis. These data may have important implications for the amelioration of psychopathology in schizophrenia. PMID:19969375

  10. Red colored IgG4 caused by vitamin B12 from cell culture media combined with disulfide reduction at harvest

    PubMed Central

    Derfus, Gayle E; Dizon-Maspat, Jemelle; Broddrick, Jared T; Velayo, Arleene C; Toschi, Josh D; Santuray, Rodell T; Hsu, Stephen K; Winter, Charles M; Krishnan, Rajesh; Amanullah, Ashraf

    2014-01-01

    While many antibody therapeutics are formulated at low concentration (~10–20 mg/mL) for intravenous administration, high concentration (> 100 mg/mL) formulations may be required for subcutaneous delivery in certain clinical indications. For such high concentration formulations, product color is more apparent due to the higher molecular density across a given path-length. Color is therefore a product quality attribute that must be well-understood and controlled, to demonstrate process consistency and enable clinical trial blinding. Upon concentration of an IgG4 product at the 2000 L manufacturing scale, variability in product color, ranging from yellow to red, was observed. A small-scale experimental model was developed to assess the effect of processing conditions (medium composition and harvest conditions) on final bulk drug substance (BDS) color. The model was used to demonstrate that, for two distinct IgG4 products, red coloration occurred only in the presence of disulfide reduction-mediated antibody dissociation. The red color-causing component was identified as vitamin B12, in the hydroxocobalamin form, and the extent of red color was correlated with the cobalt (vitamin B12) concentration in the final pools. The intensity of redness in the final BDS was modulated by changing the concentration of vitamin B12 in the cell culture media. PMID:24552690

  11. Effect of vitamin-A deficiency on plaque forming response of antibody producing spleen cells against Salmonella typhimurium in rats.

    PubMed

    Faruque, S M; Bashar, S A

    1983-12-01

    Plaque forming response of antibody producing spleen cells against Salmonella typhimurium was studied in vitamin-A deficient and normal rats after 3, 6, 9 and 12 days of injecting the antigen. Vitamin-A deficient rats were found to have significantly decreased (P less than 0.001) number of antibody plaque forming cells in the spleen as compared to normal rats in all cases. Serum total protein and serum Vitamin-A levels were significantly (P less than 0.001) lower in the vitamin-A deficient rats as compared to the controls and immunization caused no significant change in these parameters. The average spleen weights were increased in both the groups on immunization but this increase was comparatively more in case of the control rats. PMID:6372782

  12. Iron uncouples oxidative phosphorylation in brain mitochondria isolated from vitamin E-deficient rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Govind T. Vatassery; Eugene G. DeMaster; James C. K. Lai; W. Ed Smith; Hung T. Quach

    2004-01-01

    Few, if any, studies have examined the effect of vitamin E deficiency on brain mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The latter was studied using brain mitochondria isolated from control and vitamin E-deficient rats (13 months of deficiency) after exposure to iron, an inducer of oxidative stress. Mitochondria were treated with iron (2 to 50 ?M) added as ferrous ammonium sulfate. Rates of

  13. The effect of vitamin B 12 and various levels of iodine in the diet of growing chicks and mature hens 

    E-print Network

    Banta, Edward Mack

    1957-01-01

    THF. EFFEC'I OF VITAMIN 8, , AND VARIOUS EKVK Lo OF IODINE IN THE DIET OF GBOV. ING CHICKS AND MAT URE HENS EDV ABD MACK SANTA A 'I'HgoIS oubmitted to tbe Gt aduate ochooi of tbe Agricultural and hiecbanical College of f'"xae in pertial fulf...Hhnent of tbe retlufremcnte for tbe dogree MASTER OF oCII. NCE ht a j o r oubject: sultry ociencc August 1957 'I HE E FFECT OF VITAMIN 9 . AND VABIUU& cEV E 1 o 12 OF IODINE IN THE DIET C F GI'On ING CHICKS AND MA'l UHE HENS A THEnle t DV. AND MAC K BA N...

  14. The effect of vitamin B 12 and various levels of iodine in the diet of growing chicks and mature hens

    E-print Network

    Banta, Edward Mack

    1957-01-01

    THF. EFFEC'I OF VITAMIN 8, , AND VARIOUS EKVK Lo OF IODINE IN THE DIET OF GBOV. ING CHICKS AND MAT URE HENS EDV ABD MACK SANTA A 'I'HgoIS oubmitted to tbe Gt aduate ochooi of tbe Agricultural and hiecbanical College of f'"xae in pertial fulf...Hhnent of tbe retlufremcnte for tbe dogree MASTER OF oCII. NCE ht a j o r oubject: sultry ociencc August 1957 'I HE E FFECT OF VITAMIN 9 . AND VABIUU& cEV E 1 o 12 OF IODINE IN THE DIET C F GI'On ING CHICKS AND MA'l UHE HENS A THEnle t DV. AND MAC K BA N...

  15. Vitamin D deficiency contributes directly to the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

    PubMed Central

    Dancer, Rachel C A; Parekh, Dhruv; Lax, Sian; D'Souza, Vijay; Zheng, Shengxing; Bassford, Chris R; Park, Daniel; Bartis, D G; Mahida, Rahul; Turner, Alice M; Sapey, Elizabeth; Wei, Wenbin; Naidu, Babu; Stewart, Paul M; Fraser, William D; Christopher, Kenneth B; Cooper, Mark S; Gao, Fang; Sansom, David M; Martineau, Adrian R; Perkins, Gavin D; Thickett, David R

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated as a pathogenic factor in sepsis and intensive therapy unit mortality but has not been assessed as a risk factor for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Causality of these associations has never been demonstrated. Objectives To determine if ARDS is associated with vitamin D deficiency in a clinical setting and to determine if vitamin D deficiency in experimental models of ARDS influences its severity. Methods Human, murine and in vitro primary alveolar epithelial cell work were included in this study. Findings Vitamin D deficiency (plasma 25(OH)D levels <50?nmol/L) was ubiquitous in patients with ARDS and present in the vast majority of patients at risk of developing ARDS following oesophagectomy. In a murine model of intratracheal lipopolysaccharide challenge, dietary-induced vitamin D deficiency resulted in exaggerated alveolar inflammation, epithelial damage and hypoxia. In vitro, vitamin D has trophic effects on primary human alveolar epithelial cells affecting >600 genes. In a clinical setting, pharmacological repletion of vitamin D prior to oesophagectomy reduced the observed changes of in vivo measurements of alveolar capillary damage seen in deficient patients. Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency is common in people who develop ARDS. This deficiency of vitamin D appears to contribute to the development of the condition, and approaches to correct vitamin D deficiency in patients at risk of ARDS should be developed. Trial registration UKCRN ID 11994. PMID:25903964

  16. Observations on the vitamin B12 binding substance of egg yolk 

    E-print Network

    Ener, Huseyin Siret

    1953-01-01

    . ". ';":"' f~'% p. ;;, :, " gW1k (:, @be. QC X . !PlG ZXf )y !iA' '. "X'W:AA ~g ~ ", li'X~'M';~ Fit%~ "~A&. '3&%, M@8 tl'~4 '2w. ". :&t@, ' 16 CG~Z~X%3 O. " t''N 6:, '":* /gal&t8 tf. , "6';?", ', "9~ KN 5". ', X'. Qt "9g zgg~zf1 "P ii:. jC' -. '&;. i" 9+ Q..." "43Lg '4~ +g Sh"ee end Q) 9e-'esca( a~tg'gt@'~ice 'ee e%iiet' ''& "~tateLea 'e~~ 1w@e eeoc"- ~hei'it te ", ",:i':" . i bcxweU~ ('avtg". 4:J/g:":eel%@ 5 ')y ';&:. ''K-e e. ' ~ecto t'. el' '::i&Mt:: '-:e "' e '4i4B. , ' . '::', e~~ (':, ee. ". 6t...

  17. Mitochondrial function and toxicity: Role of the B vitamin family on mitochondrial energy metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Flore Depeint; W. Robert Bruce; Nandita Shangari; Rhea Mehta; Peter J. O’Brien

    2006-01-01

    The B vitamins are water-soluble vitamins required as coenzymes for enzymes essential for cell function. This review focuses on their essential role in maintaining mitochondrial function and on how mitochondria are compromised by a deficiency of any B vitamin. Thiamin (B1) is essential for the oxidative decarboxylation of the multienzyme branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes of the citric acid cycle. Riboflavin

  18. Mechanistic behaviour of alkylcobaloximes and imino-oxime complexes related to vitamin B(12).

    PubMed

    Alzoubi, Basam M; Vidali, Fanny; Puchta, Ralph; Dücker-Benfer, Carlos; Felluga, Alessandro; Randaccio, Lucio; Tauzher, Giovanni; van Eldik, Rudi

    2009-04-01

    The ligand substitution reactions of complexes of the type trans-[(R)Co(Chel)S](+/0) with L, where chel = (DO)(DOH)pn = 2,2'-(1,3-diaminopropanebis(2-methyl-3-butanone)oxime), R = CH(3), L = imidazole, pyrazole, 1,2,4-triazole and 1-methylimidazole, and S = water and MeOH, and chel = (Hdmg)(2) = bis(dimethylglyoximate), R = CH(2)Cl, CH(2)Br, and CH(2)I, L = thiourea and pyridine, and S = water, were studied in detail as a function of temperature and pressure. The reported activation parameters (DeltaH, DeltaS and DeltaV) support the operation of a dissociative interchange (I(d)) mechanism. Complexes of the type trans-[RCo(Hdmg)(2)L] (R = CH(2)Cl, CH(2)Br, and CH(2)I; L = H(2)O and Py) were fully optimized at the B3LYP/LANL2DZp level, and the structural data support the mechanistic assignment based on the reported activation parameters. For the reaction of trans-[(CH(3))(2)Co((DO)(DOH)pn)] with acid, the activation parameters (DeltaH, DeltaS and DeltaV) were found to be 37 +/- 1 kJ mol(-1), -86 +/- 3 J mol(-1) K(-1) and -18.9 +/- 0.7 cm(3) mol(-1), respectively, and support a protonation mechanism. PMID:19290373

  19. An LC-MS/MS method for serum methylmalonic acid suitable for monitoring vitamin B12 status in population surveys.

    PubMed

    Mineva, Ekaterina M; Zhang, Mindy; Rabinowitz, Daniel J; Phinney, Karen W; Pfeiffer, Christine M

    2015-04-01

    Methylmalonic acid (MMA), a functional indicator of vitamin B12 insufficiency, was measured in the US population in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2004 using a GC/MS procedure that required 275 ?L of sample and had a low throughput (36 samples/run). Our objective was to introduce a more efficient yet highly accurate LC-MS/MS method for NHANES 2011-2014. We adapted the sample preparation with some modifications from a published isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS procedure. The procedure utilized liquid-liquid extraction and generation of MMA dibutyl ester. Reversed-phase chromatography with isocratic elution allowed baseline resolution of MMA from its naturally occurring structural isomer succinic acid within 4.5 min. Our new method afforded an increased throughput (?160 samples/run) and measured serum MMA with high sensitivity (LOD?=?22.1 nmol/L) in only 75 ?L of sample. Mean (±SD) recovery of MMA spiked into serum (2 d, 4 levels, 2 replicates each) was 94 %?±?5.5 %. Total imprecision (41 d, 2 replicates each) for three serum quality control pools was 4.9 %-7.9 % (97.1-548 nmol/L). The LC-MS/MS method showed excellent correlation (n?=?326, r?=?0.99) and no bias (Deming regression, Bland-Altman analysis) compared to the previous GC/MS method. Both methods produced virtually identical mean (±SD) MMA concentrations [LC-MS/MS: 18.47?±?0.71 ng/mL (n?=?17), GC/MS: 18.18?±?0.67 ng/mL (n?=?11)] on a future plasma reference material compared with a GC/MS method procedure from the National Institute of Standards and Technology [18.41?±?0.70 ng/mL (n?=?15)]. No adjustment will be necessary to compare previous (1999-2004) to future (2011-2014) NHANES MMA data. PMID:25258283

  20. The vitamin B12 analog cobinamide is an effective hydrogen sulfide antidote in a lethal rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    BRENNER, M.; BENAVIDES, S.; MAHON, S. B.; LEE, J.; YOON, D.; MUKAI, D.; VISEROI, M.; CHAN, A.; JIANG, J.; NARULA, N.; AZER, S. M.; ALEXANDER, C.; BOSS, G. R.

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a highly toxic gas for which no effective antidotes exist. It acts, at least in part, by binding to cytochrome c oxidase, causing cellular asphyxiation and anoxia. We investigated the effects of three different ligand forms of cobinamide, a vitamin B12 analog, to reverse sulfide (NaHS) toxicity. Methods New Zealand white rabbits received a continuous intravenous (IV) infusion of NaHS (3 mg/min) until expiration or a maximum 270 mg dose. Animals received six different treatments, administered at the time when they developed signs of severe toxicity: Group 1—saline (placebo group, N = 9); Group 2—IV hydroxocobalamin (N = 7); Group 3—IV aquohydroxocobinamide (N = 6); Group 4—IV sulfitocobinamide (N = 6); Group 5—intramuscular (IM) sulfitocobinamide (N = 6); and Group 6—IM dinitrocobinamide (N = 8). Blood was sampled intermittently, and systemic blood pressure and deoxygenated and oxygenated hemoglobin were measured continuously in peripheral muscle and over the brain region; the latter were measured by diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS). Results Compared with the saline controls, all cobinamide derivatives significantly increased survival time and the amount of NaHS that was tolerated. Aquohydroxocobinamide was most effective (261.5 ± 2.4 mg NaHS tolerated vs. 93.8 ± 6.2 mg in controls, p < 0.0001). Dinitrocobinamide was more effective than sulfitocobinamide. Hydroxocobalamin was not significantly more effective than the saline control. Conclusions Cobinamide is an effective agent for inhibiting lethal sulfide exposure in this rabbit model. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal dose and form of cobinamide and route of administration. PMID:24716792

  1. Risk Factors for Vitamin D Deficiency among HIV-Infected and Uninfected Injection Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Allison A.; Drummond, M. Bradley; Mehta, Shruti H.; Brown, Todd T.; Lucas, Gregory M.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Estrella, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent and is associated with bone disease, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome and malignancy. Injection drug users (IDUs), with or without HIV infection, are at risk for these conditions; however, limited data on vitamin D deficiency exist in this population. We determined the prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency among urban IDUs in the AIDS Linked to the IntraVenous Experience (ALIVE) Study cohort. Methods For this cross-sectional sub-study, vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum 25(OH)-vitamin D level <20 ng/mL. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with vitamin D deficiency. Results Of 950 individuals analyzed, 29% were HIV-infected. The median age was 49 years; 65% were male, and 91% were black. The median vitamin D level was 13.5 ng/mL (IQR, 9.0–20.3); 74% were deficient (68% in HIV-infected vs. 76% in HIV-uninfected, p?=?0.01). Non-black race, fall/winter season, multivitamin intake, higher serum albumin, HCV seropositivity and HIV-infection were associated with significantly lower odds of vitamin D deficiency. Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among IDUs. Notably, HIV-infected IDUs were less likely to be vitamin D deficient. Higher vitamin D levels were associated with multivitamin intake and with higher albumin levels, suggesting that nutritional status contributes substantially to deficiency. The association between HCV serostatus and vitamin D level remains unclear. Further investigation is needed to define the clinical implications of the heavy burden of vitamin D deficiency in this high-risk, aging population with significant co-morbidities. PMID:24756000

  2. B-Vitamin Status and Concentrations of Homocysteine in Austrian Omnivores, Vegetarians and Vegans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Majchrzak; I. Singer; M. Männer; P. Rust; D. Genser; K.-H. Wagner; I. Elmadfa

    2006-01-01

    Background: A vegetarian diet is considered to promote health and longevity and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. However, a vegetarian diet may be deficient in some nutrients. Exclusion of animal products in vegetarian diets may affect the status of certain B-vitamins, and further cause the rise of plasma homocysteine concentration. Objective: The nutritional status of various B-vitamins

  3. The Role of B Vitamins in Marine Biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.; Gómez-Consarnau, Laura; Suffridge, Christopher; Webb, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    The soluble B vitamins (B1, B7, and B12) have long been recognized as playing a central metabolic role in marine phytoplankton and bacteria; however, the importance of these organic external metabolites in marine ecology has been largely disregarded, as most research has focused on inorganic nutrients and trace metals. Using recently available genomic data combined with culture-based surveys of vitamin auxotrophy (i.e., vitamin requirements), we show that this auxotrophy is widespread in the marine environment and occurs in both autotrophs and heterotrophs residing in oligotrophic and eutrophic environments. Our analysis shows that vitamins originate from the activities of some bacteria and algae and that taxonomic changes observed in marine phytoplankton communities could be the result of their specific vitamin requirements and/or vitamin availability. Dissolved vitamin concentration measurements show that large areas of the world ocean are devoid of B vitamins, suggesting that vitamin limitation could be important for the efficiency of carbon and nitrogen fixation in those regions.

  4. Vitamin D deficiency in HIV: a shadow on long-term management?

    PubMed

    Orkin, Chloe; Wohl, David A; Williams, Andrew; Deckx, Henri

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency in HIV infection has attracted much interest. The best known clinical outcomes of vitamin D deficiency are rickets (children) and osteomalacia (adults). Several non-skeletal disorders have also been linked to suboptimal vitamin D levels in the general population. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency varies widely (6-100%) across diverse patient populations, with no evidence that it is higher in HIV-positive versus noninfected adults. Vitamin D deficiency may blunt immune restoration and exacerbate HIV complications (e.g. opportunistic infections, poor perinatal outcomes, wasting, HIV disease progression, AIDS events, and death). The nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz was associated with a relatively high risk of vitamin D deficiency; nevirapine, etravirine, and rilpivirine were noted to have less or no impact on vitamin D versus efavirenz in the limited data available. Protease inhibitors have either no or a low association with vitamin D deficiency. Nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (with the possible exception of zidovudine) also did not appear to be associated with vitamin D deficiency. Management of vitamin D deficiency in HIV-positive adults has not been rigorously evaluated; some guidelines recommend more vitamin D supplementation for HIV-positive adults on antiretrovirals versus the general population (e.g. 2-3 times higher vitamin D daily intake for the age group; loading dose up to 10,000 IU/day for 8-10 weeks and a maintenance dose of 800-2,000 IU/day). In conclusion, although vitamin D deficiency in HIV-positive adults can be prevalent, current evidence for its causes and impact is relatively weak. More data, particularly from large, controlled, long-term trials, regarding the benefits of correcting vitamin D levels in HIV-positive adults are needed. PMID:24759452

  5. Transcobalamin C776G genotype modifies the association between vitamin B12 and homocysteine in older hispanics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: A common polymorphism, C776G, in the plasma B12 transport protein transcobalamin (TC), encodes for either proline or arginine at codon 259. This polymorphism may affect the affinity of TC for B12 and subsequent delivery of B12 to tissues. Methods: TC genotype and its associations with i...

  6. Vitamin D deficiency aggravates ischemic acute kidney injury in rats.

    PubMed

    de Bragança, Ana Carolina; Volpini, Rildo A; Canale, Daniele; Gonçalves, Janaína G; Shimizu, Maria Heloisa M; Sanches, Talita R; Seguro, Antonio C; Andrade, Lúcia

    2015-03-01

    Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) increases the risk of death in hospitalized patients. Renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) induces acute kidney injury (AKI), which activates cell cycle inhibitors, including p21, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor and genomic target of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, which is in turn a potent immunomodulator with antiproliferative effects. In this study, we assess the impact of VDD in renal IRI. Wistar rats were divided into groups, each evaluated for 30 days: control (receiving a standard diet); VDD (receiving a vitamin D-free diet); IRI (receiving a standard diet and subjected to 45-min bilateral renal ischemia on day 28); and VDD + IRI (receiving a vitamin D-free diet and subjected to 45-min bilateral renal ischemia on day 28). At 48 h after IRI, animals were euthanized; blood, urine, and kidney tissue samples were collected. Compared with IRI rats, VDD + IRI rats showed a more severe decrease in glomerular filtration rate, greater urinary protein excretion, a higher kidney/body weight ratio and lower renal aquaporin 2 expression, as well as greater morphological damage, characterized by increased interstitial area and tubular necrosis. Our results suggest that the severity of tubular damage in IRI may be associated with downregulation of vitamin D receptors and p21. VDD increases renal inflammation, cell proliferation and cell injury in ischemic AKI. PMID:25780095

  7. Vitamin D Deficiency in the Absence of Enteropathy in Three Cases with Common Variable Immunodeficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ömür Ardeniz; Aytul Sin; Gökhan Özgen; Fulya Gunsar; Nihal Mete; Okan Gulbahar; Ali Kokuludag

    2008-01-01

    Background: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia and a defect in antibody production. Herein we describe 3 patients diagnosed with CVID in whom vitamin D deficiency was detected in the absence of enteropathy. Methods: Biochemical and immunological analysis, serum osteocalcin, parathyroid hormone, 25-OH vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D, vitamin A, vitamin E, urinary calcium, and deoxypyridinoline measurements were

  8. Improvement in bronchial squamous metaplasia in smokers treated with folate and vitamin B/sub 12/: report of a preliminary randomized, double-blind intervention trial

    SciTech Connect

    Heimburger, D.C.; Alexander, C.B.; Birch, R.; Butterworth, C.E. Jr.; Bailey, W.C.; Krumdieck, C.L.

    1988-03-11

    To test whether changes in folate and vitamin B/sub 12/ nutrition modify the severity of potentially premalignant lesions identified by cytology in sputum samples of smokers, the authors conducted a randomized, controlled prospective intervention trial in smokers with bronchial squamous metaplasia. Seventy-three men with a history of 20 or more pack-years of cigarette smoking who had metaplasia on one or more sputum samples were stratified according to smoking level and randomly assigned to four months' treatment with either placebo or 10 mg of folate plus 500 ..mu..g of hydroxocobalamin. Direct cytological comparison of the two groups after four months showed significantly greater reduction of atypia in the supplemented group. This provides preliminary evidence that atypical bronchial squamous metaplasia may be reduced by supplementation with folate and vitamin B/sub 12/. However, the significance of these findings is tempered by substantial spontaneous variation in sputum cytologies, the small study population, the short duration of the trial, and the supraphysiological doses of folate and B/sub 12/ used. The results should not be construed as pointing to a potential way of preventing lung cancer in individuals who continue to smoke or as supporting self-medication with large doses of folate or B/sub 12/ by smokers.

  9. Vitamin A deficiency among adolescent female garment factory workers in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, F; Hasan, N; Kabir, Y

    1997-10-01

    A cross-sectional study of 388 adolescent girls 12-19 years of age employed in garment factories in Dhaka, Bangladesh, revealed a high prevalence of subclinical vitamin A deficiency despite a lack of anthropometric evidence of acute undernutrition. Only 15.5% of participants were classified as thin (under 90% weight-for-height by US National Center for Health Statistics reference standards). Mean hemoglobin concentration was 119.7 g/l (range, 74-157 g/l). Assuming a cut-off point of under 120 g/l, 44% of these young women were anemic. The average serum vitamin A concentration was 1.04 mcgmol/l (range, 0.31-2.47 mcgmol/l); 56.2% of girls had a low (under 1.05 mcgmol/l) serum vitamin A level and 14.2% were vitamin A deficient (under 0.70 mcgmol/l). Mean frequencies of intake of egg, milk, small fish, and dark green leafy vegetables were 1.3, 0.8, 2.1, and 3.4 servings per week, respectively. 85% did not eat any liver or sweet pumpkin in the week preceding the interview. Serum vitamin A was significantly lower among participants who consumed less than 4 servings of milk and/or dark green leafy vegetables per week than among those who consumed 4 or more servings of these foods. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that age, menstruation, hemoglobin concentration, and frequency of intake of dark green leafy vegetables were significantly independently related to serum vitamin A level. For every unit change in the frequency of consumption of dark green leafy vegetables, there was a 0.013 mcgmol/l change in serum vitamin A level. PMID:9347291

  10. Assessment and control of vitamin A deficiency disorders.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Usha; Darnton-Hill, Ian

    2002-09-01

    The XX International Vitamin A Consultative Group (IVACG) meeting in Hanoi, Vietnam, in February 2001 celebrated 25 y of progress in prevention and control of vitamin A deficiency disorders (VADD). Programmatic themes included the following: 1) intervention innovations, 2) integration of vitamin A interventions, 3) the increased risk to health of women who are deficient, 4) measurement of progress and impact and 5) programmatic sustainability. The history of IVACG was remembered and the growth of the group from a meeting of 30 to 40 persons in 1975 to nearly 600 delegates from 63 countries was described. Successful adaptation to new challenges and scientific advances, in moving science to practice, was noted. Guidelines for indicators and interventions were reviewed. A set of revised recommendations were made, including the following indicators for assessment (and, for some, outcome evaluation) of VADD: 1) under-five mortality rate >50 as a surrogate indicator to trigger action, 2) maternal night blindness >5%, 3) rapid dark adaptation worse than -1.11 log cd/m(2) and 4) serum retinol <0.7 micro mol/L (>15%) in young children (<6 y). Key recommendations for specific interventions were to double the existing dose of prophylactic vitamin A supplementation to 50,000 international units (IU) at the three Expanded Programme on Immunization contacts for young infants (<6 mo) and to two doses of 200,000 IU each for women within 6 wk after delivery; to support fortification as a valid and necessary strategy to combat VADD; and to recognize that food-based approaches should include promoting breast-feeding and consuming animal products, because promoting plant-based foods alone will not eliminate VADD in young children due to the low bioefficacy of dietary beta-carotene. This meeting clearly set the agenda for the twenty-first century and called for successful implementation of integrated approaches that will eliminate VADD. PMID:12221275

  11. Could a Vitamin Play a Role in Acne Outbreaks?

    MedlinePLUS

    Could a Vitamin Play a Role in Acne Outbreaks? Study finds excess B12 tied to common skin condition To use the sharing features on this ... the June 24 issue of Science Translational Medicine . A deficiency in vitamin B12 can cause serious health ...

  12. Chronic vitamin E deficiency promotes vitamin C deficiency in zebrafish leading to degenerative myopathy and impaired swimming behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lebold, Katie M.; Löhr, Christiane V.; Barton, Carrie L.; Miller, Galen W.; Labut, Edwin M.; Tanguay, Robert L.; Traber, Maret G.

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that zebrafish (Danio rerio) undergoing long-term vitamin E deficiency with marginal vitamin C status would develop myopathy resulting in impaired swimming. Zebrafish were fed for 1 y a defined diet without (E?) and with (E+) vitamin E (500 mg ?-tocopherol/kg diet). For the last 150 days, dietary ascorbic acid concentrations were decreased from 3500 to 50 mg/kg diet and the fish sampled periodically to assess ascorbic acid concentrations. The ascorbic acid depletion curves were faster in the E? compared with E+ fish (P<0.0001); the estimated half-life of depletion in the E? fish was 34 days, while in it was 55 days in the E+ fish. To assess swimming behavior, zebrafish were monitored individually following a “startle-response” stimulus, using computer and video technology. Muscle histopathology was assessed using hematoxylin and eosin staining on paramedian sections of fixed zebrafish. At study end, E? fish contained 300-fold less ?-tocopherol (p<0.0001), half the ascorbic acid (p=0.0001) and 3-fold more malondialdehyde (p=0.0005) than did E+ fish. During the first minute following a tap stimulus (p<0.05), E+ fish swam twice as far as did E? fish. In the E? fish, the sluggish behavior was associated with a multifocal, polyphasic, degenerative myopathy of the skeletal muscle. The myopathy severity ranged from scattered acute necrosis to widespread fibrosis and was accompanied by increased anti-hydroxynonenal staining. Thus, vitamin E deficiency in zebrafish causes increased oxidative stress and a secondary depletion of ascorbic acid, resulting in severe damage to muscle tissue and impaired muscle function. PMID:23570751

  13. Chronic vitamin E deficiency promotes vitamin C deficiency in zebrafish leading to degenerative myopathy and impaired swimming behavior.

    PubMed

    Lebold, Katie M; Löhr, Christiane V; Barton, Carrie L; Miller, Galen W; Labut, Edwin M; Tanguay, Robert L; Traber, Maret G

    2013-05-01

    We hypothesized that zebrafish (Danio rerio) undergoing long-term vitamin E deficiency with marginal vitamin C status would develop myopathy resulting in impaired swimming. Zebrafish were fed for 1 y a defined diet without (E-) and with (E+) vitamin E (500 mg ?-tocopherol/kg diet). For the last 150 days, dietary ascorbic acid concentrations were decreased from 3500 to 50 mg/kg diet and the fish sampled periodically to assess ascorbic acid concentrations. The ascorbic acid depletion curves were faster in the E- compared with E+ fish (P < 0.0001); the estimated half-life of depletion in the E- fish was 34 days, while in it was 55 days in the E+ fish. To assess swimming behavior, zebrafish were monitored individually following a "startle-response" stimulus, using computer and video technology. Muscle histopathology was assessed using hematoxylin and eosin staining on paramedian sections of fixed zebrafish. At study end, E- fish contained 300-fold less ?-tocopherol (p < 0.0001), half the ascorbic acid (p = 0.0001) and 3-fold more malondialdehyde (p = 0.0005) than did E+ fish. During the first minute following a tap stimulus (p < 0.05), E+ fish swam twice as far as did E- fish. In the E- fish, the sluggish behavior was associated with a multifocal, polyphasic, degenerative myopathy of the skeletal muscle. The myopathy severity ranged from scattered acute necrosis to widespread fibrosis and was accompanied by increased anti-hydroxynonenal staining. Thus, vitamin E deficiency in zebrafish causes increased oxidative stress and a secondary depletion of ascorbic acid, resulting in severe damage to muscle tissue and impaired muscle function. PMID:23570751

  14. Implication of Vitamin A deficiency on vascular injury related to inflammation and oxidative stress. Effects on the ultrastructure of rat aorta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura V. Gatica; Liliana B. Oliveros; Matías F. Pérez Díaz; Nora S. Domínguez; Miguel W. Fornes; María S. Gimenez

    Background  Vitamin A deficiency induces activation of NF-kB and impairs activities of antioxidant enzymes in aorta.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim of the study  We study the effect of vitamin A deficiency on the aorta histoarchitecture and the possibly contribution of its prooxidant\\u000a and inflammatory effects to artery alterations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Twenty-one-day-old Wistar male rats were fed during 3 months with vitamin A-deficient diet (?A, n = 8) or the same

  15. Does vitamin D deficiency contribute to erectile dysfunction?

    PubMed Central

    Sorenson, Marc; Grant, William B.

    2012-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a multifactorial disease, and its causes can be neurogenic, psychogenic, hormonal and vascular. ED is often an important indicator of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a powerful early marker for asymptomatic CVD. Erection is a vascular event, and ED is often a vascular disease caused by endothelial damage and subsequent inhibition of vasodilation. We show here that risk factors associated with a higher CVD risk also associate with a higher ED risk. Such factors include diabetes mellitus, hypertension, arterial calcification and Inflammation in the vascular endothelium. Vitamin D deficiency is one of several dynamics that associates with increased CVD risk, but to our knowledge, it has not been studied as a possible contributor to ED. Here we examine research linking ED and CVD and discuss how vitamin D influences CVD and its classic risk factors—factors that also associate to increased ED risk. We also summarize research indicating that vitamin D associates with reduced risk of several nonvascular contributing factors for ED. We conclude that VDD contributes to ED. This hypothesis should be tested through observational and intervention studies. PMID:22928068

  16. Linking Vitamin D Deficiency to Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Matthew T.; Weaver, Casey T.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with industrialization, and its incidence has increased markedly over time. The prospect of reversing these trends motivates the search for the agent(s) involved. Modernity entails several physical and behavioral modifications that compromise both the photosynthesis of cholecalciferol in the skin, and of its bioavailability. Although deficiency in this “vitamin” has therefore emerged as a leading candidate, and despite the publication of a randomized control trial that showed a trend towards statistically significant benefit in Crohn’s disease, its causal agency has yet to be demonstrated by an adequately powered study. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the case being made by epidemiologists, geneticists, clinicians and basic researchers, and consolidate their findings into a model that provides mechanistic plausibility to the claim. Specifically, converging data sets suggest that local activation of vitamin D coordinates the activity of the innate and adaptive arms of immunity, and of the intestinal epithelium, in a manner that promotes barrier integrity, facilitates the clearance of translocated flora and diverts CD4 T cell development away from inflammatory phenotypes. Since smoking is an important risk-altering exposure, we also discuss its newly established melanizing effect, as well as other emerging evidence linking tobacco use to immune function through vitamin D pathways. PMID:23591600

  17. Vitamin A deficiency decreases and high dietary vitamin A increases disease severity in the mouse model of asthma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Th1/ Th2 paradigm has become an important issue in the pathogenesis of asthma, characterized by normal Th-1 and elevated Th-2 cytokine expression, resulting in a Th2 predominance. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) produces a significant Th1 bias, while high-level dietary vitamin A supplementation promo...

  18. Relation of body fat indexes to vitamin D status and deficiency among obese adolescents1234

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Henry A; Von Scheven, Emily; Merewood, Anne; Sweeney, Carol; Wilson, Darrell M; Lee, Phillip DK; Abrams, Stephanie H; Gitelman, Stephen E; Wertz, Marcia S; Klish, William J; Taylor, George A; Chen, Tai C; Holick, Michael F

    2009-01-01

    Background: Data on the relation between vitamin D status and body fat indexes in adolescence are lacking. Objective: The objective was to identify factors associated with vitamin D status and deficiency in obese adolescents to further evaluate the relation of body fat indexes to vitamin D status and deficiency. Design: Data from 58 obese adolescents were obtained. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was measured by computed tomography. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure total bone mineral content, bone mineral density, body fat mass (FM), and lean mass. Relative measures of body fat were calculated. Blood tests included measurements of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], parathyroid hormone (PTH), osteocalcin, type I collagen C-telopeptide, hormones, and metabolic factors. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL. PTH elevation was defined as PTH > 65 ng/mL. Results: The mean (±SD) age of the adolescents was 14.9 ± 1.4 y; 38 (66%) were female, and 8 (14%) were black. The mean (±SD) body mass index (in kg/m2) was 36 ± 5, FM was 40.0 ± 5.5%, and VAT was 12.4 ± 4.3%. Seventeen of the adolescents were vitamin D deficient, but none had elevated PTH concentrations. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density were within 2 SDs of national standards. In a multivariate analysis, 25(OH)D decreased by 0.46 ± 0.22 ng/mL per 1% increment in FM (? ± SE, P = 0.05), whereas PTH decreased by 0.78 ± 0.29 pg/mL per 1% increment in VAT (P = 0.01). Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, our results show for the first time that obese adolescents with 25(OH)D deficiency, but without elevated PTH concentrations, have a bone mass within the range of national standards (±2 SD). The findings provide initial evidence that the distribution of fat may be associated with vitamin D status, but this relation may be dependent on metabolic factors. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00209482, NCT00120146. PMID:19640956

  19. Is a low blood level of vitamin B12 a cardiovascular and diabetes risk factor? A systematic review of cohort studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Snorri B. Rafnsson; Ponnusamy Saravanan; Raj S. Bhopal; Chittaranjan S. Yajnik

    2011-01-01

    Purpose  To assess the prior hypothesis that low blood vitamin B12, partly through hyperhomocysteinemia and partly through direct effects,\\u000a increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. As background, we also extracted all-cause mortality from the\\u000a studies that met our criteria.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A systematic review of prospective cohort studies identified through searching six electronic databases, screening of reference\\u000a lists, and citation search.

  20. Vitamin D--deficient rickets in a child with cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Barreto-Chang, Odmara L; Barreto-Chang, Odmara; Pearson, Doriel; Shepard, W Elizabeth; Longhurst, Christopher A; Longhurst, Chris; Greene, Alan

    2010-08-01

    This article describes the case of a 16-month-old Hispanic male toddler with cow's milk allergy living in northern California who was admitted to a children's hospital for weight loss and markedly elevated levels of serum alkaline phosphatase and parathyroid hormone. At a routine outpatient well-child visit, his mother expressed concern about a decrease in his appetite and activity level. A detailed diet history revealed that breast milk was his primary source of nutrition during his first year of life and he had not been given supplemental vitamins. With attempts to introduce cow's milk formula, he had developed a rash and swelling around the mouth. Shortly after his first birthday, his mother weaned him from breast milk and introduced unfortified rice milk as a palatable milk substitute. Upon admission he was pale and lethargic; his laboratory studies were remarkable for elevated serum alkaline phosphatase and parathyroid hormone and low levels of phosphorus, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, and ferritin. Lower extremity radiographic studies were consistent with rickets. After 5 weeks of therapy with vitamin D(3) and iron, his serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D level normalized. Within 12 weeks following therapy, the child demonstrated significant clinical improvement, with resolution of growth failure and bone reossification. His activity level had returned to normal. This case emphasizes the importance of adequate vitamin D intake for children with special attention to those who might have nutrition deficiencies attributable to milk allergy. PMID:20702845

  1. Electronically Excited States of Vitamin B12: Benchmark Calculations Including Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory and Correlated Ab Initio Methods

    E-print Network

    Kornobis, Karina; Wong, Bryan M; Lodowski, Piotr; Jaworska, Maria; Andruniów, Tadeusz; Rudd, Kenneth; Kozlowski, Pawel M; 10.1021/jp110914y

    2011-01-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and correlated ab initio methods have been applied to the electronically excited states of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin or CNCbl). Different experimental techniques have been used to probe the excited states of CNCbl, revealing many issues that remain poorly understood from an electronic structure point of view. Due to its efficient scaling with size, TD-DFT emerges as one of the most practical tools that can be used to predict the electronic properties of these fairly complex molecules. However, the description of excited states is strongly dependent on the type of functional used in the calculations. In the present contribution, the choice of a proper functional for vitamin B12 was evaluated in terms of its agreement with both experimental results and correlated ab initio calculations. Three different functionals, i.e. B3LYP, BP86, and LC-BLYP, were tested. In addition, the effect of relative contributions of DFT and HF to the exchange-correlation functional ...

  2. Early effects of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D on bone calcium in vitamin D-deficient rats

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Early effects of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D on bone calcium in vitamin D-deficient rats P. J. MARIE mineralization. Vitamin-D deficient rats were labeled with 45calcium 10 to 14 days prior to treatment (experiment. In the untreated vitamin D-deficient rats of experiment 2, the rate of 45calcium loss in serum was higher than

  3. Vitamin B?? and unidentified factors in poultry nutrition

    E-print Network

    Welch, Billy E.

    1954-01-01

    . Biol. Med., 70:40-42. Norris, L. C., C. W. Carlson and R. F. Miller 1950 Vitamin B12 and the animal protein factor. Farm Research, 16:3. Norris, L. C., H. M. Edwards, Jr., and D. Chin 1953 The problem of unidentified vitamins, proc. 1953 Cornell... of vitamin B]_g rat growth and fat infiltration of the liver. J. Biol. Chem., 193:285-291. Block, R. J., and D. Bolling 1951 The amino acid com? position of proteins and foods. Springfield, 111., second ed.. Briggs, G. M., E. G. Hill and M. J. Giles 1950...

  4. B Vitamins, Homocysteine and Bone Health

    PubMed Central

    Fratoni, Valentina; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition is one of the most important modifiable factors involved in the development and maintenance of good bone health. Calcium and Vitamin D have confirmed and established roles in the maintenance of proper bone health. However, other nutritional factors could also be implicated. This review will explore the emerging evidence of the supporting role of certain B Vitamins as modifiable factors associated with bone health. Individuals with high levels of homocysteine (hcy) exhibit reduced bone mineral density (BMD), alteration in microarchitecture and increased bone fragility. The pathophysiology caused by high serum homocysteine is not completely clear regarding fractures, but it may involve factors, such as bone mineral density, bone turnover, bone blood flow and collagen cross-linking. It is uncertain whether supplementation with B Vitamins, such as folate, Vitamin B1, and Vitamin B6, could decrease hip fracture incidence, but the results of further clinical trials should be awaited before a conclusion is drawn. PMID:25830943

  5. B vitamins, homocysteine and bone health.

    PubMed

    Fratoni, Valentina; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2015-04-01

    Nutrition is one of the most important modifiable factors involved in the development and maintenance of good bone health. Calcium and Vitamin D have confirmed and established roles in the maintenance of proper bone health. However, other nutritional factors could also be implicated. This review will explore the emerging evidence of the supporting role of certain B Vitamins as modifiable factors associated with bone health. Individuals with high levels of homocysteine (hcy) exhibit reduced bone mineral density (BMD), alteration in microarchitecture and increased bone fragility. The pathophysiology caused by high serum homocysteine is not completely clear regarding fractures, but it may involve factors, such as bone mineral density, bone turnover, bone blood flow and collagen cross-linking. It is uncertain whether supplementation with B Vitamins, such as folate, Vitamin B1, and Vitamin B6, could decrease hip fracture incidence, but the results of further clinical trials should be awaited before a conclusion is drawn. PMID:25830943