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Sample records for vitamin b12 uptake

  1. Vitamin B12 uptake by intestinal microorganisms: mechanism and relevance to syndromes of intestinal bacterial overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Giannella, R. A.; Broitman, S. A.; Zamcheck, N.

    1971-01-01

    The mechanism of bacterial uptake of vitamin B12, the spectrum of microorganisms capable of such uptake, and the factors involved were the subject of this study. Bacterial uptake of vitamin B12 was found to be at least a two stage process. A primary uptake phase which was rapid (1 min or less), pH dependent, nontemperature dependent, did not require viable organisms and was insensitive to either the metabolic inhibitor dinitrophenol or to the sulfhydryl inhibitor N-ethyl-maleimide. Protein denaturation (formalin treatment or autoclaving) abolished all B12 uptake. This primary uptake phase is thought to represent adsorption to binding or “receptor” sites on the cell wall. Second stage uptake was slower, pH and temperature dependent, required living bacteria, and was abolished by either dinitrophenol or N-ethyl-maleimide. This phase is dependent upon metabolic processes and may reflect transfer of B12 from surface “receptor” sites into the bacterial cell. Although differences among organisms were observed in total 1 hr uptake, number of surface “receptor” sites, and relative avidities for B12, all organisms except Streptococcus fecalis shared the two stage mechanism. Two Gram-positive organisms. Bacillus subtilis and Group A streptococcus, demonstrated the highest 1 hr vitamin B12 uptake values; Gram-negative bacteria required 2,000-10,000 the number of organisms for comparable uptake. Binding constants (Km) varied from 5.05 ±1.67 × 10-10M for B. subtilis to 6.18 ±3.08 × 10-9M for Klebsiella pneumoniae which approximate the Km for human intrinsic factor (0.38 × 10-10M). Competition between bacteria and intrinsic factor for vitamin B12 may be inferred from the similarity of these constants. These observations suggest that a variety of enteric and nonenteric organisms, not requiring exogenous B12, may play a role in the pathogenesis of the vitamin B12 malabsorption found in the intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndromes. PMID:4994753

  2. Vitamin B12

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hyperhomocysteinemia). Taking vitamin B12 by mouth, along with folic acid and sometimes pyridoxine (vitamin B6), can lower blood ... that taking vitamin B12 with other vitamins, including folic acid and vitamin B6, might help prevent an eye ...

  3. Vitamin B-12

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Vitamin B-12 Vitamin B-12 What is vitamin B-12? Vitamin B-12 is an important nutrient that is found naturally ... shellfish, meat, eggs, dairy products, and fortified foods. Vitamin B-12 helps make red blood cells and ...

  4. Vitamin B12 level

    MedlinePLUS

    The vitamin B12 level is a blood test that measures how much vitamin B12 is in your blood. ... a form of megaloblastic anemia caused by poor vitamin B12 absorption. This can occur when the stomach makes ...

  5. Vitamin B12

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 deficiency. Taking vitamin B12 by mouth, through the nose, or as a shot is ... of homocysteine in the blood (Hyperhomocysteinemia). Taking vitamin B12 by mouth, along with folic acid and sometimes pyridoxine (vitamin ...

  6. Vitamin B12

    MedlinePLUS

    ... over age 50 lose the ability to absorb vitamin B12 from foods. People who follow a vegetarian or vegan diet should try to eat vitamin B12-fortified foods or talk to their health care provider about ...

  7. Vitamin B12

    MedlinePLUS

    ... these vitamins actually help prevent or treat dementia. Energy and athletic performance Advertisements often promote vitamin B12 supplements as a way to increase energy or endurance. Except in people with a vitamin ...

  8. Vitamin B-12

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin B-12 is a cofactor for 2 enzymes. In the cytoplasm, methionine synthase requires vitamin B-12 in the form of methylcobalamin and catalyzes the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate.This enzyme links the methylation pathway through ...

  9. [Vitamin B12 (cobalamin)].

    PubMed

    Guilland, Jean-Claude; Aimone-Gastin, Isabelle

    2013-10-01

    The term "vitamin B12" refers to four cobalamins (Cbl), including methyl-Cbl and adenosyl-Cbl, the two enzyme co-factors of methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, respectively. Vitamin B12 deficiency produces clinical disorders that include mainly megaloblastic anaemia, peripheral and central neurological manifestations. The clinical significance of low blood B12 concentrations in the absence of manifestations of deficiency is a matter of debate. The biochemical diagnosis of the subclinical and clinical deficiency of vitamin B12 has been enriched by several parameters, including serum methylmalonic acid, homocysteine, and holo-transcobalamine, which have been evaluated over the past two decades. PMID:24298826

  10. Vitamin B12

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's food guidance system, ChooseMyPlate . Where can I find ... food sources of vitamin B12: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for vitamin ...

  11. MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL VITAMIN B12 AND HOLOTRANSCOBALAMIN, SINGLY AND IN COBMINATION, IN SCREENING FOR METABOLIC VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The standard screening test for vitamin B12 deficiency, measurement of total plasma vitamin B12, has limitations of sensitivity and specificity. Plasma vitamin B12 bound to transcobalamin (holoTC) is the fraction of total vitamin B12 available for tissue uptake and therefore has been pro...

  12. Vitamin B12 benefits (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Vitamin B12 is important for metabolism. Metabolism within the body includes the processes of energy generation and use; including nutrition, digestion, absorption, elimination, respiration, circulation, and temperature ...

  13. Bioavailability of vitamin B12

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in people of all ages who consume a low intake of animal-source foods, including populations in developing countries. It is also prevalent among the elderly, even in wealthier countries, due to their malabsorption of B12 from food. Several methods have been applied t...

  14. How common is vitamin B12 deficiency?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In considering the vitamin B-12 fortification of flour, it is important to know who is at risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency and whether those individuals would benefit from flour fortification.This article reviews current knowledge of the prevalence and causes of vitamin B-12 deficiency and considers ...

  15. [Vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Leischker, A H; Kolb, G F

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency increases with age. Patients with dementia and spouses of patients with dementia are at special risk for the development of vitamin B12 deficiency. In a normal diet this vitamin is present only in animal source foods; therefore, vegans frequently develop vitamin B12 deficiency if not using supplements or foods fortified with cobalamin. Apart from dementia, most of these manifestations are completely reversible under correct therapy; therefore it is crucial to identify and to treat even atypical presentations of vitamin B12 deficiency as early as possible. This article deals with the physiology and pathophysiology of vitamin B12 metabolism. A practice-oriented algorithm which also considers health economic aspects for a rational laboratory diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency is presented. In cases with severe neurological symptoms, therapy should be parenteral, especially initially. For parenteral treatment, hydroxocobalamin is the drug of choice. PMID:25586321

  16. [Approaches to vitamin B12 deficiency].

    PubMed

    Russcher, Henk; Heil, Sandra G; Slobbe, Lennert; Lindemans, Jan

    2012-01-01

    A 28-year-old female vegetarian was referred to a specialist in internal medicine with persistent iron deficiency. Laboratory analysis revealed microcytic anaemia with low ferritin levels but normal total vitamin B12 levels. The red blood cell distribution width, however, showed a very wide variation in red blood cell sizes, indicating a coexisting vitamin B12 deficiency, which was confirmed by the low concentration of active vitamin B12. Another patient, a 69-year-old woman with a history of previous gastric surgery and renal insufficiency as a complication of diabetes mellitus, was suspected to be deficient in vitamin B12, as she had low total vitamin B12 levels and an accumulation of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine in her blood. Testing the total concentration of vitamin B12 alone has insufficient diagnostic accuracy and no accepted gold standard is available for diagnosing vitamin B12 deficiency. With the development of newer tests, such as measuring holotranscobalamin II (concentration of active vitamin B12), atypical and subclinical deficiency states can be recognized. A new approach to diagnosing vitamin B12 deficiency is presented, based upon these 2 case descriptions. PMID:22217304

  17. Vitamin B-12 and Perinatal Health.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Julia L; Layden, Alexander J; Stover, Patrick J

    2015-09-01

    Vitamin B-12 deficiency (<148 pmol/L) is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, including developmental anomalies, spontaneous abortions, preeclampsia, and low birth weight (<2500 g). The importance of adequate vitamin B-12 status periconceptionally and during pregnancy cannot be overemphasized, given its fundamental role in neural myelination, brain development, and growth. Infants born to vitamin B-12-deficient women may be at increased risk of neural tube closure defects, and maternal vitamin B-12 insufficiency (<200 pmol/L) can impair infant growth, psychomotor function, and brain development, which may be irreversible. However, the underlying causal mechanisms are unknown. This review was conducted to examine the evidence that links maternal vitamin B-12 status and perinatal outcomes. Despite the high prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency and associated risk of pregnancy complications, few prospective studies and, to our knowledge, only 1 randomized trial have examined the effects of vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy. The role of vitamin B-12 in the etiology of adverse perinatal outcomes needs to be elucidated to inform public health interventions. PMID:26374177

  18. Generalised hyperpigmentation in vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Santra, Gouranga; Paul, Rudrajit; Ghosh, Sumit Kr; Chakraborty, Debojyoti; Das, Shubhabrata; Pradhan, Sourav; Das, Abhishek

    2014-08-01

    In developing countries like India, nutritional deficiencies are prevalent and hyperpigmentation due to protein energy malnutrition, zinc deficiency and pellagra are common. Indian women, especially vegetarian are prone to vitamin B12 deficiency. Vitamin B12 deficiency can present as anaemia, neurological defect, gastrointestinal symptoms or dementia. Hyperpigmentation as the first presentation of Vitamin B12 deficiency is rare. Our patient, a 45 year-old Hindu vegetarian female presented to us with generalized hyperpigmentation. Examination revealed associated anaemia and peripheral neuropathy. Laboratory investigation confirmed vitamin B12 deficiency. Clinical features along with hyperpigmentation improved with vitamin B12 supplementation. We report this case to highlight this rare manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency. A high index of clinical suspicion is warranted to diagnose the case. Since India is a country with a large number of potential vitamin B12 deficiency cases, the physicians need to be aware of all the varied manifestations of this vitamin deficiency. In case of hyperpigmentation, nutritional aspect must be ruled out as it is reversible. Early replacement therapy may also help to prevent morbidities like dementia and neuropathy. PMID:25856944

  19. Human vitamin B12 absorption measurement by accelerator mass spectrometry using specifically

    E-print Network

    Roth, John R.

    Human vitamin B12 absorption measurement by accelerator mass spectrometry using specifically to assimilate dietary vitamin B12. Assaying and understanding absorption and uptake of B12 is important because and showed plasma appearance and clearance curves consistent with the predicted behavior of the pure vitamin

  20. Vitamin B12--folate interrelations.

    PubMed

    Das, K C; Herbert, V

    1976-10-01

    Megaloblastic anaemia is due to a derangement of DNA synthesis caused by insufficient supply of one or other of the four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) precursors of DNA synthesis or by direct inhibition of one or other DNA polymerase. Reduced supply of the pyrimidine deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) may be caused by folate or vitamin B12 deficiencies or by the action of dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors (e.g. methotrexate, pyrimethamine or trimethoprim), all of which cause reduced supply of the coenzyme 5, 10 methylene tetrahydrofolate (pentaglutamate) needed for thymidylate synthetase. Reduced dTTP supply may also be caused by direct inhibition of thymidylate synthetase by 5-fluorouracil. Reduced supply of both purines, deoxyadenosine triphosphate (dATP) and deoxyguanosine triphosphate (dGTP), may be caused by hydroxyurea, 6-mercaptopurine (and probably by another purine antagonist azaserine), whilst reduced supply of both pyrimidine DNA precursors, dTTP and dCTP (deoxycytidine triphosphate) may be due to inherited orotic aciduria or to treatment with azauridine. Cytosine arabinoside directly inhibits DNA polymerase. DNA replication is a discontinuous process and a number of enzymes are concerned with different aspects of the process. The parental strands partly unwind and a large number of initiation points or origins are activated on both strands. A primer RNA is first synthesised using the parental strand of DNA as template. Fragments of new DNA are then synthesised on the parental DNA template, starting at the RNA primer, under the action of one or other DNA polymerase (probably gamma). The RNA primer is then removed and the gap left is filled by further DNA synthesis under the action of a different DNA polymerase (probably alpha). The fragments of new DNA are joined to give newly synthesised stretches of DNA (replicons) which are then liigated together to form bulk DNA of enormous molecular weight. It is suggested here that reduced supply of one or other of the four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) during the 'S' phase of the cell cycle (due to vitamin B12 or folate deficiency, drug treatment or other congenital or acquired abnormality in synthesis of the dNTP) impairs the cell's ability to elongate newly initiated DNA fragments by preventing gap-filling, the polymerase needed for gap-filling requiring substantially greater concentrations of the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates than the polymerase involved in chain initiation. Cytosine arabinoside, which also may cause megaloblastosis, may affect principally the synthesis of new DNA fragments. Since active protein synthesis is needed for the cell to enter the S phase and RNA synthesis is needed to prime new DNA synthesis, megaloblastic anaemia may be expected to occur only when DNA synthesis is inhibited but protein and RNA synthesis are relatively unimpaired... PMID:10122

  1. Assay for vitamin B12 absorption and method of making labeled vitamin B12

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Peter J. (Davis, CA); Dueker, Stephen (Davis, CA); Miller, Joshua (Davis, CA); Green, Ralph (Elmacero, CA); Roth, John (Davis, CA); Carkeet, Colleen (Silver Spring, MD); Buchholz,; Bruce A. (Orinda, CA)

    2012-06-19

    The invention provides methods for labeling vitamin B12 with .sup.14C, .sup.13C, tritium, and deuterium. When radioisotopes are used, the invention provides for methods of labeling B12 with high specific activity. The invention also provides labeled vitamin B12 compositions made in accordance with the invention.

  2. Isolation of Vitamin B12 Transport Mutants of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Di Girolamo, Paula M.; Kadner, Robert J.; Bradbeer, Clive

    1971-01-01

    Escherichia coli KBT001, a methionine-vitamin B12 auxotroph, was found to require a minimum of 20 molecules of vitamin B12 (CN-B12) per cell for aerobic growth in the absence of methionine. After mutagenesis with N-methyl-N?-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and penicillin selection, two kinds of B12 transport mutant were isolated from this strain. Mutants of class I, such as KBT069, were defective in the initial rapid binding of CN-B12 to the cell and were unable to grow in the absence of methionine even with CN-B12 concentrations as high as 100 ng/ml. The class II mutants possessed intact initial phases of CN-B12 uptake but were defective in the secondary energy-dependent phase. These strains were also unable to convert the CN-B12 taken up into other cobalamins. In the absence of methionine, some of these strains (e.g., KBT103) were able to grow on media containing 1 ng of CN-B12/ml, whereas others (e.g., KBT041) were unable to grow with any of the CN-B12 concentrations used. Osmotic shock treatment did not affect the initial rate of uptake of CN-B12 but gave a substantial decrease in the secondary rate. Trace amounts of B12-binding macromolecules were released from the cells by the osmotic shock, but only from strains such as KBT001 and KBT041 which possessed an active initial phase of CN-B12 uptake. These results are interpreted as being consistent with the view that the initial CN-B12 binding site which functions in this transport system is probably bound to the cell membrane. PMID:4326741

  3. Isolation of vitamin B 12 transport mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, P M; Kadner, R J; Bradbeer, C

    1971-06-01

    Escherichia coli KBT001, a methionine-vitamin B(12) auxotroph, was found to require a minimum of 20 molecules of vitamin B(12) (CN-B(12)) per cell for aerobic growth in the absence of methionine. After mutagenesis with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and penicillin selection, two kinds of B(12) transport mutant were isolated from this strain. Mutants of class I, such as KBT069, were defective in the initial rapid binding of CN-B(12) to the cell and were unable to grow in the absence of methionine even with CN-B(12) concentrations as high as 100 ng/ml. The class II mutants possessed intact initial phases of CN-B(12) uptake but were defective in the secondary energy-dependent phase. These strains were also unable to convert the CN-B(12) taken up into other cobalamins. In the absence of methionine, some of these strains (e.g., KBT103) were able to grow on media containing 1 ng of CN-B(12)/ml, whereas others (e.g., KBT041) were unable to grow with any of the CN-B(12) concentrations used. Osmotic shock treatment did not affect the initial rate of uptake of CN-B(12) but gave a substantial decrease in the secondary rate. Trace amounts of B(12)-binding macromolecules were released from the cells by the osmotic shock, but only from strains such as KBT001 and KBT041 which possessed an active initial phase of CN-B(12) uptake. These results are interpreted as being consistent with the view that the initial CN-B(12) binding site which functions in this transport system is probably bound to the cell membrane. PMID:4326741

  4. Vitamin B12 deficiency: the great masquerader.

    PubMed

    Dobrozsi, Sarah; Flood, Veronica H; Panepinto, Julie; Scott, J Paul; Brandow, Amanda

    2014-04-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is rare in children, with nonspecific symptoms including failure to thrive, vomiting, anorexia, and neurologic changes with or without hematologic disturbances. The neuropathy can be severe and irreversible. We report four cases of children with B12 deficiency secondary to adult type pernicious anemia, a presumed transport protein abnormality, and a metabolic defect. All demonstrated neurologic compromise that improved after initiation of B12 therapy. Hematologic manifestations may be preceded by constitutional, gastrointestinal, or neurologic changes, and must raise concern for B12 deficiency. Therapy should be initiated promptly in this setting to prevent irreversible neuropathy. PMID:24115632

  5. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin B12 test system. 862.1810 Section 862.1810....1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B 12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin B 12 test system. 862.1810 Section 862....1810 Vitamin B 12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin B12 test system. 862.1810 Section 862.1810....1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B 12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin B 12 test system. 862.1810 Section 862....1810 Vitamin B 12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin B12 test system. 862.1810 Section 862.1810....1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  10. [Vitamin B12 deficiency: what's new?].

    PubMed

    Braillard, O; Casini, A; Samii, K; Rufenacht, P; Junod, Perron N

    2012-09-26

    Vitamin B12 screening is only recommended among symptomatic patients or in those with risk factors. The main cause of vitamin B12 deficiency is the food cobalamin malabsorption syndrom. Holotranscobalamin is a more reliable marker than cyanocobalamin to confirm vitamin B12 deficiency, but it has not been validated yet in complex situations. An autoimmune gastritis must be excluded in the absence of risk factors but in the presence of a probable deficiency. Oral substitution treatment is effective but requires excellent therapeutic compliance and close follow-up to monitor the response to treatment. It has not yet been studied among patients suffering from severe symptoms, inflammatory bowel disease and ileal resection. PMID:23097863

  11. Folate, vitamin B12 and human health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past decade the role of folate and vitamin B12 in human nutrition have been under constant re-examination. Basic knowledge on the metabolism and interactions between these essential nutrients has expanded and multiple complexities have been unraveled. These micronutrients have shared func...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B 12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1810 Vitamin B 12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure...and treatment of anemias of gastrointestinal malabsorption. (b)...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B 12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1810 Vitamin B 12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure...and treatment of anemias of gastrointestinal malabsorption. (b)...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and....1945 Vitamin B12. (a) Vitamin B12, also known as cyanocobalamin (C63H88CoN14O14P, CAS Reg. No. 68-0919... exceed current good manufacturing practice. Vitamin B12 also may be used in infant formula in...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B12. (a) Vitamin B12, also known as cyanocobalamin (C63H88Co... is used in food at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Vitamin B12 also may...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B 12..

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin B 12.. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B 12.. (a) Vitamin B12, also known as cyanocobalamin (C63H88Co... is used in food at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Vitamin B12 also may...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B12. (a) Vitamin B12, also known as cyanocobalamin (C63H88Co... is used in food at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Vitamin B12 also may...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin B12. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B12. (a) Vitamin B12, also known as cyanocobalamin (C63H88Co... is used in food at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Vitamin B12 also may...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12 . (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin B 12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B 12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin B 12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B 12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin B12. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B12. (a) Vitamin B12 , also known as cyanocobalamin (C63...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin B12 test system. 862.1810 Section...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B 12..

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin B 12.. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B 12 .. (a) Vitamin B12 , also known as cyanocobalamin (C63...

  8. Radiolysis of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B 12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juanchi, X.; Albarran, G.; Negron-Mendoza, A.

    2000-03-01

    Research on the radiolysis of vitamins is of considerable interest since these compounds are important nutritional constituents in foods and in dietetic supplements. In spite of these considerations there are few data and very often difficult to compare for the radiolytic behavior of vitamins. In this work we focused our attention on to the study of the radiolysis of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B 12) in solid state and in aqueous solutions. The procedure was followed by HPLC and UV-spectroscopy. The results obtained in aqueous solutions showed a dependence of the decomposition as a linear function of the dose. The G of decomposition for a 1×10 -5 M solution was 3.3. In the solid state the vitamin was very stable towards the irradiation in the conditions used in this study with a G=2.1×10 -3. A study made with Serratia marcescens as a microbiological contaminant showed that at the sterilization dose there is a destruction of the vitamin in aqueous solution. In the solid state the degree of decomposition was 7%.

  9. Vitamin B12-Containing Plant Food Sources for Vegetarians

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Bito, Tomohiro; Teng, Fei

    2014-01-01

    The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori) is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups. PMID:24803097

  10. [Hemolytic anemias and vitamin B12 deficieny].

    PubMed

    Dietzfelbinger, Hermann; Hubmann, Max

    2015-08-01

    Hemolytic anemias consist of corpuscular, immun-hemolytic and toxic hemolytic anemias. Within the group of corpuscular hemolytic anemias, except for the paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), all symptoms are caused by underlying heredetiary disorders within the red blood cell membran (hereditary spherocytosis), deficiencies of red cell enzymes (G6PDH- and pyrovatkinase deficiency) or disorders in the hemoglobin molecule (thalassaemia and sickle cell disease). Immune-hemolytic anemias are acquired hemolytic anemias and hemolysis is caused by auto- or allo-antibodies which are directed against red blood cell antigens. They are classified as warm, cold, mixed type or drug-induced hemolytic anemia. Therapy consists of glucocorticoids and other immunsuppressive drugs. Pernicious anemia is the most important vitamin B12 deficiency disorder. Diagnosis relies on cobalamin deficiency and antibodies to intrinsic factor. The management should focus on a possibly life-long replacement treatment with cobalamin. PMID:26306021

  11. Vitamin B12 deficiency after irradiation for bladder carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kinn, A.C.; Lantz, B.

    1984-05-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency was found in 10 of 41 patients who underwent radiotherapy before cystectomy with Bricker urinary diversion for carcinoma of the bladder. Of 13 patients given full irradiation because of inoperable bladder cancer 5 had malabsorption of vitamin B12. Serum folic acid was normal in these patients, indicating predominantly ileal irradiation sequelae. Routine evaluation of serum vitamin B12 after radiotherapy is recommended so that appropriate medication can be given, if possible before neurological symptoms appear.

  12. Vitamin B12 assays compared by use of patients sera with low vitamin B12 content

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, B.L.; Pearce, L.C.

    1985-05-01

    The authors compared four radioisotope dilution (RD) methods and a microbiological assay for measuring concentrations of vitamin B12 in a selected panel of serum samples from patients known to be deficient in the vitamin. Low (less than 100 ng/L) and borderline (100-180 ng/L) results were similar between methods, but use of the manufacturers recommended ranges for borderline results would have changed the diagnostic classifications for 22 of 38 samples. Results of all the RD methods inter-correlated well, but less so with the microbiological assay. Borderline, nondiagnostic results were common to all methods, and no apparent advantage was gained from using the microbiological assay.

  13. Vegan diet, subnormal vitamin B-12 status and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Woo, Kam S; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Celermajer, David S

    2014-08-01

    Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products). Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians in Australia, Germany, Italy and Austria, and in vegans (80%) in Hong Kong and India, where vegans rarely take vitamin B-12 fortified food or vitamin B-12 supplements. Similar deficiencies exist in northern Chinese rural communities consuming inadequate meat, egg or dairy products due to poverty or dietary habits. Vascular studies have demonstrated impaired arterial endothelial function and increased carotid intima-media thickness as atherosclerosis surrogates in such metabolic vitamin B-12 deficient populations, but not in lactovegetarians in China. Vitamin B-12 supplementation has a favourable impact on these vascular surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China. Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 status is thus potentially beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency in vegans, and possibly for prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases. PMID:25195560

  14. Causes of Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review describes current knowledge of the main causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The most common explanations for poor B12 status are a low dietary intake of the vitamin (i.e., a low intake of animal-source foods) and malabsorption. Although it has long been known that strict vegetar...

  15. Genome-wide Association Study of Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Folate,

    E-print Network

    Abecasis, Goncalo

    REPORT Genome-wide Association Study of Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Folate, and Homocysteine Blood Schlessinger,12 Manuela Uda,6 and Luigi Ferrucci2 The B vitamins are components of one-carbon metabolism (OCM circulating vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine, a genome-wide association analysis was conducted

  16. Nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency in hospitalized young children.

    PubMed

    Cetinkaya, Feyzullah; Yildirmak, Yildiz; Kutluk, Gunsel; Erdem, Ela

    2007-01-01

    The authors sought to determine prevalence, social, economic, and dietary patterns of young children (n = 20) identified as having vitamin B12 deficiency anemia after admission to their hospital in the last 3 years. The diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency was based on symptoms and clinical findings, findings on peripheral blood films and bone marrow aspirates, and serum levels of vitamin B12. The children had been exclusively breast-fed without any animal food supplementation. Serum vitamin B12 levels were also measured in the sera of mothers and found to be low. The authors concluded that vitamin B12 deficiency might be an important health problem among children of mothers who do not consume animal foods adequately. PMID:17130110

  17. Vitamin B12 deficiency - A 21st century perspective?.

    PubMed

    Shipton, Michael J; Thachil, Jecko

    2015-04-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is a common condition which can present with non-specific clinical features, and in severe cases with neurological or haematological abnormalities. Although classically caused by pernicious anaemia, this condition now accounts for a minority of cases and vitamin B12 deficiency occurs most often due to food-bound cobalamin malabsorption. Since missing the diagnosis can result in potentially severe complications, including degeneration of the spinal cord and pancytopaenia, vitamin B12 deficiency must be diagnosed early and managed appropriately. Intramuscular injections have been the mainstay of treatment, but oral replacement therapy can be effective in many cases. There is accumulating evidence that high vitamin B12 levels (values varied from 350-1,200 pmol/l) are associated with haematological and hepatic disorders, in particular with malignancy. This review focuses on the developments in the clinical features and management of vitamin B12 deficiency over the last decade. PMID:25824066

  18. Regulation of phytoplankton dynamics by vitamin B12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.; Gobler, C. J.; Okbamichael, M.; Taylor, G. T.

    2006-02-01

    Despite the biological necessity of vitamin B12 (cobalamin), its importance in phytoplankton ecology has been ignored for nearly three decades. Here we report strong and selective responses of phytoplankton communities to varying low levels (5-87 pM) of dissolved B12 in several coastal embayments. The ecological importance of this vitamin is inferred from observed declines in dissolved B12 levels as field populations of large (>5 ?m) phytoplankton increased. In contrast, biomass of small (<5 ?m) phytoplankton varied independently of B12 concentrations. These observations were corroborated by field-based nutrient amendment experiments, in which B12 additions stimulated growth of large phytoplankton taxa 6-fold over unamended controls. In contrast, small taxa (<5 ?m) were largely unaffected. This study provides the first evidence of vitamin B12's influence on phytoplankton field population dynamics based on direct chemical measurements of cobalamin, and implicates B12 as an important organic regulator of photoautotrophic fertility in marine systems.

  19. Considering the case for vitamin B12 fortification of flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reasons to fortify flour with vitamin B12 are considered, which include the high prevalence of depletion and deficiency of this vitamin that occurs in persons of all ages in resource-poor countries and in elderly in wealthier countries, as well as the adverse functional consequences of poor vitamin ...

  20. Vitamin B12 and homocysteine status in asymptomatic Indian toddlers.

    PubMed

    Hanumante, N M; Wadia, R S; Deshpande, S S; Sanwalka, N J; Vaidya, M V; Khadilkar, A V

    2008-07-01

    Low serum vitamin B(12) (V B(12)) and hyperhomocysteinemia have been reported in asymptomatic Asian Indian men. We studied the prevalence of V B(12) deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia in 51 asymptomatic toddlers, from Pune, India. V B(12) levels were low and total serum homocysteine was high in 14% and homocysteine levels were significantly higher in boys. Programming for cardiovascular risk in adulthood possibly starts at a very young age through the homocysteine axis. PMID:18716749

  1. Vol. 171, No. 6 Functions Required for Vitamin B12-Dependent Ethanolamine

    E-print Network

    Roth, John R.

    Vol. 171, No. 6 Functions Required for Vitamin B12-Dependent Ethanolamine Utilization in SalmonellaE gene) can catalyze the same reaction (16). Vitamin B12 is also required for formation of the modified encountered in nature is probably hydroxy-B12 (HO- B12). While cyano-B12 (CN-B12; commercial vitamin B12

  2. Determining Functional Vitamin B12 Deficiency in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Khodabandehloo, Niloofar; Vakili, Masoud; Hashemian, Zahra; Zare Zardini, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Elevated concentration of serum total homocysteine usually occurs in vitamin B-12 deficiency. This metabolite can be measured and used for screening functional vitamin B-12 deficiency. Objectives: We assessed functional vitamin B12 deficiency in Tehranian elderly admitted to elderly research center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences. Patients and Materials: A cross-sectional study was performed on 232 elderly admitted to elderly research center in Tehran, Iran in 2012. According to other studies, individuals were classified into two groups: high risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency (< 220 pmol/L) and borderline vitamin B-12 (220–258 pmol/L) accompanied by elevated homocysteine (> 15 micmol/L). Results: Cut-off of 15.0 pmol/L for homocysteine was identified for persons with normal or elevated concentrations. Among persons aged 65–74 and ? 75 years, respectively, 56% and 93% were at high risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency. Conclusions: The prevalence of B12 deficiency was higher in this study compared to other studies, so more attention and massive efficacious policy should be designed to reduce the deficiency of this vitamin. PMID:26430518

  3. Use of Cheese Whey for Vitamin B12 Production

    PubMed Central

    Bullerman, L. B.; Berry, E. C.

    1966-01-01

    The suitability of cheese whey as a substrate for vitamin B12 production by Propionibacterium shermanii was studied. It was found that with a given level of whey solids a definite amount of yeast extract was required to give maximal yields of vitamin B12. Of the levels of materials studied, 10% whey solids and 1.5% yeast extract gave the best yields of vitamin B12. Most of the lactose of the whey had been utilized in all flask cultures after 168 hr at 29 C. Images Fig. 1 PMID:5970817

  4. [Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in infants breastfed by vegans].

    PubMed

    Roed, Casper; Skovby, Flemming; Lund, Allan Meldgaard

    2009-10-19

    Weight loss and reduction of motor skills resulted in paediatric evaluation of a 10-month-old girl and a 12-month-old boy. Both children suffered form anaemia and delayed development due to vitamin B12 deficiency caused by strict maternal vegan diet during pregnancy and nursing. Therapy with cyanocobalamin was instituted with remission of symptoms. Since infants risk irreversible neurologic damage following severe vitamin B12 deficiency, early diagnosis and treatment are mandatory. Vegan and vegetarian women should take vitamin B12 supplementation during the pregnancy and nursing period. PMID:19852900

  5. Electron densities of three B12 vitamins.

    PubMed

    Mebs, Stefan; Henn, Julian; Dittrich, Birger; Paulmann, Carsten; Luger, Peter

    2009-07-23

    The electron densities of the three natural B(12)-vitamins, two of them being essential cofactors for animal life, were determined in a procedure combining high-order X-ray data collection at low to very low temperatures with high-level density functional calculations. In a series of extensive experimental attempts, a high-order data set of adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) could be collected to a resolution of sin theta/lambda = 1.00 A(-1) at 25 K. This modification contains only minor disorder at the solvent bulk. For methylcobalamin (MeCbl), only a severely disordered modification was found (sin theta/lambda = 1.00 A(-1), 100 K, measured with synchrotron radiation). The already published data set of cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) (sin theta/lambda = 1.25 A(-1), 100 K) was reintegrated to guarantee similar treatment of the three compounds and cut to sin theta/lambda = 1.11 A(-1) to obtain a higher degree of completeness and redundancy. On the basis of these accurate experimental geometries of AdoCbl, MeCbl, and CNCbl, state-of-the-art density functional calculations, single-point calculations, and geometry optimizations were performed on model compounds at the BP86/TZVP level of theory to evaluate the electronic differences of the three compounds. AdoCbl and MeCbl are known to undergo different reaction paths in the body. Thus, the focus was directed toward the characterization of the dative Co-C(ax) and Co-N(ax) bonds, which were quantifed by topological parameters, including energy densities; the source function including local source; and the electron localizability indicator (ELI-D), respectively. The source function reveals the existence of delocalized interactions between the corrin macrocycle and the axial ligands. The ELI-D indicates unsaturated Co-C(ax) bonding basins for the two biochemically active cofactors, but not for CNCbl, where a population of 2.2e is found. This may be related to significant pi-backbonding, which is supported by the delocalization index, delta, of 0.15 between the Co atom and the N atom of the cyano ligand. Considering all results, the inherent electronic differences between AdoCbl and MeCbl are found to be small thus, supporting earlier findings that the interaction with the protein site mainly controls the type of Co-C(ax) bond cleavage. PMID:19569666

  6. Causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency.

    PubMed

    Allen, Lindsay H

    2008-06-01

    This review describes current knowledge of the main causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The most common explanations for poor vitamin B12 status are a low dietary intake of the vitamin (i.e., a low intake of animal-source foods) and malabsorption. Although it has long been known that strict vegetarians (vegans) are at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency, evidence now indicates that low intakes of animal-source foods, such as occur in some lacto-ovo vegetarians and many less-industrialized countries, cause vitamin B12 depletion. Malabsorption of the vitamin is most commonly observed as food-bound cobalamin malabsorption due to gastric atrophy in the elderly, and probably as a result of Helicobacter pylori infection. There is growing evidence that gene polymorphisms in transcobalamins affect plasma vitamin B12 concentrations. The primary cause of folate deficiency is low intake of sources rich in the vitamin, such as legumes and green leafy vegetables, and the consumption of these foods may explain why folate status can be adequate in relatively poor populations. Other situations in which the risk of folate deficiency increases include lactation and alcoholism. PMID:18709879

  7. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A...

  9. A rare case of vitamin B12 deficiency with ascites.

    PubMed

    Rajsekhar, Putta; Reddy, Mugannagari Maheshwar; Vaddera, Sameeraja; Rajini, G; Tikeli, Vinil

    2014-07-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is widespread than assumed in population. At risk are older people, pregnant women, vegans, patients with renal and intestinal diseases. Vitamin B12 deficiency can present with various hematological, gastrointestinal and neurological manifestations. In the population, the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in younger people is 5% to 7% which is less compared to elderly people. In developing countries, deficiency is much more common, starting in early life and persisting across the life span. Here, we present a 16-year-old female patient presenting with ascites since 2 months who was subsequently investigated and diagnosed to have nutritional megaloblastic anaemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency after exclusion of other infective, neoplastic, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Inspite, patient was treated with antitubercular drugs but she did not respond. After supplementation of Vitamin B12, ascites responded well. Inadequate intake due to low consumption of animal source foods is the main cause of low serum vitamin B12 in younger adults and likely the main cause in poor population worldwide. PMID:25177593

  10. A Rare Case of Vitamin B12 Deficiency with Ascites

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Mugannagari Maheshwar; Vaddera, Sameeraja; Rajini, G; Tikeli, Vinil

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is widespread than assumed in population. At risk are older people, pregnant women, vegans, patients with renal and intestinal diseases. Vitamin B12 deficiency can present with various hematological, gastrointestinal and neurological manifestations. In the population, the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in younger people is 5% to 7% which is less compared to elderly people. In developing countries, deficiency is much more common, starting in early life and persisting across the life span. Here, we present a 16-year-old female patient presenting with ascites since 2 months who was subsequently investigated and diagnosed to have nutritional megaloblastic anaemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency after exclusion of other infective, neoplastic, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Inspite, patient was treated with antitubercular drugs but she did not respond. After supplementation of Vitamin B12, ascites responded well. Inadequate intake due to low consumption of animal source foods is the main cause of low serum vitamin B12 in younger adults and likely the main cause in poor population worldwide. PMID:25177593

  11. Vitamin-B12 deficiency following therapy in gynecologic oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Bandy, L.C.; Clarke-Pearson, D.L.; Creasman, W.T.

    1984-03-01

    Vitamin-B12 deficiency results from inadequate absorption of the vitamin by the distal ileum and depletion of available stores. Both radiotherapy and intestinal resection can contribute to development of this condition. The significance of this problem in gynecologic oncology is discussed and two patients are described.

  12. MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF CORRINOIDS I. Vitamin B12

    PubMed Central

    Scott, W. M.; Burgus, R. C.; Hufham, J. B.; Pfiffner, J. J.

    1964-01-01

    Scott, W. M. (Wayne State University, Detroit, Mich.), R. C. Burgus, J. B. Hufham, and J. J. Pfiffner. Microbial degradation of corrinoids. I. Vitamin B12. J. Bacteriol. 88:581–585. 1964.—Microorganisms isolated from a variety of soil, sewage, and mud samples, and stock cultures, were examined for the ability to degrade vitamin B12. More than 200 isolates which attack the vitamin were examined, and they all demonstrated reversible fading of the red vitamin. The color was restored by aeration. Very few microorganisms were able to degrade the vitamin to permanently colorless products, although many were able to degrade it partially, to produce new pigments. Some of these pigments appeared similar, if not identical, although they were produced by different bacteria. Radiotracer and electrophoretic mobility data are presented to show that the transformation products are derived from the vitamin. All the degradative microorganisms isolated were bacteria, and the most active was Pseudomonas rubescens. PMID:14208491

  13. The electronic structure and chemical bonding of vitamin B12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurmaev, E. Z.; Moewes, A.; Ouyang, L.; Randaccio, L.; Rulis, P.; Ching, W. Y.; Bach, M.; Neumann, M.

    2003-05-01

    The electronic structure and chemical bonding of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) and B12-derivative (methylcobalamin) are studied by means of X-ray emission (XES) and photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy. The obtained results are compared with ab initio electronic structure calculations using the orthogonalized linear combination of the atomic orbital method (OLCAO). We show that the chemical bonding in vitamin B12 is characterized by the strong Co-C bond and relatively weak axial Co-N bond. It is further confirmed that the Co-C bond in cyanocobalamin is stronger than that of methylcobalamin resulting in their different biological activity.

  14. Dietary Sources of Vitamin B-12 and Their Association with Vitamin B-12 Status Markers in Healthy Older Adults in the B-PROOF Study

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A. M.; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P.; van der Zwaluw, Nikita L.; van der Velde, Nathalie; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Low vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations between dietary sources of vitamin B-12 (meat, fish and shellfish, eggs, dairy) and serum vitamin B-12, using cross-sectional data of 600 Dutch community-dwelling adults (?65 years). Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Vitamin B-12 concentrations were measured in serum. Associations were studied over tertiles of vitamin B-12 intake using P for trend, by calculating prevalence ratios (PRs), and splines. Whereas men had significantly higher vitamin B-12 intakes than women (median (25th–75th percentile): 4.18 (3.29–5.38) versus 3.47 (2.64–4.40) ?g/day), serum vitamin B-12 did not differ between the two sexes (mean ± standard deviation (SD): 275 ± 104 pmol/L versus 290 ± 113 pmol/L). Higher intakes of dairy, meat, and fish and shellfish were significantly associated with higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations, where meat and dairy—predominantly milk were the most potent sources. Egg intake did not significantly contribute to higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations. Thus, dairy and meat were the most important contributors to serum vitamin B-12, followed by fish and shellfish. PMID:26389945

  15. Dietary Sources of Vitamin B-12 and Their Association with Vitamin B-12 Status Markers in Healthy Older Adults in the B-PROOF Study.

    PubMed

    Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P; Zwaluw, Nikita L van der; Velde, Nathalie van der; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2015-09-01

    Low vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations between dietary sources of vitamin B-12 (meat, fish and shellfish, eggs, dairy) and serum vitamin B-12, using cross-sectional data of 600 Dutch community-dwelling adults (?65 years). Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Vitamin B-12 concentrations were measured in serum. Associations were studied over tertiles of vitamin B-12 intake using P for trend, by calculating prevalence ratios (PRs), and splines. Whereas men had significantly higher vitamin B-12 intakes than women (median (25th-75th percentile): 4.18 (3.29-5.38) versus 3.47 (2.64-4.40) ?g/day), serum vitamin B-12 did not differ between the two sexes (mean ± standard deviation (SD): 275 ± 104 pmol/L versus 290 ± 113 pmol/L). Higher intakes of dairy, meat, and fish and shellfish were significantly associated with higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations, where meat and dairy-predominantly milk were the most potent sources. Egg intake did not significantly contribute to higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations. Thus, dairy and meat were the most important contributors to serum vitamin B-12, followed by fish and shellfish. PMID:26389945

  16. Neurological consequences of vitamin B12 deficiency and its treatment.

    PubMed

    Chalouhi, Christel; Faesch, Sabine; Anthoine-Milhomme, Marie-Constance; Fulla, Yvonne; Dulac, Olivier; Chéron, Gérard

    2008-08-01

    In developed countries, the vitamin B12 deficiency usually occurs in children exclusively breast-fed, whose mothers are vegetarians, causing low stores of vitamin B12. Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency appear during the second trimester of life and include failure to thrive, lethargy, hypotonia, and arrest or regression of developmental skills. A megaloblastic anemia can be present. One half of the infants exhibit abnormal movements before the start of treatment with intramuscular cobalamin, which disappear 1 or 2 days after. More rarely, movement disorders appear a few days after treatment, whereas neurological symptoms are improving. These abnormal movements can last for 2 to 6 weeks. If not treated, vitamin B12 deficiency can cause lasting neurodisability. Therefore, efforts should be directed to preventing deficiency in pregnant and breast-feeding women on vegan diets and their infants by giving them vitamin B12 supplements. When preventive supplementation has failed, one should recognize and treat quickly an infant presenting with failure to thrive and delayed development. PMID:18708898

  17. [Megaloblastic-vitamin B12 deficiency anemia in childhood].

    PubMed

    Mtvarelidze, Z G; Kvezereli-Kopadze, A N; Kvezereli-Kopadze, M A

    2009-05-01

    Megaloblastic anemias are basically caused by vitamin B(12) and/or folic acid deficiency. Childhood vitamin B(12) deficiency is extremely rare. There are congenital and acquired forms of vitamin B(12)-deficiency anemias. The article captures findings of 10 year observation of 3 patients with Imerslund-Gräsbeck Syndrome (congenital chronic megaloblastic anemia with proteinuria), in which the diagnosis was established by us in early childhood and due to correct treatment and prevention complete clinical-laboratory remission is kept so far. We have also observed rare case of acquired megaloblastic anemia - 14 years old vegetarian patient, who was diagnosed with vitamin B(12)-deficiency anemia based on history, clinical and para-clinical data. It was caused by strict vegetarianism of the patient. Therefore first of all the diet was corrected. In 5 days of specific treatment with vitamin B(12) "reticulocyte crisis" was manifested (proving the correctness of diagnosis and treatment) and complete clinical-hematological remission was achieved in 2 weeks. The given cases are interesting as megaloblastic anemias in childhood are both rare and difficult to diagnose. In such cases timely diagnosis, treatment and prevention tactics should be based on cause-and-effect relation of disease. PMID:19556642

  18. Involuntary movements due to vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Aaron; Moloi, M W

    2014-12-01

    Deficiency of vitamin B12 produces protean effects on the nervous system, most commonly neuropathy, myelopathy, cognitive and behavioural symptoms, and optic atrophy. Involuntary movements comprise a relatively rare manifestation of this readily treatable disorder. Both adults and infants deficient in vitamin B12 may present with chorea, tremor, myoclonus, Parkinsonism, dystonia, or a combination of these, which may precede diagnosis or become apparent only a few days after parenteral replacement therapy has begun. The pathogenesis of these movement disorders shows interesting parallels to certain neurodegenerative conditions. The clinical syndrome responds well to vitamin B12 supplementation in most cases, and an early diagnosis is essential to reverse the haematological and neurological dysfunction characteristic of this disorder. In this article, we elucidate the association of vitamin B12 deficiency with movement disorders in adults and in infants, discuss the pathogenesis of this association, review previously reported cases, and present a young adult male with severe generalized chorea that showed a salutary response to vitamin B12 supplementation. PMID:24852503

  19. Iron limitation of a springtime bacterial and phytoplankton community in the ross sea: implications for vitamin b(12) nutrition.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Erin M; Saito, Mak A; Lee, Peter A; Dunbar, Robert B; Sedwick, Peter N; Ditullio, Giacomo R

    2011-01-01

    The Ross Sea is home to some of the largest phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean. Primary production in this system has previously been shown to be iron limited in the summer and periodically iron and vitamin B(12) colimited. In this study, we examined trace metal limitation of biological activity in the Ross Sea in the austral spring and considered possible implications for vitamin B(12) nutrition. Bottle incubation experiments demonstrated that iron limited phytoplankton growth in the austral spring while B(12), cobalt, and zinc did not. This is the first demonstration of iron limitation in a Phaeocystis antarctica-dominated, early season Ross Sea phytoplankton community. The lack of B(12) limitation in this location is consistent with previous Ross Sea studies in the austral summer, wherein vitamin additions did not stimulate P. antarctica growth and B(12) was limiting only when bacterial abundance was low. Bottle incubation experiments and a bacterial regrowth experiment also revealed that iron addition directly enhanced bacterial growth. B(12) uptake measurements in natural water samples and in an iron fertilized bottle incubation demonstrated that bacteria serve not only as a source for vitamin B(12), but also as a significant sink, and that iron additions enhanced B(12) uptake rates in phytoplankton but not bacteria. Additionally, vitamin uptake rates did not become saturated upon the addition of up to 95?pM B(12). A rapid B(12) uptake rate was observed after 13?min, which then decreased to a slower constant uptake rate over the next 52?h. Results from this study highlight the importance of iron availability in limiting early season Ross Sea phytoplankton growth and suggest that rates of vitamin B(12) production and consumption may be impacted by iron availability. PMID:21886638

  20. Iron Limitation of a Springtime Bacterial and Phytoplankton Community in the Ross Sea: Implications for Vitamin B12 Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Erin M.; Saito, Mak A.; Lee, Peter A.; Dunbar, Robert B.; Sedwick, Peter N.; DiTullio, Giacomo R.

    2011-01-01

    The Ross Sea is home to some of the largest phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean. Primary production in this system has previously been shown to be iron limited in the summer and periodically iron and vitamin B12 colimited. In this study, we examined trace metal limitation of biological activity in the Ross Sea in the austral spring and considered possible implications for vitamin B12 nutrition. Bottle incubation experiments demonstrated that iron limited phytoplankton growth in the austral spring while B12, cobalt, and zinc did not. This is the first demonstration of iron limitation in a Phaeocystis antarctica-dominated, early season Ross Sea phytoplankton community. The lack of B12 limitation in this location is consistent with previous Ross Sea studies in the austral summer, wherein vitamin additions did not stimulate P. antarctica growth and B12 was limiting only when bacterial abundance was low. Bottle incubation experiments and a bacterial regrowth experiment also revealed that iron addition directly enhanced bacterial growth. B12 uptake measurements in natural water samples and in an iron fertilized bottle incubation demonstrated that bacteria serve not only as a source for vitamin B12, but also as a significant sink, and that iron additions enhanced B12 uptake rates in phytoplankton but not bacteria. Additionally, vitamin uptake rates did not become saturated upon the addition of up to 95?pM B12. A rapid B12 uptake rate was observed after 13?min, which then decreased to a slower constant uptake rate over the next 52?h. Results from this study highlight the importance of iron availability in limiting early season Ross Sea phytoplankton growth and suggest that rates of vitamin B12 production and consumption may be impacted by iron availability. PMID:21886638

  1. Plasma folate, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and risk of breast cancer in women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: B vitamins such as folate, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 are coenzymes that are important for DNA integrity and stability. Deficiency in these B vitamins may promote tumor carcinogenesis. Objective: We prospectively evaluated plasma concentrations of folate, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP; ...

  2. An amphiphilic, catalytically active, vitamin B12 derivative.

    PubMed

    Giedyk, M; Fedosov, S N; Gryko, D

    2014-05-11

    We performed the reaction of vitamin B12 with N,N-dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal for primary amide activation, and added MeOH as a nucleophile, to afford cobalester, the first amphiphilic cobalamin derivative. The unique combination of redox properties and solubility represents an asset for its use as a catalyst in C-C bond forming reactions. PMID:24623153

  3. How prevalent is vitamin B(12) deficiency among vegetarians?

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Roman; Parrott, Scott James; Raj, Sudha; Cullum-Dugan, Diana; Lucus, Debbie

    2013-02-01

    Vegetarians are at risk for vitamin B(12) (B12) deficiency due to suboptimal intake. The goal of the present literature review was to assess the rate of B12 depletion and deficiency among vegetarians and vegans. Using a PubMed search to identify relevant publications, 18 articles were found that reported B12 deficiency rates from studies that identified deficiency by measuring methylmalonic acid, holo-transcobalamin II, or both. The deficiency rates reported for specific populations were as follows: 62% among pregnant women, between 25% and almost 86% among children, 21-41% among adolescents, and 11-90% among the elderly. Higher rates of deficiency were reported among vegans compared with vegetarians and among individuals who had adhered to a vegetarian diet since birth compared with those who had adopted such a diet later in life. The main finding of this review is that vegetarians develop B12 depletion or deficiency regardless of demographic characteristics, place of residency, age, or type of vegetarian diet. Vegetarians should thus take preventive measures to ensure adequate intake of this vitamin, including regular consumption of supplements containing B12. PMID:23356638

  4. Vitamin B12 deficiency in relation to functional disabilities.

    PubMed

    Oberlin, Breanna S; Tangney, Christy C; Gustashaw, Kristin A R; Rasmussen, Heather E

    2013-11-01

    This study was designed to assess whether symptoms, functional measures, and reported disabilities were associated with vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency when defined in three ways. Participants, aged 60 or more years of age, in 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were categorized in relation to three previously used definitions of B12 deficiency: (1) serum B12 < 148 pmol/L; (2) serum B12 < 200 pmol/L and serum homocysteine > 20 ?mol/L; and (3) serum B12 < 258 pmol/L or serum methylmalonic acid > 0.21 ?mol/L. Functional measures of peripheral neuropathy, balance, cognitive function, gait speed, along with self-reported disability (including activities of daily living) were examined with standardized instruments by trained NHANES interviewers and technicians. Individuals identified as B12 deficient by definition 2 were more likely to manifest peripheral neuropathy OR (odds) (95% confidence intervals), p value: 9.70 (2.24, 42.07), 0.004 and report greater total disability, 19.61 (6.22, 61.86) 0.0001 after adjustments for age, sex, race, serum creatinine, and ferritin concentrations, smoking, diabetes, and peripheral artery disease. Smaller, but significantly increased, odds of peripheral neuropathy and total disability were also observed when definition 3 was applied. Functional measures and reported disabilities were associated with B12 deficiency definitions that include B12 biomarkers (homocysteine or methylmalonic acid). Further study of these definitions is needed to alert clinicians of possible subclinical B12 deficiency because functional decline amongst older adults may be correctable if the individual is B12 replete. PMID:24225845

  5. Effect of combined folic acid, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on colorectal adenoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Folic acid, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) act in concert in the one-carbon metabolism and may protect against colorectal neoplasia. We examined the effect of combined B-vitamin treatment on the occurrence of colorectal adenoma. The Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study was a rand...

  6. Folate–vitamin B-12 interaction in relation to cognitive impairment, anemia, and biochemical indicators of vitamin B-12 deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous reports on pernicious anemia treatment suggested that high folic acid intake adversely influences the natural history of vitamin B-12 deficiency, which affects many elderly individuals. However, experimental investigation of this hypothesis is unethical, and the few existing observational d...

  7. Vitamin B12 deficiency among patients with diabetes mellitus: is routine screening and supplementation justified?

    PubMed

    Kibirige, Davis; Mwebaze, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is an essential micronutrient required for optimal hemopoetic, neuro-cognitive and cardiovascular function. Biochemical and clinical vitamin B12 deficiency has been demonstrated to be highly prevalent among patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It presents with diverse clinical manifestations ranging from impaired memory, dementia, delirium, peripheral neuropathy, sub acute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, megaloblastic anemia and pancytopenia. This review article offers a current perspective on the physiological roles of vitamin B12, proposed pathophysiological mechanisms of vitamin B12 deficiency, screening for vitamin B12 deficiency and vitamin B12 supplementation among patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:23651730

  8. Vitamin B12 absorption in some neurological and neuroendocrine disorders

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, D.; Lascelles, P. T.

    1970-01-01

    An assessment of vitamin B12 absorption in neurological patients has been made by both serum and urine counting of 57Co cyanocobalamin during the conventional Schilling test. Although patients with pernicious anaemia, some with subacute combined degeneration of the cord, have been studied, emphasis in the discussion is placed on the significantly increased excretion of the radioactive vitamin in a group of patients with pituitary insufficiency. Results are also given for epileptic patients who have developed folate deficiency (as assessed by serum folate levels) coincidental with anticonvulsant therapy, as well as for some patients who have had neurological symptoms or signs following partial gastrectomy operations. PMID:5483383

  9. Decyanation of vitamin B12 by a trafficking chaperone

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jihoe; Gherasim, Carmen; Banerjee, Ruma

    2008-01-01

    The mystery of how the cyanide group in vitamin B12 or cyanocobalamin, discovered 60 years ago, is removed, has been solved by the demonstration that the trafficking chaperone, MMACHC, catalyzes a reductive decyanation reaction. Electrons transferred from NADPH via cytosolic flavoprotein oxidoreductases are used to cleave the cobalt–carbon bond with reductive elimination of the cyanide ligand. The product, cob(II)alamin, is a known substrate for assimilation into the active cofactor forms, methylcobalamin and 5?-deoxyadenosylcobalamin, and is bound in the “base-off” state that is needed by the two B12-dependent target enzymes, methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Defects in MMACHC represent the most common cause of inborn errors of B12 metabolism, and our results explain the observation that fibroblasts from these patients are poorly responsive to vitamin B12 but show some metabolic correction with aquocobalamin, a cofactor form lacking the cyanide ligand, which is mirrored by patients showing poorer clinical responsiveness to cyano- versus aquocobalamin. PMID:18779575

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Direct exchange of vitamin B12 is demonstrated by

    E-print Network

    Cicuta, Pietro

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Direct exchange of vitamin B12 is demonstrated by modelling the growth dynamics Mesorhizobium loti supplies vitamin B12 (cobalamin) to the freshwater green alga Lobomonas rostrata, which surveyed (from fresh, marine and brackish habitats) are auxotrophic for cobalamin (vitamin B12) that is

  11. A Multinuclear Solid-State NMR Analysis of Vitamin B12 in Its Different Polymorphic Forms

    E-print Network

    Frydman, Lucio

    A Multinuclear Solid-State NMR Analysis of Vitamin B12 in Its Different Polymorphic Forms Ales of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) polymorphs. These studies involved recrystallizing a series of samples under structures described by Hodgkin and co-workers in their seminal vitamin B12 crystallographic analyses. Most

  12. Vitamin B12 as a modulator of gut microbial ecology

    PubMed Central

    Degnan, Patrick H.; Taga, Michiko E.; Goodman, Andrew L.

    2014-01-01

    The microbial mechanisms and key metabolites that shape the composition of the human gut microbiota are largely unknown, impeding efforts to manipulate dysbiotic microbial communities towards stability and health. Vitamins, which by definition are not synthesized in sufficient quantities by the host and can mediate fundamental biological processes in microbes, represent an attractive target for reshaping microbial communities. Here, we discuss how vitamin B12 (cobalamin) impacts diverse host-microbe symbioses. Although cobalamin is synthesized by some human gut microbes, it is a precious resource in the gut and is likely not provisioned to the host in significant quantities. However, this vitamin may make an unrecognized contribution in shaping the structure and function of human gut microbial communities. PMID:25440056

  13. A review of vitamin B12 in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Brescoll, Jennifer; Daveluy, Steven

    2015-02-01

    Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is important in the hematological and nervous systems, and it has a complex relationship with the skin. Altered cobalamin levels can lead to dermatological manifestations, which may indicate a deficiency or excess of this vitamin. The biochemistry and metabolism of cobalamin is complex, and diseases can be associated with alterations of this metabolic pathway. The cutaneous manifestations of cobalamin deficiency include hyperpigmentation (most commonly); hair and nail changes; and oral changes, including glossitis. Additionally, several dermatologic conditions, including vitiligo, aphthous stomatitis, atopic dermatitis, and acne are related to cobalamin excess or deficiency. The cutaneous complications of cobalamin therapy include acne, rosacea, and allergic site reactions, or anaphylaxis with cobalamin injections. As cobalt is a component of cobalamin, patients with cobalt sensitivity have been reported to have cutaneous manifestations when receiving cobalamin replacement therapy. PMID:25559140

  14. Genetic Architecture of Vitamin B12 and Folate Levels Uncovered Applying Deeply Sequenced Large Datasets

    E-print Network

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    Genetic Architecture of Vitamin B12 and Folate Levels Uncovered Applying Deeply Sequenced Large architecture of serum levels of vitamin B12 (B12) and folate. Up to 22.9 million sequence variants were analyzed in combined samples of 45,576 and 37,341 individuals with serum B12 and folate measurements

  15. Biologically active vitamin B12 compounds in foods for preventing deficiency among vegetarians and elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Tanioka, Yuri; Bito, Tomohiro

    2013-07-17

    The usual dietary sources of vitamin B12 are animal-source based foods, including meat, milk, eggs, fish, and shellfish, although a few plant-based foods such as certain types of dried lavers (nori) and mushrooms contain substantial and considerable amounts of vitamin B12, respectively. Unexpectedly, detailed characterization of vitamin B12 compounds in foods reveals the presence of various corrinoids that are inactive in humans. The majority of edible blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) and certain edible shellfish predominately contain an inactive corrinoid known as pseudovitamin B12. Various factors affect the bioactivity of vitamin B12 in foods. For example, vitamin B12 is partially degraded and loses its biological activity during cooking and storage of foods. The intrinsic factor-mediated gastrointestinal absorption system in humans has evolved to selectively absorb active vitamin B12 from naturally occurring vitamin B12 compounds, including its degradation products and inactive corrinoids that are present in daily meal foods. The objective of this review is to present up-to-date information on various factors that can affect the bioactivity of vitamin B12 in foods. To prevent vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians and elderly subjects, it is necessary to identify plant-source foods that contain high levels of bioactive vitamin B12 and, in conjunction, to prepare the use of crystalline vitamin B12-fortified foods. PMID:23782218

  16. Combined dietary folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 intake influences plasma docosahexaenoic acid concentration in rats

    E-print Network

    van Wijk, Nick

    Background: Folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 are essential nutritional components in one-carbon metabolism and are required for methylation capacity. The availability of these vitamins may therefore modify methylation ...

  17. Vitamin B12 deficiency in the institutionalized elderly: A regional study.

    PubMed

    Wong, C W; Ip, C Y; Leung, C P; Leung, C S; Cheng, J N; Siu, C Y

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency increases with age and is suggested to be even higher in the elderly living in institutions. This retrospective study evaluated the vitamin B12 and folate status of 1996 institutionalized elderly residents aged over 65years. Among them, 34.9% had vitamin B12 deficiency (serum vitamin B12 <150pmol/L), 11.8% had folate deficiency (serum folate <6.8nmol/L), and 4.9% had both. The majority of vitamin B12 deficient residents (68%) had serum vitamin B12 between 100pmol/L and 149pmol/L. Macrocytosis was found in 24.2% of vitamin B12 deficient residents. A significant increase in macrocytosis was associated with a decrease in serum vitamin B12 below 100pmol/L. Macrocytosis was most common in those with vitamin B12 ?69pmol/L (50.9%). Overall, vitamin B12 deficiency is common in the institutionalized elderly, however macrocytosis cannot predict deficiency. More liberal testing for vitamin B12 status in the institutionalized elderly may be warranted. PMID:26122132

  18. Anaerobic biosynthesis of the lower ligand of vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Amrita B; Han, Andrew W; Mehta, Angad P; Mok, Kenny C; Osadchiy, Vadim; Begley, Tadhg P; Taga, Michiko E

    2015-08-25

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is required by humans and other organisms for diverse metabolic processes, although only a subset of prokaryotes is capable of synthesizing B12 and other cobamide cofactors. The complete aerobic and anaerobic pathways for the de novo biosynthesis of B12 are known, with the exception of the steps leading to the anaerobic biosynthesis of the lower ligand, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB). Here, we report the identification and characterization of the complete pathway for anaerobic DMB biosynthesis. This pathway, identified in the obligate anaerobic bacterium Eubacterium limosum, is composed of five previously uncharacterized genes, bzaABCDE, that together direct DMB production when expressed in anaerobically cultured Escherichia coli. Expression of different combinations of the bza genes revealed that 5-hydroxybenzimidazole, 5-methoxybenzimidazole, and 5-methoxy-6-methylbenzimidazole, all of which are lower ligands of cobamides produced by other organisms, are intermediates in the pathway. The bza gene content of several bacterial and archaeal genomes is consistent with experimentally determined structures of the benzimidazoles produced by these organisms, indicating that these genes can be used to predict cobamide structure. The identification of the bza genes thus represents the last remaining unknown component of the biosynthetic pathway for not only B12 itself, but also for three other cobamide lower ligands whose biosynthesis was previously unknown. Given the importance of cobamides in environmental, industrial, and human-associated microbial metabolism, the ability to predict cobamide structure may lead to an improved ability to understand and manipulate microbial metabolism. PMID:26246619

  19. Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as acute ataxia.

    PubMed

    Crawford, John Ross; Say, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    A previously healthy 7-year-old Caucasian boy was hospitalised for evaluation of acute ataxia and failure to thrive, initially suspicious for an intracranial mass. Weight and body mass index were below the third percentile and he demonstrated loss of joint position and vibratory sense on examination. Laboratory studies revealed megaloblastic anaemia while an initial MRI of the brain showed no evidence of mass lesions or other abnormalities. A dietary history revealed the child subscribed to a restrictive vegan diet with little to no intake of animal products or other fortified foods. The child was diagnosed with presumed vitamin B12 deficiency and was treated with intramuscular B12 injections. Neurological symptoms resolved promptly within several days after starting therapy. This case underlines the importance of assessing nutritional status in the evaluation of neurological dysfunction in the pediatric patient. PMID:23536622

  20. Rare Case of Strongyloides stercoralis with Vitamin B12 Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kad?lar, Özlem; Bozkurt, Berna; Karakeçe, Engin; Kaya, Tezcan; Çiftçi, ?hsan Hakk?; Tamer, Ali

    2015-09-01

    Strongyloidiyasis is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions, and mostly soil transmitted nematode disease that is seen as sporadic cases in Turkey. As may be asymptomatic in healthy individuals, it may even cause death in immunosuppressive people. We report a case of Strongyloides stercoralis infection in a patient, 29 years old young male was admitted to our institution with diarrhea who has got vitamin B12 deficiency and eosinophilia. The case represents an extremely rare and in our knowledge, it is the first case in Sakarya. PMID:26470934

  1. Enhancing the vitamin B12 production and growth of Propionibacterium freudenreichii in tofu wastewater via a light-induced vitamin B12 riboswitch.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Zhu, Xuan; Shen, Yubiao; Yao, Huanghong; Wang, Peiheng; Ye, Kun; Wang, Xiaofeng; Gu, Qing

    2015-12-01

    The vitamin B12-dependent riboswitch is a crucial factor that regulates gene transcription to mediate the growth of and vitamin B12 synthesis by Propionibacterium freudenreichii. In this study, the effect of various wavelengths of light on the growth rate and vitamin B12 synthesis was studied. Red, green, and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were selected, and a dark condition was used as the control. The microorganism growth rate was measured using a spectrophotometer and plate counting, while the vitamin B12 content was determined using an HPLC-based method. The optical density at 600 nm (OD600) values indicated that P. freudenreichii grew better under the continuous and discontinuous blue light conditions. Moreover, under the blue light condition, P. freudenreichii tended to have a higher growth rate (0.332 h(-1)) and vitamin B12 synthesis (ca. 10 ?g/mL) in tofu wastewater than in dark conditions. HPLC analysis also showed that more methylcobalamin was produced under the blue light conditions than in the other conditions. The cbiB gene transcription results showed that blue light induced the synthesis of this vitamin B12 synthesis enzyme. Moreover, the results of inhibiting the expression of green fluorescent protein indicated that blue light removed the inhibition by the vitamin B12-dependent riboswitch. This method can be used to reduce fermentation time and produce more vitamin B12 in tofu wastewater. PMID:26373724

  2. Breast milk vitamin B-12 concentrations of Guatemalan women are correlated with maternal but not infant vitamin B12 status at 12 months postpartum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our previous studies one third of lactating Guatemalan women, infants and children had deficient or marginal serum vitamin B-12 concentrations. Relationships among maternal and infant status and breast milk vitamin B-12, however, have not been investigated in such populations. Our purpose was to ...

  3. VITAMIN B-12 SUPPLEMENTATION OF DEFICIENT LACTATING GUATEMALAN WOMEN IMPROVES MATERNAL BUT NOT INFANT STATUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin B-12 deficiency is common in mothers and infants where maternal intake of animals source foods is low. The first six months post-partum is a critical period of neurological development requiring vitamin B-12. A pilot study was designed to determine the dose of B-12 to the mothers that would ...

  4. Insights into the Evolution of Vitamin B12 Auxotrophy from Sequenced Algal Genomes

    E-print Network

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    Insights into the Evolution of Vitamin B12 Auxotrophy from Sequenced Algal Genomes Katherine E Abstract Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a dietary requirement for humans because it is an essential cofactor microalgal species need the vitamin as a growth supplement, but there is no phylogenetic relationship between

  5. Update: vitamin B12 deficiency among Bhutanese refugees resettling in the United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    Cuffe, Kendra; Stauffer, William; Painter, John; Shetty, Sharmila; Montour, Jessica; Zhou, Weigong

    2014-07-18

    In 2008, clinicians performing routine medical examinations in the United States reported high rates of hematologic and neurologic disorders caused by vitamin B12 deficiency in resettled Bhutanese refugees. To confirm this finding, CDC screened Bhutanese refugees' serum samples for vitamin B12 levels and found vitamin B12 deficiency in 64% (n = 99) of samples obtained before departure and 27% (n = 64) of samples obtained after arrival in the United States. In response, CDC recommended that arriving Bhutanese refugees receive oral vitamin B12 supplements and nutrition advice. In 2012, based on anecdotal reports of decreasing rates of vitamin B12 deficiency in this population, CDC worked with select domestic refugee health programs to determine if the recommendations had reduced the vitamin B12 deficiency rate among Bhutanese refugees. PMID:25029113

  6. Vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly: is it worth screening?

    PubMed

    Wong, C W

    2015-04-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common among the elderly. Elderly people are particularly at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency because of the high prevalence of atrophic gastritis-associated food-cobalamin (vitamin B12) malabsorption, and the increasing prevalence of pernicious anaemia with advancing age. The deficiency most often goes unrecognised because the clinical manifestations are highly variable, often subtle and non-specific, but if left undiagnosed the consequences can be serious. Diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency, however, is not straightforward as laboratory tests have certain limitations. Setting a cut-off level to define serum vitamin B12 deficiency is difficult; though homocysteine and methylmalonic acid are more sensitive for vitamin B12 deficiency, it may give false result in some conditions and the reference intervals are not standardised. At present, there is no consensus or guideline for diagnosis of this deficiency. It is most often based on the clinical symptoms together with laboratory assessment (low serum vitamin B12 level and elevated serum homocysteine or methylmalonic acid level) and the response to treatment to make definitive diagnosis. Treatment and replacement with oral vitamin B12 can be as effective as parenteral administration even in patients with pernicious anaemia. The suggested oral vitamin B12 dose is 1 mg daily for a month, and then maintenance dose of 125 to 250 µg for patients with dietary insufficiency and 1 mg daily for those with pernicious anaemia. Vitamin B12 replacement is safe and without side-effects, but prompt treatment is required to reverse the damage before it becomes extensive or irreversible. At present, there is no recommendation for mass screening for vitamin B12 in the elderly. Nevertheless, the higher prevalence with age, increasing risk of vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly, symptoms being difficult to recognise, and availability of safe treatment options make screening a favourable option. However, the unavailability of reliable diagnostic tool or gold standard test makes screening difficult to carry out. PMID:25756278

  7. Delirium as a result of vitamin B12 deficiency in a vegetarian female patient.

    PubMed

    Mavrommati, K; Sentissi, O

    2013-09-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency can manifest with haematological, gastrointestinal and neuropsychiatric signs. The neuropsychiatric symptoms may be concurrent or precede the other symptoms. The reported case is a clinical case of delirium due to vitamin B12 deficiency in a female vegetarian patient. The patient was treated with vitamin B12 supplementation. Initially, it was difficult to diagnose this patient, who presented with delirium that could have been due to multiple causes. The finding underlines the importance of conducting a complete laboratory test panel for delirium, including the blood levels of vitamin B12. PMID:23859997

  8. [Effects of Vitamin B12 in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Peripheral Neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Nodera, Hiroyuki; Izumi, Yuishin; Kaji, Ryuji

    2015-09-01

    Vitamin B(12)(vB(12)) deficient is regarded as iatrogenic in some cases. Although the recommended oral intake of vB(12) has been determined, administration of vB(12) exceeding the recommended dose could have multiple pharmacological effects. "Ultra-high dose" vB(12) therapy has been used for peripheral neuropathy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, suggesting its promising neuroprotective effects. PMID:26329154

  9. Interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C in pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The water-soluble vitamins B6, B12 and C play important roles in maternal health as well as fetal development and physiology during gestation. This systematic review evaluates the risks and benefits of interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C during pregnancy on maternal, neonatal and child health ...

  10. Competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND Few accurate data exist on the concentration of vitamin B12 in human milk. Binding of the vitamin to haptocorrin (HC) can interfere with the assay if not removed by pretreatment, and very low values can occur in women with poor B12 status. This study evaluated two competitive enzyme bind...

  11. Vitamin B-12 and homocysteine status among vegetarians: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Singer, Ingrid

    2009-05-01

    Evidence exists that well-planned vegetarian diets provide numerous health benefits and are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle. It is also known that animal foods provide micronutrients that are nonexistent or available only in limited amounts in plant foods. Restriction or exclusion of all animal foods may therefore result in low intake of certain micronutrients such as vitamin B-12, thereby affecting vitamin B-12 status and elevating plasma homocysteine concentrations. Overall, the studies we reviewed showed reduced mean vitamin B-12 status and elevated mean homocysteine concentrations in vegetarians, particularly among vegans. Low vitamin B-12 intake may lead to decreased bioavailability and functional deficiency of cobalamin. Although early noticeable symptoms of vitamin B-12 deficiency are nonspecific (unusual fatigue, digestion problems, frequent upper respiratory infections), the best-known clinical manifestations of cobalamin malabsorption are hematologic (pernicious anemia) and neurologic symptoms. Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Given these health concerns, vegetarians, particularly vegans, must be advised to carefully plan their diets, to monitor their plasma vitamin B-12 on a regular basis to facilitate early detection of low cobalamin status, and to use vitamin B-12-fortified foods or take vitamin B-12 supplements if necessary. PMID:19357223

  12. Long term use of metformin leading to vitamin B 12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tung, Moon Ley; Tan, Lip Kun

    2014-06-01

    Metformin is a commonly used oral hypoglycaemic agent worldwide. Gastrointestinal side effects and lactic acidosis related to metformin usage are commonly recognized. However, the associated vitamin B12 deficiency is less well known. We present a case of long term metformin use resulting in vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:24674102

  13. False-normal vitamin B12 results in a patient with pernicious anaemia.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, P; Narayanan, S; Cook, P

    2015-12-01

    Pernicious anaemia is a common autoimmune disorder with a prevalence of approximately 4% amongst Europeans. If untreated, it can result in permanent neurological disability or death. Central to the diagnosis is establishing the presence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Concern has been raised recently regarding false-normal results obtained with competitive-binding vitamin B12 assays performed on automated biochemistry platforms in patients with pernicious anaemia due to the presence of interfering anti-intrinsic factor antibodies in the patient sample. We report a case in which diagnosis of pernicious anaemia was delayed due to false-normal vitamin B12 results. Questioning the results in light of high pre-test probability, and knowledge of the role of functional markers of vitamin B12 deficiency enabled the correct diagnosis to be made so that effective treatment could be initiated. It is crucial that those who frequently request vitamin B12 are aware of the potential problems with the available assays and how these problems can be addressed. We suggest that all patients with normal vitamin B12 levels where there is a high clinical suspicion for deficiency such as a macrocytic anaemia, neurological symptoms or megaloblastic bone marrow should have a functional assay of vitamin B12 (plasma homocysteine or methylmalonic acid) checked to further investigate for vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:26277634

  14. Intestinal synthesis and absorption of vitamin B-12 in channel catfish

    SciTech Connect

    Limsuwan, T.; Lovell, R.T.

    1981-12-01

    A feeding experiment conducted in a controlled environment and using a vitamin B12-deficient, but otherwise nutritionally complete, purified diet revealed that intestinal microorganisms in channel catfish synthesized approximately 1.4 ng of vitamin B12 per gram of bodyweight per day. Removal of cobalt from the diet or supplementation with an antibiotic (succinylsulfathiazole) significantly reduced the rate of intestinal synthesis and liver stores of vitamin B12. Radiolabeled vitamin B12 in the blood, liver, kidneys, and spleen of fish fed 60Co in the diet indicated that the intestinally synthesized vitamin was absorbed by the fish. The primary route of absorption was directly from the digestive tract into the blood because coprophagy was prevented in the rearing aquariums and the amount of vitamin B12 dissolved in the aquarium water was too low for gill absorption. Dietary supplementation of vitamin B12 was not necessary for normal growth and erythrocyte formation in channel catfish in a 24-week feeding period. A longer period, however, may have caused a vitamin deficiency since liver-stored vitamin B 12 decreased between the 2nd and 24th weeks.

  15. Vitamin B-12 supplementation of rural Mexican women changes biochemical B-12 status indicators but does not affect hematology or a bone turnover marker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on the high prevalence of low serum vitamin B-12 concentrations and low dietary intake of the vitamin in Latin American studies including research in Mexico, it appears that vitamin B-12 deficiency is common. Whether this is associated with adverse effects on human function is unknown. To eval...

  16. Acute bilateral useless hand syndrome: a rare presenting manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Biyani, Sumant; Jha, Sneh Kumar; Pandey, Suchit; Shukla, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of bilateral useless hand syndrome, a rare presenting manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency. A 38-year-old man, a strict vegetarian and a teacher by occupation, presented with acute onset clumsiness of both hands while performing fine movements. Detailed history-taking, examination of the patient and relevant investigations (complete blood count, serum vitamin B12 and MRI of the cervical spinal cord) were carried out. Laboratory analysis was suggestive of vitamin B12 deficiency and MRI demonstrated a lesion involving the posterior columns of the cervical cord. The patient was diagnosed as a case of non-compressive cervical myelopathy predominantly involving the posterior column due to vitamin B12 deficiency. Acute bilateral useless hand syndrome can be a rare presenting feature of vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:26475874

  17. Effect of a Klamath algae product ("AFA-B12") on blood levels of vitamin B12 and homocysteine in vegan subjects: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Luciana; Scoglio, Stefano; Benedetti, Serena; Bonetto, Chiara; Pagliarani, Silvia; Benedetti, Yanina; Rocchi, Marco; Canestrari, Franco

    2009-03-01

    Vitamin B12 is a critical nutrient that is often inadequate in a plant-based (vegan) diet, thus the inclusion of a reliable vitamin B12 source in a vegan diet is recommended as essential. Unfortunately, many natural sources of vitamin B12 have been proven to contain biologically inactive vitamin B12 analogues, inadequate for human supplementation. The aim of this non-randomized open trial was to determine whether supplementation with a natural Klamath algae-based product ("AFA-B12", Aphanizomenon flos-aquae algae plus a proprietary mix of enzymes) could favorably affect the vitamin B12 status of a group of 15 vegan subjects. By assessing blood concentration of vitamin B12, folate, and more importantly homocysteine (Hcy, a reliable marker in vegans of their B12 absorption), the vitamin B12 status of the participants at the end of the 3-month intervention period, while receiving the Klamath-algae supplement (T2), was compared with their vitamin B12 status at the end of the 3-month control period (T1), when they were not receiving any supplement, having stopped taking their usual vitamin B12 supplement at the beginning of the study (T0). Compared to the control period, in the intervention period participants improved their vitamin B12 status, significantly reducing Hcy blood concentration (p=0.003). In conclusion, the Klamath algae product AFA-B12 appears to be, in a preliminary study, an adequate and reliable source of vitamin B12 in humans. PMID:20108213

  18. Vitamin B12 and ageing: current issues and interaction with folate.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Catherine F; Ward, Mary; Hoey, Leane; McNulty, Helene

    2013-07-01

    A compromised vitamin B12 status is common in older people despite dietary intakes that typically far exceed current recommendations. The maintenance of an optimal status of vitamin B12 is not only dependent on adequate dietary intake but more critically on effective absorption which diminishes with age. The measurement of vitamin B12 is complicated by the lack of a gold standard assay. There are a number of direct and functional indicators of vitamin B12 status; however, none of these are without limitations and should be used in combination. Vitamin B12 is of public health importance, not only because deficiency leads to megaloblastic anaemia and irreversible nerve damage, but also because emerging evidence links low B12 to an increased risk of a number of age-related diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cognitive dysfunction, dementia and osteoporosis. Furthermore, there are concerns relating to potential adverse effects for older adults with low vitamin B12 status of over-exposure to folic acid in countries where there is mandatory fortification of food with folic acid. The aim of this review is to examine the known and emerging issues related to vitamin B12 in ageing, its assessment and inter-relationship with folate. PMID:23592803

  19. Is vitamin B12 deficiency a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in vegetarians?

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Roman

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe the role of vitamin B12 deficiency in cardiovascular disease development among vegetarians. Vegetarians have a high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Deficiency of this vitamin is associated with a variety of atherogenic processes that are mainly, but not exclusively, due to vitamin B12 deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinemia. Each 5-?mol/L increase above 10 ?mol/L of serum homocysteine is associated with a 20% increased risk of circulatory health problems. Mean homocysteine concentration >10 ?mol/L among vegetarians was reported in 32 of 34 reports. Macrocytosis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency is also associated with fatal and non-fatal coronary disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, and other circulatory health problems. Compared with non-vegetarians, vegetarians have an improved profile of the traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, including serum lipids, blood pressure, serum glucose concentration, and weight status. However, not all studies that assessed cardiovascular disease incidence among vegetarians reported a protective effect. Among studies that did show a lower prevalence of circulatory health problems, the effect was not as pronounced as expected, which may be a result of poor vitamin B12 status due to a vegetarian diet. Vitamin B12 deficiency may negate the cardiovascular disease prevention benefits of vegetarian diets. In order to further reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, vegetarians should be advised to use vitamin B12 supplements. PMID:25998928

  20. Vitamin B12 Status in Children with Cystic Fibrosis and Pancreatic Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Maqbool, Asim; Schall, Joan I.; Mascarenhas, Maria R.; Dougherty, Kelly A.; Stallings, Virginia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Unexpectedly high serum B12 concentrations were noted in most study subjects with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) participating in a nutrition intervention at the baseline evaluation. The objectives of this study were to determine dietary, supplement-based and enzyme-based B12 intake, serum B12 concentrations, and predictors of vitamin B12 status in children with CF and PI. Study Design Serum B12 status was assessed in subjects (5-18 yrs) and categorized as elevated (Hi-B12) or within reference range (RR-B12) for age and sex. Serum homocysteine, plasma B6, red blood cell folate, height, weight, and body mass index Z scores, pulmonary function, energy, dietary and supplement-based vitamin intake were assessed. Results 106 subjects, mean age 10.4 ± 3.0 years participated. Median serum B12 was 1083 pg/ml, with 56% in the Hi-B12 group. Dietary and supplement-based B12 intake were both high representing 376% and 667% Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). The Hi-B12 group had significantly greater supplement-based B12 intake than the RR-B12 group (1000 vs. 583% RDA, p<0.001). By multiple logistic regression analysis, high supplement-based B12 intake and age >12 years increased risk for Hi-B12, while higher FEV1 decreased risk (Pseudo-R2=0.18, P<0.001). Conclusions Serum B12 was elevated in the majority of children with CF and PI. Supplement-based B12 intake was 6 to 10 times the RDA, and strongly predicted elevated serum B12 status. The health consequences of lifelong high supplement-based B12 intake and high serum B12 are unknown and require further study, as does the inversed correlation between serum B12 and FEV1. PMID:24445504

  1. The use of blood concentrations of vitamins and their respective functional indicators to define folate and vitamin B12 status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years there has been growing interest in the vitamins folic acid and vitamin B12 because of the realization that the status of these vitamins in populations is less than adequate, and that such inadequacy may be linked to adverse public health outcomes. This concern has prompted the United...

  2. Subjective well-being in older adults: folate and vitamin B12 independently predict positive affect.

    PubMed

    Edney, Laura C; Burns, Nicholas R; Danthiir, Vanessa

    2015-10-01

    Vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine have long been implicated in mental illness, and growing evidence suggests that they may play a role in positive mental health. Elucidation of these relationships is confounded due to the dependence of homocysteine on available levels of vitamin B12 and folate. Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and subjective well-being were assessed in a sample of 391 older, community-living adults without clinically diagnosed depression. Levels of vitamin B12, but not folate, influenced homocysteine levels 18 months later. Vitamin B12, folate and their interaction significantly predicted levels of positive affect (PA) 18 months later, but had no impact on the levels of negative affect or life satisfaction. Cross-sectional relationships between homocysteine and PA were completely attenuated in the longitudinal analyses, suggesting that the cross-sectional relationship is driven by the dependence of homocysteine on vitamin B12 and folate. This is the first study to offer some evidence of a causal link between levels of folate and vitamin B12 on PA in a large, non-clinical population. PMID:26346363

  3. Neurology of Nutritional Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Infants: Case Series From India and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Goraya, Jatinder Singh; Kaur, Sukhjot; Mehra, Bharat

    2015-11-01

    We studied 27 infants aged 6 to 27 months with vitamin B12 deficiency also known as "infantile tremor syndrome" in India. All were exclusively breast-fed by vegetarian mothers. Developmental delay or regression, pallor, skin hyperpigmentation, and sparse brown hair were present in all. Majority were hypotonic and involuntary movements were encountered in 18. Anemia and macrocytosis was found in 83% and 71% infants, respectively. Low serum vitamin B12 was present in 12 of 21 infants. Seven of the 9 infants with normal serum vitamin B12 had received vitamin B12 before referral. Twelve mothers had low serum vitamin B12. Cerebral atrophy was present in all the 9 infants who underwent neuroimaging. Treatment with vitamin B12 resulted in dramatic improvement in general activity and appetite within 48 to 72 hours followed by return of lost milestones. Tremors resolved in all by 3 to 4 weeks. Nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency is a treatable cause of neurologic dysfunction in infants. PMID:25953825

  4. Enhanced Peptide Stability Against Protease Digestion Induced by Intrinsic Factor Binding of a Vitamin B12 Conjugate of Exendin-4

    PubMed Central

    Bonaccorso, Ron L.; Chepurny, Oleg G.; Becker-Pauly, Christoph; Holz, George G.; Doyle, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    Peptide digestion from proteases is a significant limitation in peptide therapeutic development. It has been hypothesized that the dietary pathway of vitamin B12 (B12) may be exploited in this area, but an open question is whether B12-peptide conjugates bound to the B12 gastric uptake protein intrinsic factor (IF) can provide any stability against proteases. Herein, we describe a new conjugate of B12 with the incretin peptide exendin 4 that demonstrates picomolar agonism of the glugacon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1-R). Stability studies reveal that Ex-4 is digested by pancreatic proteases trypsin and chymotrypsin and by the kidney endopeptidase meprin ?. Prebinding the B12 conjugate to IF, however, resulted in up to a 4-fold greater activity of the B12-Ex-4 conjugate relative to Ex-4, when the IF-B12-Ex-4 complex was exposed to 22 µg/mL of trypsin, 2.3-fold greater activity when exposed to 1.25 µg/mL of chymotrypsin, and there was no decrease in function at up to 5 µg/mL of meprin ?. PMID:26260673

  5. Enhanced Peptide Stability Against Protease Digestion Induced by Intrinsic Factor Binding of a Vitamin B12 Conjugate of Exendin-4.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorso, Ron L; Chepurny, Oleg G; Becker-Pauly, Christoph; Holz, George G; Doyle, Robert P

    2015-09-01

    Peptide digestion from proteases is a significant limitation in peptide therapeutic development. It has been hypothesized that the dietary pathway of vitamin B12 (B12) may be exploited in this area, but an open question is whether B12-peptide conjugates bound to the B12 gastric uptake protein intrinsic factor (IF) can provide any stability against proteases. Herein, we describe a new conjugate of B12 with the incretin peptide exendin 4 that demonstrates picomolar agonism of the glugacon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1-R). Stability studies reveal that Ex-4 is digested by pancreatic proteases trypsin and chymotrypsin and by the kidney endopeptidase meprin ?. Prebinding the B12 conjugate to IF, however, resulted in up to a 4-fold greater activity of the B12-Ex-4 conjugate relative to Ex-4, when the IF-B12-Ex-4 complex was exposed to 22 ?g/mL of trypsin, 2.3-fold greater activity when exposed to 1.25 ?g/mL of chymotrypsin, and there was no decrease in function at up to 5 ?g/mL of meprin ?. PMID:26260673

  6. FRACTION OF TOTAL PLASMA VITAMIN B12 BOUND TO TRANSCOBALAMIN CORRELATES WITH COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN ELDERLY LATINOS WITH DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The fraction of total plasma vitamin B12 bound to transcobalamin (holoTC/B12 ratio) may reflect tissue levels of the vitamin, but its clinical relevance is unclear. Methods: associations between cognitive function and total B12, holoTC, and holoTC/B12 ratio were assessed in a cohort of ...

  7. Vitamin B12, folate and iron levels in primary nocturnal enuresis

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Sebahattin; Zengin, Kürsad; Tanik, Serhat; Daar, Ghaniya; Ozdamar, Mustafa Yasar; Bakirtas, Hasan; Imamoglu, M. Abdurrahim; Gurdal, Mesut

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Folate, vitamin B12 and iron are important vitamin and minerals which play role in the development of nervous system. The aim of this study was looking at the presence of folate, vitamin B12 and iron deficiency among patients with Primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) and possible relation between the delay of central nervous system (CNS) development, PNE and folate, vitamin B12 and iron states. Methods: Consecutively applied forty patients with PNE (23 girls and 17 boys) and otherwise normal thirty control subjects (17 girls and 13 boys) were included in the study. Average ages (in range) of PNE and the control group were 9.2(6-12) years and 9.3 (6-12) years accordingly. Age, height, weight, complete blood count, blood vitamin B12, folate, ferritin and iron values of both groups were recorded and compared to each other. Results: Average vitamin B12 and folate levels of patients with PNE were significantly and statistically lower compared to those of the control group. Average blood iron of patients with PNE was significantly higher than that of the control group and also average ferritin level of the PNE group was detected to be higher than the control group but this relation was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Primary nocturnal enuresis is related to the delay in CNS maturation so it was thought that low vitamin B12 and folate which were found in patients with PNE may have role in the delay of CNS maturation. Additionally, further studies are needed to investigate the role of vitamin B12 and folate either alone or as combination in treatment of patients with PNE who have low vitamin B12and folate level. PMID:25878620

  8. Prevalent vitamin B-12 deficiency in twelve-month-old Guatemalan infants is predicted by maternal B-12 deficiency and infant diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marginal (<148 pmol/L) or deficient (148-220 pmol/L) plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations were reported previously in approximately one third of low-income women and children studied in Guatemala. Since vitamin B-12 deficiency can adversely affect infant development and cognitive function, this study ...

  9. Vitamin B-12, serum folate, and cognitive change between 11 and 79 years 

    E-print Network

    Starr, John M; Pattie, Alison; Whiteman, Martha C; Deary, Ian J; Whalley, Lawrence J

    2005-01-01

    A recent Cochrane review reported that although vitamin B-12 deficiency is known to be associated with cognitive impairment in old age, benefits of supplementation on mental ability are unclear. The situation is similar ...

  10. Neglect-induced pseudo-thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura due to vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Asano, Takeshi; Narazaki, Hidehiko; Kaizu, Kiyohiko; Matsukawa, Shouhei; Takema-Tochikubo, Yuki; Fujii, Shuichi; Saitoh, Nobuyuki; Mashiko, Kunihiko; Fujino, Osamu

    2015-10-01

    Although thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is rare, early diagnosis and treatment are important for decreasing the mortality rate. Acquired vitamin B12 deficiency is frequently overlooked because of its rarity in developed countries, particularly in children and adolescents. The hematological changes in vitamin B12 deficiency present as megaloblastic anemia, increased lactate dehydrogenase, vasoconstriction, increased platelet aggregation, and abnormal activation of the coagulation followed by microangiopathy as well as neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. We report herein the case of a 15-year-old girl who had been neglected, which might have caused pseudo-TTP through malnutrition, particularly vitamin B12 deficiency. When we encounter cases of TTP in children, clinicians must be aware of the possibility of malnutrition, particularly with vitamin B12 deficiency, even in developed countries, and investigate the cause of malnutrition including neglect. PMID:26387768

  11. Effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on neurodevelopment in infants: current knowledge and possible mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Severe vitamin B12 deficiency produces a cluster of neurological symptoms in infants, including irritability, failure to thrive, apathy, anorexia, and developmental regression, which respond remarkably rapidly to supplementation. The underlying mechanisms may involve delayed myelination or demyelina...

  12. Cerebral atrophy in a vitamin B12-deficient infant of a vegetarian mother.

    PubMed

    Kocaoglu, Celebi; Akin, Fatih; Caksen, Hüseyin; Böke, Saltuk Bu?ra; Arslan, Sükrü; Aygün, Serhat

    2014-06-01

    In developed countries, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency usually occurs in children, exclusively breastfed ones whose mothers are vegetarian, causing low body stores of vitamin B12. The haematologic manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anaemia. It is a megaloblastic anaemia with high mean corpuscular volume and typical morphological features, such as hyperlobulation of the nuclei of the granulocytes. In advanced cases, neutropaenia and thrombocytopaenia can occur, simulating aplastic anaemia or leukaemia. In addition to haematological symptoms, infants may experience weakness, fatigue, failure to thrive, and irritability. Other common findings include pallor, glossitis, vomiting, diarrhoea, and icterus. Neurological symptoms may affect the central nervous system and, in severe cases, rarely cause brain atrophy. Here, we report an interesting case, a 12-month old infant, who was admitted with neurological symptoms and diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:25076673

  13. Pigmentation in vitamin B12 deficiency masquerading Addison's pigmentation: A rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Agrawala, Ritesh Kumar; Sahoo, Srikanta Kumar; Choudhury, Arun Kumar; Mohanty, Binoy Kumar; Baliarsinha, Anoj Kumar

    2013-10-01

    A 35-year-female presented with generalized weakness, weight loss, and progressive pigmentation was worked up for suspicion of Addisons disease. On examination hyper pigmentation was noted on both palmar and dorsal aspect of hands involving knuckles, creases, feet, tongue, oral mucosa and gluteal region. There was no evidence of hypocortisolemia as initially suspected, and literature search revealed a possibility of vitamin B12 deficiency. She had megaloblastic anemia with a low serum vitamin B12, mostly due to poor dietary intake. Her hyper pigmentation resolved with vitamin B12 supplementation. Skin biopsy showed increased pigmentation at stratum spinosum and basal-layer. The mechanism of hyper pigmentation in vitamin B12 deficiency was due to an increase in melanin synthesis. PMID:24251178

  14. Treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency-methylcobalamine? Cyancobalamine? Hydroxocobalamin?-clearing the confusion.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, K; Billa, G

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cyancobalamin, Cbl) has two active co-enzyme forms, methylcobalamin (MeCbl) and adenosylcobalamin (AdCbl). There has been a paradigm shift in the treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency such that MeCbl is being extensively used and promoted. This is despite the fact that both MeCbl and AdCbl are essential and have distinct metabolic fates and functions. MeCbl is primarily involved along with folate in hematopiesis and development of the brain during childhood. Whereas deficiency of AdCbl disturbs the carbohydrate, fat and amino-acid metabolism, and hence interferes with the formation of myelin. Thereby, it is important to treat vitamin B12 deficiency with a combination of MeCbl and AdCbl or hydroxocobalamin or Cbl. Regarding the route, it has been proved that the oral route is comparable to the intramuscular route for rectifying vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:25117994

  15. Vitamin B12 deficiency in persons with intellectual disability in a vegetarian residential care community.

    PubMed

    Morad, Mohammed; Gringols, Mark; Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav

    2005-01-21

    The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency among intellectually disabled persons in a vegetarian remedial community in Israel. In this community, 47 individuals with intellectual disability (ID) live in 7 enlarged families in a kibbutz style agricultural setting. These 47 individuals and 17 of their caregivers were screened for vitamin B12 deficiency. There were 25.5% of the disabled vs. 11.8% of the caregivers found to have levels of vitamin B12 lower than 157 pg/ml. It is concluded that persons with ID in this vegetarian residential care community seemed to be at a higher risk for vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:15674451

  16. Vitamin B12 absorption capacity in healthy children

    SciTech Connect

    Hjelt, K.; Krasilnikoff, P.A.

    1986-03-01

    B12 absorption was investigated in 47 healthy children aged 7 months to 15.8 years (median 4.9 years). The patients had either recovered from giardiasis, the post-gastroenteritis syndrome, or had celiac disease in remission (treated with a gluten-free diet). The B12 absorption was measured by a double-isotope technique using /sup 57/CoB12 and /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/, the latter being the inabsorbable marker. The radiation dose was minimal. The results were presented as fractional absorption of B12 (FAB12). Within the different age groups, the absorption test was performed by means of the following oral amounts of B12: 0- less than 1 year, 0.5 microgram; 1-3 years: 1.7 micrograms, 4-6 years, 2.5 micrograms; 7-10 years; 3.3 micrograms; and 11-15 years, 4.5 micrograms. When using these oral amounts of B12, the medians (and ranges) of FAB12 were found to be: 1-3 years (n = 18), 37% (16-80%); 4-6 years (n = 10), 27% (19-40%); 7-10 years (n = 9), 32% (21-44%); and 11-15 years (n = 8), 27% (19-59%). The FAB12 in two children aged 7 and 11 months was 31% and 32%, respectively. These results may be interpretated as reference values for B12 absorption in children. Further absorption tests were performed in seven children representing the four age groups from 1 to 15 years. When a high oral amount of B12 was given (i.e., three times the saturation dose), the FAB12 ranged from 0 to 20% (median 9%), whereas a low amount (i.e., one-ninth of the saturation dose) produced fractional absorptions from 65 to 82% (median 74%).

  17. Chronic Maternal Vitamin B12 Restriction Induced Changes in Body Composition & Glucose Metabolism in the Wistar Rat Offspring Are Partly Correctable by Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kalle Anand; Lalitha, Anumula; Reddy, Umakar; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Sengupta, Shantanu; Raghunath, Manchala

    2014-01-01

    Maternal under-nutrition increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. We studied the effects of chronic maternal dietary vitamin B12 restriction on lean body mass (LBM), fat free mass (FFM), muscle function, glucose tolerance and metabolism in Wistar rat offspring. Prevention/reversibility of changes by rehabilitating restricted mothers from conception or parturition and their offspring from weaning was assessed. Female weaning Wistar rats (n?=?30) were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks, a control diet (n?=?6) or the same with 40% restriction of vitamin B12 (B12R) (n?=?24); after confirming deficiency, were mated with control males. Six each of pregnant B12R dams were rehabilitated from conception and parturition and their offspring weaned to control diet. While offspring of six B12R dams were weaned to control diet, those of the remaining six B12R dams continued on B12R diet. Biochemical parameters and body composition were determined in dams before mating and in male offspring at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of their age. Dietary vitamin B12 restriction increased body weight but decreased LBM% and FFM% but not the percent of tissue associated fat (TAF%) in dams. Maternal B12R decreased LBM% and FFM% in the male offspring, but their TAF%, basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake by diaphragm were unaltered. At 12 months age, B12R offspring had higher (than controls) fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and impaired glucose tolerance. Their hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme activities were increased. B12R offspring had increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant status. Changes in body composition, glucose metabolism and stress were reversed by rehabilitating B12R dams from conception, whereas rehabilitation from parturition and weaning corrected them partially, highlighting the importance of vitamin B12 during pregnancy and lactation on growth, muscle development, glucose tolerance and metabolism in the offspring. PMID:25398136

  18. Congenital disorders of vitamin B12 transport and their contributions to concepts. II.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    Congenital deficiencies of Transcobalamin II (TC II) and R binders of vitamin B12 (B12, cobalamin, Cbl) have been described in several families. The deficiency of TC II exists as at least three variants. The deficiency of TC II is expressed by a profound megaloblastic pancytopenia during the first few weeks of life, but the serum Cbl is normal. In contrast, the deficiency of R binder is asymptomatic, tissues are replete in Cbl, but the serum Cbl is low. All of the R binder in the several body sources is under the same genetic control. Studies of the congenital deficiency TC II suggest the following: (1) The function of TC II is the promotion of cell uptake of physiologic amounts of Cbl, which can also be accomplished by very large amounts of Cbl, and not in any intracellular process. (2) TC II is essential for the absorption, postabsorptive distribution, and recycling of TC II. (3) The metabolic consequences of TC II deficiency are expressed primarily in rapidly dividing cells probably because they are dependent upon the constant need for new Cbl. PMID:7342493

  19. Cobalamin and folate evaluation: measurement of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine vs vitamin B(12) and folate.

    PubMed

    Klee, G G

    2000-08-01

    Vitamin B(12) and folate are two vitamins that have interdependent roles in nucleic acid synthesis. Deficiencies of either vitamin can cause megaloblastic anemia; however, inappropriate treatment of B(12) deficiency with folate can cause irreversible nerve degeneration. Inadequate folate nutrition during early pregnancy can cause neural tube defects in the developing fetus. In addition, folate and vitamin B(12) deficiency and the compensatory increase in homocysteine are a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Laboratory support for the diagnosis and management of these multiple clinical entities is controversial and somewhat problematic. Automated ligand binding measurements of vitamin B(12) and folate are easiest to perform and widely used. Unfortunately, these tests are not the most sensitive indicators of disease. Measurement of red cell folate is less dependent on dietary fluctuations, but these measurements may not be reliable. Homocysteine and methylmalonic acid are better metabolic indicators of deficiencies at the tissue level. There are no "gold standards" for the diagnosis of these disorders, and controversy exists regarding the best diagnostic approach. Healthcare strategies that consider the impact of laboratory tests on the overall costs and quality of care should consider the advantages of including methylmalonic acid and homocysteine in the early evaluation of patients with suspected deficiencies of vitamin B(12) and folate. PMID:10926922

  20. Enhancing vitamin B12 content in soy-yogurt by Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qing; Zhang, Chen; Song, Dafeng; Li, Ping; Zhu, Xuan

    2015-08-01

    More attention from the aged and vegetarians has been paid to soy-product due to its taste, easy digestibility, as well as the association with health. However, soy-product has a defect of low vitamin content, mainly the water-soluble vitamin B12. This study was to investigate co-fermentation of glycerol and fructose in soy-yogurt to enhance vitamin B12 production by Lactobacillus reuteri. After a serial combination experiments, the co-fermentation was confirmed to enhance the production of vitamin B12 up to 18 ?g/100mL. Both supplementations induced the expression of cobT and cbiA and functioned to balance the redox reaction. Meanwhile, high content of fructose supplementation reduced the production of vitamin B12 and suppressed expression of cobT in bacteria. It was proved that the vitamin B12 content of this soy-yogurt is higher than other fermented soybean based food and thus can be served as an alternative food for the aged and vegetarians. PMID:25955289

  1. Folate and vitamin B12 status of adolescent girls in northern Nigeria.

    PubMed Central

    VanderJagt, D. J.; Spelman, K.; Ambe, J.; Datta, P.; Blackwell, W.; Crossey, M.; Glew, R. H.

    2000-01-01

    The diets of populations in many developing countries are low in folate and vitamin B12 and a deficiency of either of these vitamins results in increased risk for cardiovascular disease and neural tube defects. The rates of neural tube defects in Nigeria are among the highest reported worldwide. Since many girls marry at an early age in northern Nigeria, we therefore determined the folate and vitamin B12 status of adolescent girls between 12 and 16 years of age in Maiduguri, Nigeria. The mean serum folate concentration for subjects was 15.3 +/- 5.2 nmol/L. Whereas only four subjects (2.4%) had serum folate concentrations lower than 6.8 nmol/L, a level indicative of negative folate balance, 9% of the subjects had serum vitamin B12 concentrations at or below 134 pmol/L, the lower limit of the reference range for their age group. Serum homocysteine was measured in 56 of the 162 subjects and the mean level was 15.9 +/- 5.0 mumol/L. The majority of subjects had serum homocysteine concentrations above the upper limit of the reference range for their age group. We conclude that the adolescent girls we studied were at greater risk for vitamin B12 deficiency than folate deficiency. This conclusion is consistent with the fact that their diet included few foods that contained vitamin B12. PMID:10946529

  2. Vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine levels in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Türksoy, Nuray; Bilici, Rabia; Yalç?ner, Altan; Özdemir, Y Özay; Örnek, Ibrahim; Tufan, Ali Evren; Kara, Ay?e

    2014-01-01

    It is known that elevated serum homocysteine, decreased folate, and low vitamin B12 serum levels are associated with poor cognitive function, cognitive decline, and dementia. Current literature shows that some psychiatric disorders, mainly affective and psychotic ones, can be related to the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine. These results can be explained by the importance of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine in carbon transfer metabolism (methylation), which is required for the production of serotonin as well as for other monoamine neurotransmitters and catecholamines. Earlier studies focused on the relationship between folate deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and depressive disorders. Although depressive and anxiety disorders show a common comorbidity pattern, there are few studies addressing the effect of impaired one-carbon metabolism in anxiety disorders – especially in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). This study aimed to measure the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine specifically in order to see if eventual alterations have an etiopathogenetic significance on patients with OCD. Serum vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine concentrations were measured in 35 patients with OCD and 22 controls. In addition, the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety were conducted for each patient. It was found that vitamin B12 levels were decreased and homocysteine levels were increased in some OCD patients. Homocysteine levels were positively correlated with Yale–Brown compulsion and Yale–Brown total scores. In conclusion, findings of this study suggest that some OCD patients might have vitamin B12 deficiency and higher homocysteine levels. PMID:25228807

  3. Vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine levels in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Türksoy, Nuray; Bilici, Rabia; Yalç?ner, Altan; Ozdemir, Y Özay; Ornek, Ibrahim; Tufan, Ali Evren; Kara, Ay?e

    2014-01-01

    It is known that elevated serum homocysteine, decreased folate, and low vitamin B12 serum levels are associated with poor cognitive function, cognitive decline, and dementia. Current literature shows that some psychiatric disorders, mainly affective and psychotic ones, can be related to the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine. These results can be explained by the importance of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine in carbon transfer metabolism (methylation), which is required for the production of serotonin as well as for other monoamine neurotransmitters and catecholamines. Earlier studies focused on the relationship between folate deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and depressive disorders. Although depressive and anxiety disorders show a common comorbidity pattern, there are few studies addressing the effect of impaired one-carbon metabolism in anxiety disorders - especially in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study aimed to measure the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine specifically in order to see if eventual alterations have an etiopathogenetic significance on patients with OCD. Serum vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine concentrations were measured in 35 patients with OCD and 22 controls. In addition, the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety were conducted for each patient. It was found that vitamin B12 levels were decreased and homocysteine levels were increased in some OCD patients. Homocysteine levels were positively correlated with Yale-Brown compulsion and Yale-Brown total scores. In conclusion, findings of this study suggest that some OCD patients might have vitamin B12 deficiency and higher homocysteine levels. PMID:25228807

  4. Unraveling Vitamin B12-Responsive Gene Regulation in Algae1[W

    PubMed Central

    Helliwell, Katherine E.; Scaife, Mark A.; Sasso, Severin; Araujo, Ana Paula Ulian; Purton, Saul; Smith, Alison G.

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic microalgae play a vital role in primary productivity and biogeochemical cycling in both marine and freshwater systems across the globe. However, the growth of these cosmopolitan organisms depends on the bioavailability of nutrients such as vitamins. Approximately one-half of all microalgal species requires vitamin B12 as a growth supplement. The major determinant of algal B12 requirements is defined by the isoform of methionine synthase possessed by an alga, such that the presence of the B12-independent methionine synthase (METE) enables growth without this vitamin. Moreover, the widespread but phylogenetically unrelated distribution of B12 auxotrophy across the algal lineages suggests that the METE gene has been lost multiple times in evolution. Given that METE expression is repressed by the presence of B12, prolonged repression by a reliable source of the vitamin could lead to the accumulation of mutations and eventually gene loss. Here, we probe METE gene regulation by B12 and methionine/folate cycle metabolites in both marine and freshwater microalgal species. In addition, we identify a B12-responsive element of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii METE using a reporter gene approach. We show that complete repression of the reporter occurs via a region spanning ?574 to ?90 bp upstream of the METE start codon. A proteomics study reveals that two other genes (S-Adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase and Serine hydroxymethyltransferase2) involved in the methionine-folate cycle are also repressed by B12 in C. reinhardtii. The strong repressible nature and high sensitivity of the B12-responsive element has promising biotechnological applications as a cost-effective regulatory gene expression tool. PMID:24627342

  5. The nutritional status of iron, folate, and vitamin B-12 of Buddhist vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yujin; Krawinkel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional status of iron, folate, and vitamin B-12 in vegetarians were assessed and compared with those of non- vegetarians in Korea. The vegetarian subjects were 54 Buddhist nuns who ate no animal source food except for dairy products. The non-vegetarians were divided into two groups: 31 Catholic nuns and 31 female college students. Three-day dietary records were completed, and the blood samples were collected for analyzing a complete blood count, and serum levels of ferritin, folate, and vitamin B-12. There was no difference in hemoglobin among the diet groups. The serum ferritin and hematocrit levels of vegetarians did not differ from that of non- vegetarian students with a high intake of animal source food but low intake of vitamin C, and the levels were lower than that of non-vegetarian Catholic nuns with a modest consumption of animal source food and a high intake of vitamin C. The serum vitamin B-12 levels of all subjects except one vegetarian and the serum folate levels of all subjects except one non-vegetarian student fell within a normal range. In vegetarians, there was a positive correlation between the vitamin C intake and serum ferritin levels as well as between the laver intake and serum vitamin B-12 levels. In order to achieve an optimal iron status, both an adequate amount of iron intake and its bioavailability should be considered. Sufficient intake of vegetables and fruits was reflected in adequate serum folate status. Korean laver can be a good source of vitamin B-12 for vegetarians. PMID:21393109

  6. Vitamin B12 deficiency with intrinsic factor antibodies in an infant with poor growth and developmental delay.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Kathleen; Chowdhury, Dhiman; Penney, Lynette; Rashid, Mohsin

    2014-02-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is very rare in infants and may lead to serious hematological and neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The present article describes a case involving a seven-month-old boy with severe vitamin B12 deficiency, likely caused by juvenile pernicious anemia, an entity rarely described. The child presented with feeding intolerance, poor growth and developmental delay. He was noted to have macrocytic anemia, a markedly low serum vitamin B12 level, and elevated homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels. Antibodies to intrinsic factor were positive. The mother was healthy, with normal vitamin B12 status. Therapy with vitamin B12 supplements led to excellent recovery of symptoms. Vitamin B12 deficiency should be considered in children presenting with failure to thrive, especially when compounded with neurological symptoms. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment is essential to avoid serious complications. PMID:24596481

  7. Isolated cerebellar involvement in vitamin B12 deficiency: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Biswaroop; Dubey, Rachana; Gulati, Sheffali; Yoganathan, Sangeetha; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Atin

    2014-11-01

    Deficiency of vitamin B12 causes megaloblastic anemia and nervous system demyelination. Structures affected in the nervous system include spinal cord, cranial and peripheral nerves, and brain white matter. A 9-year-old boy presented with knuckle hyperpigmentation and oral ulcers for 3 years, pallor and easy fatigability for 6 months, gait abnormalities for 3 months, and abnormal speech and behavioral abnormalities for 3 days. On examination, he had physical signs of megaloblastic anemia, mood swings with intermittent hallucinations, and features of cerebellar impairment. Blood investigations revealed megaloblastic anemia, and pernicious anemia was ruled out. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed bilateral cerebellar signal changes. He received treatment for vitamin B12 deficiency and appropriate nutritional counseling. Three months later, he showed significant clinical and radiologic resolution. To our knowledge, isolated cerebellar involvement as the sole neurologic manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency has not been described previously in children. PMID:24346315

  8. Distributions of dissolved vitamin B 12 and Co in coastal and open-ocean environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzeca, Caterina; Beck, Aaron J.; Tovar-Sanchez, Antonio; Segovia-Zavala, Jose; Taylor, Gordon T.; Gobler, Christopher J.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.

    2009-11-01

    Distributions of dissolved vitamin B 12 and total dissolved Co were measured to gain an understanding of the cycling of these interdependent micronutrients in six marine settings including; an upwelling location, a semi-enclosed bay, two urban coastal systems, and two open ocean locations. Along the coast of Baja California, Mexico, concentrations of B 12 and dissolved Co varied from 0.2 to 11 pM and 180 to 990 pM, respectively. At a nearby upwelling station, vitamin B 12 and Co concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 7.0 pM and 22 to 145 pM, and concentrations did not correlate with upwelling intensity. Concentrations of B 12 were highest within Todos Santos Bay, a semi-enclosed bay off the coast of Baja California, Mexico, during a dinoflagellate bloom, ranging from 2 to 61 pM, while Co concentrations varied between 61 and 194 pM. In the anthropogenically impacted Long Island Sound, NY, U.S.A., B 12 levels were between 0.1 and 23 pM and Co concentrations varied from 60 to 1900 pM. However, anthropogenic inputs were not evident in B 12 levels in the San Pedro Basin, located outside Los Angeles, Ca, U.S.A., where concentrations of B 12 were 0.2-1.8 pM, approximating observed open ocean B 12 concentrations. In the Southern Ocean and North Atlantic Ocean, B 12 levels were 0.4-4 pM and 0.2-2 pM, respectively. Total Co concentrations in the Southern Ocean and North Atlantic tended to be low; measuring 26-59 pM and 15-80 pM, respectively. These low Co concentrations may limit B 12 synthesis and its availability to B 12-requiring phytoplankton because the total dissolved Co pool is not necessarily entirely bioavailable.

  9. Effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on neurodevelopment in infants: current knowledge and possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Dror, Daphna K; Allen, Lindsay H

    2008-05-01

    Severe vitamin B(12) deficiency produces a cluster of neurological symptoms in infants, including irritability, failure to thrive, apathy, anorexia, and developmental regression, which respond remarkably rapidly to supplementation. The underlying mechanisms may involve delayed myelination or demyelination of nerves; alteration in the S-adenosylmethionine:S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio; imbalance of neurotrophic and neurotoxic cytokines; and/or accumulation of lactate in brain cells. This review summarizes the current knowledge concerning infantile vitamin B(12) deficiency, including a pooled analysis of case studies of infants born to mothers with untreated pernicious anemia or a strict vegetarian lifestyle and a discussion of the mechanisms that may underlie the manifestations of deficiency. PMID:18454811

  10. Biosynthesis of vitamin B12: concerning the origin of the methine protons of the corrin nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, A.I.; Kajiwara, M.; Santander, P.J.

    1987-10-01

    13C NMR spectroscopy has been used to locate six deuterium atoms incorporated biosynthetically on the periphery of the corrin nucleus of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) derived from cells of Propionibacterium shermanii grown in a medium containing 50% /sup 2/H/sub 2/O and /sup 13/C-enriched delta-aminolevulinic acid. The implications of these results for the mechanism of vitamin B12 biosynthesis are discussed, and it is concluded that the same oxidation level of the intermediates is maintained throughout the biosynthetic pathway, from delta-aminolevulinic acid to corrin.

  11. Vitamin B12: one carbon metabolism, fetal growth and programming for chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Rush, E C; Katre, P; Yajnik, C S

    2014-01-01

    This review brings together human and animal studies and reviews that examine the possible role of maternal vitamin B12 (B12) on fetal growth and its programming for susceptibility to chronic disease. A selective literature review was undertaken to identify studies and reviews that investigate these issues, particularly in the context of a vegetarian diet that may be low in B12 and protein and high in carbohydrate. Evidence is accumulating that maternal B12 status influences fetal growth and development. Low maternal vitamin B12 status and protein intake are associated with increased risk of neural tube defect, low lean mass and excess adiposity, increased insulin resistance, impaired neurodevelopment and altered risk of cancer in the offspring. Vitamin B12 is a key nutrient associated with one carbon metabolic pathways related to substrate metabolism, synthesis and stability of nucleic acids and methylation of DNA which regulates gene expression. Understanding of factors regulating maternal-fetal one carbon metabolism and its role in fetal programming of non communicable diseases could help design effective interventions, starting with maternal nutrition before conception. PMID:24219896

  12. BluB cannibalizes flavin to form the lower ligand of vitamin B12

    PubMed Central

    Taga, Michiko E.; Larsen, Nicholas A.; Howard-Jones, Annaleise R.; Walsh, Christopher T.; Walker, Graham C.

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is among the largest known non-polymeric natural products, and the only vitamin synthesized exclusively by microorganisms1. The biosynthesis of the lower ligand of vitamin B12, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB), is poorly understood1–3. Recently, we discovered that a Sinorhizobium meliloti gene, bluB, is necessary for DMB biosynthesis4. Here we show that BluB triggers the unprecedented fragmentation and contraction of the bound flavin mononucleotide cofactor and cleavage of the ribityl tail to form DMB and D-erythrose 4-phosphate. Our structural analysis shows that BluB resembles an NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductase, except that its unusually tight binding pocket accommodates flavin mononucleotide but not NAD(P)H. We characterize crystallographically an early intermediate along the reaction coordinate, revealing molecular oxygen poised over reduced flavin. Thus, BluB isolates and directs reduced flavin to activate molecular oxygen for its own cannibalization. This investigation of the biosynthesis of DMB provides clarification of an aspect of vitamin B12 that was otherwise incomplete, and may contribute to a better understanding of vitamin B12-related disease. PMID:17377583

  13. BluB cannibalizes flavin to form the lower ligand of vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Taga, Michiko E; Larsen, Nicholas A; Howard-Jones, Annaleise R; Walsh, Christopher T; Walker, Graham C

    2007-03-22

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is among the largest known non-polymeric natural products, and the only vitamin synthesized exclusively by microorganisms. The biosynthesis of the lower ligand of vitamin B(12), 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB), is poorly understood. Recently, we discovered that a Sinorhizobium meliloti gene, bluB, is necessary for DMB biosynthesis. Here we show that BluB triggers the unprecedented fragmentation and contraction of the bound flavin mononucleotide cofactor and cleavage of the ribityl tail to form DMB and D-erythrose 4-phosphate. Our structural analysis shows that BluB resembles an NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductase, except that its unusually tight binding pocket accommodates flavin mononucleotide but not NAD(P)H. We characterize crystallographically an early intermediate along the reaction coordinate, revealing molecular oxygen poised over reduced flavin. Thus, BluB isolates and directs reduced flavin to activate molecular oxygen for its own cannibalization. This investigation of the biosynthesis of DMB provides clarification of an aspect of vitamin B12 that was otherwise incomplete, and may contribute to a better understanding of vitamin B12-related disease. PMID:17377583

  14. Elevation of urinary methylmolonic acid induces the suppression of megalin-mediated endocytotic cycles during vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Takahiro; Kawata, Tetsunori; Furusho, Tadasu; Tadokoro, Tadahiro; Suzuki, Tsukasa; Yamamoto, Yuji

    2015-09-18

    Megalin is a scavenger receptor that serves in the endocytosis of a highly diverse group of ligands that includes Vitamin B12. We found an accumulation of megalin closed to apical region in renal proximal tubule cells of Vitamin B12-deficient rats. Interestingly, Vitamin B12 levels also controlled resorption of renal retinol binding protein. Using L2 yolk sac cells, megalin localized to the submembrane compartment by methylmalonic acid (MMA), which accumulates during vitamin B12 deficiency. In addition, MMA inhibited megalin-mediated endocytosis via YWTD repeats motif in an ectodomain of megalin. Therefore, megalin endocytosis may be regulated by MMA. PMID:26248135

  15. [Homocysteine, vitamin B-12, folic acid and the cognitive decline in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Smach, M A; Naffeti, S; Charfeddine, B; Ben Abdallah, J; Othmen, L B; Letaef, A; Limem, K

    2013-10-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for neurological diseases, but the underlying pathophysiology has not been adequately explained. Mild hyperhomocysteinemia, which is sometimes associated with a low plasma level of vitamin B9, B12 and folic acid, is responsible in the toxicity in neural cell by activating NMDA receptor. Indeed, even if vitamin supplementation has clearly proven its efficiency on lowering plasma levels of homocysteine, recent studies do not show any positive effect of vitamin therapy on cognitive function. The hypothesis that this therapy is inefficient has been recently reinforced by two randomized trials on the effects of vitamin supplementation. Several hypotheses still need to be explored: Mechanisms of homocysteine toxicity and that of total uselessness of vitamin supplementation; the possible need to complete the actual data with further, more powerful studies in order to prove the role of homocysteine in the development of neurodegenerative diseases and a clinical effect of vitamin therapy. PMID:22647793

  16. An appraisal of the value of vitamin B12 in the prevention of motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, R. L.; Lacey, C. L.; Homick, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    It has been suggested that vitamin B12 given by intramuscular injection can significantly reduce the occurrence of motion sickness in susceptible individuals (Banks, 1980). Since it is known that B12 influences the metabolism of histidine and choline, dietary precursors to neurotransmitters with established roles in motion sickness, an experimental evaluation has been undertaken of the efficacy of B12 in the prevention of motion sickness induced by controlled coriolis simulation. Subjects executed standardized head movements at successively higher rpm until a malaise III endpoint was reached. Following two baseline tests with this motion stressor, subjects received a B12 injection, a second injection two weeks later, and a final motion sickness test three weeks later. No significant differences in the susceptibility to motion sickness were noted after B12.

  17. Beyond catalysis: vitamin B12 as a cofactor in gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Klug, Gabriele

    2014-02-01

    Vitamin B12 is well known as an enzyme cofactor in the catalysis of many important biological reactions, and the role of B12 in regulation of bacterial gene expression as a ligand of riboswitches is well established. Only recently evidence has emerged that B12 can also affect bacterial gene expression by acting as a cofactor of regulatory proteins. In 2011 a role of B12 as a cofactor of the transcriptional repressor of carotenogenesis, CarH, in Myxococcus xanthus was reported. B12 is required for light-dependent DNA binding by CarH, which can therefore be considered to be a new type of photoreceptor. Cheng et al. (2014) report the identification of B12 as a cofactor of the AerR protein in Rhodobacter capsulatus. AerR acts as an antirepressor of the CrtJ protein, which represses photosynthesis genes when binding to its target promoters. As in Myxococcus B12 may have the role of a chromophore in photoreception, but it is suggested that a main function of AerR is the sensing of B12. The co-regulation of the pathways is beneficial because the syntheses of B12 , haem and bacteriochlorophylls share common precursors and the accumulation of the free molecules is toxic. PMID:24330414

  18. Basal Gnathostomes Provide Unique Insights into the Evolution of Vitamin B12 Binders

    PubMed Central

    Lopes-Marques, Mónica; Ruivo, Raquel; Delgado, Inês; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Aluru, Neelakanteswar; Castro, L. Filipe C.

    2015-01-01

    The uptake and transport of vitamin B12 (cobalamin; Cbl) in mammals involves a refined system with three evolutionarily related transporters: transcobalamin 1 (Tcn1), transcobalamin 2 (Tcn2), and the gastric intrinsic factor (Gif). Teleosts have a single documented binder with intermediate features to the human counterparts. Consequently, it has been proposed that the expansion of Cbl binders occurred after the separation of Actinopterygians. Here, we demonstrate that the diversification of this gene family took place earlier in gnathostome ancestry. Our data indicates the presence of single copy orthologs of the Sarcopterygii/Tetrapoda duplicates Tcn1 and Gif, and Tcn2, in Chondrichthyes. In addition, a highly divergent Cbl binder was found in the Elasmobranchii. We unveil a complex scenario forged by genome, tandem duplications and lineage-specific gene loss. Our findings suggest that from an ancestral transporter, exhibiting large spectrum and high affinity binding, highly specific Cbl transporters emerged through gene duplication and mutations at the binding pocket. PMID:25552533

  19. Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as pancytopenia and retinopathy in a young boy-Helicobacter pylori, a novel causative agent.

    PubMed

    Anitha, Palaniyandi; Sasitharan, Rajendraprasad; Thambarasi, Thalavaisundaram; Krithika, Prabaharan; Mohan, Madhuvanthi; Venkataraman, Paramasivam; James, Saji; Vinoth, Ponnurangam Nagarajan

    2014-01-01

    Deficiency of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a well-known cause of megaloblastic anaemia. It is a reversible cause of bone marrow failure and demyelinating nervous system disorder, hence early detection and prompt treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency is essential. After diagnosing vitamin B12 deficiency, tracking down its root cause is important in individualising the treatment approach. Helicobacter pylorirelated (H. pylori) B12 deficiency presenting as pancytopenia in pediatric age groups has been reported. However, vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as retinopathy in paediatric age groups has been rarely reported in the medical literature. We herein present the case of an adolescent male with pancytopenia and retinopathy, secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency-associated H. pylori infection. PMID:24719649

  20. Comparative genomics of the vitamin B12 metabolism and regulation in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Rodionov, Dmitry A; Vitreschak, Alexey G; Mironov, Andrey A; Gelfand, Mikhail S

    2003-10-17

    Using comparative analysis of genes, operons, and regulatory elements, we describe the cobalamin (vitamin B12) biosynthetic pathway in available prokaryotic genomes. Here we found a highly conserved RNA secondary structure, the regulatory B12 element, which is widely distributed in the upstream regions of cobalamin biosynthetic/transport genes in eubacteria. In addition, the binding signal (CBL-box) for a hypothetical B12 regulator was identified in some archaea. A search for B12 elements and CBL-boxes and positional analysis identified a large number of new candidate B12-regulated genes in various prokaryotes. Among newly assigned functions associated with the cobalamin biosynthesis, there are several new types of cobalt transporters, ChlI and ChlD subunits of the CobN-dependent cobaltochelatase complex, cobalt reductase BluB, adenosyltransferase PduO, several new proteins linked to the lower ligand assembly pathway, l-threonine kinase PduX, and a large number of other hypothetical proteins. Most missing genes detected within the cobalamin biosynthetic pathways of various bacteria were identified as nonorthologous substitutes. The variable parts of the cobalamin metabolism appear to be the cobalt transport and insertion, the CobG/CbiG- and CobF/CbiD-catalyzed reactions, and the lower ligand synthesis pathway. The most interesting result of analysis of B12 elements is that B12-independent isozymes of the methionine synthase and ribonucleotide reductase are regulated by B12 elements in bacteria that have both B12-dependent and B12-independent isozymes. Moreover, B12 regulons of various bacteria are thought to include enzymes from known B12-dependent or alternative pathways. PMID:12869542

  1. Review of the magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies worldwide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human deficiencies of folate and vitamin B12 result in adverse effects which may be of public health significance, but the magnitude of these deficiencies is unknown. Therefore, we examine the prevalence data currently available, assess global coverage of surveys, determine the frequency with which...

  2. Brief Report: Childhood Disintegrative Disorder as a Likely Manifestation of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Savita; Subodh, B. N.; Parakh, Preeti; Lahariya, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder is a rare disorder, characterized by regression of acquired skills after a period of normal development. The case of childhood disintegrative disorder presented here was found to have vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia on extensive evaluation to find a probable cause for regression. This case…

  3. Mesoporous carbon derived from vitamin B12: a high-performance bifunctional catalyst for imine formation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Shang, Sensen; Wang, Lianyue; Zhang, Yi; Gao, Shuang

    2016-01-11

    Mesoporous carbon derived from natural vitamin B12 is applied for the first time in organic synthesis and exhibits exceptionally high dual activity for imine formation via the cross-coupling of alcohols with amines and the self-coupling of primary amines using molecular oxygen or air as the terminal oxidant. PMID:26529323

  4. Effects of vitamin B12 supplementation on the quality of Ovine spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Hamedani, M.A.; Tahmasbi, A.M.; Ahangari, Y.J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of various levels of vitamin B12 in Tris extender on semen quality of Dallagh rams following the cooling and freeze/thawing process. Semen was collected from six healthy and mature rams with an average body weight of 60.0 ± 5.0 Kg using an electro ejaculator. High quality samples were mixed and diluted in Tris extender supplemented with different concentrations of vitamin B12 (0, 1, 2 and 3 mg/ml). The semen aliquots were cooled and preserved at 5°C and their qualities were evaluated during pre-freezing and then the cooled semen samples were packaged into 0.25 ml straws. Straws were frozen in the vapor of liquid nitrogen, and were then stored at -196ºC. Straws were thawed seven days later and the characteristics of spermatozoa were examined. Results of this study showed that the effect of vitamin B12 on characteristics such as viability, motility, progressive motility and normality of spermatozoa were significant in pre and post freezing conditions (P<0.05). In conclusion, for long term storage of semen of Dallagh rams, we recommend using 2 mg/ml of vitamin B12 in semen extender.

  5. Enhanced pharmacological activity of Vitamin B12 and Penicillin as nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Yariv, Inbar; Lipovsky, Anat; Gedanken, Aharon; Lubart, Rachel; Fixler, Dror

    2015-01-01

    Sonochemistry has become a well-known technique for fabricating nanomaterials. Since one of the advantages of nanomaterials is that they have higher chemical activities compared with particles in the bulk form, efforts are being made to produce nano organic compounds with enhanced biological activities that could be exploited in the medical area. This study uses the sonication technique to prepare nano Vitamin B12 and nano Penicillin, and demonstrates their enhanced biological and pharmacological activity. The size and morphology of the nano Penicillin and nano Vitamin B12 were investigated using electron microscopy as well as dynamic light scattering techniques. The sizes of Penicillin and Vitamin B12 nanoparticles (NPs) were found to be 70 and 120–180 nm, respectively. The bactericidal effect of nano Penicillin was studied and found to be higher than that of the bulk form. Reducing the size of Vitamin B12 resulted in their enhanced antioxidative activity as observed using the electron paramagnetic spectroscopy technique. The penetration depth of these organic NPs can be detected by an optical iterative method. It is believed that nano organic drugs fabrication will have a great impact on the medical field. PMID:26028970

  6. Vitamin B12 and its binding proteins in the serum of some wild game species.

    PubMed

    Green, R; Keep, M E; Colman, N; Metz, J

    1975-01-01

    The concentration of vitamin B12 and its binding proteins was measured in the impala, nyala, wildebeest, zebra, bushpig, warthog, and rhino, all existing in their natural state. Marked differences were found between some species. The variations observed are probably true species differences, unrelated to environmental factors. PMID:1162511

  7. Competitive chemiluminescent anzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent discoveries of matrix interferences by haptocorrin (HC) in human milk and serum show that past analyses of vitamin B12 in samples with high HC content might have been inaccurate (Lildballe et al., 2009; Carmel & Agrawal, 2012). We evaluated two competitive enzyme-binding immunoassays for seru...

  8. Total serum homocysteine as an indicator of vitamin B12 and folate status

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, R.C.; Hall, C.A.

    1988-10-01

    Presented is a modification of an assay for total serum homocysteine (Hcy) in which the Hcy plus radioactive adenosine is converted enzymatically to labeled S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy). The modifications included a commerical source for the AdoHcy hydrolase, adenosine labeled with either /sup 14/C or /sup 3/H, and separation of the AdoHcy by thin layer chromatography. The assay was sensitive to 25 pmol. Hcy levels in sera from 18 controls ranged from 6.9 to 12.1 mumol/L with a mean of 9.1 and a SD of 1.5 mumol/L. The total serum Hcy was increased in vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The level was high in congenital defects of vitamin B12 metabolism, blocking the methylation of Hcy regardless of the serum vitamin B12 levels, but was normal in the absence of tissue deficiency even if the serum vitamin B12 levels were low. The procedure has been found practical in two years of use and requires only 0.1 mL of serum.

  9. Expeditious synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles using Vitamin B12 under microwave irradiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    A greener synthesis protocol for noble nanometals is developed using vitamin B12 as a reducing and capping agent in conjunction with the use of microwaves. Successful assembly of nanoparticles or microparticles with varied shapes and sizes have been demonstrated. The synthesized ...

  10. LOW ERYTHROCYTE FOLATE, BUT NOT PLASMA VITAMIN B-12 OR HOMOCYSTEINE, IS ASSOCIATED WITH DEMENTIA IN ELDERLY LATINOS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between B vitamin status and cognitive function has been of interest for many years. There is evidence of relationships between intake and status of folate and vitamin B-12 with neurological, cognitive, and memory impairment, but results have been inconsistent. Plasma B-12, erythroc...

  11. Insights into the evolution of vitamin B12 auxotrophy from sequenced algal genomes.

    PubMed

    Helliwell, Katherine E; Wheeler, Glen L; Leptos, Kyriacos C; Goldstein, Raymond E; Smith, Alison G

    2011-10-01

    Vitamin B(12) (cobalamin) is a dietary requirement for humans because it is an essential cofactor for two enzymes, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase (METH). Land plants and fungi neither synthesize or require cobalamin because they do not contain methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, and have an alternative B(12)-independent methionine synthase (METE). Within the algal kingdom, approximately half of all microalgal species need the vitamin as a growth supplement, but there is no phylogenetic relationship between these species, suggesting that the auxotrophy arose multiple times through evolution. We set out to determine the underlying cellular mechanisms for this observation by investigating elements of B(12) metabolism in the sequenced genomes of 15 different algal species, with representatives of the red, green, and brown algae, diatoms, and coccolithophores, including both macro- and microalgae, and from marine and freshwater environments. From this analysis, together with growth assays, we found a strong correlation between the absence of a functional METE gene and B(12) auxotrophy. The presence of a METE unitary pseudogene in the B(12)-dependent green algae Volvox carteri and Gonium pectorale, relatives of the B(12)-independent Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, suggest that B(12) dependence evolved recently in these lineages. In both C. reinhardtii and the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, growth in the presence of cobalamin leads to repression of METE transcription, providing a mechanism for gene loss. Thus varying environmental conditions are likely to have been the reason for the multiple independent origins of B(12) auxotrophy in these organisms. Because the ultimate source of cobalamin is from prokaryotes, the selective loss of METE in different algal lineages will have had important physiological and ecological consequences for these organisms in terms of their dependence on bacteria. PMID:21551270

  12. The prevalence of cobalamin deficiency among vegetarians assessed by serum vitamin B12: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, R; Lester, S E; Babatunde, T

    2014-05-01

    Individuals following vegetarian diets are at risk for developing vitamin B12 deficiency owing to suboptimal intake. As vitamin B12 is essential for the synthesis of nucleic acids, erythrocytes and in the maintenance of myelin, deficiency may result in a variety of symptoms. Some of these symptoms may be severe while others may be irreversible. The objective of this review was to assess vitamin B12 deficiency, based on reported serum vitamin B12, among individuals adhering to different types of vegetarian diets. A systematic literature search was carried out using multiple search engines including PubMed, Medline, CINAHL plus, ERIC, Nursing and Allied Health Collection and Nursing/Academic Edition. The inclusion criteria consisted of original studies that assessed serum vitamin B12, studies written in English, non-case studies and studies that reported actual percentages of vitamin B12 deficiency. Forty research studies were included. The deficiency prevalence among infants reached 45%. The deficiency among the children and adolescents ranged from 0 to 33.3%. Deficiency among pregnant women ranged from 17 to 39%, dependent on the trimester. Adults and elderly individuals had a deficiency range of 0-86.5%. Higher deficiency prevalence was reported in vegans than in other vegetarians. Thus, with few exceptions, the reviewed studies documented relatively high deficiency prevalence among vegetarians. Vegans who do not ingest vitamin B12 supplements were found to be at especially high risk. Vegetarians, especially vegans, should give strong consideration to the use of vitamin B12 supplements to ensure adequate vitamin B12 intake. Vegetarians, regardless of the type of vegetarian diet they adhere to, should be screened for vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:24667752

  13. Hepatoprotective role of vitamin B(12) and folic acid in arsenic intoxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Deb, Bimal; Maiti, Smarajit

    2012-01-01

    The present study elucidated the protective role of vitamin B(12) with folic acid against arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity in female rats. Ingestion of sodium-arsenite- contaminated water [0.4?ppm/100?g body weight (b.w.)/day] in combination with vitamin B(12) plus folic acid (0.07 and 4.0 ?g, respectively/100?g b.w./day) for 24 days to Wistar rats offered a significant protection against alone arsenic-induced distorted liver function, damaged histoarchitecture, elevated oxidative stress, and DNA fragmentation of hepatic tissues. Arsenic only exposure decreased hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase activities, and the level of nonprotein-soluble thiol (NPSH), with a concomitant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and conjugated dienes (CDs) in the liver. Vitamin supplementation restrained the increase of TBARS and CDs by restoring catalase, SOD, and NPSH levels. Restricted generation of free radicals may be correlated to the protection of DNA stability and hepatic morphology. This study explains the decisive role of vitamin B(12) with folic acid to ameliorate arsenic-mediated liver injuries. PMID:21848401

  14. Vitamin B12 supplementation during pregnancy and postpartum improves B12 status of both mothers and infants but vaccine response in mothers only: a randomized clinical trial in Bangladesh

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose Poor vitamin B12 (B12) status is associated with adverse outcomes in pregnancy and infancy. Little is known about effects of B12 supplementation on immune function. The present study aimed to evaluate effects of pre- and postnatal B12 supplementation on biomarkers of B12 status and vaccine-s...

  15. Vitamin B12 and Vitamin D Deficiencies: An Unusual Cause of Fever, Severe Hemolytic Anemia and Thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Vikas A.; Harbada, Rishit; Sharma, Akhilesh

    2015-01-01

    The array of diagnostic workup for pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) generally revolves in searching for infections, inflammatory/autoimmune, and endocrine etiologies. A differential diagnosis of fever, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia can have etiologies varying from infections like malaria, dengue, cytomegalovirus, Ebstein barr virus, Parvovirus, infective endocarditis, to autoimmune disorder (systemic lupus erythromatosis), vasculitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), autoimmune hemolytic anemia/Evan's syndrome, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuri (PNH), or drugs. Nutritional deficiencies (especially vitamin B12 deficiency) as a cause of fever, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia are very rare and therefore rarely thought of. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency may cause fever and if accompanied by concurrent hyper-homocysteinemia and hypophosphatemia can sometimes lead to severe hemolysis mimicking the above-mentioned conditions. We present a case that highlights vitamin B12 and vitamin D deficiency as an easily treatable cause of PUO, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia, which should be actively looked for and treated before proceeding with more complicated and expensive investigation or starting empiric treatments. PMID:25811010

  16. High prevalence of suboptimal vitamin B12 status in young adult women of South Asian and European ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Quay, Teo A W; Schroder, Theresa H; Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Li, Wangyang; Devlin, Angela M; Barr, Susan I; Lamers, Yvonne

    2015-12-01

    Suboptimal vitamin B12 (B12) status has been associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies, preterm birth, and childhood insulin resistance. South Asians - Canada's largest minority group - and women of reproductive age are vulnerable to B12 deficiency. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with B12 deficiency and suboptimal B12 status in a convenience sample of young adult women of South Asian and European descent in Metro Vancouver. We measured serum B12, holotranscobalamin, plasma methylmalonic acid, red blood cell and plasma folate, and hematologic parameters in 206 nonpregnant, healthy women aged 19-35 years. Categorization for B12 status adhered to serum B12 cutoffs for deficiency (<148 pmol/L) and suboptimal B12 status (148-220 pmol/L). We collected demographic, lifestyle, and dietary intake data and conducted genotyping for common genetic variants linked to B-vitamin metabolism. The prevalence of deficiency and suboptimal B12 status were 14% and 20%, respectively. Serum vitamin B12 concentrations were negatively associated with oral contraceptive use and first-generation immigrant status, and positively with dietary B12 intake and B12 supplement use. The prevalence of B12 inadequacy in this sample of highly educated women is higher than in the general Canadian population. In light of maternal and fetal health risks associated with B12 inadequacy in early-pregnancy, practitioners should consider monitoring B12 status before and during early pregnancy, especially in immigrants and women with low dietary B12 intakes including non-users of vitamin supplements. PMID:26579949

  17. Insights into dechlorination of PCE and TCE from carbon isotope fractionation by vitamin B12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, G.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Lesage, S.; Brown, S.

    2003-04-01

    Reductive dechlorination of perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) by vitamin B12 is both a potential remediation technique and an analogue of the microbial reductive dechlorination reaction. Stable carbon isotopic analysis, an effective and powerful tool for the investigation and monitoring of contaminant remediation, was used to characterize the isotopic effects of reductive dechlorination of PCE and TCE by vitamin B12 in laboratory microcosms. 10 mg/L vitamin B12 degraded greater than 90% of an initial concentration of PCE of 20 mg/L. TCE, the primary product of PCE degradation, accounted for between 64 - 72% of the PCE degraded. In experiments with TCE, 147 mg/L vitamin B12 degraded greater than 90% of an initial concentration of TCE of 20 mg/L. Cis-dichloroethene (cDCE), the primary product of TCE degradation, accounted for between 30 - 35% of the TCE degraded. Degradation of both PCE and TCE exhibited first order kinetics. Strong isotopic fractionation of the reactant PCE and of the reactant TCE was observed over the course of degradation. This fractionation could be described by a Rayleigh model with enrichment factors between -16.5 ppm and -15.8 ppm for PCE, and -17.2 ppm and -16.6 ppm for TCE. Fractionation was similar in all four experiments, with a mean enrichment factor of -16.5 +/- 0.6 ppm. These large enrichment factors indicate that isotopic analysis can be used to assess the occurrence of dechlorination of PCE and TCE by vitamin B12 in remediation situations. Significantly, the Rayleigh model could be used to predict the isotopic compositions of the major products of the reaction as well as the reactant, notwithstanding the lack of complete mass balance observed between product and reactant. This evidence suggests that isotopic fractionation is taking place during complexation of the chlorinated ethenes to vitamin B12, as has been suggested for reductive dechlorination by zero valent iron. The differences between e for this reaction and those observed for microbial biodegradation of the chlorinated ethenes suggest that there may be differences in the rate determining step for these two processes. Determining which steps are rate determining during degradation may allow optimization of contaminant remediation.

  18. Folate (vitamin B9) and vitamin B12 and their function in the maintenance of nuclear and mitochondrial genome integrity.

    PubMed

    Fenech, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Folate plays a critical role in the prevention of uracil incorporation into DNA and hypomethylation of DNA. This activity is compromised when vitamin B12 concentration is low because methionine synthase activity is reduced, lowering the concentration of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) which in turn may diminish DNA methylation and cause folate to become unavailable for the conversion of dUMP to dTMP. The most plausible explanation for the chromosome-breaking effect of low folate is excessive uracil misincorporation into DNA, a mutagenic lesion that leads to strand breaks in DNA during repair. Both in vitro and in vivo studies with human cells clearly show that folate deficiency causes expression of chromosomal fragile sites, chromosome breaks, excessive uracil in DNA, micronucleus formation, DNA hypomethylation and mitochondrial DNA deletions. In vivo studies show that folate and/or vitamin B12 deficiency and elevated plasma homocysteine (a metabolic indicator of folate deficiency) are significantly correlated with increased micronucleus formation and reduced telomere length respectively. In vitro experiments indicate that genomic instability in human cells is minimised when folic acid concentration in culture medium is greater than 100nmol/L. Intervention studies in humans show (a) that DNA hypomethylation, chromosome breaks, uracil incorporation and micronucleus formation are minimised when red cell folate concentration is greater than 700nmol/L and (b) micronucleus formation is minimised when plasma concentration of vitamin B12 is greater than 300pmol/L and plasma homocysteine is less than 7.5?mol/L. These concentrations are achievable at intake levels at or above current recommended dietary intakes of folate (i.e. >400?g/day) and vitamin B12 (i.e. >2?g/day) depending on an individual's capacity to absorb and metabolise these vitamins which may vary due to genetic and epigenetic differences. PMID:22093367

  19. Development of a two-step cultivation strategy for the production of vitamin B12 by Bacillus megaterium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitamin B12 is a fascinating molecule which acts as a co-factor in the metabolism of many organisms, especially affecting DNA synthesis and regulation, fatty acid synthesis and energy production. The synthesis of vitamin B12 is limited to a few of bacteria and archaea. Therefore, industrial microbial fermentation is used to meet annual demands worldwide of vitamin B12 and as an alternative method to the chemical synthesis which requires at least 60 steps that is uneconomical. Bacillus megaterium is one of vitamin B12 producers and an ideal host for many biotechnology applications and being one of the best tools for the industrial production of several enzymes. Therefore, a two-step optimization strategy was established to produce high yield of vitamin B12 by B. megaterium through the provision of the production requirements and the suitable conditions for the biosynthesis of vitamin B12. Results We achieved the optimum conditions for the fermentation process of B. megaterium to produce high yield of vitamin B12 in a practical way based on statistical design and analysis which allowed vitamin B12 production to increase up to 759-fold (204.46 ?g/l) as compared with control without parameters (0.26 ?g/L). High performance liquid chromatography coupled to variable wavelength detector and mass spectrometry has been used to identify vitamin B12 forms and confirm the results. Conclusions We developed the fermentation process of B. megaterium to enhance the production of vitamin B12 by providing the required supplements for the synthesis of vitamin B12 (CoCl2, ?-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB)) and dividing the fermentation process into three stages. In addition, the optimum incubation times of the three fermentation stages were investigated and performed with reducing number of experimental and evaluated multiple parameters and their interactions by using statistical experimental design and analysis. All of these strategies has proven successful in enhancing the production of vitamin B12 up to 204.46 ?g/l and demonstrated that B. megaterium could be a good candidate for the industrial production of vitamin B12. PMID:25023574

  20. Theoretical analysis of electronic absorption spectra of vitamin B12 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andruniow, Tadeusz; Kozlowski, Pawel M.; Zgierski, Marek Z.

    2001-10-01

    Time-dependent density-functional theory (TD-DFT) is applied to analyze the electronic absorption spectra of vitamin B12. To accomplish this two model systems were considered: CN-[CoIII-corrin]-CN (dicyanocobinamide, DCC) and imidazole-[CoIII-corrin]-CN (cyanocobalamin, ImCC). For both models 30 lowest excited states were calculated together with transition dipole moments. When the results of TD-DFT calculations were directly compared with experiment it was found that the theoretical values systematically overestimate experimental data by approximately 0.5 eV. The uniform adjustment of the calculated transition energies allowed detailed analysis of electronic absorption spectra of vitamin B12 models. All absorption bands in spectral range 2.0-5.0 eV were readily assigned. In particular, TD-DFT calculations were able to explain the origin of the shift of the lowest absorption band caused by replacement of the-CN axial ligand by imidazole.

  1. Recreational nitrous oxide abuse-induced vitamin B12 deficiency in a patient presenting with hyperpigmentation of the skin.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Tsung-Ta; Hung, Chih-Tsung; Wang, Wei-Ming; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Yang, Fu-Chi

    2013-05-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency causes skin hyperpigmentation, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, and megaloblastic anemia. Although vitamin B12 deficiency rarely occurs in well-nourished, healthy, young people, nitrous oxide (N2O) intoxication is an important cause of vitamin B12 deficiency in this cohort. N2O, a colorless gas used as an anesthetic since the late 19th century because of its euphoric and analgesic qualities, is now used as a recreational drug and is available via the Internet and at clubs. Here, we describe the case of a 29-year-old woman presenting with skin hyperpigmentation as her only initial symptom after N2O abuse for approximately 2 years. N2O intoxication-induced vitamin B12 deficiency was diagnosed based on the skin pigmentation that had manifested over the dorsa of her fingers, toes, and trunk, coupled with myeloneuropathy of the posterior and lateral columns, a low serum vitamin B12 level, an elevated serum homocysteine level, and the N2O exposure revealed while establishing the patient's history. Symptoms improved significantly with vitamin B12 treatment. We recommend that dermatologists consider N2O intoxication-induced vitamin B12 deficiency as a potential cause of skin hyperpigmentation and myeloneuropathy of the posterior and lateral columns in young, otherwise healthy patients. Failure to recognize this presentation may result in inappropriate treatment, thus affecting patients' clinical outcomes. PMID:23898268

  2. A Study of the Prevalence of Serum Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Deficiency in Western Maharashtra

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Sanket K.; Aundhakar, Swati C.

    2015-01-01

    Context: This study summarizes the prevalence of vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency in the population coming to tertiary care center in Western Maharashtra along with the main presenting symptom routinely misinterpreted in daily practice. Aims and Objectives: 1. To study the prevalence of vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency in the population of western Maharashtra. 2. To correlate the symptoms with serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. Materials and Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional observation study carried out on patients from western Maharashtra seeking medical attention on outpatient and inpatient basis in the medicine department of a teaching institute in Karad. One-hundred patients were selected on basis of below mentioned symptoms viz. tingling and numbness in extremities, dizziness, unsteady gait, early tiredness, forgetfulness, proximal weakness, distal weakness, chronic headache, less interest in work, chronic loose stools, strict vegetarians, alcoholics, intake of medications like anti-tubercular treatment, surgery involving terminal ileum. Serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels of these patients were observed. Deficiency of vitamin B12 and folic acid was studied in 4 groups: (a) Absolute vitamin B12 deficiency; (b) Absolute folic acid deficiency; (c) Borderline vitamin B12 deficiency; (d) Combined vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency. Results: Of the 100 cases, 33% patients were vegetarian. Folic acid deficiency formed the major chunk of deficiency group. Six percent patients had neuropsychiatric manifestations. Depressive illness in 1% patients, dementia in 0% patients, forgetfulness in 1% patients, mania/hallucination in 0% patients each, and chronic headache in 1% patients. Neuropathy in form of loss of reflexes, decreased touch sensation was present in 9% patients. Posterior column involvement viz. Loss of joint position, vibration, positive Romberg's sign were present in 34% patients of vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency. Conclusion: In a small study, it was found that megaloblastic anemia may have symptoms and signs referable to several systems including hematology, dermatology, gastrointestinal, neurology, and neuropsychiatry. PMID:25810991

  3. Biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxypropionate) from glycerol using engineered Klebsiella pneumoniae strain without vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xinjun; Xian, Mo; Liu, Wei; Xu, Chao; Zhang, Haibo; Zhao, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Poly(3-hydroxypropionate) (P3HP) is a biodegradable and biocompatible thermoplastic. Previous studies demonstrated that engineered Escherichia coli strains can produce P3HP with supplementation of expensive vitamin B12. The present study examined the production of P3HP from glycerol in the recombinant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain, which naturally synthesizes vitamin B12. The genes glycerol dehydratase and its reactivation factor (dhaB123, gdrA, and gdrB from K. pneumoniae), aldehyde dehydrogenase (aldH from E. coli) were cloned and expressed in K. pneumoniae to produce 3-hydroxypropionate (3HP), with 2 genes (dhaT and yqhD) for biosynthesis of 1,3-propanediol were deleted. To obtain P3HP production, propionyl-CoA synthetase (prpE from E. coli) and polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase (phaC from Ralstonia eutropha) were introduced. Under the appropriate aeration condition, the cell yield and P3HP content were 0.24 g/L and 12.7% (wt/wt [cell dry weight]) respectively along with 2.03 g/L 3HP after 48 h cultivation. Although the yield is relatively low, this study shows the feasibility of producing P3HP in K. pneumoniae from glycerol without vitamin B12 for the first time. The results also suggest that the aeration conditions should be optimized carefully for the efficient production of P3HP. PMID:25621933

  4. Disposable pencil graphite electrode modified with peptide nanotubes for Vitamin B12 analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pala, Betül Bozdo?an; Vural, Tayfun; Kuralay, Filiz; Ç?rak, Tamer; Bolat, Gülçin; Abac?, Serdar; Denkba?, Emir Baki

    2014-06-01

    In this study, peptide nanostructures from diphenylalanine were synthesized in various solvents with various polarities and characterized with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD) techniques. Formation of peptide nanofibrils, nanovesicles, nanoribbons, and nanotubes was observed in different solvent mediums. In order to investigate the effects of peptide nanotubes (PNT) on electrochemical behavior of disposable pencil graphite electrodes (PGE), electrode surfaces were modified with fabricated peptide nanotubes. Electrochemical activity of the pencil graphite electrode was increased with the deposition of PNTs on the surface. The effects of the solvent type, the peptide nanotube concentration, and the passive adsorption time of peptide nanotubes on pencil graphite electrode were studied. For further electrochemical studies, electrodes were modified for 30 min by immobilizing PNTs, which were prepared in water at 6 mg/mL concentration. Vitamin B12 analyses were performed by the Square Wave (SW) voltammetry method using modified PGEs. The obtained data showed linearity over the range of 0.2 ?M and 9.50 ?M Vitamin B12 concentration with high sensitivity. Results showed that PNT modified PGEs were highly simple, fast, cost effective, and feasible for the electro-analytical determination of Vitamin B12 in real samples.

  5. Regulation of the vitamin B12 metabolism and transport in bacteria by a conserved RNA structural element

    PubMed Central

    VITRESCHAK, ALEXEY G.; RODIONOV, DMITRY A.; MIRONOV, ANDREY A.; GELFAND, MIKHAIL S.

    2003-01-01

    Cobalamin in the form of adenosylcobalamin (Ado-CBL) is known to repress expression of genes for vitamin B12 biosynthesis and be transported by a posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism, which involves direct binding of Ado-CBL to 5?untranslated gene regions (5?UTR). Using comparative analysis of genes and regulatory regions, we identified a highly conserved RNA structure, the B12-element, which is widely distributed in 5?UTRs of vitamin B12-related genes in eubacteria. Multiple alignment of approximately 200 B12-elements from 66 bacterial genomes reveals their common secondary structure and several extended regions of sequence conservation, including the previously known B12-box motif. In analogy to the model of regulation of the riboflavin and thiamin biosynthesis, we suggest Ado-CBL-mediated regulation based on formation of alternative RNA structures including the B12-element. In Gram-negative proteobacteria, as well as in cyanobacteria, actinobacteria, and the CFB group, the cobalamin biosynthesis and vitamin B12 transport genes are predicted to be regulated by inhibition of translation initiation, whereas in the Bacillus/Clostridium group of Gram-positive bacteria, these genes seem to be regulated by transcriptional antitermination. Phylogenetic analysis of the B12-elements reveals a large number of likely duplications of B12-elements in several bacterial genomes. These lineage-specific duplications of RNA regulatory elements seem to be a major evolutionary mechanism for expansion of the vitamin B12 regulon. PMID:12923257

  6. Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia in a Turkish Cohort: Association of Vitamin B12

    PubMed Central

    Eroglu, Nilgun; Kandur, Yasar; Kalay, Salih; Kalay, Zuhal; Guney, Ozgur

    2015-01-01

    Background Deficiency of vitamin B12 (VitB12) causes failure of erytrocyte maturation leading to cell lysis. Red blood cell lysis causes excess heme production that ends with hyperbilirubinemia. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the role of VitB12 in neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (NNH) with prolonged jaundice and to compare patients with control group who did not develop hyperbilirubinemia. Methods A total of 20 patients (M/F = 13/7) with jaundice and 20 healthy controls (M/F = 11/9) were included in the study. Results The mean indirect bilirubin level of patient group was 9.91 ± 1.90 mg/dL (6.71 - 15.2 mg/dL) and control group was 3.18 ± 1.24 mg/dL (1.16 - 4.96 mg/dL). The mean VitB12 level of patient group was 119.9 ± 43.9 ng/L (42.35 - 178 ng/L) and the control group was 286.17 ± 97.43 ng/L (207.90 - 624.10 ng/L). There was a statistically significant difference in terms of VitB12 level (< 0.001) between the study groups. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study is the first study showing that low VitB12 level has been observed as a risk factor in NNH for the first time in the literature. We suggest that prophylactic use of VitB12 by pregnant women so will greatly benefit to prevent VitB12 deficiency and its complications in the first years of life such as NNH. PMID:26015822

  7. Common variant in FUT2 gene is associated with levels of vitamin B(12) in Indian population.

    PubMed

    Tanwar, Vinay Singh; Chand, Mandeep P; Kumar, Jitender; Garg, Gaurav; Seth, Sandeep; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Sengupta, Shantanu

    2013-02-15

    Vitamin B(12) is an essential micronutrient synthesized by microorganisms. Mammals including humans have evolved ways for transport and absorption of this vitamin. Deficiency of vitamin B(12) (either due to low intake or polymorphism in genes involved in absorption and intracellular transport of this vitamin) has been associated with various complex diseases. Genome-wide association studies have recently identified several common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in fucosyl transferase 2 gene (FUT2) to be associated with levels of vitamin B(12)-the strongest association was with a non-synonymous SNP rs602662 in this gene. In the present study, we attempted to replicate the association of this SNP (rs602662) in an Indian population since a significant proportion has been reported to have low levels of vitamin B(12) in this population. A total of 1146 individuals were genotyped for this SNP using a single base extension method and association with levels of vitamin B(12) was assessed in these individuals. Regression analysis was performed to analyze the association considering various confounding factors like for age, sex, diet, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease status. We found that the SNP rs602662 was significantly associated with the levels of vitamin B(12) (p value<0.0001). We also found that individuals adhering to a vegetarian diet with GG (homozygous major genotype) have significantly lower levels of vitamin B(12) in these individuals. Thus, our study reveals that vegetarian diet along with polymorphism in the FUT2 gene may contribute significantly to the high prevalence of vitamin B(12) deficiency in India. PMID:23201895

  8. The bluF gene of Rhodobacter capsulatus is involved in conversion of cobinamide to cobalamin (vitamin B12).

    PubMed Central

    Pollich, M; Wersig, C; Klug, G

    1996-01-01

    The bluF gene of Rhodobacter capsulatus is the first gene of the bluFEDCB operon which is involved in late steps of the cobalamin synthesis. To determine the function of the bluF gene product, a bluF::omega-Km mutant strain was constructed and characterized. This vitamin B12 auxotrophic mutant strain shows a 3.5-times higher vitamin B12 requirement under phototrophic growth conditions than under chemotrophic growth conditions. Surprisingly, the bluF promoter activity does not respond to alterations to the oxygen tension or vitamin B12 concentration. PMID:8955417

  9. Localised Skin Hyperpigmentation as a Presenting Symptom of Vitamin B12 Deficiency Complicating Chronic Atrophic Gastritis

    PubMed Central

    El-Shafie, Kawther; Samir, Nafisa; Lakhtakia, Ritu; Davidson, Robin; Al-Waili, Ahmed; Al-Mamary, Muna; Al-Shafee, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in developing countries and should be suspected in patients with unexplained anaemia or neurological symptoms. Dermatological manifestations associated with this deficiency include skin hyper- or hypopigmentation, angular stomatitis and hair changes. We report a case of a 28-year-old man who presented to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Oman, in November 2013 with localised hyperpigmentation of the palmar and dorsal aspects of both hands of two months’ duration. Other symptoms included numbness of the hands, anorexia, weight loss, dizziness, fatigability and a sore mouth and tongue. There was no evidence of hypocortisolaemia and a literature search revealed a possible B12 deficiency. The patient had low serum B12 levels and megaloblastic anaemia. An intrinsic factor antibody test was negative. A gastric biopsy revealed chronic gastritis. After B12 supplementation, the patient’s symptoms resolved. Family physicians should familiarise themselves with atypical presentations of B12 deficiency. Many symptoms of this deficiency are reversible if detected and treated early. PMID:26357561

  10. Localised Skin Hyperpigmentation as a Presenting Symptom of Vitamin B12 Deficiency Complicating Chronic Atrophic Gastritis.

    PubMed

    El-Shafie, Kawther; Samir, Nafisa; Lakhtakia, Ritu; Davidson, Robin; Al-Waili, Ahmed; Al-Mamary, Muna; Al-Shafee, Mohammed

    2015-08-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in developing countries and should be suspected in patients with unexplained anaemia or neurological symptoms. Dermatological manifestations associated with this deficiency include skin hyper- or hypopigmentation, angular stomatitis and hair changes. We report a case of a 28-year-old man who presented to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Oman, in November 2013 with localised hyperpigmentation of the palmar and dorsal aspects of both hands of two months' duration. Other symptoms included numbness of the hands, anorexia, weight loss, dizziness, fatigability and a sore mouth and tongue. There was no evidence of hypocortisolaemia and a literature search revealed a possible B12 deficiency. The patient had low serum B12 levels and megaloblastic anaemia. An intrinsic factor antibody test was negative. A gastric biopsy revealed chronic gastritis. After B12 supplementation, the patient's symptoms resolved. Family physicians should familiarise themselves with atypical presentations of B12 deficiency. Many symptoms of this deficiency are reversible if detected and treated early. PMID:26357561

  11. Helicobacter pylori associated vitamin B12 deficiency, pernicious anaemia and subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Gowdappa, H Basavana; Mahesh, M; Murthy, K V K S N; Narahari, M G

    2013-01-01

    A 23-year-old man presented with weakness in the lower limbs, numbness in hands and feet over past 6 months. Examination revealed a combination of absent ankle jerk, extensor plantar response and reduced sensations in a glove and stocking distribution. MRI of the spinal cord was distinctive of subacute combined degeneration (SACD) of the spinal cord. Serum vitamin B12 was low and anti-intrinsic factor antibodies were positive. A biopsy of the stomach revealed intense inflammatory infiltrates in lamina propria with grade III Helicobacter pylori infection. Other work-up for the cause of vitamin B12 deficiency was unremarkable. H pylori infection triggers autoantibodies by a mechanism of molecular mimicry. This case report highlights H pylori as a causative agent in vitamin B12 deficiency and culminating in SACD of the spinal cord. H pylori treatment reverses the underlying pathogenesis and corrects vitamin B12 deficient state in selected individuals. PMID:24081591

  12. LOW PLASMA VITAMIN B12 AND HIGH FOLATE CONCENTRATIONS IN PREGNANCY ARE ASSOCIATED WITH GESTATIONAL DIABESITY AND INCIDENT DIABETES

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaveni, GV; Hill, JC; Veena, SR; Bhat, DS; Wills, AK; Chachyamma, KJ; Karat, SC; Yajnik, CS; Fall, CHD

    2012-01-01

    Aim To test the hypothesis that low plasma vitamin B12 concentrations combined with high folate concentrations in pregnancy are associated with higher incidence of gestational diabetes (GDM) and later diabetes. Methods Women (N=785) attending the antenatal clinics of the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India had their anthropometry, insulin resistance (Homeostasis Model Assessment) and glucose tolerance assessed at 30 weeks gestation (100g Oral Glucose Tolerance Test/ OGTT; Carpenter-Coustan criteria), and five years after delivery (75g OGTT, WHO 1999). Vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in pregnancy were measured in stored frozen plasma samples. Results Low vitamin B12 concentrations (<150 pmol/l, B12 deficiency) were observed in 43% of women and low folate concentrations (<7 nmol/l) in 4%. Women with vitamin B12 deficiency had higher body mass index (BMI; P<0.001), sum of skinfolds (P<0.001), insulin resistance (P=0.02) and a higher incidence of GDM (8.7% v 4.6%; OR=2.14, P=0.02; P=0.1 after adjusting for maternal BMI) than non-deficient women. Among vitamin B12-deficient women the incidence of GDM increased with folate concentration (5.6%, 8.8%, 12.8% respectively from lowest to highest third; P for interaction=0.2). B12 deficiency during pregnancy predicted larger skinfolds, increased insulin resistance (P<0.05) and incident diabetes at 5-year follow-up (P=0.02, after adjusting for current BMI). Conclusion Maternal vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with increased adiposity and, in turn, with increased insulin resistance and GDM, especially in the presence of high folate concentrations. Vitamin B12 deficiency may be an important factor underlying the high risk of diabesity in south Asian Indians. PMID:19707742

  13. A riboswitch sensor to determine vitamin B12 in fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuan; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Xiaoqi; Gu, Qing

    2015-05-15

    We describe a sensitive and selective method for determination of vitamin B12 content in fermented foods using riboswitch sensor. A riboswitch amplicon from Propionibacterium freudenreichii was cloned in p519NGFP vector in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The expression of green fluorescence protein was revers correlated to the concentrations of adenosylcobalamin. Adenosylcobalamin directly binds to riboswitch region leading to conformational changes in the secondary structure of mRNA, thus inhibiting expression. After various examinations, a standard curve was obtained from 10 to 1000 ng/mL of cyanocobalamin. The limit of determination is 10 ng/mL. The inter-assay coefficients of variation were 7.5% for the range of 10-1000 ng/mL. The recovery of this method was 92.3%. This method has no or less responses to nucleic acid, pseudovitamin B12, vitamin B12 bound to intrinsic factor and haptocorrin. The riboswitch sensor results were similar with HPLC, but they were Ca. 24% lower than the microbiological assay results. PMID:25577115

  14. Nutritional Supplementation with Chlorella pyrenoidosa Lowers Serum Methylmalonic Acid in Vegans and Vegetarians with a Suspected Vitamin B12 Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Randall Edward; Phillips, Todd W; Udani, Jay

    2015-12-01

    Since vitamin B12 occurs in substantial amounts only in foods derived from animals, vegetarians and particularly vegans are at risk of developing deficiencies of this essential vitamin. The chlorella used for this study is a commercially available whole-food supplement, which is believed to contain the physiologically active form of the vitamin. This exploratory open-label study was performed to determine if adding 9?g of Chlorella pyrenoidosa daily could help mitigate a vitamin B12 deficiency in vegetarians and vegans. Seventeen vegan or vegetarian adults (26-57 years of age) with a known vitamin B12 deficiency, as evidenced by a baseline serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) level above 270?nmol/L at screening, but who otherwise appeared healthy were enrolled in the study. Each participant added 9?g of C. pyrenoidosa to their daily diet for 60?±?5 days and their serum MMA, vitamin B12, homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as mean corpuscular volume (MCV), hemoglobin (Hgb), and hematocrit (Hct) were measured at 30 and 60 days from baseline. After 30 and 60 days, the serum MMA level fell significantly (P?vitamin B12 trended upward, while MCV, Hgb, and Hct appeared unchanged. The results of this work suggest that the vitamin B12 in chlorella is bioavailable and such dietary supplementation is a natural way for vegetarians and vegans to get the vitamin B12 they need. PMID:26485478

  15. Folate, Vitamin B12, and Homocysteine as Risk Factors for Cognitive Decline in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Yang, Su-Jin; Park, Woo-Young; Kim, Sung-Jin; Shin, Hee-Young

    2008-01-01

    Objective Cross-sectional studies have shown that the dysregulation of one-carbon metabolism is associated with cognitive impairment. However, the findings of longitudinal studies investigating this association have been inconsistent. This study investigated the prospective associations between cognitive decline and the levels of folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine both at baseline and over course of the study period. Methods A total of 607 (83%) elderly individuals were selected from a group of 732 elderly individuals without dementia at baseline and followed over a 2.4-year study period. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was administered to the subjects, and the serum levels of folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine were assayed both at baseline and at follow-up examinations. Covariates included demographic data, disability, depression, alcohol consumption, physical activity, vascular risk factors, serum creatinine level, vitamin intake, and apolipoprotein E genotype. Results Cognitive decline was associated with decreasing quintiles of folate at baseline, a relative decline in folate and an increase in homocysteine across the two examinations after adjustment for relevant covariates. Conclusion These results suggest that folate and homocysteine are involved in the etiology of cognitive decline in the elderly. PMID:20046406

  16. Discovery of novel sources of vitamin b(12) in traditional korean foods from nutritional surveys of centenarians.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Lee, Mee Sook; Oh, Se In; Park, Sang Chul

    2010-01-01

    Human longevity can be explained by a variety of factors, among them, nutritional factor would play an important role. In our study of Korean centenarians for their longevity, the apparent nutritional imbalance in the traditional semi-vegetarian diet raised a special attention, especially on vitamin B(12) status, supplied by animal foods. Interestingly, we found that the prevalence of vitamin B(12) deficient Korean centenarians was not higher compared with those from Western nations with animal-oriented traditional foods. We assumed that there might be some unveiled sources for vitamin B(12) in the Korean traditional foods. Screening of vitamin B(12) contents has revealed that some traditional soybean-fermented foods, such as Doenjang and Chunggukjang, and seaweeds contain considerable amounts of vitamin B(12). Taken together, it can be summarized that the traditional foods, especially of fermentation, might be evaluated for compensation of the nutritional imbalance in the vegetable-oriented dietary pattern by supplying vitamin B(12), resulting in maintenance of health status. PMID:21436999

  17. Improved propionic acid and 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole control strategy for vitamin B12 fermentation by Propionibacterium freudenreichii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Zhang, Zhiwei; Jiao, Youjing; Liu, Shouxin; Wang, Yunshan

    2015-01-10

    An efficient fermentation-strengthening approach was developed to improve the anaerobic production of vitamin B12 by cultivation process optimization with Propionibacterium freudenreichii. The effects of the byproduct propionic acid and the precursor 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB) on vitamin B12 biosynthesis were investigated. Byproduct inhibition experiments showed that maintaining propionic acid concentration in broth below 10-20 g/L in the early stage and 20-30 g/L in the late stage can efficiently improve vitamin B12 biosynthesis. Batch fermentation indicated the occurrence of feed-back inhibition in intracellular intermediate biosynthesis. In addition, the incorporation of the precursor DMB depended on the fermentation level of the vitamin B12 intermediate. High vitamin B12 concentration (58.8 mg/L) and production (0.37 mg/g) were obtained with an expanded bed adsorption bioreactor by using the propionic acid and DMB control method. The optimum concentration and production of 59.5 and 0.59 mg/L h for vitamin B12 production were respectively achieved after five continuous batches. PMID:25455014

  18. Nutritional megaloblastic anemia in young Turkish children is associated with vitamin B-12 deficiency and psychomotor retardation.

    PubMed

    Katar, Selahattin; Nuri Ozbek, Mehmet; Yarami?, Ahmet; Ecer, Sultan

    2006-09-01

    We aimed to investigate the presence of psychomotor retardation, physical and laboratory examination in infants with megaloblastic anemia. Inclusion criteria for the study were; age 9 to 36 months, refusal of food except for breast and cow milk, loss of appetite, developmental delay, significant pallor, and hypersegmentation neutrophils in the peripheral blood smear. A total of 33 children fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled among 3368 patients attending Pediatric Outpatient Clinics of ?irnak-Cizre State Hospital between January 25, 2004 and May 5, 2004. Mean age was 16.4 months. Thirty-two patients had Vitamin B12 deficiency, 1 patient had folate deficiency, and 10 patients had combined vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. Statistically, a positive significant relationship was detected between serum vitamin B12 levels and mean corpuscular volume (P = 0.001, r = 0.56), and between vitamin B12 levels and hemoglobin (P = 0.004, r = 0.49). We believe that preventative measures such as fortification of flour with vitamin B12, nutritional support with vitamin B12 for the mother during pregnancy and nursing, provision of adequate primary preventive health services, and starting complementary food after 6 months of age are important determinants for preventing megaloblastic anemia. PMID:17006260

  19. Genetic Architecture of Vitamin B12 and Folate Levels Uncovered Applying Deeply Sequenced Large Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Bjarnason, Helgi; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Magnusson, Olafur T.; Sparsø, Thomas; Albrechtsen, Anders; Kong, Augustine; Masson, Gisli; Tian, Geng; Cao, Hongzhi; Nie, Chao; Kristiansen, Karsten; Husemoen, Lise Lotte; Thuesen, Betina; Li, Yingrui; Nielsen, Rasmus; Linneberg, Allan; Olafsson, Isleifur; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur I.; Jørgensen, Torben; Wang, Jun; Hansen, Torben; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefánsson, Kari; Pedersen, Oluf

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have mainly relied on common HapMap sequence variations. Recently, sequencing approaches have allowed analysis of low frequency and rare variants in conjunction with common variants, thereby improving the search for functional variants and thus the understanding of the underlying biology of human traits and diseases. Here, we used a large Icelandic whole genome sequence dataset combined with Danish exome sequence data to gain insight into the genetic architecture of serum levels of vitamin B12 (B12) and folate. Up to 22.9 million sequence variants were analyzed in combined samples of 45,576 and 37,341 individuals with serum B12 and folate measurements, respectively. We found six novel loci associating with serum B12 (CD320, TCN2, ABCD4, MMAA, MMACHC) or folate levels (FOLR3) and confirmed seven loci for these traits (TCN1, FUT6, FUT2, CUBN, CLYBL, MUT, MTHFR). Conditional analyses established that four loci contain additional independent signals. Interestingly, 13 of the 18 identified variants were coding and 11 of the 13 target genes have known functions related to B12 and folate pathways. Contrary to epidemiological studies we did not find consistent association of the variants with cardiovascular diseases, cancers or Alzheimer's disease although some variants demonstrated pleiotropic effects. Although to some degree impeded by low statistical power for some of these conditions, these data suggest that sequence variants that contribute to the population diversity in serum B12 or folate levels do not modify the risk of developing these conditions. Yet, the study demonstrates the value of combining whole genome and exome sequencing approaches to ascertain the genetic and molecular architectures underlying quantitative trait associations. PMID:23754956

  20. Genetic architecture of vitamin B12 and folate levels uncovered applying deeply sequenced large datasets.

    PubMed

    Grarup, Niels; Sulem, Patrick; Sandholt, Camilla H; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Bjarnason, Helgi; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Magnusson, Olafur T; Sparsø, Thomas; Albrechtsen, Anders; Kong, Augustine; Masson, Gisli; Tian, Geng; Cao, Hongzhi; Nie, Chao; Kristiansen, Karsten; Husemoen, Lise Lotte; Thuesen, Betina; Li, Yingrui; Nielsen, Rasmus; Linneberg, Allan; Olafsson, Isleifur; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur I; Jørgensen, Torben; Wang, Jun; Hansen, Torben; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefánsson, Kari; Pedersen, Oluf

    2013-06-01

    Genome-wide association studies have mainly relied on common HapMap sequence variations. Recently, sequencing approaches have allowed analysis of low frequency and rare variants in conjunction with common variants, thereby improving the search for functional variants and thus the understanding of the underlying biology of human traits and diseases. Here, we used a large Icelandic whole genome sequence dataset combined with Danish exome sequence data to gain insight into the genetic architecture of serum levels of vitamin B(12) (B12) and folate. Up to 22.9 million sequence variants were analyzed in combined samples of 45,576 and 37,341 individuals with serum B(12) and folate measurements, respectively. We found six novel loci associating with serum B(12) (CD320, TCN2, ABCD4, MMAA, MMACHC) or folate levels (FOLR3) and confirmed seven loci for these traits (TCN1, FUT6, FUT2, CUBN, CLYBL, MUT, MTHFR). Conditional analyses established that four loci contain additional independent signals. Interestingly, 13 of the 18 identified variants were coding and 11 of the 13 target genes have known functions related to B(12) and folate pathways. Contrary to epidemiological studies we did not find consistent association of the variants with cardiovascular diseases, cancers or Alzheimer's disease although some variants demonstrated pleiotropic effects. Although to some degree impeded by low statistical power for some of these conditions, these data suggest that sequence variants that contribute to the population diversity in serum B(12) or folate levels do not modify the risk of developing these conditions. Yet, the study demonstrates the value of combining whole genome and exome sequencing approaches to ascertain the genetic and molecular architectures underlying quantitative trait associations. PMID:23754956

  1. Simultaneous determination of vitamin B12 and its derivatives using some of multivariate calibration 1 (MVC1) techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadi-Maybodi, Abdolraouf; Darzi, S. K. Hassani Nejad

    2008-10-01

    Resolution of binary mixtures of vitamin B12, methylcobalamin and B12 coenzyme with minimum sample pre-treatment and without analyte separation has been successfully achieved by methods of partial least squares algorithm with one dependent variable (PLS1), orthogonal signal correction/partial least squares (OSC/PLS), principal component regression (PCR) and hybrid linear analysis (HLA). Data of analysis were obtained from UV-vis spectra. The UV-vis spectra of the vitamin B12, methylcobalamin and B12 coenzyme were recorded in the same spectral conditions. The method of central composite design was used in the ranges of 10-80 mg L -1 for vitamin B12 and methylcobalamin and 20-130 mg L -1 for B12 coenzyme. The models refinement procedure and validation were performed by cross-validation. The minimum root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 2.26 mg L -1 for vitamin B12 with PLS1, 1.33 mg L -1 for methylcobalamin with OSC/PLS and 3.24 mg L -1 for B12 coenzyme with HLA techniques. Figures of merit such as selectivity, sensitivity, analytical sensitivity and LOD were determined for three compounds. The procedure was successfully applied to simultaneous determination of three compounds in synthetic mixtures and in a pharmaceutical formulation.

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of vitamin B12-related metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Young, Douglas B.; Comas, Iñaki; de Carvalho, Luiz P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Comparison of genome sequences from clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with phylogenetically-related pathogens Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium kansasii, and Mycobacterium leprae reveals diversity amongst genes associated with vitamin B12-related metabolism. Diversity is generated by gene deletion events, differential acquisition of genes by horizontal transfer, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with predicted impact on protein function and transcriptional regulation. Differences in the B12 synthesis pathway, methionine biosynthesis, fatty acid catabolism, and DNA repair and replication are consistent with adaptations to different environmental niches and pathogenic lifestyles. While there is no evidence of further gene acquisition during expansion of the M. tuberculosis complex, the emergence of other forms of genetic diversity provides insights into continuing host-pathogen co-evolution and has the potential to identify novel targets for disease intervention. PMID:25988174

  3. Micronutrient Status in Female University Students: Iron, Zinc, Copper, Selenium, Vitamin B12 and Folate

    PubMed Central

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Young women are at an increased risk of micronutrient deficiencies, particularly due to higher micronutrient requirements during childbearing years and multiple food group avoidances. The objective of this study was to investigate biomarkers of particular micronutrients in apparently healthy young women. Female students (n = 308; age range 18–35 year; Body Mass Index 21.5 ± 2.8 kg/m2; mean ± SD) were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Blood samples were obtained from participants in the fasted state and analysed for biomarkers of iron status, vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine, selenium, zinc, and copper. The results show iron deficiency anaemia, unspecified anaemia, and hypoferritinemia in 3%, 7% and 33.9% of participants, respectively. Low vitamin B12 concentrations (<120 pmol/L) were found in 11.3% of participants, while 4.7% showed sub-clinical deficiency based on serum methylmalonic acid concentrations >0.34 ?mol/L. Folate concentrations below the reference range were observed in 1.7% (serum) or 1% (erythrocytes) of participants, and 99.7% of the participant had erythrocyte-folate concentrations >300 nmol/L. Serum zinc concentrations <10.7 ?mol/L were observed in 2% of participants. Serum copper and selenium concentrations were below the reference range in 23% and 11% of participants, respectively. Micronutrient deficiencies including iron and vitamin B12, and apparent excess of folate are present in educated Australian female students of childbearing age, including those studying nutrition. The effects of dietary behaviours and food choices on markers of micronutrient status require further investigation. PMID:25401503

  4. Low plasma vitamin B-12 in Kenyan school children is highly prevalent and improved by supplemental animal source foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in many regions of the world is becoming recognized as a widespread public health problem, but it is not known to what extent this deficiency results from a low intake of the vitamin or from its malabsorption from food. In rural Kenya, where a previous ...

  5. VITAMIN B6, B12 AND FOLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF RANDOMIZED TRIALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite their important role in cognitive function, the value of B vitamin supplementation is unknown. A systematic review of the effect of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation on cognitive function was performed. Literature search conducted in MEDLINE with supplemental articles from re...

  6. PREVALENCE OF VITAMINS E AND B12 IN DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS REPORTED IN NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EVALUATION SURVEY (NHANES)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: Public health concerns regarding excessive Vitamin E and deficient Vitamin B12 intake warrant evaluation of total dietary intake for these nutrients. A Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database is being developed by the Nutrient Data Laboratory with the Office of Dietary Supplements and oth...

  7. HETEROGENEITY AND LACK OF GOOD QUALITY STUDIES LIMIT ASSOCIATION BETWEEN FOLATE, VITAMIN B-6 AND B-12, AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite their important role in cognitive function, the value of B vitamin supplementation is unknown. A systematic review of the effect of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation on cognitive function was performed. Literature search conducted in MEDLINE with supplemental articles from rev...

  8. Dual isotope Schilling test for measuring absorption of food-bound and free vitamin B12 simultaneously

    SciTech Connect

    Doscherholmen, A.; Silvis, S.; McMahon, J.

    1983-10-01

    A prototype food-bound vitamin B12 (food-B12) absorption test has been developed in which /sup 57/Co-B12 was incorporated in vitro into egg yolk (yolk-B12) and served to volunteers in 50-g cooked portions together with toast and coffee for breakfast. Six hours later, 1 mg nonlabeled B12 was given intramuscularly and 24-hour urine was collected for radioactivity measurement. In separate tests, the absorption of yolk-B12 and crystalline /sup 57/Co-B12 was equally poor in patients with pernicious anemia. However, in patients with simple gastric achlorhydria and those who had undergone gastric surgery, the assimilation of yolk-B12 was impaired greatly, whereas the absorption of crystalline radio-B12 was normal. Egg yolk labeled with /sup 58/Co-B12 was administered together with crystalline /sup 57/Co-B12 in a dual isotope test with results similar to those obtained when the tests were prepared separately. This yolk-/sup 58/Co-B12 test with its ability to detect malabsorption of food-B12 may be considered as an addition to the first part of the Schilling test.

  9. Nitrous Oxide Abuse and Vitamin B12 Action in a 20-Year-Old Woman: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Duque, Miriam Andrea; Kresak, Jesse L; Falchook, Adam; Harris, Neil S

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report a case of a 20-year-old (ethnicity not reported) woman with a history of nitrous oxide abuse and clinical symptoms consistent with spinal cord subacute combined degeneration with associated low serum concentrations of vitamin B12, elevated methylmalonic acid levels, and radiologic evidence of demyelination of the dorsal region of the spinal column. The health of the patient improved dramatically with B12 supplementation. In this case, we discuss the interaction of nitrous oxide with the enzymatic pathways involved in the biochemistry of vitamin B12. PMID:26489675

  10. Effects of vitamin B-12 supplementation on neurologic and cognitive function in older people: a randomized controlled trial12

    PubMed Central

    Dangour, Alan D; Allen, Elizabeth; Clarke, Robert; Elbourne, Diana; Fletcher, Astrid E; Letley, Louise; Richards, Marcus; Whyte, Ken; Uauy, Ricardo; Mills, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Background: Moderate vitamin B-12 deficiency is relatively common in older people. However, there is little robust evidence on the effect of vitamin B-12 supplementation on neurologic and cognitive outcomes in later life. Objective: We investigated whether vitamin B-12 supplementation benefits neurologic and cognitive function in moderately vitamin B-12–deficient older people. Design: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 7 general practices in South East England, United Kingdom. Study participants were aged ?75 y and had moderate vitamin B-12 deficiency (serum vitamin B-12 concentrations: 107–210 pmol/L) in the absence of anemia and received 1 mg crystalline vitamin B-12 or a matching placebo as a daily oral tablet for 12 mo. Peripheral motor and sensory nerve conduction, central motor conduction, a clinical neurologic examination, and cognitive function were assessed before and after treatment. Results: A total of 201 participants were enrolled in the trial, and 191 subjects provided outcome data. Compared with baseline, allocation to vitamin B-12 was associated with a 177% increase in serum concentration of vitamin B-12 (641 compared with 231 pmol/L), a 331% increase in serum holotranscobalamin (240 compared with 56 pmol/L), and 17% lower serum homocysteine (14.2 compared with 17.1 ?mol/L). In intention-to-treat analysis of covariance models, with adjustment for baseline neurologic function, there was no evidence of an effect of supplementation on the primary outcome of the posterior tibial compound muscle action potential amplitude at 12 mo (mean difference: ?0.2 mV; 95% CI: –0.8, 0.3 mV). There was also no evidence of an effect on any secondary peripheral nerve or central motor function outcome, or on cognitive function or clinical examination. Conclusion: Results of the trial do not support the hypothesis that the correction of moderate vitamin B-12 deficiency, in the absence of anemia and of neurologic and cognitive signs or symptoms, has beneficial effects on neurologic or cognitive function in later life. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN54195799. PMID:26135351

  11. Oral versus intramuscular administration of vitamin B12 for the treatment of patients with vitamin B12 deficiency: a pragmatic, randomised, multicentre, non-inferiority clinical trial undertaken in the primary healthcare setting (Project OB12)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The oral administration of vitamin B12 offers a potentially simpler and cheaper alternative to parenteral administration, but its effectiveness has not been definitively demonstrated. The following protocol was designed to compare the effectiveness of orally and intramuscularly administered vitamin B12 in the treatment of patients ≥65 years of age with vitamin B12 deficiency. Methods/design The proposed study involves a controlled, randomised, multicentre, parallel, non-inferiority clinical trial lasting one year, involving 23 primary healthcare centres in the Madrid region (Spain), and patients ≥65 years of age. The minimum number of patients required for the study was calculated as 320 (160 in each arm). Bearing in mind an estimated 8-10% prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency among the population of this age group, an initial sample of 3556 patients will need to be recruited. Eligible patients will be randomly assigned to one of the two treatment arms. In the intramuscular treatment arm, vitamin B12 will be administered as follows: 1 mg on alternate days in weeks 1 and 2, 1 mg/week in weeks 3–8,and 1 mg/month in weeks 9–52. In the oral arm, the vitamin will be administered as: 1 mg/day in weeks 1–8 and 1 mg/week in weeks 9–52. The main outcome variable to be monitored in both treatment arms is the normalisation of the serum vitamin B12 concentration at weeks 8, 26 and 52; the secondary outcome variables include the serum concentration of vitamin B12 (in pg/ml), adherence to treatment, quality of life (EuroQoL-5D questionnaire), patient 3satisfaction and patient preferences. All statistical tests will be performed with intention to treat and per protocol. Logistic regression with random effects will be used to adjust for prognostic factors. Confounding factors or factors that might alter the effect recorded will be taken into account in analyses. Discussion The results of this study should help establish, taking quality of life into account, whether the oral administration of vitamin B12 is an effective alternative to its intramuscular administration. If this administration route is effective, it should provide a cheaper means of treating vitamin B12 deficiency while inducing fewer adverse effects. Having such an alternative would also allow patient preferences to be taken into consideration at the time of prescribing treatment. Trial registration This trial has been registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT 01476007, and under EUDRACT number 2010-024129-20. PMID:22650964

  12. Is there an association of vitamin B12 status with neurological function in older people? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Miles, Lisa M; Mills, Kerry; Clarke, Robert; Dangour, Alan D

    2015-08-28

    Low vitamin B12 status is common in older people; however, its public health significance in terms of neurological manifestations remains unclear. The present systematic review evaluated the association of vitamin B12 status with neurological function and clinically relevant neurological outcomes in adults aged 50+ years. A systematic search of nine bibliographic databases (up to March 2013) identified twelve published articles describing two longitudinal and ten cross-sectional analyses. The included study populations ranged in size (n 28-2287) and mean/median age (range 65-81 years). Studies reported various neurological outcomes: nerve function; clinically measured signs and symptoms of nerve function; self-reported neurological symptoms. Studies were assessed for risk of bias, and results were synthesised qualitatively. Among the general population groups of older people, one longitudinal study reported no association, and four of seven cross-sectional studies reported limited evidence of an association of vitamin B12 status with some, but not all, neurological outcomes. Among groups with clinical and/or biochemical evidence of low vitamin B12 status, one longitudinal study reported an association of vitamin B12 status with some, but not all, neurological outcomes and three cross-sectional analyses reported no association. Overall, there is limited evidence from observational studies to suggest an association of vitamin B12 status with neurological function in older people. The heterogeneity and quality of the evidence base preclude more definitive conclusions, and further high-quality research is needed to better inform understanding of public health significance in terms of neurological function of vitamin B12 status in older people. PMID:26202329

  13. The use of labelled vitamin B12 in the measurement of glomerular filtration rate.

    PubMed

    Ekins, R P; Nashat, F S; Portal, R W; Sgherzi, A M

    1966-10-01

    1. Two preparations of radioactive vitamin B(12) labelled respectively with (57)Co and (58)Co have been employed in the estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (G.F.R.) in dogs. The intravenous injection of these preparations at an interval of 20 min resulted in a changing ratio of their activities in plasma and urine and so permitted a relation in time to be established between the urine and the plasma from which it was filtered.2. When urine and plasma were sampled at short intervals an effective renal delay or transit time could be derived from their isotope ratio curves and used as a correction in the clearance equation. This allowed serial clearances of either isotope to be calculated despite a falling plasma concentration.3. This method was applied to the study of the G.F.R. in fourteen dogs using short urine collections of 2 or 4 min for periods up to 80 min. The results under stable conditions and with deliberately induced changes in the G.F.R. are illustrated and discussed.4. Application of the technique in four patients undergoing differential renal function studies gave results comparable with those in the experimental work.5. The plasma binding of administered vitamin B(12) in serial blood samples in dogs and man was investigated. PMID:5972113

  14. Electronic structure of vitamin B12 within the framework of the Haldane-Anderson impurity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandemir, Zafer; Mayda, Selma; Bulut, Nejat

    2015-03-01

    We study the electronic structure of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamine C63H88CoN14O14P) by using the framework of the multi-orbital single-impurity Haldane-Anderson model of a transition-metal impurity in a semiconductor host. Here, our purpose is to understand the many-body effects originating from the transition-metal impurity. In this approach, the cobalt 3 d orbitals are treated as the impurity states placed in a semiconductor host which consists of the rest of the molecule. The parameters of the resulting effective Haldane-Anderson model are obtained within the Hartree-Fock approximation for the electronic structure of the molecule. The quantum Monte Carlo technique is then used to calculate the one-electron and magnetic correlation functions of this effective Haldane-Anderson model for vitamin B12. We find that new states form inside the semiconductor gap due to the on-site Coulomb interaction at the impurity 3 d orbitals and that these states become the highest occupied molecular orbitals. In addition, we present results on the charge distribution and spin correlations around the Co atom. We compare the results of this approach with those obtained by the density-functional theory calculations.

  15. Structural Basis of Multifunctionality in a Vitamin B12-processing Enzyme*

    PubMed Central

    Koutmos, Markos; Gherasim, Carmen; Smith, Janet L.; Banerjee, Ruma

    2011-01-01

    An early step in the intracellular processing of vitamin B12 involves CblC, which exhibits dual reactivity, catalyzing the reductive decyanation of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12), and the dealkylation of alkylcobalamins (e.g. methylcobalamin; MeCbl). Insights into how the CblC scaffold supports this chemical dichotomy have been unavailable despite it being the most common locus of patient mutations associated with inherited cobalamin disorders that manifest in both severe homocystinuria and methylmalonic aciduria. Herein, we report structures of human CblC, with and without bound MeCbl, which provide novel biochemical insights into its mechanism of action. Our results reveal that CblC is the most divergent member of the NADPH-dependent flavin reductase family and can use FMN or FAD as a prosthetic group to catalyze reductive decyanation. Furthermore, CblC is the first example of an enzyme with glutathione transferase activity that has a sequence and structure unrelated to the GST superfamily. CblC thus represents an example of evolutionary adaptation of a common structural platform to perform diverse chemistries. The CblC structure allows us to rationalize the biochemical basis of a number of pathological mutations associated with severe clinical phenotypes. PMID:21697092

  16. Fundamental shift in vitamin B12 eco-physiology of a model alga demonstrated by experimental evolution

    PubMed Central

    Helliwell, Katherine E.; Collins, Sinéad; Kazamia, Elena; Purton, Saul; Wheeler, Glen L.; Smith, Alison G.

    2014-01-01

    A widespread and complex distribution of vitamin requirements exists over the entire tree of life, with many species having evolved vitamin dependence, both within and between different lineages. Vitamin availability has been proposed to drive selection for vitamin dependence, in a process that links an organism’s metabolism to the environment, but this has never been demonstrated directly. Moreover, understanding the physiological processes and evolutionary dynamics that influence metabolic demand for these important micronutrients has significant implications in terms of nutrient acquisition, and in microbial organisms, can affect community composition and metabolic exchange between coexisting species. Here, we investigate the origins of vitamin dependence, using an experimental evolution approach with the vitamin B12-independent model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In fewer than 500 generations of growth in the presence of vitamin B12, we observe the evolution of a B12-dependent clone that rapidly displaces its ancestor. Genetic characterization of this line reveals a type-II Gulliver-related transposable element (GR-TE) integrated into the B12-independent methionine synthase gene (METE), knocking out gene function and critically altering the physiology of the alga. PMID:25526368

  17. Novel fermentation process strengthening strategy for production of propionic acid and vitamin B12 by Propionibacterium freudenreichii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Jiao, Youjing; Liu, Shouxin

    2014-12-01

    An efficient fermentation-strengthening approach was developed to improve the anaerobic production of propionic acid and vitamin B12 by co-fermentation with Propionibacterium freudenreichii. Vitamin B12 production from glucose resulted in relatively high productivity (0.35 mg/L h) but a low propionic acid yield (0.55 g/g). By contrast, glycerol gave a high propionic acid yield (0.63 g/g) but low productivity (0.16 g/L h). Co-fermentation of glycerol and glucose with a gradual addition strategy gave high yields (propionic acid: 0.71 g/g; vitamin B12: 0.72 mg/g) and productivities (propionic acid: 0.36 g/L h; vitamin B12: 0.36 mg/L h). Finally, the integrated feedstock and fermentation system strengthening strategy was demonstrated as an efficient method for the economic production of bio-based propionic acid and vitamin B12. PMID:25261985

  18. Supplementing lactating dairy cows with a vitamin B12 precursor, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole, increases the apparent ruminal synthesis of vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Brito, A; Chiquette, J; Stabler, S P; Allen, R H; Girard, C L

    2015-01-01

    Cobalamin (CBL), the biologically active form of vitamin B12, and its analogs, are produced by bacteria only if cobalt supply is adequate. The analogs differ generally by the nucleotide moiety of the molecule. In CBL, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (5,6-DMB) is the base in the nucleotide moiety. The present study aimed to determine if a supplement of 5,6-DMB could increase utilization of dietary cobalt for synthesis of CBL and change ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, omasal flow of nutrients and ruminal protozoa counts. Eight ruminally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows (mean±standard deviation=238±21 days in milk and 736±47 kg of BW) were used in a crossover design. Cows were randomly assigned to a daily supplement of a gelatin capsule containing 1.5 g of 5,6-DMB via the rumen cannula or no supplement. Each period lasted 29 days and consisted of 21 days for treatment adaptation and 8 days for data and samples collection. Five corrinoids, CBL and four cobamides were detected in the total mixed ration and the omasal digesta from both treatments. The dietary supplement of 5,6-DMB increased (P=0.02) apparent ruminal synthesis of CBL from 14.6 to 19.6 (s.e.m. 0.8) mg/day but had no effect (P>0.1) on apparent ruminal synthesis of the four analogs. The supplement of 5,6-DMB had no effect (P>0.1) on milk production and composition, or on protozoal count, ruminal pH and concentrations of volatile fatty acids and ammonia nitrogen in rumen content. The supplement had also no effect (P>0.1) on intake, omasal flow and apparent ruminal digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, NDF, ADF and nitrogenous fractions. Plasma concentration of CBL was not affected by treatments (P=0.98). Providing a preformed part of the CBL molecule, that is, 5,6-DMB, increased by 34% the apparent ruminal synthesis of CBL by ruminal bacteria but had no effect on ruminal fermentation or protozoa count and it was not sufficient to increase plasma concentrations of the vitamin. Even though the efficiency of cobalt utilization for apparent synthesis of CBL was increased from 2.0% to 2.7% by the 5,6-DMB supplement, this improved efficiency was still very low. Further research is needed to identify the factors affecting efficiency of utilization of cobalt for synthesis of CBL by the bacterial populations in rumen. PMID:25171056

  19. Vitamin B12 and derivatives-In vitro permeation studies across Caco-2 cell monolayers and freshly excised rat intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Netsomboon, Kesinee; Feßler, Andrea; Erletz, Lena; Prüfert, Felix; Ruetz, Markus; Kieninger, Christoph; Kräutler, Bernhard; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2016-01-30

    The purpose of this study was to compare the intestinal permeation of vitamin B12 and various derivatives thereof. Permeation behavior and cytotoxicity of four derivatives (coenzyme B12, hydroxocobalamin, methylcobalamin and 4-ethylphenylcobalamin) in comparison to vitamin B12 were evaluated in two different in vitro models, Caco-2 cells and freshly excised rat intestinal mucosa. Resazurin assay was used to evaluate cytotoxicity of the test substances. All test compounds were used at a concentration of 200?g/ml. Permeation experiments were carried out for 3h and test compounds were quantified via reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Cytotoxicity studies showed all test compounds are not toxic to cells. HPLC analyses of test compounds revealed the following rank order of increasing hydrophobicity: hydroxocobalamin<vitamin B12B12B12, hydroxocobalamin, methylcobalamin and 4-ethylphenylcobalamin were 10.2, 0.3, 9.4 and 31.3 fold of vitamin B12 on Caco-2 cells while 0.2, 0.4, 2.6 and 1.9 fold of vitamin B12 on rat intestine, respectively. As various vitamin B12 derivatives showed a significantly higher permeation coefficient than vitamin B12, the use of certain derivatives might be a promising strategy for oral vitamin B12 substitution. PMID:26638881

  20. Parallel computing and first-principles calculations: Applications to complex ceramics and Vitamin B12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Lizhi

    A systematic improvement and extension of the orthogonalized linear combinations of atomic orbitals method was carried out using a combined computational and theoretical approach. For high performance parallel computing, a Beowulf class personal computer cluster was constructed. It also served as a parallel program development platform that helped us to port the programs of the method to the national supercomputer facilities. The program, received a language upgrade from Fortran 77 to Fortran 90, and a dynamic memory allocation feature. A preliminary parallel High Performance Fortran version of the program has been developed as well. To be of more benefit though, scalability improvements are needed. In order to circumvent the difficulties of the analytical force calculation in the method, we developed a geometry optimization scheme using the finite difference approximation based on the total energy calculation. The implementation of this scheme was facilitated by the powerful general utility lattice program, which offers many desired features such as multiple optimization schemes and usage of space group symmetry. So far, many ceramic oxides have been tested with the geometry optimization program. Their optimized geometries were in excellent agreement with the experimental data. For nine ceramic oxide crystals, the optimized cell parameters differ from the experimental ones within 0.5%. Moreover, the geometry optimization was recently used to predict a new phase of TiNx. The method has also been used to investigate a complex Vitamin B12-derivative, the OHCbl crystals. In order to overcome the prohibitive disk I/O demand, an on-demand version of the method was developed. Based on the electronic structure calculation of the OHCbl crystal, a partial density of states analysis and a bond order analysis were carried out. The calculated bonding of the corrin ring of OHCbl model was coincident with the big open-ring pi bond. One interesting find of the calculation was that the Co-OH bond was weak. This, together with the ongoing projects studying different Vitamin B12 derivatives, might help us to answer questions about the Co-C cleavage of the B12 coenzyme, which is involved in many important B12 enzymatic reactions.

  1. Vitamin B12 and folate concentrations during pregnancy and insulin resistance in the offspring: the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, S. S.; Jackson, A. A.; Refsum, H.; Rao, S.; Fisher, D. J.; Bhat, D. S.; Naik, S. S.; Coyaji, K. J.; Joglekar, C. V.; Joshi, N.; Lubree, H. G.; Deshpande, V. U.; Rege, S. S.; Fall, C. H. D.

    2007-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Raised maternal plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations predict small size at birth, which is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. We studied the association between maternal vitamin B12, folate and tHcy status during pregnancy, and offspring adiposity and insulin resistance at 6 years. Methods In the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study we studied 700 consecutive eligible pregnant women in six villages. We measured maternal nutritional intake and circulating concentrations of folate, vitamin B12, tHcy and methylmalonic acid (MMA) at 18 and 28 weeks of gestation. These were correlated with offspring anthropometry, body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan) and insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-R]) at 6 years. Results Two-thirds of mothers had low vitamin B12 (<150 pmol/l), 90% had high MMA (>0.26 ?mol/l) and 30% had raised tHcy concentrations (>10 ?mol/l); only one had a low erythrocyte folate concentration. Although short and thin (BMI), the 6-year-old children were relatively adipose compared with the UK standards (skinfold thicknesses). Higher maternal erythrocyte folate concentrations at 28 weeks predicted higher offspring adiposity and higher HOMA-R (both p?vitamin B12 (18 weeks; p?=?0.03) predicted higher HOMA-R in the children. The offspring of mothers with a combination of high folate and low vitamin B12 concentrations were the most insulin resistant. Conclusions/interpretation Low maternal vitamin B12 and high folate status may contribute to the epidemic of adiposity and type 2 diabetes in India. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-007-0793-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorised users. PMID:17851649

  2. Vitamin B12 Metabolism during Pregnancy and in Embryonic Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Garcia, Maira A.; Rosenblatt, David S.; Jerome-Majewska, Loydie A.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) is required for cellular metabolism. It is an essential coenzyme in mammals for two reactions: the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by the enzyme methionine synthase and the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Symptoms of Cbl deficiency are hematological, neurological and cognitive, including megaloblastic anaemia, tingling and numbness of the extremities, gait abnormalities, visual disturbances, memory loss and dementia. During pregnancy Cbl is essential, presumably because of its role in DNA synthesis and methionine synthesis; however, there are conflicting studies regarding an association between early pregnancy loss and Cbl deficiency. We here review the literature about the requirement for Cbl during pregnancy, and summarized what is known of the expression pattern and function of genes required for Cbl metabolism in embryonic mouse models. PMID:24025485

  3. CdTe quantum dot as a fluorescence probe for vitamin B12 in dosage form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaishnavi, E.; Renganathan, R.

    2013-11-01

    We here report the CdTe quantum dot (CdTe QDs)-based sensor for probing vitamin B12 derivatives in aqueous solution. In this paper, simple and sensitive fluorescence quenching measurements has been employed. The Stern-Volmer constant (KSV), quenching rate constant (kq) and binding constant (K) were rationalized from fluorescence quenching measurement. Furthermore, the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism was discussed. This method was applicable over the concentration ranging from 1 to 14 ?g/mL (VB12) with correlation coefficient of 0.993. The limit of detection (LOD) of VB12 was found to be 0.15 ?g/mL. Moreover, the present approach opens a simple pathway for developing cost-effective, sensitive and selective QD-based fluorescence sensors/probes for biologically significant VB12 in pharmaceutical sample with mean recoveries in the range of 100-102.1%.

  4. Vitamin B(12) metabolism during pregnancy and in embryonic mouse models.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Garcia, Maira A; Rosenblatt, David S; Jerome-Majewska, Loydie A

    2013-09-01

    Vitamin B(12) (cobalamin, Cbl) is required for cellular metabolism. It is an essential coenzyme in mammals for two reactions: the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by the enzyme methionine synthase and the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Symptoms of Cbl deficiency are hematological, neurological and cognitive, including megaloblastic anaemia, tingling and numbness of the extremities, gait abnormalities, visual disturbances, memory loss and dementia. During pregnancy Cbl is essential, presumably because of its role in DNA synthesis and methionine synthesis; however, there are conflicting studies regarding an association between early pregnancy loss and Cbl deficiency. We here review the literature about the requirement for Cbl during pregnancy, and summarized what is known of the expression pattern and function of genes required for Cbl metabolism in embryonic mouse models. PMID:24025485

  5. The cis influence of the corrin in vitamin B12 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, Penny P.; Navizet, Isabelle; Perry, Christopher B.; Marques, Helder M.

    2012-10-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) calculations on [NH3[Co(III)(C10-X-corrin)]-CH3]+, where the C10-H of corrin is replaced by electron-donating or -withdrawing groups, X, explore the cis influence in these vitamin B12 models. As the electron donating ability of X increases, a normal trans influence is observed: the Co-NH3 bond weakens while the Co-CH3 bond strengthens. Surprisingly, though, the Co-CH3 bond dissociation energy decreases monotonically as the Co-C bond strengthens. This is found to be a consequence of the extent of shortening of the Co-NH3 during the homolysis reaction.

  6. Response to Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Regland, Björn; Forsmark, Sara; Halaouate, Lena; Matousek, Michael; Peilot, Birgitta; Zachrisson, Olof; Gottfries, Carl-Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME, also called chronic fatigue syndrome) may respond most favorably to frequent vitamin B12 injections, in vital combination with oral folic acid. However, there is no established algorithm for individualized optimal dosages, and rate of improvement may differ considerably between responders. Objective To evaluate clinical data from patients with ME, with or without fibromyalgia, who had been on B12 injections at least once a week for six months and up to several years. Methods 38 patients were included in a cross-sectional survey. Based on a validated observer’s rating scale, they were divided into Good (n = 15) and Mild (n = 23) responders, and the two groups were compared from various clinical aspects. Results Good responders had used significantly more frequent injections (p<0.03) and higher doses of B12 (p<0.03) for a longer time (p<0.0005), higher daily amounts of oral folic acid (p<0.003) in good relation with the individual MTHFR genotype, more often thyroid hormones (p<0.02), and no strong analgesics at all, while 70% of Mild responders (p<0.0005) used analgesics such as opioids, duloxetine or pregabalin on a daily basis. In addition to ME, the higher number of patients with fibromyalgia among Mild responders was bordering on significance (p<0.09). Good responders rated themselves as “very much” or “much” improved, while Mild responders rated “much” or “minimally” improved. Conclusions Dose-response relationship and long-lasting effects of B12/folic acid support a true positive response in the studied group of patients with ME/fibromyalgia. It’s important to be alert on co-existing thyroid dysfunction, and we suspect a risk of counteracting interference between B12/folic acid and certain opioid analgesics and other drugs that have to be demethylated as part of their metabolism. These issues should be considered when controlled trials for ME and fibromyalgia are to be designed. PMID:25902009

  7. Iron, folate, and vitamin B12 nutrition in pregnancy: a study of 1 000 women from southern India*

    PubMed Central

    Yusufji, D.; Mathan, V. I.; Baker, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    As part of a WHO collaborative programme the prevalence of anaemia was studied and the serum concentrations of iron, folate, and vitamin B12 were measured in 1 000 pregnant women from southern India. The results of the study show a high prevalence of anaemia, resulting from iron and folate deficiency with iron deficiency predominating. Interrelationships between these nutrients and their effect on pregnancy and the fetus were investigated. The results indicate that, in comparison with populations in developed countries, there was a high prevalence of iron and vitamin B12 deficiency in the community, but the state of folate nutrition was similar to that found elsewhere. PMID:4541142

  8. Vitamin B12 production from crude glycerol by Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii: optimization of medium composition through statistical experimental designs.

    PubMed

    Ko?mider, Alicja; Bia?as, Wojciech; Kubiak, Piotr; Dro?d?y?ska, Agnieszka; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

    2012-02-01

    A two-step statistical experimental design was employed to optimize the medium for vitamin B(12) production from crude glycerol by Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii. In the first step, using Plackett-Burman design, five of 13 tested medium components (calcium pantothenate, NaH(2)PO(4)·2H(2)O, casein hydrolysate, glycerol and FeSO(4)·7H(2)O) were identified as factors having significant influence on vitamin production. In the second step, a central composite design was used to optimize levels of medium components selected in the first step. Valid statistical models describing the influence of significant factors on vitamin B(12) production were established for each optimization phase. The optimized medium provided a 93% increase in final vitamin concentration compared to the original medium. PMID:22178491

  9. A Study of Clinical Profile of Vitamin B12 Deficiency with Special Reference to Dermatologic Manifestations in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Sub-Himalayan Bengal

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Kaushik; Sinhamahapatra, Pradyot; Lalhmachhuana, Joseph; Ray, Subhabrata

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitamin B12 deficiency is thought to be uncommon in the eastern parts of India including Bengal and the eastern states as compared to the northern and southern parts of India. The importance of cutaneous features in relation to vitamin B12 deficiency is not well described in literature. Aim: To know the clinical profile of vitamin B12 deficiency in this region and to find out if there is any relationship between dermatologic manifestations with vitamin B12 deficiency. Materials and Methods: All symptomatic patients of anemia requiring blood transfusions who had either raised mean corpuscular volume (MCV) or bicytopenia/pancytopenia on complete blood count or were symptomatic in the form of skin hyperpigmentation were screened for vitamin B12 deficiency. Results: Twenty-five patients were tested for vitamin B12 deficiency. Of them 19 patients were found to be having vitamin B12 deficiency. Conclusions: Vitamin B12 deficiency is not uncommon in the eastern parts of India, contrasting the previous thoughts that it was uncommon in this area, though larger studies are required to know it better. This study included only those requiring blood transfusions, thus a much higher prevalence is expected in this area. Patients with vitamin B12 deficiency do present with severe anemia requiring blood transfusions and often have skin hyperpigmentation. PMID:26288424

  10. Fundamental shift in vitamin B12 eco-physiology of a model alga demonstrated by experimental evolution

    E-print Network

    Helliwell, Katherine E.; Collins, Sinéad; Kazamia, Elena; Purton, Saul; Wheeler, Glen L.; Smith, Alison G.

    2014-01-01

    and Dietrich, 2007). Among algae - 61 taxonomically diverse photosynthetic eukaryotes - vitamin auxotrophy is also a highly 62 variable trait. Approximately 50%, 22% and 5% of species surveyed require vitamin B12 63 (cobalamin), B1 (thiamine) and B7 (biotin... , in patches of elevated microbial activity – i.e. non-specific interactions with 75 prokaryote producers (Karl et al, 2002; Azam et al, 2007). Based on genome analyses 76 prokaryotic taxa implicated in cobalamin synthesis include members of the 77...

  11. Lactobacillus rossiae, a Vitamin B12 Producer, Represents a Metabolically Versatile Species within the Genus Lactobacillus

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Maria; Bottacini, Francesca; Fosso, Bruno; Kelleher, Philip; Calasso, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Ventura, Marco; Picardi, Ernesto; van Sinderen, Douwe; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus rossiae is an obligately hetero-fermentative lactic acid bacterium, which can be isolated from a broad range of environments including sourdoughs, vegetables, fermented meat and flour, as well as the gastrointestinal tract of both humans and animals. In order to unravel distinctive genomic features of this particular species and investigate the phylogenetic positioning within the genus Lactobacillus, comparative genomics and phylogenomic approaches, followed by functional analyses were performed on L. rossiae DSM 15814T, showing how this type strain not only occupies an independent phylogenetic branch, but also possesses genomic features underscoring its biotechnological potential. This strain in fact represents one of a small number of bacteria known to encode a complete de novo biosynthetic pathway of vitamin B12 (in addition to other B vitamins such as folate and riboflavin). In addition, it possesses the capacity to utilize an extensive set of carbon sources, a characteristic that may contribute to environmental adaptation, perhaps enabling the strain's ability to populate different niches. PMID:25264826

  12. Vitamin B12 biosynthesis over waste frying sunflower oil as a cost effective and renewable substrate.

    PubMed

    Hajfarajollah, Hamidreza; Mokhtarani, Babak; Mortaheb, Hamidreza; Afaghi, Ali

    2015-06-01

    Statistical experimental designs were used to develop a medium based on waste frying sunflower oil (WFO) and other nutrient sources for production of vitamin B12 (VB12) by Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. freudenreichii PTCC 1674. The production of acetic acid and propionic acid were also evaluated using the same microorganism. The amount of WFO in the media was initially optimized. The amount of 4 % w/v of oil found to be an appropriate amount for production of VB12. A Plackett Burman design was then employed to identify nutrients that have significant effect on the production of VB12 in the WFO media. Dimethylbenzimidazolyl (DMB), cobalt chloride, ferrous sulfate, and calcium chloride were the most important compounds. The level optimization of nutrients as the significant factors was finally performed using response surface methodology based on a central composite design. The model predicted that a medium containing 35.56 mg/L DMB, 14.69 mg/L CoCl2.6H2O, 5.82 mg/L FeSO4.7H2O, and 11.41 mg/L CaCl2.2H2O gives the maximum VB12 production of 2.60 mg/L. The optimized medium provides a final concentration of vitamin 170 % higher than that by the original medium. This study offers valuable insights on a cost-effective carbon source for industrial production of food-grade VB12. PMID:26028708

  13. Investigation on the pH-dependent binding of vitamin B12 and lysozyme by fluorescence and absorbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Daojin; Yang, Yumin; Cao, Xinxiang; Xu, Chen; Ji, Baoming

    2012-01-01

    The binding reaction between vitamin B12 (B12, cyanocobalamin) and lysozyme (Lys) has been investigated by fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, ultraviolet-vis (UV) absorbance, and three-dimensional fluorescence. The intrinsic fluorescence of Lys was strongly quenched by the addition of B12 in different pH buffer solutions (pH 3.4, 7.4, and 9.0) and the spectroscopic observations are mainly rationalized in terms of a static quenching process at lower concentration of B12 ( CB12/ CLys < 5) and a combined quenching process at higher concentration of B12 ( CB12/ CLys > 5). The structural characteristics of B12 and Lys were probed, and their binding affinities were determined under different pH conditions (pH 3.4, 7.4, and 9.0). The effect of B12 on the conformation of Lys was analyzed using UV, synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence under different pH conditions. These results indicate that the binding of B12 to Lys causes apparent change in the secondary or tertiary structures of Lys. Furthermore, the effect of Zn 2+ on the binding constant of B12 with Lys under various pH conditions (pH 3.4, 7.4, and 9.0) was also studied.

  14. Plasma folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine and cancers of the esophagus, stomach, and liver in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shen-Chih; Goldstein, Binh Y; Mu, Lina; Cai, Lin; You, Nai-Chieh Y; He, Na; Ding, Bao-Guo; Zhao, Jin-Kou; Yu, Shun-Zhang; Heber, David; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Lu, Qing-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating regarding a role of micronutrients in folate metabolism in cancer risk. We investigated the associations of plasma folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine with upper gastrointestinal (GI) cancers in a population-based case-control study in Taixing City, China. With informed consent, we recruited cases with cancers of esophagus (n = 218), stomach (n = 206), and liver (n = 204), and one common healthy control group (n = 405). A standardized epidemiologic questionnaire was used in face-to-face interviews, and blood samples were collected during interviews. We observed an inverse association between plasma folate levels and liver cancer. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) was 0.46 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.24-0.88] comparing individuals in the highest quartile to those in the lowest. We found a positive association between plasma vitamin B12 levels and all three cancers. The aORs for those in the highest quartile were 2.80 (95% CI = 1.51-5.18) for esophageal cancer, 2.17 (1.21-3.89) for stomach cancer, and 9.97 (4.82-20.60) for liver cancer, comparing to those in the lowest quartile. We further observed interaction between plasma folate and vitamin B12 on these cancers. Our data indicated associations between plasma folate and vitamin B12 with upper GI cancers in Chinese population. Further research is warranted considering the debate over the necessity of food fortification. PMID:25607998

  15. Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Elevated Folate Levels: An Unusual Cause of Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure

    PubMed Central

    Lubana, Sandeep Singh; Alfishawy, Mostafa; Singh, Navdeep; Atkinson, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 49 Final Diagnosis: Generalized tonic-clonic seizures in the setting of vitamin B12 deficiency and elevated folate levels Symptoms: Seizures Medication: — Clinical Procedure: None Specialty: Neurology Objective: Unknown ethiology Background: Vitamin B12 deficiency leads to abnormal myelination or demyelination, resulting in sub-acute combined degeneration, peripheral neuropathy, and psychiatric problems, including delusions, hallucinations, cognitive changes, depression, and dementia. Vitamin B12 deficiency also leads to brain shrinkage and neurodegenerative disorders. Case Report: We report the case of a 49-year-old man presenting with new-onset seizures one and a half years following subtotal gastrectomy due to stage IV gastric adenocarcinoma. The patient did not have any history of head injury. Laboratory tests were negative for any metabolic derangements. There were no signs of infection. MRI brain and EEG were normal and there were no changes in medications. Conclusions: In case of unexplained new-onset seizures, patients should be tested for vitamin B12 and folic acid levels and these should be done as part of the initial work-up. PMID:26101427

  16. Vitamin B12-Mediated Restoration of Defective Anaerobic Growth Leads to Reduced Biofilm Formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kang-Mu; Go, Junhyeok; Yoon, Mi Young; Park, Yongjin; Kim, Sang Cheol; Yong, Dong Eun

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa undergoes cell elongation and forms robust biofilms during anaerobic respiratory growth using nitrate (NO3?) as an alternative electron acceptor. Understanding the mechanism of cell shape change induced upon anaerobiosis is crucial to the development of effective treatments against P. aeruginosa biofilm infection. Here, we uncovered the molecular basis of anaerobiosis-triggered cell elongation and identified vitamin B12 to be a molecule that can reinstate defective anaerobic growth of P. aeruginosa. The ratio of total cellular DNA content to protein content was significantly decreased in the PAO1 strain grown under anaerobic conditions, indicating that DNA replication is impaired during anaerobic growth. Anaerobic growth of PAO1 reached a higher cell density in the presence of vitamin B12, an essential coenzyme of class II ribonucleotide reductase. In addition, cell morphology returned to a normal rod shape and transcription of stress-response genes was downregulated under the same anaerobic growth conditions. These results suggest that vitamin B12, the production of which was suppressed during anaerobic growth, can restore cellular machineries for DNA replication and therefore facilitate better anaerobic growth of P. aeruginosa with normal cell division. Importantly, biofilm formation was substantially decreased when grown with vitamin B12, further demonstrating that anaerobiosis-induced cell elongation is responsible for robust biofilm formation. Taken together, our data reveal mechanistic details of a morphological change that naturally occurs during anaerobic growth of P. aeruginosa and illustrates the ability of vitamin B12 to modulate the biofilm-forming capacity of P. aeruginosa under such condition. PMID:22371376

  17. Effects of intramuscular administration of folic acid and vitamin B12 on granulosa cells gene expression in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, A; Khan, D R; Sirard, M-A; Girard, C L; Laforest, J-P; Richard, F J

    2015-11-01

    The fertility of dairy cows is challenged during early lactation, and better nutritional strategies need to be developed to address this issue. Combined supplementation of folic acid and vitamin B12 improve energy metabolism in the dairy cow during early lactation. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the effects of this supplement on gene expression in granulosa cells from the dominant follicle during the postpartum period. Multiparous Holstein cows received weekly intramuscular injection of 320 mg of folic acid and 10 mg of vitamin B12 (treated group) beginning 24 (standard deviation=4) d before calving until 56 d after calving, whereas the control group received saline. The urea plasma concentration was significantly decreased during the precalving period, and the concentration of both folate and vitamin B12 were increased in treated animals. Milk production and dry matter intake were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Plasma concentrations of folates and vitamin B12 were increased in treated animals. Daily dry matter intake was not significantly different between the 2 groups before [13.5 kg; standard error (SE)=0.5] and after (23.6 kg; SE=0.9) calving. Average energy-corrected milk tended to be greater in vitamin-treated cows, 39.7 (SE=1.4) and 38.1 (SE=1.3) kg/d for treated and control cows, respectively. After calving, average plasma concentration of ?-hydroxybutyrate tended to be lower in cows injected with the vitamin supplement, 0.47 (SE=0.04) versus 0.55 (SE=0.03) for treated and control cows, respectively. The ovarian follicle ?12 mm in diameter was collected by ovum pick-up after estrus synchronization. Recovered follicular fluid volumes were greater in the vitamin-treated group. A microarray platform was used to investigate the effect of treatment on gene expression of granulosa cells. Lower expression of genes involved in the cell cycle and higher expression of genes associated with granulosa cell differentiation before ovulation were observed. Selected candidate genes were analyzed by reverse transcription quantitative PCR. Although the effects of intramuscular injections of folic acid and vitamin B12 on lactational performance and metabolic status of animals were limited, ingenuity pathway analysis of gene expression in granulosa cells suggests a stimulation of cell differentiation in vitamin-treated cows, which may be the result of an increase in LH secretion. PMID:26298749

  18. Folate and Vitamin B12 Transport Systems in the Developing Infant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    B vitamin transport systems in infants are not as well studied as those for amino acids and glucose. For most B vitamins, a 2-step process allows for digestion of coenzyme forms of the vitamins in food, followed by specific transport systems for the free vitamin in the intestine. Folate and vitamin ...

  19. Vitamin B-12 and folate status in relation to decline in scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination in the Framingham Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochemical evidence of low vitamin B-12 status is common in seniors, but its clinical relevance is unclear. Vitamin B-12 deficiency can result in rapid, irreversible cognitive decline – a phenomenon that has been linked to high folate status. Our objective was to investigate the cognitive significa...

  20. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency with pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly and leukoerythroblastosis in two Syrian refugee infants: a challenge to differentiate from acute leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Belen, Burcu; Hismi, Burcu Ozturk; Kocak, Ulker

    2014-01-01

    Megaloblastic anaemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency is rare in childhood. However, as most cases are due to maternal insufficiency, it is mainly seen in breastfed infants especially when the mother's socioeconomic status is low and the nutrition is not adequate. We present case of two Syrian refugee infants with severe vitamin B12 deficiency with pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly and leukoerythroblastosis. PMID:24599434

  1. Response to Quinlivan: Post-fortification, folate intake in vitamin B12 deficiency is positively related to homocysteine and methylmalonic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With cross-sectional data, causes and effects are difficult to distinguish, and Quinlivan suggests that high circulating concentrations of homcysteine (Hcy), methylmalonic acid (MMA), and folate observed among vitamin B12-deficient survey participants all resulted from a lack of vitamin B12 (1). How...

  2. Vitamin B12: A Tunable, Long Wavelength, Light-Responsive Platform for Launching Therapeutic Agents.

    PubMed

    Shell, Thomas A; Lawrence, David S

    2015-11-17

    Light-responsive agents offer the promise of targeted therapy, whose benefits include (i) prolonged action at the target site, (ii) overall reduced systemic dosage, (iii) reduced adverse effects, and (iv) localized delivery of multiple agents. Although photoactivated prodrugs have been reported, these species generally require short wavelengths (<450 nm) for activation. However, maximal tissue penetrance by light occurs within the "optical window of tissue" (600-900 nm), well beyond the wavelength range of most existing photocleavable functional groups. Furthermore, since multidrug therapy holds promise for the treatment of complex diseases, from cancer to neurological disorders, controlling the action of multiple drugs via wavelength modulation would take advantage of a property that is unique to light. However, discrimination between existing photoresponsive moieties has thus far proven to be limited. We have developed a vitamin B12/light-facilitated strategy for controlling drug action using red, far-red, and NIR light. The technology is based on a light-triggered reaction displayed by a subset of B12 derivatives: alkyl-cob(III)alamins suffer photohomolysis of the C-Co(III) bond. The C-Co(III) bond is weak (<30 kcal/mol), and therefore all wavelengths absorbed by the corrin ring (330-580 nm) induce photocleavage. In addition, by appending fluorophores to the corrin ring, long wavelength light (>600 nm) is readily captured and used to separate the Co-appended ligand (e.g., a drug) from B12. Consequently, it is now feasible to preassign the wavelength of homolysis by simply installing a fluorescent antenna with the desired photophysical properties. The wavelength malleability inherent within this strategy has been used to construct photoresponsive compounds that launch different drugs by simply modulating the wavelength of illumination. In addition, these phototherapeutics have been installed on the surface and interior of cells, such as erythrocytes or neural stem cells, and released upon expoure to the appropriate wavelength. We have shown that cytotoxic agents, such as doxorubicin, anti-inflammatories, such as dexamethasone, and anti- and pro-vascular agents are readily released from cellular vehicles as biologically active agents. We have also demonstrated that the concept of "optical window of tissue" phototherapeutics is not just limited to prodrugs. For example, stem cells have received considerable attention in the area of regenerative medicine. Hydrogels serve as scaffolds for stem cell growth and differentiation. We have shown that the formation of hydrogels can be triggered, in the presence of cells, using appropriately designed alkyl-cob(III)alamins and long wavelength light. The potential applications of phototherapeutics are broad and include drug delivery for a variety of indications, tissue engineering, and surgery. PMID:26479305

  3. The Status of Vitamin B12 and Folate among Chinese Women: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Shaonong; Yan, Hong; Zeng, Lingxia; Wang, Quanli; Li, Qiang; Xiao, Shengbin; Fan, Xiaojing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the status of the vitamin B12 and folate of Chinese women living in northwest China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008 among Chinese women aged 10–49 years living in Shaanxi province of northwest China. A stratified multistage random sampling method was adopted to obtain a sample of 1170 women. The women were interviewed for collection of their background information and their plasma vitamin B12 and folate were measured with the immunoassay method. The status of both vitamins was evaluated and the prevalence of deficiency was estimated. Results The median value of the women was 214.5 pg/mL for vitamin B12 and 4.6 ng/mL for folate. The urban women had a significantly higher vitamin B12 (254.1 vs. 195.9 pg/mL) but lower folate (4.4 vs. 4.7 ng/mL) than rural women. Total prevalence of deficiency was 45.5% (95% CI: 42.6%?48.4%) for vitamin B12 and 14.7% (95% CI: 12.6%?16.8%) for folate. About 36% of women presented vitamin B12 deficiency alone, 5.2% belonged to folate deficiency alone and 9.5% was combined deficiency in both vitamins. More than 25% of the women were in marginal vitamin B12 status (200–299 pg/mL) and 60% in marginal status of folate (3–6 ng/mL). About 75.2% of rural women with folate deficiency were deficient in vitamin B12 and 46% for urban women. Quantile regression model found decreasing coefficient of folate status across 73 different quantiles of vitamin B12, which indicated that the women with folate deficiency had lower vitamin B12 significantly compared with those with no deficiency. Conclusions The deficiency of vitamin B12 and folate is still prevalent among the Chinese women in northwest China. Vitamin B12 deficiency could be more serious and the improvement of poor vitamin B12 status should be invoked when practicing the supplementation of folate against the neural tube defects in northwest China. PMID:25390898

  4. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii thermal tolerance enhancement mediated by a mutualistic interaction with vitamin B12-producing bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bo; Bishop, Shawn; Stessman, Dan; Wright, David; Spalding, Martin H; Halverson, Larry J

    2013-01-01

    Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors affecting the growth and survival of microorganisms and in light of current global patterns is of particular interest. Here, we highlight studies revealing how vitamin B12 (cobalamin)-producing bacteria increase the fitness of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii following an increase in environmental temperature. Heat stress represses C. reinhardtii cobalamin-independent methionine synthase (METE) gene expression coinciding with a reduction in METE-mediated methionine synthase activity, chlorosis and cell death during heat stress. However, in the presence of cobalamin-producing bacteria or exogenous cobalamin amendments C. reinhardtii cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase METH-mediated methionine biosynthesis is functional at temperatures that result in C. reinhardtii death in the absence of cobalamin. Artificial microRNA silencing of C. reinhardtii METH expression leads to nearly complete loss of cobalamin-mediated enhancement of thermal tolerance. This suggests that methionine biosynthesis is an essential cellular mechanism for adaptation by C. reinhardtii to thermal stress. Increased fitness advantage of METH under environmentally stressful conditions could explain the selective pressure for retaining the METH gene in algae and the apparent independent loss of the METE gene in various algal species. Our results show that how an organism acclimates to a change in its abiotic environment depends critically on co-occurring species, the nature of that interaction, and how those species interactions evolve. PMID:23486253

  5. Electronic structure and correlations of vitamin B12 studied within the Haldane-Anderson impurity model

    E-print Network

    Kandemir, Zafer; Bulut, Nejat

    2015-01-01

    We study the electronic structure and correlations of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamine) by using the framework of the multi-orbital single-impurity Haldane-Anderson model of a transition-metal impurity in a semiconductor host. In this approach, the cobalt 3d orbitals are treated as the impurity states placed in a semiconductor host where the host consists of the rest of the molecule. The parameters of the resulting effective Haldane-Anderson model are obtained within the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation. The quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) technique is then used to calculate the one-electron and magnetic correlation functions of this effective model. We observe that new states form inside the semiconductor gap found by HF due to the intra-orbital Coulomb interaction at the impurity 3d orbitals. In particular, the lowest unoccupied states correspond to an impurity bound state, which consists of the states from the CN axial ligand and the corring ring as well as the Co e_g orbitals. We present results on the charge distri...

  6. Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin enhanced determination for the Vitamin B12 by fluorescence quenching method.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Zhu, Xiashi; Wu, Ming

    2007-05-01

    A novel fluorescence quenching method for the determination of Vitamin B12(VB12) had been developed. It was based on that the fluorescence intensity of erythrosine sodium(ES) could be enhanced by Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin(HP-beta-CD) due to the formation of inclusion complex (HP-beta-CD-ES), while the fluorescence intensity of HP-beta-CD-ES was diminished after adding VB12 into the system, and there was a linear relationship between the fluorescence quenching value of the system (DeltaF) and the concentration of VB12 (c). The mechanism of the determination of VB12 was discussed. The results showed that under the optimal conditions, the linear range of calibration curve for the determination of VB12 was 0.0 approximately 2.1 x 10(-5) mol/L, and the detection limit was 1.8 x 10(-7) mol/ L. It could be satisfactorily applied to the determination of VB12 in injections. PMID:17393288

  7. Ultrafast excited-state dynamics in vitamin B12 and related cob(III)alamins.

    PubMed

    Shiang, Joseph J; Cole, Allwyn G; Sension, Roseanne J; Hang, Kun; Weng, Yuxiang; Trommel, Jenna S; Marzilli, Luigi G; Lian, Tianquan

    2006-01-25

    Femtosecond transient IR and visible absorption spectroscopies have been employed to investigate the excited-state photophysics of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin, CNCbl) and the related cob(III)alamins, azidocobalamin (N3Cbl), and aquocobalamin (H2OCbl). Excitation of CNCbl, H2OCbl, or N3Cbl results in rapid formation of a short-lived excited state followed by ground-state recovery on time scales ranging from a few picoseconds to a few tens of picoseconds. The lifetime of the intermediate state is influenced by the sigma-donating ability of the axial ligand, decreasing in the order CNCbl > N3Cbl > H2OCbl, and by the polarity of the solvent, decreasing with increasing solvent polarity. The peak of the excited-state visible absorption spectrum is shifted to ca. 490 nm, and the shape of the spectrum is characteristic of weak axial ligands, similar to those observed for cob(II)alamin, base-off cobalamins, or cobinamides. Transient IR spectra of the upper CN and N3 ligands are red-shifted 20-30 cm(-1) from the ground-state frequencies, consistent with a weakened Co-upper ligand bond. These results suggest that the transient intermediate state can be attributed to a corrin ring pi to Co 3d(z2) ligand to metal charge transfer (LMCT) state. In this state bonds between the cobalt and the axial ligands are weakened and lengthened with respect to the corresponding ground states. PMID:16417369

  8. Effect of pH on the interaction of vitamin B12 with bovine serum albumin by spectroscopic approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Daojin; Zhang, Tian; Xu, Chen; Ji, Baoming

    2011-12-01

    The interaction mechanism between vitamin B12 (B12, cyanocobalamin) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated by fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, ultraviolet-vis (UV) absorbance, and three-dimensional fluorescence. The intrinsic fluorescence of BSA was strongly quenched by the addition of B12 in different pH buffer solutions (pH 2.5, 3.5, 5.0, 7.4, and 9.0) and spectroscopic observations are mainly rationalized in terms of a static quenching process at lower concentration of B12 ( CB12/ CBSA < 5) and a combined quenching process at higher concentration of B12 ( CB12/ CBSA > 5). The structural characteristics of B12 and BSA were probed, and their binding affinities were determined under different pH conditions. The results indicated that the binding abilities of B12 to BSA in the acidic and basic pH regions (pH 2.5, 3.5, 5.0, and 9.0) were lower than that at simulating physiological condition (pH 7.4). In addition, the efficiency of energy transfer from tryptophan fluorescence to B12 was found to depend on the binding distance r between the donor and acceptor calculated using Förster's theory. The effect of B12 on the conformation of BSA was analyzed using UV, synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence under different pH conditions. These results showed that the binding of B12 to BSA causes apparent change in the secondary and tertiary structures of BSA.

  9. Isotope-dilution assay for urinary methylmalonic acid in the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency. A prospective clinical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Matchar, D.B.; Feussner, J.R.; Millington, D.S.; Wilkinson, R.H. Jr.; Watson, D.J.; Gale, D.

    1987-05-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is a frequently considered diagnosis for which there is no single, commonly available and accurate test. A urinary methylmalonic acid assay using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been proposed as the preferred test. We reviewed vitamin B12 assays on 1599 consecutive patients and prospectively studied all patients with low serum B12 levels (n = 75) and a random sample of patients with normal levels (n = 68). Of 96 evaluable patients, 7 had clinical deficiency. All 7 deficient patients had urinary methylmalonic acid levels greater than 5 micrograms/mg creatine (sensitivity, 100%; confidence interval, 65% to 100%). Of the 89 patients who were not clinically deficient, 88 had urinary methylmalonic acid levels less than or equal to 5 micrograms/mg creatinine (specificity, 99%). The overall test accuracy in this population was 99%. If the high sensitivity and specificity of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay for urinary methylmalonic acid is supported by other clinical studies, the methylmalonic acid assay may become the reference standard for the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency.

  10. A potential epigenetic marker mediating serum folate and vitamin B12 levels contributes to the risk of ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Wei, Loo Keat; Sutherland, Heidi; Au, Anthony; Camilleri, Emily; Haupt, Larisa M; Gan, Siew Hua; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is a multifactorial disease that may be associated with aberrant DNA methylation profiles. We investigated epigenetic dysregulation for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene among ischemic stroke patients. Cases and controls were recruited after obtaining signed written informed consents following a screening process against the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Serum vitamin profiles (folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine) were determined using immunoassays. Methylation profiles for CpGs A and B in the MTHFR gene were determined using a bisulfite-pyrosequencing method. Methylation of MTHFR significantly increased the susceptibility risk for ischemic stroke. In particular, CpG A outperformed CpG B in mediating serum folate and vitamin B12 levels to increase ischemic stroke susceptibility risks by 4.73-fold. However, both CpGs A and B were not associated with serum homocysteine levels or ischemic stroke severity. CpG A is a potential epigenetic marker in mediating serum folate and vitamin B12 to contribute to ischemic stroke. PMID:25705649

  11. Cell Metabolism RBP4 Disrupts Vitamin A Uptake Homeostasis

    E-print Network

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    Cell Metabolism Article RBP4 Disrupts Vitamin A Uptake Homeostasis in a STRA6-Deficient Animal by pleiotro- pic, multisystem malformations that include cardiac deformities and ocular defects (Golzio et al

  12. Effects of folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation on culling rate, diseases, and reproduction in commercial dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Duplessis, M; Girard, C L; Santschi, D E; Laforest, J-P; Durocher, J; Pellerin, D

    2014-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of a combined folic acid and vitamin B12 supplement given in early lactation on culling rate, metabolic disorders and other diseases, and reproduction in commercial dairy herds. A total of 805 cows (271 primiparous and 534 multiparous cows) in 15 commercial dairy herds were involved. Every 2mo from February to December 2010 and within each herd, cows were assigned according to parity, previous 305-d milk production, and calving interval to 5mL of either (1) saline 0.9% NaCl (control group) or (2) 320mg of folic acid + 10mg of vitamin B12 (vitamin group). Treatments were administered weekly by intramuscular injections starting 3wk before the expected calving date until 8wk after parturition. A total of 221 cows were culled before the next dry period. Culling rate was not affected by treatment and was 27.5%; culling rate was greater for multiparous (32.2%) than for primiparous cows (18.8%). Within the first 60d in milk (DIM), 47 cows were culled, representing 21.3% of total culling, and no treatment effect was noted. Ketosis incidence based on a threshold ?100µmol/L of ?-hydroxybutyrate in milk was 38.3±2.9% for the vitamin group and 41.8±3.0% for the control group and was not affected by treatment. The combined supplement of folic acid and vitamin B12 did not decrease incidence of retained placenta, displaced abomasum, milk fever, metritis, or mastitis. However, the incidence of dystocia decreased by 50% in multiparous cows receiving the vitamin supplement, although no effect was observed in primiparous cows. The first breeding postpartum for multiparous cows occurred 3.8d earlier with the vitamin supplement compared with controls, whereas no treatment effect was seen for primiparous cows. Days open, first- and second-breeding conception rates, number of breedings per conception, and percentage of cows pregnant at 150 DIM were not affected by treatment. The reduced percentage of dystocia combined with the earlier DIM at first breeding for multiparous cows receiving the combined supplementation in folic acid and vitamin B12 indicates that the vitamin supplement had a positive effect in older cows. PMID:24485680

  13. Folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and methionine intakes and risk for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Chinese adults: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fang-Fang; Liu, Yuan-Ting; Lin, Xiao-Ling; Fan, Yu-Ying; Zhang, Xing-Lan; Xu, Chun-Hua; Chen, Yu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have suggested that folate-related one-carbon metabolism-related nutrients may play a role in certain cancer risks, but few studies have assessed their associations with the risk for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In this study, we investigated the association between four folate-related one-carbon metabolism-related nutrients (folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and methionine) and NPC risk in Chinese adults. A total of 600 patients newly diagnosed (within 3 months) with NPC were individually matched with 600 hospital-based controls by age, sex and household type (urban v. rural). Folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and methionine intakes were measured using a validated seventy-eight-item FFQ. A higher dietary folate or vitamin B6 intake was associated with a lower NPC risk after adjusting for potential confounders. The adjusted OR of NPC for quartiles 2-4 (v. 1) were 0·66 (95 % CI 0·48, 0·91), 0·52 (95 % CI 0·37, 0·74) and 0·34 (95 % CI 0·23, 0·50) (P trend<0·001) for folate and 0·72 (95 % CI 0·52, 1·00), 0·55 (95 % CI 0·39, 0·78) and 0·44 (95 % CI 0·30, 0·63) (P trend<0·001) for vitamin B6. No significant association with NPC risk was observed for dietary vitamin B12 or methionine intake. The risk for NPC with dietary folate intake was more evident in the participants who were not exposed to toxic substances than in those who were exposed (P interaction=0·014). This study suggests that dietary folate and vitamin B6 may be protective for NPC in a high-risk population. PMID:26515433

  14. Maternal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to a vitamin B12 deficient diet normalizes angiogenic markers in the pup brain at birth.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Richa S; Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids are critical for normal brain development and function and their deficiencies during pregnancy could have adverse effects on cognitive performance in children. Our earlier studies indicate that both maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids influence brain development by regulating the levels of neurotrophins. Literature suggests that there exists a cross talk between neurotrophins like nerve growth factor (NGF) and angiogenic factors like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). It remains to be established whether maternal nutrients like vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids influence the levels of angiogenic markers like VEGF and NGF in the brain of the offspring. Therefore the present study examines the effect of maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids on protein and mRNA levels of VEGF, HIF-1 alpha (hypoxia inducible factor alpha) and NGF in the pup brain at birth. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided into five dietary groups (n=8 each): control, vitamin B12 deficient, vitamin B12 deficient+omega-3 fatty acid, vitamin B12 supplemented, vitamin B12 supplemented+omega-3 fatty acid. At birth the pups were dissected to collect the brain tissue. Maternal vitamin B12 deficiency showed lower (p<0.05) pup brain mRNA and protein levels (p<0.01) of VEGF, higher (p<0.01) HIF-1 alpha protein levels, lower (p<0.05) NGF protein levels while NGF mRNA levels were not altered. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to a vitamin B12 deficient group normalized the VEGF mRNA levels, NGF protein levels and HIF-1 alpha protein levels. Vitamin B12 supplementation showed similar protein and mRNA levels of VEGF and NGF as well as HIF-1 alpha protein levels as compared to control. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to the vitamin B12 supplemented group showed higher (p<0.01) protein and mRNA levels of NGF but the protein and mRNA levels of VEGF were comparable to control. In conclusion maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids both influence the levels and expression of neurotrophins and angiogenic factors in the offspring brain suggesting a possible benefit of combined maternal supplementation of these vital nutrients. PMID:25889224

  15. Simultaneous determination of cobalt and nickel in vitamin B12 samples using high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Adolfo, Franciele Rovasi; do Nascimento, Paulo Cícero; Bohrer, Denise; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado; Viana, Carine; Guarda, Ananda; Nunes Colim, Alexsandro; Mattiazzi, Patricia

    2016-01-15

    Nickel and cobalt were simultaneously assayed in vitamin B12 formulations by using atomic spectrometry. The proposed method is based on a compromise between the proximity of specific Ni and Co spectral lines and the relative abundances of the analytes in the samples. The analytes were found in concentrations ranging from 9.48 to 26.20µgL(-1) (Ni) and from 156.90 to 279.25mgL(-1) (Co) in the commercial samples of vitamin B12. The limits of detection and quantification were 1.21 and 3.64mgL(-1) for Co and 0.39 and 1.19µgL(-1) for Ni. Sample cleanup was not necessary for the determinations, and the interferences were discussed. PMID:26592602

  16. Combined Spectroscopic/Computational Studies of Vitamin B12 Precursors: Geometric and Electronic Structures of Cobinamides

    PubMed Central

    Reig, Amanda J.; Conrad, Karen S.; Brunold, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) and its biologically active derivatives, methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin, are members of the family of corrinoids, which also includes cobinamides. As biological precursors to cobalamins, cobinamides possess the same structural core, consisting of a low-spin Co3+ ion that is ligated equatorially by the four nitrogens of a highly substituted tetrapyrrole macrocycle (the corrin ring), but differ with respect to the “lower” axial ligation. Specifically, cobinamides possess a water molecule instead of the nucleotide loop that coordinates axially to Co3+cobalamins via its dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB) base. Compared to the cobalamin species, cobinamides have proven much more difficult to study experimentally, thus far eluding characterization by X-ray crystallography. In this study, we have utilized combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) computations to generate complete structural models of a representative set of cobinamide species with varying upper axial ligands. To validate the use of this approach, analogous QM/MM geometry optimizations were carried out on entire models of the cobalamin counterparts, for which high-resolution X-ray structural data are available. The accuracy of the cobinamide structures was assessed further by comparing electronic absorption spectra computed using time-dependent density functional theory to those obtained experimentally. Collectively, the results obtained in this study indicate that the DMB?H2O lower axial ligand switch primarily affects the energies of the Co 3dz2-based molecular orbital (MO) and, to a lesser extent, the other Co 3d-based MOs as well as the corrin ?-based highest energy MO. Thus, while the energies of the lowest-energy electronic transition of cobalamins change considerably as a function of the upper axial ligand, they are nearly invariant for the cobinamides. PMID:22332807

  17. Structural Insights into the MMACHC-MMADHC Protein Complex Involved in Vitamin B12 Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Froese, D Sean; Kopec, Jolanta; Fitzpatrick, Fiona; Schuller, Marion; McCorvie, Thomas J; Chalk, Rod; Plessl, Tanja; Fettelschoss, Victoria; Fowler, Brian; Baumgartner, Matthias R; Yue, Wyatt W

    2015-12-01

    Conversion of vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) into the cofactor forms methyl-Cbl (MeCbl) and adenosyl-Cbl (AdoCbl) is required for the function of two crucial enzymes, mitochondrial methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and cytosolic methionine synthase, respectively. The intracellular proteins MMACHC and MMADHC play important roles in processing and targeting the Cbl cofactor to its destination enzymes, and recent evidence suggests that they may interact while performing these essential trafficking functions. To better understand the molecular basis of this interaction, we have mapped the crucial protein regions required, indicate that Cbl is likely processed by MMACHC prior to interaction with MMADHC, and identify patient mutations on both proteins that interfere with complex formation, via different mechanisms. We further report the crystal structure of the MMADHC C-terminal region at 2.2 Å resolution, revealing a modified nitroreductase fold with surprising homology to MMACHC despite their poor sequence conservation. Because MMADHC demonstrates no known enzymatic activity, we propose it as the first protein known to repurpose the nitroreductase fold solely for protein-protein interaction. Using small angle x-ray scattering, we reveal the MMACHC-MMADHC complex as a 1:1 heterodimer and provide a structural model of this interaction, where the interaction region overlaps with the MMACHC-Cbl binding site. Together, our findings provide novel structural evidence and mechanistic insight into an essential biological process, whereby an intracellular "trafficking chaperone" highly specific for a trace element cofactor functions via protein-protein interaction, which is disrupted by inherited disease mutations. PMID:26483544

  18. Role of vitamin B12 on methylmalonyl-CoA mutase activity.

    PubMed

    Takahashi-Iñiguez, Tóshiko; García-Hernandez, Enrique; Arreguín-Espinosa, Roberto; Flores, María Elena

    2012-06-01

    Vitamin B(12) is an organometallic compound with important metabolic derivatives that act as cofactors of certain enzymes, which have been grouped into three subfamilies depending on their cofactors. Among them, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM) has been extensively studied. This enzyme catalyzes the reversible isomerization of L-methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA using adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) as a cofactor participating in the generation of radicals that allow isomerization of the substrate. The crystal structure of MCM determined in Propionibacterium freudenreichii var. shermanii has helped to elucidate the role of this cofactor AdoCbl in the reaction to specify the mechanism by which radicals are generated from the coenzyme and to clarify the interactions between the enzyme, coenzyme, and substrate. The existence of human methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) due to the presence of mutations in MCM shows the importance of its role in metabolism. The recent crystallization of the human MCM has shown that despite being similar to the bacterial protein, there are significant differences in the structural organization of the two proteins. Recent studies have identified the involvement of an accessory protein called MMAA, which interacts with MCM to prevent MCM's inactivation or acts as a chaperone to promote regeneration of inactivated enzyme. The interdisciplinary studies using this protein as a model in different organisms have helped to elucidate the mechanism of action of this isomerase, the impact of mutations at a functional level and their repercussion in the development and progression of MMA in humans. It is still necessary to study the mechanisms involved in more detail using new methods. PMID:22661206

  19. The role of metformin on vitamin B12 deficiency: a meta-analysis review.

    PubMed

    Niafar, Mitra; Hai, Faizi; Porhomayon, Jahan; Nader, Nader Djalal

    2015-02-01

    Metformin is the only biguanide oral hypoglycemic drug, that is used to treat patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. There are some reports of metformin being associated with decreased serum levels of vitamin B12 (VB12). The objective of this study is to systematically analyze the impact of metformin on the frequency of VB12 deficiency and serum levels of VB12. A search of various databases provided 18 retrospective cohort studies and 11 randomized controlled trials. Pooled estimates of odds ratio with 95% confidence interval using random effect model were conducted. Studies were examined for heterogeneity, publication bias and sensitivity analysis. Separate analysis of randomized control trials (RCTs) including both low-risk and high-risk bias was also conducted. 29 studies were selected with a total of 8,089 patients. 19 studies were rated intermediate or high quality. Primary outcome suggested increased incidence of VB12 deficiency in metformin group (OR = 2.45, 95% CI 1.74-3.44, P < 0.0001.) Heterogeneity was relatively high (I(2) = 53%), with minor publication bias. Secondary outcome suggested lower serum VB12 concentrations in metformin group (Mean difference = -65.8, 95% CI -78.1 to -53.6 pmol/L, P < 0.00001) with high heterogeneity (I(2) = 98%,) and low publication bias. RCTs analysis of low-and high-risk group revealed similar trends. We conclude that metformin treatment is significantly associated with an increase in incidence of VB12 deficiency and reduced serum VB12 levels. PMID:25502588

  20. Contribution of Food Sources to the Vitamin B12 Status of South Indian Children from a Birth Cohort Recruited in the City of Mysore

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective There is evidence that sub-clinical vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency is common in India. Vegetarianism is prevalent and therefore meat consumption is low. Our objective was to explore the contribution of B12 source-foods and maternal B12 status during pregnancy to plasma B12 concentrations. Design Maternal plasma B12 concentrations were measured during pregnancy. Children’s dietary intakes and plasma B12 concentrations were measured at age 9.5 years; B12 and total energy intakes were calculated using food composition databases. We used linear regression to examine associations between maternal B12 status and children’s intakes of B12 and B12 source-foods, and children’s plasma B12 concentrations. Setting South Indian city of Mysore and surrounding rural areas. Subjects Children from the Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort (n=512, 47.1% male). Results Three percent of children were B12 deficient (<150 pmol/l). A further 14% had ‘marginal’ B12 concentrations (150-221 pmol/l). Children’s total daily B12 intake and consumption frequency of meat and fish, and micronutrient-enriched beverages were positively associated with plasma B12 concentrations (p=0.006, p=0.01 and p=0.04, adjusted for socio-economic indicators and maternal B12 status). Maternal pregnancy plasma B12 was associated with children’s plasma B12 concentrations, independent of current B12 intakes (p<0.001). Milk and curd (yoghurt) intakes were unrelated to B12 status. Conclusions Meat and fish are important B12 sources in this population. Micronutrient-enriched beverages appear to be important sources in our cohort, but their high sugar content necessitates care in their recommendation. Improving maternal B12 status in pregnancy may improve Indian children’s status. PMID:24866058

  1. Association between dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, B12 & MTHFR, MTR Genotype and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Weiwei, Zheng; Liping, Chen; Dequan, Li

    2014-01-01

    Objective: we conducted a case-control study to investigate the association between dietary folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 intake, MTHFR and MTR genotype, and breast cancer risk. Methods: Genotyping for MTHFR C677T and A1298C and MTR A2756G polymorphisms were performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP) method. The intake of folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 were calculated by each food item from questionnaire. Results: Subjects with breast cancer tended to have more first-degree relatives (?2=30.77, P<0.001) and have high intake of folate (t=2.42, P=0.008) and Vitamin B6 (t=2.94, P=0.002). Compared to the reference group, women with MTHFR 677 TT genotype and T allele had a significantly increased risk of breast cancer, with ORs (95%CI) of 1.8(1.08-2.27) and 1.39(1.02-1.92), respectively. For those who had folate intake?450 ug/day, MTHFR 667TT genotype was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer (OR=2.45, 95% CI=1.09-5.82, P=0.02). Similarly, subjects with Vitamin B6 intake?0.84 mg/day and MTHFR 667T allele genotype was correlated with a marginally increased risk of breast cancer. A significant interaction was observed between MTHFR C667T polymorphism and folate intake on the risk of breast cancer (P for interaction was 0.025). Conclusion: This case-control study found a significant association between MTHFR C667T polymorphism, folate intake and vitamin B6 and breast cancer risk, and a significant interaction was observed between MTHFR C667T polymorphism and folate intake on the risk of breast cancer. PMID:24639841

  2. Identification and sequence analysis of genes involved in late steps in cobalamin (vitamin B12) synthesis in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed Central

    Pollich, M; Klug, G

    1995-01-01

    A 6.4-kb region of a 6.8-kb BamHI fragment carrying Rhodobacter capsulatus genes involved in late steps of cobalamin synthesis has been sequenced. The nucleotide sequence and genetic analysis revealed that this fragment contains eight genes arranged in at least three operons. Five of these eight genes show homology to genes involved in the cobalamin synthesis of Pseudomonas denitrificans and Salmonella typhimurium. The arrangement of these homologous genes differs considerably in the three genera. Upstream of five overlapping genes (named bluFEDCB), a promoter activity could be detected by using lacZ fusions. This promoter shows no regulation by oxygen, vitamin B12 (cobalamin), or cobinamide. Disruption of the bluE gene by a Tn5 insertion (strain AH2) results in reduced expression of the puf and puc operons, which encode pigment-binding proteins of the photosynthetic apparatus. The mutant strain AH2 can be corrected to a wild-type-like phenotype by addition of vitamin B12 or cobinamide dicyanide. Disruption of the bluB gene by an interposon (strain BB1) also disturbs the formation of the photosynthetic apparatus. The mutation of strain BB1 can be corrected by vitamin B12 but not by cobinamide. We propose that a lack of cobalamin results in deregulation and a decreased formation of the photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:7635831

  3. Identification and sequence analysis of genes involved in late steps in cobalamin (vitamin B12) synthesis in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed

    Pollich, M; Klug, G

    1995-08-01

    A 6.4-kb region of a 6.8-kb BamHI fragment carrying Rhodobacter capsulatus genes involved in late steps of cobalamin synthesis has been sequenced. The nucleotide sequence and genetic analysis revealed that this fragment contains eight genes arranged in at least three operons. Five of these eight genes show homology to genes involved in the cobalamin synthesis of Pseudomonas denitrificans and Salmonella typhimurium. The arrangement of these homologous genes differs considerably in the three genera. Upstream of five overlapping genes (named bluFEDCB), a promoter activity could be detected by using lacZ fusions. This promoter shows no regulation by oxygen, vitamin B12 (cobalamin), or cobinamide. Disruption of the bluE gene by a Tn5 insertion (strain AH2) results in reduced expression of the puf and puc operons, which encode pigment-binding proteins of the photosynthetic apparatus. The mutant strain AH2 can be corrected to a wild-type-like phenotype by addition of vitamin B12 or cobinamide dicyanide. Disruption of the bluB gene by an interposon (strain BB1) also disturbs the formation of the photosynthetic apparatus. The mutation of strain BB1 can be corrected by vitamin B12 but not by cobinamide. We propose that a lack of cobalamin results in deregulation and a decreased formation of the photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:7635831

  4. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis of active vitamin B12 in cells of Propionibacterium and fermented cereal matrices.

    PubMed

    Chamlagain, Bhawani; Edelmann, Minnamari; Kariluoto, Susanna; Ollilainen, Velimatti; Piironen, Vieno

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive and selective method is needed to analyse in situ produced vitamin B12 in plant-based materials, potential new dietary sources of vitamin B12. A UHPLC/UV method was developed and validated for the determination of human active vitamin B12 in cell extracts of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii and after immunoaffinity purification in extracts of cereal matrices fermented by P. freudenreichii. An Acquity HSS T3 C18 column resulted in a baseline separation, a calibration curve of excellent linearity and a low limit of detection (0.075 ng/5 ?L injection). As confirmed by UHPLC-MS, the active vitamin B12 could be separated from pseudovitamin B12. The recovery of vitamin B12 from purified spiked cereal matrices was good (>90%; RSD<5%). A nutritionally relevant amount of active vitamin B12 was produced by P. freudenreichii in cereal malt matrices (up to 1.9 ?g/100 g) in 24h at 28 °C. PMID:25053103

  5. [Clinical, biological and therapeutic profile of anemia by vitamin B12 deficiency in the department of hematology of Marrakech (Morocco)].

    PubMed

    Nafil, H; Tazi, I; Sifessalam, M; Bouchtia, M; Mahmal, L

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study is to examine retrospectively the clinical, biological and treatment features of anemia by vitamin B12 deficiency in the Hematology department of CHU Mohamed VI Marrakech. We report the results of a retrospective study conducted during six years (2005-2010). It included all patients with anemia (with or without thrombocytopenia or leukopenia) associated with vitamin B12 levels <200 pg / ml. One hundred twenty one cases were analyzed. The average age of patients was 62 years (38-89 years) with a female predominance (sex ratio F/M: 1.3). The clinical symptomatology is dominated by pallor (97.5%), cardiovascular signs (46%) and digestive symptoms (34.7%). Neurological signs were noted in 17.3% of cases. The blood count showed anemia (hemoglobin: mean= 6.9 g/dl), macrocythemia (MCV: mean= 109 fl). Leukopenia was noted in 35 patients (29%), thrombocytopenia in 34 patients (28%) and pancytopenia in 21 patients (17,3%). The average vitamin B12 was 72 pg/ml. The causes of B12 deficiency are pernicious anemia (43%), food-cobalamin malabsorption (43%), and in 14% of cases no etiology was found. Gastritis was found in 82.7% of our patients and Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection in 72.7% of cases. Reticulocyte crisis was observed after parenteral administration of hydroxocobalamine within an average of 8 days and normalization of blood counts, in all patients, within an average of 51 days. In patients with HP infection, eradication therapy of HP was performed. The cure rate of the HP is 90%. PMID:23536425

  6. Low Maternal Vitamin B12 Status Is Associated with Lower Cord Blood HDL Cholesterol in White Caucasians Living in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Adaikalakoteswari, Antonysunil; Vatish, Manu; Lawson, Alexander; Wood, Catherine; Sivakumar, Kavitha; McTernan, Philip G.; Webster, Craig; Anderson, Neil; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Tripathi, Gyanendra; Saravanan, Ponnusamy

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Studies in South Asian population show that low maternal vitamin B12 associates with insulin resistance and small for gestational age in the offspring. Low vitamin B12 status is attributed to vegetarianism in these populations. It is not known whether low B12 status is associated with metabolic risk of the offspring in whites, where the childhood metabolic disorders are increasing rapidly. Here, we studied whether maternal B12 levels associate with metabolic risk of the offspring at birth. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 91 mother-infant pairs (n = 182), of white Caucasian origin living in the UK. Blood samples were collected from white pregnant women at delivery and their newborns (cord blood). Serum vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine as well as the relevant metabolic risk factors were measured. Results: The prevalence of low serum vitamin B12 (<191 ng/L) and folate (<4.6 ?g/L) were 40% and 11%, respectively. Maternal B12 was inversely associated with offspring’s Homeostasis Model Assessment 2-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), triglycerides, homocysteine and positively with HDL-cholesterol after adjusting for age and BMI. In regression analysis, after adjusting for likely confounders, maternal B12 is independently associated with neonatal HDL-cholesterol and homocysteine but not triglycerides or HOMA-IR. Conclusions: Our study shows that low B12 status is common in white women and is independently associated with adverse cord blood cholesterol. PMID:25849948

  7. Socioeconomic factors are associated with folate and vitamin B12 intakes and related biomarkers concentrations in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study.

    PubMed

    Iglesia, Iris; Mouratidou, Theodora; González-Gross, Marcela; Novakovic, Romana; Breidenassel, Christina; Jiménez-Pavón, David; Huybrechts, Inge; De Henauw, Stefaan; Geelen, Anouk; Gottrand, Frédéric; Kafatos, Anthony; Mistura, Lorenza; de Heredia, Fátima Pérez; Widhalm, Kurt; Manios, Yanis; Molnar, Denes; Stehle, Peter; Gurinovic, Mirjana; Cavelaars, Adrienne E J M; Van't Veer, Pieter; Moreno, Luis A

    2014-03-01

    Because socioeconomic factors (SEFs) may influence dietary quality and vitamin intakes, this study aimed to examine associations between socioeconomic factors and folate and vitamin B12 intakes as well as their related biomarkers in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study. Vitamin intakes were obtained from two 24-hour recalls in 2253 participants (47% males). Vitamin B biomarkers were assessed in a subsample of 977 participants (46% males). Socioeconomic factors were assessed by questionnaire, and 1-way analysis of covariance and linear regression analysis were applied. For males and females, mean intakes of folate were 211.19 and 177.18 ?g/d, and for vitamin B12, 5.98 and 4.54 ?g/d, respectively. Levels of plasma folate, red blood cell folate, serum B12, and holotranscobalamin were 18.74, 807.19, 330.64, and 63.04 nmol/L in males, respectively, and 19.13, 770.16, 377.9, and 65.63 nmol/L in females, respectively. Lower folate intakes were associated with several SEFs, including maternal and paternal education in both sexes. Regarding folate biomarkers, lower plasma folate intakes were associated with single/shared care in males and with lower paternal occupation in females. Lower vitamin B12 intakes were associated with almost all the studied SEFs, except paternal occupation in both sexes. In females, when considering vitamin B12 biomarkers, lower plasma vitamin B12 was associated with lower maternal education and occupation, and lower holotranscobalamin was associated with lower maternal education and lower paternal occupation. In conclusion, from the set of socioeconomic determinants studied in a sample of European adolescents, maternal education and paternal occupation were more consistently associated with folate and vitamin B12 intakes and biomarkers concentrations. PMID:24655486

  8. Industrial vitamin B12 production by Pseudomonas denitrificans using maltose syrup and corn steep liquor as the cost-effective fermentation substrates.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wei; Chen, Wei; Peng, Wei-Fu; Li, Kun-Tai

    2015-06-01

    The aerobic Pseudomonas denitrificans is widely used for industrial and commercial vitamin B12 fermentation, due to its higher productivity compared to the anaerobic vitamin B12-producing microorganisms. This paper aimed to develop a cost-effective fermentation medium for industrial vitamin B12 production by P. denitrificans in 120,000-l fermenter. It was found that maltose syrup (a low-cost syrup from corn starch by means of enzymatic or acid hydrolysis) and corn steep liquor (CSL, a by-product of starch industry) were greatly applicable to vitamin B12 production by P. denitrificans. Under the optimal fermentation medium performed by response surface methodology, 198.27 ± 4.60 mg/l of vitamin B12 yield was obtained in 120,000-l fermenter, which was close to the fermentation with the refined sucrose (198.80 mg/l) and was obviously higher than that obtained under beet molasses utilization (181.75 mg/l). Therefore, maltose syrups and CSL were the efficient and economical substrates for industrial vitamin B12 fermentation by P. denitrificans. PMID:25561346

  9. Effect of vitamin B12 on cleft palate induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and dexamethasone in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shu-Fan; Chai, Mao-Zhou; Wu, Min; He, Yong-Hong; Meng, Tian; Shi, Bing

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin B12 on palatal development by co-administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and dexamethasone (DEX). We examined the morphological and histological features of the palatal shelf and expression levels of key signaling molecules (transforming growth factor-?3 (TGF-?3) and TGF-? type I receptor (activin receptor-like kinase 5, ALK5)) during palatogenesis among a control group (Group A), TCDD+DEX exposed group (Group B), and TCDD+DEX+vitamin B12 exposed group (Group C). While we failed to find that vitamin B12 decreased the incidence of cleft palate induced by TCDD+DEX treatment, the expression levels of key signaling molecules (TGF-?3 and ALK5) during palatogenesis were significantly modulated. In TCDD+DEX exposed and TCDD+DEX+vitamin B12 exposed groups, palatal shelves could not contact in the midline due to their small sizes. Our results suggest that vitamin B12 may inhibit the expression of some cleft palate inducers such as TGF-?3 and ALK5 in DEX+TCDD exposed mice, which may be beneficial against palatogenesis to some degree, even though we were unable to observe a protective role of vitamin B12 in morphological and histological alterations of palatal shelves induced by DEX and TCDD. PMID:24599693

  10. A Stability-Indicating HPLC Method for the Determination of Nitrosylcobalamin (NO-Cbl), a Novel Vitamin B12 Analog.

    PubMed

    Dunphy, Michael J; Sysel, Annette M; Lupica, Joseph A; Griffith, Kristie; Sherrod, Taylor; Bauer, Joseph A

    2014-04-01

    Nitrosylcobalamin (NO-Cbl), a novel vitamin B12 analog and anti-tumor agent, functions as a biologic 'Trojan horse', utilizing the vitamin B12 transcobalamin II transport protein and cell surface receptor to specifically target cancer cells. a stability-indicating HPLC method was developed for the detection of NO-Cbl during forced degradation studies. This method utilized an ascentis(®) RP-amide (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 ?m) column at 35 °C with a mobile phase (1.0 mL min(-1)) combining a gradient of methanol and an acetate buffer at pH 6.0. Detection wavelengths of 450 and 254 nm were used to detect corrin and non-corrin-based products, respectively. NO-Cbl, synthesized from hydroxocobalamin and pure nitric oxide gas, was subjected to degradative stress conditions including oxidation, hydrolysis and thermal and radiant energy challenge. The method was validated by assessing linearity, accuracy, precision, detection and quantitation limits and robustness. The method was applied successfully for purity assessment of synthesized NO-Cbl and for the determination of NO-Cbl during kinetic studies in aqueous solution and in solid-state degradation assessments. This HPLC method is suitable for the separation of cobalamins in aqueous and methanolic solutions, for routine detection of NO-Cbl and for purity assessment of synthesized NO-Cbl. additionally, this method has potential application in identification and monitoring of diseases involving altered nitric oxide homeostasis where vitamin B12 therapy is utilized to scavenge excess nitric oxide, subsequently resulting in the in vivo production of NO-Cbl. PMID:24855323

  11. A Stability-Indicating HPLC Method for the Determination of Nitrosylcobalamin (NO-Cbl), a Novel Vitamin B12 Analog

    PubMed Central

    Dunphy, Michael J.; Sysel, Annette M.; Lupica, Joseph A.; Griffith, Kristie; Sherrod, Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Nitrosylcobalamin (NO-Cbl), a novel vitamin B12 analog and anti-tumor agent, functions as a biologic ‘Trojan horse’, utilizing the vitamin B12 transcobalamin II transport protein and cell surface receptor to specifically target cancer cells. a stability-indicating HPLC method was developed for the detection of NO-Cbl during forced degradation studies. This method utilized an ascentis® RP-amide (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 ?m) column at 35 °C with a mobile phase (1.0 mL min?1) combining a gradient of methanol and an acetate buffer at pH 6.0. Detection wavelengths of 450 and 254 nm were used to detect corrin and non-corrin-based products, respectively. NO-Cbl, synthesized from hydroxocobalamin and pure nitric oxide gas, was subjected to degradative stress conditions including oxidation, hydrolysis and thermal and radiant energy challenge. The method was validated by assessing linearity, accuracy, precision, detection and quantitation limits and robustness. The method was applied successfully for purity assessment of synthesized NO-Cbl and for the determination of NO-Cbl during kinetic studies in aqueous solution and in solid-state degradation assessments. This HPLC method is suitable for the separation of cobalamins in aqueous and methanolic solutions, for routine detection of NO-Cbl and for purity assessment of synthesized NO-Cbl. additionally, this method has potential application in identification and monitoring of diseases involving altered nitric oxide homeostasis where vitamin B12 therapy is utilized to scavenge excess nitric oxide, subsequently resulting in the in vivo production of NO-Cbl. PMID:24855323

  12. Multiple vascular abnormalities and a paradoxical combination of vitamin B12 deficiency and thrombocytosis in a case with POEMS syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lewerenz, J; Gocht, A; Hoeger, P H; von den Driesch, P; Eckert, B; Lamszus, K; Stuerenburg, H-J; Methner, A

    2003-12-01

    POEMS/Crow-Fukase syndrome is a rare multisystem disorder associated with elevated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which clinically presents with polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein, and skin changes. We report a case of POEMS syndrome due to a gammopathy of undetermined significance with thrombocytosis, vitamin B(12) deficiency, highly elevated VEGF and in addition to glomeruloid angiomas two previously undescribed proliferative vascular lesions: a spinal arteriovenous fistula and a plexogenic pulmonary arteriopathy, which ultimately resulted in lethal pulmonary hypertension. We assume that the high VEGF levels caused the vascular abnormalities observed in our patient. PMID:14673584

  13. The influence of vitamin B12 supplementation on the level of white blood cells and lymphocytes phenotype in rats fed a low-protein diet

    PubMed Central

    Lewicka, Aneta; Kalicki, Boles?aw; K?os, Anna; Bertrandt, Jerzy; Zdanowski, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Protein malnutrition has a negative effect on body composition and some blood parameters, especially in the young growing organism. One of nutritional factors which could protect against negative consequences of protein deficiency may be B group vitamins. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of vitamin B12 supplementation on the immune system in rats fed a standard and a low-protein diet. Rats were fed a control (20% of energy from protein) or a protein-deficient diet (4.5% of energy from protein). Half of animals in each group were additionally supplemented with vitamin B12 (300% of the daily intake). The white blood cells analysis and lymphocytes immunophenotyping (number and percentage) were performed. Low-protein diets caused disturbances in WBC and lymphocyte subpopulations in both short- (30-day) as well as long-term periods (90-day). Vitamin B12 supplementation significantly reduced the negative impact of protein malnutrition after 30 days, however had no effect on long-term malnutrition. Furthermore, vitamin B12 addition in rats fed a control diet did not affect the studied parameters. This observation opens the promise of use of vitamin B12 supplementation to improve immune system parameters in protein malnourished organisms. PMID:26155157

  14. Higher Prevalence of Metformin-Induced Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Sulfonylurea Combination Compared with Insulin Combination in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Donghoon; Yun, Jae-Seung; Ko, Sun-Hye; Lim, Tae-Seok; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Park, Yong-Moon; Ko, Seung-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Long-term and high-dose treatment with metformin is known to be associated with vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether the prevalence of B12 deficiency was different in patients treated with different combination of hypoglycemic agents with metformin during the same time period. A total of 394 patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin and sulfonylurea (S+M group, n?=?299) or metformin and insulin (I+M group, n?=?95) were consecutively recruited. The vitamin B12 and folate levels were quantified using the chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. Vitamin B12 deficiency was defined as vitamin B12?300 pg/mL without folate deficiency (folate>4 ng/mL). The mean age of and duration of diabetes in the subjects were 59.4±10.5 years and 12.2±6.7 years, respectively. The mean vitamin B12 level of the total population was 638.0±279.6 pg/mL. The mean serum B12 levels were significantly lower in the S+M group compared with the I+M group (600.0±266.5 vs. 757.7±287.6 pg/mL, P<0.001). The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in the metformin-treated patients was significantly higher in the S+M group compared with the I+M group (17.4% vs. 4.2%, P?=?0.001). After adjustment for various factors, such as age, sex, diabetic duration, duration or daily dose of metformin, diabetic complications, and presence of anemia, sulfonylurea use was a significant independent risk factor for B12 deficiency (OR?=?4.74, 95% CI 1.41–15.99, P?=?0.012). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that patients with type 2 diabetes who were treated with metformin combined with sulfonylurea require clinical attention for vitamin B12 deficiency and regular monitoring of their vitamin B12 levels. PMID:25299054

  15. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in a breast fed infant with pancytopenia.

    PubMed

    Citak, Funda Erkasar; Citak, Elvan Caglar

    2011-02-01

    We report the case of a 7-month-old breast fed infant who presented with a nose bleed and bruises. Investigation showed severe nutritional B12 deficiency anemia with a pancytopenia. It is important to take the nutritional history of both the infant and the mother for early prevention and treatment. PMID:19617270

  16. Maternal dietary intake of folate and vitamins B6 and B12 during pregnancy and risk of childhood brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Greenop, Kathryn R; Miller, Margaret; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Scott, Rodney J; Attia, John; Ashton, Lesley J; Dalla-Pozza, Luciano; Bower, Carol; Armstrong, Bruce K; Milne, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Childhood brain tumors (CBT) are the second most common childhood cancers, yet their etiology is largely unknown. We investigated whether maternal gestational intake of folate and vitamins B6 and B12 was associated with CBT risk in a nationwide case-control study conducted 2005-2010. Case children 0-14 years were recruited from all 10 Australian pediatric oncology centers. Control children were recruited by national random digit dialing, frequency matched to cases on age, sex, and state of residence. Dietary intake was ascertained using food frequency questionnaires and adjusted for total energy intake. Data from 293 case and 726 control mothers were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. The odds ratio (OR) for the highest versus lowest tertile of folate intake was 0.70 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48, 1.02]. The ORs appeared lower in mothers who drank alcohol during pregnancy (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.93), mothers who took folic acid (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.42, 1.06) or B6/B12 supplements (OR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.25, 1.06) and in children younger than 5 years (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.93). These findings are consistent with folate's crucial role in maintenance of genomic integrity and DNA methylation. Dietary intake of B6 and B12 was not associated with risk of CBT. PMID:24897174

  17. Effects of folate and vitamin B12 on cognitive function in adult and elderly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-related neurocognitive disorders, primarily Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD), have a major impact on health and well-being. Separate lines of evidence have suggested that B vitamin status may be associated with risk and progression of AD and PD. This report summarizes the ev...

  18. The entropic contributions in vitamin B12 enzymes still reflect the electrostatic paradigm.

    PubMed

    Schopf, Patrick; Mills, Matthew J L; Warshel, Arieh

    2015-04-01

    The catalytic power of enzymes containing coenzyme B12 has been, in some respects, the "last bastion" for the strain hypothesis. Our previous study of this system established by a careful sampling that the major part of the catalytic effect is due to the electrostatic interaction between the ribose of the ado group and the protein and that the strain contribution is very small. This finding has not been sufficiently appreciated due to misunderstandings of the power of the empirical valence bond (EVB) calculations and the need of sufficient sampling. Furthermore, some interesting new experiments point toward entropic effects as the source of the catalytic power, casting doubt on the validity of the electrostatic idea, at least, in the case of B12 enzymes. Here, we focus on the observation of the entropic effects and on analyzing their origin. We clarify that our EVB approach evaluates free energies rather than enthalpies and demonstrate by using the restraint release (RR) approach that the observed entropic contribution to the activation barrier is of electrostatic origin. Our study illustrates the power of the RR approach by evaluating the entropic contributions to catalysis and provides further support to our paradigm for the origin of the catalytic power of B12 enzymes. Overall, our study provides major support to our electrostatic preorganization idea and also highlights the basic requirements from ab initio quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations of activation free energies of enzymatic reactions. PMID:25805820

  19. The entropic contributions in vitamin B12 enzymes still reflect the electrostatic paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Schopf, Patrick; Mills, Matthew J. L.; Warshel, Arieh

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic power of enzymes containing coenzyme B12 has been, in some respects, the “last bastion” for the strain hypothesis. Our previous study of this system established by a careful sampling that the major part of the catalytic effect is due to the electrostatic interaction between the ribose of the ado group and the protein and that the strain contribution is very small. This finding has not been sufficiently appreciated due to misunderstandings of the power of the empirical valence bond (EVB) calculations and the need of sufficient sampling. Furthermore, some interesting new experiments point toward entropic effects as the source of the catalytic power, casting doubt on the validity of the electrostatic idea, at least, in the case of B12 enzymes. Here, we focus on the observation of the entropic effects and on analyzing their origin. We clarify that our EVB approach evaluates free energies rather than enthalpies and demonstrate by using the restraint release (RR) approach that the observed entropic contribution to the activation barrier is of electrostatic origin. Our study illustrates the power of the RR approach by evaluating the entropic contributions to catalysis and provides further support to our paradigm for the origin of the catalytic power of B12 enzymes. Overall, our study provides major support to our electrostatic preorganization idea and also highlights the basic requirements from ab initio quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations of activation free energies of enzymatic reactions. PMID:25805820

  20. Identification of structural markers for vitamin B12 and other corrinoid derivatives in solution using FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Taraszka, K S; Chen, E; Metzger, T; Chance, M R

    1991-02-01

    The identification of structural markers for B12/protein interactions is crucial to a complete understanding of vitamin B12 transport and metabolic reaction mechanisms of B12 coenzymes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy can provide direct measurements of changes in the side chains and corrin ring resulting from B12/protein interactions. Using FTIR spectroscopy in various solvent systems, we have identified structural markers for corrinoids in the physiological state. We assign the major band (denoted B), which occurs at ca. 1630 cm-1 in D2O and ca. 1675 cm-1 in ethanol, to the amide I C=O stretching mode of the propionamide side chains of the corrin ring. The lower frequency of band B in D2O versus ethanol is due to the greater hydrogen-bonding properties of D2O that stabilize the charged amide resonance form. Since the propionamides are known to be important in protein binding, band B is a suitable marker for monitoring the interaction of these side chains with proteins. We assign bands at ca. 1575 and 1545 cm-1 (denoted C and D) as breathing modes of the corrin ring on the basis of the bands' solvent independence and their sensitivity to changes in axial ligation. As the sigma-donating strength of the axial ligands increases, the frequencies of bands C and D decrease, possibly indicating a lengthening of the corrin conjugated system. Band A, the known cyanide stretching frequency at ca. 2130 cm-1, probes the cobalt-carbon distance in cyanocorrinoids. As the frequency of band A increases, the cobalt-carbon bond strength should decrease. PMID:1991101

  1. Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Improve Gross Motor and Problem-Solving Skills in Young North Indian Children: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kvestad, Ingrid; Taneja, Sunita; Kumar, Tivendra; Hysing, Mari; Refsum, Helga; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Bhandari, Nita; Strand, Tor A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Deficiencies of vitamin B12 and folate are associated with delayed development and neurological manifestations. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of daily supplementation of vitamin B12 and/or folic acid on development in young North Indian children. Methods In a randomized, double blind trial, children aged six to 30 months, received supplement with placebo or vitamin B12 and/or folic acid for six months. Children were allocated in a 1:1:1:1 ratio in a factorial design and in blocks of 16. We measured development in 422 children by the Ages and Stages Questionnaire 3rd ed. at the end of the intervention. Results Compared to placebo, children who received both vitamin B12 and folic acid had 0.45 (95% CI 0.19, 0.73) and 0.28 (95% CI 0.02, 0.54) higher SD-units in the domains of gross motor and problem solving functioning, respectively. The effect was highest in susceptible subgroups consisting of stunted children, those with high plasma homocysteine (> 10 ?mol/L) or in those who were younger than 24 at end study. With the exception of a significant improvement on gross motor scores by vitamin B12 alone, supplementation of either vitamin alone had no effect on any of the outcomes. Conclusion Our findings suggest that supplementation of vitamin B12 and folic acid benefit development in North Indian Children. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00717730 PMID:26098427

  2. High circulating folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations in women during pregnancy are associated with increased prevalence of atopic dermatitis in their offspring.

    PubMed

    Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Timmermans, Sarah; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A; de Jongste, Johan C; Moll, Henriette A

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that in utero exposure of methyl donors influences programming of the fetal immune system in favor of development of allergic disease. The aim of this study was to assess whether the MTHFR C677T polymorphism, folic acid supplementation, and circulating folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy were associated with wheezing, shortness of breath, and atopic dermatitis in offspring. The study was a population-based birth cohort from fetal life until 48 mo (n = 8742). The use of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy was assessed by questionnaire. Plasma folate and serum vitamin B-12 concentrations and the MTHFR C677T polymorphism were available from blood collected in early pregnancy. Atopic dermatitis, wheezing, and shortness of breath in the offspring were assessed by parental-derived questionnaires at 12, 24, 36, and 48 mo. Maternal folate >16.2 nmol/L and vitamin B-12 >178 pmol/L were positively associated with the development of atopic dermatitis [adjusted OR: 1.18 (95% CI: 1.05-1.33) and adjusted OR: 1.30 (95% CI: 1.06-1.60) for the highest quartiles of folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations, respectively] but not with wheezing and shortness of breath. Maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism and folic acid supplementation were not associated with wheezing, shortness of breath, and atopic dermatitis. No interactions were found by age, family history of atopy, folic acid supplementation, MTHFR C677T polymorphism, or maternal smoking (P-interaction > 0.10). High folate and vitamin B-12 levels during pregnancy are associated with increased prevalence of atopic dermatitis in the offspring. Potential risks of high folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations on allergic outcomes should be evaluated when discussing mandatory fortification programs. PMID:22399526

  3. Conformational Cycle of the Vitamin B12 ABC Importer in Liposomes Detected by Double Electron-Electron Resonance (DEER)*

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Benesh; Korkhov, Vladimir M.; Yulikov, Maxim; Jeschke, Gunnar; Bordignon, Enrica

    2014-01-01

    Double electron-electron resonance is used here to investigate intermediates of the transport cycle of the Escherichia coli vitamin B12 ATP-binding cassette importer BtuCD-F. Previously, we showed the ATP-induced opening of the cytoplasmic gate I in TM5 helices, later confirmed by the AMP-PNP-bound BtuCD-F crystal structure. Here, other key residues are analyzed in TM10 helices (positions 307 and 322) and in the cytoplasmic gate II, i.e. the loop between TM2 and TM3 (positions 82 and 85). Without BtuF, binding of ATP induces detectable changes at positions 307 and 85 in BtuCD in liposomes. Together with BtuF, ATP triggers the closure of the cytoplasmic gate II in liposomes (reported by both positions 82 and 85). This forms a sealed cavity in the translocation channel in agreement with the AMP-PNP·BtuCD-F x-ray structure. When vitamin B12 and AMP-PNP are simultaneously present, the extent of complex formation is reduced, but the short 82–82 interspin distance detected indicates that the substrate does not affect the closed conformation of this gate. The existence of the BtuCD-F complex under these conditions is verified with spectroscopically orthogonal nitroxide and Gd(III)-based labels. The cytoplasmic gate II remains closed also in the vanadate-trapped state, but it reopens in the ADP-bound state of the complex. Therefore, we suggest that the substrate likely trapped in ATP·BtuCD-F can be released after ATP hydrolysis but before the occluded ADP-bound conformation is reached. PMID:24362024

  4. Serum folate but not vitamin B-12 concentrations are positively associated with cognitive test scores in children aged 6-16 years.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Cathy T; Gracely, Edward J; Lee, Brian K

    2013-04-01

    Folate and vitamin B-12 are important for nervous system functioning at all ages, with important roles in functions such as neurotransmitter synthesis. Although studies suggest a relation between folate and vitamin B-12 and cognitive function in the elderly population, there is relatively less evidence regarding these vitamins and children's cognitive function. The purpose of the study was to examine the associations of serum folate and vitamin B-12 with cognitive performance in children 6-16 y old in the NHANES III, conducted from 1988 to 1994, prior to the implementation of folic acid fortification. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data on 5365 children 6-16 y old from NHANES III. Serum folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations were measured, along with performance, on the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. Associations of B vitamins with cognitive performance were assessed using linear regression models adjusted for various covariates. Higher serum concentrations of folate were associated with higher reading and block design scores after adjusting for various covariates. For example, compared with the lowest quartile of folate, children in the highest quartile scored 3.28 points or 0.19 SD units higher on the reading test (P < 0.05). Vitamin B-12 was not associated with any of the test scores. In the largest study to date, higher folate concentrations were associated with better reading and block design scores. These associations appear to be biologically plausible and merit further study. PMID:23390191

  5. Direct exchange of vitamin B12 is demonstrated by modelling the growth dynamics of algal–bacterial cocultures

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Matthew AA; Kazamia, Elena; Cicuta, Pietro; Smith, Alison G

    2014-01-01

    The growth dynamics of populations of interacting species in the aquatic environment is of great importance, both for understanding natural ecosystems and in efforts to cultivate these organisms for industrial purposes. Here we consider a simple two-species system wherein the bacterium Mesorhizobium loti supplies vitamin B12 (cobalamin) to the freshwater green alga Lobomonas rostrata, which requires this organic micronutrient for growth. In return, the bacterium receives photosynthate from the alga. Mathematical models are developed that describe minimally the interdependence between the two organisms, and that fit the experimental observations of the consortium. These models enable us to distinguish between different mechanisms of nutrient exchange between the organisms, and provide strong evidence that, rather than undergoing simple lysis and release of nutrients into the medium, M. loti regulates the levels of cobalamin it produces, resulting in a true mutualism with L. rostrata. Over half of all microalgae are dependent on an exogenous source of cobalamin for growth, and this vitamin is synthesised only by bacteria; it is very likely that similar symbiotic interactions underpin algal productivity more generally. PMID:24522262

  6. Genetic Associations with Plasma B12, B6, and Folate Levels in an Ischemic Stroke Population from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Keene, Keith L.; Chen, Wei-Min; Chen, Fang; Williams, Stephen R.; Elkhatib, Stacey D.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Pugh, Elizabeth W.; Ling, Hua; Laurie, Cathy C.; Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Madden, Ebony B.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Sale, Michele M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: B vitamins play an important role in homocysteine metabolism, with vitamin deficiencies resulting in increased levels of homocysteine and increased risk for stroke. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 2,100 stroke patients from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) trial, a clinical trial designed to determine whether the daily intake of high-dose folic acid, vitamins B6, and B12 reduce recurrent cerebral infarction. Methods: Extensive quality control (QC) measures resulted in a total of 737,081 SNPs for analysis. Genome-wide association analyses for baseline quantitative measures of folate, Vitamins B12, and B6 were completed using linear regression approaches, implemented in PLINK. Results: Six associations met or exceeded genome-wide significance (P???5?×?10?08). For baseline Vitamin B12, the strongest association was observed with a non-synonymous SNP (nsSNP) located in the CUBN gene (P?=?1.76?×?10?13). Two additional CUBN intronic SNPs demonstrated strong associations with B12 (P?=?2.92?×?10?10 and 4.11?×?10?10), while a second nsSNP, located in the TCN1 gene, also reached genome-wide significance (P?=?5.14?×?10?11). For baseline measures of Vitamin B6, we identified genome-wide significant associations for SNPs at the ALPL locus (rs1697421; P?=?7.06?×?10?10 and rs1780316; P?=?2.25?×?10?08). In addition to the six genome-wide significant associations, nine SNPs (two for Vitamin B6, six for Vitamin B12, and one for folate measures) provided suggestive evidence for association (P???10?07). Conclusion: Our GWAS study has identified six genome-wide significant associations, nine suggestive associations, and successfully replicated 5 of 16 SNPs previously reported to be associated with measures of B vitamins. The six genome-wide significant associations are located in gene regions that have shown previous associations with measures of B vitamins; however, four of the nine suggestive associations represent novel finding and warrant further investigation in additional populations. PMID:25147783

  7. A high prevalence of biochemical evidence of vitamin B12 or folate deficiency does not translate into a comparable prevalence of anemia.

    PubMed

    Metz, Jack

    2008-06-01

    Based on biochemical evidence, a high prevalence of biochemical evidence of vitamin B12 or folate deficiency has been reported in a number of areas in the world. The evidence that these biochemical abnormalities lead to a comparable prevalence of anemia is reviewed. The overall contribution of vitamin B12 deficiency to the global burden of anemia is probably not significant, except perhaps in women and their infants and children in vegetarian communities. In developed countries, folate-deficiency anemia is uncommon. In some developing countries, this anemia is still seen, but there are no comprehensive data on the relative prevalence compared with anemia due to malaria, iron-deficiency, hemoglobinopathy, and HIV disease. It seems unlikely that folate deficiency makes a major contribution to the burden of anemia in developing countries. Iron-deficiency anemia may coexist with vitamin B12 and especially folate deficiency, and may confound the hematological features of the vitamin deficiencies whose prevalence would then be underestimated. Supplementation of the diet of pregnant women with folic acid can virtually eliminate folate-deficiency anemia in these women. There are very few data on the hematological effect of vitamin B12 supplementation or fortification at the population level. The addition of vitamin B12 to the supplementation of the diet of pregnant women with iron and folic acid does not produce an increased hematological response, at least in nonvegetarian populations. There are numerous reports of the effect of folic acid fortification of food on tests of folate status, but only a single published report on the hematological response was found. PMID:18709883

  8. Vitamin B12 conjugation of peptide-YY(3-36) decreases food intake compared to native peptide-YY(3-36) upon subcutaneous administration in male rats.

    PubMed

    Henry, Kelly E; Elfers, Clinton T; Burke, Rachael M; Chepurny, Oleg G; Holz, George G; Blevins, James E; Roth, Christian L; Doyle, Robert P

    2015-05-01

    Challenges to peptide-based therapies include rapid clearance, ready degradation by hydrolysis/proteolysis, and poor intestinal uptake and/or a need for blood brain barrier transport. This work evaluates the efficacy of conjugation of vitamin B12 (B12) on sc administered peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY)(3-36) function. In the current experiments, a B12-PYY(3-36) conjugate was tested against native PYY(3-36), and an inactive conjugate B12-PYYC36 (null control) in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experiments demonstrated similar agonism for the neuropeptide Y2 receptor by the B12-PYY(3-36) conjugate (EC50 26.5 nM) compared with native PYY(3-36) (EC50 16.0 nM), with the null control having an EC50 of 1.8 ?M. In vivo experiments were performed in young adult male Sprague Dawley rats (9 wk). Daily treatments were delivered sc in five 1-hour pulses, each pulse delivering 5-10 nmol/kg, by implanted microinfusion pumps. Increases in hindbrain Fos expression were comparable 90 minutes after B12-PYY(3-36) or PYY3-36 injection relative to saline or B12-PYYC36. Food intake was reduced during a 5-day treatment for both B12-PYY(3-36)- (24%, P = .001) and PYY(3-36)-(13%, P = .008) treated groups relative to baseline. In addition, reduction of food intake after the three dark cycle treatment pulses was more consistent with B12-PYY(3-36) treatment (-26%, -29%, -27%) compared with the PYY(3-36) treatment (-3%, -21%, -16%), and B12-PYY(3-36) generated a significantly longer inhibition of food intake vs. PYY(3-36) treatment after the first two pulses (P = .041 and P = .036, respectively). These findings demonstrate a stronger, more consistent, and longer inhibition of food intake after the pulses of B12-PYY(3-36) conjugate compared with the native PYY(3-36). PMID:25658456

  9. Metabolic evidence of vitamin B-12 deficiency, including high homocysteine and methylmalonic acid and low holotranscobalamin, is more pronounced in older adults with elevated plasma folate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: An analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey indicated that in older adults exposed to folic acid fortification, the combination of low serum vitamin B-12 and elevated folate is associated with higher concentrations of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid ...

  10. In vitamin B12 deficiency, higher serum folate is assoicated with increased total homocysteine (tHcy) and methlmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a recent study of older participants (age >/= 60 y) in the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we showed that a combination of high serum folate and low vitamin B-12 status was associated with higher prevalence of cognitive impairment and anemia than other combina...

  11. Effects of altered maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and docosahexaenoic acid on placental global DNA methylation patterns in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Asmita; Dangat, Kamini; Kale, Anvita; Sable, Pratiksha; Chavan-Gautam, Preeti; Joshi, Sadhana

    2011-01-01

    Potential adverse effects of excess maternal folic acid supplementation on a vegetarian population deficient in vitamin B(12) are poorly understood. We have previously shown in a rat model that maternal folic acid supplementation at marginal protein levels reduces brain omega-3 fatty acid levels in the adult offspring. We have also reported that reduced docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels may result in diversion of methyl groups towards DNA in the one carbon metabolic pathway ultimately resulting in DNA methylation. This study was designed to examine the effect of normal and excess folic acid in the absence and presence of vitamin B(12) deficiency on global methylation patterns in the placenta. Further, the effect of maternal omega 3 fatty acid supplementation on the above vitamin B(12) deficient diets was also examined. Our results suggest maternal folic acid supplementation in the absence of vitamin B(12) lowers plasma and placental DHA levels (p<0.05) and reduces global DNA methylation levels (p<0.05). When this group was supplemented with omega 3 fatty acids there was an increase in placental DHA levels and subsequently DNA methylation levels revert back to the levels of the control group. Our results suggest for the first time that DHA plays an important role in one carbon metabolism thereby influencing global DNA methylation in the placenta. PMID:21423696

  12. The Effectiveness of Vitamin B12 for Relieving Pain in Aphthous Ulcers: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsin-Li; Chiu, Shu-Chin

    2015-06-01

    Aphthous ulcers, the most common oral mucosal lesions seen in primary care, occur in up to ?2%-50% of the general population. Our objective was to confirm the analgesic benefit of treatment of mouth ulcers with vitamin B12 as adjunctive therapy. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed with primary care patients. The intervention group received vitamin B12 ointment for 2 days. In total, 42 patients suffering from aphthous ulcers participated in the study: 22 were included in the intervention group and 20 in the control group. All parameters of aphthous ulcers of patients in the intervention group were recorded and compared with those in the control group. We assessed the patients' pain levels before and after treatment using a visual analog scale. The statistical analyses were performed using a nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. Statistically significant differences in pain levels were found between the intervention group and the control group after 2 days of treatment (mean visual analog scale, 0.36 [95% CI, 0.01-0.71] vs. 1.80 [1.16-2.44]; p < .001). In conclusion, the results of this research study provide evidence that vitamin B12 is an effective analgesic treatment for aphthous ulcers. This study indicates that healthcare providers could use vitamin B12 as an adjunctive therapy for mouth ulcers, providing more effective pain management and improving the quality of life for patients with mouth ulcers. PMID:26025792

  13. Folate and vitamin B-12 status in relation to anemia, macrocytosis, and cognitive impairment in older Americans in the age of folic acid fortification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historic data on folic acid treatment of pernicious anemia suggested that high-level fortification would delay diagnosis or exacerbate effects of vitamin B12 deficiency, which affects many seniors. This idea is controversial, however, because observational data are few and inconclusive and experime...

  14. A Combined Supplementation of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Micronutrients (Folic Acid, Vitamin B12) Reduces Oxidative Stress Markers in a Rat Model of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kemse, Nisha G.; Kale, Anvita A.; Joshi, Sadhana R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Our earlier studies have highlighted that an altered one carbon metabolism (vitamin B12, folic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) is associated with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is also known to be associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. The current study examines whether maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation given either individually or in combination can ameliorate the oxidative stress markers in a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). Materials and Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned to control and five treatment groups: PIH; PIH + vitamin B12; PIH + folic acid; PIH + Omega-3 fatty acids and PIH + combined micronutrient supplementation (vitamin B12 + folic acid + omega-3 fatty acids). L-Nitroarginine methylester (L-NAME; 50 mg/kg body weight/day) was used to induce hypertension during pregnancy. Blood Pressure (BP) was recorded during pregnancy and dams were dissected at d20 of gestation. Results Animals from the PIH group demonstrated higher (p<0.01 for both) systolic and diastolic BP; lower (p<0.01) pup weight; higher dam plasma homocysteine (p<0.05) and dam and offspring malondialdehyde (MDA) (p<0.01), lower (p<0.05) placental and offspring liver DHA and higher (p<0.01) tumor necrosis factor–alpha (TNF–?) levels as compared to control. Individual micronutrient supplementation did not offer much benefit. In contrast, combined supplementation lowered systolic BP, homocysteine, MDA and placental TNF-? levels in dams and liver MDA and protein carbonyl in the offspring as compared to PIH group. Conclusion Key constituents of one carbon cycle (folic acid, vitamin B12 and DHA) may play a role in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in preeclampsia. PMID:25405347

  15. Effects of Chemical and Physical Enhancement Techniques on Transdermal Delivery of Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12) In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ye; Kalluri, Haripriya; Banga, Ajay K.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency, which may result in anemia and nerve damage if left untreated, is currently treated by administration of cyanocobalamin via oral or intramuscular routes. However, these routes are associated with absorption and compliance issues which have prompted us to investigate skin as an alternative site of administration. Delivery through skin, however, is restricted to small and moderately lipophilic molecules due to the outermost barrier, the stratum corneum (SC). In this study, we have investigated the effect of different enhancement techniques, chemical enhancers (ethanol, oleic acid, propylene glycol), iontophoresis (anodal iontophoresis) and microneedles (soluble maltose microneedles), which may overcome this barrier and improve cyanocobalamin delivery. Studies with different chemical enhancer formulations indicated that ethanol and oleic acid decreased the lag time while propylene glycol based formulations increased the lag time. The formulation with ethanol (50%), oleic acid (10%) and propylene glycol (40%) showed the maximum improvement in delivery. Iontophoresis and microneedle treatments resulted in enhanced permeation levels compared to passive controls. These enhancement approaches can be explored further to develop alternative treatment regimens. PMID:24310591

  16. Comparison of directly compressed vitamin B12 tablets prepared from micronized rotary-spun microfibers and cast films.

    PubMed

    Sebe, István; Bodai, Zsolt; Eke, Zsuzsanna; Kállai-Szabó, Barnabás; Szabó, Péter; Zelkó, Romána

    2015-01-01

    Fiber-based dosage forms are potential alternatives of conventional dosage forms from the point of the improved extent and rate of drug dissolution. Rotary-spun polymer fibers and cast films were prepared and micronized in order to direct compress after homogenization with tabletting excipients. Particle size distribution of powder mixtures of micronized fibers and films homogenized with tabletting excipients were determined by laser scattering particle size distribution analyzer. Powder rheological behavior of the mixtures containing micronized fibers and cast films was also compared. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy was applied for the microstructural characterization of micronized fibers and films. The water-soluble vitamin B12 release from the compressed tablets was determined. It was confirmed that the rotary spinning method resulted in homogeneous supramolecularly ordered powder mixture, which was successfully compressed after homogenization with conventional tabletting excipients. The obtained directly compressed tablets showed uniform drug release of low variations. The results highlight the novel application of micronized rotary-spun fibers as intermediate for further processing reserving the original favorable powder characteristics of fibrous systems. PMID:25190153

  17. Selective intestinal malabsorption of vitamin B12 displays recessive Mendelian inheritance: Assignment of a locus to chromosome 10 by linkage

    SciTech Connect

    Aminoff, M.; Tahvanainen, E.; Chapelle, A. de la

    1995-10-01

    Juvenile megaloblastic anemia caused by selective intestinal malabsorption of vitamin B12 has been considered a distinct condition displaying autosomal recessive inheritance. It appears to have a worldwide distribution, and comparatively high incidences were reported 30 years ago in Finland and Norway. More recently, the Mendelian inheritance of the condition has been questioned because almost no new cases have occurred in these populations. Here we report linkage studies assigning a recessive-gene locus for the disease to chromosome 10 in previously diagnosed multiplex families from Finland and Norway, proving the Mendelian mode of inheritance. The locus is tentatively assigned to the 6-cM interval between markers D10S548 and D10S466, with a multipoint maximum lod score (Z{sub max}) of 5.36 near marker D10S1477. By haplotype analysis, the healthy sibs in these families did not appear to constitute any examples of nonpenetrance. We hypothesize that the paucity of new cases in these populations is due either to a dietary effect on the gene penetrance that has changed with time, or to a drop in the birth rate in subpopulations showing enrichment of the mutation, or to both of these causes. 38 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Progressive hyperpigmentation in a Taiwanese child due to an inborn error of vitamin B12 metabolism (cblJ).

    PubMed

    Takeichi, T; Hsu, C-K; Yang, H-S; Chen, H-Y; Wong, T-W; Tsai, W-L; Chao, S-C; Lee, J Y-Y; Akiyama, M; Simpson, M A; McGrath, J A

    2015-04-01

    The physiology of human skin pigmentation is varied and complex, with an extensive melanogenic paracrine network involving mesenchymal and epithelial cells, contributing to the regulation of melanocyte survival and proliferation and melanogenesis. Mutations in several genes, involving predominantly the KIT ligand/c-Kit and Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways, have been implicated in a spectrum of diseases in which there is hyperpigmentation, hypopigmentation or both. Here, we report on a 12-year-old girl from Taiwan with a 6-year history of diffuse progressive skin hyperpigmentation resulting from a different aetiology: an inborn metabolic disorder of vitamin B12 (cobalamin), designated cblJ. Using whole-exome sequencing we identified a homozygous mutation in ABCD4 (c.423C>G; p.Asn141Lys), which encodes an ATP-binding cassette transporter with a role in the intracellular processing of cobalamin. The patient had biochemical and haematological evidence of cobalamin deficiency but no other clinical abnormalities apart from a slight lightening of her previously black hair. Of note, she had no neurological symptoms or signs. Treatment with oral cobalamin (3 mg daily) led to metabolic correction and some reduction in the skin hyperpigmentation at the 3-month follow-up. This case demonstrates that defects or deficiencies of cobalamin should be remembered in the differential diagnosis of diffuse hyperpigmentary skin disorders. PMID:25234635

  19. In-situ biochemical remediation of chlorinated organic compounds present as DNAPL using vitamin B12 and reduced titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Lesage, S.; Sorel, D.; Cherry, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of using a biochemical treatment for the cleanup of DNAPL solvents in the saturated zone was tested using an in-situ large vertical column. Laboratory column studies have shown that a mixture of vitamin B12 and titanium citrate pumped through a column containing 100 {mu}L of tetrachloroethene can completely dissolve and degrade the residual to ethene in a few days. A vertical test column, 80 cm in diameter was installed within a sheet-pile cell isolating a portion of aquifer at CFB Borden. An equimolar mixture of tetrachloroethene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane was injected below the water table to form a residual DNAPL. The injection withdrawal system was operated in an upward flow mode over a 2 m height. In order for the reaction to be proceed, the in-situ pH must be greater than 7 and the Eh lower than -480 mV. The redox of the aquifer and the formation of reaction products was monitored on site, through 8 side pods equipped with stainless steel tubing terminated with 40 {mu}m porous cups, installed at different heights in the test column. The volatile products at the withdrawal well were monitored on-line by dynamic headspace analysis/gas chromatography.

  20. Beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin B12 supplementation on brain docosahexaenoic acid, brain derived neurotrophic factor, and cognitive performance in the second-generation Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Richa S; Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2015-01-01

    In vegetarian population, vitamin B12 deficiency coexists with suboptimal levels of omega-3 fatty acids. Studies indicate a need for supplementation/fortification of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids to reduce the risk of brain disorders. We have described the effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain development in F1 generation animals. The current study investigates the effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on brain function and cognition. Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned the following groups: control, vitamin B12 deficient (BD), vitamin B12 deficient + omega-3 fatty acid (BDO), vitamin B12 supplemented (BS), vitamin B12 supplemented + omega-3 fatty acid (BSO). The same diets were continued for two generations. BDO group showed higher (P < 0.05) levels of BDNF (brain derived neurotrophic factor) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) in the cortex and hippocampus as compared with the BD group. The cognitive performance was also normalized in this group. BS showed comparable levels of DHA, BDNF (protein and mRNA), and CREB mRNA (cAMP response element-binding protein) to that of control group while Tropomyosin receptor kinase mRNA levels were higher. The combined vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation further enhanced the levels of DHA (P < 0.05) and BDNF (P < 0.05) in the hippocampus and CREB mRNA (P < 0.01) in the cortex as compared with BS group. The cognitive performance of these animals was higher (P < 0.05) as compared with BS group. Our data indicates the beneficial effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation across two generations on brain development and function. PMID:26249019

  1. Transcobalamin C776G genotype modifies the association between vitamin B12 and homocysteine in older hispanics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: A common polymorphism, C776G, in the plasma B12 transport protein transcobalamin (TC), encodes for either proline or arginine at codon 259. This polymorphism may affect the affinity of TC for B12 and subsequent delivery of B12 to tissues. Methods: TC genotype and its associations with i...

  2. Transcobalamin C776G genotype modifies the association between vitamin B12 and homocysteine in older Hispanics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: A common polymorphism, C776G, in the plasma B12 transport protein transcobalamin (TC), encodes for either proline or arginine at codon 259. This polymorphism may affect the affinity of TC for B12 and subsequent delivery of B12 to tissues. Methods: TC genotype and its associations with i...

  3. STRA6 is critical for cellular vitamin A uptake and homeostasis

    E-print Network

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    STRA6 is critical for cellular vitamin A uptake and homeostasis Jaume Amengual1, Ning Zhang1, Mary; Revised and Accepted May 19, 2014 Vitamin A must be adequately distributed within the body to maintain of the lipophilic vitamin is mediated by the retinol- binding protein, RBP4. Biochemical evidence suggests

  4. Human Vitamin B12 Absorption and Metabolism are Measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Using Specifically Labeled 14C-Cobalamin

    SciTech Connect

    Carkeet, C; Dueker, S R; Lango, J; Buchholz, B A; Miller, J W; Green, R; Hammock, B D; Roth, J R; Anderson, P J

    2006-01-26

    There is need for an improved test of human ability to assimilate dietary vitamin B{sub 12}. Assaying and understanding absorption and uptake of B{sub 12} is important because defects can lead to hematological and neurological complications. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is uniquely suited for assessing absorption and kinetics of {sup 14}C-labeled substances after oral ingestion because it is more sensitive than decay counting and can measure levels of carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) in microliter volumes of biological samples, with negligible exposure of subjects to radioactivity. The test we describe employs amounts of B{sub 12} in the range of normal dietary intake. The B{sub 12} used was quantitatively labeled with {sup 14}C at one particular atom of the DMB moiety by exploiting idiosyncrasies of Salmonellametabolism. In order to grow aerobically on ethanolamine, S. entericamust be provided with either pre-formed B{sub 12} or two of its precursors: cobinamide and dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB). When provided with {sup 14}C-DMB specifically labeled in the C2 position, cells produced {sup 14}C-B{sub 12} of high specific activity (2.1 GBq/mmol, 58 mCi/mmol) and no detectable dilution of label from endogenous DMB synthesis. In a human kinetic study, a physiological dose (1.5 mg, 2.2 KBq/59 nCi) of purified {sup 14}C-B{sub 12} was administered and showed plasma appearance and clearance curves consistent with the predicted behavior of the pure vitamin. This method opens new avenues for study of B{sub 12} assimilation.

  5. Determination of vitamin B12 in infant formula and adult nutritionals by liquid chromatography/UV detection with immunoaffinity extraction: First Action 2011.08.

    PubMed

    Campos-Giménez, Esther; Fontannaz, Patric; Trisconi, Marie-José; Kilinc, Tamara; Gimenez, Catherine; Andrieux, Pierre; Nelson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    At the "Standards Development and International Harmonization: AOAC INTERNATIONAL Mid-Year Meeting," on June 29, 2011, an Expert Review Panel agreed that the method "Determination of Vitamin B12 in Infant Formulas and Adult Nutritionals by Liquid Chromatography/UV Detection with Immunoaffinity Extraction" be adopted AOAC Official First Action status. The method is applicable for the determination of vitamin B12, which includes added cyanocobalamin and natural forms, making it applicable to both fortified and nonfortified products. Vitamin B12 is extracted from the sample in sodium acetate buffer in the presence of sodium cyanide (100 degrees C, 30 min). After purification and concentration with an immunoaffinity column, vitamin B12 is determined by LC with UV detection (361 nm). A single-laboratory validation study was conducted on a range of products, including milk- and soy-based infant formulas, cereals, cocoa beverages, health care products, and polyvitamin premixes. The method demonstrated linear response over a large range of concentrations, recovery rates of 100.8 +/- 7.5% (average +/- SD), repeatability RSD (RSDr) of 2.1%, and intermediate reproducibility (RSD(iR)) of 4.3%. LOD and LOQ values were 0.10 and 0.30 microg/100 g, respectively, and correlation with the reference microbiological assay was good (R2 = 0.9442). The results of the study were published in J. AOAC Int. 91, 786-793 (2008). The performance characteristics of the method met the standard method performance requirements set forth by the Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals; thus, the method was determined to be appropriate for First Action status. PMID:22649911

  6. Learning behaviour and cerebral protein kinase C, antioxidant status, lipid composition in senescence-accelerated mouse: influence of a phosphatidylcholine-vitamin B12 diet.

    PubMed

    Hung, M C; Shibasaki, K; Yoshida, R; Sato, M; Imaizumi, K

    2001-08-01

    Our objective was to determine whether dietary supplementation with phosphatidylcholine (PC) plus vitamin B12 could afford beneficial effects on biochemical and biophysical events in the brain of senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) substrain SAMP8. We measured learning behaviour, hippocampal protein kinase C (PKC) activity, cerebral antioxidant status, phospholipid composition and fatty acid composition in 6-month-old SAMP8 and in age-matched controls (SAM substrain SAMR1). In comparison with SAMR1, SAMP8 showed a significant elevation in total grading score of senescence and a significant decline in acquisition SAMP8 had a lower hippocampal PKC activity and cerebral PKC-beta mRNA abundance than SAMR1. SAMP8 had increased cerebral lipid peroxide levels and proportion of sphingomyelin, and a lower proportion of 20 : 4n-6 and 22 : 6n-3 in cerebral phosphtidylethanolamine than SAMR1. SAMP8 fed the PC combined with vitamin B12 diet had an increased PKC activity and a higher proportion of 22 : 6n-3 than SAMP8 fed the control diet. These results indicate the potential benefit of PC combined with vitamin B12 as a dietary supplement. PMID:11502229

  7. Reduced folic acid, vitamin B12 and docosahexaenoic acid and increased homocysteine and cortisol in never-medicated schizophrenia patients: implications for altered one-carbon metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kale, Anvita; Naphade, Nilesh; Sapkale, Swati; Kamaraju, Marellasv; Pillai, Anilkumar; Joshi, Sadhana; Mahadik, Sahebarao

    2010-01-30

    Abnormal one-carbon metabolism has long been suggested as one of the mechanisms for neuropathology and psychopathology of schizophrenia. Variable levels of components of one-carbon metabolism (folic acid and vitamin B12) and consequent altered levels of homocysteine and phospholipid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been independently reported, mostly in medicated patients. This study examined the simultaneous levels of these key components of one-carbon metabolism and its consequences in unique, medication-naïve first-episode psychotic patients (FEP, n=31) and healthy controls (HC, n=48) matched for confounds such as race, diet and lifestyle to reduce the variability. Significantly lower levels of folate and vitamin B12 in plasma and folate in red blood cells were observed in FEP compared to HC. These reductions paralleled the significant increase in plasma homocysteine and cortisol levels. Significantly reduced levels of membrane DHA were also observed in FEP compared to HC. This study, using a unique cohort, provided a broader mechanism (disturbed folic acid-vitamin B12-DHA balance) of altered one-carbon metabolism and one of its key consequential components, an increased homocysteine level that together with cortisol, can contribute to the neuropathology of psychosis. These data may have important implications for the amelioration of psychopathology in schizophrenia. PMID:19969375

  8. Novel in situ product removal technique for simultaneous production of propionic acid and vitamin B12 by expanded bed adsorption bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Yunshan; Liu, Yongdong; Shi, Hong; Su, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    A new type of in situ product removal (ISPR) technique of expanded bed adsorption (EBA) bioreactor was studied to simultaneously produce extracellular propionic acid and intracellular vitamin B12 by Propionibacterium freudenreichii CICC 10019. Resin screening experiments showed that the ZGA330 resin have the best biocompatibility and highest adsorption for propionic acid. Through the EBA bioreactor, propionic acid could be recovered efficiently by semi-continuous recirculation of the unfiltered broth, which eliminated the feedback inhibition of propionic acid. Fed-batch fermentation was carried out using the EBA system, resulting in a propionic acid concentration of 52.5 g L(-1) and vitamin B12 concentration of 43.04 mg L(-1) at 160 h, which correspond to product yields of 0.66 g g(-1) and 0.54 mg g(-1), respectively. The present study suggests that the EBA bioreactor can be utilized for the simple and economical production of propionic acid and vitamin B12 in a single fermentation process. PMID:22082511

  9. Arsenic-Induced Antioxidant Depletion, Oxidative DNA Breakage, and Tissue Damages are Prevented by the Combined Action of Folate and Vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Acharyya, Nirmallya; Deb, Bimal; Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Maiti, Smarajit

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic is a grade I human carcinogen. It acts by disrupting one-carbon (1C) metabolism and cellular methyl (-CH3) pool. The -CH3 group helps in arsenic disposition and detoxification of the biological systems. Vitamin B12 and folate, the key promoters of 1C metabolism were tested recently (daily 0.07 and 4.0 ?g, respectively/100 g b.w. of rat for 28 days) to evaluate their combined efficacy in the protection from mutagenic DNA-breakage and tissue damages. The selected tissues like intestine (first-pass site), liver (major xenobiotic metabolizer) and lung (major arsenic accumulator) were collected from arsenic-ingested (0.6 ppm/same schedule) female rats. The hemo-toxicity and liver and kidney functions were monitored. Our earlier studies on arsenic-exposed humans can correlate carcinogenesis with DNA damage. Here, we demonstrate that the supplementation of physiological/therapeutic dose of vitamin B12 and folate protected the rodents significantly from arsenic-induced DNA damage (DNA fragmentation and comet assay) and hepatic and renal tissue degeneration (histo-architecture, HE staining). The level of arsenic-induced free-radical products (TBARS and conjugated diene) was significantly declined by the restored actions of several antioxidants viz. urate, thiol, catalase, xanthine oxidase, lactoperoxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the tissues of vitamin-supplemented group. The alkaline phosphatase, transaminases, urea and creatinine (hepatic and kidney toxicity marker), and lactate dehydrogenase (tissue degeneration marker) were significantly impaired in the arsenic-fed group. But a significant protection was evident in the vitamin-supplemented group. In conclusion, the combined action of folate and B12 results in the restitution in the 1C metabolic pathway and cellular methyl pool. The cumulative outcome from the enhanced arsenic methylation and antioxidative capacity was protective against arsenic induced mutagenic DNA breakages and tissue damages. PMID:25850544

  10. Higher maternal plasma folate but not vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy are associated with better cognitive function scores in 9- to 10- year-old children in South India.

    PubMed

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Wills, Andrew K; Muthayya, Sumithra; Kurpad, Anura V; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Fall, Caroline H D

    2010-05-01

    Folate and vitamin B-12 are essential for normal brain development. Few studies have examined the relationship of maternal folate and vitamin B-12 status during pregnancy and offspring cognitive function. To test the hypothesis that lower maternal plasma folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations and higher plasma homocysteine concentrations during pregnancy are associated with poorer neurodevelopment, 536 children (aged 9-10 y) from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort underwent cognitive function assessment during 2007-2008 using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery, and additional tests measuring learning, long-term storage/retrieval, attention and concentration, and visuo-spatial and verbal abilities. Maternal folate, vitamin B-12, and homocysteine concentrations were measured at 30 +/- 2 wk gestation. During pregnancy, 4% of mothers had low folate concentrations (<7 nmol/L), 42.5% had low vitamin B-12 concentrations (<150 pmol/L), and 3% had hyperhomocysteinemia (>10 micromol/L). The children's cognitive test scores increased by 0.1-0.2 SD per SD increase across the entire range of maternal folate concentrations (P < 0.001 for all), with no apparent associations at the deficiency level. The associations with learning, long-term storage/retrieval, visuo-spatial ability, attention, and concentration were independent of the parents' education, socioeconomic status, religion, and the child's sex, age, current size, and folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations. There were no consistent associations of maternal vitamin B-12 and homocysteine concentrations with childhood cognitive performance. In this Indian population, higher maternal folate, but not vitamin B-12, concentrations during pregnancy predicted better childhood cognitive ability. It also suggests that, in terms of neurodevelopment, the concentration used to define folate deficiency may be set too low. PMID:20335637

  11. Serum levels of homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 in patients with vitiligo before and after treatment with narrow band ultraviolet B phototherapy and in a group of controls.

    PubMed

    Ata?, Hatice; Cemil, Bengü Çevirgen; Gönül, Müzeyyen; Ba?türk, Eda; Çiçek, Emel

    2015-07-01

    The association between vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and vitiligo were studied in several studies, but the results are contradictory. Narrow-band ultraviolet B (NBUVB) phototherapy is now considered as a gold standard for the treatment of diffuse vitiligo. The effects of NBUVB phototherapy on both vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine levels have not been studied in vitiligo patients yet. Serum levels of vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine were measured in vitiligo patients and control group and also both before and after NBUVB phototherapy in vitiligo patients. While levels of homocysteine in patients with vitiligo were significantly higher than controls (16.9±8.4 vs. 10. 9±3.4 ?mol/L; p<0,001) vitamin B12 and folate levels were not different (p>0.05). NBUVB phototherapy led to a 33.7±21.9% (0-75%) response in patients with vitiligo after 80 seccions. Treatment with NBUVB improved vitiligo and decreased serum levels of vitamin B12 (375±151 vs. 346±119 pg/ml, p=0.024), while serum levels of folate and homocysteine did not change significantly after treatment (p=0.914, p=0.127). Further studies are needed to clarify the influence of NBUVB phototherapy on folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine levels in patients with vitiligo. Furthermore, studies with the analysis of skin levels of homocysteine rather than circulating levels may be useful to elucidate the effects of phototherapy on homocysteine levels. PMID:25941975

  12. Short communication: Folates and vitamin B12 in colostrum and milk from dairy cows fed different energy levels during the dry period.

    PubMed

    Duplessis, M; Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Girard, C L; Pellerin, D; Overton, T R

    2015-08-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate folate and vitamin B12 concentrations of colostrum and milk in early lactation of dairy cows fed different levels of energy during the dry period. A total of 84 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to one of the following dietary treatments fed as a total mixed ration 57 d before the expected calving date: (1) high-energy one-group dry cow diet [1.35 Mcal of net energy for maintenance/kg of dry matter (DM); 56% corn silage, 12% wheat straw, and 32% concentrate mix on a daily DM basis]; (2) controlled-energy one-group dry cow diet (1.14 Mcal of net energy for maintenance/kg of DM; 29% corn silage, 36% wheat straw, and 35% concentrate mix on a daily DM basis); or (3) an intermediate step-up diet (controlled-energy diet from dry off until 29 d before the expected calving date and then switching to a diet representing a 50:50 blend of the controlled- and high-energy diets from 28 d before expected calving date until parturition; 1.24 Mcal of net energy for maintenance/kg of DM). After calving, all cows were fed the same diet served as a total mixed ration (44% corn silage, 14% grass silage, and 42% concentrate mix on a daily DM basis) until 42 d in milk (DIM). Colostrum samples were taken at the first milking after parturition and milk samples were taken during the morning milking at 11 and 39±2 DIM. Colostrum from the first milking and milk yields were weighed on the day of sampling. Colostrum yield from the first milking postpartum and milk yields at 11 and 39 DIM were unaffected by treatments. Colostrum yield averaged 6.8±0.7mg at the first milking postpartum, whereas milk yields at 11 and 39 DIM were, on average, 40.3±1.5 and 48.9±1.3mg/d, respectively. Folate concentrations in colostrum and milk were not different among treatments. Folate concentration of colostrum (440.3±18.8ng/mL) was higher than folate concentration in milk at 11 (93.7±3.0ng/mL) and at 39 DIM (78.4±2.6ng/mL). Vitamin B12 concentration in colostrum was higher for controlled-energy cows (31.7±1.4ng/mL) than intermediate cows (23.5±1.4ng/mL), whereas no treatment effect was noted for vitamin B12 concentration in milk. At 11 and 39 DIM, milk concentrations of vitamin B12 averaged 3.8 and 3.2±1.4ng/mL, respectively. In summary, results suggest that dietary change during the dry period could modify vitamin B12 concentration in colostrum, but had no effect on milk concentration of folates and vitamin B12 during early lactation. PMID:26094219

  13. Vitamin B12 regulates photosystem gene expression via the CrtJ antirepressor AerR in Rhodobacter capsulatus

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhuo; Li, Keran; Hammad, Loubna A.; Karty, Jonathan A.; Bauer, Carl E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The tetrapyrroles heme, bacteriochlorophyll and cobalamin (B12) exhibit a complex interrelationship regarding their synthesis. In this study, we demonstrate that AerR functions as an antirepressor of the tetrapyrrole regulator CrtJ. We show that purified AerR contains B12 that is bound to a conserved histidine (His145) in AerR. The interaction of AerR to CrtJ was further demonstrated in vitro by pull down experiments using AerR as bait and quantified using microscale thermophoresis. DNase I DNA footprint assays show that AerR containing B12 inhibits CrtJ binding to the bchC promoter. We further show that bchC expression is greatly repressed in a B12 auxotroph of Rhodobacter capsulatus and that B12 regulation of gene expression is mediated by AerR’s ability to function as an antirepressor of CrtJ. This study thus provides a mechanism for how the essential tetrapyrrole, cobalamin controls the synthesis of bacteriochlorophyll, an essential component of the photosystem. PMID:24329562

  14. Dynamic behaviour of the B12 riboswitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santillán, Moisés; Mackey, Michael C.

    2005-03-01

    Riboswitches are RNA segments that serve as ligand-responsive genetic control elements. They modulate the expression of certain genes in response to changing concentrations of metabolites. In this paper, we study the dynamic behaviour of the B12 riboswitch in E. coli—perhaps the most widely studied and best known of all riboswitches—through a mathematical model of its regulatory pathway. To carry this out, we simulate dynamic experiments in which the bacterial B12 uptake capacity is measured after being depleted of this vitamin for a long time. The results of these simulations compare favourably with reported experimental data. The model also predicts that an overshoot of intracellular B12 should be observed if the replenishment experiments were to be carried out for longer times. This behaviour is discussed in terms of a possible evolutionary advantage for E. coli, together with the fact that regulation at the transcriptional and translational levels is almost equivalent dynamically.

  15. Improved AOAC First Action 2011.08 for the Analysis of Vitamin B12 in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Formulas: First Action 2014.02.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Esther Campos

    2014-01-01

    This report documents improvement and single-laboratory validation performed on AOAC First Action Method 2011.08 for vitamin B12 in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula. The original validation study included a range of fortified products, from infant formulas to breakfast cereals or beverages. Extended validation data, including additional infant formulas and adult/pediatric nutritionals, has now been produced. In addition, the method has been modified to use ultra-HPLC and the calibration range extended in a multilevel calibration curve. Detection and quantification limits were also improved by increasing the sample weight used for analysis and the reconstitution rate adapted to the requirements. The Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals Test Material Kit, designed to represent a large range of products within the category (infant formula and adult nutritionals made from any combination of milk, soy, rice, whey, hydrolyzed protein, starch, and amino acids, with and without intact protein), was used to determine performance characteristics of the method. The modifications included allow now full compliance with standard method performance requirements established for vitamin B12 (SMPR 2011.005). LOQ was ?0.01 ?g/100 g, working range between 0.01 and 5.0 ?g/100 g, repeatability ?7%, and recovery in the range 90-110%. The method was granted AOAC First Action status 2014.02. PMID:25902990

  16. Electronically Excited States of Vitamin B12: Benchmark Calculations Including Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory and Correlated Ab Initio Methods

    E-print Network

    Kornobis, Karina; Wong, Bryan M; Lodowski, Piotr; Jaworska, Maria; Andruniów, Tadeusz; Rudd, Kenneth; Kozlowski, Pawel M; 10.1021/jp110914y

    2011-01-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and correlated ab initio methods have been applied to the electronically excited states of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin or CNCbl). Different experimental techniques have been used to probe the excited states of CNCbl, revealing many issues that remain poorly understood from an electronic structure point of view. Due to its efficient scaling with size, TD-DFT emerges as one of the most practical tools that can be used to predict the electronic properties of these fairly complex molecules. However, the description of excited states is strongly dependent on the type of functional used in the calculations. In the present contribution, the choice of a proper functional for vitamin B12 was evaluated in terms of its agreement with both experimental results and correlated ab initio calculations. Three different functionals, i.e. B3LYP, BP86, and LC-BLYP, were tested. In addition, the effect of relative contributions of DFT and HF to the exchange-correlation functional ...

  17. Vitamin B12 loaded polycaprolactone nanofibers: a novel transdermal route for the water soluble energy supplement delivery.

    PubMed

    Madhaiyan, Kalaipriya; Sridhar, Radhakrishnan; Sundarrajan, Subramanian; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2013-02-28

    Biocompatible PCL polymer nanofiber mediated sustained release of hydrophilic drug and applicability as transdermal delivery system is attempted. This new attempt to investigate water soluble vitamin delivery with hydrophobic polymer nanofiber sustained the release of the vitamin and the method is suited for the transdermal patch applications. The drug loaded fibers were characterized with SEM for morphology, porometer for pore size measurements, mechanical strength calculation and FT-IR for drug load characterization. The contact angle measurement showed surface wettability and controlled release of drug was quantified with UV absorption measurements. To further enhance the release of vitamin, the polymer fiber was plasma treated at different time intervals and made hydrophilic gradually. Since the increased surface area and drug encapsulation in nano-reservoirs can able to release drug in small quantities and in a sustained manner we attempted the release of the energy supplement with nanofibrous delivery mode. PMID:23370432

  18. Control of prostate cancer associated with withdrawal of a supplement containing folic acid, L-methyltetrahydrofolate and vitamin B12: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction This is the first report of possible direct stimulation of hormone-resistant prostate cancer or interference of docetaxel cytotoxicity of prostate cancer in a patient with biochemical relapse of prostatic-specific antigen. This observation is of clinical and metabolic importance, especially at a time when more than 80 countries have fortified food supplies with folic acid and some contemplate further fortification with vitamin B12. Case presentation Our patient is a 71-year-old Caucasian man who had been diagnosed in 1997 with prostate cancer, stage T1c, and Gleason score 3+4 = 7. His primary treatment included intermittent androgen deprivation therapy including leuprolide + bicalutamide + deutasteride, ketoconazole + hydrocortisone, nilandrone and flutamide to resistance defined as biochemical relapse of PSA. While undergoing docetaxel therapy to treat a continually increasing prostate-specific antigen level, withdrawal of 10 daily doses of a supplement containing 500 ?g of vitamin B12 as cyanocobalamin, as well as 400 ?g of folic acid as pteroylglutamic acid and 400 ?g of L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate for a combined total of 800 ?g of mixed folates, was associated with a return to a normal serum prostatic-specific antigen level. Conclusion This case report illustrates the importance of the effects of supplements containing large amounts of folic acid, L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate, and cyanocobalamin on the metabolism of prostate cancer cells directly and/or B vitamin interference with docetaxel efficacy. Physicians caring for patients with prostate cancer undergoing watchful waiting, hormone therapy, and/or chemotherapy should consider the possible acceleration of tumor growth and/or metastasis and the development of drug resistance associated with supplement ingestion. We describe several pathways of metabolic and epigenetic interactions that could affect the observed changes in serum levels of prostate-specific antigen. PMID:21867542

  19. THE DEVELOPMENT OF VALUES FOR VITAMINS E AND B12 FOR FORTIFIED FOODS IN THE UNITED STATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient data from the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) form the foundation of the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Surveys (FNDDS). Of the 7,000 foods in SR about 2,700 foods are used in the FNDDS. Complete nutrient profiles for >60 nutrients, including vitamins E a...

  20. Combined indicator of vitamin B12 status: modification for missing biomarkers and folate status, and recommendations for revised cut-points

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: We propose a novel approach to diagnose B12 status by combining four blood markers: total B12 (B12), holo-transcobalamin (holoTC), methylmalonic acid (MMA) and total homocysteine (tHcy). Combined B12 status is expressed as cB12=log10[(holoTC•B12)/(MMA•Hcy)]–(reference, age function). Her...

  1. Calcidiol and vitamin D binding protein uptake by LLC-PK/sub 1/ cells

    SciTech Connect

    Keenan, M.J.; Holmes, R.P.

    1986-03-01

    The process by which target cells take up vitamin D and its metabolites is not known. The authors studied the uptake of both /sup 3/H-calcidiol and /sup 125/I-Vitamin D Binding Protein (DBP) by LLC-PK/sub 1/ cells. Uptake was directly related to their extracellular concentrations. In the presence of 55 serum in the growth media cells previously incubated with 10 nM calcitriol for 4 hr had a greater uptake of calcidiol than those cells not incubated with calcitriol. This effect of calcitriol on calcidiol uptake was absent when cells were grown in hormone-supplemented, serum-free media, despite these cells having a cytosolic calcitriol receptor. Equal uptake of calcidiol occurred when DBP was absent and when DBP was present in a one to one molar ratio to calcidiol. With a 1:1 ratio of DBP to calcidiol and a measured K/sub D/ of 2 x 10/sup -8/M, the uptake of calcidiol could not be accounted for by uptake of the free ligand alone. A large excess of DBP (100:1) in relation to calcidiol suppressed uptake of calcidiol by approx. 90%. The authors have not been able to identify a saturable, specific uptake of either calcidiol or DBP despite DBP appearing to facilitate calcidiol uptake.

  2. Navigating the B12 Road: Assimilation, Delivery, and Disorders of Cobalamin*

    PubMed Central

    Gherasim, Carmen; Lofgren, Michael; Banerjee, Ruma

    2013-01-01

    The reactivity of the cobalt-carbon bond in cobalamins is the key to their chemical versatility, supporting both methyl transfer and isomerization reactions. During evolution of higher eukaryotes that utilize vitamin B12, the high reactivity of the cofactor coupled with its low abundance pressured development of an efficient system for uptake, assimilation, and delivery of the cofactor to client B12-dependent enzymes. Although most proteins suspected to be involved in B12 trafficking were discovered by 2009, the recent identification of a new protein reveals that the quest for elucidating the intracellular B12 highway is still far from complete. Herein, we review the biochemistry of cobalamin trafficking. PMID:23539619

  3. Drug release profiles and microstructural characterization of cast and freeze dried vitamin B12 buccal films by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Barnabás; Kállai, Nikolett; Tóth, Gerg?; Hetényi, Gergely; Zelkó, Romána

    2014-02-01

    Solvent cast and freeze dried films, containing the water-soluble vitamin B12 as model drug were prepared from two polymers, sodium alginate (SA), and Carbopol 71G (CP). The proportion of the CP was changed in the films. The microstructural characterization of various samples was carried out by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The drug release kinetics of untreated and stored samples was evaluated by the conventionally applied semi-empirical power law. Correlation was found between the changes of the characteristic parameters of the drug release and the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime values of polymer samples. The results indicated that the increase of CP concentration, the freeze-drying process and the storage at 75% R.H. decreased the rate of drug release. The PALS method enabled the distinction between the micro- and macrostructural factors influencing the drug release profile of polymer films. PMID:24269613

  4. Combined spectroscopic and computational analysis of the vibrational properties of vitamin B12 in its Co3+, Co2+, and Co1+ oxidation states.

    PubMed

    Park, Kiyoung; Brunold, Thomas C

    2013-05-01

    While the geometric and electronic structures of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin, CNCbl) and its reduced derivatives Co(2+)cobalamin (Co(2+)Cbl) and Co(1+)cobalamin (Co(1+)Cbl(-)) are now reasonably well established, their vibrational properties, in particular their resonance Raman (rR) spectra, have remained quite poorly understood. The goal of this study was to establish definitive assignments of the corrin-based vibrational modes that dominate the rR spectra of vitamin B12 in its Co(3+), Co(2+), and Co(1+) oxidation states. rR spectra were collected for all three species with laser excitation in resonance with the most intense corrin-based ? ? ?* transitions. These experimental data were used to validate the computed vibrational frequencies, eigenvector compositions, and relative rR intensities of the normal modes of interest as obtained by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Importantly, the computational methodology employed in this study successfully reproduces the experimental observation that the frequencies and rR excitation profiles of the corrin-based vibrational modes vary significantly as a function of the cobalt oxidation state. Our DFT results suggest that this variation reflects large differences in the degree of mixing between the occupied Co 3d orbitals and empty corrin ?* orbitals in CNCbl, Co(2+)Cbl, and Co(1+)Cbl(-). As a result, vibrations mainly involving stretching of conjugated C-C and C-N bonds oriented along one axis of the corrin ring may, in fact, couple to a perpendicularly polarized electronic transition. This unusual coupling between electronic transitions and vibrational motions of corrinoids greatly complicates an assignment of the corrin-based normal modes of vibrations on the basis of their rR excitation profiles. PMID:23477417

  5. Conformational Motions and Functionally Key Residues for Vitamin B12 Transporter BtuCD–BtuF Revealed by Elastic Network Model with a Function-Related Internal Coordinate

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ji-Guo; Zhang, Xiao; Zhao, Shu-Xin; Li, Xing-Yuan; Hou, Yan-Xue; Wu, Yi-Dong; Zhu, Jian-Zhuo; An, Hai-Long

    2015-01-01

    BtuCD–BtuF from Escherichia coli is a binding protein-dependent adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter system that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to transmit vitamin B12 across cellular membranes. Experimental studies have showed that during the transport cycle, the transporter undergoes conformational transitions between the “inward-facing” and “outward-facing” states, which results in the open–closed motions of the cytoplasmic gate of the transport channel. The opening–closing of the channel gate play critical roles for the function of the transporter, which enables the substrate vitamin B12 to be translocated into the cell. In the present work, the extent of opening of the cytoplasmic gate was chosen as a function-related internal coordinate. Then the mean-square fluctuation of the internal coordinate, as well as the cross-correlation between the displacement of the internal coordinate and the movement of each residue in the protein, were calculated based on the normal mode analysis of the elastic network model to analyze the function-related motions encoded in the structure of the system. In addition, the key residues important for the functional motions of the transporter were predicted by using a perturbation method. In order to facilitate the calculations, the internal coordinate was introduced as one of the axes of the coordinate space and the conventional Cartesian coordinate space was transformed into the internal/Cartesian space with linear approximation. All the calculations were carried out in this internal/Cartesian space. Our method can successfully identify the functional motions and key residues for the transporter BtuCD–BtuF, which are well consistent with the experimental observations. PMID:26247943

  6. Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Hemoglobin H Disease Early Misdiagnosed as Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura: A Series of Unfortunate Events

    PubMed Central

    Andreadis, Panagiotis; Theodoridou, Stamatia; Pasakiotou, Marily; Arapoglou, Stergios; Gigi, Eleni; Vetsiou, Evaggelia; Vlachaki, Efthymia

    2015-01-01

    We herein would like to report an interesting case of a patient who presented with anemia and thrombocytopenia combined with high serum Lactic Dehydrogenase where Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura was originally considered. As indicated a central venous catheter was inserted in his subclavian vein which led to mediastinal hematoma and finally intubation and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) hospitalization. After further examination patient was finally diagnosed with B12 deficiency in a setting of H hemoglobinopathy. There have been previous reports where pernicious anemia was originally diagnosed and treated as Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura but there has been none to our knowledge that was implicated with hemothorax and ICU hospitalization or correlated with thalassemia and we discuss the significance of accurate diagnosis in order to avoid adverse reactions and therapy implications. PMID:26609455

  7. Erythrocyte fatty acid profiles and plasma homocysteine, folate and vitamin B6 and B12 in recurrent depression: Implications for co-morbidity with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Assies, Johanna; Mocking, Roel J T; Lok, Anja; Koeter, Maarten W J; Bockting, Claudi L H; Visser, Ieke; Pouwer, François; Ruhé, Henricus G; Schene, Aart H

    2015-10-30

    Oxidative stress induced interactions between fatty acid (FA) and one-carbon metabolism may be involved in co-occurrence of major depressive disorder (MDD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), which have been scarcely studied together. In 137 recurrent MDD-patients vs. 73 age- and sex-matched healthy controls, we simultaneously measured key components of one-carbon metabolism in plasma (homocysteine, folate, vitamins B6 and B12), and of FA-metabolism in red blood cell membranes [main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (AA) and structural FA-indices (chain length, unsaturation, peroxidation)]. Results show significant positive associations of folate with EPA, DHA, and the peroxidation index, which were similar in patients and controls. After correction for confounders, these associations were lost except for EPA. Associations between B-vitamins and FA-parameters were non-significant, but also similar in patients and controls. Homocysteine and DHA were significantly less negatively associated in patients than in controls. In conclusion, these data indicate similarities but also differences in associations between parameters of one-carbon and FA-metabolism in recurrent MDD patients vs. controls, which may reflect differences in handling of oxidative stress. Further research should test the consequences of these differences, particularly the premature development of CVD in MDD. PMID:26260568

  8. Long-term garlic or micronutrient supplementation, but not anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy, increases serum folate or glutathione without affecting serum vitamin B-12 or homocysteine in a rural Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujue; Zhang, Lian; Moslehi, Roxana; Ma, Junling; Pan, Kaifeng; Zhou, Tong; Liu, Weidong; Brown, Linda Morris; Hu, Yuangreng; Pee, David; Gail, Mitchell H; You, Weicheng

    2009-01-01

    The effects of a 7.3-y supplementation with garlic and micronutrients and of anti-Helicobacter pylori treatment with amoxicillin (1 g twice daily) and omeprazole (20 mg twice daily) on serum folate, vitamin B-12, homocysteine, and glutathione concentrations were assessed in a rural Chinese population. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, factorial trial was conducted to compare the ability of 3 treatments to retard the development of precancerous gastric lesions in 3411 subjects. The treatments were: 1) anti-H. pylori treatment with amoxicillin and omeprazole; 2) 7.3-y supplementation with aged garlic and steam-distilled garlic oil; and 3) 7.3-y supplementation with vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium. All 3 treatments were given in a 2(3) factorial design to subjects seropositive for H. pylori infection; only the garlic supplement and vitamin and selenium supplement were given in a 2(2) factorial design to the other subjects. Thirty-four subjects were randomly selected from each of the 12 treatment strata. Sera were analyzed after 7.3 y to measure effects on folate, vitamin B-12, homocysteine, and glutathione concentrations. Regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, and smoking indicated an increase of 10.2% (95%CI: 2.9-18.1%) in serum folate after garlic supplementation and an increase of 13.4% (95%CI: 5.3-22.2%) in serum glutathione after vitamin and selenium supplementation. The vitamin and selenium supplement did not affect other analytes and the amoxicillin and omeprazole therapy did not affect any of the variables tested. In this rural Chinese population, 7.3 y of garlic supplementation increased the serum folate concentration and the vitamin and selenium supplement increased that of glutathione, but neither affected serum concentrations of vitamin B-12 or homocysteine. PMID:19056661

  9. Comparison of two modes of vitamin B12 supplementation on neuroconduction and cognitive function among older people living in Sandiago, Chile: A cluster randomized controlled trial. A study protocol(ISRCTN 02694183)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Older people have a high risk of vitamin B12 deficiency; this can lead to varying degrees of cognitive and neurological impairment. CBL deficiency may present as macrocytic anemia, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, or as neuropathy, but is often asymptomatic in older peo...

  10. Higher maternal plasma folate but not vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy are associated with better cognitive function scores in 9-10 year old children in South-India1-3

    PubMed Central

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Wills, Andrew K; Muthayya, Sumithra; Kurpad, Anura V; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Fall, Caroline HD

    2012-01-01

    Folate and vitamin B-12 (B-12) are essential for normal brain development. Few studies have examined the relationship of maternal folate and B-12 status during pregnancy to offspring cognitive function. To test the hypothesis that lower maternal plasma folate and B-12 concentrations and higher plasma homocysteine concentrations during pregnancy, are associated with poorer neurodevelopment, cognitive function was assessed during 2007-2008 among 536 children (aged 9-10 y) from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort. Maternal folate, B-12 and homocysteine concentrations were measured in stored plasma samples taken at 30±2 wk gestation. The children’s cognitive function was measured using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery and additional tests measuring learning ability, long-term storage/retrieval, attention and concentration, visuo-spatial and verbal abilities. During pregnancy 4% of mothers had low folate concentrations (<7 nmol/L), 42.5% had low B-12 concentrations (<150 pmol/L) and 3% had hyperhomocysteinemia (>10 ?mol/L). There was a 0.1-0.2 SD increase in the children’s cognitive scores per SD increase in maternal folate concentration (p<0.001 for all tests). The associations with learning ability and long-term storage/retrieval, visuo-spatial ability, attention and concentration were independent of maternal age, BMI, parity, the parents’ education, socio-economic status, rural/urban residence, religion, the child’s gestational age, birth size, sex and the children’s size, educational level and folate and B-12 concentrations at 9.5 y. There were no consistent associations of maternal B-12 and homocysteine concentrations with childhood cognitive performance. Conclusions In this Indian population higher maternal folate, but not vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy, predicted better childhood cognitive ability. PMID:20335637

  11. Reliability of a new technique for the determination of vitamin B12 absorption in children: single stool sample test--a double isotope technique

    SciTech Connect

    Hjelt, K.

    1986-03-01

    The fractional vitamin B12 absorption (FAB12) was determined in 39 patients with various gastrointestinal diseases by a double-isotope technique, employing a single stool sample test (SSST), as well as a complete stool collection. The age of the patients ranged from 2.5 months to 16.2 years (mean 5.0 years). The test dose was administered orally and consisted of 0.5-4.5 micrograms of /sup 57/CoB12 (approximately 0.05 microCi), carmine powder, and 2 mg /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/ (approximately 1.25 microCi) as the inabsorbable tracer. The wholebody radiation to a 1-year-old child averaged only 20 mrad. The stool and napkin was collected and homogenized by addition of 300 ml chromium sulfuric acid. A 300-ml sample of the homogenized stool and napkin, as well as 300 ml chromium sulfuric acid (75% v/v) containing the standards, were counted in a broad-based well counter. The FAB12 determined by SSST employing the stool with the highest content of /sup 51/Cr (which corresponded to the most carmine-colored stool) correlated closely to the FAB12 based on complete stool collection (r = 0.98, n = 39, p less than 0.001). The reproducibility of FAB12 determined by SSST was assessed from double assays in 19 patients. For a mean value of 12%, the SD was 3%, which corresponded to a coefficient of variation (CV) of 25%. The excretion of /sup 57/Co and /sup 51/Cr in the urine was examined in six patients with moderate to severe mucosal damage and was found to be low.

  12. Role of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone on the thermoresponsive behavior of PNIPAm hydrogel and its release kinetics using dye and vitamin-B12 as model drug.

    PubMed

    Maheswari, B; Babu, P E Jagadeesh; Agarwal, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    Temperature-sensitive hydrogels hold great promise in biological applications as they can respond to changes in physiological temperature to produce a desired effect like controlled drug delivery. In this study, a series of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone) thermosensitive hydrogels were synthesized by radical copolymerization of NIPAm with 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NVP). By altering the initial NIPAm/NVP mole ratios, copolymers were synthesized to have their own distinctive lower critical solution temperature which was established using differential scanning calorimetry. The swelling behavior of the hydrogel was analyzed gravimetrically and it was observed that reswelling rate increases with increasing NVP mole ratio. Further characterizations of the hydrogels were performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Release kinetics with respect to temperature was studied using methylene blue dye solution and vitamin B12. Kinetic modeling of the release profile revealed that the release mechanism is a non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. These results suggested that this material has potential application as intelligent drug carriers. The quantities of residual monomers in the PIV4 hydrogel were determined by HPLC method, and the results show almost complete conversion. PMID:24219566

  13. Biosimilar epoetin ? is as effective as originator epoetin-? plus liposomal iron (Sideral®), vitamin B12 and folates in patients with refractory anemia: A retrospective real-life approach

    PubMed Central

    GIORDANO, GIULIO; MONDELLO, PATRIZIA; TAMBARO, ROSA; PERROTTA, NICOLA; D'AMICO, FABIO; D'AVETA, ANTONIETTA; BERARDI, GIUSEPPE; CARABELLESE, BRUNO; PATRIARCA, ANDREA; CORBI, GRAZIA MARIA; DI MARZIO, LUIGI; LICIANCI, ANTONIETTA; BERARDI, DONATA; DI LULLO, LIBERATO; DI MARCO, ROBERTO

    2015-01-01

    Several biosimilar versions of recombinant human erythropoietin are currently approved for use in Europe, including a biosimilar epoetin-?. The aim of this the study was to verify that biosimilar epoetin-? is similar in terms of efficacy, safety and cost to originator epoetin-? for the treatment of refractory anemia in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. A total of 92 patients with myelodysplasia and refractory anemia were investigated. The patients received either originator (group A) or biosimilar (group B) epoetin-?. In addition, they received liposomal iron (Sideral®), calcium levofolinate and vitamin B12. Moreover, the median monthly overall costs were calculated for each group. The results demonstrated that hemoglobin (Hb) levels increased by 1 g/dl after a median time of 5 weeks in group A and 4 weeks in group B. In group A, a Hb level of >12 g/dl was achieved after 12 weeks, while in group B after 10.5 weeks. The median cost of therapy was 1,536 euros/month in group A and 1,354 euros/month in group B. A total of 5 patients required transfusion support in group A and 7 in group B. In conclusion, biosimilar epoetin-? appears to be comparable to originator epoetin-? in terms of efficacy and safety for the treatment of refractory anemia. PMID:26171179

  14. Intricacies of Redoxome Function Demonstrated with a Simple In vitro Chemiluminescence Method, with Special Reference to Vitamin B12 as Antioxidant

    PubMed Central

    Bøyum, A; Forstrøm, R J; Sefland, I; Sand, K L; Benestad, H B

    2014-01-01

    The homeostatic control of the redox system (the redoxome) in mammalian cells depends upon a large number of interacting molecules, which tend to buffer the electronegativity of cells against oxidants or reductants. Some of these components kill – at high concentration – microbes and by-stander normal cells, elaborated by professional phagocytes. We examined whether a simple, in vitro chemiluminescence set-up, utilizing redox components from human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and red blood cells (RBC), could clarify some unexplained workings of the redoxome. PMN or purified myeloperoxidase (MPO) triggers formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), quantified by light emission from oxidized luminol. Both PMN and RBC can generate abundant amounts of ROS, necessitating the presence of a high-capacity redoxome to keep the cellular electronegativity within physiological limits. We obtained proof-of-principle evidence that our assay could assess redox effects, but also demonstrated the intricacies of redox reactions. Simple dose–responses were found, as for the PMN proteins S100A9 (A9) and S100A8 (A8), and the system also revealed the reducing capacity of vitamin B12 (Cbl) and lutein. However, increased concentrations of oxidants in the assay mixture could decrease the chemiluminescence. Even more remarkable, A9 and NaOCl together stimulated the MPO response, but alone they inhibited MPO chemiluminescence. Biphasic responses were also recorded for some dose–response set-ups and are tentatively explained by a ‘balance hypothesis’ for the redoxome. PMID:25345916

  15. In vivo application of chitosan to improve bioavailability of cyanocobalamin, a form of vitamin B12, following intraintestinal administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Goto, Yuko; Masuda, Ayumi; Aiba, Tetsuya

    2015-04-10

    The effect of chitosan on the intestinal absorption of cyanocobalamin (VB12), a stable form of vitamin B12, was investigated in vivo in rats, with the aim of improving the oral bioavailability of VB12 for anemia treatment in patients with gastrectomy. The bioavailability was evaluated based on the plasma concentration profile of VB12 following intraintestinal administration of the VB12 solution containing chitosan at various concentrations. The bioavailability of VB12 was 0.6±0.2% when the chitosan-free VB12 solution was administered, while it increased to 10.5±3.3% when chitosan was dissolved in the VB12 solution at a concentration of 1%. The bioavailability of VB12 increases with the chitosan concentration, in which chitosan seems to augment the amount of VB12 absorbed without affecting the absorption rate constant of VB12. It was also shown that the bioavailability of VB12 does not increase further when the degree of chitosan deacetylation is increased from 83 to 100% by substitutively employing the fully deacetylated chitosan. These findings suggest that the oral administration of VB12 with readily available chitosan may be a practical approach for anemia treatment in patients with gastrectomy. PMID:25681732

  16. B12 in fetal development.

    PubMed

    Pepper, M Reese; Black, Maureen M

    2011-08-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is necessary for development of the fetus and child. Pregnant women who are vegetarian or vegan, have Crohn's or celiac disease, or have undergone gastric bypass surgery are at increased risk of B12 deficiency. Low serum levels of B12 have been linked to negative impacts in cognitive, motor, and growth outcomes. Low cobalamin levels also may be related to depression in adults. Some studies indicate that B12 supplementation may improve outcomes in children, although more research is needed in this area. Overall, the mechanisms of B12 action in development remain unclear. Further studies in this area to elucidate the pathways of cobalamin influence on development, as well as to prevent B12 deficiency in pregnant women and children are indicated. PMID:21664980

  17. Rationale, design and baseline characteristics of a large, simple, randomized trial of combined folic acid and vitamins B6 and B12 in high-risk patients: The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE)-2 trial

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Epidemiological studies suggest that mild to moderate elevation in plasma homocysteine concentration is associated with increased risk of atherothrombotic cardiovascular (CV) disease. Simple, inexpensive and nontoxic therapy with folic acid and vitamins B6 and B12 reduces plasma homocysteine levels by approximately 25% to 30% and may reduce CV events. Therefore, a large, randomized clinical trial – the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE)-2 study – is being conducted to evaluate this therapy in patients at high risk for CV events. OBJECTIVES To evaluate whether long-term therapy with folic acid and vitamins B6 and B12 reduces the risk of major CV events in a high-risk population. The primary study outcome is the composite of death from CV causes, myocardial infarction and stroke. METHODS A total of 5522 patients aged 55 years or older with pre-existing CV disease or with diabetes and additional risk factor(s) at 145 centres in 13 countries were randomly assigned to daily therapy with combined folic acid 2.5 mg, vitamin B6 50 mg and vitamin B12 1 mg, or to placebo. Follow-up will average five years, to be completed by the end of 2005. RESULTS The patients’ baseline characteristics confirmed their high-risk status. Baseline homocysteine levels varied between countries and regions. HOPE-2 is one of the largest trials of folate and vitamins B6 and B12 and is expected to significantly contribute to the evaluation of the role of homocysteine lowering in CV prevention. PMID:16450017

  18. Determination of hydroxyalkyl derivatives of cobalamin (vitamin B12) using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry and ultraviolet diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Alsberg, T; Minten, J; Haglund, J; Törnqvist, M

    2001-01-01

    Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) and ultraviolet diode array detection (UV-DAD), coupled on-line to reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), was used for the characterization of hydroxyalkyl derivatives of cob(I)alamin. The reduced form of vitamin B12, cob(I)alamin, denoted a supernucleophile due to its high nucleophilic strength, has shown promise as an analytical tool in studies of electrophilically reactive compounds in vitro and in vivo. A method for analysis of DNA-phosphate adducts was developed earlier utilizing the supernucleophilicity of cob(I)alamin to transfer alkyl groups from the phosphotriester configuration in DNA, with the formation of a Co-substituted alkyl-cobalamin (alkyl-Cbl) complex. For the purpose of identification and quantification of alkyl-Cbls at high sensitivity, an MS/MS method has been developed with application to a number of 2-hydroxyalkyl-cobalamins (OHalkyl-Cbls). The precursor oxiranes were reacted with cob(I)alamin, followed by clean-up and mass spectrometric analysis of the resulting OHalkyl-Cbls. It was found that ionization was highly dependent on solvent composition. By using acetonitrile/water/trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) (eluent I), the base peak was the doubly protonated molecule [M + 2H](2+), whereas acetonitrile/water/1-methylpiperidine (eluent II) yielded the singly protonated molecule [M + H](+) as the base peak. Excellent separation was obtained with eluent II, with good separation between stereoisomers, thus enabling the characterization of these by means of UV spectra. Limits of quantitation for 2-hydroxypropyl-cobalamin (OHPr-Cbl) were 0.2 and 2 pg/microL (or 0.1 and 1 fmol/microL) using selected ion recording (SIR) with eluent I and II, respectively. The obtained detection level should be sufficient for analysis of alkyl-Cbls from a wide range of toxicological applications. PMID:11746915

  19. Methyl Vitamin B12 but not methylfolate rescues a motor neuron-like cell line from homocysteine-mediated cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Hemendinger, Richelle A. Armstrong, Edward J.; Brooks, Benjamin Rix

    2011-03-15

    Homocysteine is an excitatory amino acid implicated in multiple diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Information on the toxicity of homocysteine in motor neurons is limited and few studies have examined how this toxicity can be modulated. In NSC-34D cells (a hybrid cell line derived from motor neuron-neuroblastoma), homocysteine induces apoptotic cell death in the millimolar range with a TC{sub 50} (toxic concentration at which 50% of maximal cell death is achieved) of 2.2 mM, confirmed by activation of caspase 3/7. Induction of apoptosis was independent of short-term reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Methyl Vitamin B12 (MeCbl) and methyl tetrahydrofolate (MTHF), used clinically to treat elevated homocysteine levels, were tested for their ability to reverse homocysteine-mediated motor neuron cell death. MeCbl in the micromolar range was able to provide neuroprotection (2 h pretreatment prior to homocysteine) and neurorescue (simultaneous exposure with homocysteine) against millimolar homocysteine with an IC{sub 50} (concentration at which 50% of maximal cell death is inhibited) of 0.6 {mu}M and 0.4 {mu}M, respectively. In contrast, MTHF (up to 10 {mu}M) had no effect on homocysteine-mediated cell death. MeCbl inhibited caspase 3/7 activation by homocysteine in a time- and dose-dependent manner, whereas MTHF had no effect. We conclude that MeCbl is effective against homocysteine-induced cell death in motor neurons in a ROS-independent manner, via a reduction in caspase activation and apoptosis. MeCbl decreases Hcy induced motor neuron death in vitro in a hybrid cell line derived from motor neuron-neuroblastoma and may play a role in the treatment of late stage ALS where HCy levels are increased in animal models of ALS.

  20. Folate- and vitamin B12-deficient diet during gestation and lactation alters cerebellar synapsin expression via impaired influence of estrogen nuclear receptor ?.

    PubMed

    Pourié, Grégory; Martin, Nicolas; Bossenmeyer-Pourié, Carine; Akchiche, Nassila; Guéant-Rodriguez, Rosa Maria; Geoffroy, Andréa; Jeannesson, Elise; El Hajj Chehadeh, Sarah; Mimoun, Khalid; Brachet, Patrick; Koziel, Violette; Alberto, Jean-Marc; Helle, Deborah; Debard, Renée; Leininger, Brigitte; Daval, Jean-Luc; Guéant, Jean-Louis

    2015-09-01

    Deficiency in the methyl donors vitamin B12 and folate during pregnancy and postnatal life impairs proper brain development. We studied the consequences of this combined deficiency on cerebellum plasticity in offspring from rat mothers subjected to deficient diet during gestation and lactation and in rat neuroprogenitor cells expressing cerebellum markers. The major proteomic change in cerebellum of 21-d-old deprived females was a 2.2-fold lower expression of synapsins, which was confirmed in neuroprogenitors cultivated in the deficient condition. A pathway analysis suggested that these proteomic changes were related to estrogen receptor ? (ER-?)/Src tyrosine kinase. The influence of impaired ER-? pathway was confirmed by abnormal negative geotaxis test at d 19-20 and decreased phsophorylation of synapsins in deprived females treated by ER-? antagonist 1,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-methyl-5-[4-(2-piperidinylethoxy)phenol]-1H-pyrazole dihydrochloride (MPP). This effect was consistent with 2-fold decreased expression and methylation of ER-? and subsequent decreased ER-?/PPAR-? coactivator 1 ? (PGC-1?) interaction in deficiency condition. The impaired ER-? pathway led to decreased expression of synapsins through 2-fold decreased EGR-1/Zif-268 transcription factor and to 1.7-fold reduced Src-dependent phosphorylation of synapsins. The treatment of neuroprogenitors with either MPP or PP1 (4-(4'-phenoxyanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline, 6,7-dimethoxy-N-(4-phenoxyphenyl)-4-quinazolinamine, SKI-1, Src-l1) Src inhibitor produced similar effects. In conclusion, the deficiency during pregnancy and lactation impairs the expression of synapsins through a deregulation of ER-? pathway. PMID:26018677

  1. A novel spectral resolution and simultaneous determination of multicomponent mixture of Vitamins B1, B6, B12, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac in tablets and capsules by derivative and MCR-ALS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegazy, Maha A.; Abdelwahab, Nada S.; Fayed, Ahmed S.

    2015-04-01

    A novel method was developed for spectral resolution and further determination of five-component mixture including Vitamin B complex (B1, B6, B12 and Benfotiamine) along with the commonly co-formulated Diclofenac. The method is simple, sensitive, precise and could efficiently determine the five components by a complementary application of two different techniques. The first is univariate second derivative method that was successfully applied for determination of Vitamin B12. The second is Multivariate Curve Resolution using the Alternating Least Squares method (MCR-ALS) by which an efficient resolution and quantitation of the quaternary spectrally overlapped Vitamin B1, Vitamin B6, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac sodium were achieved. The effect of different constraints was studied and the correlation between the true spectra and the estimated spectral profiles were found to be 0.9998, 0.9983, 0.9993 and 0.9933 for B1, B6, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac, respectively. All components were successfully determined in tablets and capsules and the results were compared to HPLC methods and they were found to be statistically non-significant.

  2. Effect of Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Supplementation on Bone Mineral Density and Quantitative Ultrasound Parameters in Older People with an Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Level: B-PROOF, a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Enneman, Anke W; Swart, Karin M A; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P; van Dijk, Suzanne C; Ham, Annelies C; Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M; van der Zwaluw, Nikita L; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; van der Cammen, Tischa J M; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; van Meurs, Joyce; Lips, Paul; Uitterlinden, André G; Zillikens, M Carola; van Schoor, Natasja M; van der Velde, Nathalie

    2015-05-01

    High plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels are associated with increased osteoporotic fracture incidence. However, the mechanism remains unclear. We investigated the effect of Hcy-lowering vitamin B12 and folic acid treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) and calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included participants aged ?65 years with plasma Hcy levels between 12 and 50 µmol/L. The intervention comprised 2-year supplementation with either a combination of 500 µg B12, 400 µg folic acid, and 600 IU vitamin D or placebo with 600 IU vitamin D only. In total, 1111 participants underwent repeated dual-energy X-ray assessment and 1165 participants underwent QUS. Femoral neck (FN) BMD, lumbar spine (LS) BMD, calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), and calcaneal speed of sound (SOS) were assessed. After 2 years, FN-BMD and BUA had significantly decreased, while LS-BMD significantly increased (all p < 0.01) and SOS did not change in either treatment arm. No statistically significant differences between the intervention and placebo group were present for FN-BMD (p = 0.24), LS-BMD (p = 0.16), SOS (p = 0.67), and BUA (p = 0.96). However, exploratory subgroup analyses revealed a small positive effect of the intervention on BUA at follow-up among compliant persons >80 years (estimated marginal mean 64.4 dB/MHz for the intervention group and 61.0 dB/MHz for the placebo group, p = 0.04 for difference). In conclusion, this study showed no overall effect of treatment with vitamin B12 and folic acid on BMD or QUS parameters in elderly, mildly hyperhomocysteinemic persons, but suggests a small beneficial effect on BUA in persons >80 years who were compliant in taking the supplement. PMID:25712255

  3. UV-Stressed Daphnia pulex Increase Fitness through Uptake of Vitamin D3

    PubMed Central

    Walling, Kelly; Wilbert, Steven A.; Catlin, Diane M.; Monaghan, Cailin E.; Hlynchuk, Sofiya; Meehl, Pamela G.; Resch, Lauren N.; Carrera, J. Valerie; Bowles, Stephanie M.; Clark, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is known to be highly variable in aquatic ecosystems. It has been suggested that UV-exposed organisms may demonstrate enough phenotypic plasticity to maintain the relative fitness of natural populations. Our long-term objective is to determine the potential photoprotective effect of vitamin D3 on Daphnia pulex exposed to acute or chronic UV radiation. Herein we report our initial findings in this endeavor. D. pulex survival and reproduction (fitness) was monitored for 5 d as a proof of concept study. Significantly higher fitness was observed in the D. pulex with D3 than those without (most extreme effects observed were 0% survival in the absence of D3 and 100% with 10 ppm D3). Vitamin D3 was isolated from the culture media, the algal food (Pseudokirchneriella), and the D. pulex and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Vitamin D3 was fluorescently labeled using a phenothiazinium dye and added to cultures of D. pulex. Images demonstrating the uptake of D3 into the tissues and carapace of the D. pulex were acquired. Our initial findings suggest a positive role for D3 in ecosystems as both UV-stressed algae and Daphnia sequester D3, and D. pulex demonstrate increased fitness in the presence of D3. PMID:26147286

  4. B Vitamins

    MedlinePLUS

    ... get B vitamins from proteins such as fish, poultry, meat, eggs, and dairy products. Leafy green vegetables, beans, and peas also have B vitamins. Many cereals and some breads have added B vitamins. Not getting enough of certain B vitamins can cause diseases. A lack of B12 or B6 can cause ...

  5. Vitamins

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vitamin K You can usually get all your vitamins from the foods you eat. Your body can also make vitamins ... night blindness. The best way to get enough vitamins is to eat a balanced diet with a variety of foods. In some cases, you may need to take ...

  6. Vitamin A Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Vitamin A Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Comprehensive Metabolic Panel , Vitamin B12 and Folate , Vitamin D Tests , Iron Tests , ...

  7. Genomic distribution of B-vitamin auxotrophy and uptake transporters in environmental bacteria from the Chloroflexi phylum.

    PubMed

    Rodionova, Irina A; Li, Xiaoqing; Plymale, Andrew E; Motamedchaboki, Khatereh; Konopka, Allan E; Romine, Margaret F; Fredrickson, James K; Osterman, Andrei L; Rodionov, Dmitry A

    2015-04-01

    Bacteria from the Chloroflexi phylum are dominant members of phototrophic microbial mat communities in terrestrial thermal environments. Vitamins of B group are key intermediates (precursors) in the biosynthesis of indispensable enzyme cofactors driving numerous metabolic processes in all forms of life. A genomics-based reconstruction and comparative analysis of respective biosynthetic and salvage pathways and riboswitch regulons in over 20 representative Chloroflexi genomes revealed a widespread auxotrophy for some of the vitamins. The most prominent predicted phenotypic signature, auxotrophy for vitamins B1 and B7 was experimentally confirmed for the best studied model organism Chloroflexus aurantiacus. These observations along with identified candidate genes for the respective uptake transporters pointed to B vitamin cross-feeding as an important aspect of syntrophic metabolism in microbial communities. Inferred specificities of homologous substrate-binding components of ABC transporters for vitamins B1 (ThiY) and B2 (RibY) were verified by thermofluorescent shift approach. A functional activity of the thiamine-specific transporter ThiXYZ from C. aurantiacus was experimentally verified by genetic complementation in E. coli. Expanding the integrative approach, which was applied here for a comprehensive analysis of B-vitamin metabolism in Chloroflexi would allow reconstruction of metabolic interdependencies in microbial communities. PMID:25345570

  8. Genomic distribution of B-vitamin auxotrophy and uptake transporters in environmental bacteria from the Chloroflexi phylum

    SciTech Connect

    Rodionova, Irina A.; Li, Xiaoqing; Plymale, Andrew E.; Motamedchaboki, Khatereh; Konopka, Allan; Romine, Margaret F.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Osterman, Andrei; Rodionov, Dmitry A.

    2015-04-01

    Bacteria from the Chloroflexi phylum are dominant members of phototrophic microbial mat communities in terrestrial thermal environments. Vitamins of B-group are key intermediates (precursors) in the biosynthesis of indispensable enzyme cofactors driving numerous metabolic processes in all forms of life. A genomics-based reconstruction and comparative analysis of respective biosynthetic and salvage pathways and riboswitch regulons in over 20 representative Chloroflexi genomes revealed a widespread auxotrophy for some of the vitamins. The most prominent predicted phenotypic signature, auxotrophy for vitamins B1 and B7 was experimentally confirmed for the best studied model organism Chloroflexus aurantiacus. These observations along with identified candidate genes for the respective uptake transporters pointed to B vitamin exchange as an important aspect of syntrophic metabolism in microbial communities. Inferred specificities of homologous substrate-binding components of ABC transporters for vitamins B1 (ThiY) and B2 (RibY) were verified by thermofluorescent shift approach. A functional activity of the thiamine-specific transporter ThiXYZ from C. aurantiacus was experimentally verified by genetic complementation in E. coli. Expanding the integrative approach, which was applied here for a comprehensive analysis of B-vitamin metabolism in Chloroflexi would allow reconstruction of metabolic interdependencies in microbial communities.

  9. Application of in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability methods for calcium, carotenoids, folate, iron, magnesium, polyphenols, zinc and vitamins B6, B12, D, and E

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A review of in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability methods for polyphenols and selected nutrients is presented. The review focuses on in vitro solubility, dialyzability, the dynamic gastrointestinal model (TIM), and Caco-2 cell models, the latter primarily for uptake and transport, and a disc...

  10. Accurate measurement of the essential micronutrients methionine, homocysteine, vitamins B6, B12, B9 and their metabolites in plasma, brain and maternal milk of mice using LC/MS ion trap analysis.

    PubMed

    Oosterink, J Efraim; Naninck, Eva F G; Korosi, Aniko; Lucassen, Paul J; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Schierbeek, Henk

    2015-08-15

    Methionine, homocysteine, vitamins B6, B12, B9, and their metabolites are crucial co-factors and substrates for many basic biological pathways including one-carbon metabolism, and they are particularly important for brain function and development and epigenetic mechanisms. These are essential nutrients that cannot be synthesized endogenously and thus need to be taken in via diet. A novel method was developed that enables simultaneous assessment of the exact concentrations of these essential micronutrients in various matrices, including maternal milk, plasma, and brain of neonatal mice. The protocol for analysis of these components in the various matrices consists of a cleanup step (i.e. lipid extraction followed by protein precipitation) combined with a liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) ion trap method with high sensitivity and selectivity (SRM mode). This novel method enables the measurement of these essential nutrients with good recoveries (69-117%), and high intra-day (<10%) and high intra-day precision (defined as <15% for compounds with an isotopologue and <20% for compounds without an isotopologue as internal standard) in plasma, maternal milk, and brain of mice at low and high levels. In addition, lower limits of quantitation (LOQ) were determined for the various matrices in the range for methionine (700-2000nmol/L), homocysteine (280-460-nmol/L), vitamins B6 (5-230nmol/L), B12 (7-11nmol/L), B9 (20-30nmol/L). Degradation of vitamins and oxidation of homocysteine is limited to a minimum, and only small sample volumes (30?L plasma, 20mg brain and maternal milk) are needed for simultaneous measurement. This method can help to understand how these nutrients are transferred from mother to offspring via maternal milk, as well as how these nutrients are absorbed by the offspring and eventually taken up in various tissues amongst the brain in preclinical and clinical research settings. Therefore the method can help to explore critical periods in lactating mothers and developing offspring. PMID:26197436

  11. Point mutations in a conserved region (TonB box) of Escherichia coli outer membrane protein BtuB affect vitamin B12 transport.

    PubMed Central

    Gudmundsdottir, A; Bell, P E; Lundrigan, M D; Bradbeer, C; Kadner, R J

    1989-01-01

    Uptake of cobalamins and iron chelates in Escherichia coli K-12 is dependent on specific outer membrane transport proteins and the energy-coupling function provided by the TonB protein. The btuB product is the outer membrane receptor for cobalamins, bacteriophage BF23, and the E colicins. A short sequence near the amino terminus of mature BtuB, previously called the TonB box, is conserved in all tonB-dependent receptors and colicins and is the site of the btuB451 mutation (Leu-8----Pro), which prevents energy-coupled cobalamin uptake. This phenotype is partially suppressed by certain mutations in tonB. To examine the role of individual amino acids in the TonB box of BtuB, more than 30 amino acid substitutions in residues 6 to 13 were generated by doped oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. Many of the mutations affecting each amino acid did not impair transport activity, although some substitutions reduced cobalamin uptake and the Leu-8----Pro and Val-10----Gly alleles were completely inactive. To test whether the btuB451 mutation affects only cobalamin transport, a hybrid gene was constructed which encodes the signal sequence and first 39 residues of BtuB fused to the bulk of the ferrienterobactin receptor FepA (residues 26 to 723). This hybrid protein conferred all FepA functions but no BtuB functions. The presence of the btuB451 mutation in this fusion gene eliminated all of its tonB-coupled reactions, showing that the TonB box of FepA could be replaced by that from BtuB. These results suggest that the TonB-box region of BtuB is involved in active transport in a manner dependent not on the identity of specific side chains but on the local secondary structure. PMID:2687240

  12. Application of in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability methods for calcium, carotenoids, folate, iron, magnesium, polyphenols, zinc, and vitamins B6, B12, D, and E

    PubMed Central

    Etcheverry, Paz; Grusak, Michael A.; Fleige, Lisa E.

    2012-01-01

    A review of in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability methods for polyphenols and selected nutrients is presented. The review focuses on in vitro solubility, dialyzability, the dynamic gastrointestinal model (TIM)™, and Caco-2 cell models, the latter primarily for uptake and transport, and a discussion of how these methods have been applied to generate data for a range of nutrients, carotenoids, and polyphenols. Recommendations are given regarding which methods are most justified for answering bioaccessibility or bioavailability related questions for specific nutrients. The need for more validation studies in which in vivo results are compared to in vitro results is also discussed. PMID:22934067

  13. Association of long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy with bone fractures and effects on absorption of calcium, vitamin B12, iron, and magnesium.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tetsuhide; Jensen, Robert T

    2010-12-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are one of the most widely used classes of drugs. PPIs have a very favorable safety profile, and it is unusual for a patient to stop them because of side effects. However, with increasing numbers of patients chronically taking PPIs for gastroesophageal reflux disease and other common, persistent conditions, the long-term potential adverse effects are receiving increasing attention. An insufficiently studied area receiving much attention is the long-term effect of chronic acid suppression on the absorption of vitamins and nutrients. This increased attention results from the reported potential adverse effect of chronic PPI treatment leading to an increased occurrence of bone fractures. Interest in this area has led to examination of the effects of PPIs on calcium absorption/metabolism and numerous cohort, case-control, and prospective studies of their ability to affect bone density and cause bone fractures. In this article, these studies are systematically examined, as are studies of the effects of chronic PPI use on absorption of VB(12), iron, and magnesium. Studies in each area have led to differing conclusions, but when examined systematically, consistent results of several studies support the conclusion that long-term adverse effects on these processes can have important clinical implications. PMID:20882439

  14. Vitamins

    MedlinePLUS

    ... wheat and oats wheat germ leafy green vegetables vegetable oils like sunflower, canola, and olive egg yolks nuts ... foods are rich in vitamin K? leafy green vegetables dairy products, like milk and yogurt broccoli soybean oil When your body gets this vitamin and the ...

  15. The 380 kb pCMU01 Plasmid Encodes Chloromethane Utilization Genes and Redundant Genes for Vitamin B12- and Tetrahydrofolate-Dependent Chloromethane Metabolism in Methylobacterium extorquens CM4: A Proteomic and Bioinformatics Study

    PubMed Central

    Roselli, Sandro; Nadalig, Thierry; Vuilleumier, Stéphane; Bringel, Françoise

    2013-01-01

    Chloromethane (CH3Cl) is the most abundant volatile halocarbon in the atmosphere and contributes to the destruction of stratospheric ozone. The only known pathway for bacterial chloromethane utilization (cmu) was characterized in Methylobacterium extorquens CM4, a methylotrophic bacterium able to utilize compounds without carbon-carbon bonds such as methanol and chloromethane as the sole carbon source for growth. Previous work demonstrated that tetrahydrofolate and vitamin B12 are essential cofactors of cmuA- and cmuB-encoded methyltransferases of chloromethane dehalogenase, and that the pathway for chloromethane utilization is distinct from that for methanol. This work reports genomic and proteomic data demonstrating that cognate cmu genes are located on the 380 kb pCMU01 plasmid, which drives the previously defined pathway for tetrahydrofolate-mediated chloromethane dehalogenation. Comparison of complete genome sequences of strain CM4 and that of four other M. extorquens strains unable to grow with chloromethane showed that plasmid pCMU01 harbors unique genes without homologs in the compared genomes (bluB2, btuB, cobA, cbiD), as well as 13 duplicated genes with homologs of chromosome-borne genes involved in vitamin B12-associated biosynthesis and transport, or in tetrahydrofolate-dependent metabolism (folC2). In addition, the presence of both chromosomal and plasmid-borne genes for corrinoid salvaging pathways may ensure corrinoid coenzyme supply in challenging environments. Proteomes of M. extorquens CM4 grown with one-carbon substrates chloromethane and methanol were compared. Of the 49 proteins with differential abundance identified, only five (CmuA, CmuB, PurU, CobH2 and a PaaE-like uncharacterized putative oxidoreductase) are encoded by the pCMU01 plasmid. The mainly chromosome-encoded response to chloromethane involves gene clusters associated with oxidative stress, production of reducing equivalents (PntAA, Nuo complex), conversion of tetrahydrofolate-bound one-carbon units, and central metabolism. The mosaic organization of plasmid pCMU01 and the clustering of genes coding for dehalogenase enzymes and for biosynthesis of associated cofactors suggests a history of gene acquisition related to chloromethane utilization. PMID:23593113

  16. Uptake of (/sup 3/H)vitamin D/sub 3/ from low and high density lipoproteins by cultured human fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Shireman, R.B.; Williams, D.; Remsen, J.F.

    1986-03-01

    The plasma distribution and cellular uptake of (/sup 3/H)vitamin D/sub 3/ was studied in vitro using cultured human fibroblasts. Incubation of (/sup 3/H)vitamin D/sub 3/ (cholecalciferol) with plasma followed by sequential ultracentrifugal fractionation of the lipoproteins indicated that 2-4% of the radioactivity associated with the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), 12% with low density lipoprotein (LDL), and approximately 60% with the high density lipoprotein (HDL). The remaining radioactivity, 25%, was associated with the sedimented plasma fractions. By comparison, an average of 86% of the radioactivity from (/sup 3/H) 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol associated with the sedimented plasma fractions. The uptake of (/sup 3/H)vitamin D/sub 3/ from plasma, LDL, or HDL was studied in cultured human cells; uptake by normal fibroblasts was greatest from LDL and least from plasma. The cellular association of vitamin D/sub 3/ was time, concentration, and temperature dependent. At a concentration of 50 ..mu..g LDL/ml of medium, the uptake of (/sup 3/H)vitamin D/sub 3/ from LDL at 37/sup 0/C was rapid and reached a maximum at approximately 4 hr; it was slower from HDL but continued to increase slowly up to 24 hr. The significance of these in vitro findings is uncertain since much of the vitamin D/sub 3/ absorbed from the intestine reportedly associates with chylomicrons and is rapidly taken up by the liver.

  17. 1,25 (OH) sub 2 vitamin D sub 3 -induced sup 45 Ca uptake in vascular myocytes cultured from spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Hong; McCarron, D.A.; Bukoski, R.D. )

    1991-01-01

    The effect of 1,25 (OH){sub 2} vitamin D{sub 3} on basal {sup 45}Ca uptake was examined in vasvular smooth muscle cells cultured from mesenteric arteries of spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) normotensive rats. Basal uptake of {sup 45}Ca was significantly greater in myocytes of WKY than SHR at 5, 10, 30 and 60 min incubation with the isotope. Incubation with 1 ng/ml 1,25 (OH){sub 2} vitamin D{sub 3} for 48 hr increased basal {sup 45}Ca uptake between 1-10 min in SHR and between 5-10 min in WKY. The dose-response relationship indicated that cells from both strains are equally sensitive to the calciotropic effects of 1,25 (OH){sub 2} vitamin D{sub 3} with half-maximal stimulation occurring at approximately 0.3-0.4 ng/ml. In cells of both strains maximal stimulation of {sup 45}Ca uptake was achieved only after a 12-24 hr period of incubation with hormone and pretreatment with cycloheximide inhibited 1,24 (OH){sub 2} vitamin D{sub 3}-enhanced {sup 45}Ca uptake. Although {sup 45}Ca binding by extracellular matrix material was significantly greater in WKY than SHR, 1,25 (OH){sub 2} vitamin D{sub 3} had no effect on the amount of matrix {sup 45}Ca binding in either strain.

  18. Vitamins

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Wheat germ and wheat germ oil Vitamin K: Cabbage Cauliflower Cereals Dark green vegetables (broccoli, Brussels sprouts, ... Avocado Broccoli, kale, and other vegetables in the cabbage family Eggs Legumes and lentils Milk Mushroom Organ ...

  19. Chronic Nicotine Exposure In Vivo and In Vitro Inhibits Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) Uptake by Pancreatic Acinar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Padmanabhan; Thrower, Edwin C.; Loganathan, Gopalakrishnan; Balamurugan, A. N.; Subramanian, Veedamali S.; Gorelick, Fred S.; Said, Hamid M.

    2015-01-01

    Thiamin (vitamin B1), a member of the water-soluble family of vitamins, is essential for normal cellular functions; its deficiency results in oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Pancreatic acinar cells (PAC) obtain thiamin from the circulation using a specific carrier-mediated process mediated by both thiamin transporters -1 and -2 (THTR-1 and THTR-2; encoded by the SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 genes, respectively). The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of chronic exposure of mouse PAC in vivo and human PAC in vitro to nicotine (a major component of cigarette smoke that has been implicated in pancreatic diseases) on thiamin uptake and to delineate the mechanism involved. The results showed that chronic exposure of mice to nicotine significantly inhibits thiamin uptake in murine PAC, and that this inhibition is associated with a marked decrease in expression of THTR-1 and THTR-2 at the protein, mRNA and hnRNAs level. Furthermore, expression of the important thiamin-metabolizing enzyme, thiamin pyrophosphokinase (TPKase), was significantly reduced in PAC of mice exposed to nicotine. Similarly, chronic exposure of cultured human PAC to nicotine (0.5 ?M, 48 h) significantly inhibited thiamin uptake, which was also associated with a decrease in expression of THTR-1 and THTR-2 proteins and mRNAs. This study demonstrates that chronic exposure of PAC to nicotine impairs the physiology and the molecular biology of the thiamin uptake process. Furthermore, the study suggests that the effect is, in part, mediated through transcriptional mechanism(s) affecting the SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 genes. PMID:26633299

  20. A relationship between vitamin B sub 12 , folic acid, ascorbic acid, and mercury uptake and methylation

    SciTech Connect

    Zorn, N.E.; Smith, J.T. )

    1990-01-01

    Ingestion of megadoses of certain vitamins appears to influence the in vivo methylation of mercuric chloride in guinea pigs. The addition of megadoses of vitamin B{sub 12} fed either singularly or in combination with folic acid resulted in increased methylmercury concentrations in the liver. Moreover, percent methylmercury levels were significantly increased with B{sub 12} treatment in the liver (B{sub 12} only and B{sub 12}/folic acid) and brain (B{sub 12}/vitamin C). Incorporation of high levels of folic acid into the dietary regime also increased the methylmercury concentration particularly in the liver and hair tissues. The addition of vitamin C in the diet, particularly in combination with B{sub 12} (brain) or folic acid (muscle) resulted in increased methylmercury levels in these tissues and percent methylmercury values with B{sub 12} in the muscle and brain tissue.

  1. Good Sources of Nutrients: Vitamin B-12 

    E-print Network

    Scott, Amanda; Replogle, Jacqueline

    2008-08-28

    , ask a physician, registered dietitian or pharmacist whether you should take a dietary supple- ment such as a multivitamin pill. Sources 1. U.S. Department of Agriculture. MyPyramid. www.MyPyramid.gov 2. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services...

  2. Vitamin B12 and Folate Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a person with signs and symptoms of significant malnutrition or dietary malabsorption. This may include people with, ... deficiency, such as people with a history of malnutrition or a condition related to malabsorption . These tests ...

  3. Probing the nature of the Co(III) ion in cobalamins: a comparison of the reaction of aquacobalamin (vitamin B12a) and aqua-10-chlorocobalamin with some anionic and N-donor ligands.

    PubMed

    Knapton, Leanne; Marques, Helder M

    2005-03-01

    To probe the cis effect of the corrin macrocycle in vitamin B12 derivatives, equilibrium constants for the substitution of coordinated H2O in aquacobalamin (vitamin B12a, H2OCbl+) and in aqua-10-chlorocobalamin, H2O-10-ClCbl+, (in which Cl has replaced the C10 H) by an exogenous ligand, L (L = an anion, NO2-, SCN-, N3-, OCN-, S2O3(2-), NCSe- or a neutral N-donor, CH3NH2, pyridine, imidazole) have been determined. The cis influence reported in the electronic spectra of the cobalamins is observed in the spectra of L-10-ClCbls as well. Anionic ligands bind more strongly to H2O-10-ClCbl+ than to H2OCbl+ with log K values between 0.10 and 0.63 (average 0.26) larger; the converse is true for the neutral N-donor ligands, where log K is between 0.17 and 0.3 (average 0.25) smaller. Semi-empirical molecular orbital (SEMO) calculations using the ZINDO/1 model on the hydroxo complexes show that charge density is delocalised from the axial donor atom to the metal and Cl. This explains why coordinated OH- is a poorer base in HO-10-ClCbl than in HOCbl and the pK(a) of H2O-10-ClCbl+ is lower than that of H2OCbl+. It further explains why, because of the ability of the metal in concert with the C10 Cl to accept charge density from the ligand, an anionic ligand will bind more strongly to Co(III) in H2O-10-ClCbl+ than in H2OCbl+. The kinetics of the replacement of coordinated H2O by two probe ligand, pyridine and azide, were determined. The rate constants for substitution of H2O in H2O-10-ClCbl+ by pyridine show saturation, whilst those for substitution by N3- do not; this is inconsistent with a purely dissociative mechanism and the reactions proceed through an interchange mechanism. The values of the activation parameters are more positive for the reaction between these ligands and H2OCbl+, than for their reaction with H2O-10-ClCbl+. This is interpreted to mean that the transition state in the reaction of H2O-10-ClCbl+ occurs earlier along the reaction coordinate. In the temperature range studied, H2O-10-ClCbl+ reacts more slowly with py and N3- than does H2OCbl+. SEMO calculations indicate that as the Co-O bond to the departing H(2)O molecule is stretched, the charge density on Co in H2OCbl+ is always lower than on Co in H2O-10-ClCbl+. This suggests that the former is a better electrophile towards the incoming ligand, and offers an explanation for the kinetics observations. PMID:15726141

  4. Mechanistic studies of the reactions of the reduced vitamin B12 derivatives with the HNO donor Piloty's acid: further evidence for oxidation of cob(i)alamin by (H)NO.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Harishchandra; Brasch, Nicola E

    2015-12-14

    There is accumulating evidence for the existence of HNO in biological systems. Compared with NO (?NO), much less is known about the chemical and biochemical reactivity of HNO. Kinetic and mechanistic studies have been carried out on the reaction between the vitamin B12-derived radical complex cob(ii)alamin (Cbl(ii)?, Cbl(ii)) with the widely used HNO donor Piloty's acid (PA). A stoichiometry of 1?:?2 Cbl(ii)?:?PA was obtained and PA decomposition to HNO and benzenesulfinate (C6H5SO2(-)) is the rate-determining step. No evidence was found for nitrite (Griess assay), ammonia (Nessler's test) or NH2OH (indooxine test) in the product solution, and it is likely that HNO is instead reduced to N2. A mechanism is proposed in which reduction of Cbl(ii) by (H)NO results in formation of cob(i)alamin (Cbl(i)(-)) and ?NO. The Cbl(i)(-) intermediate is subsequently oxidized back to Cbl(ii) by a second (H)NO molecule, and Cbl(ii) reacts rapidly with ?NO to form nitroxylcobalamin (NOCbl). Separate studies on the reaction between Cbl(i)(-) and PA shows that this system involves an additional step in which Cbl(i)(-) is first oxidized by (H)NO to Cbl(ii), which reacts further with (H)NO to form NOCbl, with an overall stoichiometry of 1?:?3 Cbl(i)(-)?:?PA. Experiments in the presence of nitrite for both systems support the involvement of a Cbl(i)(-) intermediate in the Cbl(ii)/PA reaction. These systems provide the second example of oxidation of cob(i)alamin by (H)NO. PMID:26618754

  5. Uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate by fractured and osteoporotic bone after a pulse dose of Vitamin D/sub 3/. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, E.A. Jr.; Carroll, M.; Montes, M.; Zielezny, M.

    1985-04-01

    The effect of a pulse dose of Vitamin D/sub 3/ on uptake of (/sup 99m/Tc)MDP by fractured and osteoporotic bone, respectively, was compared with D/sub 3/'s effect on uptake by normal bone in rats. At 4, 7, and 14 days, respectively, after femoral fracture, basal uptake was significantly increased at the fracture site by 336.8, 276.1, and 183.5%, respectively, over the contralateral control site. D/sub 3/-treated rats had lower uptakes than untreated controls at all three fracture sites and at 12 of 15 normal bone sites but analysis of variance showed the uptake differences were not significant. Cortisone-induced osteoporosis caused a significant decrease in basal uptake. The decrease occurred in all nine bone areas studied. D/sub 3/ caused a significant increase in uptake by these osteoporotic bones, but a significant decrease in uptake by the same bones in normal controls. Thus, D/sub 3/ had an effect on uptake by the bone lesion, osteoporosis, that differed from D/sub 3/'s effect on uptake by fracture or normal bone.

  6. Alternatives to vitamin B1 uptake revealed with discovery of riboswitches in multiple marine eukaryotic lineages.

    PubMed

    McRose, Darcy; Guo, Jian; Monier, Adam; Sudek, Sebastian; Wilken, Susanne; Yan, Shuangchun; Mock, Thomas; Archibald, John M; Begley, Tadhg P; Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Worden, Alexandra Z

    2014-12-01

    Vitamin B1 (thiamine pyrophosphate, TPP) is essential to all life but scarce in ocean surface waters. In many bacteria and a few eukaryotic groups thiamine biosynthesis genes are controlled by metabolite-sensing mRNA-based gene regulators known as riboswitches. Using available genome sequences and transcriptomes generated from ecologically important marine phytoplankton, we identified 31 new eukaryotic riboswitches. These were found in alveolate, cryptophyte, haptophyte and rhizarian phytoplankton as well as taxa from two lineages previously known to have riboswitches (green algae and stramenopiles). The predicted secondary structures bear hallmarks of TPP-sensing riboswitches. Surprisingly, most of the identified riboswitches are affiliated with genes of unknown function, rather than characterized thiamine biosynthesis genes. Using qPCR and growth experiments involving two prasinophyte algae, we show that expression of these genes increases significantly under vitamin B1-deplete conditions relative to controls. Pathway analyses show that several algae harboring the uncharacterized genes lack one or more enzymes in the known TPP biosynthesis pathway. We demonstrate that one such alga, the major primary producer Emiliania huxleyi, grows on 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine (a thiamine precursor moiety) alone, although long thought dependent on exogenous sources of thiamine. Thus, overall, we have identified riboswitches in major eukaryotic lineages not known to undergo this form of gene regulation. In these phytoplankton groups, riboswitches are often affiliated with widespread thiamine-responsive genes with as yet uncertain roles in TPP pathways. Further, taxa with 'incomplete' TPP biosynthesis pathways do not necessarily require exogenous vitamin B1, making vitamin control of phytoplankton blooms more complex than the current paradigm suggests. PMID:25171333

  7. Alternatives to vitamin B1 uptake revealed with discovery of riboswitches in multiple marine eukaryotic lineages

    PubMed Central

    McRose, Darcy; Guo, Jian; Monier, Adam; Sudek, Sebastian; Wilken, Susanne; Yan, Shuangchun; Mock, Thomas; Archibald, John M; Begley, Tadhg P; Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Worden, Alexandra Z

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin B1 (thiamine pyrophosphate, TPP) is essential to all life but scarce in ocean surface waters. In many bacteria and a few eukaryotic groups thiamine biosynthesis genes are controlled by metabolite-sensing mRNA-based gene regulators known as riboswitches. Using available genome sequences and transcriptomes generated from ecologically important marine phytoplankton, we identified 31 new eukaryotic riboswitches. These were found in alveolate, cryptophyte, haptophyte and rhizarian phytoplankton as well as taxa from two lineages previously known to have riboswitches (green algae and stramenopiles). The predicted secondary structures bear hallmarks of TPP-sensing riboswitches. Surprisingly, most of the identified riboswitches are affiliated with genes of unknown function, rather than characterized thiamine biosynthesis genes. Using qPCR and growth experiments involving two prasinophyte algae, we show that expression of these genes increases significantly under vitamin B1-deplete conditions relative to controls. Pathway analyses show that several algae harboring the uncharacterized genes lack one or more enzymes in the known TPP biosynthesis pathway. We demonstrate that one such alga, the major primary producer Emiliania huxleyi, grows on 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine (a thiamine precursor moiety) alone, although long thought dependent on exogenous sources of thiamine. Thus, overall, we have identified riboswitches in major eukaryotic lineages not known to undergo this form of gene regulation. In these phytoplankton groups, riboswitches are often affiliated with widespread thiamine-responsive genes with as yet uncertain roles in TPP pathways. Further, taxa with ‘incomplete' TPP biosynthesis pathways do not necessarily require exogenous vitamin B1, making vitamin control of phytoplankton blooms more complex than the current paradigm suggests. PMID:25171333

  8. Deficiency or dementia? Exploring B12 deficiency after urostomy.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Michelle; Bryan, Sandra; Dukes, Suzie

    Vitamin B12 deficiency can be misdiagnosed as a variety of other illnesses, and if left untreated can lead to irreversible damage to the brain and nervous system. This article discusses the case of a 70-year-old female with a urostomy, well known to the stoma care department, who shortly after a routine parastomal hernia repair developed severe confusion, immobility and was unable to communicate. Subsequent investigations ruled out a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) and a diagnosis of rapidly progressing vascular dementia was made. An incidental finding of a low vitamin B12 level was identified and treatment commenced. She was transferred to a community hospital and her family were told to 'prepare for the worst'. It was, in fact, the vitamin B12 deficiency that was causing her symptoms of vascular dementia, and once treatment was established she underwent a 'miraculous' improvement, returning to normal life. This article discusses vitamin B12 deficiency and why patients with a urostomy are at risk of developing it; highlights the key role of the stoma care nurse and his or her knowledge of the patient; explores the importance of testing vitamin B12 levels in this group of patients; and discusses key learning and recommendations for practice. PMID:26067796

  9. [Uptake of retinol-C14 into different tissues of vitamin A deficient albino rats].

    PubMed

    Carbini, L; Dazzi, E; Lantini, T; Padalino, A; Scarpa, A L

    1978-01-01

    Groups of rats were fed a vitamin A free diet for 30, 60 and 90 days. They were then administered orally a single dose of 1,25 microC of retinol-C14. After 3 h, 3, 6 and 12 days from the administration, the incorporation into the different tissues was determined. The results show that the incorporation decreases, on the average, as the experimental period and the intervals after the administration of retinol-C14 grow longer. PMID:582872

  10. Nuclear lipid microdomains regulate nuclear vitamin D3 uptake and influence embryonic hippocampal cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Bartoccini, Elisa; Marini, Francesca; Damaskopoulou, Eleni; Lazzarini, Remo; Cataldi, Samuela; Cascianelli, Giacomo; Gil Garcia, Mercedes; Albi, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the understanding of the role of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) in the CNS, the mechanism of action remains obscure. We demonstrate that some 1,25-(OH)2D3 receptor (VDR) is localized in the cell nucleus in specialized microdomains enriched in sphingomyelin and cholesterol; the integrity of these microdomains is necessary for embryonic hippocampal cell differentiation. Sphingomyelinase (SMase) treatment reduces both VDR and labeled 1,25-(OH)2D3 content in nuclear microdomains. We have previously shown that HN9.10e embryonic hippocampal cells differentiate when incubated with 100 nM 1,25-(OH)2D3 in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum, while serum deprivation induces cell death. In this study, we have investigated whether conditions that alter lipid content of nuclear microdomains modify 1,25-(OH)2D3–induced differentiation. Serum deprivation activates SMase and modifies the composition of nuclear microdomains, which lose the 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D3 receptor. The incubation of serum-deprived cells with 100 nM 1,25-(OH)2D3 prevents differentiation. However, treatment with 400 nM 1,25-(OH)2D3 during serum withdrawal increases the lipid content of the nuclear microdomains, allows the interaction of 1,25-(OH)2D3 with its receptor, and results in differentiation. These results suggest the presence of VDR in nuclear microdomains is necessary for 1,25-(OH)2D3–induced differentiation in embryonic hippocampal cells. PMID:21737687

  11. Comparative application of microwave, ultrasonication, ultracentrifugation and conventional heating for preparation of sample as dinitrophenyl derivative for direct enantioseparation of certain amino alcohols and 1-amino-2-propanol from vitamin B12 hydrolysate on alpha1-acid glycoprotein and beta-cyclodextrin columns.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Ravi; Kumar, Rajender

    2009-11-01

    Taking into account the structural similarities of amino alcohols with amino acids and in order to reduce time for derivatization unconventional approaches viz. microwave irradiation, ultrasonication and ultra centrifugation were applied for synthesis of dinitrophenyl derivatives of nine amino alcohols and to work out a method of choice for sample preparation for direct enantioseparation. The enantiomeric dinitrophenyl derivatives so synthesized were separated on alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein and beta-cyclodextrin columns with detection at 230nm using photodiode array detection system. Derivatization methods and chromatographic parameters were optimized. beta-Cyclodextrin column was found better compared to AGP column for enantioseparation. Limit of detection, quantification, accuracy and precision were also determined. The developed method was successfully applied to determine enantiomeric purity of 1-amino-2-propanol obtained from vitamin B(12) hydrolysate. PMID:19800629

  12. Folate, vitamin B??, and S-adenosylmethionine.

    PubMed

    Bottiglieri, Teodoro

    2013-03-01

    Folate (vitamin B9) and cobalamin (vitamin B12) are essential for the normal development and function of the central nervous system. The metabolism of these vitamins is intimately linked and supports the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the major methyl group donor in methylation reactions. This article reviews the metabolic and clinical importance of folate, vitamin B12, and SAMe, as well as clinical trials in relation to depression and dementia. PMID:23538072

  13. The Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) Is Expressed in Skeletal Muscle of Male Mice and Modulates 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) Uptake in Myofibers

    PubMed Central

    Mokbel, Nancy; Cha, Kuan Minn; Houweling, Peter J.; Abboud, Myriam; Fraser, David R.; Mason, Rebecca S.; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick J.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a range of muscle disorders, including myalgia, muscle weakness, and falls. In humans, polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene are associated with variations in muscle strength, and in mice, genetic ablation of VDR results in muscle fiber atrophy and motor deficits. However, mechanisms by which VDR regulates muscle function and morphology remain unclear. A crucial question is whether VDR is expressed in skeletal muscle and directly alters muscle physiology. Using PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry (VDR-D6 antibody), we detected VDR in murine quadriceps muscle. Detection by Western blotting was dependent on the use of hyperosmolar lysis buffer. Levels of VDR in muscle were low compared with duodenum and dropped progressively with age. Two in vitro models, C2C12 and primary myotubes, displayed dose- and time-dependent increases in expression of both VDR and its target gene CYP24A1 after 1,25(OH)2D (1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D) treatment. Primary myotubes also expressed functional CYP27B1 as demonstrated by luciferase reporter studies, supporting an autoregulatory vitamin D-endocrine system in muscle. Myofibers isolated from mice retained tritiated 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, and this increased after 3 hours of pretreatment with 1,25(OH)2D (0.1nM). No such response was seen in myofibers from VDR knockout mice. In summary, VDR is expressed in skeletal muscle, and vitamin D regulates gene expression and modulates ligand-dependent uptake of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in primary myofibers. PMID:24949660

  14. Vitamins? The magic bullet against hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Tillmann, Hans L

    2012-11-01

    Evaluation of: Rocco A, Compare D, Coccoli P et al. Vitamin B12 supplementation improves rates of sustained viral response in patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus. Gut doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2012-302344 (Epub ahead of print) (2012). Vitamin B12 was first mentioned to have a role in HCV treatment approximately a decade ago, but it has not been well translated into clinical medicine. Recently, however, a randomized trial has reported significantly better response at all time-points during therapy with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin, if such therapy was combined with vitamin B12. This correlates with reports on vitamin B12 being able to inhibit HCV in vitro and a report that vitamin B12 levels were related to treatment response. If further validated, vitamin B12 is another vitamin reported to be beneficial for HCV therapy. Vitamin D had repeatedly been reported to be associated with response to HCV therapy. It will be interesting to see whether vitamins such as B12 and D will remain relevant in the light of direct antivirals. PMID:23241183

  15. The EGG 57-CO B-12 absorption test, in the evaluation of patients with low serum B-12

    SciTech Connect

    Sinow, R.M.; Carmel, R.; Siegel, M.E.

    1985-05-01

    The Schilling Test (ST) is the standard test for diagnosing vitamin B-12 malabsorption (MA). However, patients with subtle gastric dysfunction may have normal ST, but impaired absorption of B-12 given with food. The authors have adapted an Egg B-12 Absorption Test (EBAT) in which 57-Co cyanocobalamin (57-Co B-12) is mixed with scrambled egg to evaluate this phenomenon in patients with low serum B-12, normal ST and possible subtle MA. Lyophilized egg yolk is reconstituted and mixed with 57-Co- B-12 of equal dose to that of ST. The authors studied 46 individuals: 13 controls, 5 patients with known pernicious anemia (PA), in addition to 28 patients with low serum B-12 levels and normal ST. ST/EBAT ratios were calculated. Twenty-eight test patients excreted 13.3% on ST and 3.5% on EBAT. Mean ST/EBAT ratio was 8.2 (1.4-35.9). Five had EBAT results in the PA range (<1%) and ST/EBAT ratios (14.4-35.9) that were significantly elevated. This group is also evaluated with pepsinogen I/II ratios, gastric analysis, deoxyuridine suppression tests, anti intrinsic factor, and antiparietal cell antibodies. The authors' results indicate that the EBAT can differentiate between PA and non PA patients, and that some patients with low serum B-12 levels and normal ST may, in fact, have subtle MA. The EBAT, combined with ST/EBAT ratio, may provide a means for identifying this group of patients.

  16. Vitamin B??-containing plant food sources for vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Bito, Tomohiro; Teng, Fei

    2014-05-01

    The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori) is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups. PMID:24803097

  17. Mammalian colonocytes possess a carrier-mediated mechanism for uptake of vitamin B3 (niacin): studies utilizing human and mouse colonic preparations

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Jeyan S.; Subramanian, Veedamali S.; Kapadia, Rubina; Kashyap, Moti L.

    2013-01-01

    Niacin (vitamin B3; nicotinic acid) plays an important role in maintaining redox state of cells and is obtained from endogenous and exogenous sources. The latter source has generally been assumed to be the dietary niacin, but another exogenous source that has been ignored is the niacin that is produced by the normal microflora of the large intestine. For this source of niacin to be bioavailable, it needs to be absorbed, but little is known about the ability of the large intestine to absorb niacin and the mechanism involved. Here we addressed these issues using the nontransformed human colonic epithelial NCM460 cells, native human colonic apical membrane vesicles (AMV) isolated from organ donors, and mouse colonic loops in vivo as models. Uptake of 3H-nicotinic acid by NCM460 cells was: 1) acidic pH (but not Na+) dependent; 2) saturable (apparent Km = 2.5 ± 0.8 ?M); 3) inhibited by unlabeled nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, and probenecid; 4) neither affected by other bacterially produced monocarboxylates, monocarboxylate transport inhibitor, or by substrates of the human organic anion transporter-10; 5) affected by modulators of the intracellular protein tyrosine kinase- and Ca2+-calmodulin-regulatory pathways; and 6) adaptively regulated by extracellular nicotinate level. Uptake of nicotinic acid by human colonic AMV in vitro and by mouse colonic loops in vivo was also carrier mediated. These findings report, for the first time, that mammalian colonocytes possess a high-affinity carrier-mediated mechanism for nicotinate uptake and show that the process is affected by intracellular and extracellular factors. PMID:23744738

  18. One Pathway Can Incorporate either Adenine or Dimethylbenzimidazole as an ?-Axial Ligand of B12 Cofactors in Salmonella enterica?

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Peter J.; Lango, Jozsef; Carkeet, Colleen; Britten, Audrey; Kräutler, Bernhard; Hammock, Bruce D.; Roth, John R.

    2008-01-01

    Corrinoid (vitamin B12-like) cofactors contain various ?-axial ligands, including 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB) or adenine. The bacterium Salmonella enterica produces the corrin ring only under anaerobic conditions, but it can form “complete” corrinoids aerobically by importing an “incomplete” corrinoid, such as cobinamide (Cbi), and adding appropriate ?- and ?-axial ligands. Under aerobic conditions, S. enterica performs the corrinoid-dependent degradation of ethanolamine if given vitamin B12, but it can make B12 from exogenous Cbi only if DMB is also provided. Mutants isolated for their ability to degrade ethanolamine without added DMB converted Cbi to pseudo-B12 cofactors (having adenine as an ?-axial ligand). The mutations cause an increase in the level of free adenine and install adenine (instead of DMB) as an ?-ligand. When DMB is provided to these mutants, synthesis of pseudo-B12 cofactors ceases and B12 cofactors are produced, suggesting that DMB regulates production or incorporation of free adenine as an ?-ligand. Wild-type cells make pseudo-B12 cofactors during aerobic growth on propanediol plus Cbi and can use pseudo-vitamin B12 for all of their corrinoid-dependent enzymes. Synthesis of coenzyme pseudo-B12 cofactors requires the same enzymes (CobT, CobU, CobS, and CobC) that install DMB in the formation of coenzyme B12. Models are described for the mechanism and control of ?-axial ligand installation. PMID:17981976

  19. Visualising molecular juggling within a B12-dependent methyltransferase complex

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Yan; Ando, Nozomi; Doukov, Tzanko I.; Blasiak, Leah C.; Bender, Güne?; Seravalli, Javier; Ragsdale, Stephen W.; Drennan, Catherine L.

    2012-01-01

    Derivatives of vitamin B12 are used in methyl group transfer in biological processes as diverse as methionine synthesis in humans and CO2 fixation in acetogenic bacteria1–3. This seemingly straightforward reaction requires large, multimodular enzyme complexes that adopt multiple conformations to alternately activate, protect, and perform catalysis on the reactive B12 cofactor. Crystal structures determined thus far have provided structural information for only fragments of these complexes4–12, inspiring speculation regarding the overall protein assembly and conformational movements inherent to activity. Here we present X-ray crystal structures of a complete ~220 kDa complex that contains all enzymes responsible for B12-dependent methyltransfer, namely the corrinoid iron-sulfur protein (CFeSP) and its methyltransferase (MeTr) from the model acetogen Moorella thermoacetica. These structures provide the first three-dimensional depiction of all protein modules required for the activation, protection, and catalytic steps of B12-dependent methyltransfer. In addition, the structures capture B12 at multiple locations between its “resting” and catalytic positions, allowing visualisation of the dramatic protein rearrangements that enable methyltransfer and identification of the trajectory for B12 movement within the large enzyme scaffold. The structures are also presented alongside in crystallo UV-vis spectroscopic data, which confirm enzymatic activity within crystals and demonstrate the largest known conformational movements of proteins in a crystalline state. Taken together, this work provides a model for the molecular juggling that accompanies turnover and helps explain why such an elaborate protein framework is required for such a simple, yet biologically essential reaction. PMID:22419154

  20. How I treat cobalamin (vitamin B12) deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The challenges in medical management of cobalamin deficiency lie in attention to the unique pathophysiology that underlies cobalamin deficiency, more than in the mechanics of therapy. The central physiologic principles are that clinically important deficiency is more likely to occur (and progress) when intrinsic factor–driven absorption fails than when diet is poor and that most causes take years to produce clinically obvious deficiency. Transient defects have little clinical impact. The key management principle is the importance of follow-up, which also requires knowing how the deficiency arose. The virtues of these principles are not always fully appreciated. Recent developments have made diagnosis and management more difficult by diminishing the ability to determine cobalamin absorption status. Clinicians must also grapple with premature medicalization of isolated, mild biochemical changes that added many asymptomatic cases of still undetermined medical relevance to their caseload, often expanded by inflated cobalamin level criteria. The potential for misattribution of cobalamin-unrelated presentations to nongermane cobalamin and metabolite abnormalities has grown. Pathophysiologically based management requires systematic attention to each of its individual components: correctly diagnosing cobalamin deficiency, reversing it, defining its underlying cause, preventing relapse, managing the underlying disorder and its complications, and educating the patient. PMID:18606874

  1. Studies in the biosynthesis of vitamin B12 

    E-print Network

    Anousis, Nick

    1994-01-01

    catalyzing the C-2 and C-7 methylations of Uroporphyrinogen III to precorrin-2, without performing an extra methylation at C-12 of precorrin-2 to trimethylpyrrocorphin. The function of the S.typhimurium cbid gene product has not yet been identified. The C...

  2. 18 CFR 1b.12 - Transcripts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transcripts. 1b.12 Section 1b.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.12 Transcripts. Transcripts, if any,...

  3. 18 CFR 1b.12 - Transcripts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transcripts. 1b.12 Section 1b.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.12 Transcripts. Transcripts, if any,...

  4. 18 CFR 1b.12 - Transcripts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transcripts. 1b.12 Section 1b.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.12 Transcripts. Transcripts, if any,...

  5. Associations between B Vitamins and Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Shen, Liang

    2015-09-01

    B vitamins may correlate with Parkinson's disease (PD) through regulating homocysteine level. However, there is no comprehensive assessment on the associations between PD and B vitamins. The present study was designed to perform a meta-analytic assessment of the associations between folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 and PD, including the status of B vitamins in PD patients compared with controls, and associations of dietary intakes of B vitamins and risk of PD. A literature search using Medline database obtained 10 eligible studies included in the meta-analyses. Stata 12.0 statistical software was used to perform the meta-analysis. Pooled data revealed that there was no obvious difference in folate level between PD patients and healthy controls, and PD patients had lower level of vitamin B12 than controls. Available data suggested that higher dietary intake of vitamin B6 was associated with a decreased risk of PD (odds ratio (OR) = 0.65, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = (0.30, 1.01)), while no significant association was observed for dietary intake of folate and vitamin B12 and risk of PD. PD patients had lower level of vitamin B12 and similar level of folate compared with controls. Dietary intake of vitamin B6 exhibited preventive effect of developing PD based on the available data. As the number of included studies is limited, more studies are needed to confirm the findings and elucidate the underpinning underlying these associations. PMID:26343714

  6. [Vitamin B9].

    PubMed

    Guilland, Jean-Claude; Aimone-Gastin, Isabelle

    2013-10-01

    Vitamin B9 is represented by the group of folate, whose structure is derived from folic acid. The biologically active form is reduced tetrahydrofolates, serving as an essential cofactor in methylation reactions, including the vitamin B12-dependent formation of methionine from homocysteine, and as a carrier of one-carbon units involved in the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines. Folate deficiency is associated with hyperhomocysteinemia, megaloblastic anemia, leuco- and thrombocytopenia, cardiovascular disease, embryonic defects, in particular neural tube defects, and, possibly, malignancies, depression and cognitive impairment. PMID:24298825

  7. Efficacy of Supplementation with B Vitamins for Stroke Prevention: A Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hongli; Pi, Fuhua; Ding, Zan; Chen, Wei; Pang, Shaojie; Dong, Wenya; Zhang, Qingying

    2015-01-01

    Background Supplementation with B vitamins for stroke prevention has been evaluated over the years, but which combination of B vitamins is optimal for stroke prevention is unclear. We performed a network meta-analysis to assess the impact of different combinations of B vitamins on risk of stroke. Methods A total of 17 trials (86 393 patients) comparing 7 treatment strategies and placebo were included. A network meta-analysis combined all available direct and indirect treatment comparisons to evaluate the efficacy of B vitamin supplementation for all interventions. Results B vitamin supplementation was associated with reduced risk of stroke and cerebral hemorrhage. The risk of stroke was lower with folic acid plus vitamin B6 as compared with folic acid plus vitamin B12 and was lower with folic acid plus vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 as compared with placebo or folic acid plus vitamin B12. The treatments ranked in order of efficacy for stroke, from higher to lower, were folic acid plus vitamin B6 > folic acid > folic acid plus vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 > vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 > niacin > vitamin B6 > placebo > folic acid plus vitamin B12. Conclusions B vitamin supplementation was associated with reduced risk of stroke; different B vitamins and their combined treatments had different efficacy on stroke prevention. Folic acid plus vitamin B6 might be the optimal therapy for stroke prevention. Folic acid and vitamin B6 were both valuable for stroke prevention. The efficacy of vitamin B12 remains to be studied. PMID:26355679

  8. Vitamin K

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Public Health > The Nutrition Source > Vitamin K Vitamin K in Stumbleupon Vitamin K helps make four of the 13 proteins ... warfarin (Coumadin) must be careful to keep their vitamin K intake stable. Lately, researchers have demonstrated that ...

  9. Vitamin C

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Public Health > The Nutrition Source > Vitamin C Vitamin C in Stumbleupon Vitamin C has been in the public eye for a ... laureate Linus Pauling promoted daily megadoses of vitamin C (the amount in 12 to 24 oranges) as ...

  10. Vitamin C

    MedlinePLUS

    Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin. It is needed for normal growth and development. Water-soluble vitamins dissolve ... Vitamin C is needed for the growth and repair of tissues in all parts of your body. It is ...

  11. Dietary Supplements and Health Aids: A Critical Evaluation, Part 1- Vitamins and Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubick, Michael A.; Rucker, Robert B.

    1983-01-01

    Evaluates vitamins/minerals, distinguishing whether studies cited used animal or human subjects. Vitamins discussed include niacin and vitamins B-12, C, A, D, E, and megavitamin supplementation (intake of vitamins at levels 10 times the recommended daily allowance). Minerals considered include dolomite/bone meal, chromium (glucose tolerance…

  12. Vitamin supplementation and athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Williams, M H

    1989-01-01

    Vitamins serve primarily as regulators of metabolic functions, many of which are critical to exercise performance. Depending upon the nature of their sport, e.g., strength, speed, power, endurance, or fine motor control, athletes may use megadoses of various vitamins in attempts to increase specific metabolic processes important to improved performance. Surveys have indicated that most elite athletes do take vitamin supplements, often in dosages greater than 50-100 times the United States Recommended Dietary Allowances. The theoretical basis underlying the use of each vitamin depends upon its specific metabolic function in relation to sport. Vitamin A functions to maintain night vision; thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and pantothenic acid are all involved in muscle cell energy metabolism; niacin may also block free fatty acid release; pyridoxine is involved in the synthesis of hemoglobin and other oxygen transfer protein; folic acid and vitamin B12 are integrally involved in red blood cell (RBC) development; vitamins C and E are antioxidants, possibly preventing the destruction of the red blood cell membrane during exercise; vitamin D may be involved in muscle cell energetics through its influence on calcium. These are but a few of the possible metabolic functions of vitamins which have been suggested to have ergogenic applications to sport. Research has shown that a vitamin deficiency impairs physical performance. If this deficiency is corrected, performance usually improves. In general, vitamin supplementation to an athlete on a well-balanced diet has not been shown to improve performance. However, additional research with certain vitamins appears to be warranted, such as with the vitamin B complex and fine motor control, and with vitamin E and endurance at high altitudes. Moreover, research with megadose supplementation may also be necessary. PMID:2507696

  13. Vitamin A

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin A Fact Sheet for Consumers What is vitamin A and what does it do? Vitamin A ... and dietary supplements is beta-carotene . How much vitamin A do I need? The amount of vitamin ...

  14. Vitamin A

    MedlinePLUS

    ... used to reduce complications of diseases such as malaria, HIV, measles, and diarrhea in children with vitamin ... in HIV-positive children with vitamin A deficiency. Malaria. Taking vitamin A by mouth seems to decrease ...

  15. Vitamin D

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Dynamic Stretching A Guy's Guide to Body Image Vitamin D KidsHealth > Teens > Food & Fitness > Nutrition Basics > Vitamin ... get the recommended daily amount. Continue How Much Vitamin D Do I Need? The Institute of Medicine ( ...

  16. Vitamin E

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to foods like cereals. Most people get enough vitamin E from the foods they eat. People with certain disorders, such as liver diseases, cystic fibrosis, and Crohn's disease may need extra vitamin E. Vitamin E supplements may be harmful for ...

  17. Vitamin A

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the risk of infant death in areas where malnutrition or vitamin A deficiency is common. A type ... take vitamin A if you have liver disease. Malnutrition: In people with severe protein malnutrition, taking vitamin ...

  18. Vitamin C

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of vitamin C is better than the other forms. Am I getting enough vitamin C? Most people in the United States get enough vitamin C from foods and beverages. However, certain groups of people are more likely than others to ...

  19. Vitamin D

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin D Fact Sheet for Consumers Additional Resources Health ... español Other Resources See also: Calcium What is vitamin D and what does it do? Vitamin D ...

  20. [Uptake of retinol-C14 into liver mitochondrial membranes and erythrocyte stroma of albino rats on a vitamin A-free diet].

    PubMed

    Dazzi, E; Carbini, L; Padalino, A; Scarpa, A L; Lantini, T

    1978-01-01

    We have determined the incorporation of retinol-C14 into liver mitochondrial membranes and blood cell stroma in albino male Wistar strain rats, fed with a vitamin A deficient diet for 30, 60 and 90 days. At the end of the vitamin A deficient period, rats were kept fasting for 24 hours and then administered orally retinol-C14 (1,25 microC). They were divided into groups and killed after 3 hours, 3, 6, 12 days from the administration of retinol-C14. The incorporation is very high in one-month deficient rats, it decreases as the experimental period and the intervals after the administration of retinol-C14 grow longer. PMID:582873

  1. High frequency of low serum levels of vitamin 12 among patients attending Jordan University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Barghouti, F F; Younes, N A; Halaseh, L J; Said, T T; Ghraiz, S M

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the status of serum vitamin B12 level in patients attending Jordan University Hospital in Amman, and to examine the relationship with demographic data, chronic illness, dietary habits, haematological parameters and symptoms related to vitamin B12 levels. A total of 838 patients completed a questionnaire and gave blood samples; 44.6% were vitamin B12 deficient (< 180 pg/mL) and 34.2% had hypovitaminosis (180-300 pg/mL). Vitamin B12 deficiency was associated with memory impairment, low meat intake and strict vegetarian (vegan) diets. The high frequency of low vitamin B12 warrants the development of a strategy to correct this problem in Jordan. PMID:20187536

  2. Effect of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 and ionized Ca/sup 2 +/ on /sup 45/Ca uptake by primary cultures of aortic myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar Kyoto normotensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bukoski, R.D.; Xue, H.; McCarron, D.A.

    1987-08-14

    The effect of several regulators of whole animal Ca/sup 2 +/ homeostasis on /sup 45/Ca uptake by primary cultures of aortic myocytes isolated from spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats was examined. Exposure of confluent cells to 1.0, 1.25 or 1.50 mM ionized Ca/sup 2 +/ in serum-free medium for seven days resulted in increased /sup 45/Ca uptake at the higher concentrations of Ca/sup 2 +/ in cells of the SHR but not the WKY. 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3 (1 ng/ml) for 7 days caused enhanced influx in cells from both the SHR and WKY while parathyroid hormone (1-34) (1 ng/ml) was without effect. The data indicate that humoral factors that serve to regulate whole animal Ca/sup 2 +/ homeostasis may also play a role in the regulation of Ca/sup 2 +/ metabolism of the vascular smooth muscle cell.

  3. Role of vitamins in gastrointestinal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Masri, Omar A; Chalhoub, Jean M; Sharara, Ala I

    2015-01-01

    A tremendous amount of data from research was published over the past decades concerning the roles of different vitamins in various gastrointestinal diseases. For instance, most vitamins showed an inverse relationship with the risk of colorectal carcinoma as well as other malignancies like gastric and esophageal cancer in observational trials, however interventional trials failed to prove a clear beneficial preventive role. On the other hand, more solid evidence was obtained from high quality studies for a role of certain vitamins in specific entities. Examples for this include the therapeutic role of vitamin E in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, the additive role of vitamins B12 and D to the standard therapy of chronic hepatitis C virus, the role of vitamin C in reducing the risk of gallstones, the positive outcome with vitamin B12 in patients with aphthous stomatitis, and the beneficial effect of vitamin D and B1 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Other potential uses are yet to be elaborated, like those on celiac disease, pancreatic cancer, pancreatitis, cholestasis and other potential fields. Data from several ongoing interventional trials are expected to add to the current knowledge over the coming few years. Given that vitamin supplementation is psychologically accepted by patients as a natural compound with relative safety and low cost, their use should be encouraged in the fields where positive data are available. PMID:25954093

  4. Vitamin Chart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... skin problems. Oral acne medicines are vitamin A supplements, and a continued excess of vitamin A can build up in the body, causing headaches, skin changes, or even liver damage. Vitamin C (also called ascorbic acid) Vitamin C is needed to form collagen, a tissue that helps to hold cells together. ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is a condition caused by low levels of vitamin B12 (also known as cobalamin). The primary feature of ... proteins play a role in the uptake of vitamin B12 from food. Vitamin B12, which cannot be made ...

  6. Diet and Asthma: Vitamins and Methyl Donors

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Blatter, Josh; Brehm, John M.; Forno, Erick; Litonjua, Augusto A; Celedón, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Dietary changes may partly explain the high burden of asthma in industrialized nations. Experimental studies have motivated a significant number of observational studies of the relation between vitamins (A, C, D, and E) or nutrients acting as methyl donors (folate, vitamin B12, and choline) and asthma. Because observational studies are susceptible to several sources of bias, well-conducted randomized controlled trials (RCTs) remain the “gold standard” to determine whether a vitamin or nutrient has an effect on asthma. Evidence from observational studies and/or relatively few RCTs most strongly justify ongoing and future RCTs of: 1) vitamin D to prevent or treat asthma, 2) choline supplementation as adjuvant treatment for asthma, and 3) vitamin E to prevent the detrimental effects of air pollution in subjects with asthma. At this time, there is insufficient evidence to recommend supplementation with any vitamin or nutrient acting as a methyl donor to prevent or treat asthma. PMID:24461761

  7. Electronic Structure of B12 coenzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Lizhi; Ching, W. Y.; Randaccio, Lucio

    2001-06-01

    We have carried out an ab-initio local density functional calculations of the two most important B12 coenzymes, adoensyl-cobalamin (Ado-Cbl) and methyl-cobalamin (Me-Cbl). The crystal structures were determined by accurate X-ray synchrotron radiation measurements. Both crystals have space group P2121 with four molecules, or about 800 atoms, per unit cell. Our electronic structure calculation is based on one full molecule including the side chains. Results are analyzed in terms of atom and orbital resolved partial density of states (PDOS), Mulliken effective charges and bond orders. The PDOS analysis shows that the Co complexes of both B12 coenzymes had a HOMO/LUMO gap of about 1.5 eV. The Co-C bond order in Me-Cbl is smaller than that in Ado-Cbl. This appears to be in contradiction with the measured bond dissociated energies. However, this could also indicate the importance of the effects of solvents, which were not included in the calculation. We are investigating whether the effect of the solvents could dramatically modify the electronic structures of Ado-Cbl and Me-Cbl.

  8. Vitamins and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Valdés-Ramos, Roxana; Ana Laura, Guadarrama-López; Elina, Martínez-Carrillo Beatriz; Donají, Benítez-Arciniega Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    The present review evaluates the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus and individual or combined vitamins. Antioxidant vitamins A, C and E are found decreased in diabetic subjects, possibly due to an increased need to control the excessive oxidative stress produced by abnormalities in glucose metabolism. On the other hand, retinol binding protein exerts a modulating effect, as it has adipokine functions. With respect to the B group vitamins, thiamin, pyridoxine and biotin have been found decreased but the mechanisms are not clear, however supplementation has shown some improvement of the metabolic control in diabetic patients. The absorption of folic acid and vitamin B12 is importantly decreased by the prolongued use of metformin, which is the first choice drug in uncomplicated diabetes, thus these two nutrients have been found deficient in the disease and most probably need to be supplemented regularly. On the other hand, vitamin D is considered a risk factor for the development of diabetes as well as its complications, particularly cardiovascular ones. Although some studies have found an association of vitamin K intake with glucose metabolism further research is needed. Studies on the use of multivitamin supplements have shown unconclusive results. After reviewing the evidence, no real recommendation on the use of vitamin supplements in type 2 diabetes mellitus can be issued, however patients using metformin during prolongued periods may need folic acid and vitamin B12. PMID:25388747

  9. 32 CFR 806b.12 - Requesting the Social Security Number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Requesting the Social Security Number. 806b.12 Section...Information § 806b.12 Requesting the Social Security Number. When asking an individual for his or her Social Security Number, always give a...

  10. 32 CFR 806b.12 - Requesting the Social Security Number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Requesting the Social Security Number. 806b.12 Section...Information § 806b.12 Requesting the Social Security Number. When asking an individual for his or her Social Security Number, always give a...

  11. Effects of Oral Contraceptive Usage on B12 and Folate Levels

    PubMed Central

    Mountifield, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Evidence shows a fall in folate and vitamin B12 levels in women taking oral contraceptives. These levels do not return to normal until about three months after usage has stopped, but many women become pregnant during this time. This paper examines the evidence for an effect on such pregnancies of lowered folate and B12 levels, and concludes that nutritional counselling should begin in schools, should continue in the medical care of women in their childbearing years, and folic acid supplementation should begin as soon as pregnancy is confirmed. This supplementation should be periconceptional in women at higher risk of bearing a child with neural tube defects, and greater in multiple pregnancy, malabsorption, hemolytic anemia and concomitant use of drugs known to be folate antogonists. PMID:21274038

  12. Vitamin D

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hydroxyvitamin D. Blood levels are described either as nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) or nanomoles per liter ( ... Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for vitamins reflects how much of each vitamin most people should get on ...

  13. Vitamin E

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disorder called beta-thalessemia and vitamin E deficiency. Bladder cancer. Taking 200 IU of vitamin E by mouth ... 10 years seems to help prevent death from bladder cancer. Leakage of chemotherapy drug into surrounding tissue. Applying ...

  14. Vitamin K

    MedlinePLUS

    Vitamin K helps your body by making proteins for healthy bones and tissues. It also makes proteins for blood clotting. If you don't have enough vitamin K, you may bleed too much. Newborns have very ...

  15. Vitamin C

    MedlinePLUS

    Vitamin C is an antioxidant. It is important for your skin, bones, and connective tissue. It promotes healing and helps the body absorb iron. Vitamin C comes from fruits and vegetables. Good sources include ...

  16. Vitamin K

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and to treat bleeding caused by medications including salicylates, sulfonamides, quinine, quinidine, or antibiotics. Vitamin K is ... 4-Amino-2-Methyl-1-Naphthol, Fat-Soluble Vitamin, Menadiol Acetate, ... Sodium Bisulfite, Menaquinone, Ménaquinone, Menatetrenone, Menatétrenone, ...

  17. Vitamin Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegg, Ronald B.; Landen, W. O.; Eitenmiller, Ronald R.

    Vitamins are defined as relatively low-molecular-weight compounds which humans, and for that matter, any living organism that depends on organic matter as a source of nutrients, require small quantities for normal metabolism. With few exceptions, humans cannot synthesize most vitamins and therefore need to obtain them from food and supplements. Insufficient levels of vitamins result in deficiency diseases [e.g., scurvy and pellagra, which are due to the lack of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and niacin, respectively].

  18. Vitamin K

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin K, a fat-soluble vitamin, is an enzyme cofactor for post-translation modification of specific glutamate residues that are converted into '-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues by a vitamin K-dependent (VKD) carboxylase. Seven VKD coagulation proteins are synthesized in the liver. The extra-he...

  19. Vitamin A

    MedlinePLUS

    Vitamin A plays a role in your Vision Bone growth Reproduction Cell functions Immune system Vitamin A is an antioxidant. It can come from plant ... Animal sources include liver and whole milk. Vitamin A is also added to foods like cereals. Vegetarians, ...

  20. Vitamin D

    MedlinePLUS

    Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium. Calcium is one of the main building blocks of bone. A lack of vitamin D can lead to bone diseases such as osteoporosis or rickets. Vitamin D also has a role in your nerve, ...

  1. Vitamin E

    MedlinePLUS

    ... eating a variety of foods including the following: Vegetable oils like wheat germ, sunflower, and safflower oils are ... best sources of vitamin E. Corn and soybean oils also provide some vitamin E. Nuts ... vegetables, such as spinach and broccoli, provide some vitamin ...

  2. [Vitamins and nutritional supplements in older persons : How to diagnose and when to substitute?].

    PubMed

    Polivka, D; von Arnim, C A F

    2015-11-01

    Despite an excellent food supply in Germany, a large percentage of older persons living at home or institutionalized older persons suffer from or are at risk for malnutrition. The purpose of this article is to highlight the association between nutrient deficiencies and age-related diseases and give rational recommendations for substitution. Both malnutrition and low levels of specific nutrients are associated with cognitive and functional impairment, dementia, and depression in older persons. Most prevalent are deficiencies in vitamin B1, vitamin B12, and vitamin D. Serum levels are often misleading and show false negative results in vitamin B1 and B12 deficiencies; therefore, determination of erythrocyte transketolase activity (ETKA) and the thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) effect for vitamin B1 and of methylmalonic acid and holotranscobalamine for vitamin B12 is recommended. Prophylactic supplementation with vitamins is not supported by prospective trials; however, positive data from observational studies support a Mediterranean diet combined with intake of vitamins, antioxidants, and unsaturated fatty acids. Older persons should be regularly screened for malnutrition and the threshold for determination of vitamin B1, B12, and vitamin D should be low. Vitamin substitution should be reserved for proven deficits. There is now data regarding cognition from prospective trials on effects of a healthy diet combined with other life-style factors like physical and cognitive activity. PMID:26349908

  3. Lower Circulating B12 Is Associated with Higher Obesity and Insulin Resistance during Pregnancy in a Non-Diabetic White British Population

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Anita; Bhat, Dattatray S.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Vitamin B12 and folate are critical micronutrients needed to support the increased metabolic demands of pregnancy. Recent studies from India have suggested that low vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in pregnancy are associated with increased obesity; however differences in diet, antenatal vitamin supplementation, and socioeconomic status may limit the generalisability of these findings. We aimed to explore the cross-sectional relationship of circulating serum vitamin B12 and folate at 28 weeks’ gestation with maternal adiposity and related biochemical markers in a white non diabetic UK obstetric cohort. Methods Anthropometry and biochemistry data was available on 995 women recruited at 28 weeks gestation to the Exeter Family Study of Childhood Health. Associations between B12 and folate with maternal BMI and other obesity-related biochemical factors (HOMA-R, fasting glucose, triglycerides, HDL and AST) were explored using regression analysis, adjusting for potential confounders (socioeconomic status, vegetarian diet, vitamin supplementation, parity, haemodilution (haematocrit)). Results Higher 28 week BMI was associated with lower circulating vitamin B12 (r = -0.25; P<0.001) and folate (r = -0.15; P<0.001). In multiple regression analysis higher 28 week BMI remained an independent predictor of lower circulating B12 (? (95% CI) = -0.59 (-0.74, -0.44) i.e. for every 1% increase in BMI there was a 0.6% decrease in circulating B12). Other markers of adiposity/body fat metabolism (HOMA-R, triglycerides and AST) were also independently associated with circulating B12. In a similar multiple regression AST was the only independent obesity-related marker associated with serum folate (? (95% CI) = 0.16 (0.21, 0.51)) Conclusion In conclusion, our study has replicated the previous Indian findings of associations between lower serum B12 and higher obesity and insulin resistance during pregnancy in a non-diabetic White British population. These findings may have important implications for fetal and maternal health in obese pregnancies. PMID:26288227

  4. Vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Gröber, Uwe; Spitz, Jörg; Reichrath, Jörg; Kisters, Klaus; Holick, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D has received a lot of attention recently as a result of a meteoric rise in the number of publications showing that vitamin D plays a crucial role in a plethora of physiological functions and associating vitamin D deficiency with many acute and chronic illnesses including disorders of calcium metabolism, autoimmune diseases, some cancers, type 2 diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases and cardiovascular disease. The recent data on vitamin D from experimental, ecological, case-control, retrospective and prospective observational studies, as well as smaller intervention studies, are significant and confirm the sunshine vitamin’s essential role in a variety of physiological and preventative functions. The results of these studies justify the recommendation to improve the general vitamin D status in children and adults by means of a healthy approach to sunlight exposure, consumption of foods containing vitamin D and supplementation with vitamin D preparations. In general, closer attention should therefore be paid to vitamin D deficiency in medical and pharmaceutical practice than has been the case hitherto. PMID:24516687

  5. Structural basis for gene regulation by a B12-dependent photoreceptor.

    PubMed

    Jost, Marco; Fernández-Zapata, Jésus; Polanco, María Carmen; Ortiz-Guerrero, Juan Manuel; Chen, Percival Yang-Ting; Kang, Gyunghoon; Padmanabhan, S; Elías-Arnanz, Montserrat; Drennan, Catherine L

    2015-10-22

    Photoreceptor proteins enable organisms to sense and respond to light. The newly discovered CarH-type photoreceptors use a vitamin B12 derivative, adenosylcobalamin, as the light-sensing chromophore to mediate light-dependent gene regulation. Here we present crystal structures of Thermus thermophilus CarH in all three relevant states: in the dark, both free and bound to operator DNA, and after light exposure. These structures provide visualizations of how adenosylcobalamin mediates CarH tetramer formation in the dark, how this tetramer binds to the promoter -35 element to repress transcription, and how light exposure leads to a large-scale conformational change that activates transcription. In addition to the remarkable functional repurposing of adenosylcobalamin from an enzyme cofactor to a light sensor, we find that nature also repurposed two independent protein modules in assembling CarH. These results expand the biological role of vitamin B12 and provide fundamental insight into a new mode of light-dependent gene regulation. PMID:26416754

  6. [Vitamin C].

    PubMed

    Fain, Olivier

    2013-10-01

    Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin which is mainly fresh fruits and vegetables foodborne. Vitamin C deficiency is most often due to a lack of daily amount. Scurvy is characterized by the occurrence of fatigue, myalgia, arthralgia, purpura, bleeding disorders, and later by dental manifestations. Biological signs are nonspecific: anemia, hypocholesterolemia, hypoalbuminemia. Clinical suspicion is confirmed by the decrease in ascorbic acid level (< 2 mg/L). It must be interpreted in light of the acute phase reactants. The treatment is the administration of 1 g of vitamin C per day for 15 days. Vitamin C depletion (ascorbic acid: 2 to 5 mg/L) could induce long-term complications. The recommended dietary allowance of vitamin C protect from these risks. PMID:24298827

  7. Vitamin and multiple-vitamin supplement intake and incidence of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Yu, Qiuyan; Zhu, Zhenli; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Meilan; Tang, Pingyi; Li, Ke

    2015-01-01

    This paper systematically evaluated the association of intake of different vitamins and multiple-vitamin supplements and the incidence of colorectal cancer. Relevant studies were identified in MEDLINE via PubMed (published up to April 2014). We extracted data from articles on vitamins A, C, D, E, B9 (folate), B2, B3, B6, and B12 and multiple-vitamin supplements. We used multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RRs) and a random-effects model for analysis and random effects. With heterogeneity, we looked for the source of heterogeneity or performed sensitivity and stratified analyses. We found 47 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. The multivariable-adjusted RR for pooled studies for the association between the highest versus lowest vitamin B9 (folate) intake and colorectal cancer was 0.88 [95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 0.81-0.95]. Vitamin D was 0.87 (95 % CI 0.77-0.99); vitamin B6, 0.88 (95 % CI 0.79-0.99); vitamin B2, 0.86 (95 % CI, 0.76-0.97); vitamin A, 0.87 (95 % CI, 0.75-1.03); vitamin C, 0.92 (95 % CI, 0.80-1.06); vitamin E, 0.94 (95 % CI, 0.82-1.07); vitamin B12, 1.10 (95 % CI, 0.92-1.32); vitamin B3, 1.18 (95 % CI, 0.76-1.84). Vitamin B9 (folate), D, B6, and B2 intake was inversely associated with risk of colorectal cancer, but further study is needed. Our study featured unacceptable heterogeneity for studies of multiple-vitamin supplements, so findings were inconclusive. PMID:25491145

  8. Plasma B vitamins, homocysteine and their relation with bone loss and hip fracture in elderly men and women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated homocysteine is a strong risk factor for osteoporotic fractures among elders, yet it may be a marker for low B vitamin status. Objective: To examine the associations of plasma concentrations of folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and homocysteine with bone loss and hip fracture risk in elderly...

  9. Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)

    MedlinePLUS

    Vitamin C is a vitamin. Some animals can make their own vitamin C, but people must get this vitamin from food and other sources. Good sources of vitamin C are fresh fruits and vegetables, especially citrus fruits. ...

  10. Vitamin K

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin K was identified in the early 1930’s when it was shown to be essential for normal blood coagulation. Phylloquinone (2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) found in green plants is the major source of the vitamin. Large amounts of menaquinones with lengthy side chains are also synthesized in...

  11. Vitamin C

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's food guidance system, ChooseMyPlate . Where can I find ... food sources of vitamin C: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for vitamin ...

  12. Vitamin E

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's food guidance system, ChooseMyPlate . Where can I find ... food sources of vitamin E: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for vitamin ...

  13. Vitamin A

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's food guidance system, ChooseMyPlate . Where can I find ... food sources of vitamin A: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for vitamin ...

  14. Vitamin D

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's food guidance system, ChooseMyPlate . Where can I find ... food sources of vitamin D: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for vitamin ...

  15. 32 CFR 806b.12 - Requesting the Social Security Number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requesting the Social Security Number. 806b.12... ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Collecting Personal Information § 806b.12 Requesting the Social Security Number. When asking an individual for his or her Social Security Number, always give a Privacy...

  16. 32 CFR 806b.12 - Requesting the Social Security Number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requesting the Social Security Number. 806b.12... ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Collecting Personal Information § 806b.12 Requesting the Social Security Number. When asking an individual for his or her Social Security Number, always give a Privacy...

  17. 32 CFR 806b.12 - Requesting the Social Security Number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requesting the Social Security Number. 806b.12... ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Collecting Personal Information § 806b.12 Requesting the Social Security Number. When asking an individual for his or her Social Security Number, always give a Privacy...

  18. 32 CFR 806b.12 - Requesting the Social Security Number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requesting the Social Security Number. 806b.12... ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Collecting Personal Information § 806b.12 Requesting the Social Security Number. When asking an individual for his or her Social Security Number, always give a Privacy...

  19. 32 CFR 806b.12 - Requesting the Social Security Number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requesting the Social Security Number. 806b.12... ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Collecting Personal Information § 806b.12 Requesting the Social Security Number. When asking an individual for his or her Social Security Number, always give a Privacy...

  20. B Vitamins as Regulators of Phytoplankton Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzeca, Caterina; Tovar-Sanchez, Antonio; Agustí, Susana; Reche, Isabel; Duarte, Carlos M.; Taylor, Gordon T.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.

    2006-12-01

    Without an adequate supply of dissolved vitamins, many species of phytoplankton do not grow. Additions of inorganic nutrients like phosphorus and nitrogen, and trace metals like iron, are not alone adequate to sustain life-a practical lesson learned quickly by experimental biologists when they try to keep eukaryotic phytoplankton cultures alive in their labs. The reason is that coenzymes such as B vitamins are also required for many metabolic pathways. For example, vitamin B1 serves as a cofactor for a large number of enzymatic systems, including the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex required for the metabolism of carbohydrates (glycolysis) and amino acid synthesis [Vandamme, 1989]. Vitamin B12 is used primarily to assist two enzymes: methionine synthase, which is involved in DNA synthesis, and methylmalonyl CoA mutase, which is required for inorganic carbon assimilation [Lindemans and Abels, 1985].

  1. Vitamin K metabolism in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, H.S.

    1986-01-01

    Recent investigations suggest that vitamin K may have functions other than in blood coagulation and calcification. The present study was undertaken to investigate this hypothesis using cells in culture. Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were chosen due to their active metabolism and growth and lack of similarity to liver and bone cells, in which vitamin K metabolism is well known. Cells were adapted to serum-free media, incubated in media containing the appropriate concentrations of vitamin K for specified times, scraped from plates, pelleted, extensively washed to remove adhering vitamin K, extracted with chloroform:methanol (2:1, v/v) and analyzed on C18 HPLC columns. Uptake of vitamin K by CHO cells follows saturation kinetics at vitamin K concentrations up to 25 ..mu.. M and is transported into cells at the rate of 10 pmol/min. 10/sup 6/ cells. After 24 hours, /sup 3/H vitamin K is metabolized by CHO cells to several compounds, the major of which was isolated and identified as vitamin K epoxide. In 3 experiments, after 24 hours, the average cellular uptake of vitamin K was 8% with approximately half being metabolized to vitamin K epoxide. These results demonstrate that vitamin K is metabolized in cells with widely different functions and suggest a generalized function for vitamin K which has yet to be elucidated.

  2. A P U B L I C A T I O N O F T H E S C H O O L O F E D U C A T I O N | S Y R A C U S E U N I V E R S I T Y EDUCATIONS P R I N G 2 0 0 8

    E-print Network

    McConnell, Terry

    DESIGN Amy McVey PHOTOGRAPHER Steve Sartori ON THE COVER: An orally active, glucose-lowering, vitamin B12-insulin conjugate bound to B12 uptake protein. (Insulin is in red; vitamin B12 is in bright yellow

  3. Vitamin A

    MedlinePLUS

    ... also known as retinol because it produces the pigments in the retina of the eye. Vitamin A ... some fortified foods. Carotenoids are dark-colored dyes (pigments) found in plant foods that can turn into ...

  4. Vitamin D

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is also used for diabetes, obesity, muscle weakness, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, ... loss in women with a condition called hyperparathyroidism. Multiple sclerosis (MS). Research shows that taking vitamin D can ...

  5. Vitamin E

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vitamin E is found in the following foods: Vegetable oils (such as wheat germ, sunflower, safflower, corn, and soybean oils) Nuts (such as almonds, peanuts, and hazelnuts/filberts) ... (such as spinach and broccoli) Fortified breakfast cereals, ...

  6. Vitamin E

    MedlinePLUS

    ... death in people with liver disease. An inherited muscle disorder called myotonic dystrophy. Taking vitamin E and selenium ... does not slow the progression of an inherited muscle disorder called myotonic dystrophy. Mouth sores (oral musosal lesions). ...

  7. Vitamin K

    MedlinePLUS

    ... amount each day. Special precautions & warnings: Pregnancy and breast-feeding: When taken in the recommended amount each day, vitamin K is considered safe for pregnant and breast-feeding women. Don't use higher amounts without the ...

  8. Vitamin K

    MedlinePLUS

    ... leaf lettuce Vegetables such as Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower, and cabbage Fish, liver, meat, eggs, and cereals ( ... the same from day to day. Ask your health care provider how much vitamin K-containing foods ...

  9. Vitamin A

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Eating Pyramid Healthy Eating Plate Translations Whole Grains Protein Vegetables and Fruits Fats and Cholesterol Types of ... Braesco V, Pascal G. Vitamin A in pregnancy: requirements and safety limits. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000; ...

  10. Influence of vitamin B auxotrophy on nitrogen metabolism in eukaryotic phytoplankton

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Erin M.; Allen, Andrew E.

    2012-01-01

    While nitrogen availability is known to limit primary production in large parts of the ocean, vitamin starvation amongst eukaryotic phytoplankton is becoming increasingly recognized as an oceanographically relevant phenomenon. Cobalamin (B12) and thiamine (B1) auxotrophy are widespread throughout eukaryotic phytoplankton, with over 50% of cultured isolates requiring B12 and 20% requiring B1. The frequency of vitamin auxotrophy in harmful algal bloom species is even higher. Instances of colimitation between nitrogen and B vitamins have been observed in marine environments, and interactions between these nutrients have been shown to impact phytoplankton species composition. This review surveys available data, including relevant gene expression patterns, to evaluate the potential for interactive effects of nitrogen and vitamin B12 and B1 starvation in eukaryotic phytoplankton. B12 plays essential roles in amino acid and one-carbon metabolism, while B1 is important for primary carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and likely useful as an anti-oxidant. Here we will focus on three potential metabolic interconnections between vitamin, nitrogen, and sulfur metabolism that may have ramifications for the role of vitamin and nitrogen scarcities in driving ocean productivity and species composition. These include: (1) B12, B1, and N starvation impacts on osmolyte and antioxidant production, (2) B12 and B1 starvation impacts on polyamine biosynthesis, and (3) influence of B12 and B1 starvation on the diatom urea cycle and amino acid recycling through impacts on the citric acid cycle. We evaluate evidence for these interconnections and identify oceanographic contexts in which each may impact rates of primary production and phytoplankton community composition. Major implications include that B12 and B1 deprivation may impair the ability of phytoplankton to recover from nitrogen starvation and that changes in vitamin and nitrogen availability may synergistically impact harmful algal bloom formation. PMID:23091473

  11. Biochemical and Hematologic Manifestations of Gastric Intrinsic Factor (GIF) Deficiency: A Treatable Cause of B12 Deficiency in the Old Order Mennonite Population of Southwestern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Ferrand, A; Siu, V M; Rupar, C A; Napier, M P; Al-Dirbashi, O Y; Chakraborty, P; Prasad, C

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic factor deficiency (OMIM #261000, IFD) is a rare inherited disorder of vitamin B12 metabolism due to mutations in the gastric intrinsic factor (GIF) gene.We report three individuals from an Old Order Mennonite community who presented with B12 deficiency. Two cases are siblings born to consanguineous parents and the third case is not known to be closely related. The older male sib presented at 4 years with gastrointestinal symptoms, listlessness, and pallor. He had pancytopenia with megaloblastic anemia. Serum B12 was 61 (198-615 pmol/L). Methylmalonic aciduria was present. C3 was elevated on acylcarnitine profile. Homocysteine was high at 16.7 (5.0-12.0 umol/L). His asymptomatic female sibling was also found to have B12 deficiency. Genetic testing for methylmalonic aciduria (MMAA), transcobalamin deficiency (TCN2), and Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (AMN) showed no mutation in both siblings. The third patient, a 34-year-old woman, had presented in infancy with a diagnosis of pernicious anemia. Mutation analysis of GIF revealed compound heterozygosity for a c.79+1G>A substitution and a c.973delG deletion in all three individuals. Oral or parenteral vitamin B12 has led to complete recovery of clinical parameters and vitamin B12 levels. Newborn screening samples on the siblings revealed normal methylcitrate, C3, and C3/C2 ratios thus indicating no disruption of propionic or methylmalonic acid metabolism.A high index of suspicion should be maintained if children present with megaloblastic anemia since GIF deficiency is a treatable disorder and newborn screening may not be able to detect this condition. PMID:25308559

  12. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 801 Vitamins and Minerals WHY ARE VITAMINS AND MINERALS IMPORTANT? WHAT ARE ... selenium, Vitamin E (Tocopherol), and Vitamin C Magnesium , Selenium, Calcium and Zinc WHAT ABOUT OTHER SUPPLEMENTS? In ...

  13. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Self Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely Vitamins and Minerals KidsHealth > Teens > Food & Fitness > Nutrition Basics > Vitamins and ... of a good thing? What Are Vitamins and Minerals? Vitamins and minerals make people's bodies work properly. ...

  14. The photochemical mechanism of a B12-dependent photoreceptor protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutta, Roger J.; Hardman, Samantha J. O.; Johannissen, Linus O.; Bellina, Bruno; Messiha, Hanan L.; Ortiz-Guerrero, Juan Manuel; Elías-Arnanz, Montserrat; Padmanabhan, S.; Barran, Perdita; Scrutton, Nigel S.; Jones, Alex R.

    2015-08-01

    The coenzyme B12-dependent photoreceptor protein, CarH, is a bacterial transcriptional regulator that controls the biosynthesis of carotenoids in response to light. On binding of coenzyme B12 the monomeric apoprotein forms tetramers in the dark, which bind operator DNA thus blocking transcription. Under illumination the CarH tetramer dissociates, weakening its affinity for DNA and allowing transcription. The mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Here we describe the photochemistry in CarH that ultimately triggers tetramer dissociation; it proceeds via a cob(III)alamin intermediate, which then forms a stable adduct with the protein. This pathway is without precedent and our data suggest it is independent of the radical chemistry common to both coenzyme B12 enzymology and its known photochemistry. It provides a mechanistic foundation for the emerging field of B12 photobiology and will serve to inform the development of a new class of optogenetic tool for the control of gene expression.

  15. Vitamin B6

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin B6 Fact Sheet for Consumers What is vitamin B6 and what does it do? Vitamin B6 ... out more about vitamin B6? Disclaimer How much vitamin B6 do I need? The amount of vitamin ...

  16. Cobalamin (Vitamin B_(12)) Deficiency in the Chinese Shar Pei – Evaluation of a Potential Hereditary Etiology 

    E-print Network

    Grü tzner, Niels

    2013-12-11

    Comparison of serum HA concentrations ……………..…………. 54 5 Comparison of serum albumin and creatinine concentrations …… 57 6 Comparison of serum zinc concentrations ………………………. 58 7 Comparison of serum IgA and IgM concentrations ……………… 59... performed in this study ….. 49 7 Results of tests that were performed for Shar Peis ……………….. 52 8 Breed, age and sex distribution of all dogs ……………………….. 72 9 HCY, MMA, and creatinine concentration of all dogs …………… 77 10 HCY...

  17. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Ligand Binding to Vitamin B-12a: A Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweigart, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an open-ended experiment involving a bioinorganic system that provides the student a direct link between thermodynamics and kinetics. It utilizes a rapid reaction technique and requires one to clearly understand the relationship of experimental observable (absorbance) to a mechanism. (GS)

  18. Pros and cons of increasing folic acid and vitamin B12 intake by fortification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is no doubt that folic acid fortification can be effective for reducing the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs). The degree of efficacy depends on both the level of folate depletion and other, yet to be fully characterized, genetic and/or environmental factors. This article summarizes brie...

  19. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION BY VITAMIN B12S: THERMODYNAMICS AND REGIOSPECIFICITY. (R825689C017)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  20. MECHANISTIC STUDIES ON THE VITAMIN B12-CATALYZED DECHLORINATION OF CHLORINATED ALKENES. (U915562)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  1. The importance of vitamin B12 and unidentified factors in the nutrition of the domestic fowl 

    E-print Network

    Olcese, Orlando

    1950-01-01

    Extension Service ? Zerle L. Carpenter, Director ? The Texas A&M University System ? College Station, Texas LEVEL 3 4-H LEADER GUIDE NUTRITION FOR THE HEALTH OF IT Dear Leader: Nutrition for the Health of It is designed for Level 3 4-H members (ages 15... to 19). Information in this guide is based upon previous learning experiences in Levels 1 and 2 of the food and nutrition pro- jects. This guide focuses on current concerns in food and nutrition subject matter. It explores the nutri- ents needed...

  2. Metabolic interrelationships between folic acid, vitamin B12 and the citrovorum factor 

    E-print Network

    Doctor, Vasant Manilal

    1953-01-01

    Thirty 10-wk-old, Rambouillet wethers were used to evaluate the effect of confinement in metabolism stalls on cortisol and specific and non-specific immune function. All lambs were habituated to human contact and maintained in an outside lot...

  3. Metabolic programming of offspring by vitamin B12, folate imbalance during pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With two reports in the current issue of Diabetologia, C. S. Yajnik and his international cast of collaborators have created conceptual bridges between some of the most important global public health challenges of our time: obesity (or is it adiposity?), fetal or early life origins of adult disease,...

  4. Radioassay for cobalamin (vitamin B12) requiring no pretreatment of serum

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, T.M.; Carney, J.A.

    1981-02-01

    Researchers describe a radioassay for cobalamin in human serum or plasma that requires no boiling or other pretreatment of the sample. Normal chicken serum covalently coupled to magnetizable particles is used as the binding agent. The assay is performed at pH 12.9, at which pH all cobalamin in human serum is released from its binding proteins, whereas the binding agent maintains a high affinity for cobalamin. Under these assay conditions the binding protein shows a specificity for cobalamin similar to that of purified intrinsic factor. The assay is simple, rapid, and precise, and results correlate well with those of the Euglena gracilis microbiological assay and an intrinsic-factor binding assay.

  5. Inhibition of vitamin B12-dependent microbial growth by nitrous oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Alston, T.A. )

    1991-01-01

    In methionine-free media, nitrous oxide inhibits the growth of an auxotrophic strain of Escherichia coli lacking a cobalamin-independent pathway for the de novo synthesis of methionine. Prototrophic E. coli is similarly inhibited by nitrous oxide if the cobalamin-independent pathway is selectively depressed by sulfanilamide. Nitrous oxide thus effectively inactivates cobalamin-dependent 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase in intact bacteria.

  6. Common variants of FUT2 are associated with plasma vitamin B12 levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genome-wide scan is a way to distinguish small differences in the genetic makeup of individuals. It is also a way which distinguishes if a mutation in any particular gene is widespread or it is "polymorphic." The value of these analyses lies in the identification of genes that could influence a th...

  7. TD-DFT Insight into Photodissociation of Co-C Bond in Coenzyme B12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlowski, Pawel; Liu, Hui; Kornobis, Karina; Lodowski, Piotr; Jaworska, Maria

    2013-12-01

    Coenzyme B12 (AdoCbl) is one of the most biologically active forms of vitamin B12, and continues to be a topic of active research interest. The mechanism of Co-C bond cleavage in AdoCbl, and the corresponding enzymatic reactions are however, not well understood at the molecular level. In this work, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) has been applied to investigate the photodissociation of coenzyme B12. To reduce computational cost, while retaining the major spectroscopic features of AdoCbl, a truncated model based on ribosylcobalamin (RibCbl) was used to simulate Co-C photodissociation. Equilibrium geometries of RibCbl were obtained by optimization at the DFT/BP86/TZVP level of theory, and low-lying excited states were calculated by TD-DFT using the same functional and basis set. The calculated singlet states, and absorption spectra were simulated in both the gas phase, and water, using the polarizable continuum model (PCM). Both spectra were in reasonable agreement with experimental data, and potential energy curves based on vertical excitations were plotted to explore the nature of Co-C bond dissociation. It was found that a repulsive 3(?Co-C ? ?*Co-C) triplet state became dissociative at large Co-C bond distance, similar to a previous observation for methylcobalamin (MeCbl). Furthermore, potential energy surfaces (PESs) obtained as a function of both Co-CRib and Co-NIm distances, identify the S1 state as a key intermediate generated during photoexcitation of RibCbl, attributed to a mixture of a MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer) and a ? bonding-ligand charge transfer (SBLCT) states.

  8. Vitamin D: An overview of vitamin D status and intake in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Spiro, A; Buttriss, J L

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there have been reports suggesting a high prevalence of low vitamin D intakes and vitamin D deficiency or inadequate vitamin D status in Europe. Coupled with growing concern about the health risks associated with low vitamin D status, this has resulted in increased interest in the topic of vitamin D from healthcare professionals, the media and the public. Adequate vitamin D status has a key role in skeletal health. Prevention of the well-described vitamin D deficiency disorders of rickets and osteomalacia are clearly important, but there may also be an implication of low vitamin D status in bone loss, muscle weakness and falls and fragility fractures in older people, and these are highly significant public health issues in terms of morbidity, quality of life and costs to health services in Europe. Although there is no agreement on optimal plasma levels of vitamin D, it is apparent that blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels are often below recommended ranges for the general population and are particularly low in some subgroups of the population, such as those in institutions or who are housebound and non-Western immigrants. Reported estimates of vitamin D status within different European countries show large variation. However, comparison of studies across Europe is limited by their use of different methodologies. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency [often defined as plasma 25(OH)D <25?nmol/l] may be more common in populations with a higher proportion of at-risk groups, and/or that have low consumption of foods rich in vitamin D (naturally rich or fortified) and low use of vitamin D supplements. The definition of an adequate or optimal vitamin D status is key in determining recommendations for a vitamin D intake that will enable satisfactory status to be maintained all year round, including the winter months. In most European countries, there seems to be a shortfall in achieving current vitamin D recommendations. An exception is Finland, where dietary survey data indicate that recent national policies that include fortification and supplementation, coupled with a high habitual intake of oil-rich fish, have resulted in an increase in vitamin D intakes, but this may not be a suitable strategy for all European populations. The ongoing standardisation of measurements in vitamin D research will facilitate a stronger evidence base on which policies can be determined. These policies may include promotion of dietary recommendations, food fortification, vitamin D supplementation and judicious sun exposure, but should take into account national, cultural and dietary habits. For European nations with supplementation policies, it is important that relevant parties ensure satisfactory uptake of these particularly in the most vulnerable groups of the population. PMID:25635171

  9. Dietary B vitamin intake and incident premenstrual syndrome123

    PubMed Central

    Chocano-Bedoya, Patricia O; Manson, JoAnn E; Hankinson, Susan E; Willett, Walter C; Johnson, Susan R; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Ronnenberg, Alayne G; Bigelow, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Background: Thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-6, folate, and vitamin B-12 are required to synthesize neurotransmitters that are potentially involved in the pathophysiology of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Objective: The objective was to evaluate whether B vitamin intake from food sources and supplements is associated with the initial development of PMS. Design: We conducted a case-control study nested within the Nurses' Health Study II cohort. Participants were free of PMS at baseline (1991). After 10 y of follow up, 1057 women were confirmed as cases and 1968 were confirmed as controls. Dietary information was collected in 1991, 1995, and 1999 by using food-frequency questionnaires. Results: Intakes of thiamine and riboflavin from food sources were each inversely associated with incident PMS. For example, women in the highest quintile of riboflavin intake 2–4 y before the diagnosis year had a 35% lower risk of developing PMS than did those in the lowest quintile (relative risk: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.92; P for trend = 0.02). No significant associations between incident PMS and dietary intakes of niacin, vitamin B-6, folate, and vitamin B-12 were observed. Intake of B vitamins from supplements was not associated with a lower risk of PMS. Conclusions: We observed a significantly lower risk of PMS in women with high intakes of thiamine and riboflavin from food sources only. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of B vitamins in the development of premenstrual syndrome. PMID:21346091

  10. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  11. The photochemical mechanism of a B12-dependent photoreceptor protein

    PubMed Central

    Kutta, Roger J.; Hardman, Samantha J. O.; Johannissen, Linus O.; Bellina, Bruno; Messiha, Hanan L.; Ortiz-Guerrero, Juan Manuel; Elías-Arnanz, Montserrat; Padmanabhan, S.; Barran, Perdita; Scrutton, Nigel S.; Jones, Alex R.

    2015-01-01

    The coenzyme B12-dependent photoreceptor protein, CarH, is a bacterial transcriptional regulator that controls the biosynthesis of carotenoids in response to light. On binding of coenzyme B12 the monomeric apoprotein forms tetramers in the dark, which bind operator DNA thus blocking transcription. Under illumination the CarH tetramer dissociates, weakening its affinity for DNA and allowing transcription. The mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Here we describe the photochemistry in CarH that ultimately triggers tetramer dissociation; it proceeds via a cob(III)alamin intermediate, which then forms a stable adduct with the protein. This pathway is without precedent and our data suggest it is independent of the radical chemistry common to both coenzyme B12 enzymology and its known photochemistry. It provides a mechanistic foundation for the emerging field of B12 photobiology and will serve to inform the development of a new class of optogenetic tool for the control of gene expression. PMID:26264192

  12. The photochemical mechanism of a B12-dependent photoreceptor protein.

    PubMed

    Kutta, Roger J; Hardman, Samantha J O; Johannissen, Linus O; Bellina, Bruno; Messiha, Hanan L; Ortiz-Guerrero, Juan Manuel; Elías-Arnanz, Montserrat; Padmanabhan, S; Barran, Perdita; Scrutton, Nigel S; Jones, Alex R

    2015-01-01

    The coenzyme B12-dependent photoreceptor protein, CarH, is a bacterial transcriptional regulator that controls the biosynthesis of carotenoids in response to light. On binding of coenzyme B12 the monomeric apoprotein forms tetramers in the dark, which bind operator DNA thus blocking transcription. Under illumination the CarH tetramer dissociates, weakening its affinity for DNA and allowing transcription. The mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Here we describe the photochemistry in CarH that ultimately triggers tetramer dissociation; it proceeds via a cob(III)alamin intermediate, which then forms a stable adduct with the protein. This pathway is without precedent and our data suggest it is independent of the radical chemistry common to both coenzyme B12 enzymology and its known photochemistry. It provides a mechanistic foundation for the emerging field of B12 photobiology and will serve to inform the development of a new class of optogenetic tool for the control of gene expression. PMID:26264192

  13. The Role of B Vitamins in Marine Biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.; Gómez-Consarnau, Laura; Suffridge, Christopher; Webb, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    The soluble B vitamins (B1, B7, and B12) have long been recognized as playing a central metabolic role in marine phytoplankton and bacteria; however, the importance of these organic external metabolites in marine ecology has been largely disregarded, as most research has focused on inorganic nutrients and trace metals. Using recently available genomic data combined with culture-based surveys of vitamin auxotrophy (i.e., vitamin requirements), we show that this auxotrophy is widespread in the marine environment and occurs in both autotrophs and heterotrophs residing in oligotrophic and eutrophic environments. Our analysis shows that vitamins originate from the activities of some bacteria and algae and that taxonomic changes observed in marine phytoplankton communities could be the result of their specific vitamin requirements and/or vitamin availability. Dissolved vitamin concentration measurements show that large areas of the world ocean are devoid of B vitamins, suggesting that vitamin limitation could be important for the efficiency of carbon and nitrogen fixation in those regions.

  14. Factors Influencing the Diversity of Iron Uptake Systems in Aquatic Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Dhwani K.; Desai, Falguni D.; LaRoche, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for many processes in all living cells. Dissolved Fe (dFe) concentrations in the ocean are of the order of a few nM, and Fe is often a factor limiting primary production. Bioavailability of Fe in aquatic environments is believed to be primarily controlled through chelation by Fe-binding ligands. Marine microbes have evolved different mechanisms to cope with the scarcity of bioavailable dFe. Gradients in dFe concentrations and diversity of the Fe-ligand pool from coastal to open ocean waters have presumably imposed selection pressures that should be reflected in the genomes of microbial communities inhabiting the pelagic realm. We applied a hidden Markov model (HMM)-based search for proteins related to cellular iron metabolism, and in particular those involved in Fe uptake mechanisms in 164 microbial genomes belonging to diverse taxa and occupying different aquatic niches. A multivariate statistical approach demonstrated that in phototrophic organisms, there is a clear influence of the ecological niche on the diversity of Fe uptake systems. Extending the analyses to the metagenome database from the Global Ocean Sampling expedition, we demonstrated that the Fe uptake and homeostasis mechanisms differed significantly across marine niches defined by temperatures and dFe concentrations, and that this difference was linked to the distribution of microbial taxa in these niches. Using the dN/dS ratios (which signify the rate of non-synonymous mutations) of the nucleotide sequences, we identified that genes encoding for TonB, Ferritin, Ferric reductase, IdiA, ZupT, and Fe2+ transport proteins FeoA and FeoB were evolving at a faster rate (positive selection pressure) while genes encoding ferrisiderophore, heme and Vitamin B12 uptake systems, siderophore biosynthesis, and IsiA and IsiB were under purifying selection pressure (evolving slowly). PMID:23087680

  15. Refractory epileptic seizures due to vitamin B6 deficiency in a patient with Parkinson's disease under duodopa® therapy.

    PubMed

    Skodda, Sabine; Müller, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    Levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) infusion for the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) has been suspected to provoke polyneuropathy in conjunction with vitamin B6, B12 and folate deficiency and elevated homocysteine levels. We describe a PD patient under LCIG therapy developing refractory epileptic seizures obviously promoted by vitamin B6 deficiency. PMID:22798026

  16. Vitamin C Deficiency of Korean Homeless Patients Visiting to Emergency Department with Acute Alcohol Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Vitamins are essential micronutrients for maintenance of tissue functions. Vitamin deficiency is one of the most serious and common health problems among both chronic alcoholics and the homeless. However, the vitamin-level statuses of such people have been little studied. We evaluated the actual vitamin statuses of alcoholic homeless patients who visited an emergency department (ED). In this study the blood levels of vitamins B1, B12, B6, and C of 217 alcoholic homeless patients were evaluated retrospectively in a single urban teaching hospital ED. Vitamin C deficiency was observed in 84.3% of the patients. The vitamin B1, B12, and B6 deficiency rates, meanwhile, were 2.3%, 2.3%, and 23.5%, respectively. Comparing the admitted patients with those who were discharged, only the vitamin C level was lower. (P=0.003) In fact, the patients' vitamin C levels were markedly diminished, vitamin C replacement therapy for homeless patients should be considered in EDs. PMID:26713065

  17. Facts about Vitamin A

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vitamin essential to our health. It helps us see normally in the dark. Vitamin A also promotes normal growth and health of body cells and keeps skin healthy. There are animal sources (retinol) and vegetable sources (carotenoids) of vitamin ...

  18. Vitamin D Deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sunlight, which triggers the skin to make this vitamin. Very few foods naturally contain vitamin D. Milk and a few ... can cause skin cancer. In supplements and fortified foods, vitamin D comes in two forms: D2 and D3. ...

  19. Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vitamin B and vitamin E during pregnancy and breast-feeding seems to reduce the risk of transmitting HIV ... kidney stone recurrence. Special precautions & warnings: Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Vitamin C is LIKELY SAFE for pregnant or ...

  20. Sinorhizobium meliloti bluB is necessary for production of 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole, the lower ligand of B12.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Gordon R O; Taga, Michiko E; Mistry, Kavita; Lloret, Javier; Anderson, Peter J; Roth, John R; Walker, Graham C

    2006-03-21

    An insight into a previously unknown step in B(12) biosynthesis was unexpectedly obtained through our analysis of a mutant of the symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti. This mutant was identified based on its unusually bright fluorescence on plates containing the succinoglycan binding dye calcofluor. The mutant contains a Tn5 insertion in a gene that has not been characterized previously in S. meliloti. The closest known homolog is the bluB gene of Rhodobacter capsulatus, which is implicated in the biosynthesis of B(12) (cobalamin). The S. meliloti bluB mutant is unable to grow in minimal media and fails to establish a symbiosis with alfalfa, and these defects can be rescued by the addition of vitamin B(12) (cyanocobalamin) or the lower ligand of cobalamin, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB). Biochemical analysis demonstrated that the bluB mutant does not produce cobalamin unless DMB is supplied. Sequence comparison suggests that BluB is a member of the NADH/flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-dependent nitroreductase family, and we propose that it is involved in the conversion of FMN to DMB. PMID:16537439

  1. Sinorhizobium meliloti bluB is necessary for production of 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole, the lower ligand of B12

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Gordon R. O.; Taga, Michiko E.; Mistry, Kavita; Lloret, Javier; Anderson, Peter J.; Roth, John R.; Walker, Graham C.

    2006-01-01

    An insight into a previously unknown step in B12 biosynthesis was unexpectedly obtained through our analysis of a mutant of the symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti. This mutant was identified based on its unusually bright fluorescence on plates containing the succinoglycan binding dye calcofluor. The mutant contains a Tn5 insertion in a gene that has not been characterized previously in S. meliloti. The closest known homolog is the bluB gene of Rhodobacter capsulatus, which is implicated in the biosynthesis of B12 (cobalamin). The S. meliloti bluB mutant is unable to grow in minimal media and fails to establish a symbiosis with alfalfa, and these defects can be rescued by the addition of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) or the lower ligand of cobalamin, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB). Biochemical analysis demonstrated that the bluB mutant does not produce cobalamin unless DMB is supplied. Sequence comparison suggests that BluB is a member of the NADH/flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-dependent nitroreductase family, and we propose that it is involved in the conversion of FMN to DMB. PMID:16537439

  2. Pulmonary hypertension associated with scurvy and vitamin deficiencies in an autistic child.

    PubMed

    Duvall, Melody G; Pikman, Yana; Kantor, David B; Ariagno, Katelyn; Summers, Lisa; Sectish, Theodore C; Mullen, Mary P

    2013-12-01

    Restricted dietary intake is common among children with behavioral issues. Here we report a case of a severely autistic child who presented initially with limp but who soon developed cough, tachypnea, hypoxia, and tachycardia. An echocardiogram revealed evidence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) with severely dilated right ventricle and elevated right-sided pressures. The etiology of his PH was unclear but further laboratory evaluation demonstrated severe nutritional deficiencies, in particular an undetectable ascorbic acid (vitamin C) level as well as deficient levels of thiamine (vitamin B1), pyridoxine (vitamin B6), cobalamin (vitamin B12), and vitamin D. Repletion of these vitamins was associated with resolution of his PH and his musculoskeletal complaints. We report this case and a review of the relevant literature as a clinical lesson to expand the differential diagnosis of limp in children who may be difficult to assess as well as to report on an unusual association between severe vitamin deficiencies and PH. PMID:24190688

  3. Vitamin and mineral requirements

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition Second edition Please go to the Table/WHO Expert Consultation on Human Vitamin and Mineral Requirements (1998 : Bangkok, Thailand). Vitamin, 21­30 September 1998. 1.Vitamins -- standards 2.Micronutrients -- standards 3.Trace elements

  4. Low-dimensional boron structures based on icosahedron B12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kah, C. B.; Yu, M.; Tandy, P.; Jayanthi, C. S.; Wu, S. Y.

    2015-10-01

    One-dimensional icosahedral boron chains and two-dimensional icosahedral boron sheets (icosahedral ?, ?6, and ?4 sheets) that contain icosahedra B12 as their building units have been predicted in a computer simulation study using a state-of-the-art semi-empirical Hamiltonian. These novel low-dimensional icosahedral structures exhibit interesting bonding and electronic properties. Specifically, the three-center, two-electron bonding between icosahedra B12 of the boron bulk (rhombohedral boron) transforms into a two-center bonding in these new allotropes of boron sheets. In contrast to the previously reported stable buckled ? and triangular boron monolayer sheets, these new allotropes of boron sheets form a planar network. Calculations of electronic density of states (DOS) reveal a semiconducting nature for both the icosahedral chain and the icosahedral ?6 and ?4 sheets, as well as a nearly gapless (or metallic-like) feature in the DOS for the icosahedral ? sheet. The results for the energy barrier per atom between the icosahedral ?6 and ? sheets (0.17 eV), the icosahedral ?6 and ?4 sheets (0.38 eV), and the icosahedral ? and ?4 sheets (0.27 eV), as indicated in the respective parentheses, suggest that these new allotropes of boron sheets are relatively stable.

  5. Liquid-liquid distribution of B group vitamins in polyethylene glycol-based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenman, Ya. I.; Zykov, A. V.; Mokshina, N. Ya.

    2011-05-01

    General regularities of the liquid-liquid distribution of B1, B2, B6, and B12 vitamins in aqueous polyethylene glycol (PEG-2000, PEG-5000) solution-aqueous salt solution systems are studied. The influence of the salting-out agent, the concentration of the polymer, and its molecular weight on the distribution coefficients and recovery factors of the vitamins are considered. Equations relating the distribution coefficients (log D) to the polymer concentration are derived.

  6. Association of plasma vitamin B6 with risk of colorectal adenoma in a multiethnic case-control study.

    PubMed

    Le Marchand, Loïc; Wang, Hansong; Selhub, Jacob; Vogt, Thomas M; Yokochi, Lance; Decker, Robert

    2011-06-01

    Circulating level of vitamin B6 has been inversely associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk but, unlike for folate, few studies have examined the relationship of vitamin B6 to colorectal adenoma, the precursor lesion to most CRCs. We measured plasma levels of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 in 241 patients with pathologically confirmed first occurrence of colorectal adenoma and 280 controls among Caucasians, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiians undergoing flexible sigmoidoscopy screening in Hawaii. High plasma level of vitamin B6 was independently inversely associated with risk of colorectal adenoma [multivariate odds ratios (95% confidence intervals): 1.0, 0.71 (0.45-1.13) and 0.44 (0.26-0.74) from the lowest to the highest tertile, respectively, p (trend) = 0.002]. Plasma folate was not associated with adenoma after adjustment for plasma vitamin B6 (p (trend) > 0.3). No association was observed with plasma vitamin B12. No significant interaction was detected between the three B vitamins and alcohol intake, multivitamin use or MTHFR C677T. The results provide evidence for an inverse association of plasma vitamin B6 levels with risk of colorectal adenoma. This study expands previous findings and suggests that vitamin B6 may be protective against the early stages of colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:21437631

  7. Vitamins and Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Irene; Caroppo, Francesca; Alaibac, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    A tremendous amount of information was published over the past decades in relation to the role of vitamins in various neoplastic diseases. In particular, several studies showed an inverse relationship between selected vitamins intake and cancer risk. In this review we will focus on the role played by vitamins in melanoma with particular regard to vitamin A, D, K, E and C. Given that vitamin supplementation is easy, convenient, and readily accepted by patients, in the future the use of vitamins in chemoprevention and therapy of melanoma could be encouraged if supported by pre-clinical and clinical evidence. PMID:26213971

  8. Vitamin and mineral status: effects on physical performance.

    PubMed

    Lukaski, Henry C

    2004-01-01

    Public health recommendations encourage the selection of a balanced diet and increasing physical activity to foster health and well-being. Whereas the adverse effects of restricted intakes of protein, fat, and carbohydrate on physical performance are well known, there is limited information about the impact of low intakes of vitamins and minerals on the exercise capacity and performance of humans. Physically active people generally consume amounts of vitamins and minerals consistent with the recommendations for the general public. However, when intakes are less than recommendations, some noticeable functional impairments occur. Acute or short-term marginal deficiencies, identified by blood biochemical measures of vitamin B status, had no impacts on performance measures. Severe deprivation of folate and vitamin B12 result in anemia and reduce endurance work performance. Evidence of vitamin A and E deficiencies in athletic individuals is lacking apparently because body storage is appreciable. In contrast to vitamins, marginal mineral deficiencies impair performance. Iron deficiency, with or without anemia, impairs muscle function and limits work capacity. Magnesium deprivation increases oxygen requirements to complete submaximal exercise and reduces endurance performance. Use of vitamin and mineral supplements does not improve measures of performance in people consuming adequate diets. Young girls and individuals participating in activities with weight classifications or aesthetic components are prone to nutrient deficiencies because they restrict food intake and specific micronutrient-rich foods. This information will be useful to professionals who counsel physically active people and scientific groups who make dietary recommendations to improve health and optimize genetic potential. PMID:15212745

  9. 17 CFR 240.3b-12 - Definition of OTC derivatives dealer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Definition of OTC derivatives dealer. 240.3b-12 Section 240...Definitions § 240.3b-12 Definition of OTC derivatives dealer. The term OTC derivatives dealer means any dealer that is...

  10. 17 CFR 240.3b-12 - Definition of OTC derivatives dealer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Definition of OTC derivatives dealer. 240.3b-12 Section 240...Definitions § 240.3b-12 Definition of OTC derivatives dealer. The term OTC derivatives dealer means any dealer that is...

  11. Relationship Between Urinary Concentrations of Nine Water-soluble Vitamins and their Vitamin Intakes in Japanese Adult Males

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Katsumi; Hirose, Junko; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Excess water-soluble vitamins are thought to be eliminated in the urine. We have reported a strong relationship between water-soluble vitamin intake and urinary excretion in females. The relationship, however, is not well understood in males. In the present experiment, 10 Japanese male subjects were given a standard Japanese diet for the first week. The subjects remained on the same diet, and a synthesized water-soluble vitamin mixture containing one time the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for Japanese was given for the second week, three times the DRIs for the third week, and six times the DRIs for the fourth week. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected each week. Urinary excretion levels for seven of the nine water-soluble vitamin levels, excluding vitamin B12 and folate, increased linearly and sharply in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that measuring urinary water-soluble vitamins can be good nutritional markers for assessing vitamin intakes in humans. PMID:25210461

  12. EFFECTS OF VITAMIN AND MICRONUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES ON THE IMMUNOCOMPETENCE OF LARVAL HELIOTHIS VIRESCENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary levels of specific essential nutrients, vitamins or micronutrients have been shown to influence a key fitness trait, immunocompetence. Se supplementation boosts larval lepidopteran resistance to per os baculovirus infection. Therefore, a study of the uptake and assimilation of vitamins C, ...

  13. Genetic polymorphisms as determinants for disease preventive effects of vitamin E

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymorphisms in genes involved in vitamin E uptake, distribution, metabolism and molecular action may be important determinants for the protective effects of vitamin E supplementation. The haptoglobin 2-2 polymorphism is associated with increased production of oxygen free radicals and the consequen...

  14. 12 CFR 261b.12 - Procedures for inspection and obtaining copies of transcriptions and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... be made available to the public upon request under the provisions of 12 CFR part 261 (Rules Regarding... of transcriptions and minutes. 261b.12 Section 261b.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... OF MEETINGS § 261b.12 Procedures for inspection and obtaining copies of transcriptions and...

  15. 12 CFR 261b.12 - Procedures for inspection and obtaining copies of transcriptions and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... be made available to the public upon request under the provisions of 12 CFR part 261 (Rules Regarding... of transcriptions and minutes. 261b.12 Section 261b.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... OF MEETINGS § 261b.12 Procedures for inspection and obtaining copies of transcriptions and...

  16. 12 CFR 261b.12 - Procedures for inspection and obtaining copies of transcriptions and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... available to the public upon request under the provisions of 12 CFR part 261 (Rules Regarding Availability... of transcriptions and minutes. 261b.12 Section 261b.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... § 261b.12 Procedures for inspection and obtaining copies of transcriptions and minutes. (a) Any...

  17. 12 CFR 261b.12 - Procedures for inspection and obtaining copies of transcriptions and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... be made available to the public upon request under the provisions of 12 CFR part 261 (Rules Regarding... of transcriptions and minutes. 261b.12 Section 261b.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... OF MEETINGS § 261b.12 Procedures for inspection and obtaining copies of transcriptions and...

  18. 12 CFR 261b.12 - Procedures for inspection and obtaining copies of transcriptions and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

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