Sample records for vitamin b12 uptake

  1. Vitamin B-12

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Vitamin B-12 Vitamin B-12 What is vitamin B-12? Vitamin B-12 is an important vitamin that you usually get from your ... meat, eggs, dairy products and special fortified foods. Vitamin B-12 helps make red blood cells and DNA, and ...

  2. Vitamin B12 level

    MedlinePLUS

    The vitamin B12 level is a blood test that measures how much vitamin B12 is in your blood. ... a form of megaloblastic anemia caused by poor vitamin B12 absorption. This can occur when the stomach makes ...

  3. Vitamin B12

    MedlinePLUS

    ... B12, or vitamin B12 with nutrients such as folic acid and other B vitamins, are also available. Check ... developmental milestones, and megaloblastic anemia. Large amounts of folic acid can hide a vitamin B12 deficiency by correcting ...

  4. Vitamin B12

    MedlinePLUS

    ... water-soluble vitamin. Water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water. After the body uses these vitamins, leftover amounts leave the body through the urine. The body can store vitamin B12 for years in the liver.

  5. Vitamin B-12

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin B-12 is a cofactor for 2 enzymes. In the cytoplasm, methionine synthase requires vitamin B-12 in the form of methylcobalamin and catalyzes the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate.This enzyme links the methylation pathway through ...

  6. Bioavailability of vitamin B12

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in people of all ages who consume a low intake of animal-source foods, including populations in developing countries. It is also prevalent among the elderly, even in wealthier countries, due to their malabsorption of B12 from food. Several methods have been applied t...

  7. Penicillin and Vitamin B12

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The WebWare Molecules for July are mentioned in the article "The History of Molecular Structure Determination Viewed through the Nobel Prizes", by Jensen, Palenik, and Suh. One of the recipients discussed, Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin, won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in part for determining the structures of penicillin and vitamin B12.

  8. The Role of the Pancreas in Vitamin B12 Absorption: Studies of Vitamin B12 Absorption in Partially Pancreatectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Toskes, Philip P.; Deren, Julius J.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of partial pancreatectomy (80-90%) on vitamin B12 absorption was studied in the rat. The absorption of 5 ng of 57Co-labeled vitamin B12 was significantly reduced from 70 ±2.5% (mean ±SE) in control and sham-operated rats to 32 ±2.6% in partially pancreatectomized rats. Hog pancreatic extract (0.17 g/kg) improved vitamin B12 absorption from 30.0 to 61.0% in partially pancreatectomized rats but did not alter vitamin B12 absorption in control rats. Chloramphenicol did not enhance vitamin B12 absorption in partially pancreatectomized rats with pancreatic extract-improved vitamin B12 malabsorption. The partially pancreatectomized rats with pancreatic extract-improved vitamin B12 malabsorption were sacrificed and the stomach and small bowel studied in vitro to further define the pathogenesis of the vitamin B12 malabsorption. Rat gastric intrinsic factor stimulated vitamin B12 uptake by intestinal sacs prepared from partially pancreatectomized rats 3.1-fold. Gastric intrinsic factor prepared from partially pancreatectomized rats was as effective in promoting vitamin B12 uptake by rat intestinal sacs as intrinsic factor prepared from control rats. These data indicate that partially pancreatectomized rats develop an abnormality in the absorption of labeled vitamin B12 which can be corrected by pancreatic extract. The vitamin B12 malabsorption is due to neither an alteration in gastric intrinsic factor activity nor an impairment of the intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 receptor in the intestine. It is suggested that in the partially pancreatectomized rats the intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complex exists in a form which is not available for absorption. PMID:5009110

  9. How common is vitamin B12 deficiency?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In considering the vitamin B-12 fortification of flour, it is important to know who is at risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency and whether those individuals would benefit from flour fortification.This article reviews current knowledge of the prevalence and causes of vitamin B-12 deficiency and considers ...

  10. Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as pyrexia.

    PubMed

    Negi, R C; Kumar, J; Kumar, V; Singh, K; Bharti, V; Gupta, D; Kashyap, R; Raina, S

    2011-06-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is an uncommon cause of pyrexia. We report the case of a patient who presented with pyrexia and anaemia, which after exclusion of infective, inflammatory or endocrine causes was attributed to megaloblastic anaemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency. The patient's fever responded to treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:21751594

  11. THE DIAGNOSIS OF VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY IN SHEEP: COMPARISON OF SERUM VITAMIN B12 LEVELS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    THE DIAGNOSIS OF VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY IN SHEEP: COMPARISON OF SERUM VITAMIN B12 LEVELS MEASURED Nutritionnelles, INRA, CRZV de Theix, 63122 Ceyrat, France Résumé DIAGNOSTIC DE LA CARENCE EN VITAMINE B12 CHEZ LE MOUTON: COMPARAISON DES TAUX DE VITAMINE B12 SÉRIQUE MESURÉS PAR DES TECHNIQUES MICROBIOLOGIQUES ET DE

  12. Vitamin B12 and Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background More than 2.9 million serum vitamin B12 tests were performed in 2010 in Ontario at a cost of $40 million. Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with a few neurocognitive disorders. Objective To determine the clinical utility of B12 testing in patients with suspected dementia or cognitive decline. Methods Three questions were addressed: Is there an association between vitamin B12 deficiency and the onset of dementia or cognitive decline? Does treatment with vitamin B12 supplementation improve cognitive function in patients with dementia or cognitive decline and vitamin B12 deficiency? What is the effectiveness of oral versus parenteral vitamin B12 supplementation in those with confirmed vitamin B12 deficiency? A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Embase, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database, from January 2002 until August 2012. Results Eighteen studies (7 systematic reviews and 11 observational studies) were identified to address the question of the association between B12 and the onset of dementia. Four systematic reviews were identified to address the question of the treatment of B12 on cognitive function. Finally, 3 randomized controlled trials were identified that compared oral B12 to intramuscular B12. Conclusions Based on very low quality evidence, there does appear to be an association between elevated plasma homocysteine levels (a by-product of B vitamins) and the onset of dementia. Based on moderate quality evidence, but with less than optimal duration of follow-up, treatment with B12 supplementation does not appreciably change cognitive function. Based on low to moderate quality of evidence, treatment with vitamin B12 and folate in patients with mild cognitive impairment seems to slow the rate of brain atrophy. Based on moderate quality evidence, oral vitamin B12 is as effective as parenteral vitamin B12 in patients with confirmed B12 deficiency. Plain Language Summary Low levels of vitamin B12 have been associated with neurocognitive disorders. This evidence-based analysis assessed the usefulness of serum vitamin B12 testing as it relates to brain function. This review found very low quality evidence that suggests a connection between high plasma homocysteine levels (a by-product of B vitamin metabolism in the body) and the onset of dementia. Moderate quality of evidence indicates treatment with vitamin B12 does not improve brain function. Moderate quality of evidence also indicates treatment using oral vitamin B12 supplements is as effective as injections of vitamin B12. PMID:24379897

  13. Good Sources of Nutrients: Vitamin B-12 

    E-print Network

    Scott, Amanda; Replogle, Jacqueline

    2008-08-28

    Vitamin B-12 is a water-soluble vitamin that helps the body form red blood cells, build genetic material, and metabolize protein and fat. This publication explains how people can get enough vitamin B-12 in their diets and how to prepare foods...

  14. Vitamin B12 catalysed reactions.

    PubMed

    Giedyk, Maciej; Goliszewska, Katarzyna; Gryko, Dorota

    2015-05-26

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, ) is one of a few naturally occurring organometallic molecules. As a cofactor for adenosylcobalamin-dependent and methylcobalamin-dependent enzymes, it plays a crucial role in biological processes, including DNA synthesis and regulation, nervous system function, red blood cell formation, etc. Enzymatic reactions, such as isomerisation, dehalogenation, and methyl transfer, rely on the formation and cleavage of the Co-C bond. Because it is a natural, nontoxic, environmentally benign cobalt complex, cobalamin () has been successfully utilised in organic synthesis as a catalyst for Co-mediated reactions. This tutorial review concisely describes cobalamin-catalysed organic reactions that hold promise for environmentally friendly cobalt catalysis, leaving the reader with basic knowledge and the ability to harness the catalytic potential of this fascinating molecule. PMID:25945462

  15. Human vitamin B12 absorption measurement by accelerator mass spectrometry using specifically

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    Human vitamin B12 absorption measurement by accelerator mass spectrometry using specifically to assimilate dietary vitamin B12. Assaying and understanding absorption and uptake of B12 is important because and showed plasma appearance and clearance curves consistent with the predicted behavior of the pure vitamin

  16. Assay for vitamin B12 absorption and method of making labeled vitamin B12

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Peter J. (Davis, CA); Dueker, Stephen (Davis, CA); Miller, Joshua (Davis, CA); Green, Ralph (Elmacero, CA); Roth, John (Davis, CA); Carkeet, Colleen (Silver Spring, MD); Buchholz,; Bruce A. (Orinda, CA)

    2012-06-19

    The invention provides methods for labeling vitamin B12 with .sup.14C, .sup.13C, tritium, and deuterium. When radioisotopes are used, the invention provides for methods of labeling B12 with high specific activity. The invention also provides labeled vitamin B12 compositions made in accordance with the invention.

  17. Molecular Structure of Vitamin B12

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-13

    Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) has many uses as a nutritional supplement in both humans and livestock. It is used in humans to treat pernicious anemia, hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver, and to help maintain the body's metabolism. In its long-effect form (hydroxocobalamin), vitamin B12 is used to treat anemia, growth impediment, improvement in the function of the heart, liver, kidneys and nerves, and general strengthening of the body. In livestock, it is used to improve feed production.

  18. Vitamin B12 deficiency: the great masquerader.

    PubMed

    Dobrozsi, Sarah; Flood, Veronica H; Panepinto, Julie; Scott, J Paul; Brandow, Amanda

    2014-04-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is rare in children, with nonspecific symptoms including failure to thrive, vomiting, anorexia, and neurologic changes with or without hematologic disturbances. The neuropathy can be severe and irreversible. We report four cases of children with B12 deficiency secondary to adult type pernicious anemia, a presumed transport protein abnormality, and a metabolic defect. All demonstrated neurologic compromise that improved after initiation of B12 therapy. Hematologic manifestations may be preceded by constitutional, gastrointestinal, or neurologic changes, and must raise concern for B12 deficiency. Therapy should be initiated promptly in this setting to prevent irreversible neuropathy. PMID:24115632

  19. Vitamin B12-induced acneiform eruption.

    PubMed

    Balta, Ilknur; Ozuguz, Pinar

    2014-06-01

    Drug-induced acne is a specific subset of acne that usually has some specific features, namely monomorphic pattern, unusual location of the lesions beyond the seborrheic areas, uncommon age of onset, a resistance to conventional acne treatment. Several drugs have been associated with the development of eruptions that may simulate acne vulgaris. However, so far, there are a few cases of vitamin B12-induced acne. We report a case of acneiform eruption induced by vitamin B12 injection in a 37-year-old female patient. PMID:23815241

  20. Detection of Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Older People by Measuring Vitamin B12 or the Active Fraction of Vitamin B12, Holotranscobalamin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Clarke; Paul Sherliker; Harold Hin; Ebba Nexo; Anne Mette Hvas; Joern Schneede; Jacqueline Birks; Per M. Ueland; Kathleen Emmens; John M. Scott; Anne M. Molloy; John Grimley Evans

    2007-01-01

    Background: Impaired vitamin B12 function and de- creased vitamin B12 status have been associated with neurological and cognitive impairment. Current assays analyze total vitamin B12 concentration, only a small percentage of which is metabolically active. Concentra- tions of this active component, carried on holotransco- balamin (holoTC), may be of greater relevance than total vitamin B12. Methods: We compared the utility

  1. Folate, vitamin B12 and human health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past decade the role of folate and vitamin B12 in human nutrition have been under constant re-examination. Basic knowledge on the metabolism and interactions between these essential nutrients has expanded and multiple complexities have been unraveled. These micronutrients have shared func...

  2. Vitamin B12 Supplements May Not Help Some Seniors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_153630.html Vitamin B12 Supplements May Not Help Some Seniors They ... 16, 2015 THURSDAY, July 16, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Vitamin B12 supplements are known to benefit seniors with ...

  3. CARDIOVASCULAR LESIONS IN COBALT-VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENT SHEEP

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CARDIOVASCULAR LESIONS IN COBALT-VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENT SHEEP R. MOHAMMED M. LAMAND Laboratoire des LE MOUTON CARENCÉ EN COBALT-VITAMINE B12. ― Des lésions cardiovasculaires ont été observées à l'autopsie chez 5 des 6 moutons soumis à une carence expérimentale en cobalt-vitamine B12 pendant 34

  4. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B 12..

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin B 12.. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B 12 .. (a) Vitamin B12 , also known as cyanocobalamin (C63...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin B12. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B12. (a) Vitamin B12 , also known as cyanocobalamin (C63...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12 . (b) Conditions of use....

  7. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12 . (b) Conditions of use....

  8. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12 . (b) Conditions of use....

  9. Radiolysis of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B 12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juanchi, X.; Albarran, G.; Negron-Mendoza, A.

    2000-03-01

    Research on the radiolysis of vitamins is of considerable interest since these compounds are important nutritional constituents in foods and in dietetic supplements. In spite of these considerations there are few data and very often difficult to compare for the radiolytic behavior of vitamins. In this work we focused our attention on to the study of the radiolysis of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B 12) in solid state and in aqueous solutions. The procedure was followed by HPLC and UV-spectroscopy. The results obtained in aqueous solutions showed a dependence of the decomposition as a linear function of the dose. The G of decomposition for a 1×10 -5 M solution was 3.3. In the solid state the vitamin was very stable towards the irradiation in the conditions used in this study with a G=2.1×10 -3. A study made with Serratia marcescens as a microbiological contaminant showed that at the sterilization dose there is a destruction of the vitamin in aqueous solution. In the solid state the degree of decomposition was 7%.

  10. Neuro-regression in vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Sanwar; Nathani, Shweta

    2009-01-01

    Neuroregression in infants has varied aetiology and vitamin B12 deficiency is one of the uncommon causes. Infantile vitamin B12 deficiency is encountered in malnourished infants or in offspring of strict vegan mothers. We present two cases, both infants of 10 and 8 months of age, whose mothers had vitamin B12 deficiency. On admission, the patients were apathic, hypotonic and lethargic. Serum vitamin B12 levels were below normal limits. On cranial MRI, T2-weighted images revealed frontoparietal cortical atrophy. Both the infants responded to vitamin B12 treatment. PMID:21686891

  11. Factors affecting formiminoglutamic acid excretion in vitamin B12 deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Marston, Hedley R.; Allen, Shirley H.

    1970-01-01

    1. Formiminoglutamic acid, a product of the catabolism of histidine, is excreted in abnormally large amounts in the urines of vitamin B12-deficient rats and of vitamin B12-deficient sheep; the excretion is reduced to negligible amounts after administration of vitamin B12. 2. After administration of certain methyl donors to vitamin B12-deficient rats or sheep urinary excretion of formiminoglutamic acid is temporarily decreased. 3. Irrespective of the pteroylglutamic acid status of the animals neither vitamin B12-deficient rats nor vitamin B12-deficient sheep have the ability to deal efficiently with histidine. 4. In sheep, urinary excretion of formiminoglutamic acid is increased after administration of aminopterin; treatment with pteroylglutamic acid restores the ability of the animal to deal with the catabolic products of histidine. 5. The possible functions of vitamin B12 and methionine in relieving a virtual deficiency of pteroylglutamic acid are discussed. PMID:5435494

  12. Vitamin B12-Containing Plant Food Sources for Vegetarians

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Bito, Tomohiro; Teng, Fei

    2014-01-01

    The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori) is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups. PMID:24803097

  13. Vegan Diet, Subnormal Vitamin B-12 Status and Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Kam S.; Kwok, Timothy C.Y.; Celermajer, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products). Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians in Australia, Germany, Italy and Austria, and in vegans (80%) in Hong Kong and India, where vegans rarely take vitamin B-12 fortified food or vitamin B-12 supplements. Similar deficiencies exist in northern Chinese rural communities consuming inadequate meat, egg or dairy products due to poverty or dietary habits. Vascular studies have demonstrated impaired arterial endothelial function and increased carotid intima-media thickness as atherosclerosis surrogates in such metabolic vitamin B-12 deficient populations, but not in lactovegetarians in China. Vitamin B-12 supplementation has a favourable impact on these vascular surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China. Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 status is thus potentially beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency in vegans, and possibly for prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases. PMID:25195560

  14. Considering the case for vitamin B12 fortification of flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reasons to fortify flour with vitamin B12 are considered, which include the high prevalence of depletion and deficiency of this vitamin that occurs in persons of all ages in resource-poor countries and in elderly in wealthier countries, as well as the adverse functional consequences of poor vitamin ...

  15. Regiospecificity of Chlorophenol Reductive Dechlorination by Vitamin B12s

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Mark H.; Woods, Sandra L.

    1994-01-01

    Vitamin B12, reduced by titanium (III) citrate to vitamin B12s, catalyzes the reductive dechlorination of chlorophenols. Reductive dechlorination of pentachlorophenol and of all tetrachlorophenol and trichlorophenol isomers was observed. Reaction of various chlorophenols with vitamin B12 favored reductive dechlorination at positions adjacent to another chlorinated carbon, but chlorines ortho to the hydroxyl group of a phenol were particularly resistant to reductive dechlorination, even if they were also ortho to a chlorine. This resulted in a reductive dechlorination pattern favoring removal of para and meta chlorines, which differs substantially from the pattern exhibited by anaerobic microbial consortia. PMID:16349438

  16. Competitive immunoassay for analysis of vitamin B(12).

    PubMed

    Selva Kumar, L Sagaya; Thakur, M S

    2011-11-15

    In the current work, direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for derivatized vitamin B(12) by generating chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) against derivatized vitamin B(12) and purified using affinity chromatography. Checkerboard assay was performed with vitamin B(12) antibody and vitamin B(12)-alkaline phosphatase conjugate followed by its conjugate characterization using ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The limit of detection was 10 ng/ml with a linear working range of 10 to 10,000 ng/ml. The affinity constant (K(a)) of the vitamin B(12) antibody was found to be 4.23×10(8) L/mol. Cross-reactivity with other water-soluble vitamins was found to be less than 0.01% except for analogs of vitamin B(12) that showed 12% to 35%. The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were found to be in the ranges from 0.0005% to 1.2% and 0.009% to 1.03%, respectively. The assay was validated with the HPLC method in terms of sensitivity, specificity, precision, and recovery of vitamin B(12) with spiked multivitamin injections, tablets, capsules, and chocolates. The HPLC method had a detection limit of 500 ng/ml with a linear working range of 1000 to 10,000 ng/ml. After extraction of vitamin B(12) using Amberlite XAD, the developed ELISA method correlated well with the established HPLC method with a correlation coefficient of 0.90. PMID:21816132

  17. Neuroenhancement with vitamin B12-underestimated neurological significance.

    PubMed

    Gröber, Uwe; Kisters, Klaus; Schmidt, Joachim

    2013-12-01

    Vitamin B12 is a cofactor of methionine synthase in the synthesis of methionine, the precursor of the universal methyl donor S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe), which is involved in different epigenomic regulatory mechanisms and especially in brain development. A Vitamin B12 deficiency expresses itself by a wide variety of neurological manifestations such as paraesthesias, skin numbness, coordination disorders and reduced nerve conduction velocity. In elderly people, a latent Vitamin B12 deficiency can be associated with a progressive brain atrophy. Moderately elevated concentrations of homocysteine (>10 µmol/L) have been associated with an increased risk of dementia, notably Alzheimer's disease, in many cross-sectional and prospective studies. Raised plasma concentrations of homocysteine is also associated with both regional and whole brain atrophy, not only in Alzheimer's disease but also in healthy elderly people. Clinician awareness should be raised to accurately diagnose and treat early Vitamin B12 deficiency to prevent irreversible structural brain damage. PMID:24352086

  18. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B 12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of anemias of gastrointestinal malabsorption. (b) Classification. Class...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B 12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of anemias of gastrointestinal malabsorption. (b) Classification. Class...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of anemias of gastrointestinal malabsorption. (b) Classification. Class...

  3. Vitamin B 12 deficiency in untreated celiac disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Dahele; Subrata Ghosh

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:Iron and folate malabsorption are common in untreated celiac disease as the proximal small intestine is predominantly affected. Vitamin B12 deficiency is thought to be uncommon, as the terminal ileum is relatively spared. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with untreated celiac disease.METHODS:Prospective study of 39 consecutive biopsy-proven celiac disease patients (32 women,

  4. Vitamin B12 deficiency in untreated celiac disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Dahele; Subrata Ghosh

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:Iron and folate malabsorption are common in untreated celiac disease as the proximal small intestine is predominantly affected. Vitamin B12 deficiency is thought to be uncommon, as the terminal ileum is relatively spared. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with untreated celiac disease.METHODS:Prospective study of 39 consecutive biopsy-proven celiac disease patients (32 women,

  5. Vitamin B12 Excretion in Patients with Various Skin Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Janet; Shuster, Sam

    1970-01-01

    The excretion in the urine of 58Co after an oral dose of 58Co vitamin B12 given together with intrinsic factor has been found to be reduced in a number of patients with psoriasis, eczema, and other less common dermatoses. There is a correlation between the abnormality and the extent of the rash. A reduced glomerular filtration rate was found in a few of the patients in whom it was measured, and this must have been responsible, at least in part, for the reduced excretion of vitamin B12 in these patients, but abnormal vitamin B12 excretion also occurred in the absence of impaired renal function. Our evidence is insufficient to show whether malabsorption or increased tissue utilization of vitamin B12 was the explanation in other cases. Certainly a number of patients had steatorrhoea, and in these it is most likely that malabsorption was the major factor. In patients without steatorrhoea a lone malabsorption of vitamin B12 cannot be excluded. A decreased serum concentration of vitamin B12 was found in only one of the patients. PMID:5470089

  6. The electronic structure and chemical bonding of vitamin B12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurmaev, E. Z.; Moewes, A.; Ouyang, L.; Randaccio, L.; Rulis, P.; Ching, W. Y.; Bach, M.; Neumann, M.

    2003-05-01

    The electronic structure and chemical bonding of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) and B12-derivative (methylcobalamin) are studied by means of X-ray emission (XES) and photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy. The obtained results are compared with ab initio electronic structure calculations using the orthogonalized linear combination of the atomic orbital method (OLCAO). We show that the chemical bonding in vitamin B12 is characterized by the strong Co-C bond and relatively weak axial Co-N bond. It is further confirmed that the Co-C bond in cyanocobalamin is stronger than that of methylcobalamin resulting in their different biological activity.

  7. The roles of vitamin B12 and vitamin D in children with intractable epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Hong; Hou, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) can cause vitamin B12 or D deficiency in children with intractable epilepsy. In this study, we measured salivary superoxide dismutase (SOD) and metalloproteinsases (MMP) levels in the patients with vitamin B12 and vitamin D treatment. Cytokines and chemokines were measured using ELISA. The mean salivary value of SOD activity in the control group was 1.75 ± 0.21 U/ml. In the treatment group, the value was 1.33 ± 0.18 U/ml. The salivary MMP 2, MMP 3, and MMP 9 levels of the patients with vitamin D and vitamin B12 treatment were lower than that in the patients without vitamin D and vitamin B12 treatment. Interleukin 1? (IL-1?), IL-6, IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein 1? (MIP-1?), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and IFN-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) were significantly decreased in the cortex of our patients with vitamin D and vitamin B12 treatment. In this study, a clear association between vitamin D and vitamin B12 treatment and epilepsy was identified. We now plan to investigate the genetic factors that underlie vitamin D and vitamin B12 treatment in patients treated with AEDs. PMID:25785055

  8. Involuntary movements due to vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Aaron; Moloi, M W

    2014-12-01

    Deficiency of vitamin B12 produces protean effects on the nervous system, most commonly neuropathy, myelopathy, cognitive and behavioural symptoms, and optic atrophy. Involuntary movements comprise a relatively rare manifestation of this readily treatable disorder. Both adults and infants deficient in vitamin B12 may present with chorea, tremor, myoclonus, Parkinsonism, dystonia, or a combination of these, which may precede diagnosis or become apparent only a few days after parenteral replacement therapy has begun. The pathogenesis of these movement disorders shows interesting parallels to certain neurodegenerative conditions. The clinical syndrome responds well to vitamin B12 supplementation in most cases, and an early diagnosis is essential to reverse the haematological and neurological dysfunction characteristic of this disorder. In this article, we elucidate the association of vitamin B12 deficiency with movement disorders in adults and in infants, discuss the pathogenesis of this association, review previously reported cases, and present a young adult male with severe generalized chorea that showed a salutary response to vitamin B12 supplementation. PMID:24852503

  9. Iron Limitation of a Springtime Bacterial and Phytoplankton Community in the Ross Sea: Implications for Vitamin B12 Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Erin M.; Saito, Mak A.; Lee, Peter A.; Dunbar, Robert B.; Sedwick, Peter N.; DiTullio, Giacomo R.

    2011-01-01

    The Ross Sea is home to some of the largest phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean. Primary production in this system has previously been shown to be iron limited in the summer and periodically iron and vitamin B12 colimited. In this study, we examined trace metal limitation of biological activity in the Ross Sea in the austral spring and considered possible implications for vitamin B12 nutrition. Bottle incubation experiments demonstrated that iron limited phytoplankton growth in the austral spring while B12, cobalt, and zinc did not. This is the first demonstration of iron limitation in a Phaeocystis antarctica-dominated, early season Ross Sea phytoplankton community. The lack of B12 limitation in this location is consistent with previous Ross Sea studies in the austral summer, wherein vitamin additions did not stimulate P. antarctica growth and B12 was limiting only when bacterial abundance was low. Bottle incubation experiments and a bacterial regrowth experiment also revealed that iron addition directly enhanced bacterial growth. B12 uptake measurements in natural water samples and in an iron fertilized bottle incubation demonstrated that bacteria serve not only as a source for vitamin B12, but also as a significant sink, and that iron additions enhanced B12 uptake rates in phytoplankton but not bacteria. Additionally, vitamin uptake rates did not become saturated upon the addition of up to 95?pM B12. A rapid B12 uptake rate was observed after 13?min, which then decreased to a slower constant uptake rate over the next 52?h. Results from this study highlight the importance of iron availability in limiting early season Ross Sea phytoplankton growth and suggest that rates of vitamin B12 production and consumption may be impacted by iron availability. PMID:21886638

  10. Vitamin B12 deficit and development of geriatric syndromes.

    PubMed

    Ocampo Chaparro, José Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency or cyanocobalamin is a common condition in the elderly. It is repeatedly overlooked due to multiple clinical manifestations that can affect the blood, neurological, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular systems, skin and mucous membranes. The various presentations of vitamin B12 deficiency are related to the development of geriatric syndromes like frailty, falls, cognitive impairment, and geriatric nutritional syndromes like protein-energy malnutrition and failure to thrive, in addition to enhancing aging anorexia and cachexia. Therefore, interventions must be developed to include their screening and diagnosis to make early and appropriate treatment to prevent its complications before they become irreversible. PMID:24892321

  11. [Neurological signs due to isolated vitamin B12 deficiency].

    PubMed

    Martinez Estrada, K M; Cadabal Rodriguez, T; Miguens Blanco, I; García Méndez, L

    2013-01-01

    Isolated vitamin B12 deficiency is a common condition in elderly patients but uncommon in patients younger than 30 years, with an average age of onset between 60 and 70 years. This is because the dietary cobalamin, which is normally split by enzymes in meat in the presence of hydrochloric acid and pepsin in the stomach, is not released in the stomachs of elderly patients, usually due to achlorhydria. Although the body may be unable to release cobalamin it does retain the ability to absorb vitamin B12 in its crystalline form, which is present in multivitamin preparations. Other causes are due to drugs that suppress gastric acid production. Neurological signs of vitamin B12 deficiency can occur in patients with a normal haematocrit and red cell indices. They include paresthesia, loss of sensation and strength in the limbs, and ataxia. Reflexes may be slowed down or increased. Romberg and Babinsky signs may be positive, and vibration and position sensitivity often decreases. Behavoural disorders range from irritability and memory loss to severe dementia. The symptoms often do not fully respond to treatment. A case is presented of an isolated vitamin B12 deficiency in 27 year-old female patient who was seen in primary health care. During anamnesis she mentioned low back pain, to which she attributed the loss of strength and tenderness in the right side of the body, as well as the slow and progressive onset of accompanied headache for the previous 4 days. PMID:23834987

  12. Cobalamin and Folate Evaluation: Measurement of Methylmalonic Acid and Homocysteine vs Vitamin B12 and Folate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George G. Klee

    2000-01-01

    Vitamin B12 and folate are two vitamins that have interdependent roles in nucleic acid synthesis. Deficien- cies of either vitamin can cause megaloblastic anemia; however, inappropriate treatment of B12 deficiency with folate can cause irreversible nerve degeneration. Inade- quate folate nutrition during early pregnancy can cause neural tube defects in the developing fetus. In addition, folate and vitamin B12 deficiency

  13. Folate–vitamin B-12 interaction in relation to cognitive impairment, anemia, and biochemical indicators of vitamin B-12 deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous reports on pernicious anemia treatment suggested that high folic acid intake adversely influences the natural history of vitamin B-12 deficiency, which affects many elderly individuals. However, experimental investigation of this hypothesis is unethical, and the few existing observational d...

  14. [Stability of folic acid and vitamin B12 in TPN].

    PubMed

    Almodóvar, M J; Hernández Jaras, M V; León-Sanz, M; Ortuño, B; Estenoz, J; Negro Vega, E; Marfagón, N; Herreros de Tejada, A

    1991-01-01

    The stability of folic acid (FA) in mixtures of Total Parenteral Nutrition has been and is a controversial subject, with discussion concerning the influence of factors such as temperature, light and storage time. As regards the stability of the vitamin B12, there are few studies in scientific literature. For all those reasons, we consider it necessary to make a proper study to evaluate the influence of different factors in the stability of both vitamins. The study was made on 3 liter TPN bags of the EVA type, the composition of which was as follows: AA (85g), glucosa (225g), fat (50g), Na (86mEq), K (60 mEq), Ca (15 mEq), Cl (90 mEq), P (17 mmol) acetate (149 mEq) and 10 ml of MVI-12 which contain 400 micrograms of PA and 5 micrograms of Vitamin B 12. Consideration was also given to the stability of these two vitamins in the same diet, to which were added 10 ml of a commercial preparation of oligo-elements. Six TPN bags were prepared (without oligo-elements); two of them were kept in a fridge and protected from the light, two were kept at room temperature and protected from the light and the other two at room temperature without protection from the light. Samples were taken from all the bags immediately after their preparation and after 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The same process was carried with other TPN bags which did contain oligo-elements. The method for determining FA and Vitamin B12 was by radioassay.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1764534

  15. Glossitis with linear lesions: an early sign of vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Graells, Jordi; Ojeda, Rosa Maria; Muniesa, Cristina; Gonzalez, Jesus; Saavedra, Jose

    2009-03-01

    The classic oral manifestations of vitamin B(12) deficiency are considered nonspecific. We describe 4 patients with oral linear lesions associated with vitamin B(12) deficiency. Patients were free of neurologic symptoms and anemia at diagnosis. We believe that glossitis with linear lesions is an early clinical sign of vitamin B(12) deficiency. We recommend the determination of vitamin B(12) in such patients, even in the absence of anemia. PMID:19231648

  16. Dose-response effects of long-acting injectable vitamin B12 plus selenium (Se) on the vitamin B12 and Se status of ewes and their lambs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ND Grace; SO Knowles

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of increasing doses of long-acting injectable vitamin B12 plus selenium (Se) given pre-mating on the vitamin B12 and Se status of ewes and their lambs from birth to weaning.METHODS: Four groups of 24 Poll Dorset ewes each were injected 4 weeks pre-mating with different doses of a long-acting vitamin B12 + Se product, containing 3

  17. Folate, vitamin B12 and postmenopausal breast cancer in a prospective study of French women.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Folate, vitamin B12 and postmenopausal breast cancer in a prospective study of French women. Martin and examine whether the relation is affected by alcohol and intake of vitamin B2 and B12. Methods intake. The decreasing trend was most marked in women with higher folate and vitamin B12 intake. However

  18. Vitamin B12 Activity of Chlorella vulgaris Beij and Anabaena cylindrical Lemm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Brown; W. F. J. Cuthbertson; G. E. FOGG

    1956-01-01

    MICROBIOLOGICAL tests by means of vitamin B12-dependent bacteria and Euglena gracilis have shown that higher plants contain only traces (less than 1 µgm. per 100 gm. dry weight) of vitamin B12, whereas microbiological activity corresponding to 10-50 µgm. vitamin B12 per 100 gm. dry weight has been reported in a number of algae.

  19. Genome-wide Association Study of Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Folate,

    E-print Network

    Abecasis, Goncalo

    ) with vitamin B12 serum levels. The association of MTHFR, a gene consistently associated with homocysteine is the 677T)C (rs1801133) in exon 5 of the 5,10-methylenete- trahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR [MIM 607093 to MTHFR, genetic variations in other genes have been linked to B vitamin and homocys- teine concentrations

  20. Biologically active vitamin B12 compounds in foods for preventing deficiency among vegetarians and elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Tanioka, Yuri; Bito, Tomohiro

    2013-07-17

    The usual dietary sources of vitamin B12 are animal-source based foods, including meat, milk, eggs, fish, and shellfish, although a few plant-based foods such as certain types of dried lavers (nori) and mushrooms contain substantial and considerable amounts of vitamin B12, respectively. Unexpectedly, detailed characterization of vitamin B12 compounds in foods reveals the presence of various corrinoids that are inactive in humans. The majority of edible blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) and certain edible shellfish predominately contain an inactive corrinoid known as pseudovitamin B12. Various factors affect the bioactivity of vitamin B12 in foods. For example, vitamin B12 is partially degraded and loses its biological activity during cooking and storage of foods. The intrinsic factor-mediated gastrointestinal absorption system in humans has evolved to selectively absorb active vitamin B12 from naturally occurring vitamin B12 compounds, including its degradation products and inactive corrinoids that are present in daily meal foods. The objective of this review is to present up-to-date information on various factors that can affect the bioactivity of vitamin B12 in foods. To prevent vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians and elderly subjects, it is necessary to identify plant-source foods that contain high levels of bioactive vitamin B12 and, in conjunction, to prepare the use of crystalline vitamin B12-fortified foods. PMID:23782218

  1. Combined dietary folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 intake influences plasma docosahexaenoic acid concentration in rats

    E-print Network

    van Wijk, Nick

    Background: Folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 are essential nutritional components in one-carbon metabolism and are required for methylation capacity. The availability of these vitamins may therefore modify methylation ...

  2. Vitamin B-12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia are partly ameliorated by cobalt and nickel supplementation in pigs.

    PubMed

    Stangl, G I; Roth-Maier, D A; Kirchgessner, M

    2000-12-01

    Vitamin B-12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia alter the metabolism of trace elements. This study tested the hypothesis that there is a reverse relationship in which diets high in iron, copper, nickel and cobalt would influence vitamin B-12 deficiency outcomes including hyperhomocysteinemia. Piglets (German Landrace x Pietrain) were assigned to six groups of 8 and fed one of the following diets for 166 d: a vitamin B-12-adequate and folate-fortified diet (30 microg/kg vitamin B-12 and 0.5 mg/kg folate) with normal trace element concentrations or one of five vitamin B-12-free, folate nonsupplemented diets (0.36 mg/kg), with either normal trace element concentrations or high concentrations of iron (300 mg/kg), copper (30 mg/kg), cobalt (1 mg/kg) or nickel (6 mg/kg). Feed intake and weight gain did not differ significantly among the groups. Vitamin B-12-deficient pigs developed diminished serum and liver concentrations of vitamin B-12 and folate, an accumulation of iron in the liver and hyperhomocysteinemia. The magnitude of changes differed among vitamin B-12-deficient groups. Vitamin B-12-deficient pigs fed 6 mg/kg nickel had distinctly higher vitamin B-12 concentrations in liver and serum and 45% lower serum concentration of homocysteine than the corresponding deficiency group fed 1 mg/kg nickel; iron concentration in liver was completely normalized. Vitamin B-12-deficient pigs fed 1 mg/kg cobalt had 47% lower homocysteine concentrations in serum than the vitamin B-12-deficient group fed 0.13 mg/kg cobalt, but the vitamin B-12 status was unaffected. Supplementation of iron and copper did not affect these variables. The dietary manipulations had no detrimental effects on variables symptomatic of oxidative stress. The findings indicate a collaborative relationship between vitamin B-12 metabolism and the trace elements nickel and cobalt. PMID:11110865

  3. Breast milk vitamin B-12 concentrations of Guatemalan women are correlated with maternal but not infant vitamin B12 status at 12 months postpartum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our previous studies one third of lactating Guatemalan women, infants and children had deficient or marginal serum vitamin B-12 concentrations. Relationships among maternal and infant status and breast milk vitamin B-12, however, have not been investigated in such populations. Our purpose was to ...

  4. VITAMIN B-12 SUPPLEMENTATION OF DEFICIENT LACTATING GUATEMALAN WOMEN IMPROVES MATERNAL BUT NOT INFANT STATUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin B-12 deficiency is common in mothers and infants where maternal intake of animals source foods is low. The first six months post-partum is a critical period of neurological development requiring vitamin B-12. A pilot study was designed to determine the dose of B-12 to the mothers that would ...

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Direct exchange of vitamin B12 is demonstrated by

    E-print Network

    Cicuta, Pietro

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Direct exchange of vitamin B12 is demonstrated by modelling the growth dynamics Mesorhizobium loti supplies vitamin B12 (cobalamin) to the freshwater green alga Lobomonas rostrata, which of all microalgae are dependent on an exogenous source of cobalamin for growth, and this vitamin

  6. Insights into the Evolution of Vitamin B12 Auxotrophy from Sequenced Algal Genomes

    E-print Network

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    Insights into the Evolution of Vitamin B12 Auxotrophy from Sequenced Algal Genomes Katherine E Abstract Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a dietary requirement for humans because it is an essential cofactor microalgal species need the vitamin as a growth supplement, but there is no phylogenetic relationship between

  7. Vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly: is it worth screening?

    PubMed

    Wong, C W

    2015-04-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common among the elderly. Elderly people are particularly at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency because of the high prevalence of atrophic gastritis-associated food-cobalamin (vitamin B12) malabsorption, and the increasing prevalence of pernicious anaemia with advancing age. The deficiency most often goes unrecognised because the clinical manifestations are highly variable, often subtle and non-specific, but if left undiagnosed the consequences can be serious. Diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency, however, is not straightforward as laboratory tests have certain limitations. Setting a cut-off level to define serum vitamin B12 deficiency is difficult; though homocysteine and methylmalonic acid are more sensitive for vitamin B12 deficiency, it may give false result in some conditions and the reference intervals are not standardised. At present, there is no consensus or guideline for diagnosis of this deficiency. It is most often based on the clinical symptoms together with laboratory assessment (low serum vitamin B12 level and elevated serum homocysteine or methylmalonic acid level) and the response to treatment to make definitive diagnosis. Treatment and replacement with oral vitamin B12 can be as effective as parenteral administration even in patients with pernicious anaemia. The suggested oral vitamin B12 dose is 1 mg daily for a month, and then maintenance dose of 125 to 250 µg for patients with dietary insufficiency and 1 mg daily for those with pernicious anaemia. Vitamin B12 replacement is safe and without side-effects, but prompt treatment is required to reverse the damage before it becomes extensive or irreversible. At present, there is no recommendation for mass screening for vitamin B12 in the elderly. Nevertheless, the higher prevalence with age, increasing risk of vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly, symptoms being difficult to recognise, and availability of safe treatment options make screening a favourable option. However, the unavailability of reliable diagnostic tool or gold standard test makes screening difficult to carry out. PMID:25756278

  8. Persistence of neurological damage induced by dietary vitamin B12 deficiency in infancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ursula von Schenck; Christine Bender-Götze; Berthold Koletzko

    1997-01-01

    A case is reported of a 14 month old boy with severe dietary vitamin B-12 deficiency caused by his mother’s vegan diet. Cinical, electroencephalography (EEG), and haematological findings are described. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed severe frontal and frontoparietal cranial atrophy. Vitamin B-12 supplements led to a rapid improvement of haematological and neurological symptoms. Serum vitamin B-12 and urinary

  9. Homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 in patients receiving antiepileptic drug monotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsunenobu Tamura; Kenji Aiso; Kelley E Johnston; Lori Black; Edward Faught

    2000-01-01

    We hypothesized that elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations (hyperhomocysteinemia) exist in patients receiving antiepileptic drugs (AED), and a long-term administration of AED may result in an increased risk of occlusive vascular disease in these patients. A total of 62 patients who received AED monotherapy (phenytoin, lamotrigine, carbamazepine or valproate) participated in this study. Blood concentrations of homocysteine, folate, vitamin B-12 and

  10. Maximal Load of the Vitamin B12 Transport System: A Study on Mice Treated for Four Weeks with High-Dose Vitamin B12 or Cobinamide

    PubMed Central

    Lildballe, Dorte L.; Mutti, Elena; Birn, Henrik; Nexo, Ebba

    2012-01-01

    Several studies suggest that the vitamin B12 (B12) transport system can be used for the cellular delivery of B12-conjugated drugs, also in long-term treatment Whether this strategy will affect the endogenous metabolism of B12 is not known. To study the effect of treatment with excess B12 or an inert derivative, we established a mouse model using implanted osmotic minipumps to deliver saline, cobinamide (Cbi) (4.25 nmol/h), or B12 (1.75 nmol/h) for 27 days (n?=?7 in each group). B12 content and markers of B12 metabolism were analysed in plasma, urine, kidney, liver, and salivary glands. Both Cbi and B12 treatment saturated the transcobalamin protein in mouse plasma. Cbi decreased the content of B12 in tissues to 33–50% of the level in control animals but did not influence any of the markers examined. B12 treatment increased the tissue B12 level up to 350%. In addition, the transcript levels for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in kidneys and for transcobalamin and transcobalamin receptor in the salivary glands were reduced. Our study confirms the feasibility of delivering drugs through the B12 transport system but emphasises that B12 status should be monitored because there is a risk of decreasing the transport of endogenous B12. This risk may lead to B12 deficiency during prolonged treatment. PMID:23049711

  11. Maximal load of the vitamin B12 transport system: a study on mice treated for four weeks with high-dose vitamin B12 or cobinamide.

    PubMed

    Lildballe, Dorte L; Mutti, Elena; Birn, Henrik; Nexo, Ebba

    2012-01-01

    Several studies suggest that the vitamin B12 (B12) transport system can be used for the cellular delivery of B12-conjugated drugs, also in long-term treatment Whether this strategy will affect the endogenous metabolism of B12 is not known. To study the effect of treatment with excess B12 or an inert derivative, we established a mouse model using implanted osmotic minipumps to deliver saline, cobinamide (Cbi) (4.25 nmol/h), or B12 (1.75 nmol/h) for 27 days (n = 7 in each group). B12 content and markers of B12 metabolism were analysed in plasma, urine, kidney, liver, and salivary glands. Both Cbi and B12 treatment saturated the transcobalamin protein in mouse plasma. Cbi decreased the content of B12 in tissues to 33-50% of the level in control animals but did not influence any of the markers examined. B12 treatment increased the tissue B12 level up to 350%. In addition, the transcript levels for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in kidneys and for transcobalamin and transcobalamin receptor in the salivary glands were reduced. Our study confirms the feasibility of delivering drugs through the B12 transport system but emphasises that B12 status should be monitored because there is a risk of decreasing the transport of endogenous B12. This risk may lead to B12 deficiency during prolonged treatment. PMID:23049711

  12. Vitamin B12 deficiency & levels of metabolites in an apparently normal urban south Indian elderly population

    PubMed Central

    Shobha, Vineeta; Tarey, Subhash D.; Singh, Ramya G.; Shetty, Priya; Unni, Uma S.; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Kurpad, Anura V.

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: There is no published literature on the extent of vitamin B12 deficiency in elderly Indians as determined by plasma vitamin B12 levels and methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels. Vitamin B12 deficiency is expected to be higher in elderly Indians due to vegetarianism, varied socio-economic strata and high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection. We therefore, studied the dietary habits of south Indian urban elderly population and measured vitamin B12, MMA red cell folate and homocysteine (Hcy) levels. Methods: Healthy elderly urban subjects (175, >60 yr) were recruited. Detailed history, physical examination and neurological assessment were carried out. Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) for dietary analysis for daily intake of calories, vitamin B12, folate and detailed psychological assessment for cognitive functions was carried out. Blood samples were analyzed for routine haematology and biochemistry, vitamin B12, red cell folate, MMA and Hcy. Results: The mean age of the study population was 66.3 yr. Median values for daily dietary intake of vitamin B12 and folate were 2.4 and 349.2 ?g/day respectively. Sixty two (35%) participants consumed multivitamin supplements. Plasma vitamin B12 level and the dietary intake of vitamin B12 was significantly correlated (P=0.157). Plasma vitamin B12 and Hcy were inversely correlated (P= -0.509). Red cell folate was inversely correlated with Hcy (P= -0.550). Significant negative correlation was observed between plasma vitamin B12 and MMA in the entire study population (P= -0.220). Subjects consuming vitamin supplements (n=62) had significantly higher plasma vitamin B12 levels, lower MMA levels and lower Hcy levels. There was no significant correlation between plasma vitamin B12, MMA, Hcy and red cell folate and any of the 10 cognitive tests including Hindi Mental Status Examination (HMSE). Interpretation & conclusions: Our study is indicative of higher vitamin B12 (2.4 ?g/day) intakes in urban south Indian population. Thirty five per cent of the study population consumed multivitamin supplements and therefore, low plasma vitamin B12 levels were seen only in 16 per cent of the study subjects. However, MMA was elevated in 55 per cent and Hcy in 13 per cent of the subjects. PMID:22089603

  13. Competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND Few accurate data exist on the concentration of vitamin B12 in human milk. Binding of the vitamin to haptocorrin (HC) can interfere with the assay if not removed by pretreatment, and very low values can occur in women with poor B12 status. This study evaluated two competitive enzyme bind...

  14. Vitamin B12 deficiency: a case report of ongoing cutaneous hyperpigmentation.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Cindy F; Palmer, Debbie M; Papadopoulos, Dimitria

    2003-02-01

    We describe an interesting case of a man with recurrent cutaneous and hematologic manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency. In this deficiency, the skin, central nervous system, blood, and blood-forming tissues are commonly involved. We describe an overview of vitamin B12 deficiency and the successful treatment of a patient's ongoing cutaneous hyperpigmentation. PMID:12635892

  15. Vitamin B-12 and homocysteine status among vegetarians: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Singer, Ingrid

    2009-05-01

    Evidence exists that well-planned vegetarian diets provide numerous health benefits and are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle. It is also known that animal foods provide micronutrients that are nonexistent or available only in limited amounts in plant foods. Restriction or exclusion of all animal foods may therefore result in low intake of certain micronutrients such as vitamin B-12, thereby affecting vitamin B-12 status and elevating plasma homocysteine concentrations. Overall, the studies we reviewed showed reduced mean vitamin B-12 status and elevated mean homocysteine concentrations in vegetarians, particularly among vegans. Low vitamin B-12 intake may lead to decreased bioavailability and functional deficiency of cobalamin. Although early noticeable symptoms of vitamin B-12 deficiency are nonspecific (unusual fatigue, digestion problems, frequent upper respiratory infections), the best-known clinical manifestations of cobalamin malabsorption are hematologic (pernicious anemia) and neurologic symptoms. Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Given these health concerns, vegetarians, particularly vegans, must be advised to carefully plan their diets, to monitor their plasma vitamin B-12 on a regular basis to facilitate early detection of low cobalamin status, and to use vitamin B-12-fortified foods or take vitamin B-12 supplements if necessary. PMID:19357223

  16. Complications of dietary deficiency of Vitamin B12 in young Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Gleeson, M. H.; Graves, P. S.

    1974-01-01

    The occurrence of dietary deficiency of Vitamin B12 is reported in two young caucasian adults. In one case megaloblastic anaemia occurred and in the other optic atrophy. The importance of the dietary history, the significance of folic acid intake and the inter-relationship of Vitamin B12 and cyanide detoxication are discussed. PMID:4469036

  17. Intestinal synthesis and absorption of vitamin B-12 in channel catfish

    SciTech Connect

    Limsuwan, T.; Lovell, R.T.

    1981-12-01

    A feeding experiment conducted in a controlled environment and using a vitamin B12-deficient, but otherwise nutritionally complete, purified diet revealed that intestinal microorganisms in channel catfish synthesized approximately 1.4 ng of vitamin B12 per gram of bodyweight per day. Removal of cobalt from the diet or supplementation with an antibiotic (succinylsulfathiazole) significantly reduced the rate of intestinal synthesis and liver stores of vitamin B12. Radiolabeled vitamin B12 in the blood, liver, kidneys, and spleen of fish fed 60Co in the diet indicated that the intestinally synthesized vitamin was absorbed by the fish. The primary route of absorption was directly from the digestive tract into the blood because coprophagy was prevented in the rearing aquariums and the amount of vitamin B12 dissolved in the aquarium water was too low for gill absorption. Dietary supplementation of vitamin B12 was not necessary for normal growth and erythrocyte formation in channel catfish in a 24-week feeding period. A longer period, however, may have caused a vitamin deficiency since liver-stored vitamin B 12 decreased between the 2nd and 24th weeks.

  18. Persistence of neurological damage induced by dietary vitamin B-12 deficiency in infancy.

    PubMed

    von Schenck, U; Bender-Götze, C; Koletzko, B

    1997-08-01

    A case is reported of a 14 month old boy with severe dietary vitamin B-12 deficiency caused by his mother's vegan diet. Clinical, electroencephalography (EEG), and haematological findings are described. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed severe frontal and frontoparietal cranial atrophy. Vitamin B-12 supplements led to a rapid improvement of haematological and neurological symptoms. Serum vitamin B-12 and urinary methylmalonate excretion were normal 10 days after treatment began. After six weeks, EEG was normal and cranial MRI after 10 weeks showed complete disappearance of all structural abnormalities. Cognitive and language development, however, remained seriously retarded at the age of 2 years. It is concluded that infantile vitamin B-12 deficiency induced by maternal vegan diets may cause lasting neurodisability even though vitamin B-12 supplementation leads to rapid resolution of cerebral atrophy and electroencephalographic abnormality. PMID:9301352

  19. Genetic disorders of vitamin B12 metabolism: eight complementation groups – eight genes

    PubMed Central

    Froese, D. Sean; Gravel, Roy A.

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) is an essential nutrient in human metabolism. Genetic diseases of vitamin B12 utilisation constitute an important fraction of inherited newborn disease. Functionally, B12 is the cofactor for methionine synthase and methylmalonyl CoA mutase. To function as a cofactor, B12 must be metabolised through a complex pathway that modifies its structure and takes it through subcellular compartments of the cell. Through the study of inherited disorders of vitamin B12 utilisation, the genes for eight complementation groups have been identified, leading to the determination of the general structure of vitamin B12 processing and providing methods for carrier testing, prenatal diagnosis and approaches to treatment. PMID:21114891

  20. Vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids together regulate lipid metabolism in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2015-08-01

    Our recent study indicates that maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid status influence plasma and erythrocyte fatty acid profile in dams. The present study examines the effects of prenatal and postnatal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid status on lipid metabolism in the offspring. Pregnant dams were divided into five groups: Control; Vitamin B12 deficient (BD); Vitamin B12 supplemented (BS); Vitamin B12 deficient group supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids (BDO); Vitamin B12 supplemented group with omega-3 fatty acids (BSO). The offspring were continued on the same diets till 3 month of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency increased cholesterol levels (p<0.01) but reduced docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (p<0.05), liver mRNA levels of acetyl CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC-1) (p<0.05) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) (p<0.01) in the offspring. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to this group normalized cholesterol but not mRNA levels of ACC-1 and CPT-1. Vitamin B12 supplementation normalized the levels cholesterol to that of control but increased plasma triglyceride (p<0.01) and reduced liver mRNA levels of adiponectin, ACC-1, and CPT-1 (p<0.01 for all). Supplementation of both vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid normalized triglyceride and mRNA levels of all the above genes. Prenatal and postnatal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids together play a crucial role in regulating the genes involved in lipid metabolism in adult offspring. PMID:26003565

  1. Long-term ovo-lacto vegetarian diet impairs vitamin B-12 status in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Koebnick, Corinna; Hoffmann, Ingrid; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Heins, Ulrike A; Wickramasinghe, Sunitha N; Ratnayaka, Indrika D; Gruendel, Sindy; Lindemans, Jan; Leitzmann, Claus

    2004-12-01

    A well-planned vegetarian diet has been stated to be adequate during pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to compare serum vitamin B-12 and homocysteine concentrations in pregnant women (n = 109) consuming vegetarian and Western diets and to evaluate the adequacy of current dietary reference intakes of vitamin B-12 for these women. Pregnant women adhering to vegetarian diets for at least 3 y, with subgroups of ovo-lacto vegetarians (OLVs; n = 27), low-meat eaters (LME, n = 43), and women eating an average Western diet (control group, n = 39), were recruited. Dietary vitamin B-12 intake, serum vitamin B-12, and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations were measured in wk 9-12, 20-22, and 36-38 of pregnancy. During pregnancy serum vitamin B-12 concentrations of ovo-lacto vegetarians (P < 0.001) and low-meat eaters (P = 0.050) were lower than those of the control group. We observed the combination of low serum vitamin B-12 concentrations and elevated plasma tHcy in 22% of ovo-lacto vegetarians, in 10% of low-meat eaters, and in 3% of controls (P = 0.003). In OLVs, serum vitamin B-12 predicted 60% of the plasma tHcy variation (P < 0.001), but in LMEs and controls only <10% (NS). Serum vitamin B-12 concentrations increased and plasma tHcy decreased sharply with increasing dietary intake of vitamin B-12 toward a cutoff point of 3 mug/d. Pregnant women consuming a long-term predominantly vegetarian diet have an increased risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency. Current recommended dietary intakes urgently need reevaluation. PMID:15570032

  2. The use of blood concentrations of vitamins and their respective functional indicators to define folate and vitamin B12 status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years there has been growing interest in the vitamins folic acid and vitamin B12 because of the realization that the status of these vitamins in populations is less than adequate, and that such inadequacy may be linked to adverse public health outcomes. This concern has prompted the United...

  3. Vitamin B12 Status in Children with Cystic Fibrosis and Pancreatic Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Maqbool, Asim; Schall, Joan I.; Mascarenhas, Maria R.; Dougherty, Kelly A.; Stallings, Virginia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Unexpectedly high serum B12 concentrations were noted in most study subjects with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) participating in a nutrition intervention at the baseline evaluation. The objectives of this study were to determine dietary, supplement-based and enzyme-based B12 intake, serum B12 concentrations, and predictors of vitamin B12 status in children with CF and PI. Study Design Serum B12 status was assessed in subjects (5-18 yrs) and categorized as elevated (Hi-B12) or within reference range (RR-B12) for age and sex. Serum homocysteine, plasma B6, red blood cell folate, height, weight, and body mass index Z scores, pulmonary function, energy, dietary and supplement-based vitamin intake were assessed. Results 106 subjects, mean age 10.4 ± 3.0 years participated. Median serum B12 was 1083 pg/ml, with 56% in the Hi-B12 group. Dietary and supplement-based B12 intake were both high representing 376% and 667% Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). The Hi-B12 group had significantly greater supplement-based B12 intake than the RR-B12 group (1000 vs. 583% RDA, p<0.001). By multiple logistic regression analysis, high supplement-based B12 intake and age >12 years increased risk for Hi-B12, while higher FEV1 decreased risk (Pseudo-R2=0.18, P<0.001). Conclusions Serum B12 was elevated in the majority of children with CF and PI. Supplement-based B12 intake was 6 to 10 times the RDA, and strongly predicted elevated serum B12 status. The health consequences of lifelong high supplement-based B12 intake and high serum B12 are unknown and require further study, as does the inversed correlation between serum B12 and FEV1. PMID:24445504

  4. Über das Vitamin B 12 -Bedürfnis phototropher Schwefelbakterien

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norbert Pfennig; Klaus Dieter Lippert

    1966-01-01

    1.10 von 19 Chlorobium-Stämmen, die mit einer Vit. B12-haltigen Nährlösung aus verschiedenen Gewässern in Kalifornien, Norwegen und Deutschland isoliert waren, erwiesen sich als Vit. B12-bedürftig.2.Bei Vit. B12-bedürftigen Chlorobium- und Chromatium-Stämmen wurde der Chlorophyllgehalt der Kulturen in Abhängigkeit von der Vit. B12-Konzentration quantitativ bestimmt. Zur Bildung vergleichbarer Erträge benötigten alle untersuchten Chlorobium-Stämme gegenüber den Chromatium-Stämmen etwa zehnmal höhere Vit. B12-Konzentrationen.3.Der Vergleich

  5. Most harmful algal bloom species are vitamin B1 and B12 auxotrophs.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ying Zhong; Koch, Florian; Gobler, Christopher J

    2010-11-30

    Eutrophication can play a central role in promoting harmful algal blooms (HABs), and therefore many HAB studies to date have focused on macronutrients (N, P, Si). Although a majority of algal species require exogenous B vitamins (i.e., auxotrophic for B vitamins), the possible importance of organic micronutrients such as B vitamins (B(1), B(7), B(12)) in regulating HABs has rarely been considered. Prior investigations of vitamins and algae have examined a relatively small number of dinoflagellates (n = 26) and a paucity of HAB species (n = 4). In the present study, the vitamin B(1), B(7), and B(12) requirements of 41 strains of 27 HAB species (19 dinoflagellates) were investigated. All but one species (two strains) of harmful algae surveyed required vitamin B(12), 20 of 27 species required B(1), and 10 of 27 species required B(7), all proportions higher than the previously reported for non-HAB species. Half-saturation (K(s)) constants of several HAB species for B(1) and B(12) were higher than those previously reported for other phytoplankton and similar to vitamin concentrations reported in estuaries. Cellular quotas for vitamins suggest that, in some cases, HAB demands for vitamins may exhaust standing stocks of vitamins in hours to days. The sum of these findings demonstrates the potentially significant ecological role of B-vitamins in regulating the dynamics of HABs. PMID:21068377

  6. Vitamin B12 could be a "master key" in the regulation of multiple pathological processes.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Ilia; Press, Yan; Rudoy, Inna

    2006-04-01

    Multifunctional systems must maintain homeostasis. Man is an ideal example of a system that constantly aspires to attain optimal regulation, even under the stress of severe disease. We assume that there are universal, interchangeable (as required) biologically active substances that regulate the system and try to keep it in balance. We propose that one of these substances is vitamin B12. Why vitamin B12? The list of organs and body systems in which vitamin B12 plays a functional role is constantly being added to. Vitamin B12 affects the normal growth of children, the peripheral and central nervous systems, bone marrow, skin, mucous membranes, bones, and vessels. It is possible that even when the serum cobalamin level is normal, treatment with vitamin B12 could correct defects caused by other biologically active substances. We call this phenomenon the "Master Key" effect. We suggest that this "Master Key" concept can be tested by treating diseases, such as recurrent stomatitis, various forms of hyperpigmentation, trophic ulcers, and burns, with vitamin B12, even if the B12 serum level is normal. PMID:16641529

  7. FRACTION OF TOTAL PLASMA VITAMIN B12 BOUND TO TRANSCOBALAMIN CORRELATES WITH COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN ELDERLY LATINOS WITH DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The fraction of total plasma vitamin B12 bound to transcobalamin (holoTC/B12 ratio) may reflect tissue levels of the vitamin, but its clinical relevance is unclear. Methods: associations between cognitive function and total B12, holoTC, and holoTC/B12 ratio were assessed in a cohort of ...

  8. Circulating antibody to transcobalamin II causing retention of vitamin B12 in the blood.

    PubMed

    Carmel, R; Tatsis, B; Baril, L

    1977-06-01

    A patient with recurrent pulmonary abscess, weight loss, and alcoholism was found to have extremely high serum vitamin B12 and unsaturated vitamin B12-binding capacity (UBBC) levels. While transcobalamin (TC) II was also increased, most of his UBBC was due to an abnormal binding protein which carried greater than 80% of the endogenous vitamin B12 and was not found in his saliva, granulocytes, or urine. This protein was shown to be a complex of TC II and a circulating immunoglobulin (IgGkappa and IgGlambda). Each IgG molecule appeared to bind two TC II molecules. The reacting site did not interfere with the ability of TC II to bind vitamin B12, but did interfere with its ability to transfer the vitamin to cells in vitro. The site was not identical to that reacting with anti-human TC II antibody produced in rabbits. Because of this abnormal complex, 57Co-vitamin B12 injected intravenously was cleared slowly by the patient. However, no metabolic evidence for vitamin B12 deficiency was demonstrable, although the patient initially had megaloblastic anemia apparently due to folate deficiency. The course of the vitamin B12-binding abnormalities was followed over 4 yr and appeared to fluctuate with the status of the patient's illness. The IgG-TC II complex resembled one induced in some patients with pernicious anemia by intensive treatment with long-acting vitamin B12 preparations. The mechanism of induction of the antibody formation in our patient is unknown. PMID:861380

  9. Breakfast cereal fortified with folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 increases vitamin concentrations and reduces homocysteine concentrations: a randomized trial1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine L Tucker; Beth Olson; Peter Bakun; Gerard E Dallal; Jacob Selhub; Irwin H Rosenberg

    Background: High homocysteine and low B vitamin concentrations have been linked to the risk of vascular disease, stroke, and dementia and are relatively common in older adults. Objective: We assessed the effect of breakfast cereal fortified with folic acid, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 on vitamin and homocys- teine status. Design: A randomized, double-blind trial was conducted in 189 volunteers

  10. Vitamin B-12, serum folate, and cognitive change between 11 and 79 years 

    E-print Network

    Starr, John M; Pattie, Alison; Whiteman, Martha C; Deary, Ian J; Whalley, Lawrence J

    2005-01-01

    A recent Cochrane review reported that although vitamin B-12 deficiency is known to be associated with cognitive impairment in old age, benefits of supplementation on mental ability are unclear. The situation is similar ...

  11. Pigmentation in vitamin B12 deficiency masquerading Addison's pigmentation: A rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Agrawala, Ritesh Kumar; Sahoo, Srikanta Kumar; Choudhury, Arun Kumar; Mohanty, Binoy Kumar; Baliarsinha, Anoj Kumar

    2013-10-01

    A 35-year-female presented with generalized weakness, weight loss, and progressive pigmentation was worked up for suspicion of Addisons disease. On examination hyper pigmentation was noted on both palmar and dorsal aspect of hands involving knuckles, creases, feet, tongue, oral mucosa and gluteal region. There was no evidence of hypocortisolemia as initially suspected, and literature search revealed a possibility of vitamin B12 deficiency. She had megaloblastic anemia with a low serum vitamin B12, mostly due to poor dietary intake. Her hyper pigmentation resolved with vitamin B12 supplementation. Skin biopsy showed increased pigmentation at stratum spinosum and basal-layer. The mechanism of hyper pigmentation in vitamin B12 deficiency was due to an increase in melanin synthesis. PMID:24251178

  12. Cerebral atrophy in a vitamin B12-deficient infant of a vegetarian mother.

    PubMed

    Kocaoglu, Celebi; Akin, Fatih; Caksen, Hüseyin; Böke, Saltuk Bu?ra; Arslan, Sükrü; Aygün, Serhat

    2014-06-01

    In developed countries, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency usually occurs in children, exclusively breastfed ones whose mothers are vegetarian, causing low body stores of vitamin B12. The haematologic manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anaemia. It is a megaloblastic anaemia with high mean corpuscular volume and typical morphological features, such as hyperlobulation of the nuclei of the granulocytes. In advanced cases, neutropaenia and thrombocytopaenia can occur, simulating aplastic anaemia or leukaemia. In addition to haematological symptoms, infants may experience weakness, fatigue, failure to thrive, and irritability. Other common findings include pallor, glossitis, vomiting, diarrhoea, and icterus. Neurological symptoms may affect the central nervous system and, in severe cases, rarely cause brain atrophy. Here, we report an interesting case, a 12-month old infant, who was admitted with neurological symptoms and diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:25076673

  13. Prevalent vitamin B-12 deficiency in twelve-month-old Guatemalan infants is predicted by maternal B-12 deficiency and infant diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marginal (<148 pmol/L) or deficient (148-220 pmol/L) plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations were reported previously in approximately one third of low-income women and children studied in Guatemala. Since vitamin B-12 deficiency can adversely affect infant development and cognitive function, this study ...

  14. Vitamin B12-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles as a drug carrier in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Genç, Lütfi; Kutlu, H Mehtap; Güney, Gamze

    2015-05-01

    Nanostructure-mediated drug delivery, a key technology for the realization of nanomedicine, has the potential to improve drug bioavailability, ameliorate release deviation of drug molecules and enable precision drug targeting. Due to their multifunctional properties, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have received great attention of scientists to find a solution to cancer. Vitamin supplements may contribute to a reduction in the risk of cancer. Vitamin B12 has several characteristics that make it an attractive entity for cancer treatment and possible therapeutic applications. The aim of this study was to produce B12-loaded SLNs (B12-SLNs) and determine the cytotoxic effects of B12-SLNs on H-Ras 5RP7 and NIH/3T3 control cell line. Results obtained by MTT assay, transmission electron and confocal microscopy showed that B12-loaded SLNs are more effective than free vitamin B12 on cancer cells. In addition, characterization studies indicate that while the average diameter of the B12 was about 650?nm, B12-SLNs were about 200?nm and the drug release efficiency of vit. B12 by means of SLNs increased up to 3?h. These observations point to the fact that B12-SLNs could be used as carrier systems due to the therapeutic?effects on cancer. PMID:24344935

  15. LMBRD1 : the gene for the cblF defect of vitamin B 12 metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Rutsch; Susann Gailus; Terttu Suormala; Brian Fowler

    2011-01-01

    To date, only very few genetic disorders due to defects in lysosomal membrane transport are known. This paper reviews the\\u000a identification of the underlying molecular defect causing an intriguing inborn error of vitamin B12 metabolism, namely, defective lysosomal release of vitamin B12 (cblF defect). Using microcell-mediated chromosome transfer of wild-type human chromosomes into immortalized fibroblasts\\u000a from a cblF patient and

  16. Brief report: childhood disintegrative disorder as a likely manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Savita; Subodh, B N; Parakh, Preeti; Lahariya, Sanjay

    2013-09-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder is a rare disorder, characterized by regression of acquired skills after a period of normal development. The case of childhood disintegrative disorder presented here was found to have vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia on extensive evaluation to find a probable cause for regression. This case illustrates the need for a thorough evaluation of all cases of childhood disintegrative disorder so that treatable causes of regression, like vitamin B12 deficiency, are not missed. PMID:23334842

  17. Vitamin B12 modulates the transcriptome of the skin microbiota in acne pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dezhi; Shi, Baochen; Erfe, Marie C; Craft, Noah; Li, Huiying

    2015-06-24

    Various diseases have been linked to the human microbiota, but the underlying molecular mechanisms of the microbiota in disease pathogenesis are often poorly understood. Using acne as a disease model, we aimed to understand the molecular response of the skin microbiota to host metabolite signaling in disease pathogenesis. Metatranscriptomic analysis revealed that the transcriptional profiles of the skin microbiota separated acne patients from healthy individuals. The vitamin B12 biosynthesis pathway in the skin bacterium Propionibacterium acnes was significantly down-regulated in acne patients. We hypothesized that host vitamin B12 modulates the activities of the skin microbiota and contributes to acne pathogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the skin microbiota in healthy subjects supplemented with vitamin B12. We found that the supplementation repressed the expression of vitamin B12 biosynthesis genes in P. acnes and altered the transcriptome of the skin microbiota. One of the 10 subjects studied developed acne 1 week after vitamin B12 supplementation. To further understand the molecular mechanism, we revealed that vitamin B12 supplementation in P. acnes cultures promoted the production of porphyrins, which have been shown to induce inflammation in acne. Our findings suggest a new bacterial pathogenesis pathway in acne and provide one molecular explanation for the long-standing clinical observation that vitamin B12 supplementation leads to acne development in a subset of individuals. Our study discovered that vitamin B12, an essential nutrient in humans, modulates the transcriptional activities of skin bacteria, and provided evidence that metabolite-mediated interactions between the host and the skin microbiota play essential roles in disease development. PMID:26109103

  18. Chronic Maternal Vitamin B12 Restriction Induced Changes in Body Composition & Glucose Metabolism in the Wistar Rat Offspring Are Partly Correctable by Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kalle Anand; Lalitha, Anumula; Reddy, Umakar; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Sengupta, Shantanu; Raghunath, Manchala

    2014-01-01

    Maternal under-nutrition increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. We studied the effects of chronic maternal dietary vitamin B12 restriction on lean body mass (LBM), fat free mass (FFM), muscle function, glucose tolerance and metabolism in Wistar rat offspring. Prevention/reversibility of changes by rehabilitating restricted mothers from conception or parturition and their offspring from weaning was assessed. Female weaning Wistar rats (n?=?30) were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks, a control diet (n?=?6) or the same with 40% restriction of vitamin B12 (B12R) (n?=?24); after confirming deficiency, were mated with control males. Six each of pregnant B12R dams were rehabilitated from conception and parturition and their offspring weaned to control diet. While offspring of six B12R dams were weaned to control diet, those of the remaining six B12R dams continued on B12R diet. Biochemical parameters and body composition were determined in dams before mating and in male offspring at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of their age. Dietary vitamin B12 restriction increased body weight but decreased LBM% and FFM% but not the percent of tissue associated fat (TAF%) in dams. Maternal B12R decreased LBM% and FFM% in the male offspring, but their TAF%, basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake by diaphragm were unaltered. At 12 months age, B12R offspring had higher (than controls) fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and impaired glucose tolerance. Their hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme activities were increased. B12R offspring had increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant status. Changes in body composition, glucose metabolism and stress were reversed by rehabilitating B12R dams from conception, whereas rehabilitation from parturition and weaning corrected them partially, highlighting the importance of vitamin B12 during pregnancy and lactation on growth, muscle development, glucose tolerance and metabolism in the offspring. PMID:25398136

  19. Vitamin B12 levels in ewe colostrum and milk and in lamb serum

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    adapted to veterinary medicine. A comparative study of vitamin Bi2levels has been made in the liver as an integral part of various enzymes in the body. Its deficiency affects red-blood-cell maturation, reduces nitrogen retention and limits the concentration in blood and liver. Vitamin B12 deficiency in ruminants

  20. Enhancing vitamin B12 content in soy-yogurt by Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qing; Zhang, Chen; Song, Dafeng; Li, Ping; Zhu, Xuan

    2015-08-01

    More attention from the aged and vegetarians has been paid to soy-product due to its taste, easy digestibility, as well as the association with health. However, soy-product has a defect of low vitamin content, mainly the water-soluble vitamin B12. This study was to investigate co-fermentation of glycerol and fructose in soy-yogurt to enhance vitamin B12 production by Lactobacillus reuteri. After a serial combination experiments, the co-fermentation was confirmed to enhance the production of vitamin B12 up to 18?g/100mL. Both supplementations induced the expression of cobT and cbiA and functioned to balance the redox reaction. Meanwhile, high content of fructose supplementation reduced the production of vitamin B12 and suppressed expression of cobT in bacteria. It was proved that the vitamin B12 content of this soy-yogurt is higher than other fermented soybean based food and thus can be served as an alternative food for the aged and vegetarians. PMID:25955289

  1. Mutations in ABCD4 cause a new inborn error of vitamin B12 metabolism.

    PubMed

    Coelho, David; Kim, Jaeseung C; Miousse, Isabelle R; Fung, Stephen; du Moulin, Marcel; Buers, Insa; Suormala, Terttu; Burda, Patricie; Frapolli, Michele; Stucki, Martin; Nürnberg, Peter; Thiele, Holger; Robenek, Horst; Höhne, Wolfgang; Longo, Nicola; Pasquali, Marzia; Mengel, Eugen; Watkins, David; Shoubridge, Eric A; Majewski, Jacek; Rosenblatt, David S; Fowler, Brian; Rutsch, Frank; Baumgartner, Matthias R

    2012-10-01

    Inherited disorders of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) have provided important clues to how this vitamin, which is essential for hematological and neurological function, is transported and metabolized. We describe a new disease that results in failure to release vitamin B12 from lysosomes, which mimics the cblF defect caused by LMBRD1 mutations. Using microcell-mediated chromosome transfer and exome sequencing, we identified causal mutations in ABCD4, a gene that codes for an ABC transporter, which was previously thought to have peroxisomal localization and function. Our results show that ABCD4 colocalizes with the lysosomal proteins LAMP1 and LMBD1, the latter of which is deficient in the cblF defect. Furthermore, we show that mutations altering the putative ATPase domain of ABCD4 affect its function, suggesting that the ATPase activity of ABCD4 may be involved in intracellular processing of vitamin B12. PMID:22922874

  2. Vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine levels in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Türksoy, Nuray; Bilici, Rabia; Yalç?ner, Altan; Özdemir, Y Özay; Örnek, Ibrahim; Tufan, Ali Evren; Kara, Ay?e

    2014-01-01

    It is known that elevated serum homocysteine, decreased folate, and low vitamin B12 serum levels are associated with poor cognitive function, cognitive decline, and dementia. Current literature shows that some psychiatric disorders, mainly affective and psychotic ones, can be related to the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine. These results can be explained by the importance of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine in carbon transfer metabolism (methylation), which is required for the production of serotonin as well as for other monoamine neurotransmitters and catecholamines. Earlier studies focused on the relationship between folate deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and depressive disorders. Although depressive and anxiety disorders show a common comorbidity pattern, there are few studies addressing the effect of impaired one-carbon metabolism in anxiety disorders – especially in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). This study aimed to measure the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine specifically in order to see if eventual alterations have an etiopathogenetic significance on patients with OCD. Serum vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine concentrations were measured in 35 patients with OCD and 22 controls. In addition, the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety were conducted for each patient. It was found that vitamin B12 levels were decreased and homocysteine levels were increased in some OCD patients. Homocysteine levels were positively correlated with Yale–Brown compulsion and Yale–Brown total scores. In conclusion, findings of this study suggest that some OCD patients might have vitamin B12 deficiency and higher homocysteine levels. PMID:25228807

  3. Vitamin C, vitamin B12, folate and the risk of osteoporotic fractures. A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ramírez, María José; Palma Pérez, Silvia; Delgado-Martínez, Alberto D; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; De la Fuente Arrillaga, Carmen; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel

    2007-11-01

    Water-soluble vitamins influence the development of an adequate structure of bone tissue, but there is scant information relating them with osteoporotic fractures. We analyze whether serum vitamin C, vitamin B12, and erythrocyte folate, or dietary intake of vitamin C and folate, are related with osteoporotic fractures in the elderly. A hospital-based case-control study was carried out at the Hospital of Jaén (167 cases, 167 controls), Spain. Cases were defined as patients aged 65 or more years with a low-energy fracture. Controls were people without fracture, matched for age and sex with cases. Diet was assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Serum vitamin C was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Folic acid and vitamin B12 were measured using procedures of competitive or immunometric immunoassay. Multivariable analyses were also fitted to adjust for confounding using analysis of covariance (for the comparison of adjusted means) and conditional logistic regression (for estimating adjusted odds ratios). A statistically significant difference between cases and controls for vitamin C blood levels was found, being higher for controls (p = 0.01). Analysis of the association between serum vitamin C and fracture risk showed a linear trend (p = 0.03) with a significantly reduced risk for the upper quartile (OR = 0.31; 95% CI 0.11-0.87). The intake of vitamin C, folic acid, and B12 was not related to fracture risk, nor was there any association with erythrocyte folate or serum vitamin B12. In conclusion, serum vitamin C levels were lower in cases with osteoporotic fractures than in controls. PMID:18622945

  4. [Vitamin B(12) deficiency anaemia in a 7.5 months old girl].

    PubMed

    Jarosz, Malgorzata; Irga, Ninela; Wierzba, Jolanta

    2004-01-01

    Vitamin B(12) stores at birth are adequate for infants until the end of the first year of life even if it 's concentration in maternal breast milk is low. However, there are some situations in which infants have depleted vitamin B(12) stores and in addition have a low dietary intake of cobalamin. Vitamin B(12) depletion occurs in infants who are exclusively breastfed by mothers who have unrecognized pernicious anemia or are strict vegetarians for many years. In those infants symptoms of bone marrow disfunction and impaired development of the central nervous system appear already in the first months of life. Unrecognized cobalamin deficiency may lead to serious neurologic consequences, and even to the death of the child. The authors present a case of a 7.5 month old girl admitted to the Department of Paediatrics, Haematology, Oncology and Endocrinology. Gda?sk Medical University suspected of acute leukaemia. Based on a detailed diagnostic procedure a final diagnosis of vitamin B(12) deficiency anaemia was established. The child was exclusively breast-fed. Results of investigations into the reason for cobalamin deficiency in the patient s organism. Led to the diagnosis of pernicious anaemia in the mother. Such a suspicion had been made during pregnancy, but no continuation of investigations nor appropriate treatment were implemented. After treatment with vitamin B(12) supplements and modification of the diet the patient improved quickly and remarkably. A few months follow-up was enough to observe remarkable improvement of psychomotor development of this child. PMID:15738604

  5. Vitamin B12 levels of subjects aged 0-24 year(s) in Konya, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akin, Fatih; Yavuz, Haluk; Bodur, Said; Kiyici, Aysel

    2014-12-01

    Research reports indicate that vitamin B12 levels show racial differences, which suggests that using the reference ranges of varied populations may lead to inaccurate results. This study aimed to determine normal serum levels of vitamin B12 among children and young people in the Konya region of Turkey. It evaluated 1,109 samples; 54 were from cord-blood and 1,055 were from healthy subjects aged 0-24 year(s), who were admitted to primary healthcare centres. The normal reference levels obtained for vitamin B12 at 2.5-97.5 percentile (P2.5-P97.5) range were 127-606 pg/mL for girls, 127-576 pg/mL for boys, and 127-590 pg/mL for the entire study group. The reported reference values for vitamin B12 in other studies were higher than the current results. Vitamin B12 levels vary from country to country; comparisons between countries may not be valid, and normal levels for each population should be obtained. PMID:25895195

  6. Vitamin B12 Levels of Subjects Aged 0-24 Year(s) in Konya, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Haluk; Bodur, Said; Kiyici, Aysel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Research reports indicate that vitamin B12 levels show racial differences, which suggests that using the reference ranges of varied populations may lead to inaccurate results. This study aimed to determine normal serum levels of vitamin B12 among children and young people in the Konya region of Turkey. It evaluated 1,109 samples; 54 were from cord-blood and 1,055 were from healthy subjects aged 0-24 year(s), who were admitted to primary healthcare centres. The normal reference levels obtained for vitamin B12 at 2.5-97.5 percentile (P2.5-P97.5) range were 127-606 pg/mL for girls, 127-576 pg/mL for boys, and 127-590 pg/mL for the entire study group. The reported reference values for vitamin B12 in other studies were higher than the current results. Vitamin B12 levels vary from country to country; comparisons between countries may not be valid, and normal levels for each population should be obtained. PMID:25895195

  7. Vitamin B12 deficiency with combined hematological and neuropsychiatric derangements: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although vitamin B12 deficiency is a well-known cause of hematological and neuropsychiatric illness, the presentation of combined severe pancytopenia, demyelination and prominent psychiatric impairment is rare. Case presentation We present a case of a previously healthy 55-year-old East African man with severe vitamin B12 deficiency (serum vitamin B12 22pmol/L) secondary to pernicious anemia. He had a severe hypoproliferative megaloblastic anemia with hemolysis (hemoglobin 61g/L, mean corpuscular volume 99fL, reticulocytes 0.8%, haptoglobin undetectable), leukopenia (2.7×109/L), thrombocytopenia (96×109/L), ataxia with central demyelination, and megaloblastic madness. The patient’s anemia, myelopathy and psychiatric condition responded well to parenteral vitamin B12 replacement therapy, with significant improvement seen within weeks. Conclusion Hematological manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency are typically inversely correlated with the presence and severity of neuropsychiatric impairment. Although uncommon, a presentation with severe hematological and neuropsychiatric disease can occur, as illustrated by this case. Its presence may help guide diagnosis as well as provide clinically important prognostic information. PMID:25128288

  8. [Vitamin B 12 deficiency in strict vegetarian diet. Why do some people choose such a diet, and what will they do in case of vitamin B 12 deficiency].

    PubMed

    Johnsen, J B; Fønnebø, V

    1991-01-10

    Nine persons in the county of Troms, Norway, were interviewed on their strict vegetarian diet. Improved health was indicated as the main reason for their choice of diet, but religion was a contributing reason for some. Most of the study persons would increase the intake of vitamin B12 if a deficiency state were to occur. One person reported, however, that she would not regard vitamin B12 deficiency as a health problem. The interviews disclosed beliefs regarding human physiology that are very far removed from standard scientific knowledge. The article indicates that communication between patient and the health care system may be difficult in such circumstances. Problems of communication would probably be minimized if the patient had a thorough understanding of human physiology and the health worker a thorough understanding of the reasons for the patient's choice of diet. PMID:2000592

  9. Homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels in psoriatic patients and correlation with disease severity.

    PubMed

    Brazzelli, V; Grasso, V; Fornara, L; Moggio, E; Gamba, G; Villani, S; Borroni, G

    2010-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinaemia represents an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, stroke, peripheral arterial occlusive disease and venous thrombosis. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease associated with increased atherothrombosis and cardiovascular risk profile. The aim of this study is to investigate homocysteine, folic acid and vitamin B12 levels in a cohort of psoriatic patients and its relationship with the severity of the disease. A retrospective observational study in 98 patients with chronic plaque psoriasis and 98 healthy controls was performed. Total plasma homocysteine level, folic acid, vitamin B12 and PASI index were assessed in every patient. Patients with psoriasis had plasma homocysteine levels higher than controls (57% of cases and 25% of controls; p<0.0001). Folic acid and vitamin B12 plasma levels were lower in psoriatic patients than in controls (p = NS), lower levels of vitamin B12 were found in patients with hyperhomocysteinaemia compared to patients with a normal value of homocysteine (p = 0.0009). The severity of psoriasis assessed according to PASI (19.51+/-16.26) did not directly correlate either with higher levels of homocysteine or with vitamin B12 and folic acid plasma levels. In conclusion, a significantly higher prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia was found in psoriatic patients compared to healthy controls. A significant correlation between hyperhomocysteinaemia and lower vitamin B12 levels, but not folic acid, was evidenced. On the contrary, our data do not correlate the high level of homocysteine with higher PASI scores or psoriasis type, suggesting that homocysteine level can be considered an independent risk factor in psoriatic patients. PMID:20943063

  10. The role of folic acid and Vitamin B12 in genomic stability of human cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Fenech

    2001-01-01

    Folic acid plays a critical role in the prevention of chromosome breakage and hypomethylation of DNA. This activity is compromised when Vitamin B12 (B12) concentration is low because methionine synthase activity is reduced, lowering the concentration of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) which in turn may diminish DNA methylation and cause folate to become unavailable for the conversion of dUMP to dTMP.

  11. Intrinsic-factor Antibody and Absorption of Vitamin B12 in Pernicious Anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Rose, M. S.; Chanarin, I.

    1971-01-01

    The mean urinary excretion in a vitamin-B12 absorption (Schilling) test in control subjects was 19·2% and in pernicious anaemia when given with additional intrinsic factor was as follows: no intrinsic-factor antibodies demonstrable 19·3%, antibodies in serum only 14·4%, antibodies in gastric juice only 11·1%, and antibodies in both serum and gastric juice 8·4%. It is concluded that intrinsic-factor antibody exerts an adverse effect on vitamin-B12 absorption in most patients with pernicious anaemia. PMID:5539138

  12. Decreased vitamin B12 availability induces ER stress through impaired SIRT1-deacetylation of HSF1

    PubMed Central

    Ghemrawi, R; Pooya, S; Lorentz, S; Gauchotte, G; Arnold, C; Gueant, J-L; Battaglia-Hsu, S-F

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a key determinant of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-dependent epigenomic cellular regulations related to methylation/acetylation and its deficiency produces neurodegenerative disorders by elusive mechanisms. Sirtuin 1 deacetylase (SIRT1) triggers cell response to nutritional stress through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Recently, we have established a N1E115 dopaminergic cell model by stable expression of a transcobalamin–oleosin chimera (TO), which impairs cellular availability of vitamin B12, decreases methionine synthase activity and SAM level, and reduces cell proliferation. In contrast, oleosin-transcobalamin chimera (OT) does not modify the phenotype of transfected cells. Presently, the impaired cellular availability of vitamin B12 in TO cells activated irreversible ER stress pathways, with increased P-eIF-2?, P-PERK, P-IRE1?, ATF6, ATF4, decreased chaperon proteins and increased pro-apoptotic markers, CHOP and cleaved caspase 3, through reduced SIRT1 expression and consequently greater acetylation of heat-shock factor protein 1 (HSF1). Adding either B12, SIRT1, or HSF1 activators as well as overexpressing SIRT1 or HSF1 dramatically reduced the activation of ER stress pathways in TO cells. Conversely, impairing SIRT1 and HSF1 by siRNA, expressing a dominant negative form of HSF1, or adding a SIRT1 inhibitor led to B12-dependent ER stress in OT cells. Addition of B12 abolished the activation of stress transducers and apoptosis, and increased the expression of protein chaperons in OT cells subjected to thapsigargin, a strong ER stress stimulator. AdoX, an inhibitor of methyltransferase activities, produced similar effects than decreased B12 availability on SIRT1 and ER stress by a mechanism related to increased expression of hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1). Taken together, these data show that cellular vitamin B12 has a strong modulating influence on ER stress in N1E115 dopaminergic cells. The impaired cellular availability in vitamin B12 induces irreversible ER stress by greater acetylation of HSF1 through decreased SIRT1 expression, whereas adding vitamin B12 produces protective effects in cells subjected to ER stress stimulation. PMID:23519122

  13. Decreased vitamin B12 availability induces ER stress through impaired SIRT1-deacetylation of HSF1.

    PubMed

    Ghemrawi, R; Pooya, S; Lorentz, S; Gauchotte, G; Arnold, C; Gueant, J-L; Battaglia-Hsu, S-F

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a key determinant of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-dependent epigenomic cellular regulations related to methylation/acetylation and its deficiency produces neurodegenerative disorders by elusive mechanisms. Sirtuin 1 deacetylase (SIRT1) triggers cell response to nutritional stress through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Recently, we have established a N1E115 dopaminergic cell model by stable expression of a transcobalamin-oleosin chimera (TO), which impairs cellular availability of vitamin B12, decreases methionine synthase activity and SAM level, and reduces cell proliferation. In contrast, oleosin-transcobalamin chimera (OT) does not modify the phenotype of transfected cells. Presently, the impaired cellular availability of vitamin B12 in TO cells activated irreversible ER stress pathways, with increased P-eIF-2?, P-PERK, P-IRE1?, ATF6, ATF4, decreased chaperon proteins and increased pro-apoptotic markers, CHOP and cleaved caspase 3, through reduced SIRT1 expression and consequently greater acetylation of heat-shock factor protein 1 (HSF1). Adding either B12, SIRT1, or HSF1 activators as well as overexpressing SIRT1 or HSF1 dramatically reduced the activation of ER stress pathways in TO cells. Conversely, impairing SIRT1 and HSF1 by siRNA, expressing a dominant negative form of HSF1, or adding a SIRT1 inhibitor led to B12-dependent ER stress in OT cells. Addition of B12 abolished the activation of stress transducers and apoptosis, and increased the expression of protein chaperons in OT cells subjected to thapsigargin, a strong ER stress stimulator. AdoX, an inhibitor of methyltransferase activities, produced similar effects than decreased B12 availability on SIRT1 and ER stress by a mechanism related to increased expression of hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1). Taken together, these data show that cellular vitamin B12 has a strong modulating influence on ER stress in N1E115 dopaminergic cells. The impaired cellular availability in vitamin B12 induces irreversible ER stress by greater acetylation of HSF1 through decreased SIRT1 expression, whereas adding vitamin B12 produces protective effects in cells subjected to ER stress stimulation. PMID:23519122

  14. Effects of Formulation Variables and Storage Conditions on Light Protected Vitamin B12 Mixed Parenteral Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Monajjemzadeh, Farnaz; Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin; Valizadeh, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this research the effect of vitamin B1 and B6 on cyanocobalamin stability in commercial light protected parenteral formulations and upon adding stabilizing agents will be investigated and best formulation composition and proper storage condition will be introduced. Methods: In this research some additives such as co solvents and tonicity adjusters, surfactants, antioxidants and chelating agents as well as buffer solutions, were used to improve the stability of the parenteral mixed formulations of B12 in the presence of other B vitamins (B1 and B6). Screening tests and accelerated stability tests were performed according to ICH guidelines Q1A (R2). Results: Shelf life evaluation revealed the best formulation and the proper storage condition. The results indicated the first kinetic models for all tested formulations and the optimum pH value was determined to be 5.8. There was no evidence of B12 loss when mixed with B1 and B6 in a medical syringe at room temperature for maximum of 8 hours. Conclusion: It is necessary to formulate vitamin B12 mixed parenteral solutions using proper phosphate buffers (pH=5.8) and to indicate “Store in refrigerator” on the mixed parenteral formulations of vitamin B12 with other B vitamins, which has not been expressed on the label of tested Brand formulations at the time of this study. PMID:25436187

  15. Carbon nanotube–chitosan modified disposable pencil graphite electrode for Vitamin B 12 analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Filiz Kuralay; Tayfun Vural; Cem Bayram; Emir Baki Denkbas; Serdar Abaci

    2011-01-01

    A single walled carbon nanotube–chitosan (SWCNT–chitosan) modified disposable pencil graphite electrode (PGE) was used in this study for the electrochemical detection of Vitamin B12. Electrochemical behaviors of SWCNT–chitosan PGE and chitosan modified PGE were compared by using cyclic voltammetry (CV), square-wave voltammetry (SWV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. SWCNT–chitosan modified electrode was also used for the quantification of Vitamin

  16. Vitamin B12 Deficiency: An Important Reversible Co-Morbidity in Neuropsychiatric Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Issac, Thomas Gregor; Soundarya, Soundararajan; Christopher, Rita; Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitamin B12 deficiency is a common condition causing neurologic, cognitive, psychiatric, and mood symptoms. With varied religious, ethnic, and socioeconomic heterogeneity among the people in India greatly influencing their dietary habits and with the high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection, Vitamin B12 deficiency is not uncommon, but is often under recognized due to the lack of classical symptomatic presentation. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study on Vitamin B12 deficiency with neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients who attended neurology, psychiatry, and geriatric OPDs for a period of 1 year in a specialized neuropsychiatric institute in South India. Results: Out of 259 patients who had Vitamin B12 deficiency (<220 pmol/L), 60 had neuropsychiatric symptoms. Among them the Vitamin B12 levels were <150 (severe), 150-200 (moderate), and 201-220 pmol/L (mild) in 19, 24, 17 patients, respectively. Twenty one were diagnosed with Posterior dementias, 20 with frontotemporal dementia, 7 with Schizophrenia, 4 each with Parkinson's disease and alcohol-dependent syndromes (ADS), 3 with bipolar affective disorder, and 1 with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Eight patients also had hypothyroidism. First symptom of presentation was behavioral disturbances in 30 (50%), memory loss in 20 (33.9%), and sensorimotor and movement disorders in 9 (15.3%), and 56.7% were vegetarians while 43.3% were nonvegetarians. In our study, Vitamin B12 deficiency was more prevalent in elderly males (56.67%) and was associated with increased severity of behavioral disturbances (P = 0.043) which was the most common presentation. Memory loss was present in 16 (84.2%) patients of severe Vitamin B12 deficiency. Hindi mental status examination (HMSE) score was graded as <20, 20-24, 24-31 in 37 (61.7%), 10 (16.7%), and 13 (21.7%) patients, respectively. Cognitive decline in Vitamin B12 deficiency was significantly associated with increased serum cholesterol (P = 0.019) and was significantly prevalent in neurological disorders when compared with primary psychiatric illnesses (P = 0.001). Mean folate and mean homocysteine in our study was 11.7 ± 6.44 ng/ml and 17.77 ± 5.45 ?mol/L, respectively. Eighty percent of the population had normal folate levels whereas mean homocysteine values were much higher than that of the western population (10-12 ?mol/L). Conclusion: Vitamin B12 deficiency though common in India is often overlooked. It increases the load of cognitive decline and accentuates vascular risk factors in neuropsychiatric illnesses. Vitamin B12 deficiency also increases homocysteine levels contributing to the vascular comorbidity in cerebro and cardiovascular illnesses. So prevention, early detection, and management of this reversible Vitamin B12 deficiency state is of profound importance. PMID:25722508

  17. Combined dietary folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 intake influences plasma docosahexaenoic acid concentration in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 are essential nutritional components in one-carbon metabolism and are required for methylation capacity. The availability of these vitamins may therefore modify methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) to phosphatidylcholine (PC) by PE-N-methyltransferase (PEMT) in the liver. It has been suggested that PC synthesis by PEMT plays an important role in the transport of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) like docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from the liver to plasma and possibly other tissues. We hypothesized that if B-vitamin supplementation enhances PEMT activity, then supplementation could also increase the concentration of plasma levels of PUFAs such as DHA. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effect of varying the combined dietary intake of these three B-vitamins on plasma DHA concentration in rats. Methods In a first experiment, plasma DHA and plasma homocysteine concentrations were measured in rats that had consumed a B-vitamin-poor diet for 4?weeks after which they were either continued on the B-vitamin-poor diet or switched to a B-vitamin-enriched diet for another 4?weeks. In a second experiment, plasma DHA and plasma homocysteine concentrations were measured in rats after feeding them one of four diets with varying levels of B-vitamins for 4?weeks. The diets provided 0% (poor), 100% (normal), 400% (enriched), and 1600% (high) of the laboratory rodent requirements for each of the three B-vitamins. Results Plasma DHA concentration was higher in rats fed the B-vitamin-enriched diet than in rats that were continued on the B-vitamin-poor diet (P?=?0.005; experiment A). Varying dietary B-vitamin intake from deficient to supra-physiologic resulted in a non-linear dose-dependent trend for increasing plasma DHA (P?=?0.027; experiment B). Plasma DHA was lowest in rats consuming the B-vitamin-poor diet (P?>?0.05 vs. normal, P?vitamin-high diet (P??0.05 vs. enriched). B-vitamin deficiency significantly increased plasma total homocysteine but increasing intake above normal did not significantly reduce it. Nevertheless, in both experiments plasma DHA was inversely correlated with plasma total homocysteine. Conclusion These data demonstrate that dietary folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 intake can influence plasma concentration of DHA. PMID:22647268

  18. A child with vitamin B12 deficiency presenting with pancytopenia and hyperpigmentation.

    PubMed

    Sim?ek, Ozlem Pelin; Gönç, Nazli; Gümrük, Fatma; Cetin, Mualla

    2004-12-01

    The authors describe a 16-month-old infant presenting with neurologic developmental regression, severe pancytopenia, excessive skin pigmentation, and tremor resulting from nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency. She had been exclusively breast-fed and had refused to take any other food. Laboratory studies showed severe pancytopenia, a decrease in serum B12 levels, and an increase in urinary methylmalonic acid levels. Bone marrow aspiration was compatible with megaloblastic changes. Schilling test was normal. The serum B12 level of the mother was also low. Megaloblastic anemia resulting from inadequate B12 intake was diagnosed. Parenteral B12 therapy was initiated. The neurologic picture did not completely resolve, but pancytopenia, tremor, and hyperpigmentation of the extremities recovered completely. PMID:15591907

  19. Basal gnathostomes provide unique insights into the evolution of vitamin B12 binders.

    PubMed

    Lopes-Marques, Mónica; Ruivo, Raquel; Delgado, Inês; Wilson, Jonathan M; Aluru, Neelakanteswar; Castro, L Filipe C

    2015-02-01

    The uptake and transport of vitamin B12 (cobalamin; Cbl) in mammals involves a refined system with three evolutionarily related transporters: transcobalamin 1 (Tcn1), transcobalamin 2 (Tcn2), and the gastric intrinsic factor (Gif). Teleosts have a single documented binder with intermediate features to the human counterparts. Consequently, it has been proposed that the expansion of Cbl binders occurred after the separation of Actinopterygians. Here, we demonstrate that the diversification of this gene family took place earlier in gnathostome ancestry. Our data indicates the presence of single copy orthologs of the Sarcopterygii/Tetrapoda duplicates Tcn1 and Gif, and Tcn2, in Chondrichthyes. In addition, a highly divergent Cbl binder was found in the Elasmobranchii. We unveil a complex scenario forged by genome, tandem duplications and lineage-specific gene loss. Our findings suggest that from an ancestral transporter, exhibiting large spectrum and high affinity binding, highly specific Cbl transporters emerged through gene duplication and mutations at the binding pocket. PMID:25552533

  20. A review of the cut-off points for the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency in the general population.

    PubMed

    Aparicio-Ugarriza, Raquel; Palacios, Gonzalo; Alder, Monika; González-Gross, Marcela

    2015-07-01

    Vitamin B12 deficit is one of the most common vitamin deficiencies. However, there is no consensus on the cut-off points for vitamin B12 and its co-markers, such as folate, holotranscobalamin, methylmalonic acid and homocysteine. In order to establish the state of the art about cut-off points used to determine vitamin B12 deficiency in the last decades, the database MEDLINE was used for searching studies published in adults between December 1992 and May 2014 (69 articles), using search terms like 'vitamin B12', 'cobalamin', 'cut-off', 'deficiency' alone or in combinations. Broad ranges of cut-off points for vitamin B12 and its biomarkers were identified: vitamin B12 ranged between 100 pmol/L and 350 pmol/L, holotranscobalamin 20-50 pmol/L, methylmalonic acid 0.210-0.470 ?mol/L, homocysteine 10-21.6 ?mol/L, serum folate 3.7-15.9 nmol/L and red blood cell 124-397 nmol/L. For the majority of studies, the potential influence of age, analytical methods, gender and fortified food consumption was not taken in account when choosing cut-off values. This could explain the discrepancies between studies on vitamin B12 and folate deficiency prevalences. We conclude that there is inconsistency in the literature regarding vitamin B12 cut-offs. It would be necessary to establish different reference cut-offs according to age, considering the analytical methods used. PMID:25470607

  1. Low maternal vitamin B12 status during pregnancy is associated with reduced heart rate variability indices in young children.

    PubMed

    Sucharita, Sambashivaiah; Dwarkanath, Pratibha; Thomas, Tinku; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Kurpad, Anura V; Vaz, Mario

    2014-04-01

    Vitamin B12 plays a vital role in neuronal development, particularly in myelinogenesis. Demyelination of the autonomic nervous system occurs early in vitamin B12 deficiency. However, the impact of maternal vitamin B12 deficiency during pregnancy on neuronal function in the offspring is poorly documented. The objective of this study was to assess cardiac autonomic nervous activity in children born to mothers with low vitamin B12 status during pregnancy using heart rate variability (HRV) indices in the frequency domain. Seventy-nine healthy children between 3 and 8 years of age were evaluated from an ongoing birth cohort. The blood sample of the mother had been stored and was analysed for plasma vitamin B12 following enrolment of the child. Subjects were divided, based on the median maternal first trimester vitamin B12 status (114 pmol L(-1)), into lower (n = 40) and higher (n = 39) vitamin B12 status groups. A lead II electrocardiogram was recorded in the supine posture and subjected to HRV analysis. Low-frequency HRV in absolute units was reduced significantly in children of the lower vitamin B12 status group (P = 0.03) and was 53% that of the higher vitamin B12 status group. There was a significant association between low-frequency and total power HRV with cord blood vitamin B12 levels (? = 0.31 and 0.30, both P = 0.03). In summary, children born to mothers with a lower vitamin B12 status have a reduced cardiac sympathetic activity. The long-term implication of this needs to be evaluated by follow-up studies. PMID:22625423

  2. Competitive chemiluminescent anzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent discoveries of matrix interferences by haptocorrin (HC) in human milk and serum show that past analyses of vitamin B12 in samples with high HC content might have been inaccurate (Lildballe et al., 2009; Carmel & Agrawal, 2012). We evaluated two competitive enzyme-binding immunoassays for seru...

  3. Comparative genomic analyses of nickel, cobalt and vitamin B12 utilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Zhang; Dmitry A Rodionov; Mikhail S Gelfand; Vadim N Gladyshev

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co) are trace elements required for a variety of biological processes. Ni is directly coordinated by proteins, whereas Co is mainly used as a component of vitamin B12. Although a number of Ni and Co-dependent enzymes have been characterized, systematic evolutionary analyses of utilization of these metals are limited. RESULTS: We carried out comparative genomic

  4. Brief Report: Childhood Disintegrative Disorder as a Likely Manifestation of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Savita; Subodh, B. N.; Parakh, Preeti; Lahariya, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder is a rare disorder, characterized by regression of acquired skills after a period of normal development. The case of childhood disintegrative disorder presented here was found to have vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia on extensive evaluation to find a probable cause for regression. This case…

  5. Review of the magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies worldwide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human deficiencies of folate and vitamin B12 result in adverse effects which may be of public health significance, but the magnitude of these deficiencies is unknown. Therefore, we examine the prevalence data currently available, assess global coverage of surveys, determine the frequency with which...

  6. Copper control of bacterial nitrous oxide emission and its impact on vitamin B12-dependent metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Matthew J.; Gates, Andrew J.; Appia-Ayme, Corinne; Rowley, Gary; Richardson, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Global agricultural emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) have increased by around 20% over the last 100 y, but regulation of these emissions and their impact on bacterial cellular metabolism are poorly understood. Denitrifying bacteria convert nitrate in soils to inert di-nitrogen gas (N2) via N2O and the biochemistry of this process has been studied extensively in Paracoccus denitrificans. Here we demonstrate that expression of the gene encoding the nitrous oxide reductase (NosZ), which converts N2O to N2, is regulated in response to the extracellular copper concentration. We show that elevated levels of N2O released as a consequence of decreased cellular NosZ activity lead to the bacterium switching from vitamin B12-dependent to vitamin B12-independent biosynthetic pathways, through the transcriptional modulation of genes controlled by vitamin B12 riboswitches. This inhibitory effect of N2O can be rescued by addition of exogenous vitamin B12. PMID:24248380

  7. Vitamin B12 Production and Depletion in a Naturally Occurring Eutrophic Lake1

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Paul A.; Morita, Richard Y.

    1972-01-01

    The distribution of vitamin B12 within Upper Klamath Lake was surveyed at approximately monthly intervals during a period from September 1968 to November 1969. High concentrations (up to 1.8 ?g/g of dry sediment) characteristically occurred at the water-sediment interface, with a sharp decline below this area. A heavy bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae occurred from the latter part of May through October 1969. B12 concentrations of the uppermost sediments, from all but one sampling site, increased gradually through the bloom, followed by a drastic increase during the die-off period. B12 is probably not a limiting factor for primary productivity, since sufficient levels of this vitamin were found to occur throughout the year. Of 42 cultures isolated from Upper Klamath Lake water and sediments, 20 were found capable of producing 50 pg or more of B12/ml of medium. Phytoplankton samples were found to contain up to 5 ?g of B12/g of dry material. Degradation of B12 occurred in sterilized as well as fresh sediment samples. PMID:4622828

  8. J. LENOIR. -NOTE SUR LA DGRADATION From the results obtained after the sur vey of vitamin B12

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of vitamin B12 content during the fabrication and ripening of kefir, the following conclusions can be drawn : The fabrication and ripening of Kefir involve some losses in vitamin B12. In the product being made with milk in which Kefir fungi have been added, such losses reached an average proportion of 22,09 per cent after

  9. LOW ERYTHROCYTE FOLATE, BUT NOT PLASMA VITAMIN B-12 OR HOMOCYSTEINE, IS ASSOCIATED WITH DEMENTIA IN ELDERLY LATINOS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between B vitamin status and cognitive function has been of interest for many years. There is evidence of relationships between intake and status of folate and vitamin B-12 with neurological, cognitive, and memory impairment, but results have been inconsistent. Plasma B-12, erythroc...

  10. How Nature Builds the Pigments of Life: The Conquest of Vitamin B12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battersby, Alan R.

    1994-06-01

    In part because humans cannot synthesize vitamin B12 and must obtain it from organisms that produce it and because B12 deficiency leads to pernicious anemia, it has been important to understand how microorganisms build this quite complex substance. As shown here, an interdisciplinary attack was needed, which combined the strengths of genetics, molecular biology, enzymology, chemistry, and spectroscopy. This allowed the step-by-step synthetic pathway of B12 to be elucidated, and this approach has acted as a model for future research on the synthesis of substances in living organisms. One practical outcome of such an approach has been the improved availability of B12 for animal feedstuffs and human health.

  11. Insights into the evolution of vitamin B12 auxotrophy from sequenced algal genomes.

    PubMed

    Helliwell, Katherine E; Wheeler, Glen L; Leptos, Kyriacos C; Goldstein, Raymond E; Smith, Alison G

    2011-10-01

    Vitamin B(12) (cobalamin) is a dietary requirement for humans because it is an essential cofactor for two enzymes, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase (METH). Land plants and fungi neither synthesize or require cobalamin because they do not contain methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, and have an alternative B(12)-independent methionine synthase (METE). Within the algal kingdom, approximately half of all microalgal species need the vitamin as a growth supplement, but there is no phylogenetic relationship between these species, suggesting that the auxotrophy arose multiple times through evolution. We set out to determine the underlying cellular mechanisms for this observation by investigating elements of B(12) metabolism in the sequenced genomes of 15 different algal species, with representatives of the red, green, and brown algae, diatoms, and coccolithophores, including both macro- and microalgae, and from marine and freshwater environments. From this analysis, together with growth assays, we found a strong correlation between the absence of a functional METE gene and B(12) auxotrophy. The presence of a METE unitary pseudogene in the B(12)-dependent green algae Volvox carteri and Gonium pectorale, relatives of the B(12)-independent Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, suggest that B(12) dependence evolved recently in these lineages. In both C. reinhardtii and the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, growth in the presence of cobalamin leads to repression of METE transcription, providing a mechanism for gene loss. Thus varying environmental conditions are likely to have been the reason for the multiple independent origins of B(12) auxotrophy in these organisms. Because the ultimate source of cobalamin is from prokaryotes, the selective loss of METE in different algal lineages will have had important physiological and ecological consequences for these organisms in terms of their dependence on bacteria. PMID:21551270

  12. Vitamin B12 deficiency in Caenorhabditis elegans results in loss of fertility, extended life cycle, and reduced lifespan?

    PubMed Central

    Bito, Tomohiro; Matsunaga, Yohei; Yabuta, Yukinori; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Fumio

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency has been linked to developmental disorders, metabolic abnormalities, and neuropathy; however, the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. Caenorhabditis elegans grown under B12-deficient conditions for five generations develop severe B12 deficiency associated with various phenotypes that include decreased egg-laying capacity (infertility), prolonged life cycle (growth retardation), and reduced lifespan. These phenotypes resemble the consequences of B12 deficiency in mammals, and can be induced in C. elegans in only 15 days. Thus, C. elegans is a suitable animal model for studying the biological processes induced by vitamin deficiency. PMID:23772381

  13. The prevalence of cobalamin deficiency among vegetarians assessed by serum vitamin B12: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, R; Lester, S E; Babatunde, T

    2014-05-01

    Individuals following vegetarian diets are at risk for developing vitamin B12 deficiency owing to suboptimal intake. As vitamin B12 is essential for the synthesis of nucleic acids, erythrocytes and in the maintenance of myelin, deficiency may result in a variety of symptoms. Some of these symptoms may be severe while others may be irreversible. The objective of this review was to assess vitamin B12 deficiency, based on reported serum vitamin B12, among individuals adhering to different types of vegetarian diets. A systematic literature search was carried out using multiple search engines including PubMed, Medline, CINAHL plus, ERIC, Nursing and Allied Health Collection and Nursing/Academic Edition. The inclusion criteria consisted of original studies that assessed serum vitamin B12, studies written in English, non-case studies and studies that reported actual percentages of vitamin B12 deficiency. Forty research studies were included. The deficiency prevalence among infants reached 45%. The deficiency among the children and adolescents ranged from 0 to 33.3%. Deficiency among pregnant women ranged from 17 to 39%, dependent on the trimester. Adults and elderly individuals had a deficiency range of 0-86.5%. Higher deficiency prevalence was reported in vegans than in other vegetarians. Thus, with few exceptions, the reviewed studies documented relatively high deficiency prevalence among vegetarians. Vegans who do not ingest vitamin B12 supplements were found to be at especially high risk. Vegetarians, especially vegans, should give strong consideration to the use of vitamin B12 supplements to ensure adequate vitamin B12 intake. Vegetarians, regardless of the type of vegetarian diet they adhere to, should be screened for vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:24667752

  14. Vitamin B12 and vitamin d deficiencies: an unusual cause of Fever, severe hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vikas A; Harbada, Rishit; Sharma, Akhilesh

    2015-01-01

    The array of diagnostic workup for pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) generally revolves in searching for infections, inflammatory/autoimmune, and endocrine etiologies. A differential diagnosis of fever, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia can have etiologies varying from infections like malaria, dengue, cytomegalovirus, Ebstein barr virus, Parvovirus, infective endocarditis, to autoimmune disorder (systemic lupus erythromatosis), vasculitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), autoimmune hemolytic anemia/Evan's syndrome, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuri (PNH), or drugs. Nutritional deficiencies (especially vitamin B12 deficiency) as a cause of fever, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia are very rare and therefore rarely thought of. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency may cause fever and if accompanied by concurrent hyper-homocysteinemia and hypophosphatemia can sometimes lead to severe hemolysis mimicking the above-mentioned conditions. We present a case that highlights vitamin B12 and vitamin D deficiency as an easily treatable cause of PUO, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia, which should be actively looked for and treated before proceeding with more complicated and expensive investigation or starting empiric treatments. PMID:25811010

  15. Vitamin B12 and Vitamin D Deficiencies: An Unusual Cause of Fever, Severe Hemolytic Anemia and Thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Vikas A.; Harbada, Rishit; Sharma, Akhilesh

    2015-01-01

    The array of diagnostic workup for pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) generally revolves in searching for infections, inflammatory/autoimmune, and endocrine etiologies. A differential diagnosis of fever, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia can have etiologies varying from infections like malaria, dengue, cytomegalovirus, Ebstein barr virus, Parvovirus, infective endocarditis, to autoimmune disorder (systemic lupus erythromatosis), vasculitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), autoimmune hemolytic anemia/Evan's syndrome, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuri (PNH), or drugs. Nutritional deficiencies (especially vitamin B12 deficiency) as a cause of fever, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia are very rare and therefore rarely thought of. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency may cause fever and if accompanied by concurrent hyper-homocysteinemia and hypophosphatemia can sometimes lead to severe hemolysis mimicking the above-mentioned conditions. We present a case that highlights vitamin B12 and vitamin D deficiency as an easily treatable cause of PUO, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia, which should be actively looked for and treated before proceeding with more complicated and expensive investigation or starting empiric treatments. PMID:25811010

  16. Vitamin B12–dependent taurine synthesis regulates growth and bone mass

    PubMed Central

    Roman-Garcia, Pablo; Quiros-Gonzalez, Isabel; Mottram, Lynda; Lieben, Liesbet; Sharan, Kunal; Wangwiwatsin, Arporn; Tubio, Jose; Lewis, Kirsty; Wilkinson, Debbie; Santhanam, Balaji; Sarper, Nazan; Clare, Simon; Vassiliou, George S.; Velagapudi, Vidya R.; Dougan, Gordon; Yadav, Vijay K.

    2014-01-01

    Both maternal and offspring-derived factors contribute to lifelong growth and bone mass accrual, although the specific role of maternal deficiencies in the growth and bone mass of offspring is poorly understood. In the present study, we have shown that vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency in a murine genetic model results in severe postweaning growth retardation and osteoporosis, and the severity and time of onset of this phenotype in the offspring depends on the maternal genotype. Using integrated physiological and metabolomic analysis, we determined that B12 deficiency in the offspring decreases liver taurine production and associates with abrogation of a growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF1) axis. Taurine increased GH-dependent IGF1 synthesis in the liver, which subsequently enhanced osteoblast function, and in B12-deficient offspring, oral administration of taurine rescued their growth retardation and osteoporosis phenotypes. These results identify B12 as an essential vitamin that positively regulates postweaning growth and bone formation through taurine synthesis and suggests potential therapies to increase bone mass. PMID:24911144

  17. Effect of Vitamin B12and Folie Acid on the Metabolism of Formiminoglutamate, Formate, and Propionate in the Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. L. R. STOKSTAD; R. E. WEBB; ELLEN SHAH

    The effects of deficiencies of vitamin B12on excretion of formimino- glutamate (FIGLU), formate, and propionate were investigated. The excretion of FIGLU was increased in vitamin B12deficiency and was higher with a 30% soy pro tein diet than with a 70% soy protein diet, although the vitamin Bi2 deficiency was more severe with the diet at higher protein level. Excretion of

  18. Indicators for assessing folate and vitamin B12 status and for monitoring the efficacy of intervention strategies.

    PubMed

    Green, Ralph

    2008-06-01

    Deficiencies of folate or of vitamin B12 are widespread and constitute a major global burden of morbidity affecting all age groups. Detecting or confirming the presence of folate or vitamin B12 deficiency and distinguishing one from the other depends, ultimately, on laboratory testing. Tests to determine the presence of folate or vitamin B12 deficiency are used singly or in combination to establish the nutritional status and prevalence of deficiencies of the vitamins in various populations. The efficacy of interventions through the use of fortification or supplements is monitored using the same laboratory tests. Tests currently in use have limitations that can be either technical or have a biological basis. Consequently, each single test cannot attain perfect sensitivity, specificity, or predictive value. Laboratory indicators of vitamin B12 or folate status involve measurement of either the total or a physiologically relevant fraction of the vitamin in a compartment such as the blood. Thus, assays to measure vitamin B12 or folate in plasma or serum as well as folate in red blood cells are in widespread use, and more recently, methods to measure vitamin B12 associated with the plasma binding protein transcobalamin (holotranscobalamin) have been developed. Alternatively, levels of surrogate biochemical markers that reflect the metabolic function of the vitamin can be used. Surrogates most commonly used are plasma homocysteine, for detection of either vitamin B12 or folate deficiency and methylmalonic acid for detection of vitamin B12 deficiency. The general methods as well as their uses, indications, and limitations are presented. PMID:18709881

  19. Theoretical analysis of electronic absorption spectra of vitamin B12 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andruniow, Tadeusz; Kozlowski, Pawel M.; Zgierski, Marek Z.

    2001-10-01

    Time-dependent density-functional theory (TD-DFT) is applied to analyze the electronic absorption spectra of vitamin B12. To accomplish this two model systems were considered: CN-[CoIII-corrin]-CN (dicyanocobinamide, DCC) and imidazole-[CoIII-corrin]-CN (cyanocobalamin, ImCC). For both models 30 lowest excited states were calculated together with transition dipole moments. When the results of TD-DFT calculations were directly compared with experiment it was found that the theoretical values systematically overestimate experimental data by approximately 0.5 eV. The uniform adjustment of the calculated transition energies allowed detailed analysis of electronic absorption spectra of vitamin B12 models. All absorption bands in spectral range 2.0-5.0 eV were readily assigned. In particular, TD-DFT calculations were able to explain the origin of the shift of the lowest absorption band caused by replacement of the-CN axial ligand by imidazole.

  20. Vitamin B12 and hepatitis C: Molecular biology and human pathology

    PubMed Central

    Lott, William B.; Takyar, Seyedtaghi S.; Tuppen, Joseph; Crawford, Darrell H. G.; Harrison, Michael; Sloots, Theo P.; Gowans, Eric J.

    2001-01-01

    Cobalamins are stored in high concentrations in the human liver and thus are available to participate in the regulation of hepatotropic virus functions. We show that cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) inhibited the HCV internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-dependent translation of a reporter gene in vitro in a dose-dependent manner without significantly affecting the cap-dependent mechanism. Vitamin B12 failed to inhibit translation by IRES elements from encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) or classical swine fever virus (CSFV). We also demonstrate a relationship between the total cobalamin concentration in human sera and HCV viral load (a measure of viral replication in the host). The mean viral load was two orders of magnitude greater when the serum cobalamin concentration was above 200 pM (P < 0.003), suggesting that the total cobalamin concentration in an HCV-infected liver is biologically significant in HCV replication. PMID:11296247

  1. Recreational nitrous oxide abuse-induced vitamin B12 deficiency in a patient presenting with hyperpigmentation of the skin.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Tsung-Ta; Hung, Chih-Tsung; Wang, Wei-Ming; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Yang, Fu-Chi

    2013-05-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency causes skin hyperpigmentation, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, and megaloblastic anemia. Although vitamin B12 deficiency rarely occurs in well-nourished, healthy, young people, nitrous oxide (N2O) intoxication is an important cause of vitamin B12 deficiency in this cohort. N2O, a colorless gas used as an anesthetic since the late 19th century because of its euphoric and analgesic qualities, is now used as a recreational drug and is available via the Internet and at clubs. Here, we describe the case of a 29-year-old woman presenting with skin hyperpigmentation as her only initial symptom after N2O abuse for approximately 2 years. N2O intoxication-induced vitamin B12 deficiency was diagnosed based on the skin pigmentation that had manifested over the dorsa of her fingers, toes, and trunk, coupled with myeloneuropathy of the posterior and lateral columns, a low serum vitamin B12 level, an elevated serum homocysteine level, and the N2O exposure revealed while establishing the patient's history. Symptoms improved significantly with vitamin B12 treatment. We recommend that dermatologists consider N2O intoxication-induced vitamin B12 deficiency as a potential cause of skin hyperpigmentation and myeloneuropathy of the posterior and lateral columns in young, otherwise healthy patients. Failure to recognize this presentation may result in inappropriate treatment, thus affecting patients' clinical outcomes. PMID:23898268

  2. Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Imbalance Modifies NK Cytotoxicity, Lymphocytes B and Lymphoprolipheration in Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Partearroyo, Teresa; Úbeda, Natalia; Montero, Ana; Achón, María; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2013-01-01

    Different vitamin B12 and folic acid concentrations could exacerbate the immune response. The aim was to evaluate different dietary folic acid and vitamin B12 levels on the immune response in aged rats. Male Sprague Dawley aged rats were assigned to three folic acid groups (deficient, control, supplemented) each in absence of vitamin B12 for 30 days. Several parameters of innate and acquired immune responses were measured. Serum and hepatic folate levels increased according to folic acid dietary level, while vitamin B12 levels decreased. There was a significant decrease in natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity in the spleen for the vitamin B12 deficient diet and folic acid control diet groups. Significant changes in CD45 lymphocyte subsets were also observed according to dietary imbalance. Lymphoproliferative response to concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin did not differ significantly between groups. The spleen response to lipopolysaccharide increased significantly, but was unmodified for the other organs. An imbalance between dietary vitamin B12 and folic acid concentrations alters some immunological parameters in aged rats. Therefore, the ratio between folate and vitamin B12 could be as important as their absolute dietary concentrations. PMID:24288024

  3. Dipstick based immunochemiluminescence biosensor for the analysis of vitamin B12 in energy drinks: a novel approach.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, L S; Thakur, M S

    2012-04-13

    In this article, we describe a dipstick based immunochemiluminescence (immuno-CL) biosensor for the detection of vitamin B(12) in energy drinks. The method is a direct competitive type format involving the immobilization of vitamin B(12) antibody on nitrocellulose membrane (NC) followed by treatment with vitamin B(12) and vitamin B(12)-alkaline phosphatase conjugate to facilitate the competitive binding. The dipstick was further treated with substrate disodium 2-chloro-5-(4-methoxyspiro {1,2-dioxetane-3,2¢-(5¢-chloro)tricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]decan}-4-yl)-1-phenyl phosphate (CDP-Star) to generate chemiluminescence (CL). The number of photons generated was inversely proportional to the vitamin B(12) concentration. After systematic optimization, the limit of detection was 1 ng mL(-1). The coefficient of variation was below 0.2% for both intra- and inter-assay precision. Vitamin B(12) was extracted from energy drinks with recovery ranged from 90 to 99.4%. Two different energy drinks samples were analyzed, and a good correlation was observed when the data were compared with a reference enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) method. The developed method is suitable for an accurate, sensitive, and high-throughput screening of vitamin B(12) in energy drinks samples. The dipstick technique based on immuno-CL is suitable for the detection of several analyte in food and environmental samples. PMID:22444541

  4. Hyperhomocysteinemia, and low intakes of folic acid and vitamin B12 in urban North India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anoop Misra; Naval K. Vikram; R. M. Pandey; Manjari Dwivedi; Faiz Uddin Ahmad; Kalpana Luthra; Kajal Jain; Nidhi Khanna; J. Rama Devi; Rekha Sharma; Randeep Guleria

    2002-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a Background and Aim An adverse coronary risk profile has been reported amongst rural-to-urban migrant population living in urban slums undergoing\\u000a stressful socio-economic transition. These individuals are likely to have low intakes of folic acid and vitamin B12, which\\u000a may have an adverse impact on serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy). To test this hypothesis, we studied serum levels of Hcy

  5. Increased Plasma Methylmalonic Acid Level Does Not Predict Clinical Manifestations of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Mette Hvas; Jørgen Ellegaard; Ebba Nexø

    2001-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of vitamin B12 defi- ciency, defined as an elevated concentration of plasma methylmalonic acid (P-MMA), has been estimated to be 15% to 44% in the elderly. However, we do not know whether an increased P-MMA level actually indicates or predicts a clinical condition in need of treatment. Participants and Methods: In a follow-up study, 432 individuals not

  6. Disposable pencil graphite electrode modified with peptide nanotubes for Vitamin B12 analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pala, Betül Bozdo?an; Vural, Tayfun; Kuralay, Filiz; Ç?rak, Tamer; Bolat, Gülçin; Abac?, Serdar; Denkba?, Emir Baki

    2014-06-01

    In this study, peptide nanostructures from diphenylalanine were synthesized in various solvents with various polarities and characterized with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD) techniques. Formation of peptide nanofibrils, nanovesicles, nanoribbons, and nanotubes was observed in different solvent mediums. In order to investigate the effects of peptide nanotubes (PNT) on electrochemical behavior of disposable pencil graphite electrodes (PGE), electrode surfaces were modified with fabricated peptide nanotubes. Electrochemical activity of the pencil graphite electrode was increased with the deposition of PNTs on the surface. The effects of the solvent type, the peptide nanotube concentration, and the passive adsorption time of peptide nanotubes on pencil graphite electrode were studied. For further electrochemical studies, electrodes were modified for 30 min by immobilizing PNTs, which were prepared in water at 6 mg/mL concentration. Vitamin B12 analyses were performed by the Square Wave (SW) voltammetry method using modified PGEs. The obtained data showed linearity over the range of 0.2 ?M and 9.50 ?M Vitamin B12 concentration with high sensitivity. Results showed that PNT modified PGEs were highly simple, fast, cost effective, and feasible for the electro-analytical determination of Vitamin B12 in real samples.

  7. Methylcobalamin--a form of vitamin B12 identified and characterised in Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Kumudha, Anantharajappa; Selvakumar, Sagaya; Dilshad, Pullancheri; Vaidyanathan, Gopal; Thakur, Munna Singh; Sarada, Ravi

    2015-03-01

    Vitamin B12 is among the most essential biomolecules required for crucial metabolic processes in humans. Vitamin B12 was extracted from Chlorella vulgaris biomass under aqueous conditions, partially purified by passing the extract through amberlite XAD-2, Sep-Pak columns, and further purified by HPLC. The target peak eluent was subjected to characterisation by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), selected ion recording (SIR) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and identified as methylcobalamin (Me-Cbl). Quantification of Me-Cbl was carried out by microbiological and chemiluminescence methods, and found to be 29.87±2 ?g/100 g and 26.84±2 ?g/100 g dry weight, respectively. The presence of Me-Cbl was further substantiated using gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) based aptamer analysis, and found to be 28.02±2 ?g/100 g dry weight. Good similarity was observed among all the methods. Methylcobalamin, a form of vitamin B12 was identified in C. vulgaris and this finding enhances its use as a nutritional supplement. PMID:25306351

  8. A Study of the Prevalence of Serum Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Deficiency in Western Maharashtra

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Sanket K.; Aundhakar, Swati C.

    2015-01-01

    Context: This study summarizes the prevalence of vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency in the population coming to tertiary care center in Western Maharashtra along with the main presenting symptom routinely misinterpreted in daily practice. Aims and Objectives: 1. To study the prevalence of vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency in the population of western Maharashtra. 2. To correlate the symptoms with serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. Materials and Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional observation study carried out on patients from western Maharashtra seeking medical attention on outpatient and inpatient basis in the medicine department of a teaching institute in Karad. One-hundred patients were selected on basis of below mentioned symptoms viz. tingling and numbness in extremities, dizziness, unsteady gait, early tiredness, forgetfulness, proximal weakness, distal weakness, chronic headache, less interest in work, chronic loose stools, strict vegetarians, alcoholics, intake of medications like anti-tubercular treatment, surgery involving terminal ileum. Serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels of these patients were observed. Deficiency of vitamin B12 and folic acid was studied in 4 groups: (a) Absolute vitamin B12 deficiency; (b) Absolute folic acid deficiency; (c) Borderline vitamin B12 deficiency; (d) Combined vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency. Results: Of the 100 cases, 33% patients were vegetarian. Folic acid deficiency formed the major chunk of deficiency group. Six percent patients had neuropsychiatric manifestations. Depressive illness in 1% patients, dementia in 0% patients, forgetfulness in 1% patients, mania/hallucination in 0% patients each, and chronic headache in 1% patients. Neuropathy in form of loss of reflexes, decreased touch sensation was present in 9% patients. Posterior column involvement viz. Loss of joint position, vibration, positive Romberg's sign were present in 34% patients of vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency. Conclusion: In a small study, it was found that megaloblastic anemia may have symptoms and signs referable to several systems including hematology, dermatology, gastrointestinal, neurology, and neuropsychiatry. PMID:25810991

  9. Regulation of the vitamin B12 metabolism and transport in bacteria by a conserved RNA structural element

    PubMed Central

    VITRESCHAK, ALEXEY G.; RODIONOV, DMITRY A.; MIRONOV, ANDREY A.; GELFAND, MIKHAIL S.

    2003-01-01

    Cobalamin in the form of adenosylcobalamin (Ado-CBL) is known to repress expression of genes for vitamin B12 biosynthesis and be transported by a posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism, which involves direct binding of Ado-CBL to 5?untranslated gene regions (5?UTR). Using comparative analysis of genes and regulatory regions, we identified a highly conserved RNA structure, the B12-element, which is widely distributed in 5?UTRs of vitamin B12-related genes in eubacteria. Multiple alignment of approximately 200 B12-elements from 66 bacterial genomes reveals their common secondary structure and several extended regions of sequence conservation, including the previously known B12-box motif. In analogy to the model of regulation of the riboflavin and thiamin biosynthesis, we suggest Ado-CBL-mediated regulation based on formation of alternative RNA structures including the B12-element. In Gram-negative proteobacteria, as well as in cyanobacteria, actinobacteria, and the CFB group, the cobalamin biosynthesis and vitamin B12 transport genes are predicted to be regulated by inhibition of translation initiation, whereas in the Bacillus/Clostridium group of Gram-positive bacteria, these genes seem to be regulated by transcriptional antitermination. Phylogenetic analysis of the B12-elements reveals a large number of likely duplications of B12-elements in several bacterial genomes. These lineage-specific duplications of RNA regulatory elements seem to be a major evolutionary mechanism for expansion of the vitamin B12 regulon. PMID:12923257

  10. Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia in a Turkish Cohort: Association of Vitamin B12

    PubMed Central

    Eroglu, Nilgun; Kandur, Yasar; Kalay, Salih; Kalay, Zuhal; Guney, Ozgur

    2015-01-01

    Background Deficiency of vitamin B12 (VitB12) causes failure of erytrocyte maturation leading to cell lysis. Red blood cell lysis causes excess heme production that ends with hyperbilirubinemia. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the role of VitB12 in neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (NNH) with prolonged jaundice and to compare patients with control group who did not develop hyperbilirubinemia. Methods A total of 20 patients (M/F = 13/7) with jaundice and 20 healthy controls (M/F = 11/9) were included in the study. Results The mean indirect bilirubin level of patient group was 9.91 ± 1.90 mg/dL (6.71 - 15.2 mg/dL) and control group was 3.18 ± 1.24 mg/dL (1.16 - 4.96 mg/dL). The mean VitB12 level of patient group was 119.9 ± 43.9 ng/L (42.35 - 178 ng/L) and the control group was 286.17 ± 97.43 ng/L (207.90 - 624.10 ng/L). There was a statistically significant difference in terms of VitB12 level (< 0.001) between the study groups. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study is the first study showing that low VitB12 level has been observed as a risk factor in NNH for the first time in the literature. We suggest that prophylactic use of VitB12 by pregnant women so will greatly benefit to prevent VitB12 deficiency and its complications in the first years of life such as NNH. PMID:26015822

  11. Determination of Ternary Mixtures of Vitamins (B1; B6 ,B 12) by Zero-Crossing Derivative Spectrophotometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ikbal KOYUNCU

    A new method for determining ternary mixtures of vitamin B1; B6 and B12 using second derivative spectrophotometry is described. The procedure is accurate, nondestructive and does not require any separation step or the solving of equations. Calibration graphs were linear up to 20 gml 1 of vitamin B1 at 228.9 nm (r=0.9999), vitamin B6 at 309.6 nm (r=0.9999) and vitamin

  12. A simple assay of intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complex employing the binding intrinsic factor antibody

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Elizabeth; O'Brien, H. A. W.

    1972-01-01

    The reaction between binding intrinsic factor antibody and intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complex has been studied. Initially in the zone of antibody excess, the relationship between the amount of antigen present and the amount of antigen-antibody complex adsorbed onto zirconium phosphate gel was linear. With increasing amounts of antigen, the curve departed from linearity and reached a plateau. The linear portion of the reaction forms the basis of a simple and reproducible assay for quantitating intrinsic factor to which vitamin B12 has already been bound. The assay provides a method for studying the fate of intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complex during digestion and absorption. In two normal subjects given radioactive vitamin B12 orally, aspiration of ileal contents showed that only 50 to 70% of the radioactivity was bound to intrinsic factor at that level. PMID:5028639

  13. No effect of vitamin B12 treatment on cognitive function and depression: a randomized placebo controlled study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Mette Hvas; Svend Juul; Lise Lauritzen; Ebba Nexø; Jørgen Ellegaard

    2004-01-01

    Background: Associations between vitamin B-12 deficiency and impaired cognitive function and depression have been reported. Methods: A randomized placebo controlled study including 140 individuals with an increased plasma methylmalonic acid (0.40–2.00 ?mol\\/l) not previously treated with vitamin B-12. Cognitive function was assessed by the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and a 12-words learning test. Symptoms of depression

  14. Vitamin B12 Treatment Normalizes Metabolic Markers But Has Limited Clinical Effect: A Randomized Placebo-controlled Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Mette Hvas; Jørgen Ellegaard; Ebba Nexø

    2001-01-01

    Background: The clinical significance of increased plasma methylmalonic acid (P-MMA) is unclear. We assessed the efficacy of vitamin B12 treatment in reduc- ing P-MMA and plasma total homocysteine compared with the clinical benefits of treatment. Methods: We studied 140 individuals with mildly to modestly increased P-MMA (0.40 -2.00 mmol\\/L), not pre- viously treated with vitamin B12, in a randomized, placebo-controlled

  15. The transcobalamin receptor knockout mouse: a model for vitamin B12 deficiency in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Shao-Chiang; Nakayama, Yasumi; Sequeira, Jeffrey M.; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan J.; Cabrera, Robert M.; Finnell, Richard H.; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Quadros, Edward V.

    2013-01-01

    The membrane receptor (TCblR/CD320) for transcobalamin (TC)-bound cobalamin (Cbl) facilitates the cellular uptake of Cbl. A genetically modified mouse model involving ablation of the CD320 gene was generated to study the effects on cobalamin homeostasis. The nonlethal nature of this knockout and the lack of systemic cobalamin deficiency point to other mechanisms for cellular Cbl uptake in the mouse. However, severe cobalamin depletion in the central nervous system (CNS) after birth (P<0.01) indicates that TCblR is the only receptor responsible for Cbl uptake in the CNS. Metabolic Cbl deficiency in the brain was evident from the increased methylmalonic acid (P<0.01–0.04), homocysteine (P<0.01), cystathionine (P<0.01), and the decreased S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosyl homocysteine ratio (P<0.01). The CNS pathology of Cbl deficiency seen in humans may not manifest in this mouse model; however, it does provide a model with which to evaluate metabolic pathways and genes affected.—Lai, S.-C., Nakayama, Y., Sequeira, J. M., Wlodarczyk, B. J., Cabrera, R. M., Finnell, R. H., Bottiglieri, T., Quadros, E. V. The transcobalamin receptor knockout mouse: a model for vitamin B12 deficiency in the central nervous system. PMID:23430977

  16. Purification and interaction analyses of two human lysosomal vitamin B12 transporters: LMBD1 and ABCD4.

    PubMed

    Deme, Justin C; Hancock, Mark A; Xia, Xiaobing; Shintre, Chitra A; Plesa, Maria; Kim, Jaeseung C; Carpenter, Elisabeth P; Rosenblatt, David S; Coulton, James W

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in human LMBRD1 and ABCD4 prevent lysosomal export of vitamin B(12) to the cytoplasm, impairing the vitamin B(12)-dependent enzymes methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. The gene products of LMBRD1 and ABCD4 are implicated in vitamin B(12) transport at the lysosomal membrane and are proposed to act in complex. To address the mechanism for lysosomal vitamin B(12) transport, we report the novel recombinant production of LMBD1 and ABCD4 for detailed biophysical analyses. Using blue native PAGE, chemical crosslinking, and size exclusion chromatography coupled to multi-angle light scattering (SEC-MALS), we show that both detergent-solubilized LMBD1 and detergent-solubilized ABCD4 form homodimers. To examine the functional binding properties of these proteins, label-free surface plasmon resonance (SPR) provides direct in vitro evidence that: (i) LMBD1 and ABCD4 interact with low nanomolar affinity; and (ii) the cytoplasmic vitamin B(12)-processing protein MMACHC also interacts with LMBD1 and ABCD4 with low nanomolar affinity. Accordingly, we propose a model whereby membrane-bound LMBD1 and ABCD4 facilitate the vectorial delivery of lysosomal vitamin B(12) to cytoplasmic MMACHC, thus preventing cofactor dilution to the cytoplasmic milieu and protecting against inactivating side reactions. PMID:25535791

  17. Discovery of Novel Sources of Vitamin B12 in Traditional Korean Foods from Nutritional Surveys of Centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Lee, Mee Sook; Oh, Se In; Park, Sang Chul

    2010-01-01

    Human longevity can be explained by a variety of factors, among them, nutritional factor would play an important role. In our study of Korean centenarians for their longevity, the apparent nutritional imbalance in the traditional semi-vegetarian diet raised a special attention, especially on vitamin B12 status, supplied by animal foods. Interestingly, we found that the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficient Korean centenarians was not higher compared with those from Western nations with animal-oriented traditional foods. We assumed that there might be some unveiled sources for vitamin B12 in the Korean traditional foods. Screening of vitamin B12 contents has revealed that some traditional soybean-fermented foods, such as Doenjang and Chunggukjang, and seaweeds contain considerable amounts of vitamin B12. Taken together, it can be summarized that the traditional foods, especially of fermentation, might be evaluated for compensation of the nutritional imbalance in the vegetable-oriented dietary pattern by supplying vitamin B12, resulting in maintenance of health status. PMID:21436999

  18. Cell Metabolism RBP4 Disrupts Vitamin A Uptake Homeostasis

    E-print Network

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    Cell Metabolism Article RBP4 Disrupts Vitamin A Uptake Homeostasis in a STRA6-Deficient Animal The cellular uptake of vitamin A from its RBP4-bound circulating form (holo-RBP4) is a homeostatic process.Loss-of-function analysisinzebrafish embryos revealed that Stra6 deficiency caused vitamin A depri- vation of the developing eyes. We

  19. Simultaneous determination of vitamin B12 and its derivatives using some of multivariate calibration 1 (MVC1) techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadi-Maybodi, Abdolraouf; Darzi, S. K. Hassani Nejad

    2008-10-01

    Resolution of binary mixtures of vitamin B12, methylcobalamin and B12 coenzyme with minimum sample pre-treatment and without analyte separation has been successfully achieved by methods of partial least squares algorithm with one dependent variable (PLS1), orthogonal signal correction/partial least squares (OSC/PLS), principal component regression (PCR) and hybrid linear analysis (HLA). Data of analysis were obtained from UV-vis spectra. The UV-vis spectra of the vitamin B12, methylcobalamin and B12 coenzyme were recorded in the same spectral conditions. The method of central composite design was used in the ranges of 10-80 mg L -1 for vitamin B12 and methylcobalamin and 20-130 mg L -1 for B12 coenzyme. The models refinement procedure and validation were performed by cross-validation. The minimum root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 2.26 mg L -1 for vitamin B12 with PLS1, 1.33 mg L -1 for methylcobalamin with OSC/PLS and 3.24 mg L -1 for B12 coenzyme with HLA techniques. Figures of merit such as selectivity, sensitivity, analytical sensitivity and LOD were determined for three compounds. The procedure was successfully applied to simultaneous determination of three compounds in synthetic mixtures and in a pharmaceutical formulation.

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of vitamin B12-related metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Young, Douglas B; Comas, Iñaki; de Carvalho, Luiz P S

    2015-01-01

    Comparison of genome sequences from clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with phylogenetically-related pathogens Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium kansasii, and Mycobacterium leprae reveals diversity amongst genes associated with vitamin B12-related metabolism. Diversity is generated by gene deletion events, differential acquisition of genes by horizontal transfer, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with predicted impact on protein function and transcriptional regulation. Differences in the B12 synthesis pathway, methionine biosynthesis, fatty acid catabolism, and DNA repair and replication are consistent with adaptations to different environmental niches and pathogenic lifestyles. While there is no evidence of further gene acquisition during expansion of the M. tuberculosis complex, the emergence of other forms of genetic diversity provides insights into continuing host-pathogen co-evolution and has the potential to identify novel targets for disease intervention. PMID:25988174

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of vitamin B12-related metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Young, Douglas B.; Comas, Iñaki; de Carvalho, Luiz P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Comparison of genome sequences from clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with phylogenetically-related pathogens Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium kansasii, and Mycobacterium leprae reveals diversity amongst genes associated with vitamin B12-related metabolism. Diversity is generated by gene deletion events, differential acquisition of genes by horizontal transfer, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with predicted impact on protein function and transcriptional regulation. Differences in the B12 synthesis pathway, methionine biosynthesis, fatty acid catabolism, and DNA repair and replication are consistent with adaptations to different environmental niches and pathogenic lifestyles. While there is no evidence of further gene acquisition during expansion of the M. tuberculosis complex, the emergence of other forms of genetic diversity provides insights into continuing host-pathogen co-evolution and has the potential to identify novel targets for disease intervention. PMID:25988174

  2. Voltammetry of Vitamin B 12 on a thin self-assembled monolayer modified electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nianjun Yang; Qijin Wan; Xiaoxia Wang

    2005-01-01

    Vitamin B12 showed three reduction waves at a thin self-assembled monolayer of mercaptoacetic acid modified gold electrode at 0.21, 0.16, ?0.41V in a 0.01moll?1 HCl solution at a scan rate of 100mVs?1. The overall electrode reaction followed an ECE mechanism, leading to a total two-electron exchange. The predominant Co(III) form was reduced directly at 0.21V by a one-electron transfer accomplished

  3. HETEROGENEITY AND LACK OF GOOD QUALITY STUDIES LIMIT ASSOCIATION BETWEEN FOLATE, VITAMIN B-6 AND B-12, AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite their important role in cognitive function, the value of B vitamin supplementation is unknown. A systematic review of the effect of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation on cognitive function was performed. Literature search conducted in MEDLINE with supplemental articles from rev...

  4. VITAMIN B6, B12 AND FOLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF RANDOMIZED TRIALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite their important role in cognitive function, the value of B vitamin supplementation is unknown. A systematic review of the effect of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation on cognitive function was performed. Literature search conducted in MEDLINE with supplemental articles from re...

  5. Homocysteine and coronary artery disease in French Canadian subjects: Relation with vitamins B 12, B 6, pyridoxal phosphate, and folate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl Dalery; Suzanne Lussier-Cacan; Jacob Selhub; Jean Davignon; Yves Latour; Jacques Genest

    1995-01-01

    We determined plasma levels of homocysteine in 584 healthy subjects (380 men and 204 women) from a major utility company in the province of Que´bec, Canada, and in 150 subjects (123 men and 27 women) with angiographically documented coronary artery disease (CAD) (age < 60 years). Plasma levels of vitamins B12, B6, pyridoxal phosphate (a vitamin B6 derivative), and folate

  6. Low plasma vitamin B-12 in Kenyan school children is highly prevalent and improved by supplemental animal source foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in many regions of the world is becoming recognized as a widespread public health problem, but it is not known to what extent this deficiency results from a low intake of the vitamin or from its malabsorption from food. In rural Kenya, where a previous ...

  7. Comparative genomic analyses of nickel, cobalt and vitamin B12 utilization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Rodionov, Dmitry A; Gelfand, Mikhail S; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2009-01-01

    Background Nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co) are trace elements required for a variety of biological processes. Ni is directly coordinated by proteins, whereas Co is mainly used as a component of vitamin B12. Although a number of Ni and Co-dependent enzymes have been characterized, systematic evolutionary analyses of utilization of these metals are limited. Results We carried out comparative genomic analyses to examine occurrence and evolutionary dynamics of the use of Ni and Co at the level of (i) transport systems, and (ii) metalloproteomes. Our data show that both metals are widely used in bacteria and archaea. Cbi/NikMNQO is the most common prokaryotic Ni/Co transporter, while Ni-dependent urease and Ni-Fe hydrogenase, and B12-dependent methionine synthase (MetH), ribonucleotide reductase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase are the most widespread metalloproteins for Ni and Co, respectively. Occurrence of other metalloenzymes showed a mosaic distribution and a new B12-dependent protein family was predicted. Deltaproteobacteria and Methanosarcina generally have larger Ni- and Co-dependent proteomes. On the other hand, utilization of these two metals is limited in eukaryotes, and very few of these organisms utilize both of them. The Ni-utilizing eukaryotes are mostly fungi (except saccharomycotina) and plants, whereas most B12-utilizing organisms are animals. The NiCoT transporter family is the most widespread eukaryotic Ni transporter, and eukaryotic urease and MetH are the most common Ni- and B12-dependent enzymes, respectively. Finally, investigation of environmental and other conditions and identity of organisms that show dependence on Ni or Co revealed that host-associated organisms (particularly obligate intracellular parasites and endosymbionts) have a tendency for loss of Ni/Co utilization. Conclusion Our data provide information on the evolutionary dynamics of Ni and Co utilization and highlight widespread use of these metals in the three domains of life, yet only a limited number of user proteins. PMID:19208259

  8. Electronic structure of vitamin B12 within the framework of the Haldane-Anderson impurity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandemir, Zafer; Mayda, Selma; Bulut, Nejat

    2015-03-01

    We study the electronic structure of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamine C63H88CoN14O14P) by using the framework of the multi-orbital single-impurity Haldane-Anderson model of a transition-metal impurity in a semiconductor host. Here, our purpose is to understand the many-body effects originating from the transition-metal impurity. In this approach, the cobalt 3 d orbitals are treated as the impurity states placed in a semiconductor host which consists of the rest of the molecule. The parameters of the resulting effective Haldane-Anderson model are obtained within the Hartree-Fock approximation for the electronic structure of the molecule. The quantum Monte Carlo technique is then used to calculate the one-electron and magnetic correlation functions of this effective Haldane-Anderson model for vitamin B12. We find that new states form inside the semiconductor gap due to the on-site Coulomb interaction at the impurity 3 d orbitals and that these states become the highest occupied molecular orbitals. In addition, we present results on the charge distribution and spin correlations around the Co atom. We compare the results of this approach with those obtained by the density-functional theory calculations.

  9. The use of labelled vitamin B12 in the measurement of glomerular filtration rate

    PubMed Central

    Ekins, R. P.; Nashat, F. S.; Portal, R. W.; Sgherzi, A. M.

    1966-01-01

    1. Two preparations of radioactive vitamin B12 labelled respectively with 57Co and 58Co have been employed in the estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (G.F.R.) in dogs. The intravenous injection of these preparations at an interval of 20 min resulted in a changing ratio of their activities in plasma and urine and so permitted a relation in time to be established between the urine and the plasma from which it was filtered. 2. When urine and plasma were sampled at short intervals an effective renal delay or transit time could be derived from their isotope ratio curves and used as a correction in the clearance equation. This allowed serial clearances of either isotope to be calculated despite a falling plasma concentration. 3. This method was applied to the study of the G.F.R. in fourteen dogs using short urine collections of 2 or 4 min for periods up to 80 min. The results under stable conditions and with deliberately induced changes in the G.F.R. are illustrated and discussed. 4. Application of the technique in four patients undergoing differential renal function studies gave results comparable with those in the experimental work. 5. The plasma binding of administered vitamin B12 in serial blood samples in dogs and man was investigated. PMID:5972113

  10. Vitamin B12[c-lactone], a biologically inactive corrinoid compound, occurs in cultured and dried lion's mane mushroom (Hericium erinaceus) fruiting bodies.

    PubMed

    Teng, Fei; Bito, Tomohiro; Takenaka, Shigeo; Yabuta, Yukinori; Watanabe, Fumio

    2014-02-19

    This study determined the vitamin B12 content of the edible medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus, lion's mane mushroom fruiting body, using a microbiological assay based on Lactobacillus delbrueckii ATCC 7830. Trace levels (0.04-0.36 ?g/100 g dry weight) of vitamin B12 were found in most of the dried mushroom samples, and two samples contained slightly higher levels (0.56 and 1.04 ?g/100 g dry weight, respectively) of vitamin B12. We purified the corrinoid compounds from the extracts of dried lion's mane mushroom fruiting bodies using an immunoaffinity column and identified them as vitamin B12 or vitamin B12[c-lactone] (or both) based on LC/ESI-MS/MS chromatograms. This is the first report on an unnatural corrinoid, vitamin B12[c-lactone], occurring in foods. Vitamin B12[c-lactone] was simple to produce during incubation of authentic vitamin B12 and chloramine-T, an antimicrobial agent, at varying pH values (3.0-7.0) and was completely inactive in the vitamin B12-dependent bacteria that are generally used in vitamin B12 bioassays. PMID:24506286

  11. Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and methionine synthase polymorphisms with breast cancer risk and interaction with folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B 12 intakes.

    PubMed

    Jiang-Hua, Qiao; De-Chuang, Jiao; Zhen-Duo, Lu; Shu-de, Cui; Zhenzhen, Liu

    2014-12-01

    We assessed the association between dietary intake of folate and the MTHFR genotype with breast cancer in a Chinese population, with additional analysis of the interactions of gene polymorphisms and dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. A case-control study was performed, and 535 patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer and 673 controls were enrolled into this study. The MTHFR 667TT genotype (odds ratio (OR)?=?1.82, 95 % confidence interval (CI)?=?1.24-2.97) and T allele (OR 0=?1.48, 95 % CI?=?1.15-1.78) were correlated with a moderately significant increased risk of breast cancer when compared with the CC genotype. Individuals carrying the MTR 2756GG genotype (OR?=?1.66, 95 % CI?=?1.16-2.56) and G allele (OR?=?1.42, 95 % CI?=?1.26-1.81) had a higher risk of breast cancer when compared with subjects with the AA genotype. The MTHFR 667 T allele and MTR 2756 G allele were associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in individuals with low folate intake, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12, but the association disappeared among subjects with moderate and high intake of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. This case-control study found that the MTHFR C677T and MTR A2756G polymorphisms are associated with risk of breast cancer, and folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 intakes influence these associations. PMID:25217320

  12. Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids during gestation and lactation to a vitamin B12-deficient or -supplemented diet improves pregnancy outcome and metabolic variables in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Kemse, Nisha; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2015-01-01

    Maternal vitamin B12 deficiency leads to an adverse pregnancy outcome and increases the risk for developing diabetes and metabolic syndrome in mothers in later life. Our earlier studies have demonstrated that vitamin B12 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are interlinked in the one carbon cycle. The present study for the first time examines the effect of maternal n-3 PUFA supplementation to vitamin B12 deficient or supplemented diets on pregnancy outcome, fatty-acid status and metabolic variables in Wistar rats. Pregnant dams were assigned to one of the following groups: control, vitamin B12 deficient, vitamin B12 supplemented, vitamin B12 deficient + n-3 PUFA or vitamin B12 supplemented + n-3 PUFA. The amount of vitamin B12 in the supplemented group was 0.50 ?g kg(-1) diet and n-3 PUFA was alpha linolenic acid (ALA) 1.68, eicosapentaenoic acid 5.64, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 3.15 (g per 100g fatty acids per kg diet). Our findings indicate that maternal vitamin B12 supplementation did not affect the weight gain of dams during pregnancy but reduced litter size and weight and was ameliorated by n-3 PUFA supplementation. Vitamin B12 deficiency or supplementation resulted in a low percentage distribution of plasma arachidonic acid and DHA. n-3 PUFA supplementation to these diets improved the fatty-acid status. Vitamin B12 deficiency resulted in higher homocysteine and insulin levels, which were normalised by supplementation with either vitamin B12 or n-3 PUFA. Our study suggests that maternal vitamin B12 status is critical in determining pregnancy outcome and metabolic variables in dams and that supplementation with n-3 PUFA is beneficial. PMID:24355403

  13. Gastric acid secretion and vitamin B12 absorption after vertical Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, C D; Herkes, S B; Behrns, K E; Fairbanks, V F; Kelly, K A; Sarr, M G

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine the basal and peak-stimulated acid secretion from the proximal gastric pouch and its relationship to absorption of free and food-bound vitamin B12 after gastric bypass for morbid obesity. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Gastric bypass can be performed safely and provides acceptable weight loss, but concerns remain about possible long-term complications such as vitamin B12 malabsorption. The authors hypothesized that by constructing a small pouch of gastric cardia, acid secretion into the pouch would be low, leading to maldigestion of food-bound vitamin B12 with subsequent malabsorption. METHODS: Basal and pentagastrin-stimulated peak acid outputs from the proximal gastric pouch were measured in ten patients after vertical Roux-en-Y gastric bypass using a perfused orogastric tube technique. Absorption of free and food-bound 57Co-vitamin B12 was evaluated separately using 24-hour urinary excretion. RESULTS: Basal (mEq/hr, mean +/- standard error of the mean [SEM]) and peak-stimulated (mEq/30 min) acid secretions from the proximal gastric pouch were markedly decreased compared to those for age- and sex-matched hospital control subjects (0.01 +/- 0.01 vs. 4.97 +/- 0.66 and 0.08 +/- 0.04 vs. 12.11 +/- 1.34, respectively; p < 0.001 for each). While absorption of free vitamin B12 was not statistically different from that of control subjects (11 +/- 2 vs. 15 +/- 2%; p > 0.05), absorption of food-bound vitamin B12 was decreased (0.8 +/- 0.2 vs. 3.7 +/- 0.5%; p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: After vertical Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity, acid secretion is virtually absent and food-bound vitamin B12 is maldigested and subsequently malabsorbed. The results of this study suggest that postoperative vitamin B12 supplementation is important and can be achieved with either monthly parenteral vitamin B12 or daily oral crystalline preparations. Images Figure 3. PMID:8328834

  14. Novel fermentation process strengthening strategy for production of propionic acid and vitamin B12 by Propionibacterium freudenreichii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Jiao, Youjing; Liu, Shouxin

    2014-12-01

    An efficient fermentation-strengthening approach was developed to improve the anaerobic production of propionic acid and vitamin B12 by co-fermentation with Propionibacterium freudenreichii. Vitamin B12 production from glucose resulted in relatively high productivity (0.35 mg/L h) but a low propionic acid yield (0.55 g/g). By contrast, glycerol gave a high propionic acid yield (0.63 g/g) but low productivity (0.16 g/L h). Co-fermentation of glycerol and glucose with a gradual addition strategy gave high yields (propionic acid: 0.71 g/g; vitamin B12: 0.72 mg/g) and productivities (propionic acid: 0.36 g/L h; vitamin B12: 0.36 mg/L h). Finally, the integrated feedstock and fermentation system strengthening strategy was demonstrated as an efficient method for the economic production of bio-based propionic acid and vitamin B12. PMID:25261985

  15. Parallel computing and first-principles calculations: Applications to complex ceramics and Vitamin B12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Lizhi

    A systematic improvement and extension of the orthogonalized linear combinations of atomic orbitals method was carried out using a combined computational and theoretical approach. For high performance parallel computing, a Beowulf class personal computer cluster was constructed. It also served as a parallel program development platform that helped us to port the programs of the method to the national supercomputer facilities. The program, received a language upgrade from Fortran 77 to Fortran 90, and a dynamic memory allocation feature. A preliminary parallel High Performance Fortran version of the program has been developed as well. To be of more benefit though, scalability improvements are needed. In order to circumvent the difficulties of the analytical force calculation in the method, we developed a geometry optimization scheme using the finite difference approximation based on the total energy calculation. The implementation of this scheme was facilitated by the powerful general utility lattice program, which offers many desired features such as multiple optimization schemes and usage of space group symmetry. So far, many ceramic oxides have been tested with the geometry optimization program. Their optimized geometries were in excellent agreement with the experimental data. For nine ceramic oxide crystals, the optimized cell parameters differ from the experimental ones within 0.5%. Moreover, the geometry optimization was recently used to predict a new phase of TiNx. The method has also been used to investigate a complex Vitamin B12-derivative, the OHCbl crystals. In order to overcome the prohibitive disk I/O demand, an on-demand version of the method was developed. Based on the electronic structure calculation of the OHCbl crystal, a partial density of states analysis and a bond order analysis were carried out. The calculated bonding of the corrin ring of OHCbl model was coincident with the big open-ring pi bond. One interesting find of the calculation was that the Co-OH bond was weak. This, together with the ongoing projects studying different Vitamin B12 derivatives, might help us to answer questions about the Co-C cleavage of the B12 coenzyme, which is involved in many important B12 enzymatic reactions.

  16. A NEW 13C BREATH TEST TO DETECT VITAMIN B-12 DEFICIENCY: A PREVALENT AND POORLY DIAGNOSED HEALTH PROBLEM

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, David A.; Schatz, Richard; Coston, Richard; Curington, Cheryl; Bolt, Daniel; Toskes, Phillip P.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is emerging as a growing public health problem. The most commonly used diagnostic tests are limited in accuracy, sensitivity, and are non-specific for B12 deficiency. The aim of this study was to develop a simple B12 Breath Test (BBT) to more accurately evaluate vitamin B12 status as an alternative to the most common diagnostic test, serum B12 levels. The breath test is based on the metabolism of sodium 1-13C-propionate to 13CO2 which requires B12 as a cofactor. We initially compared the BBT to current B12 diagnostic methods in 58 subjects. Subjects also received a second BBT 1–3 days after initial testing to evaluate reproducibility of results. Propionate dosage, fasting times, and collection periods were compared respectively. The dose of sodium 1-13C-propionate (10 to 50 mg) gave equivalent results while an 8 hour fast was essential. Statistical analysis revealed that breath collection times could be reduced to just a baseline and 10 and 20 minutes following propionate dosing. We also measured the incidence of B12 deficiency with the BBT in 119 patients with chronic pancreatitis, Crohn’s disease, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and subjects over 65 years of age. The BBT results agreed with previous publications showing a higher incidence of B12 deficiency in these patients. The BBT may provide clinicians with a non-invasive, accurate, reliable, and reproducible diagnostic test to detect vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:21697586

  17. Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Elevated Folate Levels: An Unusual Cause of Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure.

    PubMed

    Singh Lubana, Sandeep; Alfishawy, Mostafa; Singh, Navdeep; Atkinson, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Vitamin B12 deficiency leads to abnormal myelination or demyelination, resulting in sub-acute combined degeneration, peripheral neuropathy, and psychiatric problems, including delusions, hallucinations, cognitive changes, depression, and dementia. Vitamin B12 deficiency also leads to brain shrinkage and neurodegenerative disorders. CASE REPORT We report the case of a 49-year-old man presenting with new-onset seizures one and a half years following subtotal gastrectomy due to stage IV gastric adenocarcinoma. The patient did not have any history of head injury. Laboratory tests were negative for any metabolic derangements. There were no signs of infection. MRI brain and EEG were normal and there were no changes in medications. CONCLUSIONS In case of unexplained new-onset seizures, patients should be tested for vitamin B12 and folic acid levels and these should be done as part of the initial work-up. PMID:26101427

  18. What should I know before ordering a bone marrow aspiration/biopsy in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency?

    PubMed Central

    Randhawa, Jaskirat; Ondrejka, Sarah L; Setrakian, Sebouh; Taylor, Harris

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is a well recognised cause of macrocytic anaemia and bone marrow failure. Bone marrow aspiration/biopsy is infrequently indicated for the diagnosis in this setting. However, if a bone marrow aspiration/biopsy is performed, it is important to recognise that it may show dysplastic changes mimicking myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute leukaemia. We report a case of a 66-year-old non-vegetarian man presenting with generalised weakness for 1?month and misdiagnosed on bone marrow biopsy as MDS. However, laboratory investigations revealed severe deficiency of vitamin B12. Four weeks after starting vitamin B12 replacement the patient's complete blood counts reverted to normal. PMID:23839610

  19. Vitamin B12 Metabolism during Pregnancy and in Embryonic Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Garcia, Maira A.; Rosenblatt, David S.; Jerome-Majewska, Loydie A.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) is required for cellular metabolism. It is an essential coenzyme in mammals for two reactions: the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by the enzyme methionine synthase and the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Symptoms of Cbl deficiency are hematological, neurological and cognitive, including megaloblastic anaemia, tingling and numbness of the extremities, gait abnormalities, visual disturbances, memory loss and dementia. During pregnancy Cbl is essential, presumably because of its role in DNA synthesis and methionine synthesis; however, there are conflicting studies regarding an association between early pregnancy loss and Cbl deficiency. We here review the literature about the requirement for Cbl during pregnancy, and summarized what is known of the expression pattern and function of genes required for Cbl metabolism in embryonic mouse models. PMID:24025485

  20. CdTe quantum dot as a fluorescence probe for vitamin B12 in dosage form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaishnavi, E.; Renganathan, R.

    2013-11-01

    We here report the CdTe quantum dot (CdTe QDs)-based sensor for probing vitamin B12 derivatives in aqueous solution. In this paper, simple and sensitive fluorescence quenching measurements has been employed. The Stern-Volmer constant (KSV), quenching rate constant (kq) and binding constant (K) were rationalized from fluorescence quenching measurement. Furthermore, the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism was discussed. This method was applicable over the concentration ranging from 1 to 14 ?g/mL (VB12) with correlation coefficient of 0.993. The limit of detection (LOD) of VB12 was found to be 0.15 ?g/mL. Moreover, the present approach opens a simple pathway for developing cost-effective, sensitive and selective QD-based fluorescence sensors/probes for biologically significant VB12 in pharmaceutical sample with mean recoveries in the range of 100-102.1%.

  1. Response to Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Regland, Björn; Forsmark, Sara; Halaouate, Lena; Matousek, Michael; Peilot, Birgitta; Zachrisson, Olof; Gottfries, Carl-Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME, also called chronic fatigue syndrome) may respond most favorably to frequent vitamin B12 injections, in vital combination with oral folic acid. However, there is no established algorithm for individualized optimal dosages, and rate of improvement may differ considerably between responders. Objective To evaluate clinical data from patients with ME, with or without fibromyalgia, who had been on B12 injections at least once a week for six months and up to several years. Methods 38 patients were included in a cross-sectional survey. Based on a validated observer’s rating scale, they were divided into Good (n = 15) and Mild (n = 23) responders, and the two groups were compared from various clinical aspects. Results Good responders had used significantly more frequent injections (p<0.03) and higher doses of B12 (p<0.03) for a longer time (p<0.0005), higher daily amounts of oral folic acid (p<0.003) in good relation with the individual MTHFR genotype, more often thyroid hormones (p<0.02), and no strong analgesics at all, while 70% of Mild responders (p<0.0005) used analgesics such as opioids, duloxetine or pregabalin on a daily basis. In addition to ME, the higher number of patients with fibromyalgia among Mild responders was bordering on significance (p<0.09). Good responders rated themselves as “very much” or “much” improved, while Mild responders rated “much” or “minimally” improved. Conclusions Dose-response relationship and long-lasting effects of B12/folic acid support a true positive response in the studied group of patients with ME/fibromyalgia. It’s important to be alert on co-existing thyroid dysfunction, and we suspect a risk of counteracting interference between B12/folic acid and certain opioid analgesics and other drugs that have to be demethylated as part of their metabolism. These issues should be considered when controlled trials for ME and fibromyalgia are to be designed. PMID:25902009

  2. Oxygen reduction mediated by single nanodroplets containing attomoles of vitamin?b12 : electrocatalytic nano-impacts method.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Compton, Richard G

    2015-06-01

    We report the use of single Vitamin?B12 nanodroplets to mediate the reduction of oxygen in neutral buffer. Electron transfer to single Vitamin?B12 nanodroplets is observed using the nano-impacts method and shown to be quantitative. The mechanism of mediated oxygen reduction by single VB12 droplets is revealed as via both Co(II) and Co(I) reduced from Co(III) in VB12 through one or two electron transfer followed by the four-electron reduction of oxygen. PMID:25917121

  3. Modeling a methylmalonic acid–derived change point for serum vitamin B-12 for adults in NHANES1234

    PubMed Central

    Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Carmel, Ralph; Green, Ralph; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Sempos, Christopher T; Carriquiry, Alicia; Yetley, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    Background: No consensus exists about which cutoff point should be applied for serum vitamin B-12 (SB-12) concentrations to define vitamin B-12 status in population-based research. Objective: The study's aim was to identify whether a change point exists at which the relation between plasma methylmalonic acid (MMA) and SB-12 changes slope to differentiate between inadequate and adequate vitamin B-12 status by using various statistical models. Design: We used data on adults (?19 y; n = 12,683) from NHANES 1999–2004—a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey. We evaluated 6 piece-wise polynomial and exponential decay models that used different control levels for known covariates. Results: The MMA-defined change point for SB-12 varied depending on the statistical model used. A linear-splines model was determined to best fit the data, as determined by the approximate permutation test; 3 slopes relating SB-12 and MMA and resulting in 2 change points and 3 subgroups were shown. The first group (SB-12 <126 pmol/L) was small and had the highest MMA concentration (median: 281 nmol/L; 95% CI: 245, 366 nmol/L; n = 157, 1.2%); many in this group could be considered at high risk of severe deficiency because combined abnormalities of MMA and homocysteine were very frequent and the concentrations themselves were significantly higher. The highest SB-12 group (SB-12 >287 pmol/L; n = 8569, 67.6%) likely had adequate vitamin B-12 status (median MMA: 120 nmol/L; 95% CI: 119, 125 nmol/L). The vitamin B-12 status of the sizable intermediate group (n = 3957, 33%) was difficult to interpret. Conclusions: The 3 distinct slopes for the relation between SB-12 and MMA challenges the conventional use of one cutoff point for classifying vitamin B-12 status. In epidemiologic research, the use of one cutoff point would fail to separate the small, severely deficient group from the intermediate group that has neither normal nor clearly deficient vitamin B-12 concentrations (ie, unknown vitamin B-12 status). This intermediate group requires further characterization. PMID:23803883

  4. Bestimmung der wasserlöslichen Vitamine B 1 , B 2 , B 6 und B 12 in Milch durch HPLC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland Gauch; Urs Leuenberger; Urs Müller

    1992-01-01

    Summary Simple methods of determining the water-soluble vitamins B1, B2, B6 and B12 in milk by HPLC are described. Compared to existing procedures, the following improvements can be realized. The oxidation of vitamin B1 to thiochrome is stopped by the addition of sodium sulphite. This step significantly increases repeatability. Thiochrome is then extracted with butan-1-ol, which results in fewer co-extracts

  5. Vitamin B12 biosynthesis over waste frying sunflower oil as a cost effective and renewable substrate.

    PubMed

    Hajfarajollah, Hamidreza; Mokhtarani, Babak; Mortaheb, Hamidreza; Afaghi, Ali

    2015-06-01

    Statistical experimental designs were used to develop a medium based on waste frying sunflower oil (WFO) and other nutrient sources for production of vitamin B12 (VB12) by Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. freudenreichii PTCC 1674. The production of acetic acid and propionic acid were also evaluated using the same microorganism. The amount of WFO in the media was initially optimized. The amount of 4 % w/v of oil found to be an appropriate amount for production of VB12. A Plackett Burman design was then employed to identify nutrients that have significant effect on the production of VB12 in the WFO media. Dimethylbenzimidazolyl (DMB), cobalt chloride, ferrous sulfate, and calcium chloride were the most important compounds. The level optimization of nutrients as the significant factors was finally performed using response surface methodology based on a central composite design. The model predicted that a medium containing 35.56 mg/L DMB, 14.69 mg/L CoCl2.6H2O, 5.82 mg/L FeSO4.7H2O, and 11.41 mg/L CaCl2.2H2O gives the maximum VB12 production of 2.60 mg/L. The optimized medium provides a final concentration of vitamin 170 % higher than that by the original medium. This study offers valuable insights on a cost-effective carbon source for industrial production of food-grade VB12. PMID:26028708

  6. Lack of megalin expression in adult human terminal ileum suggests megalin-independent cubilin/amnionless activity during vitamin B12 absorption.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Louise L; Andersen, Rikke K; Hager, Henrik; Madsen, Mette

    2014-07-01

    Cubilin plays an essential role in terminal ileum and renal proximal tubules during absorption of vitamin B12 and ligands from the glomerular ultrafiltrate. Cubilin is coexpressed with amnionless, and cubilin and amnionless are mutually dependent on each other for correct processing to the plasma membrane upon synthesis. Patients with defects in either protein suffer from vitamin B12-malabsorption and in some cases proteinuria. Cubilin lacks a transmembrane region and signals for endocytosis and is dependent on a transmembrane coreceptor during internalization. Amnionless has been shown to be able to mediate internalization of cubilin in a cell-based model system. Cubilin has additionally been suggested to function together with megalin, and a recent study of megalin-deficient patients indicates that uptake of cubilin ligands in the kidney is critically dependent on megalin. To further investigate the potential role of amnionless and megalin in relation to cubilin function in terminal ileum and vitamin B12 uptake, we initiated a study of CUBN/cubilin, AMN/amnionless, and LRP2/megalin expression in adult human terminal ileum. Our study is the first to reveal the expression pattern of cubilin, amnionless, and megalin in adult human terminal ileum, where cubilin and amnionless localize to the epithelial cells. Surprisingly, we did not detect any megalin protein in adult terminal ileum and consistently, only extremely low amounts of LRP2 mRNA. Our data therefore advocate that cubilin and amnionless act independently of megalin in adult terminal ileum and that the cubilin-megalin interdependency accordingly should be considered as tissue and ligand specific. PMID:25052491

  7. Lack of megalin expression in adult human terminal ileum suggests megalin?independent cubilin/amnionless activity during vitamin B12 absorption

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Louise L.; Andersen, Rikke K.; Hager, Henrik; Madsen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cubilin plays an essential role in terminal ileum and renal proximal tubules during absorption of vitamin B12 and ligands from the glomerular ultrafiltrate. Cubilin is coexpressed with amnionless, and cubilin and amnionless are mutually dependent on each other for correct processing to the plasma membrane upon synthesis. Patients with defects in either protein suffer from vitamin B12?malabsorption and in some cases proteinuria. Cubilin lacks a transmembrane region and signals for endocytosis and is dependent on a transmembrane coreceptor during internalization. Amnionless has been shown to be able to mediate internalization of cubilin in a cell?based model system. Cubilin has additionally been suggested to function together with megalin, and a recent study of megalin?deficient patients indicates that uptake of cubilin ligands in the kidney is critically dependent on megalin. To further investigate the potential role of amnionless and megalin in relation to cubilin function in terminal ileum and vitamin B12 uptake, we initiated a study of CUBN/cubilin, AMN/amnionless, and LRP2/megalin expression in adult human terminal ileum. Our study is the first to reveal the expression pattern of cubilin, amnionless, and megalin in adult human terminal ileum, where cubilin and amnionless localize to the epithelial cells. Surprisingly, we did not detect any megalin protein in adult terminal ileum and consistently, only extremely low amounts of LRP2 mRNA. Our data therefore advocate that cubilin and amnionless act independently of megalin in adult terminal ileum and that the cubilin?megalin interdependency accordingly should be considered as tissue and ligand specific. PMID:25052491

  8. Substitution of Co alpha-(5-hydroxybenzimidazolyl)cobamide (factor III) by vitamin B12 in Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum.

    PubMed Central

    Stupperich, E; Steiner, I; Eisinger, H J

    1987-01-01

    Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum grown on mineral medium contains 120 nmol of Co alpha-(5-hydroxybenzimidazolyl)cobamides (derivatives of factor III) per g of dry cell mass as the sole cobamide. The bacterium assimilated several corrinoids and benzimidazole bases during autotrophic growth. The corrinoids were converted into factor III; however, after three transfers in 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (200 microM)-supplemented mineral medium, derivatives of factor III were completely replaced by derivatives of vitamin B12, which is atypical for methanogens. The total cobamide content of these cells and their growth rate were not affected compared with factor III-containing cells. Therefore, the high cobamide content rather than a particular type of cobamide is required for metabolism of methanogens. Derivatives of factor III are not essential cofactors of cobamide-containing enzymes from methanogenic bacteria, but they are the result of a unique biosynthetic ability of these archaebacteria. The cobamide biosynthesis include unspecific enzymes, which made it possible either to convert non-species-derived corrinoids into derivatives of factor III or to synthesize other types of cobamides than factor III. The cobamide biosynthesis is regulated by its end product. In addition, the uptake of extracellular cobamides is controlled, and the assimilated corrinoids regulate cellular cobamide biosynthesis. PMID:3597318

  9. Mood disorder with mixed, psychotic features due to vitamin b12 deficiency in an adolescent: case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is one of the essential vitamins affecting various systems of the body. Reports of psychiatric disorders due to its deficiency mostly focus on middle aged and elderly patients. Here we report a case of vitamin B 12 deficiency in a 16-year old, male adolescent who presented with mixed mood disorder symptoms with psychotic features. Chief complaints were “irritability, regressive behavior, apathy, crying and truancy” which lasted for a year. Premorbid personality was unremarkable with no substance use/exposure or infections. No stressors were present. The patient was not vegetarian. Past medical history and family history was normal. Neurological examination revealed glossitis, ataxia, rigidity in both shoulders, cog-wheel rigidity in the left elbow, bilateral problems of coordination in cerebellar examination, reduced swinging of the arms and masked face. Romberg’s sign was present. Laboratory evaluations were normal. Endoscopy and biopsy revealed atrophy of the gastric mucosa with Helicobacter Pylori colonization. Schilling test was suggestive of malabsorbtion. He was diagnosed with Mood disorder with Mixed, Psychotic Features due to Vitamin B12 Deficiency and risperidone 0.5?mg/day and intramuscular vitamin B12 500 mcg/day were started along with referral for treatment of Helicobacter pylori. A visit on the second week revealed no psychotic features. Romberg’s sign was negative and cerebellar tests were normal. Extrapyramidal symptoms were reduced while Vitamin B12 levels were elevated. Risperidone was stopped and parenteral Vitamin B12 treatment was continued with monthly injections for 3?months. Follow-up endoscopy and biopsy at the first month demonstrated eradication of H. pylori. He was followed monthly for another 6?months and psychiatric symptoms did not recur at the time of last evaluation. Despite limitations, this case may underline the observation that mood disorders with psychotic features especially with accompanying extrapyramidal symptoms lacking a clear etiology may be rare manifestation of vitamin B12 and/or folate deficiency in children and adolescents and be potentially amenable to treatment. PMID:22726236

  10. Low-density lipoprotein apheresis decreases ferritin, transferrin and vitamin B12, which may cause anemia in serially treated patients.

    PubMed

    Bramlage, Carsten P; Armstrong, Victor W; Zapf, Antonia; Bramlage, Peter; Mueller, Gerhard A; Koziolek, Michael J

    2010-04-01

    Clinical observations revealed an increased prevalence of iron deficiency anemia without chronic bleeding in patients treated with serial low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis. Since several different proteins are adsorbed by LDL apheresis beside pro-atherogenic lipoproteins, we examined the modification of the full blood count, plasma iron, vitamin B12, folic acid, and hemolysis by LDL apheresis. Nineteen patients (55 (50-59) years, 4 female, 15 male) undergoing chronic LDL apheresis due to mixed dyslipidemia (N = 17), homozygous familiar hypercholesterolemia (N = 1) or isolated elevated lipoprotein(a) (N = 1) were included in this study. They were treated with direct adsorption of lipoproteins (DALI; N = 6), heparin-induced LDL-precipitation (HELP; N = 7) or double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP; N = 6). The patients' full blood count, iron metabolism (plasma iron, ferritin, transferrin, transferrin saturation), vitamins involved in erythropoiesis (vitamin B12 and folic acid), and markers of hemolysis (haptoglobin and free hemoglobin) were analyzed directly before and after LDL apheresis. A single LDL apheresis session significantly decreased the levels (reduction in the median [25(th)-75(th) percentiles] of: ferritin 9.8 [1.3-18] %; P = 0.004), transferrin (12.1 [10.0-15.96] %; P = 0.0005), and vitamin B12 (17.8 [16.2-20.8] %; P = 0.0005). Thereby, transferrin and vitamin B12 were decreased in all (N = 19) and ferritin in 74% (N = 14) of the patients. Twelve out of 19 patients (63.2%) had mild anemia despite iron administration in 14 out of 19 patients (73.7%). LDL apheresis had no significant influence on full blood count, plasma iron, transferrin saturation, folic acid, or hemolysis. Similar changes were observed in all LDL apheresis methods used. LDL apheresis significantly decreases ferritin, transferrin, and vitamin B12, suggesting an influence of serial LDL apheresis on erythropoiesis. PMID:20438534

  11. CO2 and vitamin B12 interactions determine bioactive trace metal requirements of a subarctic Pacific diatom

    PubMed Central

    King, Andrew L; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A; Leblanc, Karine; Hutchins, David A; Fu, Feixue

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplankton growth can be limited by numerous inorganic nutrients and organic growth factors. Using the subarctic diatom Attheya sp. in culture studies, we examined how the availability of vitamin B12 and carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) influences growth rate, primary productivity, cellular iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) quotas, and the net use efficiencies (NUEs) of these bioactive trace metals (mol C fixed per mol cellular trace metal per day). Under B12-replete conditions, cells grown at high pCO2 had lower Fe, Zn and Cd quotas, and used those trace metals more efficiently in comparison with cells grown at low pCO2. At high pCO2, B12-limited cells had ?50% lower specific growth and carbon fixation rates, and used Fe ?15-fold less efficiently, and Zn and Cd ?3-fold less efficiently, in comparison with B12-replete cells. The observed higher Fe, Zn and Cd NUE under high pCO2/B12-replete conditions are consistent with predicted downregulation of carbon-concentrating mechanisms. Co quotas of B12-replete cells were ?5- to 14-fold higher in comparison with B12-limited cells, suggesting that >80% of cellular Co of B12-limited cells was likely from B12. Our results demonstrate that CO2 and vitamin B12 interactively influence growth, carbon fixation, trace metal requirements and trace metal NUE of this diatom. This suggests the need to consider complex feedback interactions between multiple environmental factors for this biogeochemically critical group of phytoplankton in the last glacial maximum as well as the current and future changing ocean. PMID:21248860

  12. Contents of vitamins B 1, B 2, B 6, and B 12 in pork and meat products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J Esteve; R Farré; A Fr??gola; C Pilamunga

    2002-01-01

    The concentration of B vitamins (B1, B2, B6, and B12) was determined in three pork muscles (Longissimus dorsi, loin; Biceps femoris, ham; and Triceps brachii, shoulder) and in pork and other meat products (cooked, pickled, and cured), of importance because they are consumed in high quantities. The results were compared with values reported by other authors and their contribution to

  13. A Common Variant in Methionine Synthase Reductase Combined with Low Cobalamin (Vitamin B 12) Increases Risk for Spina Bifida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron Wilson; Robert Platt; Qing Wu; Daniel Leclerc; Benedicte Christensen; Hong Yang; Roy A. Gravel; Rima Rozen

    1999-01-01

    Impairment of folate and cobalamin (vitamin B12) metabolism has been observed in families with neural tube defects (NTDs). Genetic variants of enzymes in the homocysteine remethylation pathway might act as predisposing factors contributing to NTD risk. The first polymorphism linked to increased NTD risk was the 677C?T mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). We now report a polymorphism in methionine synthase

  14. Esophageal and Gastric Cardia Cancer Risk and Folate and Vitamin B12-related Polymorphisms in Linxian, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachael Z. Stolzenberg-Solomon; You-Lin Qiao; Christian C. Abnet; D. Luke Ratnasinghe; Sanford M. Dawsey; Zhi Wei Dong; Philip R. Taylor; Steven D. Mark

    2003-01-01

    Linxian, a rural county in North Central China, has among the highest rates of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) in the world. Its inhabitants have documented chronic nutritional inadequacies, including folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies. Using a cohort we have been studying in Linxian since 1985, we examined the relationship between incident ESCC and GCA

  15. Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Elevated Folate Levels: An Unusual Cause of Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure

    PubMed Central

    Lubana, Sandeep Singh; Alfishawy, Mostafa; Singh, Navdeep; Atkinson, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 49 Final Diagnosis: Generalized tonic-clonic seizures in the setting of vitamin B12 deficiency and elevated folate levels Symptoms: Seizures Medication: — Clinical Procedure: None Specialty: Neurology Objective: Unknown ethiology Background: Vitamin B12 deficiency leads to abnormal myelination or demyelination, resulting in sub-acute combined degeneration, peripheral neuropathy, and psychiatric problems, including delusions, hallucinations, cognitive changes, depression, and dementia. Vitamin B12 deficiency also leads to brain shrinkage and neurodegenerative disorders. Case Report: We report the case of a 49-year-old man presenting with new-onset seizures one and a half years following subtotal gastrectomy due to stage IV gastric adenocarcinoma. The patient did not have any history of head injury. Laboratory tests were negative for any metabolic derangements. There were no signs of infection. MRI brain and EEG were normal and there were no changes in medications. Conclusions: In case of unexplained new-onset seizures, patients should be tested for vitamin B12 and folic acid levels and these should be done as part of the initial work-up. PMID:26101427

  16. Acupuncture and vitamin B12 injection for Bell’s palsy: no high-quality evidence exists

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-li; Guan, Ling; Hao, Peng-liang; Du, Jin-long; Zhang, Meng-xue

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of acupuncture combined with vitamin B12 acupoint injection versus acupuncture alone to reduce incomplete recovery in patients with Bell’s palsy. DATA RETRIEVAL: A computer-based online retrieval of Medline, Web of Science, CNKI, CBM databases until April 2014 was performed for relevant trials, using the key words “Bell’s palsy or idiopathic facial palsy or facial palsy” and “acupuncture or vitamin B12 or methylcobalamin”. STUDY SELECTION: All randomized controlled trials that compared acupuncture with acupuncture combined with vitamin B12 in patients with Bell’s palsy were included in the meta-analysis. The initial treatment lasted for at least 4 weeks. The outcomes of incomplete facial recovery were monitored. The scoring index varied and the definition of healing was consistent. The combined effect size was calculated by using relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) using the fixed effect model of Review Manager. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incomplete recovery rates were chosen as the primary outcome. RESULTS: Five studies involving 344 patients were included in the final analysis. Results showed that the incomplete recovery rate of Bell’s palsy patients was 44.50% in the acupuncture combined with vitamin B12 group but 62.57% in the acupuncture alone group. The major acupoints were Taiyang (EX-HN5), Jiache (ST6), Dicang (ST4) and Sibai (ST2). The combined effect size showed that acupuncture combined with vitamin B12 was better than acupuncture alone for the treatment of Bell’s palsy (RR = 0.71, 95%CI: 0.58–0.87; P = 0.001), this result held true when 8 patients lost to follow up in one study were included into the analyses (RR = 0.70, 95%CI: 0.58–0.86; P = 0.0005). In the subgroup analyses, the therapeutic effect in patients of the electroacupuncture subgroup was better than in the non-electroacupuncture subgroup (P = 0.024). There was no significant difference in the incomplete recovery rate by subgroup analysis on drug types and treatment period. Most of the included studies were moderate or low quality, and bias existed. CONCLUSION: In patients with Bell’s palsy, acupuncture combined with vitamin B12 can reduce the risk of incomplete recovery compared with acupuncture alone in our meta-analysis. Because of study bias and methodological limitations, this conclusion is uncertain and the clinical application of acupuncture combined with vitamin B12 requires further exploration.

  17. [Effect of betaine hydrochloride on broiler chickens when used alone or in combination with vitamin B12].

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, M; Filipova, R; Tsvetkov, S

    1976-01-01

    The studies were carried out with 2287 broilers aged from 3 to 56 days, divided when one-day-old into four equal groups. The first group were fed the common ration and served as controls. The remaining three groups were experimental, the broilers of the second group being offered the basic common ration enriched with 0.2 per cent betaine. The third group were also given the ordinary ration, however, they received in the drinking water some 10 mug vitamin BUI per one kilogram feed each. The fourth group received both betaine and vitamin B12 at the rates indicated. Results showed that betaine hydrochloride offered either alone or in combination with vitamin B12 contributes to increasing the liveweight gain of broilers in the course of the starter period, but its use in doses of 0.2 per cent in the finishing period is not effective. PMID:1014365

  18. Response to Quinlivan: Post-fortification, folate intake in vitamin B12 deficiency is positively related to homocysteine and methylmalonic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With cross-sectional data, causes and effects are difficult to distinguish, and Quinlivan suggests that high circulating concentrations of homcysteine (Hcy), methylmalonic acid (MMA), and folate observed among vitamin B12-deficient survey participants all resulted from a lack of vitamin B12 (1). How...

  19. Vitamin B-12 and folate status in relation to decline in scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination in the Framingham Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochemical evidence of low vitamin B-12 status is common in seniors, but its clinical relevance is unclear. Vitamin B-12 deficiency can result in rapid, irreversible cognitive decline – a phenomenon that has been linked to high folate status. Our objective was to investigate the cognitive significa...

  20. Maternal micronutrients (folic acid and vitamin B 12) and omega 3 fatty acids: Implications for neurodevelopmental risk in the rat offspring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suchitra Roy; Anvita Kale; Kamini Dangat; Pratiksha Sable; Asmita Kulkarni; Sadhana Joshi

    Altered maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) are suggested to be at the heart of intra-uterine programming of adult diseases. We have recently described interactions of folic acid, vitamin B12 and docosahexaenoic acid in one carbon metabolism that is considered to play a key role in regulation oxidative stress and chromatin methylation. However its impact on fetal oxidative stress and

  1. The Status of Vitamin B12 and Folate among Chinese Women: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Shaonong; Yan, Hong; Zeng, Lingxia; Wang, Quanli; Li, Qiang; Xiao, Shengbin; Fan, Xiaojing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the status of the vitamin B12 and folate of Chinese women living in northwest China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008 among Chinese women aged 10–49 years living in Shaanxi province of northwest China. A stratified multistage random sampling method was adopted to obtain a sample of 1170 women. The women were interviewed for collection of their background information and their plasma vitamin B12 and folate were measured with the immunoassay method. The status of both vitamins was evaluated and the prevalence of deficiency was estimated. Results The median value of the women was 214.5 pg/mL for vitamin B12 and 4.6 ng/mL for folate. The urban women had a significantly higher vitamin B12 (254.1 vs. 195.9 pg/mL) but lower folate (4.4 vs. 4.7 ng/mL) than rural women. Total prevalence of deficiency was 45.5% (95% CI: 42.6%?48.4%) for vitamin B12 and 14.7% (95% CI: 12.6%?16.8%) for folate. About 36% of women presented vitamin B12 deficiency alone, 5.2% belonged to folate deficiency alone and 9.5% was combined deficiency in both vitamins. More than 25% of the women were in marginal vitamin B12 status (200–299 pg/mL) and 60% in marginal status of folate (3–6 ng/mL). About 75.2% of rural women with folate deficiency were deficient in vitamin B12 and 46% for urban women. Quantile regression model found decreasing coefficient of folate status across 73 different quantiles of vitamin B12, which indicated that the women with folate deficiency had lower vitamin B12 significantly compared with those with no deficiency. Conclusions The deficiency of vitamin B12 and folate is still prevalent among the Chinese women in northwest China. Vitamin B12 deficiency could be more serious and the improvement of poor vitamin B12 status should be invoked when practicing the supplementation of folate against the neural tube defects in northwest China. PMID:25390898

  2. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii thermal tolerance enhancement mediated by a mutualistic interaction with vitamin B12-producing bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bo; Bishop, Shawn; Stessman, Dan; Wright, David; Spalding, Martin H; Halverson, Larry J

    2013-01-01

    Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors affecting the growth and survival of microorganisms and in light of current global patterns is of particular interest. Here, we highlight studies revealing how vitamin B12 (cobalamin)-producing bacteria increase the fitness of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii following an increase in environmental temperature. Heat stress represses C. reinhardtii cobalamin-independent methionine synthase (METE) gene expression coinciding with a reduction in METE-mediated methionine synthase activity, chlorosis and cell death during heat stress. However, in the presence of cobalamin-producing bacteria or exogenous cobalamin amendments C. reinhardtii cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase METH-mediated methionine biosynthesis is functional at temperatures that result in C. reinhardtii death in the absence of cobalamin. Artificial microRNA silencing of C. reinhardtii METH expression leads to nearly complete loss of cobalamin-mediated enhancement of thermal tolerance. This suggests that methionine biosynthesis is an essential cellular mechanism for adaptation by C. reinhardtii to thermal stress. Increased fitness advantage of METH under environmentally stressful conditions could explain the selective pressure for retaining the METH gene in algae and the apparent independent loss of the METE gene in various algal species. Our results show that how an organism acclimates to a change in its abiotic environment depends critically on co-occurring species, the nature of that interaction, and how those species interactions evolve. PMID:23486253

  3. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii thermal tolerance enhancement mediated by a mutualistic interaction with vitamin B12-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bo; Bishop, Shawn; Stessman, Dan; Wright, David; Spalding, Martin H; Halverson, Larry J

    2013-08-01

    Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors affecting the growth and survival of microorganisms and in light of current global patterns is of particular interest. Here, we highlight studies revealing how vitamin B12 (cobalamin)-producing bacteria increase the fitness of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii following an increase in environmental temperature. Heat stress represses C. reinhardtii cobalamin-independent methionine synthase (METE) gene expression coinciding with a reduction in METE-mediated methionine synthase activity, chlorosis and cell death during heat stress. However, in the presence of cobalamin-producing bacteria or exogenous cobalamin amendments C. reinhardtii cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase METH-mediated methionine biosynthesis is functional at temperatures that result in C. reinhardtii death in the absence of cobalamin. Artificial microRNA silencing of C. reinhardtii METH expression leads to nearly complete loss of cobalamin-mediated enhancement of thermal tolerance. This suggests that methionine biosynthesis is an essential cellular mechanism for adaptation by C. reinhardtii to thermal stress. Increased fitness advantage of METH under environmentally stressful conditions could explain the selective pressure for retaining the METH gene in algae and the apparent independent loss of the METE gene in various algal species. Our results show that how an organism acclimates to a change in its abiotic environment depends critically on co-occurring species, the nature of that interaction, and how those species interactions evolve. PMID:23486253

  4. Isotope-dilution assay for urinary methylmalonic acid in the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency. A prospective clinical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Matchar, D.B.; Feussner, J.R.; Millington, D.S.; Wilkinson, R.H. Jr.; Watson, D.J.; Gale, D.

    1987-05-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is a frequently considered diagnosis for which there is no single, commonly available and accurate test. A urinary methylmalonic acid assay using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been proposed as the preferred test. We reviewed vitamin B12 assays on 1599 consecutive patients and prospectively studied all patients with low serum B12 levels (n = 75) and a random sample of patients with normal levels (n = 68). Of 96 evaluable patients, 7 had clinical deficiency. All 7 deficient patients had urinary methylmalonic acid levels greater than 5 micrograms/mg creatine (sensitivity, 100%; confidence interval, 65% to 100%). Of the 89 patients who were not clinically deficient, 88 had urinary methylmalonic acid levels less than or equal to 5 micrograms/mg creatinine (specificity, 99%). The overall test accuracy in this population was 99%. If the high sensitivity and specificity of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay for urinary methylmalonic acid is supported by other clinical studies, the methylmalonic acid assay may become the reference standard for the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency.

  5. Effects of folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation on culling rate, diseases, and reproduction in commercial dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Duplessis, M; Girard, C L; Santschi, D E; Laforest, J-P; Durocher, J; Pellerin, D

    2014-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of a combined folic acid and vitamin B12 supplement given in early lactation on culling rate, metabolic disorders and other diseases, and reproduction in commercial dairy herds. A total of 805 cows (271 primiparous and 534 multiparous cows) in 15 commercial dairy herds were involved. Every 2mo from February to December 2010 and within each herd, cows were assigned according to parity, previous 305-d milk production, and calving interval to 5mL of either (1) saline 0.9% NaCl (control group) or (2) 320mg of folic acid + 10mg of vitamin B12 (vitamin group). Treatments were administered weekly by intramuscular injections starting 3wk before the expected calving date until 8wk after parturition. A total of 221 cows were culled before the next dry period. Culling rate was not affected by treatment and was 27.5%; culling rate was greater for multiparous (32.2%) than for primiparous cows (18.8%). Within the first 60d in milk (DIM), 47 cows were culled, representing 21.3% of total culling, and no treatment effect was noted. Ketosis incidence based on a threshold ?100µmol/L of ?-hydroxybutyrate in milk was 38.3±2.9% for the vitamin group and 41.8±3.0% for the control group and was not affected by treatment. The combined supplement of folic acid and vitamin B12 did not decrease incidence of retained placenta, displaced abomasum, milk fever, metritis, or mastitis. However, the incidence of dystocia decreased by 50% in multiparous cows receiving the vitamin supplement, although no effect was observed in primiparous cows. The first breeding postpartum for multiparous cows occurred 3.8d earlier with the vitamin supplement compared with controls, whereas no treatment effect was seen for primiparous cows. Days open, first- and second-breeding conception rates, number of breedings per conception, and percentage of cows pregnant at 150 DIM were not affected by treatment. The reduced percentage of dystocia combined with the earlier DIM at first breeding for multiparous cows receiving the combined supplementation in folic acid and vitamin B12 indicates that the vitamin supplement had a positive effect in older cows. PMID:24485680

  6. Fundamental shift in vitamin B12 eco-physiology of a model alga demonstrated by experimental evolution

    E-print Network

    Helliwell, Katherine E.; Collins, Sinéad; Kazamia, Elena; Purton, Saul; Wheeler, Glen L.; Smith, Alison G.

    2014-01-01

    1 TITLE: Fundamental shift in vitamin B12 eco-physiology of a model alga demonstrated 1 by experimental evolution 2 Katherine E. Helliwell1*, Sinéad Collins2, Elena Kazamia1, Saul Purton3, Glen L. Wheeler4,5, 3 Alison G. Smith1 4 1... , 2012). Moreover, levels of B12 are 373 reportedly less than 10 ng/L (~10 pM) in some freshwater habitats (Kurata, 1986). However, 374 since this molecule will likely be rapidly consumed as it becomes available within the water 375 column...

  7. Maternal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to a vitamin B12 deficient diet normalizes angiogenic markers in the pup brain at birth.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Richa S; Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids are critical for normal brain development and function and their deficiencies during pregnancy could have adverse effects on cognitive performance in children. Our earlier studies indicate that both maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids influence brain development by regulating the levels of neurotrophins. Literature suggests that there exists a cross talk between neurotrophins like nerve growth factor (NGF) and angiogenic factors like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). It remains to be established whether maternal nutrients like vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids influence the levels of angiogenic markers like VEGF and NGF in the brain of the offspring. Therefore the present study examines the effect of maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids on protein and mRNA levels of VEGF, HIF-1 alpha (hypoxia inducible factor alpha) and NGF in the pup brain at birth. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided into five dietary groups (n=8 each): control, vitamin B12 deficient, vitamin B12 deficient+omega-3 fatty acid, vitamin B12 supplemented, vitamin B12 supplemented+omega-3 fatty acid. At birth the pups were dissected to collect the brain tissue. Maternal vitamin B12 deficiency showed lower (p<0.05) pup brain mRNA and protein levels (p<0.01) of VEGF, higher (p<0.01) HIF-1 alpha protein levels, lower (p<0.05) NGF protein levels while NGF mRNA levels were not altered. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to a vitamin B12 deficient group normalized the VEGF mRNA levels, NGF protein levels and HIF-1 alpha protein levels. Vitamin B12 supplementation showed similar protein and mRNA levels of VEGF and NGF as well as HIF-1 alpha protein levels as compared to control. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to the vitamin B12 supplemented group showed higher (p<0.01) protein and mRNA levels of NGF but the protein and mRNA levels of VEGF were comparable to control. In conclusion maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids both influence the levels and expression of neurotrophins and angiogenic factors in the offspring brain suggesting a possible benefit of combined maternal supplementation of these vital nutrients. PMID:25889224

  8. The role of metformin on vitamin B12 deficiency: a meta-analysis review.

    PubMed

    Niafar, Mitra; Hai, Faizi; Porhomayon, Jahan; Nader, Nader Djalal

    2015-02-01

    Metformin is the only biguanide oral hypoglycemic drug, that is used to treat patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. There are some reports of metformin being associated with decreased serum levels of vitamin B12 (VB12). The objective of this study is to systematically analyze the impact of metformin on the frequency of VB12 deficiency and serum levels of VB12. A search of various databases provided 18 retrospective cohort studies and 11 randomized controlled trials. Pooled estimates of odds ratio with 95% confidence interval using random effect model were conducted. Studies were examined for heterogeneity, publication bias and sensitivity analysis. Separate analysis of randomized control trials (RCTs) including both low-risk and high-risk bias was also conducted. 29 studies were selected with a total of 8,089 patients. 19 studies were rated intermediate or high quality. Primary outcome suggested increased incidence of VB12 deficiency in metformin group (OR = 2.45, 95% CI 1.74-3.44, P < 0.0001.) Heterogeneity was relatively high (I(2) = 53%), with minor publication bias. Secondary outcome suggested lower serum VB12 concentrations in metformin group (Mean difference = -65.8, 95% CI -78.1 to -53.6 pmol/L, P < 0.00001) with high heterogeneity (I(2) = 98%,) and low publication bias. RCTs analysis of low-and high-risk group revealed similar trends. We conclude that metformin treatment is significantly associated with an increase in incidence of VB12 deficiency and reduced serum VB12 levels. PMID:25502588

  9. Combined spectroscopic/computational studies of vitamin B12 precursors: geometric and electronic structures of cobinamides.

    PubMed

    Reig, Amanda J; Conrad, Karen S; Brunold, Thomas C

    2012-03-01

    Vitamin B(12) (cyanocobalamin) and its biologically active derivatives, methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin, are members of the family of corrinoids, which also includes cobinamides. As biological precursors to cobalamins, cobinamides possess the same structural core, consisting of a low-spin Co(3+) ion that is ligated equatorially by the four nitrogens of a highly substituted tetrapyrrole macrocycle (the corrin ring), but differ with respect to the lower axial ligation. Specifically, cobinamides possess a water molecule instead of the nucleotide loop that coordinates axially to Co(3+)cobalamins via its dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB) base. Compared to the cobalamin species, cobinamides have proven much more difficult to study experimentally, thus far eluding characterization by X-ray crystallography. In this study, we have utilized combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) computations to generate complete structural models of a representative set of cobinamide species with varying upper axial ligands. To validate the use of this approach, analogous QM/MM geometry optimizations were carried out on entire models of the cobalamin counterparts for which high-resolution X-ray structural data are available. The accuracy of the cobinamide structures was assessed further by comparing electronic absorption spectra computed using time-dependent density functional theory to those obtained experimentally. Collectively, the results obtained in this study indicate that the DMB ? H(2)O lower axial ligand switch primarily affects the energies of the Co 3d(z(2))-based molecular orbital (MO) and, to a lesser extent, the other Co 3d-based MOs as well as the corrin ?-based highest energy MO. Thus, while the energy of the lowest-energy electronic transition of cobalamins changes considerably as a function of the upper axial ligand, it is nearly invariant for the cobinamides. PMID:22332807

  10. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in a 15-year-old boy: presentation with haemolysis and pancytopenia.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Ebru Y?lmaz; Keskin, Mahmut

    2015-01-01

    A 15-year-old boy on a vegetarian diet presented with severe macrocytic anaemia (haemoglobin, 5.1?g/dL; mean corpuscular volume, 116?fL) in addition to leucopenia and thrombocytopaenia (pancytopenia), icterus secondary to haemolysis and splenomegaly. Laboratory investigations revealed severe vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency. Following cobalamin replacement therapy, the patient reported increased well-being, including appetite and weight gain, and his icterus resolved. In the follow-up laboratory examinations, leucocyte and platelet counts in addition to serum bilirubin and lactate dehydrogenase levels normalised. At the end of 2?months, laboratory findings, including haemoglobin level, were all within the normal range. We present this case as a reminder that severe vitamin B12 deficiency may present with findings mimicking acute leukaemia (pancytopenia and splenomegaly) and findings suggestive of pseudothrombotic microangiopathy. PMID:25976204

  11. Homocysteine and vitamin B12 status and iron deficiency anemia in female university students from Gaza Strip, Palestine

    PubMed Central

    Sirdah, Mahmoud Mohammed; Yassin, Maged M.; El Shekhi, Sabreen; Lubbad, Abdel Monem

    2014-01-01

    Objective Nutritional deficiencies are very significant to the overall health of humans at all ages and for both genders, yet in infants, children and women of childbearing age these deficiencies can seriously affect growth and development. The present work is aimed to assess homocysteine and vitamin B12 status in females with iron deficiency anemia from the Gaza Strip. Methods Venous blood samples were randomly collected from 240 female university students (18–22 years old) and parameters of the complete blood count, serum ferritin, homocysteine and vitamin B12 were measured. Statistical analysis included the t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the IBM SPSS software (version 18). Statistical significance was set for p-values <0.05. Results The results revealed that 20.4% of the students have iron deficiency anemia. The mean serum vitamin B12 level in females with iron deficiency anemia (212.9 ± 62.8 pg/mL) was significantly lower than in normal controls (286.9 ± 57.1 pg/mL) and subjects with microcytic anemia and normal ferritin (256.7 ± 71.1 pg/mL). Significantly higher serum homocysteine levels were reported in the iron deficiency anemia group (27.0 ± 4.6 ?mol/L) compared to normal controls (15.5 ± 2.9 ?mol/L) and in subjects with microcytic anemia and normal ferritin (18.1 ± 2.7 ?mol/L). Statistically significant negative correlations were reported for serum homocysteine with serum ferritin, vitamin B12, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels. Conclusion Important associations were found between serum homocysteine and markers of iron deficiency. Monitoring homocysteine levels might be essential to understand the development of different clinical conditions including anemia. It seems necessary to conduct prospective trials to determine whether treating anemia ameliorates homocysteine levels. PMID:25031061

  12. RP-HPLC Determination of vitamins B1 ,B 3 ,B 6, folic acid and B12 in multivitamin tablets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JASMINA BRBORIC; SOTE VLADIMIROV

    2005-01-01

    A simple and sensitive reversed-phase, ion-pair HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of B-group vitamins, thiamine chloride hydro- chloride (B1), nicotinamide (B3), pyridoxine hydrochloride (B6) and folic acid in Pentovit ® coated tablets. The cyanocobalamine (B12) was determined separately, because of its low concentration in the investigated multivitamin preparation. RP-HPLC analysis was per- formed with a

  13. Cognitive Performance and Plasma Levels of Homocysteine, Vitamin B12, Folate and Lipids in Patients with Alzheimer Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ling Li; Dongfeng Cao; Renee Desmond; Atiq Rahman; James J. Lah; Allan I. Levey; Edward Zamrini

    2008-01-01

    Background: Conflicting results have been reported on the association of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and cholesterol levels in Alzheimer disease (AD). The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between cognitive performance and plasma levels of tHcy and its biological determinants folate and vitamin B12, and lipids in clinically diagnosed AD patients. Methods: A cross-sectional database review was

  14. Serious adverse drug reaction in a woman with hyperemesis gravidarum after first exposure to vitamin B complex containing vitamins B1, B6 and B12.

    PubMed

    Kuwata, Yoshimine; Tsuruoka, Shuichi; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Matsubara, Shigeki; Izumi, Akio; Suzuki, Mitsuaki

    2009-08-01

    We report the case of a pregnant woman who suffered from hypotension after first exposure to intravenous administration of a combination drug containing vitamins B1, B6 and B12 (Vitamedin; Daiichi-Sankyo, Tokyo, Japan). A 27-year-old Japanese woman received an intravenous infusion of fluid containing a vitamin B complex due to hyperemesis gravidarum. Thirty minutes after the start of infusion she was found to be in hypotension. The patient had stupor, general sweating, blood pressure of 82/50 mmHg, and low percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) of 88%. We immediately stopped the infusion, lifted her legs and administered oxygen. Three minutes after these treatments, she quickly recovered to a good general condition. A skin prick test for vitamin B12 was positive, but tests for B1, B6, mannitol and saline were negative, indicating this adverse reaction was one of drug hypersensitivity due to the vitamin B12 in Vitamedin. Patients should be observed carefully immediately after the administration of Vitamedin. PMID:19751344

  15. Contribution of Food Sources to the Vitamin B12 Status of South Indian Children from a Birth Cohort Recruited in the City of Mysore

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective There is evidence that sub-clinical vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency is common in India. Vegetarianism is prevalent and therefore meat consumption is low. Our objective was to explore the contribution of B12 source-foods and maternal B12 status during pregnancy to plasma B12 concentrations. Design Maternal plasma B12 concentrations were measured during pregnancy. Children’s dietary intakes and plasma B12 concentrations were measured at age 9.5 years; B12 and total energy intakes were calculated using food composition databases. We used linear regression to examine associations between maternal B12 status and children’s intakes of B12 and B12 source-foods, and children’s plasma B12 concentrations. Setting South Indian city of Mysore and surrounding rural areas. Subjects Children from the Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort (n=512, 47.1% male). Results Three percent of children were B12 deficient (<150 pmol/l). A further 14% had ‘marginal’ B12 concentrations (150-221 pmol/l). Children’s total daily B12 intake and consumption frequency of meat and fish, and micronutrient-enriched beverages were positively associated with plasma B12 concentrations (p=0.006, p=0.01 and p=0.04, adjusted for socio-economic indicators and maternal B12 status). Maternal pregnancy plasma B12 was associated with children’s plasma B12 concentrations, independent of current B12 intakes (p<0.001). Milk and curd (yoghurt) intakes were unrelated to B12 status. Conclusions Meat and fish are important B12 sources in this population. Micronutrient-enriched beverages appear to be important sources in our cohort, but their high sugar content necessitates care in their recommendation. Improving maternal B12 status in pregnancy may improve Indian children’s status. PMID:24866058

  16. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis of active vitamin B12 in cells of Propionibacterium and fermented cereal matrices.

    PubMed

    Chamlagain, Bhawani; Edelmann, Minnamari; Kariluoto, Susanna; Ollilainen, Velimatti; Piironen, Vieno

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive and selective method is needed to analyse in situ produced vitamin B12 in plant-based materials, potential new dietary sources of vitamin B12. A UHPLC/UV method was developed and validated for the determination of human active vitamin B12 in cell extracts of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii and after immunoaffinity purification in extracts of cereal matrices fermented by P. freudenreichii. An Acquity HSS T3 C18 column resulted in a baseline separation, a calibration curve of excellent linearity and a low limit of detection (0.075 ng/5 ?L injection). As confirmed by UHPLC-MS, the active vitamin B12 could be separated from pseudovitamin B12. The recovery of vitamin B12 from purified spiked cereal matrices was good (>90%; RSD<5%). A nutritionally relevant amount of active vitamin B12 was produced by P. freudenreichii in cereal malt matrices (up to 1.9 ?g/100 g) in 24h at 28 °C. PMID:25053103

  17. Thermolability of mutant MMACHC protein in the vitamin B12-responsive cblC disorder

    PubMed Central

    Froese, D.S.; Healy, S.; McDonald, M.; Kochan, G.; Oppermann, U.; Niesen, F.H.; Gravel, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria, cblC type, is the most common inborn error of cellular vitamin B12 metabolism. We previously showed that the protein carrying the mutation responsible for late-onset cblC (MMACHC-R161Q), treatable with high dose OHCbl, is able to bind OHCbl with wild-type affinity, leaving undetermined the disease mechanism involved [Froese et al., Mechanism of responsiveness, Mol. Genet. Metab. (2009).]. To assess whether the mutation renders the protein unstable, we investigated the thermostability of the wild-type and mutant MMACHC proteins, either unbound or bound to different cobalamins (Cbl), using differential scanning fluorimetry. We found that MMACHC-wt and MMACHC-R161Q are both very thermolabile proteins in their apo forms, with melting temperatures (Tm) of 39.3 ± 1.0 and 37.1 ± 0.7 °C, respectively; a difference confirmed by unfolding of MMACHC-R161Q but not MMACHC-wt by isothermal denaturation at 35 °C over 120 min. However, with the addition of OHCbl, MMACHC-wt becomes significantly stabilized (?Tm max = 8 °C, half-maximal effective ligand concentration, AC50 = 3 ?M). We surveyed the effect of different cobalamins on the stabilization of the wild-type protein and found that AdoCbl was the most stabilizing, exerting a maximum increase in Tm of ?16 °C, followed by MeCbl at ?13 °C, each evaluated at 50 ?M cofactor. The other cobalamins stabilized in the order (CN)2Cbi > OHCbl > CNCbl. Interestingly, the AC50’s for AdoCbl, MeCbl, (CN)2Cbi and OHCbl were similar and ranged from 1–3 ?M, which compares well with the Kd of 6 ?M for OHCbl [Froese et al., Mechanism of responsiveness, Mol. Genet. Metab. (2009).]. Unlike MMACHC-wt, the mutant protein MMACHC-R161Q is only moderately stabilized by OHCbl (?Tm max = 4 °C). The dose–response curve also shows a lower effectivity of OHCbl with respect to stabilization, with an AC50 of 7 ?M. MMACHC-R161Q showed the same order of stabilization as MMACHC-wt, but each cobalamin stabilized this mutant protein less than its wild-type counterpart. Additionally, MMACHC-R161Q had a higher AC50 for each cobalamin form compared to MMACHC-wt. Finally, we show that MMACHC-R161Q is able to support the base-off transition for AdoCbl and CNCbl, indicating this mutant is not blocked in that respect. Taken together, our results suggest that protein stability, as well as propensity for ligand-induced stabilization, contributes to the disease mechanism in late-onset cblC disorder. Our results underscore the importance of cofactor stabilization of MMACHC and suggest that even small increases in the concentration of cobalamin complexed with MMACHC may have therapeutic benefit in children with the late-onset, vitamin responsive cblC disease. PMID:20219402

  18. Antimutagenic evaluation of vitamins B1, B6 and B12 in vitro and in vivo, with the Ames test.

    PubMed

    Arriaga-Alba, Myriam; Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy Janett; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; de Angel, Beatriz López; Flores-Lozada, Jorge; Blasco, José Luis

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate vitamins B antimutagenic effect against alkylatings methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), ethyl-N-nitro-N'- nitrosoguanidine (ENNG), frameshift mutagens 2-aminoanthracene (2AA) and 2-acetyl-amino-fluorene (2AF) and ROS-generating antibiotics norfloxacin (NOR) and nalidixic acid (NLX), using the in vitro Ames test. In vivo antimutagenesis studies were performed against urinary mutagens induced by NOR (70 mg/kg) or NLX (100 mg/kg) in CD1 mice. Vitamin B1 was antimutagenic against alkylatings MNNG (P<0.05) or ENNG (P<0.001). In fact as per the results observed during the current study, none of the vitamins reduced mutagenesis caused by frameshift mutagens. All of them reduced mutagenesis of NOR or NLX (P<0.001). In vivo studies showed that vitamins B1 and B6 (10 or 100 mg/kg) reduced urinary mutagens from NOR (P<0.001) or NLX (P<0.02) either free or ?-glucoronidase-conjugates. None of the studied samples were toxic for the employed antimutagenic system. Vitamin B12 (4 mg/kg) reduced urinary mutagens of NOR or NLX (P<0.02). Vitamins B inhibited DNA mutations induced by ROS generated by NLX or NOR, both in vitro and in vivo. Vitamin B1is antimutagenic against mutations induced by the alkylating MNNG or ENNG. Based on the observations, employment of vitamins B in vivo can be a promising alternative to reduce genotoxic risk exposure to ROS. PMID:23201371

  19. Effect of Vegetarianism and Smoking on Vitamin B12, Thiocyanate, and Folate Levels in the Blood of Normal Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Dastur, D. K.; Quadros, E. V.; Wadia, N. H.; Desai, M. M.; Bharucha, E. P.

    1972-01-01

    Vitamin B12, thiocyanate, and folate levels in the blood were estimated in 69 apparently normal subjects, of whom 26 were non-vegetarian non-smokers, 19 non-vegetarian smokers, 15 vegetarian non-smokers, and nine vegetarian smokers. The serum total (cyanide-extracted) B12 level (value A) ranged from 105 to 728 pg/ml, with a mean of 292 pg/ml. The highest values were found in non-vegetarian non-smokers and the lowest in vegetarian smokers. There was no significant difference in value A between smokers as a group and non-smokers as a group. On the other hand, in vegetarians value A was very significantly lower than in non-vegetarians regardless of their smoking habits. It is suggested that A may represent both the protein-bound and free forms of vitamin B12 in the blood, and B mainly the free B12, which may be the physiologically active form. The plasma thiocyanate level varied from 1·0 to 15 ?mol/100 ml, being, as expected, much higher in smokers (mean 8·20 ?mol/100 ml) than in non-smokers (mean 2·02 ?mol/100 ml). There was a rough correlation between falling B12 levels and rising thiocyanate levels. The serum folate level ranged from 2·75 to 15·75 ng/ml, and was slightly but significantly higher in vegetarians (mean 6·60 ng/ml) than in non-vegetarians (mean 4·79 ng/ml), reflecting the greater content of folate in a vegetarian diet. PMID:5046479

  20. Enantioselective syntheses of ring-C precursors of vitamin B12. Substrate control. A novel Si-assisted elimination of vinyl bromides.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Peter A; Tassa, Carlos

    2003-12-11

    Homochiral ring-C precursors 34 of Vitamin B(12) have been prepared by Ireland-Claisen rearrangement of allyl esters 32, followed by a novel Si-assisted elimination of HBr. [reaction: see text] PMID:14653697

  1. Meta-analysis of plasma homocysteine, serum folate, serum vitamin B 12, and thermolabile MTHFR genotype as risk factors for retinal vascular occlusive disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark T Cahill; Sandra S Stinnett; Sharon Fekrat

    2003-01-01

    PurposeTo assess the role of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) levels, serum folate and vitamin B12levels, and homozygosity for the thermolabile methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype (TT) as risk factors for retinal vascular occlusive disease.

  2. An assay for serum vitamin-B12 and for intrinsic factor antibody type I by means of hog intrinsic factor.

    PubMed

    Hudák, J; Berger, Z; Varga, L

    1980-01-01

    A method of assay for the circulating intrinsic factor antibody type I (IFA1) and for the serum vitamin-B12 level by the use of hog intrinsic factor has been developed. The results, the sources of error being taken into consideration, are in agreement with the values obtained by the generally accepted methods of ARDEMAN--CHANARIN for IFA1 and of WIDE--KILLANDER for the serum vitamin-B12 level. Parallel with the increase in the frequency of circulating IFA1, the serum vitamin-B12 level was found to decline in normal individuals as well as in patients with atrophic gastritis or pernicious anaemia. The method is suitable for the assessment of vitamin-B12 deficiency and lends itself to screening of patients tending to pernicious anaemia. PMID:7457023

  3. Long term treatment with metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes and risk of vitamin B12 deficiency: randomised placebo controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jolien de Jager; Adriaan Kooy; Philippe Lehert; Michiel G Wulffelé; Jan van der Kolk; Daniël Bets; Joop Verburg; Ab J M Donker; Coen D A Stehouwer

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To study the effects of metformin on the incidence of vitamin B-12 deficiency (<150 pmol\\/l), low concentrations of vitamin B-12 (150-220 pmol\\/l), and folate and homocysteine concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving treatment with insulin.Design Multicentre randomised placebo controlled trial.Setting Outpatient clinics of three non-academic hospitals in the Netherlands.Participants 390 patients with type 2 diabetes receiving treatment

  4. Coexistence of pernicious anemia and prostate cancer - 'an experiment of nature' involving vitamin B12 modulation of prostate cancer growth and metabolism: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction This report presents the clinical and laboratory course of a patient with prostate cancer and severe vitamin B12 deficiency undergoing watchful waiting for prostate cancer. The possible interaction between therapy for B12 deficiency and the natural course of prostate cancer is presented. Case presentation We present the case of a 75-year-old Chinese man with prostate cancer and pernicious anemia. His serum vitamin B12 level was 32 pg/ml (300-900 pg/ml) and holotranscobalamin was 0 pg/ml (>70 pg/ml). There was an unexpected rapid progression of Gleason's score during 10 months of watchful waiting. After the diagnosis of pernicious anemia was made, therapeutic injections of vitamin B12 were started. We observed a significant acceleration in prostate-specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase and a shortening of prostate-specific antigen doubling time after initiation of B12 therapy. Conclusion We propose that the relatively short period of watchful waiting before histological progression of Gleason's score (GS [3+2] = 5 to GS [3+4] = 7 over 10 months) may have been a result of depleted holotranscobalamin 'active' B12. Replacement of B12 was associated with an initial rapid increase in serum prostate-specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase followed by stabilization. The patient represents an 'experiment of nature' involving vitamin B12 metabolism and raises the question as to whether rapid histological progression of Gleason's score was related to absence of serum holotranscobalamin while prostate-specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase, markers of cell growth, were accelerated by vitamin B12 replacement. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a possible cellular kinetic interaction between an epithelial malignancy and vitamin B12 metabolism. PMID:20062784

  5. Vitamin B12 deficiency neurological syndromes: correlation of clinical, MRI and cognitive evoked potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kalita; U. K. Misra

    2008-01-01

    Objective\\u000a   To evaluate cognitive function in B12 deficiency neurological syndromes and response to B12 therapy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods\\u000a   Patients were diagnosed on the basis of low serum B12 or megaloblastic bone marrow or both. Detailed neurological examination\\u000a was performed and mental status was evaluated by the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Hemoglobin, RBC indices, blood\\u000a counts, serum chemistry, HIV, thyroid profile, antiparietal

  6. Identification of a putative lysosomal cobalamin exporter altered in the cblF defect of vitamin B12 metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rutsch, Frank; Gailus, Susann; Miousse, Isabelle R; Suormala, Terttu; Sagné, Corinne; Toliat, Mohammad Reza; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Wittkampf, Tanja; Buers, Insa; Sharifi, Azita; Stucki, Martin; Becker, Christian; Baumgartner, Matthias; Robenek, Horst; Marquardt, Thorsten; Höhne, Wolfgang; Gasnier, Bruno; Rosenblatt, David S; Fowler, Brian; Nürnberg, Peter

    2009-02-01

    Vitamin B(12) (cobalamin) is essential in animals for metabolism of branched chain amino acids and odd chain fatty acids, and for remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. In the cblF inborn error of vitamin B(12) metabolism, free vitamin accumulates in lysosomes, thus hindering its conversion to cofactors. Using homozygosity mapping in 12 unrelated cblF individuals and microcell-mediated chromosome transfer, we identified a candidate gene on chromosome 6q13, LMBRD1, encoding LMBD1, a lysosomal membrane protein with homology to lipocalin membrane receptor LIMR. We identified five different frameshift mutations in LMBRD1 resulting in loss of LMBD1 function, with 18 of the 24 disease chromosomes carrying the same mutation embedded in a common 1.34-Mb haplotype. Transfection of fibroblasts of individuals with cblF with wild-type LMBD1 rescued cobalamin coenzyme synthesis and function. This work identifies LMBRD1 as the gene underlying the cblF defect of cobalamin metabolism and suggests that LMBD1 is a lysosomal membrane exporter for cobalamin. PMID:19136951

  7. Coupling on-line of a dialyser with a flow-continuous system to separate Vitamin B(12) from milk.

    PubMed

    Medina-Alonso, Gustavo; Carrasco-Fuentes, Minerva; Del Pilar Cañizares-Macías, María

    2005-12-15

    The use of membranes for on-line separations in flow-through dialyser as a part of a flow system is extremely useful for automated samples preparation. In this paper a method to couple the dialysis and the UV detection on-line of Vitamin B(12) from milk is proposed. Firstly, the milk samples were pre-treated with trichloroacetic and centrifuged (to eliminate proteins and fats) and later, using a dialyser coupled a flow-continuous manifold was possible dialyse the Vitamin B(12), which was monitored spectrophotometrically at 361nm. On the other hand, the milk samples were also dialysed on-line but without the acid treatment and the results were compared. The influence of various parameters, including the pump speed for both the donor and acceptor stream, dialysis time, donor and acceptor loop volume on dialysis efficiency was studied. The method was applied to different kinds of milk (skimmed and semi-skimmed milk, evaporated milk, lactose free milk and liquid and powder whole milk). The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of the proposed method was of 0.45% and the obtained dialysis percentage was of 5.8%. The proposed method very easy permit a pre-treatment of the sample, quick and on-line with the detection. The dialysis process permitted the pass of vitamin and avoided the pass of other analytes as proteins in the case of the milk samples without acid treatment. PMID:18970320

  8. Evaluation of serum vitamin B12 levels and its correlation with anti-thyroperoxidase antibody in patients with autoimmune thyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Jaya Kumari, S; Bantwal, Ganapathy; Devanath, Anitha; Aiyyar, Vageesh; Patil, Madhuri

    2015-04-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency has been reported in patients with Autoimmune thyroid disorders. However there is limited data on exact prevalence of low B12 and its correlation with anti-thyroperoxidase antibody (anti-TPO) levels in these patients. The aim of our study was to estimate serum vitamin B12 levels in autoimmune thyroid disorders and to correlate B12 levels with anti-TPO. 350 patients were selected by convenient sampling. Vitamin B12 levels and thyroid parameters were estimated using fully automated chemiluminescence method on Access 2. Results of our study shows that using the manufacturer's cut-off of 145 pg/mL, the prevalence of low serum vitamin B12 was found to be 45.50 %. Higher prevalence (55 %) was seen based on the published cut-off of 200 pg/mL The study however did not demonstrate any significant correlation between vitamin B12 levels and anti-TPO (r = -0.11 and p value of 0.30). PMID:25883432

  9. Human gut microbes use multiple transporters to distinguish vitamin B12 analogs and compete in the gut

    PubMed Central

    Degnan, Patrick H.; Barry, Natasha A.; Mok, Kenny C.; Taga, Michiko E.; Goodman, Andrew L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Genomic and metagenomic sequencing efforts, including human microbiome projects, reveal that microbes often encode multiple systems that appear to accomplish the same task. Whether these predictions reflect actual functional redundancies is unclear. We report that the prominent human gut symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron employs three functional, homologous vitamin B12 transporters that in at least two cases confer a competitive advantage in the presence of distinct B12 analogs (corrinoids). In the mammalian gut, microbial fitness can be determined by the presence or absence of a single transporter. The total number of distinct corrinoid transporter families in the human gut microbiome likely exceeds those observed in B. thetaiotaomicron by an order of magnitude. These results demonstrate that human gut microbes use elaborate mechanisms to capture and differentiate corrinoids in vivo and that apparent redundancies observed in these genomes can instead reflect hidden specificities that determine whether a microbe will colonize its host. PMID:24439897

  10. Multiple vascular abnormalities and a paradoxical combination of vitamin B12 deficiency and thrombocytosis in a case with POEMS syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lewerenz, J; Gocht, A; Hoeger, P H; von den Driesch, P; Eckert, B; Lamszus, K; Stuerenburg, H-J; Methner, A

    2003-12-01

    POEMS/Crow-Fukase syndrome is a rare multisystem disorder associated with elevated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which clinically presents with polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein, and skin changes. We report a case of POEMS syndrome due to a gammopathy of undetermined significance with thrombocytosis, vitamin B(12) deficiency, highly elevated VEGF and in addition to glomeruloid angiomas two previously undescribed proliferative vascular lesions: a spinal arteriovenous fistula and a plexogenic pulmonary arteriopathy, which ultimately resulted in lethal pulmonary hypertension. We assume that the high VEGF levels caused the vascular abnormalities observed in our patient. PMID:14673584

  11. Excited state electron transfer after visible light absorption by the Co(I) state of vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Achey, Darren; Brigham, Erinn C; DiMarco, Brian N; Meyer, Gerald J

    2014-11-11

    The first example of excited state electron transfer from cob(I)alamin is reported herein. Vitamin B12 was anchored to a mesoporous TiO2 thin film and electrochemically reduced to the cob(I)alamin form. Pulsed laser excitation resulted in rapid excited state electron transfer, ket > 10(8) s(-1), followed by microsecond interfacial charge recombination to re-form cob(I)alamin. The supernucleophilic cob(I)alamin was found to be a potent photoreductant. The yield of excited state electron transfer was found to be excitation wavelength dependent. The implications of this dependence are discussed. PMID:25232558

  12. A polymorphism of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and methionine synthase gene in CAD patients: association with plasma folate, vitamin B 12 and homocysteine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yangsoo Jang; Hyun Young Park; Jong Ho Lee; Ha Jung Ryu; Ji Young Kim; Oh Yoen Kim

    2002-01-01

    Elevated plasma total homocysteine (hcy), a risk factor for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), is due to defects in genes encoding for enzymes involved in hcy metabolism or from inadequate status of vitamins involved in hcy disposal. The present study was designed to examine the relationship between the genetic factors, folate and vitamin B12 status. Relationship between plasma total homocysteine, folate,

  13. Biological Variability and Impact of Oral Contraceptives on Vitamins B6, B12 and Folate Status in Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, Jennifer O.; Tang, HoMan; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Vitamins B6, B12 and folate play crucial metabolic roles especially during the reproductive years for women. There is limited reporting of within-subject variability of these vitamins. This study aimed to determine the within and between subject variability in serum vitamins B6, B12, folate and erythrocyte folate concentrations in young women; identify factors that contribute to variability; and determine dietary intakes and sources of these vitamins. Data were obtained from the control group of a trial aimed at investigating the effect of iron on the nutritional status of young women (age 25.2 ± 4.2 year; BMI 21.9 ± 2.2 kg/m2). The coefficients of variability within-subject (CVI) and between-subject (CVG) for serum vitamins B6, B12 and folate, and erythrocyte folate were calculated. Food frequency questionnaires provided dietary data. CVI and CVG were in the range 16.1%–25.7% and 31.7%–62.2%, respectively. Oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use was associated (P = 0.042) with lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations. Initial values were 172 ± 16 pmol/L and 318 ± 51 pmol/L for OCP and non-OCP users, respectively; with differences maintained at four time points over 12 weeks. BMI, age, physical activity, alcohol intake and haematological variables did not affect serum or erythrocyte vitamin concentrations. Vitamin B12 intakes were derived from traditional and unexpected sources including commercial energy drinks. Young women using OCP had significantly lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations. This should be considered in clinical decision making and requires further investigation. PMID:24067390

  14. The influence of vitamin B12 supplementation on the level of white blood cells and lymphocytes phenotype in rats fed a low-protein diet

    PubMed Central

    Lewicka, Aneta; Kalicki, Boles?aw; K?os, Anna; Bertrandt, Jerzy; Zdanowski, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Protein malnutrition has a negative effect on body composition and some blood parameters, especially in the young growing organism. One of nutritional factors which could protect against negative consequences of protein deficiency may be B group vitamins. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of vitamin B12 supplementation on the immune system in rats fed a standard and a low-protein diet. Rats were fed a control (20% of energy from protein) or a protein-deficient diet (4.5% of energy from protein). Half of animals in each group were additionally supplemented with vitamin B12 (300% of the daily intake). The white blood cells analysis and lymphocytes immunophenotyping (number and percentage) were performed. Low-protein diets caused disturbances in WBC and lymphocyte subpopulations in both short- (30-day) as well as long-term periods (90-day). Vitamin B12 supplementation significantly reduced the negative impact of protein malnutrition after 30 days, however had no effect on long-term malnutrition. Furthermore, vitamin B12 addition in rats fed a control diet did not affect the studied parameters. This observation opens the promise of use of vitamin B12 supplementation to improve immune system parameters in protein malnourished organisms.

  15. The importance of vitamin B12 and unidentified factors in the nutrition of the domestic fowl 

    E-print Network

    Olcese, Orlando

    1950-01-01

    ................................... ................................... Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Studies along several lines had shown that some factor or factors were necessary for growth in chicks and other species, as well as for prevention and cure of pernicious anemia in humans, when Rickes et al. ( f48) and Smith... of other species* Identity of vitamin B-^g with the anti-pernicious anemia factor of liver extract was reported by West ( f48) simultaneously with the report of the isolation of crystalline vitamin B-^g Rickes et al. (*48), Since chicks and laying...

  16. Maternal dietary intake of folate and vitamins B6 and B12 during pregnancy and risk of childhood brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Greenop, Kathryn R; Miller, Margaret; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Scott, Rodney J; Attia, John; Ashton, Lesley J; Dalla-Pozza, Luciano; Bower, Carol; Armstrong, Bruce K; Milne, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Childhood brain tumors (CBT) are the second most common childhood cancers, yet their etiology is largely unknown. We investigated whether maternal gestational intake of folate and vitamins B6 and B12 was associated with CBT risk in a nationwide case-control study conducted 2005-2010. Case children 0-14 years were recruited from all 10 Australian pediatric oncology centers. Control children were recruited by national random digit dialing, frequency matched to cases on age, sex, and state of residence. Dietary intake was ascertained using food frequency questionnaires and adjusted for total energy intake. Data from 293 case and 726 control mothers were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. The odds ratio (OR) for the highest versus lowest tertile of folate intake was 0.70 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48, 1.02]. The ORs appeared lower in mothers who drank alcohol during pregnancy (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.93), mothers who took folic acid (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.42, 1.06) or B6/B12 supplements (OR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.25, 1.06) and in children younger than 5 years (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.93). These findings are consistent with folate's crucial role in maintenance of genomic integrity and DNA methylation. Dietary intake of B6 and B12 was not associated with risk of CBT. PMID:24897174

  17. Vitamin B12 and pteroylglutamic acid studies in the domestic fowl

    E-print Network

    Reid, Bobby Leroy

    1955-01-01

    of chicks to betaine and choline. J. Nutrition, 43: 295-301. Jukes, T. H., E. L. R. Stokstad and H. P. Broquist 1950 Effect of vitamin B^g on the response to homocystine in chicks. Arch. Biochem., 2?: 453-462. Ling, C. T. and B. P. Chow 1951...

  18. Folic Acid and Vitamin B12 Fortification of Flour: A Global Basic Food Security Requirement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Godfrey P. Oakley

    Folic acid is an essential water soluble B vitamin which has been used for decades in the prevention of folate deficiency anemia of pregnancy. In 1991, folic acid taken prior to the start of pregnancy was shown unequivocally to prevent spina bifida and anencephaly—two of the most serious and common birth (neural tube) defects. Soon governments recommended that women of

  19. The Influence of Certain Derivatives of Vitamin B12 upon the Groth of MicroOrganisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. FORD

    1959-01-01

    SUMMARY: Seven analogues of vitamin B,, were examined for their influence upon the growth of Ochromonas malhumensis, Euglena gracilis, Lactobacillus leichmannii ATCC 4797 and Escherichia coli 113-3. The analogues were active in promoting the growth of E. gracilis and L. leichmannii, but were essentially inactive for 0. mal- hamensis. For E. coti three of the analogues were active and four

  20. The importance of vitamin B12 and unidentified factors in the nutrition of the domestic fowl

    E-print Network

    Olcese, Orlando

    1950-01-01

    acid 0.025, biotin 0.01, inositol 10, choline 100, and p-aminobenzoic acid 25 mg. Vitamins A and D were administered as oleum percomorphum diluted 1:4 with corn oil and fed at the rate of 2 drops per week. The procedure described by these workers...

  1. The entropic contributions in vitamin B12 enzymes still reflect the electrostatic paradigm.

    PubMed

    Schopf, Patrick; Mills, Matthew J L; Warshel, Arieh

    2015-04-01

    The catalytic power of enzymes containing coenzyme B12 has been, in some respects, the "last bastion" for the strain hypothesis. Our previous study of this system established by a careful sampling that the major part of the catalytic effect is due to the electrostatic interaction between the ribose of the ado group and the protein and that the strain contribution is very small. This finding has not been sufficiently appreciated due to misunderstandings of the power of the empirical valence bond (EVB) calculations and the need of sufficient sampling. Furthermore, some interesting new experiments point toward entropic effects as the source of the catalytic power, casting doubt on the validity of the electrostatic idea, at least, in the case of B12 enzymes. Here, we focus on the observation of the entropic effects and on analyzing their origin. We clarify that our EVB approach evaluates free energies rather than enthalpies and demonstrate by using the restraint release (RR) approach that the observed entropic contribution to the activation barrier is of electrostatic origin. Our study illustrates the power of the RR approach by evaluating the entropic contributions to catalysis and provides further support to our paradigm for the origin of the catalytic power of B12 enzymes. Overall, our study provides major support to our electrostatic preorganization idea and also highlights the basic requirements from ab initio quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations of activation free energies of enzymatic reactions. PMID:25805820

  2. Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Improve Gross Motor and Problem-Solving Skills in Young North Indian Children: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kvestad, Ingrid; Taneja, Sunita; Kumar, Tivendra; Hysing, Mari; Refsum, Helga; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Bhandari, Nita; Strand, Tor A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Deficiencies of vitamin B12 and folate are associated with delayed development and neurological manifestations. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of daily supplementation of vitamin B12 and/or folic acid on development in young North Indian children. Methods In a randomized, double blind trial, children aged six to 30 months, received supplement with placebo or vitamin B12 and/or folic acid for six months. Children were allocated in a 1:1:1:1 ratio in a factorial design and in blocks of 16. We measured development in 422 children by the Ages and Stages Questionnaire 3rd ed. at the end of the intervention. Results Compared to placebo, children who received both vitamin B12 and folic acid had 0.45 (95% CI 0.19, 0.73) and 0.28 (95% CI 0.02, 0.54) higher SD-units in the domains of gross motor and problem solving functioning, respectively. The effect was highest in susceptible subgroups consisting of stunted children, those with high plasma homocysteine (> 10 ?mol/L) or in those who were younger than 24 at end study. With the exception of a significant improvement on gross motor scores by vitamin B12 alone, supplementation of either vitamin alone had no effect on any of the outcomes. Conclusion Our findings suggest that supplementation of vitamin B12 and folic acid benefit development in North Indian Children. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00717730 PMID:26098427

  3. A new paradigm for electrostatic catalysis of radical reactions in vitamin B12 enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pankaz K.; Chu, Zhen T.; Olsson, Mats H. M.; Warshel, Arieh

    2007-01-01

    The catalytic power of enzymes containing coenzyme B12 cofactor has been, in some respects, the “last bastion” for the strain hypothesis. The present work explores the origin of this effect by using simulation methods that overcome the sampling difficulties of previous energy minimization studies. It is found that the major part of the catalytic effect is due to the electrostatic interaction between the ribose and the protein, and that the strain contribution is very small. Remarkably, enzymes can use electrostatic effects even in a radical process, when the charge distribution of the reacting fragments does not change significantly during the reaction. Electrostatic catalysis can, in such cases, be obtained by attaching a polar group to the leaving fragment and designing an active site that interacts more strongly with this group in the product state than in the reactant state. The finding that evolution had to use this trick provides further evidence to the observation that it is extremely hard to catalyze enzymatic reactions by nonelectrostatic factors. The trick used by B12 enzymes may, in fact, be a very powerful new strategy in enzyme design. PMID:17517615

  4. Hyperhomocysteinemia is related to a decreased blood level of vitamin B12 in the second and third trimester of normal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chéry, Céline; Barbé, Françoise; Lequere, Catherine; Abdelmouttaleb, Idrissia; Gérard, Philippe; Barbarino, Patricia; Boutroy, Jean-Louis; Guéant, Jean-Louis

    2002-11-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia has been associated with several pregnancy complications. We have investigated the variation of plasma total homocysteine (tHcys) during the 2 last trimesters of normal pregnancy and related it to blood vitamin B12 and folate and to the excretion of the degraded intrinsic factor receptor (IFCR) in urine, in a follow-up study of 15 cases. A significant rise in tHcys was observed between the beginning of the second trimester and the third trimester with respective values (median) 6.1, 5.8 and 6.7 micromol/l (p = 0.038). The tHcys/albumin ratio also increased significantly, while no correlation was found between albumin and folate blood concentration. In contrast, a significant decrease in vitamin B12 was observed (279, 225 and 199 pmol/l, between the 4th and 6th, and the 6th and 9th month, respectively (p = 0.017-0.002)). A significant negative correlation was found between tHcys between the 4th and 9th month of pregnancy and the ratio of vitamin B12 between the 4th and 9th month of pregnancy (r = 0.55, p = 0.037). The urine excretion of IFCR was increased and was not related to vitamin B12 and tHcys. In conclusion, we have observed a rise in tHcys between the beginning of the second trimester and the third trimester of pregnancy which was related to the decreased blood level of vitamin B12. Subclinical deficiency of vitamin B12 should be further investigated in pregnant women who remain on inadequate diet. PMID:12521226

  5. Conformational Cycle of the Vitamin B12 ABC Importer in Liposomes Detected by Double Electron-Electron Resonance (DEER)*

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Benesh; Korkhov, Vladimir M.; Yulikov, Maxim; Jeschke, Gunnar; Bordignon, Enrica

    2014-01-01

    Double electron-electron resonance is used here to investigate intermediates of the transport cycle of the Escherichia coli vitamin B12 ATP-binding cassette importer BtuCD-F. Previously, we showed the ATP-induced opening of the cytoplasmic gate I in TM5 helices, later confirmed by the AMP-PNP-bound BtuCD-F crystal structure. Here, other key residues are analyzed in TM10 helices (positions 307 and 322) and in the cytoplasmic gate II, i.e. the loop between TM2 and TM3 (positions 82 and 85). Without BtuF, binding of ATP induces detectable changes at positions 307 and 85 in BtuCD in liposomes. Together with BtuF, ATP triggers the closure of the cytoplasmic gate II in liposomes (reported by both positions 82 and 85). This forms a sealed cavity in the translocation channel in agreement with the AMP-PNP·BtuCD-F x-ray structure. When vitamin B12 and AMP-PNP are simultaneously present, the extent of complex formation is reduced, but the short 82–82 interspin distance detected indicates that the substrate does not affect the closed conformation of this gate. The existence of the BtuCD-F complex under these conditions is verified with spectroscopically orthogonal nitroxide and Gd(III)-based labels. The cytoplasmic gate II remains closed also in the vanadate-trapped state, but it reopens in the ADP-bound state of the complex. Therefore, we suggest that the substrate likely trapped in ATP·BtuCD-F can be released after ATP hydrolysis but before the occluded ADP-bound conformation is reached. PMID:24362024

  6. Coexistence of pernicious anemia and prostate cancer - 'an experiment of nature' involving vitamin B12 modulation of prostate cancer growth and metabolism: a case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn Tisman; Seth Kutik; Christa Rainville

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This report presents the clinical and laboratory course of a patient with prostate cancer and severe vitamin B12 deficiency undergoing watchful waiting for prostate cancer. The possible interaction between therapy for B12 deficiency and the natural course of prostate cancer is presented. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 75-year-old Chinese man with prostate cancer and pernicious anemia.

  7. Towards a cell factory for vitamin B12 production in Bacillus megaterium: bypassing of the cobalamin riboswitch control elements.

    PubMed

    Moore, Simon J; Mayer, Matthias J; Biedendieck, Rebekka; Deery, Evelyne; Warren, Martin J

    2014-12-25

    Bacillus megaterium is a bacterium that has been used in the past for the industrial production of vitamin B12 (cobalamin), the anti-pernicious anaemia factor. Cobalamin is a modified tetrapyrrole with a cobalt ion coordinated within its macrocycle. More recently, B. megaterium has been developed as a host for the high-yield production of recombinant proteins using a xylose inducible promoter system. Herein, we revisit cobalamin production in B. megaterium DSM319. We have investigated the importance of cobalt for optimum growth and cobalamin production. The cobaltochelatase (CbiX(L)) is encoded within a 14-gene cobalamin biosynthetic (cbi) operon, whose gene-products oversee the transformation of uroporphyrinogen III into adenosylcobyrinic acid a,c-diamide, a key precursor of cobalamin synthesis. The production of CbiX(L) in response to exogenous cobalt was monitored. The metal was found to stimulate cobalamin biosynthesis and decrease the levels of CbiX(L). From this we were able to show that the entire cbi operon is transcriptionally regulated by a B12-riboswitch, with a switch-off point at approximately 5 nM cobalamin. To bypass the effects of the B12-riboswitch the cbi operon was cloned without these regulatory elements. Growth of these strains on minimal media supplemented with glycerol as a carbon source resulted in significant increases in cobalamin production (up to 200 ?g L(-1)). In addition, a range of partially amidated intermediates up to adenosylcobyric acid was detected. These findings outline a potential way to develop B. megaterium as a cell factory for cobalamin production using cheap raw materials. PMID:24657453

  8. Low Serum Vitamin B12 Concentrations Are Associated With Faster Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV1) Disease Progression1,2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alice M. Tang; Neil M. H. Graham; Ranjit K. Chandra; Alfred J. Saah

    We conducted a nonconcurrent prospective cohort study to examine associations between serum concentrations of vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and folate and the risk of progression to first acquired immunodefi- ciency syndrome (AIDS) diagnosis and CD4\\/ cell decline to õ 2 1 108 cells\\/L. The study population was drawn from a cohort of homosexual and bisexual men in the Baltimore-Washington, DC,

  9. Genetic Associations with Plasma B12, B6, and Folate Levels in an Ischemic Stroke Population from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Keene, Keith L.; Chen, Wei-Min; Chen, Fang; Williams, Stephen R.; Elkhatib, Stacey D.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Pugh, Elizabeth W.; Ling, Hua; Laurie, Cathy C.; Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Madden, Ebony B.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Sale, Michele M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: B vitamins play an important role in homocysteine metabolism, with vitamin deficiencies resulting in increased levels of homocysteine and increased risk for stroke. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 2,100 stroke patients from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) trial, a clinical trial designed to determine whether the daily intake of high-dose folic acid, vitamins B6, and B12 reduce recurrent cerebral infarction. Methods: Extensive quality control (QC) measures resulted in a total of 737,081 SNPs for analysis. Genome-wide association analyses for baseline quantitative measures of folate, Vitamins B12, and B6 were completed using linear regression approaches, implemented in PLINK. Results: Six associations met or exceeded genome-wide significance (P???5?×?10?08). For baseline Vitamin B12, the strongest association was observed with a non-synonymous SNP (nsSNP) located in the CUBN gene (P?=?1.76?×?10?13). Two additional CUBN intronic SNPs demonstrated strong associations with B12 (P?=?2.92?×?10?10 and 4.11?×?10?10), while a second nsSNP, located in the TCN1 gene, also reached genome-wide significance (P?=?5.14?×?10?11). For baseline measures of Vitamin B6, we identified genome-wide significant associations for SNPs at the ALPL locus (rs1697421; P?=?7.06?×?10?10 and rs1780316; P?=?2.25?×?10?08). In addition to the six genome-wide significant associations, nine SNPs (two for Vitamin B6, six for Vitamin B12, and one for folate measures) provided suggestive evidence for association (P???10?07). Conclusion: Our GWAS study has identified six genome-wide significant associations, nine suggestive associations, and successfully replicated 5 of 16 SNPs previously reported to be associated with measures of B vitamins. The six genome-wide significant associations are located in gene regions that have shown previous associations with measures of B vitamins; however, four of the nine suggestive associations represent novel finding and warrant further investigation in additional populations. PMID:25147783

  10. Neuropathological and neuroprotective features of vitamin B12 on the dorsal spinal ganglion of rats after the experimental crush of sciatic nerve: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Spinal motoneuron neuroprotection by vitaminB12 was previously reported; the present study was carried out to evaluate neuroprotectivity in the dorsal root ganglion sensory neuron. Methods In present study thirty-six Wister-Albino rats (aged 8–9 weeks and weighing 200–250 g) were tested. The animals were randomly divided into 6 groups which every group contained 6 rats. Group A: received normal saline (for 42 days); Group B: vitamin B12 was administered (0.5 mg/kg/day for 21 days); Group C: received vitamin B12 (1 mg/kg/day for 21days); Group D: received vitamin B12 (0.5 mg/kg/day for 42 days); Group E; received vitamin B12 (1 mg/kg/day for 42 days); Group F; received no treatment. The L5 Dorsal Root Ganglion (DRG) neurons count compared to the number of left and right neurons .Furthermore, DRG sensory neurons for regeneration were evaluated 21 or 42 days after injury (each group was analyzed by One-Way ANOVA test). Results (1): The comparison of left crushed neurons (LCN) number with right non-crushed neurons in all experimental groups (B, C, D and C), indicating a significant decline in their neurons enumeration (p<0/05). (2): The comparison of test group’s LCN with the control group’s LCN revealed a significant rise in the number of experimental group neurons (p<0/05). (3): Moreover, comparing the number of right neurons in experimental groups with the number of neurons in crushed neurons indicated that the average number of right neurons showed a significant increase in experimental groups (p<0/05). Conclusion Consequently, the probability of nerve regeneration will be increased by the increment of the administered drug dosage and duration. On the other hand, the regeneration and healing in Dorsal Spinal Ganglion will be improved by increase of administration time and vitamin B12 dose, indicating that such vitamin was able to progress recovery process of peripheral nerves damage in experimental rats. Finally, our results have important implications for elucidating the mechanisms of nerve regeneration. Moreover, the results showed that vitaminB12 had a proliferative effect on the dorsal root ganglion sensory neuron. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/7395141841009256 PMID:23902646

  11. Folate and vitamin B-12 status in relation to anemia, macrocytosis, and cognitive impairment in older Americans in the age of folic acid fortification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historic data on folic acid treatment of pernicious anemia suggested that high-level fortification would delay diagnosis or exacerbate effects of vitamin B12 deficiency, which affects many seniors. This idea is controversial, however, because observational data are few and inconclusive and experime...

  12. Metabolic evidence of vitamin B-12 deficiency, including high homocysteine and methylmalonic acid and low holotranscobalamin, is more pronounced in older adults with elevated plasma folate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: An analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey indicated that in older adults exposed to folic acid fortification, the combination of low serum vitamin B-12 and elevated folate is associated with higher concentrations of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid ...

  13. A radioisotope dilution assay for unlabelled vitamin B12-intrinsic factor complex employing the binding intrinsic factor antibody: probable evidence for two types of binding antibody.

    PubMed

    Jacob, E; O'Brien, H A; Mollin, D L

    1977-08-01

    A new radioisotope dilution assay for vitamin B12-intrinsic factor complex is described. The method is based on the use of the binding type intrinsic factor antibody (the binding reagent), which when combined with the intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complex (labelled ligand), is quantitatively adsorbed onto zirconium phosphate gel at pH 6.25. The new assay has been shown to provide a measure of intrinsic factor comparable with other intrinsic factor assays, but it has the important advantage of being able to measure the unlabelled vitamin B12-intrinsic factor complex (unlabelled ligand), and will, therefore, be valuable in the study of physiological events in the gastrointestinal tract. During the study, it was found that there is some evidence for a least two types of binding intrinsic factor antibody: One which combines preferentially with the intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complex and one which combines equally well with this complex or with free intrinsic factor. PMID:897560

  14. In vitamin B12 deficiency, higher serum folate is assoicated with increased total homocysteine (tHcy) and methlmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a recent study of older participants (age >/= 60 y) in the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we showed that a combination of high serum folate and low vitamin B-12 status was associated with higher prevalence of cognitive impairment and anemia than other combina...

  15. The Effectiveness of Vitamin B12 for Relieving Pain in Aphthous Ulcers: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsin-Li; Chiu, Shu-Chin

    2015-06-01

    Aphthous ulcers, the most common oral mucosal lesions seen in primary care, occur in up to ?2%-50% of the general population. Our objective was to confirm the analgesic benefit of treatment of mouth ulcers with vitamin B12 as adjunctive therapy. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed with primary care patients. The intervention group received vitamin B12 ointment for 2 days. In total, 42 patients suffering from aphthous ulcers participated in the study: 22 were included in the intervention group and 20 in the control group. All parameters of aphthous ulcers of patients in the intervention group were recorded and compared with those in the control group. We assessed the patients' pain levels before and after treatment using a visual analog scale. The statistical analyses were performed using a nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. Statistically significant differences in pain levels were found between the intervention group and the control group after 2 days of treatment (mean visual analog scale, 0.36 [95% CI, 0.01-0.71] vs. 1.80 [1.16-2.44]; p < .001). In conclusion, the results of this research study provide evidence that vitamin B12 is an effective analgesic treatment for aphthous ulcers. This study indicates that healthcare providers could use vitamin B12 as an adjunctive therapy for mouth ulcers, providing more effective pain management and improving the quality of life for patients with mouth ulcers. PMID:26025792

  16. Secretory IgA does not enhance the bacteriostatic effects of iron-binding or vitamin B12-binding proteins in human colostrum.

    PubMed Central

    Samson, R R; Mirtle, C; McClelland, D B

    1979-01-01

    Human milk contains an unsaturated iron-binding protein (lactoferrin) and an unsaturated vitamin B12-binding protein. Lactoferrin has bacteriostatic properties, and a bacteriostatic role for the B12-binding protein has been postulated. In this study the bacteriostatic effect of lactoferrin was confirmed for strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas and Proteus. Growth inhibition attributable to the unsaturated B12-binding protein could be demonstrated only with a known vitamin B12-dependent E. coli. It has previously been shown that the bacteriostatic effect of lactoferrin is potentiated by horse IgG antibody, and a similar potentiating effect of secretory IgA antibody in colostrum and milk would have obvious importance. An attempt was therefore made to demonstrate potentiation of bacteriostatic effects by naturally occurring secretory IgA antibody to E. coli. The results obtained indicate that secretory IgA antibody does not enhance the growth-inhibiting effects of either lactoferrin or the vitamin B12-binding protein. PMID:389788

  17. Molecular and cellular effects of vitamin B12 in brain, myocardium and liver through its role as co-factor of methionine synthase.

    PubMed

    Guéant, Jean-Louis; Caillerez-Fofou, Maatem; Battaglia-Hsu, Shyuefang; Alberto, Jean-Marc; Freund, Jean-Noel; Dulluc, Isabelle; Adjalla, Charles; Maury, Florence; Merle, Carole; Nicolas, Jean-Pierre; Namour, Fares; Daval, Jean-Luc

    2013-05-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, cbl) is a cofactor of methionine synthase (MTR) in the synthesis of methionine, the precursor of the universal methyl donor S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM), which is involved in epigenomic regulatory mechanisms. We have established a neuronal cell model with stable expression of a transcobalamin-oleosin chimer and subsequent decreased cellular availability of vitamin B12, which produces reduced proliferation, increased apoptosis and accelerated differentiation through PP2A, NGF and TACE pathways. Anti-transcobalamin antibody or impaired transcobalamin receptor expression produce also impaired proliferation in other cells. Consistently, the transcription, protein expression and activity of MTR are increased in proliferating cells of skin and intestinal epitheliums, in rat intestine crypts and in proliferating CaCo2 cells, while MTR activity correlates with DNA methylation in rat intestine villi. Exposure to nitrous oxide in animal models identified impairment of MTR reaction as the most important metabolic cause of neurological manifestations of B12 deficiency. Early vitamin B12 and folate deprivation during gestation and lactation of a 'dam-progeny' rat model developed in our laboratory is associated with long-lasting disabilities of behavior and memory capacities, with persisting hallmarks related to increased apoptosis, impaired neurogenesis and altered plasticity. We found also an epigenomic deregulation of energy metabolism and fatty acids beta-oxidation in myocardium and liver, through imbalanced methylation/acetylation of PGC-1alpha and decreased expression of SIRT1. These nutrigenomic effects display similarities with the molecular mechanisms of fetal programming. Beside deficiency, B12 loading increases the expression of MTR through internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) and down-regulates MDR-1 gene expression. In conclusion, vitamin B12 influences cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in brain. Vitamin B12 and folate combined deficiency impairs fatty acid oxidation and energy metabolism in liver and heart through epigenomic mechanisms related to imbalanced acetylation/methylation. Some but not all of these effects reflect the upstream role of vitamin B12 in SAM synthesis. PMID:23415654

  18. Esophageal and gastric cardia cancer risk and folate- and vitamin B(12)-related polymorphisms in Linxian, China.

    PubMed

    Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Qiao, You-Lin; Abnet, Christian C; Ratnasinghe, D Luke; Dawsey, Sanford M; Dong, Zhi Wei; Taylor, Philip R; Mark, Steven D

    2003-11-01

    Linxian, a rural county in North Central China, has among the highest rates of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) in the world. Its inhabitants have documented chronic nutritional inadequacies, including folate and vitamin B(12) deficiencies. Using a cohort we have been studying in Linxian since 1985, we examined the relationship between incident ESCC and GCA cancers and three polymorphisms in two genes that code for enzymes that require folate and B(12) as cofactors: methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C. We conducted a case-cohort study among 4005 individuals in our cohort who were alive and cancer free in 1991 and had blood samples adequate for DNA extraction. Polymorphisms were measured on all 219 incident cancers (129 ESCCs and 90 GCAs) that developed through May 1996 and on 398 controls. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Individuals with the MTHFR 677TT genotype had significantly higher combined ESCC/GCA risks (RR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.02-2.05) than those with CC or CT genotypes. The only subjects to have MTHFR 1298CC were three ESCC cases (P = 0.03). Compared with subjects with the MTRR 66AA genotype, subjects with the AG or GG genotypes had significantly higher risk of ESCC (RR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.04-2.42). No association was observed for GCA. Our results suggest that the MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G polymorphisms influence the risk of ESCC and GCA in this population. PMID:14652285

  19. Interrelationship of dietary vitamin B12 or fat with thyrotoxicosis in certain adaptive changes in respiratory enzymes of rat liver 

    E-print Network

    Crawford, Wid Philips

    1957-01-01

    INTERRELATIONSHIP OF DIETARY VITAMIN B12 0R FAT WITH THYROTOXICOSIS IN CERTAIN ADAPTIVE CHANGES IN RESPIRATORY ENZYMES OF RAT LIVER I NTEERLAOATSH PF DYN VMYBYV1 20IDWX0N 1CGZTAARa AS AgR eLOaCOAR 14gSS5 S6 AgR I8LT4C5ACLO5 OHa 9R4gOHT4O5 2S...55R8R S6 rRiOE TH nOLATO5 6C56T55ZRHA S6 AgR LRtCTLRZRHA 6SL AgR aR8LRR S6 NX2rX0 XW VMYBX1XVMo 9OFd ()sy 9OhSL 1CGhR4AEz PYX2M,9Y1r0o IvN vfr0YrYXv A Dissertation By WIS PHILIPS CRAWFORD Approved as to style and content by: INTERRELATIONSHIP...

  20. A patient with an inborn error of vitamin B12 metabolism (cblF) detected by newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Armour, Christine M; Brebner, Alison; Watkins, David; Geraghty, Michael T; Chan, Alicia; Rosenblatt, David S

    2013-07-01

    A neonate, who was found to have an elevated C3/C2 ratio and minimally elevated propionylcarnitine on newborn screening, was subsequently identified as having the rare cblF inborn error of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) metabolism. This disorder is characterized by the retention of unmetabolized cobalamin in lysosomes such that it is not readily available for cellular metabolism. Although cultured fibroblasts from the patient did not show the expected functional abnormalities of the cobalamin-dependent enzymes, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase, they did show reduced synthesis of the active cobalamin cofactors adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin. Mutation analysis of LMBRD1 established that the patient had the cblF disorder. Treatment was initiated promptly, and the patient showed a robust response to regular injections of cyanocobalamin, and she was later switched to hydroxocobalamin. Currently, at 3 years of age, the child is clinically well, with appropriate development. Adjusted newborn screening cutoffs in Ontario allowed detection of a deficiency that might not have otherwise been identified, allowing early treatment and perhaps preventing the adverse sequelae seen in some untreated patients. PMID:23776111

  1. Effects of chemical and physical enhancement techniques on transdermal delivery of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ye; Kalluri, Haripriya; Banga, Ajay K

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency, which may result in anemia and nerve damage if left untreated, is currently treated by administration of cyanocobalamin via oral or intramuscular routes. However, these routes are associated with absorption and compliance issues which have prompted us to investigate skin as an alternative site of administration. Delivery through skin, however, is restricted to small and moderately lipophilic molecules due to the outermost barrier, the stratum corneum (SC). In this study, we have investigated the effect of different enhancement techniques, chemical enhancers (ethanol, oleic acid, propylene glycol), iontophoresis (anodal iontophoresis) and microneedles (soluble maltose microneedles), which may overcome this barrier and improve cyanocobalamin delivery. Studies with different chemical enhancer formulations indicated that ethanol and oleic acid decreased the lag time while propylene glycol based formulations increased the lag time. The formulation with ethanol (50%), oleic acid (10%) and propylene glycol (40%) showed the maximum improvement in delivery. Iontophoresis and microneedle treatments resulted in enhanced permeation levels compared to passive controls. These enhancement approaches can be explored further to develop alternative treatment regimens. PMID:24310591

  2. Progressive hyperpigmentation in a Taiwanese child due to an inborn error of vitamin B12 metabolism (cblJ).

    PubMed

    Takeichi, T; Hsu, C-K; Yang, H-S; Chen, H-Y; Wong, T-W; Tsai, W-L; Chao, S-C; Lee, J Y-Y; Akiyama, M; Simpson, M A; McGrath, J A

    2015-04-01

    The physiology of human skin pigmentation is varied and complex, with an extensive melanogenic paracrine network involving mesenchymal and epithelial cells, contributing to the regulation of melanocyte survival and proliferation and melanogenesis. Mutations in several genes, involving predominantly the KIT ligand/c-Kit and Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways, have been implicated in a spectrum of diseases in which there is hyperpigmentation, hypopigmentation or both. Here, we report on a 12-year-old girl from Taiwan with a 6-year history of diffuse progressive skin hyperpigmentation resulting from a different aetiology: an inborn metabolic disorder of vitamin B12 (cobalamin), designated cblJ. Using whole-exome sequencing we identified a homozygous mutation in ABCD4 (c.423C>G; p.Asn141Lys), which encodes an ATP-binding cassette transporter with a role in the intracellular processing of cobalamin. The patient had biochemical and haematological evidence of cobalamin deficiency but no other clinical abnormalities apart from a slight lightening of her previously black hair. Of note, she had no neurological symptoms or signs. Treatment with oral cobalamin (3 mg daily) led to metabolic correction and some reduction in the skin hyperpigmentation at the 3-month follow-up. This case demonstrates that defects or deficiencies of cobalamin should be remembered in the differential diagnosis of diffuse hyperpigmentary skin disorders. PMID:25234635

  3. Effect of Folic Acid and Vitamin B12 on Pemetrexed Antifolate Chemotherapy in Nutrient Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tsung-Ying; Chang, Gee-Chen; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Huang, Yi-Rou; Chiu, Ling-Yen

    2013-01-01

    Pemetrexed (MTA) is a multitargeted antifolate drug approved for lung cancer therapy. Clinically, supplementation with high doses of folic acid (FA) and vitamin B12 (VB12) lowers MTA cytotoxicities. An antagonistic effect of FA/VB12 on MTA efficacy has been proposed. However, patients who receive FA/VB12 show better tolerance to MTA with improved survival. The aims of this study are to investigate the modulation of FA and VB12 on MTA drug efficacy in human nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. The sensitivities of cells, apoptosis, and MTA-regulated proteins were characterized to determine the possible effects of high doses of FA and VB12 on MTA efficacy. MTA has the lowest efficacy under 10% serum conditions. However, supplementation with FA and VB12 individually and additively reversed the insensitivity of NSCLC cells to MTA treatment with 10% serum. The enhanced sensitivities of cells following FA/VB12 treatment were correlated with increasing apoptosis and were specific to MTA but not to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Enhanced sensitivity was also associated with p21WAF1/Cip1 expression level. Our results revealed no antagonistic effect of high doses of FA/VB12 on MTA efficacy in cancer cells grown in nutrient medium. Furthermore, these data may partially explain why supplementation of FA and VB12 resulted in better survival in MTA-treated patients. PMID:23984356

  4. Effectiveness of the National Program of Complementary Feeding for older adults in Chile on vitamin B12 status in older adults; secondary outcome analysis from the CENEX Study (ISRCTN48153354)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Older people are at increased risk of vitamin B12 deficiency and the provision of fortified foods may be an effective way to ensure good vitamin B12 status in later life. Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of a vitamin B12 fortified food provided by a national program of complementary food for older people on plasma vitamin B12 levels. Subjects and methods A random sub-sample of 351 subjects aged 65-67y from a large cluster randomised controlled trial provided blood samples at baseline and after 24 months of intervention. The intervention arm (10 clusters 186 participants) received a vitamin B12 fortified food designed to deliver 1.4 ?g/day, while the control arm did not receive complementary food (10 clusters, 165 participants). Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels determined by radioimmunoassay were used to estimate the effect of intervention on vitamin B12 levels, adjusting for baseline levels and sex. Results Attrition at 24 months was 16.7% and 23.6% in the intervention and control arms respectively (p?=?0.07). Over 24 months of intervention, mean (95% CI) serum vitamin B12 decreased from 392 (359–425) pmol/dL to 357 (300–414) pmol/dL (p?vitamin B12 as provided by Chile’s national programme for older people are insufficient to ensure adequate vitamin B12 levels in this population. Chile has a long and successful experience with nutrition intervention programs; however, the country’s changing demographic and nutritional profiles require a constant adjustment of the programs. PMID:24016218

  5. Acute effects of vitamin B 6 and fixed combinations of vitamin B 1 , B 6 , B 12 on nociceptive activity evoked in the rat thalamus: Dose-response relationship and combinations with morphine and paracetamol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Jurna; K.-H. Carlsson; W. Kömen; D. Bonke

    1990-01-01

    Summary Nociceptive activity was elicited in neurones of the thalamus by supramaximal electrical stimulation of afferent C fibres in the sural nerve of rats under urethane anesthesia. The fixed combination of vitamin B1, B6, B12 (Neurobion®) as well as of vitamin B6 administered by i.p. injection dose-dependently reduced the evoked nociceptive activity. The ED50 of Neurobion® is 4.6 ml\\/kg (at

  6. Transcobalamin C776G genotype modifies the association between vitamin B12 and homocysteine in older hispanics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: A common polymorphism, C776G, in the plasma B12 transport protein transcobalamin (TC), encodes for either proline or arginine at codon 259. This polymorphism may affect the affinity of TC for B12 and subsequent delivery of B12 to tissues. Methods: TC genotype and its associations with i...

  7. Human Vitamin B12 Absorption and Metabolism are Measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Using Specifically Labeled 14C-Cobalamin

    SciTech Connect

    Carkeet, C; Dueker, S R; Lango, J; Buchholz, B A; Miller, J W; Green, R; Hammock, B D; Roth, J R; Anderson, P J

    2006-01-26

    There is need for an improved test of human ability to assimilate dietary vitamin B{sub 12}. Assaying and understanding absorption and uptake of B{sub 12} is important because defects can lead to hematological and neurological complications. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is uniquely suited for assessing absorption and kinetics of {sup 14}C-labeled substances after oral ingestion because it is more sensitive than decay counting and can measure levels of carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) in microliter volumes of biological samples, with negligible exposure of subjects to radioactivity. The test we describe employs amounts of B{sub 12} in the range of normal dietary intake. The B{sub 12} used was quantitatively labeled with {sup 14}C at one particular atom of the DMB moiety by exploiting idiosyncrasies of Salmonellametabolism. In order to grow aerobically on ethanolamine, S. entericamust be provided with either pre-formed B{sub 12} or two of its precursors: cobinamide and dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB). When provided with {sup 14}C-DMB specifically labeled in the C2 position, cells produced {sup 14}C-B{sub 12} of high specific activity (2.1 GBq/mmol, 58 mCi/mmol) and no detectable dilution of label from endogenous DMB synthesis. In a human kinetic study, a physiological dose (1.5 mg, 2.2 KBq/59 nCi) of purified {sup 14}C-B{sub 12} was administered and showed plasma appearance and clearance curves consistent with the predicted behavior of the pure vitamin. This method opens new avenues for study of B{sub 12} assimilation.

  8. An LC-MS/MS method for serum methylmalonic acid suitable for monitoring vitamin B12 status in population surveys.

    PubMed

    Mineva, Ekaterina M; Zhang, Mindy; Rabinowitz, Daniel J; Phinney, Karen W; Pfeiffer, Christine M

    2015-04-01

    Methylmalonic acid (MMA), a functional indicator of vitamin B12 insufficiency, was measured in the US population in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2004 using a GC/MS procedure that required 275 ?L of sample and had a low throughput (36 samples/run). Our objective was to introduce a more efficient yet highly accurate LC-MS/MS method for NHANES 2011-2014. We adapted the sample preparation with some modifications from a published isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS procedure. The procedure utilized liquid-liquid extraction and generation of MMA dibutyl ester. Reversed-phase chromatography with isocratic elution allowed baseline resolution of MMA from its naturally occurring structural isomer succinic acid within 4.5 min. Our new method afforded an increased throughput (?160 samples/run) and measured serum MMA with high sensitivity (LOD?=?22.1 nmol/L) in only 75 ?L of sample. Mean (±SD) recovery of MMA spiked into serum (2 d, 4 levels, 2 replicates each) was 94 %?±?5.5 %. Total imprecision (41 d, 2 replicates each) for three serum quality control pools was 4.9 %-7.9 % (97.1-548 nmol/L). The LC-MS/MS method showed excellent correlation (n?=?326, r?=?0.99) and no bias (Deming regression, Bland-Altman analysis) compared to the previous GC/MS method. Both methods produced virtually identical mean (±SD) MMA concentrations [LC-MS/MS: 18.47?±?0.71 ng/mL (n?=?17), GC/MS: 18.18?±?0.67 ng/mL (n?=?11)] on a future plasma reference material compared with a GC/MS method procedure from the National Institute of Standards and Technology [18.41?±?0.70 ng/mL (n?=?15)]. No adjustment will be necessary to compare previous (1999-2004) to future (2011-2014) NHANES MMA data. PMID:25258283

  9. The vitamin B12 analog cobinamide is an effective hydrogen sulfide antidote in a lethal rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    BRENNER, M.; BENAVIDES, S.; MAHON, S. B.; LEE, J.; YOON, D.; MUKAI, D.; VISEROI, M.; CHAN, A.; JIANG, J.; NARULA, N.; AZER, S. M.; ALEXANDER, C.; BOSS, G. R.

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a highly toxic gas for which no effective antidotes exist. It acts, at least in part, by binding to cytochrome c oxidase, causing cellular asphyxiation and anoxia. We investigated the effects of three different ligand forms of cobinamide, a vitamin B12 analog, to reverse sulfide (NaHS) toxicity. Methods New Zealand white rabbits received a continuous intravenous (IV) infusion of NaHS (3 mg/min) until expiration or a maximum 270 mg dose. Animals received six different treatments, administered at the time when they developed signs of severe toxicity: Group 1—saline (placebo group, N = 9); Group 2—IV hydroxocobalamin (N = 7); Group 3—IV aquohydroxocobinamide (N = 6); Group 4—IV sulfitocobinamide (N = 6); Group 5—intramuscular (IM) sulfitocobinamide (N = 6); and Group 6—IM dinitrocobinamide (N = 8). Blood was sampled intermittently, and systemic blood pressure and deoxygenated and oxygenated hemoglobin were measured continuously in peripheral muscle and over the brain region; the latter were measured by diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS). Results Compared with the saline controls, all cobinamide derivatives significantly increased survival time and the amount of NaHS that was tolerated. Aquohydroxocobinamide was most effective (261.5 ± 2.4 mg NaHS tolerated vs. 93.8 ± 6.2 mg in controls, p < 0.0001). Dinitrocobinamide was more effective than sulfitocobinamide. Hydroxocobalamin was not significantly more effective than the saline control. Conclusions Cobinamide is an effective agent for inhibiting lethal sulfide exposure in this rabbit model. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal dose and form of cobinamide and route of administration. PMID:24716792

  10. Advances in standardization of laboratory measurement procedures: implications for measuring biomarkers of folate and vitamin B-12 status in NHANES1234

    PubMed Central

    Eckfeldt, John H

    2011-01-01

    Population studies such as NHANES analyze large numbers of laboratory measurements and are often performed in different laboratories using different measurement procedures and over an extended period of time. Correct clinical and epidemiologic interpretations of the results depend on the accuracy of those measurements. Unfortunately, considerable variability has been observed among assays for folate, vitamin B-12, and related biomarkers. In the past few decades, the science of metrology has advanced considerably, with the development of improved primary reference measurement procedures and high-level reference materials, which can serve as the basis for accurate measurement. A rigorous approach has been established for making field methods traceable to the highest-level reference measurement procedures and reference materials. This article reviews some basic principles of metrology and describes their recent application to measurements of folate and vitamin B-12. PMID:21562088

  11. The vitamin B 1 , B 2 , B 6 , B 12 , and E contents of hard red spring wheat as influenced by fertilization and cultivar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul W. Syltie; William C. Dahnke

    1983-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of fertilization and cultivar on the content of vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, and E in wheat, seven fertility treatments with three levels of N (0, 56, and 280 kg\\/ha), two levels of P (0 and 122 kg\\/ha), and two levels of K (0 and 465 kg\\/ha) were applied on split plots to two relatively unrelated

  12. Structure of AMP-PNP-bound BtuCD and mechanism of ATP-powered vitamin B12 transport by BtuCD-F.

    PubMed

    Korkhov, Vladimir M; Mireku, Samantha A; Veprintsev, Dmitry B; Locher, Kaspar P

    2014-12-01

    The reaction mechanism of BtuCD-F-catalyzed vitamin B12 transport into Escherichia coli is currently unclear. Here we present the structure of the last missing state in the form of AMP-PNP-bound BtuCD, trapped by a disulfide cross-link. Our structural and biochemical data allow a consistent mechanism to be formulated, thus rationalizing the roles of substrate, ATP and substrate-binding protein. PMID:25402482

  13. Development and validation of PCR, PLS, and TLC densitometric methods for the simultaneous determination of vitamins B(1), B(6) AND B(12) in pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Elzanfaly, Eman S; Nebsen, Marianne; Ramadan, Nesreen K

    2010-10-01

    This work represents the simultaneous determination of thiamine hydrochloride (B(1)), pyridoxine hydrochloride (B(6)) and cyanocobalamine (B(12)) by two different methods namely spectrophotometry multivariate calibration and densitometry. The spectrophotometric numerical method depends on the use of spectrophotometric data coupled to PLS and PCR multivariate calibration methods for the simultaneous determination of (B(1)) and (B(6)) in the presence of (B(12)) in laboratory prepared mixtures and commercial tablets. A calibration set was prepared, where the three vitamins were modeled using a full factorial 23 with three center points experimental design. This calibration set was used to build the PLS and PCR models. The models were validated by testing their predictive ability on a validation set where low RMSEP, RSEP % were obtained for both models. Figures of merit were determined using the net analyte signal concept. The proposed models were applied successfully to simultaneous determination of B1 and B6 in presence of a low concentration of B12 in pharmaceutical dosage forms that contain simple excipients. The TLC densitometric method was based on the use of a developing system of chloroform: ethanol: water: acetic acid solution (2: 8: 2: 0.5 v/v) to separate the three vitamins. The separated spots were scanned at 242nm, 291nm and 360nm for B(1), B(6) and B(12) respectively. The proposed method was applied successfully to simultaneous determination of the three vitamins in their pure powder form in the range 0.1-1.5 (µg/spot), 0.5-3.5 (µg/spot), 0.1-1.5 (µg/spot) for B(1), B(6), and B(12) respectively and in their pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:20884455

  14. Functional identification in Lactobacillus reuteri of a PocR-like transcription factor regulating glycerol utilization and vitamin B12 synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lactobacillus reuteri harbors the genes responsible for glycerol utilization and vitamin B12 synthesis within a genetic island phylogenetically related to gamma-Proteobacteria. Within this island, resides a gene (lreu_1750) that based on its genomic context has been suggested to encode the regulatory protein PocR and presumably control the expression of the neighboring loci. However, this functional assignment is not fully supported by sequence homology, and hitherto, completely lacks experimental confirmation. Results In this contribution, we have overexpressed and inactivated the gene encoding the putative PocR in L. reuteri. The comparison of these strains provided metabolic and transcriptional evidence that this regulatory protein controls the expression of the operons encoding glycerol utilization and vitamin B12 synthesis. Conclusions We provide clear experimental evidence for assigning Lreu_1750 as PocR in Lactobacillus reuteri. Our genome-wide transcriptional analysis further identifies the loci contained in the PocR regulon. The findings reported here could be used to improve the production-yield of vitamin B12, 1,3-propanediol and reuterin, all industrially relevant compounds. PMID:21777454

  15. Reduced folic acid, vitamin B12 and docosahexaenoic acid and increased homocysteine and cortisol in never-medicated schizophrenia patients: implications for altered one-carbon metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kale, Anvita; Naphade, Nilesh; Sapkale, Swati; Kamaraju, Marellasv; Pillai, Anilkumar; Joshi, Sadhana; Mahadik, Sahebarao

    2010-01-30

    Abnormal one-carbon metabolism has long been suggested as one of the mechanisms for neuropathology and psychopathology of schizophrenia. Variable levels of components of one-carbon metabolism (folic acid and vitamin B12) and consequent altered levels of homocysteine and phospholipid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been independently reported, mostly in medicated patients. This study examined the simultaneous levels of these key components of one-carbon metabolism and its consequences in unique, medication-naïve first-episode psychotic patients (FEP, n=31) and healthy controls (HC, n=48) matched for confounds such as race, diet and lifestyle to reduce the variability. Significantly lower levels of folate and vitamin B12 in plasma and folate in red blood cells were observed in FEP compared to HC. These reductions paralleled the significant increase in plasma homocysteine and cortisol levels. Significantly reduced levels of membrane DHA were also observed in FEP compared to HC. This study, using a unique cohort, provided a broader mechanism (disturbed folic acid-vitamin B12-DHA balance) of altered one-carbon metabolism and one of its key consequential components, an increased homocysteine level that together with cortisol, can contribute to the neuropathology of psychosis. These data may have important implications for the amelioration of psychopathology in schizophrenia. PMID:19969375

  16. Red colored IgG4 caused by vitamin B12 from cell culture media combined with disulfide reduction at harvest

    PubMed Central

    Derfus, Gayle E; Dizon-Maspat, Jemelle; Broddrick, Jared T; Velayo, Arleene C; Toschi, Josh D; Santuray, Rodell T; Hsu, Stephen K; Winter, Charles M; Krishnan, Rajesh; Amanullah, Ashraf

    2014-01-01

    While many antibody therapeutics are formulated at low concentration (~10–20 mg/mL) for intravenous administration, high concentration (> 100 mg/mL) formulations may be required for subcutaneous delivery in certain clinical indications. For such high concentration formulations, product color is more apparent due to the higher molecular density across a given path-length. Color is therefore a product quality attribute that must be well-understood and controlled, to demonstrate process consistency and enable clinical trial blinding. Upon concentration of an IgG4 product at the 2000 L manufacturing scale, variability in product color, ranging from yellow to red, was observed. A small-scale experimental model was developed to assess the effect of processing conditions (medium composition and harvest conditions) on final bulk drug substance (BDS) color. The model was used to demonstrate that, for two distinct IgG4 products, red coloration occurred only in the presence of disulfide reduction-mediated antibody dissociation. The red color-causing component was identified as vitamin B12, in the hydroxocobalamin form, and the extent of red color was correlated with the cobalt (vitamin B12) concentration in the final pools. The intensity of redness in the final BDS was modulated by changing the concentration of vitamin B12 in the cell culture media. PMID:24552690

  17. Effect of B Vitamin (Folate, B6, and B12) Supplementation on Osteoporotic Fracture and Bone Turnover Markers: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Jianwei; Gong, Xiaokang; Kong, Jinsong; Wang, Haibao; Zheng, Xin; Chen, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Background B vitamins (including folate, B6, and B12) supplementation can effectively and easily modify high plasma homocysteine (Hcy). However, the role of Hcy in the pathogenesis of osteoporotic fracture and bone turnover is still controversial. This meta-analysis aimed to assess the impact of B vitamin supplementation on occurrence of any osteoporotic fracture and bone turnover by pooling the results of previous studies. Material/Methods Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were searched in databases. Data integration and analysis were done by using Review Manager 5.3 (the Cochrane Collaboration). The risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) of fracture (intervention vs. control) were estimated. Changes in bone turnover indicators (continuous data), weighted mean difference (WMD), and corresponding 95% (CI) were pooled for estimation. Results Based on the results of 4 RCTs, this meta-analysis failed to identify a risk-reducing effect of daily supplementation of B vitamins on osteoporotic fracture in patients with vascular disease and with relatively normal plasma Hcy. In addition, we also did not find any positive effects of B vitamin supplementation on bone turnover. Conclusions B vitamin supplementation might not be effective in preventing fracture and improving bone turnover. However, the possible benefits in selective populations, such as populations with very high plasma Hcy and from regions without B vitamin fortification should be explored in the future. PMID:25805360

  18. The changing of serum vitamin B12 and homocysteine levels after gastrectomy in patients with gastric cancer: do they associate with clinicopathological factors?

    PubMed

    Bilici, Ahmet; Sonkaya, Alper; Ercan, Serif; Ustaalioglu, Bala Basak Oven; Seker, Mesut; Aliustaoglu, Mehmet; Orcun, Asuman; Gumus, Mahmut

    2015-02-01

    After total (TG) or distal subtotal gastrectomy (DG), patients are at high risk of vitamin B12 (vit-B12) deficiency, which results in elevation of homocysteine levels. The changing of serum vit-B12 and homocysteine levels in patients with gastric cancer is not well known. Seventy-two patients with gastric cancer who had undergone currative gastrectomy and 50 healthy controls were included. Serum vit-B12 and homocysteine levels were analyzed in gastric cancer patients. In addition, these parameters were compared with those of healthy control subjects. While serum vit-B12 levels in gastrectomized patients were significantly lower than that of healthy controls (221.8?±?125.6 pg/mL vs. 309.9?±?174.3 pg/mL, p?=?0.002), homocysteine levels were significantly higher in patients with gastric cancer (14.2?±?6.7 ?mol/L vs. 12.5?±?6.1 ?mol/L, p?=?0.016). Mean serum folate level was found to be high in healthy controls (7.3 ng/mL) compared to patients (9.2 ng/mL, p?=?0.027). Out of 72 patients, 40 patients (55.6 %) with gastric cancer developed vit-B12 deficiency after gastrectomy. Vit-B12 deficiency was found to be related with gastrectomy type (p?=?0.02) and homocysteine levels (p?=?0.014). In patients who underwent TG, the incidence of vit-B12 deficiency was significantly higher compared with those with DG (67.5 vs. 32.5 %). In addition, serum vit-B12 level in patients with DG was significantly higher than that of patients with TG (248.3?±?122.0 pg/mL vs. 200.8?±?126.7 pg/mL, p?=?0.041), whereas homocysteine levels were significantly lower in DG group compared with TG group (12.1?±?6.1 ?mol/L vs. 15.8?±?6.9 ?mol/L, p?=?0.014). A logistic regression analysis showed that the extent of gastrectomy was found to be an independent factor for predicting the occurrence of vit-B12 deficiency (p?B12 deficiency rate was significantly higher after TG compared with that after DG, while homocysteine levels were significantly higher in TG group compared with DG group. The extent of gastrectomy was found to be an independent factor for predicting the occurrence of vit-B12 deficiency. Vit-B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia are imperious clinical situation for patients with gastric cancer after surgery. Hence, both preoperative and regular postoperative monitoring of vit-B12 and homocysteine levels for all gastrectomized patients with gastric cancer are important and necessary for early detection and prevention of vit-B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25296737

  19. Serum levels of homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 in patients with vitiligo before and after treatment with narrow band ultraviolet B phototherapy and in a group of controls.

    PubMed

    Ata?, Hatice; Cemil, Bengü Çevirgen; Gönül, Müzeyyen; Ba?türk, Eda; Çiçek, Emel

    2015-07-01

    The association between vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and vitiligo were studied in several studies, but the results are contradictory. Narrow-band ultraviolet B (NBUVB) phototherapy is now considered as a gold standard for the treatment of diffuse vitiligo. The effects of NBUVB phototherapy on both vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine levels have not been studied in vitiligo patients yet. Serum levels of vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine were measured in vitiligo patients and control group and also both before and after NBUVB phototherapy in vitiligo patients. While levels of homocysteine in patients with vitiligo were significantly higher than controls (16.9±8.4 vs. 10. 9±3.4?mol/L; p<0,001) vitamin B12 and folate levels were not different (p>0.05). NBUVB phototherapy led to a 33.7±21.9% (0-75%) response in patients with vitiligo after 80 seccions. Treatment with NBUVB improved vitiligo and decreased serum levels of vitamin B12 (375±151 vs. 346±119pg/ml, p=0.024), while serum levels of folate and homocysteine did not change significantly after treatment (p=0.914, p=0.127). Further studies are needed to clarify the influence of NBUVB phototherapy on folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine levels in patients with vitiligo. Furthermore, studies with the analysis of skin levels of homocysteine rather than circulating levels may be useful to elucidate the effects of phototherapy on homocysteine levels. PMID:25941975

  20. A novel mutation in LMBRD1 causes the cblF defect of vitamin B 12 metabolism in a Turkish patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susann Gailus; Terttu Suormala; Ayse Gül Malerczyk-Aktas; Mohammad R. Toliat; Tanja Wittkampf; Martin Stucki; Peter Nürnberg; Brian Fowler; Julia B. Hennermann; Frank Rutsch

    2010-01-01

    In the cblF defect of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) metabolism, cobalamin is trapped in lysosomes. Consequently, cobalamin coenzyme synthesis is blocked, and cofactors\\u000a for methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) mutase are deficient. We recently identified LMBRD1 as the causative gene located on chromosome 6q13 and showed that 18 out of 24 alleles in unrelated patients carried the deletion\\u000a c.1056delG (p.L352fsX18)

  1. Is a low blood level of vitamin B12 a cardiovascular and diabetes risk factor? A systematic review of cohort studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Snorri B. Rafnsson; Ponnusamy Saravanan; Raj S. Bhopal; Chittaranjan S. Yajnik

    2011-01-01

    Purpose  To assess the prior hypothesis that low blood vitamin B12, partly through hyperhomocysteinemia and partly through direct effects,\\u000a increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. As background, we also extracted all-cause mortality from the\\u000a studies that met our criteria.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A systematic review of prospective cohort studies identified through searching six electronic databases, screening of reference\\u000a lists, and citation search.

  2. Methylmalonic acid quantified in dried blood spots provides a precise, valid, and stable measure of functional vitamin B-12 status in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Schroder, Theresa H; Quay, Teo A W; Lamers, Yvonne

    2014-10-01

    Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is a sensitive and specific functional biomarker of vitamin B-12 status, commonly assessed in plasma or serum. Dried blood spots (DBSs) allow simpler and more cost-efficient blood sampling than plasma. To facilitate convenient testing for vitamin B-12 deficiency in large-scale surveys and in population groups from remote areas, we developed a method for MMA quantification in DBSs and tested its applicability as well as the long-term stability of MMA in DBSs at various temperatures. MMA was extracted from an 8-mm DBS punch with water:methanol (95:5, v:v) and methyl-d3-malonic acid as the internal standard. After sample cleanup by ultrafiltration and hexane extraction, MMA was quantified by using reversed-phase LC-tandem mass spectrometry. Extraction conditions were optimized to maximize the detection signal and achieve DBS extract concentrations above the lowest limit of quantification (signal-to-noise ratio ? 10) of 10 nmol/L. Recovery was between 93% and 96%. Intra- and interassay variation (CV%) for DBS MMA was 0.49% and 2.3%, respectively. Calibrators showed linearity (R(2) = 0.998) between 10 and 10,000 nmol/L. In 94 healthy women, MMA concentrations in DBS extract (min-max: 10.2-80.5 nmol/L) and plasma (min-max: 68-950 nmol/L) were correlated (? = 0.90) (P < 0.001). MMA concentrations in DBSs were stable at room temperature for 1 wk, in the refrigerator for 8 wk, and at -80°C for at least 1 y. This simple and robust method allows quantification of MMA in DBSs of healthy individuals. The linear relation between plasma and DBS MMA suggests that DBS MMA could predict plasma MMA, the current reference indicator for functional vitamin B-12 deficiency. With the advantages of minimally invasive specimen collection and no need for laborious blood processing steps, this method has the potential to be a reliable, convenient, and field-applicable alternative for assessment of vitamin B-12 status. PMID:25143369

  3. Vitamin B12 regulates photosystem gene expression via the CrtJ antirepressor AerR in Rhodobacter capsulatus

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhuo; Li, Keran; Hammad, Loubna A.; Karty, Jonathan A.; Bauer, Carl E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The tetrapyrroles heme, bacteriochlorophyll and cobalamin (B12) exhibit a complex interrelationship regarding their synthesis. In this study, we demonstrate that AerR functions as an antirepressor of the tetrapyrrole regulator CrtJ. We show that purified AerR contains B12 that is bound to a conserved histidine (His145) in AerR. The interaction of AerR to CrtJ was further demonstrated in vitro by pull down experiments using AerR as bait and quantified using microscale thermophoresis. DNase I DNA footprint assays show that AerR containing B12 inhibits CrtJ binding to the bchC promoter. We further show that bchC expression is greatly repressed in a B12 auxotroph of Rhodobacter capsulatus and that B12 regulation of gene expression is mediated by AerR’s ability to function as an antirepressor of CrtJ. This study thus provides a mechanism for how the essential tetrapyrrole, cobalamin controls the synthesis of bacteriochlorophyll, an essential component of the photosystem. PMID:24329562

  4. Comparison of two modes of vitamin B12 supplementation on neuroconduction and cognitive function among older people living in Santiago, Chile: a cluster randomized controlled trial. a study protocol [ISRCTN 02694183

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Older people have a high risk of vitamin B12 deficiency; this can lead to varying degrees of cognitive and neurological impairment. CBL deficiency may present as macrocytic anemia, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, or as neuropathy, but is often asymptomatic in older people. Less is known about subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency and concurrent neuroconduction and cognitive impairment. A Programme of Complementary Feeding for the Older Population (PACAM) in Chile delivers 2 complementary fortified foods that provide approximately 1.4 ?g/day of vitamin B12 (2.4 ?g/day elderly RDA). The aim of the present study is to assess whether supplementation with vitamin B12 will improve neuroconduction and cognitive function in older people who have biochemical evidence of vitamin B12 insufficiency in the absence of clinical deficiency. Methods We designed a cluster double-blind placebo-controlled trial involving community dwelling people aged 70-79 living in Santiago, Chile. We randomized 15 clusters (health centers) involving 300 people (20 per cluster). Each cluster will be randomly assigned to one of three arms: a) a 1 mg vitamin B12 pill taken daily and a routine PACAM food; b) a placebo pill and the milk-PACAM food fortified to provide 1 mg of vitamin B12; c) the routine PACAM food and a placebo pill. The study has been designed as an 18 month follow up period. The primary outcomes assessed at baseline, 4, 9 and 18 months will be: serum levels of vitamin B12, neuroconduction and cognitive function. Conclusions In view of the high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in later life, the present study has potential public health interest because since it will measure the impact of the existing program of complementary feeding as compared to two options that provide higher vitamin B12 intakes that might potentially may contribute in preserving neurophysiologic and cognitive function and thus improve quality of life for older people in Chile. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN02694183 PMID:21952034

  5. ACETALDEHYDE-INDUCED CARDIAC CONTRACTILE DYSFUNCTION MAY BE ALLEVIATED BY VITAMIN B1 BUT NOT BY VITAMINS B6 OR B12

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NICHOLAS S. ABERLE; LARRY BURD; BONNIE H. ZHAO; JUN REN; Dakota Fetal

    2004-01-01

    Aims: Chronic alcohol exposure leads to a deficiency of group B vitamins and increased risk of alcoholic cardiomyopathy characterized by impaired ventricular contractility. This study was designed to examine the effect of group B vitamin supplementation on short-term exposure of the main alcohol metabolite acetaldehyde (ACA)-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction in rat ventricular myocytes. Methods: Mechanical contractile properties were evaluated by

  6. Dynamic behaviour of the B12 riboswitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santillán, Moisés; Mackey, Michael C.

    2005-03-01

    Riboswitches are RNA segments that serve as ligand-responsive genetic control elements. They modulate the expression of certain genes in response to changing concentrations of metabolites. In this paper, we study the dynamic behaviour of the B12 riboswitch in E. coli—perhaps the most widely studied and best known of all riboswitches—through a mathematical model of its regulatory pathway. To carry this out, we simulate dynamic experiments in which the bacterial B12 uptake capacity is measured after being depleted of this vitamin for a long time. The results of these simulations compare favourably with reported experimental data. The model also predicts that an overshoot of intracellular B12 should be observed if the replenishment experiments were to be carried out for longer times. This behaviour is discussed in terms of a possible evolutionary advantage for E. coli, together with the fact that regulation at the transcriptional and translational levels is almost equivalent dynamically.

  7. Electronically Excited States of Vitamin B12: Benchmark Calculations Including Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory and Correlated Ab Initio Methods

    E-print Network

    Kornobis, Karina; Wong, Bryan M; Lodowski, Piotr; Jaworska, Maria; Andruniów, Tadeusz; Rudd, Kenneth; Kozlowski, Pawel M; 10.1021/jp110914y

    2011-01-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and correlated ab initio methods have been applied to the electronically excited states of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin or CNCbl). Different experimental techniques have been used to probe the excited states of CNCbl, revealing many issues that remain poorly understood from an electronic structure point of view. Due to its efficient scaling with size, TD-DFT emerges as one of the most practical tools that can be used to predict the electronic properties of these fairly complex molecules. However, the description of excited states is strongly dependent on the type of functional used in the calculations. In the present contribution, the choice of a proper functional for vitamin B12 was evaluated in terms of its agreement with both experimental results and correlated ab initio calculations. Three different functionals, i.e. B3LYP, BP86, and LC-BLYP, were tested. In addition, the effect of relative contributions of DFT and HF to the exchange-correlation functional ...

  8. Improved AOAC First Action 2011.08 for the Analysis of Vitamin B12 in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Formulas: First Action 2014.02.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Esther Campos

    2014-01-01

    This report documents improvement and single-laboratory validation performed on AOAC First Action Method 2011.08 for vitamin B12 in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula. The original validation study included a range of fortified products, from infant formulas to breakfast cereals or beverages. Extended validation data, including additional infant formulas and adult/pediatric nutritionals, has now been produced. In addition, the method has been modified to use ultra-HPLC and the calibration range extended in a multilevel calibration curve. Detection and quantification limits were also improved by increasing the sample weight used for analysis and the reconstitution rate adapted to the requirements. The Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals Test Material Kit, designed to represent a large range of products within the category (infant formula and adult nutritionals made from any combination of milk, soy, rice, whey, hydrolyzed protein, starch, and amino acids, with and without intact protein), was used to determine performance characteristics of the method. The modifications included allow now full compliance with standard method performance requirements established for vitamin B12 (SMPR 2011.005). LOQ was ?0.01 ?g/100 g, working range between 0.01 and 5.0 ?g/100 g, repeatability ?7%, and recovery in the range 90-110%. The method was granted AOAC First Action status 2014.02. PMID:25902990

  9. Immunohistochemical Quantification of the Vitamin B12 Transport Protein (TCII), Cell Surface Receptor (TCII-R) and Ki-67 in Human Tumor Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Sysel, Annette M.; Valli, Victor E.; Nagle, Ray B.; Bauer, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim Cancer cells have an essential demand for vitamin B12 (cobalamin) to enable cellular replication. The present pilot study quantified the immunohistochemical expression of vitamin B12 transport protein (Transcobalamin II; TCII), cell surface receptor (Transcobalamin II-R; TCII-R) and proliferation protein (Ki-67) in human tumor xenografts. Materials and Methods Tissue microarray slides containing 34 xenograft tumor tissues were immunohistochemically stained using TCN2 (anti-TCII), CD320 (anti-TCII-R) and MIB-1 (anti-Ki-67) antibodies. Representatively stained areas of all slides were digitally imaged and protein expression was quantified using ImageJ software plugins. Results All xenograft tumor tissues stained positively for TCII, TCII-R and Ki-67 proteins; expression varied both within and between tumor types. Correlation between TCII/TCII-R and Ki-67 expression was not significant in xenograft tissues. Conclusion Proliferating cancer cells express measurable levels of TCII and TCII-R. Immunohistochemical quantification of these markers may be useful as a tool for detection of tumors, tailored selection of anti-tumor therapies and surveillance for evidence of recurrent disease. PMID:24122983

  10. Vitamin C uptake and recycling among normal and tumor cells from the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Astuya, Allisson; Caprile, Teresa; Castro, Maite; Salazar, Katterine; García, María de los Angeles; Reinicke, Karin; Rodríguez, Federico; Vera, Juan Carlos; Millán, Carola; Ulloa, Viviana; Low, Marcela; Martínez, Fernando; Nualart, Francisco

    Specialized cells transport vitamin C in its reduced form using sodium-dependent cotransporters (SVCT1 and SVCT2). Additionally, different cells transport the oxidized form of vitamin C, dehydroascorbic acid, through glucose transporters (GLUTs). We have proposed recently a model for vitamin C uptake that resolves the apparent contradiction that although only ascorbic acid is detectable in vivo, there are cells that transport only dehydroascorbic acid. We carried out a detailed kinetic analysis to compare the mechanisms of vitamin C uptake in normal human melanocytes, neurons isolated from brain cortex, hypothalamic ependymal-glial cells, and astrocytes. Uptake of ascorbic acid was also analyzed in the human oligodendroglioma cell line TC620, in human choroid plexus papilloma cells (HCPPC-1), and in the neuroblastoma cell line Neuro-2a. Melanocytes were used to carry out a detailed analysis of vitamin C uptake. Analysis of the transport data by the Lineweaver-Burk plot revealed the presence of one functional component (K(m) 20 microM) involved in ascorbic acid transport by melanocytes. Vitamin C sodium-dependent saturable uptake was also observed in neurons and hypothalamic tanycytes. We confirmed SVCT2 expression in neurons by in situ hybridization; however, SVCT2 expression was not detected in astrocytes in situ. Functional data indicate that astrocytes transport mainly dehydroascorbic acid, using the glucose transporter GLUT1. Our functional uptake analyses support the hypothesis that astrocytes are involved in vitamin C recycling in the nervous system. This recycling model may work as an efficient system for the salvage of vitamin C by avoiding the hydrolysis of dehydroascorbic acid produced by antioxidative protection. PMID:15578707

  11. Vitamin B12 loaded polycaprolactone nanofibers: a novel transdermal route for the water soluble energy supplement delivery.

    PubMed

    Madhaiyan, Kalaipriya; Sridhar, Radhakrishnan; Sundarrajan, Subramanian; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2013-02-28

    Biocompatible PCL polymer nanofiber mediated sustained release of hydrophilic drug and applicability as transdermal delivery system is attempted. This new attempt to investigate water soluble vitamin delivery with hydrophobic polymer nanofiber sustained the release of the vitamin and the method is suited for the transdermal patch applications. The drug loaded fibers were characterized with SEM for morphology, porometer for pore size measurements, mechanical strength calculation and FT-IR for drug load characterization. The contact angle measurement showed surface wettability and controlled release of drug was quantified with UV absorption measurements. To further enhance the release of vitamin, the polymer fiber was plasma treated at different time intervals and made hydrophilic gradually. Since the increased surface area and drug encapsulation in nano-reservoirs can able to release drug in small quantities and in a sustained manner we attempted the release of the energy supplement with nanofibrous delivery mode. PMID:23370432

  12. Methionine, folic acid, vitamin B b12 sand unidentified factors in the nutrition of the growing chick 

    E-print Network

    Welch, Billy E

    1951-01-01

    KETHIONINE ~ FOLIC ACID ~ VITAMIN Big AND UNIDENTIFIED FACTORS IN THE NUTRITION OF THE GROWING CHICK A Thesis by Billy E. Welch Appr ed o tyls and content by Chairman oi Committee YATHIONINE y FOLIC ACID ~ VITAMIN Big AND UNIDENTIFIED... FACTORS IN THE NUTRITION OF THE GROWING CHICK by B1lly E. Welch A Thesis Submitted to ths Graduate School of the Agr1cultural and Mschan1oal College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of :lASTER OF SCIENCE Na...

  13. THE DEVELOPMENT OF VALUES FOR VITAMINS E AND B12 FOR FORTIFIED FOODS IN THE UNITED STATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient data from the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) form the foundation of the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Surveys (FNDDS). Of the 7,000 foods in SR about 2,700 foods are used in the FNDDS. Complete nutrient profiles for >60 nutrients, including vitamins E a...

  14. Quantitative determination of drugs by means of densitometry of thin-layer chromatograms. Part 5: Determination of the Vitamins B1, B2, B6 and B12 in mixture and in pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Joneidi, M; Koleva, M; Budevsky, O

    1975-07-01

    A quantitative t.l.c. densitometric method for the simultaneous determination of the water-soluble vitamins B1, B2, B6, and B12 is proposed. The four vitamins are determined on one and the same plate by direct densitometry of the t.l.c. spots. A preliminary separation of the vitamins one from another, as well as a preliminary separation from other pharmaceuticals is not necessary. The determination is performed quickly and easily. The relative standard deviations of a single determination are the following: for thiamine 6,6%, for riboflavin 5,5%, for pyridoxine 6,4%, and for cyanocobalamin 5,8%. The proposed method is applied to the determination of B-vitamins in three pharmaceutical preparations: ampoules B12 with B1, ampoules B-complex, and antisclerol dragee. The presence of other pharmaceuticals (vitamins C and PP, urethane, aminophenazone, phytin, rutin, theobromine, etc.) does not interfere with the determination. PMID:1178761

  15. The effect of vitamin B 12 and various levels of iodine in the diet of growing chicks and mature hens 

    E-print Network

    Banta, Edward Mack

    1957-01-01

    THF. EFFEC'I OF VITAMIN 8, , AND VARIOUS EKVK Lo OF IODINE IN THE DIET OF GBOV. ING CHICKS AND MAT URE HENS EDV ABD MACK SANTA A 'I'HgoIS oubmitted to tbe Gt aduate ochooi of tbe Agricultural and hiecbanical College of f'"xae in pertial fulf...Hhnent of tbe retlufremcnte for tbe dogree MASTER OF oCII. NCE ht a j o r oubject: sultry ociencc August 1957 'I HE E FFECT OF VITAMIN 9 . AND VABIUU& cEV E 1 o 12 OF IODINE IN THE DIET C F GI'On ING CHICKS AND MA'l UHE HENS A THEnle t DV. AND MAC K BA N...

  16. The effect of vitamin B 12 and various levels of iodine in the diet of growing chicks and mature hens

    E-print Network

    Banta, Edward Mack

    1957-01-01

    THF. EFFEC'I OF VITAMIN 8, , AND VARIOUS EKVK Lo OF IODINE IN THE DIET OF GBOV. ING CHICKS AND MAT URE HENS EDV ABD MACK SANTA A 'I'HgoIS oubmitted to tbe Gt aduate ochooi of tbe Agricultural and hiecbanical College of f'"xae in pertial fulf...Hhnent of tbe retlufremcnte for tbe dogree MASTER OF oCII. NCE ht a j o r oubject: sultry ociencc August 1957 'I HE E FFECT OF VITAMIN 9 . AND VABIUU& cEV E 1 o 12 OF IODINE IN THE DIET C F GI'On ING CHICKS AND MA'l UHE HENS A THEnle t DV. AND MAC K BA N...

  17. Interrelationship of dietary vitamin B12 or fat with thyrotoxicosis in certain adaptive changes in respiratory enzymes of rat liver

    E-print Network

    Crawford, Wid Philips

    1957-01-01

    choline oxidase (202) f alkaline phosphatase (126), depa decarboxylase (258), creatine phosphokinase (5)? betaine-homocysteine transmethylase (252) , and the transaminase-tautomerase activity of the tyrosine oxidase system (141). Tipton and Nixon (242... is confined to increasing their TE novo synthesis., Young et a l . (276) found that vitamin B-j2 was not required for trans? methylation in chicks. In the absence of sufficient betaine to wethylate the precursors of choline or methionines B|2 gave a marked...

  18. The effect of high levels of fat, choline, vitamin B12, and vitamin E on the occurrence of fatty livers in caged layers 

    E-print Network

    Smith, Daniel Newton

    1959-01-01

    L 8 Y .. ,a .- - . A & M COLLEGE. CARjPVS. TEXAS AfiRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY. TEXAS -- - BULLETIN NO. 473 DECEMBER, 1932 Sorghum Silage as a Source c Vitamin A for Dairy Cows... of Agriculture. 7 ?On leave. $In cooperation with Texas Extension Service. Butter fat from a cow fed only cottonseed meal and hulls over a long period of time contained only about 2% units of vitamin A to the gram. Cows restricted to cottonseed meal and hulls...

  19. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method with coulometric electrochemical and ultraviolet detection for the quantification of vitamins B 1 (thiamine), B 6 (pyridoxamine, pyridoxal and pyridoxine) and B 12 in animal and plant foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Lebiedzi?ska; Marcin Leszek Marsza??; Jadwiga Kuta; Piotr Szefer

    2007-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with coulometric electrochemical and ultraviolet detections for analysis of vitamin B (B1, B6 and B12) in animal and plant foods has been developed. A combination of acid digestion and enzymatic extraction to release protein bound and phosphorylated vitamins followed by HPLC analysis was applied. The analyses were carried out on a

  20. Effect of Vitamin B6 and B1 Deficiencies on the Intestinal Uptake of Calcium, Zinc and Cadmium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Prasad; V. Lyall; R. Nath

    1982-01-01

    A chronic vitamin B6 deficiency in rats resulted in a non-specific increase (44–51 %) in the in vitro intestinal uptake of both essential (Ca and Zn) and non-essential toxic metal (Cd) ions, whereas an acute B6-deficient state only affected the Zn uptake rate. In vitamin B1 -deficient animals, a specific decrease (30–32%) was observed in Ca and Zn uptake with

  1. Potential host-defense role of a human milk vitamin B12-binding protein, haptocorrin, in the gastrointestinal tract of breastfed infants, as assessed with porcine haptocorrin in vitro1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuriko Adkins; Bo Lönnerdal

    Background: Limited information exists on the biological role of a vitamin B-12-binding protein, haptocorrin, in human milk. The expression of haptocorrin by human mammary epithelial cells and its presence in human milk suggest a potential physiologic func- tion in breastfed infants. Objective: We investigated the extent to which haptocorrin could withstand proteolytic degradation and exert antimicrobial activity under in vitro

  2. Comparison of two modes of vitamin B12 supplementation on neuroconduction and cognitive function among older people living in Sandiago, Chile: A cluster randomized controlled trial. A study protocol(ISRCTN 02694183)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Older people have a high risk of vitamin B12 deficiency; this can lead to varying degrees of cognitive and neurological impairment. CBL deficiency may present as macrocytic anemia, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, or as neuropathy, but is often asymptomatic in older peo...

  3. Investigations of the mechanism of vitamin E removal from blood and the effect of NO/sub 2/ on the pulmonary uptake of vitamin E

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, H.K.

    1987-01-01

    To examine the effect of NO/sub 2/ on vitamin E uptake by lung, we first investigated the mechanism of removal of vitamin E from blood. To accomplish this, a method for labeling serum with tritiated vitamin E was developed. Two other lipids, whose uptake is better understood, were also studied, and compared with vitamin E. Tritiated triacylglycerol was used to monitor lipoprotein lipase-mediated uptake, while tritiated cholesterol was used to monitor LDL receptor-mediated uptake. Blood curves derived from untreated, adult, male, Long-Evans rats indicated that all three lipids were removed biexponentially. The half-life for the Rapid component was 2.5-3.7 minutes for all lipids. The slower curve had half-lives of 42.3 minutes for triacylglycerol, 990.0 minutes for cholesterol, and 288.8 minutes for vitamin E. Biological screening of labeled serum demonstrated that the faster process was not simply the removal of lipoproteins damaged by the labeling process. Hepatectomy affected the rate of neither triacylglycerol nor cholesterol removal, but did slow vitamin E uptake, suggesting a distinct role for liver in vitamin E extraction.

  4. Enantioselective excited-state quenching of racemic Tb (III) and Eu (III) Tris (pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate) by vitamin B 12 derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskers, Stefan C. J.; Dekkers, Harry P. J. M.

    1999-08-01

    Enantioselectivity in the dynamic quenching of the luminescence of the ? and ? enantiomers of racemic Tb(III)(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate=DPA) 33- and Eu(DPA) 33- by a series of corrinoids is demonstrated by time resolved luminescence and circular-polarization-of-luminescence (CPL) spectroscopy. Studied are cyanocobalamin (vitamin B 12), aquacobalamin (B 12a) and its conjugated base hydroxocobalamin (HOCbl), dicyanocobinamide ((CN) 2Cbi) and the heptamethyl ester of dicyanocobyrinic acid ((CN) 2Cby(OMe) 7). For this set of quenchers (Q), the diastereomeric quenching rate constants ( kq? and kq?) are reported together with the degree of enantioselectivity Eq=( kq?- kq?)/( kq?+ kq?). In the systems with Tb, values of the average rate constant kqavg(=( kq?+ kq?)/2) are 1.0, 2.9 and 0.53 10 8 M -1 s -1 for CNCbl, (CN) 2Cbi, (CN) 2Cby(OMe) 7 with Eq=-0.24, -0.20, +0.01 (standard error of Eq is 0.01). The quenching by B 12a is strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength ( I); when I=12 mM we find kqavg=5.3, Eq=-0.23 at pH 6.7 and kqavg=1.3, Eq=-0.27 at pH 8.9. Corresponding rates for Eu are 0.41, 27, 3.4 10 7 M -1 s -1 and for B 12a, 7.3 and 1.2 10 7 M -1 s -1, corresponding values for Eq -0.27, -0.29, +0.02, -0.21 and -0.29. The quenching reaction is modeled as a pre-equilibrium involving the formation of an encounter complex (association constant K) followed by the actual electronic energy transfer step (rate ket). By relating the quenching data with molecular structure it is argued that the binding in the encounter complex involves two hydrogen bonds between the uncoordinated carboxylate oxygen atom of two DPA ligands of Ln(DPA) 33- and two amide groups of the corrinoid, presumably involving the a and g, the a and b, or the b and g side chains. For some corrinoid/Ln(DPA) 33- complexes the association constants and enantioselectivities in the ground state are known (Spectrochimica Acta 55A (1999) 1837-1855), which allows for an estimate of the average rate of energy transfer, ketavg (i.e. ( ket?+ ket?)/2). The enantioselectivity in the quenching reaction is lower than in the ground state association which is interpreted in terms of different values of ket in the two diastereomeric Ln-corrinoid complexes; for both Tb and Eu we find ket?/ ket?˜0.3 with CNCbl, B 12a at pH 6.7 and (CN) 2Cbi. These data imply that the chiral discrimination in the energy transfer is considerable and counteracts that in the binding but does not dominate it.

  5. Superoxide-dependent uptake of vitamin C in human glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Federico S; Salazar, Katterine A; Jara, Nery A; García-Robles, María A; Pérez, Fernando; Ferrada, Luciano E; Martínez, Fernando; Nualart, Francisco J

    2013-12-01

    Glioblastomas are lethal brain tumors that resist current cytostatic therapies. Vitamin C may antagonize the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating therapies; however, it is often used to reduce therapy-related side effects despite its effects on therapy or tumor growth. Because the mechanisms of vitamin C uptake in gliomas are currently unknown, we evaluated the expression of the sodium-vitamin C cotransporter (SVCT) and facilitative hexose transporter (GLUT) families in human glioma cells. In addition, as microglial cells can greatly infiltrate high-grade gliomas (constituting up to 45% of cells in glioblastomas), the effect of TC620 glioma cell interactions with microglial-like HL60 cells on vitamin C uptake (Bystander effect) was determined. Although glioma cells expressed high levels of the SVCT isoform-2 (SVCT2), low functional activity, intracellular localization and the expression of the dominant-negative isoform (dnSVCT2) were observed. The increased glucose metabolic activity of glioma cells was evident by the high 2-Deoxy-d-glucose and dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) uptake rates through the GLUT isoform-1 (GLUT1), the main DHA transporter in glioblastoma. Co-culture of glioma cells and activated microglial-like HL60 cells resulted in extracellular ascorbic acid oxidation and high DHA uptake by glioma cells. This Bystander effect may explain the high antioxidative potential observed in high-grade gliomas. This study strongly suggests that the Bystander effect, that is, glioma cell interaction with oxidant-producing microglia, could be an important mechanism for glioma vitamin C loading in the absence of functional sodium-vitamin C cotransporter 2 (SVCT2) expression. The high cellular vitamin C load in glioma cells results from a high uptake of extracellular dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) generated by neighboring microglia. This Bystander effect may explain the high antioxidative potential observed in high-grade gliomas, considering that high-grade gliomas may be the only neoplasm where oxidant-producing microglia can almost equal the number of tumor cells. PMID:23859461

  6. Intricacies of redoxome function demonstrated with a simple in vitro chemiluminescence method, with special reference to vitamin B12 as antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Bøyum, A; Forstrøm, R J; Sefland, I; Sand, K L; Benestad, H B

    2014-12-01

    The homeostatic control of the redox system (the redoxome) in mammalian cells depends upon a large number of interacting molecules, which tend to buffer the electronegativity of cells against oxidants or reductants. Some of these components kill - at high concentration - microbes and by-stander normal cells, elaborated by professional phagocytes. We examined whether a simple, in vitro chemiluminescence set-up, utilizing redox components from human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and red blood cells (RBC), could clarify some unexplained workings of the redoxome. PMN or purified myeloperoxidase (MPO) triggers formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), quantified by light emission from oxidized luminol. Both PMN and RBC can generate abundant amounts of ROS, necessitating the presence of a high-capacity redoxome to keep the cellular electronegativity within physiological limits. We obtained proof-of-principle evidence that our assay could assess redox effects, but also demonstrated the intricacies of redox reactions. Simple dose-responses were found, as for the PMN proteins S100A9 (A9) and S100A8 (A8), and the system also revealed the reducing capacity of vitamin B12 (Cbl) and lutein. However, increased concentrations of oxidants in the assay mixture could decrease the chemiluminescence. Even more remarkable, A9 and NaOCl together stimulated the MPO response, but alone they inhibited MPO chemiluminescence. Biphasic responses were also recorded for some dose-response set-ups and are tentatively explained by a 'balance hypothesis' for the redoxome. PMID:25345916

  7. Intricacies of Redoxome Function Demonstrated with a Simple In vitro Chemiluminescence Method, with Special Reference to Vitamin B12 as Antioxidant

    PubMed Central

    Bøyum, A; Forstrøm, R J; Sefland, I; Sand, K L; Benestad, H B

    2014-01-01

    The homeostatic control of the redox system (the redoxome) in mammalian cells depends upon a large number of interacting molecules, which tend to buffer the electronegativity of cells against oxidants or reductants. Some of these components kill – at high concentration – microbes and by-stander normal cells, elaborated by professional phagocytes. We examined whether a simple, in vitro chemiluminescence set-up, utilizing redox components from human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and red blood cells (RBC), could clarify some unexplained workings of the redoxome. PMN or purified myeloperoxidase (MPO) triggers formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), quantified by light emission from oxidized luminol. Both PMN and RBC can generate abundant amounts of ROS, necessitating the presence of a high-capacity redoxome to keep the cellular electronegativity within physiological limits. We obtained proof-of-principle evidence that our assay could assess redox effects, but also demonstrated the intricacies of redox reactions. Simple dose–responses were found, as for the PMN proteins S100A9 (A9) and S100A8 (A8), and the system also revealed the reducing capacity of vitamin B12 (Cbl) and lutein. However, increased concentrations of oxidants in the assay mixture could decrease the chemiluminescence. Even more remarkable, A9 and NaOCl together stimulated the MPO response, but alone they inhibited MPO chemiluminescence. Biphasic responses were also recorded for some dose–response set-ups and are tentatively explained by a ‘balance hypothesis’ for the redoxome. PMID:25345916

  8. Atypical B12 deficiency with nonresolving paraesthesia.

    PubMed

    Haider, S; Ahmad, N; Anaissie, E J; Abdel Karim, N

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency can present with various hematological, gastrointestinal and neurological manifestations. We report a case of elderly female who presented with neuropathy and vitamin B12 deficiency where the final work-up revealed polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes (POEMS). This case suggests that, although POEMS syndrome is a rare entity, it can present with vitamin-B12 deficiency and thus specific work up for early diagnosis of POEMS should be considered in patients with B12 deficiency unresponsive to therapy. PMID:24349810

  9. Atypical B12 Deficiency with Nonresolving Paraesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Haider, S.; Ahmad, N.; Anaissie, E. J.; Abdel Karim, N.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency can present with various hematological, gastrointestinal and neurological manifestations. We report a case of elderly female who presented with neuropathy and vitamin B12 deficiency where the final work-up revealed polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes (POEMS). This case suggests that, although POEMS syndrome is a rare entity, it can present with vitamin-B12 deficiency and thus specific work up for early diagnosis of POEMS should be considered in patients with B12 deficiency unresponsive to therapy. PMID:24349810

  10. A novel mutation in LMBRD1 causes the cblF defect of vitamin B(12) metabolism in a Turkish patient.

    PubMed

    Gailus, Susann; Suormala, Terttu; Malerczyk-Aktas, Ayse Gül; Toliat, Mohammad R; Wittkampf, Tanja; Stucki, Martin; Nürnberg, Peter; Fowler, Brian; Hennermann, Julia B; Rutsch, Frank

    2010-02-01

    In the cblF defect of vitamin B(12) (cobalamin) metabolism, cobalamin is trapped in lysosomes. Consequently, cobalamin coenzyme synthesis is blocked, and cofactors for methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) mutase are deficient. We recently identified LMBRD1 as the causative gene located on chromosome 6q13 and showed that 18 out of 24 alleles in unrelated patients carried the deletion c.1056delG (p.L352fsX18) (Rutsch et al. (Nat Genet 41:234-239, 2009). LMBRD1 encodes the lysosomal membrane protein LMBD1, which presumably facilitates lysosomal cobalamin export. Our patient is the second child of consanguineous Turkish parents. He presented on the second day of life with cerebral seizures due to intraventricular hemorrhage. Plasma homocysteine and urinary methylmalonic acid levels were elevated, and serum cobalamin level was decreased. Synthesis of both cobalamin coenzymes was deficient in cultured skin fibroblasts. The cblF defect was confirmed by somatic complementation analysis. Sequencing of LMBRD1 revealed the novel deletion c.1405delG (p.D469fsX38) on both alleles. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed reduced messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in patient fibroblasts compared with controls. Transfection of patient fibroblasts with the LMBD1 wild-type complement DNA (cDNA) rescued coenzyme synthesis and function, confirming this new deletion as an additional cause of the cblF defect. This case adds to the spectrum of clinical presentations and mutations of this rare disorder of lysosomal transport. PMID:20127417

  11. A phase I study of pemetrexed (LY231514) supplemented with folate and vitamin B12 in Japanese patients with solid tumours.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, K; Kudoh, S; Matsui, K; Negoro, S; Yamamoto, N; Latz, J E; Adachi, S; Fukuoka, M

    2006-09-18

    The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended dose (RD) of pemetrexed with folate and vitamin B12 supplementation (FA/VB(12)) in Japanese patients with solid tumours and to investigate the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of pemetrexed. Eligible patients had incurable solid tumours by standard treatments, a performance status 0-2, and adequate organ function. Pemetrexed from 300 to 1,200 mg m(-2) was administered as a 10-min infusion on day 1 of a 21-day cycle with FA/VB(12). Totally, 31 patients were treated. Dose-limiting toxicities were alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation at 700 mg m(-2), and infection and skin rash at 1,200 mg m(-2). The MTD/RD were determined to be 1,200/1,000 mg m(-2), respectively. The most common grade 3/4 toxicities were neutropenia (grade (G) 3:29, G4:3%), leucopenia (G3:13, G4:3%), lympopenia (G3:13%) and ALT elevation (G3:13%). Pemetrexed pharmacokinetics in Japanese were not overtly different from those in western patients. Partial response was achieved for 5/23 evaluable patients (four with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and one with thymoma). The MTD/RD of pemetrexed were determined to be 1,200/1,000 mg m(-2), respectively, that is, a higher RD than without FA/VB(12) (500 mg m(-2)). Pemetrexed with FA/VB(12) showed a tolerable toxicity profile and potent antitumour activity against NSCLC in this study. PMID:16940981

  12. Methyl Vitamin B12 but not methylfolate rescues a motor neuron-like cell line from homocysteine-mediated cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Hemendinger, Richelle A., E-mail: richelle.hemendinger@carolinashealthcare.org; Armstrong, Edward J.; Brooks, Benjamin Rix

    2011-03-15

    Homocysteine is an excitatory amino acid implicated in multiple diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Information on the toxicity of homocysteine in motor neurons is limited and few studies have examined how this toxicity can be modulated. In NSC-34D cells (a hybrid cell line derived from motor neuron-neuroblastoma), homocysteine induces apoptotic cell death in the millimolar range with a TC{sub 50} (toxic concentration at which 50% of maximal cell death is achieved) of 2.2 mM, confirmed by activation of caspase 3/7. Induction of apoptosis was independent of short-term reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Methyl Vitamin B12 (MeCbl) and methyl tetrahydrofolate (MTHF), used clinically to treat elevated homocysteine levels, were tested for their ability to reverse homocysteine-mediated motor neuron cell death. MeCbl in the micromolar range was able to provide neuroprotection (2 h pretreatment prior to homocysteine) and neurorescue (simultaneous exposure with homocysteine) against millimolar homocysteine with an IC{sub 50} (concentration at which 50% of maximal cell death is inhibited) of 0.6 {mu}M and 0.4 {mu}M, respectively. In contrast, MTHF (up to 10 {mu}M) had no effect on homocysteine-mediated cell death. MeCbl inhibited caspase 3/7 activation by homocysteine in a time- and dose-dependent manner, whereas MTHF had no effect. We conclude that MeCbl is effective against homocysteine-induced cell death in motor neurons in a ROS-independent manner, via a reduction in caspase activation and apoptosis. MeCbl decreases Hcy induced motor neuron death in vitro in a hybrid cell line derived from motor neuron-neuroblastoma and may play a role in the treatment of late stage ALS where HCy levels are increased in animal models of ALS.

  13. Dietary intake of the water-soluble vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12 and C in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Olsen; J Halkjær; C H van Gils; B Buijsse; H Verhagen; M Jenab; M C Boutron-Ruault; U Ericson; M C Ocké; P H M Peeters; M Touvier; M Niravong; M Waaseth; G Skeie; K T Khaw; R Travis; P Ferrari; M J Sanchez; A Agudo; K Overvad; J Linseisen; C Weikert; C Sacerdote; A Evangelista; D Zylis; K Tsiotas; J Manjer; B van Guelpen; E Riboli; N Slimani; S Bingham

    2009-01-01

    Objectives:To describe the intake of vitamins thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), B6 (pyridoxine), B12 (cobalamine) and C (ascorbic acid) and their food sources among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.Methods:Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons aged between 35 and 74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall using

  14. A novel spectral resolution and simultaneous determination of multicomponent mixture of Vitamins B1, B6, B12, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac in tablets and capsules by derivative and MCR-ALS.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, Maha A; Abdelwahab, Nada S; Fayed, Ahmed S

    2015-04-01

    A novel method was developed for spectral resolution and further determination of five-component mixture including Vitamin B complex (B1, B6, B12 and Benfotiamine) along with the commonly co-formulated Diclofenac. The method is simple, sensitive, precise and could efficiently determine the five components by a complementary application of two different techniques. The first is univariate second derivative method that was successfully applied for determination of Vitamin B12. The second is Multivariate Curve Resolution using the Alternating Least Squares method (MCR-ALS) by which an efficient resolution and quantitation of the quaternary spectrally overlapped Vitamin B1, Vitamin B6, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac sodium were achieved. The effect of different constraints was studied and the correlation between the true spectra and the estimated spectral profiles were found to be 0.9998, 0.9983, 0.9993 and 0.9933 for B1, B6, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac, respectively. All components were successfully determined in tablets and capsules and the results were compared to HPLC methods and they were found to be statistically non-significant. PMID:25645231

  15. A novel spectral resolution and simultaneous determination of multicomponent mixture of Vitamins B1, B6, B12, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac in tablets and capsules by derivative and MCR-ALS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegazy, Maha A.; Abdelwahab, Nada S.; Fayed, Ahmed S.

    2015-04-01

    A novel method was developed for spectral resolution and further determination of five-component mixture including Vitamin B complex (B1, B6, B12 and Benfotiamine) along with the commonly co-formulated Diclofenac. The method is simple, sensitive, precise and could efficiently determine the five components by a complementary application of two different techniques. The first is univariate second derivative method that was successfully applied for determination of Vitamin B12. The second is Multivariate Curve Resolution using the Alternating Least Squares method (MCR-ALS) by which an efficient resolution and quantitation of the quaternary spectrally overlapped Vitamin B1, Vitamin B6, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac sodium were achieved. The effect of different constraints was studied and the correlation between the true spectra and the estimated spectral profiles were found to be 0.9998, 0.9983, 0.9993 and 0.9933 for B1, B6, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac, respectively. All components were successfully determined in tablets and capsules and the results were compared to HPLC methods and they were found to be statistically non-significant.

  16. Vitamin E uptake by human intestinal cells during lipolysis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Traber, M G; Goldberg, I; Davidson, E; Lagmay, N; Kayden, H J

    1990-01-01

    Vitamin E uptake by Caco-2 cells, a human intestinal cell line, was studied by incubating the cells with alpha-tocopherol/triglyceride emulsions with or without bile activated lipase or lipoprotein lipase. During a 1-h incubation, vitamin E was transferred to Caco-2 cells only in the presence of triglyceride hydrolysis by bile activated lipase and not by lipoprotein lipase. Incubation with either lipase resulted in hydrolysis of approximately 20% of the medium [3H]-triolein to free fatty acids and a 3-5-fold increase in cellular radioactivity. In the absence of lipases but the presence of taurocholate, addition of oleic acid in an amount equal to the molar concentration of triglyceride (5.7 mM) to triglyceride emulsions containing either alpha-tocopherol or cholesteryl ester resulted in an increase in cellular [3H]-triglyceride and alpha-tocopherol or cholesteryl ester. We suggest that the absorption of hydrophobic molecules such as vitamin E may occur in the presence of bile and amphipathic lipids via the uptake of micellar neutral lipids by the intestine. PMID:2293602

  17. Effect of Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Supplementation on Bone Mineral Density and Quantitative Ultrasound Parameters in Older People with an Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Level: B-PROOF, a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Enneman, Anke W; Swart, Karin M A; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P; van Dijk, Suzanne C; Ham, Annelies C; Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M; van der Zwaluw, Nikita L; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; van der Cammen, Tischa J M; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; van Meurs, Joyce; Lips, Paul; Uitterlinden, André G; Zillikens, M Carola; van Schoor, Natasja M; van der Velde, Nathalie

    2015-05-01

    High plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels are associated with increased osteoporotic fracture incidence. However, the mechanism remains unclear. We investigated the effect of Hcy-lowering vitamin B12 and folic acid treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) and calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included participants aged ?65 years with plasma Hcy levels between 12 and 50 µmol/L. The intervention comprised 2-year supplementation with either a combination of 500 µg B12, 400 µg folic acid, and 600 IU vitamin D or placebo with 600 IU vitamin D only. In total, 1111 participants underwent repeated dual-energy X-ray assessment and 1165 participants underwent QUS. Femoral neck (FN) BMD, lumbar spine (LS) BMD, calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), and calcaneal speed of sound (SOS) were assessed. After 2 years, FN-BMD and BUA had significantly decreased, while LS-BMD significantly increased (all p < 0.01) and SOS did not change in either treatment arm. No statistically significant differences between the intervention and placebo group were present for FN-BMD (p = 0.24), LS-BMD (p = 0.16), SOS (p = 0.67), and BUA (p = 0.96). However, exploratory subgroup analyses revealed a small positive effect of the intervention on BUA at follow-up among compliant persons >80 years (estimated marginal mean 64.4 dB/MHz for the intervention group and 61.0 dB/MHz for the placebo group, p = 0.04 for difference). In conclusion, this study showed no overall effect of treatment with vitamin B12 and folic acid on BMD or QUS parameters in elderly, mildly hyperhomocysteinemic persons, but suggests a small beneficial effect on BUA in persons >80 years who were compliant in taking the supplement. PMID:25712255

  18. UV-Stressed Daphnia pulex Increase Fitness through Uptake of Vitamin D3

    PubMed Central

    Walling, Kelly; Wilbert, Steven A.; Catlin, Diane M.; Monaghan, Cailin E.; Hlynchuk, Sofiya; Meehl, Pamela G.; Resch, Lauren N.; Carrera, J. Valerie; Bowles, Stephanie M.; Clark, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is known to be highly variable in aquatic ecosystems. It has been suggested that UV-exposed organisms may demonstrate enough phenotypic plasticity to maintain the relative fitness of natural populations. Our long-term objective is to determine the potential photoprotective effect of vitamin D3 on Daphnia pulex exposed to acute or chronic UV radiation. Herein we report our initial findings in this endeavor. D. pulex survival and reproduction (fitness) was monitored for 5 d as a proof of concept study. Significantly higher fitness was observed in the D. pulex with D3 than those without (most extreme effects observed were 0% survival in the absence of D3 and 100% with 10 ppm D3). Vitamin D3 was isolated from the culture media, the algal food (Pseudokirchneriella), and the D. pulex and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Vitamin D3 was fluorescently labeled using a phenothiazinium dye and added to cultures of D. pulex. Images demonstrating the uptake of D3 into the tissues and carapace of the D. pulex were acquired. Our initial findings suggest a positive role for D3 in ecosystems as both UV-stressed algae and Daphnia sequester D3, and D. pulex demonstrate increased fitness in the presence of D3. PMID:26147286

  19. VITAMINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamins are organic compounds that are essential to life. They function as metabolic catalysts or regulators and can generally be classified on the basis of their solubility as fat-soluble vitamins or water-soluble vitamins. All of the vitamins are required for normal function in all animals and ...

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF TRACE-MINERALIZE D SALT UPON THE VITAMIN B12 AND FOLIC ACID CONTENT OF GOAT'S MILK 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. COLLINS; E. BOLDT; A. ELVEHJEM; E. B. HART

    was observed to be 4.2 ~, per liter immediately following parturition and was observed to drop rapidly to the low level of 0.18 ~ per liter after 3 weeks. Since Harper, Richard and Collins (3) reported that the vitamin BI_~ level of ewe's milk could be increased by the addition of cobalt or trace-minerals (containing cobalt) to the ewe's diet,

  1. Uptake of /sup 75/Se-selenite by brush border membrane vesicles from chick duodenum stimulated by vitamin D

    SciTech Connect

    Mykkanen, H.M.; Wasserman, R.H.

    1989-02-01

    Brush border membrane vesicles were isolated from mucosal homogenates of duodena from normal, rachitic and vitamin D-treated rachitic chicks using a discontinuous sucrose gradient, and further purified by glycerol gradient centrifugation. In vitro uptake of 75Se-selenite by purified brush border membrane vesicles was studied using a rapid filtration technique. The time course of 75Se uptake was non-linear; rapid initial binding was followed by a gradual decrease in the rate of uptake until an equilibrium value was reached at 60-120 min. The initial binding at 36 s was not affected by selenite concentration in the incubation buffer, while the fractional rate of uptake between the 36 s and 2 min time periods was clearly lower with 1 mM Se than with 4-100 microM Se. 75Se uptake did not show any dependency on the external Na-gradient, nor could it be inhibited by other anions (arsenate, phosphate). Treatment of rachitic chicks either with cholecalciferol (500 Iu, 72 h) or with 1,25(OH)2-cholecalciferol (0.5 microgram given 16 h prior to isolation of the vesicles) significantly enhanced 75Se uptake. A threefold excess of mannitol in the outside buffer reduced 75Se uptake by vesicles from vitamin D-deficient and D-treated chicks 60% and 35% respectively, but had no effect on vesicles from vitamin D-treated chicks preloaded with 75Se. Neither saponin treatment nor excess cold selenite could release the label from the vesicles preloaded with 75Se. These data are compatible with the hypothesis that selenite easily crosses the brush border membrane into the intravesicular space and, once inside, is tightly bound by the membrane.

  2. Carotenoids, but not vitamin A, improve iron uptake and ferritin synthesis by Caco-2 cells from ferrous fumarate and NaFe-EDTA.

    PubMed

    García-Casal, María N; Leets, Irene

    2014-04-01

    Due to the high prevalence of iron and vitamin A deficiencies and to the controversy about the role of vitamin A and carotenoids in iron absorption, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the following: (1) the effect of a molar excess of vitamin A as well as the role of tannic acid on iron uptake by Caco-2 cells; (2) iron uptake and ferritin synthesis in presence of carotenoids without pro-vitamin A activity: lycopene, lutein, and zeaxantin; and (3) iron uptake and ferritin synthesis from ferrous fumarate and NaFe-EDTA. Cells were incubated 1 h at 37 °C in PBS pH 5.5, containing (59) Fe and different iron compounds. Vitamin A, ferrous fumarate, ?-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxantin, and tannic acid were added to evaluate uptake. Ferritin synthesis was measured 24 h after uptake experiments. Vitamin A had no effect on iron uptake by Caco-2 cells, and was significantly lower from NaFe-EDTA than from ferrous fumarate (15.2 ± 2.5 compared with 52.5 ± 8.3 pmol Fe/mg cell protein, respectively). Carotenoids increase uptake up to 50% from fumarate and up to 300% from NaFe-EDTA, since absorption from this compound is low when administered alone. We conclude the following: (1) There was no effect of vitamin A on iron uptake and ferritin synthesis by Caco-2cells. (2) Carotenoids significantly increased iron uptake from ferrous fumarate and NaFe-EDTA, and were capable of partially overcoming the inhibition produced by tannic acid. (3) Iron uptake by Caco-2 cell from NaFe-EDTA was significantly lower compared to other iron compounds, although carotenoids increased and tannic acid inhibited iron uptake comparably to ferrous fumarate. PMID:24665932

  3. An optimized method for the simultaneous determination of vitamins B1, B6, B12 in multivitamin tablets by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Markopoulou, C K; Kagkadis, K A; Koundourellis, J E

    2002-11-01

    A simple, precise, rapid and selective HPLC-RP method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of thiamine hydrochloride (B(1)) 150 mg, pyridoxine hydrochloride (B(6)) 150 mg, and hydroxocobalamine chloride (B(12)) 0.150 mg in multivitamin tablets. The method uses a Hypersil-BDS C(18) reversed phase column and gradient elution. The aqueous mobile phase contained 0.015% triethylamine adjusted to pH 2.7 with 1 N sulfuric acid and acetonitrile. Separation and quantitation was achieved by changing the proportion of the system linearly with a time-schedule programme. Detection was carried out using a dual-beam UV detector set at 280, 350 nm. Good linearity was observed between the concentration of the analytes and peak area (r=0.9999, 0.9998). Sample preparation was relatively simple whereas excipients present in the dosage forms did not interfere with the peaks of interest. Recovery of the compound from the B(1), B(6), B(12) was quantitative. PMID:12408932

  4. Vitamin E TPGS coated liposomes enhanced cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of docetaxel in brain cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Muthu, Madaswamy S; Kulkarni, Sneha A; Xiong, Jiaqing; Feng, Si-Shen

    2011-12-15

    The aim of this work was to develop a drug delivery system of liposomes, which are coated with D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS), a PEGylated vitamin E, with docetaxel as a model drug for enhanced treatment of brain tumour in comparison with the nude liposomes as well as with the so-called stealth liposomes, i.e. those coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG), which have been intensive investigated in the literature. Docetaxel or coumarin-6 loaded liposomes were prepared by the solvent injection method and characterized for their particle size, polydispersity, zeta potential and drug encapsulation efficiency. C6 glioma cells were employed as an in vitro model to access cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of the drug or coumarin-6 loaded liposomes. The particle size of the PEG or TPGS coated liposomes was ranged between 126 and 191nm. High-resolution field-emission transmission electron microscopy (FETEM) confirmed the coating of TPGS on the liposomes. The IC50 value, which is the drug concentration needed to kill 50% cells in a designated time period, was found to be 37.04±1.05, 31.04±0.75, 7.70±0.22, and 5.93±0.57?g/ml for the commercial Taxotere(®), the nude, PEG coated and TPGS coated liposomes, respectively after 24h culture with C6 glioma cells. The TPGS coated liposomes showed great advantages in vitro than the PEG coated liposomes. PMID:22001537

  5. Vitamins

    MedlinePLUS

    ... wheat and oats wheat germ leafy green vegetables vegetable oils like sunflower, canola, and olive egg yolks nuts ... foods are rich in vitamin K? leafy green vegetables dairy products, like milk and yogurt broccoli soybean oil When your body gets this vitamin and the ...

  6. The 380 kb pCMU01 Plasmid Encodes Chloromethane Utilization Genes and Redundant Genes for Vitamin B12- and Tetrahydrofolate-Dependent Chloromethane Metabolism in Methylobacterium extorquens CM4: A Proteomic and Bioinformatics Study

    PubMed Central

    Roselli, Sandro; Nadalig, Thierry; Vuilleumier, Stéphane; Bringel, Françoise

    2013-01-01

    Chloromethane (CH3Cl) is the most abundant volatile halocarbon in the atmosphere and contributes to the destruction of stratospheric ozone. The only known pathway for bacterial chloromethane utilization (cmu) was characterized in Methylobacterium extorquens CM4, a methylotrophic bacterium able to utilize compounds without carbon-carbon bonds such as methanol and chloromethane as the sole carbon source for growth. Previous work demonstrated that tetrahydrofolate and vitamin B12 are essential cofactors of cmuA- and cmuB-encoded methyltransferases of chloromethane dehalogenase, and that the pathway for chloromethane utilization is distinct from that for methanol. This work reports genomic and proteomic data demonstrating that cognate cmu genes are located on the 380 kb pCMU01 plasmid, which drives the previously defined pathway for tetrahydrofolate-mediated chloromethane dehalogenation. Comparison of complete genome sequences of strain CM4 and that of four other M. extorquens strains unable to grow with chloromethane showed that plasmid pCMU01 harbors unique genes without homologs in the compared genomes (bluB2, btuB, cobA, cbiD), as well as 13 duplicated genes with homologs of chromosome-borne genes involved in vitamin B12-associated biosynthesis and transport, or in tetrahydrofolate-dependent metabolism (folC2). In addition, the presence of both chromosomal and plasmid-borne genes for corrinoid salvaging pathways may ensure corrinoid coenzyme supply in challenging environments. Proteomes of M. extorquens CM4 grown with one-carbon substrates chloromethane and methanol were compared. Of the 49 proteins with differential abundance identified, only five (CmuA, CmuB, PurU, CobH2 and a PaaE-like uncharacterized putative oxidoreductase) are encoded by the pCMU01 plasmid. The mainly chromosome-encoded response to chloromethane involves gene clusters associated with oxidative stress, production of reducing equivalents (PntAA, Nuo complex), conversion of tetrahydrofolate-bound one-carbon units, and central metabolism. The mosaic organization of plasmid pCMU01 and the clustering of genes coding for dehalogenase enzymes and for biosynthesis of associated cofactors suggests a history of gene acquisition related to chloromethane utilization. PMID:23593113

  7. Differential Regulation of Hepatic Transcription Factors in the Wistar Rat Offspring Born to Dams Fed Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 Deficient Diets and Supplemented with Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Meher, Akshaya; Joshi, Asmita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional status of the mother is known to influence various metabolic adaptations required for optimal fetal development. These may be mediated by transcription factors like peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), which are activated by long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The objective of the current study was to examine the expression of different hepatic transcription factors and the levels of global methylation in the liver of the offspring born to dams fed micronutrient deficient (folic acid and vitamin B12) diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids. Female rats were divided into five groups (n?=?8/group) as follows; control, folic acid deficient (FD), vitamin B12 deficient (BD) and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented groups (FDO and BDO). Diets were given starting from pre-conception and continued throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups were dissected at the end of lactation. Liver tissues were removed; snap frozen and stored at ?80°C. Maternal micronutrients deficiency resulted in lower (p<0.05) levels of pup liver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) as compared to the control group. Pup liver PPAR? and PPAR? expression was lower (p<0.05) in the BD group although there were no differences in the expression of SREBP-1c, LXR? and RXR? expression. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group normalized (p<0.05) levels of both PPAR? and PPAR? but reduced (p<0.05) SREBP-1c, LXR? and RXR? expression. There was no change in any of the transcription factors in the pup liver in the FD group. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group reduced (p<0.05) PPAR?, SREBP-1c and RXR? expression. Pup liver global methylation levels were higher (p<0.01) in both the micronutrients deficient groups and could be normalized (p<0.05) by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Our novel findings suggest a role for omega-3 fatty acids in the one carbon cycle in influencing the hepatic expression of transcription factors in the offspring. PMID:24587285

  8. Vitamins

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fortified cereals, egg yolk, beef liver, fish, milk, vegetable oils, nuts, fruits, peas, beans, broccoli, and spinach. H ( ... cheese, spinach, broccoli, brussels sprouts, kale, cabbage, tomatoes, plant oils. Your body usually makes all the vitamin K ...

  9. Conversion of hydroxo(aquo) cobalamin to sulfitocobalamin in the absence of light: a reaction of importance in the identification of the forms of vitamin B12, with possible clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Farquharson, J; Adams, J F

    1977-10-01

    During determinations of the forms of vitamin B12 in foods and human tissues several samples yielded a growth zone on bioautography which was distinct from those due to methylcobalamin, adenosylcobalamin, hydroxocobalamin, or cyanocobalamin. The material responsible for this growth zone was identified as sulfitocobalamin and the mechanisms in its formation from hydroxocobalamin involve absence of light and the presence of bisulphite ions derived from atmospheric sulfur dioxide or indigenous sulfite ions. The formation of sulfitocobalamin during the extraction of cobalamins from foods and tissues can be prevented by reception and homogenization of the material in an ammonia buffer instead of water; the hydroxocobalamin is then converted to ammonia cobalamin, which is more resistant to attack by (bi)sulfite ions. The conversion of hydroxo(aquo)cobalamin to sulfitocobalamin in the dark can be rapid, and materials for analysis should be placed in the ammonia buffer before darkroom work is begun. The rapid conversion of hydroxo(aquo)cobalamin to sulfitocobalamin in the dark raises the possibility that hydroxocobalamin in foods may be converted to the less well absorbed sulfitocobalamin in the upper gastrointestinal tract. PMID:562065

  10. B Vitamins

    MedlinePLUS

    The B vitamins are B1 (thiamine) B2 (riboflavin) B3 (niacin) B5 (pantothenic acid) B6 B7 (biotin) B12 Folic acid These ... help form red blood cells. You can get B vitamins from proteins such as fish, poultry, meat, eggs, ...

  11. RBP4 Disrupts Vitamin A Uptake Homeostasis in a STRA6-Deficient Animal Model for Matthew-Wood Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Isken, Andrea; Golczak, Marcin; Oberhauser, Vitus; Hunzelmann, Silke; Driever, Wolfgang; Imanishi, Yoshikazu; Palczewski, Krzysztof; von Lintig, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The cellular uptake of vitamin A from its RBP4-bound circulating form (holo-RBP4) is a homeostatic process that evidently depends on the multidomain membrane protein STRA6. In humans, mutations in STRA6 are associated with Matthew-Wood syndrome, manifested by multisystem developmental malformations. Here we addressed the metabolic basis of this inherited disease. STRA6-dependent transfer of retinol from RBP4 into cultured NIH 3T3 fibroblasts was enhanced by lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT). The retinol transfer was bidirectional, strongly suggesting that STRA6 acts as a retinol channel/transporter. Loss-of-function analysis in zebrafish embryos revealed that Stra6 deficiency caused vitamin A deprivation of the developing eyes. We provide evidence that, in the absence of Stra6, holo-Rbp4 provokes nonspecific vitamin A excess in several embryonic tissues, impairing retinoic acid receptor signaling and gene regulation. These fatal consequences of Stra6 deficiency, including craniofacial and cardiac defects and microphthalmia, were largely alleviated by reducing embryonic Rbp4 levels by morpholino oligonucleotide or pharmacological treatments. PMID:18316031

  12. Hydrosoluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Jasvinder; Kvarnberg, David

    2014-01-01

    The hydrosoluble vitamins are a group of organic substances that are required by humans in small amounts to prevent disorders of metabolism. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the biochemical, physiologic and nutritional aspects of the water-soluble vitamins. Deficiency of these particular vitamins, most commonly due to inadequate nutrition, can result in disorders of the nervous system. Many of these disorders have been successfully prevented in developed countries; however, they are still common in developing countries. Of the hydrosoluble vitamins, the nervous system depends the most on vitamins B and C (ascorbic acid) for proper functioning. The B group vitamins include thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin or niacinamide (vitamin B3), pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), pyridoxine or pyridoxal (vitamin B6) and cobalamin (vitamin B12). Clinical findings depend upon the deficiency of the underlying vitamin; generally, deficiency symptoms are seen from a combination rather than an isolated vitamin deficiency. True hereditary metabolic disorders and serious deficiency-associated diseases are rare and in general limited to particular geographic regions and high-risk groups. Their recognition is truly important as that determines the appropriate therapeutic management. The general availability of vitamins to practically everyone and several national health programs have saved many lives and prevented complications. However, there has been some apprehension for several decades about how harmless generous dosages of these vitamins are. Overt overdosages can cause vitamin toxicity affecting various body systems including the nervous system. Systemically, vitamin toxicity is associated with nonspecific symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and skin rash which are common with any acute or chronic vitamin overdose. At a national level, recommended daily allowances for vitamins become policy statements. Nutrition policy has far reaching implications in the food industry, in agriculture, and in food provision programs. Overall, water-soluble vitamins are complex molecular structures and even today, many areas of vitamin biochemistry still need to be explored. Many readers might be of the opinion that the classic forms of nutritional deficiency diseases have faded into the background of interesting history. This has caused their diverse symptoms to be neglected by most modern physicians since vitamin enrichment of many foods automatically erases them from their consideration in differential diagnosis. Vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiencies are discussed in other chapters. PMID:24365359

  13. Relation of Vitamin D Level to Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ardestani, Afrooz; Parker, Beth; Mathur, Shishir; Clarkson, Priscilla; Pescatello, Linda S; Hoffman, Heather; Polk, Donna; Thompson, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Both low cardiorespiratory fitness and low serum vitamin D levels are associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, but whether low vitamin D is independently associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy adults is not known. We examined vitamin D levels and fitness in 200 healthy adults, participating in a double-blind clinical trial investigating statins and muscle performance (the STOMP study). Maximal aerobic exercise capacity (VO2max) was measured using metabolic gas analysis during graded treadmill exercise to exhaustion. Vitamin D [25(OH)D] was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Daily physical activity was assessed using the Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was positively related to VO2max (r =0.29, p=0.0001), even after adjusting for relevant predictors (e.g., age, gender and body mass index) (p= 0.0004). There was also a significant interaction between 25(OH)D level and self-reported hours of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (p<0.02). With each standard deviation increase in vitamin D, VO2max increased by 2.6 ml/kg/min (p=0.0001) when MVPA was low (16 hr/wk), 1.6 ml/kg/min (p=0.0004) when MVPA was moderate (35 hr/wk), but only 0.07 ml/kg/min (p=0.9) when MVPA was high (64 hr/wk). In conclusion, serum vitamin D levels predict VO2max in adults; the effect is greatest among those with low levels of physical activity. PMID:21349488

  14. Uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate by fractured and osteoporotic bone after a pulse dose of Vitamin D/sub 3/. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, E.A. Jr.; Carroll, M.; Montes, M.; Zielezny, M.

    1985-04-01

    The effect of a pulse dose of Vitamin D/sub 3/ on uptake of (/sup 99m/Tc)MDP by fractured and osteoporotic bone, respectively, was compared with D/sub 3/'s effect on uptake by normal bone in rats. At 4, 7, and 14 days, respectively, after femoral fracture, basal uptake was significantly increased at the fracture site by 336.8, 276.1, and 183.5%, respectively, over the contralateral control site. D/sub 3/-treated rats had lower uptakes than untreated controls at all three fracture sites and at 12 of 15 normal bone sites but analysis of variance showed the uptake differences were not significant. Cortisone-induced osteoporosis caused a significant decrease in basal uptake. The decrease occurred in all nine bone areas studied. D/sub 3/ caused a significant increase in uptake by these osteoporotic bones, but a significant decrease in uptake by the same bones in normal controls. Thus, D/sub 3/ had an effect on uptake by the bone lesion, osteoporosis, that differed from D/sub 3/'s effect on uptake by fracture or normal bone.

  15. Food protein-based microspheres for increased uptake of vitamin D3.

    PubMed

    Diarrassouba, Fatoumata; Garrait, Ghislain; Remondetto, Gabriel; Alvarez, Pedro; Beyssac, Eric; Subirade, Muriel

    2015-04-15

    To protect vitamin D3 during cold storage and exposure to UV-light, vitamin D3 has been entrapped in microspheres formed by bovine protein ?-lactoglobulin (?lg) and lysozyme (Lyso) from egg white. The behaviour of the ?lg/Lyso microspheres in simulated intestinal fluid and their impact on the kinetic release of D3 were determined. The impact of the D3-loaded ?lg/Lyso microspheres on the bioavailability of D3 was evaluated in vivo by force-feeding rats. The data indicate that the ?lg/Lyso microspheres effectively improved the stability of D3, which was readily released in the intestines. The release kinetics were accelerated in the presence of proteolytic enzymes. The bioavailability of D3 was improved, as confirmed by the significant increase in the serum levels of 25-hydroxy-D3 in rats. The current work demonstrates that water soluble proteins were used to substantially increase the bioavailability of the lipophilic vitamin, and thus can serve in the oral delivery of D3. PMID:25466126

  16. Deficiency or dementia? Exploring B12 deficiency after urostomy.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Michelle; Bryan, Sandra; Dukes, Suzie

    2015-06-11

    Vitamin B12 deficiency can be misdiagnosed as a variety of other illnesses, and if left untreated can lead to irreversible damage to the brain and nervous system. This article discusses the case of a 70-year-old female with a urostomy, well known to the stoma care department, who shortly after a routine parastomal hernia repair developed severe confusion, immobility and was unable to communicate. Subsequent investigations ruled out a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) and a diagnosis of rapidly progressing vascular dementia was made. An incidental finding of a low vitamin B12 level was identified and treatment commenced. She was transferred to a community hospital and her family were told to 'prepare for the worst'. It was, in fact, the vitamin B12 deficiency that was causing her symptoms of vascular dementia, and once treatment was established she underwent a 'miraculous' improvement, returning to normal life. This article discusses vitamin B12 deficiency and why patients with a urostomy are at risk of developing it; highlights the key role of the stoma care nurse and his or her knowledge of the patient; explores the importance of testing vitamin B12 levels in this group of patients; and discusses key learning and recommendations for practice. PMID:26067796

  17. Prevention of DNA photodamage by vitamin E compounds and sunscreens: roles of ultraviolet absorbance and cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    McVean, M; Liebler, D C

    1999-03-01

    Topical application of alpha-tocopherol (alphaTH), the most prominent naturally occurring form of vitamin E, inhibits ultraviolet (UV) B-induced photocarcinogenesis and DNA photodamage in C3H mice in vivo. In this study, we compared alphaTH with other vitamin E compounds and with three commercial sunscreen compounds for their ability to inhibit DNA photodamage in C3H mouse skin in vivo. When applied in a 5% dispersion in a neutral cream vehicle, alpha-tocopherol (alphaTH), gamma-tocopherol (gammaTH), and delta-tocopherol (deltaTH) each produced a statistically significant inhibition of thymine dimer formation, whereas alpha-tocopherol acetate (alphaTAc) and alpha-tocopherol methyl ether (alphaTOMe) did not. Application of 5% dispersions of the commercial sunscreen agent octylmethoxycinnamate also inhibited dimer formation, whereas ethylhexyl salicylate and oxybenzone did not, despite their considerably greater UVB absorbances than alphaTH. To test the hypothesis that cellular uptake and distribution are necessary for optimal photoprotection by tocopherols, photoprotection was studied in mouse 308 keratinocyte cells in vitro. Preincubation of 308 cells with 1 microM alphaTH for at least 2 h before exposure to 2.5 J/m2/s UVB for 10 min significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated thymine dimer formation. Pre-incubation with 1 microM gammaTH, deltaTH, alphaTAc, or alphaTOMe for 2 h did not inhibit thymine dimer formation significantly. Uptake of alphaTH was measured after incubation with 1 microM [2H3]alphaTH (d3-alphaTH) and resulted in a time-dependent increase in alphaTH levels. Use of d3-alphaTH allowed separate, simultaneous measurement of added d3-alphaTH and unlabeled endogenous alphaTH by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Accumulation of 167 +/- 62 pmol d3-alphaTH/mg protein was measured within 1 h in whole-cell fractions. d3-AlphaTH in the nuclear fraction reached levels of 15 +/- 4 pmol d3-alphaTH/mg protein at 2 h. Accumulation of alphaTH in the whole cell and nuclei corresponded temporally with significant protection against DNA photodamage. The kinetics of accumulation of the three tocopherols in whole cells and in nuclei were similar. Although only alphaTH conferred significant protection compared with irradiated controls at 2 h, the differences between individual tocopherols were not statistically significant. This work suggests that incorporation of tocopherol compounds into sunscreen products confers protection against procarcinogenic DNA photodamage and that cellular uptake and distribution of tocopherol compounds is necessary for their optimal photoprotection. PMID:10204801

  18. Relation of vitamin D level to maximal oxygen uptake in adults.

    PubMed

    Ardestani, Afrooz; Parker, Beth; Mathur, Shishir; Clarkson, Priscilla; Pescatello, Linda S; Hoffman, Heather J; Polk, Donna M; Thompson, Paul D

    2011-04-15

    Low cardiorespiratory fitness and low serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25[OH]D) levels are associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, but whether low 25(OH)D is independently associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy adults is not known. We examined 25(OH)D levels and fitness in 200 healthy adults participating in a double-blind clinical trial investigating statins and muscle performance (STOMP study). Maximal aerobic exercise capacity (Vo?(max)) was measured using metabolic gas analysis during graded treadmill exercise to exhaustion. 25(OH)D was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Daily physical activity was assessed using the Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was positively related to Vo?(max) (r = 0.29, p = 0.0001), even after adjusting for relevant predictors (e.g., age, gender, and body mass index). There was also a significant interaction between 25(OH)D level and self-reported hours of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA; p < 0.02). With each SD increase in 25(OH)D, Vo?(max) increased by 2.6 ml/kg/min (p = 0.0001) when MVPA was low (16 hours/week) and 1.6 ml/kg/min (p <0.0004) when MVPA was moderate (35 hours/week) but only 0.01 ml/kg/min (p = 0.9) when MVPA was high (64 hours/week). In conclusion, serum 25(OH)D levels predict Vo?(max) in adults; the effect is greatest in those with low levels of physical activity. PMID:21349488

  19. Radical Synthesis Opens Access to Organometallic Aryl-Cobaltcorrins - 4-Ethylphenyl-cobalamin, a Potential ‘Antivitamin-B12

    PubMed Central

    Ruetz, Markus; Gherasim, Carmen; Gruber, Karl; Fedosov, Sergey; Banerjee, Ruma

    2013-01-01

    4-Ethylphenyl-cobalamin, a novel organometallic aryl-cobalamin, was synthesized in a radical reaction. This organometallic B12 features a strong (Co-C)-bond, and represents a ‘locked’ form of vitamin B12. This B12-antimetabolite may be used in animal studies to induce ‘functional’ B12-deficiency artificially. Such studies may help to clarify still controversial issues related to the pathophysiology of B12-deficiency in humans. PMID:23404623

  20. Iron regulates the uptake of ascorbic acid and the expression of sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 1 (SVCT1) in human intestinal Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Scheers, Nathalie M; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie

    2011-06-28

    Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) has major effects on the intestinal uptake and utilisation of Fe in humans. The objective of the present study was to investigate the impact of Fe on the acquisition of ascorbic acid. The strategy was to study the cellular uptake and transport of ascorbic acid in the presence of Fe and also to observe the expression of the Na-dependent vitamin C transporter 1 (SVCT1) protein in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. SVCT1 is involved in the cellular uptake of ascorbic acid and is therefore a candidate for playing a role in the regulation of Fe utilisation. Caco-2 cells were cultured on transmembrane inserts in a three-compartment system followed by treatment with various combinations of FeCl2·4H2O (10-20 ?mol/l) and sodium ascorbate (150 ?mol/l). ELISA and Western blot analyses revealed that both SVCT1 and ferritin expressions were up-regulated in the presence of ascorbic acid in the basal compartment underneath the cells (10 and 22 %, respectively). Furthermore, when cells deficient in ascorbic acid were exposed to Fe, SVCT1 expression increased significantly (23·7 %). The increase in SVCT1 expression correlated with an increase in ascorbic acid uptake (285 %) in Fe-treated cells, as indicated by the SVCT1 inhibitor quercetin. We conclude that Fe plays an important role in regulating the uptake of ascorbic acid in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. This new angle could change the conceptual thinking of Fe and ascorbic acid utilisation and assist in the treatment and prevention of ascorbic acid-deficiency syndromes such as scurvy. PMID:21418708

  1. Vitamin-responsive disorders: cobalamin, folate, biotin, vitamins B1 and E.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Matthias R

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic properties of many enzymes depend on the participation of vitamins as obligatory cofactors. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) and folic acid (folate) deficiencies in infants and children classically present with megaloblastic anemia and are often accompanied by neurological signs. A number of rare inborn errors of cobalamin and folate absorption, transport, cellular uptake, and intracellular metabolism have been delineated and identification of disease-causing mutations has improved our ability to diagnose and treat many of these conditions. Two inherited defects in biotin metabolism are known, holocarboxylase synthetase and biotinidase deficiency. Both lead to multiple carboxylase deficiency manifesting with metabolic acidosis, neurological abnormalities, and skin rash. Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia is characterized by megaloblastic anemia, non-type I diabetes, and sensorineural deafness that responds to pharmacological doses of thiamine (vitamin B1). Individuals affected with inherited vitamin E deficiencies including ataxia with isolated vitamin E deficiency and abetalipoproteinemia present with a spinocerebellar syndrome similar to patients with Friedreich's ataxia. If started early, treatment of these defects by oral or parenteral administration of the relevant vitamin often results in correction of the metabolic defect and reversal of the signs of disease, stressing the importance of early and correct diagnosis in these treatable conditions. PMID:23622402

  2. An Endocytic Pathway Essential for Renal Uptake and Activation of the Steroid 25-(OH) Vitamin D 3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Nykjaer; Duska Dragun; Diego Walther; Henrik Vorum; Christian Jacobsen; Joachim Herz; Flemming Melsen; Erik Ilsoe Christensen; Thomas E Willnow

    1999-01-01

    Steroid hormones may enter cells by diffusion through the plasma membrane. However, we demonstrate here that some steroid hormones are taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis of steroid-carrier complexes. We show that 25-(OH) vitamin D3 in complex with its plasma carrier, the vitamin D–binding protein, is filtered through the glomerulus and reabsorbed in the proximal tubules by the endocytic receptor megalin.

  3. Genetic interactions between MTHFR (C677T), methionine synthase (A2756G, C2758G) variants with vitamin B12 and folic acid determine susceptibility to premature coronary artery disease in Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Kanth, V. V. Ravi; Golla, Jaya Prakash; Sastry, B. K. S; Naik, Sudhir; Kabra, Nitin; Sujatha, Madireddi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Researchers have determined that Indians face a higher risk of heart disease, despite the fact that nearly half of them are vegetarians and lack many of the other traditional risk factors. In the below-30 age group, coronary artery disease mortality among Indians is three-fold higher than in the whites in United Kingdom and ten-fold higher than the Chinese in Singapore. High levels of homocysteine have been widely linked to the early onset of heart diseases in other populations, although a definite proof among Indians is lacking, which needs to be investigated by way of screening for factors responsible for high homocysteine levels. Objective: To screen for genetic factors responsible for hyperhomocysteinemia and the risk for premature coronary artery disease. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 individuals with proven premature coronary artery disease and 200 age-and-sex matched controls were screened for polymorphisms in Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) (C677T) Methionine synthase (MS) genes (A2756G, C2758G), and the B12 and Folate levels were estimated. Results: Results from the mutational analysis revealed that in the study group, seven individuals had a polymorphism for the C677T allele in the MTHFR gene (one homozygous and six heterozygous) (Fischer's Exact test P > 0.046) (OR: 0.2711 95% CI 0.0774 to 0.9491). Six were heterozygous for the A2756G polymorphism in the MS gene (Fischer's Exact test P > 0.0012). None showed a polymorphism at the C2758G allele in the MS gene. Four controls showed heterozygosity for the C677T polymorphism and none for the MS gene. The B12 and Folate levels were significantly lower in the study group as compared to the controls. Conclusions: It is important to know which factors determine the total homocysteine concentrations. In the general population, the most important modifiable determinants of tHcy are folate intake and coffee consumption. Smoking and alcohol consumption are also associated with the total homocysteine concentrations, but more research is necessary to elucidate whether these relations are not originating from residual confounding due to other lifestyle factors. PMID:22022143

  4. Vitamin B??-containing plant food sources for vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Bito, Tomohiro; Teng, Fei

    2014-05-01

    The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori) is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups. PMID:24803097

  5. Mammalian colonocytes possess a carrier-mediated mechanism for uptake of vitamin B3 (niacin): studies utilizing human and mouse colonic preparations.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jeyan S; Subramanian, Veedamali S; Kapadia, Rubina; Kashyap, Moti L; Said, Hamid M

    2013-08-01

    Niacin (vitamin B3; nicotinic acid) plays an important role in maintaining redox state of cells and is obtained from endogenous and exogenous sources. The latter source has generally been assumed to be the dietary niacin, but another exogenous source that has been ignored is the niacin that is produced by the normal microflora of the large intestine. For this source of niacin to be bioavailable, it needs to be absorbed, but little is known about the ability of the large intestine to absorb niacin and the mechanism involved. Here we addressed these issues using the nontransformed human colonic epithelial NCM460 cells, native human colonic apical membrane vesicles (AMV) isolated from organ donors, and mouse colonic loops in vivo as models. Uptake of ³H-nicotinic acid by NCM460 cells was: 1) acidic pH (but not Na?) dependent; 2) saturable (apparent Km = 2.5 ± 0.8 ?M); 3) inhibited by unlabeled nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, and probenecid; 4) neither affected by other bacterially produced monocarboxylates, monocarboxylate transport inhibitor, or by substrates of the human organic anion transporter-10; 5) affected by modulators of the intracellular protein tyrosine kinase- and Ca²?-calmodulin-regulatory pathways; and 6) adaptively regulated by extracellular nicotinate level. Uptake of nicotinic acid by human colonic AMV in vitro and by mouse colonic loops in vivo was also carrier mediated. These findings report, for the first time, that mammalian colonocytes possess a high-affinity carrier-mediated mechanism for nicotinate uptake and show that the process is affected by intracellular and extracellular factors. PMID:23744738

  6. The action of anti cancer drugs thiotepa and lomustine and of E and A vitamins on tumor chromatin, analysed by thermal transition, fluorescence methods, isotope uptake and 1H-NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radu, Liliana; Preoteasa, V.; Lenghel, Z.

    1995-03-01

    The action of anticancer drugs thiotepa and lomustine and of E and A vitamins on Walker rat tumor chromatin (the complex of DNA and proteins from eukariotic cells) were analysed by the thermal transition of chromatin, by the determination of chromatin tyrosine and tryptophane intrinsic fluorescence and of fluorescence intensity of chromatin-ethidium bromide complexes, by 3H-thymidine and 32P-phosphate uptake in chromatin and chromatin components.

  7. Visualizing molecular juggling within a B12-dependent methyltransferase complex.

    PubMed

    Kung, Yan; Ando, Nozomi; Doukov, Tzanko I; Blasiak, Leah C; Bender, Güne?; Seravalli, Javier; Ragsdale, Stephen W; Drennan, Catherine L

    2012-04-12

    Derivatives of vitamin B(12) are used in methyl group transfer in biological processes as diverse as methionine synthesis in humans and CO(2) fixation in acetogenic bacteria. This seemingly straightforward reaction requires large, multimodular enzyme complexes that adopt multiple conformations to alternately activate, protect and perform catalysis on the reactive B(12) cofactor. Crystal structures determined thus far have provided structural information for only fragments of these complexes, inspiring speculation about the overall protein assembly and conformational movements inherent to activity. Here we present X-ray crystal structures of a complete 220?kDa complex that contains all enzymes responsible for B(12)-dependent methyl transfer, namely the corrinoid iron-sulphur protein and its methyltransferase from the model acetogen Moorella thermoacetica. These structures provide the first three-dimensional depiction of all protein modules required for the activation, protection and catalytic steps of B(12)-dependent methyl transfer. In addition, the structures capture B(12) at multiple locations between its 'resting' and catalytic positions, allowing visualization of the dramatic protein rearrangements that enable methyl transfer and identification of the trajectory for B(12) movement within the large enzyme scaffold. The structures are also presented alongside in crystallo spectroscopic data, which confirm enzymatic activity within crystals and demonstrate the largest known conformational movements of proteins in a crystalline state. Taken together, this work provides a model for the molecular juggling that accompanies turnover and helps explain why such an elaborate protein framework is required for such a simple, yet biologically essential reaction. PMID:22419154

  8. Studies in the biosynthesis of vitamin B12 

    E-print Network

    Anousis, Nick

    1994-01-01

    result ALA is excreted and causes the symptoms of accute porphyria. HaN ALA-dehydratase t e COOH '/ 5', NH2 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) (8) Porphobilinogen (PBG) (9) Figure 1-6. Formation of PBG from ALA. 1 . 2. 3 The molecule that commits...

  9. How I treat cobalamin (vitamin B12) deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The challenges in medical management of cobalamin deficiency lie in attention to the unique pathophysiology that underlies cobalamin deficiency, more than in the mechanics of therapy. The central physiologic principles are that clinically important deficiency is more likely to occur (and progress) when intrinsic factor–driven absorption fails than when diet is poor and that most causes take years to produce clinically obvious deficiency. Transient defects have little clinical impact. The key management principle is the importance of follow-up, which also requires knowing how the deficiency arose. The virtues of these principles are not always fully appreciated. Recent developments have made diagnosis and management more difficult by diminishing the ability to determine cobalamin absorption status. Clinicians must also grapple with premature medicalization of isolated, mild biochemical changes that added many asymptomatic cases of still undetermined medical relevance to their caseload, often expanded by inflated cobalamin level criteria. The potential for misattribution of cobalamin-unrelated presentations to nongermane cobalamin and metabolite abnormalities has grown. Pathophysiologically based management requires systematic attention to each of its individual components: correctly diagnosing cobalamin deficiency, reversing it, defining its underlying cause, preventing relapse, managing the underlying disorder and its complications, and educating the patient. PMID:18606874

  10. Minimally invasive lymphatic mapping using fluorescently labeled vitamin B 12

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James M McGreevy; Michelle J Cannon; Charles B Grissom

    2003-01-01

    Background. We examined the usefulness of a new agent in the mapping and dissection of inguinal lymph nodes in the pig. Cy5-cobalamin bioconjugate is blue under visible light and fluoresces brilliant red with laser stimulation. The wavelength of the emitted red light is sufficiently long that it is visible through blood, subcutaneous fat, and fascia. Currently available surgical techniques of

  11. Studies in the biosynthesis of vitamin B12

    E-print Network

    Anousis, Nick

    1994-01-01

    catalyzing the C-2 and C-7 methylations of Uroporphyrinogen III to precorrin-2, without performing an extra methylation at C-12 of precorrin-2 to trimethylpyrrocorphin. The function of the S.typhimurium cbid gene product has not yet been identified. The C...

  12. Uptake of intact TPGS (d-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate) a water-miscible form of vitamin E by human cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Traber, M.G.; Thellman, C.A.; Rindler, M.J.; Kayden, H.J.

    1988-09-01

    The mechanism by which TPGS (alpha-tocopheryl succinate esterified to polyethylene glycol 1000 (PEG 1000)) delivers tocopherol (vitamin E) was studied in human fibroblasts and erythrocytes and a human intestinal cell line, Caco-2. The total cellular tocopherol content of saponified samples of fibroblasts or Caco-2 incubated for 4 h with TPGS (4 mumol/L) increased 10-fold without an increase in the free tocopherol content of nonsaponified samples. A 24-h incubation resulted in a free tocopherol content of approximately 20%, suggesting that intracellular hydrolysis of ester bonds had occurred. The increase in total tocopherol content after a 4-h incubation with TPGS was temperature dependent; no change was measurable at 4 degrees C. Addition of metabolic inhibitors during incubation with TPGS at 37 degrees C did not prevent the increase. (/sup 14/C)TPGS (synthesized from (/sup 14/C)PEG 1000) was taken up by Caco-2 cells but (/sup 14/C)PEG 1000 was not. The intracellular total tocopherol (pmol) equaled the (/sup 14/C)TPGS (pmol), unequivocally demonstrating uptake of the intact TPGS molecule.

  13. Stability of fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins in artificially prepared, vitamin-enriched, lyophilized serum.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Hiroshi; Hashizume, Naotaka; Matsubayashi, Tadashi; Futaki, Koichi; Yoshida, Masayuki; Sagawa, Naotoshi; Fujisaki, Makoto; Mita, Kazuo; Kadota, Akira

    2004-01-01

    Vitamin-enriched, lyophilized serum (VES) was prepared for an inter-laboratory study to compare vitamin assays. The VES contained water-soluble vitamins (vitamin B1, vitamin B12, vitamin C, and folate), fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin A and vitamin E), and cholesterol. We performed stability studies and determined vitamin concentrations and total cholesterol in VES stored at -20 degrees C for 12 months. Our recovery of the water-soluble vitamins in reconstituted VES was 70-142%, but we recovered only 33-45% of the fat-soluble vitamins. Physicochemical properties, such as specific gravity and viscosity of the reconstituted VES did not affect manual or automated measurements of these vitamins. Vial-to-vial differences found for the VES were the same as the within-day analytical variations. There was no evidence of degradation of vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B12, vitamin C, folate, and cholesterol over 12 months in VES stored at -20 degrees C. Following deproteinization, vitamin C concentration was found to be lower than when not deproteinated. Vitamin E was less stable in VES, however, and the degradation during 12 months was lower than the between-day analytical variation of the assay. Our VES is the first preparation of lyophilized control serum that contains water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins. PMID:15202117

  14. Could a Vitamin Play a Role in Acne Outbreaks?

    MedlinePLUS

    Could a Vitamin Play a Role in Acne Outbreaks? Study finds excess B12 tied to common skin condition To use the sharing features on this ... the June 24 issue of Science Translational Medicine . A deficiency in vitamin B12 can cause serious health ...

  15. Enantioselective syntheses of ring-C precursors of vit. B(12). Reagent control.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Peter A; Li, Yongkai

    2003-03-01

    Enelactones of the general structure S-(-)-I were prepared in three steps from alcohol 21 and acids 22 (ee approximately 85%). Lactones S-(-)-I are versatile precursors to enelactams II of the type found in Vitamin B(12). PMID:12605494

  16. Vitamin E

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin E Fact Sheet for Consumers What is vitamin E and what does it do? Vitamin E ... out more about vitamin E? Disclaimer How much vitamin E do I need? The amount of vitamin ...

  17. Vitamins as effectors of monensin production by Streptomyces cinnamonensis.

    PubMed

    Mat?j?, J; Nedbalová, E; Nohýnek, M; Van?k, Z

    1990-01-01

    Vitamins added to submerged Streptomyces cinnamonensis cultures stimulated the production of monensins. Vitamins B2, B3, B5 and B12 enhanced the production by about 50%, vitamins B1 and B6 by 100%. The addition of biotin in optimal concentration resulted in more than 3-fold increase in total production. PMID:2269447

  18. B vitamins alleviate indices of neuropathic pain in diabetic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corinne G. Jolivalt; Leah M. Mizisin; Austin Nelson; Joice M. Cunha; Khara M. Ramos; Dieter Bonke; Nigel A. Calcutt

    2009-01-01

    There are sporadic reports that assorted combinations of B vitamins can alleviate pain in diabetic patients, but there is neither agreement on the relative efficacy of individual B vitamins nor understanding of the mechanisms involved. We therefore investigated the efficacy of a cocktail of the vitamins B1, B6 and B12 in alleviating behavioral indices of sensory dysfunction such as allodynia

  19. Thoughts on B-vitamins and dementia.

    PubMed

    Morris, Martha Clare; Schneider, Julie A; Tangney, Christine C

    2006-08-01

    The B-vitamins, including vitamins B12, B6, B1, B2, niacin (B3) and folate (B9), have been implicated as protective risk factors against cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. This commentary reviews the evidence to support protective relations of these vitamins, including consideration of known vitamin deficiency syndromes, theories of underlying biologic mechanisms, and the epidemiologic evidence. We also comment on the potential benefits and harms of vitamin supplementation as well as make recommendations for the direction of future studies. PMID:16917152

  20. Determination of Ternary Mixtures of Vitamins by Ratio-Spectra Zero-Crossing Derivative Spectrophotometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Basilio Morelli

    1994-01-01

    The ratio-spectra zero-crossing first and third derivative spectrophotometry have been used for determining ternary mixtures of Vitamin 86, Vitamin B1 and Vitamin B12. The procedures are accurate, nondestructive and do not require solving of equations.In both methods, calibration graphs are linear, with zero-intercept, up to 48 ?g\\/ml of Vitamin B6, 64 ?g\\/ml of Vitamin B1 and 60 ?g\\/ml of Vitamin

  1. Vitamin nutrition in older adults.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Karin A; Bernard, Marie A; Funderburg, Karen

    2002-11-01

    Proper vitamin nutrition is essential for all people but especially for elderly persons, because they are at higher risk for deficiency than younger adults. A review of the clinical effects of vitamin deficiency shows how easily deficiency can masquerade as other morbidities, such as skin, neurologic, and gait abnormalities. Given the numerous readily available forms and sources of supplementation, their low cost, and their rather limited potential for harm, the goal of good vitamin nutrition for the elderly is easily attainable. To be successful in this goal, physicians must look for patients at risk and for those with features of frank vitamin deficiency. Laboratory testing is most helpful with respect to vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. Given the great value of clinical assessment, the low cost of vitamins, and the higher cost of laboratory testing, the authors do not recommend testing before instituting multivitamin use or extra supplementation with individual vitamins unless the diagnosis of deficiency is in question or the use of supplementation would put the patient at risk. The authors' general recommendations are * one multivitamin daily * extra vitamin E for patients with cardiovascular risk factors or Alzheimer's dementia * extra vitamin D for patients with known osteoporosis, osteoporosis risk factors, or strong risk factors for vitamin D deficiency * extra folate for patients with cardiovascular risk factors (especially smokers) and alcoholics * extra thiamine for alcoholics. PMID:12608503

  2. Vitamin A

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin A Fact Sheet for Consumers What is vitamin A and what does it do? Vitamin A is ... dietary supplements is beta-carotene . How much vitamin A do I need? The amount of vitamin A ...

  3. [Vitamin deficiencies in breastfed children due to maternal dietary deficiency].

    PubMed

    Kollée, L A A

    2006-03-01

    Dietary deficiencies of vitamin B12 and vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation may result in health problems in exclusively breastfed infants. Vitamin-B12 deficiency in these infants results in irritability, anorexia and failure to thrive during the first 4-8 months of life. Severe and permanent neurodevelopmental disturbances may occur. The most at risk for vitamin-B12 deficiency are breast-fed infants ofveganist and vegetarian mothers. Mothers who cover their skin prevent exposure to the sun and may consequently be at risk for vitamin-D deficiency, as well as putting their offspring at risk. In prenatal and perinatal care, it is important to take the maternal dietary history in order to be able to prevent or treat these disorders. Guidelines for obstetrical and neonatal care should include the topic of vitamin deficiency. PMID:16553044

  4. Effect of vitamin B complex on neurotransmission and neurite outgrowth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Fujii; Hiroko Matsumoto; Hirotsugu Yamamoto

    1996-01-01

    1.1. The effect of vitamin B complex (vitamin B1, B6 and B12) was studied on nerve conduction velocity in acrylamide-neuropathy rats maintained on refined semisynthetic complete vitamin and vitamin B-deficient diets in vivo and on neurite outgrowth in vitro using cells obtained from dorsal root ganglions of mice.2.2. Acrylamide neuropathy was clearer in the group maintained on a refined semisynthetic

  5. B12Hn and B12Fn: planar vs icosahedral structures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Using density functional theory and quantum Monte Carlo calculations, we show that B12Hn and B12Fn (n = 0 to 4) quasi-planar structures are energetically more favorable than the corresponding icosahedral clusters. Moreover, we show that the fully planar B12F6 cluster is more stable than the three-dimensional counterpart. These results open up the possibility of designing larger boron-based nanostructures starting from quasi-planar or fully planar building blocks. PMID:22546348

  6. Vitamin B 12 and vitamin B 6 supplementation is needed among adults with phenylketonuria (PKU)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Hvas; E. Nexo; J. B. Nielsen

    2006-01-01

    Summary  Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by an autosomal recessive deficiency of the enzyme phelnylalanine hydroxylase leading to a\\u000a failure to convert phenylalanine to tyrosine. To avoid irreversible neurological damage because of increased phenylalanine,\\u000a treatment is instituted rapidly after birth. We examined 31 adult PKU patients living on a less protein-restricted diet. Theoretically,\\u000a these PKU patients had an increased risk of developing

  7. Cloning and functional expression of a cDNA encoding a mammalian sodium-dependent vitamin transporter mediating the uptake of pantothenate, biotin, and lipoate.

    PubMed

    Prasad, P D; Wang, H; Kekuda, R; Fujita, T; Fei, Y J; Devoe, L D; Leibach, F H; Ganapathy, V

    1998-03-27

    Previous studies have shown that a Na+-dependent transport system is responsible for the transplacental transfer of the vitamins pantothenate and biotin and the essential metabolite lipoate. We now report the isolation of a rat placental cDNA encoding a transport protein responsible for this function. The cloned cDNA, when expressed in HeLa cells, induces Na+-dependent pantothenate and biotin transport activities. The transporter is specific for pantothenate, biotin, and lipoate. The Michaelis-Menten constant (Kt) for the transport of pantothenate and biotin in cDNA-transfected cells is 4.9 +/- 1.1 and 15.1 +/- 1.2 microM, respectively. The transport of both vitamins in cDNA-transfected cells is inhibited by lipoate with an inhibition constant (Ki) of approximately 5 microM. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA (sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT)) predicts a protein of 68.6 kDa with 634 amino acids and 12 potential transmembrane domains. Protein data base search indicates significant sequence similarity between SMVT and known members of the Na+-dependent glucose transporter family. Northern blot analysis shows that SMVT transcripts are present in all of the tissues that were tested. The size of the principal transcript is 3.2 kilobases. SMVT represents the first Na+-dependent vitamin transporter to be cloned from a mammalian tissue. PMID:9516450

  8. Vitamin neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Snodgrass, S R

    1992-01-01

    Vitamins contain reactive functional groups necessary to their established roles as coenzymes and reducing agents. Their reactive potential may produce injury if vitamin concentration, distribution, or metabolism is altered. However, identification of vitamin toxicity has been difficult. The only well-established human vitamin neurotoxic effects are those due to hypervitaminosis A (pseudotumor cerebri) and pyridoxine (sensory neuropathy). In each case, the neurological effects of vitamin deficiency and vitamin excess are similar. Closely related to the neurological symptoms of hypervitaminosis A are symptoms including headache, pseudotumor cerebri, and embryotoxic effects reported in patients given vitamin A analogs or retinoids. Most tissues contain retinoic acid (RA) and vitamin D receptors, members of a steroid receptor superfamily known to regulate development and gene expression. Vitamin D3 effects on central nervous system (CNS) gene expression are predictable, in addition to the indirect effects owing to its influence on calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. Folates and thiamine cause seizures and excitation when administered in high dosage directly into the brain or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of experimental animals but have rarely been reported to cause human neurotoxicity, although fatal reactions to i.v. thiamine are well known. Ascorbic acid influences CNS function after peripheral administration and influences brain cell differentiation and 2-deoxyglucose accumulation by cultured glial cells. Biotin influences gene expression in animals that are not vitamin-deficient and alters astrocyte glucose utilization. The multiple enzymes and binding proteins involved in regeneration of retinal vitamin A illustrate the complexity of vitamin processing in the body. Vitamin A toxicity is also a good general model of vitamin neurotoxicity, because it shows the importance of the ratio of vitamin and vitamin-binding proteins in producing vitamin toxicity and of CNS permeability barriers. Because vitamin A and analogs enter the CNS better than most vitamins, and because retinoids have many effects on enzyme activity and gene expression, Vitamin A neurotoxicity is more likely than that of most, perhaps all other vitamins. Megadose vitamin therapy may cause injury that is confused with disease symptoms. High vitamin intake is more hazardous to peripheral organs than to the nervous system, because CNS vitamin entry is restricted. Vitamin administration into the brain or CSF, recommended in certain disease states, is hazardous and best avoided. The lack of controlled trials prevents us from defining the lowest human neurotoxic dose of any vitamin. Large differences in individual susceptibility to vitamin neurotoxicity probably exist, and ordinary vitamin doses may harm occasional patients with genetic disorders.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1463588

  9. Role of vitamins in gastrointestinal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Masri, Omar A; Chalhoub, Jean M; Sharara, Ala I

    2015-01-01

    A tremendous amount of data from research was published over the past decades concerning the roles of different vitamins in various gastrointestinal diseases. For instance, most vitamins showed an inverse relationship with the risk of colorectal carcinoma as well as other malignancies like gastric and esophageal cancer in observational trials, however interventional trials failed to prove a clear beneficial preventive role. On the other hand, more solid evidence was obtained from high quality studies for a role of certain vitamins in specific entities. Examples for this include the therapeutic role of vitamin E in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, the additive role of vitamins B12 and D to the standard therapy of chronic hepatitis C virus, the role of vitamin C in reducing the risk of gallstones, the positive outcome with vitamin B12 in patients with aphthous stomatitis, and the beneficial effect of vitamin D and B1 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Other potential uses are yet to be elaborated, like those on celiac disease, pancreatic cancer, pancreatitis, cholestasis and other potential fields. Data from several ongoing interventional trials are expected to add to the current knowledge over the coming few years. Given that vitamin supplementation is psychologically accepted by patients as a natural compound with relative safety and low cost, their use should be encouraged in the fields where positive data are available. PMID:25954093

  10. Urinary water-soluble vitamins and their metabolite contents as nutritional markers for evaluating vitamin intakes in young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2008-06-01

    Little information is available to estimate water-soluble vitamin intakes from urinary vitamins and their metabolite contents as possible nutritional markers. Determination of the relationships between the oral dose and urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in human subjects contributes to finding valid nutrition markers of water-soluble vitamin intakes. Six female Japanese college students were given a standard Japanese diet in the first week, the same diet with a synthesized water-soluble vitamin mixture as a diet with approximately onefold vitamin mixture based on Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for Japanese in the second week, with a threefold vitamin mixture in the third week, and a sixfold mixture in the fourth week. Water-soluble vitamins and their metabolites were measured in the 24-h urine collected each week. All urinary vitamins and their metabolite levels except vitamin B(12) increased linearly in a dose-dependent manner, and highly correlated with vitamin intake (r=0.959 for vitamin B(1), r=0.927 for vitamin B(2), r=0.965 for vitamin B(6), r=0.957 for niacin, r=0.934 for pantothenic acid, r=0.907 for folic acid, r=0.962 for biotin, and r=0.952 for vitamin C). These results suggest that measuring urinary water-soluble vitamins and their metabolite levels can be used as good nutritional markers for assessing vitamin intakes. PMID:18635909

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is a condition caused by low levels of vitamin B12 (also known as cobalamin). The primary feature of ... proteins play a role in the uptake of vitamin B12 from food. Vitamin B12, which cannot be made ...

  12. Effect of cooking on the concentration of Vitamins B in fortified meat products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fortuna Riccio; Carmela Mennella; Vincenzo Fogliano

    2006-01-01

    B vitamins fortification of meat products is useful to compensate the loss of these compounds occurring during the heat treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of heat treatments on the B vitamins concentration in fortified meat products. A rapid and reliable method for the simultaneous determination of Vitamins B1, B6 and B12 in homogenized boiled

  13. Comparison of 1989 RDAs and DRIs for Water-Soluble Vitamins.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, Alison L.

    2004-03-01

    This report is the second in a series to compare the 1989 Recommended Dietary Allowances with new Dietary Reference Intakes. The report focuses on water-soluble vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline. PMID:15100498

  14. Vitamin K

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and to treat bleeding caused by medications including salicylates, sulfonamides, quinine, quinidine, or antibiotics. Vitamin K is ... 4-Amino-2-Methyl-1-Naphthol, Fat-Soluble Vitamin, Menadiol Acetate, ... Sodium Bisulfite, Menaquinone, Ménaquinone, Menatetrenone, Menatétrenone, ...

  15. Vitamin K

    MedlinePLUS

    Vitamin K helps make four of the 13 proteins needed for blood clotting. Its role in maintaining ... warfarin (Coumadin) must be careful to keep their vitamin K intake stable. Lately, researchers have demonstrated that ...

  16. Vitamin D

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a condition known as rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Vitamin D is important to the ... children. In adults, vitamin D deficiency leads to osteomalacia, causing bone pain and muscle weakness. What are ...

  17. Vitamin C

    MedlinePLUS

    Vitamin C is an antioxidant. It is important for your skin, bones, and connective tissue. It promotes healing and helps the body absorb iron. Vitamin C comes from fruits and vegetables. Good sources ...

  18. Vitamin A

    MedlinePLUS

    Vitamin A does much more than help you see in the dark. It stimulates the production and activity ... had researchers exploring for years the relationship between vitamin A and cancer. Specifically, researchers looked at whether people ...

  19. Vitamin C

    MedlinePLUS

    ... high doses of vitamin C could worsen iron overload and damage body tissues. The upper limits for ... of a specific vitamin or mineral. For more information on building a healthy diet, refer to the ...

  20. Vitamin Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegg, Ronald B.; Landen, W. O.; Eitenmiller, Ronald R.

    Vitamins are defined as relatively low-molecular-weight compounds which humans, and for that matter, any living organism that depends on organic matter as a source of nutrients, require small quantities for normal metabolism. With few exceptions, humans cannot synthesize most vitamins and therefore need to obtain them from food and supplements. Insufficient levels of vitamins result in deficiency diseases [e.g., scurvy and pellagra, which are due to the lack of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and niacin, respectively].

  1. Vitamin D

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael F. Holick

    2002-01-01

    Vitamin D evolved for the development and maintenance of a healthy vertebrate skeleton. Vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D)\\u000a maintains serum calcium and phosphorus levels in a physiologic range for skeleton mineralization. Vitamin D increases intestinal\\u000a calcium absorption, stimulating osteoblast function and mobilizing osteoclast precursor cells to enhance bone calcium mobilization.\\u000a Most vitamin D for the human requirement comes from exposure to

  2. Vitamin A

    MedlinePLUS

    Vitamin A plays a role in your Vision Bone growth Reproduction Cell functions Immune system Vitamin A is an antioxidant. It can come from plant ... Animal sources include liver and whole milk. Vitamin A is also added to foods like cereals. Vegetarians, ...

  3. Vitamin D

    MedlinePLUS

    Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium. Calcium is one of the main building blocks of bone. A lack of vitamin D can lead to bone diseases such as osteoporosis or rickets. Vitamin D also has a role in your nerve, ...

  4. Vitamin K

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin K, a fat-soluble vitamin, is an enzyme cofactor for post-translation modification of specific glutamate residues that are converted into '-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues by a vitamin K-dependent (VKD) carboxylase. Seven VKD coagulation proteins are synthesized in the liver. The extra-he...

  5. Absorption of water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Halsted, Charles H

    2003-03-01

    Water-soluble vitamins are required as enzyme cofactors in a wide variety of metabolic reactions. Riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin C are essential in redox reactions; thiamine and biotin are involved in macronutrient metabolism; and folate, vitamin B12, pyridoxine, and riboflavin play important roles in the regulation of S-adenosylmethionine production and DNA synthesis. Each of the water-soluble vitamins appears to require its own membrane transport process for absorption across the enterocyte. The absorption of vitamin B12, or cobalamin (Cbl), is unique in requiring multiple processes from the stomach to the ileum that involve at least four different binding proteins. Whereas all water-soluble vitamins are absorbed from the small intestine, folate, biotin, and riboflavin can be transported across colonic epithelial cells, with uncertain clinical significance. This article reviews recent studies on the requirement, metabolism, and deficiency state of each water-soluble vitamin, followed by a discussion of current knowledge on the regulation of its intestinal absorption. PMID:15703550

  6. Organometallic B12-DNA conjugate: synthesis, structure analysis, and studies of binding to human B12-transporter proteins.

    PubMed

    Hunger, Miriam; Mutti, Elena; Rieder, Alexander; Enders, Barbara; Nexo, Ebba; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2014-10-01

    Design, synthesis, and structural characterization of a B12-octadecanucleotide are presented herein, a new organometallic B12-DNA conjugate. In such covalent conjugates, the natural B12 moiety may be a versatile vector for controlled in vivo delivery of oligonucleotides to cellular targets in humans and animals, through the endogenous B12 transport systems. Binding of the organometallic B12 octadecanucleotide to the three important human proteins of B12 transport was studied, to examine its structural suitability for the task of eventual in vivo oligonucleotide delivery. Binding was efficient with transcobalamin (TC), but not so efficient with the homologous glycoproteins intrinsic factor and haptocorrin. Binding of the B12 octadecanucleotide to TC suggests the capacity of the B12 moiety to serve as a natural vector for specific transport of single stranded, organometallic oligonucleotide loads from the blood stream into cells. PMID:25168390

  7. Vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Gröber, Uwe; Spitz, Jörg; Reichrath, Jörg; Kisters, Klaus; Holick, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D has received a lot of attention recently as a result of a meteoric rise in the number of publications showing that vitamin D plays a crucial role in a plethora of physiological functions and associating vitamin D deficiency with many acute and chronic illnesses including disorders of calcium metabolism, autoimmune diseases, some cancers, type 2 diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases and cardiovascular disease. The recent data on vitamin D from experimental, ecological, case-control, retrospective and prospective observational studies, as well as smaller intervention studies, are significant and confirm the sunshine vitamin’s essential role in a variety of physiological and preventative functions. The results of these studies justify the recommendation to improve the general vitamin D status in children and adults by means of a healthy approach to sunlight exposure, consumption of foods containing vitamin D and supplementation with vitamin D preparations. In general, closer attention should therefore be paid to vitamin D deficiency in medical and pharmaceutical practice than has been the case hitherto. PMID:24516687

  8. Role of P-glycoprotein in the uptake/efflux transport of oral vitamin K antagonists and rivaroxaban through the Caco-2 cell model.

    PubMed

    Gschwind, Liliane; Rollason, Victoria; Daali, Youssef; Bonnabry, Pascal; Dayer, Pierre; Desmeules, Jules Alexandre

    2013-10-01

    Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) are prescribed worldwide and remain the oral anticoagulant of choice. These drugs are characterized by a narrow therapeutic index and a large inter- and intra-individual variability. P-glycoprotein could contribute to this variability. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of P-gp in the transport of acenocoumarol, phenprocoumon and warfarin using an in vitro Caco-2 cell monolayer model. These results were compared with those obtained with rivaroxaban, a new oral anticoagulant known to be a P-gp substrate. The transport of these four drugs was assessed at pH conditions 6.8/7.4 in the presence or absence of the P-gp inhibitor cyclosporine A (10 ?M) and the more potent and specific P-gp inhibitor valspodar (5 ?M). Analytical quantification was performed by LC/MS. With an efflux ratio of 1.7 and a significant decrease in the efflux (Papp B-A), in the presence of P-gp inhibitors at a concentration of 50 ?M, acenocoumarol can be considered as a weak P-gp substrate. Concerning phenprocoumon, the results suggest that this molecule is a poor P-gp substrate. The P-gp inhibitors did not affect significantly the transport of warfarin. The efflux of rivaroxaban was strongly inhibited by the two P-gp inhibitors. In conclusion, none of the three VKAs tested are strong P-gp substrates. However, acenocoumarol can be considered as a weak P-gp substrate and phenprocoumon as a poor P-gp substrate. PMID:23663291

  9. [Vitamin C].

    PubMed

    Fain, Olivier

    2013-10-01

    Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin which is mainly fresh fruits and vegetables foodborne. Vitamin C deficiency is most often due to a lack of daily amount. Scurvy is characterized by the occurrence of fatigue, myalgia, arthralgia, purpura, bleeding disorders, and later by dental manifestations. Biological signs are nonspecific: anemia, hypocholesterolemia, hypoalbuminemia. Clinical suspicion is confirmed by the decrease in ascorbic acid level (< 2 mg/L). It must be interpreted in light of the acute phase reactants. The treatment is the administration of 1 g of vitamin C per day for 15 days. Vitamin C depletion (ascorbic acid: 2 to 5 mg/L) could induce long-term complications. The recommended dietary allowance of vitamin C protect from these risks. PMID:24298827

  10. Nutritive content of college meals. Proximate composition and vitamins.

    PubMed

    Walker, M A; Page, L

    1975-02-01

    Two samples, each consisting of menus of two breakfasts, lunches, and dinners, as offered to college students, were collected for seven consecutive days from each of fifty colleges. The composited meals were analyzed to determine proximate composition and content of vitamin A, vitamin D, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folacin, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. On a per-person-per-day basis, the meals met or exceeded the Recommended Dietary Allowances for nineteen-to-twenty-two-year-old men and women for protein, vitamin A, riboflavin, and niacin. About a third of the meals were below the allowances for vitamin D, three-fifths were short in thiamin, and three-fourths were short in folacin and vitamin B6. A number of colleges offered meals that were short on calories. PMID:1112954

  11. Biochemical aspects of vitamin E deficiency in fowl

    E-print Network

    Creech, Billy Gene

    1957-01-01

    .; thiamine, 5*0 mg?5 folic acid, 2.0 mg.; para-aminobenzoic acid, 20.0 mg0; inositol, 1 .0 gm.; biotin, 0.2 mg.; choline, 2.0 gm.; vitamin K, 0.5 mg.; vitamin B12, 50 meg.; methionine, 4.0 gm.: arginine, *+.0 gm.; vitamin A, 10,000 I.U.; and vitamin D...; glycine, k gm,; thiamine, 20 mg.; riboflavin, 6 mg.; calcium pantothenate, 15 nig.; niacin, 100 mg.; pyridoxine? if mg.; para-aminobenzoic acid, 20 mg.; biotin, 2 mg.; peni cillin, 22 mg.; D-alpha-tocopheryl acetate., hk mg.; vita? min Bnp, 22 meg...

  12. Vitamin A

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vitamin A to decrease the risk of transmitting HIV to the baby during pregnancy, childbirth, or breast-feeding. Men use vitamin A ... mouth does not lower the risk of passing HIV to the fetus during pregnancy, to newborns during delivery, or to infants during ...

  13. Vitamin K

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin K was identified in the early 1930’s when it was shown to be essential for normal blood coagulation. Phylloquinone (2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) found in green plants is the major source of the vitamin. Large amounts of menaquinones with lengthy side chains are also synthesized in...

  14. The effect of vitamin B?? on the embryonic development of the chick

    E-print Network

    Ferguson, Thomas Morgan

    1954-01-01

    produced by such deficiency through the administration of vitamin B12. It was felt that such observations would provide further insight into the physiological action of vitamin B12 in em? bryonic stages of development. Congenital anomalies in the chick... of biotin, noted skeletal deformities, ataxia, and congenital perosis in chicks from hens fed on a low biotin diet. These deformities were prevented by the feeding of biotin or by injecting biotin into the egg. Skeletal deformities due to biotin...

  15. Determination of water-soluble vitamins in soft drinks and vitamin supplements using capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, Matthias; Razzazi, Ebrahim; Luf, Wolfgang

    2003-08-01

    A method for the determination of six water-soluble vitamins based on capillary electrophoresis (CE) operated in micellar mode was developed. Thiamine hydrochloride (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6), pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), nicotinamide (vitamin B3), and cobalamin (Vitamin B12) could be separated in a single run. All CE parameters such as buffer composition and operation temperature were optimized in order to achieve better separation. Relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the described method ranged from 1.08 to 3.68% (intra-day precision) and 1.26 to 3.35% (inter-day precision). The method was then used for measuring various soft drinks and vitamin supplements directly without any step of sample cleanup. The determination of niacin was successful for all samples tested, reaching recoveries near 100%. Riboflavin and pyridoxine were quantified successfully in some but not all samples. Therefore, an evaluation on a case-by-case basis is mandatory. When applicable, this method provides a fast, accurate, simple, and inexpensive way to quantify selected vitamins, and is therefore well suited for routine analysis in soft drink industry. PMID:13678262

  16. B Vitamins as Regulators of Phytoplankton Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzeca, Caterina; Tovar-Sanchez, Antonio; Agustí, Susana; Reche, Isabel; Duarte, Carlos M.; Taylor, Gordon T.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.

    2006-12-01

    Without an adequate supply of dissolved vitamins, many species of phytoplankton do not grow. Additions of inorganic nutrients like phosphorus and nitrogen, and trace metals like iron, are not alone adequate to sustain life-a practical lesson learned quickly by experimental biologists when they try to keep eukaryotic phytoplankton cultures alive in their labs. The reason is that coenzymes such as B vitamins are also required for many metabolic pathways. For example, vitamin B1 serves as a cofactor for a large number of enzymatic systems, including the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex required for the metabolism of carbohydrates (glycolysis) and amino acid synthesis [Vandamme, 1989]. Vitamin B12 is used primarily to assist two enzymes: methionine synthase, which is involved in DNA synthesis, and methylmalonyl CoA mutase, which is required for inorganic carbon assimilation [Lindemans and Abels, 1985].

  17. Water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Konings, Erik J M

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous Determination of Vitamins.--Klejdus et al. described a simultaneous determination of 10 water- and 10 fat-soluble vitamins in pharmaceutical preparations by liquid chromatography-diode-array detection (LC-DAD). A combined isocratic and linear gradient allowed separation of vitamins in 3 distinct groups: polar, low-polar, and nonpolar. The method was applied to pharmaceutical preparations, fortified powdered drinks, and food samples, for which results were in good agreement with values claimed. Heudi et al. described a separation of 9 water-soluble vitamins by LC-UV. The method was applied for the quantification of vitamins in polyvitaminated premixes used for the fortification of infant nutrition products. The repeatability of the method was evaluated at different concentration levels and coefficients of variation were <6.5%. The concentrations of vitamins found in premixes with the method were comparable to the values declared. A disadvantage of the methods mentioned above is that sample composition has to be known in advance. According to European legislation, for example, foods might be fortified with riboflavin phosphate or thiamin phosphate, vitamers which are not included in the simultaneous separations described. Vitamin B2.--Viñas et al. elaborated an LC analysis of riboflavin vitamers in foods. Vitamin B2 can be found in nature as the free riboflavin, but in most biological materials it occurs predominantly in the form of 2 coenzymes, flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Several methods usually involve the conversion of these coenzymes into free riboflavin before quantification of total riboflavin. According to the authors, there is growing interest to know flavin composition of foods. The described method separates the individual vitamers isocratically. Accuracy of the method is tested with 2 certified reference materials (CRMs). Vitamin B5.-Methods for the determination of vitamin B5 in foods are limited because of their low sensitivity and poor selectivity. Pakin et al. proposed a post-column derivatization of pantothenic acid as a fluorescent compound and used this principle in a specific and sensitive method for the determination of free and bound pantothenic acid in a large variety of foods. A French laboratory invited European laboratories to participate in a series of collaborative studies for this method, which will be carried out in 2005/2006. A more sophisticated method was described by Mittermayer et al. They developed an LC-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method for the determination of vitamin B5 in a wide range of fortified food products. Application of the method to various samples showed consistent results with those obtained by microbiology. Vitamin B6.-Method 2004.07, an LC method for the analysis of vitamin B6 in reconstituted infant formula, was published by Mann et al. In contrast with this method, which quantifies vitamin B6 after converting the phosphorylated and free vitamers into pyridoxine, Viñas et al. published an LC method which determines 6 vitamin B6 related compounds, the 3 B6 vitamers, their corresponding phosphorylated esters, and a metabolite. Accuracy was determined using 2 CRMs. Results were within the certified ranges. Vitamin C.-Franke et al. described an extensive study to vitamin C and flavonoid levels of fruits and vegetables consumed in Hawaii. Vitamin C was determined by measuring ascorbic acid in its reduced state by LC and coulometric detection along with UV absorbance detection at 245 nm. No attempts were made to assess levels of dehydroascorbic acid. Most recent research revealed that cell uptake of dehydroascorbic acid is unlikely to play a major role, which may explain the very low vitamin C activity of orally administered L-dehydroascorbic acid in rats. The food levels found by Franke et al. are variably lower, higher, or equal in comparison to other studies. Iwase described a method for the determination of ascorbic acid in foods using L-methionine for the pre-analysis sample stabilization. Electrochemical detection wa

  18. Vitamin D

    MedlinePLUS

    Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium . Calcium and phosphate are two minerals that are essential for normal bone formation. Throughout childhood, your body uses these minerals to produce bones. If you do ...

  19. Vitamin A

    MedlinePLUS

    ... also known as retinol because it produces the pigments in the retina of the eye. Vitamin A ... some fortified foods. Carotenoids are dark-colored dyes (pigments) found in plant foods that can turn into ...

  20. Vitamin E

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vitamin E is found in the following foods: Vegetable oils (such as wheat germ, sunflower, safflower, corn, and soybean oils) Nuts (such as almonds, peanuts, and hazelnuts/filberts) ... (such as spinach and broccoli) Fortified breakfast cereals, ...

  1. Vitamin D

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español ... Body Image Vitamin D KidsHealth > Teens > Food & Fitness > Nutrition ...

  2. Vitamin B intake and status in healthy Havanan men, 2 years after the Cuban neuropathy epidemic.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, J; Fleites-Mestre, P; Chassagne, M; Verdura, T; Garcia Garcia, I; Hernandez-Fernandez, T; Gautier, H; Favier, A; Pérez-Cristià, R; Barnouin, J

    2001-06-01

    A prospective epidemiological study was carried out over 1 year to evaluate vitamin B complex dietary intake and status in Cuba, 2 years after the Cuban neuropathy epidemic of 1993. Of the 199 healthy middle-aged men selected, 141 completed the study. Volunteers were followed up every 3 months for 1 year. Dietary intake and status of thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, folate and vitamin B12 were assessed each time. The dietary intake of vitamin B complex was low, particularly in June and July (folate), and October (thiamin). A deficient status was observed for vitamin B complex, except for vitamin B6. Vitamin B complex intake and status varied over the year. However, dietary intake and status were poorly related. The results prove that healthy Cuban men represent a vulnerable population in terms of vitamin B complex status and stress the necessity to both promote preventive multivitamin supplementation and produce local food rich in vitamin B complex. PMID:11430779

  3. Vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Grant, William B.; Tangpricha, Vin

    2012-01-01

    Evidence that vitamin D reduces the risk of many types of disease is increasing exponentially. In 2011, 3,100 publications with “vitamin D” in the title or abstract were published, up from 2,606 in 2010, 1,303 in 2005, and 796 in 2000. A committee operating under the auspices of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the US National Academies reviewed the evidence for beneficial effects of vitamin D. Their report, issued at the end of 2010,1 found what they considered to be strong evidence for only one health outcome: skeletal health. They considered beneficial evidence only from published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focused mainly on skeletal health. In contrast, to justify concern about higher vitamin D intake and serum 25(OH)D concentrations, they used data from nested case-control studies reporting U-shaped outcomes of prediagnostic serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] for cancer and all-cause mortality rates. They set the daily recommended intake of vitamin D at 600–800 IU for most children and adults and defined vitamin D sufficiency as a serum 25(OH)D level above 20 ng/ml (50 nmol/l). They also set a daily upper intake of 4,000 IU of vitamin D3 and called for more RCTs to determine nonskeletal health effects. As of this writing, more than 130 journal publications have criticized the IOM report as being too conservative. One summarized the problems succinctly: “The IOM recommendations for vitamin D fail in a major way on logic, on science, and on effective public health guidance. Moreover, by failing to use a physiological referent, the IOM approach constitutes precisely the wrong model for development of nutritional policy.”2 PMID:22928061

  4. The pleiotropic actions of vitamin D

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Lin; John H. White

    2004-01-01

    Summary General knowledge of the role of vitamin D3 in human physiology has been shaped by its discovery as a pre- ventive agent of nutritional rickets, a defect in bone development due to inadequate uptake of dietary cal- cium. Studies on the function of the hormonal form of vitamin D3 ,1 a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, have been greatly accelerated by the molecular

  5. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of a good thing? What Are Vitamins and Minerals? Vitamins and minerals make people's bodies work properly. ... of them each day. What Do Vitamins and Minerals Do? Vitamins and minerals boost the immune system, ...

  6. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 801 Vitamins and Minerals WHY ARE VITAMINS AND MINERALS IMPORTANT? WHAT ARE ANTIOXIDANTS? HOW MUCH DO I ... HARMFUL? FOR MORE INFORMATION WHY ARE VITAMINS AND MINERALS IMPORTANT? Vitamins and minerals are sometimes called micronutrients. ...

  7. Effect of B vitamin supplementation on plasma homocysteine levels in celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Hadithi, Muhammed; Mulder, Chris JJ; Stam, Frank; Azizi, Joshan; Crusius, J Bart A; Peña, Amado Salvador; Stehouwer, Coen DA; Smulders, Yvo M

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of vitamin supplements on homocysteine levels in patients with celiac disease. METHODS: Vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, and fasting plasma homocysteine levels were measured in 51 consecutive adults with celiac disease [median (range) age 56 (18-63) years; 40% men, 26 (51%) had villous atrophy, and 25 (49%) used B-vitamin supplements] and 50 healthy control individuals matched for age and sex. Finally, the C677T polymorphism of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) was evaluated in 46 patients with celiac disease and all control individuals. RESULTS: Patients with celiac disease and using vitamin supplements had higher serum vitamin B6 (P = 0.003), folate (P < 0.001), and vitamin B12 (P = 0.012) levels than patients who did not or healthy controls (P = 0.035, P < 0.001, P = 0.007, for vitamin B6, folate, and vitamin B12, respectively). Lower plasma homocysteine levels were found in patients using vitamin supplements than in patients who did not (P = 0.001) or healthy controls (P = 0.003). However, vitamin B6 and folate, not vitamin B12, were significantly and independently associated with homocysteine levels. Twenty-four (48%) of 50 controls and 23 (50%) of 46 patients with celiac disease carried the MTHFR thermolabile variant T-allele (P = 0.89). CONCLUSION: Homocysteine levels are dependent on Marsh classification and the regular use of B-vitamin supplements is effective in reduction of homocysteine levels in patients with celiac disease and should be considered in disease management. PMID:19248194

  8. Vitamin B6

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin B6 Fact Sheet for Consumers What is vitamin B6 and what does it do? Vitamin B6 ... out more about vitamin B6? Disclaimer How much vitamin B6 do I need? The amount of vitamin ...

  9. Homocysteine Lowering with Folic Acid and B Vitamins in Vascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Lonn; Salim Yusuf; D. Phil; J. Arnold; Patrick Sheridan; Janice Pogue; Mary Micks; Matthew J. McQueen; Jeffrey Probstfield

    We randomly assigned 5522 patients 55 years of age or older who had vascular dis- ease or diabetes to daily treatment either with the combination of 2.5 mg of folic acid, 50 mg of vitamin B6, and 1 mg of vitamin B12 or with placebo for an average of five years. The primary outcome was a composite of death from

  10. Recycling of vitamin E in human low density lipoproteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena A. Serbinova; Trudy Forte; Giorgio Scita; Lester Packer

    Oxidative modification of low density lipoproteins (LDL) and their unrestricted scavenger receptordependent uptake is believed to account for cholesterol deposition in macrophagederived foam cells. It has been suggested that vitamin E that is transported by LDL plays a critical role in protecting against LDL oxidation. We hypothesize that the maintenance of sufficiently high vitamin E concentrations in LDL can be

  11. Uptake and accumulation of B-group vitamers in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in ethanol-stat fed-batch culture.

    PubMed

    Paalme, T; Kevvai, K; Vilbaste, A; Hälvin, K; Nisamedtinov, I

    2014-09-01

    The uptake and accumulation of the B-group vitamins thiamine, riboflavin, nicotinamide, pantothenic acid and pyridoxine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied by gradually increasing the specific dosage of vitamins in an ethanol-stat fed-batch culture. Thiamine, nicotinamide, pantothenic acid, and pyridoxine were almost completely taken up at low vitamin dosages. Thiamine was determined to be the major accumulating form of vitamin B1 while most of the assimilated nicotinamide and pantothenic acid accumulated in cofactor forms. Despite the obvious uptake of pyridoxine, accumulation of B6 vitamers was not observed. In contrast with the other vitamins studied, riboflavin began accumulating in the culture medium immediately after vitamin addition was initiated. By the end of the experiment, the apparent uptake of all vitamins exceeded their accumulation in the cells. Variations in the growth rate of yeast at different vitamin dosages demonstrate the importance of balancing the vitamins in the media during cultivation. PMID:24781266

  12. Observations on the vitamin B12 binding substance of egg yolk 

    E-print Network

    Ener, Huseyin Siret

    1953-01-01

    . ". ';":"' f~'% p. ;;, :, " gW1k (:, @be. QC X . !PlG ZXf )y !iA' '. "X'W:AA ~g ~ ", li'X~'M';~ Fit%~ "~A&. '3&%, M@8 tl'~4 '2w. ". :&t@, ' 16 CG~Z~X%3 O. " t''N 6:, '":* /gal&t8 tf. , "6';?", ', "9~ KN 5". ', X'. Qt "9g zgg~zf1 "P ii:. jC' -. '&;. i" 9+ Q..." "43Lg '4~ +g Sh"ee end Q) 9e-'esca( a~tg'gt@'~ice 'ee e%iiet' ''& "~tateLea 'e~~ 1w@e eeoc"- ~hei'it te ", ",:i':" . i bcxweU~ ('avtg". 4:J/g:":eel%@ 5 ')y ';&:. ''K-e e. ' ~ecto t'. el' '::i&Mt:: '-:e "' e '4i4B. , ' . '::', e~~ (':, ee. ". 6t...

  13. Vitamin B12 and pteroylglutamic acid studies in the domestic fowl 

    E-print Network

    Reid, Bobby Leroy

    1955-01-01

    against Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas fluorescens inoculated on eggshells (Kwon et al. , 1997). The use of chlorine dioxide foam reduced eggshell bacterial populations and improved hatchability (Patterson et al. , 1990). Cox and Bailey (1992...

  14. Cobalamin (Vitamin B_(12)) Deficiency in the Chinese Shar Pei – Evaluation of a Potential Hereditary Etiology 

    E-print Network

    Grü tzner, Niels

    2013-12-11

    predisposition for cobalamin deficiency has been described for Shar Peis in North America (Bishop et al., 2012). In the United Kingdom, cobalamin deficiency has been described for the Shar 22 Pei, Staffordshire Bull Terrier, as well as a group of mixed... Dog (German et al., 2000b), Irish Setter (Batt, 1985; Garden et al., 2000), and Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier (Littman et al., 2000). A comparison with data from the American Kennel Club (AKC), which shows the number of dogs of various breeds...

  15. Some histological manifestations in the vitamin B b12 sdeficient newborn rat

    E-print Network

    Jones, Carroll Christian

    1954-01-01

    Iaotobaoilli tested (Skeggs~ '51) ~ In the rat a vita~ H12 defioisnoy deoreases the liver nanthins oxidase and betaine homooysteine tranamsthyiass aotivity (Milliams~ '. son son~ Harper snd KLvah)em~ '53) ~ These ensymss are believed to be in volved...

  16. Mechanistic behaviour of alkylcobaloximes and imino-oxime complexes related to vitamin B(12).

    PubMed

    Alzoubi, Basam M; Vidali, Fanny; Puchta, Ralph; Dücker-Benfer, Carlos; Felluga, Alessandro; Randaccio, Lucio; Tauzher, Giovanni; van Eldik, Rudi

    2009-04-01

    The ligand substitution reactions of complexes of the type trans-[(R)Co(Chel)S](+/0) with L, where chel = (DO)(DOH)pn = 2,2'-(1,3-diaminopropanebis(2-methyl-3-butanone)oxime), R = CH(3), L = imidazole, pyrazole, 1,2,4-triazole and 1-methylimidazole, and S = water and MeOH, and chel = (Hdmg)(2) = bis(dimethylglyoximate), R = CH(2)Cl, CH(2)Br, and CH(2)I, L = thiourea and pyridine, and S = water, were studied in detail as a function of temperature and pressure. The reported activation parameters (DeltaH, DeltaS and DeltaV) support the operation of a dissociative interchange (I(d)) mechanism. Complexes of the type trans-[RCo(Hdmg)(2)L] (R = CH(2)Cl, CH(2)Br, and CH(2)I; L = H(2)O and Py) were fully optimized at the B3LYP/LANL2DZp level, and the structural data support the mechanistic assignment based on the reported activation parameters. For the reaction of trans-[(CH(3))(2)Co((DO)(DOH)pn)] with acid, the activation parameters (DeltaH, DeltaS and DeltaV) were found to be 37 +/- 1 kJ mol(-1), -86 +/- 3 J mol(-1) K(-1) and -18.9 +/- 0.7 cm(3) mol(-1), respectively, and support a protonation mechanism. PMID:19290373

  17. Juvenile selective vitamin B12 malabsorption: 50 years after its description – 10 years of genetic testing

    PubMed Central

    Gräsbeck, Ralph; Tanner, Stephan M.

    2011-01-01

    Fifty years have passed since the description of juvenile selective malabsorption of cobalamin (Cbl). Quality of life improvements have dramatically reduced the incidence of parasite-induced or nutritional Cbl deficiency. Consequently, inherited defects have become a leading cause of Cbl deficiency in children which is not always expressed as anemia. Unfortunately, the gold-standard for clinical diagnosis, the Schilling test, has increasingly become unavailable and replacement tests are only in their infancy. Genetic testing is complicated by genetic heterogeneity and differential diagnosis. This review documents the history, research, and advances in genetics that have elucidated the causes of juvenile cobalamin malabsorption. Genetic research has unearthed many cases in the past decade, mostly in Europe and North America, often among immigrants from the Middle East or North Africa. Lack of suitable clinical testing potentially leaves many patients inadequately diagnosed. The consequences of suboptimal Cbl levels for neurological development are well-documented. By raising awareness, we wish to push for fast-track development of better clinical tools and suitable genetic testing. Clinical awareness must include attention to ethnicity, a sensitive topic but effective for fast diagnosis. The treatment with monthly parenteral Cbl for life offers a simple and cost-effective solution once proper diagnosis is made. PMID:21623254

  18. MECHANISTIC STUDIES ON THE VITAMIN B12-CATALYZED DECHLORINATION OF CHLORINATED ALKENES. (U915562)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  19. Metabolic interrelationships between folic acid, vitamin B12 and the citrovorum factor 

    E-print Network

    Doctor, Vasant Manilal

    1953-01-01

    role of ascorbic acid in increasing the CP content of chick liver homogenates is not due to its influence on the con? version of PGA to CP, but is the result of activation of the CF-liberating enzyme present in chick liver it s e l f . On the other... deals with the necessary experimental conditions for the enzymatic release of CF by autolysis (pH 6 .3 ) and for the synthesis of CP from added PGA by chick liver homogenate. The influence of PGA upon various enzyme systems both in vivo and in vitro...

  20. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Ligand Binding to Vitamin B-12a: A Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweigart, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an open-ended experiment involving a bioinorganic system that provides the student a direct link between thermodynamics and kinetics. It utilizes a rapid reaction technique and requires one to clearly understand the relationship of experimental observable (absorbance) to a mechanism. (GS)

  1. Structure and binding of peptide-dendrimer ligands to vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Uhlich, Nicolas A; Natalello, Antonino; Kadam, Rameshwar U; Doglia, Silvia M; Reymond, Jean-Louis; Darbre, Tamis

    2010-02-15

    The third-generation peptide-dendrimer B1 (AcES)8(BEA)4(K-Amb-Y)2BCD-NH2 (B=branching (S)-2,3-diaminopropanoic acid, K=branching lysine, Amb=4-aminomethyl-benzoic acid) is the first synthetic model for cobalamin-binding proteins and binds cobalamin strongly (K(a)=5.0 x 10(6) M(-1)) and rapidly (k(2)=346 M(-1) s(-1)) by coordination of cobalt to the cysteine residue at the dendrimer core. A structure-activity relationship study is reported concerning the role of negative charges in binding. Substituting glutamates (E) for glutamines (Q) in the outer branches of B1 to form N3 (AcQS)8(BQA)4(B-Amb-Y)(2)BCD-NH2 leads to stronger (K(a)=12.0 x 10(6) M(-1)) but slower (k(2)=67 M(-1) s(-1)) cobalamin binding. CD and FTIR spectra show that the dendrimers and their cobalamin complexes exist as random-coil structures without aggregation in solution. The hydrodynamic radii of the dendrimers determined by diffusion NMR either remains constant or slightly decreases upon binding to cobalamin; this indicates the formation of compact, presumably hydrophobically collapsed complexes. PMID:20014271

  2. Some histological manifestations in the vitamin B b12 sdeficient newborn rat 

    E-print Network

    Jones, Carroll Christian

    1954-01-01

    &dna;, . and spieen 1n duced by a materw?l v1tamin Rl? deficiency 1? the ?suborn albino rat, 4 secondary porno a Ips to co"lpga e the '?Jot'. , +t dif faro loca bot'i&en the hearts, livorn and '. . Tdnevs of novborn offspring oi' v'to oin Q2 deficient mothers...

  3. Observations on the vitamin B12 binding substance of egg yolk

    E-print Network

    Ener, Huseyin Siret

    1953-01-01

    Cl'LOS Of 14 d5~%? &li9 d~ "lq~am. -. :min m~l~cad:"~;; f:+ah 3&2. 33ed va'. e (i;;s;; ', Q ~attimm) 8VCg ~~ Pig t;*A'4~ ~ . " FA . '::. XOfA510 t+GCQQA8p '481CiC 'a!0: &", . "D)X '~ /MS' Kit!I'6 t', e5 4~@, ';a~ . ". 'er j:gee "'q-:l '. 0:~3 ':J... (Q't i', !. ice!?leteA f!. Res", . f $ ', cote ':. , e) y, . -', . ', s-;. ::, 7: ':~t '~ te ". . =. ". ~0. . ". ee t'". :. ~"-41 @et" etang, , f ~". &4e teat te v ex'. Q'iseete3. w~". @le (t'44' ~ ee ~+ Q)% )Lvget 'l gQQf a*t e ei-e'tt *A@ pe ' j...

  4. Vitamin D: An overview of vitamin D status and intake in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Spiro, A; Buttriss, J L

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there have been reports suggesting a high prevalence of low vitamin D intakes and vitamin D deficiency or inadequate vitamin D status in Europe. Coupled with growing concern about the health risks associated with low vitamin D status, this has resulted in increased interest in the topic of vitamin D from healthcare professionals, the media and the public. Adequate vitamin D status has a key role in skeletal health. Prevention of the well-described vitamin D deficiency disorders of rickets and osteomalacia are clearly important, but there may also be an implication of low vitamin D status in bone loss, muscle weakness and falls and fragility fractures in older people, and these are highly significant public health issues in terms of morbidity, quality of life and costs to health services in Europe. Although there is no agreement on optimal plasma levels of vitamin D, it is apparent that blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels are often below recommended ranges for the general population and are particularly low in some subgroups of the population, such as those in institutions or who are housebound and non-Western immigrants. Reported estimates of vitamin D status within different European countries show large variation. However, comparison of studies across Europe is limited by their use of different methodologies. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency [often defined as plasma 25(OH)D <25?nmol/l] may be more common in populations with a higher proportion of at-risk groups, and/or that have low consumption of foods rich in vitamin D (naturally rich or fortified) and low use of vitamin D supplements. The definition of an adequate or optimal vitamin D status is key in determining recommendations for a vitamin D intake that will enable satisfactory status to be maintained all year round, including the winter months. In most European countries, there seems to be a shortfall in achieving current vitamin D recommendations. An exception is Finland, where dietary survey data indicate that recent national policies that include fortification and supplementation, coupled with a high habitual intake of oil-rich fish, have resulted in an increase in vitamin D intakes, but this may not be a suitable strategy for all European populations. The ongoing standardisation of measurements in vitamin D research will facilitate a stronger evidence base on which policies can be determined. These policies may include promotion of dietary recommendations, food fortification, vitamin D supplementation and judicious sun exposure, but should take into account national, cultural and dietary habits. For European nations with supplementation policies, it is important that relevant parties ensure satisfactory uptake of these particularly in the most vulnerable groups of the population. PMID:25635171

  5. [Effect of water-soluble vitamins on the anti-lysozyme activity of enterobacteria].

    PubMed

    Valyshev, A V; Kirillov, V A; Kirillov, D A

    2000-01-01

    The influence of vitamins of group B (B1, B6, B12) and vitamin C on the antilysozyme activity (ALA) of pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria (Salmonella, Klebsiella, Escherichia coli) has been determined in a number of in vitro experiments. In E. coli vitamins had different influence on ALA: vitamins B1 and C (at a concentration of 5 mg/ml) increased this activity in E. coli, while vitamins B12 and C (at concentrations of 0.5 and 0.05 mg/ml) decreased it. In Klebsiella vitamins B1, B12 and C (at a concentration of 0.05 mg/ml) decreased ALA, while after the addition of vitamin C at concentrations of 0.5 and 5 mg/ml into the medium ALA increased. In Salmonella vitamins of group B had no influence on ALA, ascorbic acid at a low concentration (0.5 mg/ml) decreased their capacity for inactivating lysozyme. In enterobacteria vitamin B6 produced no changes in ALA. PMID:12712521

  6. Vitamine D2 ou vitamine D3 ?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. I. Mistretta; P. Delanaye; J.-P. Chapelle; J.-C. Souberbielle; É. Cavalier

    2008-01-01

    PurposeNearly one billion people around the world are deficient in vitamin D and need to be supplemented. Vitamin D is available in medicines and fortified foods. It is available in two forms: vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol).

  7. Vitamin B?? and unidentified factors in poultry nutrition

    E-print Network

    Welch, Billy E.

    1954-01-01

    . Biol. Med., 70:40-42. Norris, L. C., C. W. Carlson and R. F. Miller 1950 Vitamin B12 and the animal protein factor. Farm Research, 16:3. Norris, L. C., H. M. Edwards, Jr., and D. Chin 1953 The problem of unidentified vitamins, proc. 1953 Cornell... of vitamin B]_g rat growth and fat infiltration of the liver. J. Biol. Chem., 193:285-291. Block, R. J., and D. Bolling 1951 The amino acid com? position of proteins and foods. Springfield, 111., second ed.. Briggs, G. M., E. G. Hill and M. J. Giles 1950...

  8. TD-DFT Insight into Photodissociation of Co-C Bond in Coenzyme B12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlowski, Pawel; Liu, Hui; Kornobis, Karina; Lodowski, Piotr; Jaworska, Maria

    2013-12-01

    Coenzyme B12 (AdoCbl) is one of the most biologically active forms of vitamin B12, and continues to be a topic of active research interest. The mechanism of Co-C bond cleavage in AdoCbl, and the corresponding enzymatic reactions are however, not well understood at the molecular level. In this work, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) has been applied to investigate the photodissociation of coenzyme B12. To reduce computational cost, while retaining the major spectroscopic features of AdoCbl, a truncated model based on ribosylcobalamin (RibCbl) was used to simulate Co-C photodissociation. Equilibrium geometries of RibCbl were obtained by optimization at the DFT/BP86/TZVP level of theory, and low-lying excited states were calculated by TD-DFT using the same functional and basis set. The calculated singlet states, and absorption spectra were simulated in both the gas phase, and water, using the polarizable continuum model (PCM). Both spectra were in reasonable agreement with experimental data, and potential energy curves based on vertical excitations were plotted to explore the nature of Co-C bond dissociation. It was found that a repulsive 3(?Co-C ? ?*Co-C) triplet state became dissociative at large Co-C bond distance, similar to a previous observation for methylcobalamin (MeCbl). Furthermore, potential energy surfaces (PESs) obtained as a function of both Co-CRib and Co-NIm distances, identify the S1 state as a key intermediate generated during photoexcitation of RibCbl, attributed to a mixture of a MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer) and a ? bonding-ligand charge transfer (SBLCT) states.

  9. TD-DFT insight into photodissociation of the Co-C bond in coenzyme B12

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Kornobis, Karina; Lodowski, Piotr; Jaworska, Maria; Kozlowski, Pawel M.

    2014-01-01

    Coenzyme B12 (AdoCbl) is one of the most biologically active forms of vitamin B12, and continues to be a topic of active research interest. The mechanism of Co-C bond cleavage in AdoCbl, and the corresponding enzymatic reactions are however, not well understood at the molecular level. In this work, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) has been applied to investigate the photodissociation of coenzyme B12. To reduce computational cost, while retaining the major spectroscopic features of AdoCbl, a truncated model based on ribosylcobalamin (RibCbl) was used to simulate Co-C photodissociation. Equilibrium geometries of RibCbl were obtained by optimization at the DFT/BP86/TZVP level of theory, and low-lying excited states were calculated by TD-DFT using the same functional and basis set. The calculated singlet states, and absorption spectra were simulated in both the gas phase, and water, using the polarizable continuum model (PCM). Both spectra were in reasonable agreement with experimental data, and potential energy curves based on vertical excitations were plotted to explore the nature of Co-C bond dissociation. It was found that a repulsive 3(?Co?C ? ?*Co?C) triplet state became dissociative at large Co-C bond distance, similar to a previous observation for methylcobalamin (MeCbl). Furthermore, potential energy surfaces (PESs) obtained as a function of both Co-CRib and Co-NIm distances, identify the S1 state as a key intermediate generated during photoexcitation of RibCbl, attributed to a mixture of a metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) and a ? bonding-ligand charge transfer (SBLCT) states. PMID:24790969

  10. Production of vitamins, coenzymes and related biochemicals by biotechnological processes.

    PubMed

    Vandamme, E J

    1992-01-01

    Vitamins and related biofactors belong to those few chemicals with a direct positive appeal to people. There is indeed a large need for extra vitamins, other than those derived from plant and animal food sources, due to unbalanced food habits or processing, food shortage or disease. Added vitamins are now either prepared chemically or biotechnologically via fermentation or bioconversion processes. Several vitamins and related biofactors are now only or mainly produced chemically (vitamin A, cholecalciferol (D3), tocopherol (E), vitamin K2, thiamine (B1), niacin (PP or B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), biotin (H or B8), folic acid (B9) or via extraction processes (beta-carotene or provitamin A, provitamin D3, tocopherol, vitamin F-group). However, for several of these compounds microbiological or algal methods also exist or are rapidly emerging. Others are produced practically exclusively via fermentation (ergosterol or provitamin D2, riboflavin (B2), cyanocobalamin (B12), orotic acid (B13), vitamin F-group, ATP, nucleosides, coenzymes, etc. or via microalgal culture (beta-carotene, E, F). Both chemical and microbial processes are run industrially for vitamin B2 while vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is produced via a combination of chemical reactions and fermentation processes. A survey is given here of the current state of vitamin production, with emphasis on developments and strategies for improved biotechnological production and its significance, as compared to existing chemical processes. The screening or construction of vitamin hyperproducing microbial strains is a difficult task; pathway elucidation and metabolic (de)regulation need further study; r-DNA technology has only recently been introduced; improved fermentation processes and immobilised biocatalysts bioconversions for the synthesis of chiral vitamin compounds or intermediates or derivatives are gaining importance; the recovery and purification of these vitamin compounds from their fermentation broths remains equally complex. PMID:1368195

  11. B-vitamin deficiency is protective in experimental colitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methionine (Met) cycle activity is critical for normal cell functions and requires B-vitamin (B6/B12) as cofactors. Sadenosylhomocysteine (SAH) is a Met cycle intermediates that is known to inhibit methyltransferases. Met metabolism is altered in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but M...

  12. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  13. Complex high-temperature phase transitions in Li2B12H12 and Na2B12H12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdal, Nina; Her, Jae-Hyuk; Stavila, Vitalie; Soloninin, Alexei V.; Babanova, Olga A.; Skripov, Alexander V.; Udovic, Terrence J.; Rush, John J.

    2014-04-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry measurements of Li2B12H12 and Na2B12H12 indicate hysteretic transformations to high-temperature phases at ?615 K and 529 K, respectively, upon heating (1 K/min) from room temperature. X-ray and neutron powder diffraction measurements corroborate the phase-change behavior. For Li2B12H12, the diffraction data are consistent with a previous study suggesting that the overall face-centered-cubic arrangement of icosahedral B12H122- anions is maintained upon transformation to the high-temperature polymorph, although the anions are now orientationally disordered and the Li+ cations crystallographically disordered within an enlarged lattice. For Na2B12H12, the diffraction data indicate the existence of three different high-temperature phases in addition to the known low-temperature monoclinic phase. The highest-temperature structure possesses Im3¯m symmetry and exhibits a body-centered-cubic arrangement of orientationally disordered anions. The interstitial, disordered Na+ cations appear to favor off-center positions within the distorted tetrahedral sites formed by the anions in this structure. An intermediate Pm3¯n-symmetric phase at lower temperature is the result of a partial ordering of this higher-temperature structure. A third, minor, face-centered-cubic phase coexists with these high-temperature polymorphs. 1H NMR measurements of Li2B12H12 and Na2B12H12 reveal an approximately two-orders-of-magnitude increase in the reorientational jump rate of the anions in both cases upon transformation to their high-temperature structures. The enhanced anion mobilities were corroborated by neutron scattering fixed-window scans across the respective phase boundaries. The inherent cation disorder associated with these high-temperature polymorphs suggests their potential use as superionic conductors.

  14. Bioavailability of Oil-Based and ?-Lactoglobulin-Complexed Vitamin A in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Shaw, Ju-Jean; Swaisgood, Harold E.; Allen, Jonathan C.

    2013-01-01

    ?-Lactoglobulin is capable of binding fat-soluble compounds including vitamin A palmitate and is suggested to specifically enhance intestinal uptake of retinol. In this study, bioavailability of a vitamin-A-retinyl palmitate complex in skim milk and in water-based liquids was investigated in vitamin-A-depleted rats. First, rats were fed a vitamin-A-free pellet diet for 6?wk and were thereafter gavage-fed with vitamin A in oil, vitamin-A-?-lactoglobulin complex, vitamin A in oil + skim milk, and vitamin-A-?-lactoglobulin + skim milk for 2?wk and 42?wk. Vitamin A repletion, as judged by vitamin A accumulation in serum and liver, occurred in all the treatments. Vitamin-A-?-lactoglobulin complex treatments had statistical equivalence with oil-based vitamin A treatments. In a second experiment, vitamin-A-depleted rats were fed UHT-processed skim milk fortified with either oil-based or freeze-dried ?-lactoglobulin-complexed retinyl palmitate. Liver and serum vitamin A were analyzed by HPLC to indicate vitamin A status in the rats. Results showed no significant difference in bioavailability of retinyl palmitate from milk made with either regular oil-based or ?-lactoglobulin-complexed fortifiers. The vitamin-A-?-lactoglobulin complex, being water soluble, may be useful for fortification of nonfat products. PMID:24967254

  15. Vitamin A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Catharine Ross

    \\u000a 1. Retinoids are one of the most effective classes of agents for promoting cell differentiation, and therefore are of strong\\u000a interest for cancer prevention and cancer therapy. Nevertheless, despite a great deal of testing, their use in cancer chemoprevention\\u000a has been limited by the side effects associated with most compounds.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. Vitamin A, also known as retinol, and retinoic acid

  16. Effect of fasting on the urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in humans and rats.

    PubMed

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Erina; Takahashi, Kei; Shibata, Katsumi

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies showed that the urinary excretion of the water-soluble vitamins can be useful as a nutritional index. To determine how fasting affects urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins, a human study and an animal experiment were conducted. In the human study, the 24-h urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in 12 healthy Japanese adults fasting for a day was measured. One-day fasting drastically decreased urinary thiamin content to 30%, and increased urinary riboflavin content by 3-fold. Other water-soluble vitamin contents did not show significant change by fasting. To further investigate the alterations of water-soluble vitamin status by starvation, rats were starved for 3 d, and water-soluble vitamin contents in the liver, blood and urine were measured during starvation. Urinary excretion of thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B(6) metabolite 4-pyridoxic acid, nicotinamide metabolites and folate decreased during starvation, but that of vitamin B(12), pantothenic acid and biotin did not. As for blood vitamin levels, only blood vitamin B(1), plasma PLP and plasma folate levels decreased with starvation. All water-soluble vitamin contents in the liver decreased during starvation, whereas vitamin concentrations in the liver did not decrease. Starvation decreased only concentrations of vitamin B(12) and folate in the skeletal muscle. These results suggest that water-soluble vitamins were released from the liver, and supplied to the peripheral tissues to maintain vitamin nutrition. Our human study also suggested that the effect of fasting should be taken into consideration for subjects showing low urinary thiamin and high urinary riboflavin. PMID:20354342

  17. The Role of B Vitamins in Marine Biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.; Gómez-Consarnau, Laura; Suffridge, Christopher; Webb, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    The soluble B vitamins (B1, B7, and B12) have long been recognized as playing a central metabolic role in marine phytoplankton and bacteria; however, the importance of these organic external metabolites in marine ecology has been largely disregarded, as most research has focused on inorganic nutrients and trace metals. Using recently available genomic data combined with culture-based surveys of vitamin auxotrophy (i.e., vitamin requirements), we show that this auxotrophy is widespread in the marine environment and occurs in both autotrophs and heterotrophs residing in oligotrophic and eutrophic environments. Our analysis shows that vitamins originate from the activities of some bacteria and algae and that taxonomic changes observed in marine phytoplankton communities could be the result of their specific vitamin requirements and/or vitamin availability. Dissolved vitamin concentration measurements show that large areas of the world ocean are devoid of B vitamins, suggesting that vitamin limitation could be important for the efficiency of carbon and nitrogen fixation in those regions.

  18. Intra- and inter-individual variations of blood and urinary water-soluble vitamins in Japanese young adults consuming a semi-purified diet for 7 days.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Nishimuta, Mamoru

    2009-12-01

    We have previously reported the levels of water-soluble vitamins in the blood and urine of Japanese young adults. In the present paper, to assess the variations in these water-soluble vitamin markers during the above experiment, we comprehensively determined the intra- and inter-individual variations of blood and urinary water-soluble vitamins to exactly the same amount of water-soluble vitamin intakes in the same experiment. The blood samples before breakfast and the 24-h urine samples were periodically collected from Japanese college male (n=10) and female (n=10) students consuming a semi-purified diet with water-soluble vitamins based on Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes for 7 d, and the intra- and inter-individual variations of blood and urinary water-soluble vitamins or their metabolites in blood and urine samples after adaptation were calculated. Although urinary excretion of vitamin B(12) and vitamin C showed high intra-individual variations in both males and females, other urinary vitamins and all blood vitamins showed less than 20% of within-subject coefficients of variance in either male or female. Those showing more than 20% of between-subject coefficients of variances in both male and female were blood vitamin B(6), vitamin B(12) and folate levels, and urinary vitamin B(1), vitamin B(2), vitamin B(12), nicotinamide metabolites, pantothenic acid, biotin and vitamin C. These results showed that oral administration of constant of water-soluble vitamins generally decreased intra-individual variation, while individual differences in urinary vitamin excretion were observed. PMID:20086315

  19. HIGH HOMOCYSTEINE AND LOW B VITAMINS PREDICT COGNITIVE DECLINE IN AGING MEN: THE VA NORMATIVE AGING STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated homocysteine may contribute to cognitive impairment. Most homocysteine elevations result from inadequate folate, vitamin B12 and/or vitamin B6. It is not clear if observed associations with cognitive measures are causal, or if they are due to homocysteine, to independent actions of the B vi...

  20. Pulmonary hypertension associated with scurvy and vitamin deficiencies in an autistic child.

    PubMed

    Duvall, Melody G; Pikman, Yana; Kantor, David B; Ariagno, Katelyn; Summers, Lisa; Sectish, Theodore C; Mullen, Mary P

    2013-12-01

    Restricted dietary intake is common among children with behavioral issues. Here we report a case of a severely autistic child who presented initially with limp but who soon developed cough, tachypnea, hypoxia, and tachycardia. An echocardiogram revealed evidence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) with severely dilated right ventricle and elevated right-sided pressures. The etiology of his PH was unclear but further laboratory evaluation demonstrated severe nutritional deficiencies, in particular an undetectable ascorbic acid (vitamin C) level as well as deficient levels of thiamine (vitamin B1), pyridoxine (vitamin B6), cobalamin (vitamin B12), and vitamin D. Repletion of these vitamins was associated with resolution of his PH and his musculoskeletal complaints. We report this case and a review of the relevant literature as a clinical lesson to expand the differential diagnosis of limp in children who may be difficult to assess as well as to report on an unusual association between severe vitamin deficiencies and PH. PMID:24190688

  1. Simultaneous determination of water-soluble vitamins by over-pressure layer chromatography and photodensitometric detection.

    PubMed

    Postaire, E; Cisse, M; Le Hoang, M D; Pradeau, D

    1991-04-01

    An over-pressure layer chromatographic procedure with photodensitometric detection for the simultaneous determination of water-soluble vitamins in multivitamin pharmaceutical preparations was developed and evaluated. The method uses high-performance TLC (HPTLC) plates with silica gel as the thin-layer, and an n-butanol:pyridine:water mixture (50:35:15, v/v/v) as mobile phase at a rate of 0.25 mL/min for baseline separation. The quantitation was carried out without derivatization (vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, folic acid, nicotinamide, vitamin C) or after spraying ninhydrin reagent (calcium pantothenate) or 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (vitamin B12, biotin). This was applied to the analysis of multivitamin solutions. Satisfactory relative standard deviations and good recovery were obtained for all the vitamins examined. It was concluded that this method is fast, accurate, specific, and suitable for routine quality control use. PMID:1865338

  2. SCAVENGER RECEPTOR CLASS B TYPE I (SR-BI) IS INVOLVED IN VITAMIN E TRANSPORT ACROSS THE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 SCAVENGER RECEPTOR CLASS B TYPE I (SR-BI) IS INVOLVED IN VITAMIN E TRANSPORT ACROSS-31024, France. Running title: Vitamin E transport in enterocytes Address correspondence to: Patrick.Borel@medecine.univ-mrs.fr Although cellular uptake of vitamin E was initially described as a passive process, recent studies

  3. Vitamin status and cognitive function in a long-term care population

    PubMed Central

    Paulionis, Lina; Kane, Sheri-Lynn; Meckling, Kelly A

    2005-01-01

    Background Ageing can be associated with poor dietary intake, reduced nutrient absorption, and less efficient utilization of nutrients. Loss of memory and related cognitive function are also common among older persons. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of inadequate vitamin status among long-term care patients and determine if an association exists between vitamin status and each of three variables; cognitive function, vitamin supplementation, and medications which alter gastric acid levels. Methods Seventy-five patients in a long-term care hospital in Guelph, Ontario were recruited to a cross-sectional study. 47 were female and the mean age was 80.7 (+/-11.5) years, ranging from 48 to 100 years. Blood was used to measure levels of vitamins B12 (cobalamin), B6 (pyridoxal-5'-phosphate/PLP), erythrocyte folate, vitamin B3 (niacin) and homocysteine (Hcy). The Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE) was administered to measure cognitive function. A list of medications and vitamin supplementation for each patient was provided by the pharmacy. Results The prevalence of low vitamin (B12, B6, erythrocyte folate, niacin) or high metabolite (homocysteine) levels among 75 patients were as follows: B12 <148 pmol/L in 5/75 (6.7%); B12 between 148 and 221 pmol/L in 26/75 (34.7%); B6 ?30 nmol/L in 4/75 (5.3%); erythrocyte folate <370 nmol/L in 1/75 (1.3%); niacin ratio ?1 in 20/75 (26.7%); homocysteine >13.3 ?mol/L in 31/75 (41.3%). There was no significant difference among residents grouped into marked (n = 44), mild (n = 14), or normal (n = 9) cognitive function when evaluating the effect of vitamin status. There were no significant differences in mean B12 and homocysteine levels between users and non-users of drug therapy (Losec, Zantac, or Axid). Compared to vitamin supplement non-users, supplemented residents had significantly higher mean B12 (p < 0.0001) and erythrocyte folate (p < 0.05) concentrations and significantly lower mean homocysteine (p < 0.01) levels; 229.1 versus 423.6 pmol/L for B12, 882.9 versus 1043.6 nmol/L for erythrocyte folate and 14.4 versus 12.0 ?mol/L for homocysteine. Conclusion Given the prevalence data on vitamin status in this sample population, the possible benefits of vitamin supplementation should be considered in clinical intervention studies using these populations of elderly. PMID:16351716

  4. Sinorhizobium meliloti bluB is necessary for production of 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole, the lower ligand of B12

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Gordon R. O.; Taga, Michiko E.; Mistry, Kavita; Lloret, Javier; Anderson, Peter J.; Roth, John R.; Walker, Graham C.

    2006-01-01

    An insight into a previously unknown step in B12 biosynthesis was unexpectedly obtained through our analysis of a mutant of the symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti. This mutant was identified based on its unusually bright fluorescence on plates containing the succinoglycan binding dye calcofluor. The mutant contains a Tn5 insertion in a gene that has not been characterized previously in S. meliloti. The closest known homolog is the bluB gene of Rhodobacter capsulatus, which is implicated in the biosynthesis of B12 (cobalamin). The S. meliloti bluB mutant is unable to grow in minimal media and fails to establish a symbiosis with alfalfa, and these defects can be rescued by the addition of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) or the lower ligand of cobalamin, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB). Biochemical analysis demonstrated that the bluB mutant does not produce cobalamin unless DMB is supplied. Sequence comparison suggests that BluB is a member of the NADH/flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-dependent nitroreductase family, and we propose that it is involved in the conversion of FMN to DMB. PMID:16537439

  5. Influence of blood donation on levels of water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Kalus, U; Pruss, A; Wodarra, J; Kiesewetter, H; Salama, A; Radtke, H

    2008-12-01

    Iron depletion is a well-known side effect of blood donation. Research evidence also suggests an increasing prevalence of vitamin deficiency in apparently healthy subjects, but there is little information regarding the relationship between blood donation and vitamin status. A total of 217 volunteers (80 first-time and 137 repeat blood donors) were consecutively enrolled in the study. All subjects completed self-administered medical history and food intake forms, which included questions regarding alcohol consumption and smoking as well as on vitamin supplement, iron and contraceptive use (females). Vitamin B6, folic acid, vitamin B12 and biotin levels were measured using standard techniques. The mean vitamin levels of first-time and repeat blood donors did not significantly differ. Vitamin deficiencies occurred in both first-time and repeat blood donors but not on vitamin supplements. Vitamin status was affected by alcohol, nicotine and contraceptives. Blood donation does not decrease the level of water-soluble vitamins. Vitamin deficiencies occur in apparently healthy first-time as well as in repeat blood donors and can be prevented by vitamin supplementation. PMID:19140819

  6. Effect of Bifidobacterium animalis B/12 administration in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Strompfová, Viola; Pogány Simonová, Monika; Gancar?íková, So?a; Mudro?ová, Dagmar; Farbáková, Jana; Mad'ari, Aladár; Lauková, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    Bifidobacterium species constitute the most frequently used health-enhancing bacteria in functional foods or probiotic products, and most of their health benefits have been demonstrated in human or mice studies. However, knowledge of the effects of these bacteria in the canine organism is very limited. In this study, the canine-derived strain Bifidobacterium animalis B/12 (10(9) CFU) was tested for its effects on faecal microbiota, faecal characteristics, faecal organic acid concentrations, blood biochemistry, haematological and immunological parameters in healthy dogs (C-control, BA-B. animalis B/12 group, 10 dogs in each). The experiment lasted for 49 days with a 14-day treatment period (sample collection at days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 49). A significantly higher population of lactic acid bacteria was detected (day 7) while the counts of coliform bacteria were lower in faeces of the BA group (days 14, 21, 28, 49) compared to control group C. Faecal concentrations of acetic (day 7, 21, 28, 49), acetoacetic (7-49) and valeric acid (14) were higher in contrast to formic acid (day 7-21), which was decreased after the treatment. In blood serum, significantly lower concentrations of triglyceride (day 14) and albumin (day 14, 28, 49) and significantly higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (day 14) and alkaline phosphatase (day 14, 28) were observed in the BA dogs. The phagocytic activity of leukocytes (especially of neutrophils) was higher in dogs after 14-day consumption of B/12 strain (day 14). The results show that many of these effects could also still be recorded several weeks after the treatment period. PMID:24838022

  7. Study on relationships among deep vein thrombosis, homocysteine & related B group vitamins

    PubMed Central

    Ekim, Meral; Ekim, Hasan; Yilmaz, Yunus Keser; Kulah, Bahadir; Polat, M. Fevzi; Gocmen, A. Yesim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Hyperhomocysteinemia has been considered as a potential risk factor for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) but it is still controversy. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with DVT. Our second objective was to document the prevalence of folate, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 level in this patient population. Methods: Sixty patients with DVT aged from 23 to 84 years, were assessed regarding demographic characteristics, serum levels of homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6. The diagnosis of DVT was based upon Wells scoring system and serum D-dimer level and confirmed by deep venous Doppler ultrasonography of the lower limbs. Results: Mean serum homocysteine levels were found significantly higher in patients over the age of 40 years (10.81±4.26 µmol/L vs 9.13±3.23 µmol/L). Of all the patients, 9 patients had homocysteine level above the 15µmol/L, 26 had folic acid level below 3 ng/ml, one had vitamin B12 level below 150 pmol/L, and two had vitamin B6 level below 30 nmol/L. In the hyperhomocysteinemic group, five patients had low folic acid level, one had low vitamin B12 level, and two had low vitamin B6 level. Conclusions: Hyperhomocysteinemia, in women older than 40 years, may be a risk factor for DVT. Folic acid deficiency may also influence serum homocysteine concentrations. Folate therapy may be offered to the patients with DVT. However further studies are required to clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms.

  8. Oral Administration of B Vitamins Increases the Antiallodynic Effect of Gabapentin in the Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerardo Reyes-García; Nadia L. Caram-Salas; Roberto Medina-Santillán; Vinicio Granados-Soto

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the possible synergistic interaction between gabapentin and B- vitamins (100:100:1 of vitamin B1, B6 and B12, respectively) in a neuropathic pain model in the rat. Neuropathic pain was induced by ligation of the left L5 and L6 spinal nerves of female Wistar rats. Tactile allodynia was determined by measuring paw withdrawal in

  9. Dietary intakes and vitamin status of a sample of homeless people in Paris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Malmauret; JCh Leblanc; I Cuvelier; Ph Verger

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine nutritional intake and vitamin status in a sample of homeless people who had been on the streets of Paris for more than 2 y.Design: The nutritional status was evaluated by a 24 h recall questionnaire and by assay of circulating levels of vitamins A, B1, B6, B12, C and E.Setting: The study was conducted in four accommodation

  10. Dose response curve linearization and computer potency calculation of turbidimetric microbiological vitamin assays.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, K; Elfring, G L; Crain, H H; Cole, R J

    1967-03-01

    The dose response curves of various turbidimetric microbiological assays, including vitamin B(12), Ca pantothenate, and pyridoxine (vitamin B(6)), were linear with logarithmic transformation of the responses by use of the equation derived, ln[T(x) - T(infinity)] = ln A - Bx. A Fortran computer program which used the slope ratio potency calculation was written. The assay potencies calculated by the computer program showed excellent agreement with those obtained by the manual calculation. PMID:6029833

  11. Dose Response Curve Linearization and Computer Potency Calculation of Turbidimetric Microbiological Vitamin Assays

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Kiyochi; Elfring, G. L.; Crain, H. H.; Cole, R. J.

    1967-01-01

    The dose response curves of various turbidimetric microbiological assays, including vitamin B12, Ca pantothenate, and pyridoxine (vitamin B6), were linear with logarithmic transformation of the responses by use of the equation derived, ln[T(x) - T(?)] = ln A - Bx. A Fortran computer program which used the slope ratio potency calculation was written. The assay potencies calculated by the computer program showed excellent agreement with those obtained by the manual calculation. PMID:6029833

  12. Liquid-liquid distribution of B group vitamins in polyethylene glycol-based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenman, Ya. I.; Zykov, A. V.; Mokshina, N. Ya.

    2011-05-01

    General regularities of the liquid-liquid distribution of B1, B2, B6, and B12 vitamins in aqueous polyethylene glycol (PEG-2000, PEG-5000) solution-aqueous salt solution systems are studied. The influence of the salting-out agent, the concentration of the polymer, and its molecular weight on the distribution coefficients and recovery factors of the vitamins are considered. Equations relating the distribution coefficients (log D) to the polymer concentration are derived.

  13. Genetic polymorphisms as determinants for disease preventive effects of vitamin E

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymorphisms in genes involved in vitamin E uptake, distribution, metabolism and molecular action may be important determinants for the protective effects of vitamin E supplementation. The haptoglobin 2-2 polymorphism is associated with increased production of oxygen free radicals and the consequen...

  14. Filling the gap of intracellular dephosphorylation in the Plasmodium falciparum vitamin B1 biosynthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Knöckel; Bärbel Bergmann; Ingrid B. Müller; Sushma Rathaur; Rolf D. Walter; Carsten Wrenger

    2008-01-01

    Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), the active form of vitamin B1, is an essential cofactor for several enzymes. Humans depend exclusively on the uptake of vitamin B1, whereas bacteria, plants, fungi and the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are able to synthesise thiamine monophosphate (TMP) de novo. TMP has to be dephosphorylated prior to pyrophosphorylation in order to obtain TPP. In P. falciparum

  15. Relationship Between Urinary Concentrations of Nine Water-soluble Vitamins and their Vitamin Intakes in Japanese Adult Males.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Hirose, Junko; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Excess water-soluble vitamins are thought to be eliminated in the urine. We have reported a strong relationship between water-soluble vitamin intake and urinary excretion in females. The relationship, however, is not well understood in males. In the present experiment, 10 Japanese male subjects were given a standard Japanese diet for the first week. The subjects remained on the same diet, and a synthesized water-soluble vitamin mixture containing one time the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for Japanese was given for the second week, three times the DRIs for the third week, and six times the DRIs for the fourth week. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected each week. Urinary excretion levels for seven of the nine water-soluble vitamin levels, excluding vitamin B12 and folate, increased linearly and sharply in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that measuring urinary water-soluble vitamins can be good nutritional markers for assessing vitamin intakes in humans. PMID:25210461

  16. Relationship Between Urinary Concentrations of Nine Water-soluble Vitamins and their Vitamin Intakes in Japanese Adult Males

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Katsumi; Hirose, Junko; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Excess water-soluble vitamins are thought to be eliminated in the urine. We have reported a strong relationship between water-soluble vitamin intake and urinary excretion in females. The relationship, however, is not well understood in males. In the present experiment, 10 Japanese male subjects were given a standard Japanese diet for the first week. The subjects remained on the same diet, and a synthesized water-soluble vitamin mixture containing one time the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for Japanese was given for the second week, three times the DRIs for the third week, and six times the DRIs for the fourth week. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected each week. Urinary excretion levels for seven of the nine water-soluble vitamin levels, excluding vitamin B12 and folate, increased linearly and sharply in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that measuring urinary water-soluble vitamins can be good nutritional markers for assessing vitamin intakes in humans. PMID:25210461

  17. Vitamin B6

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The RDA for vitamins may be used to help create goals for each person. How much of each vitamin is needed depends on a person's age and gender. Other factors, such as pregnancy and illnesses, are ...

  18. Vitamin A blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    Retinol test ... if you have too much or too little vitamin A in your blood. (These conditions are uncommon in ... normal value means you do not have enough vitamin A in your blood. This may cause: Bone or ...

  19. Vitamin D in Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim Green; Bernard Venn

    \\u000a Suboptimal vitamin D status is common throughout Asia particularly in women and in infants. Vitamin D deficiency rickets is\\u000a endemic in parts of northern Asia. Vitamin D inadequacy may also be contributing to the burden of osteoporosis and other diseases\\u000a in the region. Vitamin D intakes are low in Asia and food fortification is uncommon. In the north cold temperatures

  20. Vitamin D and diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On the basis of evidence from animal and human studies, vitamin D has emerged as a potential risk modifier for type 1 and type 2 diabetes (t1DM and t2DM). Vitamin D is thought to have both direct (through activation of the vitamin D receptor) and indirect (via regulation of calcium homeostasis) eff...

  1. Facts about Vitamin C

    MedlinePLUS

    FCS8702 Facts About Vitamin C1 Linda B. Bobroff and Isabel Valentín-Oquendo2 1. This document is FCS8702, one of a series of the ... for UF/IFAS Extension. Why do we need vitamin C? Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, ...

  2. 42 CFR 52b.12 - What are the minimum requirements of construction and equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...What are the minimum requirements of construction and equipment? 52b.12 Section... NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.12 What are the minimum requirements of construction and equipment? (a)...

  3. [Vitamins and oxidative stress].

    PubMed

    Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Mazo, V K

    2013-01-01

    The central and local stress limiting systems, including the antioxidant defense system involved in defending the organism at the cellular and systemic levels from excess activation response to stress influence, leading to damaging effects. The development of stress, regardless of its nature [cold, increased physical activity, aging, the development of many pathologies (cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, ischemia, the effects of burns), immobilization, hypobaric hypoxia, hyperoxia, radiation effects etc.] leads to a deterioration of the vitamin status (vitamins E, A, C). Damaging effect on the antioxidant defense system is more pronounced compared to the stress response in animals with an isolated deficiency of vitamins C, A, E, B1 or B6 and the combined vitamins deficiency in the diet. Addition missing vitamin or vitamins restores the performance of antioxidant system. Thus, the role of vitamins in adaptation to stressors is evident. However, vitamins C, E and beta-carotene in high doses, significantly higher than the physiological needs of the organism, may be not only antioxidants, but may have also prooxidant properties. Perhaps this explains the lack of positive effects of antioxidant vitamins used in extreme doses for a long time described in some publications. There is no doubt that to justify the current optimal doses of antioxidant vitamins and other dietary antioxidants specially-designed studies, including biochemical testing of initial vitamin and antioxidant status of the organism, as well as monitoring their change over time are required. PMID:24006747

  4. Plasma vitamin, ?-carotene, and ?-tocopherol status according to age and disease in hospitalized elderly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ambroise Tébi; Slimane Belbraouet; Nearkasèn Chau; Gérard Debry

    2000-01-01

    The diseased elderly experience a protein-energy malnutrition. This study assessed the plasma retinol, ? -carotene, ? -tocopherol, vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, C, folate, and biotin status of 668 hospitalized patients aged 70 or more, at their admission to hospital, in reference to 104 healthy elderly of the same age and from the same region. The diseased elderly had reduced

  5. Prevention of haloperidol-induced alterations in brain acetylcholinesterase activity by vitamins B co-administration in a rodent model of tardive dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Gersilene Valente; Gomes, Patrícia Xavier Lima; de Araújo, Fernanda Yvelize Ramos; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes; Júnior, Hélio Vitoriano Nobre; de Sousa, Francisca Cléa Florenço; de Lucena, David F; Hyphantis, Thomas N; Carvalho, André Férrer; Macêdo, Danielle Silveira

    2013-03-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is an iatrogenic syndrome being a significant adverse outcome of typical and atypical antipsychotic therapy. Recently we demonstrated that vitamins B (B1, B6, B12 alone or in combination) were able to prevent haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia (OD) possibly by their antioxidant activity in the striatum, using a well-established model of TD. Here, based on the fact that alterations in cholinergic neurotransmission are related to TD pathophysiology and that vitamins B seems to influence brain cholinergic neurotransmission, we decided to investigate the effects of vitamins B1, B6, B12 and their association, vitamin B cocktail in haloperidol-induced cholinergic alterations, evaluated by alterations in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, in striatum, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, as a way to determine the participation of cholinergic neurotransmission, in these vitamins antidyskinetic mechanism. Haloperidol 1 mg/kg?i.p. daily administration during 21 days to Wistar rats caused OD while decreased AChE activity in all brain areas studied. Vitamins B administration (B1:B6:B12 at 60:60:0.6 mg/kg, s.c) alone and vitamin B cocktail co-administered with haloperidol prevented OD development and increased AChE activity in all brain areas studied, with the maximum activity increment observed in the hippocampus of the animals co-treated with vitamin B12 and vitamin B cocktail. The antidyskinetic drug, clozapine did not induce OD and increased AChE activity similarly to the groups coadministered with vitamin B and HAL. The present data suggest that vitamins B can prevent haloperidol-induced alterations in AChE activity what can be related to the mechanism underlying their antidyskinetic effect. PMID:23095989

  6. Urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins in pregnant and lactating women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Sano, Mitsue; Suzuki, Kahoru; Hiratsuka, Chiaki; Aoki, Asami; Nagai, Chiharu

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins can be used as biomarkers for the nutritional status of these vitamins. To determine changes in the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins during pregnant and lactating stages, we surveyed and compared levels of nine water-soluble vitamins in control (non-pregnant and non-lactating women), pregnant and lactating women. Control women (n=37), women in the 2nd (16-27 wk, n=24) and 3rd trimester of pregnancy (over 28 wk, n=32), and early- (0-5 mo, n=54) and late-stage lactating (6-11 mo, n=49) women took part in the survey. The mean age of subjects was ~30 y, and mean height was ~160 cm. A single 24-h urine sample was collected 1 d after the completion of a validated, self-administered comprehensive diet history questionnaire to measure water-soluble vitamins or metabolites. The average intake of each water-soluble vitamin was ? the estimated average requirement value and adequate intake for the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes in all life stages, except for vitamin B6 and folate intakes during pregnancy. No change was observed in the urinary excretion levels of vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, biotin or vitamin C among stages. Urine nicotinamide and folate levels were higher in pregnant women than in control women. Urine excretion level of vitamin B1 decreased during lactation and that of pantothenic acid decreased during pregnancy and lactation. These results provide valuable information for setting the Dietary Reference Intakes of water-soluble vitamins for pregnant and lactating women. PMID:23883688

  7. Vitamin D and immunity

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Shelley; Geldenhuys, Sian; Hart, Prue H.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to an increased risk of a wide range of adverse health outcomes. The active form of vitamin D has an important role in calcium metabolism and in bone mineralisation, but the evidence for other health outcomes is mixed, with the strongest effects seen in the weakest epidemiological study designs. There are plausible pathways whereby vitamin D deficiency can impair immune function, resulting in both overactivity and increased risk of autoimmune disease, as well as immune suppression with poorer resistance to infection. Vitamin D status may influence the bacterial flora that constitute the microbiome and affect immune function through this route. Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet radiation causes the production of a range of chemicals, including vitamin D, and new research is exploring possible vitamin D-independent immunomodulatory pathways. PMID:25580272

  8. 25-hydroxy vitamin D test

    MedlinePLUS

    25-OH vitamin D test; Calcidiol; 25-hydroxycholecalciferol test ... if you have too much or too little vitamin D in your blood. ... than-normal levels can be due to a vitamin D deficiency, which can result from: Lack of ...

  9. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)

    MedlinePLUS

    Pantothenic acid is a vitamin, also known as vitamin B5. It is widely found in both plants and animals ... Vitamin B5 is commercially available as D-pantothenic acid, as well as dexpanthenol and calcium pantothenate, which ...

  10. [Vitamin D and neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Putz, Zsuzsanna; Martos, Tímea; Németh, Nóra; Körei, Anna Erzsébet; Szabó, Márta; Vági, Orsolya Erzsébet; Kempler, Miklós Soma; Kempler, Péter

    2013-12-22

    Diabetes is a widespread disease and, therefore, studies dealing with diabetes and its complications are very important for public health. Numerous reports link vitamin D deficiency to the increased risk of diabetes mellitus and complications such as neuropathy. However, there are limited and conflicting data available on vitamin D deficiency in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Studies in type 2 diabetics confirmed the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and incidence of neuropathy. Recent reports suggest a relationship between the incidence of plantar ulcers and vitamin D deficiency. PMID:24334132

  11. Vitamins for the first 1000 days: preparing for life.

    PubMed

    Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Meyer, Alexa L

    2012-10-01

    Vitamins are essential nutrients for many body functions and particularly important during growth. Adequate supply in pregnancy and in early infancy is therefore crucial, but there is still a lack of knowledge about the needed amounts of vitamins of children older than six months and also during pregnancy. Recommendations for intake levels are generally derived by extrapolation from data for infants based in turn on the contents in breast milk and those for adults. A vitamin of particular importance in pregnancy is folic acid due to its role in the development of the brain and nerve system and the prevention of fetal neural tube defects (NTD). Mandatory fortification of flour and certain other grain products in many countries has been associated with a reduction in NTD incidence. However, other deficiencies or suboptimal status of B vitamins, especially B6 and B12 have been repeatedly reported in pregnant women also in high-income countries. Vitamin A is one of the three most critical micronutrients globally and pregnant women and young children are especially vulnerable to deficiencies. Night blindness, anemia, and immunodeficiency are major consequences of inadequate supply in these populations. Much attention has recently been accorded vitamin D that is also critical in pregnant women and young children for instance because of its involvement in bone mineralization but also its more recently discovered immune-modulating function that is thought to prevent development of autoimmune diseases like diabetes mellitus type I. A healthy balanced diet provides the best basis for optimal pregnancy outcome, lactation performance, and complementary feeding. However, supplements or fortified foods may be needed to cover the high requirements especially of critical vitamins such as vitamin D and folic acid and to correct unfavorable dietary patterns in women or to adapt foods to the needs of young children. PMID:23798053

  12. Safety of antioxidant vitamins and beta-carotene.

    PubMed

    Diplock, A T

    1995-12-01

    Epidemiologic evidence links high antioxidant status with low risk of degenerative disease. Optimal intakes of antioxidants may not be achievable by diet alone; supplements may be taken, particularly in subgroups of the population at high risk. It is thus necessary to ensure that antioxidant supplements are safe and free from side effects. The toxicity of vitamin E is low; no mutagenic, teratogenic, or carcinogenic effects are known and in double-blind studies in which large amounts of vitamin E were used in humans, no side effects occurred. High concentrations are contraindicated in subjects with vitamin K-associated blood coagulation disorders, and the toxicity in normal subjects ingesting large amounts of vitamin E over long periods requires additional investigation. Toxicity of beta-carotene also is low. Evidence from human toxicity trials is not available but there is much circumstantial evidence that 15-50 mg/d is without side effects except for hypercarotenemia in some subjects at high intakes. The findings of more lung cancer in subjects who smoked and who were given 20 mg beta-carotene/d than in those given a placebo could be influenced by the cancer being well advanced before beta-carotene administration. Massive anecdotal evidence exists that vitamin C (at > or = 1 g/d) is safe. Exhaustive literature searches have failed to reveal a controlled study of vitamin C toxicity in human subjects. Anxiety exists about oxalate stone formation, uricosuria, vitamin B-12 destruction, mutagenicity, and iron overload, but the consensus is that adverse effects do not occur in healthy subjects ingesting large amounts of vitamin C. PMID:7495252

  13. Evidence for a protective (synergistic?) effect of B-vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A de Bree; L I Mennen; S Hercberg; P Galan

    2004-01-01

    The results of dietary intervention trials favor the hypothesis that higher intakes of B-vitamins (folate, vitamin B6 and B12), and subsequently lower total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations, are causally associated with a decreased risk of vascular disease in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The same is true for a higher intake of omega-3 fish fatty acids. Yet, the lack of hard

  14. Vitamin supplementation reduces blood homocysteine levels: a controlled trial in patients with venous thrombosis and healthy volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. R. Rosendaal; Ingeborg A. Brouwer; Gerard M. J. Bos; Henk J. Blom; Anja P. Spaans; Chris M. G. Thomas; Hans L. Haak; Pierre W. Wijermans; Wim B. J. Gerrits

    1998-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and thrombosis and is inversely related to plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels. We assessed the effects of vitamin supplementation on plasma homocysteine levels in 89 patients with a history of recurrent venous thrombosis and 227 healthy volunteers. Patients and hyperhomocysteinemic (homocysteine level .16 mmol\\/L) volunteers were randomized to placebo or high-dose multivitamin

  15. The Role of B-Vitamins in Bone Health and Disease in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Regan L; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P

    2015-08-01

    The risk of osteoporosis and bone fractures increases with age. Several other factors are also related to bone disease including gender, race/ethnicity, physical activity, alcohol, smoking, estrogen, and calcium and vitamin D. B-vitamins (folate, B12, and B6) are also emerging dietary factors related to bone health, both individually and through their action on influencing total plasma homocysteine concentrations (tHcy). The primary objective of this review is to summarize the available data on B-vitamins and bone health, highlighting clinical trials and observational data. In populations without folic acid fortification, the totality of evidence suggests that elevated tHcy has a small but significant association with bone fracture risk and bone quality but not on bone mineral density (BMD) or bone turnover biomarkers. Very little supportive evidence exists for a direct role of folate for either BMD or fracture risk; however, the data available are quite limited. Meta-analyses and some cross-sectional and cohort studies suggest a small but significant role of vitamin B12 status on risk of fracture but not on BMD. The mechanism by which tHcy and B12 may influence bone health is not well characterized but may be through modulation of collagen cross-linking or through altering osteoclasts or osteoblasts. Much more data are needed-particularly the role that each vitamin directly has on bone, or whether the vitamins only exert their effect though tHcy concentrations. Nevertheless, consistent findings across different populations with different study designs suggest a role for tHcy and B12 in reducing fracture risk. PMID:26017584

  16. Sunlight and Vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Wacker, Matthias; Holick, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is the sunshine vitamin that has been produced on this earth for more than 500 million years. During exposure to sunlight 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin absorbs UV B radiation and is converted to previtamin D3 which in turn isomerizes into vitamin D3. Previtamin D3 and vitamin D3 also absorb UV B radiation and are converted into a variety of photoproducts some of which have unique biologic properties. Sun induced vitamin D synthesis is greatly influenced by season, time of day, latitude, altitude, air pollution, skin pigmentation, sunscreen use, passing through glass and plastic, and aging. Vitamin D is metabolized sequentially in the liver and kidneys into 25-hydroxyvitamin D which is a major circulating form and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D which is the biologically active form respectively. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D plays an important role in regulating calcium and phosphate metabolism for maintenance of metabolic functions and for skeletal health. Most cells and organs in the body have a vitamin D receptor and many cells and organs are able to produce 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. As a result 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D influences a large number of biologic pathways which may help explain association studies relating vitamin D deficiency and living at higher latitudes with increased risk for many chronic diseases including autoimmune diseases, some cancers, cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, schizophrenia and type 2 diabetes. A three-part strategy of increasing food fortification programs with vitamin D, sensible sun exposure recommendations and encouraging ingestion of a vitamin D supplement when needed should be implemented to prevent global vitamin D deficiency and its negative health consequences. PMID:24494042

  17. Photoprotective potential of lycopene, beta-carotene, vitamin E, vitamin C and carnosic acid in UVA-irradiated human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Offord, Elizabeth A; Gautier, Jean-Charles; Avanti, Ornella; Scaletta, Corinne; Runge, Frank; Krämer, Klaus; Applegate, Lee Ann

    2002-06-15

    The photoprotective potential of the dietary antioxidants vitamin C, vitamin E, lycopene, beta-carotene, and the rosemary polyphenol, carnosic acid, was tested in human dermal fibroblasts exposed to ultraviolet-A (UVA) light. The carotenoids were prepared in special nanoparticle formulations together with vitamin C and/or vitamin E. Nanoparticle formulations, in contrast to dimethylsulphoxide, stablized lycopene in the cell culture medium and allowed efficient cellular uptake. The presence of vitamin E in the formulation further increased the stability and cellular uptake of lycopene. UVA irradiation of the human skin fibroblasts led to a 10-15-fold rise in metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) mRNA. This rise was suppressed in the presence of low microM concentrations of vitamin E, vitamin C, or carnosic acid but not with beta-carotene or lycopene. Indeed, in the presence of 0.5-1.0 microM beta-carotene or lycopene, the UVA-induced MMP-1 mRNA was further increased by 1.5-2-fold. This increase was totally suppressed when vitamin E was included in the nanoparticle formulation. Heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) mRNA expression was strongly induced by UVA irradiation but none of the antioxidants inhibited this effect at the concentrations used in this study. Indeed, beta-carotene or lycopene (0.5-1.0 microM) led to a further 1.5-fold rise in the UVA-induced HO-1 mRNA levels. In conclusion, vitamin C, vitamin E, and carnosic acid showed photoprotective potential. Lycopene and beta-carotene did not protect on their own but in the presence of vitamin E, their stability in culture was improved and the rise in MMP-1 mRNA expression was suppressed, suggesting a requirement for antioxidant protection of the carotenoids against formation of oxidative derivatives that can influence the cellular and molecular responses. PMID:12057767

  18. Influence of Co and B12 on the growth and nitrogen fixation of Trichodesmium

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Irene B.; Ho, Tung-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the influence of varying cobalt (Co) and B12 concentrations to growth and nitrogen fixation of Trichodesmium, a major diazotroph in the tropical and subtropical oligotrophic ocean. Here we show that sufficient inorganic Co, 20 pmol L-1, sustains the growth of Trichodesmium either with or without an additional B12 supply. We also found that in these culture conditions, nitrogen levels fixed by Trichodesmium were higher in treatments with insufficient B12 than in treatments with higher B12 availability. Under limited inorganic Co availability, ranging from 0.2 to 2 pmol L-1, Trichodesmium growth was significantly compromised in cultures without B12. In these low Co concentrations, addition of 400 pmol L-1 of B12 supported phytoplankton growth indicating that B12 supply augmented for the low Co concentrations. Our study demonstrates that Trichodesmium has an absolute Co requirement, which is not replaceable with Zn, and that B12 supply alleviates stress in cases where Co is limiting. These results show that the interlocking availabilities of Co and B12 may influence the growth and nitrogen fixation of Trichodesmium in the ocean. PMID:26150813

  19. Vitamin C in Cuscuta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gertraud Walzel

    1952-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Die parasitierenden Stengel vonCuscuta Gronovii sind in den Partien in der Nähe der Haustorien chlorophyllfrei oder -arm und enthalten dort nur wenig Vitamin C, in weiterer Entfernung von den Haustorien sind die Stengelpartien dagegen relativ reich an Chlorophyll und Ascorbinsäure. Bei der Reifung derCuscuta- Samen nimmt der Vitamin-C-Gehalt ab.

  20. Update in Vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Adams, John S.; Hewison, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The past decade, particularly the last 18 months, witnessed a vigorous increase in interest in vitamin D from both the lay and biomedical worlds. Much of the growing interest in vitamin D is powered by new data being extracted from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The newest statistics demonstrate that more than 90% of the pigmented populace of the United States (Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians) now suffer from vitamin D insufficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D <30 ng/ml), with nearly three fourths of the white population in this country also being vitamin D insufficient. This represents a near doubling of the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency seen just 10 yr ago in the same population. This review attempts to provide some explanation for: 1) the rapid decline in vitamin D status in the United States; 2) the adverse impact of vitamin D insufficiency on skeletal, infectious/inflammatory, and metabolic health in humans; and 3) the therapeutic rationale and reliable means for vigorous supplementation of our diets with vitamin D. PMID:20133466

  1. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adequate intakes of vitamin D and calcium are essential preventative measures and essential components of any therapeutic regimen for osteoporosis. Vitamin D is also important for the prevention of falls. Current evidence suggests that a 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 75 nmol/L (30 ng/ml) or higher ...

  2. VITAMINS AND MINERALS

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Hughes

    2006-03-05

    DESK Standard: Specify key vitamins and minerals and their functions. . DATES: You can begin this activity on May 21. You should complete it by May 25. OBJECTIVE: A healthy body needs vitamins and minerals. You\\'ve probably heard these words before, but do you really know what they mean? This activity will help you better understand the ...

  3. Vitamin B12, antibiotics and unidentified factors in the nutrition of the turkey poult and mature chicken

    E-print Network

    Reid, Bobby Leroy

    1952-01-01

    - ful substitution of methionine for part of the choline requirement of chicks appears to be limited to those functions of methylation where e1ther chol1ne or meth1onine could serve as a methyl donor. Jukes ('4l) demonstrated that betaine, like... methionine, can spare choline by servinp as a methyl donor. Betaine can not adequately serve as a orecursor for choline synthesize in the chi ck. Gillie and Norris ( 'Sl) reported growth resnonses due to either betaine or choline supplements in &%hite...

  4. Methionine, folic acid, vitamin B b12 sand unidentified factors in the nutrition of the growing chick

    E-print Network

    Welch, Billy E

    1951-01-01

    of the interrelationship of methionine, cystine ~ choline and betaine in avian metabolism can hardly be ever-looked. at this point. Methionine can be utilized. as a precursor of cystine in the body~ howevers this biosynthesis of cystine from methionine ean be spared... prevention~ Zukes (1941) demonstrated that betaine, like methionine ~ can spars choline by assuming its role as a methyl donor, but that this compound cannot adequotely serve as a precursor for choline synthesis in the chick. Hayward and Pwfner (1941...

  5. TRANSFORMATION OF CARBON TETRACHLORIDE BY REDUCED VITAMIN B12 IN AQUEOUS CYSTEINE SOLUTION. (R825689C073)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  6. Vitamin B12, antibiotics and unidentified factors in the nutrition of the turkey poult and mature chicken 

    E-print Network

    Reid, Bobby Leroy

    1952-01-01

    of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of NASTEF{ OF SCIEtiCE ilia )or Sub]ect: Biochemistry and Nutrition 19&2 VITAPIN BIB, ANTI BIC'TICS AND UNIDFNTIFIFD FACTORS IN TLE NDTRITION OF' TVF. TrPNL'v PODLT AND li'A7'JhE CHI..., the problem of poultry nutrition would become fairly simple. Antibiotics have also been shown to have a stimulatory effect on the growth rate of chicks. The mode of action of these substances is not yet clear. The effect Is thought to be an indirect one...

  7. Reduction of the genomic damage level in haemodialysis patients by folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helga Stopper; Anna-Teresa Treutlein; Udo Bahner; Nicole Schupp; Andreas Brink; Alessandra Perna

    Background. Cancer incidence and genomic damage of peripheral lymphocytes are elevated in patients with end- stage renal failure. Among other uraemic toxins, homocys- teine (Hcy) levels are increased in most of these patients. In healthy individuals, plasma Hcy correlates with the degree of genomic damage observed in peripheral blood lympho- cytes (PBL). The accumulation of Hcy can be reduced by

  8. The vitamin K cycle.

    PubMed

    Stafford, D W

    2005-08-01

    Post-translational modification of glutamate to gamma carboxyl glutamate is required for the activity of vitamin K-dependent proteins. Carboxylation is accomplished by the enzyme gamma glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) which requires the propeptide-containing substrate and three co-substrates: reduced vitamin K, CO2, and O2. Most propeptides bind tightly to GGCX and all of the Glu residues that will be modified are modified during one binding event. Complete carboxylation is thus dependent upon the rate of carboxylation and the dissociation rate constant of the substrate from the GGCX enzyme. If the propeptide is released before carboxylation is complete, partially carboxylated vitamin K-dependent proteins are produced. The rate of carboxylation is mainly controlled by the level of reduced vitamin K available for the reactions while the dissociation rate constant is dependent upon both the propeptide and the Gla domain of the substrate. In addition, there are allosteric effects that increase the rate of dissociation of the fully carboxylated substrates. Carboxylation requires the abstraction of a proton from the 4-carbon of glutamate by reduced vitamin K and results in the conversion of vitamin K to vitamin K epoxide. The vitamin K epoxide must be recycled to vitamin K before it can be reused, a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR). The gene for VKOR has recently been identified but the enzyme itself has not been purified to homogeneity. It appears, however, that most of the variability observed in patients response to warfarin may be attributed to variability in the VKOR gene. PMID:16102054

  9. Vitamin D Status and Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Frances Picciano

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D is a unique nutrient in that it is actually a prohormone obtained by endogenous synthesis from sun exposure on 7-dehydrocholesterol in skin and from certain foods and dietary supplements. Endogenous synthesis produces cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and is transported to the liver bound to the vitamin D-binding protein (DBP). In foods and dietary supplements, vitamin D exists either as

  10. Modifying effects of vitamin e on chlorpyrifos toxicity in atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Olsvik, Pål A; Berntssen, Marc H G; Søfteland, Liv

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate how vitamin E (alpha tocopherol) may ameliorate the toxicity of the pesticide chlorpyrifos in Atlantic salmon. Freshly isolated hepatocytes were exposed to vitamin E, chlorpyrifos or a combination of vitamin E and chlorpyrifos (all 100 ?M). Transcriptomics (RNA-seq) and metabolomics were used to screen for effects of vitamin E and chlorpyrifos. By introducing vitamin E, the number of upregulated transcripts induced by chlorpyrifos exposure was reduced from 941 to 626, while the number of downregulated transcripts was reduced from 901 to 742 compared to the control. Adding only vitamin E had no effect on the transcriptome. Jak-STAT signaling was the most significantly affected pathway by chlorpyrifos treatment according to the transcriptomics data. The metabolomics data showed that accumulation of multiple long chain fatty acids and dipeptides and amino acids in chlorpyrifos treated cells was partially alleviated by vitamin E treatment. Significant interaction effects between chlorpyrifos and vitamin E were seen for 15 metabolites, including 12 dipeptides. The antioxidant had relatively modest effects on chlorpyrifos-induced oxidative stress. By combining the two data sets, the study suggests that vitamin E supplementation prevents uptake and accumulation of fatty acids, and counteracts inhibited carbohydrate metabolism. Overall, this study shows that vitamin E only to a moderate degree modifies chlorpyrifos toxicity in Atlantic salmon liver cells. PMID:25774794

  11. Vitamin D and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    MITRI, JOANNA; PITTAS, ANASTASSIOS G.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis There has been increasing evidence suggesting that vitamin D may play an important role in modifying risk of diabetes. In this regard, Vitamin D has both direct and indirect effects, the latter via regulation of calcium effects on various mechanisms related to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, including pancreatic beta cell dysfunction, impaired insulin action and systemic inflammation. The human evidence comes primarily from many cross-sectional and prospective observational studies, most of which showed an inverse association between vitamin D status and prevalence or incidence of type 2 diabetes. The effect of vitamin D supplementation on glycemia or incident type 2 diabetes has been reported in several trials with mixed results. The present article describes the biological plausibility behind the potential association between vitamin D and type 2 diabetes and summarizes the current evidence supporting a relation between vitamin D and type 2 diabetes and briefly reports on the potential association between vitamin D and type 1 diabetes. PMID:24582099

  12. Quantification of chromatographic effects of vitamin B supplementation in urine and implications for hydration assessment.

    PubMed

    Kenefick, Robert W; Heavens, K R; Dennis, W E; Caruso, E M; Guerriere, K I; Charkoudian, N; Cheuvront, S N

    2015-07-15

    Changes in body water elicit reflex adjustments at the kidney, thus maintaining fluid volume homeostasis. These renal adjustments change the concentration and color of urine, variables that can, in turn, be used as biomarkers of hydration status. It has been suggested that vitamin supplementation alters urine color; it is unclear whether any such alteration would confound hydration assessment via colorimetric evaluation. We tested the hypothesis that overnight vitamin B2 and/or B12 supplementation alters urine color as a marker of hydration status. Thirty healthy volunteers were monitored during a 3-day euhydrated baseline, confirmed via first morning nude body mass, urine specific gravity, and urine osmolality. Volunteers then randomly received B2 (n = 10), B12 (n = 10), or B2 + B12 (n = 10) at ?200 × recommended dietary allowance. Euhydration was verified on trial days (two of the following: body mass ± 1.0% of the mean of visits 1-3, urine specific gravity < 1.02, urine osmolality < 700 mmol/kg). Vitamin purity and urinary B2 concentration ([B2]) and [B12] were quantified via ultraperformance liquid chromatography. Two independent observers assessed urine color using an eight-point standardized color chart. Following supplementation, urinary [B2] was elevated; however, urine color was not different between nonsupplemented and supplemented trials. For example, in the B2 trial, urinary [B2] increased from 8.6 × 10(4) ± 7.7 × 10(4) to 5.7 × 10(6) ± 5.3 × 10(6) nmol/l (P < 0.05), and urine color went from 4 ± 1 to 5 ± 1 (P > 0.05). Both conditions met the euhydrated color classification. We conclude that a large overnight dose of vitamins B2 and B12 does not confound assessment of euhydrated status via urine color. PMID:25977447

  13. Vitamin D4 in Mushrooms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine M. Phillips; Ronald L. Horst; Nicholas J. Koszewski; Ryan R. Simon

    2012-01-01

    An unknown vitamin D compound was observed in the HPLC-UV chromatogram of edible mushrooms in the course of analyzing vitamin D2 as part of a food composition study and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be vitamin D4 (22-dihydroergocalciferol). Vitamin D4 was quantified by HPLC with UV detection, with vitamin [3H] itamin D3 as an internal standard. White button, crimini,

  14. Supplementation of folic acid and vitamin B?? reduces plasma levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiao-Shuang; Li, Xin; Wang, Lin; Wang, Ji-Zuo; Ma, Jin-Ping; Wu, Cun-Jin

    2014-09-01

    Increased levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) have been observed in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We aimed to investigate the correlation between ADMA and ischemic stroke, and evaluate the effect of supplementation of folic acid and vitamin B12 on concentrations of ADMA. Patients were randomized into intervention and non-intervention groups within 3 days after symptom onset. Intervention group patients were treated with folic acid (5mg daily) and vitamin B12 (500 ?g twice daily) for 12 weeks. ADMA and homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations were measured before treatment (baseline) and 2 and 12 weeks after treatment. The laboratory measures were also collected from healthy controls. Eighty five subjects were enrolled in this study, from whom 72 with complete baseline and follow-up laboratory data were included in the present analysis. Thirty four patients were assigned to the intervention group and 38 patients to the non-intervention group. Sixty people were enrolled as healthy controls. Levels of ADMA and Hcy were raised (p<0.05) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. With supplementation of both folic acid and vitamin B12, the levels of ADMA and Hcy decreased significantly at 2 and 12 weeks (p<0.05). The present study reconfirmed that ADMA can be regarded as a risk biomarker for acute ischemic stroke. We observed that with supplementation of folic acid and vitamin B12, levels of ADMA were decreased in patients with acute ischemic stroke. PMID:24814858

  15. TREATMENT OF ACUTE LUMBAGO; LOW DOSE DICLOFENAC SODIUM WITH VITAMIN-B COMPLEX COMPARED WITH DICLOFENAC ALONE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TAHIR AHMAD KHAN; ASHER AHMAD; IRFAN ZAFAR HAIDER

    Objective: To determine whether concomitant use of vitamins B1, B6, B12 along with low dose of diclofenac sodium causes quicker pain relief in patients of acute lumbago compared with diclofenac sodium alone. Design: A randomized clinical trial. Setting: Surgical Department of C M H Attock. Period: From September 2004 to August 2005 Patients & Methods: A total of 50 patients

  16. The effect of high levels of fat, choline, vitamin B12, and vitamin E on the occurrence of fatty livers in caged layers

    E-print Network

    Smith, Daniel Newton

    1959-01-01

    ??? ????? ??? ?? ??????? ?? ? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ????? l?? ?????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ?^2 ??? ?????????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ?r????? ? ) 0 ??? ?? ??? ???????????? ????? ???? ???????????? ???? 3...

  17. Vitamin D Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... produce excess amounts of vitamin D, such as sarcoidosis or some forms of lymphoma (because immune cells ... hormone or when there are diseases, such as sarcoidosis or some lymphomas , that can make 1,25- ...

  18. Vitamin food fortification today

    PubMed Central

    de Lourdes Samaniego-Vaesken, Maria; Alonso-Aperte, Elena; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2012-01-01

    Historically, food fortification has served as a tool to address population-wide nutrient deficiencies such as rickets by vitamin D fortified milk. This article discusses the different policy strategies to be used today. Mandatory or voluntary fortification and fortified foods, which the consumer needs, also have to comply with nutritional, regulatory, food safety and technical issues. The ‘worldwide map of vitamin fortification’ is analysed, including differences between develop and developing countries. The vitamins, folate and vitamin D, are taken as practical examples in the review of the beneficial effect of different strategies on public health. The importance of the risk–benefit aspect, as well as how to identify the risk groups, and the food vehicles for fortification is discussed. PMID:22481896

  19. Vitamin D physiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Lips

    2006-01-01

    Vitamin D3 is synthesized in the skin during summer under the influence of ultraviolet light of the sun, or it is obtained from food, especially fatty fish. After hydroxylation in the liver into 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and kidney into 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), the active metabolite can enter the cell, bind to the vitamin D-receptor and subsequently to a responsive gene

  20. Vitamin D Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Alshishtawy, Moeness Moustafa

    2012-01-01

    Recently, scientists have generated a strong body of evidence providing new information about the preventive effect of vitamin D on a broad range of disorders. This evidence suggests that vitamin D is much more than a nutrient needed for bone health; it is an essential hormone required for regulation of a large number of physiological functions. Sufficient concentration of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is essential for optimising human health. This article reviews the present state-of-the-art knowledge about vitamin D’s status worldwide and refers to recent articles discussing some of the general background of vitamin D, including sources, benefits, deficiencies, and dietary requirements, especially in pregnancy. They offer evidence that vitamin D deficiency could be a major public health burden in many parts of the world, mostly because of sun deprivation. The article also discusses the debate about optimal concentration of circulating serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and explores different views on the amount of vitamin D supplementation required to achieve and maintain this concentration. PMID:22548132