Sample records for vitamin b12 uptake

  1. Vitamin B-12

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Vitamin B-12 Vitamin B-12 What is vitamin B-12? Vitamin B-12 is an important vitamin that you usually get from your ... in fish, shellfish, meat and dairy products. Vitamin B-12 helps make red blood cells and DNA, ...

  2. MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL VITAMIN B12 AND HOLOTRANSCOBALAMIN, SINGLY AND IN COBMINATION, IN SCREENING FOR METABOLIC VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The standard screening test for vitamin B12 deficiency, measurement of total plasma vitamin B12, has limitations of sensitivity and specificity. Plasma vitamin B12 bound to transcobalamin (holoTC) is the fraction of total vitamin B12 available for tissue uptake and therefore has been pro...

  3. Bioavailability of vitamin B12

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in people of all ages who consume a low intake of animal-source foods, including populations in developing countries. It is also prevalent among the elderly, even in wealthier countries, due to their malabsorption of B12 from food. Several methods have been applied t...

  4. A water soluble vitamin B12-ReI fluorescent conjugate for cell uptake screens: use in the confirmation of cubilin in the lung cancer line A549.

    PubMed

    Vortherms, Anthony R; Kahkoska, Anna R; Rabideau, Amy E; Zubieta, Jon; Andersen, Louise Lund; Madsen, Mette; Doyle, Robert P

    2011-09-21

    A water soluble vitamin B(12)-rhenium conjugate was synthesized and used in concert with intrinsic factor to screen for cubilin receptor-mediated uptake in lung cancer cells. Internalization of the conjugate demonstrated that it could be used to rapidly screen for the cubilin receptor in living cells, subsequently confirmed with Western blotting and RT-PCR. PMID:21818500

  5. Penicillin and Vitamin B12

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The WebWare Molecules for July are mentioned in the article "The History of Molecular Structure Determination Viewed through the Nobel Prizes", by Jensen, Palenik, and Suh. One of the recipients discussed, Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin, won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in part for determining the structures of penicillin and vitamin B12.

  6. Vitamin B12 sources and bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Fumio

    2007-11-01

    The usual dietary sources of vitamin B(12) are animal foods, meat, milk, egg, fish, and shellfish. As the intrinsic factor-mediated intestinal absorption system is estimated to be saturated at about 1.5-2.0 microg per meal under physiologic conditions, vitamin B(12) bioavailability significantly decreases with increasing intake of vitamin B(12) per meal. The bioavailability of vitamin B(12) in healthy humans from fish meat, sheep meat, and chicken meat averaged 42%, 56%-89%, and 61%-66%, respectively. Vitamin B(12) in eggs seems to be poorly absorbed (< 9%) relative to other animal food products. In the Dietary Reference Intakes in the United States and Japan, it is assumed that 50% of dietary vitamin B(12) is absorbed by healthy adults with normal gastro-intestinal function. Some plant foods, dried green and purple lavers (nori) contain substantial amounts of vitamin B(12), although other edible algae contained none or only traces of vitamin B(12). Most of the edible blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) used for human supplements predominantly contain pseudovitamin B(12), which is inactive in humans. The edible cyanobacteria are not suitable for use as vitamin B(12) sources, especially in vegans. Fortified breakfast cereals are a particularly valuable source of vitamin B(12) for vegans and elderly people. Production of some vitamin B(12)-enriched vegetables is also being devised. PMID:17959839

  7. Vitamin B12 and Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background More than 2.9 million serum vitamin B12 tests were performed in 2010 in Ontario at a cost of $40 million. Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with a few neurocognitive disorders. Objective To determine the clinical utility of B12 testing in patients with suspected dementia or cognitive decline. Methods Three questions were addressed: Is there an association between vitamin B12 deficiency and the onset of dementia or cognitive decline? Does treatment with vitamin B12 supplementation improve cognitive function in patients with dementia or cognitive decline and vitamin B12 deficiency? What is the effectiveness of oral versus parenteral vitamin B12 supplementation in those with confirmed vitamin B12 deficiency? A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Embase, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database, from January 2002 until August 2012. Results Eighteen studies (7 systematic reviews and 11 observational studies) were identified to address the question of the association between B12 and the onset of dementia. Four systematic reviews were identified to address the question of the treatment of B12 on cognitive function. Finally, 3 randomized controlled trials were identified that compared oral B12 to intramuscular B12. Conclusions Based on very low quality evidence, there does appear to be an association between elevated plasma homocysteine levels (a by-product of B vitamins) and the onset of dementia. Based on moderate quality evidence, but with less than optimal duration of follow-up, treatment with B12 supplementation does not appreciably change cognitive function. Based on low to moderate quality of evidence, treatment with vitamin B12 and folate in patients with mild cognitive impairment seems to slow the rate of brain atrophy. Based on moderate quality evidence, oral vitamin B12 is as effective as parenteral vitamin B12 in patients with confirmed B12 deficiency. Plain Language Summary Low levels of vitamin B12 have been associated with neurocognitive disorders. This evidence-based analysis assessed the usefulness of serum vitamin B12 testing as it relates to brain function. This review found very low quality evidence that suggests a connection between high plasma homocysteine levels (a by-product of B vitamin metabolism in the body) and the onset of dementia. Moderate quality of evidence indicates treatment with vitamin B12 does not improve brain function. Moderate quality of evidence also indicates treatment using oral vitamin B12 supplements is as effective as injections of vitamin B12. PMID:24379897

  8. Treatment of Neuroblastoma with Vitamin B12

    PubMed Central

    Langman, M. J. S.

    1970-01-01

    A retrospective study of treatment given to 108 children with neuroblastoma failed to confirm that vitamin B12 therapy is beneficial. 43 of 47 children whose treatment did not include vitamin B12 are known to have died, compared with 56 of 61 children who received the vitamin in addition to other treatments. 2 children who received vitamin B12 as their only treatment were alive and well six years later, but this apparently favourable response could well be ascribed to spontaneous remission of the tumour. PMID:5427853

  9. Generalised hyperpigmentation in vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Santra, Gouranga; Paul, Rudrajit; Ghosh, Sumit Kr; Chakraborty, Debojyoti; Das, Shubhabrata; Pradhan, Sourav; Das, Abhishek

    2014-08-01

    In developing countries like India, nutritional deficiencies are prevalent and hyperpigmentation due to protein energy malnutrition, zinc deficiency and pellagra are common. Indian women, especially vegetarian are prone to vitamin B12 deficiency. Vitamin B12 deficiency can present as anaemia, neurological defect, gastrointestinal symptoms or dementia. Hyperpigmentation as the first presentation of Vitamin B12 deficiency is rare. Our patient, a 45 year-old Hindu vegetarian female presented to us with generalized hyperpigmentation. Examination revealed associated anaemia and peripheral neuropathy. Laboratory investigation confirmed vitamin B12 deficiency. Clinical features along with hyperpigmentation improved with vitamin B12 supplementation. We report this case to highlight this rare manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency. A high index of clinical suspicion is warranted to diagnose the case. Since India is a country with a large number of potential vitamin B12 deficiency cases, the physicians need to be aware of all the varied manifestations of this vitamin deficiency. In case of hyperpigmentation, nutritional aspect must be ruled out as it is reversible. Early replacement therapy may also help to prevent morbidities like dementia and neuropathy. PMID:25856944

  10. Assay for vitamin B12 absorption and method of making labeled vitamin B12

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Peter J. (Davis, CA); Dueker, Stephen (Davis, CA); Miller, Joshua (Davis, CA); Green, Ralph (Elmacero, CA); Roth, John (Davis, CA); Carkeet, Colleen (Silver Spring, MD); Buchholz,; Bruce A. (Orinda, CA)

    2012-06-19

    The invention provides methods for labeling vitamin B12 with .sup.14C, .sup.13C, tritium, and deuterium. When radioisotopes are used, the invention provides for methods of labeling B12 with high specific activity. The invention also provides labeled vitamin B12 compositions made in accordance with the invention.

  11. Molecular Structure of Vitamin B12

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-13

    Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) has many uses as a nutritional supplement in both humans and livestock. It is used in humans to treat pernicious anemia, hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver, and to help maintain the body's metabolism. In its long-effect form (hydroxocobalamin), vitamin B12 is used to treat anemia, growth impediment, improvement in the function of the heart, liver, kidneys and nerves, and general strengthening of the body. In livestock, it is used to improve feed production.

  12. Placental transport of vitamin B12 in the pregnant rat

    PubMed Central

    Graber, Stanley E.; Scheffel, Ursula; Hodkinson, Barbara; McIntyre, Patricia A.

    1971-01-01

    Placental transport of vitamin B12 was studied in the pregnant rat in two series of experiments. In the first series animals were given cyanocobalamin-57Co intravenously at various stages of gestation. High specific activity tracer was used and doses of B12 were 1-2 ng per animal. The rats were killed from 15 min to 24 hr after injection and the fetuses, placentas, and serum were assayed for radioactivity. In the second series using uninjected animals, absolute amounts of vitamin B12 in fetuses and placentas were measured at stages of gestation from day 12 through day 20. There was a progressive increase in B12 transferred to the fetus during gestation. Although the quantity of vitamin B12 transported per 24 hr was proportional to fetal weight, the amount transported per gram of placenta increased tenfold from day 10 through day 19. Uptake of tracer B12 by placenta was initially rapid; however, no radioactivity appeared in the fetus until 2 hr after injection. The actual amount of B12 in placenta increased throughout gestation, and the placental concentration of B12 was greater than maternal plasma and fetal tissue concentrations at all times measured. These data suggest that the ability of placenta to transport B12 increased throughout gestation, and that the rate-limiting step in the transport process was either the passage of B12 from the maternal to the fetal side of placenta or the transfer from placenta into fetal plasma. PMID:5552402

  13. Vitamin B12 deficiency: the great masquerader.

    PubMed

    Dobrozsi, Sarah; Flood, Veronica H; Panepinto, Julie; Scott, J Paul; Brandow, Amanda

    2014-04-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is rare in children, with nonspecific symptoms including failure to thrive, vomiting, anorexia, and neurologic changes with or without hematologic disturbances. The neuropathy can be severe and irreversible. We report four cases of children with B12 deficiency secondary to adult type pernicious anemia, a presumed transport protein abnormality, and a metabolic defect. All demonstrated neurologic compromise that improved after initiation of B12 therapy. Hematologic manifestations may be preceded by constitutional, gastrointestinal, or neurologic changes, and must raise concern for B12 deficiency. Therapy should be initiated promptly in this setting to prevent irreversible neuropathy. PMID:24115632

  14. Enhancement of chemiluminescence for vitamin B 12 analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sagaya Selva Kumar; Raghuraj Singh Chouhan; Munna Singh Thakur

    2009-01-01

    In the current article, chemiluminescence (CL) from the vitamin B12 and luminol reaction was studied under alkaline conditions to develop a sensitive analytical method for vitamin B12 using the carbonate enhancement effect. The method was successfully applied to the determination of vitamin B12 in vitamin B12 tablets, multivitamin capsules, and vitamin B12 injections. Experimental parameters were optimized, including luminol concentration,

  15. Orthostatic tolerance in older patients with vitamin B12 deficiency before and after vitamin B12 replacement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan Moore; Jude Ryan; Michael Watts; Isweri Pillay; David Clinch; Declan Lyons

    2004-01-01

    Orthostatic hypotension (OH) and vitamin B12 deficiency are common disorders in older people. Several case series have reported an association between vitamin B12 deficiency and OH. The effect of vitamin B12 replacement on this dysfunction has not been studied. We prospectively studied responses to head up tilt in patients over 70 years with vitamin B12 deficiency (intervention group) and compared

  16. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12 . (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12 . (b) Conditions of use....

  18. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12 . (b) Conditions of use....

  19. Radiolysis of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B 12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juanchi, X.; Albarran, G.; Negron-Mendoza, A.

    2000-03-01

    Research on the radiolysis of vitamins is of considerable interest since these compounds are important nutritional constituents in foods and in dietetic supplements. In spite of these considerations there are few data and very often difficult to compare for the radiolytic behavior of vitamins. In this work we focused our attention on to the study of the radiolysis of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B 12) in solid state and in aqueous solutions. The procedure was followed by HPLC and UV-spectroscopy. The results obtained in aqueous solutions showed a dependence of the decomposition as a linear function of the dose. The G of decomposition for a 1×10 -5 M solution was 3.3. In the solid state the vitamin was very stable towards the irradiation in the conditions used in this study with a G=2.1×10 -3. A study made with Serratia marcescens as a microbiological contaminant showed that at the sterilization dose there is a destruction of the vitamin in aqueous solution. In the solid state the degree of decomposition was 7%.

  20. Factors affecting formiminoglutamic acid excretion in vitamin B12 deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Marston, Hedley R.; Allen, Shirley H.

    1970-01-01

    1. Formiminoglutamic acid, a product of the catabolism of histidine, is excreted in abnormally large amounts in the urines of vitamin B12-deficient rats and of vitamin B12-deficient sheep; the excretion is reduced to negligible amounts after administration of vitamin B12. 2. After administration of certain methyl donors to vitamin B12-deficient rats or sheep urinary excretion of formiminoglutamic acid is temporarily decreased. 3. Irrespective of the pteroylglutamic acid status of the animals neither vitamin B12-deficient rats nor vitamin B12-deficient sheep have the ability to deal efficiently with histidine. 4. In sheep, urinary excretion of formiminoglutamic acid is increased after administration of aminopterin; treatment with pteroylglutamic acid restores the ability of the animal to deal with the catabolic products of histidine. 5. The possible functions of vitamin B12 and methionine in relieving a virtual deficiency of pteroylglutamic acid are discussed. PMID:5435494

  1. Vitamin B12-Containing Plant Food Sources for Vegetarians

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Bito, Tomohiro; Teng, Fei

    2014-01-01

    The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori) is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups. PMID:24803097

  2. Vegetarian lifestyle and monitoring of vitamin B12 status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Herrmann; Jürgen Geisel

    2002-01-01

    Vegetarians are at risk to develop deficiencies of some essential nutrients, especially vitamin B-12 (cobalamin). Cobalamin occurs in substantial amounts only in foods derived from animals and is essential for one-carbon metabolism and cell division. Low nutritional intake of vitamin B-12 may lead to negative balance and, finally, to functional deficiency when tissue stores of vitamin B-12 are depleted. Early

  3. Vitamin B12 deficiency common in primary hypothyroidism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdul Jabbar; Aasma Yawar; Sabiha Waseem; Najmul Islam; Naeem Ul Haque; Lubna Zuberi; Ataullah Khan; Jaweed Akhter

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and clinical features of B12 deficiency in hypothyroid patients and to evaluate clinical response in symptoms to B12 replacement therapy.METHODS: One hundred and sixteen hypothyroid patients from our endocrine clinic were evaluated for signs and symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency. Laboratory parameters including Haemoglobin (Hb), MCV, Vitamin B12 levels and presence of anti thyroid antibodies

  4. Vegan diet, subnormal vitamin B-12 status and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Woo, Kam S; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Celermajer, David S

    2014-08-01

    Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products). Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians in Australia, Germany, Italy and Austria, and in vegans (80%) in Hong Kong and India, where vegans rarely take vitamin B-12 fortified food or vitamin B-12 supplements. Similar deficiencies exist in northern Chinese rural communities consuming inadequate meat, egg or dairy products due to poverty or dietary habits. Vascular studies have demonstrated impaired arterial endothelial function and increased carotid intima-media thickness as atherosclerosis surrogates in such metabolic vitamin B-12 deficient populations, but not in lactovegetarians in China. Vitamin B-12 supplementation has a favourable impact on these vascular surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China. Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 status is thus potentially beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency in vegans, and possibly for prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases. PMID:25195560

  5. Causes of Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review describes current knowledge of the main causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The most common explanations for poor B12 status are a low dietary intake of the vitamin (i.e., a low intake of animal-source foods) and malabsorption. Although it has long been known that strict vegetar...

  6. Vegan Diet, Subnormal Vitamin B-12 Status and Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Kam S.; Kwok, Timothy C.Y.; Celermajer, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products). Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians in Australia, Germany, Italy and Austria, and in vegans (80%) in Hong Kong and India, where vegans rarely take vitamin B-12 fortified food or vitamin B-12 supplements. Similar deficiencies exist in northern Chinese rural communities consuming inadequate meat, egg or dairy products due to poverty or dietary habits. Vascular studies have demonstrated impaired arterial endothelial function and increased carotid intima-media thickness as atherosclerosis surrogates in such metabolic vitamin B-12 deficient populations, but not in lactovegetarians in China. Vitamin B-12 supplementation has a favourable impact on these vascular surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China. Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 status is thus potentially beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency in vegans, and possibly for prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases. PMID:25195560

  7. Vitamin B12 deficiency - A 21st century perspective?.

    PubMed

    Shipton, Michael J; Thachil, Jecko

    2015-04-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is a common condition which can present with non-specific clinical features, and in severe cases with neurological or haematological abnormalities. Although classically caused by pernicious anaemia, this condition now accounts for a minority of cases and vitamin B12 deficiency occurs most often due to food-bound cobalamin malabsorption. Since missing the diagnosis can result in potentially severe complications, including degeneration of the spinal cord and pancytopaenia, vitamin B12 deficiency must be diagnosed early and managed appropriately. Intramuscular injections have been the mainstay of treatment, but oral replacement therapy can be effective in many cases. There is accumulating evidence that high vitamin B12 levels (values varied from 350-1,200 pmol/l) are associated with haematological and hepatic disorders, in particular with malignancy. This review focuses on the developments in the clinical features and management of vitamin B12 deficiency over the last decade. PMID:25824066

  8. INTAKES OF ADDED VITAMINS - FOLATE, VITAMIN B12, AND VITAMIN E

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As foods in the marketplace continue to be fortified with nutrients, it necessitates separation of added forms of some vitamins from natural forms. The USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) now includes added forms of folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin E. Folic acid, the added fo...

  9. Considering the case for vitamin B12 fortification of flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reasons to fortify flour with vitamin B12 are considered, which include the high prevalence of depletion and deficiency of this vitamin that occurs in persons of all ages in resource-poor countries and in elderly in wealthier countries, as well as the adverse functional consequences of poor vitamin ...

  10. Vitamin B12 and homocysteine status in asymptomatic Indian toddlers.

    PubMed

    Hanumante, N M; Wadia, R S; Deshpande, S S; Sanwalka, N J; Vaidya, M V; Khadilkar, A V

    2008-07-01

    Low serum vitamin B(12) (V B(12)) and hyperhomocysteinemia have been reported in asymptomatic Asian Indian men. We studied the prevalence of V B(12) deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia in 51 asymptomatic toddlers, from Pune, India. V B(12) levels were low and total serum homocysteine was high in 14% and homocysteine levels were significantly higher in boys. Programming for cardiovascular risk in adulthood possibly starts at a very young age through the homocysteine axis. PMID:18716749

  11. [Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in infants breastfed by vegans].

    PubMed

    Roed, Casper; Skovby, Flemming; Lund, Allan Meldgaard

    2009-10-19

    Weight loss and reduction of motor skills resulted in paediatric evaluation of a 10-month-old girl and a 12-month-old boy. Both children suffered form anaemia and delayed development due to vitamin B12 deficiency caused by strict maternal vegan diet during pregnancy and nursing. Therapy with cyanocobalamin was instituted with remission of symptoms. Since infants risk irreversible neurologic damage following severe vitamin B12 deficiency, early diagnosis and treatment are mandatory. Vegan and vegetarian women should take vitamin B12 supplementation during the pregnancy and nursing period. PMID:19852900

  12. Altered vitamin B12 status in recreational endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Markus; Obeid, Rima; Scharhag, Juergen; Kindermann, Wilfried; Herrmann, Wolfgang

    2005-08-01

    This study aimed to compare the vitamin B(12)and folate status of recreational endurance athletes and inactive controls by modern biomarkers. In 72 athletes (38 +/- 7 y) and 46 inactive controls (38 +/- 9 y) serum levels of vitamin B(2), methylmalonic acid (MMA), holotranscobalamin II (holoTC), folate, and homocysteine (Hcy) were measured. Vitamin B(12)and folate levels of both groups were comparable, but athletes had higher median (25.-75. percentile) MMA [242 (196 to 324) versus 175 (141 to 266) nmol/L] and holoTC concentrations [67 (52 to 93) versus 55 (45 to 70) pmol/L] than controls. Hcy was slightly lower in athletes [9.2 (7.2 to 12.6) versus 10.8 (8.9 to 12.9) nmol/L]. In controls, we found the following correlations: vitamin B(12)and MMA (r = -0.38), vitamin B(12)and holoTC (r = 0.51), MMA and holoTC (r = -0.36). In athletes, MMA did not correlate with vitamin B(12)and holoTC. Our data suggests an altered vitamin B(12)metabolism in recreational athletes that needs further investigation. PMID:16286674

  13. Vitamin B12 Intramuscular Injections Versus Oral Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Masucci, L; Goeree, R

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to adverse health effects such as anemia and, in some cases, permanent neurologic damage. In Canada, patients with vitamin B12 deficiency are typically given intramuscular injections, which incur considerable cost and inconvenience. The clinical evidence-based analysis has found that oral supplementation is as effective as intramuscular injections. Objectives This economic analysis aimed to estimate the cost savings of switching from intramuscular injections to high-dose oral supplements for patients aged 18 years and older with confirmed vitamin B12 deficiency. Data Sources Population-based administrative databases for Ontario were used to identify patients receiving vitamin B12 intramuscular injections in any fiscal year between 2006 and 2011. The Ontario Drug Benefit (ODB) database was used to identify patients who were prescribed vitamin B12 injections, and the Ontario Health Insurance Plan database was used to identify all physician claims for intramuscular injections as well as laboratory tests assessing vitamin B12 levels. The Registered Physicians Database was used to identify the type of physician; the analysis was restricted to family physicians and internists. Review Methods Two cohorts of patients were identified. For cohort 1, the ODB database was used to identify patients who were prescribed vitamin B12 injections. Those covered under the ODB are 65 years of age or older and are economically deprived. A second cohort was created to capture those 18 to 64 years of age receiving injections. Cohort 2 consisted of patients (not in cohort 1) who received 6 or more intramuscular injections within 1 year and had a laboratory test 2 months before the intramuscular injection claim. Physician experts were consulted to estimate the resources and costs of converting patients to oral supplements. The Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care perspective was taken, and all costs are expressed in 2013 Canadian dollars. Results The budget impact analysis demonstrated costs of $2.8 million to the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care in the first year of conversion; however, in subsequent years there are savings of $4.2 million per year. The cumulative 5-year budget impact demonstrates savings of $14.2 million to the health care system. Limitations This analysis represents the cost of conversion for those currently receiving intramuscular injections. There are no conversion costs for those who are prescribed oral supplements as an initial therapy, and so the savings could be even greater than reported. As well, an underlying assumption of this analysis is that patients will comply with oral supplementation. Conclusions Over 5 years, there are savings of $14.2 million to the health care system from switching to vitamin B12 oral supplements. Plain Language Summary Vitamin B12 deficiency has long been thought to be associated with dementia and other neurocognitive disorders. In a separate report, Health Quality Ontario (HQO) reviewed the published research on this issue and found only weak evidence that vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with the onset of dementia. That review also found moderate evidence that treatment with vitamin B12 does not improve dementia and that oral supplements are as effective as injections of vitamin B12. In 2010, more than 2.9 million serum vitamin B12 tests were performed in Ontario at a cost of $40 million. Each year, approximately 110,000 residents receive vitamin B12 injections to boost their levels of vitamin B12. HQO commissioned an economic analysis to estimate the cost savings of switching from vitamin B12 injections to high-dose oral supplements for patients aged 18 years and older with confirmed B12 deficiency. This study concluded that the Ontario health care system could save $14.5 million in 5 years by switching to oral supplements, assuming that patients took the oral supplements as required. PMID:24379898

  14. Causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency.

    PubMed

    Allen, Lindsay H

    2008-06-01

    This review describes current knowledge of the main causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The most common explanations for poor vitamin B12 status are a low dietary intake of the vitamin (i.e., a low intake of animal-source foods) and malabsorption. Although it has long been known that strict vegetarians (vegans) are at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency, evidence now indicates that low intakes of animal-source foods, such as occur in some lacto-ovo vegetarians and many less-industrialized countries, cause vitamin B12 depletion. Malabsorption of the vitamin is most commonly observed as food-bound cobalamin malabsorption due to gastric atrophy in the elderly, and probably as a result of Helicobacter pylori infection. There is growing evidence that gene polymorphisms in transcobalamins affect plasma vitamin B12 concentrations. The primary cause of folate deficiency is low intake of sources rich in the vitamin, such as legumes and green leafy vegetables, and the consumption of these foods may explain why folate status can be adequate in relatively poor populations. Other situations in which the risk of folate deficiency increases include lactation and alcoholism. PMID:18709879

  15. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B 12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1810 Vitamin B 12 test system. (a) Identification. A...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B 12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1810 Vitamin B 12 test system. (a) Identification. A...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of anemias of gastrointestinal malabsorption. (b) Classification. Class...

  19. The roles of vitamin B12 and vitamin D in children with intractable epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Hong; Hou, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) can cause vitamin B12 or D deficiency in children with intractable epilepsy. In this study, we measured salivary superoxide dismutase (SOD) and metalloproteinsases (MMP) levels in the patients with vitamin B12 and vitamin D treatment. Cytokines and chemokines were measured using ELISA. The mean salivary value of SOD activity in the control group was 1.75 ± 0.21 U/ml. In the treatment group, the value was 1.33 ± 0.18 U/ml. The salivary MMP 2, MMP 3, and MMP 9 levels of the patients with vitamin D and vitamin B12 treatment were lower than that in the patients without vitamin D and vitamin B12 treatment. Interleukin 1? (IL-1?), IL-6, IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein 1? (MIP-1?), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and IFN-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) were significantly decreased in the cortex of our patients with vitamin D and vitamin B12 treatment. In this study, a clear association between vitamin D and vitamin B12 treatment and epilepsy was identified. We now plan to investigate the genetic factors that underlie vitamin D and vitamin B12 treatment in patients treated with AEDs.

  20. Vitamin B12 Status in Metformin Treated Patients: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Heng; Li, Jianwei

    2014-01-01

    Objective Randomized controlled trials and observational studies have yielded inconsistent results on the effects of metformin on vitamin B12 reduction. We therefore performed a systematic review to analyze the effects of metformin on vitamin B12 concentration. Methods PubMed, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane central registry of controlled trials were searched to identify randomized controlled trials and observational studies exploring the association between metformin and vitamin B12 concentration in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus or polycystic ovary syndrome. The main outcome measure was changes in serum vitamin B12 concentration after 6–208 weeks of treatment with metformin, as compared with placebo or other anti-hyperglycemic therapy. Results Six randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria. Serum vitamin B12 concentrations were significantly lower in patients treated with metformin than in those who received placebo or rosiglitazone (mean difference [MD], ?53.93 pmol/L; 95% confidence interval [CI], ?81.44 to ?26.42 pmol/L, P?=?0.0001). Subgroup analysis identified four trials in which patients received a lower dose of metformin (<2000 mg/d) and two in which they received a higher dose (?2000 mg/d), with MDs in vitamin B12 concentration after metformin treatment of ?37.99 pmol/L (95% CI, ?57.44 to ?18.54 pmol/L, P?=?0.0001) and ?78.62 pmol/L (95% CI, ?106.37 to ?50.86 pmol/L, P<0.00001), respectively. Conclusions The reduction of vitamin B12 may be induced by metformin in a dose dependent manner. PMID:24959880

  1. Two outer membrane transport systems for vitamin B12 in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Rioux, C R; Kadner, R J

    1989-01-01

    The involvement of an outer membrane transport component for vitamin B12 uptake in Salmonella typhimurium, analogous to the btuB product in Escherichia coli, was investigated. Mutants of S. typhimurium selected for resistance to bacteriophage BF23 carried mutations at the btuB locus (butBS) (formerly called bfe, at the analogous map position as the E. coli homolog) and were defective in high-affinity vitamin B12 uptake. The cloned E. coli btuB gene (btuBE) hybridized to S. typhimurium genomic DNA and restored vitamin B12 transport activity to S. typhimurium btuBS mutants. An Mr-60,000 protein in the S. typhimurium outer membrane was repressed by growth with vitamin B12 and was eliminated in a btuBS mutant. The btuBS product thus appears to play the same role in vitamin B12 transport by S. typhimurium as does the E. coli btuBE product. A second vitamin B12 transport system that is not present in E. coli was found by cloning a fragment of S. typhimurium DNA that complemented btuB mutants for vitamin B12 utilization. In addition to this plasmid with a 6-kilobase insert of S. typhimurium DNA, vitamin B12 utilization by E. coli btuB strains required the btuC and btuD products, necessary for transport across the cytoplasmic membrane, but not the btuE or tonB product. The plasmid conferred low levels of vitamin B12-binding and energy-dependent transport activity but not susceptibility to phage BF23 or utilization of dicyanocobinamide. The cloned S. typhimurium DNA encoding this new transport system did not hybridize to the btuBE gene or to E. coli chromosomal DNA and therefore does not carry the S. typhimurium btuBS locus. Increased production of an Mr -84,000 polypeptide associated with the outer membrane was seen. The new locus appears to be carried on the large plasmid in most S. typhimurium strains. Thus S. typhimurium possesses both high- and low-affinity systems for uptake of cobalamins across the outer membrane. Images PMID:2656634

  2. Neurological consequences of vitamin B12 deficiency and its treatment.

    PubMed

    Chalouhi, Christel; Faesch, Sabine; Anthoine-Milhomme, Marie-Constance; Fulla, Yvonne; Dulac, Olivier; Chéron, Gérard

    2008-08-01

    In developed countries, the vitamin B12 deficiency usually occurs in children exclusively breast-fed, whose mothers are vegetarians, causing low stores of vitamin B12. Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency appear during the second trimester of life and include failure to thrive, lethargy, hypotonia, and arrest or regression of developmental skills. A megaloblastic anemia can be present. One half of the infants exhibit abnormal movements before the start of treatment with intramuscular cobalamin, which disappear 1 or 2 days after. More rarely, movement disorders appear a few days after treatment, whereas neurological symptoms are improving. These abnormal movements can last for 2 to 6 weeks. If not treated, vitamin B12 deficiency can cause lasting neurodisability. Therefore, efforts should be directed to preventing deficiency in pregnant and breast-feeding women on vegan diets and their infants by giving them vitamin B12 supplements. When preventive supplementation has failed, one should recognize and treat quickly an infant presenting with failure to thrive and delayed development. PMID:18708898

  3. Involuntary movements due to vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Aaron; Moloi, M W

    2014-12-01

    Deficiency of vitamin B12 produces protean effects on the nervous system, most commonly neuropathy, myelopathy, cognitive and behavioural symptoms, and optic atrophy. Involuntary movements comprise a relatively rare manifestation of this readily treatable disorder. Both adults and infants deficient in vitamin B12 may present with chorea, tremor, myoclonus, Parkinsonism, dystonia, or a combination of these, which may precede diagnosis or become apparent only a few days after parenteral replacement therapy has begun. The pathogenesis of these movement disorders shows interesting parallels to certain neurodegenerative conditions. The clinical syndrome responds well to vitamin B12 supplementation in most cases, and an early diagnosis is essential to reverse the haematological and neurological dysfunction characteristic of this disorder. In this article, we elucidate the association of vitamin B12 deficiency with movement disorders in adults and in infants, discuss the pathogenesis of this association, review previously reported cases, and present a young adult male with severe generalized chorea that showed a salutary response to vitamin B12 supplementation. PMID:24852503

  4. Unraveling vitamin B12-responsive gene regulation in algae.

    PubMed

    Helliwell, Katherine E; Scaife, Mark A; Sasso, Severin; Araujo, Ana Paula Ulian; Purton, Saul; Smith, Alison G

    2014-05-01

    Photosynthetic microalgae play a vital role in primary productivity and biogeochemical cycling in both marine and freshwater systems across the globe. However, the growth of these cosmopolitan organisms depends on the bioavailability of nutrients such as vitamins. Approximately one-half of all microalgal species requires vitamin B12 as a growth supplement. The major determinant of algal B12 requirements is defined by the isoform of methionine synthase possessed by an alga, such that the presence of the B12-independent methionine synthase (METE) enables growth without this vitamin. Moreover, the widespread but phylogenetically unrelated distribution of B12 auxotrophy across the algal lineages suggests that the METE gene has been lost multiple times in evolution. Given that METE expression is repressed by the presence of B12, prolonged repression by a reliable source of the vitamin could lead to the accumulation of mutations and eventually gene loss. Here, we probe METE gene regulation by B12 and methionine/folate cycle metabolites in both marine and freshwater microalgal species. In addition, we identify a B12-responsive element of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii METE using a reporter gene approach. We show that complete repression of the reporter occurs via a region spanning -574 to -90 bp upstream of the METE start codon. A proteomics study reveals that two other genes (S-Adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase and Serine hydroxymethyltransferase2) involved in the methionine-folate cycle are also repressed by B12 in C. reinhardtii. The strong repressible nature and high sensitivity of the B12-responsive element has promising biotechnological applications as a cost-effective regulatory gene expression tool. PMID:24627342

  5. Tissue vitamin B-12 assay by a radioisotope dilution technique.

    PubMed

    Van Tonder, S V; Metz, J; Green, R

    1975-09-16

    A method is described for the measurement of vitamin B-12 (B-12) in solid tissues by radioisotope dilution (RID) assay. The method is a modivication using double extraction of a serum B-12 RID assay which uses chicken serum as the B-12 binder. The method was developed and tested using human and bat liver specimens. Double extraction was shown to be more efficient than single extraction, and resulted in complete release of endogenous liver [57Co] B-12 administered to bats. Results using the RID assay in 16 humans and 17 bat liver specimens were compared with those obtained using the Lactobacillus leichmannii microbiological assay. Correlation was good, but the RID assay gave higher results using the microbiological assay appear to be due to inadequate extraction of B-12 from tissues. PMID:1100288

  6. A daily intake of approximately 6 g vitamin B12 appears to saturate all the vitamin B12-related variables in Danish postmenopausal women1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mustafa Vakur Bor; Eva Lydeking-Olsen; Jan Møller; Ebba Nexø

    Background: Recommended daily intakes of vitamin B-12 vary between 2 and 6 g. Objective: The objective was to examine the associations between vitamin B-12 intake and markers of vitamin B-12 deficiency. Design:We studied 98 Danish postmenopausal women aged 41-75 y. Serum cobalamin, transcobalamin (TC) saturated with vitamin B-12 (holo-TC), TC saturation (holo-TC\\/total TC), methylmalonic acid (MMA), and total homocysteine (tHcy)

  7. How prevalent is vitamin B(12) deficiency among vegetarians?

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Roman; Parrott, Scott James; Raj, Sudha; Cullum-Dugan, Diana; Lucus, Debbie

    2013-02-01

    Vegetarians are at risk for vitamin B(12) (B12) deficiency due to suboptimal intake. The goal of the present literature review was to assess the rate of B12 depletion and deficiency among vegetarians and vegans. Using a PubMed search to identify relevant publications, 18 articles were found that reported B12 deficiency rates from studies that identified deficiency by measuring methylmalonic acid, holo-transcobalamin II, or both. The deficiency rates reported for specific populations were as follows: 62% among pregnant women, between 25% and almost 86% among children, 21-41% among adolescents, and 11-90% among the elderly. Higher rates of deficiency were reported among vegans compared with vegetarians and among individuals who had adhered to a vegetarian diet since birth compared with those who had adopted such a diet later in life. The main finding of this review is that vegetarians develop B12 depletion or deficiency regardless of demographic characteristics, place of residency, age, or type of vegetarian diet. Vegetarians should thus take preventive measures to ensure adequate intake of this vitamin, including regular consumption of supplements containing B12. PMID:23356638

  8. Vitamin B12 deficiency in relation to functional disabilities.

    PubMed

    Oberlin, Breanna S; Tangney, Christy C; Gustashaw, Kristin A R; Rasmussen, Heather E

    2013-11-01

    This study was designed to assess whether symptoms, functional measures, and reported disabilities were associated with vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency when defined in three ways. Participants, aged 60 or more years of age, in 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were categorized in relation to three previously used definitions of B12 deficiency: (1) serum B12 < 148 pmol/L; (2) serum B12 < 200 pmol/L and serum homocysteine > 20 ?mol/L; and (3) serum B12 < 258 pmol/L or serum methylmalonic acid > 0.21 ?mol/L. Functional measures of peripheral neuropathy, balance, cognitive function, gait speed, along with self-reported disability (including activities of daily living) were examined with standardized instruments by trained NHANES interviewers and technicians. Individuals identified as B12 deficient by definition 2 were more likely to manifest peripheral neuropathy OR (odds) (95% confidence intervals), p value: 9.70 (2.24, 42.07), 0.004 and report greater total disability, 19.61 (6.22, 61.86) 0.0001 after adjustments for age, sex, race, serum creatinine, and ferritin concentrations, smoking, diabetes, and peripheral artery disease. Smaller, but significantly increased, odds of peripheral neuropathy and total disability were also observed when definition 3 was applied. Functional measures and reported disabilities were associated with B12 deficiency definitions that include B12 biomarkers (homocysteine or methylmalonic acid). Further study of these definitions is needed to alert clinicians of possible subclinical B12 deficiency because functional decline amongst older adults may be correctable if the individual is B12 replete. PMID:24225845

  9. Effect of combined folic acid, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on colorectal adenoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Folic acid, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) act in concert in the one-carbon metabolism and may protect against colorectal neoplasia. We examined the effect of combined B-vitamin treatment on the occurrence of colorectal adenoma. The Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study was a rand...

  10. Antiparasitic Effect of Vitamin B12 on Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Ciccarelli, Alejandra B.; Frank, Fernanda M.; Puente, Vanesa; Malchiodi, Emilio L.

    2012-01-01

    A nutritional characteristic of trypanosomatid protozoa is that they need a heme compound as a growth factor. Because of the cytotoxic activity of heme and its structural similarity to cobalamins, we have investigated the in vitro and in vivo effect of vitamin B12 (or cyanocobalamin) on the different forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Cyanocobalamin showed a marked antiparasitic activity against epimastigotes (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 2.42 ?M), amastigotes (IC50, 10.69 ?M), and trypomastigotes (IC50, 9.46 ?M). Anti-epimastigote and -trypomastigote values were 1.7 to 4 times lower than those obtained with the reference drug benznidazole (Bnz). We also found that B12 and hemin do not interact with each other in their modes of action. Our results show that B12 increases intracellular oxidative activity and stimulates both superoxide dismutase (50%) and ascorbate peroxidase (20%) activities, while the activity of trypanothione reductase was not modified. In addition, we found that the antioxidants dithiothreitol and ascorbic acid increase the susceptibility of the parasite to the cytotoxic action of B12. We propose that vitamin B12 exerts its growth-inhibitory effect through the generation of reactive oxygen species. In an in vivo assay, a significant reduction in the number of circulating parasites was found in T. cruzi-infected mice treated with cyanocobalamin and ascorbic acid. The reduction of parasitemia in benznidazole-treated mice was improved by the addition of these vitamins. According to our results, a combination of B12 and Bnz should be further investigated due to its potential as a new therapeutic modality for the treatment of Chagas' disease. PMID:22869565

  11. Oral cobalamin (vitamin B(12)) treatment. An update.

    PubMed

    Andrès, E; Dali-Youcef, N; Vogel, T; Serraj, K; Zimmer, J

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this review was to evaluate oral cobalamin (vitamin B(12)) therapy in adult and elderly patients, from the perspective of a hematologist. PubMed was systematically searched for English and French articles published from January 1990 to January 2007. Data from our working group, the 'Groupe d'étude des carences en vitamine B(12)des Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg', have also been included. Several prospective studies in well-determined population (n = 4), prospective randomized studies (n = 3) and a systematic review by the Cochrane group (n = 1) provide evidence that oral cobalamin therapy may adequately treat cobalamin deficiency, particularly hematological abnormalities or manifestations. These studies suggest that at least 1000 microg/day of oral cyanocobalmin are needed for pernicious anemia and a mean daily dose of 250 microg for food-cobalamin malabsorption. This present review confirms the previously reported efficacy of oral cobalamin treatment in adult and elderly patients. PMID:19032377

  12. Measurement of vitamin B12 in the livers and sera of sheep and cattle and an investigation of factors influencing serum vitamin B12 levels in sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. Millar; A. T. Albyt; G. C. Bond

    1984-01-01

    Modifications of a radioassay method for the analysis of vitamin B12 using chicken serum as the binder are described. This obviates the need to use individual serum blanks to correct for non-specific binding in vitamin B12 assays of the sera and livers of sheep and cattle.Samples with high vitamin B12 levels can be diluted prior to assay without loss of

  13. A Multinuclear Solid-State NMR Analysis of Vitamin B12 in Its Different Polymorphic Forms

    E-print Network

    Frydman, Lucio

    A Multinuclear Solid-State NMR Analysis of Vitamin B12 in Its Different Polymorphic Forms Ales of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) polymorphs. These studies involved recrystallizing a series of samples under structures described by Hodgkin and co-workers in their seminal vitamin B12 crystallographic analyses. Most

  14. VOLATILE FATTY-ACID CLEARANCE STUDIES IN RELATION TO VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY IN SHEEP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Somers

    1969-01-01

    Clearance studies were used to investigate propionate and acetate metabolism in sheep at progressive stages during the induction of vitamin B12 (cobalt) deficiency. Both propionate and acetate clearance rates were increasingly adversely affected as vitamin B12 deficiency intensified. The effect of vitamin B12 on propionate and acetate clearance times was greater than the effect of depressed feed intake. Both of

  15. Dietary folate and vitamin B 12 supplementation and consequent vitamin deposition in chicken eggs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaiyapoom Bunchasak; Sompong Kachana

    2009-01-01

    We determined the effects of dietary supplementation with folate and vitamin B12 on lipid metabolism and the deposition of these vitamins in eggs of laying hens (age 64–72 weeks). Four levels of folate\\u000a (0, 0.5, 4 and 10 mg\\/kg) and three levels of vitamin B12 (0, 0.01 and 0.08 mg\\/kg) were added to the basal diet for 8 weeks in a 4?×?3 factorial completely

  16. Combined dietary folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 intake influences plasma docosahexaenoic acid concentration in rats

    E-print Network

    van Wijk, Nick

    Background: Folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 are essential nutritional components in one-carbon metabolism and are required for methylation capacity. The availability of these vitamins may therefore modify methylation ...

  17. Vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy and early lactation increases maternal, breast milk, and infant measures of vitamin B-12 status.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Christopher; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Thomas, Tinku; Samuel, Tinu; Rajendran, Ramya; Muthayya, Sumithra; Finkelstein, Julia L; Lukose, Ammu; Fawzi, Wafaie; Allen, Lindsay H; Bosch, Ronald J; Kurpad, Anura V

    2014-05-01

    Pregnant women in resource-poor areas are at risk of multiple micronutrient deficiencies, and indicators of low vitamin B-12 status have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including anemia, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth retardation. To evaluate whether daily oral vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy increases maternal and infant measures of vitamin B-12 status, we performed a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Pregnant women <14 wk of gestation in Bangalore, India, were randomly assigned to receive daily oral supplementation with vitamin B-12 (50 ?g) or placebo through 6 wk postpartum. All women were administered iron and folic acid supplements throughout pregnancy. One hundred eighty-three women were randomly assigned to receive vitamin B-12 and 183 to receive placebo. Compared with placebo recipients, vitamin B-12-supplemented women had significantly higher plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations at both the second (median vitamin B-12 concentration: 216 vs. 111 pmol/L, P < 0.001) and third (median: 184 vs. 105 pmol/L, P < 0.001) trimesters. At 6 wk postpartum, median breast milk vitamin B-12 concentration was 136 pmol/L in vitamin B-12-supplemented women vs. 87 pmol/L in the placebo group (P < 0.0005). Among vitamin B-12-supplemented women, the incidence of delivering an infant with intrauterine growth retardation was 33 of 131 (25%) vs. 43 of 125 (34%) in those administered placebo (P = 0.11). In a subset of infants tested at 6 wk of age, median plasma vitamin B-12 concentration was 199 pmol/L in those born to supplemented women vs. 139 pmol/L in the placebo group (P = 0.01). Infant plasma methylmalonic acid and homocysteine concentrations were significantly lower in the vitamin B-12 group as well. Oral supplementation of urban Indian women with vitamin B-12 throughout pregnancy and early lactation significantly increases vitamin B-12 status of mothers and infants. It is important to determine whether there are correlations between these findings and neurologic and metabolic functions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00641862. PMID:24598885

  18. Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as acute ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, John Ross; Say, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    A previously healthy 7-year-old Caucasian boy was hospitalised for evaluation of acute ataxia and failure to thrive, initially suspicious for an intracranial mass. Weight and body mass index were below the third percentile and he demonstrated loss of joint position and vibratory sense on examination. Laboratory studies revealed megaloblastic anaemia while an initial MRI of the brain showed no evidence of mass lesions or other abnormalities. A dietary history revealed the child subscribed to a restrictive vegan diet with little to no intake of animal products or other fortified foods. The child was diagnosed with presumed vitamin B12 deficiency and was treated with intramuscular B12 injections. Neurological symptoms resolved promptly within several days after starting therapy. This case underlines the importance of assessing nutritional status in the evaluation of neurological dysfunction in the pediatric patient. PMID:23536622

  19. Effects of vitamin B12 on cadmium toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Couce, M D; Varela, J M; Sánchez, A; Casas, J S; Sordo, J; López-Rivadulla, M

    1991-01-01

    The survival rate was high among male Sprague rats treated with 0.15 mg/kg vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamine) after injection of 5 mg/kg CdCl2.H2O (LD50). The cadmium content of the liver and, for some protocols, in the kidney was significantly reduced in survivors. According to UV-V and multinuclear (1H, 13C, 31P, and 113Cd) magnetic resonance spectroscopy no direct interaction seems to take place between cyanocobalamine and CdCl2 in aqueous solution at pH 4.5. An indirect mechanism is put forward to explain the antidotal activity. PMID:2019828

  20. Effects of vitamin B12, folate, and vitamin B6 supplements in elderly people with normal serum vitamin concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Naurath; E. Joosten; R. Riezler; S. Stabler; R. H. Allen; J. Lindenbaum

    1995-01-01

    SummaryIn a prospective, multicentre, double-blind controlled study, the effect of an intramuscular vitamin supplement containing 1 mg vitamin B12, 1·1 mg folate, and 5 mg vitamin B6 on serum concentrations of methylmalonic acid (MMA), homocysteine (HCYS), 2-methylcitric acid (2-MCA), and cystathionine (CYSTA) was compared with that of placebo in 175 elderly subjects living at home and 110 in hospital. Vitamin

  1. Vitamin B12 Deficiency Due to a Strictly Vegetarian Diet in Adolescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ashkenazi; R. Weitz; I. Varsano; M. Mimouni

    1987-01-01

    A 14-year-old white girl suffered from severe neurologic disturbances caused by vitamin B12 deficiency, due to failure to provide vitamin B12 supplementation to a strictly vegetarian diet. The disturbances resolved completely following treatment with vatamin B12. Physicians should be alert to the necessity for vitamin B12 supplementation for strict vegetarians, who eat no meat, fish, eggs, or dairy products.

  2. Breast milk vitamin B-12 concentrations of Guatemalan women are correlated with maternal but not infant vitamin B12 status at 12 months postpartum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our previous studies one third of lactating Guatemalan women, infants and children had deficient or marginal serum vitamin B-12 concentrations. Relationships among maternal and infant status and breast milk vitamin B-12, however, have not been investigated in such populations. Our purpose was to ...

  3. VITAMIN B-12 SUPPLEMENTATION OF DEFICIENT LACTATING GUATEMALAN WOMEN IMPROVES MATERNAL BUT NOT INFANT STATUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin B-12 deficiency is common in mothers and infants where maternal intake of animals source foods is low. The first six months post-partum is a critical period of neurological development requiring vitamin B-12. A pilot study was designed to determine the dose of B-12 to the mothers that would ...

  4. Insights into the Evolution of Vitamin B12 Auxotrophy from Sequenced Algal Genomes

    E-print Network

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    microalgal species need the vitamin as a growth supplement, but there is no phylogenetic relationship betweenInsights into the Evolution of Vitamin B12 Auxotrophy from Sequenced Algal Genomes Katherine E Abstract Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a dietary requirement for humans because it is an essential cofactor

  5. Maternal and foetal vitamin B12 concentration at parturition among Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Osifo, B O; Onifade, A

    1976-03-01

    Serum vitamin B12 concentrations were determined immediately after delivery among fifty healthy mothers and in cord blood of their newly delivered babies. The serum vitamin B12 concentrations of the infants were higher than those of their mothers and the ratio was approximately 2:1. The maternal serum vitamin B12 concentration was significantly higher than other maternal serum vitamin B12 concentration reported previously and the infant serum vitamin B12 level was also significantly higher than other infants studied in similar projects. These results suggest that the high serum vitamin B12 concentration reported among Nigerians is most probably due to both genetical and environmental factors coupled with some microbial synthesis in the gastro-intestinal tract after resuming a full adult diet. PMID:941240

  6. Persistence of neurological damage induced by dietary vitamin B12 deficiency in infancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ursula von Schenck; Christine Bender-Götze; Berthold Koletzko

    1997-01-01

    A case is reported of a 14 month old boy with severe dietary vitamin B-12 deficiency caused by his mother’s vegan diet. Cinical, electroencephalography (EEG), and haematological findings are described. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed severe frontal and frontoparietal cranial atrophy. Vitamin B-12 supplements led to a rapid improvement of haematological and neurological symptoms. Serum vitamin B-12 and urinary

  7. Biomarkers of vitamin B-12 status in NHANES: a roundtable summary123456

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Christine M; Phinney, Karen W; Bailey, Regan L; Blackmore, Sheena; Bock, Jay L; Brody, Lawrence C; Carmel, Ralph; Curtin, L Randy; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramón A; Eckfeldt, John H; Green, Ralph; Gregory, Jesse F; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Jacobsen, Donald W; Jacques, Paul F; Lacher, David A; Molloy, Anne M; Massaro, Joseph; Mills, James L; Nexo, Ebba; Rader, Jeanne I; Selhub, Jacob; Sempos, Christopher; Shane, Barry; Stabler, Sally; Stover, Patrick; Tamura, Tsunenobu; Tedstone, Alison; Thorpe, Susan J; Johnson, Clifford L; Picciano, Mary Frances

    2011-01-01

    A roundtable to discuss the measurement of vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) status biomarkers in NHANES took place in July 2010. NHANES stopped measuring vitamin B-12–related biomarkers after 2006. The roundtable reviewed 3 biomarkers of vitamin B-12 status used in past NHANES—serum vitamin B-12, methylmalonic acid (MMA), and total homocysteine (tHcy)—and discussed the potential utility of measuring holotranscobalamin (holoTC) for future NHANES. The roundtable focused on public health considerations and the quality of the measurement procedures and reference methods and materials that past NHANES used or that are available for future NHANES. Roundtable members supported reinstating vitamin B-12 status measures in NHANES. They noted evolving concerns and uncertainties regarding whether subclinical (mild, asymptomatic) vitamin B-12 deficiency is a public health concern. They identified the need for evidence from clinical trials to address causal relations between subclinical vitamin B-12 deficiency and adverse health outcomes as well as appropriate cutoffs for interpreting vitamin B-12–related biomarkers. They agreed that problems with sensitivity and specificity of individual biomarkers underscore the need for including at least one biomarker of circulating vitamin B-12 (serum vitamin B-12 or holoTC) and one functional biomarker (MMA or tHcy) in NHANES. The inclusion of both serum vitamin B-12 and plasma MMA, which have been associated with cognitive dysfunction and anemia in NHANES and in other population-based studies, was preferable to provide continuity with past NHANES. Reliable measurement procedures are available, and National Institute of Standards and Technology reference materials are available or in development for serum vitamin B-12 and MMA. PMID:21593512

  8. Biomarkers of vitamin B-12 status in NHANES: a roundtable summary.

    PubMed

    Yetley, Elizabeth A; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Phinney, Karen W; Bailey, Regan L; Blackmore, Sheena; Bock, Jay L; Brody, Lawrence C; Carmel, Ralph; Curtin, L Randy; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramón A; Eckfeldt, John H; Green, Ralph; Gregory, Jesse F; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Jacobsen, Donald W; Jacques, Paul F; Lacher, David A; Molloy, Anne M; Massaro, Joseph; Mills, James L; Nexo, Ebba; Rader, Jeanne I; Selhub, Jacob; Sempos, Christopher; Shane, Barry; Stabler, Sally; Stover, Patrick; Tamura, Tsunenobu; Tedstone, Alison; Thorpe, Susan J; Coates, Paul M; Johnson, Clifford L; Picciano, Mary Frances

    2011-07-01

    A roundtable to discuss the measurement of vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) status biomarkers in NHANES took place in July 2010. NHANES stopped measuring vitamin B-12-related biomarkers after 2006. The roundtable reviewed 3 biomarkers of vitamin B-12 status used in past NHANES--serum vitamin B-12, methylmalonic acid (MMA), and total homocysteine (tHcy)--and discussed the potential utility of measuring holotranscobalamin (holoTC) for future NHANES. The roundtable focused on public health considerations and the quality of the measurement procedures and reference methods and materials that past NHANES used or that are available for future NHANES. Roundtable members supported reinstating vitamin B-12 status measures in NHANES. They noted evolving concerns and uncertainties regarding whether subclinical (mild, asymptomatic) vitamin B-12 deficiency is a public health concern. They identified the need for evidence from clinical trials to address causal relations between subclinical vitamin B-12 deficiency and adverse health outcomes as well as appropriate cutoffs for interpreting vitamin B-12-related biomarkers. They agreed that problems with sensitivity and specificity of individual biomarkers underscore the need for including at least one biomarker of circulating vitamin B-12 (serum vitamin B-12 or holoTC) and one functional biomarker (MMA or tHcy) in NHANES. The inclusion of both serum vitamin B-12 and plasma MMA, which have been associated with cognitive dysfunction and anemia in NHANES and in other population-based studies, was preferable to provide continuity with past NHANES. Reliable measurement procedures are available, and National Institute of Standards and Technology reference materials are available or in development for serum vitamin B-12 and MMA. PMID:21593512

  9. Extraction of serum vitamin B12 for radio-isotopic and Lactobacillus leichmannii assay.

    PubMed

    Raven, J L; Robson, M B

    1975-07-01

    The protein precipitates discarded during the extraction process of the Lactobacillus leichmannii vitamin B12 assay have been shown to contain significant amounts of vitamin B12. This loss of vitamin B12 provide a satisfactory explanation for many of the descrepancies between the serum vitamin B12 values obtained by the L. leichmannii method and the radio-isotopic method of Raven et al (1969). It is possible to produce lower results by the method of Raven et al (1969)by incorporating into that method the L. leichmannii extraction process; it is also possible to produce higher results by the L. leichmannii method using a papain extraction process. PMID:1150894

  10. Vitamin B12 deficiency & levels of metabolites in an apparently normal urban south Indian elderly population

    PubMed Central

    Shobha, Vineeta; Tarey, Subhash D.; Singh, Ramya G.; Shetty, Priya; Unni, Uma S.; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Kurpad, Anura V.

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: There is no published literature on the extent of vitamin B12 deficiency in elderly Indians as determined by plasma vitamin B12 levels and methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels. Vitamin B12 deficiency is expected to be higher in elderly Indians due to vegetarianism, varied socio-economic strata and high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection. We therefore, studied the dietary habits of south Indian urban elderly population and measured vitamin B12, MMA red cell folate and homocysteine (Hcy) levels. Methods: Healthy elderly urban subjects (175, >60 yr) were recruited. Detailed history, physical examination and neurological assessment were carried out. Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) for dietary analysis for daily intake of calories, vitamin B12, folate and detailed psychological assessment for cognitive functions was carried out. Blood samples were analyzed for routine haematology and biochemistry, vitamin B12, red cell folate, MMA and Hcy. Results: The mean age of the study population was 66.3 yr. Median values for daily dietary intake of vitamin B12 and folate were 2.4 and 349.2 ?g/day respectively. Sixty two (35%) participants consumed multivitamin supplements. Plasma vitamin B12 level and the dietary intake of vitamin B12 was significantly correlated (P=0.157). Plasma vitamin B12 and Hcy were inversely correlated (P= -0.509). Red cell folate was inversely correlated with Hcy (P= -0.550). Significant negative correlation was observed between plasma vitamin B12 and MMA in the entire study population (P= -0.220). Subjects consuming vitamin supplements (n=62) had significantly higher plasma vitamin B12 levels, lower MMA levels and lower Hcy levels. There was no significant correlation between plasma vitamin B12, MMA, Hcy and red cell folate and any of the 10 cognitive tests including Hindi Mental Status Examination (HMSE). Interpretation & conclusions: Our study is indicative of higher vitamin B12 (2.4 ?g/day) intakes in urban south Indian population. Thirty five per cent of the study population consumed multivitamin supplements and therefore, low plasma vitamin B12 levels were seen only in 16 per cent of the study subjects. However, MMA was elevated in 55 per cent and Hcy in 13 per cent of the subjects. PMID:22089603

  11. Daily milk intake improves vitamin B-12 status in young vegetarian Indians: an intervention trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Asymptomatic Indian lacto vegetarians, who make up more than half of the Indian population in different geographic regions, have distinctly low vitamin B-12 concentrations than non- vegetarians. Vegetarians consume milk but it seems that the amount is not enough to improve vitamin B-12 status or vitamin B-12 concentration in milk itself may be low. The aim of this study was to determine if daily milk consumption can improve vitamin B-12 status. Methods Fifteen male and 36 female, young healthy post-graduate volunteers participated. Blood from ten participants (4 males and 6 females) was collected (day-1). They continued their regular diet for next fourteen days and on day-15, blood of all 51 participants was collected, plasma vitamin B-12 concentration was measured and were divided into two groups; Normal (vitamin B-12 >148 pmol/L, n?=?22) and Vitamin B-12 deficient (<148 pmol/L, n?=?29), the remaining plasma was stored. All participants consumed 600 ml. of non-enriched buffalo milk (200 × 3) during the day along with their usual diet. Next day blood was collected for plasma holotranscobalamin II measurement. Subjects from deficient group continued to drink 400 ml of milk daily for next 14 days and blood was collected on day-30. Plasma holotranscoabalamin II (day-1, 15, 16, 30), vitamin B-12, folate, total homocysteine, creatinine and hematoloical parameters (day-1, 15, 30), and milk vitamin B-12 concentrations (day-15, 16, 30) were measured. Results Fifty seven per cent of the participants were vitamin B-12 deficient and 65% were hyperhomocysteinemic. No significant difference in biomarkers was observed when there was no intervention. Plasma holotranscobalamin II concentration increased from 19.6 to 22.27 pmol/L (p?vitamin B-12 increased from 92.5 to 122 pmol/L and tHcy concentrations decreased from 31.9 to 24.9 ? mol/L (p?vitamin B-12 deficient subjects. Conclusions Regular intake of milk improved vitamin B-12 status of vitamin B-12 deficient vegetarians indicating a potential dietary strategy to improve the vitamin status. PMID:24107225

  12. Loss of vitamin B(12) in fish (round herring) meats during various cooking treatments.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, Michiko; Kanosue, Fuki; Yabuta, Yukinori; Watanabe, Fumio

    2011-01-01

    The loss of vitamin B(12) in round herring meats during various cooking treatments was evaluated. Although amounts of vitamin B(12) were three times greater in the viscera (37.5 ± 10.6 µg/100 g fresh weight) than in the meats, about 73% of total vitamin B(12) found in the whole fish body (except for head and bones) were recovered in the meats (5.1 ± 1.0 µg of vitamin B(12)). The vitamin B(12) contents of the round herring's meats were significantly decreased up to ~62% during cooking by grilling, boiling, frying, steaming, and microwaving. There was, however, no loss of vitamin B(12) during vacuum-packed pouch cooking. Model experiment using hydroxocobalamin suggest that loss of vitamin B(12) is dependent on the degree of temperature and time used in conventional cooking, and is further affected by the concomitant ingredients of food. Retention of vitamin B(12) was not dependent on vacuum or temperature (or both) used in the vacuum-packed pouch cooking. PMID:22472286

  13. Interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C in pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The water-soluble vitamins B6, B12 and C play important roles in maternal health as well as fetal development and physiology during gestation. This systematic review evaluates the risks and benefits of interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C during pregnancy on maternal, neonatal and child health ...

  14. Anaphylactic reaction after intramuscular injection of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12): a case report.

    PubMed

    Bilwani, Fareena; Adil, Salman N; Sheikh, Usman; Humera, Ayesha; Khurshid, Mohammad

    2005-05-01

    We report a case of anaphylactic reaction to intramuscular injection of cyanocobalamin. This 52-year-old lady was diagnosed as a case of megaloblastic anemia secondary to dietary vitamin B12 deficiency. She had severe anaphylactic reaction after the parenteral administration of cyanocobalamine. Later she received oral vitamin B12 with no adverse effects. The purpose of this case report is to draw attention to the hypersensitive reaction to injectable vitamin B12, which is rarely seen. This could be due to sensitization to the vitamin B12 molecule itself or an IgE mediated reaction. We concluded that anaphylactic reaction to vitamin B12 is a rare but serious side effect and it should be kept in mind while the drug is being administered to the patient, especially via the parenteral route. PMID:15960291

  15. Über das Vitamin B 12 -Bedürfnis phototropher Schwefelbakterien

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norbert Pfennig; Klaus Dieter Lippert

    1966-01-01

    1.10 von 19 Chlorobium-Stämmen, die mit einer Vit. B12-haltigen Nährlösung aus verschiedenen Gewässern in Kalifornien, Norwegen und Deutschland isoliert waren, erwiesen sich als Vit. B12-bedürftig.2.Bei Vit. B12-bedürftigen Chlorobium- und Chromatium-Stämmen wurde der Chlorophyllgehalt der Kulturen in Abhängigkeit von der Vit. B12-Konzentration quantitativ bestimmt. Zur Bildung vergleichbarer Erträge benötigten alle untersuchten Chlorobium-Stämme gegenüber den Chromatium-Stämmen etwa zehnmal höhere Vit. B12-Konzentrationen.3.Der Vergleich

  16. Most harmful algal bloom species are vitamin B1 and B12 auxotrophs

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ying Zhong; Koch, Florian; Gobler, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Eutrophication can play a central role in promoting harmful algal blooms (HABs), and therefore many HAB studies to date have focused on macronutrients (N, P, Si). Although a majority of algal species require exogenous B vitamins (i.e., auxotrophic for B vitamins), the possible importance of organic micronutrients such as B vitamins (B1, B7, B12) in regulating HABs has rarely been considered. Prior investigations of vitamins and algae have examined a relatively small number of dinoflagellates (n = 26) and a paucity of HAB species (n = 4). In the present study, the vitamin B1, B7, and B12 requirements of 41 strains of 27 HAB species (19 dinoflagellates) were investigated. All but one species (two strains) of harmful algae surveyed required vitamin B12, 20 of 27 species required B1, and 10 of 27 species required B7, all proportions higher than the previously reported for non-HAB species. Half-saturation (Ks) constants of several HAB species for B1 and B12 were higher than those previously reported for other phytoplankton and similar to vitamin concentrations reported in estuaries. Cellular quotas for vitamins suggest that, in some cases, HAB demands for vitamins may exhaust standing stocks of vitamins in hours to days. The sum of these findings demonstrates the potentially significant ecological role of B-vitamins in regulating the dynamics of HABs. PMID:21068377

  17. The effects of vitamins C and B12 on human nasal ciliary beat frequency

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was designed to investigate the effects of the vitamins C and B12 on the regulation of human nasal ciliary beat frequency (CBF). Methods Human nasal mucosa was removed endoscopically and nasal ciliated cell culture was established. Changes of CBF in response to different concentrations of vitamin C or vitamin B12 were quantified by using high-speed (240 frames per second) digital microscopy combined with a beat-by-beat CBF analysis. Results At the concentrations of 0.01% and 0.10%, vitamin C induced an initial increase, followed by a gradual decrease of CBF to the baseline level, while 1.00% vitamin C induced a reversible decrease of CBF. Vitamin B12, at the concentrations of 0.01% and 0.10%, did not influence CBF during the 20-min observation period, while a 1.00% vitamin B12 treatment caused a time-dependent but reversible decrease of CBF. Conclusions Treatment with vitamin C or vitamin B12 caused a concentration-dependent but reversible decrease of CBF in cultured human nasal epithelial cells. Therefore, it is necessary to choose a concentration that is safe, effective, and non-ciliotoxic when applying these drugs topically in the nasal cavity. PMID:23688196

  18. Vitamin B12, folate and iron levels in primary nocturnal enuresis

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Sebahattin; Zengin, Kürsad; Tanik, Serhat; Daar, Ghaniya; Ozdamar, Mustafa Yasar; Bakirtas, Hasan; Imamoglu, M. Abdurrahim; Gurdal, Mesut

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Folate, vitamin B12 and iron are important vitamin and minerals which play role in the development of nervous system. The aim of this study was looking at the presence of folate, vitamin B12 and iron deficiency among patients with Primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) and possible relation between the delay of central nervous system (CNS) development, PNE and folate, vitamin B12 and iron states. Methods: Consecutively applied forty patients with PNE (23 girls and 17 boys) and otherwise normal thirty control subjects (17 girls and 13 boys) were included in the study. Average ages (in range) of PNE and the control group were 9.2(6-12) years and 9.3 (6-12) years accordingly. Age, height, weight, complete blood count, blood vitamin B12, folate, ferritin and iron values of both groups were recorded and compared to each other. Results: Average vitamin B12 and folate levels of patients with PNE were significantly and statistically lower compared to those of the control group. Average blood iron of patients with PNE was significantly higher than that of the control group and also average ferritin level of the PNE group was detected to be higher than the control group but this relation was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Primary nocturnal enuresis is related to the delay in CNS maturation so it was thought that low vitamin B12 and folate which were found in patients with PNE may have role in the delay of CNS maturation. Additionally, further studies are needed to investigate the role of vitamin B12 and folate either alone or as combination in treatment of patients with PNE who have low vitamin B12and folate level.

  19. FRACTION OF TOTAL PLASMA VITAMIN B12 BOUND TO TRANSCOBALAMIN CORRELATES WITH COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN ELDERLY LATINOS WITH DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The fraction of total plasma vitamin B12 bound to transcobalamin (holoTC/B12 ratio) may reflect tissue levels of the vitamin, but its clinical relevance is unclear. Methods: associations between cognitive function and total B12, holoTC, and holoTC/B12 ratio were assessed in a cohort of ...

  20. Cerebral atrophy in a vitamin B12-deficient infant of a vegetarian mother.

    PubMed

    Kocaoglu, Celebi; Akin, Fatih; Caksen, Hüseyin; Böke, Saltuk Bu?ra; Arslan, Sükrü; Aygün, Serhat

    2014-06-01

    In developed countries, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency usually occurs in children, exclusively breastfed ones whose mothers are vegetarian, causing low body stores of vitamin B12. The haematologic manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anaemia. It is a megaloblastic anaemia with high mean corpuscular volume and typical morphological features, such as hyperlobulation of the nuclei of the granulocytes. In advanced cases, neutropaenia and thrombocytopaenia can occur, simulating aplastic anaemia or leukaemia. In addition to haematological symptoms, infants may experience weakness, fatigue, failure to thrive, and irritability. Other common findings include pallor, glossitis, vomiting, diarrhoea, and icterus. Neurological symptoms may affect the central nervous system and, in severe cases, rarely cause brain atrophy. Here, we report an interesting case, a 12-month old infant, who was admitted with neurological symptoms and diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:25076673

  1. Effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on neurodevelopment in infants: current knowledge and possible mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Severe vitamin B12 deficiency produces a cluster of neurological symptoms in infants, including irritability, failure to thrive, apathy, anorexia, and developmental regression, which respond remarkably rapidly to supplementation. The underlying mechanisms may involve delayed myelination or demyelina...

  2. Cerebral Atrophy in a Vitamin B12-deficient Infant of a Vegetarian Mother

    PubMed Central

    Akin, Fatih; Çaksen, Hüseyin; Böke, Saltuk Bu?ra; Arslan, ?ükrü; Aygün, Serhat

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In developed countries, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency usually occurs in children, exclusively breastfed ones whose mothers are vegetarian, causing low body stores of vitamin B12. The haematologic manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anaemia. It is a megaloblastic anaemia with high mean corpuscular volume and typical morphological features, such as hyperlobulation of the nuclei of the granulocytes. In advanced cases, neutropaenia and thrombocytopaenia can occur, simulating aplastic anaemia or leukaemia. In addition to haematological symptoms, infants may experience weakness, fatigue, failure to thrive, and irritability. Other common findings include pallor, glossitis, vomiting, diarrhoea, and icterus. Neurological symptoms may affect the central nervous system and, in severe cases, rarely cause brain atrophy. Here, we report an interesting case, a 12-month old infant, who was admitted with neurological symptoms and diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:25076673

  3. Prevalent vitamin B-12 deficiency in twelve-month-old Guatemalan infants is predicted by maternal B-12 deficiency and infant diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marginal (<148 pmol/L) or deficient (148-220 pmol/L) plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations were reported previously in approximately one third of low-income women and children studied in Guatemala. Since vitamin B-12 deficiency can adversely affect infant development and cognitive function, this study ...

  4. Association of Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Metformin Use in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yu-Bae; Ko, Seung-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency and associated factors in type 2 diabetes patients using metformin. A total of 799 type 2 diabetes patients using metformin was enrolled. Vitamin B12 and folate levels were quantified by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. Vitamin B12 deficiency was defined as vitamin B12 ? 300 pg/mL without folate deficiency (folate > 4 ng/mL). The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in metformin-treated type 2 diabetes patients was 9.5% (n = 76), and the mean vitamin B12 level was 662.5 ± 246.7 pg/mL. Vitamin B12 deficient patients had longer duration of metformin use (P < 0.001) and higher daily metformin dose (P < 0.001) than non-deficient patients. Compared with daily metformin dose of ? 1,000 mg, the adjusted odds ratio for 1,000-2,000 mg, and ? 2,000 mg were 2.52 (95% CI, 1.27-4.99, P = 0.008) and 3.80 (95% CI, 1.82-7.92, P < 0.001). Compared with metformin use of < 4 yr, the adjusted odds ratios for 4-10 yr, and ? 10 yr were 4.65 (95% CI, 2.36-9.16, P < 0.001) and 9.21 (95% CI, 3.38-25.11, P < 0.001), respectively. In conclusion, our study indicates that patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin should be screened for vitamin B12 deficiency, especially at higher dosages (> 1,000 mg) and longer durations (? 4 yr) of treatment. Graphical Abstract PMID:25045229

  5. Association of vitamin B12 deficiency and metformin use in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ko, Sun-Hye; Ko, Sun-Hee; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Song, Ki-Ho; Han, Kyung-Do; Park, Yong-Moon; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Hye-Soo

    2014-07-01

    We evaluated the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency and associated factors in type 2 diabetes patients using metformin. A total of 799 type 2 diabetes patients using metformin was enrolled. Vitamin B12 and folate levels were quantified by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. Vitamin B12 deficiency was defined as vitamin B12 ? 300 pg/mL without folate deficiency (folate > 4 ng/mL). The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in metformin-treated type 2 diabetes patients was 9.5% (n = 76), and the mean vitamin B12 level was 662.5 ± 246.7 pg/mL. Vitamin B12 deficient patients had longer duration of metformin use (P < 0.001) and higher daily metformin dose (P < 0.001) than non-deficient patients. Compared with daily metformin dose of ? 1,000 mg, the adjusted odds ratio for 1,000-2,000 mg, and ? 2,000 mg were 2.52 (95% CI, 1.27-4.99, P = 0.008) and 3.80 (95% CI, 1.82-7.92, P < 0.001). Compared with metformin use of < 4 yr, the adjusted odds ratios for 4-10 yr, and ? 10 yr were 4.65 (95% CI, 2.36-9.16, P < 0.001) and 9.21 (95% CI, 3.38-25.11, P < 0.001), respectively. In conclusion, our study indicates that patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin should be screened for vitamin B12 deficiency, especially at higher dosages (> 1,000 mg) and longer durations (? 4 yr) of treatment. PMID:25045229

  6. Association of Vitamin B12 Deficiency with Fatigue and Depression after Lacunar Stroke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marjolein Huijts; Annelien Duits; Julie Staals; Robert J. van Oostenbrugge

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundIn lacunar stroke patients vitamin B12 deficiency is often found and a relationship with the degree of periventricular white matter lesions (pWMLs) is suggested. Given the known relationships between WMLs and depression and between depression and fatigue after stroke, we studied both depression and fatigue in lacunar stroke patients with and without vitamin B12 deficiency.MethodsIn 40 first-ever lacunar stroke patients

  7. THE EFFECT OF DIETARY COBALT INTAKE ON THE PLASMA VITAMIN B12 CONCENTRATION OF SHEEP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Somers; JM Gawthorne

    1969-01-01

    The plasma vitamin B12 concentration of sheep progressively increased as the dietary cobalt level was raised from 0·04 parts per million to 0·34 parts per million. With rations containing more than 0·10 parts per million cobalt (8·1 ?g. Co\\/day) plasma vitamin B12 concentrations of sheep were more variable than those with lower cobalt intakes. This variability may have been due

  8. Urinary methylmalonic acid as an indicator of the vitamin B12 status of grazing sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. Millar; P. P. Lorentz

    1979-01-01

    Lambs grazing cobalt-deficient pastures and injected with hydroxocobalamine gained significantly more weight and excreted significantly less methylmalonic acid in the urine than untreated controls. Lambs with liver vitamin B12 levels in the range 0.1–0.2?g\\/g excreted less than 25 ?g of methylmalonic acid per ml of urine, whereas lambs with liver vitamin B12 concentrations of less than 0.1 ?g\\/g excreted greater

  9. Vitamin B12 absorption capacity in healthy children

    SciTech Connect

    Hjelt, K.; Krasilnikoff, P.A.

    1986-03-01

    B12 absorption was investigated in 47 healthy children aged 7 months to 15.8 years (median 4.9 years). The patients had either recovered from giardiasis, the post-gastroenteritis syndrome, or had celiac disease in remission (treated with a gluten-free diet). The B12 absorption was measured by a double-isotope technique using /sup 57/CoB12 and /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/, the latter being the inabsorbable marker. The radiation dose was minimal. The results were presented as fractional absorption of B12 (FAB12). Within the different age groups, the absorption test was performed by means of the following oral amounts of B12: 0- less than 1 year, 0.5 microgram; 1-3 years: 1.7 micrograms, 4-6 years, 2.5 micrograms; 7-10 years; 3.3 micrograms; and 11-15 years, 4.5 micrograms. When using these oral amounts of B12, the medians (and ranges) of FAB12 were found to be: 1-3 years (n = 18), 37% (16-80%); 4-6 years (n = 10), 27% (19-40%); 7-10 years (n = 9), 32% (21-44%); and 11-15 years (n = 8), 27% (19-59%). The FAB12 in two children aged 7 and 11 months was 31% and 32%, respectively. These results may be interpretated as reference values for B12 absorption in children. Further absorption tests were performed in seven children representing the four age groups from 1 to 15 years. When a high oral amount of B12 was given (i.e., three times the saturation dose), the FAB12 ranged from 0 to 20% (median 9%), whereas a low amount (i.e., one-ninth of the saturation dose) produced fractional absorptions from 65 to 82% (median 74%).

  10. Association of Vitamin B12 Deficiency with Fatigue and Depression after Lacunar Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Huijts, Marjolein; Duits, Annelien; Staals, Julie; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Background In lacunar stroke patients vitamin B12 deficiency is often found and a relationship with the degree of periventricular white matter lesions (pWMLs) is suggested. Given the known relationships between WMLs and depression and between depression and fatigue after stroke, we studied both depression and fatigue in lacunar stroke patients with and without vitamin B12 deficiency. Methods In 40 first-ever lacunar stroke patients vitamin B12 levels were determined and self-report questionnaires for fatigue and depression were completed three months after stroke. Results Lacunar stroke patients with vitamin B12 deficiency (N?=?13) reported significantly more fatigue (90.7 versus 59.4; p?=?.001) and depressive symptoms (6.62 versus 3.89; p<.05) than those without (N?=?27). In regression analyses, vitamin B12 deficiency was significantly and independently associated with the presence of severe fatigue and clinically significant depression. Conclusions Our preliminary results suggest a relationship between vitamin B12 deficiency and increased levels of fatigue and depression in lacunar stroke patients. If these findings could be replicated in a larger and general stroke sample, this would open treatment options and may improve quality of life after stroke. PMID:22276208

  11. Human vitamin B12 absorption measurement by accelerator mass spectrometry using specifically

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    idiosyncrasies of Salmonella metabolism. To grow aerobically on ethanolamine, Salmonella enterica mustCi mmol) (1 Ci 37 GBq) and no detectable dilution of label from endogenous DMB synthesis. In a human engineering Salmonella Schilling test Vitamin B12 (B12) is a compound of significant nutritional and clinical

  12. Effect of oral vitamin B12 with or without folic acid on cognitive function in older people with mild vitamin B12 deficiency: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simone J Eussen; Lisette C de Groot; Liesbeth W Joosten; Rubia J Bloo; Robert Clarke; Per M Ueland; Jörn Schneede; Henk J Blom; Willibrord H Hoefnagels; Wija A van Staveren

    Background:Vitamin B-12 deficiency is associated with cognitive impairment in older people. However, evidence from randomized trials of the effects of vitamin B-12 supplementation on cognitive function is limited and inconclusive. Objective: The objective was to investigate whether daily supple- mentation with high doses of oral vitamin B-12 alone or in combi- nationwithfolicacidhasanybeneficialeffectsoncognitivefunction in persons aged 70 y with mild vitamin

  13. Vitamin B12 Cream Containing Avocado Oil in the Therapy of Plaque Psoriasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Stücker; Ulrike Memmel; Matthias Hoffmann; Joachim Hartung; Peter Altmeyer

    2001-01-01

    Background: There are already many effective topical therapies available for use in the treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis. Unfortunately, these treatments are often associated with a rather significant risk of undesirable effects. Objective and Methods: In this randomized, prospective clinical trial, the effects of the vitamin D3 analog calcipotriol were evaluated against those of a recently developed vitamin B12 cream

  14. Metabolic interrelationships between folic acid, vitamin B12 and the citrovorum factor

    E-print Network

    Doctor, Vasant Manilal

    1953-01-01

    METABOLIC INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN FOLIC ACID, VITAMIN B AND THE CITROVORUM FACTOR A Thesis by Vasant Manilal Doctor Approved as to style and content by METABOLIC INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN FOLIC ACID, VITAMIN B12 AND THE CITROVORUM FACTOR... citrovorum factor (rep rin t )....................................................................... Conversion of folic acid to citrovorum factor by avian liver homogenates. I . Influence of reducing agents and anaerobiosis...

  15. Lifestyle and genetic determinants of folate and vitamin B12 levels in a general adult population.

    PubMed

    Thuesen, Betina H; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Ovesen, Lars; Jørgensen, Torben; Fenger, Mogens; Linneberg, Allan

    2010-04-01

    Danish legislation regarding food fortification has been very restrictive resulting in few fortified food items on the Danish market. Folate and vitamin B12 deficiency is thought to be common due to inadequate intakes but little is known about the actual prevalence of low serum folate and vitamin B12 in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the folate and vitamin B12 status of Danish adults and to investigate associations between vitamin status and distinct lifestyle and genetic factors. The study included a random sample of 6784 individuals aged 30-60 years. Information on lifestyle factors was obtained by questionnaires and blood samples were analysed for serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations and several genetic polymorphisms. The overall prevalence of low serum folate ( < 6.8 nmol/l) was 31.4 %. Low serum folate was more common among men than women and the prevalence was lower with increasing age. Low serum folate was associated with smoking, low alcohol intake, high coffee intake, unhealthy diet, and the TT genotype of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR)-C677T polymorphism. The overall prevalence of low serum vitamin B12 ( < 148 pmol/l) was 4.7 %. Low serum vitamin B12 was significantly associated with female sex, high coffee intake, low folate status, and the TT genotype of the MTHFR-C677T polymorphism. In conclusion, low serum folate was present in almost a third of the adult population in the present study and was associated with several lifestyle factors whereas low serum concentrations of vitamin B12 were less common and only found to be associated with a few lifestyle factors. PMID:19968891

  16. Chronic Maternal Vitamin B12 Restriction Induced Changes in Body Composition & Glucose Metabolism in the Wistar Rat Offspring Are Partly Correctable by Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kalle Anand; Lalitha, Anumula; Reddy, Umakar; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Sengupta, Shantanu; Raghunath, Manchala

    2014-01-01

    Maternal under-nutrition increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. We studied the effects of chronic maternal dietary vitamin B12 restriction on lean body mass (LBM), fat free mass (FFM), muscle function, glucose tolerance and metabolism in Wistar rat offspring. Prevention/reversibility of changes by rehabilitating restricted mothers from conception or parturition and their offspring from weaning was assessed. Female weaning Wistar rats (n?=?30) were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks, a control diet (n?=?6) or the same with 40% restriction of vitamin B12 (B12R) (n?=?24); after confirming deficiency, were mated with control males. Six each of pregnant B12R dams were rehabilitated from conception and parturition and their offspring weaned to control diet. While offspring of six B12R dams were weaned to control diet, those of the remaining six B12R dams continued on B12R diet. Biochemical parameters and body composition were determined in dams before mating and in male offspring at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of their age. Dietary vitamin B12 restriction increased body weight but decreased LBM% and FFM% but not the percent of tissue associated fat (TAF%) in dams. Maternal B12R decreased LBM% and FFM% in the male offspring, but their TAF%, basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake by diaphragm were unaltered. At 12 months age, B12R offspring had higher (than controls) fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and impaired glucose tolerance. Their hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme activities were increased. B12R offspring had increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant status. Changes in body composition, glucose metabolism and stress were reversed by rehabilitating B12R dams from conception, whereas rehabilitation from parturition and weaning corrected them partially, highlighting the importance of vitamin B12 during pregnancy and lactation on growth, muscle development, glucose tolerance and metabolism in the offspring. PMID:25398136

  17. Congenital disorders of vitamin B12 transport and their contributions to concepts. II.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    Congenital deficiencies of Transcobalamin II (TC II) and R binders of vitamin B12 (B12, cobalamin, Cbl) have been described in several families. The deficiency of TC II exists as at least three variants. The deficiency of TC II is expressed by a profound megaloblastic pancytopenia during the first few weeks of life, but the serum Cbl is normal. In contrast, the deficiency of R binder is asymptomatic, tissues are replete in Cbl, but the serum Cbl is low. All of the R binder in the several body sources is under the same genetic control. Studies of the congenital deficiency TC II suggest the following: (1) The function of TC II is the promotion of cell uptake of physiologic amounts of Cbl, which can also be accomplished by very large amounts of Cbl, and not in any intracellular process. (2) TC II is essential for the absorption, postabsorptive distribution, and recycling of TC II. (3) The metabolic consequences of TC II deficiency are expressed primarily in rapidly dividing cells probably because they are dependent upon the constant need for new Cbl. PMID:7342493

  18. Vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine levels in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Türksoy, Nuray; Bilici, Rabia; Yalç?ner, Altan; Özdemir, Y Özay; Örnek, Ibrahim; Tufan, Ali Evren; Kara, Ay?e

    2014-01-01

    It is known that elevated serum homocysteine, decreased folate, and low vitamin B12 serum levels are associated with poor cognitive function, cognitive decline, and dementia. Current literature shows that some psychiatric disorders, mainly affective and psychotic ones, can be related to the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine. These results can be explained by the importance of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine in carbon transfer metabolism (methylation), which is required for the production of serotonin as well as for other monoamine neurotransmitters and catecholamines. Earlier studies focused on the relationship between folate deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and depressive disorders. Although depressive and anxiety disorders show a common comorbidity pattern, there are few studies addressing the effect of impaired one-carbon metabolism in anxiety disorders – especially in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). This study aimed to measure the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine specifically in order to see if eventual alterations have an etiopathogenetic significance on patients with OCD. Serum vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine concentrations were measured in 35 patients with OCD and 22 controls. In addition, the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety were conducted for each patient. It was found that vitamin B12 levels were decreased and homocysteine levels were increased in some OCD patients. Homocysteine levels were positively correlated with Yale–Brown compulsion and Yale–Brown total scores. In conclusion, findings of this study suggest that some OCD patients might have vitamin B12 deficiency and higher homocysteine levels. PMID:25228807

  19. RED CELL STROMA PROTEIN RICH IN VITAMIN B12 DURING ACTIVE REGENERATION

    PubMed Central

    Whipple, G. H.; Robscheit-Robbins, F. S.; Bale, W. F.

    1955-01-01

    During active blood regeneration in anemia in dogs an increase occurs in the stroma protein of the red cells. When vitamin B12 with radioactive cobalt is given at the start of this blood regeneration one finds concentration of labeled B12 in the stroma protein but not in the hemoglobin. After the acute phase of red cell regeneration is ended the concentration of B12 in stroma protein falls rapidly to very low levels within 2 weeks. Subsequent episodes of red blood cell regeneration seems not to cause remobilization of radioactive cobalt into red cells from other body stores. It appears that the vitamin B12 is a factor of importance in the first steps of stroma protein formation in the first few days of the life of the red cell in the dog. This response in dogs and the response in pernicious anemia to vitamin B12 may have some points in common. Distribution of the B12-radioactive cobalt in the organs and tissues at autopsy has been recorded. Some very suggestive localizations were noted and some variation 1 week and 7 weeks after B12 injections. Radioactive cobalt escapes in the urine during the weeks following B12 injections. PMID:13271685

  20. Intergenotypic variation of Vitamin B12 and Folate in AD: In north indian population

    PubMed Central

    Chhillar, Neelam; Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Bala, Kiran; Basu, Mitra; Sharma, Deepika

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Changes in lifestyle habits such as diet modification or supplementation have been indicated as probable protective factors for a number of chronic conditions including Alzheimer's disease (AD). With this background, we aim to hypothesize that whether C677T polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene contributes towards the risk of developing AD and its association with vitamin B12 and folate levels. Materials and Methods: A case-control study comprising of total 200 subjects, within the age group of 50-85 years. Their blood samples were analyzed for serum folate, vitamin B12 levels, and MTHFR C677T polymorphism by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Results: The mean plasma levels of vitamin B12 and folate were significantly lower in study group when compared to the control group (P < 0.001). Genotypic and allelic frequency of MTHFR gene in both groups was found to be significant (P < 0.05). The intergenotypic variations of vitamin B12 and folate were found to be significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: We concluded that the subjects with homozygous mutated alleles are more prone to AD and also pointed out the influence of presence/absence of MTHFR T allelic variants on serum folate and vitamin B12 levels. PMID:25221401

  1. Vitamin B12 deficiency with combined hematological and neuropsychiatric derangements: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although vitamin B12 deficiency is a well-known cause of hematological and neuropsychiatric illness, the presentation of combined severe pancytopenia, demyelination and prominent psychiatric impairment is rare. Case presentation We present a case of a previously healthy 55-year-old East African man with severe vitamin B12 deficiency (serum vitamin B12 22pmol/L) secondary to pernicious anemia. He had a severe hypoproliferative megaloblastic anemia with hemolysis (hemoglobin 61g/L, mean corpuscular volume 99fL, reticulocytes 0.8%, haptoglobin undetectable), leukopenia (2.7×109/L), thrombocytopenia (96×109/L), ataxia with central demyelination, and megaloblastic madness. The patient’s anemia, myelopathy and psychiatric condition responded well to parenteral vitamin B12 replacement therapy, with significant improvement seen within weeks. Conclusion Hematological manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency are typically inversely correlated with the presence and severity of neuropsychiatric impairment. Although uncommon, a presentation with severe hematological and neuropsychiatric disease can occur, as illustrated by this case. Its presence may help guide diagnosis as well as provide clinically important prognostic information. PMID:25128288

  2. Serum iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Madenci, Gulizar; Bilen, Sule; Arli, Berna; Saka, Mustafa; Ak, Fikri

    2012-07-01

    We aimed to investigate possible associations between systemic iron metabolism deficiency and Parkinson's disease, and also to research any possible correlations between stage of the disease and vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. 33 male and 27 female patients diagnosed with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and 22 male and 20 female age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in the study. Having the diagnosis of secondary Parkinsonism or Parkinson plus syndromes, and for the females, not being in the menopausal stage were considered as exclusion criteria. Recordings of blood samples of both groups collected after 8 h fasts were assessed in terms of serum iron, ferritin levels and iron-binding capacity, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. The Hoehn and Yahr scale was used to determine the stage of the disease. No statistically significant difference was found with respect to mean serum iron, median serum ferritin levels and median serum iron-binding capacity between the groups. A statistically significant but inverse correlation was found between symptoms' duration and serum iron and ferritin levels. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups with respect to vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. However, a statistically significant but inverse correlation was determined between the patients' vitamin B12 levels and the Hoehn and Yahr scores. As Parkinson's disease progresses, serum iron, ferritin and vitamin B12 levels may decrease. The lower levels of these parameters may be the cause of the progression or may be the result of it. PMID:22367474

  3. Erythrocyte mean cellular volume and its relation to serum homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate.

    PubMed

    Haltmayer, M; Mueller, T; Poelz, W

    2002-01-01

    Cobalamin (B12) and folate deficiency is related to both increased erythrocyte mean cellular volume (MCV) and raised serum total homocysteine (tHcy) values. Furthermore, there are indications that B12 and folate serum values do not represent the tissue status of the two vitamins exactly. Therefore, a direct relationship between MCV and tHcy, if demonstrated, could support the hypothesis that tHcy is a better indicator for the cited vitamin status than the serum levels of B12 and folate. We studied MCV, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), serum B12, folate and tHcy values in 200 hospitalized patients. There was a significant correlation of MCV with GGT (r = 0.266, P < 0.001) and with tHcy (r = 0.248, P < 0.001), but not with serum B12 and folate. Stepwise multiple linear regression with MCV as dependent and GGT, B12, folate and tHcy as independent variables, respectively, revealed significant associations of MCV with GGT (B = 2.18, 95% CI 0.95-3.42, P = 0.001) and tHcy (B = 3.33, 95% CI 1.26-5.39, P = 0.002). By removing tHcy from this model, serum B12 became a significant predictor of MCV (B = -1.70, 95% CI -3.25 to -0.15, P = 0.032). Serum folate was not significantly associated with MCV in multivariate analysis. In conclusion, the present study confirms indications that serum B12 and folate values lack clinical sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing vitamin deficiency states by showing MCV was better associated to tHcy, than to B12 or folate serum levels. This observation demonstrates that tHcy may be useful in diagnosing patients with B12 and/or folate deficiency. PMID:12050947

  4. Isolated cerebellar involvement in vitamin B12 deficiency: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Biswaroop; Dubey, Rachana; Gulati, Sheffali; Yoganathan, Sangeetha; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Atin

    2014-11-01

    Deficiency of vitamin B12 causes megaloblastic anemia and nervous system demyelination. Structures affected in the nervous system include spinal cord, cranial and peripheral nerves, and brain white matter. A 9-year-old boy presented with knuckle hyperpigmentation and oral ulcers for 3 years, pallor and easy fatigability for 6 months, gait abnormalities for 3 months, and abnormal speech and behavioral abnormalities for 3 days. On examination, he had physical signs of megaloblastic anemia, mood swings with intermittent hallucinations, and features of cerebellar impairment. Blood investigations revealed megaloblastic anemia, and pernicious anemia was ruled out. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed bilateral cerebellar signal changes. He received treatment for vitamin B12 deficiency and appropriate nutritional counseling. Three months later, he showed significant clinical and radiologic resolution. To our knowledge, isolated cerebellar involvement as the sole neurologic manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency has not been described previously in children. PMID:24346315

  5. Serum holotranscobalamine, vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine levels in alopecia areata patients.

    PubMed

    Ertugrul, Derun Taner; Karadag, Ayse Serap; Takci, Zennure; Bilgili, Serap Gunes; Ozkol, Hatice Uce; Tutal, Emre; Akin, Kadir Okhan

    2013-03-01

    Alopecia areata has been associated with many autoimmune diseases. There is a common belief that the prevalence of pernicious anemia is increased in patients with alopecia areata. In this study, we sought to investigate vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine metabolism in alopecia areata. We measured holotranscobalamine (holoTC), vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine levels in 75 patients with alopecia areata and 54 controls. We did not find any significant differences in these parameters between these groups. We think that alopecia areata may not be associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. The co-occurrence of pernicious anemia and alopecia areata in rare autoimmune syndromes, may not justify routine measurements of these parameters in alopecia areata patients. PMID:22591107

  6. Vitamin B12 deficiency with intrinsic factor antibodies in an infant with poor growth and developmental delay.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Kathleen; Chowdhury, Dhiman; Penney, Lynette; Rashid, Mohsin

    2014-02-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is very rare in infants and may lead to serious hematological and neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The present article describes a case involving a seven-month-old boy with severe vitamin B12 deficiency, likely caused by juvenile pernicious anemia, an entity rarely described. The child presented with feeding intolerance, poor growth and developmental delay. He was noted to have macrocytic anemia, a markedly low serum vitamin B12 level, and elevated homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels. Antibodies to intrinsic factor were positive. The mother was healthy, with normal vitamin B12 status. Therapy with vitamin B12 supplements led to excellent recovery of symptoms. Vitamin B12 deficiency should be considered in children presenting with failure to thrive, especially when compounded with neurological symptoms. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment is essential to avoid serious complications. PMID:24596481

  7. The Biosynthesis of Vitamin B12: A Study by 13C Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Charles Eric; Katz, Joseph J.; Shemin, David

    1972-01-01

    The origin of the methyl group on C-1 of Ring A of the corrin ring of vitamin B12 was investigated by 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The proton-decoupled 13C spectra of vitamin B12 synthesized from [5-13C]?-aminolevulinic acid by Propionibacteria were obtained by Fourier-transform nuclear magnetic resonance of high resolution, and spectra of high-resolution proton magnetic resonance of the 13C-labeled B12 were also taken. The ?-carbon atom of ?-aminolevulinic acid is the source of seven or eight known positions of vitamin B12, depending on whether the C-1 methyl group is also derived from the labeled substrate. We have found seven resonances whose chemical shifts enable us to identify the position of the 13C atoms in the molecule from the assignment of Dodderell and Allerhand. We observed no 13C resonance corresponding to the C-1 methyl group of Ring A. Furthermore, the proton magnetic resonance spectrum showed no spin-spin splitting of the proton peak at the ? values assigned for the H atoms in this methyl group. It would thus appear that the methyl group at C-1, which has been considered to have the same origin as the ?-methine bridge of porphyrins, does not originate from the ?-carbon atom of ?-aminolevulinic acid. This finding may aid in elucidation of the mechanism of synthesis of the functional isomer of vitamin B12 and porphyrins. The 13C-labeled vitamin B12 enabled us to make further assignments to the 13C magnetic resonance of the vitamin. PMID:4506779

  8. Homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels in psoriatic patients and correlation with disease severity.

    PubMed

    Brazzelli, V; Grasso, V; Fornara, L; Moggio, E; Gamba, G; Villani, S; Borroni, G

    2010-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinaemia represents an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, stroke, peripheral arterial occlusive disease and venous thrombosis. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease associated with increased atherothrombosis and cardiovascular risk profile. The aim of this study is to investigate homocysteine, folic acid and vitamin B12 levels in a cohort of psoriatic patients and its relationship with the severity of the disease. A retrospective observational study in 98 patients with chronic plaque psoriasis and 98 healthy controls was performed. Total plasma homocysteine level, folic acid, vitamin B12 and PASI index were assessed in every patient. Patients with psoriasis had plasma homocysteine levels higher than controls (57% of cases and 25% of controls; p<0.0001). Folic acid and vitamin B12 plasma levels were lower in psoriatic patients than in controls (p = NS), lower levels of vitamin B12 were found in patients with hyperhomocysteinaemia compared to patients with a normal value of homocysteine (p = 0.0009). The severity of psoriasis assessed according to PASI (19.51+/-16.26) did not directly correlate either with higher levels of homocysteine or with vitamin B12 and folic acid plasma levels. In conclusion, a significantly higher prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia was found in psoriatic patients compared to healthy controls. A significant correlation between hyperhomocysteinaemia and lower vitamin B12 levels, but not folic acid, was evidenced. On the contrary, our data do not correlate the high level of homocysteine with higher PASI scores or psoriasis type, suggesting that homocysteine level can be considered an independent risk factor in psoriatic patients. PMID:20943063

  9. Low Vitamin B12 Levels among Newly-Arrived Refugees from Bhutan, Iran and Afghanistan: A Multicentre Australian Study

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Jill; Phillips, Christine; Kay, Margaret; Webber, Murray T.; Ratcliff, Alison J.; Correa-Velez, Ignacio; Lorimer, Michelle F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin B12 deficiency is prevalent in many countries of origin of refugees. Using a threshold of 5% above which a prevalence of low Vitamin B12 is indicative of a population health problem, we hypothesised that Vitamin B12 deficiency exceeds this threshold among newly-arrived refugees resettling in Australia, and is higher among women due to their increased risk of food insecurity. This paper reports Vitamin B12 levels in a large cohort of newly arrived refugees in five Australian states and territories. Methods In a cross-sectional descriptive study, we collected Vitamin B12, folate and haematological indices on all refugees (n?=?916; response rate 94% of eligible population) who had been in Australia for less than one year, and attended one of the collaborating health services between July 2010 and July 2011. Results 16.5% of participants had Vitamin B12 deficiency (<150 pmol/L). One-third of participants from Iran and Bhutan, and one-quarter of participants from Afghanistan had Vitamin B12 deficiency. Contrary to our hypothesis, low Vitamin B12 levels were more prevalent in males than females. A higher prevalence of low Vitamin B12 was also reported in older age groups in some countries. The sensitivity of macrocytosis in detecting Vitamin B12 deficiency was only 4.6%. Conclusion Vitamin B12 deficiency is an important population health issue in newly-arrived refugees from many countries. All newly-arrived refugees should be tested for Vitamin B12 deficiency. Ongoing research should investigate causes, treatment, and ways to mitigate food insecurity, and the contribution of such measures to enhancing the health of the refugee communities. PMID:23469126

  10. Low serum vitamin B12 levels among psychiatric patients admitted in Butabika mental hospital in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychiatric manifestations have been noted in patients with low serum vitamin B12 levels even in the absence of other neurologic and/or haematologic abnormalities. There is no literature on low serum B12 prevalence among Ugandans with psychiatric illnesses. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence, risk factors, and clinical manifestations of low serum vitamin B12 among psychiatric patients admitted in a Mental Health Hospital in Uganda. Method Using a cross sectional descriptive study design, 280 in-patients selected by systematic sampling were studied using a standardized protocol. Low serum vitamin B12 was defined as a level?B12 in 28.6% of the participants. Absent vibration sense which was significantly associated (58.3% Vs. 26.7%: OR?=?3.84 (95% C.I. 1.18, 12.49); p-value?=?0.025) with low vitamin B12 was observed among 12 participants. Macro-ovalocytes present among 23 participants on peripheral film were significantly associated with low serum levels (73.9% Vs. 26.2%: OR?=?7.99 (95% C.I. 3.01, 21.19) p-value?B12 levels included psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia (AOR 1.74 (95% C.I. 1.00, 3.02); p-value?=?0.049), duration of psychiatric illness?>?or?=?3 years (AOR 2.27 (95% C.I. 1.29, 3.98); p-value?=?0.004), and hospitalization?B12 is common among hospitalized psychiatric patients with the majority having no haematological findings. Associated risk factors included having a psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia, a shorter duration of hospitalization and longer duration of psychiatric illness. Female participants were less likely to have low serum vitamin B12 levels. Routine screening for serum vitamin B12 levels should be adopted by all hospitals for admitted psychiatric patients. PMID:24533701

  11. Effects of Formulation Variables and Storage Conditions on Light Protected Vitamin B12 Mixed Parenteral Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Monajjemzadeh, Farnaz; Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin; Valizadeh, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this research the effect of vitamin B1 and B6 on cyanocobalamin stability in commercial light protected parenteral formulations and upon adding stabilizing agents will be investigated and best formulation composition and proper storage condition will be introduced. Methods: In this research some additives such as co solvents and tonicity adjusters, surfactants, antioxidants and chelating agents as well as buffer solutions, were used to improve the stability of the parenteral mixed formulations of B12 in the presence of other B vitamins (B1 and B6). Screening tests and accelerated stability tests were performed according to ICH guidelines Q1A (R2). Results: Shelf life evaluation revealed the best formulation and the proper storage condition. The results indicated the first kinetic models for all tested formulations and the optimum pH value was determined to be 5.8. There was no evidence of B12 loss when mixed with B1 and B6 in a medical syringe at room temperature for maximum of 8 hours. Conclusion: It is necessary to formulate vitamin B12 mixed parenteral solutions using proper phosphate buffers (pH=5.8) and to indicate “Store in refrigerator” on the mixed parenteral formulations of vitamin B12 with other B vitamins, which has not been expressed on the label of tested Brand formulations at the time of this study. PMID:25436187

  12. Vitamin B12: one carbon metabolism, fetal growth and programming for chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Rush, E C; Katre, P; Yajnik, C S

    2014-01-01

    This review brings together human and animal studies and reviews that examine the possible role of maternal vitamin B12 (B12) on fetal growth and its programming for susceptibility to chronic disease. A selective literature review was undertaken to identify studies and reviews that investigate these issues, particularly in the context of a vegetarian diet that may be low in B12 and protein and high in carbohydrate. Evidence is accumulating that maternal B12 status influences fetal growth and development. Low maternal vitamin B12 status and protein intake are associated with increased risk of neural tube defect, low lean mass and excess adiposity, increased insulin resistance, impaired neurodevelopment and altered risk of cancer in the offspring. Vitamin B12 is a key nutrient associated with one carbon metabolic pathways related to substrate metabolism, synthesis and stability of nucleic acids and methylation of DNA which regulates gene expression. Understanding of factors regulating maternal-fetal one carbon metabolism and its role in fetal programming of non communicable diseases could help design effective interventions, starting with maternal nutrition before conception. PMID:24219896

  13. Distributions of dissolved vitamin B 12 and Co in coastal and open-ocean environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzeca, Caterina; Beck, Aaron J.; Tovar-Sanchez, Antonio; Segovia-Zavala, Jose; Taylor, Gordon T.; Gobler, Christopher J.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.

    2009-11-01

    Distributions of dissolved vitamin B 12 and total dissolved Co were measured to gain an understanding of the cycling of these interdependent micronutrients in six marine settings including; an upwelling location, a semi-enclosed bay, two urban coastal systems, and two open ocean locations. Along the coast of Baja California, Mexico, concentrations of B 12 and dissolved Co varied from 0.2 to 11 pM and 180 to 990 pM, respectively. At a nearby upwelling station, vitamin B 12 and Co concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 7.0 pM and 22 to 145 pM, and concentrations did not correlate with upwelling intensity. Concentrations of B 12 were highest within Todos Santos Bay, a semi-enclosed bay off the coast of Baja California, Mexico, during a dinoflagellate bloom, ranging from 2 to 61 pM, while Co concentrations varied between 61 and 194 pM. In the anthropogenically impacted Long Island Sound, NY, U.S.A., B 12 levels were between 0.1 and 23 pM and Co concentrations varied from 60 to 1900 pM. However, anthropogenic inputs were not evident in B 12 levels in the San Pedro Basin, located outside Los Angeles, Ca, U.S.A., where concentrations of B 12 were 0.2-1.8 pM, approximating observed open ocean B 12 concentrations. In the Southern Ocean and North Atlantic Ocean, B 12 levels were 0.4-4 pM and 0.2-2 pM, respectively. Total Co concentrations in the Southern Ocean and North Atlantic tended to be low; measuring 26-59 pM and 15-80 pM, respectively. These low Co concentrations may limit B 12 synthesis and its availability to B 12-requiring phytoplankton because the total dissolved Co pool is not necessarily entirely bioavailable.

  14. Folate, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, and Methionine Intakes and Risk of Stroke Subtypes in Male Smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanna C. Larsson; Satu Mannisto; Mikko J. Virtanen; Jukka Kontto; Demetrius Albanes; Jarmo Virtamo

    2008-01-01

    The associations of dietary folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and methionine intakes with risk of stroke subtypes were examined among 26,556 male Finnish smokers, aged 50-69 years, enrolled in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta- Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline by using a validated food frequency questionnaire. During a mean follow-up of 13.6 years, from 1985 through 2004,

  15. Longitudinal association of vitamin B-6, folate, and vitamin B-12 with depressive symptoms among older adults over time123

    PubMed Central

    Tangney, Christine; Li, Hong; Ouyang, Bichun; Evans, Denis A; Morris, Martha Clare

    2010-01-01

    Background: B-vitamin deficiencies have been associated with depression; however, there is very little prospective evidence from population-based studies of older adults. Objective: We examined whether dietary intakes of vitamins B-6, folate, or vitamin B-12 were predictive of depressive symptoms over an average of 7.2 y in a community-based population of older adults. Design: The study sample consisted of 3503 adults from the Chicago Health and Aging project, an ongoing, population-based, biracial (59% African American) study in adults aged ?65 y. Dietary assessment was made by food-frequency questionnaire. Incident depression was measured by the presence of ?4 depressive symptoms from the 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Results: The logistic regression models, which used generalized estimating equations, showed that higher total intakes, which included supplementation, of vitamins B-6 and B-12 were associated with a decreased likelihood of incident depression for up to 12 y of follow-up, after adjustment for age, sex, race, education, income, and antidepressant medication use. For example, each 10 additional milligrams of vitamin B-6 and 10 additional micrograms of vitamin B-12 were associated with 2% lower odds of depressive symptoms per year. There was no association between depressive symptoms and food intakes of these vitamins or folate. These associations remained after adjustment for smoking, alcohol use, widowhood, caregiving status, cognitive function, physical disability, and medical conditions. Conclusion: Our results support the hypotheses that high total intakes of vitamins B-6 and B-12 are protective of depressive symptoms over time in community-residing older adults. PMID:20519557

  16. Vitamin B12 Deficiency: An Important Reversible Co-Morbidity in Neuropsychiatric Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Issac, Thomas Gregor; Soundarya, Soundararajan; Christopher, Rita; Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitamin B12 deficiency is a common condition causing neurologic, cognitive, psychiatric, and mood symptoms. With varied religious, ethnic, and socioeconomic heterogeneity among the people in India greatly influencing their dietary habits and with the high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection, Vitamin B12 deficiency is not uncommon, but is often under recognized due to the lack of classical symptomatic presentation. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study on Vitamin B12 deficiency with neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients who attended neurology, psychiatry, and geriatric OPDs for a period of 1 year in a specialized neuropsychiatric institute in South India. Results: Out of 259 patients who had Vitamin B12 deficiency (<220 pmol/L), 60 had neuropsychiatric symptoms. Among them the Vitamin B12 levels were <150 (severe), 150-200 (moderate), and 201-220 pmol/L (mild) in 19, 24, 17 patients, respectively. Twenty one were diagnosed with Posterior dementias, 20 with frontotemporal dementia, 7 with Schizophrenia, 4 each with Parkinson's disease and alcohol-dependent syndromes (ADS), 3 with bipolar affective disorder, and 1 with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Eight patients also had hypothyroidism. First symptom of presentation was behavioral disturbances in 30 (50%), memory loss in 20 (33.9%), and sensorimotor and movement disorders in 9 (15.3%), and 56.7% were vegetarians while 43.3% were nonvegetarians. In our study, Vitamin B12 deficiency was more prevalent in elderly males (56.67%) and was associated with increased severity of behavioral disturbances (P = 0.043) which was the most common presentation. Memory loss was present in 16 (84.2%) patients of severe Vitamin B12 deficiency. Hindi mental status examination (HMSE) score was graded as <20, 20-24, 24-31 in 37 (61.7%), 10 (16.7%), and 13 (21.7%) patients, respectively. Cognitive decline in Vitamin B12 deficiency was significantly associated with increased serum cholesterol (P = 0.019) and was significantly prevalent in neurological disorders when compared with primary psychiatric illnesses (P = 0.001). Mean folate and mean homocysteine in our study was 11.7 ± 6.44 ng/ml and 17.77 ± 5.45 ?mol/L, respectively. Eighty percent of the population had normal folate levels whereas mean homocysteine values were much higher than that of the western population (10-12 ?mol/L). Conclusion: Vitamin B12 deficiency though common in India is often overlooked. It increases the load of cognitive decline and accentuates vascular risk factors in neuropsychiatric illnesses. Vitamin B12 deficiency also increases homocysteine levels contributing to the vascular comorbidity in cerebro and cardiovascular illnesses. So prevention, early detection, and management of this reversible Vitamin B12 deficiency state is of profound importance. PMID:25722508

  17. Status of B-Vitamins and Homocysteine in Diabetic Retinopathy: Association with Vitamin-B12 Deficiency and Hyperhomocysteinemia

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayana, Alleboena; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Pitla, Sujatha; Reddy, Paduru Yadagiri; Mudili, Sivaprasad; Lopamudra, Pratti; Suryanarayana, Palla; Viswanath, Kalluru; Ayyagari, Radha; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common cause of blindness. Although many studies have indicated an association between homocysteine and DR, the results so far have been equivocal. Amongst the many determinants of homocysteine, B-vitamin status was shown to be a major confounding factor, yet very little is known about its relationship to DR. In the present study, we, therefore, investigated the status of B-vitamins and homocysteine in DR. A cross-sectional case–control study was conducted with 100 normal control (CN) subjects and 300 subjects with type-2 diabetes (T2D). Of the 300 subjects with T2D, 200 had retinopathy (DR) and 100 did not (DNR). After a complete ophthalmic examination including fundus fluorescein angiography, the clinical profile and the blood levels of all B-vitamins and homocysteine were analyzed. While mean plasma homocysteine levels were found to be higher in T2D patients compared with CN subjects, homocysteine levels were particularly high in the DR group. There were no group differences in the blood levels of vitamins B1 and B2. Although the plasma vitamin-B6 and folic acid levels were significantly lower in the DNR and DR groups compared with the CN group, there were no significant differences between the diabetes groups. Interestingly, plasma vitamin-B12 levels were found to be significantly lower in the diabetes groups compared with the CN group; further, the levels were significantly lower in the DR group compared with the DNR group. Higher homocysteine levels were significantly associated with lower vitamin-B12 and folic acid but not with other B-vitamins. Additionally, hyperhomocysteinemia and vitamin-B12 deficiency did not seem to be related to subjects' age, body mass index, or duration of diabetes. These results thus suggest a possible association between vitamin-B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia in DR. Further, the data indicate that vitamin-B12 deficiency could be an independent risk factor for DR. PMID:22069468

  18. Circulating folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine, vitamin B12 transport proteins and risk of prostate cancer: a case-control study, systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Simon M.; Metcalfe, Chris; Refsum, Helga; Lewis, Sarah J.; Zuccolo, Luisa; Smith, George Davey; Chen, Lina; Harris, Ross; Davis, Michael; Marsden, Gemma; Johnston, Carole; Lane, J. Athene; Ebbing, Marta; Bønaa, Kaare Harald; Nygård, Ottar; Ueland, Per Magne; Grau, Maria V.; Baron, John A.; Donovan, Jenny; Neal, David E.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Smith, A. David; Martin, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Disturbed folate metabolism is associated with an increased risk of some cancers. Our objective was to determine whether blood levels of folate, vitamin B12 and related metabolites were associated with prostate cancer risk. Methods Matched case-control study nested within the UK population-based ProtecT study of PSA-detected prostate cancer in men aged 50–69 years. Plasma concentrations of folate, B12 (cobalamin), holo-haptocorrin, holo- and total-transcobalamin, and total homocysteine (tHcy) were measured in 1,461 cases and 1,507 controls. ProtecT study estimates for associations of folate, B12, and tHcy with prostate cancer risk were included in a meta-analysis, based on a systematic review. Results In the ProtecT study, increased B12 and holo-haptocorrin concentrations showed positive associations with prostate cancer risk (highest vs lowest quartile of B12 odds ratio (OR)=1.17 (95% CI 0.95–1.43), P-for-trend=0.06; highest vs lowest quartile of holo-haptocorrin OR=1.27 (1.04–1.56), P-for-trend=0.01); folate, holo-transcobalamin and tHcy were not associated with prostate cancer risk. In the meta-analysis, circulating B12 levels were associated with an increased prostate cancer risk (pooled OR=1.10 (1.01–1.19) per 100 pmol/L increase in B12, P=0.002); the pooled OR for the association of folate with prostate cancer was positive (OR=1.11 (0.96–1.28) per 10 nmol/L, P=0.2) and conventionally statistically significant if ProtecT (the only case-control study) was excluded (OR=1.18 (1.00–1.40) per 10 nmol/L, P=0.02). Conclusion Vitamin B12 and (in cohort studies) folate were associated with increased prostate cancer risk. Impact Given current controversies over mandatory fortification, further research is needed to determine whether these are causal associations. PMID:20501771

  19. Basal Gnathostomes Provide Unique Insights into the Evolution of Vitamin B12 Binders

    PubMed Central

    Lopes-Marques, Mónica; Ruivo, Raquel; Delgado, Inês; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Aluru, Neelakanteswar; Castro, L. Filipe C.

    2015-01-01

    The uptake and transport of vitamin B12 (cobalamin; Cbl) in mammals involves a refined system with three evolutionarily related transporters: transcobalamin 1 (Tcn1), transcobalamin 2 (Tcn2), and the gastric intrinsic factor (Gif). Teleosts have a single documented binder with intermediate features to the human counterparts. Consequently, it has been proposed that the expansion of Cbl binders occurred after the separation of Actinopterygians. Here, we demonstrate that the diversification of this gene family took place earlier in gnathostome ancestry. Our data indicates the presence of single copy orthologs of the Sarcopterygii/Tetrapoda duplicates Tcn1 and Gif, and Tcn2, in Chondrichthyes. In addition, a highly divergent Cbl binder was found in the Elasmobranchii. We unveil a complex scenario forged by genome, tandem duplications and lineage-specific gene loss. Our findings suggest that from an ancestral transporter, exhibiting large spectrum and high affinity binding, highly specific Cbl transporters emerged through gene duplication and mutations at the binding pocket. PMID:25552533

  20. Inverse Correlation of Low Vitamin B12, Folic Acid and Homocysteine Levels in Diabetic Retinopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soher A. Mohammed Ismail; Iman A. Fahmy; Samah Ali; Mostafa Farrag

    Purpose: Evaluation of total plasma homocysteine, serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels in patients with diabetic retinopathy. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients having insulin dependent diabetes mellitus were included and subdivided into 3 groups: Diabetics without retinopathy (n=10), with background retinopathy (n=20), and proliferative retinopathy (n=20). Ten nor- mal subjects served as controls. Plasma total homocysteine levels were measured

  1. Copper control of bacterial nitrous oxide emission and its impact on vitamin B12-dependent metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Matthew J.; Gates, Andrew J.; Appia-Ayme, Corinne; Rowley, Gary; Richardson, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Global agricultural emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) have increased by around 20% over the last 100 y, but regulation of these emissions and their impact on bacterial cellular metabolism are poorly understood. Denitrifying bacteria convert nitrate in soils to inert di-nitrogen gas (N2) via N2O and the biochemistry of this process has been studied extensively in Paracoccus denitrificans. Here we demonstrate that expression of the gene encoding the nitrous oxide reductase (NosZ), which converts N2O to N2, is regulated in response to the extracellular copper concentration. We show that elevated levels of N2O released as a consequence of decreased cellular NosZ activity lead to the bacterium switching from vitamin B12-dependent to vitamin B12-independent biosynthetic pathways, through the transcriptional modulation of genes controlled by vitamin B12 riboswitches. This inhibitory effect of N2O can be rescued by addition of exogenous vitamin B12. PMID:24248380

  2. Review of the magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies worldwide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human deficiencies of folate and vitamin B12 result in adverse effects which may be of public health significance, but the magnitude of these deficiencies is unknown. Therefore, we examine the prevalence data currently available, assess global coverage of surveys, determine the frequency with which...

  3. Cobalamin (Vitamin B_(12)) Deficiency in the Chinese Shar Pei – Evaluation of a Potential Hereditary Etiology

    E-print Network

    Grützner, Niels

    2013-12-11

    . INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………….... 1 1.1 Cobalamin (vitamin B12) ………………………………….. 1 1.2 Disorders of cobalamin absorption, transport and intracellular metabolism …………………………………… 5 1.3 Canine genetics ……………………………………………. 10 1....4 Chinese Shar Peis .................................................................. 13 1.5 Hypotheses and research objectives ……………….………. 17 2. EVALUATION OF SERUM COBALAMIN CONCENTRATION IN DOGS OF 164 DOG BREEDS (2006...

  4. Brief Report: Childhood Disintegrative Disorder as a Likely Manifestation of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Savita; Subodh, B. N.; Parakh, Preeti; Lahariya, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder is a rare disorder, characterized by regression of acquired skills after a period of normal development. The case of childhood disintegrative disorder presented here was found to have vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia on extensive evaluation to find a probable cause for regression. This case…

  5. Competitive chemiluminescent anzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent discoveries of matrix interferences by haptocorrin (HC) in human milk and serum show that past analyses of vitamin B12 in samples with high HC content might have been inaccurate (Lildballe et al., 2009; Carmel & Agrawal, 2012). We evaluated two competitive enzyme-binding immunoassays for seru...

  6. Serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations and the effect of the Mediterranean diet on vulnerable populations.

    PubMed

    Balc?, Yasemin I??k; Ergin, Ahmet; Karabulut, Aysun; Polat, Aziz; Do?an, Mustafa; Küçükta?c?, Kaz?m

    2014-02-01

    Low vitamin B12 and folate levels in expectant mothers may lead to low stores in babies. The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies of vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies in pregnant women and neonates, and to assess the effect of maternal vitamin status on babies' vitamin levels in the Aegean region of Turkey, where the Mediterranean diet (mainly fresh fruits and vegetables) is adopted. We studied 72 pregnant women and their singleton-term babies. Venous blood samples of expectant mothers were collected 1 h before delivery and cord blood of babies were obtained at birth. The mean vitamin B12 in maternal and cord blood serum was 163.1 ± 72.0 pg/mL and 146.2 ± 102.5 pg/mL, and the mean folate, 9.8 ± 4.8 ng/mL and 15.8 ± 3.8 ng/mL, respectively. There were statistically significant correlation between maternal and cord blood serum vitamin B12 (r = 0.61, P = .04) and folate levels (r = 0.65, P < .001). 70.8% of the mothers and 83.9% of the babies were vitamin B12 deficient (<200 pg/mL). Neither group showed folate deficiency. The mean level of vitamin B12 in mothers significantly varied by the type of diet (241.6 (72.1) pg/mL versus 155.9 (68.2) pg/mL; P = .012). Vitamin B12 deficiency in pregnant women and neonates may be a public health problem in our community. The Mediterranean diet in these vulnerable groups may be an aggravating factor for vitamin B12 deficiency. Prenatal screening of all expectant mothers, prenatal supplementation of vitamin B12, and an increase in animal-source food intake may improve expectant mother's vitamin B12 level. PMID:24088029

  7. Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Young Lady due to Vitamin B12 Deficiency Induced Hyperhomocysteinemia

    PubMed Central

    Shamkani, Warkaa Al; Jafar, Nagham Saeed; Narayanan, Sunil Roy; Rajappan, Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Hyper-homocysteinemia is a risk factor for coronary artery disease in young patients. A 32 years old female without any conventional risk factors except obesity presented with acute anterior wall myocardial infarction (MI). Her echocardiography showed anterior wall hypokinesia with moderate left ventricular dysfunction. Angiography showed tight stenosis of the proximal left anterior descending (LAD) and borderline lesion in left circumflex coronary artery (LCX). She underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to LAD with good result. Her blood tests showed low vitamin B12, folate and serum iron levels and elevated serum homocysteine level. She was given folic acid and vitamin B12 and her homocysteine levels normalized. This case demonstrates that hyperhomocysteinemia caused by nutritional deficiency of vitamin co factors may lead to MI. Hyperhomocysteinemia should be considered in the evalauation of young people with MI, especially those without conventional risk factors. PMID:25838876

  8. Variability in the carbon isotope fractionation of trichloroethene on its reductive dechlorination by vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Gan, Yiqun; Yu, Tingting; Zhou, Aiguo; Liu, Yunde; Yu, Kai; Han, Li

    2014-08-01

    Stable carbon isotope fractionation through the reductive dechlorination of trichloroethylene by vitamin B12 was determined to assess the possibility of using stable carbon isotope analysis to determine the efficacy of remediation of trichloroethylene using vitamin B12. We elucidated the effects of environmental conditions, including the pH, reaction temperature, and vitamin B12 concentration, on the carbon isotope enrichment factor (?). The ? values were relatively insensitive to the reaction temperature and vitamin B12 concentration, ranging from -15.7‰ to -16.2‰, with a mean of -15.9 ± 0.2‰, at different temperatures and vitamin B12 concentrations. Such a reproducible ? value could be particularly useful for estimating the extent of degradation in reactions in which a mass balance is difficult to achieve. However, changing the initial solution pH from 6.5 to 9.0 caused a notable change in the ? values, from -14.0‰ to -18.0‰. Reactions were investigated by calculating the apparent kinetic isotope effects for carbon, which, at 1.029-1.037, were smaller than the kinetic isotope effect values previously found for C-Cl bond cleavage. This indicates that a reaction other than the elimination of chloride may be a competitive degradation pathway. The dominant degradation pathway may be different for different initial solution pH values, and this will clearly influence carbon isotope fractionation. Therefore, if the ? value varies with reaction conditions, such as the solution pH, the calculations should take into account the actual environmental conditions that affect the rate limiting pathways. PMID:24889017

  9. Vitamin B12 in Obese Adolescents with Clinical Features of Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Mandy; Halim, Jocelyn H.; Gow, Megan L.; El-Haddad, Nouhad; Marzulli, Teresa; Baur, Louise A.; Cowell, Chris T.; Garnett, Sarah P.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates an association between obesity, metformin use and reduced vitamin B12 status, which can have serious hematologic, neurologic and psychiatric consequences. This study aimed to examine B12 status in obese adolescents with pre-diabetes and/or clinical features of insulin resistance. Serum B12 was measured using chemiluminescence immunoassay in 103 (43 male, 60 female) obese (mean body mass index (BMI) z-score ± SD (2.36 ± 0.29)), adolescents aged 10 to 17 years, median (range) insulin sensitivity index of 1.27 (0.27 to 3.38) and 13.6% had pre-diabetes. Low B12 (<148 pmol/L) was identified in eight (7.8%) and borderline status (148 to 221 pmol/L) in an additional 25 (24.3%) adolescents. Adolescents with borderline B12 concentrations had higher BMI z-scores compared to those with normal concentrations (2.50 ± 0.22 vs. 2.32 ± 0.30, p = 0.008) or those with low B12 concentration (2.50 ± 0.22 vs. 2.27 ± 0.226, p = 0.041). In conclusion, nearly a third of obese adolescents with clinical insulin resistance had a low or borderline serum B12 status. Therefore, further investigations are warranted to explore the cause and the impact of low B12 status in obese pediatric populations. PMID:25486369

  10. Dietary pectin shortens the biologic half-life of vitamin B-12 in rats by increasing fecal and urinary losses

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, R.W.; Oace, S.M. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

    1989-08-01

    As little as 5% of pectin added to a fiber-free diet elevates urinary methylmalonic acid (MMA) severalfold in vitamin B-12--deprived rats. The present study examines whether increased urinary MMA reflects lower vitamin B-12 status or occurs only because of fermentation of pectin by intestinal bacteria and increased production of propionate, a precursor of MMA. By monitoring urinary and fecal excretion of {sup 57}Co after a tracer dose of ({sup 57}Co)vitamin B-12, we found the biologic half-life of vitamin B-12 to be 59 d for rats fed a fiber-free diet and only 19 d for rats fed a 5% pectin diet. Also, pectin-fed rats oxidized only 12% of a 1-mmol dose of ({sup 14}C)propionate to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in 2 h, whereas rats fed the fiber-free diet expired 33% of the dose. Finally, high urinary MMA persisted even after the removal of pectin from the diet. We conclude that dietary pectin accelerates vitamin B-12 depletion in rats, possibly by interfering with enterohepatic recycling of vitamin B-12. By stimulating microbial propionate production, pectin and other fermentable fibers may also contribute to increased urinary MMA in vitamin B-12 deficiency, but a larger propionate pool does not account for the other effects of pectin on vitamin B-12 status.

  11. Homocysteine and vitamin B12 status relate to bone turnover markers, broadband ultrasound attenuation, and fractures in healthy elderly people

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. M. Dhonukshe-Rutten; S. M. F. Pluijm; Groot de C. P. G. M; P. Lips; J. H. Smit; Staveren van W. A

    2005-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia may contribute to the development of osteoporosis. The relationship of Hcy and vitamin B12 with bone turnover markers, BUA, and fracture incidence was studied in 1267 subjects of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. High Hcy and low vitamin B12 concentrations were significantly associated with low BUA, high markers of bone turnover, and increased fracture risk

  12. LOW ERYTHROCYTE FOLATE, BUT NOT PLASMA VITAMIN B-12 OR HOMOCYSTEINE, IS ASSOCIATED WITH DEMENTIA IN ELDERLY LATINOS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between B vitamin status and cognitive function has been of interest for many years. There is evidence of relationships between intake and status of folate and vitamin B-12 with neurological, cognitive, and memory impairment, but results have been inconsistent. Plasma B-12, erythroc...

  13. How Nature Builds the Pigments of Life: The Conquest of Vitamin B12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battersby, Alan R.

    1994-06-01

    In part because humans cannot synthesize vitamin B12 and must obtain it from organisms that produce it and because B12 deficiency leads to pernicious anemia, it has been important to understand how microorganisms build this quite complex substance. As shown here, an interdisciplinary attack was needed, which combined the strengths of genetics, molecular biology, enzymology, chemistry, and spectroscopy. This allowed the step-by-step synthetic pathway of B12 to be elucidated, and this approach has acted as a model for future research on the synthesis of substances in living organisms. One practical outcome of such an approach has been the improved availability of B12 for animal feedstuffs and human health.

  14. Vitamin B12 and Vitamin D Deficiencies: An Unusual Cause of Fever, Severe Hemolytic Anemia and Thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Vikas A.; Harbada, Rishit; Sharma, Akhilesh

    2015-01-01

    The array of diagnostic workup for pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) generally revolves in searching for infections, inflammatory/autoimmune, and endocrine etiologies. A differential diagnosis of fever, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia can have etiologies varying from infections like malaria, dengue, cytomegalovirus, Ebstein barr virus, Parvovirus, infective endocarditis, to autoimmune disorder (systemic lupus erythromatosis), vasculitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), autoimmune hemolytic anemia/Evan's syndrome, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuri (PNH), or drugs. Nutritional deficiencies (especially vitamin B12 deficiency) as a cause of fever, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia are very rare and therefore rarely thought of. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency may cause fever and if accompanied by concurrent hyper-homocysteinemia and hypophosphatemia can sometimes lead to severe hemolysis mimicking the above-mentioned conditions. We present a case that highlights vitamin B12 and vitamin D deficiency as an easily treatable cause of PUO, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia, which should be actively looked for and treated before proceeding with more complicated and expensive investigation or starting empiric treatments.

  15. The prevalence of cobalamin deficiency among vegetarians assessed by serum vitamin B12: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, R; Lester, S E; Babatunde, T

    2014-05-01

    Individuals following vegetarian diets are at risk for developing vitamin B12 deficiency owing to suboptimal intake. As vitamin B12 is essential for the synthesis of nucleic acids, erythrocytes and in the maintenance of myelin, deficiency may result in a variety of symptoms. Some of these symptoms may be severe while others may be irreversible. The objective of this review was to assess vitamin B12 deficiency, based on reported serum vitamin B12, among individuals adhering to different types of vegetarian diets. A systematic literature search was carried out using multiple search engines including PubMed, Medline, CINAHL plus, ERIC, Nursing and Allied Health Collection and Nursing/Academic Edition. The inclusion criteria consisted of original studies that assessed serum vitamin B12, studies written in English, non-case studies and studies that reported actual percentages of vitamin B12 deficiency. Forty research studies were included. The deficiency prevalence among infants reached 45%. The deficiency among the children and adolescents ranged from 0 to 33.3%. Deficiency among pregnant women ranged from 17 to 39%, dependent on the trimester. Adults and elderly individuals had a deficiency range of 0-86.5%. Higher deficiency prevalence was reported in vegans than in other vegetarians. Thus, with few exceptions, the reviewed studies documented relatively high deficiency prevalence among vegetarians. Vegans who do not ingest vitamin B12 supplements were found to be at especially high risk. Vegetarians, especially vegans, should give strong consideration to the use of vitamin B12 supplements to ensure adequate vitamin B12 intake. Vegetarians, regardless of the type of vegetarian diet they adhere to, should be screened for vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:24667752

  16. Folate (vitamin B9) and vitamin B12 and their function in the maintenance of nuclear and mitochondrial genome integrity.

    PubMed

    Fenech, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Folate plays a critical role in the prevention of uracil incorporation into DNA and hypomethylation of DNA. This activity is compromised when vitamin B12 concentration is low because methionine synthase activity is reduced, lowering the concentration of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) which in turn may diminish DNA methylation and cause folate to become unavailable for the conversion of dUMP to dTMP. The most plausible explanation for the chromosome-breaking effect of low folate is excessive uracil misincorporation into DNA, a mutagenic lesion that leads to strand breaks in DNA during repair. Both in vitro and in vivo studies with human cells clearly show that folate deficiency causes expression of chromosomal fragile sites, chromosome breaks, excessive uracil in DNA, micronucleus formation, DNA hypomethylation and mitochondrial DNA deletions. In vivo studies show that folate and/or vitamin B12 deficiency and elevated plasma homocysteine (a metabolic indicator of folate deficiency) are significantly correlated with increased micronucleus formation and reduced telomere length respectively. In vitro experiments indicate that genomic instability in human cells is minimised when folic acid concentration in culture medium is greater than 100nmol/L. Intervention studies in humans show (a) that DNA hypomethylation, chromosome breaks, uracil incorporation and micronucleus formation are minimised when red cell folate concentration is greater than 700nmol/L and (b) micronucleus formation is minimised when plasma concentration of vitamin B12 is greater than 300pmol/L and plasma homocysteine is less than 7.5?mol/L. These concentrations are achievable at intake levels at or above current recommended dietary intakes of folate (i.e. >400?g/day) and vitamin B12 (i.e. >2?g/day) depending on an individual's capacity to absorb and metabolise these vitamins which may vary due to genetic and epigenetic differences. PMID:22093367

  17. Vitamin B12–dependent taurine synthesis regulates growth and bone mass

    PubMed Central

    Roman-Garcia, Pablo; Quiros-Gonzalez, Isabel; Mottram, Lynda; Lieben, Liesbet; Sharan, Kunal; Wangwiwatsin, Arporn; Tubio, Jose; Lewis, Kirsty; Wilkinson, Debbie; Santhanam, Balaji; Sarper, Nazan; Clare, Simon; Vassiliou, George S.; Velagapudi, Vidya R.; Dougan, Gordon; Yadav, Vijay K.

    2014-01-01

    Both maternal and offspring-derived factors contribute to lifelong growth and bone mass accrual, although the specific role of maternal deficiencies in the growth and bone mass of offspring is poorly understood. In the present study, we have shown that vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency in a murine genetic model results in severe postweaning growth retardation and osteoporosis, and the severity and time of onset of this phenotype in the offspring depends on the maternal genotype. Using integrated physiological and metabolomic analysis, we determined that B12 deficiency in the offspring decreases liver taurine production and associates with abrogation of a growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF1) axis. Taurine increased GH-dependent IGF1 synthesis in the liver, which subsequently enhanced osteoblast function, and in B12-deficient offspring, oral administration of taurine rescued their growth retardation and osteoporosis phenotypes. These results identify B12 as an essential vitamin that positively regulates postweaning growth and bone formation through taurine synthesis and suggests potential therapies to increase bone mass. PMID:24911144

  18. The role of folic acid and Vitamin B12 in genomic stability of human cells.

    PubMed

    Fenech, M

    2001-04-18

    Folic acid plays a critical role in the prevention of chromosome breakage and hypomethylation of DNA. This activity is compromised when Vitamin B12 (B12) concentration is low because methionine synthase activity is reduced, lowering the concentration of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) which in turn may diminish DNA methylation and cause folate to become unavailable for the conversion of dUMP to dTMP. The most plausible explanation for the chromosome-breaking effect of low folate is excessive uracil misincorporation into DNA, a mutagenic lesion that leads to strand breaks in DNA during repair. Both in vitro and in vivo studies with human cells clearly show that folate deficiency causes expression of chromosomal fragile sites, chromosome breaks, excessive uracil in DNA, micronucleus formation and DNA hypomethylation. In vivo studies show that Vitamin B12 deficiency and elevated plasma homocysteine are significantly correlated with increased micronucleus formation. In vitro experiments indicate that genomic instability in human cells is minimised when folic acid concentration in culture medium is >227nmol/l. Intervention studies in humans show: (a) that DNA hypomethylation, chromosome breaks, uracil misincorporation and micronucleus formation are minimised when red cell folate concentration is >700nmol/l folate; and (b) micronucleus formation is minimised when plasma concentration of Vitamin B12 is >300pmol/l and plasma homocysteine is <7.5micromol/l. These concentrations are achievable at intake levels in excess of current RDIs i.e. more than 200-400microgram folic acid per day and more than 2microgram Vitamin B12 per day. A placebo-controlled study with a dose-response suggests that based on the micronucleus index in lymphocytes, an RDI level of 700microgram/day for folic acid and 7microgram/day for Vitamin B12 would be appropriate for genomic stability in young adults. Dietary intakes above the current RDI may be particularly important in those with extreme defects in the absorption and metabolism of these Vitamins, for which ageing is a contributing factor. PMID:11295154

  19. VITAMIN B12Co60 READILY PASSES THE PLACENTA INTO FETAL ORGANS AND NURSING PROVIDES B12 FROM MOTHER TO PUP

    PubMed Central

    Woods, W. D.; Hawkins, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.

    1960-01-01

    The placenta is permeable to B12Co60. Together with salts, sugar, amino acids, vitamins, and proteins, the B12 is contributed to the growing embryos from the mother's body stores. At birth, the placenta contains a liberal amount of B12, which the mother regains by ingestion of the placentas. Nursing draws a liberal amount of B12Co60 from the mother's stores and contributes it to the body of the pups where it is absorbed and distributed in the various organs, much as noted when adult dogs are injected with B12Co60. A redistribution is noted as the months pass; but the high values in the heart, liver, and gastric mucosa persist, and the brain usually shows a slow increase. Enterohepatic circulation of B12 may involve bile and enteric content plus hepatic, gastric, and pancreatic epithelial secretion. This type of body recycling of radioactive B12 is discussed but not proven. High values of B12 in the heart, brain, gastric mucosa, and liver indicate that the vitamin is functionally active, not an inert fraction. PMID:13786587

  20. Development of a two-step cultivation strategy for the production of vitamin B12 by Bacillus megaterium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitamin B12 is a fascinating molecule which acts as a co-factor in the metabolism of many organisms, especially affecting DNA synthesis and regulation, fatty acid synthesis and energy production. The synthesis of vitamin B12 is limited to a few of bacteria and archaea. Therefore, industrial microbial fermentation is used to meet annual demands worldwide of vitamin B12 and as an alternative method to the chemical synthesis which requires at least 60 steps that is uneconomical. Bacillus megaterium is one of vitamin B12 producers and an ideal host for many biotechnology applications and being one of the best tools for the industrial production of several enzymes. Therefore, a two-step optimization strategy was established to produce high yield of vitamin B12 by B. megaterium through the provision of the production requirements and the suitable conditions for the biosynthesis of vitamin B12. Results We achieved the optimum conditions for the fermentation process of B. megaterium to produce high yield of vitamin B12 in a practical way based on statistical design and analysis which allowed vitamin B12 production to increase up to 759-fold (204.46 ?g/l) as compared with control without parameters (0.26 ?g/L). High performance liquid chromatography coupled to variable wavelength detector and mass spectrometry has been used to identify vitamin B12 forms and confirm the results. Conclusions We developed the fermentation process of B. megaterium to enhance the production of vitamin B12 by providing the required supplements for the synthesis of vitamin B12 (CoCl2, ?-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB)) and dividing the fermentation process into three stages. In addition, the optimum incubation times of the three fermentation stages were investigated and performed with reducing number of experimental and evaluated multiple parameters and their interactions by using statistical experimental design and analysis. All of these strategies has proven successful in enhancing the production of vitamin B12 up to 204.46 ?g/l and demonstrated that B. megaterium could be a good candidate for the industrial production of vitamin B12. PMID:25023574

  1. [Metabolic and nutritional neuropathies: update in diabetes, vitamin B12 and copper deficiency].

    PubMed

    Franques, J; Gazzola, S

    2013-12-01

    Metabolic and deficiency neuropathies retain a growing interest because of their important prevalence. The dismemberment of diabetic neuropathies is proceeded, letting distinct pathophysiological mechanisms appear. So, even if glycaemic control remains determining for preventing the neuropathy associated with type 1 diabetes, it seems to have a restricted role with type 2 diabetes in which other metabolic factors are involved. The diagnosis of neuropathy due to B12 vitamin deficiency remains a real challenge for the clinician. Indeed, positive and negative predictive values of serum B12 and metabolites assay are weak, only a good therapeutic response allows a reliable diagnostic. It is so recommended to know the clinical and contextual particularities of this etiology in order to not delay the vitamin substitution, determining for the functional outcome. Finally, copper deficiency remains an unknown cause of neuropathy which is suitable to raise in case of malabsorption but also and especially in case of abuse of dental adhesive rich in zinc. PMID:24269115

  2. Changes of Glucose, Insulin and Glucagon Associated with Propionate Infusion and Vitamin B12 Status in Sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES P. PETERS; EMMETT N. BERGMAN; MURRAY ELLIOT

    The effect of propionate on hormonal and metabolic events was studied in ewes that were vitamin B-12 depleted (de-B12) and repleted (re-B12). Experiments were conducted before and after hydroxocobalamin resupplementation. De-B12 sheep had greater blood concentrations and total hepatic influx and effluxof glucose. However, rates of net hepatic release of glucose were similar. Comparable glucagon concentrations and fluxes were reduced

  3. Effect of Vitamin B 12 and Folate on Homocysteine levels in colorectal cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunil Chandy; M. N. Sadananda Adiga; Girija Ramaswamy; C. Ramachandra; Lakshmi Krishnamoorthy

    2008-01-01

    Folate and cobalamin (Vitamin B12) are two essential micronutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism, which affects heart disease, neural tube defects and\\u000a cancer. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, the key enzyme involved in one carbon metabolism produces methyl tetrahydrofolate\\u000a from methylene tetrahydrofolate, which in turn donates methyl group to homocysteine to generate methionine. There exist two\\u000a common low function polymorphic variants of the methylenetetrahydrofolate

  4. Production of extracellular vitamin B12 compounds from methanol by Methanosarcina barkeri

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tapan Kumar Mazumder; Naomichi Nishio; Satoshi Fukuzaki; Shiro Nagai

    1987-01-01

    Summary  Production of vitamin B-12 compounds from methanol was carried out by Methanosarcina barkeri Fusaro, an anaerobic methanogen. The methanogen released about 40% to 70% of corrinoids irrespective of the culture medium\\u000a used. The use of cysteine instead of Na2S as the sole sulphur source for cell growth led to an increase in the cobalt chloride concentration in the culture medium

  5. Serum Levels of Zinc, Copper, Vitamin B12, Folate and Immunoglobulins in Individuals with Giardiasis

    PubMed Central

    Zarebavani, M; Dargahi, D; Einollahi, N; Dashti, N; Mohebali, M; Rezaeian, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Giardia lamblia is one of the most important intestinal parasites. The aim of this study was to measure serum levels of IgA, IgE, zinc, copper, vitamin B12 and folate in individuals with giardiasis in comparison to normal subjects. Methods: The study was carried out among 49 Giardia positive and 39 age and sex matched healthy volunteers. Examination of stool samples was done by direct wet smear and formol-ether concentration method. Serum samples were obtained for further laboratory examination. IgA levels were measured by Single Radial Immune Diffusion (SRID). IgE levels were measured by ELISA kit. Zinc and copper levels was measured by Ziestchem Diagnostics Kit and colorimetric endpoint-method respectively. Vitamin B12 and folate levels were measured by DRG Diagnostics Kit and Enzyme Immunoassay method respectively. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in IgA, IgE, copper and zinc levels between positive and negative groups (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between vitamin B12 and folate levels between the two groups. Mean values of Giardia positive and negative groups for IgA were 309.26 and 216.89 mg/dl, IgE 167.34 and 35.49 IU/ml, copper 309.74 and 253.61 ?g/dl and zinc 69.41 and 144.75 ?g/dl respectively. Conclusion: The results showed levels of IgA may correlate more closely with giardiasis than IgE. Regarding trace elements, giardiasis elevated serum copper levels, while it decreased serum zinc. Finally, there was no significant difference in serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid between the two groups. PMID:23641390

  6. [An enzymic assay for the determination of vitamin B12 (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Herrmann, R; Müller, O

    1976-12-01

    A procedure which extends the very sensitive propanediol-dehydratase reaction for 5'-deoxy-5'-adenosylcobalamine determination to cyanocobalamine and hydroxocobalamine is described. In this procedure, the cobalamines are adenosylated by vitamin B12 coenzyme synthetase and the resulting 5'-deoxy-5'-adenosylcobalamine can be determined by the propanediol-dehydratase reaction. Aldehyde, the product of the latter, can be registered by the alcohol dehydrogenase reaction. PMID:1017795

  7. Methylcobalamin--a form of vitamin B12 identified and characterised in Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Kumudha, Anantharajappa; Selvakumar, Sagaya; Dilshad, Pullancheri; Vaidyanathan, Gopal; Thakur, Munna Singh; Sarada, Ravi

    2015-03-01

    Vitamin B12 is among the most essential biomolecules required for crucial metabolic processes in humans. Vitamin B12 was extracted from Chlorella vulgaris biomass under aqueous conditions, partially purified by passing the extract through amberlite XAD-2, Sep-Pak columns, and further purified by HPLC. The target peak eluent was subjected to characterisation by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), selected ion recording (SIR) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and identified as methylcobalamin (Me-Cbl). Quantification of Me-Cbl was carried out by microbiological and chemiluminescence methods, and found to be 29.87±2 ?g/100 g and 26.84±2 ?g/100 g dry weight, respectively. The presence of Me-Cbl was further substantiated using gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) based aptamer analysis, and found to be 28.02±2 ?g/100 g dry weight. Good similarity was observed among all the methods. Methylcobalamin, a form of vitamin B12 was identified in C. vulgaris and this finding enhances its use as a nutritional supplement. PMID:25306351

  8. A Study of the Prevalence of Serum Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Deficiency in Western Maharashtra

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Sanket K.; Aundhakar, Swati C.

    2015-01-01

    Context: This study summarizes the prevalence of vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency in the population coming to tertiary care center in Western Maharashtra along with the main presenting symptom routinely misinterpreted in daily practice. Aims and Objectives: 1. To study the prevalence of vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency in the population of western Maharashtra. 2. To correlate the symptoms with serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. Materials and Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional observation study carried out on patients from western Maharashtra seeking medical attention on outpatient and inpatient basis in the medicine department of a teaching institute in Karad. One-hundred patients were selected on basis of below mentioned symptoms viz. tingling and numbness in extremities, dizziness, unsteady gait, early tiredness, forgetfulness, proximal weakness, distal weakness, chronic headache, less interest in work, chronic loose stools, strict vegetarians, alcoholics, intake of medications like anti-tubercular treatment, surgery involving terminal ileum. Serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels of these patients were observed. Deficiency of vitamin B12 and folic acid was studied in 4 groups: (a) Absolute vitamin B12 deficiency; (b) Absolute folic acid deficiency; (c) Borderline vitamin B12 deficiency; (d) Combined vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency. Results: Of the 100 cases, 33% patients were vegetarian. Folic acid deficiency formed the major chunk of deficiency group. Six percent patients had neuropsychiatric manifestations. Depressive illness in 1% patients, dementia in 0% patients, forgetfulness in 1% patients, mania/hallucination in 0% patients each, and chronic headache in 1% patients. Neuropathy in form of loss of reflexes, decreased touch sensation was present in 9% patients. Posterior column involvement viz. Loss of joint position, vibration, positive Romberg's sign were present in 34% patients of vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency. Conclusion: In a small study, it was found that megaloblastic anemia may have symptoms and signs referable to several systems including hematology, dermatology, gastrointestinal, neurology, and neuropsychiatry.

  9. Multiple micronutrient supplementation improves vitamin B 12 and folate concentrations of HIV infected children in Uganda: a randomized controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grace Ndeezi; James K Tumwine; Christopher M Ndugwa; Bjørn J Bolann; Thorkild Tylleskär

    2011-01-01

    Background  The effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation on vitamin B12 and folate has hither to not been reported in African HIV infected children. This paper describes vitamin B12 and folate status of Ugandan HIV infected children aged 1-5 years and reports the effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation\\u000a on serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Of 847 children who participated in a

  10. Helicobacter pylori associated vitamin B12 deficiency, pernicious anaemia and subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Gowdappa, H Basavana; Mahesh, M; Murthy, K V K S N; Narahari, M G

    2013-01-01

    A 23-year-old man presented with weakness in the lower limbs, numbness in hands and feet over past 6 months. Examination revealed a combination of absent ankle jerk, extensor plantar response and reduced sensations in a glove and stocking distribution. MRI of the spinal cord was distinctive of subacute combined degeneration (SACD) of the spinal cord. Serum vitamin B12 was low and anti-intrinsic factor antibodies were positive. A biopsy of the stomach revealed intense inflammatory infiltrates in lamina propria with grade III Helicobacter pylori infection. Other work-up for the cause of vitamin B12 deficiency was unremarkable. H pylori infection triggers autoantibodies by a mechanism of molecular mimicry. This case report highlights H pylori as a causative agent in vitamin B12 deficiency and culminating in SACD of the spinal cord. H pylori treatment reverses the underlying pathogenesis and corrects vitamin B12 deficient state in selected individuals. PMID:24081591

  11. A riboswitch sensor to determine vitamin B12 in fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuan; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Xiaoqi; Gu, Qing

    2015-05-15

    We describe a sensitive and selective method for determination of vitamin B12 content in fermented foods using riboswitch sensor. A riboswitch amplicon from Propionibacterium freudenreichii was cloned in p519NGFP vector in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The expression of green fluorescence protein was revers correlated to the concentrations of adenosylcobalamin. Adenosylcobalamin directly binds to riboswitch region leading to conformational changes in the secondary structure of mRNA, thus inhibiting expression. After various examinations, a standard curve was obtained from 10 to 1000 ng/mL of cyanocobalamin. The limit of determination is 10 ng/mL. The inter-assay coefficients of variation were 7.5% for the range of 10-1000 ng/mL. The recovery of this method was 92.3%. This method has no or less responses to nucleic acid, pseudovitamin B12, vitamin B12 bound to intrinsic factor and haptocorrin. The riboswitch sensor results were similar with HPLC, but they were Ca. 24% lower than the microbiological assay results. PMID:25577115

  12. LOW PLASMA VITAMIN B12 AND HIGH FOLATE CONCENTRATIONS IN PREGNANCY ARE ASSOCIATED WITH GESTATIONAL DIABESITY AND INCIDENT DIABETES

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaveni, GV; Hill, JC; Veena, SR; Bhat, DS; Wills, AK; Chachyamma, KJ; Karat, SC; Yajnik, CS; Fall, CHD

    2012-01-01

    Aim To test the hypothesis that low plasma vitamin B12 concentrations combined with high folate concentrations in pregnancy are associated with higher incidence of gestational diabetes (GDM) and later diabetes. Methods Women (N=785) attending the antenatal clinics of the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India had their anthropometry, insulin resistance (Homeostasis Model Assessment) and glucose tolerance assessed at 30 weeks gestation (100g Oral Glucose Tolerance Test/ OGTT; Carpenter-Coustan criteria), and five years after delivery (75g OGTT, WHO 1999). Vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in pregnancy were measured in stored frozen plasma samples. Results Low vitamin B12 concentrations (<150 pmol/l, B12 deficiency) were observed in 43% of women and low folate concentrations (<7 nmol/l) in 4%. Women with vitamin B12 deficiency had higher body mass index (BMI; P<0.001), sum of skinfolds (P<0.001), insulin resistance (P=0.02) and a higher incidence of GDM (8.7% v 4.6%; OR=2.14, P=0.02; P=0.1 after adjusting for maternal BMI) than non-deficient women. Among vitamin B12-deficient women the incidence of GDM increased with folate concentration (5.6%, 8.8%, 12.8% respectively from lowest to highest third; P for interaction=0.2). B12 deficiency during pregnancy predicted larger skinfolds, increased insulin resistance (P<0.05) and incident diabetes at 5-year follow-up (P=0.02, after adjusting for current BMI). Conclusion Maternal vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with increased adiposity and, in turn, with increased insulin resistance and GDM, especially in the presence of high folate concentrations. Vitamin B12 deficiency may be an important factor underlying the high risk of diabesity in south Asian Indians. PMID:19707742

  13. Subpicogram determination of Vitamin B 12 in pharmaceuticals and human serum using flow injection with chemiluminescence detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhenghua Song; Shuang Hou

    2003-01-01

    A sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) method, based on the enhancive effect of cobalt(II) on the CL reaction between luminol and dissolved oxygen in a flow injection (FI) system, was proposed for determination of Vitamin B12. The increment of the CL intensity was proportional to the concentration of Vitamin B12, giving a calibration graph linear over the concentration from 2.0×10?10 to 1.2×10?6gl?1

  14. High serum vitamin B12 binding capacity as a marker of the fibrolamellar variant of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F J Paradinas; W M Melia; M L Wilkinson; B Portmann; P J Johnson; I M Murray-Lyon; R Williams

    1982-01-01

    Ten (9.3%) of 107 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma had considerably increased serum unsaturated vitamin B12 binding capacity. All 10 were young (mean 12 years), had no serum alpha-fetoprotein, and no underlying cirrhosis; all had a longer survival compared with patients without increased serum unsaturated vitamin B12 binding capacity in the study. Seven of the 10 patients had fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma,

  15. Vitamin B-12 status of long-term adherents of a strict uncooked vegan diet ("living food diet") is compromised.

    PubMed

    Rauma, A L; Törrönen, R; Hänninen, O; Mykkänen, H

    1995-10-01

    The present study examined the vitamin B-12 status in long-term adherents of a strict uncooked vegan diet called the "living food diet." The study was comprised of two parts. In the cross-sectional part, the data on serum vitamin B-12 concentrations and dietary intakes in 21 (1 male, 20 females) long-term adherents (mean 5.2 y, range 0.7-14) of the "living food diet" were compared with those of 21 omnivorous controls matched for sex, age, social status and residence. In the longitudinal part of the study, food consumption data were collected and blood samples were taken from nine "living food eaters" (1 male, 8 females) on two occasions 2 y apart. The cross-sectional study revealed significantly (P < 0.001, paired t test) lower serum vitamin B-12 concentrations in the vegans (mean 193 pmol/L, range 35-408) compared with their matched omnivorous controls (311, 131-482). In the vegan group, total vitamin B-12 intake correlated significantly (r = 0.63, P < 0.01) with serum vitamin B-12 concentration. The vegans consuming Nori and/or Chlorella seaweeds (n = 16) had serum vitamin B-12 concentrations twice as high as those not using these seaweeds (n = 5) (mean 221 pmol/L, range 75-408, vs. 105, 35-252, P = 0.025). In the longitudinal study, six of nine vegans showed slow, but consistent deterioration of vitamin B-12 status over a 2-y observation period. On the basis of these results we conclude that some seaweeds consumed in large amounts can supply adequate amounts of bioavailable vitamin B-12.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7562085

  16. An evaluation of plasma homocysteine in the assessment of vitamin B12 status of pasture-fed sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JM Furlong; JR Sedcole; AR Sykes

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To assess the diagnostic potential of concentrations of homocysteine (Hcy) in plasma in relation to those of methylmalonic acid (MMA) and vitamin B12, as predictors of responsiveness of young sheep to supplementation with vitamin B12.METHODS: Eighty-two ewes grazing ryegrass-white clover pasture were used, 39 of which had been supplemented with a Co bullet and 43 unsupplemented. Thirty days after

  17. Purification and interaction analyses of two human lysosomal vitamin B12 transporters: LMBD1 and ABCD4.

    PubMed

    Deme, Justin C; Hancock, Mark A; Xia, Xiaobing; Shintre, Chitra A; Plesa, Maria; Kim, Jaeseung C; Carpenter, Elisabeth P; Rosenblatt, David S; Coulton, James W

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in human LMBRD1 and ABCD4 prevent lysosomal export of vitamin B(12) to the cytoplasm, impairing the vitamin B(12)-dependent enzymes methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. The gene products of LMBRD1 and ABCD4 are implicated in vitamin B(12) transport at the lysosomal membrane and are proposed to act in complex. To address the mechanism for lysosomal vitamin B(12) transport, we report the novel recombinant production of LMBD1 and ABCD4 for detailed biophysical analyses. Using blue native PAGE, chemical crosslinking, and size exclusion chromatography coupled to multi-angle light scattering (SEC-MALS), we show that both detergent-solubilized LMBD1 and detergent-solubilized ABCD4 form homodimers. To examine the functional binding properties of these proteins, label-free surface plasmon resonance (SPR) provides direct in vitro evidence that: (i) LMBD1 and ABCD4 interact with low nanomolar affinity; and (ii) the cytoplasmic vitamin B(12)-processing protein MMACHC also interacts with LMBD1 and ABCD4 with low nanomolar affinity. Accordingly, we propose a model whereby membrane-bound LMBD1 and ABCD4 facilitate the vectorial delivery of lysosomal vitamin B(12) to cytoplasmic MMACHC, thus preventing cofactor dilution to the cytoplasmic milieu and protecting against inactivating side reactions. PMID:25535791

  18. Genetic Architecture of Vitamin B12 and Folate Levels Uncovered Applying Deeply Sequenced Large Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Bjarnason, Helgi; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Magnusson, Olafur T.; Sparsø, Thomas; Albrechtsen, Anders; Kong, Augustine; Masson, Gisli; Tian, Geng; Cao, Hongzhi; Nie, Chao; Kristiansen, Karsten; Husemoen, Lise Lotte; Thuesen, Betina; Li, Yingrui; Nielsen, Rasmus; Linneberg, Allan; Olafsson, Isleifur; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur I.; Jørgensen, Torben; Wang, Jun; Hansen, Torben; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefánsson, Kari; Pedersen, Oluf

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have mainly relied on common HapMap sequence variations. Recently, sequencing approaches have allowed analysis of low frequency and rare variants in conjunction with common variants, thereby improving the search for functional variants and thus the understanding of the underlying biology of human traits and diseases. Here, we used a large Icelandic whole genome sequence dataset combined with Danish exome sequence data to gain insight into the genetic architecture of serum levels of vitamin B12 (B12) and folate. Up to 22.9 million sequence variants were analyzed in combined samples of 45,576 and 37,341 individuals with serum B12 and folate measurements, respectively. We found six novel loci associating with serum B12 (CD320, TCN2, ABCD4, MMAA, MMACHC) or folate levels (FOLR3) and confirmed seven loci for these traits (TCN1, FUT6, FUT2, CUBN, CLYBL, MUT, MTHFR). Conditional analyses established that four loci contain additional independent signals. Interestingly, 13 of the 18 identified variants were coding and 11 of the 13 target genes have known functions related to B12 and folate pathways. Contrary to epidemiological studies we did not find consistent association of the variants with cardiovascular diseases, cancers or Alzheimer's disease although some variants demonstrated pleiotropic effects. Although to some degree impeded by low statistical power for some of these conditions, these data suggest that sequence variants that contribute to the population diversity in serum B12 or folate levels do not modify the risk of developing these conditions. Yet, the study demonstrates the value of combining whole genome and exome sequencing approaches to ascertain the genetic and molecular architectures underlying quantitative trait associations. PMID:23754956

  19. Simultaneous determination of vitamin B12 and its derivatives using some of multivariate calibration 1 (MVC1) techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadi-Maybodi, Abdolraouf; Darzi, S. K. Hassani Nejad

    2008-10-01

    Resolution of binary mixtures of vitamin B12, methylcobalamin and B12 coenzyme with minimum sample pre-treatment and without analyte separation has been successfully achieved by methods of partial least squares algorithm with one dependent variable (PLS1), orthogonal signal correction/partial least squares (OSC/PLS), principal component regression (PCR) and hybrid linear analysis (HLA). Data of analysis were obtained from UV-vis spectra. The UV-vis spectra of the vitamin B12, methylcobalamin and B12 coenzyme were recorded in the same spectral conditions. The method of central composite design was used in the ranges of 10-80 mg L -1 for vitamin B12 and methylcobalamin and 20-130 mg L -1 for B12 coenzyme. The models refinement procedure and validation were performed by cross-validation. The minimum root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 2.26 mg L -1 for vitamin B12 with PLS1, 1.33 mg L -1 for methylcobalamin with OSC/PLS and 3.24 mg L -1 for B12 coenzyme with HLA techniques. Figures of merit such as selectivity, sensitivity, analytical sensitivity and LOD were determined for three compounds. The procedure was successfully applied to simultaneous determination of three compounds in synthetic mixtures and in a pharmaceutical formulation.

  20. Effective oral delivery of insulin in animal models using vitamin B12-coated dextran nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chalasani, Kishore B; Russell-Jones, Gregory J; Jain, Akhlesh K; Diwan, Prakash V; Jain, Sanjay K

    2007-09-26

    The potential utility of vitamin B12 carrier system for the oral delivery of conjugated peptides/proteins and enhancement of nanoparticles (NPs) transport has been demonstrated. The present study aims to optimize the effectiveness of VB12-NPs conjugates using different levels of cross-linking, linked with different VB(12)-coatings and evaluates in animal models to investigate an efficient insulin carrier. Amino alkyl VB12 derivatives suitable for oral delivery were synthesized at 5'hydoxy ribose and e-propionamide sites via carbamate and ester/amide linkages, and were coupled to succinic acid modified dextran NPs of varied cross-linking. VB12 binding was confirmed by XPS analysis, and was quantified by HPLC (4.0 to 5.7% w/w of NPs). These polydisperse NPs conjugates showed higher size, high insulin entrapment and faster insulin release with low levels of cross-linking. These VB12-NPs conjugates (150-300 nm) showed profound (70-75% blood glucose reductions) and prolonged (54 h) anti-diabetic effects with biphasic behaviour in STZ diabetic rats. NPs with the low levels of cross-linking were found to be superior carriers, and were more effective with VB12 derivatives of carbamate linkage. The pharmacological availability relative to SC insulin was found to be 29.4%, which was superior compared to NPs conjugate of ester linked VB12 (1.5 fold) and relatively higher cross-linked particles (1.1 fold). Further, the NPs carrier demonstrated a similar oral insulin efficacy in congenital diabetic mice (60% reduction at 20 h). Significant quantities of plasma insulin were found in both animal models (231 and 197 muIU/ml). At two investigated doses, the carrier system shows dose response. Pre-dosing with a large excess of free VB12 minimized the observed activity, indicating predominance of VB12 mediated uptake. It is concluded that VB12-dextran NPs conjugate is a viable carrier for peroral insulin delivery to treat diabetics. PMID:17707540

  1. Micronutrient Status in Female University Students: Iron, Zinc, Copper, Selenium, Vitamin B12 and Folate

    PubMed Central

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Young women are at an increased risk of micronutrient deficiencies, particularly due to higher micronutrient requirements during childbearing years and multiple food group avoidances. The objective of this study was to investigate biomarkers of particular micronutrients in apparently healthy young women. Female students (n = 308; age range 18–35 year; Body Mass Index 21.5 ± 2.8 kg/m2; mean ± SD) were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Blood samples were obtained from participants in the fasted state and analysed for biomarkers of iron status, vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine, selenium, zinc, and copper. The results show iron deficiency anaemia, unspecified anaemia, and hypoferritinemia in 3%, 7% and 33.9% of participants, respectively. Low vitamin B12 concentrations (<120 pmol/L) were found in 11.3% of participants, while 4.7% showed sub-clinical deficiency based on serum methylmalonic acid concentrations >0.34 ?mol/L. Folate concentrations below the reference range were observed in 1.7% (serum) or 1% (erythrocytes) of participants, and 99.7% of the participant had erythrocyte-folate concentrations >300 nmol/L. Serum zinc concentrations <10.7 ?mol/L were observed in 2% of participants. Serum copper and selenium concentrations were below the reference range in 23% and 11% of participants, respectively. Micronutrient deficiencies including iron and vitamin B12, and apparent excess of folate are present in educated Australian female students of childbearing age, including those studying nutrition. The effects of dietary behaviours and food choices on markers of micronutrient status require further investigation. PMID:25401503

  2. Release of toxic Gd3+ ions to tumour cells by vitamin B12 bioconjugates.

    PubMed

    Siega, Patrizia; Wuerges, Jochen; Arena, Francesca; Gianolio, Eliana; Fedosov, Sergey N; Dreos, Renata; Geremia, Silvano; Aime, Silvio; Randaccio, Lucio

    2009-08-10

    Two probes consisting of vitamin B(12) (CNCbl) conjugated to Gd chelates by esterification of the ribose 5'-OH moiety, Gd-DTPA-CNCbl (1; DTPA = diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N'',N''-pentaacetic acid) and Gd-TTHA-CNCbl (2; TTHA = triethylenetetramine-N,N,N',N'',N''',N'''-hexaacetic acid), have been synthesised and characterised. The crystal structure of a dimeric form of 1, obtained by crystallisation with an excess of GdCl(3), has been determined. The kinetics of binding to and dissociation from transcobalamin II show that 1 and 2 maintain high-affinity binding to the vitamin B(12) transport protein. Complex 2 is very stable with respect to Gd(3+) release owing to the saturated co-ordination of the Gd(3+) ion by four amino and five carboxylate groups. Hydrolysis of the ester functionality occurs on the time scale of several hours. The lack of saturation and the possible involvement of the ester functionality in co-ordination result in lower stability of 1 towards hydrolysis and in a considerable release of Gd(3+) in vitro. Gd(3+) ions released from 1 are avidly taken up by the K562 tumour cells to an extent corresponding to approximately 10(10) Gd(3+) per cell. The internalisation of toxic Gd(3+) ions causes a marked decrease in cell viability as assessed by Trypan blue and WST-1 tests. On the contrary, the experiments with the more stable 2 did not show any significant cell internalisation of Gd(3+) ions and any influence on cell viability. The results point to new avenues of in situ generation of cytotoxic pathways based on the release of toxic Gd(3+) ions by vitamin B(12) bioconjugates. PMID:19562781

  3. Immobilized Vitamin B 12 within nanoreactors of MCM-41 as selective catalyst for oxidation of organic substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Farzaneh; J. Taghavi; R. Malakooti; M. Ghandi

    2006-01-01

    The immobilized Vitamin B12 (Vit-B12) within the nanoreactors of MCM-41 as molecular sieves was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, chemical analysis and nitrogen adsorption–desorption. XRD and N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms showed that the well ordered hexagonal structure of MCM-41 is presented and surface area, pore volumes and pore diameters decrease after immobilization of Vit-B12 within nanoreactors of MCM-41. It

  4. PREVALENCE OF VITAMINS E AND B12 IN DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS REPORTED IN NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EVALUATION SURVEY (NHANES)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: Public health concerns regarding excessive Vitamin E and deficient Vitamin B12 intake warrant evaluation of total dietary intake for these nutrients. A Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database is being developed by the Nutrient Data Laboratory with the Office of Dietary Supplements and oth...

  5. HETEROGENEITY AND LACK OF GOOD QUALITY STUDIES LIMIT ASSOCIATION BETWEEN FOLATE, VITAMIN B-6 AND B-12, AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite their important role in cognitive function, the value of B vitamin supplementation is unknown. A systematic review of the effect of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation on cognitive function was performed. Literature search conducted in MEDLINE with supplemental articles from rev...

  6. VITAMIN B6, B12 AND FOLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF RANDOMIZED TRIALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite their important role in cognitive function, the value of B vitamin supplementation is unknown. A systematic review of the effect of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation on cognitive function was performed. Literature search conducted in MEDLINE with supplemental articles from re...

  7. Low plasma vitamin B-12 in Kenyan school children is highly prevalent and improved by supplemental animal source foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in many regions of the world is becoming recognized as a widespread public health problem, but it is not known to what extent this deficiency results from a low intake of the vitamin or from its malabsorption from food. In rural Kenya, where a previous ...

  8. Dual isotope Schilling test for measuring absorption of food-bound and free vitamin B12 simultaneously

    SciTech Connect

    Doscherholmen, A.; Silvis, S.; McMahon, J.

    1983-10-01

    A prototype food-bound vitamin B12 (food-B12) absorption test has been developed in which /sup 57/Co-B12 was incorporated in vitro into egg yolk (yolk-B12) and served to volunteers in 50-g cooked portions together with toast and coffee for breakfast. Six hours later, 1 mg nonlabeled B12 was given intramuscularly and 24-hour urine was collected for radioactivity measurement. In separate tests, the absorption of yolk-B12 and crystalline /sup 57/Co-B12 was equally poor in patients with pernicious anemia. However, in patients with simple gastric achlorhydria and those who had undergone gastric surgery, the assimilation of yolk-B12 was impaired greatly, whereas the absorption of crystalline radio-B12 was normal. Egg yolk labeled with /sup 58/Co-B12 was administered together with crystalline /sup 57/Co-B12 in a dual isotope test with results similar to those obtained when the tests were prepared separately. This yolk-/sup 58/Co-B12 test with its ability to detect malabsorption of food-B12 may be considered as an addition to the first part of the Schilling test.

  9. Impact of Vitamin B12 on Formation of the Tetrachloroethene Reductive Dehalogenase in Desulfitobacterium hafniense Strain Y51

    PubMed Central

    Reinhold, Anika; Westermann, Martin; Seifert, Jana; von Bergen, Martin; Schubert, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Corrinoids are essential cofactors of reductive dehalogenases in anaerobic bacteria. Microorganisms mediating reductive dechlorination as part of their energy metabolism are either capable of de novo corrinoid biosynthesis (e.g., Desulfitobacterium spp.) or dependent on exogenous vitamin B12 (e.g., Dehalococcoides spp.). In this study, the impact of exogenous vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) and of tetrachloroethene (PCE) on the synthesis and the subcellular localization of the reductive PCE dehalogenase was investigated in the Gram-positive Desulfitobacterium hafniense strain Y51, a bacterium able to synthesize corrinoids de novo. PCE-depleted cells grown for several subcultivation steps on fumarate as an alternative electron acceptor lost the tetrachloroethene-reductive dehalogenase (PceA) activity by the transposition of the pce gene cluster. In the absence of vitamin B12, a gradual decrease of the PceA activity and protein amount was observed; after 5 subcultivation steps with 10% inoculum, more than 90% of the enzyme activity and of the PceA protein was lost. In the presence of vitamin B12, a significant delay in the decrease of the PceA activity with an ?90% loss after 20 subcultivation steps was observed. This corresponded to the decrease in the pceA gene level, indicating that exogenous vitamin B12 hampered the transposition of the pce gene cluster. In the absence or presence of exogenous vitamin B12, the intracellular corrinoid level decreased in fumarate-grown cells and the PceA precursor formed catalytically inactive, corrinoid-free multiprotein aggregates. The data indicate that exogenous vitamin B12 is not incorporated into the PceA precursor, even though it affects the transposition of the pce gene cluster. PMID:22961902

  10. Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and methionine synthase polymorphisms with breast cancer risk and interaction with folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B 12 intakes.

    PubMed

    Jiang-Hua, Qiao; De-Chuang, Jiao; Zhen-Duo, Lu; Shu-de, Cui; Zhenzhen, Liu

    2014-12-01

    We assessed the association between dietary intake of folate and the MTHFR genotype with breast cancer in a Chinese population, with additional analysis of the interactions of gene polymorphisms and dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. A case-control study was performed, and 535 patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer and 673 controls were enrolled into this study. The MTHFR 667TT genotype (odds ratio (OR)?=?1.82, 95 % confidence interval (CI)?=?1.24-2.97) and T allele (OR 0=?1.48, 95 % CI?=?1.15-1.78) were correlated with a moderately significant increased risk of breast cancer when compared with the CC genotype. Individuals carrying the MTR 2756GG genotype (OR?=?1.66, 95 % CI?=?1.16-2.56) and G allele (OR?=?1.42, 95 % CI?=?1.26-1.81) had a higher risk of breast cancer when compared with subjects with the AA genotype. The MTHFR 667 T allele and MTR 2756 G allele were associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in individuals with low folate intake, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12, but the association disappeared among subjects with moderate and high intake of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. This case-control study found that the MTHFR C677T and MTR A2756G polymorphisms are associated with risk of breast cancer, and folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 intakes influence these associations. PMID:25217320

  11. Vitamin B12[c-lactone], a biologically inactive corrinoid compound, occurs in cultured and dried lion's mane mushroom (Hericium erinaceus) fruiting bodies.

    PubMed

    Teng, Fei; Bito, Tomohiro; Takenaka, Shigeo; Yabuta, Yukinori; Watanabe, Fumio

    2014-02-19

    This study determined the vitamin B12 content of the edible medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus, lion's mane mushroom fruiting body, using a microbiological assay based on Lactobacillus delbrueckii ATCC 7830. Trace levels (0.04-0.36 ?g/100 g dry weight) of vitamin B12 were found in most of the dried mushroom samples, and two samples contained slightly higher levels (0.56 and 1.04 ?g/100 g dry weight, respectively) of vitamin B12. We purified the corrinoid compounds from the extracts of dried lion's mane mushroom fruiting bodies using an immunoaffinity column and identified them as vitamin B12 or vitamin B12[c-lactone] (or both) based on LC/ESI-MS/MS chromatograms. This is the first report on an unnatural corrinoid, vitamin B12[c-lactone], occurring in foods. Vitamin B12[c-lactone] was simple to produce during incubation of authentic vitamin B12 and chloramine-T, an antimicrobial agent, at varying pH values (3.0-7.0) and was completely inactive in the vitamin B12-dependent bacteria that are generally used in vitamin B12 bioassays. PMID:24506286

  12. Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids during gestation and lactation to a vitamin B12-deficient or -supplemented diet improves pregnancy outcome and metabolic variables in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Kemse, Nisha; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2015-01-01

    Maternal vitamin B12 deficiency leads to an adverse pregnancy outcome and increases the risk for developing diabetes and metabolic syndrome in mothers in later life. Our earlier studies have demonstrated that vitamin B12 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are interlinked in the one carbon cycle. The present study for the first time examines the effect of maternal n-3 PUFA supplementation to vitamin B12 deficient or supplemented diets on pregnancy outcome, fatty-acid status and metabolic variables in Wistar rats. Pregnant dams were assigned to one of the following groups: control, vitamin B12 deficient, vitamin B12 supplemented, vitamin B12 deficient + n-3 PUFA or vitamin B12 supplemented + n-3 PUFA. The amount of vitamin B12 in the supplemented group was 0.50 ?g kg(-1) diet and n-3 PUFA was alpha linolenic acid (ALA) 1.68, eicosapentaenoic acid 5.64, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 3.15 (g per 100g fatty acids per kg diet). Our findings indicate that maternal vitamin B12 supplementation did not affect the weight gain of dams during pregnancy but reduced litter size and weight and was ameliorated by n-3 PUFA supplementation. Vitamin B12 deficiency or supplementation resulted in a low percentage distribution of plasma arachidonic acid and DHA. n-3 PUFA supplementation to these diets improved the fatty-acid status. Vitamin B12 deficiency resulted in higher homocysteine and insulin levels, which were normalised by supplementation with either vitamin B12 or n-3 PUFA. Our study suggests that maternal vitamin B12 status is critical in determining pregnancy outcome and metabolic variables in dams and that supplementation with n-3 PUFA is beneficial. PMID:24355403

  13. Supplementing lactating dairy cows with a vitamin B12 precursor, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole, increases the apparent ruminal synthesis of vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Brito, A; Chiquette, J; Stabler, S P; Allen, R H; Girard, C L

    2015-01-01

    Cobalamin (CBL), the biologically active form of vitamin B12, and its analogs, are produced by bacteria only if cobalt supply is adequate. The analogs differ generally by the nucleotide moiety of the molecule. In CBL, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (5,6-DMB) is the base in the nucleotide moiety. The present study aimed to determine if a supplement of 5,6-DMB could increase utilization of dietary cobalt for synthesis of CBL and change ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, omasal flow of nutrients and ruminal protozoa counts. Eight ruminally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows (mean±standard deviation=238±21 days in milk and 736±47 kg of BW) were used in a crossover design. Cows were randomly assigned to a daily supplement of a gelatin capsule containing 1.5 g of 5,6-DMB via the rumen cannula or no supplement. Each period lasted 29 days and consisted of 21 days for treatment adaptation and 8 days for data and samples collection. Five corrinoids, CBL and four cobamides were detected in the total mixed ration and the omasal digesta from both treatments. The dietary supplement of 5,6-DMB increased (P=0.02) apparent ruminal synthesis of CBL from 14.6 to 19.6 (s.e.m. 0.8) mg/day but had no effect (P>0.1) on apparent ruminal synthesis of the four analogs. The supplement of 5,6-DMB had no effect (P>0.1) on milk production and composition, or on protozoal count, ruminal pH and concentrations of volatile fatty acids and ammonia nitrogen in rumen content. The supplement had also no effect (P>0.1) on intake, omasal flow and apparent ruminal digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, NDF, ADF and nitrogenous fractions. Plasma concentration of CBL was not affected by treatments (P=0.98). Providing a preformed part of the CBL molecule, that is, 5,6-DMB, increased by 34% the apparent ruminal synthesis of CBL by ruminal bacteria but had no effect on ruminal fermentation or protozoa count and it was not sufficient to increase plasma concentrations of the vitamin. Even though the efficiency of cobalt utilization for apparent synthesis of CBL was increased from 2.0% to 2.7% by the 5,6-DMB supplement, this improved efficiency was still very low. Further research is needed to identify the factors affecting efficiency of utilization of cobalt for synthesis of CBL by the bacterial populations in rumen. PMID:25171056

  14. Novel fermentation process strengthening strategy for production of propionic acid and vitamin B12 by Propionibacterium freudenreichii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Jiao, Youjing; Liu, Shouxin

    2014-12-01

    An efficient fermentation-strengthening approach was developed to improve the anaerobic production of propionic acid and vitamin B12 by co-fermentation with Propionibacterium freudenreichii. Vitamin B12 production from glucose resulted in relatively high productivity (0.35 mg/L h) but a low propionic acid yield (0.55 g/g). By contrast, glycerol gave a high propionic acid yield (0.63 g/g) but low productivity (0.16 g/L h). Co-fermentation of glycerol and glucose with a gradual addition strategy gave high yields (propionic acid: 0.71 g/g; vitamin B12: 0.72 mg/g) and productivities (propionic acid: 0.36 g/L h; vitamin B12: 0.36 mg/L h). Finally, the integrated feedstock and fermentation system strengthening strategy was demonstrated as an efficient method for the economic production of bio-based propionic acid and vitamin B12. PMID:25261985

  15. Homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12, and cardiovascular risk in Indians, Malays, and Chinese in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, K.; Ong, C.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine the hypothesis that the higher rates of coronary heart disease (CHD) in Indians (South Asians) compared with Malays and Chinese is partly attributable to differences in blood concentrations of homocysteine, and related blood concentrations of folate and vitamin B12.?DESIGN—Cross sectional study of the general population.?SETTING—Singapore.?PARTICIPANTS—Random sample of 726 fasting subjects aged 30 to 69 years.?MAIN RESULTS—Mean plasma total homocysteine concentrations did not show significant ethnic differences; values were Indians (men 16.2 and women 11.5 µmol/l), Malays (men 15.0 and women 12.5 µmol/l), and Chinese (men 15.3 and women 12.2 µmol/l). Similarly, the proportions with high plasma homocysteine (>14.0 µmol/l) showed no important ethnic differences being, Indians (men 60.0 and women 21.9 %), Malays (men 53.9 and women 37.8 %), and Chinese (men 56.6 and women 30.6 %). Mean plasma folate concentrations were lower in Indians (men 8.7 and women 10.9 nmol/l) and Malays (men 8.5 and women 10.8 nmol/l), than Chinese (men 9.7 and women 13.8 nmol/l). Similarly, the proportions with low plasma folate (<6.8 nmol/l) were higher in Indians (men 44.9 and women 36.6 %) and Malays (men 45.3 and women 24.5 %) than Chinese (men 31.4 and women 12.6 %). Mean plasma vitamin B12 concentrations were lowest in Indians (men 352.5 and women 350.7 pmol/l), then Chinese (men 371.1 and women 373.7 pmol/l), and then Malays (men 430.5 and women 486.0 pmol/l).?CONCLUSION—While there were ethnic differences for plasma folate and vitamin B12 (in particular lower levels in Indians), there was no evidence that homocysteine plays any part in the differential ethnic risk from CHD in Singapore and in particular the increased susceptibility of Indians to the disease.???Keywords: coronary heart disease; ethnic; homocysteine PMID:10692959

  16. A NEW 13C BREATH TEST TO DETECT VITAMIN B-12 DEFICIENCY: A PREVALENT AND POORLY DIAGNOSED HEALTH PROBLEM

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, David A.; Schatz, Richard; Coston, Richard; Curington, Cheryl; Bolt, Daniel; Toskes, Phillip P.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is emerging as a growing public health problem. The most commonly used diagnostic tests are limited in accuracy, sensitivity, and are non-specific for B12 deficiency. The aim of this study was to develop a simple B12 Breath Test (BBT) to more accurately evaluate vitamin B12 status as an alternative to the most common diagnostic test, serum B12 levels. The breath test is based on the metabolism of sodium 1-13C-propionate to 13CO2 which requires B12 as a cofactor. We initially compared the BBT to current B12 diagnostic methods in 58 subjects. Subjects also received a second BBT 1–3 days after initial testing to evaluate reproducibility of results. Propionate dosage, fasting times, and collection periods were compared respectively. The dose of sodium 1-13C-propionate (10 to 50 mg) gave equivalent results while an 8 hour fast was essential. Statistical analysis revealed that breath collection times could be reduced to just a baseline and 10 and 20 minutes following propionate dosing. We also measured the incidence of B12 deficiency with the BBT in 119 patients with chronic pancreatitis, Crohn’s disease, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and subjects over 65 years of age. The BBT results agreed with previous publications showing a higher incidence of B12 deficiency in these patients. The BBT may provide clinicians with a non-invasive, accurate, reliable, and reproducible diagnostic test to detect vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:21697586

  17. Vitamin B(12) metabolism during pregnancy and in embryonic mouse models.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Garcia, Maira A; Rosenblatt, David S; Jerome-Majewska, Loydie A

    2013-09-01

    Vitamin B(12) (cobalamin, Cbl) is required for cellular metabolism. It is an essential coenzyme in mammals for two reactions: the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by the enzyme methionine synthase and the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Symptoms of Cbl deficiency are hematological, neurological and cognitive, including megaloblastic anaemia, tingling and numbness of the extremities, gait abnormalities, visual disturbances, memory loss and dementia. During pregnancy Cbl is essential, presumably because of its role in DNA synthesis and methionine synthesis; however, there are conflicting studies regarding an association between early pregnancy loss and Cbl deficiency. We here review the literature about the requirement for Cbl during pregnancy, and summarized what is known of the expression pattern and function of genes required for Cbl metabolism in embryonic mouse models. PMID:24025485

  18. [Effect of pantothenate on indices related to cobalamin metabolism in vitamin B 12 deficiency].

    PubMed

    Mo?seenok, A G; Bud'ko, T N; She?bak, V M

    1982-01-01

    White rats kept on the B12-deficient diet for 9 weeks developed hyperchromic anemia, manifested the reduced content of cobalamines in the blood, kidneys, liver, myocardium and urine, the increased excretion of methylmalonic acid (MMA) and the intensified activity of CoA and its precursors participating in the reaction of acetylation in the liver, kidneys and myocardium. There was a decrease in the content of cobalamine-protein complexes that break down to the greatest extent at 80 degrees C. Ten-fold administration of cyanocobalamine (0.5 microgram/kg), calcium pantothenate (3.3 mg/kg) or of both the preparations concurrently removed the aforesaid disorders of cobalamine metabolism, with the most complete therapeutic effect being attained upon combined use of the vitamin preparations. Administration of pantothenate increased the content of cobalamines and cobalamine-protein complexes in the liver and myocardium, normalizing methylmalonylaciduria. PMID:7113102

  19. Nutritional Vitamin B12 Deficiency in a Breast-fed Infant of a Vegan-diet Mother

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Sklar

    1986-01-01

    A 7-month-old male presented with lethargy and failure to thrive. The child was exclusively breast-fed from birth by a mother who was a strict vegetarian. Laboratory data revealed macrocytic anemia and methylmalonic acid in the urine, consistent with vitamin B12 deficient anemia. The patient responded well to supplementation with B12 alone and was developmentally normal by 11 months of age.

  20. Effect of Vegetarianism and Smoking on Vitamin B12, Thiocyanate, and Folate Levels in the Blood of Normal Subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K. Dastur; E. V. Quadros; N. H. Wadia; M. M. Desai; E. P. Bharucha

    1972-01-01

    Vitamin B12, thiocyanate, and folate levels in the blood were estimated in 69 apparently normal subjects, of whom 26 were non-vegetarian non-smokers, 19 non-vegetarian smokers, 15 vegetarian non-smokers, and nine vegetarian smokers. The serum total (cyanide-extracted) B12 level (value A) ranged from 105 to 728 pg\\/ml, with a mean of 292 pg\\/ml. The highest values were found in non-vegetarian non-smokers

  1. Serum alpha tocopherol, vitamin B12, and folate levels in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors with and without neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Jain, Puneet; Gulati, Sheffali; Toteja, G S; Bakhshi, Sameer; Seth, Rachna; Pandey, R M

    2015-05-01

    Various micronutrients are essential for optimal functioning of the peripheral nervous system. Serum vitamin E, vitamin B12, and folic acid were estimated in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors aged between 5 and 18 years in first continuous remission within 3 years of completion of vincristine-based chemotherapy with and without electrophysiologically defined neuropathy. A total of 80 children were studied. Neuropathy was seen in 27 (33.75%) children electrophysiologically. None of the children had vitamin E deficiency. However, the alpha tocopherol/(cholesterol + triglyceride) ratio was significantly lower in children with neuropathy (P = .05). The prevalence of folate (P = .48) and vitamin B12 (P = .21) deficiency in children with and without neuropathy was not significantly different. Thus, the prevalence of deficiencies of these micronutrients was not significantly different in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors with or without electrophysiologically defined neuropathy. PMID:24859786

  2. Lactobacillus rossiae, a Vitamin B12 Producer, Represents a Metabolically Versatile Species within the Genus Lactobacillus

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Maria; Bottacini, Francesca; Fosso, Bruno; Kelleher, Philip; Calasso, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Ventura, Marco; Picardi, Ernesto; van Sinderen, Douwe; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus rossiae is an obligately hetero-fermentative lactic acid bacterium, which can be isolated from a broad range of environments including sourdoughs, vegetables, fermented meat and flour, as well as the gastrointestinal tract of both humans and animals. In order to unravel distinctive genomic features of this particular species and investigate the phylogenetic positioning within the genus Lactobacillus, comparative genomics and phylogenomic approaches, followed by functional analyses were performed on L. rossiae DSM 15814T, showing how this type strain not only occupies an independent phylogenetic branch, but also possesses genomic features underscoring its biotechnological potential. This strain in fact represents one of a small number of bacteria known to encode a complete de novo biosynthetic pathway of vitamin B12 (in addition to other B vitamins such as folate and riboflavin). In addition, it possesses the capacity to utilize an extensive set of carbon sources, a characteristic that may contribute to environmental adaptation, perhaps enabling the strain's ability to populate different niches. PMID:25264826

  3. Hyperkalemia after acute metabolic decompensation in two children with vitamin B12-unresponsive methylmalonic acidemia and normal renal function.

    PubMed

    Pela, I; Gasperini, S; Pasquini, E; Donati, M A

    2006-07-01

    The patients affected by vitamin B12-unresponsive methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) on the long run develop chronic renal disease with interstitial nephropathy and progressive renal insufficiency. The mechanism of nephrotoxicity in vitamin B12-unresponsive MMA is not yet known. Chronic hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism has been found in many cases of methylmalonic acidemia, hyperkalemia and renal tubular acidosis type 4. We report 2 patients affected by B12-unresponsive methylmalonic acidemia diagnosed at the age of 23 months and 5 years, respectively, with normal glomerular filtration and function. They showed hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism and significant hyperkalemia requiring sodium potassium exchange resin (Kayexalate) therapy after an episode of metabolic decompensation leading to diagnosis of MMA. In both children, hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism and hyperkalemia disappeared after 6 months of good metabolic control. PMID:16878438

  4. Folate and Vitamin B12 Transport Systems in the Developing Infant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    B vitamin transport systems in infants are not as well studied as those for amino acids and glucose. For most B vitamins, a 2-step process allows for digestion of coenzyme forms of the vitamins in food, followed by specific transport systems for the free vitamin in the intestine. Folate and vitamin ...

  5. [Effect of betaine hydrochloride on broiler chickens when used alone or in combination with vitamin B12].

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, M; Filipova, R; Tsvetkov, S

    1976-01-01

    The studies were carried out with 2287 broilers aged from 3 to 56 days, divided when one-day-old into four equal groups. The first group were fed the common ration and served as controls. The remaining three groups were experimental, the broilers of the second group being offered the basic common ration enriched with 0.2 per cent betaine. The third group were also given the ordinary ration, however, they received in the drinking water some 10 mug vitamin BUI per one kilogram feed each. The fourth group received both betaine and vitamin B12 at the rates indicated. Results showed that betaine hydrochloride offered either alone or in combination with vitamin B12 contributes to increasing the liveweight gain of broilers in the course of the starter period, but its use in doses of 0.2 per cent in the finishing period is not effective. PMID:1014365

  6. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency with pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly and leukoerythroblastosis in two Syrian refugee infants: a challenge to differentiate from acute leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Belen, Burcu; Hismi, Burcu Ozturk; Kocak, Ulker

    2014-01-01

    Megaloblastic anaemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency is rare in childhood. However, as most cases are due to maternal insufficiency, it is mainly seen in breastfed infants especially when the mother's socioeconomic status is low and the nutrition is not adequate. We present case of two Syrian refugee infants with severe vitamin B12 deficiency with pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly and leukoerythroblastosis. PMID:24599434

  7. The chemistry of vitamin B12. The coordination of biologically important molecules

    PubMed Central

    Hill, H. A. O.; Pratt, J. M.; Thorp, R. G.; Ward, B.; Williams, R. J. P.

    1970-01-01

    The following equilibrium constants (given as logK in units of m?1) were determined for the substitution of co-ordinated H2O in aquocobalamin by glycine (bound through N) 5.8, cysteine (bound through S) 6.0 or 8.3, depending on the value chosen for the pK of the thiol group, and phenolate 2.9. The spectrum of the phenolate cobalamin shows an additional intense absorption band at 468nm with a molar extinction coefficient of 1.1×104, which is assigned to a charge transfer from the phenolate to the cobalt ion. Equilibrium constants have also been determined for the equilibria between adenylcobamide cyanide and CN?, HO? and H+, which show that the adenine is more easily displaced by CN? and HO? than is 5,6-dimethylbenziminazole in vitamin B12, but can be protonated by acid while still remaining co-ordinated to the cobalt. It is shown that in the binding of corrinoids to proteins and polypeptides the formation of hydrogen bonds is far more important than co-ordination by the metal. PMID:5493853

  8. Structural basis for receptor recognition of vitamin-B(12)-intrinsic factor complexes.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Christian Brix Folsted; Madsen, Mette; Storm, Tina; Moestrup, Søren K; Andersen, Gregers R

    2010-03-18

    Cobalamin (Cbl, vitamin B(12)) is a bacterial organic compound and an essential coenzyme in mammals, which take it up from the diet. This occurs by the combined action of the gastric intrinsic factor (IF) and the ileal endocytic cubam receptor formed by the 460-kilodalton (kDa) protein cubilin and the 45-kDa transmembrane protein amnionless. Loss of function of any of these proteins ultimately leads to Cbl deficiency in man. Here we present the crystal structure of the complex between IF-Cbl and the cubilin IF-Cbl-binding-region (CUB(5-8)) determined at 3.3 A resolution. The structure provides insight into how several CUB (for 'complement C1r/C1s, Uegf, Bmp1') domains collectively function as modular ligand-binding regions, and how two distant CUB domains embrace the Cbl molecule by binding the two IF domains in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. This dual-point model provides a probable explanation of how Cbl indirectly induces ligand-receptor coupling. Finally, the comparison of Ca(2+)-binding CUB domains and the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-type A modules suggests that the electrostatic pairing of a basic ligand arginine/lysine residue with Ca(2+)-coordinating acidic aspartates/glutamates is a common theme of Ca(2+)-dependent ligand-receptor interactions. PMID:20237569

  9. The Status of Vitamin B12 and Folate among Chinese Women: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Shaonong; Yan, Hong; Zeng, Lingxia; Wang, Quanli; Li, Qiang; Xiao, Shengbin; Fan, Xiaojing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the status of the vitamin B12 and folate of Chinese women living in northwest China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008 among Chinese women aged 10–49 years living in Shaanxi province of northwest China. A stratified multistage random sampling method was adopted to obtain a sample of 1170 women. The women were interviewed for collection of their background information and their plasma vitamin B12 and folate were measured with the immunoassay method. The status of both vitamins was evaluated and the prevalence of deficiency was estimated. Results The median value of the women was 214.5 pg/mL for vitamin B12 and 4.6 ng/mL for folate. The urban women had a significantly higher vitamin B12 (254.1 vs. 195.9 pg/mL) but lower folate (4.4 vs. 4.7 ng/mL) than rural women. Total prevalence of deficiency was 45.5% (95% CI: 42.6%?48.4%) for vitamin B12 and 14.7% (95% CI: 12.6%?16.8%) for folate. About 36% of women presented vitamin B12 deficiency alone, 5.2% belonged to folate deficiency alone and 9.5% was combined deficiency in both vitamins. More than 25% of the women were in marginal vitamin B12 status (200–299 pg/mL) and 60% in marginal status of folate (3–6 ng/mL). About 75.2% of rural women with folate deficiency were deficient in vitamin B12 and 46% for urban women. Quantile regression model found decreasing coefficient of folate status across 73 different quantiles of vitamin B12, which indicated that the women with folate deficiency had lower vitamin B12 significantly compared with those with no deficiency. Conclusions The deficiency of vitamin B12 and folate is still prevalent among the Chinese women in northwest China. Vitamin B12 deficiency could be more serious and the improvement of poor vitamin B12 status should be invoked when practicing the supplementation of folate against the neural tube defects in northwest China. PMID:25390898

  10. A Potential Epigenetic Marker Mediating Serum Folate and Vitamin B12 Levels Contributes to the Risk of Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Keat Wei, Loo; Sutherland, Heidi; Au, Anthony; Camilleri, Emily; Haupt, Larisa M.; Gan, Siew Hua; Griffiths, Lyn R.

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is a multifactorial disease that may be associated with aberrant DNA methylation profiles. We investigated epigenetic dysregulation for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene among ischemic stroke patients. Cases and controls were recruited after obtaining signed written informed consents following a screening process against the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Serum vitamin profiles (folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine) were determined using immunoassays. Methylation profiles for CpGs A and B in the MTHFR gene were determined using a bisulfite-pyrosequencing method. Methylation of MTHFR significantly increased the susceptibility risk for ischemic stroke. In particular, CpG A outperformed CpG B in mediating serum folate and vitamin B12 levels to increase ischemic stroke susceptibility risks by 4.73-fold. However, both CpGs A and B were not associated with serum homocysteine levels or ischemic stroke severity. CpG A is a potential epigenetic marker in mediating serum folate and vitamin B12 to contribute to ischemic stroke. PMID:25705649

  11. A potential epigenetic marker mediating serum folate and vitamin B 12 levels contributes to the risk of ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Keat Wei, Loo; Sutherland, Heidi; Au, Anthony; Camilleri, Emily; Haupt, Larisa M; Gan, Siew Hua; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is a multifactorial disease that may be associated with aberrant DNA methylation profiles. We investigated epigenetic dysregulation for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene among ischemic stroke patients. Cases and controls were recruited after obtaining signed written informed consents following a screening process against the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Serum vitamin profiles (folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine) were determined using immunoassays. Methylation profiles for CpGs A and B in the MTHFR gene were determined using a bisulfite-pyrosequencing method. Methylation of MTHFR significantly increased the susceptibility risk for ischemic stroke. In particular, CpG A outperformed CpG B in mediating serum folate and vitamin B12 levels to increase ischemic stroke susceptibility risks by 4.73-fold. However, both CpGs A and B were not associated with serum homocysteine levels or ischemic stroke severity. CpG A is a potential epigenetic marker in mediating serum folate and vitamin B12 to contribute to ischemic stroke. PMID:25705649

  12. The risk of cervical cancer in relation to serum concentrations of folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Alberg, A J; Selhub, J; Shah, K V; Viscidi, R P; Comstock, G W; Helzlsouer, K J

    2000-07-01

    Due to its role in the synthesis and repair of DNA, folate may protect against the development of cervical cancer. Prospective data on the possible association between folate and cervical cancer have been lacking. There is also a paucity of prospective evidence concerning the possible associations between cervical cancer and vitamin B12, which shares pathways with folate, and homocysteine, a marker of low B vitamin concentrations. A nested case-control study was conducted to prospectively evaluate the associations between cervical cancer and serum concentrations of folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine. Among a community-based cohort of women who donated blood in 1974 for a serum bank in Washington County, Maryland, 39 cases of cervical cancer diagnosed between 1975 and mid-1990 were included in the study (13 cases of invasive cervical cancer and 26 cases of carcinoma in situ). Two controls were matched to each case by age, race, and sex. Stored serum from the cases and controls was assayed for folate, B12, and homocysteine concentrations. For folate, adjusted odds ratios were 1.0, 0.62, and 0.60 for the low to high thirds of the serum concentrations, respectively, a trend in the protective direction that was not statistically significant (P for trend = 0.42). Overall, the results for vitamin B12 tended to mimic those for folate, whereas the associations for homocysteine tended to be in the opposite direction. None of the results of this study were statistically significant, but patterns of the associations are in accord with hypothesized mechanistic pathways concerning B vitamins and cervical cancer. PMID:10919749

  13. The Relationship of Vitamin B12 and Sensory and Motor Peripheral Nerve Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Leishear, Kira; Boudreau, Robert M.; Studenski, Stephanie A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Rosano, Caterina; de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Houston, Denise K.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Schwartz, Ann V.; Vinik, Aaron I.; Hogervorst, Eva; Yaffe, Kristine; Harris, Tamara B.; Newman, Anne B.; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether deficient B12 status or low serum B12 levels are associated with worse sensory and motor peripheral nerve function in older adults. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. Participants Two thousand two hundred eighty-seven adults aged 72–83 years [mean age: 76.5 ± 2.9 years; 51.4% female; 38.3% black]. Measurements Low serum B12 was defined based solely on serum B12 of <260 pmol/L, whereas deficient B12 status was defined as B12 <260 pmol/L, methylmalonic acid [MMA] >271 nmol/L and MMA >2-methylcitrate. Peripheral nerve function was assessed by peroneal nerve conduction amplitude and velocity [NCV] (motor); 1.4g/10g monofilament detection; average vibration threshold detection; and peripheral neuropathy symptoms [numbness; aching/burning pain] (sensory). Results B12 deficient status was found in 7.0% and an additional 10.1% had low serum B12 levels. B12 deficient status was associated with greater insensitivity to light (1.4g) touch (OR: 1.50; 95% CI: [1.06, 2.13]) and worse NCV [42.3 m/s vs. 43.5 m/s] (? =?1.16; p=0.01), after multivariable adjustment for demographics, lifestyle factors, and health conditions. Associations were consistent for the alternative definition using low serum B12 only. No significant associations were found for deficient B12 status or the alternative low serum B12 definition and vibration detection, nerve conduction amplitude, or peripheral neuropathy symptoms. Conclusion Poor B12 (deficient B12 status and low serum B12) is associated with worse sensory and motor peripheral nerve function. Nerve function impairments may lead to physical function declines and disability in older adults, suggesting that prevention and treatment of low B12 levels may be important to evaluate. PMID:22690982

  14. A Puzzle of Hemolytic Anemia, Iron and Vitamin B12 Deficiencies in a 52-Year-Old Male

    PubMed Central

    Liana, Palacci; Ali, Alaa M.; Gilman, Alan D.

    2013-01-01

    A 52-year-old male with no significant past medical history reports increasing generalized fatigue and weakness for the past 2 weeks. Physical examination reveals jaundice and pallor without organomegaly or lymphadenopathy. His hemoglobin was 5.9?g/dL with a mean corpuscular volume of 87.1?fL and elevated red blood cell distribution width of 30.7%. His liver function test was normal except for elevated total bilirubin of 3.7?mg/dL. Serum LDH was 701?IU/L, and serum haptoglobin was undetectable. Further investigation revealed serum vitamin B12 of <30?pg/mL with elevated methylmalonic acid and homocysteine level. In addition, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation were low. The patient was diagnosed with hemolytic anemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency with concomitant iron deficiency anemia. PMID:24083040

  15. Regulation of expression of the gene for vitamin B12 receptor cloned on a multicopy plasmid in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Aufrère; Marc Tempête; Jean-Pierre Bohin

    1986-01-01

    The btuB gene of Escherichia coli codes for a protein (BtuB) located in the outer membrane. BtuB is the receptor for vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin). We have cloned the btuB gene into pUC8 using transposon Tn5 as the makrer to first isolate several parts of the relevant DNA fragment from the specialized transducing phage ?darg13. After reconsitution of the gene, Tn5

  16. Should we be more cautious about replacement of vitamin B12 in patients with cancer receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy?

    PubMed

    Eren, Orhan Onder; Ozturk, Mehmet Akif; Sonmez, Ozlem Uysal; Oyan, Basak

    2014-12-01

    Vitamin B12 (Cbl) deficiency may cause hematologic and neurologic dysfunction. Replacement therapy is effective in correcting hematologic abnormalities and improving neurologic symptoms. Cbl is known to have antioxidant activity. This antioxidant activity may antagonize the effects of chemotherapeutics (i.e. genotoxic effects of paclitaxel) on tumor DNA. We claim that Cbl replacement should be done more cautiously in patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy. PMID:25459143

  17. Sequential changes in plasma methylmalonic acid and vitamin B 12 in sheep eating cobalt-deficient grass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Desmond A. Rice; Marian McLoughlin; W. John Blanchflower; Cecil H. McMurray; Edward A. Goodall

    1989-01-01

    Methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations are elevated in plasma as a result of vitamin B12 deficiency. This study reports the sequential changes in plasma MMA in lambs maintained on a cobalt-deficient pasture compared\\u000a with supplemented controls. The results indicate that MMA is elevated in the early stages of deficiency, preceding the onset\\u000a of loss of production and clinical signs of disease.

  18. Homocysteine and vitamin B12 status and iron deficiency anemia in female university students from Gaza Strip, Palestine

    PubMed Central

    Sirdah, Mahmoud Mohammed; Yassin, Maged M.; El Shekhi, Sabreen; Lubbad, Abdel Monem

    2014-01-01

    Objective Nutritional deficiencies are very significant to the overall health of humans at all ages and for both genders, yet in infants, children and women of childbearing age these deficiencies can seriously affect growth and development. The present work is aimed to assess homocysteine and vitamin B12 status in females with iron deficiency anemia from the Gaza Strip. Methods Venous blood samples were randomly collected from 240 female university students (18–22 years old) and parameters of the complete blood count, serum ferritin, homocysteine and vitamin B12 were measured. Statistical analysis included the t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the IBM SPSS software (version 18). Statistical significance was set for p-values <0.05. Results The results revealed that 20.4% of the students have iron deficiency anemia. The mean serum vitamin B12 level in females with iron deficiency anemia (212.9 ± 62.8 pg/mL) was significantly lower than in normal controls (286.9 ± 57.1 pg/mL) and subjects with microcytic anemia and normal ferritin (256.7 ± 71.1 pg/mL). Significantly higher serum homocysteine levels were reported in the iron deficiency anemia group (27.0 ± 4.6 ?mol/L) compared to normal controls (15.5 ± 2.9 ?mol/L) and in subjects with microcytic anemia and normal ferritin (18.1 ± 2.7 ?mol/L). Statistically significant negative correlations were reported for serum homocysteine with serum ferritin, vitamin B12, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels. Conclusion Important associations were found between serum homocysteine and markers of iron deficiency. Monitoring homocysteine levels might be essential to understand the development of different clinical conditions including anemia. It seems necessary to conduct prospective trials to determine whether treating anemia ameliorates homocysteine levels. PMID:25031061

  19. The effects of vitamin B12 and diclofenac and their combination on cold and mechanical allodynia in a neuropathic pain model in rats

    PubMed Central

    Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Samadi, Farzad; Egdami, Karim

    2013-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effects of long-term intraperitoneal (IP) injection of vitamin B12 and diclofenac in separate and combined treatments on cold and mechanical allodynia in a neuropathic pain model in rats. Neuropathic pain was induced by crush injury in right tibial nerve. Acetone spray and von Frey tests were used to obtain cold and mechanical allodynia responses, respectively, on day 11 after nerve crush. Normal saline, vitamin B12 and diclofenac were injected intraperitoneally for 10 consecutive days after surgery. Normal saline treated rats showed cold and mechanical allodynia responses after nerve crush. Vitamin B12 at doses of 50, 100 and 200 µg kg-1 and diclofenac at a dose of 2 mg kg-1 produced antiallodynic effects. Antiallodynic effects were not observed when subanalgesic doses of vitamin B12 (25 µg kg-1) and diclofenac (0.25 mg kg-1) were used together. By increasing the dose of vitamin B12 to an effective dose (100 µg kg-1), antiallodynic effects were observed when compared with diclofenac (0.25 mg kg-1) alone. The results indicated that vitamin B12 and diclofenac produced neuropathic pain suppressing effects. Moreover, a potentiation effect was observed between vitamin B12 and diclofenac. PMID:25593681

  20. Vitamin B12 and pteroylglutamic acid studies in the domestic fowl

    E-print Network

    Reid, Bobby Leroy

    1955-01-01

    ? ration of vitamin B, p on the B-. P content of egg yolks........................... 5 Chapter 3. Factors affecting the in vitro conversion of folic acid (PGA) to the citrovorum factor (CF)............................ 29 Chapter 4. Effect of vitamin... of vitamin B^2 several workers (Doctor et al., '53; Drysdale et al., *51) have reported that the vitamin is implicated in utilization of pteroylglutamic acid (folic acid). Soon after the discovery of the citrovorum factor (OF, folinic acid...

  1. Contribution of Food Sources to the Vitamin B12 Status of South Indian Children from a Birth Cohort Recruited in the City of Mysore

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective There is evidence that sub-clinical vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency is common in India. Vegetarianism is prevalent and therefore meat consumption is low. Our objective was to explore the contribution of B12 source-foods and maternal B12 status during pregnancy to plasma B12 concentrations. Design Maternal plasma B12 concentrations were measured during pregnancy. Children’s dietary intakes and plasma B12 concentrations were measured at age 9.5 years; B12 and total energy intakes were calculated using food composition databases. We used linear regression to examine associations between maternal B12 status and children’s intakes of B12 and B12 source-foods, and children’s plasma B12 concentrations. Setting South Indian city of Mysore and surrounding rural areas. Subjects Children from the Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort (n=512, 47.1% male). Results Three percent of children were B12 deficient (<150 pmol/l). A further 14% had ‘marginal’ B12 concentrations (150-221 pmol/l). Children’s total daily B12 intake and consumption frequency of meat and fish, and micronutrient-enriched beverages were positively associated with plasma B12 concentrations (p=0.006, p=0.01 and p=0.04, adjusted for socio-economic indicators and maternal B12 status). Maternal pregnancy plasma B12 was associated with children’s plasma B12 concentrations, independent of current B12 intakes (p<0.001). Milk and curd (yoghurt) intakes were unrelated to B12 status. Conclusions Meat and fish are important B12 sources in this population. Micronutrient-enriched beverages appear to be important sources in our cohort, but their high sugar content necessitates care in their recommendation. Improving maternal B12 status in pregnancy may improve Indian children’s status. PMID:24866058

  2. Recovery from vitamin B-12-induced unbalanced growth. The shortened cell cycle and the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate pools.

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, G H; Carell, E F

    1978-01-01

    The deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate pools are undetectable in vitamin B-12-deficient cells of Euglena gracillis, but appear rapidly after the replenishment with the vitamin. They reach a maximum size that is about 6 times that of normal exponentially growing cells, but decrease to almost zero as the cells divide. The pools expand again during the post-replenishment shortened cell cycle. However, the expansion takes place during rather than before the resumption of DNA synthesis. The maximum sizes reached are still larger than in normal cells. By using the protein-synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide and determining the pool size, we found that vitamin-deficient cells apparently accumulate a large amount of ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase apoenzyme, which lacks the vitamin B12 coenzyme. We showed that the production of the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates is not closely coupled to DNA synthesis under our experimental conditions, and that the concentration of the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate pools per unit of DNA synthesized is almost constant for all stages of growth examined. PMID:417723

  3. Probiotic lactic acid bacterium from kanjika as a potential source of vitamin B12: evidence from LC-MS, immunological and microbiological techniques.

    PubMed

    Madhu, Arenahalli Ningegowda; Giribhattanavar, Prashant; Narayan, Mandayam Singara; Prapulla, Siddalingaiya Gurudutt

    2010-04-01

    Vitamin B(12) was produced by probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum in submerged fermentation (96 h) with successive anaerobic and aerobic phases of 48 h each to give 13 ng vitamin B(12)/g dry biomass. Sodium cyanide-mediated cell lysis, followed by benzyl alcohol/chloroform/water extraction, improved the release of intracellular vitamin B(12) for analysis. The presence of the K(+) adduct of cyanocobalamin (m/z of 1394) was established using electron spray ionization-mass spectra; growth of a mutant of Escherichia coli in the presence of cyanocobalamin ascertained its bioavailability. PMID:19953302

  4. [Clinical, biological and therapeutic profile of anemia by vitamin B12 deficiency in the department of hematology of Marrakech (Morocco)].

    PubMed

    Nafil, H; Tazi, I; Sifessalam, M; Bouchtia, M; Mahmal, L

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study is to examine retrospectively the clinical, biological and treatment features of anemia by vitamin B12 deficiency in the Hematology department of CHU Mohamed VI Marrakech. We report the results of a retrospective study conducted during six years (2005-2010). It included all patients with anemia (with or without thrombocytopenia or leukopenia) associated with vitamin B12 levels <200 pg / ml. One hundred twenty one cases were analyzed. The average age of patients was 62 years (38-89 years) with a female predominance (sex ratio F/M: 1.3). The clinical symptomatology is dominated by pallor (97.5%), cardiovascular signs (46%) and digestive symptoms (34.7%). Neurological signs were noted in 17.3% of cases. The blood count showed anemia (hemoglobin: mean= 6.9 g/dl), macrocythemia (MCV: mean= 109 fl). Leukopenia was noted in 35 patients (29%), thrombocytopenia in 34 patients (28%) and pancytopenia in 21 patients (17,3%). The average vitamin B12 was 72 pg/ml. The causes of B12 deficiency are pernicious anemia (43%), food-cobalamin malabsorption (43%), and in 14% of cases no etiology was found. Gastritis was found in 82.7% of our patients and Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection in 72.7% of cases. Reticulocyte crisis was observed after parenteral administration of hydroxocobalamine within an average of 8 days and normalization of blood counts, in all patients, within an average of 51 days. In patients with HP infection, eradication therapy of HP was performed. The cure rate of the HP is 90%. PMID:23536425

  5. Folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 status of a group of high socioeconomic status women in the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort.

    PubMed

    Fayyaz, Faiqa; Wang, Flora; Jacobs, René L; O'Connor, Deborah L; Bell, Rhonda C; Field, Catherine J

    2014-12-01

    Folic acid supplementation and food fortification policies have improved folate status in North American women of child bearing age. Recent studies have reported the possible inadequacy of vitamin B12 and B6 in the etiology of neural tube defects in folate-fortified populations. The aims of this study were to describe folate status and its relationship to supplementation and to assess vitamin B12 and B6 status in a cohort of pregnant women. Supplement intake data were collected in each trimester from the first cohort (n = 599) of the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study. Red blood cell folate (RBCF) and plasma folate, holotranscobalamin, and pyridoxal 5-phosphate were measured. Overt folate deficiency was rare (3%) but 24% of women in their first trimester had suboptimal RBCF concentration (<906 nmol·L(-1)). The proportion of the cohort in this category declined substantially in second (9%) and third (7%) trimesters. High RBCF (>1360 nmol·L(-1)) was observed in approximately half of the women during each pregnancy trimester. Vitamin B12 and B6 deficiencies were rare (<1% of the cohort). Women consuming folic acid supplements above the upper level had significantly higher RBCF and plasma folate concentrations. In conclusion, the prevalence of vitamin B12 and B6 deficiency was very low. A quarter of the women had suboptimal folate status in the first trimester of pregnancy and over half the women had abnormally high RBCF, suggesting that supplementation during pregnancy is not appropriate in a cohort of women considered to be healthy and a low risk for nutritional deficiencies. PMID:25386981

  6. Effect of Vegetarianism and Smoking on Vitamin B12, Thiocyanate, and Folate Levels in the Blood of Normal Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Dastur, D. K.; Quadros, E. V.; Wadia, N. H.; Desai, M. M.; Bharucha, E. P.

    1972-01-01

    Vitamin B12, thiocyanate, and folate levels in the blood were estimated in 69 apparently normal subjects, of whom 26 were non-vegetarian non-smokers, 19 non-vegetarian smokers, 15 vegetarian non-smokers, and nine vegetarian smokers. The serum total (cyanide-extracted) B12 level (value A) ranged from 105 to 728 pg/ml, with a mean of 292 pg/ml. The highest values were found in non-vegetarian non-smokers and the lowest in vegetarian smokers. There was no significant difference in value A between smokers as a group and non-smokers as a group. On the other hand, in vegetarians value A was very significantly lower than in non-vegetarians regardless of their smoking habits. It is suggested that A may represent both the protein-bound and free forms of vitamin B12 in the blood, and B mainly the free B12, which may be the physiologically active form. The plasma thiocyanate level varied from 1·0 to 15 ?mol/100 ml, being, as expected, much higher in smokers (mean 8·20 ?mol/100 ml) than in non-smokers (mean 2·02 ?mol/100 ml). There was a rough correlation between falling B12 levels and rising thiocyanate levels. The serum folate level ranged from 2·75 to 15·75 ng/ml, and was slightly but significantly higher in vegetarians (mean 6·60 ng/ml) than in non-vegetarians (mean 4·79 ng/ml), reflecting the greater content of folate in a vegetarian diet. PMID:5046479

  7. Effect of Long-Term Gastric Acid Suppressive Therapy on Serum Vitamin B 12 Levels in Patients with Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Basel Termanini; Fathia Gibril; Vincent E Sutliff; Fang Yu; David J Venzon; Robert T Jensen

    1998-01-01

    Background and aims: Long-term treatment with H+-K+-adenotriphosphatase (ATPase) inhibitors, such as omeprazole or lansoprazole, for severe gastroesophageal reflux disease is now widely used. Whether such treatment will result in vitamin B12 deficiency is controversial. We studied whether long-term treatment with omeprazole alters serum vitamin B12 levels in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.Methods:In 131 consecutive patients treated with either omeprazole (n =

  8. Effect of Vitamin B12 on the Sleep-Wake Rhythm Following an 8Hour Advance of the Light-Dark Cycle in the Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taeko Kiuchi; Hiroyoshi Sei; Hiromasa Seno; Atsuko Sano; Yusuke Morita

    1997-01-01

    Kiuchi, T., H. Sei, H. Seno, A. Sano and Y. Morita. Effect of vitamin B12 on the sleep-wake rhythm following an 8-hour advance of the light-dark cycle in the rat. Physiol Behav 61(4) 551–554, 1997.—We have studied the effect of vitamin B12 (VB12) on the sleep-wake rhythm following an 8-h advance of the light-dark (LD) cycle in the rat. The

  9. Socioeconomic factors are associated with folate and vitamin B12 intakes and related biomarkers concentrations in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study.

    PubMed

    Iglesia, Iris; Mouratidou, Theodora; González-Gross, Marcela; Novakovic, Romana; Breidenassel, Christina; Jiménez-Pavón, David; Huybrechts, Inge; De Henauw, Stefaan; Geelen, Anouk; Gottrand, Frédéric; Kafatos, Anthony; Mistura, Lorenza; de Heredia, Fátima Pérez; Widhalm, Kurt; Manios, Yanis; Molnar, Denes; Stehle, Peter; Gurinovic, Mirjana; Cavelaars, Adrienne E J M; Van't Veer, Pieter; Moreno, Luis A

    2014-03-01

    Because socioeconomic factors (SEFs) may influence dietary quality and vitamin intakes, this study aimed to examine associations between socioeconomic factors and folate and vitamin B12 intakes as well as their related biomarkers in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study. Vitamin intakes were obtained from two 24-hour recalls in 2253 participants (47% males). Vitamin B biomarkers were assessed in a subsample of 977 participants (46% males). Socioeconomic factors were assessed by questionnaire, and 1-way analysis of covariance and linear regression analysis were applied. For males and females, mean intakes of folate were 211.19 and 177.18 ?g/d, and for vitamin B12, 5.98 and 4.54 ?g/d, respectively. Levels of plasma folate, red blood cell folate, serum B12, and holotranscobalamin were 18.74, 807.19, 330.64, and 63.04 nmol/L in males, respectively, and 19.13, 770.16, 377.9, and 65.63 nmol/L in females, respectively. Lower folate intakes were associated with several SEFs, including maternal and paternal education in both sexes. Regarding folate biomarkers, lower plasma folate intakes were associated with single/shared care in males and with lower paternal occupation in females. Lower vitamin B12 intakes were associated with almost all the studied SEFs, except paternal occupation in both sexes. In females, when considering vitamin B12 biomarkers, lower plasma vitamin B12 was associated with lower maternal education and occupation, and lower holotranscobalamin was associated with lower maternal education and lower paternal occupation. In conclusion, from the set of socioeconomic determinants studied in a sample of European adolescents, maternal education and paternal occupation were more consistently associated with folate and vitamin B12 intakes and biomarkers concentrations. PMID:24655486

  10. A Stability-Indicating HPLC Method for the Determination of Nitrosylcobalamin (NO-Cbl), a Novel Vitamin B12 Analog

    PubMed Central

    Dunphy, Michael J.; Sysel, Annette M.; Lupica, Joseph A.; Griffith, Kristie; Sherrod, Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Nitrosylcobalamin (NO-Cbl), a novel vitamin B12 analog and anti-tumor agent, functions as a biologic ‘Trojan horse’, utilizing the vitamin B12 transcobalamin II transport protein and cell surface receptor to specifically target cancer cells. a stability-indicating HPLC method was developed for the detection of NO-Cbl during forced degradation studies. This method utilized an ascentis® RP-amide (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 ?m) column at 35 °C with a mobile phase (1.0 mL min?1) combining a gradient of methanol and an acetate buffer at pH 6.0. Detection wavelengths of 450 and 254 nm were used to detect corrin and non-corrin-based products, respectively. NO-Cbl, synthesized from hydroxocobalamin and pure nitric oxide gas, was subjected to degradative stress conditions including oxidation, hydrolysis and thermal and radiant energy challenge. The method was validated by assessing linearity, accuracy, precision, detection and quantitation limits and robustness. The method was applied successfully for purity assessment of synthesized NO-Cbl and for the determination of NO-Cbl during kinetic studies in aqueous solution and in solid-state degradation assessments. This HPLC method is suitable for the separation of cobalamins in aqueous and methanolic solutions, for routine detection of NO-Cbl and for purity assessment of synthesized NO-Cbl. additionally, this method has potential application in identification and monitoring of diseases involving altered nitric oxide homeostasis where vitamin B12 therapy is utilized to scavenge excess nitric oxide, subsequently resulting in the in vivo production of NO-Cbl. PMID:24855323

  11. A Stability-Indicating HPLC Method for the Determination of Nitrosylcobalamin (NO-Cbl), a Novel Vitamin B12 Analog.

    PubMed

    Dunphy, Michael J; Sysel, Annette M; Lupica, Joseph A; Griffith, Kristie; Sherrod, Taylor; Bauer, Joseph A

    2014-04-01

    Nitrosylcobalamin (NO-Cbl), a novel vitamin B12 analog and anti-tumor agent, functions as a biologic 'Trojan horse', utilizing the vitamin B12 transcobalamin II transport protein and cell surface receptor to specifically target cancer cells. a stability-indicating HPLC method was developed for the detection of NO-Cbl during forced degradation studies. This method utilized an ascentis(®) RP-amide (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 ?m) column at 35 °C with a mobile phase (1.0 mL min(-1)) combining a gradient of methanol and an acetate buffer at pH 6.0. Detection wavelengths of 450 and 254 nm were used to detect corrin and non-corrin-based products, respectively. NO-Cbl, synthesized from hydroxocobalamin and pure nitric oxide gas, was subjected to degradative stress conditions including oxidation, hydrolysis and thermal and radiant energy challenge. The method was validated by assessing linearity, accuracy, precision, detection and quantitation limits and robustness. The method was applied successfully for purity assessment of synthesized NO-Cbl and for the determination of NO-Cbl during kinetic studies in aqueous solution and in solid-state degradation assessments. This HPLC method is suitable for the separation of cobalamins in aqueous and methanolic solutions, for routine detection of NO-Cbl and for purity assessment of synthesized NO-Cbl. additionally, this method has potential application in identification and monitoring of diseases involving altered nitric oxide homeostasis where vitamin B12 therapy is utilized to scavenge excess nitric oxide, subsequently resulting in the in vivo production of NO-Cbl. PMID:24855323

  12. Prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus on metformin: A case control study from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Iftikhar, Raheel; Kamran, Sultan Mehmood; Qadir, Adnan; Iqbal, Zohaib; Usman, Hassan bin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes Mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder and metformin is the most commonly prescribed oral hypoglycemic agent. Metformin is well known to cause viamin B12 deficiency due to effect on calcium-dependent membrane action in the terminal ileum leading to malabsorption of vitamin B12. The purpose of this study is to determine prevalence and associations of Vitamin B12 deficiency in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with metformin. Methods This case control study was carried out in department of medicine, Combined Military Hospital, Kharian from 1st Jan 2012 to 30 december 2012. We enrolled 114 outdoor patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus currently on metformin for atleast 12 months, by consecutive sampling, and 105 age and sex matched patients taken as control. Patients with vitamin B12 levels of less than 150 pg/ml were said to be B12 deficient. The results were analyzed on SPSS version 16. Results Serum B12 levels were low in 35 patients (31%) on metformin as compared to only 9 patients (8.6%) among controls,(p value 0.002). Mean B12 levels were significantly low in metformin group 311 pg/ml (±194.4), p value 0.03. Dose of metformin had inverse correlation with B12 levels and the difference was statistically significant with p-value < 0.001. Conclusion Our study demonstrated significantly high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients treated with metformin with significant effect of dose and duration of metformin use on B12 levels. Physicians must recognize this important fact and screen diabetics on metformin therapy for underlying B12 deficiency. PMID:24711867

  13. Dietary intake of folate, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, genetic polymorphism of related enzymes, and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ma, Enbo; Iwasaki, Motoki; Kobayashi, Minatsu; Kasuga, Yoshio; Yokoyama, Shiro; Onuma, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Hideki; Kusama, Ritsu; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2009-01-01

    We investigated associations among intake of folate, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and polymorphisms of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase (MTR) genes and breast cancer risk in a Japanese population. A hospital based, case-control study was conducted in Nagano Prefecture, Japan, in 388 pairs of patients with histologically confirmed invasive breast cancer and age- and area-matched controls selected from medical checkup examinees. Energy-adjusted intakes of folate and other B vitamins were derived from a validated food frequency questionnaire. Genotyping was completed for MTHFR (C677T and A1298T) and MTR (A2756G). Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by the conditional logistical regression model. Median dietary folate intake (microg/day) in the control group was 438.2 (interquartile range: 354.9-542.9). Neither dietary intake of folate, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, or vitamin B12 nor polymorphisms of MTHFR or MTR genes were significantly associated with breast cancer risk. Further, no significant interaction was found among nutrients, polymorphisms, and breast cancer risk. Associations of nutrients with breast cancer risk did not differ by hormone receptors status. We conclude that dietary intake of folate and related B vitamins and genotypes of MTHFR or MTR have no overall association with breast cancer risk in Japanese women. PMID:19838916

  14. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in a breast fed infant with pancytopenia.

    PubMed

    Citak, Funda Erkasar; Citak, Elvan Caglar

    2011-02-01

    We report the case of a 7-month-old breast fed infant who presented with a nose bleed and bruises. Investigation showed severe nutritional B12 deficiency anemia with a pancytopenia. It is important to take the nutritional history of both the infant and the mother for early prevention and treatment. PMID:19617270

  15. Higher Prevalence of Metformin-Induced Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Sulfonylurea Combination Compared with Insulin Combination in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Donghoon; Yun, Jae-Seung; Ko, Sun-Hye; Lim, Tae-Seok; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Park, Yong-Moon; Ko, Seung-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Long-term and high-dose treatment with metformin is known to be associated with vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether the prevalence of B12 deficiency was different in patients treated with different combination of hypoglycemic agents with metformin during the same time period. A total of 394 patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin and sulfonylurea (S+M group, n?=?299) or metformin and insulin (I+M group, n?=?95) were consecutively recruited. The vitamin B12 and folate levels were quantified using the chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. Vitamin B12 deficiency was defined as vitamin B12?300 pg/mL without folate deficiency (folate>4 ng/mL). The mean age of and duration of diabetes in the subjects were 59.4±10.5 years and 12.2±6.7 years, respectively. The mean vitamin B12 level of the total population was 638.0±279.6 pg/mL. The mean serum B12 levels were significantly lower in the S+M group compared with the I+M group (600.0±266.5 vs. 757.7±287.6 pg/mL, P<0.001). The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in the metformin-treated patients was significantly higher in the S+M group compared with the I+M group (17.4% vs. 4.2%, P?=?0.001). After adjustment for various factors, such as age, sex, diabetic duration, duration or daily dose of metformin, diabetic complications, and presence of anemia, sulfonylurea use was a significant independent risk factor for B12 deficiency (OR?=?4.74, 95% CI 1.41–15.99, P?=?0.012). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that patients with type 2 diabetes who were treated with metformin combined with sulfonylurea require clinical attention for vitamin B12 deficiency and regular monitoring of their vitamin B12 levels. PMID:25299054

  16. Vitamin B12: a novel indicator of bone health in vulnerable groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. M. Dhonukshe-Rutten

    2004-01-01

    Background: A number of modifiable predictors for osteoporosis and fractures have been identified, including nutritional factors, such as vitamin D deficiency and low calcium intake. Cobalamin deficiency has been suggested to affect bone metabolism. Pernicious anaemia, which can result in cobalamin deficiency, has been identified as a risk factor for osteoporosis. Also, it is known that homocystinuria patients are of

  17. Effects of folate and vitamin B12 on cognitive function in adult and elderly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-related neurocognitive disorders, primarily Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD), have a major impact on health and well-being. Separate lines of evidence have suggested that B vitamin status may be associated with risk and progression of AD and PD. This report summarizes the ev...

  18. Maternal dietary intake of folate and vitamins B6 and B12 during pregnancy and risk of childhood brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Greenop, Kathryn R; Miller, Margaret; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Scott, Rodney J; Attia, John; Ashton, Lesley J; Dalla-Pozza, Luciano; Bower, Carol; Armstrong, Bruce K; Milne, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Childhood brain tumors (CBT) are the second most common childhood cancers, yet their etiology is largely unknown. We investigated whether maternal gestational intake of folate and vitamins B6 and B12 was associated with CBT risk in a nationwide case-control study conducted 2005-2010. Case children 0-14 years were recruited from all 10 Australian pediatric oncology centers. Control children were recruited by national random digit dialing, frequency matched to cases on age, sex, and state of residence. Dietary intake was ascertained using food frequency questionnaires and adjusted for total energy intake. Data from 293 case and 726 control mothers were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. The odds ratio (OR) for the highest versus lowest tertile of folate intake was 0.70 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48, 1.02]. The ORs appeared lower in mothers who drank alcohol during pregnancy (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.93), mothers who took folic acid (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.42, 1.06) or B6/B12 supplements (OR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.25, 1.06) and in children younger than 5 years (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.93). These findings are consistent with folate's crucial role in maintenance of genomic integrity and DNA methylation. Dietary intake of B6 and B12 was not associated with risk of CBT. PMID:24897174

  19. Maternal dietary folate and/or vitamin B12 restrictions alter body composition (adiposity) and lipid metabolism in Wistar rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kalle Anand; Lalitha, Anumula; Pavithra, Dhandapani; Padmavathi, Inagadapa J N; Ganeshan, Manisha; Rao, Kalashikam Rajender; Venu, Lagishetty; Balakrishna, Nagala; Shanker, Nemani Hari; Reddy, Singi Umakar; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Sengupta, Shantanu; Raghunath, Manchala

    2013-01-01

    Maternal vitamin deficiencies are associated with low birth weight and increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. We hypothesize that maternal folate and/or vitamin B(12) restrictions alter body composition and fat metabolism in the offspring. Female weaning Wistar rats received ad libitum for 12 weeks a control diet (American Institute of Nutrition-76A) or the same with restriction of folate, vitamin B(12) or both (dual deficient) and, after confirming vitamin deficiency, were mated with control males. The pregnant/lactating mothers and their offspring received their respective diets throughout. Biochemical and body composition parameters were determined in mothers before mating and in offspring at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age. Vitamin restriction increased body weight and fat and altered lipid profile in female Wistar rats, albeit differences were significant with only B(12) restriction. Offspring born to vitamin-B(12)-restricted dams had lower birth weight, while offspring of all vitamin-restricted dams weighed higher at/from weaning. They had higher body fat (specially visceral fat) from 3 months and were dyslipidemic at 12 months, when they had high circulating and adipose tissue levels of tumor necrosis factor ?, leptin and interleukin 6 and low levels of adiponectin and interleukin 1?. Vitamin-restricted offspring had higher activities of hepatic fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA-carboxylase and higher plasma cortisol levels. In conclusion, maternal and peri-/postnatal folate and/or vitamin B(12) restriction increased visceral adiposity (due to increased corticosteroid stress), altered lipid metabolism in rat offspring perhaps by modulating adipocyte function and may thus predispose them to high morbidity later. PMID:22703962

  20. The entropic contributions in vitamin B12 enzymes still reflect the electrostatic paradigm.

    PubMed

    Schopf, Patrick; Mills, Matthew J L; Warshel, Arieh

    2015-04-01

    The catalytic power of enzymes containing coenzyme B12 has been, in some respects, the "last bastion" for the strain hypothesis. Our previous study of this system established by a careful sampling that the major part of the catalytic effect is due to the electrostatic interaction between the ribose of the ado group and the protein and that the strain contribution is very small. This finding has not been sufficiently appreciated due to misunderstandings of the power of the empirical valence bond (EVB) calculations and the need of sufficient sampling. Furthermore, some interesting new experiments point toward entropic effects as the source of the catalytic power, casting doubt on the validity of the electrostatic idea, at least, in the case of B12 enzymes. Here, we focus on the observation of the entropic effects and on analyzing their origin. We clarify that our EVB approach evaluates free energies rather than enthalpies and demonstrate by using the restraint release (RR) approach that the observed entropic contribution to the activation barrier is of electrostatic origin. Our study illustrates the power of the RR approach by evaluating the entropic contributions to catalysis and provides further support to our paradigm for the origin of the catalytic power of B12 enzymes. Overall, our study provides major support to our electrostatic preorganization idea and also highlights the basic requirements from ab initio quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations of activation free energies of enzymatic reactions. PMID:25805820

  1. Identification of structural markers for vitamin B12 and other corrinoid derivatives in solution using FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Taraszka, K S; Chen, E; Metzger, T; Chance, M R

    1991-02-01

    The identification of structural markers for B12/protein interactions is crucial to a complete understanding of vitamin B12 transport and metabolic reaction mechanisms of B12 coenzymes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy can provide direct measurements of changes in the side chains and corrin ring resulting from B12/protein interactions. Using FTIR spectroscopy in various solvent systems, we have identified structural markers for corrinoids in the physiological state. We assign the major band (denoted B), which occurs at ca. 1630 cm-1 in D2O and ca. 1675 cm-1 in ethanol, to the amide I C=O stretching mode of the propionamide side chains of the corrin ring. The lower frequency of band B in D2O versus ethanol is due to the greater hydrogen-bonding properties of D2O that stabilize the charged amide resonance form. Since the propionamides are known to be important in protein binding, band B is a suitable marker for monitoring the interaction of these side chains with proteins. We assign bands at ca. 1575 and 1545 cm-1 (denoted C and D) as breathing modes of the corrin ring on the basis of the bands' solvent independence and their sensitivity to changes in axial ligation. As the sigma-donating strength of the axial ligands increases, the frequencies of bands C and D decrease, possibly indicating a lengthening of the corrin conjugated system. Band A, the known cyanide stretching frequency at ca. 2130 cm-1, probes the cobalt-carbon distance in cyanocorrinoids. As the frequency of band A increases, the cobalt-carbon bond strength should decrease. PMID:1991101

  2. The importance of vitamin B12 and unidentified factors in the nutrition of the domestic fowl

    E-print Network

    Olcese, Orlando

    1950-01-01

    vitamins THE or B ^ ; synthetic folic acid, or pyracine lactone. Heuser, Norris, Lucas and Combs (*46) reported that hatchability was poor on a soybean meal basal ration. Addition of 2 to 3 percent fish meal gave a marked response in chick growth... ground yellow corn 46.35, commercial soybean meal 46.35, corn oil (Mazola) 5, cystine 0 .3 , CaHPO^ 0.92, Ca COg 0 .6 , iodized NaCl 0.44, and MnSO^^HgO 0.04 gmj thiamine 0 .3 , riboflavin 0 .3 , niacin 2, pyridoxine 0 .2 , pantothenic acid 2, folic...

  3. Conformational Cycle of the Vitamin B12 ABC Importer in Liposomes Detected by Double Electron-Electron Resonance (DEER)*

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Benesh; Korkhov, Vladimir M.; Yulikov, Maxim; Jeschke, Gunnar; Bordignon, Enrica

    2014-01-01

    Double electron-electron resonance is used here to investigate intermediates of the transport cycle of the Escherichia coli vitamin B12 ATP-binding cassette importer BtuCD-F. Previously, we showed the ATP-induced opening of the cytoplasmic gate I in TM5 helices, later confirmed by the AMP-PNP-bound BtuCD-F crystal structure. Here, other key residues are analyzed in TM10 helices (positions 307 and 322) and in the cytoplasmic gate II, i.e. the loop between TM2 and TM3 (positions 82 and 85). Without BtuF, binding of ATP induces detectable changes at positions 307 and 85 in BtuCD in liposomes. Together with BtuF, ATP triggers the closure of the cytoplasmic gate II in liposomes (reported by both positions 82 and 85). This forms a sealed cavity in the translocation channel in agreement with the AMP-PNP·BtuCD-F x-ray structure. When vitamin B12 and AMP-PNP are simultaneously present, the extent of complex formation is reduced, but the short 82–82 interspin distance detected indicates that the substrate does not affect the closed conformation of this gate. The existence of the BtuCD-F complex under these conditions is verified with spectroscopically orthogonal nitroxide and Gd(III)-based labels. The cytoplasmic gate II remains closed also in the vanadate-trapped state, but it reopens in the ADP-bound state of the complex. Therefore, we suggest that the substrate likely trapped in ATP·BtuCD-F can be released after ATP hydrolysis but before the occluded ADP-bound conformation is reached. PMID:24362024

  4. Vision changes after spaceflight are related to alterations in folate- and vitamin B-12-dependent one-carbon metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Sara R; Gibson, C Robert; Mader, Thomas H; Ericson, Karen; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Heer, Martina; Smith, Scott M

    2012-03-01

    Approximately 20% (7 of 38) of astronauts on International Space Station (ISS) missions have developed measurable ophthalmic changes after flight. This study was conducted to determine if the folate- and vitamin B-12-dependent 1-carbon metabolic pathway is altered in these individuals. Since 2006, we have conducted experiments on the ISS to evaluate nutritional status and related biochemical indices of astronauts before, during, and after flight. Data were modeled to evaluate differences between individuals with ophthalmic changes (n = 5) and those without them (n = 15), all of whom were on ISS missions of 48-215 d. We also determined whether mean preflight serum concentrations of the 1-carbon metabolites and changes in measured cycloplegic refraction after flight were associated. Serum homocysteine (Hcy), cystathionine, 2-methylcitric acid (2MCA), and methylmalonic acid concentrations were 25-45% higher (P < 0.001) in astronauts with ophthalmic changes than in those without them. These differences existed before, during, and after flight. Preflight serum concentrations of Hcy and cystathionine, and mean in-flight serum folate, were correlated with change (postflight relative to preflight) values in refraction (P < 0.05), and preflight serum concentrations of 2MCA tended to be associated (P = 0.06) with ophthalmic changes. The biochemical differences observed in crewmembers with vision issues strongly suggest that their folate- and vitamin B-12-dependent 1-carbon transfer metabolism was affected before and during flight. The consistent differences in markers of 1-carbon metabolism between those who did and those who did not develop changes in vision suggest that polymorphisms in enzymes of this pathway may interact with microgravity to cause these pathophysiologic changes. PMID:22298570

  5. Towards a cell factory for vitamin B12 production in Bacillus megaterium: bypassing of the cobalamin riboswitch control elements.

    PubMed

    Moore, Simon J; Mayer, Matthias J; Biedendieck, Rebekka; Deery, Evelyne; Warren, Martin J

    2014-12-25

    Bacillus megaterium is a bacterium that has been used in the past for the industrial production of vitamin B12 (cobalamin), the anti-pernicious anaemia factor. Cobalamin is a modified tetrapyrrole with a cobalt ion coordinated within its macrocycle. More recently, B. megaterium has been developed as a host for the high-yield production of recombinant proteins using a xylose inducible promoter system. Herein, we revisit cobalamin production in B. megaterium DSM319. We have investigated the importance of cobalt for optimum growth and cobalamin production. The cobaltochelatase (CbiX(L)) is encoded within a 14-gene cobalamin biosynthetic (cbi) operon, whose gene-products oversee the transformation of uroporphyrinogen III into adenosylcobyrinic acid a,c-diamide, a key precursor of cobalamin synthesis. The production of CbiX(L) in response to exogenous cobalt was monitored. The metal was found to stimulate cobalamin biosynthesis and decrease the levels of CbiX(L). From this we were able to show that the entire cbi operon is transcriptionally regulated by a B12-riboswitch, with a switch-off point at approximately 5 nM cobalamin. To bypass the effects of the B12-riboswitch the cbi operon was cloned without these regulatory elements. Growth of these strains on minimal media supplemented with glycerol as a carbon source resulted in significant increases in cobalamin production (up to 200 ?g L(-1)). In addition, a range of partially amidated intermediates up to adenosylcobyric acid was detected. These findings outline a potential way to develop B. megaterium as a cell factory for cobalamin production using cheap raw materials. PMID:24657453

  6. A high prevalence of biochemical evidence of vitamin B12 or folate deficiency does not translate into a comparable prevalence of anemia.

    PubMed

    Metz, Jack

    2008-06-01

    Based on biochemical evidence, a high prevalence of biochemical evidence of vitamin B12 or folate deficiency has been reported in a number of areas in the world. The evidence that these biochemical abnormalities lead to a comparable prevalence of anemia is reviewed. The overall contribution of vitamin B12 deficiency to the global burden of anemia is probably not significant, except perhaps in women and their infants and children in vegetarian communities. In developed countries, folate-deficiency anemia is uncommon. In some developing countries, this anemia is still seen, but there are no comprehensive data on the relative prevalence compared with anemia due to malaria, iron-deficiency, hemoglobinopathy, and HIV disease. It seems unlikely that folate deficiency makes a major contribution to the burden of anemia in developing countries. Iron-deficiency anemia may coexist with vitamin B12 and especially folate deficiency, and may confound the hematological features of the vitamin deficiencies whose prevalence would then be underestimated. Supplementation of the diet of pregnant women with folic acid can virtually eliminate folate-deficiency anemia in these women. There are very few data on the hematological effect of vitamin B12 supplementation or fortification at the population level. The addition of vitamin B12 to the supplementation of the diet of pregnant women with iron and folic acid does not produce an increased hematological response, at least in nonvegetarian populations. There are numerous reports of the effect of folic acid fortification of food on tests of folate status, but only a single published report on the hematological response was found. PMID:18709883

  7. Metabolic Vitamin B12 Status on a Mostly Raw Vegan Diet with Follow-Up Using Tablets, Nutritional Yeast, or Probiotic Supplements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael S. Donaldson

    2000-01-01

    Background: Pure vegetarian diets might cause cobalamin deficiency due to lack of dietary intake. It was hypothesized that a population following a vegan diet consuming mostly raw fruits and vegetables, carrot juice, and dehydrated barley grass juice would be able to avoid vitamin B12 deficiency naturally. Methods: Subjects were recruited at a health ministers’ reunion based on adherence to the

  8. Metabolic evidence of vitamin B-12 deficiency, including high homocysteine and methylmalonic acid and low holotranscobalamin, is more pronounced in older adults with elevated plasma folate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: An analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey indicated that in older adults exposed to folic acid fortification, the combination of low serum vitamin B-12 and elevated folate is associated with higher concentrations of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid ...

  9. Insulin resistance and endothelial function are improved after folate and vitamin B12 therapy in patients with metabolic syndrome: relationship between homocysteine levels and hyperinsulinemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emanuela Setola; Lucilla Domenica Monti; Elena Galluccio; Altin Palloshi; Gabriele Fragasso; Rita Paroni; Fulvio Magni; Emilia Paola Sandoli; Pietro Lucotti; Sabrina Costa; Isabella Fermo; Marzia Galli-Kienle; Anna Origgi; Alberto Margonato; PierMarco Piatti

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was (a) to study whether a folate and vitamin B12 treatment, aimed at decreasing homocysteine levels, might ameliorate insulin resistance and endothelial dys- function in patients with metabolic syndrome according to the National Cholesterol Education Pro- gram - Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria and (b) to evaluate whether, under these metabolic conditions, there is a

  10. [Hematologic changes in patients under long-term hemodialysis and hemofiltration treatment with special reference to serum concentrations of folic acid and vitamin B 12].

    PubMed

    Minar, E; Zazgornik, J; Bayer, P M; Lanschützer, H; Mengele, K; Marosi, L

    1984-01-14

    The incidence of macrocytic anemia has been investigated in 32 patients on maintenance hemodialysis (mean age 46 years, mean duration of dialysis treatment 27.5 months), in 18 patients with combined hemodialysis (HD) and hemofiltration (HF) treatment (mean age 42 years, mean duration of combined HD and HF treatment 6.3 months) and in 32 patients after renal transplantation (mean age 41 years, mean observation period since successful renal transplantation 55.2 months). Also investigated were serum levels of vitamin B12 (radioassay kit 57Co) and folic acid (radioassay kit 125J). Macrocytosis (MCV greater than 96 fl) was observed in 38% of the patients on maintenance hemodialysis, in 44% of the patients with combined HD and HF treatment, and in 47% of the renal transplant recipients. In the chronically dialysed patients, in contrast to the patients with combined HD and HF treatment, the mean serum folic acid level was significantly lower (p less than 0.005) than that of healthy controls. Serum levels of vitamin B12 were within the normal range in all patients. There were no significant differences in serum levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 between the patients with MCV greater than 96 fl and MCV less than or equal to 96 fl. Nor was there a correlation between the serum levels of folic acid or vitamin B12 and mean corpuscular volume. These results suggest that folic acid deficiency is of minor importance in the complex pathogenesis of anemia in hemodialysed patients. PMID:6367027

  11. In vitamin B12 deficiency, higher serum folate is assoicated with increased total homocysteine (tHcy) and methlmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a recent study of older participants (age >/= 60 y) in the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we showed that a combination of high serum folate and low vitamin B-12 status was associated with higher prevalence of cognitive impairment and anemia than other combina...

  12. Pasture cobalt concentration and its effect on vitamin B12 status of sheep grazing upland and lowland pastures in the Kaiwera district, eastern Southland, New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. G. Sherrell; P. Brunsden; P. D. McIntosh

    1987-01-01

    Cobalt (Co) concentrations in upland and lowland pastures of the Kaiwera district were monitored for a 13-month period from August 1985 to September 1986 and the effect of changes in pasture Co on the vitamin B12 status of grazing sheep was determined. Co concentration in upland pastures was adequate for stock in winter but fell rapidly to below the critical

  13. Folate and vitamin B-12 status in relation to anemia, macrocytosis, and cognitive impairment in older Americans in the age of folic acid fortification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historic data on folic acid treatment of pernicious anemia suggested that high-level fortification would delay diagnosis or exacerbate effects of vitamin B12 deficiency, which affects many seniors. This idea is controversial, however, because observational data are few and inconclusive and experime...

  14. Urinary Methylmalonic Acid as an Indicator of Early Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Its Role in Polyneuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ai-li; Ni, Yi-hong; Li, Xiao-bo; Zhuang, Xiang-hua; Liu, Yuan-tao; Liu, Xin-hua; Chen, Shi-hong

    2014-01-01

    The rising incidence of diabetes and its negative impact on quality of life highlights the urgent need to develop biomarkers of early nerve damage. Measurement of total vitamin B12 has some limitations. We want to determine the levels of urinary methylmalonic acid and its relationships with serum vitamin B12 and polyneuropathy. The 176 Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus were divided into 3 groups according to the levels of vitamin B12. A gas chromatography mass spectrometric technique was used to determine blood methylmalonic acid and urinary methylmalonic acid. The diagnosis of distal diabetic polyneuropathy was based on the determination of bilateral limb sensory and motor nerve conduction velocity and amplitude with electromyogram. Multiple regression analysis revealed that urinary methylmalonic acid/creatinine, blood methylmalonic acid, and so forth were variables that influenced diabetic polyneuropathy significantly. Nerve sensory conduction velocity and nerve amplitude in the group of urinary methylmalonic acid/creatinine >3.5?mmol/mol decreased significantly. Superficial peroneal nerve sensory and motor conduction velocity and ulnar nerve compound motor active potential amplitude were inversely correlated with urinary methylmalonic acid/creatinine. Urinary methylmalonic acid correlates with serum vitamin B12 levels in person with diabetes and is a sensitive marker of early polyneuropathy. PMID:24719898

  15. Vitamin B12 Conjugation of Peptide-YY3-36 Decreases Food Intake Compared to Native Peptide-YY3-36 Upon Subcutaneous Administration in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Henry, Kelly E; Elfers, Clinton T; Burke, Rachael M; Chepurny, Oleg G; Holz, George G; Blevins, James E; Roth, Christian L; Doyle, Robert P

    2015-05-01

    Challenges to peptide-based therapies include rapid clearance, ready degradation by hydrolysis/proteolysis, and poor intestinal uptake and/or a need for blood brain barrier transport. This work evaluates the efficacy of conjugation of vitamin B12 (B12) on sc administered peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY)3-36 function. In the current experiments, a B12-PYY3-36 conjugate was tested against native PYY3-36, and an inactive conjugate B12-PYYC36 (null control) in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experiments demonstrated similar agonism for the neuropeptide Y2 receptor by the B12-PYY3-36 conjugate (EC50 26.5 nM) compared with native PYY3-36 (EC50 16.0 nM), with the null control having an EC50 of 1.8 ?M. In vivo experiments were performed in young adult male Sprague Dawley rats (9 wk). Daily treatments were delivered sc in five 1-hour pulses, each pulse delivering 5-10 nmol/kg, by implanted microinfusion pumps. Increases in hindbrain Fos expression were comparable 90 minutes after B12-PYY3-36 or PYY3-36 injection relative to saline or B12-PYYC36. Food intake was reduced during a 5-day treatment for both B12-PYY3-36- (24%, P = .001) and PYY3-36-(13%, P = .008) treated groups relative to baseline. In addition, reduction of food intake after the three dark cycle treatment pulses was more consistent with B12-PYY3-36 treatment (-26%, -29%, -27%) compared with the PYY3-36 treatment (-3%, -21%, -16%), and B12-PYY3-36 generated a significantly longer inhibition of food intake vs PYY3-36 treatment after the first two pulses (P = .041 and P = .036, respectively). These findings demonstrate a stronger, more consistent, and longer inhibition of food intake after the pulses of B12-PYY3-36 conjugate compared with the native PYY3-36. PMID:25658456

  16. Preliminary Evidence for Cell Membrane Amelioration in Children with Cystic Fibrosis by 5-MTHF and Vitamin B12 Supplementation: A Single Arm Trial

    PubMed Central

    Scambi, Cinzia; De Franceschi, Lucia; Guarini, Patrizia; Poli, Fabio; Siciliano, Angela; Pattini, Patrizia; Biondani, Andrea; La Verde, Valentina; Bortolami, Oscar; Turrini, Francesco; Carta, Franco; D'Orazio, Ciro; Assael, Baroukh M.; Faccini, Giovanni; Bambara, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common fatal autosomal recessive disorders in the Caucasian population caused by mutations of gene for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). New experimental therapeutic strategies for CF propose a diet supplementation to affect the plasma membrane fluidity and to modulate amplified inflammatory response. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) and vitamin B12 supplementation for ameliorating cell plasma membrane features in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis. Methodology and Principal Findings A single arm trial was conducted from April 2004 to March 2006 in an Italian CF care centre. 31 children with CF aged from 3 to 8 years old were enrolled. Exclusion criteria were diabetes, chronic infections of the airways and regular antibiotics intake. Children with CF were supplemented for 24 weeks with 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF, 7.5 mg /day) and vitamin B12 (0.5 mg/day). Red blood cells (RBCs) were used to investigate plasma membrane, since RBCs share lipid, protein composition and organization with other cell types. We evaluated RBCs membrane lipid composition, membrane protein oxidative damage, cation content, cation transport pathways, plasma and RBCs folate levels and plasma homocysteine levels at baseline and after 24 weeks of 5-MTHF and vitamin B12 supplementation. In CF children, 5-MTHF and vitamin B12 supplementation (i) increased plasma and RBC folate levels; (ii) decreased plasma homocysteine levels; (iii) modified RBC membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition; (iv) increased RBC K+ content; (v) reduced RBC membrane oxidative damage and HSP70 membrane association. Conclusion and Significance 5-MTHF and vitamin B12 supplementation might ameliorate RBC membrane features of children with CF. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00730509 PMID:19277125

  17. Interrelationship of dietary vitamin B12 or fat with thyrotoxicosis in certain adaptive changes in respiratory enzymes of rat liver

    E-print Network

    Crawford, Wid Philips

    1957-01-01

    INTERRELATIONSHIP OF DIETARY VITAMIN B12 0R FAT WITH THYROTOXICOSIS IN CERTAIN ADAPTIVE CHANGES IN RESPIRATORY ENZYMES OF RAT LIVER I NTEERLAOATSH PF DYN VMYBYV1 20IDWX0N 1CGZTAARa AS AgR eLOaCOAR 14gSS5 S6 AgR I8LT4C5ACLO5 OHa 9R4gOHT4O5 2S...55R8R S6 rRiOE TH nOLATO5 6C56T55ZRHA S6 AgR LRtCTLRZRHA 6SL AgR aR8LRR S6 NX2rX0 XW VMYBX1XVMo 9OFd ()sy 9OhSL 1CGhR4AEz PYX2M,9Y1r0o IvN vfr0YrYXv A Dissertation By WIS PHILIPS CRAWFORD Approved as to style and content by: INTERRELATIONSHIP...

  18. Progressive hyperpigmentation in a Taiwanese child due to an inborn error of vitamin B12 metabolism (cblJ).

    PubMed

    Takeichi, T; Hsu, C-K; Yang, H-S; Chen, H-Y; Wong, T-W; Tsai, W-L; Chao, S-C; Lee, J Y-Y; Akiyama, M; Simpson, M A; McGrath, J A

    2015-04-01

    The physiology of human skin pigmentation is varied and complex, with an extensive melanogenic paracrine network involving mesenchymal and epithelial cells, contributing to the regulation of melanocyte survival and proliferation and melanogenesis. Mutations in several genes, involving predominantly the KIT ligand/c-Kit and Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways, have been implicated in a spectrum of diseases in which there is hyperpigmentation, hypopigmentation or both. Here, we report on a 12-year-old girl from Taiwan with a 6-year history of diffuse progressive skin hyperpigmentation resulting from a different aetiology: an inborn metabolic disorder of vitamin B12 (cobalamin), designated cblJ. Using whole-exome sequencing we identified a homozygous mutation in ABCD4 (c.423C>G; p.Asn141Lys), which encodes an ATP-binding cassette transporter with a role in the intracellular processing of cobalamin. The patient had biochemical and haematological evidence of cobalamin deficiency but no other clinical abnormalities apart from a slight lightening of her previously black hair. Of note, she had no neurological symptoms or signs. Treatment with oral cobalamin (3 mg daily) led to metabolic correction and some reduction in the skin hyperpigmentation at the 3-month follow-up. This case demonstrates that defects or deficiencies of cobalamin should be remembered in the differential diagnosis of diffuse hyperpigmentary skin disorders. PMID:25234635

  19. Effect of Folic Acid and Vitamin B12 on Pemetrexed Antifolate Chemotherapy in Nutrient Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tsung-Ying; Chang, Gee-Chen; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Huang, Yi-Rou; Chiu, Ling-Yen

    2013-01-01

    Pemetrexed (MTA) is a multitargeted antifolate drug approved for lung cancer therapy. Clinically, supplementation with high doses of folic acid (FA) and vitamin B12 (VB12) lowers MTA cytotoxicities. An antagonistic effect of FA/VB12 on MTA efficacy has been proposed. However, patients who receive FA/VB12 show better tolerance to MTA with improved survival. The aims of this study are to investigate the modulation of FA and VB12 on MTA drug efficacy in human nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. The sensitivities of cells, apoptosis, and MTA-regulated proteins were characterized to determine the possible effects of high doses of FA and VB12 on MTA efficacy. MTA has the lowest efficacy under 10% serum conditions. However, supplementation with FA and VB12 individually and additively reversed the insensitivity of NSCLC cells to MTA treatment with 10% serum. The enhanced sensitivities of cells following FA/VB12 treatment were correlated with increasing apoptosis and were specific to MTA but not to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Enhanced sensitivity was also associated with p21WAF1/Cip1 expression level. Our results revealed no antagonistic effect of high doses of FA/VB12 on MTA efficacy in cancer cells grown in nutrient medium. Furthermore, these data may partially explain why supplementation of FA and VB12 resulted in better survival in MTA-treated patients. PMID:23984356

  20. In-situ biochemical remediation of chlorinated organic compounds present as DNAPL using vitamin B12 and reduced titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Lesage, S. [National Water Research Institute, Burlington, Ontario (Canada); Sorel, D.; Cherry, J.A. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of using a biochemical treatment for the cleanup of DNAPL solvents in the saturated zone was tested using an in-situ large vertical column. Laboratory column studies have shown that a mixture of vitamin B12 and titanium citrate pumped through a column containing 100 {mu}L of tetrachloroethene can completely dissolve and degrade the residual to ethene in a few days. A vertical test column, 80 cm in diameter was installed within a sheet-pile cell isolating a portion of aquifer at CFB Borden. An equimolar mixture of tetrachloroethene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane was injected below the water table to form a residual DNAPL. The injection withdrawal system was operated in an upward flow mode over a 2 m height. In order for the reaction to be proceed, the in-situ pH must be greater than 7 and the Eh lower than -480 mV. The redox of the aquifer and the formation of reaction products was monitored on site, through 8 side pods equipped with stainless steel tubing terminated with 40 {mu}m porous cups, installed at different heights in the test column. The volatile products at the withdrawal well were monitored on-line by dynamic headspace analysis/gas chromatography.

  1. Comparison of directly compressed vitamin B12 tablets prepared from micronized rotary-spun microfibers and cast films.

    PubMed

    Sebe, István; Bodai, Zsolt; Eke, Zsuzsanna; Kállai-Szabó, Barnabás; Szabó, Péter; Zelkó, Romána

    2014-09-01

    Abstract Fiber-based dosage forms are potential alternatives of conventional dosage forms from the point of the improved extent and rate of drug dissolution. Rotary-spun polymer fibers and cast films were prepared and micronized in order to direct compress after homogenization with tabletting excipients. Particle size distribution of powder mixtures of micronized fibers and films homogenized with tabletting excipients were determined by laser scattering particle size distribution analyzer. Powder rheological behavior of the mixtures containing micronized fibers and cast films was also compared. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy was applied for the microstructural characterization of micronized fibers and films. The water-soluble vitamin B12 release from the compressed tablets was determined. It was confirmed that the rotary spinning method resulted in homogeneous supramolecularly ordered powder mixture, which was successfully compressed after homogenization with conventional tabletting excipients. The obtained directly compressed tablets showed uniform drug release of low variations. The results highlight the novel application of micronized rotary-spun fibers as intermediate for further processing reserving the original favorable powder characteristics of fibrous systems. PMID:25190153

  2. Selective intestinal malabsorption of vitamin B12 displays recessive Mendelian inheritance: Assignment of a locus to chromosome 10 by linkage

    SciTech Connect

    Aminoff, M.; Tahvanainen, E.; Chapelle, A. de la [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Juvenile megaloblastic anemia caused by selective intestinal malabsorption of vitamin B12 has been considered a distinct condition displaying autosomal recessive inheritance. It appears to have a worldwide distribution, and comparatively high incidences were reported 30 years ago in Finland and Norway. More recently, the Mendelian inheritance of the condition has been questioned because almost no new cases have occurred in these populations. Here we report linkage studies assigning a recessive-gene locus for the disease to chromosome 10 in previously diagnosed multiplex families from Finland and Norway, proving the Mendelian mode of inheritance. The locus is tentatively assigned to the 6-cM interval between markers D10S548 and D10S466, with a multipoint maximum lod score (Z{sub max}) of 5.36 near marker D10S1477. By haplotype analysis, the healthy sibs in these families did not appear to constitute any examples of nonpenetrance. We hypothesize that the paucity of new cases in these populations is due either to a dietary effect on the gene penetrance that has changed with time, or to a drop in the birth rate in subpopulations showing enrichment of the mutation, or to both of these causes. 38 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Transcobalamin C776G genotype modifies the association between vitamin B12 and homocysteine in older Hispanics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: A common polymorphism, C776G, in the plasma B12 transport protein transcobalamin (TC), encodes for either proline or arginine at codon 259. This polymorphism may affect the affinity of TC for B12 and subsequent delivery of B12 to tissues. Methods: TC genotype and its associations with i...

  4. Anemia - B12 deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vitamin B12. They include: Chronic alcoholism Crohn disease, celiac disease, infection with the fish tapeworm, or other problems ... may no longer be needed after Crohn disease, celiac disease, or alcoholism is properly treated. Your doctor or ...

  5. Homocysteine, MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism, folic acid and vitamin B 12 in patients with retinal vein occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Ferrazzi, Paola; Di Micco, Pierpaolo; Quaglia, Ilaria; Rossi, Lisa Simona; Bellatorre, Alessandro Giacco; Gaspari, Giorgio; Rota, Lidia Luciana; Lodigiani, Corrado

    2005-01-01

    Background Many available data have suggested that hyperhomocysteinaemia, an established independent risk factor for thrombosis (arterial and venous), may be associated with an increased risk of retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Aim of the study To evaluate homocysteine metabolism in consecutive caucasian patients affected by RVO from Northern Italy. Patients and Methods 69 consecutive patients from Northern Italy (mean age 64.1 ± 14.6 yy) with recent RVO, were tested for plasma levels of homocysteine (tHcy: fasting and after loading with methionine), cyanocobalamine and folic acid levels (CMIA-Abbot) and looking for MTHFR C677T mutation (Light Cycler-Roche) and compared to 50 volunteers, enrolled as a control group. Results Fasting levels of tHcy were significantly higher in patients than in controls: mean value 14.7 ± 7.7 vs 10.2 ± 8 nmol/ml. Post load levels were also significantly higher: mean value 42.7 ± 23.7 vs 30.4 ± 13.3 nmol/ml; Total homocysteine increase was also evaluated (i.e. ?-tHcy) after methionine load and was also significantly higher in patients compared to control subjects: mean ?-tHcy 27.8 ± 21.5 vs 21.0 ± 16 nmol/ml (normal value < 25 nmol/ml). Furthermore, patients affected by RVO show low folic acid and/or vitamin B12 levels, although differences with control group did not reach statistical significance. Heterozygous and homozygous MTHFR mutation were respectively in study group 46% and 29% vs control group 56% and 4%. Conclusion our data confirm that hyperhomocysteinaemia is a risk factor for RVO, and also that TT genotype of MTHFR C677T is more frequently associated with RVO: if the mutation per se is a risk factor for RVO remains an open question to be confirmed because another study from US did not reveal this aspect. Hyperomocysteinemia is modifiable risk factor for thrombotic diseases. Therefore, a screening for tHcy plasma levels in patients with recent retinal vein occlusion could allow to identify patients who might benefit from supplementation with vitamins and normalization of homocysteine levels, in fasting and after methionine load. PMID:16144556

  6. An LC-MS/MS method for serum methylmalonic acid suitable for monitoring vitamin B12 status in population surveys.

    PubMed

    Mineva, Ekaterina M; Zhang, Mindy; Rabinowitz, Daniel J; Phinney, Karen W; Pfeiffer, Christine M

    2015-04-01

    Methylmalonic acid (MMA), a functional indicator of vitamin B12 insufficiency, was measured in the US population in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2004 using a GC/MS procedure that required 275 ?L of sample and had a low throughput (36 samples/run). Our objective was to introduce a more efficient yet highly accurate LC-MS/MS method for NHANES 2011-2014. We adapted the sample preparation with some modifications from a published isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS procedure. The procedure utilized liquid-liquid extraction and generation of MMA dibutyl ester. Reversed-phase chromatography with isocratic elution allowed baseline resolution of MMA from its naturally occurring structural isomer succinic acid within 4.5 min. Our new method afforded an increased throughput (?160 samples/run) and measured serum MMA with high sensitivity (LOD?=?22.1 nmol/L) in only 75 ?L of sample. Mean (±SD) recovery of MMA spiked into serum (2 d, 4 levels, 2 replicates each) was 94 %?±?5.5 %. Total imprecision (41 d, 2 replicates each) for three serum quality control pools was 4.9 %-7.9 % (97.1-548 nmol/L). The LC-MS/MS method showed excellent correlation (n?=?326, r?=?0.99) and no bias (Deming regression, Bland-Altman analysis) compared to the previous GC/MS method. Both methods produced virtually identical mean (±SD) MMA concentrations [LC-MS/MS: 18.47?±?0.71 ng/mL (n?=?17), GC/MS: 18.18?±?0.67 ng/mL (n?=?11)] on a future plasma reference material compared with a GC/MS method procedure from the National Institute of Standards and Technology [18.41?±?0.70 ng/mL (n?=?15)]. No adjustment will be necessary to compare previous (1999-2004) to future (2011-2014) NHANES MMA data. PMID:25258283

  7. The vitamin B12 analog cobinamide is an effective hydrogen sulfide antidote in a lethal rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    BRENNER, M.; BENAVIDES, S.; MAHON, S. B.; LEE, J.; YOON, D.; MUKAI, D.; VISEROI, M.; CHAN, A.; JIANG, J.; NARULA, N.; AZER, S. M.; ALEXANDER, C.; BOSS, G. R.

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a highly toxic gas for which no effective antidotes exist. It acts, at least in part, by binding to cytochrome c oxidase, causing cellular asphyxiation and anoxia. We investigated the effects of three different ligand forms of cobinamide, a vitamin B12 analog, to reverse sulfide (NaHS) toxicity. Methods New Zealand white rabbits received a continuous intravenous (IV) infusion of NaHS (3 mg/min) until expiration or a maximum 270 mg dose. Animals received six different treatments, administered at the time when they developed signs of severe toxicity: Group 1—saline (placebo group, N = 9); Group 2—IV hydroxocobalamin (N = 7); Group 3—IV aquohydroxocobinamide (N = 6); Group 4—IV sulfitocobinamide (N = 6); Group 5—intramuscular (IM) sulfitocobinamide (N = 6); and Group 6—IM dinitrocobinamide (N = 8). Blood was sampled intermittently, and systemic blood pressure and deoxygenated and oxygenated hemoglobin were measured continuously in peripheral muscle and over the brain region; the latter were measured by diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS). Results Compared with the saline controls, all cobinamide derivatives significantly increased survival time and the amount of NaHS that was tolerated. Aquohydroxocobinamide was most effective (261.5 ± 2.4 mg NaHS tolerated vs. 93.8 ± 6.2 mg in controls, p < 0.0001). Dinitrocobinamide was more effective than sulfitocobinamide. Hydroxocobalamin was not significantly more effective than the saline control. Conclusions Cobinamide is an effective agent for inhibiting lethal sulfide exposure in this rabbit model. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal dose and form of cobinamide and route of administration. PMID:24716792

  8. Effects of low concentrations of dietary cobalt on liveweight gains, haematology, serum vitamin B(12) and biochemistry of Omani goats.

    PubMed

    Al-Habsi, Khalid; Johnson, Eugene H; Kadim, Isam T; Srikandakumar, Anandarajah; Annamalai, Kanthi; Al-Busaidy, Rashid; Mahgoub, Osman

    2007-01-01

    Seventy-three, 10-week-old, newly weaned Omani goats of three different breeds, namely Dhofari (D), Batinah (B) and Jebel Akhdar (JA) were randomly divided into a control (n=38) and a treated group (n=35) for an experimental period of 10 months. Goats in both groups were fed 150 g/day per head of a pelleted concentrate, based on body weight and their requirements and Rhodes grass hay ad libitum, containing 0.12 and 0.10 mg/kg DM cobalt, respectively. Goats in the treated group also received bi-monthly subcutaneous injections of 2000 microg hydroxycobalamin. In contrast to the treated goats, the control animals of all breeds experienced a severe decrease in their serum vitamin B(12) levels, developed pale mucous membranes, appeared scruffy and two breeds (D and B) had significantly lower weight gains from month 5. Untreated kids of all breeds had significant decreases in their red blood cell counts and erythrocyte indices after approximately four months. Controls developed low total serum protein levels whilst activities of alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase significantly increased. Although it is widely assumed that goats are more resistant to cobalt deficiency than sheep this is apparently not true for Omani goats. Based on experimental data from previously reported studies and those from the present study it can be concluded that the reduction in weight gains in D and B goats is related to their lower digestibility coefficients for dry matter, crude protein and energy while the increase in alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase are associated with developing hepatic lipidosis. PMID:16324857

  9. Advances in standardization of laboratory measurement procedures: implications for measuring biomarkers of folate and vitamin B-12 status in NHANES1234

    PubMed Central

    Eckfeldt, John H

    2011-01-01

    Population studies such as NHANES analyze large numbers of laboratory measurements and are often performed in different laboratories using different measurement procedures and over an extended period of time. Correct clinical and epidemiologic interpretations of the results depend on the accuracy of those measurements. Unfortunately, considerable variability has been observed among assays for folate, vitamin B-12, and related biomarkers. In the past few decades, the science of metrology has advanced considerably, with the development of improved primary reference measurement procedures and high-level reference materials, which can serve as the basis for accurate measurement. A rigorous approach has been established for making field methods traceable to the highest-level reference measurement procedures and reference materials. This article reviews some basic principles of metrology and describes their recent application to measurements of folate and vitamin B-12. PMID:21562088

  10. One-step induction of neurons from mouse embryonic stem cells in serum-free media containing vitamin B12 and heparin.

    PubMed

    Yamazoe, Hironori; Kobori, Masato; Murakami, Yoshinobu; Yano, Keiichi; Satoh, Mitsuo; Mizuseki, Kenji; Sasai, Yoshiki; Iwata, Hiroo

    2006-01-01

    We present a simple method for neural cell fate specification directly from mouse embryonic stem cells (ES cells) in serum-free conditions in the absence of embryoid body formation. Dissociated ES cells were cultured in serum-free media supplemented with vitamin B12 and heparin, but without any expensive cytokines. After 14 days in culture, beta-tubulin type III (TuJ1) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive colonies were detected by immunocytochemical examinations. In addition, specific gene analyses by RT-PCR demonstrated expression of an early central nerve system, mature neuron, and midbrain dopaminergic neuron-specific molecules (i.e., nestin, middle molecular mass neurofilament protein, Nurr1, and TH, respectively). Dopamine was also detected in the culture media by reverse-phase HPLC analysis. These facts indicate that addition of vitamin B12/heparin to serum-free culture media induced neurons from ES cells, which included cells that released dopamine. Other supplements, such as putrescine, biotin, and Fe2+, could not induce neurons from ES cells by themselves, but produced synergistic effects with vitamin B12/heparin. The rate of TuJ1+/TH+ colony formation was increased threefold and the amounts of dopamine released increased 1.5-fold by the addition of a mixture of putrescine, biotin, and Fe2+ to vitamin B12/heparin culture media. Our method is a simple tool to differentiate ES cells to dopaminergic neurons for the preparation of dopamine-releasing cells for the cell transplantation therapy of Parkinson's disease. In addition, this method can facilitate the discovery of soluble factors and genes that can aid in the induction of the ES cell to its neural fate. PMID:16719047

  11. Iron, folate and vitamin B12 status of apparently healthy Irish adult women attending general practitioners in inner-city Dublin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen R. Casey

    2002-01-01

    There is substantial related morbidity and mortality among men and women in developed countries. Certain events during the course of a woman’s life such as menstruation, pregnancy, lactation and the menopause may compromise haematinic nutrient status. The purpose of this study was to investigate iron, folate and vitamin B12 status among a sample of apparently healthy, non-pregnant Irish adult women

  12. Development and validation of PCR, PLS, and TLC densitometric methods for the simultaneous determination of vitamins B(1), B(6) AND B(12) in pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Elzanfaly, Eman S; Nebsen, Marianne; Ramadan, Nesreen K

    2010-10-01

    This work represents the simultaneous determination of thiamine hydrochloride (B(1)), pyridoxine hydrochloride (B(6)) and cyanocobalamine (B(12)) by two different methods namely spectrophotometry multivariate calibration and densitometry. The spectrophotometric numerical method depends on the use of spectrophotometric data coupled to PLS and PCR multivariate calibration methods for the simultaneous determination of (B(1)) and (B(6)) in the presence of (B(12)) in laboratory prepared mixtures and commercial tablets. A calibration set was prepared, where the three vitamins were modeled using a full factorial 23 with three center points experimental design. This calibration set was used to build the PLS and PCR models. The models were validated by testing their predictive ability on a validation set where low RMSEP, RSEP % were obtained for both models. Figures of merit were determined using the net analyte signal concept. The proposed models were applied successfully to simultaneous determination of B1 and B6 in presence of a low concentration of B12 in pharmaceutical dosage forms that contain simple excipients. The TLC densitometric method was based on the use of a developing system of chloroform: ethanol: water: acetic acid solution (2: 8: 2: 0.5 v/v) to separate the three vitamins. The separated spots were scanned at 242nm, 291nm and 360nm for B(1), B(6) and B(12) respectively. The proposed method was applied successfully to simultaneous determination of the three vitamins in their pure powder form in the range 0.1-1.5 (µg/spot), 0.5-3.5 (µg/spot), 0.1-1.5 (µg/spot) for B(1), B(6), and B(12) respectively and in their pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:20884455

  13. Assignments in the Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectra of Vitamin B12, Coenzyme B12, and Other Corrinoids: Application of Partially-Relaxed Fourier Transform Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Doddrell, David; Allerhand, Adam

    1971-01-01

    High-resolution Fourier transform NMR at 15.08 MHz was used to observe the proton-decoupled natural-abundance 13C spectra of aqueous solutions of cobinamide dicyanide (0.067 M), cyanocobalamin (0.024 M), dicyanocobalamin (0.14 M), and coenzyme B12 (0.038 M). Assignments were made with the aid of chemical shift comparisons, off-resonance single-frequency proton decoupling, partially-relaxed Fourier transform spectra, and splittings arising from 13C-31P coupling. As expected, the 13C spectra of the coronoids were appreciably more informative than the corresponding proton spectra. Nearly all the lines in the 13C spectra of the corrinoids were well-resolved single-carbon resonances, in spite of the structural complexity. Partially relaxed 13C Fourier transform NMR spectra, which yield spin-lattice relaxation times of each resolved resonance, were found to be a very useful addition to the arsenal of NMR techniques. PMID:5280523

  14. STRA6 is critical for cellular vitamin A uptake and homeostasis

    E-print Network

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    STRA6 is critical for cellular vitamin A uptake and homeostasis Jaume Amengual1, Ning Zhang1, Mary; Revised and Accepted May 19, 2014 Vitamin A must be adequately distributed within the body to maintain of the lipophilic vitamin is mediated by the retinol- binding protein, RBP4. Biochemical evidence suggests

  15. Effect of B Vitamin (Folate, B6, and B12) Supplementation on Osteoporotic Fracture and Bone Turnover Markers: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Jianwei; Gong, Xiaokang; Kong, Jinsong; Wang, Haibao; Zheng, Xin; Chen, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Background B vitamins (including folate, B6, and B12) supplementation can effectively and easily modify high plasma homocysteine (Hcy). However, the role of Hcy in the pathogenesis of osteoporotic fracture and bone turnover is still controversial. This meta-analysis aimed to assess the impact of B vitamin supplementation on occurrence of any osteoporotic fracture and bone turnover by pooling the results of previous studies. Material/Methods Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were searched in databases. Data integration and analysis were done by using Review Manager 5.3 (the Cochrane Collaboration). The risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) of fracture (intervention vs. control) were estimated. Changes in bone turnover indicators (continuous data), weighted mean difference (WMD), and corresponding 95% (CI) were pooled for estimation. Results Based on the results of 4 RCTs, this meta-analysis failed to identify a risk-reducing effect of daily supplementation of B vitamins on osteoporotic fracture in patients with vascular disease and with relatively normal plasma Hcy. In addition, we also did not find any positive effects of B vitamin supplementation on bone turnover. Conclusions B vitamin supplementation might not be effective in preventing fracture and improving bone turnover. However, the possible benefits in selective populations, such as populations with very high plasma Hcy and from regions without B vitamin fortification should be explored in the future. PMID:25805360

  16. Determining the Effect of Gutkha on Serum Levels of Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid as Compared to Smoking among Chronic Periodontitis Subjects : A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Warad, Shivaraj; Kalburgi, Nagaraj B; Kalburgi, Veena C; Koregol, Arati C; Patanashetti, Jyoti; Rao, Subramaniam; Kokatnur, M. Vijayalaxmi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Periodontitis, being a common inflammatory disease has a multifactorial origin , with smoking and gutkha as few of the causative entities. The role of smoking as a risk factor for periodontitis is been well documented in literature. Cigarette smoke also affects vitamin B12 and folic acid mechanisms. Nutritionally derived vitamin B12 occurs mainly as either hydroxycobalamin or deoxyadenosycobalmin. Folic acid is also heat sensitive and water soluble, closely linked to vitamin B12 in its metabolism. However, effect of smokeless tobacco in form of gutkha on serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid is yet to be explored. Aims and Objectives: To estimate and correlate serum vitamin B12 (VB12) and folic acid (FA) levels among periodontally healthy subjects and Chronic Periodontitis (CP) subjects with habit of smoking and gutkha chewing. Materials and Methods: The study included 111 subjects ranging in age from 18 to 60 y. Participants were divided into four groups: 30 healthy subjects (Group I), 29 subjects with CP (Group II), 25 smokers with CP (Group III) and 27 gutkha chewers with CP (Group IV). Clinical parameters included pocket probing depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) & gingival index (GI) following which VB12 and FA levels were estimated through UV-spectrophotometry method and data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Scientists software, Mann-Whitney U-test and Pearson correlation coefficient. p-values less than 0.05 were considered as significant. Results : Pairwise comparison by Mann-Whitney U-test showed an increase in the serum VB12 in Group IV when compared to Group I (p=0.01) and Group II (p=0.01). Although serum FA levels were found to be low in Group III (7.61 ug/ml) & Group IV (8.64 ug/ml), Group III was found to be statistically significant (P=0.046). The clinical parameters GI, PPD and CAL among the four groups of patients were also statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The study results suggested that among the patients with periodontal disease, serum VB12 levels are directly related while serum FA levels are inversely related to inflammation and tissue destruction in periodontium as occurred in Group IV. PMID:25654040

  17. Interactions between plasma concentrations of folate and markers of vitamin B(12) status with cognitive performance in elderly people not exposed to folic acid fortification: the Hordaland Health Study.

    PubMed

    Doets, Esmée L; Ueland, Per M; Tell, Grethe S; Vollset, Stein Emil; Nygård, Ottar K; Van't Veer, Pieter; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Nurk, Eha; Refsum, Helga; Smith, A David; Eussen, Simone J P M

    2014-03-28

    A combination of high folate with low vitamin B12 plasma status has been associated with cognitive impairment in a population exposed to mandatory folic acid fortification. The objective of the present study was to examine the interactions between plasma concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 markers in relation to cognitive performance in Norwegian elderly who were unexposed to mandatory or voluntary folic acid fortification. Cognitive performance was assessed by six cognitive tests in 2203 individuals aged 72-74 years. A combined score was calculated using principal component analysis. The associations of folate concentrations, vitamin B12 markers (total vitamin B12, holotranscobalamin (holoTC) and methylmalonic acid (MMA)) and their interactions in relation to cognitive performance were evaluated by quantile regression and least-squares regression, adjusted for sex, education, apo-?4 genotype, history of CVD/hypertension and creatinine. Cross-sectional analyses revealed an interaction (P= 0·009) between plasma concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 in relation to cognitive performance. Plasma vitamin B12 concentrations in the lowest quartile ( < 274 pmol/l) combined with plasma folate concentrations in the highest quartile (>18·5 nmol/l) were associated with a reduced risk of cognitive impairment compared with plasma concentrations in the middle quartiles of both vitamins (OR 0·22, 95 % CI 0·05, 0·92). The interaction between folate and holoTC or MMA in relation to cognitive performance was not significant. In conclusion, this large study population unexposed to mandatory folic acid fortification showed that plasma folate, but not plasma vitamin B12, was associated with cognitive performance. Among the elderly participants with vitamin B12 concentrations in the lower range, the association between plasma folate and cognitive performance was strongest. PMID:24229560

  18. Vitamin B12 and a lyophilised extract of lamb gastric mucosa in the treatment of two digestive pathological models in the rat and the dog. Clinical and macroscopical observations.

    PubMed

    Labrid, C; Dureng, G; Boero, C; Duchene-Marullaz, P

    1980-01-01

    A comparative experimentation between treatment with large amounts of vitamin B12 alone and associations of intrinsic factor with different concentrations of vitamin B12 in the gastrectomised dog and rat subjected to digestive stress induced by phenylbutazone is reported. This study served to examine the possible therapeutic role of vitamin B12 passive diffusion occurring with large amounts of cyanocobalamine in the digestive tract, and to verify the utility and efficacy of the intrinsic factor contained in the marketed Gastropylore, the composition of which associates an original lyophilisate of suckling lamb gastric mucosa (LLGM) with vitamin B12. Treatments with either of the components alone exerted no protective effect against phenylbutazone-induced ulcerations whereas Gastropylore gave very significant protection (p less than 0.00001). Enhancement of the vitamin did not yield any significant improvement. Weight increase after gastrectomy was clear in the three groups of animals treated with Gastropylore or LLGM containing vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 passive diffusion appears to play no important therapeutic role while the intrinsic factor contained in a lyophilised preparation of lamb gastric mucosa seems to prove useful. PMID:7387756

  19. Higher maternal plasma folate but not vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy are associated with better cognitive function scores in 9- to 10- year-old children in South India.

    PubMed

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Wills, Andrew K; Muthayya, Sumithra; Kurpad, Anura V; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Fall, Caroline H D

    2010-05-01

    Folate and vitamin B-12 are essential for normal brain development. Few studies have examined the relationship of maternal folate and vitamin B-12 status during pregnancy and offspring cognitive function. To test the hypothesis that lower maternal plasma folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations and higher plasma homocysteine concentrations during pregnancy are associated with poorer neurodevelopment, 536 children (aged 9-10 y) from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort underwent cognitive function assessment during 2007-2008 using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery, and additional tests measuring learning, long-term storage/retrieval, attention and concentration, and visuo-spatial and verbal abilities. Maternal folate, vitamin B-12, and homocysteine concentrations were measured at 30 +/- 2 wk gestation. During pregnancy, 4% of mothers had low folate concentrations (<7 nmol/L), 42.5% had low vitamin B-12 concentrations (<150 pmol/L), and 3% had hyperhomocysteinemia (>10 micromol/L). The children's cognitive test scores increased by 0.1-0.2 SD per SD increase across the entire range of maternal folate concentrations (P < 0.001 for all), with no apparent associations at the deficiency level. The associations with learning, long-term storage/retrieval, visuo-spatial ability, attention, and concentration were independent of the parents' education, socioeconomic status, religion, and the child's sex, age, current size, and folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations. There were no consistent associations of maternal vitamin B-12 and homocysteine concentrations with childhood cognitive performance. In this Indian population, higher maternal folate, but not vitamin B-12, concentrations during pregnancy predicted better childhood cognitive ability. It also suggests that, in terms of neurodevelopment, the concentration used to define folate deficiency may be set too low. PMID:20335637

  20. The status of vitamins B6, B12, folate, and of homocysteine in geriatric home residents receiving laxatives or dietary fiber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baerbel Sturtzel; A. Dietrich; K.-H. Wagner; C. Gisinger; I. Elmadfa

    2010-01-01

    Background  Vitamin B12 deficiency as a digestive disorder and constipation as a gastro motility disorder are common in the elderly. Laxative\\u000a treatment is often chosen without regard for gut health.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To investigate whether the addition of oat-bran to the common oral diet for 12 weeks is able to reduce constipation and laxative\\u000a use and improve gut health. It is assumed that

  1. The status of vitamins B6, B12, folate, and of homocysteine in geriatric home residents receiving laxatives or dietary fiber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baerbel Sturtzel; A. Dietrich; K.-H. Wagner; C. Gisinger; I. Elmadfa

    Background  Vitamin B12 deficiency as a digestive disorder and constipation as a gastro motility disorder are common in the elderly. Laxative\\u000a treatment is often chosen without regard for gut health.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To investigate whether the addition of oat-bran to the common oral diet for 12 weeks is able to reduce constipation and laxative\\u000a use and improve gut health. It is assumed that

  2. Methionine, folic acid, vitamin B b12 sand unidentified factors in the nutrition of the growing chick

    E-print Network

    Welch, Billy E

    1951-01-01

    KETHIONINE ~ FOLIC ACID ~ VITAMIN Big AND UNIDENTIFIED FACTORS IN THE NUTRITION OF THE GROWING CHICK A Thesis by Billy E. Welch Appr ed o tyls and content by Chairman oi Committee YATHIONINE y FOLIC ACID ~ VITAMIN Big AND UNIDENTIFIED... factor(s) in these compounds would enhance the utili- sation of this;unino acid. . Becent reports have indicated that vit~n BIB and folic acid are concerned with protein metabolism. More specifically, reports by Stekol (1950) and Bennett (1950...

  3. Vitamin B12 regulates photosystem gene expression via the CrtJ antirepressor AerR in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhuo; Li, Keran; Hammad, Loubna A; Karty, Jonathan A; Bauer, Carl E

    2014-02-01

    The tetrapyrroles haem, bacteriochlorophyll and cobalamin (B12 ) exhibit a complex interrelationship regarding their synthesis. In this study, we demonstrate that AerR functions as an antirepressor of the tetrapyrrole regulator CrtJ. We show that purified AerR contains B12 that is bound to a conserved histidine (His145) in AerR. The interaction of AerR to CrtJ was further demonstrated in vitro by pull down experiments using AerR as bait and quantified using microscale thermophoresis. DNase I DNA footprint assays show that AerR containing B12 inhibits CrtJ binding to the bchC promoter. We further show that bchC expression is greatly repressed in a B12 auxotroph of Rhodobacter capsulatus and that B12 regulation of gene expression is mediated by AerR's ability to function as an antirepressor of CrtJ. This study thus provides a mechanism for how the essential tetrapyrrole, cobalamin controls the synthesis of bacteriochlorophyll, an essential component of the photosystem. PMID:24329562

  4. Comparison of two modes of vitamin B12 supplementation on neuroconduction and cognitive function among older people living in Santiago, Chile: a cluster randomized controlled trial. a study protocol [ISRCTN 02694183

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Older people have a high risk of vitamin B12 deficiency; this can lead to varying degrees of cognitive and neurological impairment. CBL deficiency may present as macrocytic anemia, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, or as neuropathy, but is often asymptomatic in older people. Less is known about subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency and concurrent neuroconduction and cognitive impairment. A Programme of Complementary Feeding for the Older Population (PACAM) in Chile delivers 2 complementary fortified foods that provide approximately 1.4 ?g/day of vitamin B12 (2.4 ?g/day elderly RDA). The aim of the present study is to assess whether supplementation with vitamin B12 will improve neuroconduction and cognitive function in older people who have biochemical evidence of vitamin B12 insufficiency in the absence of clinical deficiency. Methods We designed a cluster double-blind placebo-controlled trial involving community dwelling people aged 70-79 living in Santiago, Chile. We randomized 15 clusters (health centers) involving 300 people (20 per cluster). Each cluster will be randomly assigned to one of three arms: a) a 1 mg vitamin B12 pill taken daily and a routine PACAM food; b) a placebo pill and the milk-PACAM food fortified to provide 1 mg of vitamin B12; c) the routine PACAM food and a placebo pill. The study has been designed as an 18 month follow up period. The primary outcomes assessed at baseline, 4, 9 and 18 months will be: serum levels of vitamin B12, neuroconduction and cognitive function. Conclusions In view of the high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in later life, the present study has potential public health interest because since it will measure the impact of the existing program of complementary feeding as compared to two options that provide higher vitamin B12 intakes that might potentially may contribute in preserving neurophysiologic and cognitive function and thus improve quality of life for older people in Chile. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN02694183 PMID:21952034

  5. Variations in the Growth Response of Four Different Vitamin B12 Assay Microorganisms to the Same Tissue and Standard Preparations1

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Elizabeth A.; Ellis, Lillian N.

    1968-01-01

    Four microbiological assay procedures (Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus leichmanni, Euglena gracilis, and Ochromonas malhamensis) for the vitamin B12 content of rat liver and kidney tissue were compared. Significant differences in the growth response for portions of the same sample based on the same standard preparations were noted. The liver values with E. coli were strikingly higher than those obtained with the other microorganisms, about which there was rather general agreement. With kidney tissue, E. coli again gave higher values, but not as significantly high as those obtained with L. leichmannii and E. gracilis. O. malhamensis values were significantly lower. These differences were greater than were expected and could not be explained by the differences of specificity and sensitivity of the assay organisms. Several methods of sample preparation, the possible presence of an alkali-heat-stable factor, different methods of sterilization of the sample plus medium, and different chromatographic procedures were explored in an attempt to find explanations for the variations in growth response, with the thought that these various methods would clarify in what form or forms the free and bound vitamin B12 might exist in the samples. No clear-cut explanation was found. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:4881959

  6. Immunohistochemical Quantification of the Vitamin B12 Transport Protein (TCII), Cell Surface Receptor (TCII-R) and Ki-67 in Human Tumor Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Sysel, Annette M.; Valli, Victor E.; Nagle, Ray B.; Bauer, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim Cancer cells have an essential demand for vitamin B12 (cobalamin) to enable cellular replication. The present pilot study quantified the immunohistochemical expression of vitamin B12 transport protein (Transcobalamin II; TCII), cell surface receptor (Transcobalamin II-R; TCII-R) and proliferation protein (Ki-67) in human tumor xenografts. Materials and Methods Tissue microarray slides containing 34 xenograft tumor tissues were immunohistochemically stained using TCN2 (anti-TCII), CD320 (anti-TCII-R) and MIB-1 (anti-Ki-67) antibodies. Representatively stained areas of all slides were digitally imaged and protein expression was quantified using ImageJ software plugins. Results All xenograft tumor tissues stained positively for TCII, TCII-R and Ki-67 proteins; expression varied both within and between tumor types. Correlation between TCII/TCII-R and Ki-67 expression was not significant in xenograft tissues. Conclusion Proliferating cancer cells express measurable levels of TCII and TCII-R. Immunohistochemical quantification of these markers may be useful as a tool for detection of tumors, tailored selection of anti-tumor therapies and surveillance for evidence of recurrent disease. PMID:24122983

  7. Vitamin B12, antibiotics and unidentified factors in the nutrition of the turkey poult and mature chicken

    E-print Network

    Reid, Bobby Leroy

    1952-01-01

    that glycine could be converted irrevers- 1bly in the presence of folic acid to formic acid and the formic acid, in the presence of vitamin Bi&, could he converted to either methionine or choline. Patrick ( 'SO) found a close relationship between methionine... BI2 (20ug/kg) snd aureomycin hydrochlor1da (66mgikg) ~ Eggs ware collected during the 12th week in order to determine tha vitamin Bl? folic acid, b1otin, and psntothenic acid oontent. The exp- eriment wss closed at the end of tha 12th experimental...

  8. Control of prostate cancer associated with withdrawal of a supplement containing folic acid, L-methyltetrahydrofolate and vitamin B12: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction This is the first report of possible direct stimulation of hormone-resistant prostate cancer or interference of docetaxel cytotoxicity of prostate cancer in a patient with biochemical relapse of prostatic-specific antigen. This observation is of clinical and metabolic importance, especially at a time when more than 80 countries have fortified food supplies with folic acid and some contemplate further fortification with vitamin B12. Case presentation Our patient is a 71-year-old Caucasian man who had been diagnosed in 1997 with prostate cancer, stage T1c, and Gleason score 3+4 = 7. His primary treatment included intermittent androgen deprivation therapy including leuprolide + bicalutamide + deutasteride, ketoconazole + hydrocortisone, nilandrone and flutamide to resistance defined as biochemical relapse of PSA. While undergoing docetaxel therapy to treat a continually increasing prostate-specific antigen level, withdrawal of 10 daily doses of a supplement containing 500 ?g of vitamin B12 as cyanocobalamin, as well as 400 ?g of folic acid as pteroylglutamic acid and 400 ?g of L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate for a combined total of 800 ?g of mixed folates, was associated with a return to a normal serum prostatic-specific antigen level. Conclusion This case report illustrates the importance of the effects of supplements containing large amounts of folic acid, L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate, and cyanocobalamin on the metabolism of prostate cancer cells directly and/or B vitamin interference with docetaxel efficacy. Physicians caring for patients with prostate cancer undergoing watchful waiting, hormone therapy, and/or chemotherapy should consider the possible acceleration of tumor growth and/or metastasis and the development of drug resistance associated with supplement ingestion. We describe several pathways of metabolic and epigenetic interactions that could affect the observed changes in serum levels of prostate-specific antigen. PMID:21867542

  9. Vitamin C uptake and recycling among normal and tumor cells from the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Astuya, Allisson; Caprile, Teresa; Castro, Maite; Salazar, Katterine; García, María de los Angeles; Reinicke, Karin; Rodríguez, Federico; Vera, Juan Carlos; Millán, Carola; Ulloa, Viviana; Low, Marcela; Martínez, Fernando; Nualart, Francisco

    Specialized cells transport vitamin C in its reduced form using sodium-dependent cotransporters (SVCT1 and SVCT2). Additionally, different cells transport the oxidized form of vitamin C, dehydroascorbic acid, through glucose transporters (GLUTs). We have proposed recently a model for vitamin C uptake that resolves the apparent contradiction that although only ascorbic acid is detectable in vivo, there are cells that transport only dehydroascorbic acid. We carried out a detailed kinetic analysis to compare the mechanisms of vitamin C uptake in normal human melanocytes, neurons isolated from brain cortex, hypothalamic ependymal-glial cells, and astrocytes. Uptake of ascorbic acid was also analyzed in the human oligodendroglioma cell line TC620, in human choroid plexus papilloma cells (HCPPC-1), and in the neuroblastoma cell line Neuro-2a. Melanocytes were used to carry out a detailed analysis of vitamin C uptake. Analysis of the transport data by the Lineweaver-Burk plot revealed the presence of one functional component (K(m) 20 microM) involved in ascorbic acid transport by melanocytes. Vitamin C sodium-dependent saturable uptake was also observed in neurons and hypothalamic tanycytes. We confirmed SVCT2 expression in neurons by in situ hybridization; however, SVCT2 expression was not detected in astrocytes in situ. Functional data indicate that astrocytes transport mainly dehydroascorbic acid, using the glucose transporter GLUT1. Our functional uptake analyses support the hypothesis that astrocytes are involved in vitamin C recycling in the nervous system. This recycling model may work as an efficient system for the salvage of vitamin C by avoiding the hydrolysis of dehydroascorbic acid produced by antioxidative protection. PMID:15578707

  10. [Effect of methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin on the process of hematopoiesis and vitamin B12 exchange in experimental phenylhydrazine-induced anemia in rabbits].

    PubMed

    Tsukerman, E S; Pomerantseva, T Ia; Poznanskaia, A A; Korsova, T L; Klement'eva, I V

    1989-01-01

    Poisoning of rabbits with phenylhydrazine resulted in development of haemolytic hyperchromic anemia accompanied by impairment of hemopoiesis in bone marrow as well as by an increase of total vitamin B12 content in blood. The ration of individual forms of cobalamins was firstly estimated in blood serum of healthy rabbits and of the animals treated with phenylhydrazine. Distinct decrease in the methyl cobalamin content was observed in blood serum during spontaneous recovery. Administration of methyl cobalamin led to complete normalization of some blood and hematopoiesis patterns, as well as to restoration of total cobalamins content and the spectrum of their individual forms. Adenosyl cobalamin exhibited distinctly lower effect on the patterns studied. The data obtained suggest that methyl cobalamin possessed a lot of advantages in treatment of hemolytic anemias. PMID:2741387

  11. Neoproterozoic Oxygenation of Earth Surface Environments Reflected in the Late Evolution of the O2-Dependent Vitamin B12 Biosynthesis Pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, M. A.; Bertrand, E. M.; Anbar, A.

    2008-12-01

    There are multiple lines of evidence for a significant rise of O2 in the Earth's atmosphere ~2.4 Ga. A second oxygenation event in the Neoproterozoic is not as well constrained. These changes in environmental redox affected the abundances of bioessential elements. Trace elements such as Co, Fe, and Ni were likely favored in the early evolution of metalloenzymes, prior to the first oxidation event. Consistent with this expectation, vitamin B12 is a Co-containing biomolecule whose biosynthesis is thought to have evolved prior to the origin of oxygenic photosynthesis and the first rise in O2. However, biochemical characterization of the many enzymes involved in B12 biosynthesis has revealed two distinct pathways: an O2-independent pathway and an O2-dependant pathway. The major difference between these pathways involves the timing of the insertion of Co. We examined the amino acid sequences of enzymes in the B12 biosynthesis pathway from a set of 100 phylogenetically diverse microbial genomes, focusing on enzymes exclusive to each pathway as well as enzymes shared by both. Molecular clock and phylogenetic analyses were performed on alignments of the sequences obtained from these study genomes. This approach focused on functional genes rather than the phylogeny of microbes in an attempt to understand the evolution of the pathway itself, rather than its presence in individual phylogenetic groups. Clear differences in age are apparent between representatives of each pathway. The O2-independent pathway and enzymes shared in both pathways show the most ancient last common ancestors. In contrast, the enzymes associated exclusively with the O2-dependent pathway diverged from a common ancestor less than a billion years ago. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that these enzymes were recruited from other biochemical pathways. From these results it seems likely that the evolution of the O2-dependent pathway occurred long after the initial evolution of the B12 biosynthesis. This conclusion provides evidence independent of the geological record as to the timing and existence of a second great oxidation event in Earth history.

  12. Lecithin:Retinol Acyltransferase Is Critical for Cellular Uptake of Vitamin A from Serum Retinol-binding Protein*

    E-print Network

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    Lecithin:Retinol Acyltransferase Is Critical for Cellular Uptake of Vitamin A from Serum Retinol retinol homeostasis is associated with blinding retinopathies and diabetes. Vitamin A (all and all-trans-retinoic acid in other tissues. Vitamin A is transported in the blood bound to retinol

  13. Expression of Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in the One Carbon Cycle in Rat Placenta is Determined by Maternal Micronutrients (Folic Acid, Vitamin B12) and Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Khot, Vinita; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Asmita; Chavan-Gautam, Preeti; Joshi, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    We have reported that folic acid, vitamin B12, and omega-3 fatty acids are interlinked in the one carbon cycle and have implications for fetal programming. Our earlier studies demonstrate that an imbalance in maternal micronutrients influence long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and global methylation in rat placenta. We hypothesize that these changes are mediated through micronutrient dependent regulation of enzymes in one carbon cycle. Pregnant dams were assigned to six dietary groups with varying folic acid and vitamin B12 levels. Vitamin B12 deficient groups were supplemented with omega-3 fatty acid. Placental mRNA levels of enzymes, levels of phospholipids, and glutathione were determined. Results suggest that maternal micronutrient imbalance (excess folic acid with vitamin B12 deficiency) leads to lower mRNA levels of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase , but higher cystathionine b-synthase (CBS) and Phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEMT) as compared to control. Omega-3 supplementation normalized CBS and MTHFR mRNA levels. Increased placental phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), in the same group was also observed. Our data suggests that adverse effects of a maternal micronutrient imbalanced diet may be due to differential regulation of key genes encoding enzymes in one carbon cycle and omega-3 supplementation may ameliorate most of these changes. PMID:25003120

  14. The prevalence of low serum vitamin B-12 status in the absence of anemia or macrocytosis did not increase among older U.S. adults after mandatory folic acid fortification.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yan Ping; Do, Ann N; Hamner, Heather C; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Berry, Robert J

    2014-02-01

    Whether folic acid fortification and supplementation at the population level have led to a higher prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in the absence of anemia remains to be examined among a nationally representative sample of older U.S. adults. We assessed the prevalence of low vitamin B-12 status in the absence of anemia or macrocytosis before and after fortification among adults aged >50 y using cross-sectional data from the NHANES 1991-1994 (prefortification) and 2001-2006 (postfortification). We compared the prefortification and postfortification prevalence of multiple outcomes, including serum vitamin B-12 deficiency (<148 pmol/L) and marginal deficiency (148-258 pmol/L) with and without anemia (hemoglobin <130 g/L for men, <120 g/L for women) and with and without macrocytosis (mean cell volume >100 fL) using multinomial logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index, C-reactive protein, and vitamin B-12 supplement use. Prefortification and postfortification serum vitamin B-12 deficiency without anemia [4.0 vs. 3.9%; adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) (95% CI): 0.98 (0.67, 1.44)] or without macrocytosis [4.2 vs. 4.1%; aPR (95% CI): 0.96 (0.65, 1.43)] remained unchanged. Marginal deficiency without anemia [25.1 vs. 20.7%; aPR (95% CI): 0.82 (0.72, 0.95)] or without macrocytosis [25.9 vs. 21.3%; aPR (95% CI): 0.82 (0.72, 0.94)] were both significantly lower after fortification. After fortification, higher folic acid intake was associated with a lower prevalence of low serum B-12 status in the absence of anemia or macrocytosis. Results suggest that the prevalence of low serum B-12 status in the absence of anemia or macrocytosis among older U.S. adults did not increase after fortification. Thus, at the population level, we found no evidence to support concerns that folic acid adversely affected the clinical presentation of vitamin B-12 deficiency among older adults. PMID:24306216

  15. Higher maternal plasma folate but not vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy are associated with better cognitive function scores in 9-10 year old children in South-India1-3

    PubMed Central

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Wills, Andrew K; Muthayya, Sumithra; Kurpad, Anura V; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Fall, Caroline HD

    2012-01-01

    Folate and vitamin B-12 (B-12) are essential for normal brain development. Few studies have examined the relationship of maternal folate and B-12 status during pregnancy to offspring cognitive function. To test the hypothesis that lower maternal plasma folate and B-12 concentrations and higher plasma homocysteine concentrations during pregnancy, are associated with poorer neurodevelopment, cognitive function was assessed during 2007-2008 among 536 children (aged 9-10 y) from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort. Maternal folate, B-12 and homocysteine concentrations were measured in stored plasma samples taken at 30±2 wk gestation. The children’s cognitive function was measured using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery and additional tests measuring learning ability, long-term storage/retrieval, attention and concentration, visuo-spatial and verbal abilities. During pregnancy 4% of mothers had low folate concentrations (<7 nmol/L), 42.5% had low B-12 concentrations (<150 pmol/L) and 3% had hyperhomocysteinemia (>10 ?mol/L). There was a 0.1-0.2 SD increase in the children’s cognitive scores per SD increase in maternal folate concentration (p<0.001 for all tests). The associations with learning ability and long-term storage/retrieval, visuo-spatial ability, attention and concentration were independent of maternal age, BMI, parity, the parents’ education, socio-economic status, rural/urban residence, religion, the child’s gestational age, birth size, sex and the children’s size, educational level and folate and B-12 concentrations at 9.5 y. There were no consistent associations of maternal B-12 and homocysteine concentrations with childhood cognitive performance. Conclusions In this Indian population higher maternal folate, but not vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy, predicted better childhood cognitive ability. PMID:20335637

  16. Enantioselective excited-state quenching of racemic Tb (III) and Eu (III) Tris (pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate) by vitamin B 12 derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskers, Stefan C. J.; Dekkers, Harry P. J. M.

    1999-08-01

    Enantioselectivity in the dynamic quenching of the luminescence of the ? and ? enantiomers of racemic Tb(III)(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate=DPA) 33- and Eu(DPA) 33- by a series of corrinoids is demonstrated by time resolved luminescence and circular-polarization-of-luminescence (CPL) spectroscopy. Studied are cyanocobalamin (vitamin B 12), aquacobalamin (B 12a) and its conjugated base hydroxocobalamin (HOCbl), dicyanocobinamide ((CN) 2Cbi) and the heptamethyl ester of dicyanocobyrinic acid ((CN) 2Cby(OMe) 7). For this set of quenchers (Q), the diastereomeric quenching rate constants ( kq? and kq?) are reported together with the degree of enantioselectivity Eq=( kq?- kq?)/( kq?+ kq?). In the systems with Tb, values of the average rate constant kqavg(=( kq?+ kq?)/2) are 1.0, 2.9 and 0.53 10 8 M -1 s -1 for CNCbl, (CN) 2Cbi, (CN) 2Cby(OMe) 7 with Eq=-0.24, -0.20, +0.01 (standard error of Eq is 0.01). The quenching by B 12a is strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength ( I); when I=12 mM we find kqavg=5.3, Eq=-0.23 at pH 6.7 and kqavg=1.3, Eq=-0.27 at pH 8.9. Corresponding rates for Eu are 0.41, 27, 3.4 10 7 M -1 s -1 and for B 12a, 7.3 and 1.2 10 7 M -1 s -1, corresponding values for Eq -0.27, -0.29, +0.02, -0.21 and -0.29. The quenching reaction is modeled as a pre-equilibrium involving the formation of an encounter complex (association constant K) followed by the actual electronic energy transfer step (rate ket). By relating the quenching data with molecular structure it is argued that the binding in the encounter complex involves two hydrogen bonds between the uncoordinated carboxylate oxygen atom of two DPA ligands of Ln(DPA) 33- and two amide groups of the corrinoid, presumably involving the a and g, the a and b, or the b and g side chains. For some corrinoid/Ln(DPA) 33- complexes the association constants and enantioselectivities in the ground state are known (Spectrochimica Acta 55A (1999) 1837-1855), which allows for an estimate of the average rate of energy transfer, ketavg (i.e. ( ket?+ ket?)/2). The enantioselectivity in the quenching reaction is lower than in the ground state association which is interpreted in terms of different values of ket in the two diastereomeric Ln-corrinoid complexes; for both Tb and Eu we find ket?/ ket?˜0.3 with CNCbl, B 12a at pH 6.7 and (CN) 2Cbi. These data imply that the chiral discrimination in the energy transfer is considerable and counteracts that in the binding but does not dominate it.

  17. In vivo application of chitosan to improve bioavailability of cyanocobalamin, a form of vitamin B12, following intraintestinal administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Goto, Yuko; Masuda, Ayumi; Aiba, Tetsuya

    2015-04-10

    The effect of chitosan on the intestinal absorption of cyanocobalamin (VB12), a stable form of vitamin B12, was investigated in vivo in rats, with the aim of improving the oral bioavailability of VB12 for anemia treatment in patients with gastrectomy. The bioavailability was evaluated based on the plasma concentration profile of VB12 following intraintestinal administration of the VB12 solution containing chitosan at various concentrations. The bioavailability of VB12 was 0.6±0.2% when the chitosan-free VB12 solution was administered, while it increased to 10.5±3.3% when chitosan was dissolved in the VB12 solution at a concentration of 1%. The bioavailability of VB12 increases with the chitosan concentration, in which chitosan seems to augment the amount of VB12 absorbed without affecting the absorption rate constant of VB12. It was also shown that the bioavailability of VB12 does not increase further when the degree of chitosan deacetylation is increased from 83 to 100% by substitutively employing the fully deacetylated chitosan. These findings suggest that the oral administration of VB12 with readily available chitosan may be a practical approach for anemia treatment in patients with gastrectomy. PMID:25681732

  18. Intricacies of Redoxome Function Demonstrated with a Simple In vitro Chemiluminescence Method, with Special Reference to Vitamin B12 as Antioxidant

    PubMed Central

    Bøyum, A; Forstrøm, R J; Sefland, I; Sand, K L; Benestad, H B

    2014-01-01

    The homeostatic control of the redox system (the redoxome) in mammalian cells depends upon a large number of interacting molecules, which tend to buffer the electronegativity of cells against oxidants or reductants. Some of these components kill – at high concentration – microbes and by-stander normal cells, elaborated by professional phagocytes. We examined whether a simple, in vitro chemiluminescence set-up, utilizing redox components from human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and red blood cells (RBC), could clarify some unexplained workings of the redoxome. PMN or purified myeloperoxidase (MPO) triggers formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), quantified by light emission from oxidized luminol. Both PMN and RBC can generate abundant amounts of ROS, necessitating the presence of a high-capacity redoxome to keep the cellular electronegativity within physiological limits. We obtained proof-of-principle evidence that our assay could assess redox effects, but also demonstrated the intricacies of redox reactions. Simple dose–responses were found, as for the PMN proteins S100A9 (A9) and S100A8 (A8), and the system also revealed the reducing capacity of vitamin B12 (Cbl) and lutein. However, increased concentrations of oxidants in the assay mixture could decrease the chemiluminescence. Even more remarkable, A9 and NaOCl together stimulated the MPO response, but alone they inhibited MPO chemiluminescence. Biphasic responses were also recorded for some dose–response set-ups and are tentatively explained by a ‘balance hypothesis’ for the redoxome. PMID:25345916

  19. Role of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone on the thermoresponsive behavior of PNIPAm hydrogel and its release kinetics using dye and vitamin-B12 as model drug.

    PubMed

    Maheswari, B; Babu, P E Jagadeesh; Agarwal, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    Temperature-sensitive hydrogels hold great promise in biological applications as they can respond to changes in physiological temperature to produce a desired effect like controlled drug delivery. In this study, a series of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone) thermosensitive hydrogels were synthesized by radical copolymerization of NIPAm with 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NVP). By altering the initial NIPAm/NVP mole ratios, copolymers were synthesized to have their own distinctive lower critical solution temperature which was established using differential scanning calorimetry. The swelling behavior of the hydrogel was analyzed gravimetrically and it was observed that reswelling rate increases with increasing NVP mole ratio. Further characterizations of the hydrogels were performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Release kinetics with respect to temperature was studied using methylene blue dye solution and vitamin B12. Kinetic modeling of the release profile revealed that the release mechanism is a non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. These results suggested that this material has potential application as intelligent drug carriers. The quantities of residual monomers in the PIV4 hydrogel were determined by HPLC method, and the results show almost complete conversion. PMID:24219566

  20. Rationale and design of the B-PROOF study, a randomized controlled trial on the effect of supplemental intake of vitamin B12 and folic acid on fracture incidence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a major health problem, and the economic burden is expected to rise due to an increase in life expectancy throughout the world. Current observational evidence suggests that an elevated homocysteine concentration and poor vitamin B12 and folate status are associated with an increased fracture risk. As vitamin B12 and folate intake and status play a large role in homocysteine metabolism, it is hypothesized that supplementation with these B-vitamins will reduce fracture incidence in elderly people with an elevated homocysteine concentration. Methods/Design The B-PROOF (B-Vitamins for the PRevention Of Osteoporotic Fractures) study is a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. The intervention comprises a period of two years, and includes 2919 subjects, aged 65 years and older, independently living or institutionalized, with an elevated homocysteine concentration (? 12 ?mol/L). One group receives daily a tablet with 500 ?g vitamin B12 and 400 ?g folic acid and the other group receives a placebo tablet. In both tablets 15 ?g (600 IU) vitamin D is included. The primary outcome of the study is osteoporotic fractures. Measurements are performed at baseline and after two years and cover bone health i.e. bone mineral density and bone turnover markers, physical performance and physical activity including falls, nutritional intake and status, cognitive function, depression, genetics and quality of life. This large multi-center project is carried out by a consortium from the Erasmus MC (Rotterdam, the Netherlands), VUmc (Amsterdam, the Netherlands) and Wageningen University, (Wageningen, the Netherlands), the latter acting as coordinator. Discussion To our best knowledge, the B-PROOF study is the first intervention study in which the effect of vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on osteoporotic fractures is studied in a general elderly population. We expect the first longitudinal results of the B-PROOF intervention in the second semester of 2013. The results of this intervention will provide evidence on the efficacy of vitamin B12 and folate supplementation in the prevention of osteoporotic fractures. Trial Registration The B-PROOF study is registered with the Netherlands Trial (NTR NTR1333) and with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00696514). PMID:22136481

  1. An unblinded, randomised phase II study of platinum-based chemotherapy with vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation in the treatment of lung cancer with plasma homocysteine blood levels as a biomarker of severe neutropenic toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Minchom, A R; Saksornchai, K; Bhosle, J; Gunapala, R; Puglisi, M; Lu, S K; Nimako, K; Coward, J; Yu, K C; Bordi, P; Popat, S; O'Brien, M E R

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitamin B12 and folic acid (referred to as vitamin supplementation) improves the toxicity profile of pemetrexed containing regimens. Low baseline vitamin B12 and folate levels are reflected in a raised total homocysteine level (HC). Studies have suggested that pretreatment HC levels predict neutropenia toxicity. We have tested supplementation with vitamin B12 and folate in non-pemetrexed platinum-based regimens to decrease treatment-related toxicity and looked for a correlation between toxicity and change in homocysteine levels. Patient and method Eighty-three patients with advanced lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma were randomly assigned to receive platinum-based chemotherapy with (arm A) or without (arm B) vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation. The primary end point was grade 3/4 neutropenia and death within 30?days of treatment. Secondary end points included quality of life, overall survival (OS) and the relationship between baseline and post supplementation HC levels and toxicity. Results In the intention-to-treat population, no significant difference was seen between the two groups with respect to chemotherapy-induced grade 3/4 neutropenia and death within 30?days of chemotherapy (36% vs 37%; p=0.966, emesis (2% vs 6%; p=0.9) or OS (12.3?months vs 7?months; p=0.41). There was no significant difference in survival rates by baseline HC level (p=0.9). Decrease in HC with vitamin supplementation was less frequent than expected. High baseline HC levels decreased with vitamin supplementation in only 9/36 (25%) patients (successful supplementation). Post hoc analysis showed that patients in arm A who were successfully supplemented (9/36=25%) had less neutropenic toxicity (0% vs 69%; p=0.02) compared to unsupplemented patients. Conclusions The addition of vitamin B12 and folic acid to platinum-containing regimens did not overall improve the toxicity, quality of life or OS. Rates of grade 3/4 neutropenia at 36/37% was as predicted. Further studies to increase the rate of successful supplementation and to further test the biomarker potential of post supplementation HC levels in predicting chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in platinum-based chemotherapy are warranted. Trial registration number: EudracCT 2005-002736-10 ISRCTN8734355. PMID:25553247

  2. Atypical B12 Deficiency with Nonresolving Paraesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Haider, S.; Ahmad, N.; Anaissie, E. J.; Abdel Karim, N.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency can present with various hematological, gastrointestinal and neurological manifestations. We report a case of elderly female who presented with neuropathy and vitamin B12 deficiency where the final work-up revealed polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes (POEMS). This case suggests that, although POEMS syndrome is a rare entity, it can present with vitamin-B12 deficiency and thus specific work up for early diagnosis of POEMS should be considered in patients with B12 deficiency unresponsive to therapy. PMID:24349810

  3. Studies on derivation of transcobalamin 3 from granulocytes. Enhancement by lithium and elimination by fluoride of in vitro increments in vitamin B12-binding capacity.

    PubMed

    Scott, J M; Bloomfield, F J; Stebbins, R; Herbert, V

    1974-01-01

    Unsaturated vitamin B(12)-binding capacity (UBBC) of human serum is not reproducibly measurable because it increases variably in vitro in relation to time, temperature, and, in the case of plasma, anticoagulant present before removal of cells. This variable increase proved to be due to variable release in vitro of transcobalamin III (TC III) from granulocytes. UBBC increase was greatest (up to fourfold normal levels) in the presence of lithium, which is the heparin salt used in many laboratories doing UBBC studies. In vitro increase was least when blood was collected in EDTA at 0 degrees C and immediately centrifuges at 0 degrees C (T(0) sample); results equivalent to T(0) were obtained at room temperature even after several hours delay when 47 mM fluoride was present; either cold temperature or 47 mM fluoride appeared to prevent TC III release from granulocytes. The measured levels of the three transcobalamins with T(0) methods of collection, which presumably reflect most closely the in vivo circulating levels, suggest that TC I and TC III in normal plasms are of the same order of magnitude and together normally comprise less than 10% of the UBBC. Approximately 90% of the UBBC content of sonicates of peripheral blood granulocytes and of bone marrow aspirates of normal individuals appears to be TC III, with the rest being TC I. Thus, normal myelocytes, like normal granulocytes, appear to contain mainly TC III. No TC II was present in any of the sonicates. The general practice in most laboratories has been to determine serum UBBC. Because in vitro increments of up to 119% were found to occur in serum, this practice should be replaced by collection using methods that prevent such increments. Blood collected in EDTA-47 mM NaF had a stable, reproducible UBBC with no significant in vitro increment with time.EDTA-NaF UBBC was 640+/-168 (range 380-921 pg B(12) bound/ml plasma) for 12 normal adult men and 809+/-232 (range 505-1208) for normal adult women. It presumably approximates circulating UBBC and is substantially below the serum UBBC mean of 935+/-262 (range 611-1506 for the same 12 men) and 1273+/-355 (range 811-2306 for the same 10 women). PMID:4202670

  4. B12 in fetal development.

    PubMed

    Pepper, M Reese; Black, Maureen M

    2011-08-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is necessary for development of the fetus and child. Pregnant women who are vegetarian or vegan, have Crohn's or celiac disease, or have undergone gastric bypass surgery are at increased risk of B12 deficiency. Low serum levels of B12 have been linked to negative impacts in cognitive, motor, and growth outcomes. Low cobalamin levels also may be related to depression in adults. Some studies indicate that B12 supplementation may improve outcomes in children, although more research is needed in this area. Overall, the mechanisms of B12 action in development remain unclear. Further studies in this area to elucidate the pathways of cobalamin influence on development, as well as to prevent B12 deficiency in pregnant women and children are indicated. PMID:21664980

  5. Vitamin B12 benefits (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for metabolism. Metabolism within the body includes the processes of energy generation and use; including nutrition, digestion, absorption, elimination, respiration, circulation, and temperature ...

  6. Superoxide-dependent uptake of vitamin C in human glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Federico S; Salazar, Katterine A; Jara, Nery A; García-Robles, María A; Pérez, Fernando; Ferrada, Luciano E; Martínez, Fernando; Nualart, Francisco J

    2013-12-01

    Glioblastomas are lethal brain tumors that resist current cytostatic therapies. Vitamin C may antagonize the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating therapies; however, it is often used to reduce therapy-related side effects despite its effects on therapy or tumor growth. Because the mechanisms of vitamin C uptake in gliomas are currently unknown, we evaluated the expression of the sodium-vitamin C cotransporter (SVCT) and facilitative hexose transporter (GLUT) families in human glioma cells. In addition, as microglial cells can greatly infiltrate high-grade gliomas (constituting up to 45% of cells in glioblastomas), the effect of TC620 glioma cell interactions with microglial-like HL60 cells on vitamin C uptake (Bystander effect) was determined. Although glioma cells expressed high levels of the SVCT isoform-2 (SVCT2), low functional activity, intracellular localization and the expression of the dominant-negative isoform (dnSVCT2) were observed. The increased glucose metabolic activity of glioma cells was evident by the high 2-Deoxy-d-glucose and dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) uptake rates through the GLUT isoform-1 (GLUT1), the main DHA transporter in glioblastoma. Co-culture of glioma cells and activated microglial-like HL60 cells resulted in extracellular ascorbic acid oxidation and high DHA uptake by glioma cells. This Bystander effect may explain the high antioxidative potential observed in high-grade gliomas. This study strongly suggests that the Bystander effect, that is, glioma cell interaction with oxidant-producing microglia, could be an important mechanism for glioma vitamin C loading in the absence of functional sodium-vitamin C cotransporter 2 (SVCT2) expression. The high cellular vitamin C load in glioma cells results from a high uptake of extracellular dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) generated by neighboring microglia. This Bystander effect may explain the high antioxidative potential observed in high-grade gliomas, considering that high-grade gliomas may be the only neoplasm where oxidant-producing microglia can almost equal the number of tumor cells. PMID:23859461

  7. Methyl Vitamin B12 but not methylfolate rescues a motor neuron-like cell line from homocysteine-mediated cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Hemendinger, Richelle A., E-mail: richelle.hemendinger@carolinashealthcare.org; Armstrong, Edward J.; Brooks, Benjamin Rix

    2011-03-15

    Homocysteine is an excitatory amino acid implicated in multiple diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Information on the toxicity of homocysteine in motor neurons is limited and few studies have examined how this toxicity can be modulated. In NSC-34D cells (a hybrid cell line derived from motor neuron-neuroblastoma), homocysteine induces apoptotic cell death in the millimolar range with a TC{sub 50} (toxic concentration at which 50% of maximal cell death is achieved) of 2.2 mM, confirmed by activation of caspase 3/7. Induction of apoptosis was independent of short-term reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Methyl Vitamin B12 (MeCbl) and methyl tetrahydrofolate (MTHF), used clinically to treat elevated homocysteine levels, were tested for their ability to reverse homocysteine-mediated motor neuron cell death. MeCbl in the micromolar range was able to provide neuroprotection (2 h pretreatment prior to homocysteine) and neurorescue (simultaneous exposure with homocysteine) against millimolar homocysteine with an IC{sub 50} (concentration at which 50% of maximal cell death is inhibited) of 0.6 {mu}M and 0.4 {mu}M, respectively. In contrast, MTHF (up to 10 {mu}M) had no effect on homocysteine-mediated cell death. MeCbl inhibited caspase 3/7 activation by homocysteine in a time- and dose-dependent manner, whereas MTHF had no effect. We conclude that MeCbl is effective against homocysteine-induced cell death in motor neurons in a ROS-independent manner, via a reduction in caspase activation and apoptosis. MeCbl decreases Hcy induced motor neuron death in vitro in a hybrid cell line derived from motor neuron-neuroblastoma and may play a role in the treatment of late stage ALS where HCy levels are increased in animal models of ALS.

  8. Dietary intake of the water-soluble vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12 and C in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Olsen; J Halkjær; C H van Gils; B Buijsse; H Verhagen; M Jenab; M C Boutron-Ruault; U Ericson; M C Ocké; P H M Peeters; M Touvier; M Niravong; M Waaseth; G Skeie; K T Khaw; R Travis; P Ferrari; M J Sanchez; A Agudo; K Overvad; J Linseisen; C Weikert; C Sacerdote; A Evangelista; D Zylis; K Tsiotas; J Manjer; B van Guelpen; E Riboli; N Slimani; S Bingham

    2009-01-01

    Objectives:To describe the intake of vitamins thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), B6 (pyridoxine), B12 (cobalamine) and C (ascorbic acid) and their food sources among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.Methods:Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons aged between 35 and 74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall using

  9. Nucleotide sequence of the btuCED genes involved in vitamin B12 transport in Escherichia coli and homology with components of periplasmic-binding-protein-dependent transport systems.

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, M J; de Veaux, L C; Kadner, R J

    1986-01-01

    The products of the btuCED region of the Escherichia coli chromosome participate in the transport of vitamin B12 across the cytoplasmic membrane. The nucleotide sequence of the 3,410-base-pair HindIII-HincII DNA fragment carrying a portion of the himA gene and the entire btuCED region was determined. Comparison of the location of the open reading frames with the gene boundaries defined by transposon insertions allowed the assignment of polypeptide products to gene sequences. The btuC product is a highly nonpolar integral membrane protein of molecular weight 31,683. The distribution of hydrophobic regions suggests the presence of numerous membrane-spanning domains. The btuD product is a relatively polar but membrane-associated polypeptide of Mr 27,088 and contains segments bearing extensive homology to the ATP-binding peripheral membrane constituents of periplasmic binding protein-dependent transport systems. Other regions of this protein are similar to portions of the outer membrane vitamin B12 receptor. The btuE product (Mr 20,474) appears to have a periplasmic location. It has the mean hydropathy of a soluble protein but lacks an obvious signal sequence. The cellular locations and structural and sequence homologies of the Btu polypeptides point to the similarity of these three proteins to components of binding protein-dependent transport systems. However, the dependence on a periplasmic vitamin B12-binding protein has not yet been demonstrated. PMID:3528129

  10. A novel spectral resolution and simultaneous determination of multicomponent mixture of Vitamins B1, B6, B12, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac in tablets and capsules by derivative and MCR-ALS.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, Maha A; Abdelwahab, Nada S; Fayed, Ahmed S

    2015-04-01

    A novel method was developed for spectral resolution and further determination of five-component mixture including Vitamin B complex (B1, B6, B12 and Benfotiamine) along with the commonly co-formulated Diclofenac. The method is simple, sensitive, precise and could efficiently determine the five components by a complementary application of two different techniques. The first is univariate second derivative method that was successfully applied for determination of Vitamin B12. The second is Multivariate Curve Resolution using the Alternating Least Squares method (MCR-ALS) by which an efficient resolution and quantitation of the quaternary spectrally overlapped Vitamin B1, Vitamin B6, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac sodium were achieved. The effect of different constraints was studied and the correlation between the true spectra and the estimated spectral profiles were found to be 0.9998, 0.9983, 0.9993 and 0.9933 for B1, B6, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac, respectively. All components were successfully determined in tablets and capsules and the results were compared to HPLC methods and they were found to be statistically non-significant. PMID:25645231

  11. Vitamins

    MedlinePLUS

    ... helps you see at night. Vitamin C in oranges helps your body heal if you get a ... vitamin A? milk fortified with vitamin A liver orange fruits and vegetables (like cantaloupe, carrots, sweet potatoes) ...

  12. VITAMINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamins are organic compounds that are essential to life. They function as metabolic catalysts or regulators and can generally be classified on the basis of their solubility as fat-soluble vitamins or water-soluble vitamins. All of the vitamins are required for normal function in all animals and ...

  13. Application of in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability methods for calcium, carotenoids, folate, iron, magnesium, polyphenols, zinc and vitamins B6, B12, D, and E

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A review of in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability methods for polyphenols and selected nutrients is presented. The review focuses on in vitro solubility, dialyzability, the dynamic gastrointestinal model (TIM), and Caco-2 cell models, the latter primarily for uptake and transport, and a disc...

  14. Genomic distribution of B-vitamin auxotrophy and uptake transporters in environmental bacteria from the Chloroflexi phylum.

    PubMed

    Rodionova, Irina A; Li, Xiaoqing; Plymale, Andrew E; Motamedchaboki, Khatereh; Konopka, Allan E; Romine, Margaret F; Fredrickson, James K; Osterman, Andrei L; Rodionov, Dmitry A

    2015-04-01

    Bacteria from the Chloroflexi phylum are dominant members of phototrophic microbial mat communities in terrestrial thermal environments. Vitamins of B group are key intermediates (precursors) in the biosynthesis of indispensable enzyme cofactors driving numerous metabolic processes in all forms of life. A genomics-based reconstruction and comparative analysis of respective biosynthetic and salvage pathways and riboswitch regulons in over 20 representative Chloroflexi genomes revealed a widespread auxotrophy for some of the vitamins. The most prominent predicted phenotypic signature, auxotrophy for vitamins B1 and B7 was experimentally confirmed for the best studied model organism Chloroflexus aurantiacus. These observations along with identified candidate genes for the respective uptake transporters pointed to B vitamin cross-feeding as an important aspect of syntrophic metabolism in microbial communities. Inferred specificities of homologous substrate-binding components of ABC transporters for vitamins B1 (ThiY) and B2 (RibY) were verified by thermofluorescent shift approach. A functional activity of the thiamine-specific transporter ThiXYZ from C.?aurantiacus was experimentally verified by genetic complementation in E.?coli. Expanding the integrative approach, which was applied here for a comprehensive analysis of B-vitamin metabolism in Chloroflexi would allow reconstruction of metabolic interdependencies in microbial communities. PMID:25345570

  15. Point mutations in a conserved region (TonB box) of Escherichia coli outer membrane protein BtuB affect vitamin B12 transport.

    PubMed Central

    Gudmundsdottir, A; Bell, P E; Lundrigan, M D; Bradbeer, C; Kadner, R J

    1989-01-01

    Uptake of cobalamins and iron chelates in Escherichia coli K-12 is dependent on specific outer membrane transport proteins and the energy-coupling function provided by the TonB protein. The btuB product is the outer membrane receptor for cobalamins, bacteriophage BF23, and the E colicins. A short sequence near the amino terminus of mature BtuB, previously called the TonB box, is conserved in all tonB-dependent receptors and colicins and is the site of the btuB451 mutation (Leu-8----Pro), which prevents energy-coupled cobalamin uptake. This phenotype is partially suppressed by certain mutations in tonB. To examine the role of individual amino acids in the TonB box of BtuB, more than 30 amino acid substitutions in residues 6 to 13 were generated by doped oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. Many of the mutations affecting each amino acid did not impair transport activity, although some substitutions reduced cobalamin uptake and the Leu-8----Pro and Val-10----Gly alleles were completely inactive. To test whether the btuB451 mutation affects only cobalamin transport, a hybrid gene was constructed which encodes the signal sequence and first 39 residues of BtuB fused to the bulk of the ferrienterobactin receptor FepA (residues 26 to 723). This hybrid protein conferred all FepA functions but no BtuB functions. The presence of the btuB451 mutation in this fusion gene eliminated all of its tonB-coupled reactions, showing that the TonB box of FepA could be replaced by that from BtuB. These results suggest that the TonB-box region of BtuB is involved in active transport in a manner dependent not on the identity of specific side chains but on the local secondary structure. PMID:2687240

  16. Application of in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability methods for calcium, carotenoids, folate, iron, magnesium, polyphenols, zinc, and vitamins B6, B12, D, and E

    PubMed Central

    Etcheverry, Paz; Grusak, Michael A.; Fleige, Lisa E.

    2012-01-01

    A review of in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability methods for polyphenols and selected nutrients is presented. The review focuses on in vitro solubility, dialyzability, the dynamic gastrointestinal model (TIM)™, and Caco-2 cell models, the latter primarily for uptake and transport, and a discussion of how these methods have been applied to generate data for a range of nutrients, carotenoids, and polyphenols. Recommendations are given regarding which methods are most justified for answering bioaccessibility or bioavailability related questions for specific nutrients. The need for more validation studies in which in vivo results are compared to in vitro results is also discussed. PMID:22934067

  17. Neurologic aspects of cobalamin (B12) deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Optimal functioning of the central and peripheral nervous system is dependent on a constant supply of appropriate nutrients. Particularly important for optimal functioning of the nervous system is cobalamin (vitamin B12). Cobalamin deficiency is particularly common in the elderly and after gastric surgery. Many patients with clinically expressed cobalamin deficiency have intrinsic factor-related malabsorption such as that seen in pernicious anemia. The commonly recognized neurological manifestations of cobalamin deficiency include a myelopathy with or without an associated neuropathy. This review deals with neurological aspects of vitamin B12 deficiency and attempts to highlight recent developments. PMID:24365360

  18. Association of Long-term Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy with Bone Fractures and effects on Absorption of Calcium, Vitamin B12, Iron, and Magnesium

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Tetsuhide; Jensen, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are now one of the most widely used classes of drugs. PPIs have proven to have a very favorable safety profile and it is unusual for a patient to stop these drugs because of side effects. However, increasing numbers of patients are chronically taking PPIs for gastroesophageal reflux disease and a number of other common persistent conditions, therefore the long-term potential adverse effects are receiving increasing attention. One area that is receiving much attention and generally has been poorly studied, is the long-term effects of chronic acid suppression on the absorption of vitamins and nutrients. This area has received increased attention because of the reported potential adverse effect of chronic PPI treatment leading to an increased occurrence of bone fractures. This has led to an increased examination of the effects of PPIs on calcium absorption/metabolism as well as numerous cohort, case control and prospective studies of their ability to affect bone density and cause bone fractures. In this article these studies are systematically examined, as well as the studies of the effects of chronic PPI usage on VB12, iron and magnesium absorption. In general the studies in each of thee areas have led to differing conclusions, but when examined systematically, a number of the studies are showing consistent results that support the conclusion that long-term adverse effects on these processes can have important clinical implications. PMID:20882439

  19. Association of long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy with bone fractures and effects on absorption of calcium, vitamin B12, iron, and magnesium.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tetsuhide; Jensen, Robert T

    2010-12-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are one of the most widely used classes of drugs. PPIs have a very favorable safety profile, and it is unusual for a patient to stop them because of side effects. However, with increasing numbers of patients chronically taking PPIs for gastroesophageal reflux disease and other common, persistent conditions, the long-term potential adverse effects are receiving increasing attention. An insufficiently studied area receiving much attention is the long-term effect of chronic acid suppression on the absorption of vitamins and nutrients. This increased attention results from the reported potential adverse effect of chronic PPI treatment leading to an increased occurrence of bone fractures. Interest in this area has led to examination of the effects of PPIs on calcium absorption/metabolism and numerous cohort, case-control, and prospective studies of their ability to affect bone density and cause bone fractures. In this article, these studies are systematically examined, as are studies of the effects of chronic PPI use on absorption of VB(12), iron, and magnesium. Studies in each area have led to differing conclusions, but when examined systematically, consistent results of several studies support the conclusion that long-term adverse effects on these processes can have important clinical implications. PMID:20882439

  20. Differential regulation of hepatic transcription factors in the Wistar rat offspring born to dams fed folic acid, vitamin B12 deficient diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Meher, Akshaya; Joshi, Asmita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional status of the mother is known to influence various metabolic adaptations required for optimal fetal development. These may be mediated by transcription factors like peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), which are activated by long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The objective of the current study was to examine the expression of different hepatic transcription factors and the levels of global methylation in the liver of the offspring born to dams fed micronutrient deficient (folic acid and vitamin B12) diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids. Female rats were divided into five groups (n = 8/group) as follows; control, folic acid deficient (FD), vitamin B12 deficient (BD) and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented groups (FDO and BDO). Diets were given starting from pre-conception and continued throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups were dissected at the end of lactation. Liver tissues were removed; snap frozen and stored at -80°C. Maternal micronutrients deficiency resulted in lower (p<0.05) levels of pup liver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) as compared to the control group. Pup liver PPAR? and PPAR? expression was lower (p<0.05) in the BD group although there were no differences in the expression of SREBP-1c, LXR? and RXR? expression. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group normalized (p<0.05) levels of both PPAR? and PPAR? but reduced (p<0.05) SREBP-1c, LXR? and RXR? expression. There was no change in any of the transcription factors in the pup liver in the FD group. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group reduced (p<0.05) PPAR?, SREBP-1c and RXR? expression. Pup liver global methylation levels were higher (p<0.01) in both the micronutrients deficient groups and could be normalized (p<0.05) by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Our novel findings suggest a role for omega-3 fatty acids in the one carbon cycle in influencing the hepatic expression of transcription factors in the offspring. PMID:24587285

  1. The 380 kb pCMU01 Plasmid Encodes Chloromethane Utilization Genes and Redundant Genes for Vitamin B12- and Tetrahydrofolate-Dependent Chloromethane Metabolism in Methylobacterium extorquens CM4: A Proteomic and Bioinformatics Study

    PubMed Central

    Roselli, Sandro; Nadalig, Thierry; Vuilleumier, Stéphane; Bringel, Françoise

    2013-01-01

    Chloromethane (CH3Cl) is the most abundant volatile halocarbon in the atmosphere and contributes to the destruction of stratospheric ozone. The only known pathway for bacterial chloromethane utilization (cmu) was characterized in Methylobacterium extorquens CM4, a methylotrophic bacterium able to utilize compounds without carbon-carbon bonds such as methanol and chloromethane as the sole carbon source for growth. Previous work demonstrated that tetrahydrofolate and vitamin B12 are essential cofactors of cmuA- and cmuB-encoded methyltransferases of chloromethane dehalogenase, and that the pathway for chloromethane utilization is distinct from that for methanol. This work reports genomic and proteomic data demonstrating that cognate cmu genes are located on the 380 kb pCMU01 plasmid, which drives the previously defined pathway for tetrahydrofolate-mediated chloromethane dehalogenation. Comparison of complete genome sequences of strain CM4 and that of four other M. extorquens strains unable to grow with chloromethane showed that plasmid pCMU01 harbors unique genes without homologs in the compared genomes (bluB2, btuB, cobA, cbiD), as well as 13 duplicated genes with homologs of chromosome-borne genes involved in vitamin B12-associated biosynthesis and transport, or in tetrahydrofolate-dependent metabolism (folC2). In addition, the presence of both chromosomal and plasmid-borne genes for corrinoid salvaging pathways may ensure corrinoid coenzyme supply in challenging environments. Proteomes of M. extorquens CM4 grown with one-carbon substrates chloromethane and methanol were compared. Of the 49 proteins with differential abundance identified, only five (CmuA, CmuB, PurU, CobH2 and a PaaE-like uncharacterized putative oxidoreductase) are encoded by the pCMU01 plasmid. The mainly chromosome-encoded response to chloromethane involves gene clusters associated with oxidative stress, production of reducing equivalents (PntAA, Nuo complex), conversion of tetrahydrofolate-bound one-carbon units, and central metabolism. The mosaic organization of plasmid pCMU01 and the clustering of genes coding for dehalogenase enzymes and for biosynthesis of associated cofactors suggests a history of gene acquisition related to chloromethane utilization. PMID:23593113

  2. B Vitamins

    MedlinePLUS

    The B vitamins are B1 (thiamine) B2 (riboflavin) B3 (niacin) B5 (pantothenic acid) B6 B7 (biotin) B12 Folic acid ... help form red blood cells. You can get B vitamins from proteins such as fish, poultry, meat, ...

  3. Hydrosoluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Jasvinder; Kvarnberg, David

    2014-01-01

    The hydrosoluble vitamins are a group of organic substances that are required by humans in small amounts to prevent disorders of metabolism. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the biochemical, physiologic and nutritional aspects of the water-soluble vitamins. Deficiency of these particular vitamins, most commonly due to inadequate nutrition, can result in disorders of the nervous system. Many of these disorders have been successfully prevented in developed countries; however, they are still common in developing countries. Of the hydrosoluble vitamins, the nervous system depends the most on vitamins B and C (ascorbic acid) for proper functioning. The B group vitamins include thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin or niacinamide (vitamin B3), pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), pyridoxine or pyridoxal (vitamin B6) and cobalamin (vitamin B12). Clinical findings depend upon the deficiency of the underlying vitamin; generally, deficiency symptoms are seen from a combination rather than an isolated vitamin deficiency. True hereditary metabolic disorders and serious deficiency-associated diseases are rare and in general limited to particular geographic regions and high-risk groups. Their recognition is truly important as that determines the appropriate therapeutic management. The general availability of vitamins to practically everyone and several national health programs have saved many lives and prevented complications. However, there has been some apprehension for several decades about how harmless generous dosages of these vitamins are. Overt overdosages can cause vitamin toxicity affecting various body systems including the nervous system. Systemically, vitamin toxicity is associated with nonspecific symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and skin rash which are common with any acute or chronic vitamin overdose. At a national level, recommended daily allowances for vitamins become policy statements. Nutrition policy has far reaching implications in the food industry, in agriculture, and in food provision programs. Overall, water-soluble vitamins are complex molecular structures and even today, many areas of vitamin biochemistry still need to be explored. Many readers might be of the opinion that the classic forms of nutritional deficiency diseases have faded into the background of interesting history. This has caused their diverse symptoms to be neglected by most modern physicians since vitamin enrichment of many foods automatically erases them from their consideration in differential diagnosis. Vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiencies are discussed in other chapters. PMID:24365359

  4. Vitamin B12 and Folate Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com . Accessed August 2011. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. Burtis CA, ... to ensure that it reflects the most current science. A review may not require any modifications to ...

  5. Chylomicron margination, lipolysis, and vitamin a uptake in the lactating rat mammary gland: implications for milk retinoid content.

    PubMed

    Ross, A Catharine; Pasatiempo, Ana Maria G; Green, Michael H

    2004-01-01

    We have reported previously that the concentration of vitamin A (VA) in the milk of lactating rats varies with dietary VA intake, even when plasma retinol concentration is unaffected. In the current study, we investigated the role of lipolysis in the uptake of chylomicron (CM) VA into mammary tissue of lactating rats and estimated the proportion of CM-VA that is associated with the mammary gland during CM clearance. Chylomicrons containing [(3)H]VA, mainly as retinyl esters, were prepared in donor rats and administered intravenously to lactating recipient rats. Chylomicron VA rapidly disappeared from plasma and appeared in mammary tissue (maximum within 2-3 mins), followed by a decline. Concomitantly, uptake by liver increased continuously, reaching a plateau within 20-30 mins. Active lipolysis in mammary tissue was necessary for rapid VA uptake, as significantly less CM-VA was recovered in mammary tissue of postlactating rats than of lactating rats, after heparin treatment in lactating rats, or after injection of preformed CM remnants in lactating rats. [(3)H]Vitamin A uptake by mammary tissue increased linearly with CM-VA dose over a 150-fold dose range (R(2) = 0.972, P = 0.0001), suggesting a high capacity for uptake and apparent first-order assimilation of CM-VA during CM remnant formation in situ. Model-based compartmental analysis using WinSAAM predicted that approximately 42% of CM-VA marginated, that is, were temporarily removed, from plasma to the mammary glands during lipolysis and that a total of 3.8% of CM-VA was transferred to mammary tissue. The model-predicted t(1/2) for CM remnants was 3.04 mins. The metabolism of CM-VA in the lactating mammary gland, in proportion to VA absorption and CM-VA contents, may explain how milk VA concentration varies even when plasma retinol levels are unchanged. The mechanism of CM margination and mammary gland uptake described here for VA may be similar for other lipophilic substances. PMID:14709776

  6. Alternatives to vitamin B1 uptake revealed with discovery of riboswitches in multiple marine eukaryotic lineages.

    PubMed

    McRose, Darcy; Guo, Jian; Monier, Adam; Sudek, Sebastian; Wilken, Susanne; Yan, Shuangchun; Mock, Thomas; Archibald, John M; Begley, Tadhg P; Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Worden, Alexandra Z

    2014-12-01

    Vitamin B1 (thiamine pyrophosphate, TPP) is essential to all life but scarce in ocean surface waters. In many bacteria and a few eukaryotic groups thiamine biosynthesis genes are controlled by metabolite-sensing mRNA-based gene regulators known as riboswitches. Using available genome sequences and transcriptomes generated from ecologically important marine phytoplankton, we identified 31 new eukaryotic riboswitches. These were found in alveolate, cryptophyte, haptophyte and rhizarian phytoplankton as well as taxa from two lineages previously known to have riboswitches (green algae and stramenopiles). The predicted secondary structures bear hallmarks of TPP-sensing riboswitches. Surprisingly, most of the identified riboswitches are affiliated with genes of unknown function, rather than characterized thiamine biosynthesis genes. Using qPCR and growth experiments involving two prasinophyte algae, we show that expression of these genes increases significantly under vitamin B1-deplete conditions relative to controls. Pathway analyses show that several algae harboring the uncharacterized genes lack one or more enzymes in the known TPP biosynthesis pathway. We demonstrate that one such alga, the major primary producer Emiliania huxleyi, grows on 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine (a thiamine precursor moiety) alone, although long thought dependent on exogenous sources of thiamine. Thus, overall, we have identified riboswitches in major eukaryotic lineages not known to undergo this form of gene regulation. In these phytoplankton groups, riboswitches are often affiliated with widespread thiamine-responsive genes with as yet uncertain roles in TPP pathways. Further, taxa with 'incomplete' TPP biosynthesis pathways do not necessarily require exogenous vitamin B1, making vitamin control of phytoplankton blooms more complex than the current paradigm suggests. PMID:25171333

  7. Alternatives to vitamin B1 uptake revealed with discovery of riboswitches in multiple marine eukaryotic lineages

    PubMed Central

    McRose, Darcy; Guo, Jian; Monier, Adam; Sudek, Sebastian; Wilken, Susanne; Yan, Shuangchun; Mock, Thomas; Archibald, John M; Begley, Tadhg P; Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Worden, Alexandra Z

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin B1 (thiamine pyrophosphate, TPP) is essential to all life but scarce in ocean surface waters. In many bacteria and a few eukaryotic groups thiamine biosynthesis genes are controlled by metabolite-sensing mRNA-based gene regulators known as riboswitches. Using available genome sequences and transcriptomes generated from ecologically important marine phytoplankton, we identified 31 new eukaryotic riboswitches. These were found in alveolate, cryptophyte, haptophyte and rhizarian phytoplankton as well as taxa from two lineages previously known to have riboswitches (green algae and stramenopiles). The predicted secondary structures bear hallmarks of TPP-sensing riboswitches. Surprisingly, most of the identified riboswitches are affiliated with genes of unknown function, rather than characterized thiamine biosynthesis genes. Using qPCR and growth experiments involving two prasinophyte algae, we show that expression of these genes increases significantly under vitamin B1-deplete conditions relative to controls. Pathway analyses show that several algae harboring the uncharacterized genes lack one or more enzymes in the known TPP biosynthesis pathway. We demonstrate that one such alga, the major primary producer Emiliania huxleyi, grows on 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine (a thiamine precursor moiety) alone, although long thought dependent on exogenous sources of thiamine. Thus, overall, we have identified riboswitches in major eukaryotic lineages not known to undergo this form of gene regulation. In these phytoplankton groups, riboswitches are often affiliated with widespread thiamine-responsive genes with as yet uncertain roles in TPP pathways. Further, taxa with ‘incomplete' TPP biosynthesis pathways do not necessarily require exogenous vitamin B1, making vitamin control of phytoplankton blooms more complex than the current paradigm suggests. PMID:25171333

  8. Food protein-based microspheres for increased uptake of vitamin D3.

    PubMed

    Diarrassouba, Fatoumata; Garrait, Ghislain; Remondetto, Gabriel; Alvarez, Pedro; Beyssac, Eric; Subirade, Muriel

    2015-04-15

    To protect vitamin D3 during cold storage and exposure to UV-light, vitamin D3 has been entrapped in microspheres formed by bovine protein ?-lactoglobulin (?lg) and lysozyme (Lyso) from egg white. The behaviour of the ?lg/Lyso microspheres in simulated intestinal fluid and their impact on the kinetic release of D3 were determined. The impact of the D3-loaded ?lg/Lyso microspheres on the bioavailability of D3 was evaluated in vivo by force-feeding rats. The data indicate that the ?lg/Lyso microspheres effectively improved the stability of D3, which was readily released in the intestines. The release kinetics were accelerated in the presence of proteolytic enzymes. The bioavailability of D3 was improved, as confirmed by the significant increase in the serum levels of 25-hydroxy-D3 in rats. The current work demonstrates that water soluble proteins were used to substantially increase the bioavailability of the lipophilic vitamin, and thus can serve in the oral delivery of D3. PMID:25466126

  9. Uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate by fractured and osteoporotic bone after a pulse dose of Vitamin D/sub 3/. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, E.A. Jr.; Carroll, M.; Montes, M.; Zielezny, M.

    1985-04-01

    The effect of a pulse dose of Vitamin D/sub 3/ on uptake of (/sup 99m/Tc)MDP by fractured and osteoporotic bone, respectively, was compared with D/sub 3/'s effect on uptake by normal bone in rats. At 4, 7, and 14 days, respectively, after femoral fracture, basal uptake was significantly increased at the fracture site by 336.8, 276.1, and 183.5%, respectively, over the contralateral control site. D/sub 3/-treated rats had lower uptakes than untreated controls at all three fracture sites and at 12 of 15 normal bone sites but analysis of variance showed the uptake differences were not significant. Cortisone-induced osteoporosis caused a significant decrease in basal uptake. The decrease occurred in all nine bone areas studied. D/sub 3/ caused a significant increase in uptake by these osteoporotic bones, but a significant decrease in uptake by the same bones in normal controls. Thus, D/sub 3/ had an effect on uptake by the bone lesion, osteoporosis, that differed from D/sub 3/'s effect on uptake by fracture or normal bone.

  10. Genetic interactions between MTHFR (C677T), methionine synthase (A2756G, C2758G) variants with vitamin B12 and folic acid determine susceptibility to premature coronary artery disease in Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Kanth, V. V. Ravi; Golla, Jaya Prakash; Sastry, B. K. S; Naik, Sudhir; Kabra, Nitin; Sujatha, Madireddi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Researchers have determined that Indians face a higher risk of heart disease, despite the fact that nearly half of them are vegetarians and lack many of the other traditional risk factors. In the below-30 age group, coronary artery disease mortality among Indians is three-fold higher than in the whites in United Kingdom and ten-fold higher than the Chinese in Singapore. High levels of homocysteine have been widely linked to the early onset of heart diseases in other populations, although a definite proof among Indians is lacking, which needs to be investigated by way of screening for factors responsible for high homocysteine levels. Objective: To screen for genetic factors responsible for hyperhomocysteinemia and the risk for premature coronary artery disease. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 individuals with proven premature coronary artery disease and 200 age-and-sex matched controls were screened for polymorphisms in Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) (C677T) Methionine synthase (MS) genes (A2756G, C2758G), and the B12 and Folate levels were estimated. Results: Results from the mutational analysis revealed that in the study group, seven individuals had a polymorphism for the C677T allele in the MTHFR gene (one homozygous and six heterozygous) (Fischer's Exact test P > 0.046) (OR: 0.2711 95% CI 0.0774 to 0.9491). Six were heterozygous for the A2756G polymorphism in the MS gene (Fischer's Exact test P > 0.0012). None showed a polymorphism at the C2758G allele in the MS gene. Four controls showed heterozygosity for the C677T polymorphism and none for the MS gene. The B12 and Folate levels were significantly lower in the study group as compared to the controls. Conclusions: It is important to know which factors determine the total homocysteine concentrations. In the general population, the most important modifiable determinants of tHcy are folate intake and coffee consumption. Smoking and alcohol consumption are also associated with the total homocysteine concentrations, but more research is necessary to elucidate whether these relations are not originating from residual confounding due to other lifestyle factors. PMID:22022143

  11. Enhanced Urinary Excretion of Co6#{176} Vitamin 12 Produced by Delayed Release Capsules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. JOHNSON; E. S. BERGER

    1957-01-01

    DIETARY VITAMIN B12 requires intrinsic factor for its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract.1 Even so, small amounts of vitamin B12 will be absorbed in the absence of intrinsic factor and therapeutic responses can be produced in pernicious anemia if sufficiently large amounts of vitamin B12 are ingested.2 In the human, vitamin B12 is absorbed from the upper gastro- intestinal tract.

  12. The Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) Is Expressed in Skeletal Muscle of Male Mice and Modulates 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) Uptake in Myofibers

    PubMed Central

    Mokbel, Nancy; Cha, Kuan Minn; Houweling, Peter J.; Abboud, Myriam; Fraser, David R.; Mason, Rebecca S.; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick J.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a range of muscle disorders, including myalgia, muscle weakness, and falls. In humans, polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene are associated with variations in muscle strength, and in mice, genetic ablation of VDR results in muscle fiber atrophy and motor deficits. However, mechanisms by which VDR regulates muscle function and morphology remain unclear. A crucial question is whether VDR is expressed in skeletal muscle and directly alters muscle physiology. Using PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry (VDR-D6 antibody), we detected VDR in murine quadriceps muscle. Detection by Western blotting was dependent on the use of hyperosmolar lysis buffer. Levels of VDR in muscle were low compared with duodenum and dropped progressively with age. Two in vitro models, C2C12 and primary myotubes, displayed dose- and time-dependent increases in expression of both VDR and its target gene CYP24A1 after 1,25(OH)2D (1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D) treatment. Primary myotubes also expressed functional CYP27B1 as demonstrated by luciferase reporter studies, supporting an autoregulatory vitamin D-endocrine system in muscle. Myofibers isolated from mice retained tritiated 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, and this increased after 3 hours of pretreatment with 1,25(OH)2D (0.1nM). No such response was seen in myofibers from VDR knockout mice. In summary, VDR is expressed in skeletal muscle, and vitamin D regulates gene expression and modulates ligand-dependent uptake of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in primary myofibers. PMID:24949660

  13. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in skeletal muscle of male mice and modulates 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) uptake in myofibers.

    PubMed

    Girgis, Christian M; Mokbel, Nancy; Cha, Kuan Minn; Houweling, Peter J; Abboud, Myriam; Fraser, David R; Mason, Rebecca S; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick J; Gunton, Jenny E

    2014-09-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a range of muscle disorders, including myalgia, muscle weakness, and falls. In humans, polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene are associated with variations in muscle strength, and in mice, genetic ablation of VDR results in muscle fiber atrophy and motor deficits. However, mechanisms by which VDR regulates muscle function and morphology remain unclear. A crucial question is whether VDR is expressed in skeletal muscle and directly alters muscle physiology. Using PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry (VDR-D6 antibody), we detected VDR in murine quadriceps muscle. Detection by Western blotting was dependent on the use of hyperosmolar lysis buffer. Levels of VDR in muscle were low compared with duodenum and dropped progressively with age. Two in vitro models, C2C12 and primary myotubes, displayed dose- and time-dependent increases in expression of both VDR and its target gene CYP24A1 after 1,25(OH)2D (1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D) treatment. Primary myotubes also expressed functional CYP27B1 as demonstrated by luciferase reporter studies, supporting an autoregulatory vitamin D-endocrine system in muscle. Myofibers isolated from mice retained tritiated 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, and this increased after 3 hours of pretreatment with 1,25(OH)2D (0.1 nM). No such response was seen in myofibers from VDR knockout mice. In summary, VDR is expressed in skeletal muscle, and vitamin D regulates gene expression and modulates ligand-dependent uptake of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in primary myofibers. PMID:24949660

  14. The EGG 57-CO B-12 absorption test, in the evaluation of patients with low serum B-12

    SciTech Connect

    Sinow, R.M.; Carmel, R.; Siegel, M.E.

    1985-05-01

    The Schilling Test (ST) is the standard test for diagnosing vitamin B-12 malabsorption (MA). However, patients with subtle gastric dysfunction may have normal ST, but impaired absorption of B-12 given with food. The authors have adapted an Egg B-12 Absorption Test (EBAT) in which 57-Co cyanocobalamin (57-Co B-12) is mixed with scrambled egg to evaluate this phenomenon in patients with low serum B-12, normal ST and possible subtle MA. Lyophilized egg yolk is reconstituted and mixed with 57-Co- B-12 of equal dose to that of ST. The authors studied 46 individuals: 13 controls, 5 patients with known pernicious anemia (PA), in addition to 28 patients with low serum B-12 levels and normal ST. ST/EBAT ratios were calculated. Twenty-eight test patients excreted 13.3% on ST and 3.5% on EBAT. Mean ST/EBAT ratio was 8.2 (1.4-35.9). Five had EBAT results in the PA range (<1%) and ST/EBAT ratios (14.4-35.9) that were significantly elevated. This group is also evaluated with pepsinogen I/II ratios, gastric analysis, deoxyuridine suppression tests, anti intrinsic factor, and antiparietal cell antibodies. The authors' results indicate that the EBAT can differentiate between PA and non PA patients, and that some patients with low serum B-12 levels and normal ST may, in fact, have subtle MA. The EBAT, combined with ST/EBAT ratio, may provide a means for identifying this group of patients.

  15. Vitamin B??-containing plant food sources for vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Bito, Tomohiro; Teng, Fei

    2014-05-01

    The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori) is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups. PMID:24803097

  16. One Pathway Can Incorporate either Adenine or Dimethylbenzimidazole as an ?-Axial Ligand of B12 Cofactors in Salmonella enterica?

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Peter J.; Lango, Jozsef; Carkeet, Colleen; Britten, Audrey; Kräutler, Bernhard; Hammock, Bruce D.; Roth, John R.

    2008-01-01

    Corrinoid (vitamin B12-like) cofactors contain various ?-axial ligands, including 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB) or adenine. The bacterium Salmonella enterica produces the corrin ring only under anaerobic conditions, but it can form “complete” corrinoids aerobically by importing an “incomplete” corrinoid, such as cobinamide (Cbi), and adding appropriate ?- and ?-axial ligands. Under aerobic conditions, S. enterica performs the corrinoid-dependent degradation of ethanolamine if given vitamin B12, but it can make B12 from exogenous Cbi only if DMB is also provided. Mutants isolated for their ability to degrade ethanolamine without added DMB converted Cbi to pseudo-B12 cofactors (having adenine as an ?-axial ligand). The mutations cause an increase in the level of free adenine and install adenine (instead of DMB) as an ?-ligand. When DMB is provided to these mutants, synthesis of pseudo-B12 cofactors ceases and B12 cofactors are produced, suggesting that DMB regulates production or incorporation of free adenine as an ?-ligand. Wild-type cells make pseudo-B12 cofactors during aerobic growth on propanediol plus Cbi and can use pseudo-vitamin B12 for all of their corrinoid-dependent enzymes. Synthesis of coenzyme pseudo-B12 cofactors requires the same enzymes (CobT, CobU, CobS, and CobC) that install DMB in the formation of coenzyme B12. Models are described for the mechanism and control of ?-axial ligand installation. PMID:17981976

  17. CARDIOVASCULAR LESIONS IN COBALT-VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENT SHEEP

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in the literature concer- ning the manifestation of cardiovascular lesions similar to those of arteriosclerosis in ruminants. The arteriosclerosis observed in cattle in Hawaii (Willers et al., 1965) was attributed

  18. Studies in the biosynthesis of vitamin B12

    E-print Network

    Anousis, Nick

    1994-01-01

    The Pseudomonas denitrificans coba and the Salmonella typhimurium cbid genes were overexpressed in the heterologous E.coli system. The function of P.denitrificans coba gene product was identified as S-adenosyl methionine dependent methyl transferase...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...cyanocobalamin (C63 H88 CoN14 O14 P, CAS Reg. No. 68-0919-099), is produced commercially from cultures of Streptomyces griseus. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p....

  20. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...cyanocobalamin (C63 H88 CoN14 O14 P, CAS Reg. No. 68-0919-099), is produced commercially from cultures of Streptomyces griseus. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p....

  1. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...cyanocobalamin (C63 H88 CoN14 O14 P, CAS Reg. No. 68-0919-099), is produced commercially from cultures of Streptomyces griseus. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p....

  2. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B 12..

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...cyanocobalamin (C63 H88 CoN14 O14 P, CAS Reg. No. 68-0919-099), is produced commercially from cultures of Streptomyces griseus. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p....

  3. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...cyanocobalamin (C63 H88 CoN14 O14 P, CAS Reg. No. 68-0919-099), is produced commercially from cultures of Streptomyces griseus. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p....

  4. Vitamin supplementation in the treatment of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Hannah E; Roffman, Joshua L

    2014-07-01

    This article reviews the current literature addressing the treatment of schizophrenia with vitamin supplementation. It describes the important roles that vitamins play in normal metabolism, and reviews the evidence pertaining to vitamin deficiency and supplementation in patients with schizophrenia. There is mounting evidence suggesting that vitamin supplementation, in particular with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin D, may be important in treatment within certain subgroups of patients. There is a need for larger randomized controlled trials, and further studies examining the incidence of schizophrenia in countries with poor prenatal care and malnutrition, as well as in countries that have adopted mandatory folic acid fortification of grain products, are recommended. PMID:24846474

  5. Vitamin C

    MedlinePLUS

    Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin that is necessary for normal growth and development. Water-soluble vitamins dissolve ... Vitamin C is needed for the growth and repair of tissues in all parts of your body. It is ...

  6. Vitamin D

    MedlinePLUS

    Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin. Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body's fatty tissue. ... Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium . Calcium and phosphate are two minerals that are essential for normal bone ...

  7. Vitamin A

    MedlinePLUS

    ... QuickFacts Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin A Fact Sheet for Consumers What is vitamin A and what does it do? Vitamin A ... out more about vitamin A? Disclaimer How much vitamin A do I need? The amount of vitamin ...

  8. [Vitamin B9].

    PubMed

    Guilland, Jean-Claude; Aimone-Gastin, Isabelle

    2013-10-01

    Vitamin B9 is represented by the group of folate, whose structure is derived from folic acid. The biologically active form is reduced tetrahydrofolates, serving as an essential cofactor in methylation reactions, including the vitamin B12-dependent formation of methionine from homocysteine, and as a carrier of one-carbon units involved in the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines. Folate deficiency is associated with hyperhomocysteinemia, megaloblastic anemia, leuco- and thrombocytopenia, cardiovascular disease, embryonic defects, in particular neural tube defects, and, possibly, malignancies, depression and cognitive impairment. PMID:24298825

  9. Dietary Supplements and Health Aids: A Critical Evaluation, Part 1- Vitamins and Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubick, Michael A.; Rucker, Robert B.

    1983-01-01

    Evaluates vitamins/minerals, distinguishing whether studies cited used animal or human subjects. Vitamins discussed include niacin and vitamins B-12, C, A, D, E, and megavitamin supplementation (intake of vitamins at levels 10 times the recommended daily allowance). Minerals considered include dolomite/bone meal, chromium (glucose tolerance…

  10. Vitamin E

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in your immune system and metabolic processes. Good sources of vitamin E include Vegetable oils Margarine Nuts and seeds Leafy greens Vitamin E is also added to foods like cereals. Most people get enough vitamin E ...

  11. Vitamin D

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Weight: Your Personal Plan Dealing With Anger Vitamin D KidsHealth > Teens > Food & Fitness > Nutrition Basics > Vitamin D ... the recommended daily amount. Continue How Much Vitamin D Do I Need? The Institute of Medicine (IOM) ...

  12. Vitamin C

    MedlinePLUS

    ... high doses of vitamin C could worsen iron overload and damage body tissues. The safe upper limits ... find out more about vitamin C? For general information on vitamin C: Office of Dietary Supplements Health ...

  13. Photo-induced ring-expansion reactions mediated by B12-TiO2 hybrid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Shin-ichiro; Shimakoshi, Hisashi; Abe, Masaaki; Hisaeda, Yoshio

    2010-04-01

    Vitamin B(12)-TiO(2) heterogeneous hybrid catalyst (B(12)-TiO(2)) mediated ring-expansion reactions and their reaction mechanism were clarified by various spectroscopic methods. Diffuse reflectance UV/VIS (DR-UV/VIS) studies showed that B(12)-TiO(2) was activated to form the supernucleophilic Co(I) species of B(12) by irradiation with ultraviolet light. DR-UV/VIS and electron spin resonance (ESR) studies then elucidated the formation of the photo-sensitive intermediate on heterogeneous surfaces. The photo-excited B(12)-TiO(2) catalyzed ring-expansion reactions were efficient and eco-friendly. This catalytic efficiency was strongly dependent on the kind of solvent. The oxidation reaction of the solvent by holes at TiO(2) nanoparticle surfaces had a crucial role in the overall catalytic reaction. PMID:20449460

  14. Vitamin A combined with retinoic acid increases retinol uptake and lung retinyl ester formation in a synergistic manner in neonatal rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Catharine Ross; Namasivayam Ambalavanan; Reza Zolfaghari; Nan-qian Li

    2006-01-01

    Vitamin A (VA) is stored in tissues predomi- nantly as retinyl esters (REs), which provide substrate for the production of bioactive retinoids. Retinoic acid (RA), a principal metabolite, has been shown to induce postnatal lung development. To better understand lung RE storage, we compared VA (given as retinyl palmitate), RA, and a nutrient-metabolite combination, VARA, given orally on postnatal days

  15. Diet and Asthma: Vitamins and Methyl Donors

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Blatter, Josh; Brehm, John M.; Forno, Erick; Litonjua, Augusto A; Celedón, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Dietary changes may partly explain the high burden of asthma in industrialized nations. Experimental studies have motivated a significant number of observational studies of the relation between vitamins (A, C, D, and E) or nutrients acting as methyl donors (folate, vitamin B12, and choline) and asthma. Because observational studies are susceptible to several sources of bias, well-conducted randomized controlled trials (RCTs) remain the “gold standard” to determine whether a vitamin or nutrient has an effect on asthma. Evidence from observational studies and/or relatively few RCTs most strongly justify ongoing and future RCTs of: 1) vitamin D to prevent or treat asthma, 2) choline supplementation as adjuvant treatment for asthma, and 3) vitamin E to prevent the detrimental effects of air pollution in subjects with asthma. At this time, there is insufficient evidence to recommend supplementation with any vitamin or nutrient acting as a methyl donor to prevent or treat asthma. PMID:24461761

  16. Vitamin E

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of vitamin E by eating a variety of foods including the following: Vegetable oils like wheat germ, sunflower, and safflower oils are among the best sources of vitamin E. Corn and soybean oils also ...

  17. Vitamin C

    MedlinePLUS

    Vitamin C is an antioxidant. It is important for your skin, bones, and connective tissue. It promotes healing and helps the body absorb iron. Vitamin C comes from fruits and vegetables. Good sources include ...

  18. Vitamin D

    MedlinePLUS

    ... another substance besides vitamin A was responsible. McCollum published these findings in 1922, calling this substance vitamin ... in cancer prevention. A Women's Health Initiative study published in 2006 put more than 36,000 menopausal ...

  19. Vitamin K

    MedlinePLUS

    ... IL: American Dietetic Association; 2007. Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, ...

  20. Vitamin K

    MedlinePLUS

    Vitamin K helps your body by making proteins for healthy bones and tissues. It also makes proteins for blood clotting. If you don't have enough vitamin K, you may bleed too much. Newborns have very ...

  1. Vitamin Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegg, Ronald B.; Landen, W. O.; Eitenmiller, Ronald R.

    Vitamins are defined as relatively low-molecular-weight compounds which humans, and for that matter, any living organism that depends on organic matter as a source of nutrients, require small quantities for normal metabolism. With few exceptions, humans cannot synthesize most vitamins and therefore need to obtain them from food and supplements. Insufficient levels of vitamins result in deficiency diseases [e.g., scurvy and pellagra, which are due to the lack of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and niacin, respectively].

  2. Effect of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 and ionized Ca/sup 2 +/ on /sup 45/Ca uptake by primary cultures of aortic myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar Kyoto normotensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bukoski, R.D.; Xue, H.; McCarron, D.A.

    1987-08-14

    The effect of several regulators of whole animal Ca/sup 2 +/ homeostasis on /sup 45/Ca uptake by primary cultures of aortic myocytes isolated from spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats was examined. Exposure of confluent cells to 1.0, 1.25 or 1.50 mM ionized Ca/sup 2 +/ in serum-free medium for seven days resulted in increased /sup 45/Ca uptake at the higher concentrations of Ca/sup 2 +/ in cells of the SHR but not the WKY. 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3 (1 ng/ml) for 7 days caused enhanced influx in cells from both the SHR and WKY while parathyroid hormone (1-34) (1 ng/ml) was without effect. The data indicate that humoral factors that serve to regulate whole animal Ca/sup 2 +/ homeostasis may also play a role in the regulation of Ca/sup 2 +/ metabolism of the vascular smooth muscle cell.

  3. Mechanism and regulation of vitamin B2 (riboflavin) uptake by mouse and human pancreatic ?-cells/islets: physiological and molecular aspects

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Abhisek

    2012-01-01

    Riboflavin (RF) is essential for the normal metabolic activities of pancreatic ?-cells and provides protection against oxidative stress. Very little is known about the mechanism of RF uptake by these cells and how the process is regulated. We addressed these issues using mouse-derived pancreatic ?-TC-6 cells and freshly isolated primary mouse and human pancreatic islets. Our results showed 3H-RF uptake by ?-TC-6 cells is Na+ independent, cis inhibited by RF-related compounds, trans stimulated by unlabeled RF, and saturable as a function of concentration (apparent Km of 0.17 ± 0.02 ?M). The latter findings suggest involvement of a carrier-mediated process. Similarly, RF uptake by primary mouse and human pancreatic islets was via carrier-mediated process. RF transporters 1, 2, and 3 (RFVT-1, -3, and -2) were all expressed in mouse and human pancreatic ?-cells/islets, with RFVT-1 being the predominant transporter expressed in the mouse and RFVT-3 in the human. Specific knockdown of RFVT-1 with gene-specific small interfering RNA leads to a significant inhibition in RF uptake by ?-TC-6 cells. RF uptake by ?-TC-6 cells was also found to be adaptively upregulated in RF deficiency via a transcriptional mechanism(s). Also, the process appears to be under the regulation of a Ca2+/calmodulin-mediated regulatory pathway. Results of these studies demonstrate, for the first time, the involvement of a carrier-mediated process for RF uptake by mouse and human pancreatic ?-cells/islets. Furthermore, the process appears to be regulated by extracellular and intracellular factors. PMID:22917629

  4. Vitamin D

    MedlinePLUS

    ... labels. Can I get vitamin D from the sun? The body makes vitamin D when skin is directly exposed to the sun, and most people meet at least some of ... skin makes. However, despite the importance of the sun to vitamin D synthesis, it is prudent to ...

  5. Vitamin K

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin K, a fat-soluble vitamin, is an enzyme cofactor for post-translation modification of specific glutamate residues that are converted into '-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues by a vitamin K-dependent (VKD) carboxylase. Seven VKD coagulation proteins are synthesized in the liver. The extra-he...

  6. Vitamin Bi 2: low milk concentrations are related to low serum concentrations in vegetarian women and to methylmalonic aciduria in their infants13

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonny L Specker; Anne Black; Lindsay Allen; Frank Morrow

    In a group of 13 strict vegetarian and 6 om- nivorous lactating women, relationships were studied among maternal milk and serum vitamin B-l2, and milk vitamin B-12 and infant urinary methylmalonic acid (MMA) excretion. Milk vitamin B- 12 concentrations were lower in women consuming a strict vegetarian diet compared with an omnivorous diet. Milk vitamin B-l2 was inversely related to

  7. Vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Gröber, Uwe; Spitz, Jörg; Reichrath, Jörg; Kisters, Klaus; Holick, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D has received a lot of attention recently as a result of a meteoric rise in the number of publications showing that vitamin D plays a crucial role in a plethora of physiological functions and associating vitamin D deficiency with many acute and chronic illnesses including disorders of calcium metabolism, autoimmune diseases, some cancers, type 2 diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases and cardiovascular disease. The recent data on vitamin D from experimental, ecological, case-control, retrospective and prospective observational studies, as well as smaller intervention studies, are significant and confirm the sunshine vitamin’s essential role in a variety of physiological and preventative functions. The results of these studies justify the recommendation to improve the general vitamin D status in children and adults by means of a healthy approach to sunlight exposure, consumption of foods containing vitamin D and supplementation with vitamin D preparations. In general, closer attention should therefore be paid to vitamin D deficiency in medical and pharmaceutical practice than has been the case hitherto. PMID:24516687

  8. 32 CFR 806b.12 - Requesting the Social Security Number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Requesting the Social Security Number. 806b.12 Section... § 806b.12 Requesting the Social Security Number. When asking an individual for his or her Social Security Number, always give a...

  9. 32 CFR 806b.12 - Requesting the Social Security Number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Requesting the Social Security Number. 806b.12 Section... § 806b.12 Requesting the Social Security Number. When asking an individual for his or her Social Security Number, always give a...

  10. 32 CFR 806b.12 - Requesting the Social Security Number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Requesting the Social Security Number. 806b.12 Section... § 806b.12 Requesting the Social Security Number. When asking an individual for his or her Social Security Number, always give a...

  11. 32 CFR 806b.12 - Requesting the Social Security Number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Requesting the Social Security Number. 806b.12 Section... § 806b.12 Requesting the Social Security Number. When asking an individual for his or her Social Security Number, always give a...

  12. Fat-soluble vitamin intestinal absorption: absorption sites in the intestine and interactions for absorption.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Roi, Stéphanie; Nowicki, Marion; Dhaussy, Amélie; Huertas, Alain; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2015-04-01

    The interactions occurring at the intestinal level between the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K (FSVs) are poorly documented. We first determined each FSV absorption profile along the duodenal-colonic axis of mouse intestine to clarify their respective absorption sites. We then investigated the interactions between FSVs during their uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our data show that vitamin A was mostly absorbed in the mouse proximal intestine, while vitamin D was absorbed in the median intestine, and vitamin E and K in the distal intestine. Significant competitive interactions for uptake were then elucidated among vitamin D, E and K, supporting the hypothesis of common absorption pathways. Vitamin A also significantly decreased the uptake of the other FSVs but, conversely, its uptake was not impaired by vitamins D and K and even promoted by vitamin E. These results should be taken into account, especially for supplement formulation, to optimise FSV absorption. PMID:25442537

  13. Plasma B vitamins, homocysteine and their relation with bone loss and hip fracture in elderly men and women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated homocysteine is a strong risk factor for osteoporotic fractures among elders, yet it may be a marker for low B vitamin status. Objective: To examine the associations of plasma concentrations of folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and homocysteine with bone loss and hip fracture risk in elderly...

  14. Vitamin B?? and unidentified factors in poultry nutrition

    E-print Network

    Welch, Billy E.

    1954-01-01

    , Pearl River, N. Y ., for supplies of folic acid; Hoffmann-La Roche Inc., Nutley, M. J., for biotin; Merck and Co., Rahway, N. J., for the rest of the B-vitamins; and Buckeye Cotton Oil Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, for soybean oil. To Lou. ?Tj! I"7 r... of vitamin B^g and folic acid in the laying hen.... ......... 26 Chapter 4. The interrelationship of vitamin B^g and folic acid in the chick................... 39 Chapter 5. The interrelationship of vitamin B12? folic acid, pantothenic acid, and glycine...

  15. Vitamin B1 Deficiency Does not Affect the Liver Concentrations of the Other Seven Kinds of B-Group Vitamins in Rats.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Shimizu, Atsushi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to determine the effects of vitamin B1 deficiency on vitamin contents of urine, liver, and blood. In the current study, rats were divided into 3 groups (n = 5, each group): the first was freely fed a complete diet (ad lib-fed control group); the second freely fed a vitamin B1-free diet (vitamin B1 deficient group); and the third pair-fed a complete diet with the same amounts of the vitamin B1 deficient group (pair-fed control group). The experimental period was for 15 days. The blood concentrations of vitamin B2, PLP, vitamin B12, folic acid, and biotin were lower in the pair-fed control than in the ad lib-fed control and those of nicotinamide and pantothenic acid were the same. We conclude that Vitamin B1 deficiency did not affect concentrations of the other B-group vitamins. PMID:23935367

  16. Menstrual discomfort in Danish women reduced by dietary supplements of omega-3 PUFA and B 12 (fish oil or seal oil capsules)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bente Deutch; Eva Bonefeld Jørgensen; Jens C Hansen

    2000-01-01

    In a previous epidemiological survey among Danish women, menstrual pain prevalence (dysmenorrhea) was found to be inversely associated with dietary fishoil content (N-3 fatty acid) and B12-vitamin intake. The findings supported a hypothesis that menstrual cramps, which are prostaglandin mediated, can be influenced by dietary fatty acids and suggested a potential use of fish oil supplements as treatment of or

  17. Vitamin E

    MedlinePLUS

    ... supplements or medications that have blood thinning qualities. Food Sources Most Western diets are low in vitamin E, which can be found in nuts, salad and vegetable oils, peanut butter, fortified cereals and sweet potatoes. The ...

  18. Vitamin E

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vitamin E is found in the following foods: Vegetable oils (such as wheat germ, sunflower, safflower, corn, and soybean oils) Nuts (such as almonds, peanuts, and hazelnuts/filberts) ... (such as spinach and broccoli) Fortified breakfast cereals, ...

  19. Vitamin E

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treat an inherited disorder called G6PD deficiency. Beta-thalassemia. Dementia. Healing a type of skin sore called ... in combination with pentoxifylline 800 mg. For beta-thalassemia: vitamin E 750 IU daily. For preventing sunburn: ...

  20. Vitamin A

    MedlinePLUS

    ... foods and season them with herbs, spices, and citrus - not salt. 2. Scan the label-- Look for ... sources: Excellent food sources of vitamin C are citrus fruits or citrus juices, berries, green and red ...

  1. Vitamin K

    MedlinePLUS

    ... foods and season them with herbs, spices, and citrus - not salt. 2. Scan the label-- Look for ... sources: Excellent food sources of vitamin C are citrus fruits or citrus juices, berries, green and red ...

  2. Vitamin D

    MedlinePLUS

    ... recommends 700 IU to 800 IU daily for women at risk of deficiency due to low sun (e.g., homebound, northern latitude) exposure. Guidelines from the Osteoporosis Society of Canada recommend vitamin ...

  3. B Vitamins as Regulators of Phytoplankton Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzeca, Caterina; Tovar-Sanchez, Antonio; Agustí, Susana; Reche, Isabel; Duarte, Carlos M.; Taylor, Gordon T.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.

    2006-12-01

    Without an adequate supply of dissolved vitamins, many species of phytoplankton do not grow. Additions of inorganic nutrients like phosphorus and nitrogen, and trace metals like iron, are not alone adequate to sustain life-a practical lesson learned quickly by experimental biologists when they try to keep eukaryotic phytoplankton cultures alive in their labs. The reason is that coenzymes such as B vitamins are also required for many metabolic pathways. For example, vitamin B1 serves as a cofactor for a large number of enzymatic systems, including the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex required for the metabolism of carbohydrates (glycolysis) and amino acid synthesis [Vandamme, 1989]. Vitamin B12 is used primarily to assist two enzymes: methionine synthase, which is involved in DNA synthesis, and methylmalonyl CoA mutase, which is required for inorganic carbon assimilation [Lindemans and Abels, 1985].

  4. Vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Grant, William B.; Tangpricha, Vin

    2012-01-01

    Evidence that vitamin D reduces the risk of many types of disease is increasing exponentially. In 2011, 3,100 publications with “vitamin D” in the title or abstract were published, up from 2,606 in 2010, 1,303 in 2005, and 796 in 2000. A committee operating under the auspices of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the US National Academies reviewed the evidence for beneficial effects of vitamin D. Their report, issued at the end of 2010,1 found what they considered to be strong evidence for only one health outcome: skeletal health. They considered beneficial evidence only from published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focused mainly on skeletal health. In contrast, to justify concern about higher vitamin D intake and serum 25(OH)D concentrations, they used data from nested case-control studies reporting U-shaped outcomes of prediagnostic serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] for cancer and all-cause mortality rates. They set the daily recommended intake of vitamin D at 600–800 IU for most children and adults and defined vitamin D sufficiency as a serum 25(OH)D level above 20 ng/ml (50 nmol/l). They also set a daily upper intake of 4,000 IU of vitamin D3 and called for more RCTs to determine nonskeletal health effects. As of this writing, more than 130 journal publications have criticized the IOM report as being too conservative. One summarized the problems succinctly: “The IOM recommendations for vitamin D fail in a major way on logic, on science, and on effective public health guidance. Moreover, by failing to use a physiological referent, the IOM approach constitutes precisely the wrong model for development of nutritional policy.”2 PMID:22928061

  5. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 801 Vitamins and Minerals WHY ARE VITAMINS AND MINERALS IMPORTANT? WHAT ARE ANTIOXIDANTS? HOW MUCH DO I ... HARMFUL? FOR MORE INFORMATION WHY ARE VITAMINS AND MINERALS IMPORTANT? Vitamins and minerals are sometimes called micronutrients. ...

  6. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of a good thing? What Are Vitamins and Minerals? Vitamins and minerals make people's bodies work properly. ... of them each day. What Do Vitamins and Minerals Do? Vitamins and minerals boost the immune system, ...

  7. Tissue vitamin concentrations are maintained constant by changing the urinary excretion rate of vitamins in rats' restricted food intake.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that mild food restriction induces a reduction in tryptophan-nicotinamide conversion, which helps to explain why death secondary to pellagra is pandemic during the hungry season. In this study, we investigated the levels of B-group vitamins in the liver, kidney, blood, and urine in rats that underwent gradual restriction of food intake (80, 60, 40, and 20% restriction vs. ad libitum food intake). No significant differences in the B-group vitamin concentrations (mol/g tissue) in the liver and kidney were observed at any level of food restriction. However, the urine excretion rates exhibited some characteristic phenomena that differed by vitamin. These results show that the tissue concentrations of B-group vitamins were kept constant by changing the urinary elimination rates of vitamins under various levels of food restriction. Only vitamin B12 was the only (exception). PMID:25117986

  8. Influence of vitamin B auxotrophy on nitrogen metabolism in eukaryotic phytoplankton

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Erin M.; Allen, Andrew E.

    2012-01-01

    While nitrogen availability is known to limit primary production in large parts of the ocean, vitamin starvation amongst eukaryotic phytoplankton is becoming increasingly recognized as an oceanographically relevant phenomenon. Cobalamin (B12) and thiamine (B1) auxotrophy are widespread throughout eukaryotic phytoplankton, with over 50% of cultured isolates requiring B12 and 20% requiring B1. The frequency of vitamin auxotrophy in harmful algal bloom species is even higher. Instances of colimitation between nitrogen and B vitamins have been observed in marine environments, and interactions between these nutrients have been shown to impact phytoplankton species composition. This review surveys available data, including relevant gene expression patterns, to evaluate the potential for interactive effects of nitrogen and vitamin B12 and B1 starvation in eukaryotic phytoplankton. B12 plays essential roles in amino acid and one-carbon metabolism, while B1 is important for primary carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and likely useful as an anti-oxidant. Here we will focus on three potential metabolic interconnections between vitamin, nitrogen, and sulfur metabolism that may have ramifications for the role of vitamin and nitrogen scarcities in driving ocean productivity and species composition. These include: (1) B12, B1, and N starvation impacts on osmolyte and antioxidant production, (2) B12 and B1 starvation impacts on polyamine biosynthesis, and (3) influence of B12 and B1 starvation on the diatom urea cycle and amino acid recycling through impacts on the citric acid cycle. We evaluate evidence for these interconnections and identify oceanographic contexts in which each may impact rates of primary production and phytoplankton community composition. Major implications include that B12 and B1 deprivation may impair the ability of phytoplankton to recover from nitrogen starvation and that changes in vitamin and nitrogen availability may synergistically impact harmful algal bloom formation. PMID:23091473

  9. Harvard study finds folic acid, vitamins B6 and 12 do not affect colorectal adenoma risk

    Cancer.gov

    Combined folic acid, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 supplements had no statistically significant effect on the risk of colorectal adenoma among women who were at high risk for cardiovascular disease, according to a Harvard Medical School study published October 12 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. The Harvard Medical School is a component of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute.

  10. Recycling of vitamin E in human low density lipoproteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena A. Serbinova; Trudy Forte; Giorgio Scita; Lester Packer

    Oxidative modification of low density lipoproteins (LDL) and their unrestricted scavenger receptordependent uptake is believed to account for cholesterol deposition in macrophagederived foam cells. It has been suggested that vitamin E that is transported by LDL plays a critical role in protecting against LDL oxidation. We hypothesize that the maintenance of sufficiently high vitamin E concentrations in LDL can be

  11. Some histological manifestations in the vitamin B b12 sdeficient newborn rat

    E-print Network

    Jones, Carroll Christian

    1954-01-01

    an increase of hemosiderin-like inclusions vithin the fixed macrophagea~ an increased number of erythrocytes in 32 interoallular spacess and irregular shaped nuolei of the mcnocytes and of the primitive reticular cells, 6, k histochemical test for lipids...

  12. Maternal vegan diet causing a serious infantile neurological disorder due to vitamin B 12 deficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kiihne; R. Bubl; R. Baumgartner

    1991-01-01

    We present a 9-month-old exclusively breastfed baby of a strict vegetarian mother who had excluded all animal proteins from her diet. The patient's symptoms included dystrophy, weakness, muscular atrophy, loss of tendon reflexes, psychomotor regression and haematological abnormalities. Biochemical investigations revealed severe methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria in the patient, slight methylmalonic aciduria in the mother and low concentrations of serum

  13. Serum homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and total antioxidant status in vegetarian children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ambroszkiewicz J; Klemarczyk W; Gajewska J

    Purpose: The results of several studies point to the positive role of vegetarian diets in reducing the risk of diabetes, some cancers and cardiovascular diseases. However, exclusion of ani- mal products in vegetarian diets may affect the cobalamin status and cause an elevation of the plasma homocysteine level. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of vegetarian

  14. Observations on the vitamin B12 binding substance of egg yolk

    E-print Network

    Ener, Huseyin Siret

    1953-01-01

    :vip'epos is "I -'. 6". ~aetio . 'h""i, . '-o':'". 4h+?'-'0 a L'iel. 'J"'i e i '~~ Lote6'*, :"} ' '!s, :''?:;"3~!" 7ttx~f5a' !. :g& 4''t '!. ~", '~ 'sl&';sCQ&:. ":::3 X j i::"z'f, " ": "?h' Cic' Q, l' ri a tetal vol&m of 3 1&em. coopt+? th@ tilbes vot8...Cl'LOS Of 14 d 5~%? &li9 d~ "lq~am. -. :min m~l~cad:"~;; f:+ah 3&2. 33ed va'. e (i;;s;; ', Q ~attimm) 8VCg ~~ Pig t;*A'4~ ~ . " FA . '::. XOfA510 t+GCQQA8p '481CiC 'a!0: &", . "D)X '~ /MS' Kit!I'6 t', e 5 4~@, ';a~ . ". 'er j:gee "'q-:l '. 0:~3 ':J...

  15. Genetic Architecture of Vitamin B12 and Folate Levels Uncovered Applying Deeply Sequenced Large Datasets

    E-print Network

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Glostrup University Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark, 7 Department of the variants with cardiovascular diseases, cancers or Alzheimer's disease although some variants demonstrated

  16. Metabolic programming of offspring by vitamin B12, folate imbalance during pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With two reports in the current issue of Diabetologia, C. S. Yajnik and his international cast of collaborators have created conceptual bridges between some of the most important global public health challenges of our time: obesity (or is it adiposity?), fetal or early life origins of adult disease,...

  17. The influence of cobalt/vitamin B12 deficiency as a stressor affecting adrenal cortex

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    measurement and the pituitary gland and corpus luteum for LH and progesterone determinations, respectively corticosteroids were persistently high in cobalt-deficient goats as compared to the controls, and pituitary LH to irregular cycles, the action site being located in the hypothalamo-pituitary axis. Introduction. The effects

  18. PANTOTHENIC ACID AND VITAMIN B12 IN THE LIVER OF SHEEP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary C Dawbarn; Heather Forsyth; Diana Kilpatrick

    1963-01-01

    Ten ewes were fed for nine months on a cobalt-deficient ration of wheaten hay chaff and gluten. Four of the animals were given cobalt throughout the whole period. The remaining six animals were given cobalt for the last two months only. Three of the ewes in the + cobalt group were pair fed with three in the - cobalt group.Biopsy

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Direct exchange of vitamin B12 is demonstrated by

    E-print Network

    Cicuta, Pietro

    et al., 2008). Iron has also been shown to have a key role, particularly in high-nutrient, low as algae are found in all marine and fresh- water environments, and may account for up to 50% of the world). The importance of iron in limiting productivity was demonstrated experimentally by enriching surface waters

  20. Low maternal vitamin B12 status is associated with intrauterine growth retardation in urban South Indians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Muthayya; A V Kurpad; C P Duggan; R J Bosch; P Dwarkanath; A Mhaskar; R Mhaskar; A Thomas; M Vaz; S Bhat; W W Fawzi

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To assess the maternal sociodemographic, anthropometric, dietary and micronutrient status in apparently healthy pregnant women in order to determine their associations with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR).Design:Prospective observational study.Setting:Bangalore City, India.Subjects:A total of 478 women were recruited at 12.9±3.3 weeks of gestation and followed up at the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy and at delivery. The dropout rate was

  1. Pros and cons of increasing folic acid and vitamin B12 intake by fortification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is no doubt that folic acid fortification can be effective for reducing the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs). The degree of efficacy depends on both the level of folate depletion and other, yet to be fully characterized, genetic and/or environmental factors. This article summarizes brie...

  2. Biochemical and Hematologic Manifestations of Gastric Intrinsic Factor (GIF) Deficiency: A Treatable Cause of B12 Deficiency in the Old Order Mennonite Population of Southwestern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Ferrand, A; Siu, V M; Rupar, C A; Napier, M P; Al-Dirbashi, O Y; Chakraborty, P; Prasad, C

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic factor deficiency (OMIM #261000, IFD) is a rare inherited disorder of vitamin B12 metabolism due to mutations in the gastric intrinsic factor (GIF) gene.We report three individuals from an Old Order Mennonite community who presented with B12 deficiency. Two cases are siblings born to consanguineous parents and the third case is not known to be closely related. The older male sib presented at 4 years with gastrointestinal symptoms, listlessness, and pallor. He had pancytopenia with megaloblastic anemia. Serum B12 was 61 (198-615 pmol/L). Methylmalonic aciduria was present. C3 was elevated on acylcarnitine profile. Homocysteine was high at 16.7 (5.0-12.0 umol/L). His asymptomatic female sibling was also found to have B12 deficiency. Genetic testing for methylmalonic aciduria (MMAA), transcobalamin deficiency (TCN2), and Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (AMN) showed no mutation in both siblings. The third patient, a 34-year-old woman, had presented in infancy with a diagnosis of pernicious anemia. Mutation analysis of GIF revealed compound heterozygosity for a c.79+1G>A substitution and a c.973delG deletion in all three individuals. Oral or parenteral vitamin B12 has led to complete recovery of clinical parameters and vitamin B12 levels. Newborn screening samples on the siblings revealed normal methylcitrate, C3, and C3/C2 ratios thus indicating no disruption of propionic or methylmalonic acid metabolism.A high index of suspicion should be maintained if children present with megaloblastic anemia since GIF deficiency is a treatable disorder and newborn screening may not be able to detect this condition. PMID:25308559

  3. Vitamin C

    MedlinePLUS

    ... E and use of multiple vitamin supplements and risk of colon cancer: a pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies. Cancer Causes Control. 2010 Nov;21(11):1745-1757. Patterson RE, White E, Kristal AR, Neuhouser ML, ... and cancer risk: the epidemiologic evidence. Cancer Causes Control. 1997;8: ...

  4. Sodium superionic conduction in Na2B12H12.

    PubMed

    Udovic, Terrence J; Matsuo, Motoaki; Unemoto, Atsushi; Verdal, Nina; Stavila, Vitalie; Skripov, Alexander V; Rush, John J; Takamura, Hitoshi; Orimo, Shin-ichi

    2014-04-11

    Impedance measurements indicate that Na2B12H12 exhibits dramatic Na(+) conductivity (on the order of 0.1 S cm(-1)) above its order-disorder phase-transition at ?529 K, rivaling that of current, solid-state, ceramic-based, Na-battery electrolytes. Superionicity may be aided by the large size, quasispherical shape, and high rotational mobility of the B12H12(2-) anions. PMID:24584582

  5. Estimated vitamin intakes of toddlers: predicted prevalence of inadequacy in village populations in Egypt, Kenya, and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Calloway, D H; Murphy, S P; Beaton, G H; Lein, D

    1993-09-01

    Vitamin intakes of 255 toddlers (aged 18-30 mo) were estimated from food consumption recorded during 1 y at sites in Egypt, Kenya, and Mexico. Mean intakes were compared with requirements standards by using a probability approach to estimate the prevalence of inadequate intakes. There were predicted inadequacies for vitamin A (32%) and riboflavin (20%) in Egypt, vitamins A (68%) and C (63%) and riboflavin (52%) in Mexico, and vitamin B-12 (44%) in Kenya. Vitamin E was inadequate in all diets, but in relation to polyunsaturated fatty acids only the intake in Mexico was low. No diet provided the recommended amount of vitamin D, but its dietary requirement is uncertain. Correlations among nutrient intakes suggest factors that may contribute to reported associations of consumption of animal products with improved growth or development among these children: provision of vitamin B-12 and available minerals, displacement of fiber and phytate-rich energy sources, and increased energy density. PMID:8237849

  6. Vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Alshahrani, Fahad M.; Almalki, Mussa H.; Aljohani, Naji; Alzahrani, Abdullah; Alsaleh, Yousef; Holick, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D have been documented among inhabitants of the wider Middle East and North African countries. Sunlight has long been recognized as a major provider of vitamin D. In this study we aimed to determine the optimum time for sun exposure in the Central region of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Ampoules containing 7-dehydrocholesterol in ethanol were exposed to sunlight every hour starting from sunrise until sunset in July and December. Our results demonstrated that the time of the day has a major influence in vitamin D production. In this study, summer production of previtamin D3 was observed to occur between 8:00 PM to 4:00 PM with peak hours between 10:00 AM to 12:00 PM. During wintertime however, the conversion began later at around 9:30 AM and ended sooner at 2:00 PM, with peak hours at 10:00 AM to 12 noon. In conclusion, the optimum time to get sun exposure for vitamin D3 production in Riyadh, during summer is from 9:00 AM and before 10:30 AM, as well as after 2:00 PM until 3:00 PM, while during winter it’s from 10:00 AM until 2:00 PM. These times are important on a public health perspective, as it’s free, relatively safe and the most enjoyable. This strategy is a highly efficacious way for improving the vitamin D status for children and adults and preventing vitamin D deficiency. PMID:24494051

  7. Vitamin D: An overview of vitamin D status and intake in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Spiro, A; Buttriss, J L

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there have been reports suggesting a high prevalence of low vitamin D intakes and vitamin D deficiency or inadequate vitamin D status in Europe. Coupled with growing concern about the health risks associated with low vitamin D status, this has resulted in increased interest in the topic of vitamin D from healthcare professionals, the media and the public. Adequate vitamin D status has a key role in skeletal health. Prevention of the well-described vitamin D deficiency disorders of rickets and osteomalacia are clearly important, but there may also be an implication of low vitamin D status in bone loss, muscle weakness and falls and fragility fractures in older people, and these are highly significant public health issues in terms of morbidity, quality of life and costs to health services in Europe. Although there is no agreement on optimal plasma levels of vitamin D, it is apparent that blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels are often below recommended ranges for the general population and are particularly low in some subgroups of the population, such as those in institutions or who are housebound and non-Western immigrants. Reported estimates of vitamin D status within different European countries show large variation. However, comparison of studies across Europe is limited by their use of different methodologies. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency [often defined as plasma 25(OH)D <25?nmol/l] may be more common in populations with a higher proportion of at-risk groups, and/or that have low consumption of foods rich in vitamin D (naturally rich or fortified) and low use of vitamin D supplements. The definition of an adequate or optimal vitamin D status is key in determining recommendations for a vitamin D intake that will enable satisfactory status to be maintained all year round, including the winter months. In most European countries, there seems to be a shortfall in achieving current vitamin D recommendations. An exception is Finland, where dietary survey data indicate that recent national policies that include fortification and supplementation, coupled with a high habitual intake of oil-rich fish, have resulted in an increase in vitamin D intakes, but this may not be a suitable strategy for all European populations. The ongoing standardisation of measurements in vitamin D research will facilitate a stronger evidence base on which policies can be determined. These policies may include promotion of dietary recommendations, food fortification, vitamin D supplementation and judicious sun exposure, but should take into account national, cultural and dietary habits. For European nations with supplementation policies, it is important that relevant parties ensure satisfactory uptake of these particularly in the most vulnerable groups of the population. PMID:25635171

  8. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  9. TD-DFT Insight into Photodissociation of Co-C Bond in Coenzyme B12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlowski, Pawel; Liu, Hui; Kornobis, Karina; Lodowski, Piotr; Jaworska, Maria

    2013-12-01

    Coenzyme B12 (AdoCbl) is one of the most biologically active forms of vitamin B12, and continues to be a topic of active research interest. The mechanism of Co-C bond cleavage in AdoCbl, and the corresponding enzymatic reactions are however, not well understood at the molecular level. In this work, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) has been applied to investigate the photodissociation of coenzyme B12. To reduce computational cost, while retaining the major spectroscopic features of AdoCbl, a truncated model based on ribosylcobalamin (RibCbl) was used to simulate Co-C photodissociation. Equilibrium geometries of RibCbl were obtained by optimization at the DFT/BP86/TZVP level of theory, and low-lying excited states were calculated by TD-DFT using the same functional and basis set. The calculated singlet states, and absorption spectra were simulated in both the gas phase, and water, using the polarizable continuum model (PCM). Both spectra were in reasonable agreement with experimental data, and potential energy curves based on vertical excitations were plotted to explore the nature of Co-C bond dissociation. It was found that a repulsive 3(?Co-C ? ?*Co-C) triplet state became dissociative at large Co-C bond distance, similar to a previous observation for methylcobalamin (MeCbl). Furthermore, potential energy surfaces (PESs) obtained as a function of both Co-CRib and Co-NIm distances, identify the S1 state as a key intermediate generated during photoexcitation of RibCbl, attributed to a mixture of a MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer) and a ? bonding-ligand charge transfer (SBLCT) states.

  10. Uptake and accumulation of B-group vitamers in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in ethanol-stat fed-batch culture.

    PubMed

    Paalme, T; Kevvai, K; Vilbaste, A; Hälvin, K; Nisamedtinov, I

    2014-09-01

    The uptake and accumulation of the B-group vitamins thiamine, riboflavin, nicotinamide, pantothenic acid and pyridoxine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied by gradually increasing the specific dosage of vitamins in an ethanol-stat fed-batch culture. Thiamine, nicotinamide, pantothenic acid, and pyridoxine were almost completely taken up at low vitamin dosages. Thiamine was determined to be the major accumulating form of vitamin B1 while most of the assimilated nicotinamide and pantothenic acid accumulated in cofactor forms. Despite the obvious uptake of pyridoxine, accumulation of B6 vitamers was not observed. In contrast with the other vitamins studied, riboflavin began accumulating in the culture medium immediately after vitamin addition was initiated. By the end of the experiment, the apparent uptake of all vitamins exceeded their accumulation in the cells. Variations in the growth rate of yeast at different vitamin dosages demonstrate the importance of balancing the vitamins in the media during cultivation. PMID:24781266

  11. Facts about Vitamin D

    MedlinePLUS

    ... food, supplements, and sunlight. Food Eggs, sardines, and salmon contain vitamin D. Most fluid milk and some ... VitaminD/ Nutrition.gov http://nutrition.gov Figure 2. Salmon is a very rich source of vitamin D, ...

  12. Breastfeeding: Vitamin D Supplementation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... additional vitamin D through routine sunlight exposure. However, published reports of cases of vitamin D deficiency rickets ... April 2003, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) published guidelines for vitamin D intake, recommending that all ...

  13. Catalysis of Methyl Group Transfers Involving Tetrahydrofolate and B12

    PubMed Central

    Ragsdale, Stephen W.

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the reaction mechanism of enzymes that use B12 and tetrahydrofolate (THF) to catalyze methyl group transfers. It also covers the related reactions that use B12 and tetrahydromethanopterin (THMPT), which is a THF analog used by archaea. In the past decade, our understanding of the mechanisms of these enzymes has increased greatly because the crystal structures for three classes of B12-dependent methyltransferases have become available and because biophysical and kinetic studies have elucidated the intermediates involved in catalysis. These steps include binding of the cofactors and substrates, activation of the methyl donors and acceptors, the methyl transfer reaction itself, and product dissociation. Activation of the methyl donor in one class of methyltransferases is achieved by an unexpected proton transfer mechanism. The cobalt (Co) ion within the B12 macrocycle must be in the Co(I) oxidation state to serve as a nucleophile in the methyl transfer reaction. Recent studies have uncovered important principles that control how this highly reducing active state of B12 is generated and maintained. PMID:18804699

  14. Vitamin composition of ethnic foods commonly consumed in Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Khokhar, Santosh; Oyelade, Olusegun James; Marletta, Luisa; Shahar, Danit; Ireland, Jane; de Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-01-01

    Background Vitamin analyses are particularly important for estimating dietary intakes, determining nutritional status and regulating food labelling. Due to the increased popularity of ethnic foods, the vitamin composition of these foods is required to ensure that national food databases are up-to-date. Objectives The key objective of this study was to generate new and reliable data on the contents of fat-soluble vitamins, including vitamins A (all trans-retinol), D3 & E (?-tocopherol) and those that are water-soluble (vitamins B6, B12, C, biotin, folate, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, and thiamin) in ethnic foods commonly consumed in Europe. Design Thirty commonly-consumed ethnic foods in Europe (from Belgium, France, Israel, Italy, The Netherlands, and the UK) were analysed using harmonised methodologies for identification of representative foods, sampling, data scrutiny and documentation to generate reliable data. Analyses were carried out using International standard methods. Results Certain vitamins were present in appreciable amounts: ?-carotene in tayer leaves (7919µg/100g), thiamin in frik dry (0.24mg/100g), riboflavin in mbinzo worms (0.79mg/100g,) and niacin in commercial soy patty (17.5mg/100g). However, retinol, pantothenic acid, vitamins D and B12 were below detectable levels in the majority of the foods analysed. Conclusions The majority of the foods contained most of the water-soluble vitamins but lacked fat-soluble vitamins. However, these preliminary data represent only a small number of foods per country and so no conclusions about vitamin imbalances can be drawn. Additional data are required on a much wider range of commonly-consumed ethnic foods to make firm conclusions about adequacy of diets. PMID:22489214

  15. The Role of B Vitamins in Marine Biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.; Gómez-Consarnau, Laura; Suffridge, Christopher; Webb, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    The soluble B vitamins (B1, B7, and B12) have long been recognized as playing a central metabolic role in marine phytoplankton and bacteria; however, the importance of these organic external metabolites in marine ecology has been largely disregarded, as most research has focused on inorganic nutrients and trace metals. Using recently available genomic data combined with culture-based surveys of vitamin auxotrophy (i.e., vitamin requirements), we show that this auxotrophy is widespread in the marine environment and occurs in both autotrophs and heterotrophs residing in oligotrophic and eutrophic environments. Our analysis shows that vitamins originate from the activities of some bacteria and algae and that taxonomic changes observed in marine phytoplankton communities could be the result of their specific vitamin requirements and/or vitamin availability. Dissolved vitamin concentration measurements show that large areas of the world ocean are devoid of B vitamins, suggesting that vitamin limitation could be important for the efficiency of carbon and nitrogen fixation in those regions.

  16. Vitamin C tablets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    N/A N/A (None; )

    2006-12-13

    Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is an essential nutrient in a healthy diet. Many citrus fruits contain large amounts of vitamin C. You can test for vitamin C using a chemical called indophenol. Indophenol is an indicator of how much vitamin C is in a sample.

  17. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)

    MedlinePLUS

    Riboflavin is a B vitamin. It can be found in certain foods such as milk, meat, eggs, nuts, enriched flour, and green vegetables. Riboflavin is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex products. Vitamin B complex ...

  18. Sinorhizobium meliloti bluB is necessary for production of 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole, the lower ligand of B12

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Gordon R. O.; Taga, Michiko E.; Mistry, Kavita; Lloret, Javier; Anderson, Peter J.; Roth, John R.; Walker, Graham C.

    2006-01-01

    An insight into a previously unknown step in B12 biosynthesis was unexpectedly obtained through our analysis of a mutant of the symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti. This mutant was identified based on its unusually bright fluorescence on plates containing the succinoglycan binding dye calcofluor. The mutant contains a Tn5 insertion in a gene that has not been characterized previously in S. meliloti. The closest known homolog is the bluB gene of Rhodobacter capsulatus, which is implicated in the biosynthesis of B12 (cobalamin). The S. meliloti bluB mutant is unable to grow in minimal media and fails to establish a symbiosis with alfalfa, and these defects can be rescued by the addition of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) or the lower ligand of cobalamin, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB). Biochemical analysis demonstrated that the bluB mutant does not produce cobalamin unless DMB is supplied. Sequence comparison suggests that BluB is a member of the NADH/flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-dependent nitroreductase family, and we propose that it is involved in the conversion of FMN to DMB. PMID:16537439

  19. Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies Are Highly Prevalent in Newly Diagnosed Celiac Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wierdsma, Nicolette J.; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, Marian A. E.; Berkenpas, Marijke; Mulder, Chris J. J.; van Bodegraven, Ad A.

    2013-01-01

    Malabsorption, weight loss and vitamin/mineral-deficiencies characterize classical celiac disease (CD). This study aimed to assess the nutritional and vitamin/mineral status of current “early diagnosed” untreated adult CD-patients in the Netherlands. Newly diagnosed adult CD-patients were included (n = 80, 42.8 ± 15.1 years) and a comparable sample of 24 healthy Dutch subjects was added to compare vitamin concentrations. Nutritional status and serum concentrations of folic acid, vitamin A, B6, B12, and (25-hydroxy) D, zinc, haemoglobin (Hb) and ferritin were determined (before prescribing gluten free diet). Almost all CD-patients (87%) had at least one value below the lower limit of reference. Specifically, for vitamin A, 7.5% of patients showed deficient levels, for vitamin B6 14.5%, folic acid 20%, and vitamin B12 19%. Likewise, zinc deficiency was observed in 67% of the CD-patients, 46% had decreased iron storage, and 32% had anaemia. Overall, 17% were malnourished (>10% undesired weight loss), 22% of the women were underweight (Body Mass Index (BMI) < 18.5), and 29% of the patients were overweight (BMI > 25). Vitamin deficiencies were barely seen in healthy controls, with the exception of vitamin B12. Vitamin/mineral deficiencies were counter-intuitively not associated with a (higher) grade of histological intestinal damage or (impaired) nutritional status. In conclusion, vitamin/mineral deficiencies are still common in newly “early diagnosed” CD-patients, even though the prevalence of obesity at initial diagnosis is rising. Extensive nutritional assessments seem warranted to guide nutritional advices and follow-up in CD treatment. PMID:24084055

  20. The role of homocysteine-lowering B-vitamins in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Debreceni, Balazs; Debreceni, Laszlo

    2014-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in the Western world. The effort of research should aim at the primary prevention of CVD. Alongside statin therapy, which is maintained to be an effective method of CVD prevention, there are alternative methods such as vitamin B substitution therapy with folic acid (FA), and vitamins B12 and B6 . B-vitamins may inhibit atherogenesis by decreasing the plasma level of homocysteine (Hcy)-a suspected etiological factor for atherosclerosis-and by other mechanisms, primarily through their antioxidant properties. Although Hcy-lowering vitamin trials have failed to demonstrate beneficial effects of B-vitamins in the prevention of CVD, a meta-analysis and stratification of a number of large vitamin trials have suggested their effectiveness in cardiovascular prevention (CVP) in some aspects. Furthermore, interpretation of the results from these large vitamin trials has been troubled by statin/aspirin therapy, which was applied along with the vitamin substitution, and FA fortification, both of which obscured the separate effects of vitamins in CVP. Recent research results have accentuated a new approach to vitamin therapy for CVP. Studies undertaken with the aim of primary prevention have shown that vitamin B substitution may be effective in the primary prevention of CVD and may also be an option in the secondary prevention of disease if statin therapy is accompanied by serious adverse effects. Further investigations are needed to determine the validity of vitamin substitution therapy before its introduction in the protocol of CVD prevention. PMID:24571382

  1. Structural, elastic, and electronic properties of icosahedral boron subcarbides (B12C3, B13C2), subnitride B12N2, and suboxide B12O2 from data of SCC-DFTB calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enyashin, A. N.; Ivanovskii, A. L.

    2011-08-01

    The structural, elastic, and electronic properties of a series of icosahedral phases, such as boron subcarbides B12C3 and B13C2, subnitride B12N2, and suboxide B12O2, have been studied in the framework of the SCC-DFTB method. It has been found that the B12C2 and B13C2 phases manifest metal-like properties, while B12C3 and B12O2 are semiconductors. The estimates have shown that the insertion of 2 p atoms (C, N, or O) into intericosahedral pores of elemental boron can cause both a decrease in its elastic modulus (an increase in the compressibility of B12N2) and a sharp increase in the modulus B (in subcarbides B12C3 and B12BCC). On the other hand, the insertion of 2 p atoms into ?-B12 will favor an increase in its hardness (suboxide B12O2 will have a maximum hardness).

  2. Optimization of vitamin suppletion after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery can lower postoperative deficiencies: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Kemal; Aarts, Edo O; Koehestanie, Parweez; Betzel, Bark; Ploeger, Nadine; de Boer, Hans; Aufenacker, Theo J; van Laarhoven, Kees J H M; Janssen, Ignace M C; Berends, Frits J

    2014-11-01

    Iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid deficiencies are among the most common deficiencies occurring after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB). The present study evaluates the effectiveness of a specially designed multivitamin supplement (WLS Forte, FitForMe, Rotterdam, the Netherlands) specifically developed for LRYGB patients.A triple-blind, randomized, 12-month study was conducted comparing WLS forte with a standard multivitamin supplement (sMVS) containing approximately 100% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) for iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid. WLS Forte contains vitamin B12 14000% RDA, iron 500% RDA, and folic acid 300% RDA.In total, 148 patients (74 in each group) underwent a LRYGB procedure. Baseline characteristics were similar for both groups. Per protocol analysis demonstrated that sMVS treatment was associated with a decline in ferritin (-24.4?±?70.1??g/L) and vitamin B12 (-45.9?±?150.3?pmol/L) over 12 months, whereas in WLS Forte patients, ferritin remained stable (+3.2?±?93.2??g/L) and vitamin B12 increased significantly (+55.1?±?144.2?pmol/L). The number of patients developing ferritin or vitamin B12 deficiency was significantly lower with WLS Forte compared with sMVS (P?vitamin B12 deficiencies after LRYGB. PMID:25437032

  3. Factors Influencing the Diversity of Iron Uptake Systems in Aquatic Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Dhwani K.; Desai, Falguni D.; LaRoche, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for many processes in all living cells. Dissolved Fe (dFe) concentrations in the ocean are of the order of a few nM, and Fe is often a factor limiting primary production. Bioavailability of Fe in aquatic environments is believed to be primarily controlled through chelation by Fe-binding ligands. Marine microbes have evolved different mechanisms to cope with the scarcity of bioavailable dFe. Gradients in dFe concentrations and diversity of the Fe-ligand pool from coastal to open ocean waters have presumably imposed selection pressures that should be reflected in the genomes of microbial communities inhabiting the pelagic realm. We applied a hidden Markov model (HMM)-based search for proteins related to cellular iron metabolism, and in particular those involved in Fe uptake mechanisms in 164 microbial genomes belonging to diverse taxa and occupying different aquatic niches. A multivariate statistical approach demonstrated that in phototrophic organisms, there is a clear influence of the ecological niche on the diversity of Fe uptake systems. Extending the analyses to the metagenome database from the Global Ocean Sampling expedition, we demonstrated that the Fe uptake and homeostasis mechanisms differed significantly across marine niches defined by temperatures and dFe concentrations, and that this difference was linked to the distribution of microbial taxa in these niches. Using the dN/dS ratios (which signify the rate of non-synonymous mutations) of the nucleotide sequences, we identified that genes encoding for TonB, Ferritin, Ferric reductase, IdiA, ZupT, and Fe2+ transport proteins FeoA and FeoB were evolving at a faster rate (positive selection pressure) while genes encoding ferrisiderophore, heme and Vitamin B12 uptake systems, siderophore biosynthesis, and IsiA and IsiB were under purifying selection pressure (evolving slowly). PMID:23087680

  4. Vitamin Status as a Determinant of Serum Homocysteine Concentration in Type 2 Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Raptis, Athanasios; Apergis, George; Dimitriadis, George; Vergados, Ioannis; Theodossiadis, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the association of serum homocysteine levels and vitamin status with type 2 diabetic retinopathy. This study included 65 patients with and 75 patients without diabetic retinopathy. Patients with diabetic retinopathy had significantly higher serum homocysteine levels (P < 0.001), higher prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia (P < 0.001), lower serum folic acid (P < 0.001), and vitamin B12 (P = 0.014) levels than those without diabetic retinopathy. Regression analysis revealed that homocysteine was an independent risk factor for diabetic retinopathy and there was a threshold in its serum level (13.7??mol/L), above which the risk of diabetic retinopathy greatly increases (OR = 1.66, P = 0.001). Folic acid was associated with decreased odds for diabetic retinopathy (OR = 0.73, P < 0.001). There was a threshold in serum vitamin B12 level (248.4?pg/mL), below which serum homocysteine concentration significantly increases with decreasing serum vitamin B12 (P = 0.003). Our findings suggest that hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy. Decreased serum levels of folic acid and vitamin B12, through raising serum homocysteine concentrations, may also affect the diabetic retinopathy risk. PMID:25006590

  5. Vitamin status as a determinant of serum homocysteine concentration in type 2 diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Fotiou, Pandelis; Raptis, Athanasios; Apergis, George; Dimitriadis, George; Vergados, Ioannis; Theodossiadis, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the association of serum homocysteine levels and vitamin status with type 2 diabetic retinopathy. This study included 65 patients with and 75 patients without diabetic retinopathy. Patients with diabetic retinopathy had significantly higher serum homocysteine levels (P < 0.001), higher prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia (P < 0.001), lower serum folic acid (P < 0.001), and vitamin B12 (P = 0.014) levels than those without diabetic retinopathy. Regression analysis revealed that homocysteine was an independent risk factor for diabetic retinopathy and there was a threshold in its serum level (13.7? ? mol/L), above which the risk of diabetic retinopathy greatly increases (OR = 1.66, P = 0.001). Folic acid was associated with decreased odds for diabetic retinopathy (OR = 0.73, P < 0.001). There was a threshold in serum vitamin B12 level (248.4?pg/mL), below which serum homocysteine concentration significantly increases with decreasing serum vitamin B12 (P = 0.003). Our findings suggest that hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy. Decreased serum levels of folic acid and vitamin B12, through raising serum homocysteine concentrations, may also affect the diabetic retinopathy risk. PMID:25006590

  6. Effect of Bifidobacterium animalis B/12 administration in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Strompfová, Viola; Pogány Simonová, Monika; Gancar?íková, So?a; Mudro?ová, Dagmar; Farbáková, Jana; Mad'ari, Aladár; Lauková, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    Bifidobacterium species constitute the most frequently used health-enhancing bacteria in functional foods or probiotic products, and most of their health benefits have been demonstrated in human or mice studies. However, knowledge of the effects of these bacteria in the canine organism is very limited. In this study, the canine-derived strain Bifidobacterium animalis B/12 (10(9) CFU) was tested for its effects on faecal microbiota, faecal characteristics, faecal organic acid concentrations, blood biochemistry, haematological and immunological parameters in healthy dogs (C-control, BA-B. animalis B/12 group, 10 dogs in each). The experiment lasted for 49 days with a 14-day treatment period (sample collection at days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 49). A significantly higher population of lactic acid bacteria was detected (day 7) while the counts of coliform bacteria were lower in faeces of the BA group (days 14, 21, 28, 49) compared to control group C. Faecal concentrations of acetic (day 7, 21, 28, 49), acetoacetic (7-49) and valeric acid (14) were higher in contrast to formic acid (day 7-21), which was decreased after the treatment. In blood serum, significantly lower concentrations of triglyceride (day 14) and albumin (day 14, 28, 49) and significantly higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (day 14) and alkaline phosphatase (day 14, 28) were observed in the BA dogs. The phagocytic activity of leukocytes (especially of neutrophils) was higher in dogs after 14-day consumption of B/12 strain (day 14). The results show that many of these effects could also still be recorded several weeks after the treatment period. PMID:24838022

  7. Vitamin C and colds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... popular belief that vitamin C can cure the common cold , the scientific evidence for this is conflicting. Large ... B. Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2007 Jul 18;(3): ...

  8. Vitamin A Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... storage as needed and increases or decreases the efficiency of dietary vitamin A absorption. Deficiencies in vitamin ... on the response team are dedicated to the work they do and are often inspired by the ...

  9. Vitamin E and Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... people who already have these diseases. Dementia : Some prospective studies suggest that vitamin E supplements, particularly in combination ... and dementia. Parkinson’s Disease : Some, but not all, prospective studies suggest that getting higher intakes of vitamin E ...

  10. Vitamin D: beyond bone

    PubMed Central

    Christakos, Sylvia; Hewison, Martin; Gardner, David G; Wagner, Carol L; Sergeev, Igor N; Rutten, Erica; Pittas, Anastassios G; Boland, Ricardo; Ferrucci, Luigi; Bikle, Daniel D

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, vitamin D has been received increased attention due to the resurgence of vitamin D deficiency and rickets in developed countries and the identification of extraskeletal effects of vitamin D, suggesting unexpected benefits of vitamin D in health and disease, beyond bone health. The possibility of extraskeletal effects of vitamin D was first noted with the discovery of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in tissues and cells that are not involved in maintaining mineral homeostasis and bone health, including skin, placenta, pancreas, breast, prostate and colon cancer cells, and activated T cells. However, the biological significance of the expression of the VDR in different tissues is not fully understood, and the role of vitamin D in extraskeletal health has been a matter of debate. This report summarizes recent research on the roles for vitamin D in cancer, immunity and autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular and respiratory health, pregnancy, obesity, erythropoiesis, diabetes, muscle function, and aging. PMID:23682710

  11. infants of vegetarian mothers and identification of an acceptable dietary source of vitamin Bi 214

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonny L Specker; Donald Miller; Eric J Norman; Harry Greene

    Increased urinary methylmalonic acid (UMMA) concentrations might indicate vitamin B-l2 deficiency. Our study tested the hypothesis that elevated UMMA in breast-fed infants is associated with decreased maternal serum B-12 concentrations. UMMA concentrations were measured in 17 vegetarian mothers and their infants and in six infants of nonvegetarian mothers. Serum vitamin B-l2 concentrations were determined in all mothers. Range of UMMA

  12. Vitamin D Deficiency: Information for Cancer Patients

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vitamin D: ? Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). ? Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol). Vitamin supplements may contain either form of vitamin D and both forms are effective. Vitamin D supplements are taken by mouth. The recommended dose is ...

  13. Relationship Between Urinary Concentrations of Nine Water-soluble Vitamins and their Vitamin Intakes in Japanese Adult Males

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Katsumi; Hirose, Junko; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Excess water-soluble vitamins are thought to be eliminated in the urine. We have reported a strong relationship between water-soluble vitamin intake and urinary excretion in females. The relationship, however, is not well understood in males. In the present experiment, 10 Japanese male subjects were given a standard Japanese diet for the first week. The subjects remained on the same diet, and a synthesized water-soluble vitamin mixture containing one time the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for Japanese was given for the second week, three times the DRIs for the third week, and six times the DRIs for the fourth week. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected each week. Urinary excretion levels for seven of the nine water-soluble vitamin levels, excluding vitamin B12 and folate, increased linearly and sharply in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that measuring urinary water-soluble vitamins can be good nutritional markers for assessing vitamin intakes in humans. PMID:25210461

  14. Vitamin D and diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On the basis of evidence from animal and human studies, vitamin D has emerged as a potential risk modifier for type 1 and type 2 diabetes (t1DM and t2DM). Vitamin D is thought to have both direct (through activation of the vitamin D receptor) and indirect (via regulation of calcium homeostasis) eff...

  15. Vitamin D Pooling Project

    Cancer.gov

    The widespread prevalence of low concentrations of vitamin D has triggered great clinical research and public health interest in determining the amount of vitamin D required for optimal health. Specifically, interest in vitamin D as a cancer preventive agent is related to its biological role in cell signaling and because it is present within most tissues of the body.

  16. A stable isotope method for the simultaneous measurement of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) kinetics and absorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K S Jones; L J C Bluck; L Y Wang; W A Coward

    2008-01-01

    Objectives:To measure uptake and disposal kinetics and absolute absorption of vitamin K1 using two stable isotope-labelled forms of vitamin K1.Subjects:Ten subjects (nine women and one man) aged between 22 and 31 years, with a mean (±standard deviation) body mass index of 22.5±2.4 kg\\/m2. Subjects took capsules containing 3 ?g of methyl-13C vitamin K1, three times a day for six days

  17. 17 CFR 240.3b-12 - Definition of OTC derivatives dealer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Definition of OTC derivatives dealer. 240.3b-12 Section 240...Definitions § 240.3b-12 Definition of OTC derivatives dealer. The term OTC derivatives dealer means any dealer that is...

  18. 17 CFR 240.3b-12 - Definition of OTC derivatives dealer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Definition of OTC derivatives dealer. 240.3b-12 Section 240...Definitions § 240.3b-12 Definition of OTC derivatives dealer. The term OTC derivatives dealer means any dealer that is...

  19. 17 CFR 240.3b-12 - Definition of OTC derivatives dealer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Definition of OTC derivatives dealer. 240.3b-12 Section 240...Definitions § 240.3b-12 Definition of OTC derivatives dealer. The term OTC derivatives dealer means any dealer that is...

  20. 17 CFR 240.3b-12 - Definition of OTC derivatives dealer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Definition of OTC derivatives dealer. 240.3b-12 Section 240...Definitions § 240.3b-12 Definition of OTC derivatives dealer. The term OTC derivatives dealer means any dealer that is...

  1. 17 CFR 240.3b-12 - Definition of OTC derivatives dealer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Definition of OTC derivatives dealer. 240.3b-12 Section 240...Definitions § 240.3b-12 Definition of OTC derivatives dealer. The term OTC derivatives dealer means any dealer that is...

  2. (Hydroxyalkyl)cob(III)alamins as Competitive Inhibitors in Coenzyme B12-Dependent Enzymic Reactions: 1

    E-print Network

    Rétey, János

    (Hydroxyalkyl)cob(III)alamins as Competitive Inhibitors in Coenzyme B12-Dependent Enzymic Reactions-(p-tolyl)cobamide] (HOÃ?PTC) were tested with two coenzyme-B12-dependent enzymes: glycerol dehydratase (GDH) and propane-1 as strong competitive inhibitors of coenzyme B12 (5'-deoxy-5'-adenosylcobalamin, AdoÃ?Cbl) for both enzymes

  3. Large-Scale Domain Motions and Pyridoxal-5?-Phosphate Assisted Radical Catalysis in Coenzyme B12-Dependent Aminomutases†

    PubMed Central

    Maity, Amarendra Nath; Chen, Yung-Han; Ke, Shyue-Chu

    2014-01-01

    Lysine 5,6-aminomutase (5,6-LAM) and ornithine 4,5-aminomutase (4,5-OAM) are two of the rare enzymes that use assistance of two vitamins as cofactors. These enzymes employ radical generating capability of coenzyme B12 (5?-deoxyadenosylcobalamin, dAdoCbl) and ability of pyridoxal-5?-phosphate (PLP, vitamin B6) to stabilize high-energy intermediates for performing challenging 1,2-amino rearrangements between adjacent carbons. A large-scale domain movement is required for interconversion between the catalytically inactive open form and the catalytically active closed form. In spite of all the similarities, these enzymes differ in substrate specificities. 4,5-OAM is highly specific for d-ornithine as a substrate while 5,6-LAM can accept d-lysine and l-?-lysine. This review focuses on recent computational, spectroscopic and structural studies of these enzymes and their implications on the related enzymes. Additionally, we also discuss the potential biosynthetic application of 5,6-LAM. PMID:24562332

  4. Vitamin D and asthma.

    PubMed

    Paul, Grace; Brehm, John M; Alcorn, John F; Holguín, Fernando; Aujla, Shean J; Celedón, Juan C

    2012-01-15

    Vitamin D deficiency and asthma are common conditions that share risk factors such as African American ethnicity, inner-city residence, and obesity. This review provides a critical examination of current experimental and epidemiologic evidence of a causal association between vitamin D status and asthma or asthma morbidity, including potential protective mechanisms such as antiviral effects and enhanced steroid responsiveness. Because most published epidemiologic studies of vitamin D and asthma or asthma morbidity are observational, a recommendation for or against vitamin D supplementation as preventive or secondary treatment for asthma is not advisable and must await results of ongoing clinical trials. Should these trials confirm a beneficial effect of vitamin D, others will be needed to assess the role of vitamin D supplementation to prevent or treat asthma in different groups such as infants, children of school age, and ethnic minorities. PMID:22016447

  5. Vitamin D and immunity

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Shelley; Geldenhuys, Sian; Hart, Prue H.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to an increased risk of a wide range of adverse health outcomes. The active form of vitamin D has an important role in calcium metabolism and in bone mineralisation, but the evidence for other health outcomes is mixed, with the strongest effects seen in the weakest epidemiological study designs. There are plausible pathways whereby vitamin D deficiency can impair immune function, resulting in both overactivity and increased risk of autoimmune disease, as well as immune suppression with poorer resistance to infection. Vitamin D status may influence the bacterial flora that constitute the microbiome and affect immune function through this route. Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet radiation causes the production of a range of chemicals, including vitamin D, and new research is exploring possible vitamin D-independent immunomodulatory pathways. PMID:25580272

  6. Vitamin D and ageing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel P. Hayes

    2010-01-01

    Within the past three to four decades a revolution has occurred in our understanding of vitamin D and its effects. Sundry\\u000a laboratory and epidemiologic studies have revealed that the active metabolite of vitamin D controls and\\/or ameliorates various\\u000a pathologies. As presented here, there is substantive evidence that vitamin D may play a positive and important role in the\\u000a ageing process.

  7. Psychological stress and vitamins.

    PubMed

    Conti, C M; Fulcheri, M; Anogeianaki, A; Maccauro, G; Teté, S; Salini, V; Tripodi, D; Toniato, E; Caraffa, A; Antinolfi, P; Galzio, R; Neri, G; Pandolfi, F; Doyle, R

    2011-01-01

    Conditions of stress and anxiety have complex interactions with insufficient vitamin intake and malnutrition. This study, based on literature research in Medline, analyzes the inter-relationship between vitamins and stress. This report concerns a number of vitamins that have been receiving much attention in earlier reviews of the literature, for their potential to protect against stress-related events, and focus is placed upon recent findings. PMID:21880204

  8. Vitamin D and Disease Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The skin makes vitamin D after exposure to sunlight. We also absorb vitamin D from certain foods, ... not make enough vitamin D by exposure to sunlight* or get enough through their diets. They may ...

  9. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)

    MedlinePLUS

    Pantothenic acid is a vitamin, also known as vitamin B5. It is widely found in both plants and animals ... Vitamin B5 is commercially available as D-pantothenic acid, as well as dexpanthenol and calcium pantothenate, which ...

  10. Vitamin D & endothelial function

    PubMed Central

    Alyami, A.; Soares, M.J.; Sherriff, J.L.; Mamo, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the extra-skeletal roles of vitamin D for health and well-being. Poor vitamin D status has been associated with obesity, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and mental health. Endothelial dysfunction may underscore insulin resistance and hence predispose to both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this review was to gain an appreciation of the recent causative evidence linking vitamin D and endothelial function. The PubMed database was searched from 2009 to date. Key words used were vitamin D, supplementation, systemic inflammation, endothelium, endothelial dysfunction and humans. Selected articles were restricted to the English language and to randomized control trials (RCTs) of vitamin D supplementation with direct measures of endothelial function. Final inclusion was based on a quality rating ? 3, based on the Jadad score. Ten RCTs met these criteria and were summarized for their outcomes. Only two studies showed an improvement in flow mediated dilatation with vitamin D. Three other studies reported decreases in C-reactive protein, platelet activation inhibitor-1, tissue plasminogen activator or B type natriuretic peptide. Recent evidence from good quality RCTs did not support a beneficial effect of vitamin D on vascular reactivity. Future intervention studies may need to target a higher vitamin D status and longer duration to determine whether the vitamin has a regulatory role in endothelial function. PMID:25488441

  11. [Ethnicity and vitamin D].

    PubMed

    Chauveau, Philippe; Aparicio, Michel

    2013-11-01

    Cohort studies, mainly US, show that vitamin D deficiency is more common in African-American population. Social and environmental factors play a role but the difference in skin color is essential. Despite low 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, a lower risk of fragility or fracture exists in these populations. Vitamin D deficiency is a contributing factor in many chronic diseases. There is a relationship between vitamin D deficiencies, progression of chronic kidney disease and increased relative risk of mortality. If the ethnicity of patients is now taken into account to estimate renal function, probably specific recommendations for vitamin D deficiency are needed. PMID:23669050

  12. Metabolism of vitamin K in Swiss 3T3 mouse fibroblasts

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Terryl Marie

    1985-01-01

    Major Subject: Nutrition METABOLISM OF VITAMIN K IN SWISS 3T3 MOUSE PIBROBLASTS A Thesis by TERRYL MARIE JOHNSON Approved as to style and content by: Dr, Louise Mo enfield-Sander (Chair of Committee) Dr Gary CD Smith (Head of Department) D ~ J... Committee: Dr. Louise M. Canfield-Sander The absorption and metabolism of vitamin K was investigated in a model system of Swiss 3T3 mouse fibroblasts ~ Uptake of vitamin K into cells followed saturation kinetics' Vitamin E (0 05-0 ' 2 mM) stimulated...

  13. Night blindness due to vitamin A deficiency associated with copper deficiency myelopathy secondary to bowel bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    AlHassany, Ali Abdul Jabbar

    2014-01-01

    We present an interesting case of combined vitamin A and copper deficiency after a history of gastric bypass surgery where symptoms improved after parenteral copper and vitamin A treatment. Gastric bypass surgery as a cause of fat soluble vitamin deficiency is generally under-reported. Copper deficiency has been reported after gastric bypass surgery. Vitamin A deficiency after gastric bypass surgery has also been reported in the literature, but the reported cases again fall below the actual figures. B12 and folate deficiencies can produce a type of myelopathy similar to that produced by copper deficiency, and differentiation on the basis of laboratory tests, neurophysiology and improvement of symptoms after replacement therapy might be the hallmark of diagnosis. Combinations of vitamin deficiencies were previously reported, but no cases of combined vitamin A and copper deficiency could be found in the literature. PMID:24781845

  14. Cardiovascular risk in the Asia-Pacific region from a nutrition and metabolic point of view: vitamin deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Wattanapenpaiboon, N

    2001-01-01

    In the past, recommended vitamin or micronutrient intakes have often been based on levels that were adequate to prevent clinical deficiencies from developing. Once these levels were reached, clinicians and nutrition scientists generally attributed little value to higher vitamin intake from supplements or food sources. Evidence has continued to mount showing that the intake and serum concentration of certain vitamins above those necessary to prevent clinical deficiencies, might importantly influence health status. This paper discusses the association of anti-oxidant vitamins and cardiovascular disease, and the association of low intake or serum concentrations of folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12, and elevated serum homocysteine, resulting in an increase in vascular disease risk. PMID:11710347

  15. Sunlight and Vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Wacker, Matthias; Holick, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is the sunshine vitamin that has been produced on this earth for more than 500 million years. During exposure to sunlight 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin absorbs UV B radiation and is converted to previtamin D3 which in turn isomerizes into vitamin D3. Previtamin D3 and vitamin D3 also absorb UV B radiation and are converted into a variety of photoproducts some of which have unique biologic properties. Sun induced vitamin D synthesis is greatly influenced by season, time of day, latitude, altitude, air pollution, skin pigmentation, sunscreen use, passing through glass and plastic, and aging. Vitamin D is metabolized sequentially in the liver and kidneys into 25-hydroxyvitamin D which is a major circulating form and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D which is the biologically active form respectively. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D plays an important role in regulating calcium and phosphate metabolism for maintenance of metabolic functions and for skeletal health. Most cells and organs in the body have a vitamin D receptor and many cells and organs are able to produce 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. As a result 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D influences a large number of biologic pathways which may help explain association studies relating vitamin D deficiency and living at higher latitudes with increased risk for many chronic diseases including autoimmune diseases, some cancers, cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, schizophrenia and type 2 diabetes. A three-part strategy of increasing food fortification programs with vitamin D, sensible sun exposure recommendations and encouraging ingestion of a vitamin D supplement when needed should be implemented to prevent global vitamin D deficiency and its negative health consequences. PMID:24494042

  16. Vitamin D insufficiency and insulin resistance in obese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tosh, Aneesh K.; Belenchia, Anthony M.

    2014-01-01

    Obese adolescents represent a particularly vulnerable group for vitamin D deficiency which appears to have negative consequences on insulin resistance and glucose homeostasis. Poor vitamin D status is also associated with future risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome in the obese. The biological mechanisms by which vitamin D influences glycemic control in obesity are not well understood, but are thought to involve enhancement of peripheral/hepatic uptake of glucose, attenuation of inflammation and/or regulation of insulin synthesis/secretion by pancreatic ? cells. Related to the latter, recent data suggest that the active form of vitamin, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, does not impact insulin release in healthy pancreatic islets; instead they require an environmental stressor such as inflammation or vitamin D deficiency to see an effect. To date, a number of observational studies exploring the relationship between the vitamin D status of obese adolescents and markers of glucose homeostasis have been published. Most, although not all, show significant associations between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamn D concentrations and insulin sensitivity/resistance indices. In interpreting the collective findings of these reports, significant considerations surface including the effects of pubertal status, vitamin D status, influence of parathyroid hormone status and the presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The few published clinical trials using vitamin D supplementation to improve insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance in obese adolescents have yielded beneficial effects. However, there is a need for more randomized controlled trials. Future investigations should involve larger sample sizes of obese adolescents with documented vitamin D deficiency, and careful selection of the dose, dosing regimen and achievement of target 25-hydroxyvitamn D serum concentrations. These trials should also include clamp-derived measures of in vivo sensitivity and ?-cell function to more fully characterize the effects of vitamin D replenishment on insulin resistance. PMID:25489472

  17. LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray B12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray B12 The postflight photograph shows little change of the exposed surfaces when compared with the prelaunch photograph. Although not noticable in the photograph, a light coating of contamination was seen on all experiment surfaces in this location. The difference in colors of the IDE detectors, located on the right hand mounting plate, is a result of the reflected surroundings and not related to space exposure. A close observation of the detector surfaces reveal that some damage has occured from meteroid and/or debris impacts. One impact crater can be seen, upper right quadrant, on the detector located in the sixth (6th) row down from the top and the fifth (5th) row from the right. Other impacts, smaller in size, show as small white dots on the detector surface. The solar sensor seems to have changed little, if any. However, the color of the solar array baseplate, showing indications of contamination, appears to be darker than the detector mounting plate. The center section cover plate shows little change when compared with the pre-launch photograph. However, during inspection, a light coat of the brown contamination has been observed on all surfaces. The color of the bonding material (RTV) used to secure several thin specimen, sapphire, to individual mounting plates has changed from pink to gold. At one location, that of a single specimen, the bonding material is more gray than gold in color. This has been attributed to the specimen being considerably thicker. The EPDS thermal cover in the right hand side of the tray shows a light coating of brown contamination on the Chemglaze II A-276 white paint.

  18. Facts about Vitamin K

    MedlinePLUS

    ... K is mostly found in vegetables, especially green vegetables. Kale, collards, spinach, broccoli, and cabbage contain high amounts of vitamin K. Other sources are soybean oil, strawberries, and whole milk. Below are some foods and the amount of vitamin K they contain ( ...

  19. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adequate intakes of vitamin D and calcium are essential preventative measures and essential components of any therapeutic regimen for osteoporosis. Vitamin D is also important for the prevention of falls. Current evidence suggests that a 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 75 nmol/L (30 ng/ml) or higher ...

  20. Vitamin D and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vuolo, Laura; Di Somma, Carolina; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Colao, Annamaria

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D system is a complex pathway that includes precursors, active metabolites, enzymes, and receptors. This complex system actives several molecular pathways and mediates a multitude of functions. In addition to the classical role in calcium and bone homeostasis, vitamin D plays “non-calcemic” effects in host defense, inflammation, immunity, and cancer processes as recognized in vitro and in vivo studies. The aim of this review is to highlight the relationship between vitamin D and cancer, summarizing several mechanisms proposed to explain the potential protective effect of vitamin D against the development and progression of cancer. Vitamin D acts like a transcription factor that influences central mechanisms of tumorigenesis: growth, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. In addition to cellular and molecular studies, epidemiological surveys have shown that sunlight exposure and consequent increased circulating levels of vitamin D are associated with reduced reduced occurrence and a reduced mortality in different histological types of cancer. Another recent field of interest concerns polymorphisms of vitamin D receptor (VDR); in this context, preliminary data suggest that VDR polymorphisms more frequently associated with tumorigenesis are Fok1, Bsm1, Taq1, Apa1, EcoRV, Cdx2; although further studies are needed to clarify their role in the cancer. In this review, the relationship between vitamin D and cancer is discussed. PMID:22649423

  1. Determination of eight water- and fat-soluble vitamins in multi-vitamin pharmaceutical formulations by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Moreno, P; Salvadó, V

    2000-02-18

    In the present work, a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure has been developed for the determination of water-soluble vitamins (thiamine hydrochloride, pyridoxine hydrochloride, nicotinamide, riboflavin phosphoric ester and cyanocobalamine) and fat-soluble vitamins (retinol palmitate, cholecalciferol, alpha-tocopherol acetate) in multi-vitamin pharmaceutical formulations. The sample treatment proposed consists of a solid-phase extraction with C18 AR cartridges that allow the separation of fat-soluble vitamins, which were retained on the sorbent, from water-soluble vitamins. Afterwards, the water-soluble vitamins were analysed by HPLC on a Nova-Pack C18 (150x3.9 mm, 4 microm) analytical column, using CH3OH-0.05 M CH3COONH4 as mobile phase. The chromatographic analysis of the fat-soluble vitamins was carried out after their sequential elution with methanol and chloroform from C18 sorbent, on the above column. The mobile phase employed was MeOH-CH2CN (95:5, v/v) working at a flow-rate of 2 ml min(-1) in isocratic mode. The solid-phase extraction for these vitamins had been previously optimised. The experimental variables studied were: application volume, elution solvents and cleaning solutions. The UV-Vis detection of vitamins was made at 270 nm for all the water-soluble vitamins (362 nm for B12) and 285 nm for the water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins present in real samples at different concentration levels. The accuracy of the method was tested obtaining an average recovery ranging between 78 and 116%. PMID:10722078

  2. Fundamental shift in vitamin B12 eco-physiology of a model alga demonstrated by experimental evolution

    E-print Network

    Helliwell, Katherine E.; Collins, Sinéad; Kazamia, Elena; Purton, Saul; Wheeler, Glen L.; Smith, Alison G.

    2014-01-01

    Supplementary information is available at ISMEJ's website 407 REFERENCES 408 409 1. Armbrust EV, Berges JA, Bowler C, Green BR, Martinez D, Putnam NH et al, (2004). 410 The genome of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana: ecology, evolution, and 411...

  3. Increased Serum CA15.3 Levels in Patients with Megaloblastic Anemia due to Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Argiris Symeonidis; Alexandra Kouraklis-Symeonidis; Dimitris Apostolopoulos; Evangelia Arvanitopoulou; Nikolaos Giannakoulas; Pavlos Vassilakos; Nicholas Zoumbos

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the usefulness of serum tumor markers’ monitoring, as predictors of gastric cancer in patients with pernicious anemia. Patients and Methods: We investigated serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), ?-fetal protein, cancer antigen (CA)-19.9, CA-125 and CA-15.3 in 50 patients with pernicious anemia and in 24 healthy controls, matched for age and sex. In 38 patients, the evaluation

  4. Sequential changes in propionate metabolism during the development of cobalt\\/vitamin B 12 deficiency in sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Glenn Kennedy; Finbarr P. M. O'Harte; W. John Blanchflower; Desmond A. Rice

    1991-01-01

    The changes in propionate metabolism that accompany cobalt deficiency in sheep are described. Two groups of sheep, fed either\\u000a a cobalt sufficient or deficient diet, were given an iv propionate load at intervals during a 14 w experiment. There was a\\u000a tendency towards increased propionate half-life as the animals became cobalt deficient. However, significant changes in the\\u000a area under the

  5. Homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 in mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer disease, and vascular dementia1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierluigi Quadri; Claudia Fragiacomo; Rita Pezzati; Enrica Zanda; Gianluigi Forloni; Mauro Tettamanti; Ugo Lucca

    Background: Evidence supports an independent association be- tween plasma total homocysteine concentrations and the risk of vascular disease. Recent epidemiologic studies reappraised the possibility that vascular risk factors might play a role in the patho- genesis not only of vascular dementia (VaD) but also of Alzheimer disease (AD). Objective: The objective was to investigate the relations of mild cognitive impairment,

  6. Microbial production of vitamin B12 antimetabolites. IV. Isolation and identification of 4-keto-5-amino-6-hydroxyhexanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Perlman, K L; Schömer, U; Williams, T H; Perlman, D

    1981-05-01

    4-Keto-5-amino-6-hydroxyhexanoic acid was isolated from Bacillus cereus 102804 fermentations and found to inhibit the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, when grown in a chemically defined medium. The mechanism appeared to be the inhibition of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase. The Ki value of 4-keto-5-amino-6-hydroxyhexanoic acid in an enzyme preparation of Propionibacterium shermanii was 0.72 microM. Similar test conditions with 4-keto-5-aminohexanoic acid resulted in Ki of 12.1 microM. In both cases competitive inhibition was found. The structure of 4-keto-5-amino-6-hydroxyhexanoic acid was determined. PMID:6792174

  7. Plasma Levels of B Vitamins and Colorectal Cancer Risk: The Multiethnic Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Marchand, Loïc Le; White, Kami K.; Nomura, Abraham M.Y.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Selhub, Jacob S.; Tiirikainen, Maarit; Goodman, Marc T.; Murphy, Suzanne P.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kolonel, Laurence N.

    2010-01-01

    B vitamins, such as folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12, play an important role as co-enzymes in one-carbon metabolism and may affect colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. We aimed to comprehensively investigate the relationships of plasma folate, pyridoxal-5’-phosphate (PLP, the active form of vitamin B6), vitamin B12, methylmalonic acid, homocysteine and cysteine with CRC risk, accounting for suspected modifiers [alcohol intake, MTHFR C677T genotype and plasma C-reactive protein (CRP)] and potential confounders. We conducted a case-control study nested within the Multiethnic Cohort study and analyzed prospectively collected blood samples from 224 incident CRC cases and 411 controls matched on age, sex, race/ethnicity, study site, date/time of blood draw, and hours of fasting. We found an inverse association between plasma PLP levels and CRC, with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for increasing quartiles of 1.00, 0.84 (0.51–1.40), 0.62 (0.37–1.03), 0.49 (0.29–0.83), p trend: 0.009. This association was not explained by an association with plasma folate, appeared to be stronger at low levels of alcohol intake and among individuals with the MTHFR 677TT genotype, and was independent of plasma CRP levels. An inverse association with plasma folate was also observed among individuals with a low level of alcohol intake. These data suggest an independent role for vitamin B6 in reducing CRC risk. PMID:19661077

  8. Vitamin B Complex

    MedlinePLUS

    ... risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. JAMA . 2010;303:1077-1083. Lin J, Lee ... K, Helzlsouer KJ, Comstock GW, et al. A prospective study on folate, B12, and pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (B6) ...

  9. Stability of vitamins in premixes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabrijela Tav?ar-Kalcher; Anton Vengušt

    2007-01-01

    The stability of Vitamins A, E, and K3 in premixes during storage in controlled conditions was studied over a period of one year. Analysis on vitamins content was performed at the beginning of the study and after 3, 6, and 12 months. The effect of the added choline chloride on the vitamin stability was also examined. All vitamins were more

  10. Vitamin D physiology.

    PubMed

    Lips, P

    2006-09-01

    Vitamin D3 is synthesized in the skin during summer under the influence of ultraviolet light of the sun, or it is obtained from food, especially fatty fish. After hydroxylation in the liver into 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and kidney into 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), the active metabolite can enter the cell, bind to the vitamin D-receptor and subsequently to a responsive gene such as that of calcium binding protein. After transcription and translation the protein is formed, e.g. osteocalcin or calcium binding protein. The calcium binding protein mediates calcium absorption from the gut. The production of 1,25(OH)2D is stimulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and decreased by calcium. Risk factors for vitamin D deficiency are premature birth, skin pigmentation, low sunshine exposure, obesity, malabsorption and advanced age. Risk groups are immigrants and the elderly. Vitamin D status is dependent upon sunshine exposure but within Europe, serum 25(OH)D levels are higher in Northern than in Southern European countries. Severe vitamin D deficiency causes rickets or osteomalacia, where the new bone, the osteoid, is not mineralized. Less severe vitamin D deficiency causes an increase of serum PTH leading to bone resorption, osteoporosis and fractures. A negative relationship exists between serum 25(OH)D and serum PTH. The threshold of serum 25(OH)D, where serum PTH starts to rise is about 75nmol/l according to most surveys. Vitamin D supplementation to vitamin D-deficient elderly suppresses serum PTH, increases bone mineral density and may decrease fracture incidence especially in nursing home residents. The effects of 1,25(OH)2D and the vitamin D receptor have been investigated in patients with genetic defects of vitamin D metabolism and in knock-out mouse models. These experiments have demonstrated that for active calcium absorption, longitudinal bone growth and the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts both 1,25(OH)2D and the vitamin D receptor are essential. On the other side, bone mineralization can occur by high ambient calcium concentration, so by high doses of oral calcium or calcium infusion. The active metabolite 1,25(OH)2D has its effects through the vitamin D receptor leading to gene expression, e.g. the calcium binding protein or osteocalcin or through a plasma membrane receptor and second messengers such as cyclic AMP. The latter responses are very rapid and include the effects on the pancreas, vascular smooth muscle and monocytes. Muscle cells contain vitamin D receptor and several studies have demonstrated that serum 25(OH)D is related to physical performance. The active metabolite 1,25(OH)2D has an antiproliferative effect and downregulates inflammatory markers. Extrarenal synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D occurs under the influence of cytokines and is important for the paracrine regulation of cell differentiation and function. This may explain that vitamin D deficiency can play a role in the pathogenesis of auto-immune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and diabetes type 1, and cancer. In conclusion, the active metabolite 1,25(OH)2D has pleiotropic effects through the vitamin D receptor and vitamin D responsive elements of many genes and on the other side rapid non-genomic effects through a membrane receptor and second messengers. Active calcium absorption from the gut depends on adequate formation of 1,25(OH)2D and an intact vitamin D receptor. Bone mineralization mainly depends on ambient calcium concentration. Vitamin D metabolites may play a role in the prevention of auto-immune disease and cancer. PMID:16563471

  11. Modifying effects of vitamin e on chlorpyrifos toxicity in atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Olsvik, Pål A; Berntssen, Marc H G; Søfteland, Liv

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate how vitamin E (alpha tocopherol) may ameliorate the toxicity of the pesticide chlorpyrifos in Atlantic salmon. Freshly isolated hepatocytes were exposed to vitamin E, chlorpyrifos or a combination of vitamin E and chlorpyrifos (all 100 ?M). Transcriptomics (RNA-seq) and metabolomics were used to screen for effects of vitamin E and chlorpyrifos. By introducing vitamin E, the number of upregulated transcripts induced by chlorpyrifos exposure was reduced from 941 to 626, while the number of downregulated transcripts was reduced from 901 to 742 compared to the control. Adding only vitamin E had no effect on the transcriptome. Jak-STAT signaling was the most significantly affected pathway by chlorpyrifos treatment according to the transcriptomics data. The metabolomics data showed that accumulation of multiple long chain fatty acids and dipeptides and amino acids in chlorpyrifos treated cells was partially alleviated by vitamin E treatment. Significant interaction effects between chlorpyrifos and vitamin E were seen for 15 metabolites, including 12 dipeptides. The antioxidant had relatively modest effects on chlorpyrifos-induced oxidative stress. By combining the two data sets, the study suggests that vitamin E supplementation prevents uptake and accumulation of fatty acids, and counteracts inhibited carbohydrate metabolism. Overall, this study shows that vitamin E only to a moderate degree modifies chlorpyrifos toxicity in Atlantic salmon liver cells. PMID:25774794

  12. Modifying Effects of Vitamin E on Chlorpyrifos Toxicity in Atlantic Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Olsvik, Pål A.; Berntssen, Marc H. G.; Søfteland, Liv

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate how vitamin E (alpha tocopherol) may ameliorate the toxicity of the pesticide chlorpyrifos in Atlantic salmon. Freshly isolated hepatocytes were exposed to vitamin E, chlorpyrifos or a combination of vitamin E and chlorpyrifos (all 100 ?M). Transcriptomics (RNA-seq) and metabolomics were used to screen for effects of vitamin E and chlorpyrifos. By introducing vitamin E, the number of upregulated transcripts induced by chlorpyrifos exposure was reduced from 941 to 626, while the number of downregulated transcripts was reduced from 901 to 742 compared to the control. Adding only vitamin E had no effect on the transcriptome. Jak-STAT signaling was the most significantly affected pathway by chlorpyrifos treatment according to the transcriptomics data. The metabolomics data showed that accumulation of multiple long chain fatty acids and dipeptides and amino acids in chlorpyrifos treated cells was partially alleviated by vitamin E treatment. Significant interaction effects between chlorpyrifos and vitamin E were seen for 15 metabolites, including 12 dipeptides. The antioxidant had relatively modest effects on chlorpyrifos-induced oxidative stress. By combining the two data sets, the study suggests that vitamin E supplementation prevents uptake and accumulation of fatty acids, and counteracts inhibited carbohydrate metabolism. Overall, this study shows that vitamin E only to a moderate degree modifies chlorpyrifos toxicity in Atlantic salmon liver cells. PMID:25774794

  13. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Minerals Vitamins are organic substances (made by plants or animals), minerals are inorganic elements that come ... earth; soil and water and are absorbed by plants. Animals and humans absorb minerals from the plants ...

  14. Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and vegetables rather than taking supplements. Fresh-squeezed orange juice or fresh-frozen concentrate is a better pick than ready-to-drink orange juice. The fresh juice contains more active vitamin ...

  15. Vitamin D Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... produce excess amounts of vitamin D, such as sarcoidosis or some forms of lymphoma (because immune cells ... hormone or when there are diseases, such as sarcoidosis or some lymphomas , that can make 1,25- ...

  16. Vitamin B1

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sound: No High score: Yes Credits » Chicken Farm Game - Why do we need vitamin B1? - What food ... What is the disease beriberi? This fast-paced game relies on a keen knowledge of food containing ...

  17. Facts about Vitamin C

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of parsley provides 5 mg of vitamin C. Credits: MKucova/iStock/Thinkstock.com Table 1. Recommended daily ... fulfill the daily needs of an adult woman. Credits: Viktar Malyshchyts/iStock/Thinkstock.com Figure 2. All ...

  18. B Vitamins Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Is there anything else I should know? A person may sometimes be diagnosed and treated for a B vitamin deficiency based upon clinical findings and a response to treatment, rather than testing. For instance, if ...

  19. Multiple vitamin overdose

    MedlinePLUS

    Muller AA, Henretig FM. The vitamins. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap ...

  20. 17 CFR 240.12b-12 - Requirements as to paper, printing and language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Requirements as to paper, printing and language. 240.12b-12 Section 240.12b-12...Requirements as to paper, printing and language. (a) Statements and reports shall...and submissions must be in the English language, except as otherwise provided by...

  1. 17 CFR 270.8b-12 - Requirements as to paper, printing and language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Requirements as to paper, printing and language. 270.8b-12 Section 270.8b-12...Requirements as to paper, printing and language. (a) Registration statements and...statements and reports shall be in the English language. If any exhibit or other paper or...

  2. An all-purpose building block: B12N12 fullerene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. L.; He, T.; Yang, G. W.

    2012-02-01

    We have theoretically shown that the boron nitride fullerene cage B12N12 is an all-purpose building block for fabricating multifarious BN nanotubes. Firstly, we investigated the stability and structural of the boron nitride fullerene cage B12N12 and the polymerized derivatives obtained from it. Interestingly we found out that two B12N12 cages can spontaneously form one BN nanotube with two closed ends through the structural transformation when one cage meets another. These results indicated that the fullerene B12N12 can be polymerized to build various remarkable polymers through the spontaneous structural transformation when they are together, which all have planer or tridimensional shapes with a hollow tubular structure, even at the juncture of the coalesced B12N12. Simultaneously, after the structure optimization, the quadrangles at the juncture of the coalesced B12N12 disappear to form a perfect surface only composed of hexagons. Then, we calculated the energy of all the considered nanostructures. The polymerization of the fullerene B12N12 is exothermic and thus can form very stable derivative polymers. These theoretical conclusions stimulate us to use the fullerene B12N12 as an all-purpose building block to construct various BN nanostructures for purpose of fundamental research and potential applications.

  3. The effect of high levels of fat, choline, vitamin B12, and vitamin E on the occurrence of fatty livers in caged layers

    E-print Network

    Smith, Daniel Newton

    1959-01-01

    ??? ????? ??? ?? ??????? ?? ? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ????? l?? ?????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ?^2 ??? ?????????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ?r????? ? ) 0 ??? ?? ??? ???????????? ????? ???? ???????????? ???? 3...

  4. Vitamin D Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Alshishtawy, Moeness Moustafa

    2012-01-01

    Recently, scientists have generated a strong body of evidence providing new information about the preventive effect of vitamin D on a broad range of disorders. This evidence suggests that vitamin D is much more than a nutrient needed for bone health; it is an essential hormone required for regulation of a large number of physiological functions. Sufficient concentration of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is essential for optimising human health. This article reviews the present state-of-the-art knowledge about vitamin D’s status worldwide and refers to recent articles discussing some of the general background of vitamin D, including sources, benefits, deficiencies, and dietary requirements, especially in pregnancy. They offer evidence that vitamin D deficiency could be a major public health burden in many parts of the world, mostly because of sun deprivation. The article also discusses the debate about optimal concentration of circulating serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and explores different views on the amount of vitamin D supplementation required to achieve and maintain this concentration. PMID:22548132

  5. Plutonium uptake by marine phytoplankton in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, N.S.; Olson, B.L.; Bowen, V.T.

    1980-09-01

    At environmentally realistic atom concentrations /sup 237/Pu tracer was used to examine Pu uptake by unialgla cultures of Thalassiosira pseudonana (live and dead), Thalassiosira sp., and Platymonas sp., as well as by glass particles. Live or dead cells and glass particles accumulated Pu at similar rates, indicating that initial uptake was a passive phenomenon. Uptake was strongly affected by the nature of particle surfaces, but much less by composition of the media. Cells from rapidly growing cultures took up more Pu, than did those from late log or senescent cultures. Acid-washed glass took up more Pu, faster, than did unwashed glass. Cells accumulated more Pu from uv-treated seawater than from seawater untreated or enriched with f/50-level EDTA or f/50 vitamins; from complete f/50 medium uptake was even less, as with f/50 trace metals + EDTA. After a shot uptake Pu was 25% removable in tracer-free media, but after 3 days of uptake none was removable in seawater or exometabolite media, and only 15% in f/50-level EDTA. The data support the hypothesis that Pu in marine environments associates with suspended particles that could act as vertical vectors for this element.

  6. 25(OH) Vitamin D is Associated with Greater Muscle Strength in Healthy Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi, Adam S.; Parker, Beth A.; Capizzi, Jeffrey A.; Clarkson, Priscilla M.; Pescatello, Linda S.; White, C. Michael; Thompson, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and muscle strength in 419 healthy men and women over a broad age range (20-76 years of age). Methods Isometric and isokinetic strength of the arms and legs was measured using computerized dynamometry and its relation to vitamin D was tested in multivariate models controlling for age, gender, resting heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body mass index (BMI), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max,), physical activity counts, and season of vitamin D measurement. Results Vitamin D was significantly associated with arm and leg muscle strength when controlling for age and gender. When controlling for other covariates listed above, vitamin D remained directly related to both isometric and isokinetic arm strength but only to isometric leg strength. Conclusion These data suggests that there may be a differential effect of vitamin D on upper and lower body strength. The mechanism for this difference remains unclear but could be related to differences in androgenic effects or to differences in vitamin D receptor expression. Our study supports a direct relationship between vitamin D and muscle strength and suggests that vitamin D supplementation be evaluated to determine if it is an effective therapy to preserve muscle strength in adults. PMID:22895376

  7. Vitamin E: A Dark Horse at the Crossroad of Cancer Management

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, Eduardo; Ghosh, Rita

    2014-01-01

    It appears that the story on vitamin E and its role in human health remains incomplete. It is apparent that vitamin E supplementation involves many variables, some of which include its uptake from the intestine, the preference for ?-tocopherol, transport by tocopherol specific proteins and lipid transporters and the differential metabolism of different vitamin E isoforms. The fundamental differences within population genetics can have significant implications for the effect that dietary supplementation might have on human health. When evaluating the efficacy of vitamin E prophylactic or therapeutic use in previous and future studies, it is critical to consider dosage to be administered, form of vitamin E and source (such as whether from synthetic or purified from natural sources). Further studies are needed to determine the effects of all vitamin E isoforms on cell growth, tumorigenicity, to clarify its possible use as an adjuvant to existing chemotherapeutics. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene (ATBC) Cancer Prevention Study Group and Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) studies along with the numerous studies of vitamin E should help guide the next chapter of vitamin E research. PMID:23919929

  8. Vitamin E: a dark horse at the crossroad of cancer management.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Eduardo; Ghosh, Rita

    2013-10-01

    It appears that the story on vitamin E and its role in human health remains incomplete. It is apparent that vitamin E supplementation involves many variables, some of which include its uptake from the intestine, the preference for ?-tocopherol, transport by tocopherol specific proteins and lipid transporters and the differential metabolism of different vitamin E isoforms. The fundamental differences within population genetics can have significant implications for the effect that dietary supplementation might have on human health. When evaluating the efficacy of vitamin E prophylactic or therapeutic use in previous and future studies, it is critical to consider dosage to be administered, form of vitamin E and source (such as whether from synthetic or purified from natural sources). Further studies are needed to determine the effects of all vitamin E isoforms on cell growth, tumorigenicity, to clarify its possible use as an adjuvant to existing chemotherapeutics. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene (ATBC) Cancer Prevention Study Group and Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) studies along with the numerous studies of vitamin E should help guide the next chapter of vitamin E research. PMID:23919929

  9. Vitamin D and innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jeremiah; Gallo, Richard L

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D's role in bone health has been well established. Recently, studies have identified additional roles of vitamin D in the immune system, cardiovascular system, and cancer prevention. The effect of vitamin D on the immune system is particularly relevant to the dermatologist in that it has implications for atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and skin cancer. However, there is much disagreement on a dose of vitamin D that is both safe and effective as both ultraviolet exposure and certain vitamin D-rich foods come with unwanted consequences. This review aims to update the dermatologist on the roles of vitamin D in the immune system, the safety and dose of different sources, and risk factors for vitamin D deficiency that may necessitate supplementation. Immune consequences of vitamin D status represent one additional aspect that illustrates how guidelines for supplementation are needed and will only be useful clinically if they are presented in context with validated controlled clinical trials. PMID:20136905

  10. Vitamins and Minerals during Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... added to your dashboard . Vitamins and minerals during pregnancy Your body uses vitamins, minerals and other nutrients ... certain foods. Which nutrients are most important during pregnancy? All nutrients are important, but these six play ...

  11. Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hoax? Updated:Feb 26,2014 Can vitamin and mineral supplements really make you healthier? Overwhelmed by the towering shelves of vitamin and mineral supplements in the grocery store? There are so ...

  12. 25-hydroxy vitamin D test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... food absorption Use of certain medicines, including phenytoin, phenobarbital, and rifampin Low vitamin D levels are more ... Heaney RP. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer ... in exclusively breast-fed infants . J Pediatr 1985;107(3):372- ...

  13. Mechanisms for the prevention of vitamin E excess.

    PubMed

    Traber, Maret G

    2013-09-01

    The liver is at the nexus of the regulation of lipoprotein uptake, synthesis, and secretion, and it is the site of xenobiotic detoxification by cytochrome P450 oxidation systems (phase I), conjugation systems (phase II), and transporters (phase III). These two major liver systems control vitamin E status. The mechanisms for the preference for ?-tocopherol relative to the eight naturally occurring vitamin E forms largely depend upon the liver and include both a preferential secretion of ?-tocopherol from the liver into the plasma for its transport in circulating lipoproteins for subsequent uptake by tissues, as well as the preferential hepatic metabolism of non-?-tocopherol forms. These mechanisms are the focus of this review. PMID:23505319

  14. Mechanisms for the prevention of vitamin E excess

    PubMed Central

    Traber, Maret G.

    2013-01-01

    The liver is at the nexus of the regulation of lipoprotein uptake, synthesis, and secretion, and it is the site of xenobiotic detoxification by cytochrome P450 oxidation systems (phase I), conjugation systems (phase II), and transporters (phase III). These two major liver systems control vitamin E status. The mechanisms for the preference for ?-tocopherol relative to the eight naturally occurring vitamin E forms largely depend upon the liver and include both a preferential secretion of ?-tocopherol from the liver into the plasma for its transport in circulating lipoproteins for subsequent uptake by tissues, as well as the preferential hepatic metabolism of non-?-tocopherol forms. These mechanisms are the focus of this review. PMID:23505319

  15. Vitamin D: A millenium perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael F. Holick

    2003-01-01

    VitaminDisoneoftheoldesthormonesthathavebeenmadeintheearliestlifeformsforover750million years. Phytoplankton, zooplankton, and most plants and animals that are exposed to sunlight have the capacity to make vitaminD.VitaminDiscriticallyimportantforthedevelopment,growth,andmaintenanceofahealthyskeletonfrombirth until death. The major function of vitamin D is to maintain calcium homeostasis. It accomplishes this by increasing the efficiency of the intestine to absorb dietary calcium. When there is inadequate calcium in the diet to satisfy the body's calcium

  16. Molecular Structure of Vitamin U

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-13

    Vitamin U is not a vitamin. Vitamins are essential nutrients that cannot be synthesized (either at all or in sufficient quantities) by a given organism and therefore must be taken with food for the organism's continued good health. The term "vitamin U" was coined because the compound is very effetive in the medical treatment of gastric ulcers. It is found in raw cabbage leaves and other green vegetables.

  17. Vitamin C-sulfate inhibits mineralization in chondrocyte cultures: a caveat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boskey, A. L.; Blank, R. D.; Doty, S. B.

    2001-01-01

    Differentiating chick limb-bud mesenchymal cell micro-mass cultures routinely mineralize in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum, antibiotics, 4 mM inorganic phosphate (or 2.5 mM beta-glycerophosphate), 0.3 mg/ml glutamine and either 25 microg/ml vitamin C or 5-12 microg/ml vitamin C-sulfate. The failure of these cultures to produce a mineralized matrix (assessed by electron microscopy, 45Ca uptake and Fourier transform infrared microscopy) led to the evaluation of each of these additives. We report here that the "stable" vitamin C-sulfate (ascorbic acid-2-sulfate) causes increased sulfate incorporation into the cartilage matrix. Furthermore, the release of sulfate from the vitamin C derivative appears to be responsible for the inhibition of mineral deposition, as demonstrated in cultures with equimolar amounts of vitamin C and sodium sulfate.

  18. Vitamin C-sulfate inhibits mineralization in chondrocyte cultures: a caveat.

    PubMed

    Boskey, A L; Blank, R D; Doty, S B

    2001-04-01

    Differentiating chick limb-bud mesenchymal cell micro-mass cultures routinely mineralize in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum, antibiotics, 4 mM inorganic phosphate (or 2.5 mM beta-glycerophosphate), 0.3 mg/ml glutamine and either 25 microg/ml vitamin C or 5-12 microg/ml vitamin C-sulfate. The failure of these cultures to produce a mineralized matrix (assessed by electron microscopy, 45Ca uptake and Fourier transform infrared microscopy) led to the evaluation of each of these additives. We report here that the "stable" vitamin C-sulfate (ascorbic acid-2-sulfate) causes increased sulfate incorporation into the cartilage matrix. Furthermore, the release of sulfate from the vitamin C derivative appears to be responsible for the inhibition of mineral deposition, as demonstrated in cultures with equimolar amounts of vitamin C and sodium sulfate. PMID:11334711

  19. Vitamin D: Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Christakos, Sylvia; Ajibade, Dare V.; Dhawan, Puneet; Fechner, Adam J.; Mady, Leila J.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis The biologically active metabolite of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D3, affects mineral homeostasis and has numerous other diverse physiological functions including effects on growth of cancer cells and protection against certain immune disorders. This chapter reviews the role of vitamin D hydroxylases in providing a tightly regulated supply of 1,25(OH)2D3. The role of extrarenal 1?(OH)ase in placenta and macrophages is also discussed as well as regulation of the hydroxylases and vitamin D hydroxylases in aging and chronic kidney disease. Understanding specific factors involved in regulating the hydroxylases may lead to the design of drugs that can selectively modulate the hydroxylases. The ability to alter levels of these enzymes would have therapeutic potential for the treatment of various diseases including bone loss disorders and certain immune diseases. PMID:20511049

  20. Vitamins and mast cells.

    PubMed

    Anogeianaki, A; Castellani, M L; Tripodi, D; Toniato, E; De Lutiis, M A; Conti, F; Felaco, P; Fulcheri, M; Theoharides, T C; Galzio, R; Caraffa, A; Antinolfi, P; Cuccurullo, C; Ciampoli, C; Felaco, M; Cerulli, G; Pandolfi, F; Sabatino, G; Neri, G; Shaik-Dasthagirisaheb, Y B

    2010-01-01

    The immune system is a highly complex, intricately regulated group of cells whose integrated function is essential to health. The mast cell inflammatory response is characterized by an early phase with massive discharge of mediators stored in cytoplasmic secretory granules. Through multigranular/compound exocytosis and a late phase that involves generation of arachidonic acid metabolites and de novo synthesis of cytokines/chemokines and growth factors. Vitamins have been shown to have a protective effect on the body's immune cells. Vitamin C and E are necessary in allergic disease treatment where mast cells are involved. In addition, ascorbic acid and pyridoxine are useful compounds for the treatment of inflammatory disorder of the respiratory airways. Here we revisited the inter-relationship between vitamins and mast cells. PMID:21244748

  1. Vitamin D in rheumatoid arthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurizio Cutolo; Kati Otsa; Maria Uprus; Sabrina Paolino; Bruno Seriolo

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the cells of the immune system and the fact that activated dendritic cells produce the vitamin D hormone suggested that vitamin D could have immunoregulatory properties. VDR, a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, was identified in mononuclear cells, dendritic cells, antigen-presenting cells, and activated T-B lymphocytes. In synthesis, the

  2. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D requirements have become one of the most highly debated and controversial topics in nutrition. Recommendations for vitamin D intake during pregnancy are a central part of this discussion. The publication of a controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women by Hollis and cow...

  3. 29 CFR 780.403 - Employee basis of exemption under section 13(b)(12).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That Is Exempted From the Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(12) § 780.403 Employee basis of...

  4. 29 CFR 780.403 - Employee basis of exemption under section 13(b)(12).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That Is Exempted From the Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(12) § 780.403 Employee basis of...

  5. 29 CFR 780.403 - Employee basis of exemption under section 13(b)(12).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That Is Exempted From the Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(12) § 780.403 Employee basis of...

  6. [Assessment of efficiency of dietotherapy with addition of a vitamin-mineral complex in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2].

    PubMed

    Lapik, I A; Sokol'nikov, A A; Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Sentsova, T B; Plotnikova, O A

    2014-01-01

    The influence of diet inclusion of vitamin and mineral complex (VMC), potassium and magnesium in the form of asparaginate on micronutrient status, body composition and biochemical parameters in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) has been investigated. 120 female patients with DM2 and obesity of I-III degree (mean age - 58 +/- 6 years) have been included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups: main group (n = 60) and control group (n = 60). For 3 weeks patients of both groups received a low-calorie diet (1600 kcal/day). Patients of the main group received VMC, providing an additional intake of vitamins C and E (100-120% RDA), beta-carotene (40% RDA), nicotinamide (38% RDA), pantothenic acid and biotin (60% RDA), vitamins B12, B2 and folic acid (75-83% RDA), vitamins B1 and B6 (160-300% RDA), zinc (100% RDA) and chromium (400% RDA), and also received magnesium (17.7% RDA) and potassium (9.4% RDA) in the form of asparaginate. Body composition, biochemical parameters and micronutrient status (blood serum level of vitamins C, D, B6, B12, folate, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, phosphorus) were evaluated in all patients before and after the 3-week course of diet therapy. After the low-calorie diet therapy average body weight reduction was 4.2 +/- 0.2 kg in the main group, and 4.4 +/- 0.1 kg in the control group, without statistically significant differences between groups. Statistically significant decrease of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose concentration in blood serum was registered in both groups. It should be noted that in the control group glycemia decreased on 1.2 +/- 0.1 mmol/l, while the main group showed a decrease on 1.8 +/- 0.1 (p < 0.05) to normal values (5.4 +/- 0.1 mmol/l). Initial assessment of vitamin and mineral status revealed that most patients were optimal supplied with vitamins and minerals. After the dietotherapy significant increase of vitamin C, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, potassium, magnesium, calcium, zinc and phosphorus concentration in blood serum was observed in patients receiving VMC. While in the control group statistically significant decrease of vitamin C, magnesium, zinc and phosphorus concentration in blood serum after the treatment was revealed. The obtained data shows the necessity of addition of the vitamin-mineral complex to the diet of patients with DM2 and obesity. PMID:25300112

  7. Plasma homocysteine and B vitamins levels in Nigerian children with nephrotic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Orimadegun, Bose Etaniamhe; Orimadegun, Adebola Emmanuel; Ademola, Adebowale Dele; Agbedana, Emmanuel Oluyemi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Available data on plasma homocysteine level in patients with nephrotic syndrome (NS) are controversial with increased, decreased and unchanged values reported. Therefore, plasma homocysteine and serum B vitamins in Nigerian children with NS were assessed in this study Methods Fasting blood samples were analysed for plasma homocysteine, serum folate and B vitamins in 42 children with NS and 42 age and sex-matched healthy controls in this case control study. Data were compared between NS and control using t test and Chi square. Relationships were tested with regression analysis with p set at 0.05. Results Prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia, low folate and cyanocobalamin in NS was 57.1%, 14.3% and 9.5% respectively. The mean homocysteine level was significantly higher in NS than control (11.3±2.6µmol/L versus 5.5±2.3µmol/L). Also, NS had lower folate and cyanocobalamin than control: 9.1±3.9ng/mL versus 11.2±3.1ng/dL and 268.5±95.7pg/mL versus 316±117.2pg/mL respectively. Weak but significant correlation between homocysteine and serum albumin (r = 0.347), folate (r = -0.607) and vitamin B12 (r = -0.185) were found in the NS group. Significant relationship was also found between homocysteine and vitamin B12 (ß = -0.64, 95% CI = -1.20, -0.08) after controlling for folate and vitamin B6 levels. Conclusion Clinically important hyperhomocysteinaemia and low B vitamins occur in Nigerian children with nephrotic syndrome. This data suggest that potential usefulness of folate and vitamin B supplementation for reducing high homocysteine levels in nephrotic syndrome need to be further investigated PMID:25404967

  8. ?-Carotene Is an Important Vitamin A Source for Humans123

    PubMed Central

    Grune, Tilman; Lietz, Georg; Palou, Andreu; Ross, A. Catharine; Stahl, Wilhelm; Tang, Guangweng; Thurnham, David; Yin, Shi-an; Biesalski, Hans K.

    2010-01-01

    Experts in the field of carotenoids met at the Hohenheim consensus conference in July 2009 to elucidate the current status of ?-carotene research and to summarize the current knowledge with respect to the chemical properties, physiological function, and intake of ?-carotene. The experts discussed 17 questions and reached an agreement formulated in a consensus answer in each case. These consensus answers are based on published valid data, which were carefully reviewed by the individual experts and are justified here by background statements. Ascertaining the impact of ?-carotene on the total dietary intake of vitamin A is complicated, because the efficiency of conversion of ?-carotene to retinol is not a single ratio and different conversion factors have been used in various surveys and following governmental recommendations within different countries. However, a role of ?-carotene in fulfilling the recommended intake for vitamin A is apparent from a variety of studies. Thus, besides elucidating the various functions, distribution, and uptake of ?-carotene, the consensus conference placed special emphasis on the provitamin A function of ?-carotene and the role of ?-carotene in the realization of the required/recommended total vitamin A intake in both developed and developing countries. There was consensus that ?-carotene is a safe source of vitamin A and that the provitamin A function of ?-carotene contributes to vitamin A intake. PMID:20980645

  9. Vitamin D and gene networks in human osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    van de Peppel, Jeroen; van Leeuwen, Johannes P. T. M.

    2014-01-01

    Bone formation is indirectly influenced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) through the stimulation of calcium uptake in the intestine and re-absorption in the kidneys. Direct effects on osteoblasts and bone formation have also been established. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in osteoblasts and 1,25D3 modifies gene expression of various osteoblast differentiation and mineralization-related genes, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALPL), osteocalcin (BGLAP), and osteopontin (SPP1). 1,25D3 is known to stimulate mineralization of human osteoblasts in vitro, and recently it was shown that 1,25D3 induces mineralization via effects in the period preceding mineralization during the pre-mineralization period. For a full understanding of the action of 1,25D3 in osteoblasts it is important to get an integrated network view of the 1,25D3-regulated genes during osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. The current data will be presented and discussed alluding to future studies to fully delineate the 1,25D3 action in osteoblast. Describing and understanding the vitamin D regulatory networks and identifying the dominant players in these networks may help develop novel (personalized) vitamin D-based treatments. The following topics will be discussed in this overview: (1) Bone metabolism and osteoblasts, (2) Vitamin D, bone metabolism and osteoblast function, (3) Vitamin D induced transcriptional networks in the context of osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. PMID:24782782

  10. Vitamin C Origin

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update (; )

    2003-02-24

    Vitamin C is a key nutrient in the human diet, and strawberries are one of the best sources of it. In this Science Update, you'll hear about a scientist who's trying to tap into the secrets of the strawberry to make other plants more nutritious.

  11. Vitamin E and Cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protection by vitamin E against free radical-induced DNA mutations appears not to be an effective occurrence. On the other hand, in vitro evidence that different tocopherols slow down cell proliferation is an accepted observation. However, such an event may not be sufficient to result in beneficial...

  12. Psoriasis and vitamin A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Rollman; A. Vahlquist

    1985-01-01

    The vitamin-A status of 107 patient with psoriasis and 37 healthy controls was investigated. The mean serum level of retinol-binding protein (RBP) was normal in the 79 patients with chronic plaque psoriasis covering 25% or less of the skin surface. In the 28 patients with more extensive plaque lesions or pustular\\/ erythrodermic psoriasis, the mean serum RBP level was significantly

  13. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the roles of calcium and vitamin D in bone health. Calcium is required for the bone formation phase of bone remodeling and it also affects bone mass through its impact on the remodeling rate. Typically, about 5 nmol (200 mg) of calcium is removed from the adult skeleton and ...

  14. Vitamin and mineral requirements

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition Second edition Please go to the Table and mineral requirements in human nutrition : report of a joint FAO/WHO expert consultation, Bangkok, Thailand REQUIREMENTS IN HUMAN NUTRITION iv 2.2.4 Risk factors 22 2.2.5 Morbidity and mortality 23 2.3 Units

  15. Vitamin D in preventive medicine.

    PubMed

    Pilz, Stefan; Gaksch, Martin; Hartaigh, Bríain Ó; Tomaschitz, Andreas; März, Winfried

    2015-02-01

    The global burden of vitamin D deficiency is of great concern for public health. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown that vitamin D supplementation reduces fractures, falls, and mortality. These findings are, however, not universally accepted and there exists certain controversy regarding the potential benefits of vitamin D. Whereas vitamin D might also be relevant for extra-skeletal diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, or infections, the recommended Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are solely based on skeletal effects. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) range from 600 to 800 international units (IU) of vitamin D per day, corresponding to a 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L). Consequently, there exists a substantial gap between the RDA and the actual high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in general populations, particularly among the elderly. Therefore, achieving the RDA will require additional efforts including food fortification, vitamin D supplementation and health campaigns. PMID:25667507

  16. Vitamin D and neurocognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Schlögl, Mathias; Holick, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, emerging evidence has linked vitamin D not only to its known effects on calcium and bone metabolism, but also to many chronic illnesses involving neurocognitive decline. The importance of vitamin D3 in reducing the risk of these diseases continues to increase due to the fact that an increasing portion of the population in developed countries has a significant vitamin D deficiency. The older population is at an especially high risk for vitamin D deficiency due to the decreased cutaneous synthesis and dietary intake of vitamin D. Recent studies have confirmed an association between cognitive impairment, dementia, and vitamin D deficiency. There is a need for well-designed randomized trials to assess the benefits of vitamin D and lifestyle interventions in persons with mild cognitive impairment and dementia. PMID:24729696

  17. Differential and Isomer-Specific Modulation of Vitamin A Transport and the Catalytic Activities of the RBP Receptor by Retinoids

    PubMed Central

    Kassai, Miki; Ter-Stepanian, Mariam; Sun, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Retinoids are vitamin A derivatives with diverse biological functions. Both natural and artificial retinoids have been used as therapeutic reagents to treat human diseases, but not all retinoid actions are understood mechanistically. Plasma retinol binding protein (RBP) is the principal and specific carrier of vitamin A in the blood. STRA6 is the membrane receptor for RBP that mediates cellular vitamin A uptake. The effects of retinoids or related compounds on the receptor’s vitamin A uptake activity and its catalytic activities are not well understood. In this study, we dissected the membrane receptor-mediated vitamin A uptake mechanism using various retinoids. We show that a subset of retinoids strongly stimulates STRA6-mediated vitamin A release from holo-RBP. STRA6 also catalyzes the exchange of retinol in RBP with certain retinoids. The effect of retinoids on STRA6 is highly isomer-specific. This study provides unique insights into the RBP receptor’s mechanism and reveals that the vitamin A transport machinery can be a target of retinoid-based drugs. PMID:23811822

  18. [The phenomenon of vitamin D].

    PubMed

    Gruber, Beata M

    2015-01-01

    The receptor of vitamin D (VDR) is present in most non-skeletal human cells, suggesting its role beyond the bone and calcium metabolism. The relationship between vitamin D and the respiratory tract is a consequence of its activity in the immune system. Some gastrointestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, coeliac disease, liver, pancreas or cardiac diseases, lead to vitamin D deficiency. Many studies indicate a correlation between vitamin D and diabetes. VDR and 1?-hydroxylase have been detected in the cutaneous capillary vessels, endothelium, vascular smooth muscles, myocytes and cardiac fibroblasts. The influence of vitamin D on the expression of genes related to the vascular walls implies its role in the pathomechanisms of vascular diseases and the cardiovascular system. Due to the VDR detected in most immunocompetent cells, calcitriol can modulate the congenital and acquired immune system. The correlation between vitamin D and cancer development is also not surprising because of many functions which vitamin D has in the organism. The vitamin D-regulated genes encode the proteins which participate in differentiation, proliferation or apoptosis. This paper aims to focus on the less well known roles of vitamin D in the organism, especially considering that most "sun consumers" know only its antirachitic and bone reinforcing action. So, this article may be surprising, and first of all it should convince everyone to vitamin D supplemention. PMID:25614680

  19. Vitamin Supplementation as Possible Prophylactic Treatment against Migraine with Aura and Menstrual Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Siew Hua

    2015-01-01

    Migraine is the most common form of headache disorder globally. The etiology of migraine is multifactorial, with genetic components and environmental interactions considered to be the main causal factors. Some researchers postulate that deficits in mitochondrial energy reserves can cause migraine or an increase in homocysteine levels can lead to migraine attacks; therefore, vitamins could play a vital role in migraine prevention. For instance, riboflavin influences mitochondrial dysfunction and prevents migraine. Genes such as flavoenzyme 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), especially the C677T variant, have been associated with elevated plasma levels of homocysteine and migraine with aura. Homocysteine catalyzation requires the presence of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid, which can decrease the severity of migraine with aura, making these vitamins potentially useful prophylactic agents for treating migraine with aura. Menstrual migraine, on the other hand, is associated with increased prostaglandin (PG) levels in the endometrium, indicating a role for vitamin E, which is an anti-PG. Vitamin C can also be used as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species for treating neurogenic inflammation in migraine patients. This paper reviews possible therapies based on vitamin supplementation for migraine prophylaxis, focusing on migraine with aura and menstrual migraine.

  20. B vitamin status, dietary intake and length of stay in a sample of elderly rehabilitation patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. O’Leary; V. M. Flood; P. Petocz; M. Allman-Farinelli; Samir Samman

    2011-01-01

    Objectives  To investigate the relationships between previous diet, biomarkers of selected B vitamins, nutritional status and length of\\u000a stay.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Cross sectional study. Setting: Geriatric rehabilitation patients, Sydney, Australia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Participants  Fifty two consenting patients with normal serum creatinine levels and no dementia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Measurements  Serum vitamin B12, plasma vitamin B6, serum and erythrocyte folate, homocysteine and methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations;\\u000a dietary intake using a validated