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1

Toward Quantitative "In Vivo Biochemistry" with Fluorescence Fluctuation Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Quantitative description of protein dynamics and interactions in vivo with temporal and spatial resolution is a key step in dissecting molecular mechanisms in cell biology. Fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS) has recently emerged as a powerful in vivo tool for assessing molecular concentration and movement and formation of hetero- and homo-oligomeric complexes. This article discusses point FFS-based analysis methods that have proven useful to cell biologists, focusing on the kinds of information they provide, their pros and cons, and the basic instrumentation required. Along the way, we describe briefly a few recent examples where these analyses have helped address important biological questions. PMID:21160072

2010-01-01

2

Fibered confocal spectroscopy and multicolor imaging system for in vivo fluorescence analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the design and implementation of spectroscopic and multicolor imaging capabilities into a fibered confocal fluorescence microscope (FCFM) already capable of in vivo imaging. The real time imaging device and the high resolution fiber probe make this system the first reported capable of performing multi color detection in the field of FCFM. The advantages of the system will allow in vivo morphological and functional imaging. Preliminary experiments were carried out in tissue samples to demonstrate the potential of the technique. The quality of the axial sectioning achieved in the confocal fluorescence spectroscopy mode is demonstrated experimentally, and applications to multicolor imaging are shown.

Jean, Florence; Bourg-Heckly, Genevieve; Viellerobe, Bertrand

2007-04-01

3

In vivo quantification of chromophore concentration using fluorescence differential path length spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an optical method based on fluorescence spectroscopy for measuring chromophore concentrations in vivo. Fluorescence differential path length spectroscopy (FPDS) determines chromophore concentration based on the fluorescence intensity corrected for absorption. The concentration of the photosensitizer m-THPC (Foscan®) was studied in vivo in normal rat liver, which is highly vascularized and therefore highly absorbing. Concentration estimates of m-THPC measured by FDPS on the liver are compared with chemical extraction. Twenty-five rats were injected with 0.3 mg/kg m-THPC. In vivo optical concentration measurements were performed on tissue 3, 24, 48, and 96 h after m-THPC administration to yield a 10-fold variation in tissue concentration. After the optical measurements, the liver was harvested for chemical extraction. FDPS showed good correlation with chemical extraction. FDPS also showed a correlation between m-THPC fluorescence and blood volume fraction at the two shortest drug-light intervals. This suggests different compartmental localization of m-THPC for different drug-light intervals that can be resolved using fluorescence spectroscopy. Differences in measured m-THPC concentration between FDPS and chemical extraction are related to the interrogation volume of each technique; ~0.2 mm3 and ~102 mm3, respectively. This indicates intra-animal variation in m-THPC distribution in the liver on the scale of the FDPS sampling volume.

Kruijt, Bastiaan; Kascakova, Slavka; de Bruijn, Henriette S.; van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, Angelique; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; Robinson, Dominic J.; Amelink, Arjen

2009-05-01

4

Intrinsic photosensitizer fluorescence measured using multi-diameter single-fiber spectroscopy in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantification of fluorescence in vivo is complicated by the influence of tissue optical properties on the collected fluorescence signal. When tissue optical properties in the measurement volume are quantified, one can obtain the intrinsic fluorescence, which equals the product of fluorophore absorption coefficient and quantum yield. We applied this method to in vivo single-fiber fluorescence spectroscopy measurements on mouse tongue, skin, liver, and oral squamous cell carcinoma, where we detected intrinsic fluorescence spectra of the photosensitizers chlorin e6 and Bremachlorin at t=[3,4.5,6,24,48] h incubation time. We observed a tissue-dependent maximum of 35% variation in the total correction factor over the visible wavelength range. Significant differences in spectral shape over time between sensitizers were observed. Although the wavelength position of the fluorescence intensity maximum for ce6 shifted to the red, Bremachlorin showed a blue shift. Furthermore, the Bremachlorin peak appeared to be broader than the ce6 fluorescence peak. Intrinsic fluorescence intensity, which can be related to photosensitizer concentration, was decreasing for all time points but showed significantly more Bremachlorin present compared to ce6 at long incubation times. Results from this study can be used to define an optimal treatment protocol for Bremachlorin-based photodynamic therapy.

van Leeuwen-van Zaane, Floor; Gamm, Ute A.; van Driel, Pieter B. A. A.; Snoeks, Thomas J.; de Bruijn, Henriette S.; van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, Angelique; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; Löwik, Clemens W.; Amelink, Arjen; Robinson, Dominic J.

2014-01-01

5

In vivo characterization of myocardial infarction using fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the feasibility of using combined fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to characterize a myocardial infarct at different developing stages. An animal study is conducted using rats with surgically induced myocaridal infarction (MI). In vivo fluorescence spectra at 337-nm excitation and diffuse reflectance between 400 and 900 nm are measured from the heart. Spectral acquisition is performed: 1. for normal heart tissue; 2. for the area immediately surrounding the infarct; and 3. for the infarcted tissue itself, one, two, three, and four weeks into MI development. Histological and statistical analyses are used to identify unique pathohistological features and spectral alterations associated with the investigated regions. The main alterations (p<0.05) in diffuse reflectance spectra are identified primarily between 450 and 600 nm. The dominant fluorescence alterations are increases in peak fluorescence intensity at 400 and 460 nm. The extent of these spectral alterations is related to the duration of the infarction. The findings of this study support the concept that optical spectroscopy could be useful as a tool to noninvasively determine the in vivo pathophysiological features of a myocardial infarct and its surrounding tissue, thereby providing real-time feedback to surgeons during various surgical interventions for MI.

Ti, Yalin; Chen, Poching; Lin, Wei-Chiang

2010-05-01

6

Noninvasive fluorescence excitation spectroscopy for the diagnosis of oral neoplasia in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence excitation spectroscopy (FES) is an emerging approach to cancer detection. The goal of this pilot study is to evaluate the diagnostic potential of FES technique for the detection and characterization of normal and cancerous oral lesions in vivo. Fluorescence excitation (FE) spectra from oral mucosa were recorded in the spectral range of 340 to 600 nm at 635 nm emission using a fiberoptic probe spectrofluorometer to obtain spectra from the buccal mucosa of 30 sites of 15 healthy volunteers and 15 sites of 10 cancerous patients. Significant FE spectral differences were observed between normal and well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (WDSCC) oral lesions. The FE spectra of healthy volunteers consists of a broad emission band around 440 to 470 nm, whereas in WDSCC lesions, a new primary peak was seen at 410 nm with secondary peaks observed at 505, 540, and 580 nm due to the accumulation of porphyrins in oral lesions. The FE spectral bands of the WDSCC lesions resemble the typical absorption spectra of a porphyrin. Three potential ratios (I410/I505, I410/I540, and I410/I580) were calculated from the FE spectra and used as input variables for a stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) for normal and WDSCC groups. Leave-one-out (LOO) method of cross-validation was performed to check the reliability on spectral data for tissue characterization. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were determined for normal and WDSCC lesions from the scatter plot of the discriminant function scores. It was observed that diagnostic algorithm based on discriminant function scores obtained by SLDA-LOO method was able to distinguish WDSCC from normal lesions with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 100%. Results of the pilot study demonstrate that the FE spectral changes due to porphyrin have a good diagnostic potential; therefore, porphyrin can be used as a native tumor marker.

Ebenezar, Jeyasingh; Ganesan, Singaravelu; Aruna, Prakasarao; Muralinaidu, Radhakrishnan; Renganathan, Kannan; Saraswathy, Thillai Rajasekaran

2012-09-01

7

Fibered confocal spectroscopy and multicolor imaging system for in vivo fluorescence analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the design and implementation of spectroscopic and multicolor imaging capabilities into a fibered confocal fluorescence microscope (FCFM) already capable of in vivo imaging. The real time imaging device and the high resolution fiber probe make this system the first reported capable of performing multi color detection in the field of FCFM. The advantages of the system will allow

Florence Jean; Genevieve Bourg-Heckly; Bertrand Viellerobe

2007-01-01

8

In vivo detection of membrane protein expression using surface plasmon enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy (SPFS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface plasmon enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy (SPFS) was applied for the detection of expression and functional incorporation of integral membrane proteins into plasma membranes of living cells in real time.A vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) tagged mutant of photoreceptor bovine rhodopsin was generated for high level expression with the semliki forest virus (SFV) system. Adherent baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells were cultivated

Simone S. Krupka; Birgit Wiltschi; Ute Reuning; Kerstin Hölscher; Masahiko Hara; Eva-Kathrin Sinner

2006-01-01

9

Ex vivo optical coherence tomography and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy imaging of murine gastrointestinal tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (LIF) have separately been found to have clinical potential in identifying human gastrointestinal (GI) pathologies, yet their diagnostic capability in mouse models of human disease is unknown. We combine the two modalities to survey the GI tract of a variety of mouse strains and sample dysplasias and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

Lida Hariri; Norman Wade; David Besselsen; Urs Utzinger; Eugene Gerner; Jennifer Barton

2005-01-01

10

In vivo detection of epileptic brain tissue using static fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy are used to detect histopathological abnormalities of an epileptic brain in a human subject study. Static diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectra are acquired from normal and epileptic brain areas, defined by electrocorticography (ECoG), from pediatric patients undergoing epilepsy surgery. Biopsy specimens are taken from the investigated sites within an abnormal brain. Spectral analysis reveals significant differences in diffuse reflectance spectra and the ratio of fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectra from normal and epileptic brain areas defined by ECoG and histology. Using these spectral differences, tissue classification models with accuracy above 80% are developed based on linear discriminant analysis. The differences between the diffuse reflectance spectra from the normal and epileptic brain areas observed in this study are attributed to alterations in the static hemodynamic characteristics of an epileptic brain, suggesting a unique association between the histopathological and the hemodynamic abnormalities in an epileptic brain.

Yadav, Nitin; Bhatia, Sanjiv; Ragheb, John; Mehta, Rupal; Jayakar, Prasanna; Yong, William; Lin, Wei-Chiang

2013-02-01

11

In vivo quantification of photosensitizer concentration using fluorescence differential path-length spectroscopy: influence of photosensitizer formulation and tissue location  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In vivo measurement of photosensitizer concentrations may optimize clinical photodynamic therapy (PDT). Fluorescence differential path-length spectroscopy (FDPS) is a non-invasive optical technique that has been shown to accurately quantify the concentration of Foscan® in rat liver. As a next step towards clinical translation, the effect of two liposomal formulations of mTHPC, Fospeg® and Foslip®, on FDPS response was investigated. Furthermore, FDPS was evaluated in target organs for head-and-neck PDT. Fifty-four healthy rats were intravenously injected with one of the three formulations of mTHPC at 0.15 mg kg-1. FDPS was performed on liver, tongue, and lip. The mTHPC concentrations estimated using FDPS were correlated with the results of the subsequent harvested and chemically extracted organs. An excellent goodness of fit (R2) between FDPS and extraction was found for all formulations in the liver (R2=0.79). A much lower R2 between FDPS and extraction was found in lip (R2=0.46) and tongue (R2=0.10). The lower performance in lip and in particular tongue was mainly attributed to the more layered anatomical structure, which influences scattering properties and photosensitizer distribution.

de Visscher, Sebastiaan A. H. J.; Witjes, Max J. H.; Kaš?áková, Slávka; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; Robinson, Dominic J.; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.; Amelink, Arjen

2012-06-01

12

In vivo Lens Fluorescence Photography  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are reporting a new, objective and quantitative method for monitoring age-related molecular changes in the human ocular lens in vivo, as expressed by increases in at least two (nontryptophan) fluorescence wavelengths. These data correlate with previously reported in vitro lens fluorescence changes which are associated with the aging process. This method will also detect alterations in lenticular fluorescence caused

S. L. Lerman; O. Hockwin; V. Dragomirescu

1981-01-01

13

Nanosecond fluorescence spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

This article is a summary of a short course lecture given in conjunction with the 1984 Nuclear Science Symposium. Measuring systems for nanosecond fluorescence spectroscopy using single-photon counting techniques are presented. These involve systems based on relaxation-type spark gap light pulser and synchronously pumped mode-locked dye lasers. Furthermore, typical characteristics and optimization of operating conditions of the critical components responsible for the system time resolution are discussed. A short comparison of the most important deconvolution methods for numerical analysis of experimental data is given particularly with respect to the signal-to-noise ratio of the fluorescence signal. 22 refs., 8 figs.

Leskovar, B.

1985-03-01

14

Fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy of tissue autofluorescence in normal and diseased colon measured ex vivo using a fiber-optic probe  

PubMed Central

We present an ex vivo study of temporally and spectrally resolved autofluorescence in a total of 47 endoscopic excision biopsy/resection specimens from colon, using pulsed excitation laser sources operating at wavelengths of 375 nm and 435 nm. A paired analysis of normal and neoplastic (adenomatous polyp) tissue specimens obtained from the same patient yielded a significant difference in the mean spectrally averaged autofluorescence lifetime ?570 ± 740 ps (p = 0.021, n = 12). We also investigated the fluorescence signature of non-neoplastic polyps (n = 6) and inflammatory bowel disease (n = 4) compared to normal tissue in a small number of specimens. PMID:24575345

Coda, Sergio; Thompson, Alex J.; Kennedy, Gordon T.; Roche, Kim L.; Ayaru, Lakshmana; Bansi, Devinder S.; Stamp, Gordon W.; Thillainayagam, Andrew V.; French, Paul M. W.; Dunsby, Chris

2014-01-01

15

Combined fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo quantification of cancer biomarkers in low- and high-grade glioma surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomarkers are indicators of biological processes and hold promise for the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Gliomas represent a heterogeneous group of brain tumors with marked intra- and inter-tumor variability. The extent of surgical resection is a significant factor influencing post-surgical recurrence and prognosis. Here, we used fluorescence and reflectance spectral signatures for in vivo quantification of multiple biomarkers during glioma surgery, with fluorescence contrast provided by exogenously-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) following administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid. We performed light-transport modeling to quantify multiple biomarkers indicative of tumor biological processes, including the local concentration of PpIX and associated photoproducts, total hemoglobin concentration, oxygen saturation, and optical scattering parameters. We developed a diagnostic algorithm for intra-operative tissue delineation that accounts for the combined tumor-specific predictive capabilities of these quantitative biomarkers. Tumor tissue delineation achieved accuracies of up to 94% (specificity = 94%, sensitivity = 94%) across a range of glioma histologies beyond current state-of-the-art optical approaches, including state-of-the-art fluorescence image guidance. This multiple biomarker strategy opens the door to optical methods for surgical guidance that use quantification of well-established neoplastic processes. Future work would seek to validate the predictive power of this proof-of-concept study in a separate larger cohort of patients.

Valdés, Pablo A.; Kim, Anthony; Leblond, Frederic; Conde, Olga M.; Harris, Brent T.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Wilson, Brian C.; Roberts, David W.

2011-11-01

16

In vivo validation of a bimodal technique combining time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrasonic backscatter microscopy for diagnosis of oral carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Abstract. Tissue diagnostic features generated by a bimodal technique integrating scanning time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) and ultrasonic backscatter microscopy (UBM) are investigated in an in vivo hamster oral carcinoma model. Tissue fluorescence is excited by a pulsed nitrogen laser and spectrally and temporally resolved using a set of filters/dichroic mirrors and a fast digitizer, respectively. A 41-MHz focused transducer (37-?m axial, 65-?m lateral resolution) is used for UBM scanning. Representative lesions of the different stages of carcinogenesis show that fluorescence characteristics complement ultrasonic features, and both correlate with histological findings. These results demonstrate that TRFS-UBM provide a wealth of co-registered, complementary data concerning tissue composition and structure as it relates to disease status. The direct co-registration of the TRFS data (sensitive to surface molecular changes) with the UBM data (sensitive to cross-sectional structural changes and depth of tumor invasion) is expected to play an important role in pre-operative diagnosis and intra-operative determination of tumor margins. PMID:23117798

Sun, Yang; Xie, Hongtao; Liu, Jing; Lam, Matthew; Chaudhari, Abhijit J.; Zhou, Feifei; Bec, Julien; Yankelevich, Diego R.; Dobbie, Allison; Tinling, Steven L.; Gandour-Edwards, Regina F.; Monsky, Wayne L.; Gregory Farwell, D.; Marcu, Laura

2012-01-01

17

In vivo native fluorescence spectroscopy and nicotinamide adinine dinucleotide\\/flavin adenine dinucleotide reduction and oxidation states of oral submucous fibrosis for chemopreventive drug monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Native fluorescence spectroscopy has shown potential to characterize and diagnose oral malignancy. We aim at extending the native fluorescence spectroscopy technique to characterize normal and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) patients under pre- and post-treated conditions, and verify whether this method could also be considered in the monitoring of therapeutic prognosis noninvasively. In this study, 28 normal subjects and 28 clinically

Shanmugam Sivabalan; C. Ponranjini Vedeswari; Sadaksharam Jayachandran; Dornadula Koteeswaran; Chidambaranathan Pravda; Prakasa Rao Aruna; Singaravelu Ganesan

2010-01-01

18

In vivo native fluorescence spectroscopy and nicotinamide adinine dinucleotide/flavin adenine dinucleotide reduction and oxidation states of oral submucous fibrosis for chemopreventive drug monitoring.  

PubMed

Native fluorescence spectroscopy has shown potential to characterize and diagnose oral malignancy. We aim at extending the native fluorescence spectroscopy technique to characterize normal and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) patients under pre- and post-treated conditions, and verify whether this method could also be considered in the monitoring of therapeutic prognosis noninvasively. In this study, 28 normal subjects and 28 clinically proven cases of OSF in the age group of 20 to 40 years are diagnosed using native fluorescence spectroscopy. The OSF patients are given dexamethasone sodium phosphate and hyaluronidase twice a week for 6 weeks, and the therapeutic response is monitored using fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence emission spectra of normal and OSF cases of both pre- and post-treated conditions are recorded in the wavelength region of 350 to 600 nm at an excitation wavelength of 330 nm. The statistical significance is verified using discriminant analysis. The oxidation-reduction ratio of the tissue is also calculated using the fluorescence emission intensities of flavin adenine dinucleotide and nicotinamide adinine dinucleotide at 530 and 440 nm, respectively, and they are compared with conventional physical clinical examinations. This study suggests that native fluorescence spectroscopy could also be extended to OSF diagnosis and therapeutic prognosis. PMID:20210484

Sivabalan, Shanmugam; Vedeswari, C Ponranjini; Jayachandran, Sadaksharam; Koteeswaran, Dornadula; Pravda, Chidambaranathan; Aruna, Prakasa Rao; Ganesan, Singaravelu

2010-01-01

19

Single molecule fluorescence saturation spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saturation spectroscopy is a powerful method to investigate photophysical parameters of single fluorescent molecules. Nevertheless, the impact of a gradual increase, over a broad range, of the laser excitation on the intramolecular dynamics is not completely understood, particularly concerning their fluorescence emission (the so-called brightness). As we have presented in a previous paper [1], we interpret the evolution of the brightness with the laser power by cascade absorption of two and three photons within a five-level molecular system. This multi-photon consecutive absorption leads us to reconsider the common expression of the saturation curve of fluorescent molecule. Furthermore, this multi-photon absorption process also affects the observation volume of microscope. So, in this paper we propose to interpret the size increase of the confocal observation volume according to simulations based upon two often used expressions of the Point Spread Functions (PSF) in fluorescence microscopy.

Jaffiol, Rodolphe; Winckler, Pascale

2014-03-01

20

Fluorescence Spectroscopy in a Shoebox  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes construction of a simple, inexpensive fluorometer. It utilizes a flashlight or sunlight source, highlighter marker ink, bowl of water with mirror as dispersing element, and colored cellophane sheets as filters. The human eye is used as a detector. This apparatus is used to demonstrate important concepts related to fluorescence spectroscopy. Using ink from a highlighter marker, one can demonstrate the difference between light scattering and fluorescence emission, the need for an intense light source, phenomenon of the Stokes shift, the choice of filters, the preferred geometry of excitation source and emission detector, and the low detection limits that can be achieved by fluorescence measurements. By reflecting the fluorescence emission from a compact disk, it can be seen that the light emitted by molecules is not monochromatic. Furthermore, a spectrofluorometer is constructed using gratings made from a DVD or a CD. The shoebox fluorometer and spectrofluorometer can serve as useful teaching aids in places where commercial instruments are not available, and it avoids the black box problem of modern instruments.

Farooq Wahab, M.

2007-08-01

21

Supercritical Angle Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

We explore the potential of a supercritical angle (SA) objective for fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). This novel microscope objective combines tight focusing by an aspheric lens with strong axial confinement of supercritical angle fluorescence collection by a parabolic mirror lens, resulting in a small detection volume. The tiny axial extent of the detection volume features an excellent surface sensitivity, as is demonstrated by diffusion measurements in model membranes with an excess of free dye in solution. All SA-FCS measurements are directly compared to standard confocal FCS, demonstrating a clear advantage of SA-FCS, especially for diffusion measurements in membranes. We present an extensive theoretical framework that allows for accurate and quantitative evaluation of the SA-FCS correlation curves. PMID:17827221

Ries, Jonas; Ruckstuhl, Thomas; Verdes, Dorinel; Schwille, Petra

2008-01-01

22

Fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy for guided therapy of brain tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the potential of time-resolved laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TR-LIFS) as intra-operative tool for the delineation of brain tumor from normal brain. Forty two patients undergoing glioma (WHO grade I-IV) surgery were enrolled in this study. A TR-LIFS prototype apparatus (gated detection, fast digitizer) was used to induce in-vivo fluorescence using a pulsed N2 laser (337 nm excitation,

Pramod V. Butte; Adam N. Mamelak; Miriam Nuno; Serguei I. Bannykh; Keith L. Black; Laura Marcu

2011-01-01

23

Glucose Recognition in Vitro Using Fluorescent Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Diabetes is a disease that affects over 16 million people in the USA at a cost of 100 billion dollars annually. The ability to regulate insulin delivery in people with Type 1 diabetes is imperative as is the need to manage glucose levels in all people with this disease. Our current method for monitoring glucose is a (FDA approved) minimally invasive enzymatic sensor that can measure glucose levels in vivo for three days. We are focused on developing a noninvasive implantable glucose sensor that will be interrogated by an external device. The material must be robust, easy to process, biocompatible and resistant to biofouling. In this Presentation we will discuss the development of a new polymeric matrix that can recognize physiological levels of glucose in vitro using fluorescent spectroscopy.

Noronha, G; Heiss, A M; Reilly, J R; Vachon, Jr, D J; Cary, D R; Zaitseva, N P; Reibold, R A; Lane, S M; Peyser, T A; Satcher, J H

2001-04-25

24

Non-invasive detection of oral cancer using reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy  

E-print Network

In vivo reflectance and fluorescence spectra were collected from patients with oral lesions, as well as healthy volunteers, in order to evaluate the potential of spectroscopy to serve as a non-invasive tool for the detection ...

McGee, Sasha Alanda

2008-01-01

25

Stability of siRNA polyplexes from poly(ethylenimine) and poly(ethylenimine)-g-poly(ethylene glycol) under in vivo conditions: effects on pharmacokinetics and biodistribution measured by Fluorescence Fluctuation Spectroscopy and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) imaging.  

PubMed

In search of optimizing siRNA delivery systems for systemic application, one critical parameter remains their stability in blood circulation. In this study, we have traced pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of each component of siRNA polyplexes formed with polyethylenimine 25 kDa (PEI) or PEGylated PEIs by in vivo real-time gamma camera recording, SPECT imaging, and scintillation counting of blood samples and dissected organs. In vivo behavior of siRNA and polymers were compared and interpreted in the context of in vivo stability of the polyplexes which had been measured by fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS). Both pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of polymer-complexed siRNA were dominated by the polymer. PEGylated polymers and their siRNA polyplexes showed significantly less uptake into liver (13.6-19.7% ID of PEGylated polymer and 9.5-10.2% ID of siRNA) and spleen compared to PEI 25 kDa (liver deposition: 36.2% ID of polymer and 14.6% ID of siRNA). With non-invasive imaging methods we were able to predict both kinetics and deposition in living animals allowing the investigation of organ distribution in real time and at different time points. FFS measurements proved stability of the applied polyplexes under in vivo conditions which explained the different behavior of complexed from free siRNA. Despite their stability in circulation, we observed that polyplexes dissociated upon liver passage. Therefore, siRNA/(PEG-)PEI delivery systems are not suitable for systemic administration, but instead may be useful when the first-pass effect is circumvented, which is the case in local application. PMID:19463870

Merkel, Olivia M; Librizzi, Damiano; Pfestroff, Andreas; Schurrat, Tino; Buyens, Kevin; Sanders, Niek N; De Smedt, Stefaan C; Béhé, Martin; Kissel, Thomas

2009-09-01

26

Extraction of masked fluorescence peaks through synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence spectroscopy has been demonstrated as a viable tool for noting subtle biochemical changes that occur during early-stage cervical cancer progression. Due to multiple fluorophore contributions, the individual fluorophore activities often get masked due to overlapping spectra of neighboring fluorophores. Recently synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy has been demonstrated as an efficient technique for investigation of such non-dominant fluorophores. With synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy individual fluorophore responses are highlighted as sharp peaks by choosing appropriate offsets during signal acquisition. Such peaks may, however be missed due to absorption effects. By correcting the measured synchronous fluorescence spectrum with elastic scattering data, it was observed that the masked fluorophores are highlighted while the broader bands are sharpened. Interestingly, fluorophore activities of protoporphyrin, collagen, NADH, FAD and porphyrin can now be studied using this technique, as compared to only collagen and NADH seen earlier. The results have been verified using tissue phantoms with known fluorophores and scatterers. Use of normalized synchronous spectra has led to enhancement of several fluorophore responses. It was also observed that among the different offsets, the lower ones show sharper features, whereas the larger offsets show a broadband response. Among the different offsets 120nm is found optimal for further investigation.

Devi, Seema; Mozumder, Meghdoot; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Pradhan, Asima

2012-03-01

27

Fluorescent Multiblock ?-Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles for In Vivo Tumor Targeting  

E-print Network

Highly fluorescent multiblock conjugated polymer nanoparticles with folic acid surface ligands are highly effective for bioimaging and in vivo tumor targeting. The targeted nanoparticles were preferentially localized in ...

Ahmed, Eilaf

28

Adaptive optics for fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) yields measurement parameters (number of molecules, diffusion time) that characterize the concentration and kinetics of fluorescent molecules within a supposedly known observation volume. Absolute derivation of concentrations and diffusion constants therefore requires preliminary calibrations of the confocal Point Spread Function with phantom solutions under perfectly controlled environmental conditions. In this paper, we quantify the influence of optical aberrations on single photon FCS and demonstrate a simple Adaptive Optics system for aberration correction. Optical aberrations are gradually introduced by focussing the excitation laser beam at increasing depths in fluorescent solutions with various refractive indices, which leads to drastic depth-dependent bias in the estimated FCS parameters. Aberration correction with a Deformable Mirror stabilizes these parameters within a range of several tens of ?m into the solution. We also demonstrate, both theoretically and experimentally, that the molecular brightness scales as the Strehl ratio squared. PMID:22274266

Leroux, Charles-Edouard; Wang, Irène; Derouard, Jacques; Delon, Antoine

2011-12-19

29

High-Pressure Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate that a novel high-pressure cell is suitable for fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). The pressure cell consists of a single fused silica microcapillary. The cylindrical shape of the capillary leads to refraction of the excitation light, which affects the point spread function of the system. We characterize the influence of these beam distortions by FCS and photon-counting histogram (PCH) analysis and identify the optimal position for fluorescence fluctuation experiments in the capillary. At this position within the capillary, FCS and photon-counting histogram experiments are described by the same equations as used in standard FCS experiments. We report the first experimental realization of fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy under high pressure. A fluorescent dye was used as a model system for evaluating the properties of the capillary under pressure. The autocorrelation function and the photon count distribution were measured in the pressure range from 0 to 300 MPa. The fluctuation amplitude and the diffusion coefficient show a small pressure dependence. The changes of these parameters, which are on the order of 10%, are due to the pressure changes of the viscosity and the density of the aqueous medium. PMID:14507734

Müller, Joachim D.; Gratton, Enrico

2003-01-01

30

Correlation of in vivo photosensitizer fluorescence and photodynamic-therapy-induced depth of necrosis  

E-print Network

Correlation of in vivo photosensitizer fluorescence and photodynamic-therapy-induced depth the depth of necrosis response to photodynamic therapy (PDT) in a murine tumor model. Mice were implanted-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. [DOI: 10.1117/1.1560011] Keywords: spectroscopy; photodynamic therapy; light

Yodh, Arjun G.

31

Fluorescence spectroscopy characteristics of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectroscopic characteristics of autofluorescence for the nasopharyngeal carcinoma in vitro and nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells (CNE cells) were investigated, respectively. The characteristics of fluorescence agree with the results that deduced from the nasopharyngeal carcinoma in vivo, and the optimal excitation-emission wavelength was found at 350-500 nm. Secondly, the selectivity and optimal time for optical diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by using the new photosensitizer of Hematoporphyrin Monomethyl Ether (HMME) has been demonstrated and determined by incubated CNE cells with HMME. The fluorescence emission peaks of 615 and 675 nm characterized the selective accumulation of HMME in CNE cells, and the optimal time for optical diagnostics with HMME was about 140 mins after clinic intravenous administration. Moreover, when the concentration of HMME in CNE cells below 32 ?g/mL, the fluorescence intensity versus HMME concentration reveals an obvious linearity. Finally, the fluorescence intensity of CNE cells increases linearly with concentration over the entire range up to 9.0E+05 cells/mL. These results can be used to helpfully improve the accuracy of optical diagnosis for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Li, Buhong; Zhang, Zhenxi; Xie, Shusen; Lin, Huiyun

2005-01-01

32

Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy  

E-print Network

Using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy, we have developed an algorithm that successfully classifies normal breast tissue, fibrocystic change, fibroadenoma, and infiltrating ductal ...

Fitzmaurice, Maryann

33

In Vivo Blood Characterization from Bioimpedance Spectroscopy of Blood  

E-print Network

In Vivo Blood Characterization from Bioimpedance Spectroscopy of Blood Pooling Tao Dai Department indices such as haematocrit, glucose level and hydration. Current in vivo bioimpedance spectroscopy parameters for many biomedical and clinical monitoring applications. #12;Index Terms Bioimpedance

Adler, Andy

34

Rotationally resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of molecular iodine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibration-electronic spectroscopy of I2 vapor is a common, important experiment in physical chemistry lab courses. We use narrow bandwidth diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) lasers to excite specific rotational levels; these lasers are surprisingly stable and are now available at low cost. We also use efficient miniature fiber-optic spectrometers to resolve rotational fluorescence patterns in a vibrational progression. The resolution enables thorough and accurate analysis of spectroscopic constants for the ground electronic state. The high signal-to-noise ratio, which is easily achieved, also enables students to precisely measure fluorescence band intensities, providing further insight into vibrational wavefunctions and the molecular potential function. We will provide a detailed list of parts for the apparatus as well as modeling algorithms with statistical evaluation to facilitate widespread adoption of these experimental improvements by instructors of intermediate and advanced lab courses.

Lemon, Christopher; Canagaratna, Sebastian; Gray, Jeffrey

2008-03-01

35

Two-Photon Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We will describe a two-photon microscope currently under development at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It is composed of a Coherent Mira 900 tunable, pulsed Titanium:Sapphire laser system, an Olympus Fluoview 300 confocal scanning head, and a Leica DM IRE inverted microscope. It will be used in conjunction with a technique known as fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to study intracellular protein dynamics. We will briefly explain the advantages of the two-photon system over a conventional confocal microscope, and provide some preliminary experimental results.

Zimmerli, Gregory A.; Fischer, David G.

2002-01-01

36

In Vivo Monitoring of Fluorescently Labeled Cancer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole animal in vivo imaging has contributed significantly to the detection of disease progression and drug efficacy for the past several years (1). With the introduction of sensitive imaging instruments, applications in fluorescent imaging have expanded to monitoring tumor cell growth and gene expression. The new fluorescent proteins have improved brightness, photostability and better tissue penetration of signals at a

Eva Barton; Angel Ang; Kevin Francis; Jae-Beom Kim

37

Fluorescent Multiblock ?-Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles for In Vivo Tumor Targeting  

PubMed Central

Highly fluorescent multiblock conjugated polymer nanoparticles with folic acid surface ligands are highly effective for bioimaging and in vivo tumor targeting. The targeted nanoparticles were preferentially localized in tumor cells in vivo, thereby illustrating their potential for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:23794490

Ahmed, Eilaf; Morton, Stephen W.

2014-01-01

38

APD detectors for biological fluorescence spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence spectroscopy is a very convenient and widely used method for studying the molecular background of biological processes [L. Salomé, J.L. Cazeil, A. Lopez, J.F. Tocanne, Eur. Biophys. J. 27 (1998) 391-402]. Chromophores are included in the structure under study and a flash of laser light induces fluorescence (Fluorescence Recovery After Photo-bleaching), the decay of which yields information on the polarity, the speed of rotation, and the speed of diffusion as well as on the temporal and spatial evolution of interactions between molecular species. The method can even be used to study living cells [J.F. Tocanne, L. Cézanne, A. Lopez, Prog. Lipid Res. 33 (1994) 203-237, L. Cezanne, A. Lopez, F. Loste, G. Parnaud, O. Saurel, P. Demange, J.F. Tocanne, Biochemistry 38 (1999) 2779-2786]. This is classically performed with a PM-based system. For biological reasons a decrease of the excitation of the cells is highly desirable. Because the fluorescence response then becomes fainter a significant improvement in detector capability would be welcome. We present here results obtained with an Avalanche Photo Diode (APD)-based system. The small sensitive area of detection allows a very significant improvement in signal/noise ratio, improvement in gain, and the opening-up of a new parameter space. With these new detectors we can begin the study of information transmission between cells through morphine receptors. This work involves both electronics engineers and biophysicists, so results and techniques in both fields will be presented here.

Mazères, S.; Borrel, V.; Magenc, C.; Courrech, J. L.; Bazer-Bachi, R.

2006-11-01

39

In vivo imaging with near-infrared fluorescence lifetime contrast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence imaging is a mainstay of biomedical research, allowing detection of molecular events in both fixed and living cells, tissues and whole animals. Such high resolution fluorescence imaging is hampered by unwanted signal from intrinsic background fluorescence and scattered light. The signal to background ratio can be improved by using extrinsic contrast agents and greatly enhanced by multispectral imaging methods. Unfortunately, these methods are insufficient for deep tissue imaging where high contrast and speedy acquisition are necessary. Fluorescence lifetime (FLT) is an inherent characteristic of each fluorescent species that can be independent of intensity and spectral properties. Accordingly, FLT-based detection provides an additional contrast mechanism to optical measurements. This contrast is particularly important in the near-infrared (NIR) due to relative transparency of tissue as well as the broad absorption and emission spectra of dyes that are active in this region. Here we report comparative analysis of signal distribution of several NIR fluorescent polymethine dyes in living mice and their correlations with lifetimes obtained in vitro using solution models. The FLT data obtained from dyes dissolved in serum albumin solution correlated well with FLTs measured in vivo. Thus the albumin solution model could be used as a good predictive model for in vivo FLT behavior of newly developed fluorescent reporters. Subsequent experiments in vivo, including monitoring slow release kinetics and detecting proteinuria, demonstrate the complementary nature of FLT for fluorescence intensity imaging.

Akers, Walter J.; Berezin, Mikhail Y.; Lee, Hyeran; Achilefu, Samuel

2009-02-01

40

Fluorescent protein engineering by in vivo site-directed mutagenesis  

PubMed Central

Summary In vivo site-directed mutagenesis by ssDNA recombineering is a facile method to change the color of fluorescent proteins without cloning. Two different starting alleles of GFP were targeted for mutagenesis: gfpmut3* residing in the E. coli genome and egfp carried by a bacterial/mammalian dual expression lentiviral plasmid vector. Fluorescent protein spectra were shifted by subtle modification of the chromophore region and residues interacting with the chromophore of the fluorescent protein. Eight different fluorescent proteins (Violeta, Azure, Aqua, Mar, Celeste, Amarillo, Mostaza and Bronze) were isolated and shown to be useful in multicolor imaging and flow cytometry of bacteria and transgenic human stem cells. To make in vivo site-directed mutagenesis more efficient, the recombineering method was optimized using the fluorescence change as a sensitive quantitative assay for recombination. A set of rules to simplify mutant isolation by recombineering is provided. PMID:22639380

Ceballos, Melvys Valledor; Hu, Qinghua; Schiller, Paul; Myers, Richard S.

2012-01-01

41

Optical biopsy fiber-based fluorescence spectroscopy instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Native fluorescence spectroscopy of biomolecules has emerged as a new modality to the medical community in characterizing the various physiological conditions of tissues. In the past several years, many groups have been working to introduce the spectroscopic methods to diagnose cancer. Researchers have successfully used native fluorescence to distinguish cancerous from normal tissue samples in rat and human tissue. We have developed three generations of instruments, called the CD-scan, CD-ratiometer and CD-map, to allow the medical community to use optics for diagnosing tissue. Using ultraviolet excitation and emission spectral measurements on both normal and cancerous tissue of the breast, gynecology, colon, and aerodigestive tract can be separated. For example, from emission intensities at 340 nm to 440 nm (300 nm excitation), a statistically consistent difference between malignant tissue and normal or benign tissue is observed. In order to utilize optical biopsy techniques in a clinical setting, the CD-scan instrument was developed, which allows for rapid and reliable in-vitro and in-vivo florescence measurements of the aerodigestive tract with high accuracy. The instrumentation employs high sensitivity detection techniques which allows for lamp excitation, small diameter optical fiber probes; the higher spatial resolution afforded by the small diameter probes can increase the ability to detect smaller tumors. The fiber optic probes allow for usage in the aerodigestive tract, cervix and colon. Needle based fiber probes have been developed for in-vivo detection of breast cancer.

Katz, Alvin; Ganesan, Singaravelu; Yang, Yuanlong; Tang, Gui C.; Budansky, Yury; Celmer, Edward J.; Savage, Howard E.; Schantz, Stimson P.; Alfano, Robert R.

1996-04-01

42

The standard deviation in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.  

PubMed Central

The standard deviation (SD) in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) has been mostly neglected in applications. However, the knowledge of the correct SD is necessary for an accurate data evaluation, especially when fitting theoretical models to experimental data. In this work, an algorithm is presented that considers the essential features of FCS. It allows prediction of the performance of FCS measurements in various cases, which is important for finding optimal experimental conditions. The program calculates the SD of the experimental autocorrelation function online. This procedure leads to improved parameter estimation, compared to currently used theoretical approximations for the SD. Three methods for the calculation of the SD are presented and compared to earlier analytical solutions (D. E. Koppel. 1974. Phys. Rev. A. 10:1938-1945.), calculation directly from fluorescence intensity values, by averaging several FCS measurements, or by dividing one measurement into a set of shorter data packages. Although the averaging over several measurements yields accurate estimates for the SD, the other two methods are considerably less time consuming, can be run online, and yield comparable results. PMID:11371471

Wohland, T; Rigler, R; Vogel, H

2001-01-01

43

Detecting Nanodomains in Living Cell Membrane by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cell membranes actively participate in numerous cellular functions. Inasmuch as bioactivities of cell membranes are known to depend crucially on their lateral organization, much effort has been focused on deciphering this organization on different length scales. Within this context, the concept of lipid rafts has been intensively discussed over recent years. In line with its ability to measure diffusion parameters with great precision, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) measurements have been made in association with innovative experimental strategies to monitor modes of molecular lateral diffusion within the plasma membrane of living cells. These investigations have allowed significant progress in the characterization of the cell membrane lateral organization at the suboptical level and have provided compelling evidence for the in vivo existence of raft nanodomains. We review these FCS-based studies and the characteristic structural features of raft nanodomains. We also discuss the findings in regards to the current view of lipid rafts as a general membrane-organizing principle.

He, Hai-Tao; Marguet, Didier

2011-05-01

44

Handheld multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging system for in vivo applications  

PubMed Central

There is an increasing interest in the application of fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) for medical diagnosis. Central to the clinical translation of FLIM technology is the development of compact and high-speed clinically compatible systems. We present a handheld probe design consisting of a small maneuverable box fitted with a rigid endoscope, capable of continuous lifetime imaging at multiple emission bands simultaneously. The system was characterized using standard fluorescent dyes. The performance was then further demonstrated by imaging a hamster cheek pouch in vivo, and oral mucosa tissue both ex vivo and in vivo, all using safe and permissible exposure levels. Such a design can greatly facilitate the evaluation of FLIM for oral cancer imaging in vivo. PMID:24688824

Cheng, Shuna; Cuenca, Rodrigo M.; Liu, Boang; Malik, Bilal H.; Jabbour, Joey M.; Maitland, Kristen C.; Wright, John; Cheng, Yi-Shing Lisa; Jo, Javier A.

2014-01-01

45

Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Soft Tissues of the Oral Cavity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study deals with the in vivo measurement of auto-fluorescence from different anatomical sites of oral cavities of healthy volunteers, using a homebuilt Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) Spectroscopy setup. Excitation wave length of 325 nm from a He-Cd laser was used as the source. From the 7 anatomical sites (say buccal mucosa, tongue, palate etc) of each oral cavity of 113 subjects, 1266 fluorescence spectra were recorded. The spectra were analysed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to see the correlation between different sites.

Patil, Ajeetkumar; Unnikrishnan, V. K.; Bernard, Rodney; Pai, Keerthilatha M.; Ongole, Ravikiran; Kartha, V. B.; Chidangil, Santhosh

2011-07-01

46

Fluorescence spectroscopy for noninvasive glucose measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between gold nanoparticles and glucose and its effect on the fluorescence spectrum of nanoparticles were investigated experimentally. It was observed after this interaction the intensity of fluorescence peak becomes weaker and red shifted.

Bagheri, Z.; Massudi, R.; Ghanavi, J.; Latifi, H.

2013-06-01

47

Combined Raman spectroscopy and autofluoresence imaging method for in vivo skin tumor diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy (RS) combined method of in vivo detection of malignant human skin cancer was demonstrated. The fluorescence analysis was used for detection of abnormalities during fast scanning of large tissue areas. In suspected cases of malignancy the Raman spectrum analysis of biological tissue was performed to determine the type of neoplasm. A special RS phase method was proposed for in vivo identification of skin tumor. Quadratic Discriminant Analysis was used for tumor type classification on phase planes. It was shown that the application of phase method provides a diagnosis of malignant melanoma with a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 87%.

Zakharov, V. P.; Bratchenko, I. A.; Myakinin, O. O.; Artemyev, D. N.; Khristoforova, Y. A.; Kozlov, S. V.; Moryatov, A. A.

2014-09-01

48

In vivo Raman spectroscopy of cervix cancers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cervix-cancer is the third most common female cancer worldwide. It is the leading cancer among Indian females with more than million new diagnosed cases and 50% mortality, annually. The high mortality rates can be attributed to late diagnosis. Efficacy of Raman spectroscopy in classification of normal and pathological conditions in cervix cancers on diverse populations has already been demonstrated. Our earlier ex vivo studies have shown the feasibility of classifying normal and cancer cervix tissues as well as responders/non-responders to Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). The present study was carried out to explore feasibility of in vivo Raman spectroscopic methods in classifying normal and cancerous conditions in Indian population. A total of 182 normal and 132 tumor in vivo Raman spectra, from 63 subjects, were recorded using a fiberoptic probe coupled HE-785 spectrometer, under clinical supervision. Spectra were acquired for 5 s and averaged over 3 times at 80 mW laser power. Spectra of normal conditions suggest strong collagenous features and abundance of non-collagenous proteins and DNA in case of tumors. Preprocessed spectra were subjected to Principal Component-Linear Discrimination Analysis (PCLDA) followed by leave-one-out-cross-validation. Classification efficiency of ~96.7% and 100% for normal and cancerous conditions respectively, were observed. Findings of the study corroborates earlier studies and suggest applicability of Raman spectroscopic methods in combination with appropriate multivariate tool for objective, noninvasive and rapid diagnosis of cervical cancers in Indian population. In view of encouraging results, extensive validation studies will be undertaken to confirm the findings.

Rubina, S.; Sathe, Priyanka; Dora, Tapas Kumar; Chopra, Supriya; Maheshwari, Amita; Krishna, C. Murali

2014-03-01

49

Quantitative Determination of DNA-Ligand Binding Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effective use of fluorescence spectroscopy for determining the binding of the intercalcating agent crhidium bromide to DNA is being described. The analysis used simple measurement techniques and hence can be easily adopted by the students for a better understanding.

Healy, Eamonn F.

2007-01-01

50

TOPICAL REVIEW: Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy of biomolecular folding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy is emerging as an important tool for studying biomolecular folding dynamics. Its usefulness stems from its ability to directly map heterogeneities in folding pathways and to provide information about the energy landscape of proteins and ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules. Single-molecule fluorescence techniques relevant for folding studies, including methods for trapping and immobilizing molecules, are described and compared

Gilad Haran

2003-01-01

51

Multiphoton excited fluorescence spectroscopy of biomolecular systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work on the emerging application of multiphoton excitation to fluorescence studies of biomolecular dynamics and structure is reviewed. The fundamental principles and experimental techniques of multiphoton excitation are outlined, fluorescence lifetimes, anisotropy and spectra in membranes, proteins, hydrocarbons, skin, tissue and metabolites are featured, and future opportunities are highlighted.

David J. S. Birch

2001-01-01

52

Multiphoton cascade absorption in single molecule fluorescence saturation spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Saturation spectroscopy is a relevant method to investigate photophysical parameters of single fluorescent molecules. Nevertheless, the impact of a gradual increase, over a broad range, of the laser excitation on the intramolecular dynamics is not completely understood, particularly concerning their fluorescence emission (the so-called brightness). Thus, we propose a comprehensive theoretical and experimental study to interpret the unexpected evolution of the brightness with the laser power taking into account the cascade absorption of two and three photons. Furthermore, we highlight the key role played by the confocal observation volume in fluorescence saturation spectroscopy of single molecules in solution. PMID:23521543

Winckler, Pascale; Jaffiol, Rodolphe

2013-05-01

53

Quantum dots fluorescence quantum yield measured by Thermal Lens Spectroscopy.  

PubMed

An essential parameter to evaluate the light emission properties of fluorophores is the fluorescence quantum yield, which quantify the conversion efficiency of absorbed photons to emitted photons. We detail here an alternative nonfluorescent method to determine the absolute fluorescence quantum yield of quantum dots (QDs). The method is based in the so-called Thermal Lens Spectroscopy (TLS) technique, which consists on the evaluation of refractive index gradient thermally induced in the fluorescent material by the absorption of light. Aqueous dispersion carboxyl-coated cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs samples were used to demonstrate the Thermal Lens Spectroscopy technical procedure. PMID:25103802

Estupiñán-López, Carlos; Dominguez, Christian Tolentino; Cabral Filho, Paulo E; Fontes, Adriana; de Araujo, Renato E

2014-01-01

54

In vivo validation of quantitative frequency domain fluorescence tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a hybrid frequency domain fluorescence tomography and magnetic resonance imaging system (MRI) for small animal imaging. The main purpose of this system is to obtain quantitatively accurate fluorescence concentration and lifetime images using a multi-modality approach. In vivo experiments are undertaken to evaluate the system. We compare the recovered fluorescence parameters with and without MRI structural a priori information. In addition, we compare two optical background heterogeneity correction methods: Born normalization and utilizing diffuse optical tomography (DOT) functional a priori information. The results show that the concentration and lifetime of a 4.2-mm diameter indocyanine green inclusion located 15 mm deep inside a rat can be recovered with less than a 5% error when functional a priori information from DOT and structural a priori information from MRI are utilized.

Lin, Yuting; Ghijsen, Michael; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Gulsen, Gultekin

2012-12-01

55

In vivo validation of quantitative frequency domain fluorescence tomography  

PubMed Central

Abstract. We have developed a hybrid frequency domain fluorescence tomography and magnetic resonance imaging system (MRI) for small animal imaging. The main purpose of this system is to obtain quantitatively accurate fluorescence concentration and lifetime images using a multi-modality approach. In vivo experiments are undertaken to evaluate the system. We compare the recovered fluorescence parameters with and without MRI structural a priori information. In addition, we compare two optical background heterogeneity correction methods: Born normalization and utilizing diffuse optical tomography (DOT) functional a priori information. The results show that the concentration and lifetime of a 4.2-mm diameter indocyanine green inclusion located 15 mm deep inside a rat can be recovered with less than a 5% error when functional a priori information from DOT and structural a priori information from MRI are utilized. PMID:23323291

Lin, Yuting; Ghijsen, Michael; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Gulsen, Gultekin

2012-01-01

56

Confocal fluorescence spectroscopy of subcutaneous cartilage expressing green fluorescent protein versus cutaneous collagen autofluorescence.  

PubMed

Optically monitoring the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the cartilage underlying the skin of a mouse allows tracking the expression of the chondrocyte phenotype. This paper considers how confocal microscopy with spectral detection can sense GFP fluorescence in the cartilage despite light scattering and collagen autofluorescence from the overlying skin. An in vivo experiment tested the abilities of a topical optical fiber measurement and a confocal microscope measurement to detect GFP in cartilage under the skin versus the collagen autofluorescence. An ex vivo experiment tested the ability of a confocal microscope without and with its pinhole to detect a fluorescent microsphere underneath an ex vivo skin layer versus the collagen autofluorescence. In both systems, spectroscopic detection followed by linear analysis allowed spectral discrimination of collagen autofluorescence (M(C)) and the subdermal green fluorescence (M(G)) due to either GFP or the microsphere. Contrast was defined as M(G)/(M(G)+M(C)). The in vivo contrast for GFP using optical fiber and confocal measurements was 0.16 and 0.92, respectively. The ex vivo contrast for a fluorescent microsphere using a confocal system without and with a pinhole was 0.13 and 0.48, respectively. The study demonstrates that a topical optical fiber measurement is affected by collagen autofluorescence, while a confocal microscope can detect subdermal fluorescence while rejecting collagen autofluorescence. PMID:15065888

Gareau, Daniel S; Bargo, Paulo R; Horton, William A; Jacques, Steven L

2004-01-01

57

In vivo lipidomics using single-cell Raman spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

We describe a method for direct, quantitative, in vivo lipid profiling of oil-producing microalgae using single-cell laser-trapping Raman spectroscopy. This approach is demonstrated in the quantitative determination of the degree of unsaturation and transition temperatures of constituent lipids within microalgae. These properties are important markers for determining engine compatibility and performance metrics of algal biodiesel. We show that these factors can be directly measured from a single living microalgal cell held in place with an optical trap while simultaneously collecting Raman data. Cellular response to different growth conditions is monitored in real time. Our approach circumvents the need for lipid extraction and analysis that is both slow and invasive. Furthermore, this technique yields real-time chemical information in a label-free manner, thus eliminating the limitations of impermeability, toxicity, and specificity of the fluorescent probes common in currently used protocols. Although the single-cell Raman spectroscopy demonstrated here is focused on the study of the microalgal lipids with biofuel applications, the analytical capability and quantitation algorithms demonstrated are applicable to many different organisms and should prove useful for a diverse range of applications in lipidomics. PMID:21310969

Wu, Huawen; Volponi, Joanne V.; Oliver, Ann E.; Parikh, Atul N.; Simmons, Blake A.; Singh, Seema

2011-01-01

58

Approaches to localized NMR spectroscopy in vivo  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are developed which allow spatially localized spectra to be obtained from living tissue. The localization methods are noninvasive and exploit the enhanced sensitivity afforded by surface coil probes. Techniques are investigated by computer simulation and experimentally verified by the use of phantom samples. The feasibility and utility of the techniques developed in this research are demonstrated by /sup 31/P spatial localization experiments involving various in vivo organs. In the first part of the thesis, two feasible approaches to localized spectroscopy, which were developed by other laboratories are theoretically analyzed by computer simulation. An alternative approach is provided by the rotating frame zeugmatography experiment which affords chemical-shift spectra displayed as a function of penetration distance into the sample. The further modification of the rotating frame experiment is developed, the Fourier series window (FSW) approach, which utilizes various types of window functions to afford localization in one or a few tissue regions of interest with high sensitivity. Theoretical comparisons with depth pulse methods are also included, along with methods to refine adverse off-resonance behavior.

Garwood, M.G.

1985-01-01

59

Fluorescence spectroscopy of gastrointestinal tumors using ?-ALA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the recent study delta-aminolevulinic acid/Protoporphyrin IX (?-ALA/PpIX) is used as fluorescent marker for dysplasia and tumor detection in esophagus and stomach. The ?-ALA is administered per os six hours before measurements at dose 20mg/kg weight. High-power light-emitting diode at 405 nm is used as an excitation source. Special opto-mechanical device is built to use the light guide of standard video-endoscopic system (Olimpus Corp.). Through endoscopic instrumental channel a fiber is applied to return information about fluorescence to microspectrometer (USB4000, OceanOptics Inc.). The fluorescence detected from tumor sites has very complex spectral origins. It consists of autofluorescence, fluorescence from exogenous fluorophores and re-absorption from the chromophores accumulated in the tissue investigated. Mucosa autofluorescence lies at 450-600 nm region. The fluorescence of PpIX is clearly pronounced at the 630-710 nm region. Deep minima in the tumor fluorescence signals are observed in the region 540-575 nm, related to hemoglobin re-absorption. Such high hemoglobin content is an indication of the tumors neovascularisation and it is clearly pronounced in all dysplastic and tumor sites investigated. The lack of fluorescence peaks in the red spectral area for normal mucosa is an indication for selective accumulation of ?-ALA/PpIX only in abnormal sites and gives high contrast when lesion borders are determined from clinicians during video observation in the process of diagnostic procedure. Very good correlation between fluorescence signals and histology examination results of the lesions investigated is achieved.

Borisova, E. G.; Vladimirov, B. G.; Angelov, I. G.; Avramov, L. A.

2007-03-01

60

Fluorescence lifetime imaging system for in vivo studies.  

PubMed

In this article, a fluorescence lifetime imaging system for small animals is presented. Data were collected by scanning a region of interest with a measurement head, a linear fiber array with fixed separations between a single source fiber and several detection fibers. The goal was to localize tumors and monitor their progression using specific fluorescent markers. We chose a near-infrared contrast agent, Alexa Fluor 750 (Invitrogen Corp., Carlsbad, CA). Preliminary results show that the fluorescence lifetime for this dye was sensitive to the immediate environment of the fluorophore (in particular, pH), making it a promising candidate for reporting physiologic changes around a fluorophore. To quantify the intrinsic lifetime of deeply embedded fluorophores, we performed phantom experiments to investigate the contribution of photon migration effects on observed lifetime by calculating the fluorescence intensity decay time. A previously proposed theoretical model of migration, based on random walk theory, is also substantiated by new experimental data. The developed experimental system has been used for in vivo mouse imaging with Alexa Fluor 750 contrast agent conjugated to tumor-specific antibodies (trastuzumab [Herceptin]). Three-dimensional mapping of the fluorescence lifetime indicates lower lifetime values in superficial breast cancer tumors in mice. PMID:17711778

Hassan, Moinuddin; Riley, Jason; Chernomordik, Victor; Smith, Paul; Pursley, Randall; Lee, Sang Bong; Capala, Jacek; Gandjbakhche, Amir H

2007-01-01

61

Validation of temperature-modulated fluorescence tomography in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To overcome the strong scattering in biological tissue that has long afflicted fluorescence tomography, we have developed a novel technique, "temperature-modulated fluorescence tomography" (TM-FT) to combine the sensitivity of fluorescence imaging with focused ultrasound resolution. TM-FT relies on two key elements: temperature sensitive ICG loaded pluronic nanocapsules we termed ThermoDots and high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). TM-FT localizes the position of the fluorescent ThermoDots by irradiating and scanning a HIFU beam across the tissue while conventional fluorescence tomography measurements are acquired. The HIFU beam produces a local hot spot, in which the temperature suddenly increases changing the quantum efficiency of the ThermoDots. The small size of the focal spot (~1 mm) up to a depth of 6 cm, allows imaging the distribution of these temperature sensitive agents with not only high spatial resolution but also high quantitative accuracy in deep tissue using a proper image reconstruction algorithm. Previously we have demonstrated this technique with a phantom study with ThermoDots sensitive in the 20-25°C range. We recently optimized the ThermoDots for physiological temperatures. In this work, we will demonstrate a new HIFU scanning method which is optimized for in vivo studies. The performance of the system is tested using a phantom that resembles a small animal bearing a small tumor targeted by ThermoDots.

Kwong, Tiffany C.; Nouizi, Farouk; Lin, Yuting; Rajyaguru, Rushi; Nguyen, Trinh; Alptekin, Lara; Sampathkumaran, Uma; Zhu, Yue; Ahmed, Shaaz; Gulsen, Gultekin

2014-02-01

62

Time-resolved spectroscopy of the fluorescence quenching of a donor — acceptor pair by halothane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Donor (anthracene) sensitized acceptor (perylene) fluorescence is quenched more efficiently by halothane than is intrinsic perylene fluorescence. The underlying process of dynamic fluorescence quenching is investigated by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

Sharma, A.; Draxler, S.; Lippitsch, M. E.

1992-04-01

63

Spectroscopy detection of green and red fluorescent proteins in genetically modified plants using a fiber optics system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, fiber optic spectroscopy is developed to detect and quantify recombinant green (EGFP) and red (DsRED) fluorescent proteins in vitro and in vivo. The bacterial expression vectors carrying the coding regions of EGFP and DsRED were introduced into Escherichia coli host cells and fluorescent proteins were produced following induction with IPTG. Soluble EGFP and DsRED proteins were isolated from lysed bacterial cells and serially diluted for quantitative analysis by fiber optic spectroscopy. Fluorescence at the appropriate emission wavelengths could be detected up to 64X dilution for EGFP and 40X dilution for DsRED. To determine the capability of spectroscopy detection in vivo, transgenic potato hairy roots expressing EGFP and DsRED were regenerated. This was achieved by cloning the EGFP and DsRED genes into the plant binary vector, pTMV35S, to create the recombinant vectors pGLOWGreen and pGLOWRed. These latter binary vectors were introduced into Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4T. Infection of potato cells with transformed agrobacteria was used to insert the fluorescent protein genes into the potato genome. Genetically modified potato cells were then regenerated into hairy roots. A panel of transformed hairy roots expressing varying levels of fluorescent proteins was selected by fluorescence microscopy. We are now assessing the capability of spectroscopic detection system for in vivo quantification of green and red fluorescence levels in transformed roots.

Liew, Oi Wah; Asundi, Anand K.; Chen, Jun-Wei; Chew, Yiwen; Yu, Shangjuan; Yeo, Gare H.

2001-05-01

64

MRI-coupled spectrally-resolved fluorescence tomography for in vivo imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unique fluorescence imaging system incorporates multi-channel spectrometer-based optical detection directly into clinical MRI for simultaneous MR and spectrally-resolved fluorescence tomography acquisition in small animal and human breast-sized volumes. A custom designed MRI rodent coil adapted to accommodate optical fibers in a circular geometry for contact mode acquisition provides small animal imaging capabilities, and human breast-sized volumes are imaged using a clinical breast coil modified with an optical fiber patient array. Spectroscopy fibers couple light emitted from the tissue surface to sixteen highly sensitive CCD-based spectrometers operating in parallel. Tissue structural information obtained from standard and contrast enhanced T1-weighted images is used to spatially constrain the diffuse fluorescence tomography reconstruction algorithm, improving fluorescence imaging capabilities qualitatively and quantitatively. Simultaneous acquisition precludes the use of complex co-registration processes. Calibration procedures for the optical acquisition system are reviewed and the imaging limits of the system are investigated in homogeneous and heterogeneous gelatin phantoms containing Indocyanine Green (ICG). Prior knowledge of fluorescence emission spectra is used to de-couple fluorescence emission from residual excitation laser cross-talk. Preliminary in vivo data suggests improved fluorescence imaging in mouse brain tumors using MR-derived spatial priors. U-251 human gliomas were implanted intracranially into nude mice and combined contrast enhanced MRI/fluorescence tomography acquisition was completed at 24 hour intervals over the course of 72 hours after administration of an EGFR targeted NIR fluorophore. Reconstructed images demonstrate an inability to recover reasonable images of fluorescence activity without the use of MRI spatial priors.

Davis, Scott C.; Gibbs-Strauss, Summer L.; Tuttle, Stephen B.; Jiang, Shudong; Springett, Roger; Dehghani, Hamid; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

2008-02-01

65

Ex Vivo and In Vivo Administration of Fluorescent CNA35 Specifically Marks Cardiac Fibrosis.  

PubMed

AbstractCardiac fibrosis is a major hallmark of cardiac diseases. For evaluation of cardiac fibrosis, the development of highly specific and preferably noninvasive methods is desired. Our aim was to evaluate CNA35, a protein known to specifically bind to collagen, as a specific marker of cardiac fibrosis. Fluorescently labeled CNA35 was applied ex vivo on tissue sections of fibrotic rat, mouse, and canine myocardium. After quantification of CNA35, sections were examined with picrosirius red (PSR) and compared to CNA35. Furthermore, fluorescently labeled CNA35 was administered in vivo in mice. Hearts were isolated, and CNA35 labeling was examined in tissue sections. Serial sections were histologically examined with PSR. Ex vivo application of CNA35 showed specific binding to collagen and a high correlation with PSR (Pearson r ?=? .86 for mice/rats and r ?=? .98 for canine; both p < .001). After in vivo administration, CNA35 labeling was observed around individual cardiomyocytes, indicating its ability to penetrate cardiac endothelium. High correlation was observed between CNA35 and PSR (r ?=? .91, p < .001). CNA35 specifically binds to cardiac collagen and can cross the endothelial barrier. Therefore, labeled CNA35 is useful to specifically detect collagen both ex vivo and in vivo and potentially can be converted to a noninvasive method to detect cardiac fibrosis. PMID:25249247

de Jong, Sanne; van Middendorp, Lars B; Hermans, Robin H A; de Bakker, Jacques M T; Bierhuizen, Marti F A; Prinzen, Frits W; van Rijen, Harold V M; Losen, Mario; Vos, Marc A; van Zandvoort, Marc A M J

2014-09-01

66

X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Novel Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on the capabilities and potential of soft x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for the study of the electronic\\u000a structure and chemical bonding of novel materials. The basic principle of x-ray fluorescence measurements using synchrotron\\u000a radiation and the corresponding instrumentation issues are outlined. Particular attention is given to x-ray spectroscopic\\u000a studies of the electronic structure and characterization of nanostructures, thin

E. Z. Kurmaev

2005-01-01

67

Pancreatic tissue assessment using fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of multi-modal optical spectroscopy to detect signals from pancreatic tissue was demonstrated by studying human pancreatic cancer xenografts in mice and freshly excised human pancreatic tumor tissue. Measured optical spectra and fluorescence decays were correlated with tissue morphological and biochemical properties. The measured spectral features and decay times correlated well with expected pathological differences in normal, pancreatitis and adenocarcinoma tissue states. The observed differences between the fluorescence and reflectance properties of normal, pancreatitis and adenocarcinoma tissue indicate a possible application of multi-modal optical spectroscopy to differentiating between the three tissue classifications.

Chandra, Malavika; Heidt, David; Simeone, Diane; McKenna, Barbara; Scheiman, James; Mycek, Mary-Ann

2007-07-01

68

In Vivo Blood Characterization From Bioimpedance Spectroscopy of Blood Pooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization of blood impedance properties is important to estimate clinical diagnostic indexes such as hematocrit, glucose level, and hydration. Current in vivo bioimpedance spectroscopy methods are performed on a body appendage and thus represent a combined measurement of all tissues in the measurement field, rather than the blood individually. This paper describes a novel in vivo measurement technique to calculate

Tao Dai; Andy Adler

2009-01-01

69

Diagnostic fluorescence spectroscopy of oral mucosa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autofluorescence characteristics of normal, dysplastic, and malignant squamous tissues from the oral cavity were measured with a spectrofluorometer in the excitation range of 250 - 500 nm and emission range of 350 - 750 nm. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEM) were obtained from samples collected from patients in the clinic and in the operating room. The same samples were submitted for histopathological examination following spectroscopic measurements. The contour plots obtained from the EEMs of the samples showed consistent differences between normal and abnormal tissues. All the abnormal samples showed enhanced red region (> 600 nm) fluorescence with a prominent peak at 635 nm, when excited by 410 nm light. A ratio contour plot (abnormal/normal) enhanced spectral differences in the red region. A fiber-optic based spectrofluorometer for EEM measurements is being developed for further investigations.

Roy, Krishnendu; Bottrill, Ian; Ingrams, Duncan R.; Pankratov, Michail M.; Rebeiz, Elie E.; Woo, Peak; Kabani, Sadru; Shapshay, Stanley M.; Manoharan, Ramasamy; Itzkan, Irving; Feld, Michael S.

1995-05-01

70

Improved Model of Fluorescence Recovery Expands the Application of Multiphoton Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching in Vivo  

PubMed Central

Abstract Multiphoton fluorescence recovery after photobleaching is a well-established microscopy technique used to measure the diffusion of macromolecules in biological systems. We have developed an improved model of the fluorescence recovery that includes the effects of convective flows within a system. We demonstrate the validity of this two-component diffusion-convection model through in vitro experimentation in systems with known diffusion coefficients and known flow speeds, and show that the diffusion-convection model broadens the applicability of the multiphoton fluorescence recovery after photobleaching technique by enabling accurate determination of the diffusion coefficient, even when significant flows are present. Additionally, we find that this model allows for simultaneous measurement of the flow speed in certain regimes. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the diffusion-convection model in vivo by measuring the diffusion coefficient and flow speed within tumor vessels of 4T1 murine mammary adenocarcinomas implanted in the dorsal skinfold chamber. PMID:19527668

Sullivan, Kelley D.; Sipprell, William H.; Brown, Edward B.; Brown, Edward B.

2009-01-01

71

"FluSpec": A Simulated Experiment in Fluorescence Spectroscopy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "FluSpec" educational software package is a fully contained tutorial on the technique of fluorescence spectroscopy as well as a simulator on which experiments can be performed. The procedure for each of the experiments is also contained within the package along with example analyses of results that are obtained using the software.

Bigger, Stephen W.; Bigger, Andrew S.; Ghiggino, Kenneth P.

2014-01-01

72

Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy based upon two-photon excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a powerful tool for measurement of biological dynamic processes. In this studying, a two-photon excitation fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (TP-FCS) system was set up depending on a part of optical block and detector of the multi-photon excitation fluorescence microscope (MPLFM). The phenomenon "photon-burst" was observed from the TP-FCS system. Meanwhile, the diffusion coefficient of rhodamine B molecule in sucrose aqueous solution was calculated. It was proved that TP-FCS is especially suited for integration into MPEFM accordingly to yield a hybride-technology with the peculiarities of the individual technique and the advantage of mutual synergistic effects. The fusion of both techniques seems to be reasonable and desirable to reduce costs.

Liu, Yafeng; Chen, Tongsheng; Luo, Qingming

2003-12-01

73

Wide-field in vivo background free imaging by selective magnetic modulation of nanodiamond fluorescence  

PubMed Central

The sensitivity and resolution of fluorescence-based imaging in vivo is often limited by autofluorescence and other background noise. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a wide-field background-free imaging technique based on magnetic modulation of fluorescent nanodiamond emission. Fluorescent nanodiamonds are bright, photo-stable, biocompatible nanoparticles that are promising probes for a wide range of in vitro and in vivo imaging applications. Our readily applied background-free imaging technique improves the signal-to-background ratio for in vivo imaging up to 100-fold. This technique has the potential to significantly improve and extend fluorescent nanodiamond imaging capabilities on diverse fluorescence imaging platforms. PMID:24761300

Sarkar, Susanta K.; Bumb, Ambika; Wu, Xufeng; Sochacki, Kem A.; Kellman, Peter; Brechbiel, Martin W.; Neuman, Keir C.

2014-01-01

74

Emerging biomedical applications of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy is presently regarded as a research tool in biochemistry, biophysics, and chemical physics. Advances in laser technology, the development of long-wavelength probes, and the use of lifetime-based methods are resulting in the rapid migration of time-resolved fluorescence to the clinical chemistry lab, to the patient's bedside, to flow cytometers, to the doctor's office, and even to home health care. Additionally, time-resolved imaging is now a reality in fluorescence microscopy, and will provide chemical imaging of a variety of intracellular analytes and/or cellular phenomena. In this overview paper we attempt to describe some of the opportunities available using chemical sensing based on fluorescence lifetimes, and to predict those applications of lifetime-based sensing which are most likely in the near future.

Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Szmacinski, Henryk; Koen, Peter A.

1994-07-01

75

In vivo imaging of tumor angiogenesis using fluorescence confocal videomicroscopy.  

PubMed

Fibered confocal fluorescence in vivo imaging with a fiber optic bundle uses the same principle as fluorescent confocal microscopy. It can excite fluorescent in situ elements through the optical fibers, and then record some of the emitted photons, via the same optical fibers. The light source is a laser that sends the exciting light through an element within the fiber bundle and as it scans over the sample, recreates an image pixel by pixel. As this scan is very fast, by combining it with dedicated image processing software, images in real time with a frequency of 12 frames/sec can be obtained. We developed a technique to quantitatively characterize capillary morphology and function, using a confocal fluorescence videomicroscopy device. The first step in our experiment was to record 5 sec movies in the four quadrants of the tumor to visualize the capillary network. All movies were processed using software (ImageCell, Mauna Kea Technology, Paris France) that performs an automated segmentation of vessels around a chosen diameter (10 ?m in our case). Thus, we could quantify the 'functional capillary density', which is the ratio between the total vessel area and the total area of the image. This parameter was a surrogate marker for microvascular density, usually measured using pathology tools. The second step was to record movies of the tumor over 20 min to quantify leakage of the macromolecular contrast agent through the capillary wall into the interstitium. By measuring the ratio of signal intensity in the interstitium over that in the vessels, an 'index leakage' was obtained, acting as a surrogate marker for capillary permeability. PMID:24056503

Fitoussi, Victor; Faye, Nathalie; Chamming's, Foucauld; Clement, Olivier; Cuenod, Charles-Andre; Fournier, Laure S

2013-01-01

76

Histologic differences between orthotopic xenograft pancreas models affect Verteporfin uptake measured by fluorescence microscopy and spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) that uses the second generation photosensitizer, verteporfin (VP), is a developing therapy for pancreatic cancer. The optimal timing of light delivery related to VP uptake and distribution in pancreatic tumors will be important information to obtain to improve treatment for this intractable disease. In this work we examined uptake and distribution of VP in two orthotopic pancreatic tumors with different histological structure. ASPC-1 (fast-growing) and Panc-1 (slower growing) tumors were implanted in SCID mice and studied when tumors were approximately 100mm3. In a pilot study, these tumors had been shown to differ in uptake of VP using lightinduced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) in vivo and fluorescence imaging ex vivo and that work is extended here. In vivo fluorescence mean readings of tumor and liver increased rapidly up to 15 minutes after photosensitizer injection for both tumor types, and then continued to increase up to 60 minutes post injection to a higher level in ASPC-1 than in Panc-1. There was variability among animals with the same tumor type, in both liver and tumor uptake and no selectivity of tumor over liver. In this work we further examined VP uptake at multiple time points in relation to microvascular density and perfusion, using DiOC7 (to mark blood vessels) and VP fluorescence in the same tissue slices. Analysis of DiOC7 fluorescence indicates that AsPC-1 and Panc-1 have different vascular densities but AsPC-1 vasculature is more perfusive. Analysis of colocalized DiOC7 and VP fluorescence showed ASPC-1 with higher accumulation of VP 3 hrs after injection and more VP at a distance from blood vessels compared to Panc-1. This work shows the need for techniques to analyze photosensitizer distribution in order to optimize photodynamic therapy as an effective treatment for pancreatic tumors.

O'Hara, Julia A.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Chen, Alina; Isabelle, Martin; Hoopes, P. J.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

2012-02-01

77

Fluorescence Lifetime Correlation Spectroscopy (FLCS): Concepts, Applications and Outlook  

PubMed Central

Fluorescence Lifetime Correlation Spectroscopy (FLCS) is a variant of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), which uses differences in fluorescence intensity decays to separate contributions of different fluorophore populations to FCS signal. Besides which, FLCS is a powerful tool to improve quality of FCS data by removing noise and distortion caused by scattered excitation light, detector thermal noise and detector after pulsing. We are providing an overview of, to our knowledge, all published applications of FLCS. Although these are not numerous so far, they illustrate possibilities for the technique and the research topics in which FLCS has the potential to become widespread. Furthermore, we are addressing some questions which may be asked by a beginner user of FLCS. The last part of the text reviews other techniques closely related to FLCS. The generalization of the idea of FLCS paves the way for further promising application of the principle of statistical filtering of signals. Specifically, the idea of fluorescence spectral correlation spectroscopy is here outlined. PMID:23202928

Kapusta, Peter; Machan, Radek; Benda, Ales; Hof, Martin

2012-01-01

78

Quantification of osmotic water transport in vivo using fluorescent albumin.  

PubMed

Osmotic water transport across the peritoneal membrane is applied during peritoneal dialysis to remove the excess water accumulated in patients with end-stage renal disease. The discovery of aquaporin water channels and the generation of transgenic animals have stressed the need for novel and accurate methods to unravel molecular mechanisms of water permeability in vivo. Here, we describe the use of fluorescently labeled albumin as a reliable indicator of osmotic water transport across the peritoneal membrane in a well-established mouse model of peritoneal dialysis. After detailed evaluation of intraperitoneal tracer mass kinetics, the technique was validated against direct volumetry, considered as the gold standard. The pH-insensitive dye Alexa Fluor 555-albumin was applied to quantify osmotic water transport across the mouse peritoneal membrane resulting from modulating dialysate osmolality and genetic silencing of the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1). Quantification of osmotic water transport using Alexa Fluor 555-albumin closely correlated with direct volumetry and with estimations based on radioiodinated ((125)I) serum albumin (RISA). The low intraperitoneal pressure probably accounts for the negligible disappearance of the tracer from the peritoneal cavity in this model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the appropriateness of pH-insensitive Alexa Fluor 555-albumin as a practical and reliable intraperitoneal volume tracer to quantify osmotic water transport in vivo. PMID:25100279

Morelle, Johann; Sow, Amadou; Vertommen, Didier; Jamar, François; Rippe, Bengt; Devuyst, Olivier

2014-10-15

79

Long-Term Retention of Fluorescent Quantum Dots In Vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum dots that emit in the near-infrared can be used in vivo to follow circulation, to target the reticuloendothelial system, and to map lymphatic drainage from normal tissues and tumors. We have explored the role of surface charge and passivation by polyethylene glycol in determining circulating lifetimes and sites of deposition. Use of long polyethylene glycol polymers increases circulating lifetime. Changing surface charge can partially direct quantum dots to the liver and spleen, or the lymph nodes. Quantum dots are cleared in the order liver > spleen > bone marrow > lymph nodes. Quantum dots retained by lymph nodes maintained fluorescence for two years, suggesting either that the coating is extremely stable or that some endosomes preserve quantum dot function. We also explored migration from tumors to sentinel lymph nodes using tumor models in mice; surface charge and size make little difference to transport from tumors. Antibody and Fab-conjugates of polymer-coated quantum dots failed to target tumors in vivo, probably because of size.

Ballou, Byron; Ernst, Lauren A.; Andreko, Susan; Eructiez, Marcel P.; Lagerholm, B. Christoffer; Waggoner, Alan S.

80

Recent applications of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy in live systems.  

PubMed

Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a widely used technique in biophysics and has helped address many questions in the life sciences. It provides important advantages compared to other fluorescence and biophysical methods. Its single molecule sensitivity allows measuring proteins within biological samples at physiological concentrations without the need of overexpression. It provides quantitative data on concentrations, diffusion coefficients, molecular transport and interactions even in live organisms. And its reliance on simple fluorescence intensity and its fluctuations makes it widely applicable. In this review we focus on applications of FCS in live samples, with an emphasis on work in the last 5 years, in the hope to provide an overview of the present capabilities of FCS to address biologically relevant questions. PMID:24726724

Machá?, Radek; Wohland, Thorsten

2014-10-01

81

Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy of Finite-Sized Particles  

PubMed Central

A theory is presented to study fluorescence correlation spectroscopy for particles with size comparable to the beam waist of the observation volume. Analytical correlation curves are derived for some experimentally interesting particle geometries. It is found that the finiteness of the particle generally decreases the value of the correlation amplitude and increases the correlation time compared to a point particle model. Furthermore, not only the size but also the distribution of fluorophores affects the shape of the correlation function. This is experimentally demonstrated with surface and internally labeled fluorescent spheres. In addition, experiments are performed on fluorescent spheres of different radii to validate the model by comparing the results to theoretical predictions. PMID:18065475

Wu, Bin; Chen, Yan; Muller, Joachim D.

2008-01-01

82

Fluorescence spectroscopy studies on micellization of poloxamer 407 solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been reported that at low temperature region, poloxamers existed as a monomer. Upon warming, an equilibrium between\\u000a unimers and micelles was established, and finally micelle aggregates were formed at higher temperature. In this study, the\\u000a fluorescence spectroscopy was used to study the micelle formation of the poloxamer 407 in aqueous solution. The excitation\\u000a and emission spectra of pyrene,

Kayoung Lee; Sang-Chul Shin; Injoon Oh

2003-01-01

83

Fluorescence spectroscopy using indocyanine green for lymph node mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principles of cancer treatment has for years been radical resection of the primary tumor. In the oncologic surgeries where the affected cancer site is close to the lymphatic system, it is as important to detect the draining lymph nodes for metastasis (lymph node mapping). As a replacement for conventional radioactive labeling, indocyanine green (ICG) has shown successful results in lymph node mapping; however, most of the ICG fluorescence detection techniques developed are based on camera imaging. In this work, fluorescence spectroscopy using a fiber-optical probe was evaluated on a tissue-like ICG phantom with ICG concentrations of 6-64 ?M and on breast tissue from five patients. Fiber-optical based spectroscopy was able to detect ICG fluorescence at low intensities; therefore, it is expected to increase the detection threshold of the conventional imaging systems when used intraoperatively. The probe allows spectral characterization of the fluorescence and navigation in the tissue as opposed to camera imaging which is limited to the view on the surface of the tissue.

Haj-Hosseini, Neda; Behm, Pascal; Shabo, Ivan; Wârdell, Karin

2014-02-01

84

Phytoplankton in Lake Tanganyika – vertical and horizontal distribution of in vivo fluorescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determinations of chlorophyll a and in vivo fluorescence of photosynthetic pigments were used to study vertical and horizontal distribution of phytoplankton in Lake Tanganyika (East Africa). Blue excited fluorescence (IVFb) was an approximate predictor of chlorophyll a at different depths and locations. Green excited fluorescence (IVFg), which reflects phycoerythrin in cyanobacteria, explained chlorophyll a variation equally well, and in combination

K. Salonen; J. Sarvala; M. Järvinen; V. Langenberg; M. Nuottajärvi; K. Vuorio; D. B. R. Chitamwebwa

1999-01-01

85

Fluorescence imaging in vivo: recent advances Jianghong Rao, Anca Dragulescu-Andrasi and Hequan Yao  

E-print Network

fluorescence microscopy in that both use a low-light camera and appro- priate filters to collect fluorescence emission light from samples, but differs in that it works at a macroscopic level. The objects for imagingFluorescence imaging in vivo: recent advances Jianghong Rao, Anca Dragulescu-Andrasi and Hequan Yao

Rao, Jianghong

86

In vivo Optical Spectroscopy of Acoustically Induced Blood Stasis  

E-print Network

In vivo Optical Spectroscopy of Acoustically Induced Blood Stasis B. A. Winey a , V. Misic b , B Science d University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 Abstract: Ultrasound-induced blood stasis has been with this phenomenon and methods employed to prevent stasis from occurring during ultrasound imaging. To date

Parker, Kevin J.

87

Applications of dynamic light scattering, fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy in DB-67 liposomal formulation studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Campthothecin (CPT) and its analogues as prominent anticancer agents are currently the subject of the intensive studies. One of the most promising camptothecin analogues is 7-tert-butyldimethylsil- 1 0-hydroxycampthothecin called DB-67. It is characterized by high affinity to SUV (small unilamellar lipids vesicles) and relatively high stability in human blood. The studies of liposomal formulation as a delivery systems for DB-67 are the subject of this paper. The methods of dynamic light scattering (DLS), fluorescence microscopy (FM) and fluorescence spectroscopy (FS) are used to determine the physical properties of DB-67 liposomal formulation.

Kruszewski, Stefan; Ziomkowska, Blanka; Cyrankiewicz, Micha?; Latus, Lori; Bom, David

2005-08-01

88

Lifetime fluorescence spectroscopy for in situ investigation of osteogenic differentiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TR-LIFS) represents a potential tool for the in-situ characterization of bioengineered tissues. In this study, we evaluate the application of TR-LIFS to non-intrusive monitoring of matrix composition during osteogenetic differentiation. Human adipose-derived stem cells, harvested from 3 patients, were induced in osteogenic media for 3, 5, and 7 weeks. Samples were subsequently collected and probed for time-resolved fluorescence emission with a pulsed nitrogen laser. Fluorescence parameters, derived from both spectral- and time-domain, were used for sample characterization. The samples were further analyzed using Western blot analysis and computer-based densitometry. A significant change in the fluorescence parameters was detected for samples beyond 3 weeks of osteogenic differentiation. The spectroscopic observations: 1) show increase of collagen I when contrasted against the time-resolved fluorescence spectra of commercially available collagens; and 2) are in agreement with Western blot analysis that demonstrated significant increase in collagen I content between 3- vs. 5-weeks and 3- vs. 7-weeks and no changes for collagens III, IV, and V. Our results suggest that TR-LIFS can be used as a non-invasive means for the detection of specific collagens in maturing connective tissues.

Marcu, Laura; Elbarbary, Amir; Zuk, Patricia; De Ugarte, Daniel A.; Benhaim, Prosper; Kurt, Hamza; Hedrick, Marc H.; Ashjian, Peter

2003-07-01

89

Enzymatic degradation of human skin dermis revealed by fluorescence and reflectance  

E-print Network

. Fallon and N. Kollias, "In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy of nonmelanoma skin cancer," Photochem, "Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancers," Laser Surg

Relue, Patricia

90

Cross Talk Free Fluorescence Cross Correlation Spectroscopy in Live Cells  

PubMed Central

Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is now a widely used technique to measure small ensembles of labeled biomolecules with single molecule detection sensitivity (e.g., low endogenous concentrations). Fluorescence cross correlation spectroscopy (FCCS) is a derivative of this technique that detects the synchronous movement of two biomolecules with different fluorescence labels. Both methods can be applied to live cells and, therefore, can be used to address a variety of unsolved questions in cell biology. Applications of FCCS with autofluorescent proteins (AFPs) have been hampered so far by cross talk between the detector channels due to the large spectral overlap of the fluorophores. Here we present a new method that combines advantages of these techniques to analyze binding behavior of proteins in live cells. To achieve this, we have used dual color excitation of a common pair of AFPs, ECFP and EYFP, being discriminated in excitation rather than in emission. This is made possible by pulsed excitation and detection on a shorter timescale compared to the average residence time of particles in the FCS volume element. By this technique we were able to eliminate cross talk in the detector channels and obtain an undisturbed cross correlation signal. The setup was tested with ECFP/EYFP lysates as well as chimeras as negative and positive controls and demonstrated to work in live HeLa cells coexpressing the two fusion proteins ECFP-connexin and EYFP-connexin. PMID:15951373

Thews, Elmar; Gerken, Margarita; Eckert, Reiner; Zapfel, Johannes; Tietz, Carsten; Wrachtrup, Jorg

2005-01-01

91

Jet-cooled fluorescence spectroscopy of a natural product: anethole.  

PubMed

The jet-cooled fluorescence spectroscopy of the natural product molecule anethole ((E)-1-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl)benzene) has been studied. Single vibronic level fluorescence spectroscopy was used to verify the existence of two rotamers, syn and anti, with electronic origins at 32,889 and 32,958 cm(-1), respectively. The excitation and emission spectra show characteristics similar to those of styrene and styrene derivatives, including Cs symmetry and low amplitude motions of the propenyl (vinyl) group. As in styrene, the low amplitude modes show substantial Duschinsky mixing. Interestingly, the methoxy group shows very little activity in the spectroscopy of anethole but is found to influence the activity of the propenyl group. This activity is easily observed in the Franck-Condon activity of the propenyl-bending mode. Differences are explained using simple molecular orbital arguments. The observed torsional structure was modeled and compared to ab initio calculations, allowing us to determine a barrier to internal rotation of 623 cm(-1) for the propenyl group, in agreement with similar molecules. Calculated potential energy surfaces (using density functional theory) were used to construct a more complete representation of the torsion surface of anethole, incorporating the torsions of both substituents. Several anomalous features of the excitation spectra were assigned to van der Waals clusters of anethole with water. The assignments and analyses presented here are also consistent with density function calculations. PMID:24188209

Barber, Victoria P; Newby, Josh J

2013-12-01

92

Transient Fluorescence Spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence lifetimes of terbium doped dipicolinic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the use of deep UV laser induced fluorescence for the sensitive detection and spectroscopic lifetime studies of terbium doped dipicolinic acid (DPA-Tb) and used this to study the optical characteristics of DPA which is a chemical surrounding most bacterial spores. Background absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra, and Excitation Emission Matrix (EEM) spectra were made of the DPA-Tb complex, using both fixed 266 nm wavelength and tunable (220 nm--280 nm) UV laser excitations. Of importance, the fluorescence lifetimes of the four main fluorescence peaks (488 nm, 543 nm, 581 nm, and 618 nm) of the DPA-Tb complex have been measured for the first time to our knowledge. The lifetimes of all the fluorescing lines have been measured as a function of DPA-Tb concentration, solvent pH, and solvent composition, including that for the weakest fluorescing line of DPA-Tb at 618 nm. In addition, a new spectroscopic lifetime measurement technique, which we call "Transient Fluorescence Spectroscopy", was developed. In this technique, a weak, quasi-CW, amplitude modulated UV laser (8.5 kHz) was used to measure the lifetimes of the fluorescence lines, and yields insight into energy transfer and excitation lifetimes within the system. This technique is especially useful when a high power laser is not either available or not suitable. In the latter case, this would be when a high power pulsed deep-UV laser could produce bleaching or destruction of the biological specimen. In addition, this technique simulated the excitation and fluorescence emission of the DPA-Tb using a 4-level energy model, and solved the dynamic transient rate equations to predict the temporal behavior of the DPA-Tb emitted fluorescence. Excellent agreement between the experiments and the simulation were found. This technique has the potential to provide a more accurate value for the fluorescence lifetime values. In addition, with the use of asymmetric excitation waveforms, the dynamic transient rate equation analysis may allow for detailed studies of selected transfer mechanisms in a wide range of other spectroscopic applications including rare-earth solid-state lasing materials and biological samples.

Makoui, Anali

93

Brain cancer probed by native fluorescence and stokes shift spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical biopsy spectroscopy was applied to diagnosis human brain cancer in vitro. The spectra of native fluorescence, Stokes shift and excitation spectra were obtained from malignant meningioma, benign, normal meningeal tissues and acoustic neuroma benign tissues. The wide excitation wavelength ranges were used to establish the criterion for distinguishing brain diseases. The alteration of fluorescence spectra between normal and abnormal brain tissues were identified by the characteristic fluorophores under the excitation with UV to visible wavelength range. It was found that the ratios of the peak intensities and peak position in both spectra of fluorescence and Stokes shift may be used to diagnose human brain meninges diseases. The preliminary analysis of fluorescence spectral data from cancer and normal meningeal tissues by basic biochemical component analysis model (BBCA) and Bayes classification model based on statistical methods revealed the changes of components, and classified the difference between cancer and normal human brain meningeal tissues in a predictions accuracy rate is 0.93 in comparison with histopathology and immunohistochemistry reports (gold standard).

Zhou, Yan; Liu, Cheng-hui; He, Yong; Pu, Yang; Li, Qingbo; Wang, Wei; Alfano, Robert R.

2012-12-01

94

Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy in (bio)catalysis  

PubMed Central

The ever-improving time and space resolution and molecular detection sensitivity of fluorescence microscopy offer unique opportunities to deepen our insights into the function of chemical and biological catalysts. Because single-molecule microscopy allows for counting the turnover events one by one, one can map the distribution of the catalytic activities of different sites in solid heterogeneous catalysts, or one can study time-dependent activity fluctuations of individual sites in enzymes or chemical catalysts. By experimentally monitoring individuals rather than populations, the origin of complex behavior, e.g., in kinetics or in deactivation processes, can be successfully elucidated. Recent progress of temporal and spatial resolution in single-molecule fluorescence microscopy is discussed in light of its impact on catalytic assays. Key concepts are illustrated regarding the use of fluorescent reporters in catalytic reactions. Future challenges comprising the integration of other techniques, such as diffraction, scanning probe, or vibrational methods in single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy are suggested. PMID:17664433

Roeffaers, Maarten B. J.; De Cremer, Gert; Uji-i, Hiroshi; Muls, Beniot; Sels, Bert F.; Jacobs, Pierre A.; De Schryver, Frans C.; De Vos, Dirk E.; Hofkens, Johan

2007-01-01

95

Oxidation monitoring by fluorescence spectroscopy reveals the age of fingermarks.  

PubMed

No forensic method exists that can reliably estimate the age of fingermarks found at a crime scene. Information on time passed since fingermark deposition is desired as it can be used to distinguish between crime related and unrelated fingermarks and to support or refute statements made by the fingermark donors. We introduce a non-contact method that can estimate the age of fingermarks. Fingermarks were approached as protein-lipid mixtures and an age-estimation model was build based on the expected protein and lipid oxidation reactions. Two measures of oxidation are required from the fingermark to estimate its age: 1) the relative amount of fluorescent oxidation products 2) the rate at which these products are formed. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to obtain these measures. We tested the method on 44?fingermarks and were able to estimate the age of 55% of the male fingermarks, up to three weeks old with an uncertainty of 1.9?days. PMID:24847728

van Dam, Annemieke; Schwarz, Janina C V; de Vos, Judith; Siebes, Maria; Sijen, Titia; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Aalders, Maurice C G; Lambrechts, Saskia A G

2014-06-10

96

Dual-color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy on a single plane illumination microscope (SPIM-FCCS).  

PubMed

Single plane illumination microscopy based fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (SPIM-FCS) is a new method for imaging FCS in 3D samples, providing diffusion coefficients, flow velocities and concentrations in an imaging mode. Here we extend this technique to two-color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (SPIM-FCCS), which allows to measure molecular interactions in an imaging mode. We present a theoretical framework for SPIM-FCCS fitting models, which is subsequently used to evaluate several test measurements of in-vitro (labeled microspheres, several DNAs and small unilamellar vesicles) and in-vivo samples (dimeric and monomeric dual-color fluorescent proteins, as well as membrane bound proteins). Our method yields the same quantitative results as the well-established confocal FCCS, but in addition provides unmatched statistics and true imaging capabilities. PMID:24663528

Krieger, Jan Wolfgang; Singh, Anand Pratap; Garbe, Christoph S; Wohland, Thorsten; Langowski, Jörg

2014-02-10

97

Optical fiber fluorescence spectroscopy for detecting AFM1 in milk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence spectroscopy carried out by means of optical fibers was used for the rapid screening of M1 aflatoxin in milk, enabling the detection of concentrations up to the legal limit, which is 50 ppt. A compact fluorometric device equipped with a LED source, a miniaturized spectrometer, and optical fibers for illumination/detection of the measuring micro-cell was tested for measuring threshold values of AFM1 in pre-treated milk samples. Multivariate processing of the spectral data made it possible to obtain a preliminary screening at the earlier stages of the industrial process, as well as to discard contaminated milk stocks before their inclusion in the production chain.

Mignani, A. G.; Cucci, C.; Ciaccheri, L.; Dall'Asta, C.; Galaverna, G.; Dossena, A.; Marchelli, R.

2008-04-01

98

Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of single molecules on an optofluidic chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review our recent progress in bringing fluorescent correlation spectroscopy (FCS) of single molecules on a silicon optofluidic platform. Starting from basic concepts and applications of FCS we move to a description of our integrated optofluidic device, briefly outlining the physics behind its function and relevant geometrical characteristics. We then derive an FCS theoretical model for our sensor geometry, which we subsequently apply to the examination of molecular properties of single fluorophores and bioparticles. The model allows us to extract the diffusion coefficient, translational velocity and local concentration of particles in question. We conclude with future directions of this research.

Rudenko, M. I.; Kühn, S.; Lunt, E. J.; Phillips, B. S.; Deamer, D. W.; Hawkins, A. R.; Schmidt, H.

2008-02-01

99

Pulsed interleaved excitation fluorescence spectroscopy with a supercontinuum source.  

PubMed

Pulsed Interleaved Excitation (PIE) improves fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS) and single pair Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (spFRET) measurements, by correlating each detected photon to the excitation source that generated it. It relies on the interleaving of two picosecond laser sources and time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) detection. Here, we present an optical configuration based on a commercial supercontinuum laser, which generates multicoulour interleaved picosecond pulses with arbitrary spacing and wavelengths within the visible spectrum. This simple, yet robust configuration can be used as a versatile source for PIE experiments, as an alternative to an array of picosecond lasers and drivers. PMID:23481797

Olofsson, Linnea; Margeat, Emmanuel

2013-02-11

100

Design and evaluation of a device for fast multispectral time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) to in vivo tissue diagnosis requires a method for fast acquisition of fluorescence decay profiles in multiple spectral bands. This study focusses on development of a clinically compatible fiber-optic based multispectral TRFS (ms-TRFS) system together with validation of its accuracy and precision for fluorescence lifetime measurements. It also presents the expansion of this technique into an imaging spectroscopy method. A tandem array of dichroic beamsplitters and filters was used to record TRFS decay profiles at four distinct spectral bands where biological tissue typically presents fluorescence emission maxima, namely, 390, 452, 542, and 629 nm. Each emission channel was temporally separated by using transmission delays through 200 ?m diameter multimode optical fibers of 1, 10, 19, and 28 m lengths. A Laguerre-expansion deconvolution algorithm was used to compensate for modal dispersion inherent to large diameter optical fibers and the finite bandwidth of detectors and digitizers. The system was found to be highly efficient and fast requiring a few nano-Joule of laser pulse energy and <1 ms per point measurement, respectively, for the detection of tissue autofluorescent components. Organic and biological chromophores with lifetimes that spanned a 0.8-7 ns range were used for system validation, and the measured lifetimes from the organic fluorophores deviated by less than 10% from values reported in the literature. Multi-spectral lifetime images of organic dye solutions contained in glass capillary tubes were recorded by raster scanning the single fiber probe in a 2D plane to validate the system as an imaging tool. The lifetime measurement variability was measured indicating that the system provides reproducible results with a standard deviation smaller than 50 ps. The ms-TRFS is a compact apparatus that makes possible the fast, accurate, and precise multispectral time-resolved fluorescence lifetime measurements of low quantum efficiency sub-nanosecond fluorophores.

Yankelevich, Diego R.; Ma, Dinglong; Liu, Jing; Sun, Yang; Sun, Yinghua; Bec, Julien; Elson, Daniel S.; Marcu, Laura

2014-03-01

101

Design and evaluation of a device for fast multispectral time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging.  

PubMed

The application of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) to in vivo tissue diagnosis requires a method for fast acquisition of fluorescence decay profiles in multiple spectral bands. This study focusses on development of a clinically compatible fiber-optic based multispectral TRFS (ms-TRFS) system together with validation of its accuracy and precision for fluorescence lifetime measurements. It also presents the expansion of this technique into an imaging spectroscopy method. A tandem array of dichroic beamsplitters and filters was used to record TRFS decay profiles at four distinct spectral bands where biological tissue typically presents fluorescence emission maxima, namely, 390, 452, 542, and 629 nm. Each emission channel was temporally separated by using transmission delays through 200 ?m diameter multimode optical fibers of 1, 10, 19, and 28 m lengths. A Laguerre-expansion deconvolution algorithm was used to compensate for modal dispersion inherent to large diameter optical fibers and the finite bandwidth of detectors and digitizers. The system was found to be highly efficient and fast requiring a few nano-Joule of laser pulse energy and <1 ms per point measurement, respectively, for the detection of tissue autofluorescent components. Organic and biological chromophores with lifetimes that spanned a 0.8-7 ns range were used for system validation, and the measured lifetimes from the organic fluorophores deviated by less than 10% from values reported in the literature. Multi-spectral lifetime images of organic dye solutions contained in glass capillary tubes were recorded by raster scanning the single fiber probe in a 2D plane to validate the system as an imaging tool. The lifetime measurement variability was measured indicating that the system provides reproducible results with a standard deviation smaller than 50 ps. The ms-TRFS is a compact apparatus that makes possible the fast, accurate, and precise multispectral time-resolved fluorescence lifetime measurements of low quantum efficiency sub-nanosecond fluorophores. PMID:24689603

Yankelevich, Diego R; Ma, Dinglong; Liu, Jing; Sun, Yang; Sun, Yinghua; Bec, Julien; Elson, Daniel S; Marcu, Laura

2014-03-01

102

Identification of active fluorescence stained bacteria by Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microorganisms can be found everywhere e.g. in food both as useful ingredients or harmful contaminations causing food spoilage. Therefore, a fast and easy to handle analysis method is needed to detect bacteria in different kinds of samples like meat, juice or air to decide if the sample is contaminated by harmful microorganisms. Conventional identification methods in microbiology require always cultivation and therefore are time consuming. In this contribution we present an analysis approach to identify fluorescence stained bacteria on strain level by means of Raman spectroscopy. The stained bacteria are highlighted and can be localized easier against a complex sample environment e.g. in food. The use of Raman spectroscopy in combination with chemometrical methods allows the identification of single bacteria within minutes.

Krause, Mario; Beyer, Beatrice; Pietsch, Christian; Radt, Benno; Harz, Michaela; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

2008-04-01

103

Identification of Atherosclerotic Plaques in Carotid Artery by Fluorescence Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to identify the presence of atherosclerotic plaques in carotid artery using the Fluorescence Spectroscopy. The most important pathogeny in the cardiovascular disorders is the atherosclerosis, which may affect even younger individuals. With approximately 1.2 million heart attacks and 750,000 strokes afflicting an aging American population each year, cardiovascular disease remains the number one cause of death. Carotid artery samples were obtained from the Autopsy Service at the University of São Paulo (São Paulo, SP, Brazil) taken from cadavers. After a histopathological analysis the 60 carotid artery samples were divided into two groups: normal (26) and atherosclerotic plaques (34). Samples were irradiated with the wavelength of 488 nm from an Argon laser. A 600 ?m core optical fiber, coupled to the Argon laser, was used for excitation of the sample, whereas another 600 optical fiber, coupled to the spectrograph entrance slit, was used for collecting the fluorescence from the sample. Measurements were taken at different points on each sample and then averaged. Fluorescence spectra showed a single broad line centered at 549 nm. The fluorescence intensity for each sample was calculated by subtracting the intensity at the peak (550 nm) and at the bottom (510 nm) and then data were statistically analyzed, looking for differences between both groups of samples. ANOVA statistical test showed a significant difference (p<0,05) between both types of tissues, with regard to the fluorescence peak intensities. Our results indicate that this technique could be used to detect the presence of the atherosclerotic in carotid tissue.

Rocha, Rick; Villaverde, Antonio Balbin; Silveira, Landulfo; Costa, Maricília Silva; Alves, Leandro Procópio; Pasqualucci, Carlos Augusto; Brugnera, Aldo

2008-04-01

104

Time-domain laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy apparatus for clinical diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the design and development of a compact optical fiber-based apparatus for in situ time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (tr-LIFS) of biological systems. The apparatus is modular, optically robust, and compatible with the clinical environment. It incorporates a dual output imaging spectrograph, a gated multichannel plate photomultiplier (MCP-PMT), an intensified charge-coupled-device (ICCD) camera, and a fast digitizer. It can accommodate various types of light sources and optical fiber probes for selective excitation and remote light delivery/collection as required by different applications. The apparatus allows direct recording of the entire fluorescence decay with high sensitivity (nM range fluorescein dye concentration with signal-to-noise ratio of 46) and with four decades dynamic range. It is capable of resolving a broad range of fluorescence lifetimes from hundreds of picoseconds (as low as 300 ps) using the MCP-PMT coupled to the digitizer to milliseconds using the ICCD. The data acquisition and analysis process is fully automated, enabling fast recording of fluorescence intensity decay across the entire emission spectrum (0.8 s per wavelength or ˜40 s for a 200 nm wavelength range at 5 nm increments). The spectral and temporal responses of the apparatus were calibrated and its performance was validated using fluorescence lifetime standard dyes (Rhodamin B, 9-cyanoanthracene, and rose Bengal) and tissue endogenous fluorophores (elastin, collagen, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide). Fluorescence decay lifetimes and emission spectra of all tested compounds measured with the current tr-LIFS apparatus were found in good agreement with the values reported in the literature. The design and performance of tr-LIFS apparatus have enabled in vivo studies of atherosclerotic plaques and brain tumors.

Fang, Qiyin; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Jo, Javier A.; Vaitha, Russel; Shastry, Kumar; Marcu, Laura

2004-01-01

105

Single-Molecule Fluorescence Spectroscopy using Phospholipid Bilayer Nanodiscs  

PubMed Central

Nanodiscs are a new class of model membranes that are being used to solubilize and study a range of integral membrane proteins and membrane-associated proteins. Unlike other model membranes, the Nanodisc bilayer is bounded by a scaffold protein coat that confers enhanced stability and a narrow particle size distribution. The bilayer diameter can be precisely controlled by changing the diameter of the protein coat. All these properties make Nanodiscs excellent model membranes for single molecule fluorescence applications. In this chapter, we describe our work using Nanodiscs to apply total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM), fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to study the integral membrane protein cytochrome P450 3A4 and the membrane-binding proteins islet amyloid popypeptide (IAPP) and ?-synuclein, respectively. The monodisperse size distribution of Nanodiscs enhances control over the oligomeric state of the membrane protein of interest, and also facilitates accurate solution-based measurements. Nanodiscs also comprise an excellent system to stably immobilize integral membrane proteins in a bilayer without covalent modification, enabling a range of surface-based experiments where accurate localization of the protein of interest is required. PMID:20580961

Nath, Abhinav; Trexler, Adam J.; Koo, Peter; Miranker, Andrew D.; Atkins, William M.; Rhoades, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

106

Probing the interaction between fluorophores and DNA nucleotides by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence quenching.  

PubMed

We have investigated the association interactions between the fluorescent dyes TAMRA, Cy3B and Alexa-546 and the DNA deoxynucleoside monophosphates by means of fluorescence quenching and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). The interactions of Cy3B and TAMRA with the nucleotides produce a decrease in the apparent diffusion coefficient of the dyes, which result in a shift toward longer times in the FCS autocorrelation decays. Our results with Cy3B demonstrate the existence of Cy3B-nucleotide interactions that do not affect the fluorescence intensity or lifetime of the dye significantly. The same is true for TAMRA in the presence of dAMP, dCMP and dTMP. In contrast, the diffusion coefficient of Alexa 546 remains practically unchanged even at high concentrations of nucleotide. These results demonstrate that interactions between this dye and the four dNMPs are not significant. The presence of the negatively charged sulfonates and the bulky chlorine atoms in the phenyl group of Alexa 546 possibly prevent strong interactions that are otherwise possible for TAMRA. The characterization of dye-DNA interactions is important in biophysical research because they play an important role in the interpretation of energy transfer experiments, and because they can potentially affect the structure and dynamics of the DNA. PMID:22364288

Ranjit, Suman; Levitus, Marcia

2012-01-01

107

Size determination of quantum dots with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are highly interesting fluorophores for a large variety of spectroscopic applications. Although their fluorescence properties are well investigated, accurate size determination of QDs is still a problem. TEM techniques can image the inorganic core/shell system of QDs, but size determination of polymer coated QDs is difficult. SEC (size exclusion chromatography) compares the QD size only with standard polymers and their sizes, and is therefore not easy to use on nanoparticles. As QDs are fluorescent, single molecule spectroscopy methods such as fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) can be used to determine QDs diffusion coefficients and hence their hydrodynamic radii. Moreover, this method for size determination requires only very low QD concentrations, which is a mayor advantage compared to other techniques such as dynamic light scattering. Within our contribution we present the size determination of commercially available and self-modified QDs with FCS. The commercial QDs (QD525, QD565, QD605, QD655 and QD705 - purchased from Invitrogen Inc.) have a rather thick polymer shell and are functionalized with streptavidin, biotin or carboxylic groups. The self-modified QDs consist of the same commercial core/shell QDs and are modified with a polymer shell and several bio-functionalization groups. For all nanoparticles the diffusion coefficients were measured by FCS and the hydrodynamic radii were calculated according to the Stokes-Einstein equation. The obtained results are in good agreement with the size information provided by Invitrogen Inc., which demonstrates that FCS is an important technique for QD size determination at very low concentrations.

Hill, D.; Ast, C.; Löhmannsröben, H.-G.; Zulqurnain, A.; Parak, W.; Hildebrandt, N.

2011-03-01

108

Anatomy-Based Algorithms for Detecting Oral Cancer Using Reflectance and Fluorescence Spectroscopy  

E-print Network

OBJECTIVES: We used reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy to noninvasively and quantitatively distinguish benign from dysplastic/malignant oral lesions. We designed diagnostic algorithms to account for differences in ...

McGee, Sasha

109

Hazards and benefits of in-vivo Raman spectroscopy of human skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The resurgence of Raman spectroscopy, in the late 1980's has led to an increase in the use of the technique for the analysis of biological tissues. Consequently, Raman spectroscopy is now regarded to be a well-established non- invasive, non-destructive technique, which is used to obtain good quality spectra from biological tissues with minimal fluorescence. What is presently of interest to our group is to develop further and establish the technique for in vivo investigations of healthy and diseased skin. This presentation discusses some potentially valuable clinical applications of the technique, and also highlights some of the experimental difficulties that were encountered when examining patients who were receiving treatment for psoriasis.

Carter, Elizabeth A.; Williams, Adrian C.; Barry, Brian W.; Edwards, Howell G.

1999-04-01

110

Detectability of reflectance and fluorescent contrast agents for real-time in vivo confocal microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reflectance agents (liposomes, polystyrene microparticles, aluminum chloride salts, acetic acid) and fluorescent agents (polymer- and cosmetic actives-tagged fluorescein and rhodamine compounds, green fluorescent protein) enhance contrast of real-time confocal images of skin and microcirculation in vivo. Quantitative analysis of signal detectability versus contrast agent properties, and experimental images are presented. These results provide a basis for optimizing confocal microscope design

Milind Rajadhyaksha; Salvador González

111

From the shape of the vertical profile of in vivo fluorescence to Chlorophyll-a concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vivo fluorescence of Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) is a potentially useful property to study the vertical distribution of phytoplankton biomass. However the technique is presently not fully exploited as it should be, essentially because of the difficulties in converting the fluorescence signal into an accurate Chl-a concentration. These difficulties arise noticeably from natural variations in the Chl-a fluorescence relationship, which is

A. Mignot; H. Claustre; F. D'Ortenzio; X. Xing; A. Poteau; J. Ras

2011-01-01

112

Intraoperative delineation of primary brain tumors using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study is to determine the potential of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TR-LIFS) as an adjunctive tool for delineation of brain tumor from surrounding normal tissue in order to assist the neurosurgeon in near-complete tumor excision. A time-domain TR-LIFS prototype apparatus (gated photomultiplier detection, fast digitizer) was used for recording tissue autofluorescence in normal cortex (NC), normal white matter (NWM), and various grades of gliomas intraoperatively. Tissue fluorescence was induced with a pulsed nitrogen laser (337nm, 700ps), and the intensity decay profiles were recorded in the 360-to550-nm spectral range (10-nm interval). Histopathological analysis (hematoxylin & eosin) of the biopsy samples taken from the site of TR-LIFS measurements was used for validation of spectroscopic results. Preliminary results on 17 patients demonstrate that normal cortex (N=16) and normal white matter (N=3) show two peaks of fluorescence emission at 390nm(lifetime=1.8±0.3ns) and 460nm(lifetime=0.8±0.1ns). The 390-nm emission peak is absent in low-grade glioma (N=5; lifetime=1.1ns) and reduced in high-grade glioma (N=9; lifetime=1.7±0.4ns). The emission characteristics at 460nm in all tissues correlated with the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide fluorescence (peak: 440to460nm; lifetime: 0.8to1.0ns). These findings demonstrate the potential of using TR-LIFS as a tool for enhanced delineation of brain tumors during surgery. In addition, this study evaluates similarities and differences between TR-LIFS signatures of brain tumors obtained in vivo and those previously reported in ex vivo brain tumor specimens. PMID:20459282

Butte, Pramod V.; Fang, Qiyin; Jo, Javier A.; Yong, William H.; Pikul, Brian K.; Black, Keith L.; Marcu, Laura

2010-01-01

113

Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrasound backscatter microscopy for nondestructive evaluation of vascular grafts.  

PubMed

Quantitative and qualitative evaluations of structure and composition are important in monitoring development of engineered vascular tissue both in vitro and in vivo. Destructive techniques are an obstacle for performing time-lapse analyses from a single sample or animal. This study demonstrates the ability of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) and ultrasound backscatter microscopy (UBM), as nondestructive and synergistic techniques, for compositional and morphological analyses of tissue grafts, respectively. UBM images and integrated backscatter coefficients demonstrate the ability to visualize and quantify postimplantation changes in vascular graft biomaterials such as loss of the external elastic lamina and intimal/medial thickening over the grafted region as well as graft integration with the surrounding tissue. TRFS results show significant changes in spectra, average lifetime, and fluorescence decay parameters owing to changes in collagen, elastin, and cellular content between normal and grafted tissue regions. These results lay the foundation for the application of a catheter-based technique for in vivo evaluation of vascular grafts using TRFS and UBM. PMID:25147960

Fatakdawala, Hussain; Griffiths, Leigh G; Humphrey, Sterling; Marcu, Laura

2014-08-01

114

Localized in vivo13C NMR spectroscopy of the brain  

PubMed Central

Localized 13C NMR spectroscopy provides a new investigative tool for studying cerebral metabolism. The application of 13C NMR spectroscopy to living intact humans and animals presents the investigator with a number of unique challenges. This review provides in the first part a tutorial insight into the ingredients required for achieving a successful implementation of localized 13C NMR spectroscopy. The difficulties in establishing 13C NMR are the need for decoupling of the one-bond 13C–1H heteronuclear J coupling, the large chemical shift range, the low sensitivity and the need for localization of the signals. The methodological consequences of these technical problems are discussed, particularly with respect to (a) RF front-end considerations, (b) localization methods, (c) the low sensitivity, and (d) quantification methods. Lastly, some achievements of in vivo localized 13C NMR spectroscopy of the brain are reviewed, such as: (a) the measurement of brain glutamine synthesis and the feasibility of quantifying glutamatergic action in the brain; (b) the demonstration of significant anaplerotic fluxes in the brain; (c) the demonstration of a highly regulated malate-aspartate shuttle in brain energy metabolism and isotope flux; (d) quantification of neuronal and glial energy metabolism; and (e) brain glycogen metabolism in hypoglycemia in rats and humans. We conclude that the unique and novel insights provided by 13C NMR spectroscopy have opened many new research areas that are likely to improve the understanding of brain carbohydrate metabolism in health and disease. PMID:14679498

Gruetter, Rolf; Adriany, Gregor; Choi, In-Young; Henry, Pierre-Gilles; Lei, Hongxia; Oz, Gulin

2006-01-01

115

Microneedles rollers as a potential device to increase ALA diffusion and PpIX production: evaluations by wide-field fluorescence imaging and fluorescence spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the limitations of topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is the poor ability to penetrate biological barriers of skin and the recurrence rates in treatments. This study aimed to identify possible signs of increased diffusion of ALA-induced PpIX by fluorescence images and fluorescence spectroscopy. The research was done using in vivo porcine skin model. Before the cream application, microholes was performed with microneedles rollers in only one direction, afterward the ALA cream was applied at a 2.5cm2 area in triplicate and an occlusive dressing was placed. PpIX production was monitored using fluorescence spectroscopy collected at skin surface after 70, 100, 140, and 180 minutes of ALA incubation. About 100 fluorescence spectra of each treatment were collected, distributed by about five points for each site. Wide-field fluorescence imaging was made after 70, 90, and 170 minutes after treatment. The results obtained by imaging analysis indicated increase of the PpIX diffusion in the skin surface using the microneedles rollers (MNs) before ALA application. Circular regions of red fluorescence around the microholes were observed. In addition, the fluorescence spectra showed a greater intensity (2 times as many) in groups microneedles rollers associated. In conclusion, our data shown greater homogeneity and PpIX production in the groups pre-treated with microneedles indicating that the technique can be used to greater uniformity of PpIX production throughout the area to be treated reducing the chances of recurrent tumor as well as has potential for decreasing the time of therapy. (FUNDING SUPPORT:CAPES, CNPq and FAPESP)

Gracielli Sousa, R. Phamilla; de Menezes, Priscila F. C.; Fujita, Alessandra K. L.; Requena, Michelle B.; Govone, Angelo Biassi; Escobar, André; de Nardi, Andrigo B.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador

2014-03-01

116

Developmental changes in spatial distribution of in vivo fluorescence and epidermal UV absorbance over Quercus petraea leaves  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Epidermal phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids) constitute a vital screen that protects the leaf from damage by natural ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The effectiveness of epidermal UV-screening depends on leaf anatomy, the content of UV-screening compounds and their spatial uniformity over the leaf area. To investigate in vivo the spatial pattern of the epidermal UV-screen during leaf development, a fluorescence imaging method was developed to map the epidermal UV-absorbance at a microscopic scale. This study was done on oak (Quercus petraea) leaves that were used as a model of woody dicotyledonous leaves. Methods The leaf development of 2-year-old trees, grown outdoors, was monitored, at a macroscopic scale, by in vivo measurements of chlorophyll content per unit area and epidermal UV-absorbance using two optical leaf-clip meters. The distribution of pigments within leaves was assessed in vivo spectroscopically. The microscopic images of UV-induced fluorescence and UV-absorbance acquired in vivo during leaf development were interpreted from spectral characteristics of leaves. Key Results At a macroscopic scale, epidermal UV-absorbance was high on the upper leaf side during leaf development, while it increased on the lower leaf side during leaf expansion and reached the adaxial value at maturity. At a microscopic scale, in immature leaves, for both leaf sides, the spatial distribution of epidermal UV-absorbance was heterogeneous, with a pattern depending on the flavonoid content of vacuoles in developing epidermal cells. At maturity, epidermal UV-absorbance was uniform. Conclusions The spatial pattern of epidermal UV-screen over the area of oak leaves is related to leaf anatomy during development. In vivo spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging of the leaf surface showed the distribution of pigments within the leaf and hence can provide a tool to monitor optically the leaf development in nature. PMID:19561346

Meyer, S.; Louis, J.; Moise, N.; Piolot, T.; Baudin, X.; Cerovic, Z. G.

2009-01-01

117

Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy analysis of segmental dynamics in Actin filaments  

E-print Network

We adapt Fluorescence Correlation spectroscopy (FCS) formalism to the studies of the dynamics of semi-flexible polymers and derive expressions relating FCS correlation function to the longitudinal and transverse mean square displacements of polymer segments. We use the derived expressions to measure the dynamics of actin filaments in two experimental situations: filaments labeled at distinct positions and homogeneously labeled filaments. Both approaches give consistent results and allow to measure the temporal dependence of the segmental mean-square displacement (MSD) over almost five decades in time, from ~0.04ms to 2s. These noninvasive measurements allow for a detailed quantitative comparison of the experimental data to the current theories of semi-flexible polymer dynamics. Good quantitative agreement is found between the experimental results and theories explicitly accounting for the hydrodynamic interactions between polymer segments.

Anne Bernheim-Groswasser; Roman Shusterman; Oleg Krichevsky

2006-03-12

118

Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy and Nonlinear Stochastic Reaction-Diffusion  

E-print Network

The currently existing theory of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy(FCS) is based on the linear fluctuation theory originally developed by Einstein, Onsager, Lax, and others as a phenomenological approach to equilibrium fluctuations in bulk solutions. For mesoscopic reaction-diffusion systems with nonlinear chemical reactions among a small number of molecules, a situation often encountered in single-cell biochemistry, it is expected that FCS time correlation functions of a reaction-diffusion system can deviate from the classic results of Elson and Magde. We first discuss this nonlinear effect for reaction systems without diffusion. For nonlinear stochastic reaction-diffusion systems here are no closed solutions; therefore, stochastic Monte-Carlo simulations are carried out. We show that the deviation is small for a simple bimolecular reaction; the most significant deviations occur when the number of molecules is small and of the same order. Our results show that current linear FCS theory could be adequate ...

Del Razo, Mauricio J; Qian, Hong; Lin, Guang

2014-01-01

119

Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy at micromolar concentrations without optical nanoconfinement.  

PubMed

Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is an important technique for studying biochemical interactions dynamically that may be used in vitro and in cell-based studies. It is generally claimed that FCS may only be used at nM concentrations. We show that this general consensus is incorrect and that the limitation to nM concentrations is not fundamental but due to detector limits as well as laser fluctuations. With a high count rate detector system and applying laser fluctuation corrections, we demonstrate FCS measurements up to 38 ?M with the same signal-to-noise as at lower concentrations. Optical nanoconfinement approaches previously used to increase the concentration range of FCS are not necessary, and further increases above 38 ?M may be expected using detectors and detector arrays with higher saturation rates and better laser fluctuation corrections. This approach greatly widens the possibilities of dynamic measurements of biochemical interactions using FCS at physiological concentrations. PMID:25060197

Laurence, Ted A; Ly, Sonny; Bourguet, Feliza; Fischer, Nicholas O; Coleman, Matthew A

2014-08-14

120

Fluorescence and UV-vis Spectroscopy of Synovial Fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total joint arthroplasty involves replacing the worn cartilaginous surfaces of the joint with man-made materials that are designed to be biocompatible and to withstand mechanical stresses. Commonly these bearing materials consist of metallic alloys (TiAlV or CoCrMo) and UHMWPE. Following joint arthroplasty, the normal generation of micro-metallic wear debris particles that dislodge from the prosthesis has been shown to cause inflammatory aseptic osteolysis (bone loss) that ultimately results in the failure of the implant. Here we report our results on the novel use of Fluorescence and UV-vis spectroscopy to investigate the metallic content of synovial fluid specimens taken from postoperative total knee arthroplasties. Preliminary finding showed presence of alumina and chromium is some specimens. The ability to detect and monitor the wear rate of these implants could have far reaching implications in the prevention of metallic wear-debris induced osteolysis and impending implant failure.

Pinti, Marie J.; Stojilovic, Nenad; Kovacik, Mark W.

2009-10-01

121

Pancreatic tumor detection using hypericin-based fluorescence spectroscopy and cytology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hypericin is a novel, highly fluorescent photosensitizer that exhibits selective tumor cell uptake properties and is particularly resistant to photobleaching. In this study, we have characterized hypericin uptake in human pancreatic tumor cells with relation to incubation time, cell number, and drug concentration. Ex vivo hypericin based fluorescence spectroscopy was performed to detect the presence of MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic tumor cells in the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c nude mice, as well as to quantify gross tumor burden. Hypericin based cytology of peritoneal lavage samples, using both one and two photon laser confocal microscopy, demonstrated more than a two-fold increase in fluorescence emission of pancreatic tumor cells as compared to control samples. In vitro treatment of pancreatic cancer cells with hypericin based photodynamic therapy showed tumor cell cytotoxicity in a drug dose, incident laser power, and time dependent manner. For these experiments, a continuous wavelength solid-state laser source (532 nm) was operated at power levels in the range of 100-400 mW. Potential applications of hypericin in tumor diagnosis, staging, and therapy will be presented.

Lavu, Harish; Geary, Kevin; Fetterman, Harold R.; Saxton, Romaine E.

2005-04-01

122

In vivo labeling of neutrophils using a fluorescent cell linker  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study neutrophil circulation time and trafficking in vivo requires labeling the cells so that their movement can be followed temporally and spatially. Labeling procedures used to date, however, have relied on ex vivo separation and labeling meth- ods, an undesired consequence of which may be neutrophil activation. Moreover, the labeled cells preferentially stick in the pulmonary circulation for several

Kurt H. Albertine; Marlys H. Gee

123

Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy: Statistical analysis and biological applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental design and realization of an apparatus which can be used both for single molecule fluorescence detection and also fluorescence correlation and cross correlation spectroscopy is presented. A thorough statistical analysis of the fluorescence correlation functions including the analysis of bias and errors based on analytical derivations has been carried out. Using the methods developed here, the mechanism of binding and cleavage site recognition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) for their substrates has been studied. We demonstrate that two of the MMP family members, Collagenase (MMP-1) and Gelatinase A (MMP-2) exhibit diffusion along their substrates, the importance of this diffusion process and its biological implications are discussed. We show through truncation mutants that the hemopexin domain of the MMP-2 plays and important role in the substrate diffusion of this enzyme. Single molecule diffusion of the collagenase MMP-1 has been observed on collagen fibrils and shown to be biased. The discovered biased diffusion would make the MMP-1 molecule an active motor, thus making it the first active motor that is not coupled to ATP hydrolysis. The possible sources of energy for this enzyme and their implications are discussed. We propose that a possible source of energy for the enzyme can be in the rearrangement of the structure of collagen fibrils. In a separate application, using the methods developed here, we have observed an intermediate in the intestinal fatty acid binding protein folding process through the changes in its hydrodynamic radius also the fluctuations in the structure of the IFABP in solution were measured using FCS.

Saffarian, Saveez

2002-01-01

124

Spectral fluorescent properties of tissues in vivo with excitation in the red wavelength range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectral fluorescence analysis is a promising method for differential tissue diagnostic. Usually the UV and visible light is used for fluorescence excitation with emission registration in the visible wavelength range. The light penetration length in this wavelength range is very small allowing one to analyze only the surface region of the tissue. Here we present the tissue fluorescent spectra in vivo excited in the red wavelength region. As excitation light source we used compact He-Ne laser (632.8 nm) and observed the fluorescence in 650 - 800 nm spectral range. The various tissues including normal skin, psoriasis, tumors, necrosis as well as photosensitized tissues have been measured.

Stratonnikov, Alexander A.; Loschenov, Victor B.; Klimov, D. V.; Edinac, N. E.; Wolnukhin, V. A.; Strashkevich, I. A.

1997-12-01

125

Ratio Problem in Single Carbon Nanotube Fluorescence Spectroscopy C. L. Kane and E. J. Mele  

E-print Network

for the nano- tube electronic structure [2­5]. In this Letter we study the ``ratio problem''--the ratio betweenRatio Problem in Single Carbon Nanotube Fluorescence Spectroscopy C. L. Kane and E. J. Mele gaps measured in fluorescence spectroscopy on individual single wall carbon nanotubes isolated within

Kane, Charles

126

Longitudinal in vivo two-photon fluorescence imaging  

PubMed Central

Fluorescence microscopy is an essential technique for the basic sciences, especially biomedical research. Since the invention of laser scanning confocal microscopy in 1980s, that enabled imaging both fixed and living biological tissue with three-dimensional precision, high-resolution fluorescence imaging has revolutionized biological research. Confocal microscopy, by its very nature, has one fundamental limitation. Due to the confocal pinhole, deep tissue fluorescence imaging is not practical. In contrast (no pun intended), two-photon fluorescence microscopy allows, in principle, the collection of all emitted photons from fluorophores in the imaged voxel, dramatically extending our ability to see deep into living tissue. Since the development of transgenic mice with genetically encoded fluorescent protein in neocortical cells in 2000, two-photon imaging has enabled the dynamics of individual synapses to be followed for up to two years. Since the initial landmark contributions to this field in 2002, the technique has been used to understand how neuronal structure are changed by experience, learning and memory and various diseases. Here we provide a basic summary of the crucial elements that are required for such studies, and discuss many applications of longitudinal two-photon fluorescence microscopy that have appeared since 2002. PMID:24214350

Crowe, Sarah E.; Ellis-Davies, Graham C.R.

2014-01-01

127

Longitudinal in vivo two-photon fluorescence imaging.  

PubMed

Fluorescence microscopy is an essential technique for the basic sciences, especially biomedical research. Since the invention of laser scanning confocal microscopy in the 1980s, which enabled imaging both fixed and living biological tissue with 3D precision, high-resolution fluorescence imaging has revolutionized biological research. Confocal microscopy, by its very nature, has one fundamental limitation. Due to the confocal pinhole, deep tissue fluorescence imaging is not practical. In contrast (no pun intended), two-photon fluorescence microscopy allows, in principle, the collection of all emitted photons from fluorophores in the imaged voxel, dramatically extending our ability to see deep into living tissue. Since the development of transgenic mice with genetically encoded fluorescent protein in neocortical cells in 2000, two-photon imaging has enabled the dynamics of individual synapses to be followed for up to 2 years. Since the initial landmark contributions to this field in 2002, the technique has been used to understand how neuronal structure are changed by experience, learning, and memory and various diseases. Here we provide a basic summary of the crucial elements that are required for such studies, and discuss many applications of longitudinal two-photon fluorescence microscopy that have appeared since 2002. PMID:24214350

Crowe, Sarah E; Ellis-Davies, Graham C R

2014-06-01

128

Frequently asked questions about in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence: practical issues.  

PubMed

The aim of this educational review is to provide practical information on the hardware, methodology, and the hands on application of chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence technology. We present the paper in a question and answer format like frequently asked questions. Although nearly all information on the application of Chl a fluorescence can be found in the literature, it is not always easily accessible. This paper is primarily aimed at scientists who have some experience with the application of Chl a fluorescence but are still in the process of discovering what it all means and how it can be used. Topics discussed are (among other things) the kind of information that can be obtained using different fluorescence techniques, the interpretation of Chl a fluorescence signals, specific applications of these techniques, and practical advice on different subjects, such as on the length of dark adaptation before measurement of the Chl a fluorescence transient. The paper also provides the physiological background for some of the applied procedures. It also serves as a source of reference for experienced scientists. PMID:25119687

Kalaji, Hazem M; Schansker, Gert; Ladle, Richard J; Goltsev, Vasilij; Bosa, Karolina; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I; Brestic, Marian; Bussotti, Filippo; Calatayud, Angeles; D?browski, Piotr; Elsheery, Nabil I; Ferroni, Lorenzo; Guidi, Lucia; Hogewoning, Sander W; Jajoo, Anjana; Misra, Amarendra N; Nebauer, Sergio G; Pancaldi, Simonetta; Penella, Consuelo; Poli, DorothyBelle; Pollastrini, Martina; Romanowska-Duda, Zdzislawa B; Rutkowska, Beata; Serôdio, João; Suresh, Kancherla; Szulc, Wies?aw; Tambussi, Eduardo; Yanniccari, Marcos; Zivcak, Marek

2014-11-01

129

Nondestructive Measurement of Light-induced Oxidation in Dairy Products by Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thepurposeofthispaperistodemonstratethepoten- tial of solid-sample fluorescence spectroscopy in nonde- structive assessment of light-induced oxidation in dif- ferent dairy products such as Swiss cheese, cream cheese, and sour cream. Analytical and quantitative spectral properties of fluorescence were elucidated by use of principal component analysis with designed ex- periments involving different levels of air and light ex- posure. A significant reduction in fluorescence

J. P. Wold; K. Jørgensen; F. Lundby

2002-01-01

130

Autofluorescence spectroscopy of colorectal carcinoma: ex vivo study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diagnosis established by means of fluorescence spectroscopy is currently used in the field of urology and bronchology. Its major advantage is that it allows the diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia or malignant proliferation even if routine diagnostic endoscopy fails to reveal any macroscopic changes. The authors present results of their observations that deal with fluorescence diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma. They examined the wet microscopic mounts of healthy colon mucosa and compared them to that prepared from colon mucosa affected by adenocarcinoma. The diagnosis of adenocarcinoma was verified by using clinical and histology means. Fluorescence spectra of tissue samples, excited by means of 488 and 514.5 nm lines of Ar ion laser and/or by He-Ne laser line 632.8 nm, have been studied. This study demonstrated differences in both the spectral shape and in the signal intensity (at unchanged spectral shape) of photoluminescence spectra emitted from tissue affected by adenocarcinoma as compared to that of healthy colon mucosa. The results encourage us to continue the study aimed at development of the diagnostic system usable in the clinical practice.

Horak, Ladislav; Svec, Alexandr; Lezal, Dimitrij; Zavadil, Jiri

2003-10-01

131

Fluorescence Spectroscopy Measurement for Quality Assessment of Food Systems—a Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present review gives an overview of the use of fluorescence spectroscopy (i.e., conventional, excitation–emission matrix,\\u000a and synchronous fluorescence) for determining changes in food products and their quality during technological process and\\u000a storage. From the present review, it was shown that fluorescence spectroscopy is able to determine several properties (functional,\\u000a composition, nutritional) without the use of chemical reagents. This is

Romdhane Karoui; Christophe Blecker

2011-01-01

132

Upconversion fluorescence-SERS dual-mode tags for cellular and in vivo imaging.  

PubMed

Fluorescent-surface enhanced Raman scattering (F-SERS) dual mode tags showed great potential for bioimaging due to the combined advantages of intuitive, fast imaging of fluorescence and multiplex capability of SERS technique. In previously reported F-SERS tags, organic fluorescent dyes or quantum dots were generally selected to generate fluorescence signal. Herein, we reported the first proof-of-concept upconversion fluorescence (UCF)-SERS dual mode tags based on near infrared (NIR) laser (980 nm) excited upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) for live-cell and in vivo imaging. Three components involved in this tag: NaYF4:Yb,Er UCNPs@SiO2 serving as the fluorescent core of the tag; silver nanoparticles in situ grown on the surface of UCNPs@SiO2 for generating characteristic Raman signal; and denatured BSA coating rendering the tag's stability and biocompatibility. The UCF-SERS tags integrated the NIR imaging capability of both fluorescent UCNPs and plasmonic SERS nanoprobe, which facilitated dual mode bioimaging investigation, especially for living animals. Ex vivo experiments revealed that with 980 nm and 785 nm NIR laser irradiations, the UCF and SERS signals of the tags could be detected from 3 and 7 mm deep pork tissues, respectively. Furthermore, the in vivo imaging capabilities of UCF-SERS tags were successfully demonstrated on living mice. The developed dual modality tags held great potential for medical diagnostics and therapy. PMID:24617579

Niu, Xiaojuan; Chen, Haiyan; Wang, Yunqing; Wang, Wenhai; Sun, Xiuyan; Chen, Lingxin

2014-04-01

133

Fluorescence spectroscopy of fulvic acids from fen peatlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensive cultivation and agricultural use of peatlands lead to the degradation and mineralization of peat. Fulvic acids (FA) as the most mobile part of peat organic matter can be considered as an early indicator of its changes. One of the most sensitive and simple methods for studying the structural chemistry of humic substances is fluorescence spectroscopy. The objective of this study was to analyze comparatively the fluorescence properties of FA from low-moor peats of different genesis and decomposition degree with respect to the peculiarities of their chemical structure. FA were isolated from 4 peat samples collected from different fen peatlands of Belarus. Fluorescence spectra were obtained on water solutions of FA at a concentration of 50 mg/L after adjustment to pH=2, 6 and 13 on a MSL-4800 spectrofluorimeter (Perkin Elmer, USA.) at 20 ± 2 oC. Emission spectra were obtained using an excitation wavelength of 365 nm. Excitation spectra were recorded by varying the excitation wavelength from 260 to 520 nm and measuring the fluorescence emission at a fixed wavelength of 520 nm. Elemental composition of FA and optical density at 465 nm (D465) of FA solutions in 0.1 N NaOH were determined. Emission spectra of FA are characterized by a broad featureless band of the maximum wavelengths at ?=460-475 nm. Excitation spectra of FA have three peaks localized in different wavelength regions. The maximum wavelengths and intensities of the excitation peaks depend on the pH values. The highest intensities are observed at pH=6. FA exhibit a main excitation peak at ?=355-370 nm, a minor peak at ?=395-400 nm, and a weak band at ?=430-440 nm. At pH=2, all the peaks decrease in intensity. With increasing the pH to 13, the excitation maximum at ?=355-370 nm shifts from 10 to 20 nm towards longer wavelengths compared to acidic solutions. A general decrease in fluorescence intensity is observed, the intensity decline of the peak at ?=355-370 nm being more marked than of the peak at 395-400 nm. These three peaks can be attributed to three types of fluorophore structures with different degrees of conjugation. The excitation peak at ?=355-370 nm is due to the phenolic units conjugated with carbonyl groups. The peak at ?=395-400 nm can be assigned to the structural components with relatively higher degrees of conjugation (various substituted bicyclic aromatic and heteroaromatic structural units). The excitation band at ?=430-460 nm is suggested to be ascribed to the aromatic polyconjugation systems, consisting of aromatic structural units connected via various bridges which do not break off the polyconjugation. The ratios of fluorescence intensities at bands 355-370 nm and 395-400 nm (I355/I395), 355-370 nm and 430-440 nm (I355/I430), as well as 395-400 nm and 430-440 nm (I395/I430) were calculated. These ratios may indicate to a certain extent the contributions of each type of fluorophores to the total fluorescence of the humic molecules, and, therefore, the relative contributions of the corresponding structural units to the whole molecular structure of FA. The main fluorophores contributing to the fluorescence of FA are supposed to be phenolic units, aromatic and heteroaromatic moieties of a low degree of condensation, conjugated with functional groups and double bonds extending ?-electron systems. The fluorescence properties of peat FA were found to reflect the peculiarities of their chemical structure that depend mainly on geobotanical nature of the initial peat samples. FA from reed and alder peats with the highest D465 and the lowest H/C ratios reflecting the most developed systems of polyconjugation in their molecules are characterized with the longest emission wavelength and the lowest ratios of I355/I395, I355/I430, and I395/I430. These ratios suggest the most significant contribution of the aromatic polyconjugation systems to the fluorescence of these FA. The highest I355/I395, I355/I430, and I395/I430 ratios found for sedge-peat FA confirm that the aromatic polyconjugation systems in its molecules are less developed.

Maryganova, Victoria; Wojciech Szajdak, Lech

2010-05-01

134

Real time monitoring of superoxide dynamics in vivo through fluorescent proteins using a sensitive fiber probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superoxide anion is the primary oxygen free radical generated in mitochondria that causes intracellular oxidative stress. The lack of a method to directly monitor superoxide concentration in vivo in real time has severely hindered our understanding on its pathophysiology. We made transgenic zebrafish to specifically express fluorescent proteins, which are recently developed as reversible superoxide-specific indicators, in the liver. A fiber-optic fluorescent probe was used to noninvasively monitor superoxide generation in the liver in real time. The fish were placed in microfluidic channels for manipulation and reagents administration. Several superoxide-inducing and scavenging reagents were administrated onto the fish to investigate their effects on superoxide anion balancing. The biochemical dynamics of superoxide due to the application reagents were revealed in the transient behaviors of fluorescence time courses. With the ability to monitor superoxide dynamics in vivo in real time, this method can be used as an in vivo pharmaceutical screening platform.

Chang, Yu-Chung; Ken, Chuian-Fu; Hsu, Che-Wei; Liu, Ya-Ging

2014-03-01

135

Advanced in vivo applications of blue light photoreceptors as alternative fluorescent proteins.  

PubMed

The ultimate ambition in cell biology, microbiology and biomedicine is to unravel complex physiological and pathophysiological processes within living organisms. To conquer this challenge, fluorescent proteins (FPs) are used as versatile in vivo reporters and biosensors to study gene regulation as well as the synthesis, localization and function of proteins in living cells. The most widely used FPs are the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and its derivatives and relatives. Their use as in vivo reporter proteins, however, is sometimes restricted by different environmental and cellular factors. Consequently, a whole range of alternative, cofactor-dependent reporter proteins have been developed recently. In this perspective, we summarize the advantages and limitations of the novel class of cyan-green fluorescent flavoproteins in comparison to members of the GFP family and discuss some correlated consequences for the use of FPs as in vivo reporters. PMID:23660639

Drepper, Thomas; Gensch, Thomas; Pohl, Martina

2013-07-01

136

In vivo two-dimensional NMR correlation spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The poor resolution of in-vivo one- dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) has limited its clinical potential. Currently, only the large singlet methyl resonances arising from N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline, and creatine are quantitated in a clinical setting. Other metabolites such as myo- inositol, glutamine, glutamate, lactate, and ?- amino butyric acid (GABA) are of clinical interest but quantitation is difficult due to the overlapping resonances and limited spectral resolution. To improve the spectral resolution and distinguish between overlapping resonances, a series of two- dimensional chemical shift correlation spectroscopy experiments were developed for a 1.5 Tesla clinical imaging magnet. Two-dimensional methods are attractive for in vivo spectroscopy due to their ability to unravel overlapping resonances with the second dimension, simplifying the interpretation and quantitation of low field NMR spectra. Two-dimensional experiments acquired with mix-mode line shape negate the advantages of the second dimension. For this reason, a new experiment, REVOLT, was developed to achieve absorptive mode line shape in both dimensions. Absorptive mode experiments were compared to mixed mode experiments with respect to sensitivity, resolution, and water suppression. Detailed theoretical and experimental calculations of the optimum spin lock and radio frequency power deposition were performed. Two-dimensional spectra were acquired from human bone marrow and human brain tissue. The human brain tissue spectra clearly reveal correlations among the coupled spins of NAA, glutamine, glutamate, lactate, GABA, aspartate and myo-inositol obtained from a single experiment of 23 minutes from a volume of 59 mL. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)

Kraft, Robert A.

1999-10-01

137

In vivo brain spectroscopy with femtosecond white light continuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our purpose is to spectrally probe the main brain absorbers. The determination of their spatial distribution remains a challenge. According to anatomical data, the proposed 3D model of the rat pial-cortical vascular networks is divided into three parts: (1) the pial vessels could be approximated by a dense layer of around 250 micrometers depth; (2) the penetrating vessels repartition is described as periodic hexagonal prisms with three modules; (3) the capillary network is modelized using a periodic tiling of polyhedron with a density of 817mm.mm-3 and a branching pattern of 10000mm-3. With anaesthetized rats under stereotaxic conditions, in vivo time-resolved brain spectroscopy experiments are presented. The setup is designed to allow broadband time-resolved spectroscopy using a streak camera. A femtosecond white light continuum is produced by focusing 800nm pulses (0.5mJ, 1kHz, 150fs) in an adapted third order non linear medium. In the case of water, the spectrum expands over 380-780nm with an efficiency of 20 percent. Mathematical homogenization techniques could be applied to the radiative transfer equation with this geometrical vascular architecture and might be useful to analyze in depth time-resolved spectroscopy of such complex media.

Ramstein, Stephane; Mottin, Stephane; Laporte, Pierre

2002-05-01

138

Cutaneous tumors in vivo investigations using fluorescence and diffuse reflectance techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the recent years, there has been growing interest in the common use of laser-induced autofluorescence (LIAF) and reflectance spectroscopy (RS) to differentiate disease from normal surrounding tissue - so called optical biopsy method. Painless, instant diagnoses from optical biopsies will soon be a reality. These forms of optical diagnoses are preferable to the removal of several square millimeters of tissue surface - common in traditional biopsies - followed by delays while samples are sent for clinical analysis. The goal of this work was investigation of cutaneous benign and malignant lesions by the methods of LIAFS and RS. A nitrogen laser at 337 nm was applied for the needs of autofluorescence excitation. Broad-spectrum halogen lamp (from 400 to 900 nm) was applied for diffuse reflectance measurements. An associated microspectrometer detected in vivo the fluorescence and reflectance signals from human skin. The main spectral features of benign lesions - compound nevus, dysplastic nevi, heamangioma and basal cell papilloma and malignant lesions - pigmented, amelanotic and secondary malignant melanoma, as well as basal cell carcinoma are discussed and their possible origins are indicated. Spectra from healthy skin areas near to the lesion were detected to be used posteriori to reveal changes between healthy and lesion skin spectra. Influence of the main skin pigments on the spectra detected is discussed and evaluation of possibilities for differentiation between malignant and benign lesions is made based on their spectral properties. This research shows that non-invasive and high-sensitive in vivo detection by means of appropriate light sources and detectors should be possible, related to real-time determination of existing pathological conditions.

Borisova, E.; Troyanova, P.; Nikolova, E.; Avramov, L.

2008-06-01

139

In vivo imaging of cerebral energy metabolism with two-photon fluorescence lifetime microscopy of NADH  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive, specific measurement of cellular energy metabolism is crucial for understanding cerebral pathophysiology. Here, we present high-resolution, in vivo observations of autofluorescence lifetime as a biomarker of cerebral energy metabolism in exposed rat cortices. We describe a customized two-photon imaging system with time correlated single photon counting detection and specialized software for modeling multiple-component fits of fluorescence decay and monitoring their transient behaviors. In vivo cerebral NADH fluorescence suggests the presence of four distinct components, which respond differently to brief periods of anoxia and likely indicate different enzymatic formulations. Individual components show potential as indicators of specific molecular pathways involved in oxidative metabolism. PMID:23412419

Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Sakadzic, Sava; Wu, Weicheng; Becker, Wolfgang; Kasischke, Karl A.; Boas, David A.

2013-01-01

140

Fluorescence spectroscopy as a diagnostic of the radiation environment in high energy density experiments (invited)  

SciTech Connect

A fluorescence spectroscopy technique has been developed to measure conditions in high energy density (HED) experiments. The experimental technique and modeling of the spectra are described and results of fluorescence measurements are presented. Fluorescence spectra were measured from an aluminium microdot over a small hole in the wall of an experimental package or a hohlraum. The aluminium was photopumped from a broadband radiation source, without perturbing the temperature. To date, fluorescence spectroscopy has been used to diagnose the radiative heating of plasmas in the temperature range 20-80 eV. Fluorescence spectroscopy has several advantages over x-ray absorption and self-emission spectroscopy in the diagnosis of HED experiments and these are discussed in the article. Extension of the technique to higher temperature plasma is discussed.

Hoarty, D.J.; Smith, C.C.; Clark, E.L.; Foster, J.M.; Gales, S.G.; Magelssen, G.; Workman, J.; Wood, W.M.; Caldwell, S.; Chrien, R.; Sandoval, J.; Sedillo, T.; Walsh, P.; Carpenter, B.; Compton, S.; Perry, T. [AWE Plasma Physics Department, Reading Berkshire, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550-9234 (United States)

2004-10-01

141

In Vivo and Ex Vivo Transcutaneous Glucose Detection Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diabetes mellitus is widely acknowledged as a large and growing health concern. The lack of practical methods for continuously monitoring glucose levels causes significant difficulties in successful diabetes management. Extensive validation work has been carried out using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for in vivo glucose sensing. This dissertation details progress made towards a Raman-based glucose sensor for in vivo, transcutaneous glucose detection. The first presented study combines spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) with SERS (SESORS) to explore the possibility of in vivo, transcutaneous glucose sensing. A SERS-based glucose sensor was implanted subcutaneously in Sprague-Dawley rats. SERS spectra were acquired transcutaneously and analyzed using partial least-squares (PLS). Highly accurate and consistent results were obtained, especially in the hypoglycemic range. Additionally, the sensor demonstrated functionality at least17 days after implantation. A subsequent study further extends the application of SESORS to the possibility of in vivo detection of glucose in brain through skull. Specifically, SERS nanoantennas were buried in an ovine tissue behind a bone with 8 mm thickness and detected by using SESORS. In addition, quantitative detection through bones by using SESORS was also demonstrated. A device that could measure glucose continuously as well as noninvasively would be of great use to patients with diabetes. The inherent limitation of the SESORS approach may prevent this technique from becoming a noninvasive method. Therefore, the prospect of using normal Raman spectroscopy for glucose detection was re-examined. Quantitative detection of glucose and lactate in the clinically relevant range was demonstrated by using normal Raman spectroscopy with low power and short acquisition time. Finally, a nonlinear calibration method called least-squares support vector machine regression (LS-SVR) was investigated for analyzing spectroscopic data sets of glucose detection. Comparison studies were demonstrated between LS-SVR and PLS. LS-SVR demonstrated significant improvements in accuracy over PLS for glucose detection, especially when a global calibration model was required. The improvements imparted by LS-SVR open up the possibility of developing an accurate prediction algorithm for Raman-based glucose sensing applicable to a large human population. Overall, these studies show the high promise held by the Raman-based sensor for the challenge of optimal glycemic control.

Ma, Ke

142

Fluorescence dynamics of human epidermis (ex vivo) and skin (in vivo)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temporal behavior of autofluorescence of human skin and epidermis under continuous UV-irradiation has been studied. Fluorescence spectra and kinetic curves of fluorescence intensity have been obtained. The fluorescence intensity recovery after dark period also has been examined. The vitiligo skin and epidermis were used for comparing their spectra with reflectance and fluorescence spectra of healthy skin. The epidermal samples were prepared using surface epidermis stripping technique. It has been concluded that fluorophores being undergone the UVA photobleaching are actually present in epidermal layer, and immediate pigment darkening does contribute, no less than a half of magnitude, to the autofluorescence decrease under continuous UVA irradiation.

Salomatina, Elena V.; Pravdin, Alexander B.

2003-10-01

143

Plasmonic antennas and zero mode waveguides to enhance single molecule fluorescence detection and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy towards physiological concentrations  

E-print Network

Single-molecule approaches to biology offer a powerful new vision to elucidate the mechanisms that underpin the functioning of living cells. However, conventional optical single molecule spectroscopy techniques such as F\\"orster fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) or fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) are limited by diffraction to the nanomolar concentration range, far below the physiological micromolar concentration range where most biological reaction occur. To breach the diffraction limit, zero mode waveguides and plasmonic antennas exploit the surface plasmon resonances to confine and enhance light down to the nanometre scale. The ability of plasmonics to achieve extreme light concentration unlocks an enormous potential to enhance fluorescence detection, FRET and FCS. Single molecule spectroscopy techniques greatly benefit from zero mode waveguides and plasmonic antennas to enter a new dimension of molecular concentration reaching physiological conditions. The application of nano-optics...

Punj, Deep; Moparthi, Satish Babu; de Torres, Juan; Grigoriev, Victor; Rigneault, Hervé; Wenger, Jérôme

2014-01-01

144

The effects of flow rate on in vivo fluorescence measurements  

E-print Network

adaptation period, as a function of illumination time (Kautsky and Hirsch, 1931). Kiefer (1973a) showed the diatom Lauderia borealis had a two phase photoinhibitory response to intense solar radiation as a result of self-shading by the chloroplasts... regimes on Lauderio borealis and found a photoinhibitory response which lacked the slow phase, Heaney (1978) observed photo-inhibition of in uivo fluorescence for laboratory cultures of Asterionello formosa and natural populations dominated by Cerotium...

Sweet, Stephen Thomas

2012-06-07

145

Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy Evidence for Structural Heterogeneity in Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect

Self-aggregation in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) has been a subject of intense interest in recent years. In this work, we provide new experimental evidence for chain length-dependent self-aggregation in RTILs using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). In studying a homologous series of N-alkyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide, [CnMPy][Tf2N] RTILs of varying alkyl chain length (n = 3, 4, 6, 8, and 10), biphasic rhodamine 6G solute diffusion dynamics were observed; both the fast and slow diffusion coefficients decrease with increasing alkyl chain length, with the relative contribution from slower diffusion increasing for longer-chained [CnMPy][Tf2N]. We propose that the biphasic diffusion dynamics originate from self-aggregation of the nonpolar alkyl chains in the cationic [CnMPy]+. The presence of this local liquid structuring provides important insight into the behavior of RTILs relevant to their application in photovoltaics, fuel cells, and batteries.

Guo, Jianchang [ORNL; Baker, Gary A [ORNL; Hillesheim, Patrick C [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Shaw, Robert W [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL

2011-01-01

146

Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy and Nonlinear Stochastic Reaction-Diffusion  

E-print Network

The currently existing theory of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy(FCS) is based on the linear fluctuation theory originally developed by Einstein, Onsager, Lax, and others as a phenomenological approach to equilibrium fluctuations in bulk solutions. For mesoscopic reaction-diffusion systems with nonlinear chemical reactions among a small number of molecules, a situation often encountered in single-cell biochemistry, it is expected that FCS time correlation functions of a reaction-diffusion system can deviate from the classic results of Elson and Magde. We first discuss this nonlinear effect for reaction systems without diffusion. For nonlinear stochastic reaction-diffusion systems here are no closed solutions; therefore, stochastic Monte-Carlo simulations are carried out. We show that the deviation is small for a simple bimolecular reaction; the most significant deviations occur when the number of molecules is small and of the same order. Our results show that current linear FCS theory could be adequate for measurements on biological systems that contain many other sources of uncertainties. At the same time it provides a framework for future measurements of nonlinear, fluctuating chemical reactions with high-precision FCS. Extending Delbr\\"uck-Gillespie's theory for stochastic nonlinear reactions with rapidly stirring to reaction-diffusion systems provides a mesoscopic model for chemical and biochemical reactions at nanometric and mesoscopic level such as a single biological cell.

Mauricio J. Del Razo; Wenxiao Pan; Hong Qian; Guang Lin

2014-06-13

147

Fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for noninvasive diagnostics: applications to early cancer detection in the lung  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tissue fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging are being investigated as potential methods for non-invasive detection of pre-neoplastic change in the lung and other organ systems. A substantial contribution to tissue fluorescence is known to arise from endogenous cellular fluorophores. Using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging, we characterized the endogenous fluorescence properties of immortalized and carcinogen-transformed human bronchial epithelial cells. Non-invasive sensing of endogenous molecular biomarkers associated with human bronchial pre-neoplasia will be discussed.

Mycek, Mary-Ann; Urayama, Paul; Zhong, Wei; Sloboda, Roger D.; Dragnev, Konstantin H.; Dmitrovsky, Ethan

2003-10-01

148

Fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy: ushering in a new age of enlightenment for cellular dynamics  

PubMed Central

Originally developed for applications in physics and physical chemistry, fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy is becoming widely used in cell biology. This review traces the development of the method and describes some of the more important applications. Specifically, the methods discussed include fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), scanning FCS, dual color cross-correlation FCS, the photon counting histogram and fluorescence intensity distribution analysis approaches, the raster scanning image correlation spectroscopy method, and the Number and Brightness technique. The physical principles underlying these approaches will be delineated, and each of the methods will be illustrated using examples from the literature. PMID:21547245

Jameson, David M.; Ross, Justin A.; Albanesi, Joseph P.

2011-01-01

149

Soft nanomaterial-based targeting polymersomes for near-infrared fluorescence multispectral in vivo imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report here the soft nanomaterial-based targeting polymersomes for near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging to carry out in vivo tumor detection. Two polymersome-based NIR fluorescent probes were prepared through the self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers, poly(butadiene-b-ethylene oxide) (PEO-b-PBD). Each of them was encapsulated with distinct hydrophobic near-infrared dyes (DiD and DiR) and modified with different targeting ligands (anti-CEA antibody and anti-EGFR antibody), respectively. After simultaneous injection of these two probes into the tumor-bearing mice via tail vein, multispectral near-infrared fluorescence images were obtained. The results indicate that both probes are successfully directed to the tumor foci, where two distinguishable fluorescent signals were detected through the unmixed fluorescence images. By taking advantage of two targeting polymersome-based probes with distinct fluorescent features, the proposed multispectral near-infrared fluorescence imaging method can greatly improve the specificity and accuracy for in vivo tumor detection.

Li, Zuhong; Wu, Liyuan; Hu, Peiran; Han, Sihai; Zhang, Tao; Fan, Hongliang; Jin, Wei; Jin, Qinhan; Mu, Ying

2012-10-01

150

In vivo fluorescence imaging with high-resolution microlenses  

PubMed Central

Micro-optics are increasingly used for minimally invasive in vivo imaging, in miniaturized microscopes and in lab-on-a-chip devices. Owing to optical aberrations and lower numerical apertures, a main class of microlens, gradient refractive index lenses, has not achieved resolution comparable to conventional microscopy. Here we describe high-resolution microlenses, and illustrate two-photon imaging of dendritic spines on hippocampal neurons and dual-color nonlinear optical imaging of neuromuscular junctions in live mice. PMID:19525959

Barretto, Robert P J; Messerschmidt, Bernhard; Schnitzer, Mark J

2010-01-01

151

Fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy and imaging in random media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue fluorescence, whether from endogenous or exogenous probes, provides an opportunity for interrogation on the basis of structure and function. However to date, there has been little understanding of the localization of signal origin of fluorescence signals re-emitted from tissues. Previously, we have shown using finite element computations that the origin or re- emitted fluorescence signal depends upon the lifetime

Christina L. Hutchinson; Tamara L. Troy; Eva M. Sevick-Muraca

1995-01-01

152

Investigation of adipose tissues in Zucker rats using in vivo and ex vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

In vivo single-voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 4.7T and ex vivo high-resolution proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR-NMR) at 500 MHz were used to study the composition of adipose tissues in Zucker obese and Zucker lean rats. Lipid composition was characterized by unsaturation and polyunsaturation indexes and mean chain lengths. In vitro experiments were conducted in known mixtures of triglycerides and oils in order to validate the method. To avoid inaccuracies due to partial peak overlapping in MRS, peak quantification was performed after fitting of spectral peaks by using the QUEST algorithm. The intensity of different spectral lines was also corrected for T2 relaxation. Albeit with different sensitivity and accuracy, both techniques revealed that white adipose tissue is characterized by lower unsaturation and polyunsaturation indexes in obese rats compared with controls. HR-NMR revealed similar differences in brown adipose tissue. The present findings confirm the hypothesis that obese and lean Zucker rats have different adipose tissue composition. PMID:21098380

Mosconi, Elisa; Fontanella, Marco; Sima, Diana M.; Van Huffel, Sabine; Fiorini, Silvia; Sbarbati, Andrea; Marzola, Pasquina

2011-01-01

153

Mobility of Min-proteins in Escherichia coli measured by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy  

E-print Network

In the bacterium Escherichia coli, selection of the division site involves pole-to-pole oscillations of the proteins MinD and MinE. Different oscillation mechanisms based on cooperative effects between Min-proteins and on the exchange of Min-proteins between the cytoplasm and the cytoplasmic membrane have been proposed. The parameters characterizing the dynamics of the Min-proteins in vivo are not known. It has therefore been difficult to compare the models quantitatively with experiments. Here, we present in vivo measurements of the mobility of MinD and MinE using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Two distinct time-scales are clearly visible in the correlation curves. While the faster time-scale can be attributed to cytoplasmic diffusion, the slower time-scale could result from diffusion of membrane-bound proteins or from protein exchange between the cytoplasm and the membrane. We determine the diffusion constant of cytoplasmic MinD to be approximately 16\\mu^{2}/s, while for MinE we find about 10\\mu^{2}/s, independently of the processes responsible for the slower time-scale. Implications of the measured values for the oscillation mechanism are discussed.

G. Meacci; J. Ries; E. Fischer-Friedrich; N. Kahya; P. Schwille; K. Kruse

2007-01-29

154

In vivo Raman spectroscopy for oral cancers diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oral squamous cell carcinoma is sixth among the major malignancies worldwide. Tobacco habits are known as major causative factor in tumor carcinogenesis in oral cancer. Optical spectroscopy methods, including Raman, are being actively pursued as alternative/adjunct for cancer diagnosis. Earlier studies have demonstrated the feasibility of classifying normal, premalignant and malignant oral ex-vivo tissues. In the present study we have recorded in vivo spectra from contralateral normal and diseased sites of 50 subjects with pathologically confirmed lesions of buccal mucosa using fiber-optic-probe-coupled HE-785 Raman spectrometer. Spectra were recorded on similar points as per teeth positions with an average acquisition time of 8 seconds. A total of 215 and 225 spectra from normal and tumor sites, respectively, were recorded. Finger print region (1200-1800 cm-1) was utilized for classification using LDA. Standard-model was developed using 125 normal and 139 tumor spectra from 27 subjects. Two separate clusters with an efficiency of ~95% were obtained. Cross-validation with leave-one-out yielded ~90% efficiency. Remaining 90 normal and 86 tumor spectra were used as test data and predication efficiency of model was evaluated. Findings of the study indicate that Raman spectroscopic methods in combination with appropriate multivariate tool can be used for objective, noninvasive and rapid diagnosis.

Singh, S. P.; Deshmukh, Atul; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Krishna, C. Murali

2012-01-01

155

Photoacoustic correlation spectroscopy for in vivo blood flow speed measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoacoustic imaging has been widely used in structural and functional imaging. Because of its safety, high resolution, and high imaging depth, it has great potential for a variety of medical studies. Capillaries are the smallest blood vessels and enable the exchange of oxygen and nutrients. Noninvasive flow speed measurement of capillaries in vivo can benefit the study of vascular tone changes and rheological properties of blood cells in capillaries. Recently, there has been a growing interest in photoacoustic velocimetry, such as photoacoustic Doppler and M-mode photoacoustic flow imaging. Methods capable of high-resolution imaging and low-speed flow measurement are suitable to measure blood speeds in capillaries. Previously we proposed photoacoustic correlation spectroscopy (PACS) and shown its feasibility for lowspeed flow measurement. Here, in vivo measurement of blood speeds in capillaries in a chick embryo model by PACS technique is demonstrated. The laser-scanning photoacoustic microscopy system is used for fast imaging acquisition and high-resolution imaging. The measured speed in capillaries is similar to those found in literatures, which confirm the feasibility of the PACS method for blood velocimetry. This technique suggests a fairly simple way to study blood flow speeds in capillaries.

Chen, Sung-Liang; Xie, Zhixing; Carson, Paul L.; Wang, Xueding; Guo, L. Jay

2012-02-01

156

Intradermal Indocyanine Green for In Vivo Fluorescence Laser Scanning Microscopy of Human Skin: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background In clinical diagnostics, as well as in routine dermatology, the increased need for non-invasive diagnosis is currently satisfied by reflectance laser scanning microscopy. However, this technique has some limitations as it relies solely on differences in the reflection properties of epidermal and dermal structures. To date, the superior method of fluorescence laser scanning microscopy is not generally applied in dermatology and predominantly restricted to fluorescein as fluorescent tracer, which has a number of limitations. Therefore, we searched for an alternative fluorophore matching a novel skin imaging device to advance this promising diagnostic approach. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a Vivascope®-1500 Multilaser microscope, we found that the fluorophore Indocyanine-Green (ICG) is well suited as a fluorescent marker for skin imaging in vivo after intradermal injection. ICG is one of few fluorescent dyes approved for use in humans. Its fluorescence properties are compatible with the application of a near-infrared laser, which penetrates deeper into the tissue than the standard 488 nm laser for fluorescein. ICG-fluorescence turned out to be much more stable than fluorescein in vivo, persisting for more than 48 hours without significant photobleaching whereas fluorescein fades within 2 hours. The well-defined intercellular staining pattern of ICG allows automated cell-recognition algorithms, which we accomplished with the free software CellProfiler, providing the possibility of quantitative high-content imaging. Furthermore, we demonstrate the superiority of ICG-based fluorescence microscopy for selected skin pathologies, including dermal nevi, irritant contact dermatitis and necrotic skin. Conclusions/Significance Our results introduce a novel in vivo skin imaging technique using ICG, which delivers a stable intercellular fluorescence signal ideal for morphological assessment down to sub-cellular detail. The application of ICG in combination with the near infrared laser opens new ways for minimal-invasive diagnosis and monitoring of skin disorders. PMID:21904601

Jonak, Constanze; Skvara, Hans; Kunstfeld, Rainer; Trautinger, Franz; Schmid, Johannes A.

2011-01-01

157

Multimodal Raman-fluorescence spectroscopy of formalin fixed samples is able to discriminate brain tumors from dysplastic tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the recent years, there has been a considerable surge in the application of spectroscopy for disease diagnosis. Raman and fluorescence spectra provide characteristic spectral profile related to biochemical and morphological changes when tissues progress from normal state towards malignancy. Spectroscopic techniques offer the advantage of being minimally invasive compared to traditional histopathology, real time and quantitative. In biomedical optical diagnostics, freshly excised specimens are preferred for making ex-vivo spectroscopic measurements. With regard to fresh tissues, if the lab is located far away from the clinic it could pose a problem as spectral measurements have to be performed immediately after dissection. Tissue samples are usually placed in a fixative agent such as 4% formaldehyde to preserve the samples before processing them for routine histopathological studies. Fixation prevents the tissues from decomposition by arresting autolysis. In the present study, we intend to investigate the possibility of using formalin fixed samples for discrimination of brain tumours from dysplastic tissue using Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy. Formalin fixed samples were washed with phosphate buffered saline for about 5 minutes in order to remove the effects of formalin during spectroscopic measurements. In case of fluorescence spectroscopy, changes in spectral profile have been observed in the region between 550-670 nm between dysplastic and tumor samples. For Raman measurements, we found significant differences in the spectral profiles between dysplasia and tumor. In conclusion, formalin fixed samples can be potentially used for the spectroscopic discrimination of tumor against dysplastic tissue in brain samples.

Anand, Suresh; Cicchi, Riccardo; Giordano, Flavio; Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Pavone, Francesco Saverio

2014-05-01

158

In vivo fluorescence spectra unmixing and autofluorescence removal by sparse Non-negative  

E-print Network

spectra and to filter autofluorescence have already been developed and tested on small animal examination1 In vivo fluorescence spectra unmixing and autofluorescence removal by sparse Non-negative Matrix, based on Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF), is explored. To improve results on spatially sparse

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

159

TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION A new setup for in vivo fluorescence imaging of photosynthetic  

E-print Network

those with subtle changes in photo- synthetic electron flow. Keywords Chlorophyll fluorescence Á Imaging imaging setup able to assess in vivo photosynthetic activity. The system specifi- cally measures time related features, we have designed a flexible system allowing the fast sampling of images (down to 100 ls

160

In Vivo Mitochondrial Oxygen Tension Measured by a Delayed Fluorescence Lifetime Technique  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial oxygen tension (mitoPO2) is a key parameter for cellular function, which is considered to be affected under various pathophysiological circumstances. Although many techniques for assessing in vivo oxygenation are available, no technique for measuring mitoPO2 in vivo exists. Here we report in vivo measurement of mitoPO2 and the recovery of mitoPO2 histograms in rat liver by a novel optical technique under normal and pathological circumstances. The technique is based on oxygen-dependent quenching of the delayed fluorescence lifetime of protoporphyrin IX. Application of 5-aminolevulinic acid enhanced mitochondrial protoporphyrin IX levels and induced oxygen-dependent delayed fluorescence in various tissues, without affecting mitochondrial respiration. Using fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrate in isolated hepatocytes that the signal is of mitochondrial origin. The delayed fluorescence lifetime was calibrated in isolated hepatocytes and isolated perfused livers. Ultimately, the technique was applied to measure mitoPO2 in rat liver in vivo. The results demonstrate mitoPO2 values of ?30–40 mmHg. mitoPO2 was highly sensitive to small changes in inspired oxygen concentration around atmospheric oxygen level. Ischemia-reperfusion interventions showed altered mitoPO2 distribution, which flattened overall compared to baseline conditions. The reported technology is scalable from microscopic to macroscopic applications, and its reliance on an endogenous compound greatly enhances its potential field of applications. PMID:18641065

Mik, Egbert G.; Johannes, Tanja; Zuurbier, Coert J.; Heinen, Andre; Houben-Weerts, Judith H. P. M.; Balestra, Gianmarco M.; Stap, Jan; Beek, Johan F.; Ince, Can

2008-01-01

161

In vivo fluorescent imaging of the mouse retina using adaptive optics  

E-print Network

In vivo fluorescent imaging of the mouse retina using adaptive optics David P. Biss, Daniel Sumorok imaging of the mouse retina using visible and near infrared wavelengths does not achieve diffraction dimension of the eye, it is expected that unaberrated imaging of the retina would have a transverse resolu

162

Micro-Raman Spectroscopy of Algae: Composition Analysis and Fluorescence Background Behavior  

E-print Network

ARTICLE Micro-Raman Spectroscopy of Algae: Composition Analysis and Fluorescence Background performed using Stokes Raman scattering for compositional analysis of algae. Two algal species, Chlorella were considered to be candidates for biofuel production. Raman signals due to storage lipid

163

Characterization of flow direction in microchannels and zebrafish blood vessels by scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy  

E-print Network

The investigation of flow profiles in microstructures and tissues by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) has been a challenging topic in the past decade. Due to its inherent optical configuration, a circular focused ...

Pan, Xiaotao

164

Automation of the Laguerre Expansion Technique for Analysis of Time-resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy Data  

E-print Network

Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) is a powerful analytical tool for quantifying the biochemical composition of organic and inorganic materials. The potentials of TRFS as nondestructive clinical tool for tissue diagnosis have been...

Dabir, Aditi Sandeep

2010-07-14

165

NAD(P)H and Collagen as in Vivo Quantitative Fluorescent Biomarkers of Epithelial Precancerous Changes1  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the development of neoplasia, epithelial tissues undergo bio- chemical and structural changes that can manifest in tissue fluorescence. There have been several reports on different in vivo fluorescence charac- teristics between normal and precancerous (dysplastic) tissues. However, it has been difficult to identify and quantify the origins of these changes, mainly because of distortions introduced in measured tissue fluorescence

Irene Georgakoudi; Brian C. Jacobson; Markus G. Muller; Ellen E. Sheets; Kamran Badizadegan; David L. Carr-Locke; Christopher P. Crum; Charles W. Boone; Ramachandra R. Dasari; Jacques Van Dam; Michael S. Feld

166

Energy transfer processes in chlorophyll f-containing cyanobacteria using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy on intact cells.  

PubMed

We examined energy transfer dynamics in the unique chlorophyll (Chl) f-containing cyanobacterium Halomicronema hongdechloris. The absorption band of Chl f appeared during cultivation of this organism under far-red light. The absorption maximum of Chl f in organic solvents occurs at a wavelength of approximately 40 nm longer than that of Chl a. In vivo, the cells display a new absorption band at approximately 730 nm at 298 K, which is at a significantly longer wavelength than that of Chl a. We primarily assigned this band to a long wavelength form of Chl a. The function of Chl f is currently unknown. We measured the fluorescence of cells using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy in the picosecond-to-nanosecond time range and found clear differences in fluorescence properties between the cells that contained Chl f and the cells that did not. After excitation, the fluorescence peaks of photosystem I and photosystem II appeared quickly but diminished immediately. A unique fluorescence peak located at 748 nm subsequently appeared in cells containing Chl f. This finding strongly suggests that the Chl f in this alga exists in photosystem I and II complexes and is located close to each molecule of Chl a. This article is part of a special issue entitled: photosynthesis research for sustainability: keys to produce clean energy. PMID:24792349

Tomo, Tatsuya; Shinoda, Toshiyuki; Chen, Min; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I; Akimoto, Seiji

2014-09-01

167

Characterization of ? 3 Vibrational Levels in S 0 Formyl Fluoride Using Dispersed Fluorescence Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The harmonic frequency and anharmonic constants of the CH bend (?3) of formyl fluoride (HFCO) have been determined using the technique of dispersed fluorescence spectroscopy. Sample molecules were cooled in a supersonic expansion and excited to low J?, Ka?=0 rotational states in the 31 vibrational level of S1 HFCO. The resulting fluorescence to the ground electronic state was dispersed and

Karen E. Hahn; Katie M. Horsman; William F. Polik

2001-01-01

168

Characterization of nu3 Vibrational Levels in S0 Formyl Fluoride Using Dispersed Fluorescence Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The harmonic frequency and anharmonic constants of the CH bend (nu3) of formyl fluoride (HFCO) have been determined using the technique of dispersed fluorescence spectroscopy. Sample molecules were cooled in a supersonic expansion and excited to low J', Ka'=0 rotational states in the 31 vibrational level of S1 HFCO. The resulting fluorescence to the ground electronic state was dispersed and

Karen E. Hahn; Katie M. Horsman; William F. Polik

2001-01-01

169

Fluorescence spectroscopy of single-walled carbon nanotubes synthesized from alcohol  

E-print Network

I&EC 221 Fluorescence spectroscopy of single-walled carbon nanotubes synthesized from alcohol fluorescence measurements of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) catalytically synthesized from alcohol (Alcohol catalytic CVD method, ACCVD) in various experimental conditions were performed. The chirality

Maruyama, Shigeo

170

A 32-channel photon counting module with embedded auto/cross-correlators for real-time parallel fluorescence correlation spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a well-established technique to study binding interactions or the diffusion of fluorescently labeled biomolecules in vitro and in vivo. Fast FCS experiments require parallel data acquisition and analysis which can be achieved by exploiting a multi-channel Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) array and a corresponding multi-input correlator. This paper reports a 32-channel FPGA based correlator able to perform 32 auto/cross-correlations simultaneously over a lag-time ranging from 10 ns up to 150 ms. The correlator is included in a 32 × 1 SPAD array module, providing a compact and flexible instrument for high throughput FCS experiments. However, some inherent features of SPAD arrays, namely afterpulsing and optical crosstalk effects, may introduce distortions in the measurement of auto- and cross-correlation functions. We investigated these limitations to assess their impact on the module and evaluate possible workarounds.

Gong, S.; Labanca, I.; Rech, I.; Ghioni, M.

2014-10-01

171

Early detection of tumor masses by in vivo hematoporphyrin-mediated fluorescence imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the capability of fluorescence reflectance imaging (FRI) for the early detection of surface tumors in mice. We used a hematoporphyrin (HP) compound (HP dichlorohydrate) as a red fluorescent marker and a low noise, high sensitivity, digital CCD camera for fluorescence imaging. In this preliminary study, highly malignant anaplastic human thyroid carcinoma cells were implanted subcutaneously in one mouse and their growth was monitored daily for 5 days by FRI. The selective HP uptake by the tumor tissues was successfully observed: we observed the fluorescence of tumor only 3 days after cancer cells injection, i.e. when the tumor mass was neither visible (to the naked eye) or palpable. These measurements indicate that FRI is a suitable technique to detect minute subcutaneous tumor masses. This FRI system will be coupled to a radionuclide imaging system based on a CdTe detector for in vivo multimodal imaging in mice.

Autiero, Maddalena; Celentano, Luigi; Cozzolino, Rosanna; Laccetti, Paolo; Marotta, Marcello; Mettivier, Giovanni; Cristina Montesi, Maria; Quarto, Maria; Riccio, Patrizia; Roberti, Giuseppe; Russo, Paolo

2007-02-01

172

Real-time background-free selective imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds in vivo.  

PubMed

Recent developments of imaging techniques have enabled fluorescence microscopy to investigate the localization and dynamics of intracellular substances of interest even at the single-molecule level. However, such sensitive detection is often hampered by autofluorescence arising from endogenous molecules. Those unwanted signals are generally reduced by utilizing differences in either wavelength or fluorescence lifetime; nevertheless, extraction of the signal of interest is often insufficient, particularly for in vivo imaging. Here, we describe a potential method for the selective imaging of nitrogen-vacancy centers (NVCs) in nanodiamonds. This method is based on the property of NVCs that the fluorescence intensity sensitively depends on the ground state spin configuration which can be regulated by electron spin magnetic resonance. Because the NVC fluorescence exhibits neither photobleaching nor photoblinking, this protocol allowed us to conduct long-term tracking of a single nanodiamond in both Caenorhabditis elegans and mice, with excellent imaging contrast even in the presence of strong background autofluorescence. PMID:23066639

Igarashi, Ryuji; Yoshinari, Yohsuke; Yokota, Hiroaki; Sugi, Takuma; Sugihara, Fuminori; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Tsuji, Shigenori; Mori, Ikue; Tochio, Hidehito; Harada, Yoshie; Shirakawa, Masahiro

2012-11-14

173

Single gold nanoparticles to enhance the detection of single fluorescent molecules at micromolar concentration using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single nanoparticles made of noble metals are strongly appealing to develop practical applications to detect fluorescent molecules in solution. Here, we detail the use of a single gold nanoparticle of 100 nm diameter to enhance the detection of single Alex Fluor 647 fluorescent molecules at high concentrations of several micromolar. We discuss the implementation of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, and provide a new method to reliably extract the enhanced fluorescence signal stemming from the nanoparticle near-field from the background generated in the confocal volume. The applicability of our method is checked by reporting the invariance of the single molecule results as function of the molecular concentration, and the experimental data is found in good agreement with numerical simulations.

Punj, Deep; Rigneault, Hervé; Wenger, Jérôme

2014-05-01

174

Mini review of ultrafast fluorescence polarization spectroscopy [invited].  

PubMed

A mini review is presented on the theory, experiment, and application of the ultrafast fluorescence polarization dynamics and anisotropy with examples of two important medical dyes, namely Indocyanine Green and fluorescein. The time-resolved fluorescence polarization spectra of fluorescent dyes were measured with the excitation of a linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulse, and detected using a streak camera. The fluorescence emitted from the dyes is found to be partially oriented (polarized), and the degree of polarization of emission decreases with time. The decay of the fluorescence component polarized parallel to the excitation beam was found to be faster than that of the perpendicular one. Based on the physical model on the time-resolved polarized emission spectra in nanosecond range first described by Weber [J. Chem. Phys.52, 1654 (1970)], a set of first-order linear differential equations was used to model fluorescence polarization dynamics and anistropy of dye in picoseconds range. Using this model, two important decay parameters were identified separately: the decay rate of total emission intensity and the decay rate of the emission polarization affected by the rotation of fluorescent molecules causing the transfer of emission polarization from one orthogonal component to another. These two decay rates were separated and extracted from the measured time-resolved fluorescence polarization spectra. The emission polarization difference among dyes arising from different molecular volumes was used to enhance the image contrast. PMID:23400053

Pu, Yang; Wang, Wubao; Dorshow, Richard B; Das, Bidyut B; Alfano, Robert R

2013-02-10

175

Autofluorescence and Photofrin-induced fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy in an animal model of oral cancer.  

PubMed

Developments in the fluorescence detection of cancer aim either to distinguish tissue autofluorescence from that of injected fluorophores or to exploit differences in autofluorescent spectra of normal versus transforming, premalignant and malignant tissue. This study evaluates the utility of autofluorescence and Photofrin-induced fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy to distinguish tissue transformation associated with early malignant change in the oral cavity. The model of tissue transformation used was that induced by the carcinogen DMBA in the hamster buccal cheek pouch. Fluorescence spectra were obtained using a high-sensitivity fiber optic spectrometer, while imaging was performed using a Multispectral Fluorescence Guidance (MFG) system designed for use in intraoperative fluorescence imaging during photodynamic therapy. The results demonstrate that Photofrin fluorescence can be used to predict the pathologic state of tissue, the fluorescence intensity being directly proportional to the degree of malignant transformation. Autofluorescence detection measured two parameters that are altered by transformation stage: the red/green fluorescence ratio and the total fluorescence intensity. The most striking feature was the change in the latter in malignant tissue. The MFG imaging device performed as well as spectroscopy: the sensitivity and specificity for the imaging system were 65% and 90% for autofluorescence and 87% and 85% with Photofrin. This indicates that either the autofluorescence intensity index of the tissue or the Photofrin-induced fluorescence may provide a good parameter for the "first approximation" characterization of the tissue. PMID:25049151

Mang, Thomas; Kost, James; Sullivan, Maureen; Wilson, Brian C

2006-09-01

176

The Mobility of Phytochrome within Protonemal Tip Cells of the Moss Ceratodon purpureus, Monitored by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a versatile tool for investigating the mobilities of fluorescent molecules in cells. In this article, we show that it is possible to distinguish between freely diffusing and membrane-bound forms of biomolecules involved in signal transduction in living cells. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy was used to measure the mobility of phytochrome, which plays a role in phototropism

Guido Böse; Petra Schwille; Tilman Lamparterz

2004-01-01

177

Biocompatible near-infrared fluorescent nanoparticles for macro and microscopic in vivo functional bioimaging  

PubMed Central

Near-infrared (NIR) imaging technology has been widely used for biomedical research and applications, since it can achieve deep penetration in biological tissues due to less absorption and scattering of NIR light. In our research, polymer nanoparticles with NIR fluorophores doped were synthesized. The morphology, absorption/emission features and chemical stability of the fluorescent nanoparticles were characterized, separately. NIR fluorescent nanoparticles were then utilized as bright optical probes for macro in vivo imaging of mice, including sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping, as well as distribution and excretion monitoring of nanoparticles in animal body. Furthermore, we applied the NIR fluorescent nanoparticles in in vivo microscopic bioimaging via a confocal microscope. Under the 635 nm-CW excitation, the blood vessel architecture in the ear and the brain of mice, which were administered with nanoparticles, was visualized very clearly. The imaging depth of our one-photon microscopy, which was assisted with NIR fluorescent nanoprobes, can reach as deep as 500 ?m. Our experiments show that NIR fluorescent nanoparticles have great potentials in various deep-tissue imaging applications.

Chu, Liliang; Wang, Shaowei; Li, Kanghui; Xi, Wang; Zhao, Xinyuan; Qian, Jun

2014-01-01

178

Prediction of myocardial damage depth induced by extracellular photosensitization reaction using fluorescence measurement in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally studied the correlation between myocardial damage depth due to the extracellular photosensitization reaction (PR) using talaporfin sodium and fluorescence-fall amount (FA), which is calculated from the measured backscattering fluorescence intensity via a manipulatable 7 Fr. laser catheter during the PR operation in vivo to establish treatment depth predictor for a non-thermal tachyarrhythmia treatment. The PR was performed to left and/or right ventricle in the open-chest canine heart. The laser irradiation of 663+/-2 nm in wavelength via the laser catheter was operated 15 min after the intravenous administration of talaporfin sodium with concentration of 36.2+/-8.0 ?g/ml in plasma. The irradiation was operated with irradiance of 5, 10, 20 W/cm2, and duration of 5, 10, 20 s. Backscattering fluorescence of 710+/-2 nm in wavelength was measured via the laser catheter during the PR. The FA was calculated multiplying the irradiation duration by the fluorescence-fall, which is subtraction of the fluorescence intensity at the kickoff and end of the irradiation. The canine heart was extracted 1 week after the PR and HE stained specimen was histologically evaluated. The correlation of the myocardial damage depth and FA was investigated. We found that FA obtained a logarithmic relation to the myocardial damage depth. We think that the FA might be available to predict the PR induced myocardial damage depth for the application of tachyarrhythmia treatment under catheterization in vivo.

Takahashi, M.; Ogawa, E.; Nakamura, T.; Kawakami, H.; Machida, N.; Yajima, M.; Kurotsu, M.; Ito, A.; Kimura, T.; Arai, T.

2014-03-01

179

Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo, online gastric cancer diagnosis during clinical endoscopic examination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical spectroscopic techniques including reflectance, fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy have shown promising potential for in vivo precancer and cancer diagnostics in a variety of organs. However, data-analysis has mostly been limited to post-processing and off-line algorithm development. In this work, we develop a fully automated on-line Raman spectral diagnostics framework integrated with a multimodal image-guided Raman technique for real-time in vivo cancer detection at endoscopy. A total of 2748 in vivo gastric tissue spectra (2465 normal and 283 cancer) were acquired from 305 patients recruited to construct a spectral database for diagnostic algorithms development. The novel diagnostic scheme developed implements on-line preprocessing, outlier detection based on principal component analysis statistics (i.e., Hotelling's T2 and Q-residuals) for tissue Raman spectra verification as well as for organ specific probabilistic diagnostics using different diagnostic algorithms. Free-running optical diagnosis and processing time of < 0.5 s can be achieved, which is critical to realizing real-time in vivo tissue diagnostics during clinical endoscopic examination. The optimized partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models based on the randomly resampled training database (80% for learning and 20% for testing) provide the diagnostic accuracy of 85.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 82.9% to 88.2%] [sensitivity of 80.5% (95% CI: 71.4% to 89.6%) and specificity of 86.2% (95% CI: 83.6% to 88.7%)] for the detection of gastric cancer. The PLS-DA algorithms are further applied prospectively on 10 gastric patients at gastroscopy, achieving the predictive accuracy of 80.0% (60/75) [sensitivity of 90.0% (27/30) and specificity of 73.3% (33/45)] for in vivo diagnosis of gastric cancer. The receiver operating characteristics curves further confirmed the efficacy of Raman endoscopy together with PLS-DA algorithms for in vivo prospective diagnosis of gastric cancer. This work successfully moves biomedical Raman spectroscopic technique into real-time, on-line clinical cancer diagnosis, especially in routine endoscopic diagnostic applications.

Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Sylvest Bergholt, Mads; Zheng, Wei; Yu Ho, Khek; Teh, Ming; Guan Yeoh, Khay; Bok Yan So, Jimmy; Shabbir, Asim; Huang, Zhiwei

2012-08-01

180

Two-photon fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with high count rates and low background using dielectric microspheres  

PubMed Central

Two-photon excitation fluorescence is a powerful technique commonly used for biological imaging. However, the low absorption cross section of this non-linear process is a critical issue for performing biomolecular spectroscopy at the single molecule level. Enhancing the two-photon fluorescence signal would greatly improve the effectiveness of this technique, yet current methods struggle with medium enhancement factors and/or high background noise. Here, we show that the two-photon fluorescence signal from single Alexa Fluor 488 molecules can be enhanced up to 10 times by using a 3 µm diameter latex sphere while adding almost no photoluminescence background. We report a full characterization of the two-photon fluorescence enhancement by a single microsphere using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. This opens new routes to enhance non-linear optical signals and extend biophotonic applications. PMID:21258531

Aouani, Heykel; Schon, Peter; Brasselet, Sophie; Rigneault, Herve; Wenger, Jerome

2010-01-01

181

Development of a dual-modal tissue diagnostic system combining time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrasonic backscatter microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a tissue diagnostic system which combines two complementary techniques of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TR-LIFS) and ultrasonic backscatter microscopy (UBM). TR-LIFS evaluates the biochemical composition of tissue, while UBM provides tissue microanatomy and enables localization of the region of diagnostic interest. The TR-LIFS component consists of an optical fiber-based time-domain apparatus including a spectrometer, gated multichannel plate photomultiplier, and fast digitizer. It records the fluorescence with high sensitivity (nM concentration range) and time resolution as low as 300 ps. The UBM system consists of a transducer, pulser, receiving circuit, and positioning stage. The transducer used here is 45 MHz, unfocused, with axial and lateral resolutions 38 and 200 ?m. Validation of the hybrid system and ultrasonic and spectroscopic data coregistration were conducted both in vitro (tissue phantom) and ex vivo (atherosclerotic tissue specimens of human aorta). Standard histopathological analysis of tissue samples was used to validate the UBM-TRLIFS data. Current results have demonstrated that spatially correlated UBM and TR-LIFS data provide complementary characterization of both morphology (necrotic core and calcium deposits) and biochemistry (collagen, elastin, and lipid features) of the atherosclerotic plaques at the same location. Thus, a combination of fluorescence spectroscopy with ultrasound imaging would allow for better identification of features associated with tissue pathologies. Current design and performance of the hybrid system suggests potential applications in clinical diagnosis of atherosclerotic plaque.

Sun, Yang; Park, Jesung; Stephens, Douglas N.; Jo, Javier A.; Sun, Lei; Cannata, Jonathan M.; Saroufeem, Ramez M. G.; Shung, K. Kirk; Marcu, Laura

2009-06-01

182

Development of a dual-modal tissue diagnostic system combining time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrasonic backscatter microscopy.  

PubMed

We report a tissue diagnostic system which combines two complementary techniques of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TR-LIFS) and ultrasonic backscatter microscopy (UBM). TR-LIFS evaluates the biochemical composition of tissue, while UBM provides tissue microanatomy and enables localization of the region of diagnostic interest. The TR-LIFS component consists of an optical fiber-based time-domain apparatus including a spectrometer, gated multichannel plate photomultiplier, and fast digitizer. It records the fluorescence with high sensitivity (nM concentration range) and time resolution as low as 300 ps. The UBM system consists of a transducer, pulser, receiving circuit, and positioning stage. The transducer used here is 45 MHz, unfocused, with axial and lateral resolutions 38 and 200 microm. Validation of the hybrid system and ultrasonic and spectroscopic data coregistration were conducted both in vitro (tissue phantom) and ex vivo (atherosclerotic tissue specimens of human aorta). Standard histopathological analysis of tissue samples was used to validate the UBM-TRLIFS data. Current results have demonstrated that spatially correlated UBM and TR-LIFS data provide complementary characterization of both morphology (necrotic core and calcium deposits) and biochemistry (collagen, elastin, and lipid features) of the atherosclerotic plaques at the same location. Thus, a combination of fluorescence spectroscopy with ultrasound imaging would allow for better identification of features associated with tissue pathologies. Current design and performance of the hybrid system suggests potential applications in clinical diagnosis of atherosclerotic plaque. PMID:19566223

Sun, Yang; Park, Jesung; Stephens, Douglas N; Jo, Javier A; Sun, Lei; Cannata, Jonathan M; Saroufeem, Ramez M G; Shung, K Kirk; Marcu, Laura

2009-06-01

183

Genotyping using single nucleotide polymorphism, fluorescence spectroscopy and pattern recognition.  

PubMed

This paper describes a method for genetic screening using single nucleotide polymorphism. Fluorescence spectra with an excitation frequency of 488 nm are recorded over a range of 550 to 660 nm of fragments of human DNA together with two fluorescent probe dyes attached to specific primers, one for each type of allele and a background dye, prepared using the Taqman reaction. The fluorescence spectra are monitored and principal components analysis used to separate spectra into three groups, which are visually identified as allele 1 (wild type), allele 2 (mutant) and mixed allele by comparison to reference samples. Malahanobis distance using 4 principal components are used to correctly classify samples into groups. PMID:14978528

Brereton, Richard G; Devonshire, Martin

2004-03-01

184

In-vivo Fluorescent X-ray CT Imaging of Mouse Brain  

SciTech Connect

Using a non-radioactive iodine-127 labeled cerebral perfusion agent (I-127 IMP), fluorescent X-ray computed tomography (FXCT) clearly revealed the cross-sectional distribution of I-127 IMP in normal mouse brain in-vivo. Cerebral perfusion of cortex and basal ganglion was depicted with 1 mm in-plane spatial resolution and 0.1 mm slice thickness. Degree of cerebral perfusion in basal ganglion was about 2-fold higher than that in cortical regions. This result suggests that in-vivo cerebral perfusion imaging is realized quantitatively by FXCT at high volumetric resolution.

Takeda, T.; Wu, J.; Lwin, Thet-Thet; Huo, Q.; Minami, M. [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Sunaguchi, N.; Murakami, T.; Mouri, S.; Nasukawa, S.; Yuasa, T.; Akatsuka, T. [Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata University, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); Hyodo, K. [Institute of Material Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Hontani, H. [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8555 (Japan)

2007-01-19

185

Development of an Immunologically Tolerated Combination of Fluorescent Proteins for In vivo Two-photon Imaging.  

PubMed

Combinations of fluorescent proteins (FPs) are routinely used for multi-parameter in vivo imaging experiments to visualize tagged proteins or cell populations of interest. Studies involving FPs are often limited by spectral overlap, toxicity, relative quantum efficiency, and the potential for immunological rejection upon transfer into a non-tolerant recipient. Here we evaluate the immunologic visibility of several commonly used FPs by the murine immune system and identify a spectrally compatible, immunologically tolerated combination of FPs well suited for in vivo two-photon imaging. PMID:25322934

Gossa, Selamawit; Nayak, Debasis; Zinselmeyer, Bernd H; McGavern, Dorian B

2014-01-01

186

Development of an Immunologically Tolerated Combination of Fluorescent Proteins for In vivo Two-photon Imaging  

PubMed Central

Combinations of fluorescent proteins (FPs) are routinely used for multi-parameter in vivo imaging experiments to visualize tagged proteins or cell populations of interest. Studies involving FPs are often limited by spectral overlap, toxicity, relative quantum efficiency, and the potential for immunological rejection upon transfer into a non-tolerant recipient. Here we evaluate the immunologic visibility of several commonly used FPs by the murine immune system and identify a spectrally compatible, immunologically tolerated combination of FPs well suited for in vivo two-photon imaging. PMID:25322934

Gossa, Selamawit; Nayak, Debasis; Zinselmeyer, Bernd H.; McGavern, Dorian B.

2014-01-01

187

The application of anti-ESAT-6 monoclonal antibody fluorescent probe in ex vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging in mice with pulmonary tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Here, we aimed to assess the feasibility of anti-ESAT-6 monoclonal antibody (mAb) coupling with IR783 and rhodamine fluorescent probe in the detection of ESAT-6 expression in tuberculosis tissue of mice using near-infrared fluorescence imaging. IR783 and rhodamine were conjugated to the anti-ESAT-6 mAb or IgG. Mice in the experimental group were injected with fluorescence-labeled mAb probe, and mice in the control group were injected with fluorescence-labeled non-specific IgG antibody. Twenty-four hours later, the lung tissue of mice was examined using ex vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging. In addition, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was calculated by measuring the signal intensities of the pulmonary lesions, normal lung tissue and background noise. The frozen lung tissue section was examined under fluorescence microscopy and compared with hemoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The ex vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging showed that the fluorescence signal in the lung tuberculosis lesions in the experimental group was significantly enhanced, whereas there was only a weak fluorescence signal or even no fluorescence signal in the control group. CNR values were 64.40?±?7.02 (n?=?6) and 8.75?±?3.87 (n?=?6), respectively (t?=?17.01, p?fluorescence accumulation distribution detected under fluorescence microscopy was consistent with HE staining of the tuberculosis region. In conclusion, anti-ESAT-6 mAb fluorescent probe could target and be applied in specific ex vivo imaging of mice tuberculosis, and may be of further use in tuberculosis in living mice. PMID:24170605

Feng, Feng; Zhang, Haoling; Zhu, Zhaoqin; Li, Cong; Shi, Yuxin; Zhang, Zhiyong

2014-09-01

188

Polarized fluorescence spectroscopy of oriented isolated spinach Photosystem I particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluorescence anisotropy of Photosystem I (PS I) particles, isolated from spinach chloroplasts and containing approximately\\u000a 200 chlorophyll molecules per reaction center, is investigated at low temperatures. The particles are oriented by squeezing\\u000a in polyacrylamid gels with different macroscopic deformation parameters. Fluorescence anisotropy is measured upon steady state\\u000a excitation with a laser line at 632.8 nm. A formula for the

Atanaska Andreeva; Maya Velitchkova

2000-01-01

189

In Vivo Photoacoustic and Fluorescence Cystography Using Clinically Relevant Dual Modal Indocyanine Green  

PubMed Central

Conventional X-ray-based cystography uses radio-opaque materials, but this method uses harmful ionizing radiation and is not sensitive. In this study, we demonstrate nonionizing and noninvasive photoacoustic (PA) and fluorescence (FL) cystography using clinically relevant indocyanine green (ICG) in vivo. After transurethral injection of ICG into rats through a catheter, their bladders were photoacoustically and fluorescently visualized. A deeply positioned bladder below the skin surface (i.e., ?1.5–5 mm) was clearly visible in the PA and FL image using a laser pulse energy of less than 2 mJ/cm2 (1/15 of the safety limit). Then, the in vivo imaging results were validated through in situ studies. Our results suggest that dual modal cystography can provide a nonionizing and noninvasive imaging tool for bladder mapping. PMID:25337743

Park, Sungjo; Kim, Jeesu; Jeon, Mansik; Song, Jaewon; Kim, Chulhong

2014-01-01

190

In vivo photoacoustic and fluorescence cystography using clinically relevant dual modal indocyanine green.  

PubMed

Conventional X-ray-based cystography uses radio-opaque materials, but this method uses harmful ionizing radiation and is not sensitive. In this study, we demonstrate nonionizing and noninvasive photoacoustic (PA) and fluorescence (FL) cystography using clinically relevant indocyanine green (ICG) in vivo. After transurethral injection of ICG into rats through a catheter, their bladders were photoacoustically and fluorescently visualized. A deeply positioned bladder below the skin surface (i.e., ~1.5-5 mm) was clearly visible in the PA and FL image using a laser pulse energy of less than 2 mJ/cm2 (1/15 of the safety limit). Then, the in vivo imaging results were validated through in situ studies. Our results suggest that dual modal cystography can provide a nonionizing and noninvasive imaging tool for bladder mapping. PMID:25337743

Park, Sungjo; Kim, Jeesu; Jeon, Mansik; Song, Jaewon; Kim, Chulhong

2014-01-01

191

Reliable Assessment and Quantification of the Fluorescence-Labeled Antisense Oligonucleotides In Vivo  

PubMed Central

The availability of fluorescent dyes and the advances in the optical systems for in vivo imaging have stimulated an increasing interest in developing new methodologies to study and quantify the biodistribution of labeled agents. However, despite these great achievements, we are facing significant challenges in determining if the observed fluorescence does correspond to the quantity of the dye in the tissues. In fact, although the far-red and near-infrared lights can propagate through several centimetres of tissue, they diffuse within a few millimetres as consequence of the elastic scattering of photons. In addition, when dye-labeled oligonucleotides form stable complex with cationic carriers, a large change in the fluorescence intensity of the dye is observed. Therefore, the measured fluorescence intensity is altered by the tissue heterogeneity and by the fluctuation of dye intensity. Hence, in this study a quantification strategy for fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotides was developed to solve these disadvantageous effects. Our results proved that upon efficient homogenization and dilution with chaotropic agents, such as guanidinium thiocyanate, it is possible to achieve a complete fluorescence intensity recovery. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this method has the advantage of good sensitivity and reproducibility, as well as easy handling of the tissue samples. PMID:24967340

Chiara Munisso, Maria; Yamaoka, Tetsuji

2014-01-01

192

In vivo vascular imaging with adaptive optics confocal scanning fluorescence microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adaptive optics is implemented in a confocal scanning fluorescence microscope with wavefront sensorless scheme. Using the image sharpness as the optimization metric, aberration correction is performed to compensate both system- and specimen-induced aberrations by using stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm based upon Zernike polynomial modes. In vivo vascular imaging of mice ear is completed and the results revealed the improved signal and resolution leading to in substantially enhanced image contrast with aberration correction which allowed us to detect clearer vasculature structures.

Wang, Zhibin; Wei, Lin; He, Yi; Li, Xiqi; Shi, Guohua; Zhang, Yudong

2014-09-01

193

Fluorescence diagnosis of the status of the human lens in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied fluorescence spectra of the human lens in vivo for healthy eyes and in different stages of senile cataract development. We propose a spectral criterion, the lens opacity index, allowing us to differentiate between stages of cataract development. We show a high correlation between the stage of cataract development and the opacity index. We propose an empirical expression for determining the stage of senile cataract development from the value of the lens opacity index. The technique has been clinically tested.

Vladimirova, E. S.; Salmin, V. V.; Salmina, A. B.; Oskirko, S. A.; Lazarenko, V. I.; Provorov, A. S.

2012-03-01

194

In vivo chlorophyll fluorescence study of hazardous waste site vegetation under field and controlled conditions  

SciTech Connect

Cattail (Typha sp.) and Arrow Arum (Peltandra virginica) were studied to determine the effects of cadmium and nickel contamination in a freshwater tidal marsh. An in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence instrument was used in the field to estimate photosynthetic capacity. No definitive effects on photosynthesis were observed. A laboratory study was then designed to determine whether fluorescence could detect sublethal impacts of cadmium and whether tolerant plants had developed in the contaminated area. Arrow Arum seeds collected from a reference wetland and from the contaminated wetland were grown in horticultural vermiculite with cadmium concentrations of 0, 1, 2, 5 and 10 mg/L. Results indicate that, regardless of seed origin, fluorescence can detect an effect at cadmium levels at which there are no visual signs of stress. However, the plants from the contaminated wetland exhibited reduced growth, and deformities in several individuals.

Mayasich, S.A.; Zygmont, N.J. (Roy F. Weston, Inc., Edison, NJ (United States) CDM Federal Programs Corp., South Plainfield, NJ (United States))

1993-06-01

195

Photoacoustic imaging of the near-infrared fluorescent protein iRFP in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetically encoded probes powerfully and non-invasively target specific tissues, cells, and subcellular locations. iRFP, a novel near-infrared fluorescent protein with low quantum yield whose absorption and fluorescence maxima are located at wavelengths longer than the Q-band of hemoglobin absorption, is ideal for PAT. Here, we report on an in vitro comparison of iRFP with other far-red fluorescent proteins, and its use in imaging a mouse tumor xenograft model. In an in vivo experiment, we stably transfected iRFP into MTLn3 adenocarcinoma cells and injected them into the mammary fat pad of female SCID/NCr mice, then imaged the resulting tumors two and three weeks post injection. The contrast increase from the protein expression was high enough to clearly separate the tumor region from the rest of the animal.

Krumholz, Arie; Filonov, Grigory S.; Xia, Jun; Yao, Junjie; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.; Wang, Lihong V.

2012-02-01

196

In vivo detecting matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity by a genetically engineered fluorescent probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) enhances tumor invasion and metastasis. To monitor MMP activity, we constructed plasmid that encoded a fluorescent sensor DC, in which an MMP substrate site (MSS) is sandwiched between DsRed2 and ECFP. MMPs are secretory proteins, only acting on the outside of cells; hence, an expressing vector was used that displayed the fluorescent sensor on the cellular surface. The DC was expressed in cells with high secretory MMP, so MSS was cleaved by MMP. Also, GM6001, an MMP inhibitor, causes DsRed2 signals to increase in living cells and on the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Thus, this fluorescent sensor was able to sensitively monitor MMP activation in vivo. Potential applications for this sensor include high-throughput screening for MMP inhibitors for anti-cancer research, and detailed analysis of the effects of MMP inhibitors.

Yang, Jie; Zhang, Zhihong; Su, Ting; Luo, Qingming

2007-02-01

197

Unravelling molecular mechanisms in the fluorescence spectra of doxorubicin in aqueous solution by femtosecond fluorescence spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent anti-tumoral agent widely used for cancer therapy. Despite numerous studies, the fluorescence properties of DOX, usually exploited for the characterization of the interaction with biological media, have until now led to controversial interpretations, mainly due to self-association of the drug in aqueous solution. We present here the first femtosecond study of DOX based on measurements with the fluorescence up-conversion technique in combination with time-correlated single photon counting using the same laser source. We provide evidence that fluorescence signals of DOX stem from monomers and dimers. DOX dimerization induces a dramatic decrease in the fluorescence quantum yield from 3.9 × 10(-2) to 10(-5) associated with the red shift of the fluorescence spectrum by ~25 nm. While the fluorescence lifetime of the monomer is 1 ns, the dimer fluorescence is found to decay with a lifetime of about 2 ps. In contrast to monomers, the fluorescence anisotropy of dimers is found to be negative. These experimental observations are consistent with an ultrafast internal conversion (<200 fs) between two exciton states, possibly followed by a charge separation process. PMID:23340955

Changenet-Barret, Pascale; Gustavsson, Thomas; Markovitsi, Dimitra; Manet, Ilse; Monti, Sandra

2013-02-28

198

The Design and Development of Fluorescent Nano-Optodes for in Vivo Glucose Monitoring  

PubMed Central

Background The advent of fluorescent nanosensors has enabled intracellular monitoring of several physiological analytes, which was previously not possible with molecular dyes or other invasive techniques. We have extended the capability of these sensors to include the detection of small molecules with the development of glucose-sensitive nano-optodes. Herein, we discuss the design and development of glucose-sensitive nano-optodes, which have been proven functional both in vitro and in vivo. Methods Throughout the design process, each of the sensor formulations was evaluated based on their response to changes in glucose levels. The percent change in signal, sensor reversibility, and the overall fluorescence intensity were the specific parameters used to assess each formulation. Results A hydrophobic boronic acid was selected that yielded a fully reversible fluorescence response to glucose in accordance with the sensor mechanism. The change in fluorescence signal in response to glucose was approximately 11%. The use of different additives or chromophores did not improve the response; however, modifications to the plasticized polymeric membrane extended sensor lifetime. Conclusions Sensors were developed that yielded a dynamic response to glucose and through further modification of the components, sensor lifetime was improved. By following specific design criteria for the macrosensors, the sensors were miniaturized into nano-optodes that track changes in glucose levels in vivo. PMID:21303627

Balaconis, Mary K.; Billingsley, Kelvin; Dubach, J. Matthew; Cash, Kevin J.; Clark, Heather A.

2011-01-01

199

MR and fluorescence imaging of doxorubicin loaded nanoparticles using a novel in vivo model  

PubMed Central

We report here the in vivo combined-modality imaging of multifunctional drug delivery nanoparticles. These dextran core-based stealth liposomal nanoparticles (nanosomes) contained doxorubicin, iron oxide for MRI contrast, and Bodipy for fluorescence. The particles were long-lived in vivo due to surface decoration with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and the incorporation of acetylated lipids which were UV cross-linked for physical stability. We developed a rodent dorsal skinfold window chamber which facilitated both MRI and non-destructive optical imaging of nanoparticle accumulation in the same tumors. Chamber tumors were genetically labeled with DsRed-2 that enabled the MR images, the red fluorescence of the tumor, and the blue fluorescence of the nanoparticles to be co-localized. The nanoparticle design and MR imaging developed with the window chamber were then extended to orthotopic pancreatic tumors expressing DsRed-2. The tumors were MR imaged using iron oxide-dextran liposomes and by fluorescence to demonstrate the deep imaging capability of these nanoparticles. PMID:20599526

Erten, Ahmet; Wrasidlo, Wolf; Scadeng, Miriam; Esener, Sadik; Hoffman, Robert; Bouvet, Michael; Makale, Milan

2010-01-01

200

Redox-responsive branched-bottlebrush polymers for in vivo MRI and fluorescence imaging.  

PubMed

Stimuli-responsive multimodality imaging agents have broad potential in medical diagnostics. Herein, we report the development of a new class of branched-bottlebrush polymer dual-modality organic radical contrast agents-ORCAFluors-for combined magnetic resonance and near-infrared fluorescence imaging in vivo. These nitroxide radical-based nanostructures have longitudinal and transverse relaxation times that are on par with commonly used heavy-metal-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. Furthermore, these materials display a unique compensatory redox response: fluorescence is partially quenched by surrounding nitroxides in the native state; exposure to ascorbate or ascorbate/glutathione leads to nitroxide reduction and a concomitant 2- to 3.5-fold increase in fluorescence emission. This behaviour enables correlation of MRI contrast, fluorescence intensity and spin concentration with tissues known to possess high concentrations of ascorbate in mice. Our in vitro and in vivo results, along with our modular synthetic approach, make ORCAFluors a promising new platform for multimodality molecular imaging. PMID:25403521

Sowers, Molly A; McCombs, Jessica R; Wang, Ying; Paletta, Joseph T; Morton, Stephen W; Dreaden, Erik C; Boska, Michael D; Ottaviani, M Francesca; Hammond, Paula T; Rajca, Andrzej; Johnson, Jeremiah A

2014-01-01

201

Two-dimensional fluorescence correlation spectroscopy IV: Resolution of fluorescence of tryptophan residues in alcohol dehydrogenase and lysozyme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generalized two-dimensional (2D) fluorescence correlation spectroscopy has been used to resolve the fluorescence spectra of two tryptophan (Trp) residues in alcohol dehydrogenase and lysozyme. In each protein, one Trp residue is buried in a hydrophobic domain of the protein matrix and the other Trp residue is located at a hydrophilic domain close to the protein-water interface. Fluorescence quenching by iodide ion, a hydrophilic quencher, was employed as a perturbation to induce the intensity change in the spectra. The Trp residue which is located at the hydrophilic domain is effectively quenched by the quencher, while the Trp residue located at the hydrophobic domain is protected from the quenching. Therefore, the fluorescence of these two Trp residues have a different sensitivity to the quenching, showing a different response to the concentration of the quencher. Fluorescence spectra of the two Trp residues in alcohol dehydrogenase, which are heavily overlapped in conventional one-dimensional spectra, have been successfully resolved by the 2D correlation technique. From the asynchronous correlation map, it was revealed that the quenching of Trp located at the hydrophobic part was brought about after that of Trp located at the hydrophilic part. In contrast, the fluorescence spectra of the two Trp residues could not be resolved after the alcohol dehydrogenase was denatured with guanidine hydrochloride. These results are consistent with the well-known structure of alcohol dehydrogenase. Furthermore, it was elucidated that the present 2D analysis is not interfered by Raman bands of the solvent, which sometimes bring difficulty into the conventional fluorescence analysis. Fluorescence spectra of the Trp residues in lysozyme could not be resolved by the 2D correlation technique. The differences between the two proteins are attributed to the fact that the Trp residue in the hydrophobic site of lysozyme is not sufficiently protected from the quenching.

Fukuma, Hiroaki; Nakashima, Kenichi; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Noda, Isao

2006-11-01

202

Determination of the PSI/PSII ratio in living plant cells at room temperature by spectrally resolved fluorescence spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leaf cells of living plants exhibit strong fluorescence from chloroplasts, the reaction centers of photosynthesis. Mutations in the photosystems change their structure and can, thus, be monitored by recording the fluorescence spectra of the emitted chlorophyll light. These measurements have, up to now, mostly been carried out at low temperatures (77 K), as these conditions enable the differentiation between the fluorescence of Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII). In contrast, at room temperature, energy transfer processes between the various photosynthetic complexes result in very similar fluorescence emissions, which mainly consist of fluorescence photons emitted by PSII hindering a discrimination based on spectral ROIs (regions of interest). However, by statistical analysis of high resolution fluorescence spectra recorded at room temperature, it is possible to draw conclusions about the relative PSI/PSII ratio. Here, the possibility of determining the relative PSI/PSII ratio by fluorescence spectroscopy is demonstrated in living maize plants. Bundle-sheath chloroplasts of mature maize plants have a special morphologic characteristic; they are agranal, or exhibit only rudimentary grana, respectively. These chloroplasts are depleted in PSII activity and it could be shown that PSII is progressively reduced during leaf differentiation. A direct comparison of PSII activity in isolated chloroplasts is nearly impossible, since the activity of PSII in both mesophyll- and bundle-sheath chloroplasts decays with time after isolation and it takes significantly longer to isolate bundle-sheath chloroplasts. Considering this fact the measurement of PSI/PSII ratios with the 77K method, which includes taking fluorescence spectra from a diluted suspension of isolated chloroplasts at 77K, is questionable. These spectra are then used to analyze the distribution of energy between PSI and PSII. After rapid cooling to 77K secondary biochemical influences, which attenuate the fluorescence emanated from PSI, are frozen out. Due to their characteristic morphology, maize chloroplasts of mesophyll and bundle-sheath cells are an appropriate system for demonstrating the applicability of our in vivo method which, unlike the common 77K method, does not require the isolation of chloroplasts. In mesophyll chloroplasts of higher land plants, the thylakoids have a heterogenic morphology of appressed and non-appressed membrane domains, called the grana and the stroma lamellae. PSII is enriched in the grana, whereas PSI is enriched in the stroma lamellae. Changes in chloroplast membrane structure and composition, according to changes in the PSI/ PSII ratio, can be triggered by light quality and carbon source deficiency. Here, we demonstrate the applicability of statistical analysis of fluorescence spectra to detect changes in the PSI/PSII ratio resulting from structure changes in the thylakoid membrane.

Elgass, Kirstin; Zell, Martina; Maurino, Veronica G.; Schleifenbaum, Frank

2011-02-01

203

Laser-induced fluorescent spectroscopy of steroid hormones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laser-induced fluorescence spectra of steroid hormones - estradiol, estriol, estrone, androstenedione - are obtained at excitation of the fourth harmonic of Nd:YAG laser radiation. The quantum yields of fluorescence of these substances were rated by means of the relative method. They are 1.11 X 10-1, 5.20 X 10-3, 8.47 X 10-5. The water solution of tryptophan was used as a standard. The set-up sensitivity for high and average quantum yields substances has been defined.

Samoilova, Elena S.; Fedorov, Vyacheslav I.; Cherkasova, Olga P.; Meshalkin, Yuri P.

2002-07-01

204

Breast cancer diagnosis from fluorescence spectroscopy using support vector machine  

E-print Network

and chemical changes occurring in tissues and cells, and thereby offers exciting possibilities for novel broad biochemical changes occurring in tumor tissues, which leave characteristic signatures, random forest 1. INTRODUCTION Optical spectroscopy provides new ways to characterize physical

205

Fluorescence spectroscopy of Rhodamine 6G: concentration and solvent effects.  

PubMed

Rhodamine 6G (R6G), also known as Rhodamine 590, is one of the most frequently used dyes for application in dye lasers and as a fluorescence tracer, e.g., in the area of environmental hydraulics. Knowing the spectroscopic characteristics of the optical emission is key to obtaining high conversion efficiency and measurement accuracy, respectively. In this work, solvent and concentration effects are studied. A series of eight different organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, iso-propanol, n-butanol, n-pentanol, acetone, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)) are investigated at constant dye concentration. Relatively small changes of the fluorescence spectrum are observed for the different solvents; the highest fluorescence intensity is observed for methanol and lowest for DMSO. The shortest peak wavelength is found in methanol (568 nm) and the longest in DMSO (579 nm). Concentration effects in aqueous R6G solutions are studied over the full concentration range from the solubility limit to highly dilute states. Changing the dye concentration provides tunability between ?550 nm in the dilute case and ?620 nm at high concentration, at which point the fluorescence spectrum indicates the formation of R6G aggregates. PMID:24239710

Zehentbauer, Florian M; Moretto, Claudia; Stephen, Ryan; Thevar, Thangavel; Gilchrist, John R; Pokrajac, Dubravka; Richard, Katherine L; Kiefer, Johannes

2014-01-01

206

Assaying protein import into mitochondria using fluorescence spectroscopy  

E-print Network

of the Outer Membrane (TOM) complex, and the inner mitochondrial membrane (IM) via the Translocase of the Inner Membrane 23 (TIM23) complex. A novel system was set up to examine the import of matrix-targeted preproteins into mitochondria using fluorescence...

Cargill, Holly Beth

2006-08-16

207

Determination of the in vivo redox potential using roGFP and fluorescence spectra obtained from one-wavelength excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of molecular processes in living (plant) cells such as signal transduction, DNA replication, carbon metabolism and senescence has been revolutionized by the use of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and its variants as specific cellular markers. Many cell biological processes are accompanied by changes in the intracellular redox potential. To monitor the redox potential, a redox-sensitive mutant of GFP (roGFP) was created, which shows changes in its optical properties in response to changes in the redox state of its surrounding medium. For a quantitative analysis in living systems, it is essential to know the optical properties of roGFP in vitro. Therefore, we applied spectrally resolved fluorescence spectroscopy on purified roGFP exposed to different redox potentials to determine shifts in both the absorption and the emission spectra of roGFP. Based on these in vitro findings, we introduce a new approach using one-wavelength excitation to use roGFP for the in vivo analysis of cell biological processes. We demonstrate the ability this technique by investigating chloroplast-located Grx1-roGFP2 expressing Arabidopsis thaliana cells as example for dynamically moving intracellular compartments. This is not possible with the two-wavelength excitation technique established so far, which hampers a quantitative analysis of highly mobile samples due to the time delay between the two measurements and the consequential displacement of the investigated area.

Wierer, S.; Elgass, K.; Bieker, S.; Zentgraf, U.; Meixner, A. J.; Schleifenbaum, F.

2011-02-01

208

Fluorescence spectra of blood plasma treated with ultraviolet irradiation in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the fluorescence spectra of blood plasma from patients with acute coronary syndrome, and also the effect of therapeutic doses of in vivo ultraviolet blood irradiation (UBI) on the spectra. We have established that the maxima in the fluorescence spectra of the original plasma samples, obtained from unirradiated blood, are located in the wavelength interval 330-340 nm, characteristic for the fluorescence of tryptophan residues. In extracorporeal UBI ( ? = 254 nm), we observed changes in the shape and also both a blue and a red shift in the maxima of the fluorescence spectra, differing in magnitude for blood plasma samples from different patients in the test group. We show that UBI-initiated changes in the fluorescence spectra of the plasma depend on the original pathological disturbances of metabolite levels, and also on the change in the oxygen-transport function of the blood and the acid-base balance, affecting the oxidative stability of the plasma. We have concluded that UV irradiation, activating buffer systems in the blood, has an effect on the universal and specific interactions of the tryptophan residue with the amino acid residues and water surrounding it.

Zalesskaya, G. A.; Maslova, T. O.

2010-09-01

209

In vivo Fluorescence Imaging of Muscle Cell Regeneration by Transplanted EGFP-labeled Myoblasts  

PubMed Central

In vivo fluorescence imaging (FLI) enables monitoring fluorescent protein (FP)-labeled cells and proteins in living organisms noninvasively. Here, we examined whether this modality could reach a sufficient sensitivity to allow evaluation of the regeneration process of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)-labeled muscle precursors (myoblasts). Using a basic FLI station, we were able to detect clear fluorescence signals generated by 40,000 labeled cells injected into a tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of mouse. We observed that the signal declined to ~25% on the 48 hours of cell injection followed by a recovery starting at the second day and reached a peak of ~45% of the original signal by the 7th day, suggesting that the survived population underwent a limited run of proliferation before differentiation. To assess whether transplanted myoblasts could form satellite cells, we injured the transplanted muscles repeatedly with cardiotoxin. We observed a recovery of fluorescence signal following a disappearance of the signal after each cardiotoxin injection. Histology results showed donor-derived cells located underneath basal membrane and expressing Pax7, confirming that the regeneration observed by imaging was indeed mediated by donor-derived satellite cells. Our results show that FLI is a powerful tool that can extend our ability to unveil complicated biological processes such as stem cell-mediated regeneration. PMID:20125125

Xu, Xiaoyin; Yang, Zhong; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Yaming

2010-01-01

210

Intranuclear Diffusion and Hybridization State of Oligonucleotides Measured by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy in Living Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescein-labeled oligodeoxynucleotides (oligos) were introduced into cultured rat myoblasts, and their molecular movements inside the nucleus were studied by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). FCS revealed that a large fraction of both intranuclear oligo(dT) (43%) and oligo(dA) (77%) moves rapidly with a diffusion coefficient of 4 × 10-7 cm2\\/s. Interestingly, this rate of intranuclear oligo

Joan C. Politz; Elizabeth S. Browne; David E. Wolf; Thoru Pederson

1998-01-01

211

Probing Lipid Mobility of Raft-exhibiting Model Membranes by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Confocal fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) have been employed to investigate the lipid spatial and dynamic organization in giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) prepared from ternary mixtures of dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine\\/sphingomyelin\\/cholesterol. For a certain range of cholesterol concentration, formation of domains with raft-like properties was observed. Strikingly, the lipophilic probe 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI-C18) was excluded from sphingomyelin-enriched regions, where the raft

Kirsten Bacia; Dag Scherfeld; Nicoletta Kahya; Bert Poolman; Petra Schwille

2003-01-01

212

Conformational stability of allylbenzene: A combined study by dispersed fluorescence spectroscopy and quantum chemistry calculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two conformational isomers of allylbenzene are identified in a supersonic free jet expansion by use of laser-induced fluorescence excitation and dispersed fluorescence spectroscopy. With the aid of the predictions of ab initio quantum chemistry calculations at the MP2 level for a series of extended basis sets [6-311+G(d,p), 6-311++G(d,p), and cc-pVTZ], the major species of the electronic spectrum is shown to

Sujit Sankar Panja; Tapas Chakraborty

2003-01-01

213

Plasmonic enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy using side-polished microstructured optical fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report excitation of surface plasmon in a gold-coated side-polished D-shape microstructure optical fiber (MOF). As the leaky evanescent field from the fiber core becomes highly localized by the plasmon wave, its intensity also gets amplified significantly. Here we demonstrate an efficient use of this intensified field as excitation in fluorescence spectroscopy. The so-called plasmonic enhanced fluorescence emission from Rhodamine

Xia Yu; Derrick Yong; Huiyu Zhang; Hao Li; Ying Zhang; Chi Chiu Chan; Ho-Pui Ho; Hairong Liu; Deming Liu

214

Raman spectroscopy of a coal liquid shows that fluorescence interference is minimized with ultraviolet excitation.  

PubMed

The first ultraviolet resonance Raman measurements of a coal liquid are reported. The spectra detail the presence of numerous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with ring systems similar to those of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and triphenylene . The ultraviolet resonance Raman measurements of this highly complex sample show no significant interference from fluorescence. The lack of fluorescence interference and the high selectivity indicate that ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy is a powerful new technique for characterizing highly complex samples and mixtures. PMID:6740313

Asher, S A; Johnson, C R

1984-07-20

215

Raman Spectroscopy of a Coal Liquid Shows that Fluorescence Interference is Minimized with Ultraviolet Excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first ultraviolet resonance Raman measurements of a coal liquid are reported. The spectra detail the presence of numerous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with ring systems similar to those of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and triphenylene. The ultraviolet resonance Raman measurements of this highly complex sample show no significant interference from fluorescence. The lack of fluorescence interference and the high selectivity indicate that ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy is a powerful new technique for characterizing highly complex samples and mixtures.

Asher, Sanford A.; Johnson, Craig R.

1984-07-01

216

Raman spectroscopy of a coal liquid shows that fluorescence interference is minimized with ultraviolet excitation  

SciTech Connect

The first ultraviolet resonance Raman measurements of a coal liquid are reported. The spectra detail the presence of numerous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with ring systems similar to those of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and triphenylene. The ultraviolet resonance Raman measurements of this highly complex sample show no significant interference from fluorescence. The lack of fluorescence interference and the high selectivity indicate that ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy is a powerful new technique for characterizing highly complex samples and mixtures. 11 references, 2 figures.

Asher, S.A.; Johnson, C.R.

1984-07-20

217

Raman spectroscopy of a coal liquid shows that fluorescence interference is minimized with ultraviolet excitation  

SciTech Connect

The first ultraviolet resonance Raman measurements of a coal liquid are reported. The spectra detail the presence of numerous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with ring systems similar to those of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and triphenylene . The ultraviolet resonance Raman measurements of this highly complex sample show no significant interference from fluorescence. The lack of fluorescence interference and the high selectivity indicate that ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy is a powerful new technique for characterizing highly complex samples and mixtures.

Asher, S.A.; Johnson, C.R.

1984-07-20

218

Assessment of the ageing of triterpenoid paint varnishes using fluorescence, Raman and FTIR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The assessment of the influence of natural and artificial ageing on the spectrofluorescence of triterpenoid varnishes dammar and mastic is the focus of this work. Both Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy using attenuated total reflectance and Raman spectroscopy have been employed for complementary molecular analysis of samples. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, excitation emission spectroscopy, and statistical analysis of data have been used to monitor changes in the optical properties of varnish samples. Assessment of naturally and artificially aged samples using excitation emission spectroscopy suggests that extensive exposure to visible light does not lead to easily appreciable differences in the fluorescence of mastic and dammar; cluster analysis has been used to assess changes, which occur with artificial ageing under visible light, indicating that differences in the fluorescence spectra of aged triterpenoids may be insufficient for their discrimination. The results highlight significant differences between the initial fluorescence of films of dammar and mastic and the fluorescence, which develops with ageing and oxidation, and specific markers, which change with ageing in FTIR and Raman spectra, have been identified. PMID:19669734

Nevin, Austin; Comelli, Daniela; Osticioli, Iacopo; Toniolo, Lucia; Valentini, Gianluca; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

2009-12-01

219

Europium Uptake and Partitioning in Oat (Avena sativa) Roots as studied By Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Confocal Microscopy Profiling Technique  

SciTech Connect

The uptake of Eu3+ by elongating oat plant roots was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence lifetime measurement, as well as laser excitation time-resolved confocal fluorescence profiling technique. The results of this work indicated that the initial uptake of Eu(III) by oat root was most evident within the apical meristem of the root just proximal to the root cap. Distribution of assimilated Eu(III) within the roots differentiation and elongation zone was non-uniform. Higher concentrations were observed within the vascular cylinder, specifically in the phloem and developing xylem parenchyma. Elevated levels of the metal were also observed in the root hairs of the mature root. The concentration of assimilated Eu3+ dropped sharply from the apical meristem to the differentiation and elongation zone and then gradually decreased as the distance from the root cap increased. Fluorescence spectroscopic characteristics of the assimilated Eu3+ suggested that the Eu3+ exists a s inner-sphere mononuclear complexes inside the root. This work has also demonstrated the effectiveness of a time-resolved Eu3+ fluorescence spectroscopy and confocal fluorescence profiling techniques for the in vivo, real-time study of metal[Eu3+] accumulation by a functioning intact plant root. This approach can prove valuable for basic and applied studies in plant nutrition and environmental uptake of actinide radionuclides.

Fellows, Robert J.; Wang, Zheming; Ainsworth, Calvin C.

2003-11-15

220

In vivo and in situ detection of colorectal cancer using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

AIM: Real-time and rapid identification of the malignant tissue can be performed during or before surgical operation. Here we aimed to detect in vivo and in situ colorectal cancer by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and fiber-optic technology. METHODS: A total of five patients with large intestine cancer were detected in vivo and in situ. Of them, three cases of colon cancer and one case of cecum cancer were detected intraoperatively and in vivo by using a FTIR spectrometer during surgical operation, and one case of rectum cancer was explored non-invasively and in vivo before the surgical operation. Normal and malignant colorectal tissues were detected in vivo and in situ using FTIR spectroscopy on the basis of fundamental studies. RESULTS: There were significant differences between FTIR spectra of normal and malignant colorectal tissues detected in vivo and in situ. Experimental results revealed that the spectral characteristics of normal and malignant tissues found in vivo and in situ were similar to those obtained from in vitro measurement in our previous fundamental research. CONCLUSION: FTIR fiber-optic attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy can identify in situ and in vivo colorectal cancer. FTIR spectroscopic method with fiber optics is a non-invasive, rapid, accurate and in vivo cancer detection technique in clinical diagnosis. PMID:15637737

Li, Qing-Bo; Xu, Zhi; Zhang, Neng-Wei; Zhang, Li; Wang, Fan; Yang, Li-Min; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Zhou, Su; Zhang, Yuan-Fu; Zhou, Xiao-Si; Shi, Jing-Sen; Wu, Jin-Guang

2005-01-01

221

Fluorescence spectroscopy of kerosene vapour at high temperatures and pressures: potential for gas turbines measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of kerosene vapour was performed in a heated test cell operating between 450 and 900 K, at pressure from 0.1 to 3.0 MPa, for oxygen molar fraction between 0 and 21 %, with different laser excitation wavelengths (248, 266, 282 and 308 nm). Results show that, depending on the laser excitation scheme, kerosene fluorescence spectrum exhibits one or two fluorescence bands in the UV-visible range (attributed to aromatics naturally present in kerosene fuel). Fluorescence intensity of these bands decreases with increasing temperature, pressure and oxygen molar fraction. Different imaging strategies were derived from spectroscopic findings to simultaneously measure temperature and equivalence ratio fields in kerosene/air sprays, or flame structure and fuel spatial distribution in kerosene/air aeronautical combustors, by means of planar laser-induced fluorescence on kerosene vapour (K-PLIF).

Orain, M.; Baranger, P.; Ledier, C.; Apeloig, J.; Grisch, F.

2014-09-01

222

Investigation of image properties in super-resolution microscopy using two-color fluorescence dip spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We quantitatively investigated image properties in super-resolution microscopy using two-color fluorescence dip spectroscopy. To evaluate the properties, the point spread function (PSF) and contrast transfer function (CTF) were measured using a fluorescent scale together with a fluorescent bead. From the CTF, it has been found that visible light can resolve a 100 nm line-and-space pattern by microcopy, and provide a contrast of 10%. The CTF corresponds to a PSF with a FWHM of 130 nm. The value is two times finer than the diffraction limit size. An evaluation using a 100 nm Φ fluorescent bead consistently supports the result given by the CTF for super-resolution microscopy. The measured CTF shows that super-resolution microscopy can indeed improve the optical properties of fluorescent images and enable us to observe a structure with a spatial resolution overcoming the diffraction limit.

Iketaki, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Takeshi; Bokor, Nándor; Fujii, Masaaki

2007-02-01

223

Chromosome orientation fluorescence in situ hybridization (CO-FISH) to study sister chromatid segregation in vivo  

PubMed Central

Previously, assays for sister chromatid segregation patterns relied on incorporation of BrdU and indirect methods to infer segregation patterns after two cell divisions. Here we describe a method to differentially label sister chromatids of murine cells and directly assay sister chromatid segregation patterns following one cell division in vitro and in vivo by adaptation of the well-established CO-FISH (chromosome orientation fluorescent in situ hybridization) technique. 5-bromo-2?-deoxyuridine (BrdU) is incorporated into newly-formed DNA strands, followed by photolysis and exonuclease digestion to create single-stranded sister chromatids containing parental template DNA only. Such single-stranded sister chromatids are differentially labeled using unidirectional probes to major satellite sequences coupled to fluorescent markers. Differentially-labeled sister chromatids in post-mitotic cells are visualized using fluorescence microscopy and sister chromatid segregation patterns can be directly assayed after one cell division. This procedure requires four days for in vivo mouse tissues, and two days for in vitro cultured cells. PMID:20595964

Falconer, Ester; Chavez, Elizabeth; Henderson, Alexander; Lansdorp, Peter M.

2013-01-01

224

Interactions in affinity partition studied using fluorescence spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Fluorescence titration has been used to determine the binding constant and number of binding sites for the textile triazine dye Procion Yellow HE-3G to lactate dehydrogenase from rabbit muscle (E.C. 1.1.1.27). Triazine dye was either free in solution or attached to one of the polymer carriers, polyethylene glycol or dextran. Titrations were performed in solutions of buffer, dextran, and polyethylene glycol. Aqueous two-phase systems composed of polyethylene glycol and dextran were prepared and the binding constant and number of binding sites for ligand polyethylene glycol-Procion Yellow to lactate dehydrogenase were determined in both upper and lower phases of these systems. Affinity partition of lactate dehydrogenase in a PEG-dextran system was also performed using PEG-Procion Yellow as ligand, and partition coefficients of lactate dehydrogenase showed good agreement with theoretical partition coefficients calculated from the binding constant and number of binding sites obtained from fluorescence titration. The advantage of using fluorescence titration to determine affinity of a polymer ligand for a protein is that measurement of binding strength can be made in the actual environment encountered by protein-ligand complex during the purification process. PMID:1443584

Alred, P A; Johansson, G; Tjerneld, F

1992-09-01

225

Impurity studies in fusion devices using laser-fluorescence-spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Resonance fluorescence excitation of neutral atoms using tunable radiation from dye lasers offers a number of unique advantages for impurity studies in fusion devices. Using this technique, it is possible to perform local, time-resolved measurements of the densities and velocity distributions of metallic impurities in fusion devices without disturbing the plasma. Velocities are measured by monitoring the fluorescence intensity while tuning narrow bandwidth laser radiation through the Doppler - broadened absorbtion spectrum of the transition. The knowledge of the velocity distribution of neutral impurities is particularly useful for the determination of impurity introduction mechanisms. The laser fluorescence technique will be described in terms of its application to metallic impurities in fusion devices and related laboratory experiments. Particular attention will be given to recent results from the ISX-B tokamak using pulsed dye lasers where detection sensitivities for neutral Fe of 10/sup 6/ atoms/cm/sup 3/ with a velocity resolution of 600 m/sec (0.1 eV) have been achieved. Techniques for exciting plasma particles (H,D) will also be discussed.

Husinsky, W.R.

1980-08-01

226

Naphthenic acids quantification in organic solvents using fluorescence spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Quantification of naphthenic acids in water has been traditionally performed after extraction with organic solvents followed by analytic methods that are complex and costly for preliminary research or for continuous monitoring purposes. This study examines the application of fluorescence in organic solvents as an effective alternative, and the role of organic solvents on quantification results. Nine organic solvents were used: three polar protic alcohols (methanol, ethanol, and propanol), three polar aprotic (dichloromethane, acetone, and acetonitrile) and three non-polar (hexane, toluene, and diethyl ether). The calibration curves of the polar protic solvents performed the best; they had lower light scattering and higher method sensitivity than polar aprotic and non-polar. Methanol was selected for further experiments having a strong linearity for concentrations lower than 250 mg/L (R(2) > 0.99), and a low relative standard deviation (< 10%). The method sensitivity was improved by 70% using a methanol-deionized water mixture (50:50) as a solvent. The synchronous fluorescence mode with a reduced offset value of ?? = 10 nm demonstrated potential for fingerprinting. The fluorescence technique for quantifying total naphthenic acids directly in organic solvents is a cost-effective analytical method compatible with the solid phase extraction of the sample. PMID:24279621

Martin, Nancy; Burkus, Zvonko; McEachern, Preston; Yu, Tong

2014-01-01

227

A novel method for monitoring tumor proliferation in vivo using fluorescent dye DiD.  

PubMed

Monitoring single cell proliferation in vivo is difficult, but optimizing this technique is essential in order to expand our knowledge of the regulation of tumor proliferation. In this study, we used a lipophilic fluorescent dye, DiD, that rapidly and stably integrates into the phospholipid cell membrane. We cultured DiD-stained prostate cancer cell lines for 10 days and isolated cells by flow cytometry based on expression levels of DiD. We found that a decrease in DiD intensity was correlated to the reduction of EdU, where the DiD-high population proliferated more slowly than the DiD-low population and the DiD-low population exhibited a higher mitotic index. We also found that DiD was detected after 3 weeks of implantation in an in vivo setting. Importantly, DiD dye did not have any effect on normal cell growth, whereas a gold standard fluorescent dye for measuring cell proliferation, CFSE, slowed cell proliferation. Although further study is indicated, DiD can be useful for identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor proliferation in vivo. PMID:24700602

Yumoto, Kenji; Berry, Janice E; Taichman, Russell S; Shiozawa, Yusuke

2014-06-01

228

Near-infrared-excited confocal Raman spectroscopy advances in vivo diagnosis of cervical precancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectroscopy is a unique optical technique that can probe the changes of vibrational modes of biomolecules associated with tissue premalignant transformation. This study evaluates the clinical utility of confocal Raman spectroscopy over near-infrared (NIR) autofluorescence (AF) spectroscopy and composite NIR AF/Raman spectroscopy for improving early diagnosis of cervical precancer in vivo at colposcopy. A rapid NIR Raman system coupled with a ball-lens fiber-optic confocal Raman probe was utilized for in vivo NIR AF/Raman spectral measurements of the cervix. A total of 1240 in vivo Raman spectra [normal (n=993), dysplasia (n=247)] were acquired from 84 cervical patients. Principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) together with a leave-one-patient-out, cross-validation method were used to extract the diagnostic information associated with distinctive spectroscopic modalities. The diagnostic ability of confocal Raman spectroscopy was evaluated using the PCA-LDA model developed from the significant principal components (PCs) [i.e., PC4, 0.0023% PC5, 0.00095% PC8, 0.00022%, (p<0.05)], representing the primary tissue Raman features (e.g., 854, 937, 1095, 1253, 1311, 1445, and 1654 cm-1). Confocal Raman spectroscopy coupled with PCA-LDA modeling yielded the diagnostic accuracy of 84.1% (a sensitivity of 81.0% and a specificity of 87.1%) for in vivo discrimination of dysplastic cervix. The receiver operating characteristic curves further confirmed that the best classification was achieved using confocal Raman spectroscopy compared to the composite NIR AF/Raman spectroscopy or NIR AF spectroscopy alone. This study illustrates that confocal Raman spectroscopy has great potential to improve early diagnosis of cervical precancer in vivo during clinical colposcopy.

Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Zheng, Wei; Ng, Joseph; Low, Jeffrey J. H.; Ilancheran, Arunachalam; Huang, Zhiwei

2013-06-01

229

Fluorescence spectroscopy of 9-anthroyloxy fatty acids in solvents.  

PubMed

A series of anthroyloxy fatty acid (AF) fluorescent probes, with the anthroyloxy group covalently linked at various positions along the alkyl chain, were studied in solvents exhibiting a wide range of polarity and hydrogen-bond donor (Hd) and acceptor (Ha) ability. These probes were sensitive to the solvent polarity as reflected by the Stokes' shift observed in steady state fluorescence. As determined by multi-linear regression analysis of the observed Stokes' shift and solvent parameters, such as orientation polarizability (delta f), Hd and Ha of the solvents, all the probes were sensitive to the Hd of solvents but were not affected by the Ha of solvents except the 2-AF. Due to the proximity of the polar headgroup to the fluorophore, it appears that some intramolecular hydrogen-bonding is present in 2-AF, an interaction that is sensitive to the pH of the solvent, but is less sensitive to the Hd and Ha of the solvents. Fluorescence lifetimes measured by the multi-frequency phase-modulation technique in mixtures of hexane and ethanol reflect a modified Stern-Volmer behavior suggesting the second solvent, ethanol, specifically interacts with the probe, in part through collisional quenching. Also, the lifetime data were sensitive to very low concentrations of the second solvent (0-0.1%, by vol.). The results from this study provide insight into the intrinsic differences between the different AF positions that must be taken into consideration while investigating the dynamics of lipid bilayer systems. Moreover, this study illustrates the utility and resolving power of lifetime based measurements needed for the interpretation of heterogeneous biophysical environments. PMID:8033287

Garrison, M D; Doh, L M; Potts, R O; Abraham, W

1994-04-19

230

Correlative Electron and Fluorescence Microscopy of Magnetotactic Bacteria in Liquid: Toward In Vivo Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetotactic bacteria biomineralize ordered chains of uniform, membrane-bound magnetite or greigite nanocrystals that exhibit nearly perfect crystal structures and species-specific morphologies. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a critical technique for providing information regarding the organization of cellular and magnetite structures in these microorganisms. However, conventional TEM can only be used to image air-dried or vitrified bacteria removed from their natural environment. Here we present a correlative scanning TEM (STEM) and fluorescence microscopy technique for imaging viable cells of Magnetospirillum magneticum strain AMB-1 in liquid using an in situ fluid cell TEM holder. Fluorescently labeled cells were immobilized on microchip window surfaces and visualized in a fluid cell with STEM, followed by correlative fluorescence imaging to verify their membrane integrity. Notably, the post-STEM fluorescence imaging indicated that the bacterial cell wall membrane did not sustain radiation damage during STEM imaging at low electron dose conditions. We investigated the effects of radiation damage and sample preparation on the bacteria viability and found that approximately 50% of the bacterial membranes remained intact after an hour in the fluid cell, decreasing to ~30% after two hours. These results represent a first step toward in vivo studies of magnetite biomineralization in magnetotactic bacteria.

Woehl, Taylor J.; Kashyap, Sanjay; Firlar, Emre; Perez-Gonzalez, Teresa; Faivre, Damien; Trubitsyn, Denis; Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Prozorov, Tanya

2014-10-01

231

Label-free in vivo imaging of human leukocytes using two-photon excited endogenous fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that two-photon excited endogenous fluorescence enables label-free morphological and functional imaging of various human blood cells. Specifically, we achieved distinctive morphological contrast to visualize morphology of important leukocytes, such as polymorphonuclear structure of granulocyte and mononuclear feature of agranulocyte, through the employment of the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence signals. In addition, NADH fluorescence images clearly reveal the morphological transformation process of neutrophils during disease-causing bacterial infection. Our findings also show that time-resolved NADH fluorescence can be potentially used for functional imaging of the phagocytosis of pathogens by leukocytes (neutrophils) in vivo. In particular, we found that free-to-bound NADH ratios measured in infected neutrophils increased significantly, which is consistent with a previous study that the energy consumed in the phagocytosis of neutrophils is mainly generated through the glycolysis pathway that leads to the accumulation of free NADH. Future work will focus on further developing and applying label-free imaging technology to investigate leukocyte-related diseases and disorders.

Zeng, Yan; Yan, Bo; Sun, Qiqi; Teh, Seng Khoon; Zhang, Wei; Wen, Zilong; Qu, Jianan Y.

2013-04-01

232

Multispectral opto-acoustic tomography of deep-seated fluorescent proteins in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescent proteins have become essential reporter molecules for studying life at the cellular and sub-cellular level, re-defining the ways in which we investigate biology. However, because of intense light scattering, most organisms and tissues remain inaccessible to current fluorescence microscopy techniques at depths beyond several hundred micrometres. We describe a multispectral opto-acoustic tomography technique capable of high-resolution visualization of fluorescent proteins deep within highly light-scattering living organisms. The method uses multiwavelength illumination over multiple projections combined with selective-plane opto-acoustic detection for artifact-free data collection. Accurate image reconstruction is enabled by making use of wavelength-dependent light propagation models in tissue. By performing whole-body imaging of two biologically important and optically diffuse model organisms, Drosophila melanogaster pupae and adult zebrafish, we demonstrate the facility to resolve tissue-specific expression of eGFP and mCherrry fluorescent proteins for precise morphological and functional observations in vivo.

Razansky, Daniel; Distel, Martin; Vinegoni, Claudio; Ma, Rui; Perrimon, Norbert; Köster, Reinhard W.; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

2009-07-01

233

Correlative Electron and Fluorescence Microscopy of Magnetotactic Bacteria in Liquid: Toward In Vivo Imaging  

PubMed Central

Magnetotactic bacteria biomineralize ordered chains of uniform, membrane-bound magnetite or greigite nanocrystals that exhibit nearly perfect crystal structures and species-specific morphologies. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a critical technique for providing information regarding the organization of cellular and magnetite structures in these microorganisms. However, conventional TEM can only be used to image air-dried or vitrified bacteria removed from their natural environment. Here we present a correlative scanning TEM (STEM) and fluorescence microscopy technique for imaging viable cells of Magnetospirillum magneticum strain AMB-1 in liquid using an in situ fluid cell TEM holder. Fluorescently labeled cells were immobilized on microchip window surfaces and visualized in a fluid cell with STEM, followed by correlative fluorescence imaging to verify their membrane integrity. Notably, the post-STEM fluorescence imaging indicated that the bacterial cell wall membrane did not sustain radiation damage during STEM imaging at low electron dose conditions. We investigated the effects of radiation damage and sample preparation on the bacteria viability and found that approximately 50% of the bacterial membranes remained intact after an hour in the fluid cell, decreasing to ~30% after two hours. These results represent a first step toward in vivo studies of magnetite biomineralization in magnetotactic bacteria. PMID:25358460

Woehl, Taylor J.; Kashyap, Sanjay; Firlar, Emre; Perez-Gonzalez, Teresa; Faivre, Damien; Trubitsyn, Denis; Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Prozorov, Tanya

2014-01-01

234

Correlative electron and fluorescence microscopy of magnetotactic bacteria in liquid: toward in vivo imaging.  

PubMed

Magnetotactic bacteria biomineralize ordered chains of uniform, membrane-bound magnetite or greigite nanocrystals that exhibit nearly perfect crystal structures and species-specific morphologies. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a critical technique for providing information regarding the organization of cellular and magnetite structures in these microorganisms. However, conventional TEM can only be used to image air-dried or vitrified bacteria removed from their natural environment. Here we present a correlative scanning TEM (STEM) and fluorescence microscopy technique for imaging viable cells of Magnetospirillum magneticum strain AMB-1 in liquid using an in situ fluid cell TEM holder. Fluorescently labeled cells were immobilized on microchip window surfaces and visualized in a fluid cell with STEM, followed by correlative fluorescence imaging to verify their membrane integrity. Notably, the post-STEM fluorescence imaging indicated that the bacterial cell wall membrane did not sustain radiation damage during STEM imaging at low electron dose conditions. We investigated the effects of radiation damage and sample preparation on the bacteria viability and found that approximately 50% of the bacterial membranes remained intact after an hour in the fluid cell, decreasing to ~30% after two hours. These results represent a first step toward in vivo studies of magnetite biomineralization in magnetotactic bacteria. PMID:25358460

Woehl, Taylor J; Kashyap, Sanjay; Firlar, Emre; Perez-Gonzalez, Teresa; Faivre, Damien; Trubitsyn, Denis; Bazylinski, Dennis A; Prozorov, Tanya

2014-01-01

235

Enhanced green fluorescent protein expression in Pleurotus ostreatus for in vivo analysis of fungal laccase promoters.  

PubMed

The laccase family of Pleurotus ostreatus has been widely characterized, and studies of the genes coding for laccase isoenzymes in P. ostreatus have so far led to the identification of four different genes and the corresponding cDNAs, poxc, pox1, poxa1b and poxa3. Analyses of P. ostreatus laccase promoters poxc, pox1, poxa1b and poxa3 have allowed identification of several putative response elements, and sequences of metal-responsive elements involved in the formation of complexes with fungal proteins have been identified in poxc and poxa1b promoters. In this work, development of a system for in vivo analysis of P. ostreatus laccase promoter poxc by enhanced green fluorescent protein expression is performed, based on a poly ethylene glycol-mediated procedure for fungal transformation. A quantitative measurement of fluorescence expressed in P. ostreatus transformants is hereby reported for the first time for this fungus. PMID:22893518

Amore, Antonella; Honda, Yoichi; Faraco, Vincenza

2012-10-01

236

High-Resolution In Vivo Imaging of Fluorescent Proteins Using Window Chamber Models  

PubMed Central

Fluorescent proteins enable in vivo characterization of a wide and growing array of morphological and functional biomarkers. To fully capitalize on the spatial and temporal information afforded by these reporter proteins, a method for imaging these proteins at high resolution longitudinally is required. This chapter describes the use of window chamber models as a means of imaging fluorescent proteins and other optical parameters. Such models essentially involve surgically implanting a window through which tumor or normal tissue can be imaged using existing microscopy techniques. This enables acquisition of high-quality images down to the cellular or subcellular scale, exploiting the diverse array of optical contrast mechanisms, while also maintaining the native microenvironment of the tissue of interest. This makes these techniques applicable to a wide array of problems in the biomedical sciences. PMID:22700402

Palmer, Gregory M.; Fontanella, Andrew N.; Shan, Siqing; Dewhirst, Mark W.

2013-01-01

237

Classification evaluation of tobaccos using LED-induced fluorescence spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tobacco is one of the most important economic crops in the world, assessment of its quality has a very important business significance. A compact, low-cost, and maneuverable optical sensor system for classification evaluation of different tobaccos was described in this paper using light-emitting-diodes (LEDs)-induced fluorescence. The principal components analysis (PCA) method is used to extract the dominant features of the tobaccos for identifying the classification of tobaccos. The technique is suitable for practical identification due to the use of a straightforward data evaluation method and compact system.

Zhong, Weijia; Dong, Yongjiang; Liu, Xuan; Lin, Hongze; Mei, Liang; Yan, Chunsheng

2014-02-01

238

Hyperspectral Imaging and Spectroscopy of Fluorescently Coupled Acyl-CoA: Cholesterol Acyltransferase in Insect Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high-performance hyperspectral imaging module with high throughput of light suitable for low-intensity fluorescence microscopic imaging and subsequent analysis, including single-pixel-defined emission spectroscopy, was tested on Sf21 insect cells expressing green fluorescence associated with recombinant green fluorescent protein linked or not with the membrane protein acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase. The imager utilized the phenomenon of optical activity as a new technique providing information over a spectral range of 220-1400 nm, and was inserted between the microscope and an 8-bit CCD video-rate camera. The resulting fluorescence image did not introduce observable image aberrations. The images provided parallel acquisition of well resolved concurrent spatial and spectral information such that fluorescence associated with green fluorescent protein alone was demonstrated to be diffuse within the Sf21 insect cell, and that green fluorescence associated with the membrane protein was shown to be specifically concentrated within regions of the cell cytoplasm. Emission spectra analyzed from different regions of the fluorescence image showed blue shift specific for the regions of concentration associated with the membrane protein.

Malak, H.; Mahtani, H.; Herman, P.; Vecer, J.; Lu, X.; Chang, T. Y.; Richmond, Robert C.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

239

Single-molecule dynamics of phytochrome-bound fluorophores probed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) was used to investigate the hydrodynamic and photophysical properties of PR1 (phytofluor red 1), an intensely red fluorescent biliprotein variant of the truncated cyanobacterial phytochrome 1 (Cph1?, which consists of the N-terminal 514 amino acids). Single-molecule diffusion measurements showed that PR1 has excellent fluorescence properties at the single-molecule level, making it an interesting candidate for red fluorescent protein fusions. FCS measurements for probing dimer formation in solution over a range of protein concentrations were enabled by addition of Cph1? apoprotein (apoCph1?) to nanomolar solutions of PR1. FCS brightness analysis showed that heterodimerization of PR1 with apoCph1? altered the chemical environment of the PR1 chromophore to further enhance its fluorescence emission. Fluorescence correlation measurements also revealed interactions between apoCph1? and the red fluorescent dyes Cy5.18 and Atto 655 but not Alexa Fluor 660. The concentration dependence of protein:dye complex formation indicated that Atto 655 interacted with, or influenced the formation of, the apoCph1 dimer. These studies presage the utility of phytofluor tags for probing single-molecule dynamics in living cells in which the fluorescence signal can be controlled by the addition of various chromophores that have different structures and photophysical properties, thereby imparting different types of information, such as dimer formation or the presence of open binding faces on a protein. PMID:16844775

Miller, Abigail E.; Fischer, Amanda J.; Laurence, Ted; Hollars, Christopher W.; Saykally, Richard J.; Lagarias, J. Clark; Huser, Thomas

2006-01-01

240

Multimodal in vivo imaging of oral cancer using fluorescence lifetime, photoacoustic and ultrasound techniques  

PubMed Central

This work reports a multimodal system for label-free tissue diagnosis combining fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm), ultrasound backscatter microscopy (UBM), and photoacoustic imaging (PAI). This system provides complementary biochemical, structural and functional features allowing for enhanced in vivo detection of oral carcinoma. Results from a hamster oral carcinoma model (normal, precancer and carcinoma) are presented demonstrating the ability of FLIm to delineate biochemical composition at the tissue surface, UBM and related radiofrequency parameters to identify disruptions in the tissue microarchitecture and PAI to map optical absorption associated with specific tissue morphology and physiology. PMID:24049693

Fatakdawala, Hussain; Poti, Shannon; Zhou, Feifei; Sun, Yang; Bec, Julien; Liu, Jing; Yankelevich, Diego R.; Tinling, Steven P.; Gandour-Edwards, Regina F.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Marcu, Laura

2013-01-01

241

Picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of phytochrome and stentorin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phytochrome is a tetrapyrrole chromoprotein. It serves as a sensitive photosensor for red lightmediated gene expression and other developmental/morphological responses in plants. In this paper photochemical dynamics of the phytochrome molecule have been described in terms of photoisomerization of the tetrapyrrole chromophore in its singlet excited state and subsequent thermal processes in the Pr Pfr phototransformation of phytochrome. Stentorin acts as the photosensor molecule in the ciliate Stentor coeruleus. This unicellular protozoan is most sensitive to red light (610-620 urn). Stentor also senses the direction of light propagation as evidenced by their light-avoiding and negative phototactic swimming behaviors. This aneural photosensory phenomenon is triggered by the photoreceptor stentorin. The possible involvement of a light-induced transient proton release from the photoreceptor as the primary mechanism of light-signal processing has been discussed on the basis of picosecond fluorescence decays and time-resolved fluorescence spectra of stentorin in solution. An initial sensory signal generated by the primary photoprocess of stentorin then triggers subsequent transduction steps that include calcium ion influx from the extracellular medium. Calcium ion influx from the extracellular medium to the cytosol causes the Stentor cell to reverse its ciliary beating and subsequently steer away from the light trap. II.

Song, Pill-Soon

1991-05-01

242

Probing Diffusion Laws within Cellular Membranes by Z-Scan Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma membrane of various mammalian cell types is heterogeneous in structure and may contain microdomains, which can impose constraints on the lateral diffusion of its constituents. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) can be used to investigate the dynamic properties of the plasma membrane of living cells. Very recently, Wawrezinieck et al. (Wawrezinieck, L., H. Rigneault, D. Marguet, and P. F.

Jana Humpolickova ´; Ellen Gielen; Aleš Benda; Veronika Fagulova; J. Vercammen; Martin vandeVen; Martin Hof; Marcel Ameloot; Yves Engelborghs

2006-01-01

243

Fluorescence spectroscopy as a tool for determining microbial quality in potable water applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building on previous work where fluorescence spectroscopy has been used to detect sewage in rivers, a portable LED spectrophotometer was used for the first time to establish bacterial numbers in a range of water samples. A mixed-method approach was used with standard bacteria enumeration techniques on diluted river water and sewage works final effluent using a number of diluents (Ringer's

Susan Cumberland; John Bridgeman; Andy Baker; Mark Sterling; David Ward

2012-01-01

244

Fluorescence spectroscopy as a tool for determining microbial quality in potable water applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building on previous work where fluorescence spectroscopy has been used to detect sewage in rivers, a portable LED spectrophotometer was used for the first time to establish bacterial numbers in a range of water samples. A mixed-method approach was used with standard bacteria enumeration techniques on diluted river water and sewage works final effluent using a number of diluents (Ringer's

Susan Cumberland; John Bridgeman; Andy Baker; Mark Sterling; David Ward

2011-01-01

245

Analysis of the optical properties of the Orinoco River plume by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discharge of the Orinoco River significantly affects the optical properties of the water in the Caribbean Sea by increasing primary productivity and introducing large amounts of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) to the region. The optical characteristics of the CDOM in the Orinoco River plume were investigated during two cruises to the eastern Caribbean using absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy.

Carlos E. Del Castillo; Paula G. Coble; Julio M. Morell; José M. López; Jorge E. Corredor

1999-01-01

246

Detection of domestic wastes in Kurose river using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the applicability of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) in differentiating natural organic matter (NOM) from dissolved organic matter (DOM) derived from domestic wastes and in detecting their presence in Kurose River. Sewage effluent, gray water, water extracts from leaf mold and top soil, respectively, algal culture media, and water samples from different points of the

Ritchelita P Galapate; Aloysius U Baes; Kazuaki Ito; Tetsuo Mukai; Eiji Shoto; Mitsumasa Okada

1998-01-01

247

Recombinant phytochrome of the moss Ceratodon purpureus (CP2): fluorescence spectroscopy and photochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recombinant phytochrome of the moss Ceratodon purpureus (CP2) expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and reconstituted with phycocyanobilin (PCB) was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy. The pigment had an emission maximum at 670 nm at low temperature (85 K) and at 667 nm at room temperature (RT) and an excitation maximum at 650–652 nm at 85 K (excitation spectra could not be

V Sineshchekov; L Koppel’; J Hughes; T Lamparter; M Zeidler

2000-01-01

248

Fluorescence imaging and time-resolved spectroscopy of steroid using confocal synchrotron radiation microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Confocal Synchrotron Radiation Microscope at Daresbury was used in a study of the transport and distribution of the steroid Coumestrol in single Leydig cells. The broad spectrum of synchrotron radiation in combination with UV compatible microscope optics affords the extension of confocal microscopy from the visible to the UV region down to about 200 nm. Consequently fluorescent molecules with absorption bands in the UV can be imaged. In addition the pulsed nature of the light source allows us to perform time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy experiments on microscopic volumes. Coumestrol is a naturally fluorescing plant steroid exhibiting estrogenic activity. In physiological environments it has an absorption peak in the UV at 340 nm and it emits around 440 nm. First results indicate that the Coumestrol transport through the cell membrane is diffusion limited. The weak fluorescence observed in the nuclei of the Leydig cells may be due to fluorescence quenching arising from the interaction of the Coumesterol with nuclear components. However, micro-volume time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy experiments on cell nuclei have revealed the same decay behavior for Coumesterol in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of the cells.

Gerritsen, Hans C.; van der Oord, C. J. R.; Levine, Yehudi K.; Munro, Ian H.; Jones, Gareth R.; Shaw, D. A.; Rommerts, Fokko F.

1994-08-01

249

In vivo monitoring of toxic metals: assessment of neutron activation and x-ray fluorescence techniques  

SciTech Connect

To date, cadmium, lead, aluminum, and mercury have been measured in vivo in humans. The possibilities of monitoring other toxic metals have also been demonstrated, but no human studies have been performed. Neutron activation analysis appears to be most suitable for Cd and Al measurements, while x-ray fluorescence is ideally suited for measurement of lead in superficial bone. Filtered neutron beams and polarized x-ray sources are being developed which will improve in vivo detection limits. Even so, several of the current facilities are already suitable for use in epidemiological studies of selected populations with suspected long-term low-level ''environmental'' exposures. Evaluation and diagnosis of patients presenting with general clinical symptoms attributable to possible toxic metal exposure may be assisted by in vivo examination. Continued in vivo monitoring of industrial workers, especially follow-up measurements, will provide the first direct assessment of changes in body burden and a direct measure of the biological life-times of these metals in humans. 50 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Ellis, K.J.

1986-01-01

250

Enhanced green fluorescent protein transgenic expression in vivo is not biologically inert.  

PubMed

Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) is a widely used biological reporter. However, the effects of EGFP expression in vivo are still unclear. To investigate the effects of EGFP transgenic expression in vivo, we employed an NMR-based metabonomics method to analyze the metabonome of EGFP transgenic mice. The results show that the metabonomes of urine, liver, and kidney of the EGFP transgenic mice are different from their wild-type counterparts. The EGFP mice expressed high levels of urinary 3-ureidopropionate, which is due to the down-regulated transcriptional level of ?-ureidopropionase. The expression of EGFP in vivo also affects other metabolic pathways, including nucleic acid metabolism, energy utilization, and amino acids catabolism. These findings indicate that EGFP transgenic expression is not as inert as has been considered. Our investigation provides a holistic view on the effect of EGFP expression in vivo, which is useful when EGFP is employed as a functional biological indicator. Our work also highlights the potential of a metabonomics strategy in studying the association between molecular phenotypes and gene function. PMID:23827011

Li, Hongde; Wei, Hong; Wang, Yong; Tang, Huiru; Wang, Yulan

2013-08-01

251

An individually coated near-infrared fluorescent protein as a safe and robust nanoprobe for in vivo imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prerequisite for in vivo fluorescence imaging is the safety of fluorescent probes. Among all fluorescent probes, fluorescent proteins (FPs) might be the safest ones, which have been widely used in biological sciences at the gene level. But FPs have not been used in vivo in the purified form yet due to the instability of proteins. Here, we individually coat near-infrared (NIR) FPs (NIRFPs) with a silica nanoshell, resulting in NIRFP@silica, one of the safest and brightest NIR fluorescent nanoprobes with a quantum yield of 0.33 for in vivo imaging. The silica shell not only protects NIRFPs from denaturation and metabolic digestion, but also enhances the quantum yield and photostability of the coated NIRFPs. When injected via the tail vein, NIRFP@silica NPs can distribute all over the mouse body, and then can be efficiently eliminated through urine in 24 h, demonstrating its potential applications as a safe and robust NIR fluorescence probe for whole body imaging.A prerequisite for in vivo fluorescence imaging is the safety of fluorescent probes. Among all fluorescent probes, fluorescent proteins (FPs) might be the safest ones, which have been widely used in biological sciences at the gene level. But FPs have not been used in vivo in the purified form yet due to the instability of proteins. Here, we individually coat near-infrared (NIR) FPs (NIRFPs) with a silica nanoshell, resulting in NIRFP@silica, one of the safest and brightest NIR fluorescent nanoprobes with a quantum yield of 0.33 for in vivo imaging. The silica shell not only protects NIRFPs from denaturation and metabolic digestion, but also enhances the quantum yield and photostability of the coated NIRFPs. When injected via the tail vein, NIRFP@silica NPs can distribute all over the mouse body, and then can be efficiently eliminated through urine in 24 h, demonstrating its potential applications as a safe and robust NIR fluorescence probe for whole body imaging. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: A chromatogram of APTS-NIRFP, a TEM image of 40 nm NIRFP@silica, dispersion stability of NIRFP@silica, more whole body fluorescent images, serum biochemical parameters, and optical images of HE stained organ slices. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02508j

Yang, Yu; Xiang, Kun; Yang, Yi-Xin; Wang, Yan-Wen; Zhang, Xin; Cui, Yangdong; Wang, Haifang; Zhu, Qing-Qing; Fan, Liqiang; Liu, Yuanfang; Cao, Aoneng

2013-10-01

252

Determination of Lipid Raft Partitioning of Fluorescently-tagged Probes in Living Cells by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS)  

PubMed Central

In the past fifteen years the notion that cell membranes are not homogenous and rely on microdomains to exert their functions has become widely accepted. Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids. They play a role in cellular physiological processes such as signalling, and trafficking1,2 but are also thought to be key players in several diseases including viral or bacterial infections and neurodegenerative diseases3. Yet their existence is still a matter of controversy4,5. Indeed, lipid raft size has been estimated to be around 20 nm6, far under the resolution limit of conventional microscopy (around 200 nm), thus precluding their direct imaging. Up to now, the main techniques used to assess the partition of proteins of interest inside lipid rafts were Detergent Resistant Membranes (DRMs) isolation and co-patching with antibodies. Though widely used because of their rather easy implementation, these techniques were prone to artefacts and thus criticized7,8. Technical improvements were therefore necessary to overcome these artefacts and to be able to probe lipid rafts partition in living cells. Here we present a method for the sensitive analysis of lipid rafts partition of fluorescently-tagged proteins or lipids in the plasma membrane of living cells. This method, termed Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS), relies on the disparity in diffusion times of fluorescent probes located inside or outside of lipid rafts. In fact, as evidenced in both artificial membranes and cell cultures, probes would diffuse much faster outside than inside dense lipid rafts9,10. To determine diffusion times, minute fluorescence fluctuations are measured as a function of time in a focal volume (approximately 1 femtoliter), located at the plasma membrane of cells with a confocal microscope (Fig. 1). The auto-correlation curves can then be drawn from these fluctuations and fitted with appropriate mathematical diffusion models11. FCS can be used to determine the lipid raft partitioning of various probes, as long as they are fluorescently tagged. Fluorescent tagging can be achieved by expression of fluorescent fusion proteins or by binding of fluorescent ligands. Moreover, FCS can be used not only in artificial membranes and cell lines but also in primary cultures, as described recently12. It can also be used to follow the dynamics of lipid raft partitioning after drug addition or membrane lipid composition change12. PMID:22508446

Marquer, Catherine; Leveque-Fort, Sandrine; Potier, Marie-Claude

2012-01-01

253

Multiphoton microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging provide a novel method in studying drug distribution and metabolism in the rat liver in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiphoton microscopy has been shown to be a useful tool in studying drug distribution in biological tissues. In addition, fluorescence lifetime imaging provides information about the structure and dynamics of fluorophores based on their fluorescence lifetimes. Fluorescein, a commonly used fluorescent probe, is metabolized within liver cells to fluorescein mono-glucuronide, which is also fluorescent. Fluorescein and its glucuronide have similar excitation and emission spectra, but different fluorescence lifetimes. In this study, we employed multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging to study the distribution and metabolism of fluorescein and its metabolite in vivo in rat liver. Fluorescence lifetime values in vitro were used to interpret in vivo data. Our results show that the mean fluorescence lifetimes of fluorescein and its metabolite decrease over time after injection of fluorescein in three different regions of the liver. In conclusion, we have demonstrated a novel method to study a fluorescent compound and metabolite in vivo using multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging.

Thorling, Camilla A.; Dancik, Yuri; Hupple, Clinton W.; Medley, Gregory; Liu, Xin; Zvyagin, Andrei V.; Robertson, Tom A.; Burczynski, Frank J.; Roberts, Michael S.

2011-08-01

254

Tracking Dynamics of Muscle Engraftment in Small Animals by In Vivo Fluorescent Imaging  

PubMed Central

Muscular dystrophies are a group of degenerative muscle diseases characterized by progressive loss of contractile muscle cells. Currently, there is no curative treatment available. Recent advances in stem cell biology have generated new hopes for the development of effective cell based therapies to treat these diseases. Transplantation of various types of stem cells labeled with fluorescent proteins into muscles of dystrophic animal models has been used broadly in the field. A non-invasive technique with the capability to track the transplanted cell fate longitudinally can further our ability to evaluate muscle engraftment by transplanted cells more accurately and efficiently. In the present study, we demonstrate that in vivo fluorescence imaging is a sensitive and reliable method for tracking transplanted GFP (Green Fluorescent Protein)-labeled cells in mouse skeletal muscles. Despite the concern about background due to the use of an external light necessary for excitation of fluorescent protein, we found that by using either nude mouse or eliminating hair with hair removal reagents much of this problem is eliminated. Using a CCD camera, the fluorescent signal can be detected in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle after injection of 5 x 105 cells from either GFP transgenic mice or eGFP transduced myoblast culture. For more superficial muscles such as the extensor digitorum longus (EDL), injection of fewer cells produces a detectable signal. Signal intensity can be measured and quantified as the number of emitted photons per second in a region of interest (ROI). Since the acquired images show clear boundaries demarcating the engrafted area, the size of the ROI can be measured as well. If the legs are positioned consistently every time, the changes in total number of photons per second per muscle and the size of the ROI reflect the changes in the number of engrafted cells and the size of the engrafted area. Therefore the changes in the same muscle over time are quantifiable. In vivo fluorescent imaging technique has been used primarily to track the growth of tumorogenic cells, our study shows that it is a powerful tool that enables us to track the fate of transplanted stem cells. PMID:19770816

Yang, Zhong; Zeng, Qing; Ma, Zhiyuan; Wang, Yaming; Xu, Xiaoyin

2009-01-01

255

Organ transplant tissue rejection: detection and staging by fluorescence spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patients receiving heart or other organ transplants usually require some level of anti-rejection drug therapy, most commonly cyclosporine. The rejection status of the organ must be monitored to determine the optimal anti-rejection drug therapy. The current method for monitoring post-transplant rejection status of heart transplant patients consists of taking biopsies from the right ventricle. In this work we have developed a system employing optical and signal-processing techniques that will allow a cardiologist to measure spectral changes associated with tissue rejection using an optical catheter probe. The system employs time gated illumination and detection systems to deal with the dynamic signal acquisition problems associated with in vivo measurements of a beating heart. Spectral data processing software evaluates and processes the data to produce a simple numerical score. Results of measurements made on 100 excised transplanted isograft and allograft rat hearts have demonstrated the ability of the system to detect the presence of rejection and to accurately correlate the spectroscopic results with the ISHLT (International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation) stage of rejection determined by histopathology. In vivo measurements using a pig transplant model are now in process.

MacAulay, Calum E.; Whitehead, Peter D.; McManus, Bruce; Zeng, Haishan; Wilson-McManus, Janet; MacKinnon, Nick; Morgan, David C.; Dong, Chunming; Gerla, Paul; Kenyon, Jennifer

1998-07-01

256

Multicontrast photoacoustic in vivo imaging using near-infrared fluorescent proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-invasive imaging of biological processes in vivo is invaluable in advancing biology. Photoacoustic tomography is a scalable imaging technique that provides higher resolution at greater depths in tissue than achievable by purely optical methods. Here we report the application of two spectrally distinct near-infrared fluorescent proteins, iRFP670 and iRFP720, engineered from bacterial phytochromes, as photoacoustic contrast agents. iRFPs provide tissue-specific contrast without the need for delivery of any additional substances. Compared to conventional GFP-like red-shifted fluorescent proteins, iRFP670 and iRFP720 demonstrate stronger photoacoustic signals at longer wavelengths, and can be spectrally resolved from each other and hemoglobin. We simultaneously visualized two differently labeled tumors, one with iRFP670 and the other with iRFP720, as well as blood vessels. We acquired images of a mouse as 2D sections of a whole animal, and as localized 3D volumetric images with high contrast and sub-millimeter resolution at depths up to 8 mm. Our results suggest iRFPs are genetically-encoded probes of choice for simultaneous photoacoustic imaging of several tissues or processes in vivo.

Krumholz, Arie; Shcherbakova, Daria M.; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

2014-02-01

257

Multicontrast photoacoustic in vivo imaging using near-infrared fluorescent proteins  

PubMed Central

Non-invasive imaging of biological processes in vivo is invaluable in advancing biology. Photoacoustic tomography is a scalable imaging technique that provides higher resolution at greater depths in tissue than achievable by purely optical methods. Here we report the application of two spectrally distinct near-infrared fluorescent proteins, iRFP670 and iRFP720, engineered from bacterial phytochromes, as photoacoustic contrast agents. iRFPs provide tissue-specific contrast without the need for delivery of any additional substances. Compared to conventional GFP-like red-shifted fluorescent proteins, iRFP670 and iRFP720 demonstrate stronger photoacoustic signals at longer wavelengths, and can be spectrally resolved from each other and hemoglobin. We simultaneously visualized two differently labeled tumors, one with iRFP670 and the other with iRFP720, as well as blood vessels. We acquired images of a mouse as 2D sections of a whole animal, and as localized 3D volumetric images with high contrast and sub-millimeter resolution at depths up to 8?mm. Our results suggest iRFPs are genetically-encoded probes of choice for simultaneous photoacoustic imaging of several tissues or processes in vivo. PMID:24487319

Krumholz, Arie; Shcherbakova, Daria M.; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

2014-01-01

258

In vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy: indocyanine green enhances the contrast of epidermal and dermal structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, in vivo skin imaging devices have been successfully implemented in skin research as well as in clinical routine. Of particular importance is the use of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and fluorescence confocal microscopy (FCM) that enable visualization of the tissue with a resolution comparable to histology. A newly developed commercially available multi-laser device in which both technologies are integrated now offers the possibility to directly compare RCM with FCM. The fluorophore indocyanine green (ICG) was intradermally injected into healthy forearm skin of 10 volunteers followed by in vivo imaging at various time points. In the epidermis, accurate assessment of cell morphology with FCM was supplemented by identification of pigmented cells and structures with RCM. In dermal layers, only with FCM connective tissue fibers were clearly contoured down to a depth of more than 100 ?m. The fluorescent signal still provided a favorable image contrast 24 and 48 hours after injection. Subsequently, ICG was applied to different types of skin diseases (basal cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis, seborrhoeic keratosis, and psoriasis) in order to demonstrate the diagnostic benefit of FCM when directly compared with RCM. Our data suggest a great impact of FCM in combination with ICG on clinical and experimental dermatology in the future.

Skvara, Hans; Kittler, Harald; Schmid, Johannes A.; Plut, Ulrike; Jonak, Constanze

2011-09-01

259

Ultrafast fluorescence imaging in vivo with conjugated polymer fluorophores in the second near-infrared window  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In vivo fluorescence imaging in the second near-infrared window (1.0-1.7??m) can afford deep tissue penetration and high spatial resolution, owing to the reduced scattering of long-wavelength photons. Here we synthesize a series of low-bandgap donor/acceptor copolymers with tunable emission wavelengths of 1,050-1,350?nm in this window. Non-covalent functionalization with phospholipid-polyethylene glycol results in water-soluble and biocompatible polymeric nanoparticles, allowing for live cell molecular imaging at >1,000?nm with polymer fluorophores for the first time. Importantly, the high quantum yield of the polymer allows for in vivo, deep-tissue and ultrafast imaging of mouse arterial blood flow with an unprecedented frame rate of >25 frames per second. The high time-resolution results in spatially and time resolved imaging of the blood flow pattern in cardiogram waveform over a single cardiac cycle (~200?ms) of a mouse, which has not been observed with fluorescence imaging in this window before.

Hong, Guosong; Zou, Yingping; Antaris, Alexander L.; Diao, Shuo; Wu, Di; Cheng, Kai; Zhang, Xiaodong; Chen, Changxin; Liu, Bo; He, Yuehui; Wu, Justin Z.; Yuan, Jun; Zhang, Bo; Tao, Zhimin; Fukunaga, Chihiro; Dai, Hongjie

2014-06-01

260

Total internal reflection with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy: combined surface reaction and solution diffusion.  

PubMed Central

Total internal reflection with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (TIR-FCS) is a method for measuring the surface association/dissociation rates and absolute densities of fluorescent molecules at the interface of solution and a planar substrate. This method can also report the apparent diffusion coefficient and absolute concentration of fluorescent molecules very close to the surface. An expression for the fluorescence fluctuation autocorrelation function in the absence of contributions from diffusion through the evanescent wave, in solution, has been published previously (N. L. Thompson, T. P. Burghardt, and D. Axelrod. 1981, Biophys. J. 33:435-454). This work describes the nature of the TIR-FCS autocorrelation function when both surface association/dissociation kinetics and diffusion through the evanescent wave contribute to the fluorescence fluctuations. The fluorescence fluctuation autocorrelation function depends in general on the kinetic association and dissociation rate constants, the surface site density, the concentration of fluorescent molecules in solution, the solution diffusion coefficient, and the depth of the evanescent field. Both general and approximate expressions are presented. PMID:11222318

Starr, T E; Thompson, N L

2001-01-01

261

Broadband Proton Decoupling for In Vivo Brain Spectroscopy in Humans  

E-print Network

is demonstrated and compared to the conventional WALTZ-4 se- quence. At the same average power levels, PBAR had factor ( ) (14) is acceptable. For example, it is possible to use the WALTZ-4 sequence in vivo as opposed to WALTZ-16, which has a much better scaling factor (and is therefore extensively used in high

Ouwerkerk, Ronald

262

In vivo spatial frequency domain spectroscopy of two layer media  

E-print Network

the contribution of oxyhemoglobin and deox- yhemoglobin to the absorption spectrum of the dermis. However developed inverse method based on a neural network forward model was applied to simulated spatial frequency measurements from a tissue simulating phantom and in vivo human skin. Oxygen saturation and total hemoglobin

Chen, Zhongping

263

Fiber optic-based fluorescence detection system for in vivo studies of exogenous chromophore pharmacokinetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection and quantification of the concentration of exogenous chromophores in-vivo by their fluorescence is complicated by many physical and geometrical parameters. Measurement of such signals is advantageous in determining the pharmacokinetics of photosensitizers such as those used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) or to assist in the diagnosis of tissue histological state. To overcome these difficulties a ratio based fiber optic contact fluorometer has been developed. This fluorescence detection system (FDS) uses the ratio of the fluorescence emission peak of the exogenous chromophore to that of endogenous chromophores, i.e. autofluorescence, to correct for a variety of parameters affecting the magnitude of the measured signals. By doing so it also minimizes the range of baseline measurements prior to exogenous drug injection, for various tissue types. Design of the FDS and results of its testing in animals and patients using the second generation photosensitizer Tin ethyletiopurpurin (SnET2) are presented. These results support the feasibility and usefulness of the Ratio FDS system.

Doiron, Daniel R.; Dunn, J. B.; Mitchell, W. L.; Dalton, Brian K.; Garbo, Greta M.; Warner, Jon A.

1995-05-01

264

Method for rapid multidiameter single-fiber reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy through a fiber bundle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have recently demonstrated a means for quantifying the absorption and scattering properties of biological tissue through multidiameter single-fiber reflectance (MDSFR) spectroscopy. These measurements can be used to correct single-fiber fluorescence (SFF) spectra for the influence of optical properties, enabling quantification of intrinsic fluorescence. In our previous work, we have used a series of pinholes to show that selective illumination and light collection using a coherent fiber bundle can simulate a single solid-core optical fiber with variable diameter for the purposes of MDSFR spectroscopy. Here, we describe the construction and validation of a clinical MDSFR/SFF spectroscopy system that avoids the limitations encountered with pinholes and free-space optics. During one measurement, the new system acquires reflectance spectra at the effective diameters of 200, 600, and 1000 ?m, and a fluorescence spectrum at an effective diameter of 1000 ?m. From these spectra, we measure the absolute absorption coefficient, ?a, reduced scattering coefficient, ?'s, phase function parameter, ?, and intrinsic fluorescence, Q?fa, across the measured spectrum. We validate the system using Intralipid- and polystyrene sphere-based scattering phantoms, with and without the addition of the absorber Evans Blue. Finally, we demonstrate the combined MDSFR/SFF of phantoms with varying concentrations of Intralipid and fluorescein, wherein the scattering properties are measured by MDSFR and used to correct the SFF spectrum for accurate quantification of Q?fa.

Amelink, A.; Hoy, C. L.; Gamm, U. A.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.; Robinson, D. J.

2014-03-01

265

Strengths and weaknesses of recently engineered red fluorescent proteins evaluated in live cells using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The scientific community is still looking for a bright, stable red fluorescent protein (FP) as functional as the current best derivatives of green fluorescent protein (GFP). The red FPs exploit the reduced background of cells imaged in the red region of the visible spectrum, but photophysical short comings have limited their use for some spectroscopic approaches. Introduced nearly a decade ago, mCherry remains the most often used red FP for fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and other single molecule techniques, despite the advent of many newer red FPs. All red FPs suffer from complex photophysics involving reversible conversions to a dark state (flickering), a property that results in fairly low red FP quantum yields and potential interference with spectroscopic analyses including FCS. The current report describes assays developed to determine the best working conditions for, and to uncover the shortcoming of, four recently engineered red FPs for use in FCS and other diffusion and spectroscopic studies. All five red FPs assayed had potential shortcomings leading to the conclusion that the current best red FP for FCS is still mCherry. The assays developed here aim to enable the rapid evaluation of new red FPs and their smooth adaptation to live cell spectroscopic microscopy and nanoscopy. PMID:24129172

Siegel, Amanda P; Baird, Michelle A; Davidson, Michael W; Day, Richard N

2013-01-01

266

Protein-protein interaction analysis by C-terminally specific fluorescence labeling and fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Here, we describe novel puromycin derivatives conjugated with iminobiotin and a fluorescent dye that can be linked covalently to the C-terminus of full-length proteins during cell-free translation. The iminobiotin-labeled proteins can be highly purified by affinity purification with streptavidin beads. We confirmed that the purified fluorescence-labeled proteins are useful for quantitative protein–protein interaction analysis based on fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS). The apparent dissociation constants of model protein pairs such as proto-oncogenes c-Fos/c-Jun and archetypes of the family of Ca2+-modulated calmodulin/related binding proteins were in accordance with the reported values. Further, detailed analysis of the interactions of the components of polycomb group complex, Bmi1, M33, Ring1A and RYBP, was successfully conducted by means of interaction assay for all combinatorial pairs. The results indicate that FCCS analysis with puromycin-based labeling and purification of proteins is effective and convenient for in vitro protein–protein interaction assay, and the method should contribute to a better understanding of protein functions by using the resource of available nucleotide sequences. PMID:16914444

Oyama, Rieko; Takashima, Hideaki; Yonezawa, Masato; Doi, Nobuhide; Miyamoto-Sato, Etsuko; Kinjo, Masataka; Yanagawa, Hiroshi

2006-01-01

267

Strengths and Weaknesses of Recently Engineered Red Fluorescent Proteins Evaluated in Live Cells Using Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

The scientific community is still looking for a bright, stable red fluorescent protein (FP) as functional as the current best derivatives of green fluorescent protein (GFP). The red FPs exploit the reduced background of cells imaged in the red region of the visible spectrum, but photophysical short comings have limited their use for some spectroscopic approaches. Introduced nearly a decade ago, mCherry remains the most often used red FP for fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and other single molecule techniques, despite the advent of many newer red FPs. All red FPs suffer from complex photophysics involving reversible conversions to a dark state (flickering), a property that results in fairly low red FP quantum yields and potential interference with spectroscopic analyses including FCS. The current report describes assays developed to determine the best working conditions for, and to uncover the shortcoming of, four recently engineered red FPs for use in FCS and other diffusion and spectroscopic studies. All five red FPs assayed had potential shortcomings leading to the conclusion that the current best red FP for FCS is still mCherry. The assays developed here aim to enable the rapid evaluation of new red FPs and their smooth adaptation to live cell spectroscopic microscopy and nanoscopy. PMID:24129172

Siegel, Amanda P.; Baird, Michelle A.; Davidson, Michael W.; Day, Richard N.

2013-01-01

268

In vivo soft tissue differentiation by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote laser surgery does not provide haptic feedback to operate layer by layer and preserve vulnerable anatomical structures like nerve tissue or blood vessels. The aim of this study is identification of soft tissue in vivo by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to set the base for a feedback control system to enhance nerve preservation in oral and maxillofacial laser surgery. Various soft tissues can be identified by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in vivo. The results may set the base for a feedback system to prevent nerve damage during oral and maxillofacial laser surgery.

Zam, Azhar; Stelzle, Florian; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Adler, Werner; Nkenke, Emeka; Neukam, Friedrich Wilhelm; Schmidt, Michael; Douplik, Alexandre

269

Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy of Tryptophan-containing Proteins in Sugar Solutions using Two Photon Excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugars are common ingredients for many commercial cryopreserving agents yet their function in this role is poorly understood. Some believe that sugars preferentially bind with a protein surface thereby replacing hazardous, ice-forming water. In an attempt to test idea, we have undertaken studies of the diffusion of proteins and protein-coated nanospheres using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy in an effort to determine if the hydrodynamic size is influenced by the addition of sugars. Some novelty of our approach lies in exploiting the native fluorescence of tryptophan (a common flurophore found in many proteins) by use of two-photon excitation.

Wang, Yuli; Holman, Nathan; Sidebottom, David; Nichols, Micheal; Haas, Eric

2012-02-01

270

Highly sensitive real-time detection of DNA hybridization by using nanoporous waveguide fluorescence spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Letter, we report highly sensitive fluorescence spectroscopy using a nanoporous waveguide (NPWG) comprising a porous anodic alumina (PAA) layer and an Al layer. Simulations show that the TE0 waveguide mode excited in the PAA layer produces an electromagnetic field whose intensity is 40-fold higher than that of the incident light, and which yields enhanced intensity when used to excite fluorophores. We demonstrate the sensing ability of the NPWG by incorporating it into a fluorescent sensor to monitor duplex DNA formation in real-time, with a detection limit as low as 20 pM.

Fan, Yong; Hotta, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Akira; Ding, Yu; He, Yonghong; Teramae, Norio; Sun, Shuqing; Ma, Hui

2014-07-01

271

Dispersed fluorescence spectroscopy of jet-cooled AgAu and Pt2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dispersed fluorescence spectroscopy has been used to study jet-cooled AgAu and Pt2. Fluorescence resulting from the excitation of five bands of the A?X 1?+ system of AgAu was dispersed, and 51 measured ground state vibrational levels were fit to provide ground state vibrational constants of ?e?=198.22±0.11 cm?1 and ?e?xe?=0.512±0.002 cm?1. A Franck–Condon calculation was performed using the experimental values of

Jacqueline C. Fabbi; Jon D. Langenberg; Quinton D. Costello; Michael D. Morse; Lars Karlsson

2001-01-01

272

Dispersed fluorescence spectroscopy of jet-cooled AgAu and Pt2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dispersed fluorescence spectroscopy has been used to study jet-cooled AgAu and Pt2. Fluorescence resulting from the excitation of five bands of the A<--X 1Sigma+ system of AgAu was dispersed, and 51 measured ground state vibrational levels were fit to provide ground state vibrational constants of omegae''=198.22+\\/-0.11 cm-1 and omegae''xe''=0.512+\\/-0.002 cm-1. A Franck-Condon calculation was performed using the experimental values of

Jacqueline C. Fabbi; Jon D. Langenberg; Quinton D. Costello; Michael D. Morse; Lars Karlsson

2001-01-01

273

Integrated fluorescence correlation spectroscopy device for point-of-care clinical applications  

PubMed Central

We describe an optical system which reduces the cost and complexity of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), intended to increase the suitability of the technique for clinical use. Integration of the focusing optics and sample chamber into a plastic component produces a design which is simple to align and operate. We validate the system by measurements on fluorescent dye, and compare the results to a commercial instrument. In addition, we demonstrate its application to measurements of concentration and multimerization of the clinically relevant protein von Willebrand factor (vWF) in human plasma. PMID:23847733

Olson, Eben; Torres, Richard; Levene, Michael J.

2013-01-01

274

Auto-fluorescence lifetime and light reflectance spectroscopy for breast cancer diagnosis: potential tools for intraoperative margin detection  

PubMed Central

This study investigates the use of two spectroscopic techniques, auto-fluorescence lifetime measurement (AFLM) and light reflectance spectroscopy (LRS), for detecting invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) in human ex vivo breast specimens. AFLM used excitation at 447 nm with multiple emission wavelengths (532, 562, 632, and 644 nm), at which auto-fluorescence lifetimes and their weight factors were analyzed using a double exponent model. LRS measured reflectance spectra in the range of 500-840 nm and analyzed the spectral slopes empirically at several distinct spectral regions. Our preliminary results based on 93 measured locations (i.e., 34 IDC, 31 benign fibrous, 28 adipose) from 6 specimens show significant differences in 5 AFLM-derived parameters and 9 LRS-based spectral slopes between benign and malignant breast samples. Multinomial logistic regression with a 10-fold cross validation approach was implemented with selected features to classify IDC from benign fibrous and adipose tissues for the two techniques independently as well as for the combined dual-modality approach. The accuracy for classifying IDC was found to be 96.4 ± 0.8%, 92.3 ± 0.8% and 96 ± 1.3% for LRS, AFLM, and dual-modality, respectively. PMID:22876347

Sharma, Vikrant; Shivalingaiah, Shivaranjani; Peng, Yan; Euhus, David; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Liu, Hanli

2012-01-01

275

Electron multiplying charge-coupled device-based fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy for blood velocimetry on zebrafish embryos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomedical issues in vasculogenesis and cardiogenesis require methods to follow hemodynamics with high spatial (micrometers) and time (milliseconds) resolution. At the same time, we need to follow relevant morphogenetic processes on large fields of view. Fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy coupled to scanning or wide-field microscopy meets these needs but has limited flexibility in the excitation pattern. To overcome this limitation, we develop here a two-photon two-spots setup coupled to an all-reflective near-infrared (NIR) optimized scanning system and to an electron multiplying charge-coupled device. Two NIR laser spots are spaced at adjustable micron-size distances (1 to 50 ?m) by means of a Twyman-Green interferometer and repeatedly scanned on the sample, allowing acquisition of information on flows at 4 ms-3 ?m time-space resolution in parallel on an extended field of view. We analyze the effect of nonhomogeneous and variable flow on the cross-correlation function by numerical simulations and show exemplary application of this setup in studies of blood flow in zebrafish embryos in vivo. By coupling the interferometer with the scanning mirrors and by computing the cross-correlation function of fluorescent red blood cells, we are able to map speed patterns in embryos' vessels.

Pozzi, Paolo; Sironi, Laura; D'Alfonso, Laura; Bouzin, Margaux; Collini, Maddalena; Chirico, Giuseppe; Pallavicini, Piersandro; Cotelli, Franco; Foglia, Efrem A.

2014-06-01

276

Objective Assessment of Endogenous Collagen In Vivo during Tissue Repair by Laser Induced Fluorescence  

PubMed Central

Collagen, a triple helical protein with the primary role of mechanical function, provides tensile strength to the skin, and plays a pivotal task in tissue repair. During tissue regeneration, collagen level increases gradually and therefore, monitoring of such changes in vivo by laser induced fluorescence was the main objective behind the present study. In order to accomplish this, 15 mm diameter excisional wounds were created on six to eight week old Swiss albino mice. The collagen deposition accelerated upon irradiation of single exposure of 2 J/cm2 He-Ne laser dose immediately after wounding was recorded by laser induced autofluorescence in vivo along with un-illuminated and un-wounded controls. Autofluorescence spectra were recorded for each animal of the experimental groups on 0, 5, 10, 30, 45 and 60 days post-wounding, by exciting the granulation tissue/skin with 325 nm He-Cd laser. The variations in the average collagen intensities from the granulation tissue/skin of mice were inspected as a function of age and gender. Further, the spectral findings of the collagen synthesis in wound granulation tissue/un-wounded skin tissues were validated by Picro-Sirius red- polarized light microscopy in a blinded manner through image analysis of the respective collagen birefringence. The in vivo autofluorescence studies have shown a significant increase in collagen synthesis in laser treated animals as compared to the un-illuminated controls. Image analysis of the collagen birefringence further authenticated the ability of autofluorescence in the objective monitoring of collagen in vivo. Our results clearly demonstrate the potential of laser induced autofluorescence in the monitoring of collegen synthesis during tissue regeneration, which may have clinical implications. PMID:24874229

Prabhu, Vijendra; Rao, Satish B. S.; Fernandes, Edward Mark; Rao, Anuradha C. K.; Prasad, Keerthana; Mahato, Krishna K.

2014-01-01

277

In Vivo Mouse Imaging and Spectroscopy in Drug Discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Imaging modalities such as microcomputed tomography (micro-CT), micropositron emission tomography (micro-PET), high-resolution\\u000a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical imaging, and high-resolution ultrasound have become invaluable tools in preclinical\\u000a pharmaceutical research. They are used to noninvasively investigate, under in vivo conditions, the rodent biology and metabolism,\\u000a the disease models, and the pharmacokinetics\\/pharmacodynamics of drugs. Since the advantages and limitations of each approach

Nicolau Beckmann; Catherine Cannet; Martin Rausch; Rainer Kneuer; Hans-Ulrich Gremlich

278

Spectral editing for in vivo 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

In vivo detection of carboxylic/amide carbons is a promising technique for studying cerebral metabolism and neurotransmission due to the very low RF power required for proton decoupling. In the carboxylic/amide region, however, there is severe spectral overlap between acetate C1 and glutamate C5, complicating studies that use acetate as an astroglia-specific substrate. There are no known in vivo MRS techniques that can spectrally resolve acetate C1 and glutamate C5 singlets. In this study, we propose to spectrally separate acetate C1 and glutamate C5 by a two-step J-editing technique after introducing homonuclear 13C-13C scalar coupling between carboxylic/amide carbons and aliphatic carbons. By infusing [1,2-13C2]acetate instead of [1-13C]acetate the acetate doublet can be spectrally edited because of the large separation between acetate C2 and glutamate C4 in the aliphatic region. This technique can be applied to studying acetate transport and metabolism in brain in the carboxylic/amide region without spectral interference. PMID:22172286

Xiang, Yun; Shen, Jun

2012-01-01

279

[Study on interaction between sulfonylurea herbicides and catalase by fluorescence spectroscopy].  

PubMed

The binding of Sulfonylurea herbicides to catalase in aqueous solution was studied using fluorescence spectroscopy. It was shown that herbicides have a strong ability to quench the catalase fluorescence mainly through a static quenching procedure. The binding constant K and the number of binding site n were calculated according to the fluorescence quenching results. For chlorsufuron, K=8.69 x 10(5) L x mol(-1) and n = 1.16; for metsufuron methyl, K = 1.01 x 10(6) L x mol(-1) and n = 1.21; and for bensufuron methyl, K = 3.52 x 10(3) L x mol(-1), n = 0.77. It is clear that the binding of metsufuron methyl with catalase is stronger than that of chlorsufuron, while the binding of chlorsufuron stronger than that of bensufuron methyl. PMID:17112047

Ye, Fa-Bing; Dong, Yuan-Yan; Zhou, Peng; Mo, Xiao-Man; Hu, Xian-Wen

2006-09-01

280

Permeability of anti-fouling PEGylated surfaces probed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work reports on in situ observations of the interaction of organic dye probe molecules and dye-labeled protein with different poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) architectures (linear, dendron, and bottle brush). Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and single molecule event analysis were used to examine the nature and extent of probe–PEG interactions. The data support a sieve-like model in which size-exclusion principles

Charlisa R. Daniels; Carmen Reznik; Rachel Kilmer; Mary Jane Felipe; Maria Celeste R. Tria; Katerina Kourentzi; Wen-Hsiang Chen; Rigoberto C. Advincula; Richard C. Willson; Christy F. Landes

2011-01-01

281

Highly Sensitive Determination of Hydrogen Peroxide and Glucose by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundBecause H2O2 is generated by various oxidase-catalyzed reactions, a highly sensitive determination method of H2O2 is applicable to measurements of low levels of various oxidases and their substrates such as glucose, lactate, glutamate, urate, xanthine, choline, cholesterol and NADPH. We propose herein a new, highly sensitive method for the measurement of H2O2 and glucose using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS).Methodology\\/Principal FindingsFCS

Satoshi Watabe; Yuki Sakamoto; Mika Morikawa; Ryuichi Okada; Toshiaki Miura; Etsuro Ito

2011-01-01

282

TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION WITH FLUORESCENCE CORRELATION SPECTROSCOPY: APPLICATIONS TO SUBSTRATE-SUPPORTED PLANAR MEMBRANES  

PubMed Central

In this review paper, the conceptual basis and experimental design of total internal reflection with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (TIR-FCS) is described. The few applications to date of TIR-FCS to supported membranes are discussed, in addition to a variety of applications not directly involving supported membranes. Methods related, but not technically equivalent, to TIR-FCS are also summarized. Future directions for TIR-FCS are outlined. PMID:19269331

Thompson, Nancy L.; Wang, Xiang; Navaratnarajah, Punya

2009-01-01

283

Tailoring fluorescent strigolactones for in vivo investigations: a computational and experimental study.  

PubMed

Strigolactones (SLs) are a new class of plant hormones whose role has been recently defined in shoot branching, root development and architecture, and nodulation. They are also active in the rhizosphere as signalling molecules in the communication between plants, AMF (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) and parasitic weeds. In spite of the crucial and multifaceted biological role of SLs, the current knowledge on the SL biosynthetic pathway and the perception/transduction mechanism is still incomplete. Both genetic and molecular approaches are required to understand the molecular mechanism by which SLs regulate plant development. Our contribution to this topic is the design and synthesis of fluorescent labelled SL analogues to be used as probes for the detection in vivo of the receptor(s). Knowledge of the putative receptor structure will boost the research on analogues of the natural substrates as required for agricultural applications. PMID:24691832

Prandi, Cristina; Ghigo, Giovanni; Occhiato, Ernesto G; Scarpi, Dina; Begliomini, Stefano; Lace, Beatrice; Alberto, Gabriele; Artuso, Emma; Blangetti, Marco

2014-05-14

284

In Vivo X-Ray Fluorescence Microtomographic Imaging of Elements in Single-Celled Fern Spores  

SciTech Connect

We have observed in vivo three-dimensional distributions of constituent elements of single-celled spores of the fern Adiantum capillus-veneris using an X-ray fluorescence computed microtomography method. The images of these distributions are generated from a series of slice data, each of which is acquired by a sample translation-rotation method. An incident X-ray microbeam irradiates the sample with a spot size of 1 {mu}m. The high Ca concentration in the testa and the localized and overlapping Fe and Zn concentrations inside the spore are shown in three-dimensional images. The K concentration is high throughout the cell, and there are localized regions of higher density. The atomic number densities of these elements in the testa and inside the cell in a tomographic slice are estimated with a resolution of about 1 {mu}m.

Hirai, Yasuharu; Yoneyama, Akio; Hisada, Akiko [Advanced Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Hatoyama, Saitama 350-0395 (Japan); Uchida, Kenko [Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo 185-8601 (Japan)

2007-01-19

285

Exploring the binding mechanism of Guaijaverin to human serum albumin: Fluorescence spectroscopy and computational approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Guaijaverin (Gua) is a polyphenolic substance which exhibits some pharmacological activities such as antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Here we have investigated the binding of Gua with human serum albumin (HSA) at physiological pH 7.0. In this study, the fluorescence spectroscopy, ab initio and molecular modeling calculations were applied. The Stern-Volmer quenching constant (KSV) and its modified form (Ka) were calculated at 298, 303 and 308 K, with the corresponding thermodynamic parameters ?H, ?G and ?S as well. The fluorescence quenching method was used to determine the number of binding sites (n) and binding constants (Kb) values at 298, 303 and 308 K. The distance between donor (HSA) and acceptor (Gua) was estimated according to fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The geometry optimization of Gua was performed in its ground state by using ab initio DFT/B3LYP functional with a 6-31G(d,p) basis set used in calculations. Molecular modeling calculation indicated that the Gua is located within the hydrophobic pocket of the subdomain IIA of HSA. The theoretical results obtained by molecular modeling were corroborated by fluorescence spectroscopy data.

Caruso, Ícaro P.; Vilegas, Wagner; Fossey, Marcelo A.; Cornélio, Marinônio L.

2012-11-01

286

Determination of Dissociation Constants in Living Zebrafish Embryos with Single Wavelength Fluorescence Cross-Correlation Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Abstract The quantification of biological interactions is very important in life sciences. Here we report for the first time, to our knowledge, the determination of a biomolecular dissociation constant (KD) in living zebrafish embryos at physiological protein expression levels. For that purpose, we extend the application of single wavelength fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy into small organisms and measure the interaction of Cdc42, a small Rho-GTPase, and IQGAP1, an actin-binding scaffolding protein. Cdc42 and IQGAP1 were labeled with monomeric red fluorescent protein and enhanced green fluorescent protein, respectively. Both fluorophores were excited at a single wavelength of 514 nm, simplifying the fluorescence spectroscopy measurements and allowing quantification. For the determination of the interaction, we used two Cdc42 mutants, the constitutively active Cdc42G12V which is in a predominantly GTP-bound form and the dominant-negative GDP-bound Cdc42T17N. While Cdc42G12V binds to IQGAP1 with an apparent KD of ?100 nM, Cdc42T17N has at least a one-order-of-magnitude lower affinity for the same protein. As a comparison, we measure the same protein-protein interactions in Chinese hamster ovary cell cultures but observe significant differences in protein mobility and KD from the zebrafish measurements, supporting the notion that bimolecular interactions depend on the biological system under investigation and are best performed under physiologically relevant conditions. PMID:19619483

Shi, Xianke; Foo, Yong Hwee; Sudhaharan, Thankiah; Chong, Shang-Wei; Korzh, Vladimir; Ahmed, Sohail; Wohland, Thorsten

2009-01-01

287

Interactions of dietary flavonoids with proteins: insights from fluorescence spectroscopy and other related biophysical studies.  

PubMed

In 1936, Rusznyak and Szent-Györgyi first drew attention to the therapeutically beneficial role of dietary flavonoids, which are the most common group of polyphenols ubiquitously present in plant based food and beverages. Recent years have witnessed a renascence of interest on these nutraceuticals, which, because of their high potency and low systemic toxicity, are gradually emerging as promising alternatives to conventional therapeutic drugs. There is a mounting evidence that various proteins frequently serve as targets for therapeutically important flavonoids. In this article we present perspectives exemplifying the growing potential of fluorescence spectroscopy as an exquisitely sensitive tool for noninvasive sensing of protein-flavonoid interactions at physiologically relevant concentrations, via measurements of steady state emission parameters as well as decay kinetics studies of the intrinsic fluorescence of the target (protein) and/or ligand (flavonoid). Especially, we highlight novel applications of the remarkably environment sensitive 'two color' fluorescence exhibited by many important flavonoids, which permits multiparametric and ratiometric measurements. To consolidate findings obtained via fluorescence spectroscopy, use of other relevant experimental biophysical techniques and molecular modeling have proved to be valuable and are also discussed here. Such complementary studies provide additional insights regarding the thermodynamics and conformational aspects of the protein-flavonoid interactions, together with details, at atomistic level, of the dominant noncovalent interactions involved in the docking of different flavonoids to their target proteins. PMID:23330929

Chaudhuri, Sudip; Sengupta, Bidisha; Taylor, Jasmine; Pahari, Biswa Pathik; Sengupta, Pradeep K

2013-05-01

288

Identification of a Novel Indoline Derivative for in Vivo Fluorescent Imaging of Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption in Animal Models  

PubMed Central

Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) can occur in various pathophysiological conditions. Administration of extraneous tracers that can pass the disrupted, but not the intact, BBB and detection of the extravasation have been widely used to assess BBB disruption in animal models. Although several fluorescent tracers have been successfully used, the administration of these tracers basically requires intravascular injection, which can be laborious when using small animals such as zebrafish. To identify fluorescent tracers that could be easily administered into various animal models and visualize the BBB disruption in vivo, we prepared nine structurally related indoline derivatives (IDs) as a minimum set of diverse fluorescent compounds. We found that one ID, ZMB741, had the highest affinity for serum albumin and emitted the strongest fluorescence in the presence of serum albumin of the nine IDs tested. The affinity to serum albumin and the fluorescence intensity was superior to those of Evans blue and indocyanine green that have been conventionally used to assess the BBB disruption. We showed that ZMB741 could be administered into zebrafish by static immersion or mice by intraperitoneal injection and visualizes the active disruption of their BBB. These results suggest that ZMB741 can be a convenient and versatile tool for in vivo fluorescent imaging of BBB disruption in various animal models. The strategy used in this study can also be applied to diversity-oriented libraries to identify novel fluorescent tracers that may be superior to ZMB741. PMID:23668665

2013-01-01

289

An In Vivo Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study of Schizophrenia Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The level of the )H metabolites in the left dorsolateral prefrontal region of schizophrenia patients at different stages of illness were mea- sured in vivo using a short echo time spectroscopy technique. Dur- ing both the early onset and chronic stages, normal A\\/-acetylaspartate lev- els were observed, which suggests that these patients had no signifi- cant neuronal cell damage and\\/or

Jeff A. Stanley; Peter C. Williamson; Dick J. Drost; R. Jane Rylett; Tom J. Carr; Ashok Malla; R. Terry Thompson

1996-01-01

290

Ultrafast 2D NMR Spectroscopy Using Sinusoidal Gradients: Principles and Ex Vivo Brain Investigations  

E-print Network

Ultrafast 2D NMR Spectroscopy Using Sinusoidal Gradients: Principles and Ex Vivo Brain ultrafast acquisitions of 2D NMR spectra with suitable spectral widths on a microimaging probe (for both Wiley-Liss, Inc. Key words: ultrafast 2D NMR; magnetic resonance spectros- copy; brain metabolites; 2D

Frydman, Lucio

291

Inflammatory CNS Demyelination: Histopathologic Correlation with In Vivo Quantitative Proton MR Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The mechanisms behind the demyelination that is char- acteristic of multiple sclerosis (MS) are still poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to compare immunopathologic findings in demyelinating lesions of three patients with in vivo assessments obtained by quantitative proton MR spectroscopy (MRS). METHODS: Between four and seven stereotactic needle brain biopsies were performed in three

Andreas Bitsch; Harald Bruhn; Vassilios Vougioukas; Argyris Stringaris; Hans Lassmann; Jens Frahm; Wolfgang Bruck

1999-01-01

292

Temporal changes in microvessel leakiness during wound healing discriminated by in vivo fluorescence recovery after photobleaching  

PubMed Central

Abstract Regeneration of injured tissue is a dynamic process, critically dependent on the formation of new blood vessels and restructuring of the nascent plexus. Endothelial barrier function, a functional correlate of vascular restructuring and maturation, was quantified via intravital microscopic analysis of 150 kDa FITC-dextran-perfused blood vessels within discrete wounds created in the panniculus carnosus (PC) muscle of dorsal skinfold chamber (DSC) preparations in mice. Time to recovery of half-peak fluorescence intensity (t1/2) within individual vessel segments in three functional regions of the wound (pre-existing vessels, angiogenic plexus and blind-ended vessels (BEVs)) was quantified using in vivo fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and linear regression analysis of recovery profiles. Plasma flux across the walls of new vessel segments, particularly BEVs, was greater than that of pre-existing vessels at days 5–7 after injury (P < 0.05). TNP-470 reduced the permeability of BEVs at the leading edge of the advancing vascular plexus as measured by the decrease in luminal t1/2 (P < 0.05), confirming the utility of FRAP as a quantitative measure of endothelial barrier function. Furthermore, these data are suggestive of a role for TNP-470 in selection for less leaky vascular segments within healing wounds. Increased FITC-dextran leakage was observed from pre-existing vessels after treatment with TNP-470 (P < 0.05), consistent with induction of transient vascular damage, although the significance of this finding is unclear. Using in vivo FRAP this study demonstrates the relationship between temporal changes in microvascular macromolecular flux and the morphology of maturing vascular segments. This combination of techniques may be useful to assess the therapeutic potential of angiogenic agents in restoring pre-injury levels of endothelial barrier function, following the establishment of a functional vascular plexus such as in models of wounding or tumour development. PMID:21768268

Machado, Maria J C; Mitchell, Christopher A

2011-01-01

293

Laguerre-based method for analysis of time-resolved fluorescence data: application to in-vivo characterization and diagnosis of atherosclerotic lesions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the application of the Laguerre deconvolution technique (LDT) to the analysis of in-vivo time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TR-LIFS) data and the diagnosis of atherosclerotic plaques. TR-LIFS measurements were obtained in vivo from normal and atherosclerotic aortas (eight rabbits, 73 areas), and subsequently analyzed using LDT. Spectral and time-resolved features were used to develop four classification algorithms: linear discriminant analysis (LDA), stepwise LDA (SLDA), principal component analysis (PCA), and artificial neural network (ANN). Accurate deconvolution of TR-LIFS in-vivo measurements from normal and atherosclerotic arteries was provided by LDT. The derived Laguerre expansion coefficients reflected changes in the arterial biochemical composition, and provided a means to discriminate lesions rich in macrophages with high sensitivity (>85%) and specificity (>95%). Classification algorithms (SLDA and PCA) using a selected number of features with maximum discriminating power provided the best performance. This study demonstrates the potential of the LDT for in-vivo tissue diagnosis, and specifically for the detection of macrophages infiltration in atherosclerotic lesions, a key marker of plaque vulnerability.

Jo, Javier A.; Fang, Qiyin; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Baker, J. Dennis; Dorafshar, Amir; Reil, Todd; Qiao, Jianhua; Fishbein, Michael C.; Freischlag, Julie A.; Marcu, Laura

2006-03-01

294

Quantifying receptor density in vivo using a dual probe approach with fluorescence molecular imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular imaging technologies are advancing rapidly and optical techniques in particular are set to play a large role in preclinical pharmaceutical testing. These approaches, however, are generally unable to quantify the level of expression of imaging probe reporters. In this study a novel method of quantification is presented using dual-probe fluorescence imaging, where an endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) fluorescent probe was paired with a non-targeted probe before being injected, and tracer kinetic compartmental modeling was used to determine EGFR expression in a region of interest from the uptake curves of the two drugs in that region. The approach was tested out in a simulation experiment and then applied in an in vivo study in one mouse to investigate EGFR expression in various tissue types (pancreas, pancreas tumor, and leg). The binding potentials (a unitless correlate of target availability) of EGFR expression in the various tissue types were 8.57, 25.64, and 0.11 for the pancreas, pancreas tumor, respectively. For the pancreas and leg, these results correlate well with expected levels of EGFR expression, with the pancreas demonstrating a much higher expression than the skin and also as expected, the tumor expressed much more EGFR than either healthy tissue.

Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; O'Hara, Julia; Sexton, Kristian J.; Davis, Scott C.; Pogue, Brian W.

2011-03-01

295

Volatile fractions of landfill leachates and their effect on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: In vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence  

SciTech Connect

Volatile organic compounds such as short-chain halogenated hydrocarbons and alkylated benzenes are widely used as solvents or as intermediates in the chemical industry, and some of them are fuel components. Dichloromethane, trichloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and tetrachloroethene have been produced in amounts of 500,000 to 1 million t/year, 80 to 100% of which are released to the environment. The production of toluene, a major component of fuels for internal combustion engines, amounts to about 30 million t/year. A method for identification of toxic volatile constituents of landfill leachates is presented that combines bioassay-compatible sample preparation, chemical analysis, and a bioassay based on in vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Two major pathways of toxicity were identified by comparing fluorescence patterns: specific toxicity of hydrogen sulfide, and narcotic action of nonreactive organic compounds. For quantification, the contributions of identified compounds were calculated using toxic units. The ecotoxicologic relevance of volatile fractions from hazardous waste leachates was shown.

Brack, W.; Rottler, H.; Frank, H. [Univ. of Bayreuth (Germany)

1998-10-01

296

In vivo tumor-targeted fluorescence imaging using near-infrared non-cadmium quantum dots.  

PubMed

This article reported the high tumor targeting efficacy of RGD peptide labeled near-infrared (NIR) non-cadmium quantum dots (QDs). After using poly(ethylene glycol) to encapsulate InAs/InP/ZnSe QDs (emission maximum at about 800 nm), QD800-PEG dispersed well in PBS buffer with the hydrodynamic diameter (HD) of 15.9 nm and the circulation half-life of approximately 29 min. After coupling QD800-PEG with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) or arginine-alanine-aspartic acid (RAD) peptides, we used nude mice bearing subcutaneous U87MG tumor as models to test tumor-targeted fluorescence imaging. The results indicated that the tumor uptake of QD800-RGD is much higher than those of QD800-PEG and QD800-RAD. The semiquantitative analysis of the region of interest (ROI) showed a high tumor uptake of 10.7 +/- 1.5%ID/g in mice injected with QD800-RGD, while the tumor uptakes of QD800-PEG and QD800-RAD were 2.9 +/- 0.3%ID/g and 4.0 +/- 0.5%ID/g, respectively, indicating the specific tumor targeting of QD800-RGD. The high reproducibility of bioconjunction between QDs and the RGD peptide and the feasibility of QD-RGD bioconjugates as tumor-targeted fluorescence probes warrant the successful application of QDs for in vivo molecular imaging. PMID:20369817

Gao, Jinhao; Chen, Kai; Xie, Renguo; Xie, Jin; Yan, Yongjun; Cheng, Zhen; Peng, Xiaogang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

2010-04-21

297

In vivo high-resolution fluorescence microendoscopy for ovarian cancer detection and treatment monitoring  

PubMed Central

Background: In patients with advanced ovarian cancer (OvCa), microscopic residual tumour nodules that remain after surgical debulking frequently escape detection by current treatment assessment methods and lead to disease recurrence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of high-resolution fibre-optic fluorescence imaging of the clinically approved photodynamic therapy (PDT) agent benzoporphyin-derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA) for detection of microscopic OvCa and for monitoring treatment response. Methods: Our fluorescence microendoscope consists of a flexible imaging fibre coupled to a custom epi-fluorescence system optimised for imaging BPD-MA, which, after a single administration, serves as both an imaging agent and a light-activated therapeutic agent. After characterisation in an in vitro OvCa 3D model, we used the flexible imaging fibre to minimally invasively image the peritoneal cavity of a disseminated OvCa murine model using BPD-MA administered intraperitoneally (i.p.). To evaluate longitudinal changes in response to treatment, we compared sets of images obtained before and after PDT with those from untreated mice imaged at the same time points. Results: By comparison with histopathology, we report an 86% sensitivity for tumour detection in vivo using the microendoscope. Using a custom routine to batch process-image data in the monitoring study, treated mice exhibited an average decrease of 58.8% in tumour volumes compared with an increase of 59.3% in untreated controls (P<0.05). Conclusions: Our findings indicate the potential of this approach as a reporter of treatment outcome that could aid in the rational design of strategies to mitigate recurrent OvCa. PMID:19920823

Zhong, W; Celli, J P; Rizvi, I; Mai, Z; Spring, B Q; Yun, S H; Hasan, T

2009-01-01

298

Laser-Assisted Cryosurgery in ex vivo Mice Hepatic Tissue: Viability Assays Using Green Fluorescent Protein  

PubMed Central

An experimental investigation is carried out to develop a novel approach to cryosurgery, where laser heating counteracts tissue freezing to better confine damage to the targeted cancerous tissue within a lethal low-temperature isothermal boundary—an approach we refer to as laser-assisted cryosurgery (LAC). The advantage of this procedure relative to conventional cryosurgery assisted with urethral warmers or cryoheaters is that laser heating provides volumetric rather than superficial heating, which leads to deeper penetration, more homogeneous tissue protection and better demarcation of the destructive freezing effect to a well-defined targeted volume. Tissue viability assays are performed using green fluorescence protein (GFP) as a viability marker and correlated with temperature history after performing LAC procedures on ex vivo mice hepatic tissue. The limit for cell denaturation at the irradiated surface predicted by GFP analysis is further confirmed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, the correlation between GFP fluorescence and cell viability and loss of GFP fluorescence in non-viable cells has been tested and validated by histological analysis using a standard cell viability measuring method (hematoxylin and eosin staining). Analysis of our experimental measurements show that reproducible thermal gradients (of 236 °C/cm) and predictable tissue necrosis can be reliably produced by LAC without exceeding temperature thresholds for cell denaturation (of Tsurf ? 48 °C) beyond preset tissue boundaries (with resolution of 0.1 °C/mm). The results have shown the feasibility of controlling temperatures at specified tissue locations to prevent hyperthermal or freezing damage. PMID:20963494

Duperray, B.; Godinez, F.; Guillén, G.; Slade, A.; Aguilar, G.

2010-01-01

299

Combined Fluorescence and X-Ray Tomography for Quantitative In Vivo Detection of Fluorophore  

PubMed Central

Initial results from a novel dual modality preclinical imager which combines non-contact fluorescence tomography (FT) and x-ray computed tomography (CT) for preclinical functional and anatomical in vivo imaging are presented. The anatomical data from CT provides a priori information to the FT reconstruction to create overlaid functional and anatomical images with accurate localization and quantification of fluorophore distribution. Phantoms with inclusions containing Indocyanine-Green (ICG), and with heterogeneous backgrounds including iodine in compartments at different concentrations for CT contrast, have been imaged with the dual modality FT/CT system. Anatomical information from attenuation maps and optical morphological information from absorption and scattering maps are used as a priori information in the FT reconstruction. Although ICG inclusions can be located without the a priori information, the recovered ICG concentration shows 75% error. When the a priori information is utilized, the ICG concentration can be recovered with only 15% error. Developing the ability to accurately quantify fluorophore concentration in anatomical regions of interest may provide a powerful tool for in vivo small animal imaging. PMID:20082529

Barber, W. C.; Lin, Y.; Nalcioglu, O.; Iwanczyk, J. S.; Hartsough, N. E.; Gulsen, G.

2010-01-01

300

In vivo wound healing diagnosis with second harmonic and fluorescence lifetime imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Skin wounds heal when a series of cell lineages are triggered, followed by collagen deposition, to reconstruct damaged tissues. This study evaluates the regeneration of collagen and change in cellular metabolic rate in vivo during wound healing in rats, with second harmonic generation (SHG) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy respectively. The metabolic rate of cells is reflected through the lifetime of the autofluorescence from the co-enzyme protein, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, due to its change in the relative concentration of bound and free forms. A higher than normal cellular metabolic rate is observed during the first week of healing, which decreases gradually after eight days of wound formation. SHG signal intensity change indicates the net degradation of collagen during the inflammatory phase, and net regeneration begins on day five. Eventually, the quantity of collagen increases gradually to form a scar tissue as the final product. Importantly, this work demonstrates the feasibility of an in vivo imaging approach for a normal wound on rat skin, which has the potential to supplement the noninvasive clinical diagnosis of wounds.

Deka, Gitanjal; Wu, Wei-Wen; Kao, Fu-Jen

2013-06-01

301

Quantification of leakage from large unilamellar lipid vesicles by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a powerful experimental technique that in recent years has found numerous applications for studying biological phenomena. In this article, we scrutinize one of these applications, namely, FCS as a technique for studying leakage of fluorescent molecules from large unilamellar lipid vesicles. Specifically, we derive the mathematical framework required for using FCS to quantify leakage of fluorescent molecules from large unilamellar lipid vesicles, and we describe the appropriate methodology for successful completion of FCS experiments. By use of this methodology, we show that FCS can be used to accurately quantify leakage of fluorescent molecules from large unilamellar lipid vesicles, including leakage of fluorescent molecules of different sizes. To demonstrate the applicability of FCS, we have investigated the antimicrobial peptide mastoparan X. We show that mastoparan X forms transient transmembrane pores in POPC/POPG (3:1) vesicles, resulting in size-dependent leakage of molecules from the vesicles. We conclude the paper by discussing some of the advantages and limitations of FCS as compared to other existing methods to measure leakage from large unilamellar lipid vesicles. PMID:25135662

Kristensen, Kasper; Henriksen, Jonas R; Andresen, Thomas L

2014-12-01

302

Applications of fluorescence spectroscopy for predicting percent wastewater in an urban stream  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a significant organic carbon reservoir in many ecosystems, and its characteristics and sources determine many aspects of ecosystem health and water quality. Fluorescence spectroscopy methods can quantify and characterize the subset of the DOC pool that can absorb and re-emit electromagnetic energy as fluorescence and thus provide a rapid technique for environmental monitoring of DOC in lakes and rivers. Using high resolution fluorescence techniques, we characterized DOC in the Tualatin River watershed near Portland, Oregon, and identified fluorescence parameters associated with effluent from two wastewater treatment plants and samples from sites within and outside the urban region. Using a variety of statistical approaches, we developed and validated a multivariate linear regression model to predict the amount of wastewater in the river as a function of the relative abundance of specific fluorescence excitation/emission pairs. The model was tested with independent data and predicts the percentage of wastewater in a sample within 80% confidence. Model results can be used to develop in situ instrumentation, inform monitoring programs, and develop additional water quality indicators for aquatic systems.

Goldman, Jami H.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Needoba, Joseph A.

2012-01-01

303

Biodistribution of benzoporphyrin derivative in tumor-bearing rats by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this study was to detect the presence of benzoporphyrin derivative-monoacid (BPD-MA) in tissues of a tumor bearing animal model. Eighty one Lobund-Wistar rats, inoculated with Pollard rat adenocarcinoma cells, were used. This animal model exhibits unique predictable, unilateral, metastatic spread. The animals were injected intravenously with 0.75 mg/kg of BPD-MA. A Helium-Cadmium (He-Cd) laser (442 nm, 17 mW) was used as an excitation source and coupled to a 400 micrometers core diameter fiber. Following laparotomy, exploration of the abdominal and inguinal area was performed with laser induced fluorescence. Fluorescence spectra of the primary tumor, bilateral lymph nodes, and various organs were recorded. Fluorescence measurements were conducted four hours post injection. The spectra obtained were characterized by a broadband autofluorescence (approximately 540 nm) and a characteristic peak of BPD-MA (approximately 690 nm). Overall, the BPD-MA concentration was higher in lymph nodes than in the skin, kidney, large bowel, muscle or spleen. Skin exhibited the lowest fluorescence intensity ratio, indicative of a lower drug concentration in this tissue. In summary, our results suggest that laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy may provide an alternative way of assessing the biodistribution of BPD-MA or other photosensitizers.

Vari, Sandor G.; Stavridi, Marigo; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Papazoglou, Theodore G.; Pergadia, Vani R.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Wolfson, David; Grundfest, Warren S.

1993-06-01

304

Sensitivity enhancement in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of multiple species using time-gated detection.  

PubMed Central

Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a powerful technique to measure chemical reaction rates and diffusion coefficients of molecules in thermal equilibrium. The capabilities of FCS can be enhanced by measuring the energy, polarization, or delay time between absorption and emission of the collected fluorescence photons in addition to their arrival times. This information can be used to change the relative intensities of multiple fluorescent species in FCS measurements and, thus, the amplitude of the intensity autocorrelation function. Here we demonstrate this strategy using lifetime gating in FCS experiments. Using pulsed laser excitation and laser-synchronized gating in the detection channel, we suppress photons emitted within a certain time interval after excitation. Three applications of the gating technique are presented: suppression of background fluorescence, simplification of FCS reaction studies, and investigation of lifetime heterogeneity of fluorescently labeled biomolecules. The usefulness of this technique for measuring forward and backward rates of protein fluctuations in equilibrium and for distinguishing between static and dynamic heterogeneity makes it a promising tool in the investigation of chemical reactions and conformational fluctuations in biomolecules. PMID:10920042

Lamb, D C; Schenk, A; Rocker, C; Scalfi-Happ, C; Nienhaus, G U

2000-01-01

305

Quantifying interactions between propranolol and dissolved organic matter (DOM) from different sources using fluorescence spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Beta blockers are widely used pharmaceuticals that have been detected in the environment. Interactions between beta blockers and dissolved organic matter (DOM) may mutually alter their environmental behaviors. To assess this potential, propranolol (PRO) was used as a model beta blocker to quantify the complexation with DOM from different sources using the fluorescence quenching titration method. The sources of studied DOM samples were identified by excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMs) combined with fluorescence regional integration analysis. The results show that PRO intrinsic fluorescence was statically quenched by DOM addition. The resulting binding constants (log K oc) ranged from 3.90 to 5.20, with the surface-water-filtered DOM samples claiming the lower log K oc and HA having the highest log K oc. Log K oc is negatively correlated with the fluorescence index, biological index, and the percent fluorescence response (P i,n) of protein-like region (P I,n) and the P i,n of microbial byproduct-like region (P II,n) of DOM EEMs, while it is correlated positively with humification index and the P i,n of UVC humic-like region (P III,n). These results indicate that DOM samples from allochthonous materials rich in aromatic and humic-like components would strongly bind PRO in aquatic systems, and autochthonous DOM containing high protein-like components would bind PRO more weakly. PMID:24390196

Peng, Na; Wang, Kaifeng; Liu, Guoguang; Li, Fuhua; Yao, Kun; Lv, Wenying

2014-04-01

306

On-chip integrated lensless fluorescence microscopy/spectroscopy module for cell-based sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integration of a fluorescence microscopy/spectroscopy module in cell-based lab-on-a-chip systems is of high interest for applications in cell-based diagnostics and substance evaluation in situ. We present an on-chip integrated lensless fluorescence imaging module applying the principle of contact/proximate optical lithography. The pixel resolution is comparable with a 4 x objective microscope. The module can be used for morphology and fluorescence imaging of mammalian cells (15 - 20 ?m) as well as for testing the concentration of a fluorescent substance. The biological samples or solutions are sustained in disposable sterilized microfluidic chips with 1 ?m thick silicon nitride (Si3N4) membranes. These chips are assembled on the surface of a 5 megapixel colored CMOS image sensor array with 1.75 ?m pixel size, which is coated with an additional interference filter. Each culturing chip consists of a MEMS cavity chip and a PDMS microfluidic interface. The surface of the CMOS image sensor is smoothened using SU-8 photoresist spin-coating for a commercial grade interference filter (optical density >= 5) coating by Plasma-Ion Assisted Deposition thereafter. The function is demonstrated by primary imaging results of the non-/fluorescent mammalian cells/microspheres as well as by differentiating different concentrations of FITC solutions.

Li, Wei; Knoll, Thorsten; Sossalla, Adam; Bueth, Heiko; Thielecke, Hagen

2011-03-01

307

Time-gated fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging of porphyrins and phthalocyanines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-gated fluorescence spectroscopy provides a very useful tool to evaluate the photophysical properties and the incorporation mechanisms of drugs interacting with biological substrates. In particular, taking into account that different fluorophores, even if overlapped in fluorescence spectrum, present different fluorescence lifetimes, it is possible to evidence the emission of a single molecular species by choosing a suitable observation window in the time domain. Using this technique, the effect of systemic administration on the uptake of Hematoporphyrin Derivative (HpD), its tumor localizing fraction (TLF), and disulphonated Aluminum Phthalocyanine (AlS2Pc) at the cellular level was evaluated on a murine ascitic tumor. The results obtained indicate that the TLF is the part of HpD actually retained by the cells and that AlS2Pc is incorporated more rapidly with respect to porphyrins. The observation of the gated spectra of HpD also evidenced the possibility of improving the contrast between the fluorescence of the cells and that of the drug. Thus, an imaging system has been developed which utilizes a gated, intensified, CCD camera synchronized with a subnanosecond laser- pulse excitation. The gate can be set to a minimum width of 5 ns and arbitrarily delayed with respect to the laser pulse. By optimization of the gate parameters, porphyrin fluorescence images in single cells and microscopy sections of tumor were obtained with a valuable signal- to-noise ratio.

Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Canti, Gianfranco L.; Taroni, Paola; Valentini, Gianluca

1991-11-01

308

A high-resolution large-acceptance analyzer for X-ray fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

A newly designed multi-crystal X-ray spectrometer and its applications in the fields of X-ray fluorescence and X-ray Raman spectroscopy are described. The instrument is based on 8 spherically curved Si crystals, each with a 3.5 inch diameter form bent to a radius of 86 cm. The crystals are individually aligned in the Rowland geometry capturing a total solid angle of 0.07 sr. The array is arranged in a way that energy scans can be performed by moving the whole instrument, rather than scanning each crystal by itself. At angles close to back scattering the energy resolution is between 0.3 and 1 eV depending on the beam dimensions at the sample. The instrument is mainly designed for X-ray absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy of transition metals in dilute systems such as metalloproteins. First results of the Mn K{beta} (3p -> 1s) emission in photosystem II are shown. An independent application of the instrument is the technique of X-ray Raman spectroscopy which can address problems similar to those in traditional soft X-ray absorption spectroscopies, and initial results are presented.

Bergmann, Uwe; Cramer, Stephen P.

2001-08-02

309

Retrograde Fluorescent Labeling Allows for Targeted Extracellular Single-unit Recording from Identified Neurons In vivo  

PubMed Central

The overall goal of this method is to record single-unit responses from an identified population of neurons. In vivo electrophysiological recordings from individual neurons are critical for understanding how neural circuits function under natural conditions. Traditionally, these recordings have been performed 'blind', meaning the identity of the recorded cell is unknown at the start of the recording. Cellular identity can be subsequently determined via intracellular1, juxtacellular2 or loose-patch3 iontophoresis of dye, but these recordings cannot be pre-targeted to specific neurons in regions with functionally heterogeneous cell types. Fluorescent proteins can be expressed in a cell-type specific manner permitting visually-guided single-cell electrophysiology4-6. However, there are many model systems for which these genetic tools are not available. Even in genetically accessible model systems, the desired promoter may be unknown or genetically homogenous neurons may have varying projection patterns. Similarly, viral vectors have been used to label specific subgroups of projection neurons7, but use of this method is limited by toxicity and lack of trans-synaptic specificity. Thus, additional techniques that offer specific pre-visualization to record from identified single neurons in vivo are needed. Pre-visualization of the target neuron is particularly useful for challenging recording conditions, for which classical single-cell recordings are often prohibitively difficult8-11. The novel technique described in this paper uses retrograde transport of a fluorescent dye applied using tungsten needles to rapidly and selectively label a specific subset of cells within a particular brain region based on their unique axonal projections, thereby providing a visual cue to obtain targeted electrophysiological recordings from identified neurons in an intact circuit within a vertebrate CNS. The most significant novel advancement of our method is the use of fluorescent labeling to target specific cell types in a non-genetically accessible model system. Weakly electric fish are an excellent model system for studying neural circuits in awake, behaving animals12. We utilized this technique to study sensory processing by "small cells" in the anterior exterolateral nucleus (ELa) of weakly electric mormyrid fish. "Small cells" are hypothesized to be time comparator neurons important for detecting submillisecond differences in the arrival times of presynaptic spikes13. However, anatomical features such as dense myelin, engulfing synapses, and small cell bodies have made it extremely difficult to record from these cells using traditional methods11, 14. Here we demonstrate that our novel method selectively labels these cells in 28% of preparations, allowing for reliable, robust recordings and characterization of responses to electrosensory stimulation. PMID:23928906

Lyons-Warren, Ariel M.; Kohashi, Tsunehiko; Mennerick, Steven; Carlson, Bruce A.

2013-01-01

310

Use of a Microscope Photometer To Analyze In Vivo Fluorescence Intensity of Epilithic Microalgae Grown on Artificial Substrata  

Microsoft Academic Search

An epifluorescence microscope photometer was used to develop a new, in vivo fluorimetric method for analyzing fluorescence intensities of epilithic microalgae grown on clay tiles in the field. This enabled a nondestructive, direct quantification of algal biomass on the substratum surface. Measurements of a chloro- phyll a standard in ethanol (90%) with our fluorimetric method (exitation at 546 nm; emission,

GEORG BECKER; HARALD HOLFELD; ANDERS T. HASSELROT; DOUGLAS M. FIEBIG; ANDDOMINIC A. MENZLER

1997-01-01

311

Fabrication of folate bioconjugated near-infrared fluorescent silver nanoclusters for targeted in vitro and in vivo bioimaging.  

PubMed

Thiolpolyethyleneimine stabilized silver nanoclusters (SH-PEI-AgNCs) with intense NIR fluorescence and chemical stability were fabricated in aqueous solution. The SH-PEI-AgNCs were subsequently bioconjugated with folate for targeted in vitro and in vivo bioimaging. PMID:25285944

Wang, Yong; Dai, Cong; Yan, Xiu-Ping

2014-10-23

312

In vivo optical imaging of dihydroethidium oxidation in the mouse brain employing fluorescence intensity and lifetime contrast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are believed to be involved in many diseases and injuries to the brain, but the molecular processes are not well understood due to a lack of in vivo imaging techniques to evaluate ROS. The fluorescent oxidation products of dihydroethidium (DHE) can monitor ROS production in vivo. Here we demonstrate the novel optical imaging of brain in live mice to measure ROS production via generation of fluorescent DHE oxidation products (ox-DHE) by ROS. We show that in Sod2+/- mice, which have partial loss of a key antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase-2, that ox-DHE fluorescence intensity was significantly higher than in hSOD1 mice, which have four-fold overexpression of superoxide dismutase-1 activity, which had almost no ox-DHE fluorescence, confirming specificity of ox-DHE to ROS production. The DHE oxidation products were also confirmed by detecting a characteristic fluorescence lifetime of the oxidation product, which was validated with ex vivo measurements.

Hall, David J.; Han, Sung-Ho; Dugan, Laura

2009-02-01

313

Nondestructive measurement of light-induced oxidation in dairy products by fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of solid-sample fluorescence spectroscopy in nondestructive assessment of light-induced oxidation in different dairy products such as Swiss cheese, cream cheese, and sour cream. Analytical and quantitative spectral properties of fluorescence were elucidated by use of principal component analysis with designed experiments involving different levels of air and light exposure. A significant reduction in fluorescence intensity at approximately 525 nm, and a corresponding increase in the region 415 to 490 nm as a result of illumination was observed on all the products. The effect was ascribed to photodegradation of riboflavin. Variation in two smaller peaks at approximately 620 nm and 630 nm was an interaction effect between exposure to light and air. A pronounced interaction effect between light and air produced intense blue fluorescence and off-flavors on Swiss-like Jarlsberg cheese. High correlations (0.83 to 0.93) between fluorescence spectra and sensory measured off-flavors were obtained for cream cheese. Results indicate that solid-sample fluorescence can be used as a nondestructive and rapid tool to measure the degree of light-induced degradation of riboflavin as well as sensory properties connected to storage of dairy products. Images of fluorescence can be used to visualize the intensity and propagation of this process. The simplicity and rapidity of the method offer rich opportunities for efficient evaluation of factors affecting light-induced oxidation in dairy products, such as packaging materials, light sources, exposure time, and temperature. PMID:12201519

Wold, J P; Jørgensen, K; Lundby, F

2002-07-01

314

Characterization of dissolved organic matter in fogwater by excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) present in fogwater samples collected in southeastern Louisiana and central-eastern China has been characterized using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy. The goal of the study was to illustrate the utility of fluorescence for obtaining information on the large fraction of organic carbon in fogwaters (typically >40% by weight) that defies characterization in terms of specific chemical compounds without the difficulty inherent in obtaining sufficient fogwater volume to isolate DOM for assessment using other spectroscopic and chemical analyses. Based on the findings of previous studies using other characterization methods, it was anticipated that the unidentified organic carbon fraction would have characteristic peaks associated with humic substances and fluorescent amino acids. Both humic- and protein-like fluorophores were observed in the fogwater spectra and fluorescence-derived indices for the fogwater had similar values to those of soil and sediment porewater. Greater biological character was observed in samples with higher organic carbon concentrations. Fogwaters are shown to contain a mixture of terrestrially- and microbially-derived fluorescent organic material, which is expected to be derived from an array of different sources, such as suspended soil and dust particles, biogenic emissions and organic substances generated by atmospheric processes. The fluorescence results indicate that much of the unidentified organic carbon present in fogwater can be represented by humic-like and biologically-derived substances similar to those present in other aquatic systems, though it should be noted that fluorescent signatures representative of DOM produced by atmospheric processing of organic aerosols may be contributing to or masked by humic-like fluorophores. ?? 2010.

Birdwell, J. E.; Valsaraj, K. T.

2010-01-01

315

Fluorescence spectroscopy applied to the study of humic substances from soil and soil related systems: A review  

SciTech Connect

The potential utility of fluorescence spectroscopy as a sensitive and relatively simple tool for studying the structural and functional chemistry of humic substances (HS) has been emphasized recently. The present paper is intended to provide a review, enriched with recent, unpublished data of the author and collaborators, on the status of fluorescence spectroscopy in the chemistry of HS originated from soil and related materials, such as soil organic amendants, and HS synthesized by soil microorganisms.

Senesi, N. (Universita di Bari (Italy))

1990-01-01

316

In vivo spatial frequency domain spectroscopy of two layer media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring of tissue blood volume and local oxygen saturation can inform the assessment of tissue health, healing, and dysfunction. These quantities can be estimated from the contribution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin to the absorption spectrum of the dermis. However, estimation of blood related absorption in skin can be confounded by the strong absorption of melanin in the epidermis and epidermal thickness and pigmentation varies with anatomic location, race, gender, and degree of disease progression. Therefore, a method is desired that decouples the effect of melanin absorption in the epidermis from blood absorption in the dermis for a large range of skin types and thicknesses. A previously developed inverse method based on a neural network forward model was applied to simulated spatial frequency domain reflectance of skin for multiple wavelengths in the near infrared. It is demonstrated that the optical thickness of the epidermis and absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the dermis can be determined independently and with minimal coupling. Then, the same inverse method was applied to reflectance measurements from a tissue simulating phantom and in vivo human skin. Oxygen saturation and total hemoglobin concentrations were estimated from the volar forearms of weakly and strongly pigmented subjects using a standard homogeneous model and the present two layer model.

Yudovsky, Dmitry; Nguyen, John Quan M.; Durkin, Anthony J.

2012-10-01

317

In vivo spatial frequency domain spectroscopy of two layer media.  

PubMed

Monitoring of tissue blood volume and local oxygen saturation can inform the assessment of tissue health, healing, and dysfunction. These quantities can be estimated from the contribution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin to the absorption spectrum of the dermis. However, estimation of blood related absorption in skin can be confounded by the strong absorption of melanin in the epidermis and epidermal thickness and pigmentation varies with anatomic location, race, gender, and degree of disease progression. Therefore, a method is desired that decouples the effect of melanin absorption in the epidermis from blood absorption in the dermis for a large range of skin types and thicknesses. A previously developed inverse method based on a neural network forward model was applied to simulated spatial frequency domain reflectance of skin for multiple wavelengths in the near infrared. It is demonstrated that the optical thickness of the epidermis and absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the dermis can be determined independently and with minimal coupling. Then, the same inverse method was applied to reflectance measurements from a tissue simulating phantom and in vivo human skin. Oxygen saturation and total hemoglobin concentrations were estimated from the volar forearms of weakly and strongly pigmented subjects using a standard homogeneous model and the present two layer model. PMID:23085984

Yudovsky, Dmitry; Nguyen, John Quan M; Durkin, Anthony J

2012-10-01

318

In vivo spatial frequency domain spectroscopy of two layer media  

PubMed Central

Abstract. Monitoring of tissue blood volume and local oxygen saturation can inform the assessment of tissue health, healing, and dysfunction. These quantities can be estimated from the contribution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin to the absorption spectrum of the dermis. However, estimation of blood related absorption in skin can be confounded by the strong absorption of melanin in the epidermis and epidermal thickness and pigmentation varies with anatomic location, race, gender, and degree of disease progression. Therefore, a method is desired that decouples the effect of melanin absorption in the epidermis from blood absorption in the dermis for a large range of skin types and thicknesses. A previously developed inverse method based on a neural network forward model was applied to simulated spatial frequency domain reflectance of skin for multiple wavelengths in the near infrared. It is demonstrated that the optical thickness of the epidermis and absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the dermis can be determined independently and with minimal coupling. Then, the same inverse method was applied to reflectance measurements from a tissue simulating phantom and in vivo human skin. Oxygen saturation and total hemoglobin concentrations were estimated from the volar forearms of weakly and strongly pigmented subjects using a standard homogeneous model and the present two layer model. PMID:23085984

Yudovsky, Dmitry; Nguyen, John Quan M.; Durkin, Anthony J.

2012-01-01

319

Multimodal Mn-doped I-III-VI quantum dots for near infrared fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging: from synthesis to in vivo application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of sensitive multimodal contrast agents is a key issue to provide better global, multi-scale images for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. Here we present the synthesis of Zn-Cu-In-(S, Se)/Zn1-xMnxS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) that can be used as markers for both near-infrared fluorescence imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We first present the synthesis of Zn-Cu-In-(S, Se) cores coated with a thick ZnS shell doped with various proportions of Mn. Their emission wavelengths can be tuned over the NIR optical window suitable for deep tissue imaging. The incorporation of manganese ions (up to a few thousand ions per QD) confers them a paramagnetic character, as demonstrated by structural analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. These QDs maintain their optical properties after transfer to water using ligand exchange. They exhibit T1-relaxivities up to 1400 mM-1 [QD] s-1 at 7 T and 300 K. We finally show that these QDs are suitable multimodal in vivo probes and demonstrate MRI and NIR fluorescence detection of regional lymph nodes in mice.The development of sensitive multimodal contrast agents is a key issue to provide better global, multi-scale images for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. Here we present the synthesis of Zn-Cu-In-(S, Se)/Zn1-xMnxS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) that can be used as markers for both near-infrared fluorescence imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We first present the synthesis of Zn-Cu-In-(S, Se) cores coated with a thick ZnS shell doped with various proportions of Mn. Their emission wavelengths can be tuned over the NIR optical window suitable for deep tissue imaging. The incorporation of manganese ions (up to a few thousand ions per QD) confers them a paramagnetic character, as demonstrated by structural analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. These QDs maintain their optical properties after transfer to water using ligand exchange. They exhibit T1-relaxivities up to 1400 mM-1 [QD] s-1 at 7 T and 300 K. We finally show that these QDs are suitable multimodal in vivo probes and demonstrate MRI and NIR fluorescence detection of regional lymph nodes in mice. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Determination of Mn content; magnetization measurements; additional TEM and spectroscopic data; additional NIR fluorescence image; MTT assay results. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02239d

Sitbon, Gary; Bouccara, Sophie; Tasso, Mariana; Francois, Aurélie; Bezdetnaya, Lina; Marchal, Frédéric; Beaumont, Marine; Pons, Thomas

2014-07-01

320

Photoacoustics and fluorescence based nanoprobes towards functional and structural imaging in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging of chemical analytes and structural properties related to physiological activities within biological systems is of great bio-medical interest; it can contribute to the fundamental understanding of biological systems and can be applied to the diagnosis and prognosis of diseases, especially tumors. The work presented in this thesis focuses on the development and application of polymeric nanoprobe aided optical imaging of chemical analytes (Oxygen, pH) and structural properties in live cells and animal models. To this end, specific nanoprobes, based on the polyacrylamide nanoplatform, bearing both appropriate targeting functionalities, and high concentrations of sensing and contrast agents, have been developed. The nanoprobes presented here are biodegradable, biocompatible and non-toxic, rendering them safe for in vivo use. Furthermore the nanoprobes are designed to have variable optical properties that are dependent on the local concentration of the specific analyte of interest. Optical imaging techniques that are particularly suited for deep tissue applications, such as two-photon fluorescence and photoacoustics, were applied for non-invasive real-time imaging and sensing in cancer cells, tumor spheroids and animal models. Our results demonstrate that this technique enables high sensitive detection of chemical analytes with a sensitivity of <5 Torr for oxygen and <0.1 pH units in vivo, which is better than the currently available in vivo functional imaging techniques. This non-invasive and non-ionizing, yet low cost, method will enable morphological and functional evaluation across any tissue, with both high spatial and temporal resolution but without eliciting short- or long-term tissue damage. Currently no gold standard exists for such xii functional imaging. The approach presented here can be used for early detection and diagnosis of tumors, as well as for monitoring the progression of disease and therapy. This technique will also enable observing phenomena at the cellular level in vivo that would lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases as well as the disease onset, progression, and response to therapy.

Ray, Aniruddha

321

Evaluation of the uncertainties associated with in vivo X-ray fluorescence bone lead calibrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An anthropometric leg phantom developed at the University of Cincinnati (UC) was used to evaluate the effects that changes in leg position and variation between subjects has on in vivo x-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements of stable lead in bone. The changes in leg position that were evaluated include changes in source-phantom distance ranging between 0.0 mm and 30.0 mm and phantom rotation over 40 degrees. Source-phantom distance was determined to have a significant effect on XRF measurement results particularly at source-phantom distances greater than 10.0 mm. Rotation of the leg phantom through 40 degrees was determined to have no significant effect on XRF measurement results. Between subject factors that were evaluated include bone calcium content and overlying tissue thickness. Bone calcium content was determined to have a significant effect on XRF measurements when measuring lead in micrograms per gram bone material. However, if measurement results of micrograms of lead per gram calcium (or per gram bone mineral) is used the normalization method makes the change in calcium content not significant. Overlying tissue thickness was determined to have no significant effect on XRF measurement results with tissue thickness ranging between 5.7 and 11.62 mm. The UC leg phantom was modified to include a fibula bone phantom so that the effect that the fibula has on XRF measurement results could be evaluated. The fibula was determined to have no significant effect on XRF measurement results and in the future need not be incorporated into in vivo XRF calibration phantoms. A knee phantom was also developed for purposes of calibrations of in vivo XRF measurement of lead in the patella. XRF measurement results using this phantom were compared to results of XRF measurements made using the plaster-of-Paris (POP) phantoms. A significant difference was observed between the normalized count rates of the two phantom types when either micrograms of lead per gram of bone material or micrograms of lead per gram calcium (bone mineral) is used as the lead content. This difference is consistent with what is observed in real in vivo XRF measurements and indicates the need for the correction factors that are used.

Lodwick, Jeffrey C.

322

Combining surface sensitive vibrational spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy to study biological interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multimodal system combining surface sensitive sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and total-internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy for surface and interface study was developed. Interfacial molecular structural information can be detected using SFG spectroscopy while interfacial fluorescence signal can be visualized using TIRF microscopy from the same sample. As a proof of concept experiment, SFG spectra of fluorescent polystyrene (PS) beads with different surface coverage were correlated with TIRF signal observed. Results showed that SFG signals from the ordered surfactant methyl groups were detected from the substrate surface, while signals from PS phenyl groups on the beads were not seen. Additionally, a lipid monolayer labeled using lipid-associated dye was deposited on a silica substrate and studied in different environments. The contact with water of this lipid monolayer caused SFG signal to disappear, indicating a possible lipid molecular disorder and the formation of lipid bilayers or liposomes in water. TIRF was able to visualize the presence of lipid molecules on the substrate, showing that the lipids were not removed from the substrate surface by water. The integration of the two surface sensitive techniques can simultaneously visualize interfacial molecular dynamics and characterize interfacial molecular structures in situ, which is important and is expected to find extensive applications in biological interface related research.

Zhang, Chi; Jasensky, Joshua; Wu, Jing; Chen, Zhan

2014-03-01

323

The fast polarization modulation based dual-focus fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.  

PubMed

We introduce two new alternative experimental realizations of dual focus fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (2fFCS), a method which allows for obtaining absolute diffusion coefficient of fast moving fluorescing molecules at nanomolar concentrations, based on fast polarization modulation of the excitation beam by a resonant electro-optical modulator. The first approach rotates every second linearly polarized laser pulse by 90 degrees to obtain independent intensity readout for both foci, similar to original design. The second approach combines polarization modulation of cw laser and fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy (FLCS) like analysis to obtain clean correlation curves for both overlapping foci. We tested our new approaches with different lasers and samples, revealed a need for intensity cross-talk corrections by comparing the methods with each other and discussed experimental artifacts stemming from improper polarization alignment and detector afterpulsing. The advantages of our solutions are that the polarization rotation approach requires just one pulsed laser for each wavelength, that the polarization modulation approach even mitigates the need of pulsed lasers by using standard cw lasers and that it allows the DIC prism to be placed at an arbitrary angle. As a consequence the presented experimental solutions for 2fFCS can be more easily implemented into commercial laser scanning microscopes. PMID:24515048

Štefl, Martin; Benda, Aleš; Gregor, Ingo; Hof, Martin

2014-01-13

324

Integrated fingerprint and high wavenumber confocal Raman spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of cervical precancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectroscopy is a vibrational spectroscopic technique capable of optically probing the compositional, conformational, and structural changes in the tissue associated with disease progression. The main goal of this work is to develop an integrated fingerprint (FP) and high wavenumber (HW) in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy for simultaneous FP/HW tissue Raman spectral measurements. This work further explores the potential of integrated FP/HW Raman spectroscopy developed as a diagnostic tool for in vivo detection of cervical precancer. A total of 473 in vivo integrated FP/HW Raman spectra (340 normal and 133 precancer) were acquired from 35 patients within 1 s during clinical colposcopy. The major tissue Raman peaks are noticed around 854, 937, 1001, 1095, 1253, 1313, 1445, 1654, 2946 and 3400 cm-1, related to the molecular changes (e.g., proteins, lipids, glycogen, nucleic acids, water, etc.) that accompany the dysplastic transformation of tissue. The FP (800 - 1800 cm-1), HW (2800 - 3800 cm-1) and the integrated FP/HW Raman spectra were analyzed using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) together with the leave-one patient-out, cross-validation. The developed PLS-DA classification models and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves for the FP, HW and integrated FP/HW spectroscopy further discloses that the performance of integrated FP/HW Raman spectroscopy is superior to that of all others in discriminating the dysplastic cervix. The results of this work indicate that the co-contributions of underlying rich biochemical information revealed by the complementary spectral modalities (FP and HW Raman) can improve the in vivo early diagnosis of cervical precancer at clinical colposcopy

Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Zheng, Wei; Ng, Joseph; Low, Jeffrey J. H.; Ilancheran, A.; Huang, Zhiwei

2013-03-01

325

In vivo Molecular Evaluation of Guinea Pig Skin Incisions Healing after Surgical Suture and Laser Tissue Welding Using Raman Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

The healing process in guinea pig skin following surgical incisions was evaluated at the molecular level, in vivo, by the use of Raman spectroscopy. After the incisions were closed either by suturing or by laser tissue welding (LTW), differences in the respective Raman spectra were identified. The study determined that the ratio of the Raman peaks of the amide III (1247 cm?1) band to a peak at 1326 cm?1 (the superposition of elastin and keratin bands) can be used to evaluate the progression of wound healing. Conformational changes in the amide I band (1633 cm?1 to 1682 cm?1) and spectrum changes in the range of 1450 cm?1 to 1520 cm?1 were observed in LTW and sutured skin. The stages of the healing process of the guinea pig skin following LTW and suturing were evaluated by Raman spectroscopy, using histopathology as the gold standard. LTW skin demonstrated better healing than sutured skin, exhibiting minimal hyperkeratosis, minimal collagen deposition, near-normal surface contour, and minimal loss of dermal appendages. A wavelet decomposition-reconstruction baseline correction algorithm was employed to remove the fluorescence wing from the Raman spectra. PMID:19581109

Alimova, A.; Chakraverty, R.; Muthukattil, R.; Elder, S.; Katz, A.; Sriramoju, V.; Lipper, Stanley; Alfano, R. R.

2009-01-01

326

In vivo molecular evaluation of guinea pig skin incisions healing after surgical suture and laser tissue welding using Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The healing process in guinea pig skin following surgical incisions was evaluated at the molecular level, in vivo, by the use of Raman spectroscopy. After the incisions were closed either by suturing or by laser tissue welding (LTW), differences in the respective Raman spectra were identified. The study determined that the ratio of the Raman peaks of the amide III (1247 cm(-1)) band to a peak at 1326 cm(-1) (the superposition of elastin and keratin bands) can be used to evaluate the progression of wound healing. Conformational changes in the amide I band (1633-1682 cm(-1)) and spectrum changes in the range of 1450-1520 cm(-1) were observed in LTW and sutured skin. The stages of the healing process of the guinea pig skin following LTW and suturing were evaluated by Raman spectroscopy, using histopathology as the gold standard. LTW skin demonstrated better healing than sutured skin, exhibiting minimal hyperkeratosis, minimal collagen deposition, near-normal surface contour, and minimal loss of dermal appendages. A wavelet decomposition-reconstruction baseline correction algorithm was employed to remove the fluorescence wing from the Raman spectra. PMID:19581109

Alimova, A; Chakraverty, R; Muthukattil, R; Elder, S; Katz, A; Sriramoju, V; Lipper, Stanley; Alfano, R R

2009-09-01

327

High pressure sample cell for total internal reflection fluorescence spectroscopy at pressures up to 2500 bar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) spectroscopy is a surface sensitive technique that is widely used to characterize the structure and dynamics of molecules at planar liquid-solid interfaces. In particular, biomolecular systems, such as protein adsorbates and lipid membranes can easily be studied by TIRF spectroscopy. Applying pressure to molecular systems offers access to all kinds of volume changes occurring during assembly of molecules, phase transitions, and chemical reactions. So far, most of these volume changes have been characterized in bulk solution, only. Here, we describe the design and performance of a high pressure sample cell that allows for TIRF spectroscopy under high pressures up to 2500 bar (2.5 × 108 Pa), in order to expand the understanding of volume effects from the bulk phase to liquid-solid interfaces. The new sample cell is based on a cylindrical body made of Nimonic 90 alloy and incorporates a pressure transmitting sample cuvette. This cuvette is composed of a fused silica prism and a flexible rubber gasket. It contains the sample solution and ensures a complete separation of the sample from the liquid pressure medium. The sample solution is in contact with the inner wall of the prism forming the interface under study, where fluorescent molecules are immobilized. In this way, the new high pressure TIRF sample cell is very useful for studying any biomolecular layer that can be deposited at a planar water-silica interface. As examples, high pressure TIRF data of adsorbed lysozyme and two phospholipid membranes are presented.

Koo, Juny; Czeslik, Claus

2012-08-01

328

Substrate-supported phospholipid membranes studied by surface plasmon resonance and surface plasmon fluorescence spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Substrate-supported planar lipid bilayer membranes are attractive model cellular membranes for biotechnological applications such as biochips and sensors. However, reliable fabrication of the lipid membranes on solid surfaces still poses significant technological challenges. In this study, simultaneous surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and surface plasmon fluorescence spectroscopy (SPFS) measurements were applied to the monitoring of adsorption and subsequent reorganization of phospholipid vesicles on solid substrates. The fluorescence intensity of SPFS depends very sensitively on the distance between the gold substrate and the fluorophore because of the excitation energy transfer to gold. By utilizing this distance dependency, we could obtain information about the topography of the adsorbed membranes: Adsorbed vesicles could be clearly distinguished from planar bilayers due to the high fluorescence intensity. SPSF can also incorporate various analytical techniques to evaluate the physicochemical properties of the adsorbed membranes. As an example, we demonstrated that the lateral mobility of lipid molecules could be estimated by observing the recovery of fluorescence after photobleaching. Combined with the film thickness information obtained by SPR, SPR-SPFS proved to be a highly informative technique to monitor the lipid membrane assembly processes on solid substrates. PMID:16040759

Tawa, Keiko; Morigaki, Kenichi

2005-10-01

329

Derivative Synchronous Fluorescence Spectroscopy for the Simultaneous Determination of Dapoxetine Hydrochloride and Vardenafil in Binary Mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first and second derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (FDSFS&SDSFS) methods have been developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of a binary mixture of dapoxetine hydrochloride and vardenafil. Method 1A describes a measurement of the normal synchronous fluorescence intensity of these drugs at ?? = 35 nm using sodium dodecyl sulfate as the fluorescence enhancer in aqueous solutions. This method was extended (Method 1B) to the use of FDSFS&SDSFS for the determination of both drugs. The fluorescence concentration plots were linear over the range of 1-10 and 0.2-2 ?g/ml for dapoxetine hydrochloride and vardenafil, respectively, with lower detection limits of 290 and 62.5 ng/ml, and quantification limits of 890 and 190 ng/ml for dapoxetine hydrochloride and vardenafil, respectively. The proposed method was applied for the simultaneous determination of DAP and VAR in different synthetic mixtures and in co-formulated pharmaceutical preparation. The results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained using a reference method.

Soliman, S. M.; El-Agizy, H. M. Y.; El Bayoumi, Abd El Aziz

2014-07-01

330

In vivo imaging and detection of nitroreductase in zebrafish by a new near-infrared fluorescence off-on probe.  

PubMed

A new near-infrared fluorescence off-on probe is developed and applied to fluorescence imaging of nitroreductase in zebrafish in vivo. The probe is readily prepared by connecting 4-nitrobenzene as a quenching and recognizing moiety to a stable hemicyanine skeleton that can be formed via the decomposition of IR 780. The fluorescence off-on response of the probe to nitroreductase is based on the enzyme-catalyzed reduction of the 4-nitrobenzene moiety, followed by the 1,6-rearrangement-elimination and the fluorophore release. Compared with the existing nitroreductase probes, the proposed probe exhibits superior analytical performance such as near-infrared fluorescence emission over 700 nm as well as high selectivity and sensitivity, with a detection limit of 14 ng/mL. More importantly, the probe has been successfully applied to visualize the distribution of nitroreductase in living zebrafish in vivo, revealing that nitroreductase might mainly exist in zebrafish yolk sac. The superior properties of the probe make it of great potential use in other biosystems and in vivo studies. PMID:25064818

Li, Zhao; He, Xinyuan; Wang, Zhe; Yang, Ronghua; Shi, Wen; Ma, Huimin

2015-01-15

331

Generation of Circularly Permuted Fluorescent-Protein-Based Indicators for In Vitro and In Vivo Detection of Citrate  

PubMed Central

Indicators for citrate, particularly those applicable to its in vivo detection and quantitation, have attracted much interest in both biochemical studies and industrial applications since citrate is a key metabolic intermediate playing important roles in living cells. We generated novel fluorescence indicators for citrate by fusing the circularly permuted fluorescent protein (cpFP) and the periplasmic domain of the bacterial histidine kinase CitA, which can bind to citrate with high specificity. The ratiometric fluorescent signal change was observed with one of these cpFP-based indicators, named CF98: upon addition of citrate, the excitation peak at 504 nm increased proportionally to the decrease in the peak at 413 nm, suitable for build-in quantitative estimation of the binding compound. We confirmed that CF98 can be used for detecting citrate in vitro at millimolar levels in the range of 0.1 to 50 mM with high selectivity; even in the presence of other organic acids such as isocitrate and malate, the fluorescence intensity of CF98 remains unaffected. We finally demonstrated the in vivo applicability of CF98 to estimation of the intracellular citrate concentration in Escherichia coli co-expressing the genes encoding CF98 and the citrate carrier CitT. The novel indicator CF98 can be a specific and simple detection tool for citrate in vitro and a non-invasive tool for real-time estimation of intracellular concentrations of the compound in vivo. PMID:23717638

Honda, Yuki; Kirimura, Kohtaro

2013-01-01

332

Measurement of the temperature-dependent diffusion properties of nanoparticles by using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in the diffusion properties of three kinds of fluorescent particles, Alexa Fluor 647, Q-dots (quantum dots), and beads, with temperature were investigated with a home-built fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) system based on a confocal microscope. In all samples, as the temperature was increased, the diffusion times were reduced, indicating an increase in the diffusion coefficient. In particular, of all the particles, Alexa Fluor 647 having the smallest size of ˜1 nm, showed a hydrodynamic radius that increased with increasing temperature of the solvent. However, for the Q-dots and beads with larger sizes, the hydrodynamic radius of the particles was inversely proportional to the temperature. These results show that diffusion coefficient obtained by changing the temperature has an influence on the hydrodynamic radius of the particles.

Jung, Chanbae; Lee, Jaeran; Kang, Manil; Kim, Sok Won

2014-10-01

333

Probe diffusion in polymer solutions and hydrogels using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to measure the diffusion of small fluorescent probes (TAMRA, Mw = 430 Da; dextran, Mw = 10 kDa) in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) solutions and hydrogels. PVA is a linear, neutral, biocompatible polymer, whose hydrogels have many biotechnology applications, such as drug-delivery devices and tissue scaffolds. The FCS measurements indicate that the probe diffusion decreases when the polymer solution is cross-linked. Further, the more the polymer chains are cross-linked, the slower the particles diffuse. These results suggest that the cross-link density, which is often ignored in the analysis of probe diffusion data in gels, must be taken into account. Remarkably, we find that the apparent diffusion time and the elastic modulus of the gels show a linear correlation.

Michelman-Ribeiro, Ariel; Boukari, Hacene; Horkay, Ferenc; Nossal, Ralph

2006-03-01

334

Detection of hyaluronidase activity using fluorescein labeled hyaluronic acid and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

The over-expression of hyaluronidase has been observed in many types of cancer, suggesting that it may have utility for diagnosis. Here we present a technique for the detection of hyaluronidase using Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS). Hyaluronan macromolecules (HAs) have been heavily labeled with fluorescein amine resulting in strong self-quenching. In the presence of hyaluronidase, HA is cleaved into smaller, fluorescein-labeled fragments and the self-quenching is released. Such cleavage is manifested by the increased average diffusion rate of the HA fragments, increased concentration of individual, fluorescent HA fragments, and increased intensity. All three of these properties are monitored simultaneously throughout FCS measurements, both as a function of time and hyaluronidase concentration. The method we present provides a sensitive measure of hyaluronidase activity and requires extremely small amounts of the HA substrate. PMID:23018154

Rich, Ryan M.; Mummert, Mark; Foldes-Papp, Zeno; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Borejdo, Julian; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Fudala, Rafal

2012-01-01

335

Two-photon excitation fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of diffusion for Gaussian-Lorentzian volumes.  

PubMed

Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is valuable in many scientific domains where diffusion plays a fundamental role. One important experimental realization is based on fluorescence induced by two-photon excitation (TPE). In comparison with one-photon excitation (OPE), TPE-FCS defines better the interrogation volume and the background noise is sensibly reduced. Within this context and for overfilled objective lenses, the three-dimensional Gaussian (3DG) approximation, according to which the spectroscopic interaction is spatially defined by Gaussian profiles only, guarantees a simple analytical data interpretation. By contrast, the volume illuminated by the laser beam focused with partially filled objective lenses follows a Gaussian-Lorentzian (GL) distribution that is taken into account by means of numerical methods only. Here we show that contrary to common belief, the assumption of a GL volume does not hamper analytical treatment of TPE-FCS. Differences and similarities in comparison with the 3DG approximation are discussed. PMID:18380493

Marrocco, Michele

2008-05-01

336

High-throughput screening of optimal solution conditions for structural biological studies by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Protein aggregation is an essential molecular event in a wide variety of biological situations, and is a causal factor in several degenerative diseases. The aggregation of proteins also frequently hampers structural biological analyses, such as solution NMR studies. Therefore, precise detection and characterization of protein aggregation are of crucial importance for various research fields. In this study, we demonstrate that fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) using a single-molecule fluorescence detection system enables the detection of otherwise invisible aggregation of proteins at higher protein concentrations, which are suitable for structural biological experiments, and consumes relatively small amounts of protein over a short measurement time. Furthermore, utilizing FCS, we established a method for high-throughput screening of protein aggregation and optimal solution conditions for structural biological experiments. PMID:19388076

Sugiki, Toshihiko; Yoshiura, Chie; Kofuku, Yutaka; Ueda, Takumi; Shimada, Ichio; Takahashi, Hideo

2009-01-01

337

Investigation of polymer electrolyte membrane chemical degradation and degradation mitigation using in situ fluorescence spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

A fluorescent molecular probe, 6-carboxy fluorescein, was used in conjunction with in situ fluorescence spectroscopy to facilitate real-time monitoring of degradation inducing reactive oxygen species within the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) of an operating PEM fuel cell. The key requirements of suitable molecular probes for in situ monitoring of ROS are presented. The utility of using free radical scavengers such as CeO2 nanoparticles to mitigate reactive oxygen species induced PEM degradation was demonstrated. The addition of CeO2 to uncatalyzed membranes resulted in close to 100% capture of ROS generated in situ within the PEM for a period of about 7 h and the incorporation of CeO2 into the catalyzed membrane provided an eightfold reduction in ROS generation rate. PMID:22219367

Prabhakaran, Venkateshkumar; Arges, Christopher G.; Ramani, Vijay

2012-01-01

338

X-ray fluorescence/Auger-electron coincidence spectroscopy of vacancy cascades in atomic argon  

SciTech Connect

Argon L{sub 2.3}-M{sub 2.3}M{sub 2.3} Auger-electron spectra were measured in coincidence with K{alpha} fluorescent x-rays in studies of Ar K-shell vacancy decays at several photon energies above the K-threshold and on the 1s-4p resonance in atomic argon. The complex spectra recorded by conventional electron spectroscopy are greatly simplified when recorded in coincidence with fluorescent x-rays, allowing a more detailed analysis of the vacancy cascade process. The resulting coincidence spectra are compared with Hartree-Fock calculations which include shake-up transitions in the resonant case. Small energy shifts of the coincidence electron spectra are attributed to post-collision interaction with 1s photoelectrons.

Arp, U. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Electron and Optical Physics Div.; LeBrun, T.; Southworth, S.H.; Jung, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Physics Div.; MacDonald, M.A. [E.P.S.R.C. Daresbury Lab., Warrington (United Kingdom)

1996-12-01

339

Application of fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy to the measurement of the concentration of molecules deposited on solid substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy is applied to study molecules, passing through a small observation volume, usually subjected to diffusive or convective motion in liquid phase. We suggest that such a technique could be used to measure the areal absolute concentration of fluorophores deposited on a substrate or imbedded in a thin film, with a resolution of a few micrometers. The principle is to translate the solid substrate in front of a confocal fluorescence microscope objective and to record the subsequent fluctuations of the fluorescence intensity. The validity of this concept is investigated on model substrates (fluorescent microspheres), DNA-chips, and dye-stained histidine molecules anchored on silanized glass surfaces.

Derouard, Jacques; Delon, Antoine; Jaffiol, Rodolphe; Vézy, Cyrille

2006-04-01

340

Fluorescence spectroscopy of soil pellets : The use of CP/PARAFAC.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence spectroscopy is one of the most sensitive techniques available for analytical purposes. It is relatively easy to implement, phenomenologically straightforward and well investigated. Largely non-invasive and fast, so that it can be useful for environmental applications. Fluorescence phenomenon is highly probable in molecular systems containing atoms with lone pairs of electrons such as C=O, aromatic, phenolic, quinone and more rigid unsaturated conjugated systems. These functional groups are present in humic substances (HS) from soils (Senesi, 1990; N. Senesi et al., 1991) and represent the main fluorophors of Soil Organic Matter (SOM). The extension of the conjugated electronic system, the level of heteroatom substitution and type and number of substituting groups under the aromatic rings strongly affect the intensity and wavelength of molecular fluorescence. However, to analyse the SOM it is generally done a chemical extraction that allows measuring the fluorescence response of the liquid extract. To avoid this fractionation of the SOM, Milori et al. (2006) proposed the application of laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) in whole soil. This work intends to assess the technical feasibility of 3D fluorescence spectroscopy using lamp for excitation to analyse solids opaque samples prepared with different substances. Seventy four (74) solid samples were prepared from different mixtures of boric acid (BA), humic substance acid and tryptophan (TRP) powder. The compounds were mixture and a pellet was done by using pressure (8 ton). The pellets were measured using a spectrofluorimeter HITACHI F4500, and a 3D fluorescence tensor was done from emission spectra (200-600 nm) with excitation range from 200 to 500 nm. The acquisition parameters were: step at 5 nm, scan speed at 2400 nm.min-1, response time at 0.1 s, excitation and emission slits at 5 nm and photomultiplier voltage at 700 V. Furthermore, measures of Laser-induced Fluorescence were performed in pellets (boric and humic acids mixture) using a portable system built by Embrapa Instrumentation. It comprises a diode laser (Coherent - CUBE) emitting at 405 nm (50 mW), and the detection of emission by a high sensitivity mini-spectrometer (USB4000 - Ocean Optics) using a range from 440 to 800 nm. In first step, the 3D tensors were then treated by the CP/PARAFAC algorithm to decompose the signal response after removing the diffusion signal : three components were extracted with a CORCONDIA over 60%. The first component can be associate an artefact of the measurement or boric acid fluorescence, the second and third component could the related to the two different fluorescence contributions of tryptophan molecule, one with central excitation/emission in 290/360 nm and other in 350/465 nm. The presence of a small quantity (i.e. few percent in mass) of humic acid (HA) is quenching drastically the TRP fluorescence. Complementary, measurements will be performed to understand this behaviour taking in account the absorption wavelength by the surface (colour) and by measuring the time life fluorescence of the samples. Humic acid fluorescence in pellets (BA and HA) cannot be observed using lamp + monochromator excitation due to low intensity of source. The same pellets were measure using LIFS system, and fluorescence intensity increased as a function of concentration of HA until occur the inner filter effect from 300 ppm, similar to the behaviour of HA in solution. Even whether solid surface measurements are easier, understanding is not yet clear. More investigation needs to be done. Moreover, it should be important to know if the use of CP/PARAFAC decomposition for such data is relevant with the trilinear model. References Milori, D.M.B.P., Galeti, H.V.A., Martin-Neto, L., Dieckow, J., González-Pérez, M., Bayer, C., Salton, J., 2006. Organic Matter Study of Whole Soil Samples Using Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Soil Science Society of America Journal 70, 57. N. Senesi, TM, M., MR, P., Brunetti., G., 1991. Characterization, differentiation and classifi

Mounier, Stéphane; Nicolodeli, Gustavo; Redon, Roland; Hacherouf, Kalhed; Milori, Debora M. B. P.

2014-05-01

341

Analysis of fluorescent ceramide and sphingomyelin analogs: a novel approach for in vivo monitoring of sphingomyelin synthase activity.  

PubMed

A novel sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) method was developed for real-time monitoring of relative sphingomyelin synthase (SMS) activity based on the measurement of a fluorescent ceramide (Cer) analog and its metabolite, a fluorescent sphingomyelin (CerPCho) analog, in plasma. Analyses were conducted using HPLC-FLD following a protein precipitation procedure. The chromatographic separations were carried out on an Agilent C18 RP column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 ?m) based on a methanol-0.1 % trifluoroacetic acid aqueous solution (88:12, by vol) elution at a flow-rate of 1 mL/min. The limit of quantification in plasma was 0.05 ?M for both the fluorescent Cer analog and its metabolite. Significant differences in the fluorescent Cer analog and its metabolite concentration ratio at 5 min were found between vehicle control group and three D2 (a novel SMS inhibitor) dose groups (P < 0.05). Dose-dependent effects (D2 doses: 0, 2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg) were observed. Our method could be used to detect relative SMS activity in biochemical assays and to screen potential SMS inhibitors in vivo. D2 was found to be a potent SMS inhibitor in vivo, and may have a potential antiatherosclerotic effect, which is under further study. D609 was also selected as another model SMS inhibitor to validate our newly developed method. PMID:25108416

Huang, Taomin; Li, Xiaoxia; Hu, Shuang; Zhao, Bo; Chen, Ping; Liu, Xiao; Ye, Deyong; Cheng, Nengneng

2014-10-01

342

Transient absorption spectroscopy detection of sensitized delayed fluorescence in chiral benzophenone/naphthalene systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient absorption spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful tool to investigate the formation and decay of excited singlet states upon triplet-triplet annihilation, following T-T energy transfer from a selectively excited sensitizer. Thus, upon selective excitation of benzophenone (BZP) by laser flash photolysis (LFP) at ? = 355 nm in the presence of naphthalene (NPT), a negative band centered at 340 nm has been detected, with growth and decay in the microsecond timescale. It has been assigned to the P-type NPT delayed-fluorescence. In the case of chiral BZP/NPT systems, stereodifferentiation has been observed in the kinetics of the involved photophysical processes.

Bonancía, Paula; Jiménez, M. Consuelo; Miranda, Miguel A.

2011-10-01

343

Effect of different agents onto multidrug resistant cells revealed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), which is a sensitive and non invasive technique, has been used to characterize the plasma membrane fluidity and heterogeneity of multidrug resistant living cells. At the single cell level, the effects of different membrane agents present in the extra-cellular medium have been analyzed. Firstly, we reveal a modification of plasma membrane microviscosity according to the addition of a fluidity modulator, benzyl alcohol. In the other hand, revertant such as verapamil and cyclosporin-A appears to act more specifically on the slow diffusion sites as microdomains.

Boutin, C.; Roche, Y.; Jaffiol, R.; Millot, J.-M.; Millot, C.; Plain, J.; Deturche, R.; Jeannesson, P.; Manfait, M.; Royer, P.

344

Ultrasensitive detection of waste products in water using fluorescence emission cavity-enhanced spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Clean water is paramount to human health. In this article, we present a technique for detection of trace amounts of human or animal waste products in water using fluorescence emission cavity-enhanced spectroscopy. The detection of femtomolar concentrations of urobilin, a metabolic byproduct of heme metabolism that is excreted in both human and animal waste in water, was achieved through the use of an integrating cavity. This technique could allow for real-time assessment of water quality without the need for expensive laboratory equipment. PMID:24799690

Bixler, Joel N.; Cone, Michael T.; Hokr, Brett H.; Mason, John D.; Figueroa, Eleonora; Fry, Edward S.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.; Scully, Marlan O.

2014-01-01

345

Ultrasensitive detection of waste products in water using fluorescence emission cavity-enhanced spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Clean water is paramount to human health. In this article, we present a technique for detection of trace amounts of human or animal waste products in water using fluorescence emission cavity-enhanced spectroscopy. The detection of femtomolar concentrations of urobilin, a metabolic byproduct of heme metabolism that is excreted in both human and animal waste in water, was achieved through the use of an integrating cavity. This technique could allow for real-time assessment of water quality without the need for expensive laboratory equipment. PMID:24799690

Bixler, Joel N; Cone, Michael T; Hokr, Brett H; Mason, John D; Figueroa, Eleonora; Fry, Edward S; Yakovlev, Vladislav V; Scully, Marlan O

2014-05-20

346

Measuring the hydrodynamic radius of quantum dots by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) is an optical technique that allows the measurement of the diffusion coefficient of molecules in a diluted sample. From the diffusion coefficient it is possible to calculate the hydrodynamic radius of the molecules. For colloidal quantum dots (QDs) the hydrodynamic radius is valuable information to study interactions with other molecules or other QDs. In this chapter we describe the main aspects of the technique and how to use it to calculate the hydrodynamic radius of quantum dots (QDs). PMID:25103801

de Thomaz, André A; Almeida, Diogo B; Cesar, Carlos L

2014-01-01

347

Applications of fluorescence spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering in biotechnology of camptothecins: promising anticancer drugs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods of optical measurements are widely used in biomedical research. Applications of these methods in determining of properties of camptothecins -- S-phase anticancer agents are described in this paper. Under physiological conditions CPT hydrolyses, and converts into inactive carboxylate form. Decrease of active form of CPT occurs especially fast in plasma of human blood. One of camptothecin analogues -- DB-67, exhibits, in contrary to CPT, relatively high stability in human blood. Fluorescence spectroscopy methods were used to determine physical and to predict biological properties of camptothecins, including DB-67. The dynamic light scattering (DLS) methods were applied to control the sizes of liposomes used as DB-67 delivery system.

Kruszewski, Stefan; Burke, Thomas G.

2003-04-01

348

Examination of Stratum Corneum Barrier Function In Vivo by Infrared Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally accepted that the stratum corneum (SC) is the least permeable layer of the epidermis. Histologically, though, the SC is a non-uniform, inhomogeneous membrane, and the question “Is barrier function distributed uniformly across the SC thickness?” has been posed. To address this issue, human ventral forearm SC has been studied in vivo by attenuated-total-reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy during

D. Bommannan; Russell O. Potts; Richard H. Guy

1990-01-01

349

The relationship of in vivo 31P MR spectroscopy to histology in chronic hepatitis C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver biopsy remains the gold standard for characterizing diffuse liver disease and is associated with significant morbidity and, rarely, mortality. Our aim was to investigate whether a noninvasive technique, in vivo phosphorus 31 (31P)-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), could be used to assess the severity of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver disease. Fifteen healthy controls and 48 patients with biopsy-proven HCV-related

Adrian K. P. Lim; Nayna Patel; Gavin Hamilton; Joseph V. Hajnal; Robert D. Goldin; Simon D. Taylor-Robinson

2003-01-01

350

Raman Spectroscopy of Lithium Hydride Corrosion: Selection of an Appropriate Excitation Wavelength to Minimize Fluorescence  

SciTech Connect

The recent interest in a hydrogen-based fuel economy has renewed research into metal hydride chemistry. Many of these compounds react readily with water to release hydrogen gas and form a caustic. Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFT) has been used to study the hydrolysis reaction. The LiOH stretch appears at 3670 cm{sup -1}. Raman spectroscopy is a complementary technique that employs monochromatic excitation (laser) allowing access to the low energy region of the vibrational spectrum (<600 cm{sup -1}). Weak scattering and fluorescence typically prevent Raman from being used for many compounds. The role of Li{sub 2}O in the moisture reaction has not been fully studied for LiH. Li{sub 2}O can be observed by Raman while being hidden in the Infrared spectrum.

Stowe, A. C.; Smyrl, N. R.

2011-05-26

351

In vivo K-shell X-ray fluorescence bone lead measurements in young adults.  

PubMed

The (109)Cd K-shell X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique was used to measure in vivo tibia lead concentrations of 34 young adults living in the state of Vermont (USA) and the province of New Brunswick (Canada). The subjects ranged in age from 18 to 35 years, and had no known history of elevated lead exposure. Measurement parameters were varied, using the same XRF system for both populations. Tibia lead concentrations were low for both groups, with mean values of 0.7 microg lead g(-1) bone mineral (Vermont) and 0.5 microg g(-1)(New Brunswick). No individual measurement exceeded 7 microg g(-1). Mean uncertainty values obtained for the Vermont and New Brunswick subjects were 4.1 microg g(-1) and 2.6 microg g(-1), respectively. Improved measurement uncertainty in the New Brunswick group was attributed to the use of a reduced source-to-skin distance (approximately 5 mm) and a longer measurement time (3600 seconds) using a weaker radioisotope source (< or =0.42 GBq). Measurement uncertainty tended to increase with body mass index. For a given body mass index, female subjects returned a measurement uncertainty approximately 1 microg g(-1) greater than males. PMID:15877166

Ahmed, Naseer; Osika, Natalie A; Wilson, Alexander M; Fleming, David E B

2005-05-01

352

Chlorophyll a fluorescence transients: a fast data acquisition system to facilitate in vivo measurements.  

PubMed

Characteristics of primary phases in chlorophyll a fluorescence transients based on room temperature in vivo measurement with a Plant Productivity Fluorometer (Brancker Model SF-10) can be greatly facilitated by coupling the instrument to a fast data acquisition system. The SF-10 was linked to a Multitech Industrial Corporation Microprofessor Microcomputer and further modified to ensure simultaneous onset of light activation and signal capture. Circuit diagrams and program listings are given in detail.This microprocessor system is capable of capturing signal changes over a minimum period of 200 milliseconds to a maximum of 6 seconds. Accuracy of recorded data is dependent on rate of change of the input signal and the recording time period. Acquisition and storage of 5000 points from zero to 300 milliseconds ensured clear resolution of Fo, I and D when played back over 120 seconds on a chart recorder. For routine use, the primary transient can be captured over 0-2 seconds and then replayed as an accompaniment to standard slower presentation of primary plus secondary transients. Coincidence of signal amplitude for Fp on both systems can then be ascertained while retaining adequate resolution of Fo and I. PMID:24458400

Norrish, R; Kriedemann, P E; Wiskich, J T

1983-01-01

353

Chlorophyll a fluorescence transients: a fast data acquisition system to facilitate in vivo measurements.  

PubMed

Characteristics of primary phases in chlorophyll a fluorescence transients based on room temperature in vivo measurement with a Plant Productivity Fluorometer (Brancker Model SF-10) can be greatly facilitated by coupling the instrument to a fast data acquisition system. The SF-10 was linked to a Multitech Industrial Corporation Microprofessor Microcomputer and further modified to ensure simultaneous onset of light activation and signal capture. Circuit diagrams and program listings are given in detail.This microprocessor system is capable of capturing signal changes over a minimum period of 200 milliseconds to a maximum of 6 seconds. Accuracy of recorded data is dependent on rate of change of the input signal and the recording time period. Acquisition and storage of 5000 points from zero to 300 milliseconds ensured clear resolution of Fo, I and D when played back over 120 seconds on a chart recorder. For routine use, the primary transient can be captured over 0-2 seconds and then replayed as an accompaniment to standard slower presentation of primary plus secondary transients. Coincidence of signal amplitude for Fp on both systems can then be ascertained while retaining adequate resolution of Fo and I. PMID:24458491

Norrish, R; Kriedemann, P E; Wiskich, J T

1983-09-01

354

In Vivo Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Imaging for Targeted Anti-Cancer Drug Delivery Kinetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an approach for the evaluation of targeted anti-cancer drug delivery in vivo. The method emulates the drug release and activation process through acceptor release from a targeted donor-acceptor pair that exhibits fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). In this case, folate targeting of the cancer cells is used - 40 % of all human cancers, including ovarian, lung, breast, kidney, brain and colon cancer, over-express folate receptors. We demonstrate the reconstruction of the spatially-dependent FRET parameters in a mouse model and in tissue phantoms. The FRET parameterization is incorporated into a source for a diffusion equation model for photon transport in tissue, in a variant of optical diffusion tomography (ODT) called FRET-ODT. In addition to the spatially-dependent tissue parameters in the diffusion model (absorption and diffusion coefficients), the FRET parameters (donor-acceptor distance and yield) are imaged as a function of position. Modulated light measurements are made with various laser excitation positions and a gated camera. More generally, our method provides a new vehicle for studying disease at the molecular level by imaging FRET parameters in deep tissue, and allows the nanometer FRET ruler to be utilized in deep tissue.

Webb, Kevin; Gaind, Vaibhav; Tsai, Hsiaorho; Bentz, Brian; Chelvam, Venkatesh; Low, Philip

2012-02-01

355

Tracking Biological Organic Compounds In Atmospheric Deposition In Alpine Environments With Fluorescence Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alpine environments, such as those of the Colorado Rocky Mountains, USA and the Sierra Nevada Mountains, Spain, contain undeveloped, barren soils that are carbon-limited. Atmospheric wet and dry deposition of organic carbon (OC) represents a substantial fraction of the OC load available to alpine soils, and includes contributions from atmospheric pollutants, dust, and biological aerosols, such as bacteria, algae, fungi, and plant debris. To evaluate the seasonal variability and sources of atmospheric deposition at these alpine sites, we measured the chemical characteristics of weekly wet and dry deposition and snowpack samples, including characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and water soluble organic matter (WSOM) with fluorescence spectroscopy. The excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra we acquired show the presence of recurring peaks at low excitation and emission wavelengths typically associated with highly biodegradable organic carbon, presumably derived from the aromatic amino acids, tyrosine and tryptophan. Solar simulation experiments demonstrated that amino acid-like fluorescent components were more resistant to photo-degradation than humic- and fulvic-like fluorescent components. Our results also reveal the presence of a unique fluorophore, not previously described, that is found in both Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada snowpack, wet deposition, and dry deposition and may be attributed to fluorescent pigments in bacteria. Biological aerosols may represent a labile source of carbon for alpine soil microbes, and consequently their deposition has important consequences for biogeochemical processes occurring in barren, alpine soils. Excitation emission matrix image of 24 Aug 2010 wet deposition sample from the Soddie site at Niwot Ridge, Colorado showing a unique fluorescent component with dual excitation peaks (285 nm and 340 nm) at 410 nm emission.

Mladenov, N.; Oldani, K. M.; Williams, M. W.; Schmidt, S. K.; Darcy, J.; Lemons, S.; Reche, I.

2013-12-01

356

In vivo Raman spectroscopy integrated with multimodal endoscopic imaging for early diagnosis of gastric dysplasia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A near-infrared Raman spectroscopy system integrated with multimodal endoscopic imaging has been developed for the early noninvasive in vivo diagnosis and detection of gastric malignancies. High-quality in vivo Raman spectra in the range 800-1800 cm-1 can be acquired from gastric normal and premalignant (dysplastic) mucosal tissue within 1 second under the guidance of white-light and narrow-band gastroscopic imaging during clinical gastroscopy. Prominent differences in Raman spectral shapes and intensities are observed between normal and dysplastic gastric mucosal tissue, particularly in the spectral ranges 800-900, 1250-1450 and 1600-1800 cm-1, which primarily contain signals related to proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. The empirical intensity ratio algorithm I875/I1450 classifies in vivo Raman spectra of dysplasia with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 100%. Our initial investigations show that in vivo Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with multimodal endoscopic imaging modalities holds a great promise for improving the early diagnosis of gastric malignancies.

Bergholt, Mads Sylvest; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Kan; Ho, Khek Yu; Teh, Ming; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Huang, Zhiwei

2010-02-01

357

Fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of potentially malignant disorders and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.  

PubMed

Oral cancer is a public health problem with relevant incidence in the world population. The affected patient usually presents advanced stage disease and the consequence of this delay is a reduction in survival rates. Given this, it is essential to detect oral cancer at early stages. Fluorescence spectroscopy is a non-invasive diagnostic tool that can improve cancer detection in real time. It is a fast and accurate technique, relatively simple, which evaluates the biochemical composition and structure using the tissue fluorescence spectrum as interrogation data. Several studies have positive data regarding the tools for differentiating between normal mucosa and cancer, but the difference between cancer and potentially malignant disorders is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of fluorescence spectroscopy in the discrimination of normal oral mucosa, oral cancer, and potentially malignant disorders. The fluorescence spectroscopy was evaluated in 115 individuals, of whom 55 patients presented oral squamous cell carcinoma, 30 volunteers showing normal oral mucosa, and 30 patients having potentially malignant disorders. The spectra were classified and compared to histopathology to evaluate the efficiency in diagnostic discrimination employing fluorescence. In order to classify the spectra, a decision tree algorithm (C4.5) was applied. Despite of the high variance observed in spectral data, the specificity and sensitivity obtained were 93.8% and 88.5%, respectively at 406 nm excitation. These results point to the potential use of fluorescence spectroscopy as an important tool for oral cancer diagnosis and potentially malignant disorders. PMID:24704941

Francisco, Ana Lucia Noronha; Correr, Wagner Rafael; Azevedo, Luciane Hiramatsu; Kern, Vivian Galletta; Pinto, Clóvis Antônio Lopes; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Kurachi, Cristina

2014-06-01

358

Fabrication and operation of GRIN probes for in vivo fluorescence cellular imaging of internal organs in small animals  

PubMed Central

Intravital fluorescence microscopy has emerged as a powerful technique to visualize cellular processes in vivo. However, the size of the objective lenses has limited physical accessibility to various tissue sites in the internal organs of small animals. The use of small-diameter probes using graded-index (GRIN) lenses expands the capabilities of conventional intravital microscopes into minimally invasive internal organs imaging. In this protocol, we describe the detailed steps for the fabrication of front- and side-view GRIN probes and the integration and operation of the probes in a confocal microscope for visualizing fluorescent cells and microvasculature in various murine organs. We further present longitudinal imaging of immune cells in renal allografts and the tumor development in the colon. The fabrication and integration can be completed in 5–7 hours, and a typical in vivo imaging session takes 1–2 hours. PMID:22767088

Kim, Jun Ki; Lee, Woei Ming; Kim, Pilhan; Choi, Myunghwan; Jung, Keehoon; Kim, Seonghoon; Yun, Seok Hyun

2013-01-01

359

Plant abiotic stress diagnostic by laser induced chlorophyll fluorescence spectral analysis of in vivo leaf tissue of biofuel species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser induced fluorescence is exploited to evaluate the effect of abiotic stresses upon the evolution and characteristics of in vivo chlorophyll emission spectra of leaves tissues of brazilian biofuel plants species(Saccharum officinarum and Jatropha curcas). The chlorophyll fluorescence spectra of 20 min predarkened intact leaves were studied employing several excitation wavelengths in the UV-VIS spectral region. Red(Fr) and far-red (FFr) chlorophyll fluorescence emission signals around 685 nm and 735 nm, respectively, were analyzed as a function of the stress intensity and the time of illumination(Kautsky effect). The Chl fluorescence ratio Fr/FFr which is a valuable nondestructive indicator of the chlorophyll content of leaves was investigated during a period of time of 30 days. The dependence of the Chl fluorescence ratio Fr/FFr upon the intensity of the abiotic stress(salinity) was examined. The results indicated that the salinity plays a major hole in the chlorophyll concentration of leaves in both plants spieces, with a significant reduction in the chlorophyll content for NaCl concentrations in the 25 - 200 mM range. The laser induced chlorophyll fluorescence analysis allowed detection of damage caused by salinity in the early stages of the plants growing process, and can be used as an early-warning indicator of salinity stress

Gouveia-Neto, Artur S.; Silva, Elias A., Jr.; Costa, Ernande B.; Bueno, Luciano A.; Silva, Luciana M. H.; Granja, Manuela M. C.; Medeiros, Maria J. L.; Câmara, Terezinha J. R.; Willadino, Lilia G.

2010-02-01

360

Organic dye penetration quantification into a dental composite resin cured by LED system using fluorescence spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major characteristic of LEDs systems is the lower heat emission related with the kind of light generation and spectral emission band. Material temperature during photoactivation can promote different photocuring performance. Organic dye penetration could be a trace to identify the efficacy of photocured composite resin. A new method using fluorescent spectroscopy through digital image evaluation was developed in this study. In order to understand if there is a real influence of material temperature during the photoactivation procedure of a dental restorative material, a hybrid composite resin (Z250, 3M-Espe, USA) and 3 light sources, halogen lamp (510 mW/cm2) and two LED systems 470+/-10nm (345 and 1000 mW/cm2) under different temperatures and intensities were used. One thousand and five hundred samples under different associations between light sources and temperatures (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 °C were tested and immediately kept in 6G rodamin dye solution. Dye penetration was evaluated through fluorescent spectroscopy recorded by digital image data. Pixels in gray scale showed the percentage penetration of organic dye into the composite resin mass. Time and temperature were statistically significant (p<0.05) through the ANOVA statistical test. The lowest penetration value was with 60 seconds and 25 °C. Time and temperature are important factors to promote a homogeneous structure polymerized composite resin more than the light source type, halogen or LEDs system.

Lizarelli, Rosane de Fátima Zanirato; Silva, Maciel E., Jr.; Lins, Emery C. C. C.; Costa, Mardoqueu M.; Pelino, José Eduardo P.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

2007-02-01

361

[Study of interaction of umbelliferone with three aromatic amino acids by fluorescence spectroscopy].  

PubMed

The interaction between umbelliferone (UMB) with tryptophan (Trp), tyrosine (Tyr) and phenylalanine (Phe) was studied by using fluorescence (FS) and ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy. The results show that UMB can strongly quench the fluorescence of the three aromatic amino acids with the maximum quenching wavelengths at 347, 303 and 282 nm, respectively. Data analyses based on the Stern-Volmer curve and the UV spectroscopy show that static quenching occurred through the formation of the complexes of UMB with each aromatic amino acid in a molar ratio of 1 : 1. The binding constant K(c) of UMB with Trp, Tyr and Phe is 2.993 x 10(6), 7.858 x 10(4) and 1.186 x 10(3) L x mol(-1) (298.15 K) and 2.702 x 10(4), 1.063 x 10(5) and 8.352 x 10(3) L x mol(-1) (310.15 K), respectively. The thermodynamic parameters indicate that UMB has a strong interaction with the three aromatic amino acids. Hydrogen bond and Van der Waals force may play a major role in the reaction of UMB with Trp, whereas hydrophobic interaction should be responsible for the binding of UMB with Tyr and Phe. In addition, the dipole-dipole interaction may be another factor in the reactions between UMB and the three aromatic aminoacids. PMID:24159859

Jiang, Huan; Zhu, Yan-Wu; Wang, Yan; He, Jian-Bo

2013-08-01

362

Branching out of single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy: challenges for chemistry and influence on biology.  

PubMed

In the last decade emerging single-molecule fluorescence-spectroscopy tools have been developed and adapted to analyze individual molecules under various conditions. Single-molecule-sensitive optical techniques are now well established and help to increase our understanding of complex problems in different disciplines ranging from materials science to cell biology. Previous dreams, such as the monitoring of the motility and structural changes of single motor proteins in living cells or the detection of single-copy genes and the determination of their distance from polymerase molecules in transcription factories in the nucleus of a living cell, no longer constitute unsolvable problems. In this Review we demonstrate that single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy has become an independent discipline capable of solving problems in molecular biology. We outline the challenges and future prospects for optical single-molecule techniques which can be used in combination with smart labeling strategies to yield quantitative three-dimensional information about the dynamic organization of living cells. PMID:15849689

Tinnefeld, Philip; Sauer, Markus

2005-04-29

363

Real-time enzyme kinetics monitored by dual-color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy.  

PubMed

A method for sensitively monitoring enzyme kinetics and activities by using dual-color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy is described. This universal method enables the development of highly sensitive and precise assays for real-time kinetic analyses of any catalyzed cleavage or addition reaction, where a chemical linkage is formed or cleaved through an enzyme's action between two fluorophores that can be discriminated spectrally. In this work, a homogeneous assay with restriction endonuclease EcoRI and a 66-bp double-stranded DNA containing the GAATTC recognition site and fluorophores at each 5' end is described. The enzyme activity can be quantified down to the low picomolar range (>1.6 pM) where the rate constants are linearly dependent on the enzyme concentrations over two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, the reactions were monitored on-line at various initial substrate concentrations in the nanomolar range, and the reaction rates were clearly represented by the Michaelis-Menten equation with a KM of 14 +/- 1 nM and a kcat of 4.6 +/- 0.2 min-1. In addition to kinetic studies and activity determinations, it is proposed that enzyme assays based on the dual-color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy will be very useful for high-throughput screening and evolutionary biotechnology. PMID:9465029

Kettling, U; Koltermann, A; Schwille, P; Eigen, M

1998-02-17

364

Real-time enzyme kinetics monitored by dual-color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

A method for sensitively monitoring enzyme kinetics and activities by using dual-color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy is described. This universal method enables the development of highly sensitive and precise assays for real-time kinetic analyses of any catalyzed cleavage or addition reaction, where a chemical linkage is formed or cleaved through an enzyme’s action between two fluorophores that can be discriminated spectrally. In this work, a homogeneous assay with restriction endonuclease EcoRI and a 66-bp double-stranded DNA containing the GAATTC recognition site and fluorophores at each 5? end is described. The enzyme activity can be quantified down to the low picomolar range (>1.6 pM) where the rate constants are linearly dependent on the enzyme concentrations over two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, the reactions were monitored on-line at various initial substrate concentrations in the nanomolar range, and the reaction rates were clearly represented by the Michaelis–Menten equation with a KM of 14 ± 1 nM and a kcat of 4.6 ± 0.2 min?1. In addition to kinetic studies and activity determinations, it is proposed that enzyme assays based on the dual-color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy will be very useful for high-throughput screening and evolutionary biotechnology. PMID:9465029

Kettling, Ulrich; Koltermann, Andre; Schwille, Petra; Eigen, Manfred

1998-01-01

365

Application of second-derivative fluorescence spectroscopy to monitor subtle changes in a monoclonal antibody structure.  

PubMed

In this study, the tertiary structure of a monoclonal antibody was analyzed under thermal and chemical stresses using second-derivative fluorescence spectroscopy. The effect of polyols, sucrose, and ethylene glycol on the tertiary structure of monoclonal antibody-U (mAb-U) (pH 7.0) was studied under thermal stress (25°C-75°C). The tertiary structure of mAb-U was also analyzed upon chemical denaturation using urea (2.0-8.0 M). The second derivative of mAb-U showed three bands corresponding to the three spectral classes of tryptophan, class I (330 nm), class II (340 nm), and class III (350 nm). Class II was higher in intensity in the presence of polyols compared with the solution without any polyol. Thermally denatured structure of mAb-U in sucrose and ethylene glycol was distinctly different than that in buffer. Addition of urea resulted in a decrease in intensity of class I and II, and an increase in intensity of class III implying unfolding. This study showed that second-derivative fluorescence spectroscopy is an effective tool to monitor subtle alterations in the tertiary structure of proteins. The unfolding of a protein is reflected as an increase in the intensity of the polar class III accompanied with a decrease in the intensity of class I. PMID:23132555

Abbas, Shermeen A; Gaspar, Greta; Sharma, Vikas K; Patapoff, Thomas W; Kalonia, Devendra S

2013-01-01

366

Performance evaluation of fiber optic probes for tissue lifetime fluorescence spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of fiber-optic probes plays an important role in optical spectroscopic studies, including fluorescence spectroscopy of biological tissues. It can affect the light delivery and propagation into the tissue, the collection efficiency (total number of photons collected vs. total number of photons launched) and the origin of collected light. This in turn affects the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and the extend of tissue interrogation, thus influencing the diagnostic value of such techniques. Three specific fiber-optic probe designs were tested both experimentally and computationally via Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, the effects of probe architecture (single-fiber vs. two bifurcated multifiber probes), probe-to-target distance (PTD), and source-to-detector separation (SDS) were investigated on the collected diffuse reflectance of a Lambertian target and an agar-based tissue phantom. This study demonstrated that probe architecture, PTD, and SDS are closely intertwined and considerably affect the light collection efficiency, the extend of target illumination, and the origin of the collected reflected light. Our findings can be applied towards optimization of fiber-optic probe designs for quantitative fluorescence spectroscopy of diseased tissues.

Papaioannou, Thanassis; Preyer, Norris W., Jr.; Fang, Qiyin; Kurt, Hamza; Carnohan, Michael; Ross, Russel; Brightwell, Adam; Cottone, Greg; Jones, Linda R.; Marcu, Laura

2003-07-01

367

Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy shows that monomeric polyglutamine molecules form collapsed structures in aqueous solutions  

PubMed Central

We have used fluorescence correlation spectroscopy measurements to quantify the hydrodynamic sizes of monomeric polyglutamine as a function of chain length (N) by measuring the scaling of translational diffusion times (?D) for the peptide series (Gly)-(Gln)N-Cys-Lys2 in aqueous solution. We find that ?D scales with N as ?oN? and therefore ln(?D) = ln(?o) + ?ln(N). The values for ? and ln(?o) are 0.32 ± 0.02 and 3.04 ± 0.08, respectively. Based on these observations, we conclude that water is a polymeric poor solvent for polyglutamine. Previous studies have shown that monomeric polyglutamine is intrinsically disordered. These observations combined with our fluorescence correlation spectroscopy data suggest that the ensemble for monomeric polyglutamine is made up of a heterogeneous collection of collapsed structures. This result is striking because the preference for collapsed structures arises despite the absence of residues deemed to be hydrophobic in the sequence constructs studied. Working under the assumption that the driving forces for collapse are similar to those for aggregation, we discuss the implications of our results for the thermodynamics and kinetics of polyglutamine aggregation, a process that has been implicated in the molecular mechanism of Huntington's disease. PMID:17075061

Crick, Scott L.; Jayaraman, Murali; Frieden, Carl; Wetzel, Ronald; Pappu, Rohit V.

2006-01-01

368

In vivo evaluation of laser fluorescence performance using different cut-off limits for occlusal caries detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this in vivo study was to evaluate the performance of laser fluorescence (LF) comparing different cut-off limits\\u000a for occlusal caries detection. One hundred and thirty first permanent molars were selected. Visual examination and LF assessments\\u000a were performed independently. The extent of caries was assessed after operative intervention. New cut-off limits were established\\u000a and compared with those proposed

Michele Baffi Diniz; Jonas de Almeida Rodrigues; Andréia Bolzan de Paula; Rita de Cássia Loiola Cordeiro

2009-01-01

369

In vivo imaging of the airway wall in asthma: fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy in relation to histology and lung function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Airway remodelling is a feature of asthma including fragmentation of elastic fibres observed in the superficial elastin network\\u000a of the airway wall. Fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (FCFM) is a new and non-invasive imaging technique performed\\u000a during bronchoscopy that may visualize elastic fibres, as shown by in vitro spectral analysis of elastin powder. We hypothesized that FCFM images capture in vivo

Ching Yong Yick; Jan H von der Thüsen; Elisabeth H Bel; Peter J Sterk; Peter W Kunst

2011-01-01

370

Autofluorescence spectroscopy of normal and malignant tissues: both in-vivo and ex-vivo measurements in the upper aero-digestive tract and lung tissues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spectroscopic system with flexible three optical fiber sensor had been developed to study tissue fluorescence for a clinical use. Autofluorescence spectra at 413 nm and 10 mW excitation light power from different tissues in oral cavity had been measured in vivo in 25 subjects. The correlation coefficient in spectral shape between individual spectra and the mean emission spectrum of each site was about 0.9 and fluorescence intensity variation ranged between 20% and 45% according to the examined site. The variation in fluorescence intensity of the main emission wavelength at about 520 nm between spectra of the lower part of tongue, gingiva, lips, floor of cavity, cheek and palate was not statistically significant. But the spectrum of the upper part of tongue had been characterized by an additional peak around 635 nm. Otherwise, autofluorescence spectra at 410 nm and 0.5 mW excitation light power of 8 carcinoma of buccal and lung tissues were measured. The fluorescence ratio at 520 emission peak between normal tissue and carcinoma was evaluated at a maximum value of 13 for a lung cancer (ex vivo measurement) and a minimum of 3.3 for a cancer of the oro-pharynx (in vivo measurement). On the other hand, a fluorescence peak at 635 nm had characterized the carcinoma of the floor of cavity and the upper part of tongue.

A'Amar, Ousama M.; Lignon, Dominique; Menard, O.; Begorre, Henri; Guillemin, Francois H.; Yvroud, Edouard

1996-04-01

371

Plasmon-Enhanced Raman and Fluorescence Spectroscopy with Gold and Silver Nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis contains five major contributions to the field of plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy. We start with the report of a unique SERS study of the amino acid hydroxyproline and a deuterated analogue. Later, we move on to the exploration of a major new research path known as shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced fluorescence (SHINEF), consisting in the application of silica-shelled noble metal nanoparticles to achieve surface-enhanced fluorescence. The proof of concept of this technique is explained in one chapter. The two following chapters are devoted to the exploration of the plasmonic properties of SHINEF: spectral profile modification showing the close relationship between the observed enhanced fluorescence and the nanoparticle scattering. The SHIN particles are employed to experimentally prove the relationship between the SEF and SERS enhancement factors, theoretically predicted before, but never verified experimentally until now. The thesis ends with an investigation, in aqueous solutions, of several different factors that play a role in the origin of SEF, showing greater enhancement for SHINEF after inducing nanoparticle aggregation.

Guerrero Hernandez, Ariel Rodrigo

372

Entangled photon-pair two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (EPP-2DFS).  

PubMed

We introduce a new method, called entangled photon-pair two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (EPP-2DFS), to sensitively probe the nonlinear electronic response of molecular systems. The method incorporates a separated two-photon ('Franson') interferometer, which generates time-frequency-entangled photon pairs, into the framework of a fluorescence-detected 2D optical spectroscopic experiment. The entangled photons are temporally shaped and phase-modulated in the interferometer, and are used to excite a two-photon-absorbing (TPA) sample, whose excited-state population is selectively detected by simultaneously monitoring the sample fluorescence and the exciting fields. In comparison to 'classical' 2DFS techniques, major advantages of this scheme are the suppression of uncorrelated background signals, the enhancement of simultaneous time-and-frequency resolution, the suppression of diagonal 2D spectral features, and the enhancement and narrowing of off-diagonal spectral cross-peaks that contain information about electronic couplings. These effects are a consequence of the pure-state field properties unique to a parametric down-conversion light source, which must be included in the quantum mechanical description of the composite field-molecule system. We numerically simulate the EPP-2DFS observable for the case of an electronically coupled molecular dimer. The EPP-2DFS spectrum is greatly simplified in comparison to its classical 2D counterpart. Our results indicate that EPP-2DFS can provide previously unattainable resolution to extract model Hamiltonian parameters from electronically coupled molecular dimers. PMID:24047447

Raymer, M G; Marcus, Andrew H; Widom, Julia R; Vitullo, Dashiell L P

2013-12-12

373

Probing GFP-actin diffusion in living cells using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells is continuously remodeled by polymerization and depolymerization of actin. Consequently, the relative content of polymerized filamentous actin (F-actin) and monomeric globular actin (G-actin) is subject to temporal and spatial fluctuations. Since fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) can measure the diffusion of fluorescently labeled actin it seems likely that FCS allows us to determine the dynamics and hence indirectly the structural properties of the cytoskeleton components with high spatial resolution. To this end we investigate the FCS signal of GFP-actin in living Dictyostelium discoideum cells and explore the inherent spatial and temporal signatures of the actin cytoskeleton. Using the free green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reference, we find that actin diffusion inside cells is dominated by G-actin and slower than diffusion in diluted cell extract. The FCS signal in the dense cortical F-actin network near the cell membrane is probed using the cytoskeleton protein LIM and is found to be slower than cytosolic G-actin diffusion. Furthermore, we show that polymerization of the cytoskeleton induced by Jasplakinolide leads to a substantial decrease of G-actin diffusion. Pronounced fluctuations in the distribution of the FCS correlation curves can be induced by latrunculin, which is known to induce actin waves. Our work suggests that the FCS signal of GFP-actin in combination with scanning or spatial correlation techniques yield valuable information about the local dynamics and concomitant cytoskeletal properties.

Engelke, Hanna; Heinrich, Doris; Rädler, Joachim O.

2010-12-01

374

Characterizing chlorine oxidation of dissolved organic matter and disinfection by-product formation with fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relationships between chlorine demand and disinfection by-product (DBP) formation during chlorination and fluorescence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were developed. Fluorescence excitation and emission (EEM) spectroscopy was employed, and parameters including fluorescence index, redox index, and overall fluorescence intensity (OFI) were correlated to chlorine demand and DBP formation. The EEMs were also analyzed using a well established global parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) model which resolves the fluorescence signal into 13 components, including quinone-like and protein-like components. Over an 8-day chlorination period the OFI and sum of the 13 PARAFAC loadings decreased by more than 70%. The remaining identified quinone-like compounds within the DOM were shifted to a more oxidized state. Quinone fluorescence was strongly correlated to both reduced fluorescence intensity and to chlorine demand which indicates that fluorescence may be used to track the chlorine oxidation of DOM. Quinone fluorescence was also correlated strongly with both classes of regulated DBPs: total trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. Quinone-like components were found to be strongly correlated to overall, short-term, and long-term specific DBP formation. The results of this study show that fluorescence is a useful tool in tracking both DOM oxidation and DBP formation during chlorination.

Beggs, Katherine M. H.; Summers, R. Scott; McKnight, Diane M.

2009-12-01

375

Dual-color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy for monitoring the kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed reactions.  

PubMed

Dual-color fluorescence correlation spectroscopy is a biophysical technique that enables precise and sensitive analyzes of molecular interactions. It is unique in its ability to analyze reactions in real time at nanomolar substrate concentrations and below, especially when applied to the monitoring of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Furthermore, it offers a wide range of accessible reactions, restricted only by the prerequisite that a chemical bond or a physical interaction between two spectrally distinguishable fluorophores is established or broken. Recently, the optical setup of dual-color fluorescence correlation spectroscopy has been extended toward two-photon excitation, resulting in several advantages compared with standard excitation, such as lower fluorescence background, an even larger spectrum of potential fluorescence dyes to be used, as well as a more stable and simplified optical setup. So far, the method has been successfully employed to analyze the kinetics of nucleic acid and peptide modifications catalyzed by nucleases, polymerases, and proteases. PMID:11384186

Rarbach, M; Kettling, U; Koltermann, A; Eigen, M

2001-06-01

376

A system for endoscopic mechanically scanned localized proton MR and light-induced fluorescence emission spectroscopies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular and near-cellular modalities offer new opportunities in assessing living tissue in situ, and multimodality approaches, which offer complementary information, may lead to improved characterization of tissue pathophysiology benefiting diagnosis and focal therapy. However, many such modalities are limited by their low penetration through tissue, which has led to minimally invasive trans-cannula approaches to place the corresponding sensors locally at the area of interest. This work presents a system for performing localized fluorescence emission and proton magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopies via endoscopic access. The in-house developed side-firing 1.9-mm wide dual-sensor integrates a three-fiber optical sensor for fluorescence emission optical spectroscopy and a 1-mm circular radiofrequency (RF) coil for localized MR proton spectroscopy. An MR-compatible manipulator was developed for carrying and mechanically translating the dual-sensor along a linear access channel. The hardware and software control of the system allows reconfigurable synchronization of the manipulator-assisted translation of the sensor, and MR and optical data collection. The manipulator serves as the mechanical link for the three modalities and MR images, MR spectra and optical spectra are inherently co-registered to the MR scanner coordinate system. These spectra were then used to generate spatio-spectral maps of the fluorophores and proton MR-signal sources in three-compartment phantoms with optically- and MR-visible, and distinguishable, materials. These data demonstrate a good spatial match between MR images, MR spectra and optical spectra along the scanned path. In addition to basic research, such a system may have clinical applications for assessing and characterizing cancer in situ, as well as guiding focal therapies.

Sonmez, Ahmet E.; Webb, Andrew G.; Spees, William M.; Ozcan, Alpay; Tsekos, Nikolaos V.

2012-09-01

377

High pressure sample cell for total internal reflection fluorescence spectroscopy at pressures up to 2500 bar.  

PubMed

Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) spectroscopy is a surface sensitive technique that is widely used to characterize the structure and dynamics of molecules at planar liquid-solid interfaces. In particular, biomolecular systems, such as protein adsorbates and lipid membranes can easily be studied by TIRF spectroscopy. Applying pressure to molecular systems offers access to all kinds of volume changes occurring during assembly of molecules, phase transitions, and chemical reactions. So far, most of these volume changes have been characterized in bulk solution, only. Here, we describe the design and performance of a high pressure sample cell that allows for TIRF spectroscopy under high pressures up to 2500 bar (2.5 × 10(8) Pa), in order to expand the understanding of volume effects from the bulk phase to liquid-solid interfaces. The new sample cell is based on a cylindrical body made of Nimonic 90 alloy and incorporates a pressure transmitting sample cuvette. This cuvette is composed of a fused silica prism and a flexible rubber gasket. It contains the sample solution and ensures a complete separation of the sample from the liquid pressure medium. The sample solution is in contact with the inner wall of the prism forming the interface under study, where fluorescent molecules are immobilized. In this way, the new high pressure TIRF sample cell is very useful for studying any biomolecular layer that can be deposited at a planar water-silica interface. As examples, high pressure TIRF data of adsorbed lysozyme and two phospholipid membranes are presented. PMID:22938334

Koo, Juny; Czeslik, Claus

2012-08-01

378

Gold nanorods as probes in two-photon fluorescence correlation spectroscopy: emerging applications and potential artifacts.  

PubMed

Owing to the highly efficient two-photon fluorescence of gold nanorods and very short fluorescence lifetime compared with the rotational correlation time, the rotation and diffusion of a single gold nanorod can be easily observed by two-photon fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (TP-FCS). This property, along with the previous successful use as a contrast agent in two-photon fluorescence imaging, suggests a potential application in TP-FCS as well. Although the FCS measurement becomes highly efficient with gold nanorods as probes, the amplitude and temporal decay of the measured correlation functions depend critically on excitation power. Here, we investigate various photophysical processes of gold nanorods to determine the cause of such a sensitive power dependency. This understanding provides a basis for choosing appropriate FCS models to recover reasonable physical parameters. Although the correlation function amplitude G(0) is 32 times lower when the excitation power increases from 20 µW to 1.12 mW, the application of a saturation-modified FCS model yields very good fit to each data set and the fitted concentration of 0.64 nM is comparable to the 0.7 nM given by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry measurement. The FCS assay appears to be an efficient method for the quantification of gold nanorods when correctly interpreted. However, even with the saturation considered in the fitting model, the fitted rotational and translational diffusion rates are getting faster as the power increases. This indicates that other effects such as photothermal effects may raise the local temperature, and thus increasing the rotational and translational diffusion rate. PMID:23749499

Wang, Da-Shin; Wei, Shih-Chung; Liao, Shih-Chu; Lin, Chii-Wann

2013-09-01

379

Subtype-specific differences in corticotropin-releasing factor receptor complexes detected by fluorescence spectroscopy.  

PubMed

G protein-coupled receptors have been proposed to exist in signalosomes subject to agonist-driven shifts in the assembly disassembly equilibrium, affected by stabilizing membrane lipids and/or cortical actin restricting mobility. We investigated the highly homologous corticotropin-releasing factor receptors (CRFRs), CRFR1 and -2, which are different within their hydrophobic core. Agonist stimulation of CRFR1 and CRFR2 gave rise to similar concentration-response curves for cAMP accumulation, but CRFR2 underwent restricted collision coupling. Both CRFR1 and CRFR2 formed constitutive oligomers at the cell surface and recruited beta-arrestin upon agonist activation (as assessed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy in living cells). However, CRFR2, but not CRFR1, failed to undergo agonist-induced internalization. Likewise, agonist binding accelerated the diffusion rate of CRFR2 only (detected by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy) but reduced the mobile fraction, which is indicative of local confinement. Fluorescence intensity distribution analysis demonstrated that the size of CRFR complexes was not changed. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton abolished the agonist-dependent increase in CRFR2 mobility, shifted the agonist concentration curve for CRFR2 to the left, and promoted agonist-induced internalization of CRFR2. Our observations are incompatible with an agonist-induced change in monomer-oligomer equilibrium, but they suggest an agonist-induced redistribution of CRFR2 into a membrane microdomain that affords rapid diffusion but restricted mobility and that is stabilized by the actin cytoskeleton. Our data show that membrane anisotropy can determine the shape and duration of receptor-generated signals in a subtype-specific manner. PMID:19755522

Milan-Lobo, Laura; Gsandtner, Ingrid; Gaubitzer, Erwin; Rünzler, Dominik; Buchmayer, Florian; Köhler, Gottfried; Bonci, Antonello; Freissmuth, Michael; Sitte, Harald H

2009-12-01

380

Linking fluorescence spectroscopy to diffuse soil source for dissolved humic substances in the Daning River, China.  

PubMed

Dissolved organic matter collected in Daning River (China) in July 2009 was investigated with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and fluorescence spectroscopy with the aim of identifying the origin of dissolved humic substance (HS) components. Two HS-like fluorescence components (peak M and C) with excitation/emission (ex/em) maxima at 305/406 nm and 360/464 nm showed relatively uniform distribution in the vertical direction for each sampling site but a trend of accumulation down the river, independent of the highly heterogeneous water environment as implicated by water quality parameters (i.e., water temperature, algae density, chlorophyll a, dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic carbon, pH, conductivity and turbidity), while an amino acid/protein-like component (peak T; ex/em = 280/334 nm) was quite variable in its spatial distribution, implying strong influence from point sources (e.g. sewage discharge) and local microbial activities. The fluorescence intensity (F max in Raman units) at these ex/em wavelength pairs fell in the range of 0.031-0.358, 0.051-0.224 and 0.026-0.115 for peak T, M and C, respectively. In addition, the F max values of peak C covaried with M (i.e. C = 0.503 ×M, p < 0.01, R (2) = 0.973). Taken together, these results indicate that peak M and C originated primarily and directly from the same soil sources that were diffusive in the catchment, but peak T was more influenced by local point sources (e.g. wastewater discharge) and in situ microbial activities. This study presents new insights into the currently controversial origin of some HS components (e.g."peak M", as commonly referred to in the literature). This study highlights that natural water samples should be collected at various depths in addition to along a river/stream flow path so as to better evaluate the origin of HS fluorescence components. PMID:25208714

Chen, Hao; Zheng, Bing-Hui; Zhang, Lei

2013-02-01

381

Ultrafast exciton dynamics in cadmium selenide nanocrystals determined by femtosecond fluorescence upconversion spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Femtosecond fluorescence upconversion spectroscopy is a technique that allows the unambiguous determination of the excited state dynamics of an analyte. Combining this method with the use of tunable laser excitation, the exciton dynamics in semiconducting nanocrystals (NC's) of cadmium selenide (CdSe) have been determined, devoid of the complications arising from more common spectroscopic methods such as pump-probe. The results of this investigation were used to construct a model to fully describe the three-level system comprising of the valence and conduction bands and surface states, which have been calculated by others to lie mid-gap in energy. Smaller NC's showed faster decay components due to increased interaction between the exciton and surface states. The deep trap emission, which has never before been measured by ultrafast fluorescence techniques, shows a rapid rise time (˜2 ps), which is attributed to surface selenium dangling bonds relaxing to the valence band and radiatively combining with the photo-generated hole. The band edge fluorescence decays as the deep trap emission grows in, inherently coupling the two processes. An experiment which measured the dependence of the excitation energy showed that increased energy imparted to the NC's resulted in increased rise times, yielding the timescales for exciton relaxation through the valence and conduction band states to the lowest emitting state. Surface-oxidized and normally-passivated NC's display the same decay dynamics in time but differ in relative amplitude; the latter point agrees with steady-state measurements. The rotational anisotrophy of the NC's was measured and agrees with previous pump-probe data. Upconversion on the red and blue sides of the static fluorescence spectrum showed no discernable differences, which is either and inherent limitation of the experimental apparatus, or the possibility that lower-lying triplet states are populated on a timescale below the instrument resolution.

Underwood, David Frederick

382

A new principle photosynthesis capacity biosensor based on quantitative measurement of delayed fluorescence in vivo.  

PubMed

Delayed fluorescence (DF) is an excellent marker for evaluating plant photosynthesis. Compared with common methods for measuring the photosynthesis rate based on consumption of CO(2), DF technique can quantify the plant photosynthesis capacity more accurately and faster under its physiological status with less interference from the environment. We previously reported a method for measuring photosynthesis using DF of chloroplast [Wang, C.L., Xing, D., Chen, Q., 2004. Biosens. Bioelectron. 20, 454-459]. In the study, a novel fast and portable photosynthesis capacity biosensor system was developed, which was composed of light-emitting diode lattice as excitation light source, Channel Photomultiplier DC-Module to achieve DF, single-chip microcomputer as control center, hermetic dark sample chamber, battery power supply and CO(2), humidity and temperature controller. Compared with our previous work, the system was portable and can directly measure plant photosynthesis capacity in vivo in less than 10s. A database in the software to carry out data acquisition and processing was developed to translate maximal DF intensity to net photosynthesis rate (Pn). In addition, local-control and remote-control mode can be chosen in the system. To demonstrate the utility of the system, it was applied to evaluate maximum Pn of four different plant species samples (Queen Rape Myrtle (var. rubra), soybean (Lu Hei No. 1), maize (Jin Dan No. 39) and rice (Jing Dao No. 21)) in field. The results were compared with that using commercial photosynthesis system LI-6400 and the uncertainty was less than +/-5%. The new principle of photosynthesis measurement is a challenge and breakthrough to conventional method of gas exchange and may be a potential technique of next generation photosynthesis measurement. PMID:17229566

Wang, Junsheng; Xing, Da; Zhang, Lingrui; Jia, Li

2007-06-15

383

Microenvironments of 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate at the heptane-water interface: time-resolved total internal reflection fluorescence spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Picosecond time-resolved total internal reflection fluorescence spectroscopy was applied to study the microenvironments of 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate molecules at the heptane-water interface. By analyzing the fluorescence decay profiles, it was found that the fluorophores in the vicinity of the interface are present in two different solvated structures. One of them is located up to a few nanometers from the interface, and the

K. Bessho; T. Uchida; A. Yamauchi; T. Shioya; N. Teramae

1997-01-01

384

Interaction of uranium(VI) with nitrogen containing model ligands studied by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexation of uranium(VI) with two nitrogen containing organic ligands, representing model substances for humic acid building blocks, has been investigated at pH values between 1.5 and 4.5 and an ionic strength of 0.1M (NaClO4). Using two independent fluorescence spectroscopic methods, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and TRLFS with ultrafast pulses (fs-TRLFS), the complex formation of uranium(VI) with anthranilic and

B. Raditzky; K. Schmeide; S. Sachs; G. Geipel; G. Bernhard

2010-01-01

385

In vivo interstitial glucose characterization and monitoring in the skin by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful development of real-time non-invasive glucose monitoring would represent a major advancement not only in the treatment and management of patients with diabetes mellitus and carbohydrate metabolism disorders, but also for understanding in those biochemical, metabolic and (patho-)physiological processes of glucose at the molecular level in vivo. Here, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy technique has been challenged not only for in vivo measurement of interstitial glucose levels, but also for their non-invasive molecular qualitative and quantitative comparative characterization in the skin tissue. The results, based on calculated mean values of determined 5 glucose-specific peaks in the glucose-related 1000-1160 cm-1 region, showed intra- and inter-subject differences in interstitial glucose activity levels with their changes at different times and doses of OGTT, while raising questions about the relationships between interstitial and blood glucose levels. In conclusion, the introduction of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy technique has opened up an access to the interstitial fluid space in the skin tissue for interstitial glucose characterization and monitoring in vivo. Though interstitial versus blood glucose monitoring has different characteristics, it can be argued that accurate and precise measurements of interstitial glucose levels may be more important clinically.

Skrebova Eikje, Natalja

2011-03-01

386

Time-dependent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo characterization of pediatric epileptogenic brain lesions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical spectroscopy for in vivo tissue diagnosis is performed traditionally in a static manner; a snap shot of the tissue biochemical and morphological characteristics is captured through the interaction between light and the tissue. This approach does not capture the dynamic nature of a living organ, which is critical to the studies of brain disorders such as epilepsy. Therefore, a time-dependent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy system with a fiber-optic probe was designed and developed. The system was designed to acquire broadband diffuse reflectance spectra (240 ~ 932 nm) at an acquisition rate of 33 Hz. The broadband spectral acquisition feature allows simultaneous monitoring of various physiological characteristics of tissues. The utility of such a system in guiding pediatric epilepsy surgery was tested in a pilot clinical study including 13 epilepsy patients and seven brain tumor patients. The control patients were children undergoing suregery for brain tumors in which measurements were taken from normal brain exposed during the surgery. Diffuse reflectance spectra were acquired for 12 seconds from various parts of the brain of the patients during surgery. Recorded spectra were processed and analyzed in both spectral and time domains to gain insights into the dynamic changes in, for example, hemodynamics of the investigated brain tissue. One finding from this pilot study is that unsynchronized alterations in local blood oxygenation and local blood volume were observed in epileptogenic cortex. These study results suggest the advantage of using a time-dependent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy system to study epileptogenic brain in vivo.

Oh, Sanghoon; Ragheb, John; Bhatia, Sanjiv; Sandberg, David; Johnson, Mahlon; Fernald, Bradley; Lin, Wei-Chiang

2008-02-01

387

Theory of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy at variable observation area for two-dimensional diffusion on a meshgrid  

E-print Network

It has recently been proposed, with the help of numerical investigations, that fluorescence correlation spectroscopy at variable observation area can reveal the existence of a meshgrid of semi-permeable barriers hindering the two-dimensional diffusion of tagged particles, such as plasmic membrane constituents. We present a complete theory confirming and accounting for these findings. It enables a reliable, quantitative exploitation of experimental data from which the sub-wavelength mesh size can be extracted. Time scales at which fluorescence correlation spectroscopy must be performed experimentally are discussed in detail.

Nicolas Destainville

2007-11-29

388

In vivo optical analysis of pancreatic cancer tissue in living model mice using fluorescence and Raman spectroscopic techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Living pancreatic cancer tissues grown subcutaneously in nude mice are studied by in vivo Raman spectroscopy and autofluorescence imaging. Comparing the same point spectra of alive pancreatic cancer tissue to that of the dead tissue, it is found that they are different each other. The results suggest that the spectral changes reflect the protein conformational changes in the tumor tissue with death of the host animal. From the result of autofluorescence study, in vivo autofluorescence imaging has potential as a method to assign the histological elements of the pancreatic cancer tissue without any staining. These results strongly suggest that combination of these techniques is very important to study biological tissue.

Suzuki, Toshiaki; Hattori, Yusuke; Katagiri, Takashi; Mitsuoka, Hiroki; Sato, Ken-ichi; Asakura, Toru; Shimosegawa, Toru; Sato, Hidetoshi

2009-02-01

389

Multimodal Mn-doped I-III-VI quantum dots for near infrared fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging: from synthesis to in vivo application.  

PubMed

The development of sensitive multimodal contrast agents is a key issue to provide better global, multi-scale images for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. Here we present the synthesis of Zn-Cu-In-(S, Se)/Zn(1-x)Mn(x)S core-shell quantum dots (QDs) that can be used as markers for both near-infrared fluorescence imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We first present the synthesis of Zn-Cu-In-(S, Se) cores coated with a thick ZnS shell doped with various proportions of Mn. Their emission wavelengths can be tuned over the NIR optical window suitable for deep tissue imaging. The incorporation of manganese ions (up to a few thousand ions per QD) confers them a paramagnetic character, as demonstrated by structural analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. These QDs maintain their optical properties after transfer to water using ligand exchange. They exhibit T1-relaxivities up to 1400 mM(-1) [QD] s(-1) at 7 T and 300 K. We finally show that these QDs are suitable multimodal in vivo probes and demonstrate MRI and NIR fluorescence detection of regional lymph nodes in mice. PMID:24980473

Sitbon, Gary; Bouccara, Sophie; Tasso, Mariana; Francois, Aurélie; Bezdetnaya, Lina; Marchal, Frédéric; Beaumont, Marine; Pons, Thomas

2014-08-01

390

Cell-based and in vivo spectral analysis of fluorescent proteins for multiphoton microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiphoton microscopy of cells and subcellular structures labeled with fluorescent proteins is the state-of-the-art technology for longitudinal imaging studies in tissues and living animals. Successful analysis of separate cell populations or signaling events by intravital microscopy requires optimal pairing of multiphoton excitation wavelengths with spectrally distinct fluorescent proteins. While prior studies have analyzed two photon absorption properties of isolated fluorescent proteins, there is limited information about two photon excitation and fluorescence emission profiles of fluorescent proteins expressed in living cells and intact tissues. Multiphoton microscopy was used to analyze fluorescence outputs of multiple blue, green, and red fluorescent proteins in cultured cells and orthotopic tumor xenografts of human breast cancer cells. It is shown that commonly used orange and red fluorescent proteins are excited efficiently by 750 to 760 nm laser light in living cells, enabling dual color imaging studies with blue or cyan proteins without changing excitation wavelength. It is also shown that small incremental changes in excitation wavelength significantly affect emission intensities from fluorescent proteins, which can be used to optimize multi-color imaging using a single laser wavelength. These data will direct optimal selection of fluorescent proteins for multispectral two photon microscopy.

Salomonnson, Emma; Mihalko, Laura Anne; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.; Luker, Kathryn E.; Luker, Gary D.

2012-09-01

391

Fluorescence spectroscopy applied to study cyclic creep behaviour and internal stresses of semi-crystalline high-density polyethylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cyclic creep or ratcheting behaviour has been characterized on semi-crystalline high-density polyethylene (HDPE) at 293 K using in situ extrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy. Fluorescent probe inserted in polymer offers the opportunity to establish a relationship between fluorescence phenomena and mechanical behaviour and more specifically to internal stresses. The influence of mean stress (?m), and stress amplitude (?a), on ratcheting strain (?r) and strain amplitude (?a) was studied in term of internal stresses development. The physical base of internal stress state has been discussed.

Bouvet, G.; Douminge, L.; Feaugas, X.; Touzain, S.; Mallarino, S.

2013-01-01

392

Experimental and numerical study on simultaneous effects of scattering and absorption on fluorescence spectroscopy of a breast phantom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of dysplastic lesions can decrease morbidity and mortality caused by cancer. The fluorescence spectroscopy is a noninvasive method of detecting dysplasia in several organs. During dysplastic progression, fluorescence intensity of spectrum is changed due to variation in absorption and scattering coefficients of tissue. In this work we have experimentally verified simultaneous effects of scattering and absorption coefficients on fluorescence intensity of different tissue like phantoms with the same optical properties as the human breast ductal carcinoma. The results are compared with those obtained by Monte Carlo simulation and good agreement between them is observed. This provides an important detecting method to discriminate dysplastic tissue from normal tissue.

Ansari, Mohammad Ali; Massudi, Reza; Hejazi, Marjaneh

2009-09-01

393

Leaf water dynamics of Arabidopsis thaliana monitored in-vivo using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The declining water availability for agriculture is becoming problematic for many countries. Therefore the study of plants under water restriction is acquiring extraordinary importance. Botanists currently follow the dehydration of plants comparing the fresh and dry weight of excised organs, or measuring their osmotic or water potentials; these are destructive methods inappropriate for in-vivo determination of plants' hydration dynamics. Water is opaque in the terahertz band, while dehydrated biological tissues are partially transparent. We used terahertz spectroscopy to study the water dynamics of Arabidopsis thaliana by comparing the dehydration kinetics of leaves from plants under well-irrigated and water deficit conditions. We also present measurements of the effect of dark-light cycles and abscisic acid on its water dynamics. The measurements we present provide a new perspective on the water dynamics of plants under different external stimuli and confirm that terahertz can be an excellent non-contact probe of in-vivo tissue hydration.

Castro-Camus, E.; Palomar, M.; Covarrubias, A. A.

2013-10-01

394

Noninvasive Raman spectroscopy of rat tibiae: approach to in vivo assessment of bone quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on in vivo noninvasive Raman spectroscopy of rat tibiae using robust fiber-optic Raman probes and holders designed for transcutaneous Raman measurements in small animals. The configuration allows placement of multiple fibers around a rat leg, maintaining contact with the skin. Bone Raman data are presented for three regions of the rat tibia diaphysis with different thicknesses of overlying soft tissue. The ability to perform in vivo noninvasive Raman measurement and evaluation of subtle changes in bone composition is demonstrated with rat leg phantoms in which the tibia has carbonated hydroxylapatite, with different carbonate contents. Our data provide proof of the principle that small changes in bone composition can be monitored through soft tissue at anatomical sites of interest in biomedical studies.

Okagbare, Paul I.; Begun, Dana; Tecklenburg, Mary; Awonusi, Ayorinde; Goldstein, Steven A.; Morris, Michael D.

2012-09-01

395

In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of breast cancer: a review of the literature  

PubMed Central

An emerging clinical modality called proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) enables the non-invasive in vivo assessment of tissue metabolism and is demonstrating applications in improving the specificity of MR breast lesion diagnosis and monitoring tumour responsiveness to neoadjuvant chemotherapies. Variations in the concentration of choline-based cellular metabolites, detectable with 1H-MRS, have shown an association with malignant transformation of tissue in in vivo and in vitro studies. 1H-MRS exists as an adjunct to the current routine clinical breast MR examination. This review serves as an introduction to the field of breast 1H-MRS, discusses modern high-field strength and quantitative approaches and technical considerations, and reviews the literature with respect to the application of 1H-MRS for breast cancer. PMID:22515594

2012-01-01

396

An inductively coupled, doubly tuned resonator for in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a coil designed for in vivo 31P and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy which consists of a doubly tuned resonator inductively coupled to separate 1H and 31P feed coils. The advantages of the resonator include the ability to 1H shim over the same volume from which 31P spectra are extracted by using a single sample coil, elimination of coupling problems between separate 1H and 31P coils, ease of design and tuning over conventional double-tuned coils, and reduced match/tune sensitivity to coil loading, which is important in in vivo applications. We have used this coil to collect phosphorus spectra from the in situ heart of the western painted turtle (Chrysemys picta bellii) at 2 T. The total heart volume was less than 1 mL and acquisition time was just under 10 min.

McNichols, Roger J.; Wright, Steven M.; Wasser, Jeremy S.; Coté, Gerard L.

1999-08-01