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1

Analysis of the functional specificity of RS domains in vivo.  

PubMed Central

A number of splicing factors contain extensive regions that are rich in arginine and serine (RS domains). These domains are thought to facilitate protein-protein interactions that are critical in the regulation of alternative splicing. Using a domain swap strategy, we have tested the ability of RS domains from several proteins to substitute in vivo for an essential RS domain in the Drosophila splicing regulator TRA-2. By several criteria, RS domains were found to vary significantly in their ability to support the splicing regulation functions of TRA-2. The RS domain of dU2AF50 functioned efficiently, while that of the dSRp55 protein did not. Moreover, we find similar differences in the ability of RS domains to direct fusion proteins to discrete subnuclear sites at which TRA-2 associates with spermatocyte chromosomes. These results indicate that RS domains are not all functionally equivalent in vivo. PMID:9774348

Dauwalder, B; Mattox, W

1998-01-01

2

Characterization and In Vivo Functional Analysis of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe ICLN Gene  

PubMed Central

During the early steps of snRNP biogenesis, the survival motor neuron (SMN) complex acts together with the methylosome, an entity formed by the pICln protein, WD45, and the PRMT5 methyltransferase. To expand our understanding of the functional relationship between pICln and SMN in vivo, we performed a genetic analysis of an uncharacterized Schizosaccharomyces pombe pICln homolog. Although not essential, the S. pombe ICln (SpICln) protein is important for optimal yeast cell growth. The human ICLN gene complements the ?icln slow-growth phenotype, demonstrating that the identified SpICln sequence is the bona fide human homolog. Consistent with the role of human pICln inferred from in vitro experiments, we found that the SpICln protein is required for optimal production of the spliceosomal snRNPs and for efficient splicing in vivo. Genetic interaction approaches further demonstrate that modulation of ICln activity is unable to compensate for growth defects of SMN-deficient cells. Using a genome-wide approach and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR validation tests, we also show that splicing is differentially altered in ?icln cells. Our data are consistent with the notion that splice site selection and spliceosome kinetics are highly dependent on the concentration of core spliceosomal components. PMID:24298023

Barbarossa, Adrien; Antoine, Etienne; Neel, Henry; Gostan, Thierry; Soret, Johann

2014-01-01

3

Thermal analysis of laser interstitial thermotherapy in ex vivo fibro-fatty tissue using exponential functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A therapeutic procedure to treat small, surface breast tumours up to 10 mm in radius plus a 5 mm margin of healthy, surrounding tissue using laser interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) is currently being investigated. The purpose of this study is to analyse and model the thermal and coagulative response of ex vivo fibro-fatty tissue, a model for breast tissue, during experimental laser interstitial thermotherapy at 980 nm. Laser radiation at 980 nm was delivered interstitially through a diffusing tip optical fibre inserted into a fibro-fatty tissue model to produce controlled heating at powers ranging from 3.2 to 8.0 W. Tissue temperature was measured with thermocouples placed at 15 positions around the fibre. The induced coagulation zone was measured on gross anatomical sections. Thermal analysis indicates that a finite sum of exponential functions is an approximate solution to the heat conduction equation that more accurately predicts the time-temperature dependence in tissue prior to carbonization (T < 100 °C) during LITT than the traditional model using a single exponential function. Analysis of the ellipsoid coagulation volume induced in tissue indicates that the 980 nm wavelength does not penetrate deep enough in fibro-fatty tissue to produce a desired 30 mm diameter (14.1 × 103 mm3) coagulation volume without unwanted tissue liquefaction and carbonization.

Salas, Nelson, Jr.; Manns, Fabrice; Milne, Peter J.; Denham, David B.; Minhaj, Ahmed M.; Parel, Jean-Marie; Robinson, David S.

2004-05-01

4

In vivo Function of Homing Receptors Participating in Lymphocyte Recirculation: Transfer Analysis in SCID Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to examine the in vivo function of the adhesion molecules implicated in lymphocyte homing, blocking effects of antibodies against various adhesion molecules on lymphocyte migration were tested in SCID mice into which BALB\\/c donor splenocytes had been transferred. It was proved that the transferred donor splenocytes migrated to peripheral lymph nodes (LNs) of SCID mice. T and B

Saburo Saito; Naruo Kuwashima; Haruko Koizumi; Tatsuji Nomura; Hideo Yagita; Ko Okumura; Akira Sonoda; Takushi Tadakuma; Hisako Tanaka

1995-01-01

5

In vivo functional analysis of the Dicistroviridae intergenic region internal ribosome entry sites  

PubMed Central

Some viral and cellular messages use an alternative mechanism to initiate protein synthesis that involves internal recruitment of the ribosome to an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). The Dicistroviridae intergenic regions (IGR) have been studied as model IRESs to understand the mechanism of IRES-mediated translation. In this study, the in vivo activity of IGR IRESs were compared. Our analysis demonstrates that Class I and II IGR IRESs have comparable translation efficiency in yeast and that Class II is significantly more active in mammalian cells. Furthermore, while Class II IGR IRES activity was enhanced in yeast grown at a higher temperature, temperature did not affect IGR IRES activity in mammalian cells. This suggests that Class II IRESs may not function optimally with yeast ribosomes. Examination of chimeric IGR IRESs, established that the IRES strength and temperature sensitivity are mediated by the ribosome binding domain. In addition, the sequence of the first translated codon is also an important determinant of IRES activity. Our findings provide us with a comprehensive overview of IGR IRES activities and allow us to begin to understand the differences between Classes I and II IGR IRESs. PMID:21646337

Hertz, Marla I.; Thompson, Sunnie R.

2011-01-01

6

In Vivo Analysis of Functional Regions within Yeast Rap1p  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have analyzed the in vivo importance of different regions of Rap1p, a yeast transcriptional regulator and telomere binding protein. A yeast strain (SCR101) containing a regulatable RAP1 gene was used to test functional complementation by a range of Rap1p derivatives. These experiments demonstrated that the C terminus of the protein, containing the putative transcriptional activation domain and the regions

IAN R. GRAHAM; ROBIN A. HAW; KAREN G. SPINK; KATHRYN A. HALDEN; ALISTAIR CHAMBERS

1999-01-01

7

In vivo functional analysis of the human mitochondrial DNA polymerase POLG expressed in cultured human cells.  

PubMed

The human gene POLG encodes the catalytic subunit of mitochondrial DNA polymerase, but its precise roles in mtDNA metabolism in vivo have not hitherto been documented. By expressing POLG fusion proteins in cultured human cells, we show that the enzyme is targeted to mitochondria, where the Myc epitope-tagged POLG is catalytically active as a DNA polymerase. Long-term culture of cells expressing wild-type POLG-myc revealed no alterations in mitochondrial function. Expression of POLG-myc mutants created dominant phenotypes demonstrating important roles for the protein in mtDNA maintenance and integrity. The D198A amino acid replacement abolished detectable 3'-5' (proofreading) exonuclease activity and led to the accumulation of a significant load (1:1700) of mtDNA point mutations during 3 months of continuous culture. Further culture resulted in the selection of cells with an inactivated mutator polymerase, and a reduced mutation load in mtDNA. Transient expression of POLG-myc variants D890N or D1135A inhibited endogenous mitochondrial DNA polymerase activity and caused mtDNA depletion. Deletion of the POLG CAG repeat did not affect enzymatic properties, but modestly up-regulated expression. These findings demonstrate that POLG exonuclease and polymerase functions are essential for faithful mtDNA maintenance in vivo, and indicate the importance of key residues for these activities. PMID:10827171

Spelbrink, J N; Toivonen, J M; Hakkaart, G A; Kurkela, J M; Cooper, H M; Lehtinen, S K; Lecrenier, N; Back, J W; Speijer, D; Foury, F; Jacobs, H T

2000-08-11

8

In vivo analysis of Kvbeta2 function in Xenopus embryonic myocytes.  

PubMed

Kv1 potassium channels consist of pore-forming alpha subunits as well as auxiliary beta subunits. In heterologous systems, Kv1alpha subunits suffice for induction of voltage-dependent potassium current (I(Kv)). Although Kv1 channels can be expressed without auxiliary subunits in heterologous systems, coexpression with Kvbeta subunits has dramatic effects on surface expression and kinetic properties. Much less is known about the functional roles of Kvbeta subunits in vivo, despite their presence in the majority of native Kv1 channel complexes. We used an antisense approach to probe the contribution of Kvbeta2 subunits to native Kv1 channel function in embryonic myocytes. We compared the effects of antisense Kvbeta2 treatment on the whole cell I(Kv) to those produced by overexpression of a dominant-negative Kv1alpha subunit. The reductions in the maximal potassium conductance produced by antisense Kvbeta2 treatment and elimination of Kv1alpha subunit function were not significantly different from each other. In addition, simultaneous elimination of Kv1alpha and Kvbeta2 subunit function resulted in no further reduction of the maximal conductance. The Kv channel complexes targeted by Kvbeta2 and/or Kv1alpha subunit elimination contributed to action potential repolarization because elimination of either or both subunits led to increases in the duration of the action potential. As for potassium conductance, the effects of elimination of both alpha and beta subunits on the duration of the action potential were not additive. Taken together, the results suggest that Kv1 potassium channel complexes in vivo have a strong requirement for both alpha and beta subunits. PMID:12068032

Lazaroff, Meredith A; Taylor, Alison D; Ribera, Angeles B

2002-06-15

9

In vivo analysis of Kv?2 function in Xenopus embryonic myocytes  

PubMed Central

Kv1 potassium channels consist of pore-forming ? subunits as well as auxiliary ? subunits. In heterologous systems, Kv1? subunits suffice for induction of voltage-dependent potassium current (IKv). Although Kv1 channels can be expressed without auxiliary subunits in heterologous systems, coexpression with Kv? subunits has dramatic effects on surface expression and kinetic properties. Much less is known about the functional roles of Kv? subunits in vivo, despite their presence in the majority of native Kv1 channel complexes. We used an antisense approach to probe the contribution of Kv?2 subunits to native Kv1 channel function in embryonic myocytes. We compared the effects of antisense Kv?2 treatment on the whole cell IKv to those produced by overexpression of a dominant-negative Kv1? subunit. The reductions in the maximal potassium conductance produced by antisense Kv?2 treatment and elimination of Kv1? subunit function were not significantly different from each other. In addition, simultaneous elimination of Kv1? and Kv?2 subunit function resulted in no further reduction of the maximal conductance. The Kv channel complexes targeted by Kv?2 and/or Kv1? subunit elimination contributed to action potential repolarization because elimination of either or both subunits led to increases in the duration of the action potential. As for potassium conductance, the effects of elimination of both ? and ? subunits on the duration of the action potential were not additive. Taken together, the results suggest that Kv1 potassium channel complexes in vivo have a strong requirement for both ? and ? subunits. PMID:12068032

Lazaroff, Meredith A; Taylor, Alison D; Ribera, Angeles B

2002-01-01

10

Molecular motor function in axonal transport in vivo probed by genetic and computational analysis in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Bidirectional axonal transport driven by kinesin and dynein along microtubules is critical to neuronal viability and function. To evaluate axonal transport mechanisms, we developed a high-resolution imaging system to track the movement of amyloid precursor protein (APP) vesicles in Drosophila segmental nerve axons. Computational analyses of a large number of moving vesicles in defined genetic backgrounds with partial reduction or overexpression of motor proteins enabled us to test with high precision existing and new models of motor activity and coordination in vivo. We discovered several previously unknown features of vesicle movement, including a surprising dependence of anterograde APP vesicle movement velocity on the amount of kinesin-1. This finding is largely incompatible with the biophysical properties of kinesin-1 derived from in vitro analyses. Our data also suggest kinesin-1 and cytoplasmic dynein motors assemble in stable mixtures on APP vesicles and their direction and velocity are controlled at least in part by dynein intermediate chain. PMID:22398725

Reis, Gerald F.; Yang, Ge; Szpankowski, Lukasz; Weaver, Carole; Shah, Sameer B.; Robinson, John T.; Hays, Thomas S.; Danuser, Gaudenz; Goldstein, Lawrence S. B.

2012-01-01

11

In Vivo Noninvasive Analysis of Human Forearm Muscle Function and Fatigue: Applications to EVA Operations and Training Maneuvers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Forearm muscle fatigue is one of the major limiting factors affecting endurance during performance of deep-space extravehicular activity (EVA) by crew members. Magnetic resonance (MR) provides in vivo noninvasive analysis of tissue level metabolism and fluid exchange dynamics in exercised forearm muscles through the monitoring of proton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P-31-MRS) parameter variations. Using a space glove box and EVA simulation protocols, we conducted a preliminary MRS/MRI study in a small group of human test subjects during submaximal exercise and recovery and following exhaustive exercise. In assessing simulated EVA-related muscle fatigue and function, this pilot study revealed substantial changes in the MR image longitudinal relaxation times (T2) as an indicator of specific muscle activation and proton flux as well as changes in spectral phosphocreatine-to-phosphate (PCr/Pi) levels as a function of tissue bioenergetic potential.

Fotedar, L. K.; Marshburn, T.; Quast, M. J.; Feeback, D. L.

1999-01-01

12

Arrestin in ciliary invertebrate photoreceptors: molecular identification and functional analysis in vivo.  

PubMed

Arrestin was identified in ciliary photoreceptors of Pecten irradians, and its role in terminating the light response was established electrophysiologically. Downstream effectors in these unusual visual cells diverge from both microvillar photoreceptors and rods and cones; the finding that key regulatory mechanisms of the early steps of visual excitation are conserved across such distant lineages of photoreceptors underscores that a common blueprint for phototransduction exists across metazoa. Arrestin was detected by Western blot analysis of retinal lysates, and localized in ciliary photoreceptors by immunostaining of whole-eye cryosections and dissociated cells. Two arrestin isoforms were molecularly identified by PCR; these present the canonical N- and C-arrestin domains, and are identical at the nucleotide level over much of their sequence. A high degree of homology to various ?-arrestins (up to 70% amino acid identity) was found. In situ hybridization localized the two transcripts within the retina, but failed to reveal finer spatial segregation, possibly because of insufficient differences between the riboprobes. Intracellular dialysis of anti arrestin antibodies into voltage-clamped ciliary photoreceptors produced a gradual slow-down of the photocurrent falling phase, leaving a tail that decayed over many seconds after light termination. The antibodies also caused spectrally neutral flashes to elicit prolonged aftercurrents in the absence of large metarhodopsin accumulation; such aftercurrents could be quenched by chromatic illumination that photoconverts metarhodopsin back to rhodopsin. These observations indicate that the antibodies depleted functionally available arrestin, and implicate this molecule in the deactivation of the photoresponse at the rhodopsin level. PMID:21289191

Gomez, Maria Del Pilar; Espinosa, Lady; Ramirez, Nelson; Nasi, Enrico

2011-02-01

13

In vivo morphometry and functional analysis of human articular cartilage with quantitative magnetic resonance imaging - from image to data, from data to theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of form-function relationships and disease processes in human articular cartilage necessitate in vivo assessment of cartilage morphology and deformational behavior. MR imaging and advanced digital post-processing techniques have opened novel possibilities for quantitative analysis of cartilage morphology, structure, and function in health and disease. This article reviews work on three-dimensional post-processing of MR image data of articular cartilage, summarizing

Felix Eckstein; Maximilian Reiser; Karl-Hans Englmeier; Reinhard Putz

2001-01-01

14

Estimating the input function non-invasively for FDG-PET quantification with multiple linear regression analysis: simulation and verification with in vivo data.  

PubMed

A novel statistical method, namely Regression-Estimated Input Function (REIF), is proposed in this study for the purpose of non-invasive estimation of the input function for fluorine-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxy- d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) quantitative analysis. We collected 44 patients who had undergone a blood sampling procedure during their FDG-PET scans. First, we generated tissue time-activity curves of the grey matter and the whole brain with a segmentation technique for every subject. Summations of different intervals of these two curves were used as a feature vector, which also included the net injection dose. Multiple linear regression analysis was then applied to find the correlation between the input function and the feature vector. After a simulation study with in vivo data, the data of 29 patients were applied to calculate the regression coefficients, which were then used to estimate the input functions of the other 15 subjects. Comparing the estimated input functions with the corresponding real input functions, the averaged error percentages of the area under the curve and the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRGlc) were 12.13+/-8.85 and 16.60+/-9.61, respectively. Regression analysis of the CMRGlc values derived from the real and estimated input functions revealed a high correlation (r=0.91). No significant difference was found between the real CMRGlc and that derived from our regression-estimated input function (Student's t test, P>0.05). The proposed REIF method demonstrated good abilities for input function and CMRGlc estimation, and represents a reliable replacement for the blood sampling procedures in FDG-PET quantification. PMID:14740178

Fang, Yu-Hua; Kao, Tsair; Liu, Ren-Shyan; Wu, Liang-Chih

2004-05-01

15

Overcoming the heterologous bias: An in vivo functional analysis of multidrug efflux transporter, CgCdr1p in matched pair clinical isolates of Candida glabrata  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} First report to demonstrate an in vivo expression system of an ABC multidrug transporter CgCdr1p of C. glabrata. {yields} First report on the structure and functional characterization of CgCdr1p. {yields} Functional conservation of divergent but typical residues of CgCdr1p. {yields} CgCdr1p elicits promiscuity towards substrates and has a large drug binding pocket with overlapping specificities. -- Abstract: We have taken advantage of the natural milieu of matched pair of azole sensitive (AS) and azole resistant (AR) clinical isolates of Candida glabrata for expressing its major ABC multidrug transporter, CgCdr1p for structure and functional analysis. This was accomplished by tagging a green fluorescent protein (GFP) downstream of ORF of CgCDR1 and integrating the resultant fusion protein at its native chromosomal locus in AS and AR backgrounds. The characterization confirmed that in comparison to AS isolate, CgCdr1p-GFP was over-expressed in AR isolates due to its hyperactive native promoter and the GFP tag did not affect its functionality in either construct. We observed that in addition to Rhodamine 6 G (R6G) and Fluconazole (FLC), a recently identified fluorescent substrate of multidrug transporters Nile Red (NR) could also be expelled by CgCdr1p. Competition assays with these substrates revealed the presence of overlapping multiple drug binding sites in CgCdr1p. Point mutations employing site directed mutagenesis confirmed that the role played by unique amino acid residues critical to ATP catalysis and localization of ABC drug transporter proteins are well conserved in C. glabrata as in other yeasts. This study demonstrates a first in vivo novel system where over-expression of GFP tagged MDR transporter protein can be driven by its own hyperactive promoter of AR isolates. Taken together, this in vivo system can be exploited for the structure and functional analysis of CgCdr1p and similar proteins wherein the arte-factual concerns encountered in using heterologous systems are totally excluded.

Puri, Nidhi; Manoharlal, Raman; Sharma, Monika [Membrane Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India)] [Membrane Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Sanglard, Dominique [Institut de Microbiologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, 1011 Lausanne (Switzerland)] [Institut de Microbiologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, 1011 Lausanne (Switzerland); Prasad, Rajendra, E-mail: rp47jnu@gmail.com [Membrane Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India)] [Membrane Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

2011-01-07

16

Targeted Gene Deletion and In Vivo Analysis of Putative Virulence Gene Function in the Pathogenic Dermatophyte Arthroderma benhamiae?  

PubMed Central

Dermatophytes cause the majority of superficial mycoses in humans and animals. However, little is known about the pathogenicity of this specialized group of filamentous fungi, for which molecular research has been limited thus far. During experimental infection of guinea pigs by the human pathogenic dermatophyte Arthroderma benhamiae, we recently detected the activation of the fungal gene encoding malate synthase AcuE, a key enzyme of the glyoxylate cycle. By the establishment of the first genetic system for A. benhamiae, specific ?acuE mutants were constructed in a wild-type strain and, in addition, in a derivative in which we inactivated the nonhomologous end-joining pathway by deletion of the A. benhamiae KU70 gene. The absence of AbenKU70 resulted in an increased frequency of the targeted insertion of linear DNA by homologous recombination, without notably altering the monitored in vitro growth abilities of the fungus or its virulence in a guinea pig infection model. Phenotypic analyses of ?acuE mutants and complemented strains depicted that malate synthase is required for the growth of A. benhamiae on lipids, major constituents of the skin. However, mutant analysis did not reveal a pathogenic role of the A. benhamiae enzyme in guinea pig dermatophytosis or during epidermal invasion of the fungus in an in vitro model of reconstituted human epidermis. The presented efficient system for targeted genetic manipulation in A. benhamiae, paired with the analyzed infection models, will advance the functional characterization of putative virulence determinants in medically important dermatophytes. PMID:21478433

Grumbt, Maria; Defaweux, Valerie; Mignon, Bernard; Monod, Michel; Burmester, Anke; Wostemeyer, Johannes; Staib, Peter

2011-01-01

17

Functional analysis of the promoter region of amphioxus ?-actin gene: a useful tool for driving gene expression in vivo.  

PubMed

Amphioxus is a promising new animal model for developmental biology. To develop molecular tools for this model, we characterized the promoter region of a cytoplasmic ?-actin gene (Bb-actin-6-2) from the Chinese amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri. In situ hybridization and real time-quantitative PCR analyses showed that this gene is expressed in many tissues throughout embryonic development. Cloning of cDNA revealed two isoforms with distinct transcription start sites. Isoform #1 exhibits a similar exon/intron and regulatory element organization to that of vertebrate ?-actin, whereas isoform #2 lacks the first exon of isoform #1 and recruits its first intron as a promoter. The activities of upstream promoter regions in the two isoforms were examined using the lacZ reporter system in amphioxus embryos. The proximal promoter of isoform #1 drove reporter gene expression broadly in 58.6 % of injected embryos. That of isoform #2 exhibited much higher activity (91.5 %) than that of isoform #1 or the human EF-1-? gene (38.2 %). We determined the minimal promoter regions of the two isoforms via functional analysis. These two regions, alone or inserted a random DNA fragment upstream, had no detectable activity, but when an upstream enhancer was inserted, the promoters directed reporter gene expression in 61.0 and 93.8 %, respectively, of injected embryos in a tissue-specific manner. Our study not only provides insight into the regulatory mechanism underlying amphioxus Bb-actin-6-2 gene expression, but also identifies two sets of efficient proximal and minimal promoters. These promoters could be used to construct gene expression vectors for transgenic studies using amphioxus as a model. PMID:25078982

Feng, Jun; Li, Guang; Liu, Xin; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yi-Quan

2014-10-01

18

Programmable nanoparticle functionalization for in vivo targeting  

PubMed Central

The emerging demand for programmable functionalization of existing base nanocarriers necessitates development of an efficient approach for cargo loading that avoids nanoparticle redesign for each individual application. Herein, we demonstrate in vivo a postformulation strategy for lipidic nanocarrier functionalization with the use of a linker peptide, which rapidly and stably integrates cargos into lipidic membranes of nanocarriers after simple mixing through a self-assembling process. We exemplified this strategy by generating a VCAM-1-targeted perfluorocarbon nanoparticle for in vivo targeting in atherosclerosis (ApoE-deficient) and breast cancer (STAT-1-deficient) models. In the atherosclerotic model, a 4.1-fold augmentation in binding to affected aortas was observed for targeted vs. nontargeted nanoparticles (P<0.0298). Likewise, in the breast cancer model, a 4.9-fold increase in the nanoparticle signal from tumor vasculature was observed for targeted vs. nontargeted nanoparticles (P<0.0216). In each case, the nanoparticle was registered with fluorine (19F) magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the nanoparticle perfluorocarbon core, yielding a quantitative estimate of the number of tissue-bound nanoparticles. Because other common nanocarriers with lipid coatings (e.g., liposomes, micelles, etc.) can employ this strategy, this peptide linker postformulation approach is applicable to more than half of the available nanosystems currently in clinical trials or clinical uses.—Pan, H., Myerson, J. W., Hu, L., Marsh, J. N., Hou K., Scott, M. J., Allen, J. S., Hu, G., San Roman, S., Lanza, G. M., Schreiber, R. D., Schlesinger, P. H., Wickline, S. A. Programmable nanoparticle functionalization for in vivo targeting. PMID:23047896

Pan, Hua; Myerson, Jacob W.; Hu, Lingzhi; Marsh, Jon N.; Hou, Kirk; Scott, Michael J.; Allen, John S.; Hu, Grace; San Roman, Susana; Lanza, Gregory M.; Schreiber, Robert D.; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Wickline, Samuel A.

2013-01-01

19

Cyclin D1 Determines Mitochondrial Function In Vivo†  

PubMed Central

The cyclin D1 gene encodes a regulatory subunit of the holoenzyme that phosphorylates and inactivates the pRb tumor suppressor to promote nuclear DNA synthesis. cyclin D1 is overexpressed in human breast cancers and is sufficient for the development of murine mammary tumors. Herein, cyclin D1 is shown to perform a novel function, inhibiting mitochondrial function and size. Mitochondrial activity was enhanced by genetic deletion or antisense or small interfering RNA to cyclin D1. Global gene expression profiling and functional analysis of mammary epithelial cell-targeted cyclin D1 antisense transgenics demonstrated that cyclin D1 inhibits mitochondrial activity and aerobic glycolysis in vivo. Reciprocal regulation of these genes was observed in cyclin D1-induced mammary tumors. Cyclin D1 thus integrates nuclear DNA synthesis and mitochondrial function. PMID:16809779

Sakamaki, Toshiyuki; Casimiro, Mathew C.; Ju, Xiaoming; Quong, Andrew A.; Katiyar, Sanjay; Liu, Manran; Jiao, Xuanmao; Li, Anping; Zhang, Xueping; Lu, Yinan; Wang, Chenguang; Byers, Stephen; Nicholson, Robert; Link, Todd; Shemluck, Melvin; Yang, Jianguo; Fricke, Stanley T.; Novikoff, Phyllis M.; Papanikolaou, Alexandros; Arnold, Andrew; Albanese, Christopher; Pestell, Richard

2006-01-01

20

In Vivo Imaging of Tissue Physiological Function  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute's Radiation Biology Branch is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize methods for in vivo imaging.

21

GAGA factor isoforms have distinct but overlapping functions in vivo.  

PubMed

The Drosophila melanogaster GAGA factor (encoded by the Trithorax-like [Trl] gene) is required for correct chromatin architecture at diverse chromosomal sites. The Trl gene encodes two alternatively spliced isoforms of the GAGA factor (GAGA-519 and GAGA-581) that are identical except for the length and sequence of the C-terminal glutamine-rich (Q) domain. In vitro and tissue culture experiments failed to find any functional difference between the two isoforms. We made a set of transgenes that constitutively express cDNAs coding for either of the isoforms with the goal of elucidating their roles in vivo. Phenotypic analysis of the transgenes in Trl mutant background led us to the conclusion that GAGA-519 and GAGA-581 perform different, albeit largely overlapping, functions. We also expressed a fusion protein with LacZ disrupting the Q domain of GAGA-519. This LacZ fusion protein compensated for the loss of wild-type GAGA factor to a surprisingly large extent. This suggests that the Q domain either is not required for the essential functions performed by the GAGA protein or is exclusively used for tetramer formation. These results are inconsistent with a major role of the Q domain in chromatin remodeling or transcriptional activation. We also found that GAGA-LacZ was able to associate with sites not normally occupied by the GAGA factor, pointing to a role of the Q domain in binding site choice in vivo. PMID:11713290

Greenberg, A J; Schedl, P

2001-12-01

22

In vivo imaging of subcutaneous structures using functional photoacoustic microscopy  

E-print Network

In vivo imaging of subcutaneous structures using functional photoacoustic microscopy Hao F Zhang1.2007.108 Functional photoacoustic microscopy (fPAM) is a hybrid technology that permits noninvasive. Although various methods for light delivery can be applied, an optical-ultrasonic confocal illumination

Wang, Lihong

23

In vivo activation and functions of the protease factor XII.  

PubMed

Combinations of proinflammatory and procoagulant reactions are the unifying principle for a variety of disorders affecting the cardiovascular system. Factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor) is a plasma protease that initiates the contact system. The biochemistry of the contact system in vitro is well understood; however, its in vivo functions are just beginning to emerge. The current review concentrates on activators and functions of the FXII-driven contact system in vivo. Elucidating its physiologic activities offers the exciting opportunity to develop strategies for the safe interference with both thrombotic and inflammatory diseases. PMID:25187064

Björkqvist, J; Nickel, K F; Stavrou, E; Renné, T

2014-11-01

24

Effects of Aspirin and Hypothermia on Platelet Function in Vivo.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hypothermia, aspirin, and cardiopulmonary bypass can each induce a platelet function defect, but it is not known if the effects of aspirin and hypothermia are additive in this regard. To address this question in humans in vivo, the forearm skin temperatur...

A. D. Michelson, M. R. Barnard, S. F. Khuri, M. J. Rohrer, H. MacGregor

1997-01-01

25

In-depth proteome analysis of Arabidopsis leaf peroxisomes combined with in vivo subcellular targeting verification indicates novel metabolic and regulatory functions of peroxisomes.  

PubMed

Peroxisomes are metabolically diverse organelles with essential roles in plant development. The major protein constituents of plant peroxisomes are well characterized, whereas only a few low-abundance and regulatory proteins have been reported to date. We performed an in-depth proteome analysis of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf peroxisomes using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. We detected 65 established plant peroxisomal proteins, 30 proteins whose association with Arabidopsis peroxisomes had been previously demonstrated only by proteomic data, and 55 putative novel proteins of peroxisomes. We subsequently tested the subcellular targeting of yellow fluorescent protein fusions for selected proteins and confirmed the peroxisomal localization for 12 proteins containing predicted peroxisome targeting signals type 1 or 2 (PTS1/2), three proteins carrying PTS-related peptides, and four proteins that lack conventional targeting signals. We thereby established the tripeptides SLM> and SKV> (where > indicates the stop codon) as new PTS1s and the nonapeptide RVx(5)HF as a putative new PTS2. The 19 peroxisomal proteins conclusively identified from this study potentially carry out novel metabolic and regulatory functions of peroxisomes. Thus, this study represents an important step toward defining the complete plant peroxisomal proteome. PMID:19329564

Reumann, Sigrun; Quan, Sheng; Aung, Kyaw; Yang, Pingfang; Manandhar-Shrestha, Kalpana; Holbrook, Danielle; Linka, Nicole; Switzenberg, Robert; Wilkerson, Curtis G; Weber, Andreas P M; Olsen, Laura J; Hu, Jianping

2009-05-01

26

Biophotonics techniques for structural and functional imaging, in vivo  

PubMed Central

In vivo optical imaging is being conducted in a variety of medical applications, including optical breast cancer imaging, functional brain imaging, endoscopy, exercise medicine, and monitoring the photodynamic therapy and progress of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In the past three decades, in vivo diffuse optical breast cancer imaging has shown promising results in cancer detection, and monitoring the progress of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The use of near infrared spectroscopy for functional brain imaging has been growing rapidly. In fluorescence imaging, the difference between autofluorescence of cancer lesions compared to normal tissues were used in endoscopy to distinguish malignant lesions from normal tissue or inflammation and in determining the boarders of cancer lesions in surgery. Recent advances in drugs targeting specific tumor receptors, such as AntiBodies (MAB), has created a new demand for developing non-invasive in vivo imaging techniques for detection of cancer biomarkers, and for monitoring their down regulations during therapy. Targeted treatments, combined with new imaging techniques, are expected to potentially result in new imaging and treatment paradigms in cancer therapy. Similar approaches can potentially be applied for the characterization of other disease-related biomarkers. In this chapter, we provide a review of diffuse optical and fluorescence imaging techniques with their application in functional brain imaging and cancer diagnosis. PMID:22433452

Ardeshirpour, Yasaman; Gandjbakhche, Amir H.; Najafizadeh, Laleh

2014-01-01

27

In vivo analysis of Pim-1 deficiency.  

PubMed Central

The Pim-1 proto-oncogene encodes a highly conserved serine/threonine phosphokinase which is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic organs and gonads in mammals. Overexpression of Pim-1 predisposes to lymphomagenesis in mice. To develop a further understanding of Pim-1 in molecular terms, as well as in terms of its potential role in hematopoietic development, we have generated mice deficient in Pim-1 function. Pim-1-deficient mice are ostensibly normal, healthy and fertile. Detailed comparative analyses of the hematopoietic systems of the mutant mice and their wild-type littermates showed that they are indistinguishable for most of the parameters studied. Our analyses revealed one unexpected phenotype that correlated with the level of Pim-1 expression: Pim-1 deficiency correlated with a erythrocyte microcytosis, whereas overexpression of Pim-1 in E mu-Pim-1-transgenic mice resulted in erythrocyte macrocytosis. In order to confirm that the observed decrease in erythrocyte Mean Cell Volume (MCV) was attributable to the Pim-1 deficiency, we developed mice transgenic for a Pim-1 gene construct with its own promoter and showed that this transgene could restore the low erythrocyte Mean Cell Volume observed in the Pim-1-deficient mice to near wild-type levels. These results might be relevant to the observed involvement of the Pim-1 gene in mouse erythroleukemogenesis. The surprising lack of a readily observed phenotype in the lymphoid compartment of the Pim-1-deficient mice, suggests a heretofore unrecognized degree of in vivo functional redundancy of this highly conserved proto-oncogene. Images PMID:8233823

Laird, P W; van der Lugt, N M; Clarke, A; Domen, J; Linders, K; McWhir, J; Berns, A; Hooper, M

1993-01-01

28

Neurovascular coupling: in vivo optical techniques for functional brain imaging  

PubMed Central

Optical imaging techniques reflect different biochemical processes in the brain, which is closely related with neural activity. Scientists and clinicians employ a variety of optical imaging technologies to visualize and study the relationship between neurons, glial cells and blood vessels. In this paper, we present an overview of the current optical approaches used for the in vivo imaging of neurovascular coupling events in small animal models. These techniques include 2-photon microscopy, laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDi), functional photoacoustic microscopy (fPAM), functional near-infrared spectroscopy imaging (fNIRS) and multimodal imaging techniques. The basic principles of each technique are described in detail, followed by examples of current applications from cutting-edge studies of cerebral neurovascular coupling functions and metabolic. Moreover, we provide a glimpse of the possible ways in which these techniques might be translated to human studies for clinical investigations of pathophysiology and disease. In vivo optical imaging techniques continue to expand and evolve, allowing us to discover fundamental basis of neurovascular coupling roles in cerebral physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:23631798

2013-01-01

29

In vivo color analysis of human crystalline lenses.  

PubMed

Indirect measurement in vivo of nuclear color of 64 cataractous eyes was made using a method of image analysis of photographed lenses developed by the authors. The grade of yellow of lens color was characterized by its dominant wavelength and excitation purity in the CIE chromaticity diagram. The differences were small between nuclear color observed from in vivo and in vitro photographs. PMID:3982780

Sasaki, K; Hiiragi, M; Sakamoto, Y; Shibata, T

1985-01-01

30

Posterior lymph heart function in two species of anurans: analysis based on both in vivo pressure-volume relationships by conductance manometry and ultrasound.  

PubMed

Rhinella marina and Lithobates catesbeianus have known differences in the capacity to mobilize lymph to stabilize blood volume following dehydration and hemorrhage. The purpose of these experiments was to assess whether there are interspecific differences in basic lymph heart functions. The end diastolic volumes of posterior lymph hearts averaged 10.8 ?l kg?¹ in R. marina and 7.9-10.8 ?l kg?¹ in L. catesbeianus by conductance manometry, and 9-32 ?l kg?¹ in R. marina by ultrasound techniques, which correlated with body mass. Stroke volumes were approximately 20% of end diastolic volumes in both species. Peak systolic pressures and stroke work were correlated with the index of contractility (dP/dt(max)) in both species. Stroke volume was correlated to stroke work but not peak systolic pressure, end diastolic volume or end diastolic pressure indicating the preload variables do not seem to determine stroke volume as would be predicted from Starling considerations of the blood heart. Renal portal elastance (end systolic pressure/stroke volume) an afterload index did not differ interspecifically, and was equivalent to values for systemic flow indices from mice of equivalent ventricular volume. These data, taken together with predictions derived from mammalian models on the effect of high resistance indicate afterload (renal portal pressure), may be important determinants of posterior lymph heart stroke volume. The shape of the pressure-volume loop is different from an idealized version previously reported, and is influenced by end diastolic volume. Our data indicate that increasing end diastolic pressure and volume can influence the loop shape but not the stroke volume. This indicates that lymph hearts do not behave in a Starling Law manner with increased preload volume. PMID:20952620

Crossley, Dane A; Hillman, Stanley S

2010-11-01

31

Posterior lymph heart function in two species of anurans: analysis based on both in vivo pressure–volume relationships by conductance manometry and ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Rhinella marina and Lithobates catesbeianus have known differences in the capacity to mobilize lymph to stabilize blood volume following dehydration and hemorrhage. The purpose of these experiments was to assess whether there are interspecific differences in basic lymph heart functions. The end diastolic volumes of posterior lymph hearts averaged 10.8 ?l kg–1 in R. marina and 7.9–10.8 ?l kg–1 in L. catesbeianus by conductance manometry, and 9–32 ?l kg–1 in R. marina by ultasound techniques, which correlated with body mass. Stroke volumes were approximately 20% of end diastolic volumes in both species. Peak systolic pressures and stroke work were correlated with the index of contractility (dP/dtmax) in both species. Stroke volume was correlated to stroke work but not peak systolic pressure, end diastolic volume or end diastolic pressure indicating the preload variables do not seem to determine stroke volume as would be predicted from Starling considerations of the blood heart. Renal portal elastance (end systolic pressure/stroke volume) an afterload index did not differ interspecifically, and was equivalent to values for systemic flow indices from mice of equivalent ventricular volume. These data, taken together with predictions derived from mammalian models on the effect of high resistance indicate afterload (renal portal pressure), may be important determinants of posterior lymph heart stroke volume. The shape of the pressure–volume loop is different from an idealized version previously reported, and is influenced by end diastolic volume. Our data indicate that increasing end diastolic pressure and volume can influence the loop shape but not the stroke volume. This indicates that lymph hearts do not behave in a Starling Law manner with increased preload volume. PMID:20952620

Crossley, Dane A.; Hillman, Stanley S.

2010-01-01

32

Functional regionalization of the teleost cerebellum analyzed in vivo.  

PubMed

There has been accumulating evidence for a regionalized organization of the cerebellum, which was mostly deduced from anatomical mapping of axonal projections of cerebellar afferents. A likewise regionalization of the cerebellar output has been suggested from lesion studies and dye-tracer experiments, but its physiological targets as well as the functional relevance of such an output regionalization are less clear. Ideally, such functional regionalization should be proven noninvasively in vivo. We here provide evidence for such a regionalization of the output from the cerebellar cortex by genetically encoded transneuronal mapping of efferent circuits of zebrafish Purkinje neurons. These identified circuits correspond to distinct regionalized Purkinje cell activity patterns in freely behaving zebrafish larvae during the performance of cerebellar-dependent behaviors. Furthermore, optogenetic interrogation of selected Purkinje cell regions during animal behavior confirms the functional regionalization of Purkinje cell efferents and reveals their contribution to behavior control as well as their function in controlling lateralized behavioral output. Our findings reveal how brain compartments serve to fulfill a multitude of functions by dedicating specialized efferent circuits to distinct behavioral tasks. PMID:25002482

Matsui, Hideaki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Babaryka, Andreas; Köster, Reinhard W

2014-08-12

33

Functional Extended Redundancy Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We propose a functional version of extended redundancy analysis that examines directional relationships among several sets of multivariate variables. As in extended redundancy analysis, the proposed method posits that a weighed composite of each set of exogenous variables influences a set of endogenous variables. It further considers endogenous…

Hwang, Heungsun; Suk, Hye Won; Lee, Jang-Han; Moskowitz, D. S.; Lim, Jooseop

2012-01-01

34

Functional imaging: monitoring heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regulation of genetic elements can be monitored in living animals using photoproteins as reporters. Heme oxygenase (HO) is the key catabolic enzyme in the heme degradation pathway. Here, HO expression serves as a model for in vivo functional imaging of transcriptional regulation of a clinically relevant gene. HO enzymatic activity is inhibited by heme analogs, metalloporphyrins, but many members of this family of compounds also activate transcription of the HO-1 promoter. The degree of transcriptional activation by twelve metalloporphyrins, differing at the central metal and porphyrin ring substituents, was evaluated in both NIH 3T3 stable lines and transgenic animals containing HO-1 promoter-luciferase gene fusions. In the correlative cell culture assays, the metalloporphyrins increased transcription form the full length HO promoter fusion to varying degrees, but none increased transcription from a truncated HO-1 promoter. These results suggested that one or both of the two distal enhancer elements located at -4 and -10 Kb upstream from transcriptional start are required for HO-1 induction by heme and its analogs. The full-length HO-1-luc fusion was then evaluated as a transgene in mice. It was possible to monitor the effects of the metalloporphyrins, SnMP and ZnPP, in living animals over time. This spatiotemporal analyses of gene expression in vivo implied that alterations in porphyrin ring substituents and the central metal may affect the extent of gene activation. These data further indicate that using photoprotein reporters, subtle differences in gene expression can be monitored in living animals.

Zhang, Weisheng; Reilly-Contag, Pamela; Stevenson, David K.; Contag, Christopher H.

1999-07-01

35

In Vivo analysis of 14-3-3 proteins  

E-print Network

in the mushroom bodies precipitate deficits in negatively reinforced olfactory learning. The homozygous mutants in the leo gene are lethal. This is an in vivo study of 14-3-3[] function by conditional rescue of lethality of homozygous leo mutants by regulated...

Philip, Nisha

2012-06-07

36

In Vivo Predictive Dissolution: Transport Analysis of the CO2 , Bicarbonate In Vivo Buffer System.  

PubMed

Development of an oral in vivo predictive dissolution medium for acid drugs with a pKa in the physiological range (e.g., Biopharmaceutics Classification System Class IIa) requires transport analysis of the complex in vivo CO2 /bicarbonate buffering system. In this report, we analyze this buffer system using hydrodynamically defined rotating disk dissolution. Transport analysis of drug flux was predicted using the film model approach of Mooney et al based on equilibrium assumptions as well as accounting for the slow hydration reaction, CO2 + H2 O ? H2 CO3 . The accuracy of the models was compared with experimentally determined results using the rotating disk dissolution of ibuprofen, indomethacin, and ketoprofen. The equilibrium and slow hydration reaction rate models predict significantly different dissolution rates. The experimental results are more accurately predicted by accounting for the slow hydration reaction under a variety of pH and hydrodynamic conditions. Although the complex bicarbonate buffering system requires further consideration given its dynamic nature in vivo, a simplifying irreversible reaction (IRR) transport analysis accurately predicts in vitro rotating disk dissolution rates of several carboxylic acid drugs. This IRR transport model provides further insight into bicarbonate buffer and can be useful in developing more physiologically relevant buffer systems for dissolution testing. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:3473-3490, 2014. PMID:25212721

Krieg, Brian J; Taghavi, Seyed Mohammad; Amidon, Gordon L; Amidon, Gregory E

2014-11-01

37

A Primer on Functional Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents principles and basic steps for practitioners to complete a functional analysis of client behavior. The emphasis is on application of functional analysis to adult mental health clients. The article includes a detailed flow chart containing all major functional diagnoses and behavioral interventions, with functional assessment…

Yoman, Jerome

2008-01-01

38

Identification and analysis of bacterial virulence genes in vivo.  

PubMed Central

Signature-tagged mutagenesis is a mutation-based screening method for the identification of virulence genes of microbial pathogens. Genes isolated by this approach fall into three classes: those with known biochemical function, those of suspected function and some whose functions cannot be predicted from database searches. A variety of in vitro and in vivo methods are available to elucidate the function of genes of the second and third classes. We describe the use of some of these approaches to study the function of the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 type III secretion system of Salmonella typhimurium. This virulence determinant is required for intracellular survival. Secretion by this system is induced by an acidic pH, and its function may be to alter trafficking of the Salmonella-containing vacuole. Use of a temperature-sensitive non-replicating plasmid and competitive index tests with other genes show that in vivo phenotypes do not always correspond to those predicted from in vitro studies. PMID:10874734

Unsworth, K E; Holden, D W

2000-01-01

39

Diesel exhaust particulate induces pulmonary and systemic inflammation in rats without impairing endothelial function ex vivo or in vivo  

PubMed Central

Background Inhalation of diesel exhaust impairs vascular function in man, by a mechanism that has yet to be fully established. We hypothesised that pulmonary exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) would cause endothelial dysfunction in rats as a consequence of pulmonary and systemic inflammation. Methods Wistar rats were exposed to DEP (0.5 mg) or saline vehicle by intratracheal instillation and hind-limb blood flow, blood pressure and heart rate were monitored in situ 6 or 24 h after exposure. Vascular function was tested by administration of the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine (ACh) and the endothelium-independent vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in vivo and ex vivo in isolated rings of thoracic aorta, femoral and mesenteric artery from DEP exposed rats. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and blood plasma were collected to assess pulmonary (cell differentials, protein levels & interleukin-6 (IL-6)) and systemic (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) and C-reactive protein (CRP)) inflammation, respectively. Results DEP instillation increased cell counts, total protein and IL-6 in BALF 6 h after exposure, while levels of IL-6 and TNF? were only raised in blood 24 h after DEP exposure. DEP had no effect on the increased hind-limb blood flow induced by ACh in vivo at 6 or 24 h. However, responses to SNP were impaired at both time points. In contrast, ex vivo responses to ACh and SNP were unaltered in arteries isolated from rats exposed to DEP. Conclusions Exposure of rats to DEP induces both pulmonary and systemic inflammation, but does not modify endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Other mechanisms in vivo limit dilator responses to SNP and these require further investigation. PMID:22480168

2012-01-01

40

In Vivo Application of Optogenetics for Neural Circuit Analysis  

PubMed Central

Optogenetics combines optical and genetic methods to rapidly and reversibly control neural activities or other cellular functions. Using genetic methods, specific cells or anatomical pathways can be sensitized to light through exogenous expression of microbial light activated opsin proteins. Using optical methods, opsin expressing cells can be rapidly and reversibly controlled by pulses of light of specific wavelength. With the high spatial temporal precision, optogenetic tools have enabled new ways to probe the causal role of specific cells in neural computation and behavior. Here, we overview the current state of the technology, and provide a brief introduction to the practical considerations in applying optogenetics in vivo to analyze neural circuit functions. PMID:22896801

2012-01-01

41

Function Point Analysis Depot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Function Point Analysis (FPA) Depot is a web application originally designed by one of the NE-C3 branch's engineers, Jamie Szafran, and created specifically for the Software Development team of the Launch Control Systems (LCS) project. The application consists of evaluating the work of each developer to be able to get a real estimate of the hours that is going to be assigned to a specific task of development. The Architect Team had made design change requests for the depot to change the schema of the application's information; that information, changed in the database, needed to be changed in the graphical user interface (GUI) (written in Ruby on Rails (RoR and the web service/server side in Java to match the database changes. These changes were made by two interns from NE-C, Ricardo Muniz from NE-C3, who made all the schema changes for the GUI in RoR and Edwin Martinez, from NE-C2, who made all the changes in the Java side.

Muniz, R.; Martinez, El; Szafran, J.; Dalton, A.

2011-01-01

42

Ex vivo analysis of pancreatic cancer-infiltrating T lymphocytes reveals that ENO-specific Tregs accumulate in tumor tissue and inhibit Th1/Th17 effector cell functions.  

PubMed

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is an aggressive disease with dismal prognosis. Surgical resection is the recommended treatment for long-term survival, but patients with resectable PC are in the minority (with a 5-year survival rate of 20 %). Therefore, development of novel therapeutic strategies, such as anti-PC immunotherapy, is crucial. ?-Enolase (ENO1) is an enzyme expressed on the surface of pancreatic cancer cells and is able to promote cell migration and cancer metastasis. The capacity of ENO1 to induce an immune response in PC patients renders it a true tumor-associated antigen. In this study, we characterized the effector functions of ENO1-specific T cells isolated from PC patients, and we specifically evaluated the successful role of intra-tumoral T helper 17 (Th17) cells and the inhibitory role of regulatory T (Tregs) cells in respectively promoting or reducing the cancer-specific immune response. In this ex vivo study, we have demonstrated, for the first time, that ENO1-specific Th17 cells have a specific anti-cancer effector function in PC patients, and that there are decreased levels of these cells in cancer compared to healthy mucosa. Conversely, there are elevated levels of ENO1-specific Tregs in PC patients which lead to inhibition of the antigen-specific effector T cells, thus highlighting a possible role in promoting PC progression. These results may be relevant for the design of novel immunotherapeutic strategies in pancreatic cancer. PMID:23640603

Amedei, Amedeo; Niccolai, Elena; Benagiano, Marisa; Della Bella, Chiara; Cianchi, Fabio; Bechi, Paolo; Taddei, Antonio; Bencini, Lapo; Farsi, Marco; Cappello, Paola; Prisco, Domenico; Novelli, Francesco; D'Elios, Mario Milco

2013-07-01

43

In vivo functional retinal optical coherence tomography fOCT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Probing the retina with flicker light of defined frequencies allowed to offset the detection for intrinsic signals from proband motion artifacts as well as blood flow. In addition the fast imaging sequence capability of FDOCT is promising for the assessment of fast physiologic changes within retinal structures. For the present study two measurement protocols are evaluated: first, taking fast tomogram series across a flickered region, and then constructing via frequency analysis and bandpass filtering a functional OCT tomogram similar to fMRI. The second protocol consists of a fast local A-scan series at 17kHz rate with 1Hz flicker. 'Light-on' time is 250ms. 'Lights off' time is 750ms. 500ms before 'light-on' is used for calculating the baseline. Finally the average over 5 cycles is taken. A clear negative response is found at the outer photoreceptor segment for both 'light-on' and 'light-off' edge. The response appears to be stronger for the 'light off' edge. The shape of the responses is analysed and might eventually be used in linear regression models to enhance the sensitivity of our fOCT approach.

Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Schmoll, Tilman

2009-02-01

44

Identification and in vivo analysis of murine hematopoietic stem cells.  

PubMed

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can self-renew and give rise to all the cells of the blood and the immune system. As they differentiate, HSCs progressively lose their self-renewal capacity and generate lineage-restricted multipotential progenitor cells that in turn give rise to mature cells. The development of rigorous quantitative in vivo assays for HSC activity combined with multicolor flow cytometry and high-speed sorting have resulted in the phenotypic definition of HSCs to virtual purity. Here, we describe the isolation and identification of HSCs by flow cytometry and the use of competitive repopulation to assess HSC number and function. PMID:20691879

Avagyan, Serine; Amrani, Yacine M; Snoeck, Hans-Willem

2010-01-01

45

Nitric Oxide Effects on the Function of Aged Cells Ex Vivo and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Background Angiogenesis is impaired in most aged tissues. Accordingly, there is great interest in interventions that improve the ability of aged cells to undergo blood vessel formation and subsequent tissue repair. Materials and Methods Nitric oxide (NO), a mediator proposed to enhance angiogenesis, was administered (as the precursor SNAP, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine) to aortic ring explants from aged mice and to aged mice in two separate in vivo experiments; a PVA sponge implant model of angiogenesis and full thickness excisional dermal wounds. Results SNAP inhibited angiogenesis from the mouse aortic ring explants. However, there was a trend toward increased blood vessel formation in the sponges from the aged mice treated with SNAP. SNAP did not detectably enhance dermal wound healing or angiogenesis, but it significantly inhibited epidermal closure. Conclusion These data underscore the complexity of using a single agent, even one with multiple mechanisms such as NO, to improve a clinical outcome such as angiogenesis or wound repair in aged animals. PMID:19180990

Reed, May J.; Eyman, Daniel; Karres, Nathan

2009-01-01

46

Resurrection of DNA Function In Vivo from an Extinct Genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a burgeoning repository of information available from ancient DNA that can be used to understand how genomes have evolved and to determine the genetic features that defined a particular species. To assess the functional consequences of changes to a genome, a variety of methods are needed to examine extinct DNA function. We isolated a transcriptional enhancer element from

Andrew J. Pask; Richard R. Behringer; Marilyn B. Renfree; Erik I. Svensson

2008-01-01

47

The putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55 affects osteoclast function in vitro and bone mass in vivo  

PubMed Central

GPR55 is a G protein-coupled receptor recently shown to be activated by certain cannabinoids and by lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI). However, the physiological role of GPR55 remains unknown. Given the recent finding that the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 affect bone metabolism, we examined the role of GPR55 in bone biology. GPR55 was expressed in human and mouse osteoclasts and osteoblasts; expression was higher in human osteoclasts than in macrophage progenitors. Although the GPR55 agonists O-1602 and LPI inhibited mouse osteoclast formation in vitro, these ligands stimulated mouse and human osteoclast polarization and resorption in vitro and caused activation of Rho and ERK1/2. These stimulatory effects on osteoclast function were attenuated in osteoclasts generated from GPR55?/? macrophages and by the GPR55 antagonist cannabidiol (CBD). Furthermore, treatment of mice with this non-psychoactive constituent of cannabis significantly reduced bone resorption in vivo. Consistent with the ability of GPR55 to suppress osteoclast formation but stimulate osteoclast function, histomorphometric and microcomputed tomographic analysis of the long bones from male GPR55?/? mice revealed increased numbers of morphologically inactive osteoclasts but a significant increase in the volume and thickness of trabecular bone and the presence of unresorbed cartilage. These data reveal a role of GPR55 in bone physiology by regulating osteoclast number and function. In addition, this study also brings to light an effect of both the endogenous ligand, LPI, on osteoclasts and of the cannabis constituent, CBD, on osteoclasts and bone turnover in vivo. PMID:19805329

Whyte, Lauren S.; Ryberg, Erik; Sims, Natalie A.; Ridge, Susan A.; Mackie, Ken; Greasley, Peter J.; Ross, Ruth A.; Rogers, Michael J.

2009-01-01

48

Function Analysis and Decomposistion using Function Analysis Systems Technique  

SciTech Connect

The "Father of Value Analysis", Lawrence D. Miles, was a design engineer for General Electric in Schenectady, New York. Miles developed the concept of function analysis to address difficulties in satisfying the requirements to fill shortages of high demand manufactured parts and electrical components during World War II. His concept of function analysis was further developed in the 1960s by Charles W. Bytheway, a design engineer at Sperry Univac in Salt Lake City, Utah. Charles Bytheway extended Mile's function analysis concepts and introduced the methodology called Function Analysis Systems Technique (FAST) to the Society of American Value Engineers (SAVE) at their International Convention in 1965 (Bytheway 1965). FAST uses intuitive logic to decompose a high level, or objective function into secondary and lower level functions that are displayed in a logic diagram called a FAST model. Other techniques can then be applied to allocate functions to components, individuals, processes, or other entities that accomplish the functions. FAST is best applied in a team setting and proves to be an effective methodology for functional decomposition, allocation, and alternative development.

Wixson, James Robert

1999-06-01

49

Function Analysis and Decomposistion using Function Analysis Systems Technique  

SciTech Connect

The "Father of Value Analysis", Lawrence D. Miles, was a design engineer for General Electric in Schenectady, New York. Miles developed the concept of function analysis to address difficulties in satisfying the requirements to fill shortages of high demand manufactured parts and electrical components during World War II. His concept of function analysis was further developed in the 1960s by Charles W. Bytheway, a design engineer at Sperry Univac in Salt Lake City, Utah. Charles Bytheway extended Mile's function analysis concepts and introduced the methodology called Function Analysis Systems Techniques (FAST) to the Society of American Value Engineers (SAVE) at their International Convention in 1965 (Bytheway 1965). FAST uses intuitive logic to decompose a high level, or objective function into secondary and lower level functions that are displayed in a logic diagram called a FAST model. Other techniques can then be applied to allocate functions to components, individuals, processes, or other entities that accomplish the functions. FAST is best applied in a team setting and proves to be an effective methodology for functional decomposition, allocation, and alternative development.

J. R. Wixson

1999-06-01

50

Rat parotid cell function in vitro following x irradiation in vivo  

SciTech Connect

The effect of X irradiation on rat parotid acinar cell function was evaluated in vitro 1, 3, and 7 days following in vivo exposure to 2000 R. Several cellular functions were followed: protein secretion (amylase release), ion movement (K/sup +/ efflux and reuptake), amino acid transport (..cap alpha..-amino(/sup 14/C)isobutyric acid), and an intermediary metabolic response ((/sup 14/C)glucose oxidation). In addition both the morphologic appearance and in vivo saliva secretory ability of parotid cells were assessed. Our results demonstrate that surviving rat parotid acinar cells, isolated and studied in vitro 1-7 days following 2000 R, remain functionally intact despite in vivo diminution of secretory function.

Bodner, L.; Kuyatt, B.L.; Hand, A.R.; Baum, B.J.

1984-02-01

51

The effects of flavanol-rich cocoa and aspirin on ex vivo platelet function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Flavanols modulate platelet function in vitro, but less is known of their in vivo effects and how they compare to pharmacological platelet inhibitors. We investigated the effect of a flavanol-rich cocoa beverage (897 mg\\/ml) in combination with and in comparison to aspirin on platelet function and activation in healthy subjects. Methods and results: On separate test days in a

Debra A Pearson; Teresa G Paglieroni; Dietrich Rein; Ted Wun; Derek D Schramm; Janice F Wang; Roberta R Holt; Robert Gosselin; Harold H Schmitz; Carl L Keen

2002-01-01

52

Focused in vivo genetic analysis of implanted engineered myofascial constructs.  

PubMed

Successfully engineering functional muscle tissue either in vitro or in vivo to treat muscle defects rather than using the host muscle transfer would be revolutionary. Tissue engineering is on the cutting edge of biomedical research, bridging a gap between the clinic and the bench top. A new focus on skeletal muscle tissue engineering has led investigators to explore the application of satellite cells (autologous muscle precursor cells) as a vehicle for engineering tissues either in vitro or in vivo. However, few skeletal muscle tissue-engineering studies have reported on successful generation of living tissue substitutes for functional skeletal muscle replacement. Our model system combines a novel aligned collagen tube and autologous skeletal muscle satellite cells to create an engineered tissue repair for a surgically created ventral hernia as previously reported [SA Fann, L Terracio, W Yan, et al., A model of tissue-engineered ventral hernia repair, J Invest Surg. 2006;19(3):193-205]. Several key features we specifically observe are the significant persistence of transplanted skeletal muscle cell mass within the engineered repair, the integration of new tissue with adjacent native muscle, and the presence of significant neovascularization. In this study, we report on our experience investigating the genetic signals important to the integration of neoskeletal muscle tissue. The knowledge gained from our model system applies to the repair of severely injured extremities, maxillofacial reconstructions, and restorative procedures following tumor excision in other areas of the body. PMID:19191156

Propst, John T; Fann, Stephen A; Franchini, Jessica L; Lessner, Susan M; Rose, John R; Hansen, Karyn J; Terracio, Louis; Yost, Michael J

2009-01-01

53

In vivo functional tests for assessing immunotoxicity in birds.  

PubMed

Various methods have been adapted for assessing the effects of environmental contaminants on the structure and function of the immune system in wild and captive birds. This chapter describes two integrative functional assays that have been adapted to a variety of avian species and have proven to be sensitive biomarkers for immunotoxicological effects. The phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin test measures T cell-mediated immunity. PHA is injected intra- or sub-dermally into the wing web of the elbow joint (or interdigitary skin or wattle). The PHA stimulates T lymphocytes to release cytokines that cause an inflammatory influx of leukocytes and fluid. The thickness of the wing web is measured before and 24 h after injection. A stimulation index, which reflects T cell function, is calculated as the increase in skin thickness caused by the PHA minus the increase caused by an injection of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) in the other wing web. In addition to its sensitivity to contaminants, ecological studies have shown that the PHA skin response is positively associated with rates of survival and colonization of new areas (i.e., ability to found new local populations) in wild birds.The sheep red blood cell (SRBC) hemagglutination assay measures the antibody response to immunization with SRBC antigens, integrating the functions of B lymphocytes, helper T lymphocytes, and macrophages. A SRBC suspension is injected i.v., and a blood sample is collected approximately 6 days later. Plasma (or serum) from the blood sample is serially diluted in a microtiter plate, and SRBCs are added. The magnitude of the antibody response is defined as the titer - the highest dilution of plasma in which the concentration of antibody is sufficient to agglutinate the SRBCs. Both IgM and IgG titers can be measured. This avian test is very similar in principle to the anti-SRBC ELISA and splenic plaque forming assays used for immunotoxicological testing in rodents. However, this avian hemagglutination assay does not require a species-specific secondary antibody (as does the ELISA), and this minimally invasive, nonlethal procedure is amenable to studies of protected species, as opposed to the splenic assay. The PHA and SRBC assays have been employed successfully in both the laboratory and field. In ecological studies birds must be recaptured 24 h or 6 days after the initial injections, limiting their use in some species. However, their sensitivity to a variety of contaminants and their ease of adaptability to a variety of species have made the PHA and SRBC tests some of the most commonly used assays for screening and monitoring immunotoxicity in birds. PMID:19967526

Grasman, Keith A

2010-01-01

54

Effect of Processing and Storage on RBC function in vivo  

PubMed Central

Red Blood Cell (RBC) transfusion is indicated to improve oxygen delivery to tissue, and for no other purpose. We have come to appreciate that donor RBCs are fundamentally altered during processing and storage, in a fashion that both impairs oxygen transport efficacy and introduces additional risk by perturbing both immune and coagulation systems. The protean biophysical and physiologic changes in RBC function arising from storage are termed the ‘storage lesion’; many have been understood for some time; for example, we know that the oxygen affinity of stored blood rises during the storage period1 and that intracellular allosteric regulators, notably 2,3-bisphosphoglyceric acid (DPG) and ATP, are depleted during storage. Our appreciation of other storage lesion features has emerged with improved understanding of coagulation, immune and vascular signaling systems. Herein we review key features of the ‘storage lesion’. Additionally, we call particular attention to the newly appreciated role of RBCs in regulating linkage between regional blood flow and regional O2 consumption by regulating the bioavailability of key vasoactive mediators in plasma, as well as discuss how processing and storage disturbs this key signaling function and impairs transfusion efficacy. PMID:22818545

Doctor, Allan; Spinella, Phil

2012-01-01

55

SAHA enhances synaptic function and plasticity in vitro but has limited brain availability in vivo and does not impact cognition.  

PubMed

Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs) used for the treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) and under consideration for other indications. In vivo studies suggest reducing HDAC function can enhance synaptic function and memory, raising the possibility that SAHA treatment could have neurological benefits. We first examined the impacts of SAHA on synaptic function in vitro using rat organotypic hippocampal brain slices. Following several days of SAHA treatment, basal excitatory but not inhibitory synaptic function was enhanced. Presynaptic release probability and intrinsic neuronal excitability were unaffected suggesting SAHA treatment selectively enhanced postsynaptic excitatory function. In addition, long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory synapses was augmented, while long-term depression (LTD) was impaired in SAHA treated slices. Despite the in vitro synaptic enhancements, in vivo SAHA treatment did not rescue memory deficits in the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Along with the lack of behavioral impact, pharmacokinetic analysis indicated poor brain availability of SAHA. Broader assessment of in vivo SAHA treatment using high-content phenotypic characterization of C57Bl6 mice failed to demonstrate significant behavioral effects of up to 150 mg/kg SAHA following either acute or chronic injections. Potentially explaining the low brain exposure and lack of behavioral impacts, SAHA was found to be a substrate of the blood brain barrier (BBB) efflux transporters Pgp and Bcrp1. Thus while our in vitro data show that HDAC inhibition can enhance excitatory synaptic strength and potentiation, our in vivo data suggests limited brain availability may contribute to the lack of behavioral impact of SAHA following peripheral delivery. These results do not predict CNS effects of SAHA during clinical use and also emphasize the importance of analyzing brain drug levels when interpreting preclinical behavioral pharmacology. PMID:23922875

Hanson, Jesse E; La, Hank; Plise, Emile; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Ding, Xiao; Hanania, Taleen; Sabath, Emily V; Alexandrov, Vadim; Brunner, Dani; Leahy, Emer; Steiner, Pascal; Liu, Lichuan; Scearce-Levie, Kimberly; Zhou, Qiang

2013-01-01

56

MITOCHONDRIA: investigation of in vivo muscle mitochondrial function by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The most important function of mitochondria is the production of energy in the form of ATP. The socio-economic impact of human diseases that affect skeletal muscle mitochondrial function is growing, and improving their clinical management critically depends on the development of non-invasive assays to assess mitochondrial function and monitor the effects of interventions. 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides two approaches that have been used to assess in vivo ATP synthesis in skeletal muscle: measuring Pi?ATP exchange flux using saturation transfer in resting muscle, and measuring phosphocreatine recovery kinetics after exercise. However, Pi?ATP exchange does not represent net mitochondrial ATP synthesis flux and has no simple relationship with mitochondrial function. Post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery kinetics, on the other hand, yield reliable measures of muscle mitochondrial capacity in vivo, whose ability to define the site of functional defects is enhanced by combination with other non-invasive techniques. PMID:24569118

Prompers, Jeanine J; Wessels, Bart; Kemp, Graham J; Nicolay, Klaas

2014-05-01

57

Application of electrical stimulation for functional tissue engineering in vitro and in vivo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention provides new methods for the in vitro preparation of bioartificial tissue equivalents and their enhanced integration after implantation in vivo. These methods include submitting a tissue construct to a biomimetic electrical stimulation during cultivation in vitro to improve its structural and functional properties, and/or in vivo, after implantation of the construct, to enhance its integration with host tissue and increase cell survival and functionality. The inventive methods are particularly useful for the production of bioartificial equivalents and/or the repair and replacement of native tissues that contain electrically excitable cells and are subject to electrical stimulation in vivo, such as, for example, cardiac muscle tissue, striated skeletal muscle tissue, smooth muscle tissue, bone, vasculature, and nerve tissue.

Radisic, Milica (Inventor); Park, Hyoungshin (Inventor); Langer, Robert (Inventor); Freed, Lisa (Inventor); Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana (Inventor)

2013-01-01

58

In vivo and in vitro functional characterization of Andersen's syndrome mutations.  

PubMed

The inward rectifier K(+) channel Kir2.1 carries all Andersen's syndrome mutations identified to date. Patients exhibit symptoms of periodic paralysis, cardiac dysrhythmia and multiple dysmorphic features. Here, we report the clinical manifestations found in three families with Andersen's syndrome. Molecular genetics analysis identified two novel missense mutations in the KCNJ2 gene leading to amino acid changes C154F and T309I of the Kir2.1 open reading frame. Patch clamp experiments showed that the two mutations produced a loss of channel function. When co-expressed with Kir2.1 wild-type (WT) channels, both mutations exerted a dominant-negative effect leading to a loss of the inward rectifying K(+) current. Confocal microscopy imaging in HEK293 cells is consistent with a co-assembly of the EGFP-fused mutant proteins with WT channels and proper traffick to the plasma membrane to produce silent channels alone or as hetero-tetramers with WT. Functional expression in C2C12 muscle cell line of newly as well as previously reported Andersen's syndrome mutations confirmed that these mutations act through a dominant-negative effect by altering channel gating or trafficking. Finally, in vivo electromyographic evaluation showed a decrease in muscle excitability in Andersen's syndrome patients. We hypothesize that Andersen's syndrome-associated mutations and hypokalaemic periodic paralysis-associated calcium channel mutations may lead to muscle membrane hypoexcitability via a common mechanism. PMID:15831539

Bendahhou, Saļd; Fournier, Emmanuel; Sternberg, Damien; Bassez, Guillaume; Furby, Alain; Sereni, Carole; Donaldson, Matthew R; Larroque, Marie-Madeleine; Fontaine, Bertrand; Barhanin, Jacques

2005-06-15

59

Ex vivo perfusion of human spleens maintains clearing and processing functions.  

PubMed

The spleen plays a central role in the pathophysiology of several potentially severe diseases such as inherited red cell membrane disorders, hemolytic anemias, and malaria. Research on these diseases is hampered by ethical constraints that limit human spleen tissue explorations. We identified a surgical situation--left splenopancreatectomy for benign pancreas tumors--allowing spleen retrieval at no risk for patients. Ex vivo perfusion of retrieved intact spleens for 4 to 6 hours maintained a preserved parenchymal structure, vascular flow, and metabolic activity. Function preservation was assessed by testing the ability of isolated-perfused spleens to retain Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes preexposed to the antimalarial drug artesunate (Art-iRBCs). More than 95% of Art-iRBCs were cleared from the perfusate in 2 hours. At each transit through isolated-perfused spleens, parasite remnants were removed from 0.2% to 0.23% of Art-iRBCs, a proportion consistent with the 0.02% to 1% pitting rate previously established in artesunate-treated patients. Histologic analysis showed that more than 90% of Art-iRBCs were retained and processed in the red pulp, providing the first direct evidence of a zone-dependent parasite clearance by the human spleen. Human-specific physiologic or pathophysiologic mechanisms involving clearing or processing functions of the spleen can now be experimentally explored in a human tissue context. PMID:16384927

Buffet, Pierre A; Milon, Genevičve; Brousse, Valentine; Correas, Jean-Michel; Dousset, Bertrand; Couvelard, Anne; Kianmanesh, Reza; Farges, Olivier; Sauvanet, Alain; Paye, Franēois; Ungeheuer, Marie-Noėlle; Ottone, Catherine; Khun, Huot; Fiette, Laurence; Guigon, Ghislaine; Huerre, Michel; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; David, Peter H

2006-05-01

60

In vivo circulation, clearance, and biodistribution of polyglycerol grafted functional red blood cells.  

PubMed

The in vivo circulation of hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG) grafted red blood cells (RBCs) was investigated in mice. The number of HPG molecules grafted per RBC was measured using tritium labeled HPGs ((3)H-HPG) of different molecular weights; the values ranged from 1 × 10(5) to 2 × 10(6) molecules per RBC. HPG-grafted RBCs were characterized in vitro by measuring the electrophoretic mobility, complement mediated lysis, and osmotic fragility. Our results show that RBCs grafted with 1.5 × 10(5) HPG molecules per RBC having molecular weights 20 and 60 kDa have similar characteristics as that of control RBCs. The in vivo circulation of HPG-grafted RBCs was measured by a tail vain injection of (3)H-HPG60K-RBC in mice. The radioactivity of isolated RBCs, whole blood, plasma, different organs, urine and feces was evaluated at different time intervals. The portion of (3)H-HPG60K-RBC that survived the first day in mice (52%) remained in circulation for 50 days. Minimal accumulation radioactivity in organs other than liver and spleen was observed suggesting the normal clearance mechanism of modified RBCs. Animals gained normal weights and no abnormalities observed in necropsy analysis. The stability of the ester-amide linker between the RBC and HPG was evaluated by comparing the clearance rate of (3)H-HPG60K-RBC and PKH-26 lipid fluorescent membrane marker labeled HPG60K-RBCs. HPG modified RBCs combine the many advantages of a dendritic polymer and RBCs, and hold great promise in systemic drug delivery and other applications of functional RBC. PMID:22261097

Chapanian, Rafi; Constantinescu, Iren; Brooks, Donald E; Scott, Mark D; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N

2012-04-01

61

The In Vivo Effects of General and Epidural Anesthesia on Human Immune Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impaired in vivo immunity is often observed after major surgery and is multifactorial. We conducted a random- ized clinical study to determine the independent effects of general anesthesia (GA) and of lumbar epidural an- esthesia (LEA) on human immune function in the ab- sence of surgical trauma. Nineteen healthy volunteers were randomized to receive GA with thiopental and isoflurane, LEA

Marcia A. Procopio; Athos J. Rassias; Joyce A. DeLeo; Janice Pahl; Laurie Hildebrandt; Mark P. Yeager

2001-01-01

62

Ageing-related changes in the in vivo function of rat liver macroautophagy and proteolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autophagy is a universal, highly regulated mechanism responsible for the degradation of long-lived proteins, cytomembranes and organelles during fasting and may be the cell repair mechanism that mediates the anti-ageing effects of calorie restriction (Bergamini and Gori, 1995). The function of autophagy was studied in vivo on male Sprague Dawley rats fed ad libitum or 40% food restricted. Autophagy was

Alessandra Del Roso; Simona Vittorini; Gabriella Cavallini; Alessio Donati; Zina Gori; Matilde Masini; Maria Pollera; Ettore Bergamini

2003-01-01

63

Effect of in vivo chronic exposure to clotrimazole on zebrafish testis function1 Baudiffier Damien1  

E-print Network

Effect of in vivo chronic exposure to clotrimazole on zebrafish testis function1 2 Baudiffier;2 Abstract31 32 Clotrimazole is an azole fungicide used as a human pharmaceutical that is known to inhibit showed that a 7 days34 exposure to clotrimazole induced the expression of genes related

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitƩ de

64

EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) ON EX VIVO LUTEAL FUNCTION IN THE F344 RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) ON EX VIVO LUTEAL FUNCTION IN THE PREGNANT F344 RAT. S. R. Bielmeier1, A. S. Murr2, D. S. Best2, J. M. Goldman2, and M. G. Narotsky2 1 Curriculum in Toxicology, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA 2 Reproductive T...

65

EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) ON EX VIVO LUTEAL FUNCTION IN THE PREGNANT F344 RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) ON EX VIVO LUTEAL FUNCTION IN THE PREGNANT F344 RAT. S. R. Bielmeier1, A. S. Murr2, D. S. Best2, J. M. Goldman2, and M. G. Narotsky2 1 Curriculum in Toxicology, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA 2 Reproductive T...

66

EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) ON EX VIVO LUTEAL FUNCTION IN THE F344 RAT DURING PREGNANCY  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of Bromodichloromethane (BDCM) on Ex Vivo Luteal Function In the Pregnant F344 Rat Susan R. Bielmeier1, Ashley S. Murr2, Deborah S. Best2, Jerome M. Goldman2, and Michael G. Narotsky2 1Curriculum in Toxicology, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599,...

67

Anti-CEA-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for examining colorectal tumors in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the biomarker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is expressed in colorectal tumors, the utility of an anti-CEA-functionalized image medium is powerful for in vivo positioning of colorectal tumors. With a risk of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONPs) that is lower for animals than other material carriers, anti-CEA-functionalized SPIONPs were synthesized in this study for labeling colorectal tumors by conducting different preoperatively and intraoperatively in vivo examinations. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the image variation of colorectal tumors reached the maximum at approximately 24 h. However, because MRI requires a nonmetal environment, it was limited to preoperative imaging. With the potentiality of in vivo screening and intraoperative positioning during surgery, the scanning superconducting-quantum-interference-device biosusceptometry (SSB) was adopted, showing the favorable agreement of time-varied intensity with MRI. Furthermore, biological methodologies of different tissue staining methods and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) yielded consistent results, proving that the obtained in vivo results occurred because of targeted anti-CEA SPIONPs. This indicates that developed anti-CEA SPIONPs owe the utilities as an image medium of these in vivo methodologies.

Huang, Kai-Wen; Chieh, Jen-Jie; Lin, In-Tsang; Horng, Herng-Er; Yang, Hong-Chang; Hong, Chin-Yih

2013-10-01

68

Effects of ACL Reconstruction on In-Vivo, Dynamic Knee Function  

PubMed Central

Synopsis The purposes of this article are to discuss key factors for assessing joint function, to present some recent findings and to address the future directions for evaluating the function of the ACL-injured/reconstructed knees. Well-designed studies, using state-of-the art tools to assess knee kinematics under in vivo, dynamic, high-loading conditions, are necessary to evaluate the relative performance of different procedures for restoring normal joint motion. PMID:23177461

Tashman, Scott; Araki, Daisuke

2012-01-01

69

Quantifying long-term microelectrode array functionality using chronic in vivo impedance testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term acquisition of high-quality neural recordings is a cornerstone of neuroprosthetic system design. Mitigating the experimental variability of chronically implanted arrays has been a formidable task because the sensor recording sites can be influenced by biotic and abiotic responses. Several studies have implicated changes in electrical interface impedance as a preliminary marker to infer electrode viability. Microelectrode impedance plays an important role in the monitoring of low amplitude and high-resolution extracellular neural signals. In this work, we seek to quantify long-term microelectrode array functionality and derive an impedance-based predictor for electrode functionality that correlates the recording site electrical properties with the functional neuronal recordings in vivo. High temporal resolution metrics of this type would allow one to assess, predict, and improve electrode performance in the future. In a large cohort of animals, we performed daily impedance measurements and neural signal recordings over long periods (up to 21 weeks) of time in rats using tungsten microwire arrays implanted into the somatosensory cortex. This study revealed that there was a time-varying trend in the modulation of impedance that was related to electrode performance. Single units were best detected from electrodes at time points when the electrode entered into the 40-150 K? impedance range. This impedance trend was modeled across the full cohort of animals to predict future electrode performance. The model was tested on data from all animals and was able to provide predictions of electrode performance chronically. Insight from this study can be combined with knowledge of electrode materials and histological analysis to provide a more comprehensive predictive model of electrode failure in the future.

Prasad, Abhishek; Sanchez, Justin C.

2012-04-01

70

How Much In Vitro Cholesterol Reducing Activity of Lactobacilli Predicts Their In Vivo Cholesterol Function?  

PubMed Central

Background: Based on literature, in vitro cholesterol removal of lactic acid bacteria has been accounted for their in vivo cholesterol reduction. But recently it has been proposed that such in vitro characteristic may not be directly relevant to their in vivo activity. The objective of this study was to find how much in vitro cholesterol reducing potential of Lactobacillus plantarum A7 (LA7), a native strain isolated from an infant fecal flora, reflects its in vivo efficiency. LA7 previously showed serum cholesterol reducing capability in mice subjected to fatty diet. Here, we investigate whether the given strain is capable of in vitro cholesterol assimilation or consumption. Method: LA7 was cultured in whole milk and de-Man–Rogosa–Sharpe (MRS) added with water-soluble cholesterol. Colorimetric method was adopted for cholesterol determination in both cultured media during incubation period. Results: No cholesterol assimilation was detected by growth and incubation of the active culture in either of the medium. Thus, in vivo cholesterol function of LA7 was not caused by cholesterol consumption. A comprehensive review of literature on the related studies also showed that there are other documented studies which evidenced the uncertainty of the direct relation between in vitro and in vivo studies. Conclusion: Cholesterol removal from the cultured media may not be considered as an appropriate integral index for selection of Lactobacillus strains with cholesterol-lowering activity. PMID:23671771

Madani, Golnoush; Mirlohi, Maryam; Yahay, Mahmoud; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

2013-01-01

71

In Vivo Quantification Reveals Extensive Natural Variation in Mitochondrial Form and Function in Caenorhabditis briggsae  

PubMed Central

We have analyzed natural variation in mitochondrial form and function among a set of Caenorhabditis briggsae isolates known to harbor mitochondrial DNA structural variation in the form of a heteroplasmic nad5 gene deletion (nad5?) that correlates negatively with organismal fitness. We performed in vivo quantification of 24 mitochondrial phenotypes including reactive oxygen species level, membrane potential, and aspects of organelle morphology, and observed significant among-isolate variation in 18 traits. Although several mitochondrial phenotypes were non-linearly associated with nad5? levels, most of the among-isolate phenotypic variation could be accounted for by phylogeographic clade membership. In particular, isolate-specific mitochondrial membrane potential was an excellent predictor of clade membership. We interpret this result in light of recent evidence for local adaptation to temperature in C. briggsae. Analysis of mitochondrial-nuclear hybrid strains provided support for both mtDNA and nuclear genetic variation as drivers of natural mitochondrial phenotype variation. This study demonstrates that multicellular eukaryotic species are capable of extensive natural variation in organellar phenotypes and highlights the potential of integrating evolutionary and cell biology perspectives. PMID:22952781

Hicks, Kiley A.; Howe, Dana K.; Leung, Aubrey; Denver, Dee R.; Estes, Suzanne

2012-01-01

72

Compound Ex Vivo and In Silico Method for Hemodynamic Analysis of Stented Arteries  

E-print Network

, a reliable quantitative analysis of such relations has not been possible due to the lack of a suitable methodCompound Ex Vivo and In Silico Method for Hemodynamic Analysis of Stented Arteries Farhad Rikhtegar the coronary arteries of ex vivo porcine hearts, performed vascular corrosion casting, acquired the vessel

Daraio, Chiara

73

Functionalized gold nanoparticles: a detailed in vivo multimodal microscopic brain distribution study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, the in vivo distribution of polyelectrolyte multilayer coated gold nanoparticles is shown, starting from the living animal down to cellular level. The coating was designed with functional moieties to serve as a potential nano drug for prion disease. With near infrared time-domain imaging we followed the biodistribution in mice up to 7 days after intravenous injection of the nanoparticles. The peak concentration in the head of mice was detected between 19 and 24 h. The precise particle distribution in the brain was studied ex vivo by X-ray microtomography, confocal laser and fluorescence microscopy. We found that the particles mainly accumulate in the hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, and the cerebral cortex.In the present study, the in vivo distribution of polyelectrolyte multilayer coated gold nanoparticles is shown, starting from the living animal down to cellular level. The coating was designed with functional moieties to serve as a potential nano drug for prion disease. With near infrared time-domain imaging we followed the biodistribution in mice up to 7 days after intravenous injection of the nanoparticles. The peak concentration in the head of mice was detected between 19 and 24 h. The precise particle distribution in the brain was studied ex vivo by X-ray microtomography, confocal laser and fluorescence microscopy. We found that the particles mainly accumulate in the hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, and the cerebral cortex. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1-S6. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00345j

Sousa, Fernanda; Mandal, Subhra; Garrovo, Chiara; Astolfo, Alberto; Bonifacio, Alois; Latawiec, Diane; Menk, Ralf Hendrik; Arfelli, Fulvia; Huewel, Sabine; Legname, Giuseppe; Galla, Hans-Joachim; Krol, Silke

2010-12-01

74

Space station functional relationships analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A systems engineering process is developed to assist Space Station designers to understand the underlying operational system of the facility so that it can be physically arranged and configured to support crew productivity. The study analyzes the operational system proposed for the Space Station in terms of mission functions, crew activities, and functional relationships in order to develop a quantitative model for evaluation of interior layouts, configuration, and traffic analysis for any Station configuration. Development of the model involved identification of crew functions, required support equipment, criteria of assessing functional relationships, and tools for analyzing functional relationship matrices, as well as analyses of crew transition frequency, sequential dependencies, support equipment requirements, potential for noise interference, need for privacy, and overall compatability of functions. The model can be used for analyzing crew functions for the Initial Operating Capability of the Station and for detecting relationships among these functions. Note: This process (FRA) was used during Phase B design studies to test optional layouts of the Space Station habitat module. The process is now being automated as a computer model for use in layout testing of the Space Station laboratory modules during Phase C.

Tullis, Thomas S.; Bied, Barbra R.

1988-01-01

75

In Vivo Enhancer Analysis Chromosome 16 Conserved NoncodingSequences  

SciTech Connect

The identification of enhancers with predicted specificitiesin vertebrate genomes remains a significant challenge that is hampered bya lack of experimentally validated training sets. In this study, weleveraged extreme evolutionary sequence conservation as a filter toidentify putative gene regulatory elements and characterized the in vivoenhancer activity of human-fish conserved and ultraconserved1 noncodingelements on human chromosome 16 as well as such elements from elsewherein the genome. We initially tested 165 of these extremely conservedsequences in a transgenic mouse enhancer assay and observed that 48percent (79/165) functioned reproducibly as tissue-specific enhancers ofgene expression at embryonic day 11.5. While driving expression in abroad range of anatomical structures in the embryo, the majority of the79 enhancers drove expression in various regions of the developingnervous system. Studying a set of DNA elements that specifically droveforebrain expression, we identified DNA signatures specifically enrichedin these elements and used these parameters to rank all ~;3,400human-fugu conserved noncoding elements in the human genome. The testingof the top predictions in transgenic mice resulted in a three-foldenrichment for sequences with forebrain enhancer activity. These datadramatically expand the catalogue of in vivo-characterized human geneenhancers and illustrate the future utility of such training sets for avariety of iological applications including decoding the regulatoryvocabulary of the human genome.

Pennacchio, Len A.; Ahituv, Nadav; Moses, Alan M.; Nobrega,Marcelo; Prabhakar, Shyam; Shoukry, Malak; Minovitsky, Simon; Visel,Axel; Dubchak, Inna; Holt, Amy; Lewis, Keith D.; Plajzer-Frick, Ingrid; Akiyama, Jennifer; De Val, Sarah; Afzal, Veena; Black, Brian L.; Couronne, Olivier; Eisen, Michael B.; Rubin, Edward M.

2006-02-01

76

In Vivo Function of Tryptophans in the Arabidopsis UV-B Photoreceptor UVR8[W  

PubMed Central

Arabidopsis thaliana UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) is a photoreceptor specifically for UV-B light that initiates photomorphogenic responses in plants. UV-B exposure causes rapid conversion of UVR8 from dimer to monomer, accumulation in the nucleus, and interaction with CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1), which functions with UVR8 in UV-B responses. Studies in yeast and with purified UVR8 implicate several tryptophan amino acids in UV-B photoreception. However, their roles in UV-B responses in plants, and the functional significance of all 14 UVR8 tryptophans, are not known. Here we report the functions of the UVR8 tryptophans in vivo. Three tryptophans in the ?-propeller core are important in maintaining structural stability and function of UVR8. However, mutation of three other core tryptophans and four at the dimeric interface has no apparent effect on function in vivo. Mutation of three tryptophans implicated in UV-B photoreception, W233, W285, and W337, impairs photomorphogenic responses to different extents. W285 is essential for UVR8 function in plants, whereas W233 is important but not essential for function, and W337 has a lesser role. Ala mutants of these tryptophans appear monomeric and constitutively bind COP1 in plants, but their responses indicate that monomer formation and COP1 binding are not sufficient for UVR8 function. PMID:23012433

O'Hara, Andrew; Jenkins, Gareth I.

2012-01-01

77

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of T and B lymphocyte functions in AKR mice.  

PubMed Central

To investigate whether AKR spontaneous leukaemogenesis is associated with a reduction in functional activity of T lymphocytes, the PHA response of AKR blood cells at different ages up to and including the preleukaemic period was studied. No significant differences were observed among young, adult and preleukaemic donors. In addition, the in vitro and in vivo AKR lymphocyte functions were compared with those of CBA lymphocytes by means of their response to stimulation with T and B lymphocyte selective mitogens (PHA, Con A and LSP respectively), and their response to immunization with thymus dependent (SRBC) or independent (LPS) antigens. We observed in vitro that while the B lymphocytes responded normally to mitogen, an intrinsic hyporeactivity to mitogens characterizes the T lymphocytes. Moreover, AKR mice exhibited a reduced in vivo response to both thymus dependent and independent antigens. PMID:786361

Collavo, D.; Biasi, G.; Colombatti, A.; Chieco-Bianchi, L.

1975-01-01

78

Recent Developments in the Understanding of Astrocyte Function in the Cerebellum In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have contributed to our understanding of astrocytes, especially Bergmann glia, in the cerebellum; but, until\\u000a recently, none has looked at their function in vivo. Multicell bolus loading of fluorescent calcium indicators in combination\\u000a with the astrocytic marker SR101 has allowed imaging of up to hundreds of astrocytes at once in the intact cerebellum. In\\u000a addition, the selective targeting

Tycho M. Hoogland; Bernd Kuhn

2010-01-01

79

Examination of Stratum Corneum Barrier Function In Vivo by Infrared Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally accepted that the stratum corneum (SC) is the least permeable layer of the epidermis. Histologically, though, the SC is a non-uniform, inhomogeneous membrane, and the question “Is barrier function distributed uniformly across the SC thickness?” has been posed. To address this issue, human ventral forearm SC has been studied in vivo by attenuated-total-reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy during

D. Bommannan; Russell O. Potts; Richard H. Guy

1990-01-01

80

Increased uncoupling protein 3 content does not affect mitochondrial function in human skeletal muscle in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphocreatine (PCr) resynthesis rate following intense anoxic contraction can be used as a sensi- tive index of in vivo mitochondrial function. We examined the effect of a diet-induced increase in uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) expression on postexercise PCr resynthesis in skeletal muscle. Nine healthy male volunteers undertook 20 one-legged maximal voluntary contractions with limb blood flow occluded to deplete muscle

Matthijs K. C. Hesselink; Paul L. Greenhaff; Dimitru Constantin-Teodosiu; Eric Hultman; Wim H. M. Saris; Robby Nieuwlaat; Gert Schaart; Esther Kornips; Patrick Schrauwen

2003-01-01

81

In Vivo Functional Assay of a Recombinant Aquaporin in Pichia pastoris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water channel protein PvTIP3;1 (-TIP) is a member of the major intrinsic protein (MIP) membrane channel family. We overexpressed this eukaryotic aquaporin in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, and immunogold labeling of cellular cryosections showed that the protein accumulated in the plasma membrane, as well as vacuolar and other intracellular membranes. We then developed an in vivo functional assay

Mark J. Daniels; Malcolm R. Wood; Mark Yeager

2006-01-01

82

Fission yeast Uve1 and Apn2 function in distinct oxidative damage repair pathways in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the endonuclease Uve1 functions as the first step in an alternate UV photo-product repair pathway that is distinct from nucleotide excision repair (NER). Based upon the broad substrate specificity of Uve1 in vitro, and the observation that Uve1 mutants accumulate spontaneous mutations at an elevated rate in vivo, we and others have hypothesized that this protein might

J. Lee A Fraser; Erin Neill; Scott Davey

2003-01-01

83

Atypical Membrane Topology and Heteromeric Function of Drosophila Odorant Receptors In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drosophila olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) each express two odorant receptors (ORs): a divergent member of the OR family and the highly conserved, broadly expressed receptor OR83b. OR83b is essential for olfaction in vivo and enhances OR function in vitro, but the molecular mechanism by which it acts is unknown. Here we demonstrate that OR83b heterodimerizes with conventional ORs early in

Richard Benton; Silke Sachse; Stephen W. Michnick; Leslie B. Vosshall

2006-01-01

84

EVENT PLANNING USING FUNCTION ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

Event planning is expensive and resource intensive. Function analysis provides a solid foundation for comprehensive event planning (e.g., workshops, conferences, symposiums, or meetings). It has been used at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to successfully plan events and capture lessons learned, and played a significant role in the development and implementation of the “INL Guide for Hosting an Event.” Using a guide and a functional approach to planning utilizes resources more efficiently and reduces errors that could be distracting or detrimental to an event. This integrated approach to logistics and program planning – with the primary focus on the participant – gives us the edge.

Lori Braase; Jodi Grgich

2011-06-01

85

Functional Studies of the Carboxy-Terminal Repeat Domain of Drosophila RNA Polymerase II in Vivo  

PubMed Central

To understand the in vivo function of the unique and conserved carboxy-terminal repeat domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RpII215), we have studied RNA polymerase II biosynthesis, activity and genetic function in Drosophila RpII215 mutants that possessed all (C4), half (W81) or none (IIt) of the CTD repeats. We have discovered that steady-state mRNA levels from transgenes encoding a fully truncated, CTD-less subunit (IIt) are essentially equal to wild-type levels, whereas the levels of the CTD-less subunit itself and the amount of polymerase harboring it (Pol IIT) are significantly lower than wild type. In contrast, for the half-CTD mutant (W81), steady-state mRNA levels are somewhat lower than for wild type or IIt, while W81 subunit and polymerase amounts are much less than wild type. Finally, we have tested genetically the ability of CTD mutants to complement (rescue) partially functional RpII215 alleles and have found that IIt fails to complement whereas W81 complements partially to completely. These results suggest that removal of the entire CTD renders polymerase completely defective in vivo, whereas eliminating half of the CTD results in a polymerase with significant in vivo activity. PMID:7498740

Brickey, W. J.; Greenleaf, A. L.

1995-01-01

86

Limiting Dilution Analysis of Murine Epidermal Stem Cells Using an In Vivo Regeneration Assay  

PubMed Central

Summary Epidermal stem cells are of major importance for tissue homeostasis, wound repair, tumor initiation, and gene therapy. Here we describe an in vivo regeneration assay to test for the ability of keratinocyte progenitors to maintain an epidermis over the long term in vivo. Limiting dilution analysis of epidermal repopulating units in this in vivo regeneration assay at sequential time points allows the frequency of short term (transit amplifying cell) and long term (stem cell) repopulating cells to be quantified. PMID:19908020

Strachan, Lauren R.; Ghadially, Ruby

2009-01-01

87

Structural and Functional Dissection of the Abp1 ADFH Actin-binding Domain Reveals Versatile In Vivo Adapter Functions  

SciTech Connect

Abp1 is a multidomain protein that regulates the Arp2/3 complex and links proteins involved in endocytosis to the actin cytoskeleton. All of the proposed cellular functions of Abp1 involve actin filament binding, yet the actin binding site(s) on Abp1 have not been identified, nor has the importance of actin binding for Abp1 localization and function in vivo been tested. Here, we report the crystal structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Abp1 actin-binding actin depolymerizing factor homology (ADFH) domain and dissect its activities by mutagenesis. Abp1-ADFH domain and ADF/cofilin structures are similar, and they use conserved surfaces to bind actin; however, there are also key differences that help explain their differential effects on actin dynamics. Using point mutations, we demonstrate that actin binding is required for localization of Abp1 in vivo, the lethality caused by Abp1 overexpression, and the ability of Abp1 to activate Arp2/3 complex. Furthermore, we genetically uncouple ABP1 functions that overlap with SAC6, SLA1, and SLA2, showing they require distinct combinations of activities and interactions. Together, our data provide the first structural and functional view of the Abp1-actin interaction and show that Abp1 has distinct cellular roles as an adapter, linking different sets of ligands for each function.

Quintero-Monzon,O.; Rodal, A.; Strokopytov, B.; Almo, S.; Goode, B.

2005-01-01

88

A functional biphasic biomaterial homing mesenchymal stem cells for in vivo cartilage regeneration.  

PubMed

Cartilage regeneration after trauma is still a great challenge for clinicians and researchers due to many reasons, such as joint load-bearing, synovial movement and the paucity of endogenous repair cells. To overcome these limitations, we constructed a functional biomaterial using a biphasic scaffold platform and a bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs)-specific affinity peptide. The biphasic scaffold platform retains more cells homogeneously within the sol-gel transition of chitosan and provides sufficient solid matrix strength. This biphasic scaffold platform is functionalized with an affinity peptide targeting a cell source of interest, BMSCs. The presence of conjugated peptide gives this system a biological functionality towards BMSC-specific homing both in vitro and in vivo. The functional biomaterial can stimulate stem cell proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation during in vitro culture. Six months after in vivo implantation, compared with routine surgery or control scaffolds, the functional biomaterials induced superior cartilage repair without complications, as indicated by histological observations, magnetic resonance imaging and biomechanical properties. Beyond cartilage repair, this functional biphasic scaffold may provide a biomaterial framework for one-step tissue engineering strategy by homing endogenous cells to stimulate tissue regeneration. PMID:25176065

Huang, Hongjie; Zhang, Xin; Hu, Xiaoqing; Shao, Zhenxing; Zhu, Jingxian; Dai, Linghui; Man, Zhentao; Yuan, Lan; Chen, Haifeng; Zhou, Chunyan; Ao, Yingfang

2014-12-01

89

Ex vivo generation of a functional and regenerative wound epithelium from axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) skin.  

PubMed

Urodele amphibians (salamanders) are unique among adult vertebrates in their ability to regenerate structurally complete and fully functional limbs. Regeneration is a stepwise process that requires interactions between keratinocytes, nerves and fibroblasts. The formation of a wound epithelium covering the amputation site is an early and necessary event in the process but the molecular mechanisms that underlie the role of the wound epithelium in regeneration remain unclear. We have developed an ex vivo model that recapitulates many features of in vivo wound healing. The model comprises a circular explant of axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) limb skin with a central circular, full thickness wound. Re-epithelialization of the wound area is rapid (typically <11?h) and is dependent on metalloproteinase activity. The ex vivo wound epithelium is viable, responds to neuronal signals and is able to participate in ectopic blastema formation and limb regeneration. This ex vivo model provides a reproducible and tractable system in which to study the cellular and molecular events that underlie wound healing and regeneration. PMID:20874715

Ferris, Donald R; Satoh, Akira; Mandefro, Berhan; Cummings, Gillian M; Gardiner, David M; Rugg, Elizabeth L

2010-10-01

90

Functionalized near-infrared quantum dots for in vivo tumor vasculature imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report the use of near-infrared (NIR)-emitting alloyed quantum dots (QDs) as efficient optical probes for high contrast in vivo imaging of tumors. Alloyed CdTe1 - xSex/CdS QDs were prepared in the non-aqueous phase using the hot colloidal synthesis approach. Water dispersion of the QDs were accomplished by their encapsulation within polyethyleneglycol (PEG)-grafted phospholipid micelles. For tumor-specific delivery in vivo, the micelle-encapsulated QDs were conjugated with the cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (cRGD) peptide, which targets the ?v?3 integrins overexpressed in the angiogenic tumor vasculatures. Using in vivo NIR optical imaging of mice bearing pancreatic cancer xenografts, implanted both subcutaneously and orthotopically, we have demonstrated that systemically delivered cRGD-conjugated QDs, but not the unconjugated ones, can efficiently target and label the tumors with high signal-to-noise ratio. Histopathological analysis of major organs of the treated mice showed no evidence of systemic toxicity associated with these QDs. These experiments suggest that cRGD-conjugated NIR QDs can serve as safe and efficient probes for optical bioimaging of tumors in vivo. Furthermore, by co-encapsulating these QDs and anticancer drugs within these micelles, we have demonstrated a promising theranostic, nanosized platform for both cancer imaging and therapy.

Hu, Rui; Yong, Ken-Tye; Roy, Indrajit; Ding, Hong; Law, Wing-Cheung; Cai, Hongxing; Zhang, Xihe; Vathy, Lisa A.; Bergey, Earl J.; Prasad, Paras N.

2010-04-01

91

Structural Determinants of Arabidopsis thaliana Hyponastic Leaves 1 Function In Vivo  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs have turned out to be important regulators of gene expression. These molecules originate from longer transcripts that are processed by ribonuclease III (RNAse III) enzymes. Dicer proteins are essential RNAse III enzymes that are involved in the generation of microRNAs (miRNAs) and other small RNAs. The correct function of Dicer relies on the participation of accessory dsRNA binding proteins, the exact function of which is not well-understood so far. In plants, the double stranded RNA binding protein Hyponastic Leaves 1 (HYL1) helps Dicer Like protein (DCL1) to achieve an efficient and precise excision of the miRNAs from their primary precursors. Here we dissected the regions of HYL1 that are essential for its function in Arabidopsis thaliana plant model. We generated mutant forms of the protein that retain their structure but affect its RNA-binding properties. The mutant versions of HYL1 were studied both in vitro and in vivo, and we were able to identify essential aminoacids/residues for its activity. Remarkably, mutation and even ablation of one of the purportedly main RNA binding determinants does not give rise to any major disturbances in the function of the protein. We studied the function of the mutant forms in vivo, establishing a direct correlation between affinity for the pri-miRNA precursors and protein activity. PMID:25409478

Burdisso, Paula; Milia, Fernando; Schapire, Arnaldo L.; Bologna, Nicolįs G.; Palatnik, Javier F.; Rasia, Rodolfo M.

2014-01-01

92

Environmentally persistent free radicals decrease cardiac function before and after ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo.  

PubMed

Exposure to airborne particles is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. During the combustion of chlorine-containing hazardous materials and fuels, chlorinated hydrocarbons chemisorb to the surface of transition metal-oxide-containing particles, reduce the metal, and form an organic free radical. These radical-particle systems can survive in the environment for days and are called environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs). This study determined whether EPFRs could decrease left ventricular function before and after ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) in vivo. Male Brown-Norway rats were dosed (8?mg/kg, intratracheal) 24?h prior to testing with particles containing the EPFR of 1, 2-dichlorobenzene (DCB230). DCB230 treatment decreased systolic and diastolic function. DCB230 also produced pulmonary and cardiac inflammation. After ischemia, systolic, but not diastolic function was significantly decreased in DCB230-treated rats. Ventricular function was not affected by I/R in control rats. There was greater oxidative stress in the heart and increased 8-isoprostane (biomarker of oxidative stress) in the plasma of treated vs. control rats after I/R. These data demonstrate for the first time that DCB230 can produce inflammation and significantly decrease cardiac function at baseline and after I/R in vivo. Furthermore, these data suggest that EPFRs may be a risk factor for cardiac toxicity in healthy individuals and individuals with ischemic heart disease. Potential mechanisms involving cytokines/chemokines and/or oxidative stress are discussed. PMID:21385100

Lord, Kevin; Moll, David; Lindsey, John K; Mahne, Sarah; Raman, Girija; Dugas, Tammy; Cormier, Stephania; Troxlair, Dana; Lomnicki, Slawo; Dellinger, Barry; Varner, Kurt

2011-04-01

93

Stiffened yeast telomerase RNA supports RNP function in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

The 1157-nt Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomerase RNA, TLC1, in addition to providing a 16-nt template region for reverse transcription, has been proposed to act as a scaffold for protein subunits. Although accessory subunits of the telomerase ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex function even when their binding sites are relocated on the yeast telomerase RNA, the physical nature of the RNA scaffold has not been directly analyzed. Here we explore the structure-function organization of the yeast telomerase RNP by extensively stiffening the three long arms of TLC1, which connect essential and important accessory protein subunits Ku, Est1, and Sm(7), to its central catalytic hub. This 956-nt triple-stiff-arm TLC1 (TSA-T) reconstitutes active telomerase with TERT (Est2) in vitro. Furthermore, TSA-T functions in vivo, even maintaining longer telomeres than TLC1 on a per RNA basis. We also tested functional contributions of each stiffened arm within TSA-T and found that the stiffened Est1 and Ku arms contribute to telomere lengthening, while stiffening the terminal arm reduces telomere length and telomerase RNA abundance. The fact that yeast telomerase tolerates significant stiffening of its RNA subunit in vivo advances our understanding of the architectural and functional organization of this RNP and, more broadly, our conception of the world of lncRNPs. PMID:22850424

Lebo, Kevin J; Zappulla, David C

2012-09-01

94

Analysis of telomerase catalytic subunit mutants in vivo and in vitro in Schizosaccharomyces pombe  

E-print Network

Analysis of telomerase catalytic subunit mutants in vivo and in vitro in Schizosaccharomyces pombe by Thomas R. Cech, April 25, 2000 The chromosome end-replicating enzyme telomerase is composed of a templateTE of telomerase-specific motif T had no phenotype in vivo or in vitro whereas mutation of a conserved amino acid

Nakamura, Toru M.

95

In vivo neutron activation analysis: State of the art and future prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the inauspicious beginning arising in the aftermath of a reactor accident in 1957, in vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation has become an important tool in medical research. In particular, it provides a much needed means to make quantitative assessments of body composition of human beings in vivo. The data are useful both for basic physiological understanding

Stanton H. Cohn

1981-01-01

96

Effect of a micronized purified flavonoid fraction on in vivo platelet functions in the rat.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a micronized purified flavonoid fraction (MPFF) on in vivo rat platelet functions. Platelet aggregation and disaggregation were evaluated by a noninvasive, automated isotope monitoring system (AimsPlus). Indium-labeled platelets were injected into anesthetized rats and stimulated by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (10 microg/kg, i.v.) or collagen (50 microg/kg, i.v.). Fibrinogen binding to ex vivo ADP-activated platelets was determined by flow cytometry. MPFF (100 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced ADP-induced platelet aggregation (p<0.05) and increased platelet disaggregation (p<0.05) compared with controls. Moreover, MPFF inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation (p<0.001) and increased platelet disaggregation (p<0.01). In addition, fibrinogen binding to 2.5 or 5 microM ADP-stimulated platelets also was reduced significantly (p<0.05 and 0.01, respectively). These results show that MPFF inhibits in vivo rat platelet functions. PMID:10336239

McGregor, L; Bellangeon, M; Chignier, E; Lerond, L; Rousselle, C; McGregor, J L

1999-05-15

97

Maternal separation affects dopamine transporter function in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat: An in vivo electrochemical study  

PubMed Central

Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder characterised by symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a well-characterised model of this disorder and has been shown to exhibit dopamine dysregulation, one of the hypothesised causes of ADHD. Since stress experienced in the early stages of life can have long-lasting effects on behaviour, it was considered that early life stress may alter development of the dopaminergic system and thereby contribute to the behavioural characteristics of SHR. It was hypothesized that maternal separation would alter dopamine regulation by the transporter (DAT) in ways that distinguish SHR from control rat strains. Methods SHR and control Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were subjected to maternal separation for 3 hours per day from postnatal day 2 to 14. Rats were tested for separation-induced anxiety-like behaviour followed by in vivo chronoamperometry to determine whether changes had occurred in striatal clearance of dopamine by DAT. The rate of disappearance of ejected dopamine was used as a measure of DAT function. Results Consistent with a model for ADHD, SHR were more active than WKY in the open field. SHR entered the inner zone more frequently and covered a significantly greater distance than WKY. Maternal separation increased the time that WKY spent in the closed arms and latency to enter the open arms of the elevated plus maze, consistent with other rat strains. Of note is that, maternal separation failed to produce anxiety-like behaviour in SHR. Analysis of the chronoamperometric data revealed that there was no difference in DAT function in the striatum of non-separated SHR and WKY. Maternal separation decreased the rate of dopamine clearance (k-1) in SHR striatum. Consistent with this observation, the dopamine clearance time (T100) was increased in SHR. These results suggest that the chronic mild stress of maternal separation impaired the function of striatal DAT in SHR. Conclusions The present findings suggest that maternal separation failed to alter the behaviour of SHR in the open field and elevated plus maze. However, maternal separation altered the dopaminergic system by decreasing surface expression of DAT and/or the affinity of DAT for dopamine, increasing the time to clear dopamine from the extracellular fluid in the striatum of SHR. PMID:22133315

2011-01-01

98

In vivo functional microangiography by visible-light optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

Although hemoglobin oxygen saturation (sO2) in the microvasculature is an essential physiological parameter of local tissue functions, non-invasive measurement of microvascular sO2 is still challenging. Here, we demonstrated that visible-light optical coherence tomography (vis-OCT) can simultaneously provide three-dimensional anatomical tissue morphology, visualize microvasculature at the capillary level, and measure sO2 from the microvasculature in vivo. We utilized speckle contrast caused by the moving blood cells to enhance microvascular imaging. We applied a series of short-time inverse Fourier transforms to obtain the spectroscopic profile of blood optical attenuation, from which we quantified sO2. We validated the sO2 measurement in mouse ears in vivo through hypoxia and hyperoxia challenges. We further demonstrated that vis-OCT can continuously monitor dynamic changes of microvascular sO2. PMID:25360376

Yi, Ji; Chen, Siyu; Backman, Vadim; Zhang, Hao F.

2014-01-01

99

Functional cooperation of the proapoptotic Bcl2 family proteins Bmf and Bim in vivo.  

PubMed

Bcl2-modifying factor (Bmf) is a member of the BH3-only group of proapoptotic proteins. To test the role of Bmf in vivo, we constructed mice with a series of mutated Bmf alleles that disrupt Bmf expression, prevent Bmf phosphorylation by the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) on Ser(74), or mimic Bmf phosphorylation on Ser(74). We report that the loss of Bmf causes defects in uterovaginal development, including an imperforate vagina and hydrometrocolpos. We also show that the phosphorylation of Bmf on Ser(74) can contribute to a moderate increase in levels of Bmf activity. Studies of compound mutants with the related gene Bim demonstrated that Bim and Bmf exhibit partially redundant functions in vivo. Thus, developmental ablation of interdigital webbing on mouse paws and normal lymphocyte homeostasis require the cooperative activity of Bim and Bmf. PMID:19841067

Hübner, Anette; Cavanagh-Kyros, Julie; Rincon, Mercedes; Flavell, Richard A; Davis, Roger J

2010-01-01

100

Functional Cooperation of the Proapoptotic Bcl2 Family Proteins Bmf and Bim In Vivo ?  

PubMed Central

Bcl2-modifying factor (Bmf) is a member of the BH3-only group of proapoptotic proteins. To test the role of Bmf in vivo, we constructed mice with a series of mutated Bmf alleles that disrupt Bmf expression, prevent Bmf phosphorylation by the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) on Ser74, or mimic Bmf phosphorylation on Ser74. We report that the loss of Bmf causes defects in uterovaginal development, including an imperforate vagina and hydrometrocolpos. We also show that the phosphorylation of Bmf on Ser74 can contribute to a moderate increase in levels of Bmf activity. Studies of compound mutants with the related gene Bim demonstrated that Bim and Bmf exhibit partially redundant functions in vivo. Thus, developmental ablation of interdigital webbing on mouse paws and normal lymphocyte homeostasis require the cooperative activity of Bim and Bmf. PMID:19841067

Hubner, Anette; Cavanagh-Kyros, Julie; Rincon, Mercedes; Flavell, Richard A.; Davis, Roger J.

2010-01-01

101

Biomimetic engineered muscle with capacity for vascular integration and functional maturation in vivo  

PubMed Central

Tissue-engineered skeletal muscle can serve as a physiological model of natural muscle and a potential therapeutic vehicle for rapid repair of severe muscle loss and injury. Here, we describe a platform for engineering and testing highly functional biomimetic muscle tissues with a resident satellite cell niche and capacity for robust myogenesis and self-regeneration in vitro. Using a mouse dorsal window implantation model and transduction with fluorescent intracellular calcium indicator, GCaMP3, we nondestructively monitored, in real time, vascular integration and the functional state of engineered muscle in vivo. During a 2-wk period, implanted engineered muscle exhibited a steady ingrowth of blood-perfused microvasculature along with an increase in amplitude of calcium transients and force of contraction. We also demonstrated superior structural organization, vascularization, and contractile function of fully differentiated vs. undifferentiated engineered muscle implants. The described in vitro and in vivo models of biomimetic engineered muscle represent enabling technology for novel studies of skeletal muscle function and regeneration. PMID:24706792

Juhas, Mark; Engelmayr, George C.; Fontanella, Andrew N.; Palmer, Gregory M.; Bursac, Nenad

2014-01-01

102

Microfibril-associated Glycoprotein 2 (MAGP2) Loss of Function Has Pleiotropic Effects in Vivo*  

PubMed Central

Microfibril-associated glycoprotein (MAGP) 1 and 2 are evolutionarily related but structurally divergent proteins that are components of microfibrils of the extracellular matrix. Using mice with a targeted inactivation of Mfap5, the gene for MAGP2 protein, we demonstrate that MAGPs have shared as well as unique functions in vivo. Mfap5?/? mice appear grossly normal, are fertile, and have no reduction in life span. Cardiopulmonary development is typical. The animals are normotensive and have vascular compliance comparable with age-matched wild-type mice, which is indicative of normal, functional elastic fibers. Loss of MAGP2 alone does not significantly alter bone mass or architecture, and loss of MAGP2 in tandem with loss of MAGP1 does not exacerbate MAGP1-dependent osteopenia. MAGP2-deficient mice are neutropenic, which contrasts with monocytopenia described in MAGP1-deficient animals. This suggests that MAGP1 and MAGP2 have discrete functions in hematopoiesis. In the cardiovascular system, MAGP1;MAGP2 double knockout mice (Mfap2?/?;Mfap5?/?) show age-dependent aortic dilation. These findings indicate that MAGPs have shared primary functions in maintaining large vessel integrity. In solid phase binding assays, MAGP2 binds active TGF?1, TGF?2, and BMP2. Together, these data demonstrate that loss of MAGP2 expression in vivo has pleiotropic effects potentially related to the ability of MAGP2 to regulate growth factors or participate in cell signaling. PMID:23963447

Combs, Michelle D.; Knutsen, Russell H.; Broekelmann, Thomas J.; Toennies, Holly M.; Brett, Thomas J.; Miller, Chantel A.; Kober, Daniel L.; Craft, Clarissa S.; Atkinson, Jeffrey J.; Shipley, J. Michael; Trask, Barbara C.; Mecham, Robert P.

2013-01-01

103

Microfibril-associated glycoprotein 2 (MAGP2) loss of function has pleiotropic effects in vivo.  

PubMed

Microfibril-associated glycoprotein (MAGP) 1 and 2 are evolutionarily related but structurally divergent proteins that are components of microfibrils of the extracellular matrix. Using mice with a targeted inactivation of Mfap5, the gene for MAGP2 protein, we demonstrate that MAGPs have shared as well as unique functions in vivo. Mfap5(-/-) mice appear grossly normal, are fertile, and have no reduction in life span. Cardiopulmonary development is typical. The animals are normotensive and have vascular compliance comparable with age-matched wild-type mice, which is indicative of normal, functional elastic fibers. Loss of MAGP2 alone does not significantly alter bone mass or architecture, and loss of MAGP2 in tandem with loss of MAGP1 does not exacerbate MAGP1-dependent osteopenia. MAGP2-deficient mice are neutropenic, which contrasts with monocytopenia described in MAGP1-deficient animals. This suggests that MAGP1 and MAGP2 have discrete functions in hematopoiesis. In the cardiovascular system, MAGP1;MAGP2 double knockout mice (Mfap2(-/-);Mfap5(-/-)) show age-dependent aortic dilation. These findings indicate that MAGPs have shared primary functions in maintaining large vessel integrity. In solid phase binding assays, MAGP2 binds active TGF?1, TGF?2, and BMP2. Together, these data demonstrate that loss of MAGP2 expression in vivo has pleiotropic effects potentially related to the ability of MAGP2 to regulate growth factors or participate in cell signaling. PMID:23963447

Combs, Michelle D; Knutsen, Russell H; Broekelmann, Thomas J; Toennies, Holly M; Brett, Thomas J; Miller, Chantel A; Kober, Daniel L; Craft, Clarissa S; Atkinson, Jeffrey J; Shipley, J Michael; Trask, Barbara C; Mecham, Robert P

2013-10-01

104

Critical Role of Tissue Mast Cells in Controlling Long Term Glucose Sensor Function in Vivo  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the specific cells, mediators and mechanisms involved in the loss of glucose sensor function (GSF) in vivo. Since mast cells (MC) are known to be key effector cells in inflammation and wound healing, we hypothesized that MC and their products are major contributors to the skin inflammation and wound healing that controls GSF at sites of sensor implantation. To test this hypothesis we utilized a murine model of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in vivo in both normal C57BL/6 mice (mast cell sufficient), as well as mast cell deficient B6.Cg-KitW-sh/HNihrJaeBsmJ (Sash) mice over a 28 day CGM period. As expected, both strains of mice displayed excellent CGM for the first 7 days post sensor implantation (PSI). CGM in the mast cell sufficient C57BL/6 mice was erratic over the remaining 21 days PSI. CGM in the mast cell deficient Sash mice displayed excellent sensor function for the entire 28 day of CGM. Histopathologic evaluation of implantation sites demonstrated that tissue reactions in Sash mice were dramatically less compared to the reactions in normal C57BL/6 mice. Additionally, mast cells were also seen to be consistently associated with the margins of sensor tissue reactions in normal C57BL/6 mice. Finally, direct injection of bone marrow derived mast cells at sites of sensor implantation induced an acute and dramatic loss of sensor function in both C57BL/6 and Sash mice. These results demonstrate the key role of mast cells in controlling glucose sensor function in vivo. PMID:20226521

Klueh, Ulrike; Kaur, Manjot; Qiao, Yi; Kreutzer, Donald L.

2010-01-01

105

Functional Multiple-Set Canonical Correlation Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We propose functional multiple-set canonical correlation analysis for exploring associations among multiple sets of functions. The proposed method includes functional canonical correlation analysis as a special case when only two sets of functions are considered. As in classical multiple-set canonical correlation analysis, computationally, the…

Hwang, Heungsun; Jung, Kwanghee; Takane, Yoshio; Woodward, Todd S.

2012-01-01

106

The Intramembrane Proteases Signal Peptide Peptidase-Like 2a and 2b Have Distinct Functions In Vivo  

PubMed Central

We reported recently that the presenilin homologue signal peptide peptidase-like 2a (SPPL2a) is essential for B cell development by cleaving the N-terminal fragment (NTF) of the invariant chain (li, CD74). Based on this, we suggested that pharmacological modulation of SPPL2a may represent a novel approach to deplete B cells in autoimmune disorders. With regard to reported overlapping substrate spectra of SPPL2a and its close homologue, SPPL2b, we investigated the role of SPPL2b in CD74 NTF proteolysis and its impact on B and dendritic cell homeostasis. In heterologous expression experiments, SPPL2b was found to cleave CD74 NTF with an efficiency simliar to that of SPPL2a. For in vivo analysis, SPPL2b single-deficient and SPPL2a/SPPL2b double-deficient mice were generated and examined for CD74 NTF turnover/accumulation, B cell maturation and functionality, and dendritic cell homeostasis. We demonstrate that in vivo SPPL2b does not exhibit a physiologically relevant contribution to CD74 proteolysis in B and dendritic cells. Furthermore, we reveal that both proteases exhibit divergent subcellular localizations in B cells and different expression profiles in murine tissues. These findings suggest distinct functions of SPPL2a and SPPL2b and, based on a high abundance of SPPL2b in brain, a physiological role of this protease in the central nervous system. PMID:24492962

Schneppenheim, Janna; Huttl, Susann; Mentrup, Torben; Lullmann-Rauch, Renate; Rothaug, Michelle; Engelke, Michael; Dittmann, Kai; Dressel, Ralf; Araki, Masatake; Araki, Kimi; Wienands, Jurgen; Fluhrer, Regina; Saftig, Paul

2014-01-01

107

Genetic Analysis of Myc and Telomerase Interactions In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myc is a transcription factor with pleiotropic effects on tumorigenesis which are likely to be mediated by its target genes. A known Myc transcriptional target is the catalytic subunit of telomerase, Tert. However, the contribution of Tert activation to Myc-induced tumorigenesis in vivo remains unknown. In this study, we addressed the role of telomerase in Myc-induced skin papillomatosis by using

Ignacio Flores; Gerard Evan; M. A. Blasco

2006-01-01

108

Models in palaeontological functional analysis  

PubMed Central

Models are a principal tool of modern science. By definition, and in practice, models are not literal representations of reality but provide simplifications or substitutes of the events, scenarios or behaviours that are being studied or predicted. All models make assumptions, and palaeontological models in particular require additional assumptions to study unobservable events in deep time. In the case of functional analysis, the degree of missing data associated with reconstructing musculoskeletal anatomy and neuronal control in extinct organisms has, in the eyes of some scientists, rendered detailed functional analysis of fossils intractable. Such a prognosis may indeed be realized if palaeontologists attempt to recreate elaborate biomechanical models based on missing data and loosely justified assumptions. Yet multiple enabling methodologies and techniques now exist: tools for bracketing boundaries of reality; more rigorous consideration of soft tissues and missing data and methods drawing on physical principles that all organisms must adhere to. As with many aspects of science, the utility of such biomechanical models depends on the questions they seek to address, and the accuracy and validity of the models themselves. PMID:21865242

Anderson, Philip S. L.; Bright, Jen A.; Gill, Pamela G.; Palmer, Colin; Rayfield, Emily J.

2012-01-01

109

Models in palaeontological functional analysis.  

PubMed

Models are a principal tool of modern science. By definition, and in practice, models are not literal representations of reality but provide simplifications or substitutes of the events, scenarios or behaviours that are being studied or predicted. All models make assumptions, and palaeontological models in particular require additional assumptions to study unobservable events in deep time. In the case of functional analysis, the degree of missing data associated with reconstructing musculoskeletal anatomy and neuronal control in extinct organisms has, in the eyes of some scientists, rendered detailed functional analysis of fossils intractable. Such a prognosis may indeed be realized if palaeontologists attempt to recreate elaborate biomechanical models based on missing data and loosely justified assumptions. Yet multiple enabling methodologies and techniques now exist: tools for bracketing boundaries of reality; more rigorous consideration of soft tissues and missing data and methods drawing on physical principles that all organisms must adhere to. As with many aspects of science, the utility of such biomechanical models depends on the questions they seek to address, and the accuracy and validity of the models themselves. PMID:21865242

Anderson, Philip S L; Bright, Jen A; Gill, Pamela G; Palmer, Colin; Rayfield, Emily J

2012-02-23

110

Biomechanical regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell functions: from in vitro to in vivo understanding  

PubMed Central

Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) have critical functions in vascular diseases. Haemodynamic factors are important regulators of VSMC functions in vascular pathophysiology. VSMCs are physiologically active in the three-dimensional matrix and interact with the shear stress sensor of endothelial cells (ECs). The purpose of this review is to illustrate how haemodynamic factors regulate VSMC functions under two-dimensional conditions in vitro or three-dimensional co-culture conditions in vivo. Recent advances show that high shear stress induces VSMC apoptosis through endothelial-released nitric oxide and low shear stress upregulates VSMC proliferation and migration through platelet-derived growth factor released by ECs. This differential regulation emphasizes the need to construct more actual environments for future research on vascular diseases (such as atherosclerosis and hypertension) and cardiovascular tissue engineering. PMID:24152813

Qiu, Juhui; Zheng, Yiming; Hu, Jianjun; Liao, Donghua; Gregersen, Hans; Deng, Xiaoyan; Fan, Yubo; Wang, Guixue

2014-01-01

111

Neurofibrillary tangle-bearing neurons are functionally integrated in cortical circuits in vivo.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is pathologically characterized by the deposition of extracellular amyloid-? plaques and intracellular aggregation of tau protein in neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) (1, 2). Progression of NFT pathology is closely correlated with both increased neurodegeneration and cognitive decline in AD (3) and other tauopathies, such as frontotemporal dementia (4, 5). The assumption that mislocalization of tau into the somatodendritic compartment (6) and accumulation of fibrillar aggregates in NFTs mediates neurodegeneration underlies most current therapeutic strategies aimed at preventing NFT formation or disrupting existing NFTs (7, 8). Although several disease-associated mutations cause both aggregation of tau and neurodegeneration, whether NFTs per se contribute to neuronal and network dysfunction in vivo is unknown (9). Here we used awake in vivo two-photon calcium imaging to monitor neuronal function in adult rTg4510 mice that overexpress a human mutant form of tau (P301L) and develop cortical NFTs by the age of 7-8 mo (10). Unexpectedly, NFT-bearing neurons in the visual cortex appeared to be completely functionally intact, to be capable of integrating dendritic inputs and effectively encoding orientation and direction selectivity, and to have a stable baseline resting calcium level. These results suggest a reevaluation of the common assumption that insoluble tau aggregates are sufficient to disrupt neuronal function. PMID:24368848

Kuchibhotla, Kishore V; Wegmann, Susanne; Kopeikina, Katherine J; Hawkes, Jonathan; Rudinskiy, Nikita; Andermann, Mark L; Spires-Jones, Tara L; Bacskai, Brian J; Hyman, Bradley T

2014-01-01

112

TYK2 Kinase Activity Is Required for Functional Type I Interferon Responses In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) is a member of the Janus kinase (JAK) family and is involved in cytokine signalling. In vitro analyses suggest that TYK2 also has kinase-independent, i.e., non-canonical, functions. We have generated gene-targeted mice harbouring a mutation in the ATP-binding pocket of the kinase domain. The Tyk2 kinase-inactive (Tyk2K923E) mice are viable and show no gross abnormalities. We show that kinase-active TYK2 is required for full-fledged type I interferon- (IFN) induced activation of the transcription factors STAT1-4 and for the in vivo antiviral defence against viruses primarily controlled through type I IFN actions. In addition, TYK2 kinase activity was found to be required for the protein’s stability. An inhibitory function was only observed upon over-expression of TYK2K923E in vitro. Tyk2K923E mice represent the first model for studying the kinase-independent function of a JAK in vivo and for assessing the consequences of side effects of JAK inhibitors. PMID:22723949

Prchal-Murphy, Michaela; Semper, Christian; Lassnig, Caroline; Wallner, Barbara; Gausterer, Christian; Teppner-Klymiuk, Ingeborg; Kobolak, Julianna; Muller, Simone; Kolbe, Thomas; Karaghiosoff, Marina; Dinnyes, Andras; Rulicke, Thomas; Leitner, Nicole R.; Strobl, Birgit; Muller, Mathias

2012-01-01

113

Photoacoustics and fluorescence based nanoprobes towards functional and structural imaging in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging of chemical analytes and structural properties related to physiological activities within biological systems is of great bio-medical interest; it can contribute to the fundamental understanding of biological systems and can be applied to the diagnosis and prognosis of diseases, especially tumors. The work presented in this thesis focuses on the development and application of polymeric nanoprobe aided optical imaging of chemical analytes (Oxygen, pH) and structural properties in live cells and animal models. To this end, specific nanoprobes, based on the polyacrylamide nanoplatform, bearing both appropriate targeting functionalities, and high concentrations of sensing and contrast agents, have been developed. The nanoprobes presented here are biodegradable, biocompatible and non-toxic, rendering them safe for in vivo use. Furthermore the nanoprobes are designed to have variable optical properties that are dependent on the local concentration of the specific analyte of interest. Optical imaging techniques that are particularly suited for deep tissue applications, such as two-photon fluorescence and photoacoustics, were applied for non-invasive real-time imaging and sensing in cancer cells, tumor spheroids and animal models. Our results demonstrate that this technique enables high sensitive detection of chemical analytes with a sensitivity of <5 Torr for oxygen and <0.1 pH units in vivo, which is better than the currently available in vivo functional imaging techniques. This non-invasive and non-ionizing, yet low cost, method will enable morphological and functional evaluation across any tissue, with both high spatial and temporal resolution but without eliciting short- or long-term tissue damage. Currently no gold standard exists for such xii functional imaging. The approach presented here can be used for early detection and diagnosis of tumors, as well as for monitoring the progression of disease and therapy. This technique will also enable observing phenomena at the cellular level in vivo that would lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases as well as the disease onset, progression, and response to therapy.

Ray, Aniruddha

114

Functional class switch recombination may occur 'in vivo' in Waldenström macroglobulinaemia.  

PubMed

Waldenström macroglobulinaemia (WM) malignant cells have been considered incapable of undergoing class switch recombination (CSR). However, we report a WM patient who developed an IgG M-component 4 years after diagnosis. When the second monoclonal component appeared, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed the presence of pre (Cmu) and postswitch (Cgamma) clonotypic isotypes; sequencing of these isotypes demonstrated that both corresponded to the single clone amplified at diagnosis, including the same complementarity-determining region 3 and somatic mutation pattern. This proves that WM cells can undergo a functional in vivo CSR. PMID:17096687

Martķn-Jiménez, Patricia; Garcķa-Sanz, Ramón; Sarasquete, Marķa E; Ocio, Enrique; Pérez, José J; Gonzįlez, Marcos; San Miguel, Jesśs F

2007-01-01

115

Alterations at the cross-bridge level are associated with a paradoxical gain of muscle function in vivo in a mouse model of nemaline myopathy.  

PubMed

Nemaline myopathy is the most common disease entity among non-dystrophic skeletal muscle congenital diseases. The first disease causing mutation (Met9Arg) was identified in the gene encoding ?-tropomyosinslow gene (TPM3). Considering the conflicting findings of the previous studies on the transgenic (Tg) mice carrying the TPM3Met9Arg mutation, we investigated carefully the effect of the Met9Arg mutation in 8-9 month-old Tg(TPM3)Met9Arg mice on muscle function using a multiscale methodological approach including skinned muscle fibers analysis and in vivo investigations by magnetic resonance imaging and 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. While in vitro maximal force production was reduced in Tg(TPM3)Met9Arg mice as compared to controls, in vivo measurements revealed an improved mechanical performance in the transgenic mice as compared to the former. The reduced in vitro muscle force might be related to alterations occuring at the cross-bridges level with muscle-specific underlying mechanisms. In vivo muscle improvement was not associated with any changes in either muscle volume or energy metabolism. Our findings indicate that TPM3(Met9Arg) mutation leads to a mild muscle weakness in vitro related to an alteration at the cross-bridges level and a paradoxical gain of muscle function in vivo. These results clearly point out that in vitro alterations are muscle-dependent and do not necessarily translate into similar changes in vivo. PMID:25268244

Gineste, Charlotte; Ottenheijm, Coen; Le Fur, Yann; Banzet, Sébastien; Pecchi, Emilie; Vilmen, Christophe; Cozzone, Patrick J; Koulmann, Nathalie; Hardeman, Edna C; Bendahan, David; Gondin, Julien

2014-01-01

116

Alterations at the Cross-Bridge Level Are Associated with a Paradoxical Gain of Muscle Function In Vivo in a Mouse Model of Nemaline Myopathy  

PubMed Central

Nemaline myopathy is the most common disease entity among non-dystrophic skeletal muscle congenital diseases. The first disease causing mutation (Met9Arg) was identified in the gene encoding ?-tropomyosinslow gene (TPM3). Considering the conflicting findings of the previous studies on the transgenic (Tg) mice carrying the TPM3Met9Arg mutation, we investigated carefully the effect of the Met9Arg mutation in 8–9 month-old Tg(TPM3)Met9Arg mice on muscle function using a multiscale methodological approach including skinned muscle fibers analysis and in vivo investigations by magnetic resonance imaging and 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. While in vitro maximal force production was reduced in Tg(TPM3)Met9Arg mice as compared to controls, in vivo measurements revealed an improved mechanical performance in the transgenic mice as compared to the former. The reduced in vitro muscle force might be related to alterations occuring at the cross-bridges level with muscle-specific underlying mechanisms. In vivo muscle improvement was not associated with any changes in either muscle volume or energy metabolism. Our findings indicate that TPM3(Met9Arg) mutation leads to a mild muscle weakness in vitro related to an alteration at the cross-bridges level and a paradoxical gain of muscle function in vivo. These results clearly point out that in vitro alterations are muscle-dependent and do not necessarily translate into similar changes in vivo. PMID:25268244

Gineste, Charlotte; Ottenheijm, Coen; Le Fur, Yann; Banzet, Sebastien; Pecchi, Emilie; Vilmen, Christophe; Cozzone, Patrick J.; Koulmann, Nathalie; Hardeman, Edna C.; Bendahan, David; Gondin, Julien

2014-01-01

117

Non invasive in vivo investigation of hepatobiliary structure and function in STII medaka (Oryzias latipes): methodology and applications  

PubMed Central

Background A novel transparent stock of medaka (Oryzias latipes; STII), recessive for all pigments found in chromatophores, permits transcutaneous imaging of internal organs and tissues in living individuals. Findings presented describe the development of methodologies for non invasive in vivo investigation in STII medaka, and the successful application of these methodologies to in vivo study of hepatobiliary structure, function, and xenobiotic response, in both 2 and 3 dimensions. Results Using brightfield, and widefield and confocal fluorescence microscopy, coupled with the in vivo application of fluorescent probes, structural and functional features of the hepatobiliary system, and xenobiotic induced toxicity, were imaged at the cellular level, with high resolution (< 1 ?m), in living individuals. The findings presented demonstrate; (1) phenotypic response to xenobiotic exposure can be investigated/imaged in vivo with high resolution (< 1 ?m), (2) hepatobiliary transport of solutes from blood to bile can be qualitatively and quantitatively studied/imaged in vivo, (3) hepatobiliary architecture in this lower vertebrate liver can be studied in 3 dimensions, and (4) non invasive in vivo imaging/description of hepatobiliary development in this model can be investigated. Conclusion The non-invasive in vivo methodologies described are a unique means by which to investigate biological structure, function and xenobiotic response with high resolution in STII medaka. In vivo methodologies also provide the future opportunity to integrate molecular mechanisms (e.g., genomic, proteomic) of disease and toxicity with phenotypic changes at the cellular and system levels of biological organization. While our focus has been the hepatobiliary system, other organ systems are equally amenable to in vivo study, and we consider the potential for discovery, within the context of in vivo investigation in STII medaka, as significant. PMID:18838008

Hardman, Ron C; Kullman, Seth W; Hinton, David E

2008-01-01

118

Dynamic in vivo analysis of drug induced actin cytoskeleton degradation by digital holographic microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The actin cytoskeleton mediates a variety of crucial cellular functions as migration, intracellular transport, exocytosis, endocytosis and force generation. The highly dynamic actin fibers are therefore targets for several drugs and toxins. However the study of actin interfering processes by standard microscopy techniques fails in the detailed resolution of dynamic spatial alterations required for a deeper understanding of toxic effects. Here we applied digital holographic microscopy in the online functional analysis of the actin cytoskeleton disrupting marine toxin Latrunculin B. SEM and fluorescence microscopy showed rapid Latrunculin B induced alterations in cell morphology and actin fiber degradation in pancreas tumor cells. The dynamic digital holographic in vivo analysis of the drug dependent cellular processes demonstrated differences in the actin cytoskeleton stability of highly differentiated and dedifferentiated pancreas tumor cell lines. The spatial resolution of the morphological alterations revealed unequal changes in cell morphology. While cells with a low metastatic potential showed Latrunculin B induced cell collapse within 4 h the metastatic tumor cells were increased in cell volume indicating Latrunculin B effects also on cell water content. These data demonstrate that marker free, non-destructive online analysis of cellular morphology and dynamic spatial processes in living cells by digital holography offers new insights in actin dependent cellular mechanisms. Digital holographic microscopy was shown to be a versatile tool in the screening of toxic drug effects and cancer cell biology.

Schnekenburger, Juergen; Bredebusch, Ilona; Langehanenberg, Patrik; Domschke, Wolfram; von Bally, Gert; Kemper, Björn

2007-07-01

119

High pressure modulated transport and signaling functions of membrane proteins in models and in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cellular membranes serve in the separation of compartments, recognition of the environment, selective transport and signal transduction. Membrane lipids and membrane proteins play distinct roles in these processes, which are affected by environmental chemical (e. g. pH) or physical (e. g. pressure and temperature) changes. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) affects fluidity and integrity of bacterial membranes instantly during the ramp, resulting in a loss of membrane potential and vital membrane protein functions. We have used the multiple drug transporter LmrA from Lactococcus lactis and ToxR, a membrane protein sensor from Photobacterium profundum, a deep-sea bacterium, and Vibrio cholerae to study membrane protein interaction and functionality in proteolioposomes and by the use of in vivo reporter systems, respectively. Both proteins require dimerization in the phospholipid bilayer for their functionality, which was favoured in the liquid crystalline lipid phase with ToxR and LmrA. Whereas LmrA, which resides in liposomes consisting of DMPC, DMPC/cholesterol or natural lipids, lost its ATPase activity above 20 or 40 MPa, it maintained its active dimeric structure in DOPC/DPPC/cholesterol liposomes up to 120 MPa. By using a specific indicator strain in which the dimerisation of ToxR initiates the transcription of lacZ it was demonstrated, that the amino acid sequence of the transmembrane domain influences HHP stability of ToxR dimerization in vivo. Thus, both the lipid structure and the nature of the protein affect membrane protein interaction. It is suggested that the protein structure determines basic functionality, e.g. principle ability or kinetics to dimerize to a functional complex, while the lipid environment modulates this property.

Vogel, R. F.; Linke, K.; Teichert, H.; Ehrmann, M. A.

2008-07-01

120

In Vivo image Analysis Using iRFP Transgenic Mice  

PubMed Central

Fluorescent proteins with light wavelengths within the optical window are one of the improvements in in vivo imaging techniques. Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent protein (iRFP) is a stable, nontoxic protein that emits fluorescence within the NIR optical window without the addition of exogenous substrate. However, studies utilizing an in vivo iRFP model have not yet been published. Here, we report the generation of transgenic iRFP mice with ubiquitous NIR fluorescence expression. iRFP expression was observed in approximately 50% of the offspring from a matings between iRFP transgenic and WT mice. The serum and blood cell indices and body weights of iRFP mice were similar to those of WT mice. Red fluorescence with an excitation wavelength of 690 nm and an emission wavelength of 713 nm was detected in both newborn and adult iRFP mice. We also detected fluorescence emission in whole organs of the iRFP mice, including the brain, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, lung, pancreas, bone, testis, thymus, and adipose tissue. Therefore, iRFP transgenic mice may therefore be a useful tool for various types of in vivo imaging. PMID:25077761

Tran, Mai Thi Nhu; Tanaka, Junko; Hamada, Michito; Sugiyama, Yuka; Sakaguchi, Shota; Nakamura, Megumi; Takahashi, Satoru; Miwa, Yoshihiro

2014-01-01

121

Translation initiation factors are not required for Dicistroviridae IRES function in vivo  

PubMed Central

The cricket paralysis virus (CrPV) intergenic region (IGR) internal ribosome entry site (IRES) uses an unusual mechanism of initiating translation, whereby the IRES occupies the P-site of the ribosome and the initiating tRNA enters the A-site. In vitro experiments have demonstrated that the CrPV IGR IRES is able to bind purified ribosomes and form 80S complexes capable of synthesizing small peptides in the absence of any translation initiation factors. These results suggest that initiation by this IRES is factor-independent. To determine whether the IGR IRES functions in the absence of initiation factors in vivo, we assayed IGR IRES activity in various yeast strains harboring mutations in canonical translation initiation factors. We used a dicistronic reporter assay in yeast to determine whether the CrPV IGR IRES is able to promote translation sufficient to support growth in the presence of various deletions or mutations in translation initiation factors. Using this assay, we have previously shown that the CrPV IGR IRES functions efficiently in yeast when ternary complexes (eIF2•GTP•initiator tRNAmet) are reduced. Here, we demonstrate that the CrPV IGR IRES activity does not require the eukaryotic initiation factors eIF4G1 or eIF5B, and it is enhanced when eIF2B, the eIF3b subunit of eIF3, or eIF4E are impaired. Taken together, these data support a model in which the CrPV IGR IRES is capable of initiating protein synthesis in the absence of any initiation factors in vivo, and suggests that the CrPV IGR IRES initiates translation by directly recruiting the ribosomal subunits in vivo. PMID:19299549

Deniz, Nilsa; Lenarcic, Erik M.; Landry, Dori M.; Thompson, Sunnie R.

2009-01-01

122

Functional Analysis and Treatment of Nail Biting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study applied functional analysis methodology to nail biting exhibited by a 24-year-old female graduate student. Results from the brief functional analysis indicated variability in nail biting across assessment conditions. Functional analysis data were then used to guide treatment development and implementation. Treatment included a…

Dufrene, Brad A.; Watson, T. Steuart; Kazmerski, Jennifer S.

2008-01-01

123

Consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation for effector T cell function in vivo  

SciTech Connect

The adoptive transfer of acutely primed and memory virus-immune CD8+ T cells causes enhanced meningitis in both cyclophosphamide (Cy) suppressed, and unsuppressed, recipients infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). The severity of meningitis is assessed by counting cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from the cisterna magna, which allows measurement of significant inflammatory process ranging from 3 to more than 300 times the background number of cells found in mice injected with virus alone. Exposure of the donor immune population to ionizing radiation prior to transfer has shown that activated T cells from mice primed 7 or 8 days previously with virus may still promote a low level of meningitis in unsuppressed recipients following as much as 800 rads, while this effect is lost totally in Cy-suppressed mice at 600 rads. Memory T cells are more susceptible and show no evidence of in vivo effector function in either recipient population subsequent to 400 rads, a dose level which also greatly reduces the efficacy of acutely-primed T cells. The results are interpreted as indicating that heavily irradiated cells that are already fully functional show evidence of primary localization to the CNS and a limited capacity to cause pathology. Secondary localization, and events that require further proliferation of the T cells in vivo, are greatly inhibited by irradiation.

Rouse, B.T.; Hartley, D.; Doherty, P.C. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (USA))

1989-01-01

124

Allele Compensation in Tip60+/? Mice Rescues White Adipose Tissue Function In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Adipose tissue is a key regulator of energy homestasis. The amount of adipose tissue is largely determined by adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis), a process that is regulated by the concerted actions of multiple transcription factors and cofactors. Based on in vitro studies in murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and human primary preadipocytes, the transcriptional cofactor and acetyltransferase Tip60 was recently identified as an essential adipogenic factor. We therefore investigated the role of Tip60 on adipocyte differentiation and function, and possible consequences on energy homeostasis, in vivo. Because homozygous inactivation results in early embryonic lethality, Tip60+/? mice were used. Heterozygous inactivation of Tip60 had no effect on body weight, despite slightly higher food intake by Tip60+/? mice. No major effects of heterozygous inactivation of Tip60 were observed on adipose tissue and liver, and Tip60+/? displayed normal glucose tolerance, both on a low fat and a high fat diet. While Tip60 mRNA was reduced to 50% in adipose tissue, the protein levels were unaltered, suggesting compensation by the intact allele. These findings indicate that the in vivo role of Tip60 in adipocyte differentiation and function cannot be properly addressed in Tip60+/? mice, but requires the generation of adipose tissue-specific knock out animals or specific knock-in mice. PMID:24870614

Gao, Yuan; Hamers, Nicole; Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Berger, Ruud; Lough, John; Kalkhoven, Eric

2014-01-01

125

Noninvasive in vivo model demonstrating the effects of autonomic innervation on pancreatic islet function  

PubMed Central

The autonomic nervous system is thought to modulate blood glucose homeostasis by regulating endocrine cell activity in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. The role of islet innervation, however, has remained elusive because the direct effects of autonomic nervous input on islet cell physiology cannot be studied in the pancreas. Here, we used an in vivo model to study the role of islet nervous input in glucose homeostasis. We transplanted islets into the anterior chamber of the eye and found that islet grafts became densely innervated by the rich parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous supply of the iris. Parasympathetic innervation was imaged intravitally by using transgenic mice expressing GFP in cholinergic axons. To manipulate selectively the islet nervous input, we increased the ambient illumination to increase the parasympathetic input to the islet grafts via the pupillary light reflex. This reduced fasting glycemia and improved glucose tolerance. These effects could be blocked by topical application of the muscarinic antagonist atropine to the eye, indicating that local cholinergic innervation had a direct effect on islet function in vivo. By using this approach, we found that parasympathetic innervation influences islet function in C57BL/6 mice but not in 129X1 mice, which reflected differences in innervation densities and may explain major strain differences in glucose homeostasis. This study directly demonstrates that autonomic axons innervating the islet modulate glucose homeostasis. PMID:23236142

Rodriguez-Diaz, Rayner; Speier, Stephan; Molano, Ruth Damaris; Formoso, Alexander; Gans, Itai; Abdulreda, Midhat H.; Cabrera, Over; Molina, Judith; Fachado, Alberto; Ricordi, Camillo; Leibiger, Ingo; Pileggi, Antonello; Berggren, Per-Olof; Caicedo, Alejandro

2012-01-01

126

E-cadherin is essential for in vivo epidermal barrier function by regulating tight junctions  

PubMed Central

Cadherin adhesion molecules are key determinants of morphogenesis and tissue architecture. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the morphogenetic contributions of cadherins remain poorly understood in vivo. Besides supporting cell–cell adhesion, cadherins can affect a wide range of cellular functions that include activation of cell signalling pathways, regulation of the cytoskeleton and control of cell polarity. To determine the role of E-cadherin in stratified epithelium of the epidermis, we have conditionally inactivated its gene in mice. Here we show that loss of E-cadherin in the epidermis in vivo results in perinatal death of mice due to the inability to retain a functional epidermal water barrier. Absence of E-cadherin leads to improper localization of key tight junctional proteins, resulting in permeable tight junctions and thus altered epidermal resistance. In addition, both Rac and activated atypical PKC, crucial for tight junction formation, are mislocalized. Surprisingly, our results indicate that E-cadherin is specifically required for tight junction, but not desmosome, formation and this appears to involve signalling rather than cell contact formation. PMID:15775979

Tunggal, Judith A; Helfrich, Iris; Schmitz, Annika; Schwarz, Heinz; Gunzel, Dorothee; Fromm, Michael; Kemler, Rolf; Krieg, Thomas; Niessen, Carien M

2005-01-01

127

Allele compensation in tip60+/- mice rescues white adipose tissue function in vivo.  

PubMed

Adipose tissue is a key regulator of energy homestasis. The amount of adipose tissue is largely determined by adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis), a process that is regulated by the concerted actions of multiple transcription factors and cofactors. Based on in vitro studies in murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and human primary preadipocytes, the transcriptional cofactor and acetyltransferase Tip60 was recently identified as an essential adipogenic factor. We therefore investigated the role of Tip60 on adipocyte differentiation and function, and possible consequences on energy homeostasis, in vivo. Because homozygous inactivation results in early embryonic lethality, Tip60+/- mice were used. Heterozygous inactivation of Tip60 had no effect on body weight, despite slightly higher food intake by Tip60+/- mice. No major effects of heterozygous inactivation of Tip60 were observed on adipose tissue and liver, and Tip60+/- displayed normal glucose tolerance, both on a low fat and a high fat diet. While Tip60 mRNA was reduced to 50% in adipose tissue, the protein levels were unaltered, suggesting compensation by the intact allele. These findings indicate that the in vivo role of Tip60 in adipocyte differentiation and function cannot be properly addressed in Tip60+/- mice, but requires the generation of adipose tissue-specific knock out animals or specific knock-in mice. PMID:24870614

Gao, Yuan; Hamers, Nicole; Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Berger, Ruud; Lough, John; Kalkhoven, Eric

2014-01-01

128

Comparison of Beam Theory and Finite-Element Analysis With In Vivo  

E-print Network

Comparison of Beam Theory and Finite-Element Analysis With In Vivo Bone Strain Data From structures and, more recently, finite- element (FE) analysis. In this study, we compare experimentally-Liss, Inc. Key words: bone strain; finite-element analysis; skull biome- chanics; alligator; feeding

129

Predicting In Vivo Anti-Hepatofibrotic Drug Efficacy Based on In Vitro High-Content Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Many anti-fibrotic drugs with high in vitro efficacies fail to produce significant effects in vivo. The aim of this work is to use a statistical approach to design a numerical predictor that correlates better with in vivo outcomes. Methods High-content analysis (HCA) was performed with 49 drugs on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) LX-2 stained with 10 fibrotic markers. ?0.3 billion feature values from all cells in >150,000 images were quantified to reflect the drug effects. A systematic literature search on the in vivo effects of all 49 drugs on hepatofibrotic rats yields 28 papers with histological scores. The in vivo and in vitro datasets were used to compute a single efficacy predictor (Epredict). Results We used in vivo data from one context (CCl4 rats with drug treatments) to optimize the computation of Epredict. This optimized relationship was independently validated using in vivo data from two different contexts (treatment of DMN rats and prevention of CCl4 induction). A linear in vitro-in vivo correlation was consistently observed in all the three contexts. We used Epredict values to cluster drugs according to efficacy; and found that high-efficacy drugs tended to target proliferation, apoptosis and contractility of HSCs. Conclusions The Epredict statistic, based on a prioritized combination of in vitro features, provides a better correlation between in vitro and in vivo drug response than any of the traditional in vitro markers considered. PMID:22073152

Zheng, Baixue; Tan, Looling; Mo, Xuejun; Yu, Weimiao; Wang, Yan; Tucker-Kellogg, Lisa; Welsch, Roy E.; So, Peter T. C.; Yu, Hanry

2011-01-01

130

In vivo imaging of integration and function of striatal grafts in rodent and nonhuman primate animal models.  

PubMed

The assessment of the therapeutic efficacy of cell transplantation in repairing dysfunctional or degenerating brain tissues is conditioned by our capacity to follow up the grafted cells longitudinally in a noninvasive fashion. In fact, to date, postmortem histological analysis remains the main method used to characterize cell survival, maturation, differentiation, and absence of adverse effects upon intracerebral grafting. However, the increasing availability of sophisticated imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and spectroscopy offers the possibility to directly exploit anatomical and functional information coming from the grafted cells in vivo. This, in turn, opens the way to the amelioration of existing applications and the development of new methodologies capable of addressing challenges arising in the preclinical transplantation field in views of a clinical application. This review summarizes the principles of the different imaging techniques and their validation in the preclinical setting in animal models of striatal degeneration. PMID:23195426

Hantraye, Philippe; Badin, Romina Aron

2012-01-01

131

Protective effects of Zhuyeqing liquor on the immune function of normal and immunosuppressed mice in vivo  

PubMed Central

Background Zhuyeqing Liquor (ZYQL), a well-known Chinese traditional health liquor, has various biological properties, including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunoenhancement and cardiovascular protective effects. Methods The protective effects of Zhuyeqing Liquor (ZYQL) on the immune function was investigated in vivo in normal healthy mice and immunosuppressed mice treated with Cyclophosphamide (Cy, 100 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection on days 4, 8 and 12. ZYQL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) was administered via gavage daily for 14 days. The phagocytotic function of mononuclear phagocytic system was detected with carbon clearance methods, the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interferon-gamma (IFN-?) in serum were detected with Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immune organs were weighed and organ indexes (organ weight/body weight) of thymus and spleen were calculated. Meanwhile, the activity of lysozyme (LSZ) in serum and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) in spleen tissue were measured. Results ZYQL significantly upgrades the K value for clearance of carbon particles in normal mice treated with ZYQL (400 mg/kg) and immunosuppressed mice treated with ZYQL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) together with Cy (100 mg/kg) in vivo. The treatment of ZYQL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) effectively increased the activity of serum lysozyme as well as promoted the serum levels of IL-6 and IFN-? in normal mice and immunosuppressed mice. Furthermore, ZYQL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) had an antioxidant effects in immune system by enhancing the antioxidant enzyme activity of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px in vivo. In addition, ZYQL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) effectively elevated the Cy-induced decreased organ index (thymus and spleen). Conclusions The present work shows that the dose-dependent administration of ZYQL is capable of influencing immune responses, which implying that its valuable functional health may be attributed partly to its protective effects for the immune function. PMID:24090456

2013-01-01

132

In vivo and in vitro peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor polymerization: functional significance in drug ligand and cholesterol binding.  

PubMed

Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) is an 18 kDa high-affinity drug ligand and cholesterol binding protein involved in various cell functions. Antisera for distinct PBR areas identified immunoreactive proteins of 18, 40, and 56 kDa and occasionally 72, 90, and 110 kDa in testicular Leydig and breast cancer cells. These sizes may correspond to PBR polymers and correlated to the levels of reactive oxygen species. Treatment of Leydig cells with human chorionic gonadotropin rapidly induced free radical, PBR polymer, and steroid formation. UV photoirradiation generates ROS species, which increased the size of intramembraneous particles of recombinant PBR reconstituted into proteoliposomes consistent with polymer formation, determined both by SDS-PAGE and by freeze-fracture electron microscopy. Spectroscopic analysis revealed the formation of dityrosines as the covalent cross-linker between PBR monomers. Moreover, photoirradiation increased PK 11195 drug ligand binding and reduced cholesterol binding capacity of proteoliposomes. Further addition of PK 11195 drug ligand to polymers increased the rate of cholesterol binding. These data indicate that reactive oxygen species induce in vivo and in vitro the formation of covalent PBR polymers. We propose that the PBR polymer might be the functional unit responsible for ligand-activated cholesterol binding and that PBR polymerization is a dynamic process modulating the function of this receptor in cholesterol transport and other cell-specific PBR-mediated functions. PMID:12693947

Delavoie, Franck; Li, Hua; Hardwick, Matthew; Robert, Jean-Claude; Giatzakis, Christoforos; Péranzi, Gabriel; Yao, Zhi-Xing; Maccario, Jean; Lacapčre, Jean-Jacques; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

2003-04-22

133

Differential Item Functioning Analysis Using Rasch Item Information Functions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis is a statistical technique used for ensuring the equity and fairness of educational assessments. This study formulates a new DIF analysis method using the information similarity index (ISI). ISI compares item information functions when data fits the Rasch model. Through simulations and an international…

Wyse, Adam E.; Mapuranga, Raymond

2009-01-01

134

INDIVIDUAL EQUIPMENT DESIGN AND ERGONOMICS Functional Analysis and Function Hierarchization  

Microsoft Academic Search

New individual equipment design begins with analysis of the need in order to determine equipment's relationships with its outerspace (including the user himself), transform these relationships into functions, determine their nature (service, strain, etc... ). The characterization of the technical functions must be performed in agreement with physiological functions concerned by the equipment. This leads to need in hierarchization, i.e.

S. ETffiNNE; G. MAGNAUD; P. GIRY

135

Segmental in vivo vertebral motion during functional human lumbar spine activities  

PubMed Central

Quantitative data on the range of in vivo vertebral motion is critical to enhance our understanding of spinal pathology and to improve the current surgical treatment methods for spinal diseases. Little data have been reported on the range of lumbar vertebral motion during functional body activities. In this study, we measured in vivo 6 degrees-of-freedom (DOF) vertebral motion during unrestricted weightbearing functional body activities using a combined MR and dual fluoroscopic imaging technique. Eight asymptomatic living subjects were recruited and underwent MRI scans in order to create 3D vertebral models from L2 to L5 for each subject. The lumbar spine was then imaged using two fluoroscopes while the subject performed primary flexion-extension, left-right bending, and left-right twisting. The range of vertebral motion during each activity was determined through a previously described imaging-model matching technique at L2-3, L3-4, and L4-5 levels. Our data revealed that the upper vertebrae had a higher range of flexion than the lower vertebrae during flexion-extension of the body (L2-3, 5.4 ± 3.8°; L3-4, 4.3 ± 3.4°; L4-5, 1.9 ± 1.1°, respectively). During bending activity, the L4-5 had a higher (but not significant) range of left-right bending motion (4.7 ± 2.4°) than both L2-3 (2.9 ± 2.4°) and L3-4 (3.4 ± 2.1°), while no statistical difference was observed in left-right twisting among the three vertebral levels (L2-3, 2.5 ± 2.3°; L3-4, 2.4 ± 2.6°; and L4-5, 2.9 ± 2.1°, respectively). Besides the primary rotations reported, coupled motions were quantified in all DOFs. The coupled translation in left-right and anterior-posterior directions, on average, reached greater than 1 mm, while in the proximal-distal direction this was less than 1 mm. Overall, each vertebral level responds differently to flexion-extension and left-right bending, but similarly to the left-right twisting. This data may provide new insight into the in vivo function of human spines and can be used as baseline data for investigation of pathological spine kinematics. PMID:19301040

Wang, Shaobai; Passias, Peter; Xia, Qun; Li, Gang; Wood, Kirkham

2009-01-01

136

Functional Analysis of Transcription Factors in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Transcription factors (TFs) regulate the expression of genes at the transcriptional level. Modification of TF activity dynamically alters the transcriptome, which leads to metabolic and phenotypic changes. Thus, functional analysis of TFs using ‘omics-based’ methodologies is one of the most important areas of the post-genome era. In this mini-review, we present an overview of Arabidopsis TFs and introduce strategies for the functional analysis of plant TFs, which include both traditional and recently developed technologies. These strategies can be assigned to five categories: bioinformatic analysis; analysis of molecular function; expression analysis; phenotype analysis; and network analysis for the description of entire transcriptional regulatory networks. PMID:19478073

Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

2009-01-01

137

In Vitro Hematological and In Vivo Vasoactivity Assessment of Dextran Functionalized Graphene  

PubMed Central

The intravenous, intramuscular or intraperitoneal administration of water solubilized graphene nanoparticles for biomedical applications will result in their interaction with the hematological components and vasculature. Herein, we have investigated the effects of dextran functionalized graphene nanoplatelets (GNP-Dex) on histamine release, platelet activation, immune activation, blood cell hemolysis in vitro, and vasoactivity in vivo. The results indicate that GNP-Dex formulations prevented histamine release from activated RBL-2H3 rat mast cells, and at concentrations ? 7?mg/ml, showed a 12–20% increase in levels of complement proteins. Cytokine (TNF-Alpha and IL-10) levels remained within normal range. GNP-Dex formulations did not cause platelet activation or blood cell hemolysis. Using the hamster cheek pouch in vivo model, the initial vasoactivity of GNP-Dex at concentrations (1–50?mg/ml) equivalent to the first pass of a bolus injection was a brief concentration-dependent dilation in arcade and terminal arterioles. However, they did not induce a pro-inflammatory endothelial dysfunction effect. PMID:24002570

Chowdhury, Sayan Mullick; Kanakia, Shruti; Toussaint, Jimmy D.; Frame, Mary D.; Dewar, Anthony M.; Shroyer, Kenneth R.; Moore, William; Sitharaman, Balaji

2013-01-01

138

Novel functional complexity of polycystin-1 by GPS cleavage in vivo: role in polycystic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Polycystin-1 (Pc1) cleavage at the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) proteolytic site (GPS) is required for normal kidney morphology in humans and mice. We found a complex pattern of endogenous Pc1 forms by GPS cleavage. GPS cleavage generates not only the heterodimeric cleaved full-length Pc1 (Pc1(cFL)) in which the N-terminal fragment (NTF) remains noncovalently associated with the C-terminal fragment (CTF) but also a novel (Pc1) form (Pc1(deN)) in which NTF becomes detached from CTF. Uncleaved Pc1 (Pc1(U)) resides primarily in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), whereas both Pc1(cFL) and Pc1(deN) traffic through the secretory pathway in vivo. GPS cleavage is not a prerequisite, however, for Pc1 trafficking in vivo. Importantly, Pc1(deN) is predominantly found at the plasma membrane of renal epithelial cells. By functional genetic complementation with five Pkd1 mouse models, we discovered that CTF plays a crucial role in Pc1(deN) trafficking. Our studies support GPS cleavage as a critical regulatory mechanism of Pc1 biogenesis and trafficking for proper kidney development and homeostasis. PMID:24958103

Kurbegovic, Almira; Kim, Hyunho; Xu, Hangxue; Yu, Shengqiang; Cruančs, Julie; Maser, Robin L; Boletta, Alessandra; Trudel, Marie; Qian, Feng

2014-09-01

139

Automated measurement of neural foramen cross-sectional area during in vivo functional movement.  

PubMed

An automated technique to measure neural foramen cross-sectional area during in vivo, multi-planar movements is presented. This method combines three-dimensional (3D) models of each vertebra obtained from CT scans with in vivo movement data collected using high-speed biplane radiography. A novel computer algorithm that automatically traces a path around the bony boundary that defines the neural foramen at every frame of X-ray data is described. After identifying the neural foramen boundary, the cross-sectional area is calculated. The technique is demonstrated using data collected from a patient with cervical radiculopathy who is tested before and after conservative treatment. The technique presented here can be applied when 3D, dynamic, functional movements are performed. Neural foramen cross-sectional area can be quantified at specific angles of intervertebral rotation, allowing for matched comparisons between two trials or two test sessions. The present technique is ideal for longitudinal studies involving subjects who receive conservative or surgical treatments that may affect spine motion. PMID:21736429

Anderst, William J

2012-01-01

140

Systematic functional analysis of the Caenorhabditis elegans  

E-print Network

, because more than half of the genes in C. elegans have a human homologue, this kind of functional analysis in the worm should provide insights into human gene function. Analysis of gene functions by RNAi Loss hermaphrodites to identify genes for which RNAi reproducibly results in sterility, embryonic or larval lethality

Ahringe, Julie

141

In vivo exposure to bicarbonate/lactate- and bicarbonate-buffered peritoneal dialysis fluids improves ex vivo peritoneal macrophage function.  

PubMed

The impact on peritoneal macrophage (PMO) function of acidic lactate-buffered (Lac-PDF [PD4]; 40 mmol/L of lactate; pH 5.2) and neutral-pH, bicarbonate-buffered (TB; 38 mmol/L of bicarbonate; pH 7. 3) and bicarbonate/lactate-buffered (TBL; 25 mmol/L of bicarbonate/15 mmol/L of lactate; pH 7.3) peritoneal dialysis fluids (PDFs) was compared during a study of continuous therapy with PD4, TB, or TBL. During a run-in phase of 6 weeks when all patients (n = 15) were treated with their regular dialysis regimen with Lac-PDF, median PMO tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) release values were 203.6, 89.9, and 115.5 pg TNFalpha/10(6) PMO in the patients subsequently randomized to the PD4, TB, and TBL treatment groups, respectively. Median stimulated TNFalpha values (serum-treated zymosan [STZ], 10 microgram/mL) were 1,894.6, 567.3, and 554.5 pg TNFalpha/10(6) PMO in the same groups, respectively. During the trial phase of 12 weeks, when the three groups of patients (n = 5 per group) were randomized to continuous treatment with PD4, TB, or TBL, median constitutive TNFalpha release values were 204.7, 131.4, and 155.4 pg TNFalpha/10(6) PMO, respectively. Stimulated TNFalpha values (STZ, 10 microgram/mL) were 1,911, 1,832, and 1,378 pg TNFalpha/10(6) PMO in the same groups, respectively. Repeated-measures analysis of variance comparing the run-in phase with the trial phase showed that PMO TNFalpha release was significantly elevated in patients treated with both TB (P = 0.040) and TBL (P = 0.014) but not in patients treated with Lac-PDF (P = 0. 795). These data suggest that patients continuously exposed to bicarbonate- and bicarbonate/lactate-buffered PDFs might have better preserved PMO function and thus improved host defense status. PMID:10620552

Mackenzie, R K; Jones, S; Moseley, A; Holmes, C J; Argyle, R; Williams, J D; Coles, G A; Pu, K; Faict, D; Topley, N

2000-01-01

142

How to calculate lead concentration and concentration uncertainty in XRF in vivo bone lead analysis.  

PubMed

The authors provide a substantial correction for calculating estimates of lead concentration and uncertainty for in vivo X-ray fluorescent bone analysis with Cd-109 source. Based on general principles, they provide mathematical techniques for propagation of uncertainties in XRF analysis. They give additional considerations for lowering the detection limit and improving spectral data quality. PMID:11761103

Kondrashov, V S; Rothenberg, S J

2001-12-01

143

In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of a Novel Ferrocyanide Functionalized Nanopourous Silica Decorporation Agent for Cesium (Cs) in Rats  

PubMed Central

Novel decorporation agents are being developed to protect against radiological terrorist attacks. These sorbents, known as the self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous supports (SAMMS™), are hybrid materials where differing organic moieties are grafted onto mesoporous silica (SiO2). In vitro experiments focused on the evaluation, and optimization of SAMMS for capturing radiocesium (137Cs); therefore based on these studies, a ferrocyanide copper (FC-Cu-EDA)-SAMMS was advanced for in vivo evaluation. In vivo experiments were conducted comparing the performance of the SAMMS vs. insoluble Prussian blue. Groups of jugular cannulated rats (4/treatment) were evaluated. Animals in group I were administered 137Cs chloride (~40 ?g/kg) by intravenous (iv) injection or oral gavage; Group II animals were administered pre-bound 137Cs- SAMMS or sequential 137Cs chloride + SAMMS (~61 ng/kg) by oral gavage; and Group III was orally administered 137Cs chloride (~61 ng/kg) followed by either 0.1 g of SAMMS or Prussian blue. Following dosing, the rats were maintained in metabolism cages for 72 hour and blood, urine and fecal samples were collected for 137Cs analysis (gamma counting). Rats were then humanely euthanized, and selected tissues analyzed. Orally administered 137Cs chloride was rapidly and well absorbed (~100% relative to iv dose), and the pharmacokinetics (blood, urine, feces & tissues) were very comparable to the iv dose group. For both exposures the urine and feces accounted for 20 and 3% of the dose, respectively. The prebound 137Cs-SAMMS was retained primarily within the feces (72% of the dose), with ~1.4% detected in the urine, suggesting that the 137Cs remained tightly bound to SAMMS. SAMMS & Prussian blue both effectively captured available 137Cs in the gut with feces accounting for 80–88% of the administered dose, while less than 2% was detected in the urine. This study suggests that the functionalized SAMMS outperforms Prussian blue in vitro at low pH, but demonstrates comparable in vivo sequestration efficacy at low exposure concentrations. The comparable response may be the result of the low 137Cs chloride dose and high sorbent dosage that was utilized. Future studies are planned to optimize SAMMS in vivo performance over a broader range of doses and conditions. PMID:20699707

Timchalk, Charles; Creim, Jeffrey A; Sukwarotwat, Vichaya; Wiacek, Robert; Addleman, R Shane; Fryxell, Glen E; Yantasee, Wassana

2009-01-01

144

In vivo functional properties of juxtaglomerular neurons in the mouse olfactory bulb  

PubMed Central

Juxtaglomerular neurons represent one of the largest cellular populations in the mammalian olfactory bulb yet their role for signal processing remains unclear. We used two-photon imaging and electrophysiological recordings to clarify the in vivo properties of these cells and their functional organization in the juxtaglomerular space. Juxtaglomerular neurons coded for many perceptual characteristics of the olfactory stimulus such as (1) identity of the odorant, (2) odorant concentration, (3) odorant onset, and (4) offset. The odor-responsive neurons clustered within a narrow area surrounding the glomerulus with the same odorant specificity, with ~80% of responding cells located ?20 ?m from the glomerular border. This stereotypic spatial pattern of activated cells persisted at different odorant concentrations and was found for neurons both activated and inhibited by the odorant. Our data identify a principal glomerulus with a narrow shell of juxtaglomerular neurons as a basic odor coding unit in the glomerular layer and underline the important role of intraglomerular circuitry. PMID:23459031

Homma, R.; Kovalchuk, Y.; Konnerth, A.; Cohen, L. B.; Garaschuk, O.

2013-01-01

145

Mouse strain differences in metabolic fluxes and function of ex vivo working hearts.  

PubMed

In mice, genetic background is known to influence various parameters, including cardiac function. Its impact on cardiac energy substrate metabolism-a factor known to be closely related to function and contributes to disease development-is, however, unclear. This was examined in this study. In commonly used control mouse substrains SJL/JCrNTac, 129S6/SvEvTac, C57Bl/6J, and C57Bl/6NCrl, we assessed the functional and metabolic phenotypes of 3-mo-old working mouse hearts perfused ex vivo with physiological concentrations of (13)C-labeled carbohydrates (CHO) and a fatty acid (FA). Marked variations in various functional and metabolic flux parameters were observed among all mouse substrains, although the pattern observed differed for these parameters. For example, among all strains, C57Bl/6NCrl hearts had a greater cardiac output (+1.7-fold vs. SJL/JCrNTac and C57Bl/6J; P < 0.05), whereas at the metabolic level, 129S6/SvEvTac hearts stood out by displaying (vs. all 3 strains) a striking shift from exogenous FA (~-3.5-fold) to CHO oxidation as well as increased glycolysis (+1.7-fold) and FA incorporation into triglycerides (+2-fold). Correlation analyses revealed, however, specific linkages between 1) glycolysis, FA oxidation, and pyruvate metabolism and 2) cardiac work, oxygen consumption with heart rate, respectively. This implies that any genetically determined factors affecting a given metabolic flux parameter may impact on the associated functional parameters. Our results emphasize the importance of selecting the appropriate control strain for cardiac metabolic studies using transgenic mice, a factor that has often been neglected. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the diversity of strain-specific cardiac metabolic and functional profiles, particularly the 129S6/SvEvTac, may ultimately disclose new specific metabolic targets for interventions in heart disease. PMID:24186097

Vaillant, Fanny; Lauzier, Benjamin; Poirier, Isabelle; Gélinas, Roselle; Rivard, Marie-Eve; Robillard Frayne, Isabelle; Thorin, Eric; Des Rosiers, Christine

2014-01-01

146

In vivo function and comparative genomic analyses of the Drosophila gut microbiota identify candidate symbiosis factors  

PubMed Central

Symbiosis is often characterized by co-evolutionary changes in the genomes of the partners involved. An understanding of these changes can provide insight into the nature of the relationship, including the mechanisms that initiate and maintain an association between organisms. In this study we examined the genome sequences of bacteria isolated from the Drosophila melanogaster gut with the objective of identifying genes that are important for function in the host. We compared microbiota isolates with con-specific or closely related bacterial species isolated from non-fly environments. First the phenotype of germ-free Drosophila (axenic flies) was compared to that of flies colonized with specific bacteria (gnotobiotic flies) as a measure of symbiotic function. Non-fly isolates were functionally distinct from bacteria isolated from flies, conferring slower development and an altered nutrient profile in the host, traits known to be microbiota-dependent. Comparative genomic methods were next employed to identify putative symbiosis factors: genes found in bacteria that restore microbiota-dependent traits to gnotobiotic flies, but absent from those that do not. Factors identified include riboflavin synthesis and stress resistance. We also used a phylogenomic approach to identify protein coding genes for which fly-isolate sequences were more similar to each other than to other sequences, reasoning that these genes may have a shared function unique to the fly environment. This method identified genes in Acetobacter species that cluster in two distinct genomic loci: one predicted to be involved in oxidative stress detoxification and another encoding an efflux pump. In summary, we leveraged genomic and in vivo functional comparisons to identify candidate traits that distinguish symbiotic bacteria. These candidates can serve as the basis for further work investigating the genetic requirements of bacteria for function and persistence in the Drosophila gut. PMID:25408687

Newell, Peter D.; Chaston, John M.; Wang, Yiping; Winans, Nathan J.; Sannino, David R.; Wong, Adam C. N.; Dobson, Adam J.; Kagle, Jeanne; Douglas, Angela E.

2014-01-01

147

HIV Type 1 Infection Up-Regulates TLR2 and TLR4 Expression and Function in Vivo and in Vitro  

PubMed Central

Abstract Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a critical role in innate immunity against pathogens. Their stimulation induces the activation of NF-?B, an important inducer of HIV-1 replication. In recent years, an increasing number of studies using several cells types from HIV-infected patients indicate that TLRs play a key role in regulating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and viral pathogenesis. In the present study, the effect of HIV-1 stimulation of monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) subpopulations from healthy donors on the expression and functions of TLR2 and TLR4 was examined. In addition, and to complete the in vitro study, the expression pattern of TLR2 and TLR4 in 49 HIV-1-infected patients, classified according to viral load and the use of HAART, was determined and compared with 25 healthy subjects. An increase of TLR expression and production of proinflammatory cytokines were observed in MDMs and PBMCs infected with HIV-1 in vitro and in response to TLR stimulation, compared to the mock. In addition, an association between TLR expression and up-regulation of CD80 in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) was observed. The ex vivo analysis indicated increased expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs), but only of TLR2 in monocytes obtained from HIV-1-infected patients, compared to healthy subjects. Remarkably, the expression was higher in cells from patients who do not use HAART. In monocytes, there was a positive correlation between both TLRs and viral load, but not CD4+ T cell numbers. Together, our in vitro and ex vivo results suggest that TLR expression and function can be up-regulated in response to HIV-1 infection and could affect the inflammatory response. We propose that modulation of TLRs represents a mechanism to promote HIV-1 replication or AIDS progression in HIV-1-infected patients. PMID:22280204

Hernandez, Juan C.; Stevenson, Mario; Latz, Eicke

2012-01-01

148

Artemisia scoparia Enhances Adipocyte Development and Endocrine Function In Vitro and Enhances Insulin Action In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Background Failure of adipocytes to expand during periods of energy excess can result in undesirable metabolic consequences such as ectopic fat accumulation and insulin resistance. Blinded screening studies have indicated that Artemisia scoparia (SCO) extracts can enhance adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation in cultured adipocytes. The present study tested the hypothesis that SCO treatment modulates fat cell development and function in vitro and insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue in vivo. Methods In vitro experiments utilized a Gal4-PPAR? ligand binding domain (LBD) fusion protein-luciferase reporter assay to examine PPAR? activation. To investigate the ability of SCO to modulate adipogenesis and mature fat cell function in 3T3-L1 cells, neutral lipid accumulation, gene expression, and protein secretion were measured by Oil Red O staining, qRT-PCR, and immunoblotting, respectively. For the in vivo experiments, diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD containing 1% w/w SCO for four weeks. Body weight and composition, food intake, and fasting glucose and insulin levels were measured. Phospho-activation and expression of insulin-sensitizing proteins in epididymal adipose tissue (eWAT) were measured by immunoblotting. Results Ethanolic extracts of A. scoparia significantly activated the PPAR? LBD and enhanced lipid accumulation in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. SCO increased the transcription of several PPAR? target genes in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells and rescued the negative effects of tumor necrosis factor ? on production and secretion of adiponectin and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in fully differentiated fat cells. DIO mice treated with SCO had elevated adiponectin levels and increased phosphorylation of AMPK? in eWAT when compared to control mice. In SCO-treated mice, these changes were also associated with decreased fasting insulin and glucose levels. Conclusion SCO has metabolically beneficial effects on adipocytes in vitro and adipose tissue in vivo, highlighting its potential as a metabolically favorable botanical supplement. PMID:24915004

Richard, Allison J.; Fuller, Scott; Fedorcenco, Veaceslav; Beyl, Robbie; Burris, Thomas P.; Mynatt, Randall; Ribnicky, David M.; Stephens, Jacqueline M.

2014-01-01

149

Presenilin controls kinesin-1 and dynein function during APP-vesicle transport in vivo  

PubMed Central

Neurons and other cells require intracellular transport of essential components for viability and function. Previous work has shown that while net amyloid precursor protein (APP) transport is generally anterograde, individual vesicles containing APP move bi-directionally. This discrepancy highlights our poor understanding of the in vivo regulation of APP-vesicle transport. Here, we show that reduction of presenilin (PS) or suppression of gamma-secretase activity substantially increases anterograde and retrograde velocities for APP vesicles. Strikingly, PS deficiency has no effect on an unrelated cargo vesicle class containing synaptotagmin, which is powered by a different kinesin motor. Increased velocities caused by PS or gamma-secretase reduction require functional kinesin-1 and dynein motors. Together, our findings suggest that a normal function of PS is to repress kinesin-1 and dynein motor activity during axonal transport of APP vesicles. Furthermore, our data suggest that axonal transport defects induced by loss of PS-mediated regulatory effects on APP-vesicle motility could be a major cause of neuronal and synaptic defects observed in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) pathogenesis. Thus, perturbations of APP/PS transport could contribute to early neuropathology observed in AD, and highlight a potential novel therapeutic pathway for early intervention, prior to neuronal loss and clinical manifestation of disease. PMID:23710041

Gunawardena, Shermali; Yang, Ge; Goldstein, Lawrence S.B.

2013-01-01

150

Presenilin controls kinesin-1 and dynein function during APP-vesicle transport in vivo.  

PubMed

Neurons and other cells require intracellular transport of essential components for viability and function. Previous work has shown that while net amyloid precursor protein (APP) transport is generally anterograde, individual vesicles containing APP move bi-directionally. This discrepancy highlights our poor understanding of the in vivo regulation of APP-vesicle transport. Here, we show that reduction of presenilin (PS) or suppression of gamma-secretase activity substantially increases anterograde and retrograde velocities for APP vesicles. Strikingly, PS deficiency has no effect on an unrelated cargo vesicle class containing synaptotagmin, which is powered by a different kinesin motor. Increased velocities caused by PS or gamma-secretase reduction require functional kinesin-1 and dynein motors. Together, our findings suggest that a normal function of PS is to repress kinesin-1 and dynein motor activity during axonal transport of APP vesicles. Furthermore, our data suggest that axonal transport defects induced by loss of PS-mediated regulatory effects on APP-vesicle motility could be a major cause of neuronal and synaptic defects observed in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) pathogenesis. Thus, perturbations of APP/PS transport could contribute to early neuropathology observed in AD, and highlight a potential novel therapeutic pathway for early intervention, prior to neuronal loss and clinical manifestation of disease. PMID:23710041

Gunawardena, Shermali; Yang, Ge; Goldstein, Lawrence S B

2013-10-01

151

Atypical Membrane Topology and Heteromeric Function of Drosophila Odorant Receptors In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Drosophila olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) each express two odorant receptors (ORs): a divergent member of the OR family and the highly conserved, broadly expressed receptor OR83b. OR83b is essential for olfaction in vivo and enhances OR function in vitro, but the molecular mechanism by which it acts is unknown. Here we demonstrate that OR83b heterodimerizes with conventional ORs early in the endomembrane system in OSNs, couples these complexes to the conserved ciliary trafficking pathway, and is essential to maintain the OR/OR83b complex within the sensory cilia, where odor signal transduction occurs. The OR/OR83b complex is necessary and sufficient to promote functional reconstitution of odor-evoked signaling in sensory neurons that normally respond only to carbon dioxide. Unexpectedly, unlike all known vertebrate and nematode chemosensory receptors, we find that Drosophila ORs and OR83b adopt a novel membrane topology with their N-termini and the most conserved loops in the cytoplasm. These loops mediate direct association of ORs with OR83b. Our results reveal that OR83b is a universal and integral part of the functional OR in Drosophila. This atypical heteromeric and topological design appears to be an insect-specific solution for odor recognition, making the OR/OR83b complex an attractive target for the development of highly selective insect repellents to disrupt olfactory-mediated host-seeking behaviors of insect disease vectors. PMID:16402857

Benton, Richard; Sachse, Silke; Michnick, Stephen W

2006-01-01

152

Ex vivo magnetofection: A novel strategy for the study of gene function in mouse organogenesis  

PubMed Central

Gene function during mouse development is often studied through the production and analysis of transgenic and knock-out models. However, these techniques are time- and resource-consuming, and require specialized equipment and expertise. We have established a new protocol for functional studies that combines organ culture of explanted fetal tissues with micro-injection and magnetically-induced transfection (“magnetofection”) of gene expression constructs. As proof-of-principle, we magnetofected cDNA constructs into genital ridge tissue as a means of gain-of-function analysis, and shRNA constructs for loss-of-function analysis. Ectopic expression of Sry induced female-to-male sex-reversal, whereas knockdown of Sox9 expression caused male-to-female sex-reversal, consistent with the known functions of these genes. Further, ectopic expression of Tmem184a, a gene of unknown function, in female genital ridges, resulted in failure of gonocytes to enter meiosis. This technique will likely be applicable to the study of gene function in a broader range of developing organs and tissues. PMID:19301396

Svingen, Terje; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Combes, Alexander N.; Hosking, Brett; Harley, Vincent R.; Sinclair, Andrew H.; Koopman, Peter

2010-01-01

153

Impact of hydrogel nanoparticle size and functionalization on in vivo behavior for lung imaging and therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Polymer chemistry offers the possibility of synthesizing multifunctional nanoparticles which incorporate moieties that enhance diagnostic and therapeutic targeting of cargo delivery to the lung. However, since rules for predicting particle behavior following modification are not well defined, it is essential that probes for tracking fate in vivo are also included. Accordingly, we designed polyacrylamide-based hydrogel particles of differing sizes, functionalized with a nona-arginine cell-penetrating peptide (Arg9), and labeled with imaging components to assess lung retention and cellular uptake after intratracheal administration. Radiolabeled microparticles (1–5 µm diameter) and nanoparticles (20–40 nm diameter) without and with Arg9 showed diffuse airspace distribution by positron emission tomography imaging. Biodistribution studies revealed that particle clearance and extrapulmonary distribution was, in part, size dependent. Microparticles were rapidly cleared by mucociliary routes but unexpectedly, also through the circulation. In contrast, nanoparticles had prolonged lung retention enhanced by Arg9 and were significantly restricted to the lung. For all particle types, uptake was predominant in alveolar macrophages, and, to a lesser extent, lung epithelial cells. In general, particles did not induce local inflammatory responses, with the exception of microparticles bearing Arg9. Whereas microparticles may be advantageous for short-term applications, nano-sized particles constitute an efficient high-retention and non-inflammatory vehicle for the delivery of diagnostic imaging agents and therapeutics to lung airspaces and alveolar macrophages that can be enhanced by Arg9. Importantly, our results show that minor particle modifications may significantly impact in vivo behavior within the complex environments of the lung, underscoring the need for animal modeling. PMID:19852512

Liu, Yongjian; Ibricevic-Richardson, Aida; Cohen, Joel A.; Cohen, Jessica L.; Gunsten, Sean P.; Frechet, Jean M. J.; Walter, Michael J.; Welch, Michael J.; Brody, Steven L.

2009-01-01

154

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Modulates the Function of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Retinal edema, the accumulation of extracellular fluid in the retina is usually attributed to inner blood retina barrier (BRB) leakage. Vascular endothelial growth factor plays an important role in this process. The effects of VEGF on the outer BRB, the RPE, however, have received limited attention. Here, we present a methodology to assess how VEGF modulates the integrity of the RPE barrier in vivo. Methods. Control subretinal blebs (1–5 ?L) and blebs containing VEGF (1–100 ?g/mL), placental growth factor (PlGF; 100 ?g/mL), or albumin (100–1000 ?g/mL) were injected into New Zealand White or Dutch Belted rabbits with IOP maintained at 10, 15, or 20 mm Hg. One-hour intravitreal pretreatment with ZM323881 (10 ?M/L) was used to inhibit the VEGF response. Fluid resorption was followed by optical coherence tomography for 1 hour. Retinal pigment epithelium leakage was assessed by fluorescein angiography. Results. Increasing IOP resulted in an elevated rate of bleb resorption, while increasing albumin concentration in the bleb decreased the rate of resorption. Vascular endothelial growth factor, but not PlGF, caused a significant, concentration-dependent decrease in the rate of fluid resorption, which was reversed by ZM323881. Compared with albumin-filled blebs, VEGF-filled blebs showed accelerated early-phase leakage from the choroid. Conclusions. Consistent with a localized modulation of RPE function, VEGF induced a significant reduction in fluid resorption and an increase in hydraulic conductivity. Our results establish VEGF as a major cytokine regulating RPE barrier properties in vivo and indicate that the RPE is a principal factor in the pathogenesis of retinal edema. PMID:24550368

Dahrouj, Mohammad; Alsarraf, Oday; McMillin, Jake C.; Liu, Yueying; Crosson, Craig E.; Ablonczy, Zsolt

2014-01-01

155

Teacher Praise: A Functional Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher praise typically does not function as a reinforcer. Rather, it is reactive to and under the control of student behavior. Its effects must be understood using concepts from attribution and social learning/reinforcement theories. (Author/GK)

Brophy, Jere

1981-01-01

156

Singularity Analysis of Generating Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a class of methods by which one can translate, on a term-by-term basis, an asymptotic expansion ofa function around a dominant singularity into a corresponding asymptotic expansion for the Taylor coefficients ofthe function. This approach is based on contour integration using Cauchy's formula and Hankel-like contours. It constitutes an alternative to either Darboux's method or Tauberian theorems

Philippe Flajolet; Andrew M. Odlyzko

1990-01-01

157

Functional Techniques for Data Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This dissertation develops a new general method of solving Prony's problem. Two special cases of this new method have been developed previously. They are the Matrix Pencil and the Osculatory Interpolation. The dissertation shows that they are instances of a more general solution type which allows a wide ranging class of linear functional to be used in the solution of the problem. This class provides a continuum of functionals which provide new methods that can be used to solve Prony's problem.

Tomlinson, John R.

1997-01-01

158

Twins, quadruplexes, and more: functional aspects of native and engineered RNA self-assembly in vivo  

PubMed Central

The primacy and power of RNA in governing many processes of life has begun to be more fully appreciated in both the discovery and inventive sciences. A variety of RNA interactions regulate gene expression, and structural self-assembly underlies many of these processes. The understanding sparked by these discoveries has inspired and informed the engineering of novel RNA structures, control elements, and genetic circuits in cells. Many of these engineered systems are built up fundamentally from RNA–RNA interactions, often combining modular, rational design with functional selection and screening. It is therefore useful to review the particular class of RNA-based regulatory mechanisms that rely on RNA self-assembly either through homomeric (self–self) or heteromeric (self–nonself) RNA–RNA interactions. Structures and sequence elements within individual RNAs create a basis for the pairing interactions, and in some instances can even lead to the formation of RNA polymers. Example systems of dimers, multimers, and polymers are reviewed in this article in the context of natural systems, wherein the function and impact of self-assemblies are understood. Following this, a brief overview is presented of specific engineered RNA self-assembly systems implemented in vivo, with lessons learned from both discovery and engineering approaches to RNA–RNA self-assembly. PMID:23914307

Lease, Richard A.; Arluison, Veronique; Lavelle, Christophe

2013-01-01

159

Humanized large-scale expanded endothelial colony-forming cells function in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

Endothelial progenitor cells are critically involved in essential biologic processes, such as vascular homeostasis, regeneration, and tumor angiogenesis. Endothelial colony–forming cells (ECFCs) are endothelial progenitor cells with robust proliferative potential. Their profound vessel-forming capacity makes them a promising tool for innovative experimental, diagnostic, and therapeutic strategies. Efficient and safe methods for their isolation and expansion are presently lacking. Based on the previously established efficacy of animal serum–free large-scale clinical-grade propagation of mesenchymal stromal cells, we hypothesized that endothelial lineage cells may also be propagated efficiently following a comparable strategy. Here we demonstrate that human ECFCs can be recovered directly from unmanipulated whole blood. A novel large-scale animal protein-free humanized expansion strategy preserves the progenitor hierarchy with sustained proliferation potential of more than 30 population doublings. By applying large-scale propagated ECFCs in various test systems, we observed vascular networks in vitro and perfused vessels in vivo. After large-scale expansion and cryopreservation phenotype, function, proliferation, and genomic stability were maintained. For the first time, proliferative, functional, and storable ECFCs propagated under humanized conditions can be explored in terms of their therapeutic applicability and risk profile. PMID:19321860

Reinisch, Andreas; Hofmann, Nicole A.; Obenauf, Anna C.; Kashofer, Karl; Rohde, Eva; Schallmoser, Katharina; Flicker, Karin; Lanzer, Gerhard; Linkesch, Werner; Speicher, Michael R.

2009-01-01

160

Conserved fate and function of ferumoxides-labeled neural precursor cells in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Recent progress in cell therapy research for brain diseases has raised the need for non-invasive monitoring of transplanted cells. For therapeutic application in multiple sclerosis, transplanted cells need to be tracked both spatially and temporally, in order to assess their migration and survival in the host tissue. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of superparamagnetic iron oxide-(SPIO)-labeled cells has been widely used for high resolution monitoring of the biodistribution of cells after transplantation into the central nervous system (CNS). Here we labeled mouse glial-committed neural precursor cells (NPCs) with the clinically approved SPIO contrast agent ferumoxides and examined their survival and differentiation in vitro, as well as their functional response to environmental signals present within the inflamed brain of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice in vivo. We show that ferumoxides labeling does not affect NPC survival and pluripotency in vitro. Following intracerebroventricular (ICV) transplantation in EAE mice, ferumoxides-labeled NPCs responded to inflammatory cues in a similar fashion as unlabeled cells. Ferumoxides-labeled NPCs migrated over comparable distances in white matter tracts and differentiated equally into the glial lineages. Furthermore, ferumoxides-labeled NPCs inhibited lymph node cell proliferation in vitro, similarly to non-labeled cells, suggesting a preserved immunomodulatory function. These results demonstrate that ferumoxides-based MRI cell tracking is well suited for non-invasive monitoring of NPC transplantation. PMID:19885865

Cohen, Mikhal E; Muja, Naser; Fainstein, Nina; Bulte, Jeff W M; Ben-Hur, Tamir

2010-04-01

161

Caspase inhibitors promote vestibular hair cell survival and function after aminoglycoside treatment in vivo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sensory hair cells of the inner ear undergo apoptosis after acoustic trauma or aminoglycoside antibiotic treatment, causing permanent auditory and vestibular deficits in humans. Previous studies have demonstrated a role for caspase activation in hair cell death and ototoxic injury that can be reduced by concurrent treatment with caspase inhibitors in vitro. In this study, we examined the protective effects of caspase inhibition on hair cell death in vivo after systemic injections of aminoglycosides. In one series of experiments, chickens were implanted with osmotic pumps that administrated the pan-caspase inhibitor z-Val-Ala-Asp(Ome)-fluoromethylketone (zVAD) into inner ear fluids. One day after the surgery, the animals received a 5 d course of treatment with streptomycin, a vestibulotoxic aminoglycoside. Direct infusion of zVAD into the vestibule significantly increased hair cell survival after streptomycin treatment. A second series of experiments determined whether rescued hair cells could function as sensory receptors. Animals treated with streptomycin displayed vestibular system impairment as measured by a greatly reduced vestibulo-ocular response (VOR). In contrast, animals that received concurrent systemic administration of zVAD with streptomycin had both significantly greater hair cell survival and significantly increased VOR responses, as compared with animals treated with streptomycin alone. These findings suggest that inhibiting the activation of caspases promotes the survival of hair cells and protects against vestibular function deficits after aminoglycoside treatment.

Matsui, Jonathan I.; Haque, Asim; Huss, David; Messana, Elizabeth P.; Alosi, Julie A.; Roberson, David W.; Cotanche, Douglas A.; Dickman, J. David; Warchol, Mark E.

2003-01-01

162

In vivo visualization of endolyphatic hydrops in patients with Meniere's disease: correlation with audiovestibular function.  

PubMed

Our objective is to determine whether the degree of endolymphatic hydrops as it is detected in vivo in patients with definite Meniere's disease correlates with audiovestibular function. In this prospective study, 37 patients with definite Meniere's disease according to AAO-HNS criteria were included. Intratympanic contrast enhanced temporal bone MRI was performed using a 3D FLAIR protocol. The degree of endolymphatic hydrops in the cochlea and the vestibulum was graded on a Likert scale (0-3). The degree of hydrops was then analyzed with respect to its correlation with audiometric hearing levels, electrocochleographic SP/AP ratios, interaural amplitude ratios of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and degree of horizontal semicircular canal paresis on caloric irrigation. There was a significant correlation between the degree of hydrops on the one hand and the averaged hearing level at 0.25-1 and 0.5-3 kHz and the vestibular evoked myogenic potential interaural amplitude ratio on the other hand. A trend toward a correlation was noticed between the hydrops and the caloric response, no correlation was noticed between the hydrops and the SP/AP ratio. The degree of endolymphatic hydrops correlates with a progressive loss of auditory and sacculus function in patients with Meniere`s disease. PMID:21431434

Gürkov, Robert; Flatz, Wilhem; Louza, Julia; Strupp, Michael; Krause, Eike

2011-12-01

163

Functional remodeling of benign human prostatic tissues in vivo by spontaneously immortalized progenitor and intermediate cells.  

PubMed

Tissue remodeling or regeneration is believed to initiate from multipotent stem and progenitor cells. We report here the establishment of two spontaneously immortalized adult non-tumorigenic human prostate epithelial cell lines, NHPrE1 and BHPrE1. NHPrE1 (CD133(high)/CD44(high)/OCT4(high)/PTEN(high)) was characterized as a putative progenitor cell, and BHPrE1 (p63(high)/p53(high)/p21(WAF1)(high)/RB(high)) was characterized as a putative epithelial intermediate cell. Genomic analysis demonstrated an abnormal karyotype with genomic rearrangements including PTEN amplification in NHPrE1 and CTNNB1 (beta-catenin) amplification in BHPrE1 cells. Embedded three-dimensional culture of NHPrE1 showed greater branching than BHPrE1. A tissue recombination-xenografting model was utilized to compare remodeling of human prostatic tissues in vivo. A series of tissue recombinants, made by mixing different ratios of human prostatic epithelial cells and inductive rat urogenital sinus mesenchyme, were grafted to the renal capsule of severe combined immunodeficient mice. Both cell lines were able to regenerate benign secretory ductal-acinar architecture in vivo, containing intact basal and luminal epithelial layers confirmed by the expression of appropriate CK profiles. Prostate-specific antigen, 15-lipoxygenase-2, androgen receptor, and NKX3.1 proteins were appropriately expressed in the regenerated epithelia. Regeneration of benign prostatic glandular structures could be achieved using as few as 10 NHPrE1 cells, whereas 200,000 BHPrE1 cells were required to achieve prostatic architecture. This suggests a greater proportion of progenitor/stem cells in NHPrE1 than in BHPrE1. These cell lines provide important data on progenitor and intermediate cell phenotypes and represent significant new tools for the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of human prostatic regeneration, pathogenesis, and carcinogenesis. PMID:20020426

Jiang, Ming; Strand, Douglas W; Fernandez, Suzanne; He, Yue; Yi, Yajun; Birbach, Andreas; Qiu, Qingchao; Schmid, Johannes; Tang, Dean G; Hayward, Simon W

2010-02-01

164

Fibered confocal spectroscopy and multicolor imaging system for in vivo fluorescence analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the design and implementation of spectroscopic and multicolor imaging capabilities into a fibered confocal fluorescence microscope (FCFM) already capable of in vivo imaging. The real time imaging device and the high resolution fiber probe make this system the first reported capable of performing multi color detection in the field of FCFM. The advantages of the system will allow in vivo morphological and functional imaging. Preliminary experiments were carried out in tissue samples to demonstrate the potential of the technique. The quality of the axial sectioning achieved in the confocal fluorescence spectroscopy mode is demonstrated experimentally, and applications to multicolor imaging are shown.

Jean, Florence; Bourg-Heckly, Genevieve; Viellerobe, Bertrand

2007-04-01

165

Recovery of macular pigment spectrum in vivo using hyperspectral image analysis  

PubMed Central

We investigated the feasibility of a novel method for hyperspectral mapping of macular pigment (MP) in vivo. Six healthy subjects were recruited for noninvasive imaging using a snapshot hyperspectral system. The three-dimensional full spatial-spectral data cube was analyzed using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF), wherein the data was decomposed to give spectral signatures and spatial distribution, in search for the MP absorbance spectrum. The NMF was initialized with the in vitro MP spectrum and rank 4 spectral signature decomposition was used to recover the MP spectrum and optical density in vivo. The recovered MP spectra showed two peaks in the blue spectrum, characteristic of MP, giving a detailed in vivo demonstration of these absorbance peaks. The peak MP optical densities ranged from 0.08 to 0.22 (mean 0.15+/?0.05) and became spatially negligible at diameters 1100 to 1760 ?m (4 to 6 deg) in the normal subjects. This objective method was able to exploit prior knowledge (the in vitro MP spectrum) in order to extract an accurate in vivo spectral analysis and full MP spatial profile, while separating the MP spectra from other ocular absorbers. Snapshot hyperspectral imaging in combination with advanced mathematical analysis provides a simple cost-effective approach for MP mapping in vivo. PMID:22029355

Fawzi, Amani A.; Lee, Noah; Acton, Jennifer H.; Laine, Andrew F.; Smith, R. Theodore

2011-01-01

166

Recovery of macular pigment spectrum in vivo using hyperspectral image analysis.  

PubMed

We investigated the feasibility of a novel method for hyperspectral mapping of macular pigment (MP) in vivo. Six healthy subjects were recruited for noninvasive imaging using a snapshot hyperspectral system. The three-dimensional full spatial-spectral data cube was analyzed using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF), wherein the data was decomposed to give spectral signatures and spatial distribution, in search for the MP absorbance spectrum. The NMF was initialized with the in vitro MP spectrum and rank 4 spectral signature decomposition was used to recover the MP spectrum and optical density in vivo. The recovered MP spectra showed two peaks in the blue spectrum, characteristic of MP, giving a detailed in vivo demonstration of these absorbance peaks. The peak MP optical densities ranged from 0.08 to 0.22 (mean 0.15+?-0.05) and became spatially negligible at diameters 1100 to 1760 ?m (4 to 6 deg) in the normal subjects. This objective method was able to exploit prior knowledge (the in vitro MP spectrum) in order to extract an accurate in vivo spectral analysis and full MP spatial profile, while separating the MP spectra from other ocular absorbers. Snapshot hyperspectral imaging in combination with advanced mathematical analysis provides a simple cost-effective approach for MP mapping in vivo. PMID:22029355

Fawzi, Amani A; Lee, Noah; Acton, Jennifer H; Laine, Andrew F; Smith, R Theodore

2011-10-01

167

In vivo imaging of synaptic function in the central nervous system: II. Mental and affective disorders.  

PubMed

This review gives an overview of those in vivo imaging studies on synaptic neurotransmission, which so far have been performed on patients with mental and affective disorders. Thereby, the focus is on disease-related deficiencies within the functional entities of the dopaminergic, serotonergic, cholinergic, histaminergic, glutamatergic, or GABAergic synapse. So far, in vivo investigations have yielded rather inconsistent results on the dysfunctions of specific synaptic constituents in the pathophysiology of the diseases covered by this overview. Among the more congruent results are the findings of increased synthesis (8 out of a total of 12 reports) and release of dopamine (4 out of 4 reports) in the striatum of schizophrenic patients, which supports the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. Results on both dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission are inconsistent in both major depressive disorder and bipolar illness, and fail to clearly agree with the dopamine and/or serotonin hypothesis of depression. The majority of in vivo findings suggest no alterations (25 out of a total of 50 reports on serotonin synthesis, transporter as well as receptor binding) rather than a deficiency (merely 13 out of these 50 reports) of cortical serotonergic neurotransmission in major depression, whereas a decrease of cortical serotonergic neurotransmission (3 out of a total on 5 reports) can be assumed in bipolar illness. In borderline personality disorder, an increased binding of serotonin transporter binding was observed (merely 1 report). Due to the limited evidence, this result only with due caution may be interpreted as an indication for increased availability of serotonin in the synaptic cleft. Patients with Tourette syndrome exhibited increases of DAT binding in the neostriatum (5 out of 10 reports) increases of dopamine storage and dopamine release in the ventral striatum (1 report, each). Moreover, striatal D2 receptor binding was found to be decreased in advanced stages of the disease. Results, tentatively, may be interpreted in terms of an increased dopaminergic neurotransmission in the mesolimbic system. There is limited evidence of decreased dopamine synthesis in both children and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (4 out of a total of 10 reports). These findings as well as the reduction of striatal dopamine release observed in adults (merely 1 report) are in line with the notion of mesocortical dopaminergic hypofunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Thereby, however, in children, results on dopamine synthesis indicate a deficiency in the ventral tegmentum rather than in the prefrontal cortex, whereas, with increasing age, the prefrontal cortex rather than the sites of origin of DAergic innervation become predominantly affected (merely 1 report, each). In anxiety disorders, varying results have been obtained for both pre- and/or postsynaptic dopaminergic, serotonergic and GABAergic binding sites. Thereby, results on posttraumatic stress disorder are homogenous reporting a decrease of GABA A receptor binding in all investigated brain regions including striatum, thalamus, neocortex and limbic system (2 out of 2 reports, each). Moreover, patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder displayed increases of dopamine transporter binding (2 out of 4 reports) and decreases of both D1 (merely 1 report) and D2 receptor binding (4 out of 5 reports), respectively. These findings, tentatively, may be interpreted in terms of an increased availability of synaptic dopamine in the neostriatum, which is compensated for both pre- and postsynaptically by increasing dopamine reuptake into the presynaptic terminal, and decreasing (inhibitory) signal transduction of efferent fibers. The observed reduction of GABA A receptor binding in frontocortical neurons (in 11 out of a total of 21 reports on anxiety disorders) is in line with this assumption. The inconsistency (and, partially, also incompleteness) of in vivo findings on mental and affective disorders constitutes a major result of this overview. Discrepancies

Nikolaus, Susanne; Antke, Christina; Müller, Hans-Wilhelm

2009-12-01

168

GPU Accelerated Statistical Analysis of Cryptographic Functions  

E-print Network

,640 output bit pairs; 2,000 trials; 1 test: Uniformity test (20-bin chi-square test) Alan Kaminsky (RIT test (20-bin chi-square test) Alan Kaminsky (RIT) Statistical Analysis of Crypto Functions SIAM PP12 11 Functions 2 Statistical Tests on Cryptographic Functions 3 Statistical Tests on Superpolys of Cryptographic

Kaminsky, Alan

169

Soil engineering in vivo: harnessing natural biogeochemical systems for sustainable, multi-functional engineering solutions  

PubMed Central

Carbon sequestration, infrastructure rehabilitation, brownfields clean-up, hazardous waste disposal, water resources protection and global warming—these twenty-first century challenges can neither be solved by the high-energy consumptive practices that hallmark industry today, nor by minor tweaking or optimization of these processes. A more radical, holistic approach is required to develop the sustainable solutions society needs. Most of the above challenges occur within, are supported on, are enabled by or grown from soil. Soil, contrary to conventional civil engineering thought, is a living system host to multiple simultaneous processes. It is proposed herein that ‘soil engineering in vivo’, wherein the natural capacity of soil as a living ecosystem is used to provide multiple solutions simultaneously, may provide new, innovative, sustainable solutions to some of these great challenges of the twenty-first century. This requires a multi-disciplinary perspective that embraces the science of biology, chemistry and physics and applies this knowledge to provide multi-functional civil and environmental engineering designs for the soil environment. For example, can native soil bacterial species moderate the carbonate cycle in soils to simultaneously solidify liquefiable soil, immobilize reactive heavy metals and sequester carbon—effectively providing civil engineering functionality while clarifying the ground water and removing carbon from the atmosphere? Exploration of these ideas has begun in earnest in recent years. This paper explores the potential, challenges and opportunities of this new field, and highlights one biogeochemical function of soil that has shown promise and is developing rapidly as a new technology. The example is used to propose a generalized approach in which the potential of this new field can be fully realized. PMID:20829246

DeJong, Jason T.; Soga, Kenichi; Banwart, Steven A.; Whalley, W. Richard; Ginn, Timothy R.; Nelson, Douglas C.; Mortensen, Brina M.; Martinez, Brian C.; Barkouki, Tammer

2011-01-01

170

In vivo analysis of cohesin architecture using FRET in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

E-print Network

EMBO open In vivo analysis of cohesin architecture using FRET in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution. cerevisiae; Smc proteins Introduction Cohesin is member of the family of Smc (structural main- tenance

Davis, Trisha N.

171

Error rates in bite mark analysis in an in vivo animal model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent judicial decisions have specified that one foundation of reliability of comparative forensic disciplines is description of both scientific approach used and calculation of error rates in determining the reliability of an expert opinion. Thirty volunteers were recruited for the analysis of dermal bite marks made using a previously established in vivo porcine-skin model. Ten participants were recruited from three

S. L. Avon; C. Victor; J. T. Mayhall; R. E. Wood

2010-01-01

172

Evaluation of in vivo Liver Tissue Characterization with Spectral RF Analysis versus Elasticity  

E-print Network

Evaluation of in vivo Liver Tissue Characterization with Spectral RF Analysis versus Elasticity to assess, under active mechanical constraints, the elas- ticity of the liver, correlating with fibrosis at differ- ent locations in the liver. This paper presents a thorough evaluation of passive- mode RF

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitƩ de

173

Protein Polymer MRI Contrast Agents: Longitudinal Analysis of Biomaterials In Vivo  

E-print Network

Protein Polymer MRI Contrast Agents: Longitudinal Analysis of Biomaterials In Vivo Lindsay S Reson Med 65:220Ā­228, 2011. VC 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Key words: MRI; Gd(III) contrast agent; protein. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a tomographic technique with high temporal and spatial resolution

Barron, Annelise E.

174

Advanced Molecular Profiling in Vivo Detects Novel Function of Dickkopf-3 in the Regulation of Bone Formation  

E-print Network

development(1) and fracture healing.(2) Endochondral bone formation is a multistep process that involves to verify and understand the complexity of endochondral bone forma- tion. In a rat fracture model, severalAdvanced Molecular Profiling in Vivo Detects Novel Function of Dickkopf-3 in the Regulation of Bone

Domany, Eytan

175

Water Sorption-desorption Test of the Skin in Vivo for Functional Assessment of the Stratum Corneum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the evidence from previous studies that the hydration state of the skin surface can be evaluated quickly and quantitatively in terms of conductance to the high frequency electric current of 3.5 MHz, a simple in vivo function test has been established that furnishes information on the hygroscopic property and water-holding capacity of the stratum corneum in a few

Hachiro Tagami; Yuko Kanamaru; Kunio Inoue; Shoko Suehisa; Fumio Inoue; Keiji Iwatsuki; Kohdo Yoshikuni; Mizuho Yamada

1982-01-01

176

A proposed multidimensional analysis function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous work has suggested a potential value in the combination of physical property data types (e.g. magnetic and terrain slope) when searching for oil and mineral deposits. This work studies a notional multi-dimensional function to determine the likelihood of finding such deposits. Additionally, this hypothesis assumes some basic requirements must be meet in order to validate this function. The standard for determining the value of commercially gathered electro optical imagery is the same as with any optical system -- the ability to determine object in the field of view. Further, this function is defined as the ability to determine the presence of two parallel lines, vice only one. The National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) uses a function called Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) to determine the elevation within a field of view. The DTED values for each pixel within a digital, commercial image can be considered similar to a gradient, whereby higher values are merely higher elevations. For the commercial electro optical system IKONOS (owned by Space Imaging, Inc.), the "resolution" is commonly referred to as 1 meter, which is the least discernable, parallel-line, separation distance. This hypothesis uses gravity and magnetic data to augment the DTED "gradient". As with the terrain values on the earth, gravity and magnetic values are continuously changing. Further, they can change for various reasons. Both are greatly affected by the changes in the subsurface materials, or the density of the soil and metallic content (e.g. iron). It is precisely these variations, through the combination of such differing forms of data, which can help determine the presence of oil and mineral deposits. The core of this work is a notional function development. Previous peer review has rightly pointed out that data fusion principles state that data must be commensurable before it can be fused. This work does not attempt to redefine data fusion concepts, but merely establish a set of gradients for digital terrain, gravity, and magnetic data sets. From these gradients, a combined function is defined which relates to a unique "signatures" for oil and mineral deposits. This signature could be derived from common gradient data (DTED slope, gravity, and magnetic).

Knight, Byron F.; Hamilton, Mark K.

2003-08-01

177

Functional Data Analysis in Brain Imaging Studies  

PubMed Central

Functional data analysis (FDA) considers the continuity of the curves or functions, and is a topic of increasing interest in the statistics community. FDA is commonly applied to time-series and spatial-series studies. The development of functional brain imaging techniques in recent years made it possible to study the relationship between brain and mind over time. Consequently, an enormous amount of functional data is collected and needs to be analyzed. Functional techniques designed for these data are in strong demand. This paper discusses three statistically challenging problems utilizing FDA techniques in functional brain imaging analysis. These problems are dimension reduction (or feature extraction), spatial classification in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, and the inverse problem in magneto-encephalography studies. The application of FDA to these issues is relatively new but has been shown to be considerably effective. Future efforts can further explore the potential of FDA in functional brain imaging studies. PMID:21833205

Tian, Tian Siva

2010-01-01

178

Development of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for in vivo Functional Imaging of Biological Tissues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical coherence tomography is a rapidly developing optical imaging modality capable of noninvasively providing depth resolved information of biological tissue at micrometer scale. In this thesis, we described several OCT technologies that can be used to double the imaging depth, realize functional vasculature imaging of biological tissue and increase the imaging speed of OCT system. Aim 1: Use of a scanner to introduce spatial frequency modulation to OCT spectral interferograms for in vivo full-range Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. A novel method was developed that could easily introduce a modulation frequency onto the X-direction (i.e., B-scan) of the FDOCT scanning system, enabling full-range Fourier-domain Optical Coherence Tomography (frFDOCT). Compared to the conventional FDOCT system, the newly developed frFDOCT system can provide increased system sensitivity and deeper imaging depth. The previous technology that can achieve frFDOCT either needed multiple steps for data capturing, which is time consuming, or required additional components which increased the system's complexity. The newly developed method generates a modulation spatial frequency in the spectral interferogram by simply offsetting the probe beam at the X-scanner. Aim 2: Using optical micro-angiography to achieve in vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids. Optical Micro-Angiography (OMAG) is a functional extension of FDOCT technology. It can achieve visualization of vasculature network of biological tissue. In order to apply the OMAG method to image vasculature map of human retina and choroid, a phase compensation algorithm was developed, which could minimize the motion artifacts generated by the movements of human eye and head. Aim 3: Developing ultrahigh sensitive optical micro-angiography to achieve micro vasculature imaging of biological tissue. To improve the vasculature image quality, we developed ultrahigh sensitive OMAG (UHS-OMAG). Unlike conventional OMAG, UHS-OMAG applied the OMAG algorithm onto the slow direction of FDOCT scan (Y-direction). Because the time interval between adjacent B-frames is much longer than that between adjacent A-lines, UHS-OMAG can achieve much higher flow sensitivity compared to the conventional OMAG. In addition, the UHS-OMAG usually employed high frame rate (typically 300 frames per second) to achieve 3D scan, it cost much less time to finish one 3D scan compared to the traditional OMAG. However, when it was applied to visualize vasculature map of human tissue, the motion artifacts caused by the inevitable movements is still the biggest challenge. Based on the phase difference calculated from two adjacent B-frames, a new phase compensation algorithm was developed. Aim 4: Developing ultrahigh speed Spectral Domain OCT system through sequentially controlling two high speed line scan CMOS cameras. Two identical high speed line cameras were employed to build two home build high speed spectrometers. Through sequentially controlling the reading time period of two cameras, the imaging speed of the whole system could reach twice higher than the single camera system. The newly built 800 nm SDOCT system which can work at 500, 000 Hz A-lines capturing speed was then used to achieve in vivo 3D imaging in both high speed and large field of view mode. In addition, through combining with the OMAG algorithm, the newly developed system is capable of providing detailed micro-vasculature imaging of human retina and optic nerve head. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

An, Lin

179

Energy function analysis for power system stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy Function Analysis for Power System Stability presents the concept of energy function, which has found wide-spread applications for power systems in recent years. The most recent advances in five distinct areas are reviewed: Development of energy functions for structure preserving models, which can incorporate non-linear load models; energy functions which include a detailed model of the generating unit (i.e.

M. A. Pai

1989-01-01

180

Sensitivity analysis of near-infrared functional lymphatic imaging  

PubMed Central

Abstract. Near-infrared imaging of lymphatic drainage of injected indocyanine green (ICG) has emerged as a new technology for clinical imaging of lymphatic architecture and quantification of vessel function, yet the imaging capabilities of this approach have yet to be quantitatively characterized. We seek to quantify its capabilities as a diagnostic tool for lymphatic disease. Imaging is performed in a tissue phantom for sensitivity analysis and in hairless rats for in vivo testing. To demonstrate the efficacy of this imaging approach to quantifying immediate functional changes in lymphatics, we investigate the effects of a topically applied nitric oxide (NO) donor glyceryl trinitrate ointment. Premixing ICG with albumin induces greater fluorescence intensity, with the ideal concentration being 150???g/mL ICG and 60??g/L albumin. ICG fluorescence can be detected at a concentration of 150???g/mL as deep as 6 mm with our system, but spatial resolution deteriorates below 3 mm, skewing measurements of vessel geometry. NO treatment slows lymphatic transport, which is reflected in increased transport time, reduced packet frequency, reduced packet velocity, and reduced effective contraction length. NIR imaging may be an alternative to invasive procedures measuring lymphatic function in vivo in real time. PMID:22734775

Weiler, Michael; Kassis, Timothy; Dixon, J. Brandon

2012-01-01

181

Sensitivity analysis of near-infrared functional lymphatic imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-infrared imaging of lymphatic drainage of injected indocyanine green (ICG) has emerged as a new technology for clinical imaging of lymphatic architecture and quantification of vessel function, yet the imaging capabilities of this approach have yet to be quantitatively characterized. We seek to quantify its capabilities as a diagnostic tool for lymphatic disease. Imaging is performed in a tissue phantom for sensitivity analysis and in hairless rats for in vivo testing. To demonstrate the efficacy of this imaging approach to quantifying immediate functional changes in lymphatics, we investigate the effects of a topically applied nitric oxide (NO) donor glyceryl trinitrate ointment. Premixing ICG with albumin induces greater fluorescence intensity, with the ideal concentration being 150 ?g/mL ICG and 60 g/L albumin. ICG fluorescence can be detected at a concentration of 150 ?g/mL as deep as 6 mm with our system, but spatial resolution deteriorates below 3 mm, skewing measurements of vessel geometry. NO treatment slows lymphatic transport, which is reflected in increased transport time, reduced packet frequency, reduced packet velocity, and reduced effective contraction length. NIR imaging may be an alternative to invasive procedures measuring lymphatic function in vivo in real time.

Weiler, Michael; Kassis, Timothy; Dixon, J. Brandon

2012-06-01

182

Transcriptome Analysis in Chicken Cecal Epithelia upon Infection by Eimeria tenella In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Coccidiosis, caused by various Eimeria species, is a major parasitic disease in chickens. However, our understanding on how chickens respond to coccidian infection is highly limited at both molecular and cellular levels. The present study employed the Affymetrix chicken genome array and performed transcriptome analysis on chicken cecal epithelia in response to infection for 4.5 days in vivo by the cecal-specific species E. tenella. By Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM), we have identified 7,099 probe sets with q-values at <0.05, in which 4,033 and 3,066 genes were found to be up- or down-regulated in response to parasite infection. The reliability of the microarray data were validated by real-time qRT-PCR of 20 genes with varied fold changes in expression (i.e., correlation coefficient between microarray and qRT-PCR datasets: R2?=?0.8773, p<0.0001). Gene ontology analysis, KEGG pathway mapping and manual annotations of regulated genes indicated that up-regulated genes were mainly involved in immunity/defense, responses to various stimuli, apoptosis/cell death and differentiation, signal transduction and extracellular matrix (ECM), whereas down-regulated genes were mainly encoding general metabolic enzymes, membrane components, and some transporters. Chickens mustered complex cecal eipthelia molecular and immunological responses in response to E. tenella infection, which included pathways involved in cytokine production and interactions, natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, and intestinal IgA production. In response to the pathogenesis and damage caused by infection, chicken cecal epithelia reduced general metabolism, DNA replication and repair, protein degradation, and mitochondrial functions. PMID:23737974

Guo, Aijiang; Cai, Jianping; Gong, Wei; Yan, Hongbin; Luo, Xuenong; Tian, Guangfu; Zhang, Shaohua; Zhang, Haili; Zhu, Guan; Cai, Xuepeng

2013-01-01

183

Systematic in vivo RNAi analysis identifies IAPs as NEDD8-E3 ligases.  

PubMed

The intimate relationship between mediators of the ubiquitin (Ub)-signaling system and human diseases has sparked profound interest in how Ub influences cell death and survival. While the consequence of Ub attachment is intensely studied, little is known with regards to the effects of other Ub-like proteins (UBLs), and deconjugating enzymes that remove the Ub or UBL adduct. Systematic in vivo RNAi analysis identified three NEDD8-specific isopeptidases that, when knocked down, suppress apoptosis. Consistent with the notion that attachment of NEDD8 prevents cell death, genetic ablation of deneddylase 1 (DEN1) suppresses apoptosis. Unexpectedly, we find that Drosophila and human inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins can function as E3 ligases of the NEDD8 conjugation pathway, targeting effector caspases for neddylation and inactivation. Finally, we demonstrate that DEN1 reverses this effect by removing the NEDD8 modification. Altogether, our findings indicate that IAPs not only modulate cellular processes via ubiquitylation but also through attachment of NEDD8, thereby extending the complexity of IAP-mediated signaling. PMID:21145488

Broemer, Meike; Tenev, Tencho; Rigbolt, Kristoffer T G; Hempel, Sophie; Blagoev, Blagoy; Silke, John; Ditzel, Mark; Meier, Pascal

2010-12-10

184

Stimulus analysis of BetP activation under in vivo conditions.  

PubMed

The secondary active, Na(+) coupled glycine betaine carrier BetP from Corynebacterium glutamicum BetP was shown to harbor two different functions, transport catalysis (betaine uptake) and stimulus sensing, as well as activity regulation in response to hyperosmotic stress. By analysis in a reconstituted system, the rise in the cytoplasmic K(+) concentration was identified as a primary stimulus for BetP activation. We have now studied regulation of BetP in vivo by independent variation of both the cytoplasmic K(+) concentration and the transmembrane osmotic gradient. The rise in internal K(+) was found to be necessary but not sufficient for BetP activation in cells. In addition hyperosmotic stress is required for full transport activity in cells, but not in proteoliposomes. This second stimulus of BetP could be mimicked in cells by the addition of the amphiphile tetracaine which hints to a relationship of this type of stimulus to a change in membrane properties. Determination of the molecular activity of BetP in both cells and proteoliposomes provided experimental evidence that in proteoliposomes BetP exists in a pre-stimulated condition and reaches full activity already in response to the K(+) stimulus. PMID:24384063

Maximov, Stanislav; Ott, Vera; Belkoura, Lhoussaine; Krämer, Reinhard

2014-05-01

185

Localization of recombination proteins and Srs2 reveals anti-recombinase function in vivo  

PubMed Central

Homologous recombination (HR), although an important DNA repair mechanism, is dangerous to the cell if improperly regulated. The Srs2 “anti-recombinase” restricts HR by disassembling the Rad51 nucleoprotein filament, an intermediate preceding the exchange of homologous DNA strands. Here, we cytologically characterize Srs2 function in vivo and describe a novel mechanism for regulating the initiation of HR. We find that Srs2 is recruited separately to replication and repair centers and identify the genetic requirements for recruitment. In the absence of Srs2 activity, Rad51 foci accumulate, and surprisingly, can form in the absence of Rad52 mediation. However, these Rad51 foci do not represent repair-proficient filaments, as determined by recombination assays. Antagonistic roles for Rad52 and Srs2 in Rad51 filament formation are also observed in vitro. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Srs2 removes Rad51 indiscriminately from DNA, while the Rad52 protein coordinates appropriate filament reformation. This constant breakdown and rebuilding of filaments may act as a stringent quality control mechanism during HR. PMID:19506039

Burgess, Rebecca C.; Lisby, Michael; Altmannova, Veronika; Krejci, Lumir; Sung, Patrick

2009-01-01

186

Light-induced electron transfer in Arabidopsis cryptochrome-1 correlates with in vivo function.  

PubMed

Cryptochromes are blue light-activated photoreceptors found in multiple organisms with significant similarity to photolyases, a class of light-dependent DNA repair enzymes. Unlike photolyases, cryptochromes do not repair DNA and instead mediate blue light-dependent developmental, growth, and/or circadian responses by an as yet unknown mechanism of action. It has recently been shown that Arabidopsis cryptochrome-1 retains photolyase-like photoreduction of its flavin cofactor FAD by intraprotein electron transfer from tryptophan and tyrosine residues. Here we demonstrate that substitution of two conserved tryptophans that are constituents of the flavin-reducing electron transfer chain in Escherichia coli photolyase impairs light-induced electron transfer in the Arabidopsis cryptochrome-1 photoreceptor in vitro. Furthermore, we show that these substitutions result in marked reduction of light-activated autophosphorylation of cryptochrome-1 in vitro and of its photoreceptor function in vivo, consistent with biological relevance of the electron transfer reaction. These data support the possibility that light-induced flavin reduction via the tryptophan chain is the primary step in the signaling pathway of plant cryptochrome. PMID:15774475

Zeugner, Anke; Byrdin, Martin; Bouly, Jean-Pierre; Bakrim, Nadia; Giovani, Baldissera; Brettel, Klaus; Ahmad, Margaret

2005-05-20

187

Functional integrity of the interrenal tissue of yellow perch from contaminated sites tested in vivo  

SciTech Connect

The normal activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI axis) in response to capture is disrupted in fish subjected to life-long exposure to heavy metals, PCBs and PAHs. The ability to increase plasma cortisol in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) from sites contaminated by heavy metals and organic compounds, and from a reference site was assessed by the Capture stress test and by the ACTH Challenge test, a new standardized in vivo method designed for field studies. The effects of seasonal factors, such as temperature and gonadal maturity on these tests were investigated. Measures of liver and muscle glycogen and histopathology were made to further characterize the biochemical and structural changes that may occur along with hormonal changes. The Capture stress test showed that an acute source of stress induced a lower cortisol response in fish from the highly contaminated site compared to the reference site, revealing a functional impairment of the HPI axis. The ACTH Challenge test showed that the hormonal responsiveness of the cortisol-secreting interrenal tissue, stimulated by a standard dose of ACTH injected i.p., was lower in fish from the highly contaminated site than the reference site. Spring is the season during which the impairment was the most evident. The possibility of using the reduced capacity of feral fish to respond to a standardized ACTH Challenge as an early bioindicator of toxic stress is discussed.

Girard, C.; Brodeur, J.C.; Hontela, A. [Univ. du Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

1995-12-31

188

[In vivo studies of the main functional systems in the heteronemertean pilidium larva].  

PubMed

There is performed in vivo morphological study of the White Sea heteronemerteans belonging to the type of pilidium pyramidale (conussoidale). Based on the layer-by-layer microshooting with subsequent computer processing, development of the pilidium digestive, nervous, and muscle systems is described from the stage following at once the gastrula to the premetamorphose larva. Peculiarities of structural organization of the main functional systems are revealed depending on the larva size and the stage of formation of imaginal discs. It is first shown that even in the not completely formed pilidium, neurons are located not only in integuments and wall of the digestive tract, but also in the depth of cupola along the central muscle retractor. Their processes are distributed between the main body parts and organs by seeming to perform connections of the apical organ and central muscle retractor with the digestive tract, blades, and the nerve plexus of the cupola wall. In the digestive tract between pharynx and stomach in the formed pilidium, the sphincter is first revealed. It has been shown that in the course of larva development, the non-orderly arranged and poorly developed muscle fibers gradually form in the blade the fan-like, whereas in the cupola wall, the net-like structure. PMID:20799611

Za?tseva, O V; Fliachinskaia, L P

2010-01-01

189

Phenotypic and in vivo functional characterization of immortalized human fetal liver cells  

PubMed Central

We report the establishment and characterization of immortalized human fetal liver progenitor cells by expression of the Simian virus 40 large T (SV40 LT) antigen. Well-characterized cells at various passages were transplanted into nude mice with acute liver injury and tested for functional capacity. The SV40LT antigen-immortalized fetal liver cells showed a morphology similar to primary cells. Cultured cells demonstrated stable phenotypic expression in various passages, of hepatic markers such as albumin, CK 8, CK18, transcription factors HNF-4? and HNF-1? and CYP3A/7. The cells did not stain for any of the tested cancer-associated markers. Albumin, HNF-4? and CYP3A7 expression was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Flow cytometry showed expression of some progenitor cell markers. In vivo study showed that the cells expressed both fetal and differentiated hepatocytes markers. Our study suggests new approaches to expand hepatic progenitor cells, analyze their fate in animal models aiming at cell therapy of hepatic diseases. PMID:24730442

Patil, Pradeep B.; Begum, Setara; Joshi, Meghnad; Kleman, Marika I; Olausson, Michael

2014-01-01

190

The effects of heat on skin barrier function and in vivo dermal absorption.  

PubMed

Enhanced delivery of ingredients across the stratum corneum (SC) is of great interest for improving the efficacy of topically applied formulations. Various methods for improving dermal penetration have been reported including galvanic devices and micro-needles. From a safety perspective it is important that such approaches do not compromise SC barrier function. This study investigates the influence of topically applied heat in vivo on the dermal uptake and penetration of a model active, allantoin from gel and lotion formulations. A custom designed device was used to deliver 42°C for 30s daily to human subjects after application of two formulations containing allantoin. The results were compared with sites treated with formulations containing no active and no heat, and a control site. In addition to penetration of allantoin, the integrity of the SC was monitored using trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements. The results showed that just 30s of 42°C topically applied heat was enough to cause significantly more penetration of allantoin from the lotion formulation compared with no application of heat. TEWL data indicated that the integrity of the skin was not compromised by the treatment. However, the application of heat did not promote enhanced penetration of the active from the gel formulation. Vehicle composition is therefore an important factor when considering thermal enhancement strategies for targeting actives to the skin. PMID:24445121

Oliveira, Gabriela; Leverett, Jesse C; Emamzadeh, Mandana; Lane, Majella E

2014-04-10

191

Glycan variants of a respiratory syncytial virus antibody with enhanced effector function and in vivo efficacy  

PubMed Central

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause devastating lower respiratory tract infections in preterm infants or when other serious health problems are present. Immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab (Synagis), a humanized IgG1 mAb, is the current standard of care for preventing RSV infection in at-risk neonates. We have explored the contribution of effector function to palivizumab efficacy using a plant-based expression system to produce palivizumab N-glycan structure variants with high homogeneity on different antibody isotypes. We compared these isotype and N-glycoform variants with commercially available palivizumab with respect to both in vitro receptor and C1q binding and in vivo efficacy. Whereas the affinity for antigen and neutralization activity of each variant were indistinguishable from those of palivizumab, their Fc? receptor binding profiles were very different, which was reflected in either a reduced or enhanced ability to influence the RSV lung titer in challenged cotton rats. Enhanced Fc? receptor binding was associated with reduced viral lung titers compared with palivizumab, whereas abrogation of receptor binding led to a drastic reduction in efficacy. The results support the hypotheses that classic antibody neutralization is a minor component of efficacy by palivizumab in the cotton rat and that antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity activity can significantly enhance the efficacy of this antiviral mAb. PMID:24711420

Hiatt, Andrew; Bohorova, Natasha; Bohorov, Ognian; Goodman, Charles; Kim, Do; Pauly, Michael H.; Velasco, Jesus; Whaley, Kevin J.; Piedra, Pedro A.; Gilbert, Brian E.; Zeitlin, Larry

2014-01-01

192

Exposure to low mercury concentration in vivo impairs myocardial contractile function  

SciTech Connect

Increased cardiovascular risk after mercury exposure has been described but cardiac effects resulting from controlled chronic treatment are not yet well explored. We analyzed the effects of chronic exposure to low mercury concentrations on hemodynamic and ventricular function of isolated hearts. Wistar rats were treated with HgCl{sub 2} (1st dose 4.6 {mu}g/kg, subsequent dose 0.07 {mu}g/kg/day, im, 30 days) or vehicle. Mercury treatment did not affect blood pressure (BP) nor produced cardiac hypertrophy or changes of myocyte morphometry and collagen content. This treatment: 1) in vivo increased left ventricle end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) without changing left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) and heart rate; 2) in isolated hearts reduced LV isovolumic systolic pressure and time derivatives, and {beta}-adrenergic response; 3) increased myosin ATPase activity; 4) reduced Na{sup +}-K{sup +} ATPase (NKA) activity; 5) reduced protein expression of SERCA and phosphorylated phospholamban on serine 16 while phospholamban expression increased; as a consequence SERCA/phospholamban ratio reduced; 6) reduced sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX) protein expression and {alpha}-1 isoform of NKA, whereas {alpha}-2 isoform of NKA did not change. Chronic exposure for 30 days to low concentrations of mercury does not change BP, heart rate or LVSP but produces small but significant increase of LVEDP. However, in isolated hearts mercury treatment promoted contractility dysfunction as a result of the decreased NKA activity, reduction of NCX and SERCA and increased PLB protein expression. These findings offer further evidence that mercury chronic exposure, even at small concentrations, is an environmental risk factor affecting heart function. - Highlights: > Unchanges blood pressure, heart rate, systolic pressure. > Increases end diastolic pressure. > Promotes cardiac contractility dysfunction. > Decreases NKA activity, NCX and SERCA, increases PLB protein expression. > Small concentrations constitutes environmental cardiovascular risk factor.

Furieri, Lorena Barros; Fioresi, Mirian; Junior, Rogerio Faustino Ribeiro [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Bartolome, Maria Visitacion [Department of Physiology, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Fernandes, Aurelia Araujo [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Cachofeiro, Victoria; Lahera, Vicente [Department of Physiology, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Salaices, Mercedes [Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Stefanon, Ivanita [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Vassallo, Dalton Valentim, E-mail: daltonv2@terra.com.br [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Health Science Center of Vitoria-EMESCAM, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

2011-09-01

193

Multivariate Analysis of Functional Metagenomes  

PubMed Central

Metagenomics is a primary tool for the description of microbial and viral communities. The sheer magnitude of the data generated in each metagenome makes identifying key differences in the function and taxonomy between communities difficult to elucidate. Here we discuss the application of seven different data mining and statistical analyses by comparing and contrasting the metabolic functions of 212 microbial metagenomes within and between 10 environments. Not all approaches are appropriate for all questions, and researchers should decide which approach addresses their questions. This work demonstrated the use of each approach: for example, random forests provided a robust and enlightening description of both the clustering of metagenomes and the metabolic processes that were important in separating microbial communities from different environments. All analyses identified that the presence of phage genes within the microbial community was a predictor of whether the microbial community was host-associated or free-living. Several analyses identified the subtle differences that occur with environments, such as those seen in different regions of the marine environment. PMID:23579547

Dinsdale, Elizabeth A.; Edwards, Robert A.; Bailey, Barbara A.; Tuba, Imre; Akhter, Sajia; McNair, Katelyn; Schmieder, Robert; Apkarian, Naneh; Creek, Michelle; Guan, Eric; Hernandez, Mayra; Isaacs, Katherine; Peterson, Chris; Regh, Todd; Ponomarenko, Vadim

2013-01-01

194

Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Improving Hematopoietic Function: An In Vitro and In Vivo Model. Part 2: Effect on Bone Marrow Microenvironment  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to determine how mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) could improve bone marrow (BM) stroma function after damage, both in vitro and in vivo. Human MSC from 20 healthy donors were isolated and expanded. Mobilized selected CD34+ progenitor cells were obtained from 20 HSCT donors. For in vitro study, long-term bone marrow cultures (LTBMC) were performed using a etoposide damaged stromal model to test MSC effect in stromal confluence, capability of MSC to lodge in stromal layer as well as some molecules (SDF1, osteopontin,) involved in hematopoietic niche maintenance were analyzed. For the in vivo model, 64 NOD/SCID recipients were transplanted with CD34+ cells administered either by intravenous (IV) or intrabone (IB) route, with or without BM derived MSC. MSC lodgement within the BM niche was assessed by FISH analysis and the expression of SDF1 and osteopontin by immunohistochemistry. In vivo study showed that when the stromal damage was severe, TP-MSC could lodge in the etoposide-treated BM stroma, as shown by FISH analysis. Osteopontin and SDF1 were differently expressed in damaged stroma and their expression restored after TP-MSC addition. Human in vivo MSC lodgement was observed within BM niche by FISH, but MSC only were detected and not in the contralateral femurs. Human MSC were located around blood vessels in the subendoestal region of femurs and expressed SDF1 and osteopontin. In summary, our data show that MSC can restore BM stromal function and also engraft when a higher stromal damage was done. Interestingly, MSC were detected locally where they were administered but not in the contralateral femur. PMID:22028841

Carrancio, Soraya; Blanco, Belen; Romo, Carlos; Muntion, Sandra; Lopez-Holgado, Natalia; Blanco, Juan F.; Brinon, Jesus G.; San Miguel, Jesus F.; Sanchez-Guijo, Fermin M.; del Canizo, M. Consuelo

2011-01-01

195

Protease proteomics: revealing protease in vivo functions using systems biology approaches.  

PubMed

Proteases irreversibly modify proteins by cleaving their amide bonds and are implicated in virtually every important biological process such as immunity, development and tissue repair. Accordingly, it is easy to see that deregulated proteolysis is a pathognomic feature of many diseases. Most of the current information available on proteases was acquired using in vitro methods, which reveals molecular structure, enzyme kinetics and active-site specificity. However, considerably less is known about the relevant biological functions and combined roles of proteases in moulding the proteome. Although models using genetically modified animals are powerful, they are slow to develop, they can be difficult to interpret, and while useful, they remain only models of human disease. Therefore, to understand how proteases accomplish their tasks in organisms and how they participate in pathology, we need to elucidate the protease degradome-the repertoire of proteases expressed by a cell, a tissue or an organism at a particular time-their expression level, activation state, their biological substrates, also known as the substrate degradome-the repertoire of substrates for each protease-and the effect of the activity of each protease on the pathways of the system under study. Achieving this goal is challenging because several proteases might cleave the same protein, and proteases also form pathways and interact to form the protease web [Overall, C.M., Kleifeld, O., 2006. Tumour microenvironment - opinion: validating matrix metalloproteinases as drug targets and anti-targets for cancer therapy. Nat. Rev. Cancer 6 (3), 227-239]. Hence, the net proteolytic potential of the degradome at a particular time on a substrate and pathway must also be understood. Proteomics offers one of the few routes to the understanding of proteolysis in complex in vivo systems and especially in man where genetic manipulations are impossible. The aim of this chapter is to review methods and tools that allow researchers to study protease biological functions using proteomics and mass spectrometry. We describe methods to assess protease expression at the messenger RNA level using DNA microarrays and at the protein level using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. We also review methods to reveal and quantify the activity state of proteases and to identify their biological substrates. The information acquired using these high throughput, high content techniques can then be interpreted with different bioinformatics approaches to reveal the effects of proteolysis on the system under study. Systems biology of the protease web-degradomics in the broadest sense-promises to reveal the functions of proteases in homeostasis and in disease states. This will indicate which proteases participate in defined pathologies and will help targeting specific proteases for disease treatments. PMID:18571712

Doucet, Alain; Overall, Christopher M

2008-10-01

196

Microtubule depolymerization normalizes in vivo myocardial contractile function in dogs with pressure-overload left ventricular hypertrophy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: Because initially compensatory myocardial hypertrophy in response to pressure overloading may eventually decompensate to myocardial failure, mechanisms responsible for this transition have long been sought. One such mechanism established in vitro is densification of the cellular microtubule network, which imposes a viscous load that inhibits cardiocyte contraction. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the present study, we extended this in vitro finding to the in vivo level and tested the hypothesis that this cytoskeletal abnormality is important in the in vivo contractile dysfunction that occurs in experimental aortic stenosis in the adult dog. In 8 dogs in which gradual stenosis of the ascending aorta had caused severe left ventricular (LV) pressure overloading (gradient, 152+/-16 mm Hg) with contractile dysfunction, LV function was measured at baseline and 1 hour after the intravenous administration of colchicine. Cardiocytes obtained by biopsy before and after in vivo colchicine administration were examined in tandem. Microtubule depolymerization restored LV contractile function both in vivo and in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: These and additional corroborative data show that increased cardiocyte microtubule network density is an important mechanism for the ventricular contractile dysfunction that develops in large mammals with adult-onset pressure-overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

Koide, M.; Hamawaki, M.; Narishige, T.; Sato, H.; Nemoto, S.; DeFreyte, G.; Zile, M. R.; Cooper G, I. V.; Carabello, B. A.

2000-01-01

197

Enzymatic Characterization and In Vivo Function of Five Terminal Oxidases in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

The ubiquitous opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa has five aerobic terminal oxidases: bo3-type quinol oxidase (Cyo), cyanide-insensitive oxidase (CIO), aa3-type cytochrome c oxidase (aa3), and two cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidases (cbb3-1 and cbb3-2). These terminal oxidases are differentially regulated under various growth conditions and are thought to contribute to the survival of this microorganism in a wide variety of environmental niches. Here, we constructed multiple mutant strains of P. aeruginosa that express only one aerobic terminal oxidase to investigate the enzymatic characteristics and in vivo function of each enzyme. The Km values of Cyo, CIO, and aa3 for oxygen were similar and were 1 order of magnitude higher than those of cbb3-1 and cbb3-2, indicating that Cyo, CIO, and aa3 are low-affinity enzymes and that cbb3-1 and cbb3-2 are high-affinity enzymes. Although cbb3-1 and cbb3-2 exhibited different expression patterns in response to oxygen concentration, they had similar Km values for oxygen. Both cbb3-1 and cbb3-2 utilized cytochrome c4 as the main electron donor under normal growth conditions. The electron transport chains terminated by cbb3-1 and cbb3-2 generate a proton gradient across the cell membrane with similar efficiencies. The electron transport chain of aa3 had the highest proton translocation efficiency, whereas that of CIO had the lowest efficiency. The enzymatic properties of the terminal oxidases reported here are partially in agreement with their regulatory patterns and may explain the environmental adaptability and versatility of P. aeruginosa. PMID:25182500

Arai, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Takuro; Osamura, Tatsuya; Hirai, Takehiro; Sakai, Yoshiaki; Ishii, Masaharu

2014-12-15

198

p53-Targeted LSD1 Functions in Repression of Chromatin Structure and Transcription In Vivo? †  

PubMed Central

Despite years of study focused on the tumor suppressor p53, little is understood about its functions in normal, differentiated cells. We found that p53 directly interacts with lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) to alter chromatin structure and confer developmental repression of the tumor marker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and sequential ChIP of developmentally staged liver showed that p53 and LSD1 cooccupy a p53 response element, concomitant with dimethylated histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me2) demethylation and postnatal repression of AFP transcription. In p53-null mice, LSD1 binding is depleted, H3K4me2 is increased, and H3K9me2 remains unchanged compared to those of the wild type, underscoring the specificity of p53-LSD1 complexes in demethylation of H3K4me2. We performed partial hepatectomy of wild-type mouse liver and induced a regenerative response, which led to a loss of p53, increased H3K4me2, and decreased LSD1 interaction at AFP chromatin, in parallel with reactivation of AFP expression. In contrast, nuclear translocation of p53 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts led to p53 interaction with p21/CIP1 chromatin, without recruitment of LSD1, and to activation of p21/CIP1. These findings reveal that LSD1 is targeted to chromatin by p53, likely in a gene-specific manner, and define a molecular mechanism by which p53 mediates transcription repression in vivo during differentiation. PMID:18573881

Tsai, Wen-Wei; Nguyen, Thi T.; Shi, Yang; Barton, Michelle Craig

2008-01-01

199

In Vivo Functional Assay of a Recombinant Aquaporin in Pichia pastoris  

PubMed Central

The water channel protein PvTIP3;1 (?-TIP) is a member of the major intrinsic protein (MIP) membrane channel family. We overexpressed this eukaryotic aquaporin in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, and immunogold labeling of cellular cryosections showed that the protein accumulated in the plasma membrane, as well as vacuolar and other intracellular membranes. We then developed an in vivo functional assay for water channel activity that measures the change in optical absorbance of spheroplasts following an osmotic shock. Spheroplasts of wild-type P. pastoris displayed a linear relationship between absorbance and osmotic shock level. However, spheroplasts of P. pastoris expressing PvTIP3;1 showed a break in this linear relationship corresponding to hypo-osmotically induced lysis. It is the difference between control and transformed spheroplasts under conditions of hypo-osmotic shock that forms the basis of our aquaporin activity assay. The aquaporin inhibitor mercury chloride blocked water channel activity but had no effect on wild-type yeast. Osmotically shocked yeast cells were affected only slightly by expression of the Escherichia coli glycerol channel GlpF, which belongs to the MIP family but is a weak water channel. The important role that aquaporins play in human physiology has led to a growing interest in their potential as drug targets for treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure, as well as other fluid overload states. The simplicity of this assay that is specific for water channel activity should enable rapid screening for compounds that modulate water channel activity. PMID:16461705

Daniels, Mark J.; Wood, Malcolm R.; Yeager, Mark

2006-01-01

200

Defective mitochondrial function in vivo in skeletal muscle in adults with Down's syndrome: a 31P-MRS study.  

PubMed

Down's syndrome (DS) is a developmental disorder associated with intellectual disability (ID). We have previously shown that people with DS engage in very low levels of exercise compared to people with ID not due to DS. Many aspects of the DS phenotype, such as dementia, low activity levels and poor muscle tone, are shared with disorders of mitochondrial origin, and mitochondrial dysfunction has been demonstrated in cultured DS tissue. We undertook a phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS) study in the quadriceps muscle of 14 people with DS and 11 non-DS ID controls to investigate the post-exercise resynthesis kinetics of phosphocreatine (PCr), which relies on mitochondrial respiratory function and yields a measure of muscle mitochondrial function in vivo. We found that the PCr recovery rate constant was significantly decreased in adults with DS compared to non-DS ID controls (1.7 ± 0.1 min(-1) vs 2.1 ± 0.1 min(-1) respectively) who were matched for physical activity levels, indicating that muscle mitochondrial function in vivo is impaired in DS. This is the first study to investigate mitochondrial function in vivo in DS using (31)P-MRS. Our study is consistent with previous in vitro studies, supporting a theory of a global mitochondrial defect in DS. PMID:24391872

Phillips, Alexander C; Sleigh, Alison; McAllister, Catherine J; Brage, Soren; Carpenter, T Adrian; Kemp, Graham J; Holland, Anthony J

2013-01-01

201

Defective Mitochondrial Function In Vivo in Skeletal Muscle in Adults with Down's Syndrome: A 31P-MRS Study  

PubMed Central

Down’s syndrome (DS) is a developmental disorder associated with intellectual disability (ID). We have previously shown that people with DS engage in very low levels of exercise compared to people with ID not due to DS. Many aspects of the DS phenotype, such as dementia, low activity levels and poor muscle tone, are shared with disorders of mitochondrial origin, and mitochondrial dysfunction has been demonstrated in cultured DS tissue. We undertook a phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) study in the quadriceps muscle of 14 people with DS and 11 non-DS ID controls to investigate the post-exercise resynthesis kinetics of phosphocreatine (PCr), which relies on mitochondrial respiratory function and yields a measure of muscle mitochondrial function in vivo. We found that the PCr recovery rate constant was significantly decreased in adults with DS compared to non-DS ID controls (1.7±0.1 min?1 vs 2.1±0.1 min?1 respectively) who were matched for physical activity levels, indicating that muscle mitochondrial function in vivo is impaired in DS. This is the first study to investigate mitochondrial function in vivo in DS using 31P-MRS. Our study is consistent with previous in vitro studies, supporting a theory of a global mitochondrial defect in DS. PMID:24391872

Phillips, Alexander C.; Sleigh, Alison; McAllister, Catherine J.; Brage, Soren; Carpenter, T. Adrian; Kemp, Graham J.; Holland, Anthony J.

2013-01-01

202

Functional data analysis: classification and regression  

E-print Network

data presents many new challenges that are absent in the traditional multivariate analysis. The book by Ramsay and Silverman (1997) gives a clear ac- count of the basic considerations of functional data analysis (FDA). A software de- veloped for both... the Matlab and S-PLUS by Ramsay and Silverman is available from http://www.psych.mcgill.ca/faculty/ramsay/fda.html. Functional data refer to data which consist of observed functions or curves eval- uated at a finite subset of some interval. In a conceptual...

Lee, Ho-Jin

2005-11-01

203

Persistent Borna Disease Virus infection changes expression and function of astroglial gap junctions in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed

Neonatal Borna Disease Virus (BDV) infection of the Lewis rat brain leads to dentate gyrus (DG) degeneration, underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Since astroglial gap junction (GJ) coupling is known to influence neurodegenerative processes, the question arose whether persistent BDV infection influences astroglial connexins (Cx) Cx43 and Cx30 in the hippocampal formation (HiF) of Lewis rats. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis of forebrain (FB) samples revealed a virus dependent reduction of both Cx types 8 but not 4 weeks post infection (p.i.). Immunohistochemistry revealed an increase of Cx43 in the DG and a decrease in the CA3 region 4 and 8 weeks p.i. Cx30, which was detectable only 8 weeks p.i., revealed a BDV dependent increase in DG and CA3 regions. BDV dependent astrogliosis as revealed by immunodetection of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) correlated not with astroglial connexin expression. With regard to functional coupling as revealed by scrape loading, BDV infection resulted in increased spreading of the GJ permeant dye Lucifer yellow in primary hippocampal astroglial cultures, and in increased expression of Cx43 and Cx30 as revealed by immunocytochemistry. In conclusion, persistent BDV infection of the Lewis rat brain leads to changes in astroglial Cx expression both in vivo and in vitro and of functional coupling in vitro. Distribution and time course of these changes suggest them to be a direct result of neurodegeneration in the DG and an indirect effect of neuronal deafferentiation in the CA3 region. PMID:18028885

Köster-Patzlaff, Christiane; Hosseini, Seyed Mehdi; Reuss, Bernhard

2007-12-12

204

Characterization of In Vivo Dlg1 Deletion on T Cell Development and Function  

PubMed Central

Background The polarized reorganization of the T cell membrane and intracellular signaling molecules in response to T cell receptor (TCR) engagement has been implicated in the modulation of T cell development and effector responses. In siRNA-based studies Dlg1, a MAGUK scaffold protein and member of the Scribble polarity complex, has been shown to play a role in T cell polarity and TCR signal specificity, however the role of Dlg1 in T cell development and function in vivo remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we present the combined data from three independently-derived dlg1-knockout mouse models; two germline deficient knockouts and one conditional knockout. While defects were not observed in T cell development, TCR-induced early phospho-signaling, actin-mediated events, or proliferation in any of the models, the acute knockdown of Dlg1 in Jurkat T cells diminished accumulation of actin at the IS. Further, while Th1-type cytokine production appeared unaffected in T cells derived from mice with a dlg1germline-deficiency, altered production of TCR-dependent Th1 and Th2-type cytokines was observed in T cells derived from mice with a conditional loss of dlg1 expression and T cells with acute Dlg1 suppression, suggesting a differential requirement for Dlg1 activity in signaling events leading to Th1 versus Th2 cytokine induction. The observed inconsistencies between these and other knockout models and siRNA strategies suggest that 1) compensatory upregulation of alternate gene(s) may be masking a role for dlg1 in controlling TCR-mediated events in dlg1 deficient mice and 2) the developmental stage during which dlg1 ablation begins may control the degree to which compensatory events occur. Conclusions/Significance These findings provide a potential explanation for the discrepancies observed in various studies using different dlg1-deficient T cell models and underscore the importance of acute dlg1 ablation to avoid the upregulation of compensatory mechanisms for future functional studies of the Dlg1 protein. PMID:23028902

Tomassian, Tamar; McMahon, Kerrie-Ann; Humbert, Patrick O.; Silva, Oscar; Round, June L.; Takamiya, Kogo; Huganir, Richard L.

2012-01-01

205

Corneal Viscoelastic Properties from Finite-Element Analysis of In Vivo Air-Puff Deformation  

PubMed Central

Biomechanical properties are an excellent health marker of biological tissues, however they are challenging to be measured in-vivo. Non-invasive approaches to assess tissue biomechanics have been suggested, but there is a clear need for more accurate techniques for diagnosis, surgical guidance and treatment evaluation. Recently air-puff systems have been developed to study the dynamic tissue response, nevertheless the experimental geometrical observations lack from an analysis that addresses specifically the inherent dynamic properties. In this study a viscoelastic finite element model was built that predicts the experimental corneal deformation response to an air-puff for different conditions. A sensitivity analysis reveals significant contributions to corneal deformation of intraocular pressure and corneal thickness, besides corneal biomechanical properties. The results show the capability of dynamic imaging to reveal inherent biomechanical properties in vivo. Estimates of corneal biomechanical parameters will contribute to the basic understanding of corneal structure, shape and integrity and increase the predictability of corneal surgery. PMID:25121496

Kling, Sabine; Bekesi, Nandor; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Pascual, Daniel; Marcos, Susana

2014-01-01

206

In vivo subsurface morphological and functional cellular and subcellular imaging of the gastrointestinal tract with confocal mini-microscopy  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate a newly developed hand-held confocal probe for in vivo microscopic imaging of the complete gastrointestinal tract in rodents. METHODS: A novel rigid confocal probe (diameter 7 mm) was designed with optical features similar to the flexible endomicroscopy system for use in humans using a 488 nm single line laser for fluorophore excitation. Light emission was detected at 505 to 750 nm. The field of view was 475 ?m × 475 ?m. Optical slice thickness was 7 ?m with a lateral resolution of 0.7 ?m. Subsurface serial images at different depths (surface to 250 ?m) were generated in real time at 1024 × 1024 pixels (0.8 frames/s) by placing the probe onto the tissue in gentle, stable contact. Tissue specimens were sampled for histopathological correlation. RESULTS: The esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine and meso, liver, pancreas and gall bladder were visualised in vivo at high resolution in n = 48 mice. Real time microscopic imaging with the confocal mini-microscopy probe was easy to achieve. The different staining protocols (fluorescein, acriflavine, FITC-labelled dextran and L. esculentum lectin) each highlighted specific aspects of the tissue, and in vivo imaging correlated excellently with conventional histology. In vivo blood flow monitoring added a functional quality to morphologic imaging. CONCLUSION: Confocal microscopy is feasible in vivo allowing the visualisation of the complete GI tract at high resolution even of subsurface tissue structures. The new confocal probe design evaluated in this study is compatible with laparoscopy and significantly expands the field of possible applications to intra-abdominal organs. It allows immediate testing of new in vivo staining and application options and therefore permits rapid transfer from animal studies to clinical use in patients. PMID:17465494

Goetz, Martin; Memadathil, Beena; Biesterfeld, Stefan; Schneider, Constantin; Gregor, Sebastian; Galle, Peter R; Neurath, Markus F; Kiesslich, Ralf

2007-01-01

207

How mitochondrial dysfunction affects zebrafish development and cardiovascular function: an in vivo model for testing mitochondria-targeted drugs  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Mitochondria are a drug target in mitochondrial dysfunction diseases and in antiparasitic chemotherapy. While zebrafish is increasingly used as a biomedical model, its potential for mitochondrial research remains relatively unexplored. Here, we perform the first systematic analysis of how mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitors affect zebrafish development and cardiovascular function, and assess multiple quinones, including ubiquinone mimetics idebenone and decylubiquinone, and the antimalarial atovaquone. Experimental Approach Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were chronically and acutely exposed to mitochondrial inhibitors and quinone analogues. Concentration-response curves, developmental and cardiovascular phenotyping were performed together with sequence analysis of inhibitor-binding mitochondrial subunits in zebrafish versus mouse, human and parasites. Phenotype rescuing was assessed in co-exposure assays. Key Results Complex I and II inhibitors induced developmental abnormalities, but their submaximal toxicity was not additive, suggesting active alternative pathways for complex III feeding. Complex III inhibitors evoked a direct normal-to-dead transition. ATP synthase inhibition arrested gastrulation. Menadione induced hypochromic anaemia when transiently present following primitive erythropoiesis. Atovaquone was over 1000-fold less lethal in zebrafish than reported for Plasmodium falciparum, and its toxicity partly rescued by the ubiquinone precursor 4-hydroxybenzoate. Idebenone and decylubiquinone delayed rotenone- but not myxothiazol- or antimycin-evoked cardiac dysfunction. Conclusion and Implications This study characterizes pharmacologically induced mitochondrial dysfunction phenotypes in zebrafish, laying the foundation for comparison with future studies addressing mitochondrial dysfunction in this model organism. It has relevant implications for interpreting zebrafish disease models linked to complex I/II inhibition. Further, it evidences zebrafish's potential for in vivo efficacy or toxicity screening of ubiquinone analogues or antiparasitic mitochondria-targeted drugs. PMID:23758163

Pinho, Brigida R; Santos, Miguel M; Fonseca-Silva, Anabela; Valentao, Patricia; Andrade, Paula B; Oliveira, Jorge M A

2013-01-01

208

In vivo activation analysis of organ cadmium using the Tsing Hua Mobile Educational Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes a nuclear facility forin vivo prompt gamma activation analysis (IVPGAA) using a moderated neutron beam from a 0.1 W Tsing-Hua Mobile Educational Reactor (THMER). The IVPGAA measurement is a new technique for toxic cadmium determination in organs, which can efficiently be used in clinical diagnosis. The low-power nuclear reactor provides a total neutron flux of 3.3·104 n·cm–2·s–1

Pao-Shu Chang; Chien Chung; Lig-Ji Yuan; Pao-Shan Weng

1985-01-01

209

Fucoidan can function as an adjuvant in vivo to enhance dendritic cell maturation and function and promote antigen-specific T cell immune responses.  

PubMed

Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide purified from brown algae, has a variety of immune-modulation effects, including promoting antigen uptake and enhancing anti-viral and anti-tumor effects. However, the effect of fucoidan in vivo, especially its adjuvant effect on in vivo anti-tumor immune responses, was not fully investigated. In this study, we investigated the effect of fucoidan on the function of spleen dendritic cells (DCs) and its adjuvant effect in vivo. Systemic administration of fucoidan induced up-regulation of CD40, CD80 and CD86 expression and production of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-? in spleen cDCs. Fucoidan also promoted the generation of IFN-?-producing Th1 and Tc1 cells in an IL-12-dependent manner. When used as an adjuvant in vivo with ovalbumin (OVA) antigen, fucoidan promoted OVA-specific antibody production and primed IFN-? production in OVA-specific T cells. Moreover, fucoidan enhanced OVA-induced up-regulation of MHC class I and II on spleen cDCs and strongly prompted the proliferation of OVA-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells. Finally, OVA immunization with fucoidan as adjuvant protected mice from the challenge with B16-OVA tumor cells. Taken together, these results suggest that fucoidan can function as an adjuvant to induce Th1 immune response and CTL activation, which may be useful in tumor vaccine development. PMID:24911024

Jin, Jun-O; Zhang, Wei; Du, Jiang-Yuan; Wong, Ka-Wing; Oda, Tatsuya; Yu, Qing

2014-01-01

210

Influence of Red Blood Cells on Lung Function in an ex Vivo Rat Heart-Lung Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crystalloid perfusates commonly are utilized for lung preservation in extracorporeal small animal lung models. However, the function of these grafts is limited. In a new ex-vivo rat heart-lung model the role of red blood cells added to the crystalloid perfusate was investigated. Heart-lung blocks were rapidly excised (n = 9, each group) and the blocks were connected to the extracorporeal

Tatsuo Fukuse; Johannes M. Albes; Yutaka Takahashi; Harald Brandes; Bernard Hausen; Hans-Joachim Schäfers

1995-01-01

211

FALL STrUCTUrE, dYNAMiCS & FUNCTiON Mouse in-vivo MRI probe and proton RF coil for the UWB 900 MRI scanner.  

E-print Network

FALL STrUCTUrE, dYNAMiCS & FUNCTiON Figure 1. Mouse in-vivo MRI probe and proton RF coil for the UWB 900 MRI scanner. In vivo Mr imaging at 21.1 T Victor D. Schepkin, Samuel C. Grant and Timothy A imaging experiments using the Magnet lab world-record 900 uWB magnet. ExpEriMENTAL Testing the in vivo Mri

Weston, Ken

212

Design and analysis of a novel mechanical loading machine for dynamic in vivo axial loading.  

PubMed

This paper describes the construction of a loading machine for performing in vivo, dynamic mechanical loading of the rodent forearm. The loading machine utilizes a unique type of electromagnetic actuator with no mechanically resistive components (servotube), allowing highly accurate loads to be created. A regression analysis of the force created by the actuator with respect to the input voltage demonstrates high linear correlation (R(2) = 1). When the linear correlation is used to create dynamic loading waveforms in the frequency (0.5-10 Hz) and load (1-50 N) range used for in vivo loading, less than 1% normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) is computed. Larger NRMSE is found at increased frequencies, with 5%-8% occurring at 40 Hz, and reasons are discussed. Amplifiers (strain gauge, linear voltage displacement transducer (LVDT), and load cell) are constructed, calibrated, and integrated, to allow well-resolved dynamic measurements to be recorded at each program cycle. Each of the amplifiers uses an active filter with cutoff frequency at the maximum in vivo loading frequencies (50 Hz) so that electronic noise generated by the servo drive and actuator are reduced. The LVDT and load cell amplifiers allow evaluation of stress-strain relationships to determine if in vivo bone damage is occurring. The strain gauge amplifier allows dynamic force to strain calibrations to occur for animals of different sex, age, and strain. Unique features are integrated into the loading system, including a weightless mode, which allows the limbs of anesthetized animals to be quickly positioned and removed. Although the device is constructed for in vivo axial bone loading, it can be used within constraints, as a general measurement instrument in a laboratory setting. PMID:22380131

Macione, James; Nesbitt, Sterling; Pandit, Vaibhav; Kotha, Shiva

2012-02-01

213

Design and analysis of a novel mechanical loading machine for dynamic in vivo axial loading  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the construction of a loading machine for performing in vivo, dynamic mechanical loading of the rodent forearm. The loading machine utilizes a unique type of electromagnetic actuator with no mechanically resistive components (servotube), allowing highly accurate loads to be created. A regression analysis of the force created by the actuator with respect to the input voltage demonstrates high linear correlation (R2 = 1). When the linear correlation is used to create dynamic loading waveforms in the frequency (0.5–10 Hz) and load (1–50 N) range used for in vivo loading, less than 1% normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) is computed. Larger NRMSE is found at increased frequencies, with 5%–8% occurring at 40 Hz, and reasons are discussed. Amplifiers (strain gauge, linear voltage displacement transducer (LVDT), and load cell) are constructed, calibrated, and integrated, to allow well-resolved dynamic measurements to be recorded at each program cycle. Each of the amplifiers uses an active filter with cutoff frequency at the maximum in vivo loading frequencies (50 Hz) so that electronic noise generated by the servo drive and actuator are reduced. The LVDT and load cell amplifiers allow evaluation of stress-strain relationships to determine if in vivo bone damage is occurring. The strain gauge amplifier allows dynamic force to strain calibrations to occur for animals of different sex, age, and strain. Unique features are integrated into the loading system, including a weightless mode, which allows the limbs of anesthetized animals to be quickly positioned and removed. Although the device is constructed for in vivo axial bone loading, it can be used within constraints, as a general measurement instrument in a laboratory setting. PMID:22380131

Macione, James; Nesbitt, Sterling; Pandit, Vaibhav; Kotha, Shiva

2012-01-01

214

Design and analysis of a novel mechanical loading machine for dynamic in vivo axial loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the construction of a loading machine for performing in vivo, dynamic mechanical loading of the rodent forearm. The loading machine utilizes a unique type of electromagnetic actuator with no mechanically resistive components (servotube), allowing highly accurate loads to be created. A regression analysis of the force created by the actuator with respect to the input voltage demonstrates high linear correlation (R2 = 1). When the linear correlation is used to create dynamic loading waveforms in the frequency (0.5-10 Hz) and load (1-50 N) range used for in vivo loading, less than 1% normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) is computed. Larger NRMSE is found at increased frequencies, with 5%-8% occurring at 40 Hz, and reasons are discussed. Amplifiers (strain gauge, linear voltage displacement transducer (LVDT), and load cell) are constructed, calibrated, and integrated, to allow well-resolved dynamic measurements to be recorded at each program cycle. Each of the amplifiers uses an active filter with cutoff frequency at the maximum in vivo loading frequencies (50 Hz) so that electronic noise generated by the servo drive and actuator are reduced. The LVDT and load cell amplifiers allow evaluation of stress-strain relationships to determine if in vivo bone damage is occurring. The strain gauge amplifier allows dynamic force to strain calibrations to occur for animals of different sex, age, and strain. Unique features are integrated into the loading system, including a weightless mode, which allows the limbs of anesthetized animals to be quickly positioned and removed. Although the device is constructed for in vivo axial bone loading, it can be used within constraints, as a general measurement instrument in a laboratory setting.

Macione, James; Nesbitt, Sterling; Pandit, Vaibhav; Kotha, Shiva

2012-02-01

215

In vivo imaging of myocardial cell death using a peptide probe and assessment of long-term heart function.  

PubMed

During acute myocardial infarction (AMI), both apoptosis and necrosis of myocardial cells could occur and lead to left ventricular (LV) functional decline. Here we determined whether in vivo imaging signals of myocardial cell death by ApoPep-1 (CQRPPR), a peptide probe that binds to apoptotic and necrotic cells through histone H1, at an early stage after AMI showed correlation with the long-term heart function. AMI was induced using a rat model of ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. Fluorescence-labeled ApoPep-1 was administered by intravenous injection into rats 2h after reperfusion. Ex vivo imaging of hearts isolated 2h after peptide injection showed higher levels of near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) signals at hearts of I/R rats than those of sham-operated rats. The fluorescent peptide was rapidly cleared from the blood and did not bind to red and white blood cells. Localization of fluorescent ApoPep-1 at the area of cell death was demonstrated by co-staining of myocardial tissue with TUNEL. The intensity of in vivo NIRF imaging signals by homing of ApoPep-1 to injured myocardium of I/R rats obtained 2h after peptide injection (equivalent to 4h after injury) showed strong and moderate correlation with the change in the LV ejection fractions (r(2)=0.82) and the size of the fibrotic area (r(2)=0.64), respectively, observed at four weeks after injury. These results suggest that ApoPep-1-mediated in vivo imaging signals of myocardial cell death, including both apoptosis and necrosis, at an early stage of AMI could be a potential biomarker for assessment of long-term outcome of heart function. PMID:24021357

Acharya, Bodhraj; Wang, Kai; Kim, In-San; Kang, Woongchol; Moon, Chanil; Lee, Byung-Heon

2013-11-28

216

In vivo visuotopic brain mapping with manganese-enhanced MRI and resting-state functional connectivity MRI.  

PubMed

The rodents are an increasingly important model for understanding the mechanisms of development, plasticity, functional specialization and disease in the visual system. However, limited tools have been available for assessing the structural and functional connectivity of the visual brain network globally, in vivo and longitudinally. There are also ongoing debates on whether functional brain connectivity directly reflects structural brain connectivity. In this study, we explored the feasibility of manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) via 3 different routes of Mn(2+) administration for visuotopic brain mapping and understanding of physiological transport in normal and visually deprived adult rats. In addition, resting-state functional connectivity MRI (RSfcMRI) was performed to evaluate the intrinsic functional network and structural-functional relationships in the corresponding anatomical visual brain connections traced by MEMRI. Upon intravitreal, subcortical, and intracortical Mn(2+) injection, different topographic and layer-specific Mn enhancement patterns could be revealed in the visual cortex and subcortical visual nuclei along retinal, callosal, cortico-subcortical, transsynaptic and intracortical horizontal connections. Loss of visual input upon monocular enucleation to adult rats appeared to reduce interhemispheric polysynaptic Mn(2+) transfer but not intra- or inter-hemispheric monosynaptic Mn(2+) transport after Mn(2+) injection into visual cortex. In normal adults, both structural and functional connectivity by MEMRI and RSfcMRI was stronger interhemispherically between bilateral primary/secondary visual cortex (V1/V2) transition zones (TZ) than between V1/V2 TZ and other cortical nuclei. Intrahemispherically, structural and functional connectivity was stronger between visual cortex and subcortical visual nuclei than between visual cortex and other subcortical nuclei. The current results demonstrated the sensitivity of MEMRI and RSfcMRI for assessing the neuroarchitecture, neurophysiology and structural-functional relationships of the visual brains in vivo. These may possess great potentials for effective monitoring and understanding of the basic anatomical and functional connections in the visual system during development, plasticity, disease, pharmacological interventions and genetic modifications in future studies. PMID:24394694

Chan, Kevin C; Fan, Shu-Juan; Chan, Russell W; Cheng, Joe S; Zhou, Iris Y; Wu, Ed X

2014-04-15

217

In vivo imaging of the airway wall in asthma: fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy in relation to histology and lung function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Airway remodelling is a feature of asthma including fragmentation of elastic fibres observed in the superficial elastin network\\u000a of the airway wall. Fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (FCFM) is a new and non-invasive imaging technique performed\\u000a during bronchoscopy that may visualize elastic fibres, as shown by in vitro spectral analysis of elastin powder. We hypothesized that FCFM images capture in vivo

Ching Yong Yick; Jan H von der Thüsen; Elisabeth H Bel; Peter J Sterk; Peter W Kunst

2011-01-01

218

Development and analysis of an in vivo-compatible metabolic network of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background During infection, Mycobacterium tuberculosis confronts a generally hostile and nutrient-poor in vivo host environment. Existing models and analyses of M. tuberculosis metabolic networks are able to reproduce experimentally measured cellular growth rates and identify genes required for growth in a range of different in vitro media. However, these models, under in vitro conditions, do not provide an adequate description of the metabolic processes required by the pathogen to infect and persist in a host. Results To better account for the metabolic activity of M. tuberculosis in the host environment, we developed a set of procedures to systematically modify an existing in vitro metabolic network by enhancing the agreement between calculated and in vivo-measured gene essentiality data. After our modifications, the new in vivo network contained 663 genes, 838 metabolites, and 1,049 reactions and had a significantly increased sensitivity (0.81) in predicted gene essentiality than the in vitro network (0.31). We verified the modifications generated from the purely computational analysis through a review of the literature and found, for example, that, as the analysis suggested, lipids are used as the main source for carbon metabolism and oxygen must be available for the pathogen under in vivo conditions. Moreover, we used the developed in vivo network to predict the effects of double-gene deletions on M. tuberculosis growth in the host environment, explore metabolic adaptations to life in an acidic environment, highlight the importance of different enzymes in the tricarboxylic acid-cycle under different limiting nutrient conditions, investigate the effects of inhibiting multiple reactions, and look at the importance of both aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration during infection. Conclusions The network modifications we implemented suggest a distinctive set of metabolic conditions and requirements faced by M. tuberculosis during host infection compared with in vitro growth. Likewise, the double-gene deletion calculations highlight the importance of specific metabolic pathways used by the pathogen in the host environment. The newly constructed network provides a quantitative model to study the metabolism and associated drug targets of M. tuberculosis under in vivo conditions. PMID:21092312

2010-01-01

219

Psychological Stress Exerts an Adjuvant Effect on Skin Dendritic Cell Functions In Vivo1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological stress affects the pathophysiology of infectious, inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases. However, the mechanisms by which stress could modulate immune responses in vivo are poorly understood. In this study, we report that application of a psychological stress before immunization exerts an adjuvant effect on dendritic cell (DC), resulting in increased primary and memory Ag-specific T cell immune responses. Acute stress

Pierre Saint-Mezard; Cyril Chavagnac; Sophie Bosset; Marius Ionescu; Eric Peyron; Dominique Kaiserlian; Jean-Francois Nicolas; Frederic Berard

2003-01-01

220

In vivo skin capacitive imaging analysis by using grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM).  

PubMed

We present our latest work on in vivo skin capacitive imaging analysis by using grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). The in vivo skin capacitive images were taken by a capacitance based fingerprint sensor, the skin capacitive images were then analysed by GLCM. Four different GLCM feature vectors, angular second moment (ASM), entropy (ENT), contrast (CON) and correlation (COR), are selected to describe the skin texture. The results show that angular second moment increases as age increases, and entropy decreases as age increases. The results also suggest that the angular second moment values and the entropy values reflect more about the skin texture, whilst the contrast values and the correlation values reflect more about the topically applied solvents. The overall results shows that the GLCM is an effective way to extract and analyse the skin texture information, which can potentially be a valuable reference for evaluating effects of medical and cosmetic treatments. PMID:24188984

Ou, Xiang; Pan, Wei; Xiao, Perry

2014-01-01

221

The human immunodeficiency virus Tat proteins specifically associate with TAK in vivo and require the carboxyl-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II for function.  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 encode closely related proteins, Tat-1 and Tat-2, that stimulate viral transcription. Previously, we showed that the activation domains of these proteins specifically interact in vitro with a cellular protein kinase named TAK. In vitro, TAK phosphorylates the Tat-2 but not the Tat-1 protein, a 42-kDa polypeptide of unknown identity, and the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). We now show that the 42-kDa substrate of TAK cochromatographs with TAK activity, suggesting that this 42-kDa polypeptide is a subunit of TAK. We also show that the Tat proteins specifically associate with TAK in vivo, since wild-type Tat-1 and Tat-2 proteins expressed in mammalian cells, but not mutant Tat proteins containing a nonfunctional activation domain, can be coimmunoprecipitated with TAK. We also mapped the in vivo phosphorylation sites of Tat-2 to the carboxyl terminus of the protein, but analysis of proteins with mutations at these sites suggests that phosphorylation is not essential for Tat-2 transactivation function. We further investigated whether the CTD of RNAP II is required for Tat function in vivo. Using plasmid constructs that express an alpha-amanitin-resistant RNAP II subunit with a truncated or full-length CTD, we found that an intact CTD is required for Tat function. These observations strengthen the proposal that the mechanism of action of Tat involves the recruitment or activation of TAK, resulting in activated transcription through phosphorylation of the CTD. PMID:8676484

Yang, X; Herrmann, C H; Rice, A P

1996-01-01

222

Integrating EMR-Linked and In Vivo Functional Genetic Data to Identify New Genotype-Phenotype Associations  

PubMed Central

The coupling of electronic medical records (EMR) with genetic data has created the potential for implementing reverse genetic approaches in humans, whereby the function of a gene is inferred from the shared pattern of morbidity among homozygotes of a genetic variant. We explored the feasibility of this approach to identify phenotypes associated with low frequency variants using Vanderbilt's EMR-based BioVU resource. We analyzed 1,658 low frequency non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) with a minor allele frequency (MAF)<10% collected on 8,546 subjects. For each nsSNP, we identified diagnoses shared by at least 2 minor allele homozygotes and with an association p<0.05. The diagnoses were reviewed by a clinician to ascertain whether they may share a common mechanistic basis. While a number of biologically compelling clinical patterns of association were observed, the frequency of these associations was identical to that observed using genotype-permuted data sets, indicating that the associations were likely due to chance. To refine our analysis associations, we then restricted the analysis to 711 nsSNPs in genes with phenotypes in the On-line Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) or knock-out mouse phenotype databases. An initial comparison of the EMR diagnoses to the known in vivo functions of the gene identified 25 candidate nsSNPs, 19 of which had significant genotype-phenotype associations when tested using matched controls. Twleve of the 19 nsSNPs associations were confirmed by a detailed record review. Four of 12 nsSNP-phenotype associations were successfully replicated in an independent data set: thrombosis (F5,rs6031), seizures/convulsions (GPR98,rs13157270), macular degeneration (CNGB3,rs3735972), and GI bleeding (HGFAC,rs16844401). These analyses demonstrate the feasibility and challenges of using reverse genetics approaches to identify novel gene-phenotype associations in human subjects using low frequency variants. As increasing amounts of rare variant data are generated from modern genotyping and sequence platforms, model organism data may be an important tool to enable discovery. PMID:24949630

Mosley, Jonathan D.; Van Driest, Sara L.; Weeke, Peter E.; Delaney, Jessica T.; Wells, Quinn S.; Bastarache, Lisa; Roden, Dan M.; Denny, Josh C.

2014-01-01

223

Functional analysis of the SRV-1 RNA frameshifting pseudoknot  

PubMed Central

Simian retrovirus type-1 uses programmed ribosomal frameshifting to control expression of the Gag-Pol polyprotein from overlapping gag and pol open-reading frames. The frameshifting signal consists of a heptanucleotide slippery sequence and a downstream-located 12-base pair pseudoknot. The solution structure of this pseudoknot, previously solved by NMR [Michiels,P.J., Versleijen,A.A., Verlaan,P.W., Pleij,C.W., Hilbers,C.W. and Heus,H.A. (2001) Solution structure of the pseudoknot of SRV-1 RNA, involved in ribosomal frameshifting. J. Mol. Biol., 310, 1109–1123] has a classical H-type fold and forms an extended triple helix by interactions between loop 2 and the minor groove of stem 1 involving base–base and base–sugar contacts. A mutational analysis was performed to test the functional importance of the triple helix for ?1 frameshifting in vitro. Changing bases in L2 or base pairs in S1 involved in a base triple resulted in a 2- to 5-fold decrease in frameshifting efficiency. Alterations in the length of L2 had adverse effects on frameshifting. The in vitro effects were well reproduced in vivo, although the effect of enlarging L2 was more dramatic in vivo. The putative role of refolding kinetics of frameshifter pseudoknots is discussed. Overall, the data emphasize the role of the triple helix in ?1 frameshifting. PMID:20639537

Olsthoorn, Rene C. L.; Reumerman, Richard; Hilbers, Cornelis W.; Pleij, Cornelis W. A.; Heus, Hans A.

2010-01-01

224

Spatial-temporal clustering analysis in functional magnetic resonance imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the temporal clustering analysis (TCA) method has been introduced to analyze functional MRI (fMRI) data without prior information about the activation patterns or experimental paradigms. It has been successfully applied to situations under which the timing of events of interest is not known. However, useful information regarding the spatial correlation of activation pixels with their neighbors is not taken into account in the original TCA (OTCA) method. In this study, we propose a new method called 'STCA' (spatial-TCA) which incorporates spatial information with the TCA method to improve the sensitivity in detecting the time window. The spatial information is defined as the correlation coefficient of the time activity curve between each pixel and its neighbors. The inclusion of spatial information can effectively reduce the contribution from noisy pixels and enhance the sensitivity. Both simulated data and in vivo fMRI experiments are employed to verify the method. Preliminary results show that the proposed method has increased the sensitivity significantly for in vivo fMRI data in detecting the activation response time as compared to both OTCA and modified TCA (MTCA). The OTCA/MTCA was applied to spatially smoothed data for various contrast-noise ratios and compared to STCA. The SNR improvements of both OCTA/MTCA are obvious but blurring effects are also visible. The STCA does not have this artifact.

Peng, Shin-Lei; Chuang, Chun-Chao; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Kwan, Wan-Chun; Kuo, Yu-Ting; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Chun-Yuan; Chen, Sharon C.

2009-12-01

225

Isolation and Ex Vivo Characterization of the Immunophenotype and Function of Microglia/Macrophage Populations in Normal Dog Retina  

PubMed Central

Microglia are the primary resident immune cells of the retina and are involved in the pathogenesis of various retinal diseases. In this study, we optimized experimental conditions to isolate microglia from canine retinas and characterized ex vivo their immunophenotype and function using flow cytometry (FACS). The most suitable protocol included a mechanical dissociation of the retina and an enzymatic digestion using DNAse and collagenase. Extraction was carried out by density gradient centrifugation, and retinal microglia accumulated on distinct interfaces of 1.072 and 1.088 g/mL of a Percoll gradient. Immunophenotypical characterization was performed with monoclonal antibodies CD11b, CD11c, CD18, CD45, CD44, B7-1 (CD80), B7-2 (CD86), CD1c, ICAM-1 (CD54), CD14, MHCI, MHCII, CD68, CD3, CD4, CD8?, and CD21. The most prevalent microglia population in the normal canine retina is CD11bhighCD45low. Functionally, retinal microglia exhibited phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation activities. To conclude, ex vivo examinations of retinal microglia are feasible and possibly reflect the in vivo conditions, avoiding artifacts observed in tissue culture. The established method will be relevant to examine microglia from diseased canine retinas in order to elucidate their roles in degenerative processes. PMID:24664716

Genini, Sem; Beltran, William A.; Stein, Veronika M.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.

2014-01-01

226

In Vivo Image Analysis of BoHV-4-Based Vector in Mice  

PubMed Central

Due to its biological characteristics bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) has been considered as an appropriate gene delivery vector. Its genomic clone, modified as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), is better genetically manipulable and can be used as an efficient gene delivery and vaccine vector. Although a large amount of data have been accumulated in vitro on this specific aspect, the same cannot be asserted for the in vivo condition. Therefore, here we investigated the fate of a recombinant BoHV-4 strain expressing luciferase (BoHV-4-A-CMVluc?TK) after intraperitoneal or intravenous inoculation in mice, by generating a novel recombinant BoHV-4 expressing luciferase (BoHV-4-A-CMVluc?TK) and by following the virus replication through in vivo imaging analysis. BoHV-4-A-CMVluc?TK was first characterized in vitro where it was shown, on one hand that its replication properties are identical to those of the parental virus, and on the other that the transduced/infected cells strongly express luciferase. When BoHV-4-A-CMVluc?TK was inoculated in mice, either intraperitoneally or intravenously, BoHV-4-A-CMVluc?TK infection/transduction was exclusively localized to the liver, as detected by in vivo image analysis, and in particular almost exclusively in the hepatocytes, as determined by immuno-histochemistry. These data, that add a new insight on the biology of BoHV-4 in vivo, provide the first indication for the potential use of a BoHV-4-based vector in gene-transfer in the liver. PMID:24752229

Franceschi, Valentina; Stellari, Fabio Franco; Mangia, Carlo; Jacca, Sarah; Lavrentiadou, Sophia; Cavirani, Sandro; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Donofrio, Gaetano

2014-01-01

227

Ex vivo electroporation of retinal cells: a novel, high efficiency method for functional studies in primary retinal cultures.  

PubMed

Primary retinal cultures constitute valuable tools not only for basic research on retinal cell development and physiology, but also for the identification of factors or drugs that promote cell survival and differentiation. In order to take full advantage of the benefits of this system it is imperative to develop efficient and reliable techniques for the manipulation of gene expression. However, achieving appropriate transfection efficiencies in these cultures has remained challenging. The purpose of this work was to develop and optimize a technique that would allow the transfection of chick retinal cells with high efficiency and reproducibility for multiple applications. We developed an ex vivo electroporation method applied to dissociated retinal cell cultures that offers a significant improvement over other currently available transfection techniques, increasing efficiency by five-fold. In this method, eyes were enucleated, devoid of RPE, and electroporated with GFP-encoding plasmids using custom-made electrodes. Electroporated retinas were then dissociated into single cells and plated in low density conditions, to be analyzed after 4 days of incubation. Parameters such as voltage and number of electric pulses, as well as plasmid concentration and developmental stage of the animal were optimized for efficiency. The characteristics of the cultures were assessed by morphology and immunocytochemistry, and cell viability was determined by ethidium homodimer staining. Cell imaging and counting was performed using an automated high-throughput system. This procedure resulted in transfection efficiencies in the order of 22-25% of cultured cells, encompassing both photoreceptors and non-photoreceptor neurons, and without affecting normal cell survival and differentiation. Finally, the feasibility of the technique for cell-autonomous studies of gene function in a biologically relevant context was tested by carrying out gain and loss-of-function experiments for the transcription factor PAX6. Electroporation of a plasmid construct expressing PAX6 resulted in a marked upregulation in the expression levels of this protein that could be measured in the whole culture as well as cell-intrinsically. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in the percentage of cells differentiating as photoreceptors among the transfected population. Conversely, electroporation of an RNAi construct targeting PAX6 resulted in a significant decrease in the levels of this protein, with a concomitant increase in the proportion of photoreceptors. Taken together these results provide strong proof-of-principle of the suitability of this technique for genetic studies in retinal cultures. The combination of the high transfection efficiency obtained by this method with automated high-throughput cell analysis supplies the scientific community with a powerful system for performing functional studies in a cell-autonomous manner. PMID:23370269

Vergara, M Natalia; Gutierrez, Christian; O'Brien, David R; Canto-Soler, M Valeria

2013-04-01

228

Ex Vivo Expansion of Functional Human UCB-HSCs/HPCs by Coculture with AFT024-hkirre Cells  

PubMed Central

Kiaa1867 (human Kirre, hKirre) has a critical role in brain development and/or maintenance of the glomerular slit diaphragm in kidneys. Murine homolog of this gene, mKirre expressed in OP9 and AFT024 cells could support hematopoietic stem cells/hematopoietic progenitor cells (HSC/HPC) expansion in vitro. HKirre is also expressed in human FBMOB-hTERT cell line and fetal liver fibroblast-like cells but its function has remained unclear. In this paper, we cloned a hKirre gene from human fetal liver fibroblast-like cells and established a stably overexpressing hKirre-AFT024 cell line. Resultant cells could promote self-renewal and ex vivo expansion of HSCs/HPCs significantly higher than AFT024-control cells transformed with mock plasmid. The Expanded human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) CD34+ cells retained the capacity of multipotent differentiation as long as 8 weeks and successfully repopulated the bone marrow of sublethally irradiated NOD/SCID mice, which demonstrated the expansion of long-term primitive transplantable HSCs/HPCs. Importantly, hkirre could upregulate the expressions of Wnt-5A, BMP4, and SDF-1 and downregulate TGF-? with other hematopoietic growth factors. By SDS-PAGE and Western Blot analysis, a ~89?kDa protein in total lysate of AFT024-hKirre was identified. Supernatants from AFT024-hkirre could also support CD34+CD38? cells expansion. These results demonstrated that the AFT024-hKirre cells have the ability to efficiently expand HSCs/HPCs. PMID:24719861

Khan, Muti ur Rehman; Ali, Ijaz; Jiao, Wei; Wang, Yun; Masood, Saima; Yousaf, Muhammad Zubair; Javaid, Aqeel; Ahmad, Shafique; Feng, Meifu

2014-01-01

229

Ex vivo expansion of functional human UCB-HSCs/HPCs by coculture with AFT024-hkirre cells.  

PubMed

Kiaa1867 (human Kirre, hKirre) has a critical role in brain development and/or maintenance of the glomerular slit diaphragm in kidneys. Murine homolog of this gene, mKirre expressed in OP9 and AFT024 cells could support hematopoietic stem cells/hematopoietic progenitor cells (HSC/HPC) expansion in vitro. HKirre is also expressed in human FBMOB-hTERT cell line and fetal liver fibroblast-like cells but its function has remained unclear. In this paper, we cloned a hKirre gene from human fetal liver fibroblast-like cells and established a stably overexpressing hKirre-AFT024 cell line. Resultant cells could promote self-renewal and ex vivo expansion of HSCs/HPCs significantly higher than AFT024-control cells transformed with mock plasmid. The Expanded human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) CD34(+) cells retained the capacity of multipotent differentiation as long as 8 weeks and successfully repopulated the bone marrow of sublethally irradiated NOD/SCID mice, which demonstrated the expansion of long-term primitive transplantable HSCs/HPCs. Importantly, hkirre could upregulate the expressions of Wnt-5A, BMP4, and SDF-1 and downregulate TGF- ? with other hematopoietic growth factors. By SDS-PAGE and Western Blot analysis, a ~89?kDa protein in total lysate of AFT024-hKirre was identified. Supernatants from AFT024-hkirre could also support CD34(+)CD38(-) cells expansion. These results demonstrated that the AFT024-hKirre cells have the ability to efficiently expand HSCs/HPCs. PMID:24719861

Khan, Muti ur Rehman; Ali, Ijaz; Jiao, Wei; Wang, Yun; Masood, Saima; Yousaf, Muhammad Zubair; Javaid, Aqeel; Ahmad, Shafique; Feng, Meifu

2014-01-01

230

In-Vivo functional optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with stimulated Raman scattering fiber-laser source  

PubMed Central

In this paper a multi-wavelength optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) system using stimulated Raman scattering is demonstrated for both phantom and in vivo imaging. A 1-ns pulse width ytterbium-doped fiber laser is coupled into a single-mode polarization maintaining fiber. Discrete Raman-shifted wavelength peaks extending to nearly 800 nm are generated with pulse energies sufficient for OR-PAM imaging. Bandpass filters are used to select imaging wavelengths. A dual-mirror galvanometer system was used to scan the focused outputs across samples of carbon fiber networks, 200?m dye-filled tubes, and Swiss Webster mouse ears. Photoacoustic signals were collected in transmission mode and used to create maximum amplitude projection C-scan images. Double dye experiments and in vivo oxygen saturation estimation confirmed functional imaging potential. PMID:24575346

Hajireza, Parsin; Forbrich, Alexander; Zemp, Roger

2014-01-01

231

Therapeutic nanomedicine based on dual-intelligent functionalized gold nanoparticles for cancer imaging and therapy in vivo.  

PubMed

A novel strategy to construct a therapeutic system based on functionalized AuNPs which can specifically respond to tumor microenvironment was reported. In the therapeutic system, doxorubicin was conjugated to AuNPs via thiol-Au bond by using a peptide substrate, CPLGLAGG, which can be specifically cleaved by the protease. In vivo study shows that after injection of the functionalized AuNPs to the tumor-bearing mice, the over-expressed protease of MMP-2 in tumor tissue and intracellular GSH can lead to the rapid release of the anti-tumor drug (doxorubicin) from the functionalized AuNPs to inhibit tumor growth and realize fluorescently imaging simultaneously. The functionalized AuNPs with tumor-triggered drug release property can further improve the efficacy and reduce side effects significantly. PMID:23932289

Chen, Wei-Hai; Xu, Xiao-Ding; Jia, Hui-Zhen; Lei, Qi; Luo, Guo-Feng; Cheng, Si-Xue; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

2013-11-01

232

A Biomechanical Analysis Of Craniofacial Form And Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In vivo measures of bite force and bone strain obtained in growing African green monkeys (Cercopeithecus aethiops) are being used to study skull biology and geometry. Strain values and distributional patterns seen in association with forceful jaw elevation are inconsistent with conventional explanations linking upper facial morphology with masticatory function and/or using beam models of craniofacial architecture. These results mandate careful use of notions about skeletal geometry based on static analyses that have not been experimentally verified using in vivo procedures.

Oyen, Ordean J.

1989-04-01

233

Political Advertising in Kuwait A Functional Analysis  

E-print Network

Political Advertising in Kuwait A Functional Analysis Jasem Alqaseer Abstract: Most political advertising studies focus on the U.S. or other western democracies like the U.K. and other European countries (Kaid, 2006). In general, political advertising studies focused on the content of political advertising

Almor, Amit

234

Ex vivo assessment of cellular immune function - applications in patient care and clinical studies.  

PubMed

Cellular ex vivo assays have a broad range of applications in patient care and clinical studies, especially when they are standardized and highly sensitive. As compared to analyses by molecular genetics such as the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) testing, they are usually more global. These assays partly mimic the in vivo situation, relying on a complex interaction of various immune cells. For example, they can be used to determine modulation of alloresponses by treatment or underlying disease, diagnose and quantify primary and secondary cellular immunodeficiency, follow-up vaccination responses, measure adoptive transfer of virus-specific immunity via hematopoietic stem cell or liver transplantation, assess allergy, antimicrobial immunity and also rare effector/memory cells directed against tumor antigens. This review will first shortly describe various cellular in vitro methods and then present applications, summarizing some own studies performed within the last 18?years. PMID:25329632

Lindemann, M

2014-11-01

235

Quantitative analysis of intrinsic skin aging in dermal papillae by in vivo harmonic generation microscopy  

PubMed Central

Chronological skin aging is associated with flattening of the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ), but to date no quantitative analysis focusing on the aging changes in the dermal papillae (DP) has been performed. The aim of the study is to determine the architectural changes and the collagen density related to chronological aging in the dermal papilla zone (DPZ) by in vivo harmonic generation microscopy (HGM) with a sub-femtoliter spatial resolution. We recruited 48 Asian subjects and obtained in vivo images on the sun-protected volar forearm. Six parameters were defined to quantify 3D morphological changes of the DPZ, which we analyzed both manually and computationally to study their correlation with age. The depth of DPZ, the average height of isolated DP, and the 3D interdigitation index decreased with age, while DP number density, DP volume, and the collagen density in DP remained constant over time. In vivo high-resolution HGM technology has uncovered chronological aging-related variations in DP, and sheds light on real-time quantitative skin fragility assessment and disease diagnostics based on collagen density and morphology. PMID:25401037

Liao, Yi-Hua; Kuo, Wei-Cheng; Chou, Sin-Yo; Tsai, Cheng-Shiun; Lin, Guan-Liang; Tsai, Ming-Rung; Shih, Yuan-Ta; Lee, Gwo-Giun; Sun, Chi-Kuang

2014-01-01

236

Ex Vivo Analysis of Human Memory B Lymphocytes Specific for A and B Influenza Hemagglutinin by Polychromatic Flow-Cytometry  

PubMed Central

Understanding the impact that human memory B-cells (MBC), primed by previous infections or vaccination, exert on neutralizing antibody responses against drifted influenza hemagglutinin (HA) is key to design best protective vaccines. A major obstacle to these studies is the lack of practical tools to analyze HA-specific MBCs in human PBMCs ex vivo. We report here an efficient method to identify MBCs carrying HA-specific BCR in frozen PBMC samples. By using fluorochrome-tagged recombinant HA baits, and vaccine antigens from mismatched influenza strains to block BCR-independent binding, we developed a protocol suitable for quantitative, functional and molecular analysis of single MBCs specific for HA from up to two different influenza strains in the same tube. This approach will permit to identify the naive and MBC precursors of plasmablasts and novel MBCs appearing in the blood following infection or vaccination, thus clarifying the actual contribution of pre-existing MBCs in antibody responses against novel influenza viruses. Finally, this protocol can allow applying high throughput deep sequencing to analyze changes in the repertoire of HA+ B-cells in longitudinal samples from large cohorts of vaccinees and infected subjects with the ultimate goal of understanding the in vivo B-cell dynamics driving the evolution of broadly cross-protective antibody responses. PMID:23976947

Bardelli, Monia; Buricchi, Francesca; Tavarini, Simona; Sammicheli, Chiara; Nuti, Sandra; Degl'Innocenti, Elena; Isnardi, Isabelle; Fragapane, Elena; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Castellino, Flora; Galli, Grazia

2013-01-01

237

Genetic analysis of glutamatergic function in Drosophila  

SciTech Connect

Neurotransmitters are essential for communication between neurons and hence are vital in the overall integrative functioning of the nervous system. Previous work on acetylcholine metabolism in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has also raised the possibility that transmitter metabolism may play a prominent role in either the achievement or maintenance of the normal structure of the central nervous system in this species. Unfortunately, acetylcholine is rather poorly characterized as a neurotransmitter in Drosophila; consequently, we have begun an analysis of the role of glutamate (probably the best characterized transmitter in this organism) in the formation and/or maintenance of nervous system structure. We present here the results of a series of preliminary analyses. To suggest where glutamatergic function may be localized, an examination of the spatial distribution of high affinity (/sup 3/H)-glutamate binding sites are presented. We present the results of an analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of enzymatic activities thought to be important in the regulation of transmitter-glutamate pools (i.e., glutamate oxaloacetic transaminase, glutaminase, and glutamate dehydrogenase). To begin to examine whether mutations in any of these functions are capable of affecting glutamatergic activity, we present the results of an initial genetic analysis of one enzymatic function, glutamate oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), chosen because of its differential distribution within the adult central nervous system and musculature.

Chase, B.A.; Kankel, D.R.

1987-01-01

238

In vivo Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Facility for Total Body Nitrogen and Cd  

SciTech Connect

A Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) system has been designed and constructed to measure the total body nitrogen and Cd for in vivo studies. An aqueous solution of KNO{sub 3} was used as phantom for system calibration. The facility has been used to monitor total body nitrogen (TBN) of mice and found that is related to their diet. Some mice swallowed diluted water with Cl{sub 2}Cd, and the presence of Cd was detected in the animals. The minimum Cd concentration that the system can detect was 20 ppm.

Munive, Marco; Revilla, Angel [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Av. Canada 1470, Lima 41 (Peru); Solis, Jose L. [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Av. Canada 1470, Lima 41 (Peru); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, Av. Tupac Amaru 210, Lima (Peru)

2007-10-26

239

Spectral analysis of photo-induced delayed luminescence from human skin in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The UVA induced Delayed Luminescence (DL), has been measured in vivo in the forearm skin of some healthy volunteers of different sex and age during several periods of the year. An innovative instrument able to detect, in single photon counting mode, the spectrum and the time trend of the DL emission has been used. The measured differences in the time trends of the spectral components may be related to the sex and the age. The potential development of a new analysis technique based on this phenomenon is discussed.

Musumeci, Francesco; Lanzanņ, Luca; Privitera, Simona; Tudisco, Salvatore; Scordino, Agata

2007-07-01

240

Construction of a Reporter Vector System for In Vivo Analysis of Promoter Activity in Propionibacterium freudenreichii? †  

PubMed Central

A ?-galactosidase reporter system for the analysis of promoter elements in Propionibacterium freudenreichii was designed. The pTD210 in vivo reporter vector was constructed using a promoterless lacZ gene from Bifidobacterium longum cloned into the pAMT1 plasmid. The utility of the pTD210 reporter vector was demonstrated by an investigation of six predicted promoters in P. freudenreichii. The system produced accurate and reproducible measurements that facilitated both promoter identification and the quantification of promoter activities. PMID:18424545

Faye, Therese; Åsebų, Anita; Salehian, Zhian; Langsrud, Thor; Nes, Ingolf F.; Brede, Dag Anders

2008-01-01

241

High precision in-vivo neutron activation analysis: A new era for compartmental analysis in body composition  

SciTech Connect

Since the 1960s there has been a general decline in the applications of body composition methods to clinical medicine. The reasons were several, but important among them, a respectable'' standard error of measurement of {plus minus}5% was combined with a clinical uncertainty, at least as large, as to how normal'' could be defined. The terrain has now changed, because new precisions of measurement have been achieved, especially in the techniques of in-vivo neutron activation analysis. We shall consider some specific examples of their application. The benefits we envisage from high-precision in-vivo neutron activation (IVNA) derive largely from understanding the interdependence of the body compartments, and, therefore, from the development of a series of models which interrelate the compartments. 19 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Pierson, R.N.; Wang, J.; Heymsfield, S.B. (Saint Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, NY (USA)); Dilmanian, F.A.; Weber, D.A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

1989-01-01

242

Genomic Analysis of Pterostilbene Predicts Its Antiproliferative Effects Against Pancreatic Cancer In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate the inhibitory role of pterostilbene in pancreatic cancer, we conducted a genomic analysis of pterostilbene-treated pancreatic cancer cells. We also investigated the effect of pterostilbene upon the carcinogenic markers, manganese superoxide dismutase, cytochrome C, Smac/DIABLO, and STAT3 phosphorylation in vitro. The antiproliferative effects of pterostilbene were further evaluated in an in vivo model. Methods Pancreatic cancer cells were treated with pterostilbene and evaluated with DNA microarray analysis. Pterostilbenetreated cells were analyzed for cytochrome C, Smac/DIABLO, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD)/antioxidant activity, and STAT3 phosphorylation using ELISA. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA. Pterostilbene was then administered to nude mice for 8 weeks, and tumor growth rates were recorded and statistically analyzed. Results Microarray analysis of pterostilbene-treated cells revealed upregulation of pro-apoptosis genes. In vitro, pterostilbene treatment altered levels of phosphorylated STAT3, MnSOD/antioxidant activity, cytochrome C, and Smac/DIABLO. In nude mice, oral pterostilbene inhibited tumor growth rates. Conclusion Pterostilbene alters gene expression in pancreatic cancer and increases the antiproliferative markers cytochrome C, Smac/DIABLO, and MnSOD/antioxidant activity. It was also shown to inhibit phosphorylated STAT3, a marker of accelerated tumorigenesis, and decrease pancreatic tumor growth in vivo. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the effects of pterostilbene in humans. PMID:22450950

Mannal, Patrick; McDonald, Debbie; Tighe, Scott; Hanson, Joshua; McFadden, David

2014-01-01

243

Structural and Functional Analysis of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Mob1  

SciTech Connect

The Mob proteins function as activator subunits for the Dbf2/Dbf20 family of protein kinases. Human and Xenopus Mob1 protein structures corresponding to the most conserved C-terminal core, but lacking the variable N-terminal region, have been reported and provide a framework for understanding the mechanism of Dbf2/Dbf20 regulation. Here, we report the 2.0 {angstrom} X-ray crystal structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mob1 containing both the conserved C-terminal core and the variable N-terminal region. Within the N-terminal region, three novel structural elements are observed; namely, an {alpha}-helix denoted H0, a strand-like element denoted S0 and a short {beta} strand denoted S-1. Helix H0 associates in an intermolecular manner with a second Mob1 molecule to form a Mob1 homodimer. Strand S0 binds to the core domain in an intramolecular manner across a putative Dbf2 binding site mapped by Mob1 temperature-sensitive alleles and NMR binding experiments. In vivo functional analysis demonstrates that Mob1 mutants that target helix H0 or its reciprocal binding site are biologically compromised. The N-terminal region of Mob1 thus contains structural elements that are functionally important.

Mrkobrada,S.; Boucher, L.; Tyers, D.; Sicheri, F.

2006-01-01

244

Regional Homogeneity Changes in Hemodialysis Patients with End Stage Renal Disease: In Vivo Resting-State Functional MRI Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To prospectively investigate and detect early cerebral regional homogeneity (ReHo) changes in neurologically asymptomatic patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) using in vivo resting-state functional MR imaging (Rs-fMRI). Methods We enrolled 20 patients (15 men, 5 women; meanage, 37.1 years; range, 19–49 years) with ESRD and 20 healthy controls (15 men, 5 women; mean age, 38.3 years; range, 28–49 years). The mean duration of hemodialysis for the patient group was 10.7±6.4 monthes. There was no significant sex or age difference between the ESRD and control groups. Rs-fMRI was performed using a gradient-echo echo-planar imaging sequence. ReHo was calculated using software (DPARSF). Voxel-based analysis of the ReHo maps between ESRD and control groups was performed with a two-samples t test. Statistical maps were set at P value less than 0.05 and were corrected for multiple comparisons. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was administered to all participants at imaging. Results ReHo values were increased in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus and left medial frontal gyrus in the ERSD group compared with controls, but a significantly decreased ReHo value was found in the right middle temporal gyrus. There was no significant correlation between ReHo values and the duration of hemodialysis in the ESRD group. Both the patients and control subjects had normal MMSE scores (?28). Conclusions Our finding revealed that abnormal brain activity was distributed mainly in the memory and cognition related cotices in patients with ESRD. The abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity in those areas provide information on the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment in patients with ESRD, and demonstrate that Rs-fMRI with ReHo analysis is a useful non-invasive imaging tool for the detection of early cerebral ReHo changes in hemodialysis patients with ESRD. PMID:24516545

Qiu, Ying-Wei; Lv, Xiao-Fei; Shen, Sheng; Zhan, Wen-Feng; Tian, Jun-Zhang; Jiang, Gui-Hua

2014-01-01

245

The neurexin ligands, neuroligins and leucine-rich repeat transmembrane proteins, perform convergent and divergent synaptic functions in vivo  

PubMed Central

Synaptic cell adhesion molecules, including the neurexin ligands, neuroligins (NLs) and leucine-rich repeat transmembrane proteins (LRRTMs), are thought to organize synapse assembly and specify synapse function. To test the synaptic role of these molecules in vivo, we performed lentivirally mediated knockdown of NL3, LRRTM1, and LRRTM2 in CA1 pyramidal cells of WT and NL1 KO mice at postnatal day (P)0 (when synapses are forming) and P21 (when synapses are largely mature). P0 knockdown of NL3 in WT or NL1 KO neurons did not affect excitatory synaptic transmission, whereas P0 knockdown of LRRTM1 and LRRTM2 selectively reduced AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic currents. P0 triple knockdown of NL3 and both LRRTMs in NL1 KO mice yielded greater reductions in AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated currents, suggesting functional redundancy between NLs and LRRTMs during early synapse development. In contrast, P21 knockdown of LRRTMs did not alter excitatory transmission, whereas NL manipulations supported a role for NL1 in maintaining NMDA receptor-mediated transmission. These results show that neurexin ligands in vivo form a dynamic synaptic cell adhesion network, with compensation between NLs and LRRTMs during early synapse development and functional divergence upon synapse maturation. PMID:21953696

Soler-Llavina, Gilberto J.; Fuccillo, Marc V.; Ko, Jaewon; Sudhof, Thomas C.; Malenka, Robert C.

2011-01-01

246

Dual-function 2-nitroimidazoles as hypoxic cell radiosensitizers and bioreductive cytotoxins: In vivo evaluation in KHT murine sarcomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacies of a series of potential prodrugs of RSU-1069 and its alkyl-aziridine analogues were assessed. These 1-(2-haloethylamino)-3-(2-nitro-1-imidazolyl)-2-propanol compounds were designed to cyclize in vivo to generate 2-nitro-imidazoles with aziridine (RSU-1069) or alkyl-substituted aziridine (RSU-1164, RB-7040, or RSU-1150) functions. Maximum tolerated single, intraperitoneal doses (MTD) were determined in C3H\\/He mice bearing subcutaneous KHT sarcomas, and a drug dose-response relationship for

S. Cole; I. J. Stratford; G. E. Adams; E. M. Fielden; T. C. Jenkins

1990-01-01

247

Fxr1 knockout mice show a striated muscle phenotype: implications for Fxr1p function in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

FXR1 is one of the two known homologues of FMR1. FXR1 shares a high degree\\u000a of sequence homology with FMR1 and also encodes two KH domains and an RGG\\u000a domain, conferring RNA-binding capabilities. In comparison with FMRP, very\\u000a little is known about the function of FXR1P in vivo. Mouse knockout (KO)\\u000a models exist for both Fmr1 and Fxr2. To study

Edwin J. Mientjes; Rob Willemsen; Laura L. Kirkpatrick; Ingeborg M. Nieuwenhuizen; Marianne Hoogeveen-Westerveld; Marcel Verweij; Surya Reis; Barbara Bardoni; Andre T. Hoogeveen; Ben A. Oostra; David L. Nelson

2004-01-01

248

The Functional Analysis of Quantum Information Theory  

E-print Network

This book is a compilation of notes from a two-week international workshop on the "The Functional Analysis of Quantum Information Theory" that was held at the Institute of Mathematical Sciences during 26/12/2011-06/01/2012. The workshop was devoted to the mathematical framework of quantized functional analysis (QFA), and aimed at illustrating its applications to problems in quantum communication. The lectures were given by Gilles Pisier (Pierre and Marie Curie University and Texas A&M), K.R. Parthasarathy (ISI Delhi), Vern Paulsen (University of Houston), and Andreas Winter (Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona). Topics discussed include Operator Spaces and Completely bounded maps, Schmidt number and Schmidt rank of bipartite entangled states, Operator Systems and Completely Positive Maps, and, Operator Methods in Quantum Information.

Ved Prakash Gupta; Prabha Mandayam; V. S. Sunder

2014-10-27

249

Optimizing relativistic energy density functionals: covariance analysis  

E-print Network

The stability of model parameters for a class of relativistic energy density functionals, characterized by contact (point-coupling) effective inter-nucleon interactions and density-dependent coupling parameters, is analyzed using methods of statistical analysis. A set of pseudo-observables in infinite and semi-infinite nuclear matter is used to define a quality measure $\\chi^2$ for subsequent analysis. We calculate uncertainties of model parameters and correlation coefficients between parameters, and determine the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the matrix of second derivatives of $\\chi^2$ at the minimum. This allows to examine the stability of the density functional in nuclear matter, and to deduce weakly and strongly constrained combinations of parameters. In addition, we also compute uncertainties of observables that are not included in the calculation of $\\chi^2$: binding energy of asymmetric nuclear matter, surface thickness of semi-infinite nuclear matter, binding energies and charge radii of finite nuclei.

Tamara Niksic; Nils Paar; Paul-Gerhard Reinhard; Dario Vretenar

2014-07-02

250

Biosensors for functional food safety and analysis.  

PubMed

The importance of safety and functionality analysis of foodstuffs and raw materials is supported by national legislations and European Union (EU) directives concerning not only the amount of residues of pollutants and pathogens but also the activity and content of food additives and the health claims stated on their labels. In addition, consumers' awareness of the impact of functional foods' on their well-being and their desire for daily healthcare without the intake pharmaceuticals has immensely in recent years. Within this picture, the availability of fast, reliable, low cost control systems to measure the content and the quality of food additives and nutrients with health claims becomes mandatory, to be used by producers, consumers and the governmental bodies in charge of the legal supervision of such matters. This review aims at describing the most important methods and tools used for food analysis, starting with the classical methods (e.g., gas-chromatography GC, high performance liquid chromatography HPLC) and moving to the use of biosensors-novel biological material-based equipments. Four types of bio-sensors, among others, the novel photosynthetic proteins-based devices which are more promising and common in food analysis applications, are reviewed. A particular highlight on biosensors for the emerging market of functional foods is given and the most widely applied functional components are reviewed with a comprehensive analysis of papers published in the last three years; this report discusses recent trends for sensitive, fast, repeatable and cheap measurements, focused on the detection of vitamins, folate (folic acid), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), fatty acids (in particular Omega 3), phytosterols and phytochemicals. A final market overview emphasizes some practical aspects ofbiosensor applications. PMID:21520718

Lavecchia, Teresa; Tibuzzi, Arianna; Giardi, Maria Teresa

2010-01-01

251

Fracture Analysis of Functionally Graded Materials  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports our recent research works on crack analysis in continuously non-homogeneous and linear elastic functionally graded materials. A meshless boundary element method is developed for this purpose. Numerical examples are presented and discussed to demonstrate the efficiency and the accuracy of the present numerical method, and to show the effects of the material gradation on the crack-opening-displacements and the stress intensity factors.

Zhang, Ch. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany); Gao, X. W. [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Sladek, J.; Sladek, V. [Institute of Construction and Architecture, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 84503 Bratislava (Slovakia)

2010-05-21

252

Biocompatible near-infrared fluorescent nanoparticles for macro and microscopic in vivo functional bioimaging  

PubMed Central

Near-infrared (NIR) imaging technology has been widely used for biomedical research and applications, since it can achieve deep penetration in biological tissues due to less absorption and scattering of NIR light. In our research, polymer nanoparticles with NIR fluorophores doped were synthesized. The morphology, absorption/emission features and chemical stability of the fluorescent nanoparticles were characterized, separately. NIR fluorescent nanoparticles were then utilized as bright optical probes for macro in vivo imaging of mice, including sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping, as well as distribution and excretion monitoring of nanoparticles in animal body. Furthermore, we applied the NIR fluorescent nanoparticles in in vivo microscopic bioimaging via a confocal microscope. Under the 635 nm-CW excitation, the blood vessel architecture in the ear and the brain of mice, which were administered with nanoparticles, was visualized very clearly. The imaging depth of our one-photon microscopy, which was assisted with NIR fluorescent nanoprobes, can reach as deep as 500 ?m. Our experiments show that NIR fluorescent nanoparticles have great potentials in various deep-tissue imaging applications.

Chu, Liliang; Wang, Shaowei; Li, Kanghui; Xi, Wang; Zhao, Xinyuan; Qian, Jun

2014-01-01

253

Functional in vivo imaging of cysteine cathepsin activity in murine model of inflammation.  

PubMed

Near-infrared fluorophore (NIRF)-labeled imaging probes are becoming increasingly important in bio-molecular imaging applications, that is, in animal models for tumor imaging or inflammation studies. In this study we showed that the previously introduced chemical concept of 'Reverse Design' represents an efficient strategy for the generation of selective probes for cysteine proteases from chemically optimized protease inhibitors for investigations in proteomic lysates as well as for in vivo molecular imaging studies. The newly developed activity-based probe AW-091 was demonstrated to be highly selective for cathepsin S in vitro and proved useful in monitoring cysteine cathepsin activity in vivo, that is, in zymosan-induced mouse model of inflammation. AW-091 showed higher signal-to-background ratios at earlier time points than the commercially available polymer-based ProSense680 (VisEn Medical) and thus represents an efficient new tool for studying early proteolytic processes leading to various diseases, including inflammation, cancer, and rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, the fluorescent signal originating from the cleaved AW-091 was shown to be reduced by the administration of an anti-inflammatory drug, dexamethasone and by the cathepsin inhibitor E-64, providing a valuable system for the evaluation of small-molecule inhibitors of cathepsins. PMID:21130662

Cagli?, Dejan; Globisch, Anja; Kindermann, Maik; Lim, Ngee-Han; Jeske, Volker; Juretschke, Hans-Paul; Bartnik, Eckart; Weithmann, K Ulrich; Nagase, Hideaki; Turk, Boris; Wendt, K Ulrich

2011-02-01

254

In vivo and in vitro analysis of topographic changes secondary to DSAEK venting incisions  

PubMed Central

Introduction Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) venting incisions may induce irregular corneal astigmatism. The study examines in vivo and in vitro astigmatic effects of venting incisions. Patients and methods In vivo analysis examined eleven eyes of eleven patients who had received DSAEK with venting incisions. A chart review of the eleven eyes including assessment of pre and postoperative refraction and topography was performed. In vitro analysis examined three cadaver eyes which received topographic imaging followed by venting incisions at 4 mm, 6 mm, and 7 mm optical zones. Topographic imaging was then performed again after the incisions. Results Postoperative topographies of eleven eyes demonstrated localized flattening at incision sites and cloverleaf pattern astigmatism. There was a significant difference in corneal irregularity measurement (P = 0.03), but no significant difference in shape factor or change of topographic cylinder. The cloverleaf pattern was found in cadaver eyes with incisions placed at 4 mm and 6 mm optical zones but not at the 7 mm zone. Conclusion DSAEK venting incisions can cause irregular corneal astigmatism that may affect visual outcomes. The authors recommend placement of venting incisions near the 7 mm optical zone. PMID:21966185

Moshirfar, Majid; Lependu, Monette T; Church, Dane; Neuffer, Marcus C

2011-01-01

255

Transparent adult zebrafish as a tool for in vivo transplantation analysis  

PubMed Central

The zebrafish is a useful model for understanding normal and cancer stem cells, but analysis has been limited to embryogenesis due to the opacity of the adult fish. To address this, we have created a transparent adult zebrafish in which we transplanted either hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells or tumor cells. In a hematopoiesis radiation recovery assay, transplantation of GFP-labeled marrow cells allowed for striking in vivo visual assessment of engraftment from 2 hours-5 weeks post transplant. Using FACS analysis, both transparent and wild-type fish had equal engraftment, but this could only be visualized in the transparent recipient. In a tumor engraftment model, transplantation of RAS-melanoma cells allowed for visualization of tumor engraftment, proliferation and distant metastases in as little as 5 days, which is not seen in wild-type recipients until 3-4 weeks. This transparent adult zebrafish serves as the ideal combination of both sensitivity and resolution for in vivo stem cell analyses. PMID:18371439

White, Richard Mark; Sessa, Anna; Burke, Christopher; Bowman, Teresa; LeBlanc, Jocelyn; Ceol, Craig; Bourque, Caitlin; Dovey, Michael; Goessling, Wolfram; Burns, Caroline Erter; Zon, Leonard I.

2008-01-01

256

Stochastic precision analysis of 2D cardiac strain estimation in vivo.  

PubMed

Ultrasonic strain imaging has been applied to echocardiography and carries great potential to be used as a tool in the clinical setting. Two-dimensional (2D) strain estimation may be useful when studying the heart due to the complex, 3D deformation of the cardiac tissue. Increasing the framerate used for motion estimation, i.e. motion estimation rate (MER), has been shown to improve the precision of the strain estimation, although maintaining the spatial resolution necessary to view the entire heart structure in a single heartbeat remains challenging at high MERs. Two previously developed methods, the temporally unequispaced acquisition sequence (TUAS) and the diverging beam sequence (DBS), have been used in the past to successfully estimate in vivo axial strain at high MERs without compromising spatial resolution. In this study, a stochastic assessment of 2D strain estimation precision is performed in vivo for both sequences at varying MERs (65, 272, 544, 815?Hz for TUAS; 250, 500, 1000, 2000?Hz for DBS). 2D incremental strains were estimated during left ventricular contraction in five healthy volunteers using a normalized cross-correlation function and a least-squares strain estimator. Both sequences were shown capable of estimating 2D incremental strains in vivo. The conditional expected value of the elastographic signal-to-noise ratio (E(SNRe|?)) was used to compare strain estimation precision of both sequences at multiple MERs over a wide range of clinical strain values. The results here indicate that axial strain estimation precision is much more dependent on MER than lateral strain estimation, while lateral estimation is more affected by strain magnitude. MER should be increased at least above 544?Hz to avoid suboptimal axial strain estimation. Radial and circumferential strain estimations were influenced by the axial and lateral strain in different ways. Furthermore, the TUAS and DBS were found to be of comparable precision at similar MERs. PMID:25330746

Bunting, E A; Provost, J; Konofagou, E E

2014-11-21

257

Stochastic precision analysis of 2D cardiac strain estimation in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasonic strain imaging has been applied to echocardiography and carries great potential to be used as a tool in the clinical setting. Two-dimensional (2D) strain estimation may be useful when studying the heart due to the complex, 3D deformation of the cardiac tissue. Increasing the framerate used for motion estimation, i.e. motion estimation rate (MER), has been shown to improve the precision of the strain estimation, although maintaining the spatial resolution necessary to view the entire heart structure in a single heartbeat remains challenging at high MERs. Two previously developed methods, the temporally unequispaced acquisition sequence (TUAS) and the diverging beam sequence (DBS), have been used in the past to successfully estimate in vivo axial strain at high MERs without compromising spatial resolution. In this study, a stochastic assessment of 2D strain estimation precision is performed in vivo for both sequences at varying MERs (65, 272, 544, 815?Hz for TUAS; 250, 500, 1000, 2000?Hz for DBS). 2D incremental strains were estimated during left ventricular contraction in five healthy volunteers using a normalized cross-correlation function and a least-squares strain estimator. Both sequences were shown capable of estimating 2D incremental strains in vivo. The conditional expected value of the elastographic signal-to-noise ratio (E(SNRe|?)) was used to compare strain estimation precision of both sequences at multiple MERs over a wide range of clinical strain values. The results here indicate that axial strain estimation precision is much more dependent on MER than lateral strain estimation, while lateral estimation is more affected by strain magnitude. MER should be increased at least above 544?Hz to avoid suboptimal axial strain estimation. Radial and circumferential strain estimations were influenced by the axial and lateral strain in different ways. Furthermore, the TUAS and DBS were found to be of comparable precision at similar MERs.

Bunting, E. A.; Provost, J.; Konofagou, E. E.

2014-11-01

258

The rare DAT coding variant Val559 perturbs DA neuron function, changes behavior, and alters in vivo responses to psychostimulants.  

PubMed

Despite the critical role of the presynaptic dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT, SLC6A3) in DA clearance and psychostimulant responses, evidence that DAT dysfunction supports risk for mental illness is indirect. Recently, we identified a rare, nonsynonymous Slc6a3 variant that produces the DAT substitution Ala559Val in two male siblings who share a diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with other studies identifying the variant in subjects with bipolar disorder (BPD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previously, using transfected cell studies, we observed that although DAT Val559 displays normal total and surface DAT protein levels, and normal DA recognition and uptake, the variant transporter exhibits anomalous DA efflux (ADE) and lacks capacity for amphetamine (AMPH)-stimulated DA release. To pursue the significance of these findings in vivo, we engineered DAT Val559 knock-in mice, and here we demonstrate in this model the presence of elevated extracellular DA levels, altered somatodendritic and presynaptic D2 DA receptor (D2R) function, a blunted ability of DA terminals to support depolarization and AMPH-evoked DA release, and disruptions in basal and psychostimulant-evoked locomotor behavior. Together, our studies demonstrate an in vivo functional impact of the DAT Val559 variant, providing support for the ability of DAT dysfunction to impact risk for mental illness. PMID:25331903

Mergy, Marc A; Gowrishankar, Raajaram; Gresch, Paul J; Gantz, Stephanie C; Williams, John; Davis, Gwynne L; Wheeler, C Austin; Stanwood, Gregg D; Hahn, Maureen K; Blakely, Randy D

2014-11-01

259

Epigenetic modulation of human breast cancer by metallofullerenol nanoparticles: in vivo treatment and in vitro analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-hydroxylated endohedral metallofullerenol [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles possess the general physico-chemical characteristics of most nanoparticles. They also exhibit uniquely low toxicity and antineoplastic efficacy. In the current study, the molecular mechanisms and epigenetic characteristics of the antineoplastic action of these nanoparticles are explored. Human breast cancer MCF-7 and human umbilical vein endothelial ECV304 cell lines were used. Cell viability assay, cell hierarchical cluster analysis by cDNA microarray, semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were conducted to investigate the changes in molecular and cellular signaling pathways caused by [Gd@C82(OH)22]n. The results demonstrated the high antitumor activity and low cytotoxicity of [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles both in vivo and in vitro. Their possible anti-tumor mechanisms were also discussed. The present study may provide new insight into the mechanism of action of these nanoparticles.

Meng, Jie; Xing, Jianmin; Wang, Yingze; Lu, Juan; Zhao, Yuliang; Gao, Xueyun; Wang, Paul C.; Jia, Lee; Liang, Xingjie

2011-11-01

260

Graph theoretical analysis of structural and functional connectivity MRI in normal and pathological brain networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graph theoretical analysis of structural and functional connectivity MRI data (ie. diffusion tractography or cortical volume\\u000a correlation and resting-state or task-related (effective) fMRI, respectively) has provided new measures of human brain organization\\u000a in vivo. The most striking discovery is that the whole-brain network exhibits “small-world” properties shared with many other\\u000a complex systems (social, technological, information, biological). This topology allows a

Maxime Guye; Gaelle Bettus; Fabrice Bartolomei; Patrick J. Cozzone

2010-01-01

261

Functional Analysis of Sugar Chains Using a Genome-Wide RNAi System in Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Drosophila melanogaster was first used for genetic studies by Thomas Hunt Morgan in 1908. Drosophila has since become one of the most important model organisms for developmental biology studies in addition to those of classical\\u000a and molecular genetics. Recently, effective analysis of glycan functions in vivo has been achieved using Drosophila. Flies with mutations of some glycosyltransferases display distinctive phenotypes,

Shoko Nishihara

262

Delta-catenin is required for the maintenance of neural structure and function in mature cortex in vivo.  

PubMed

Delta-catenin is a brain-specific member of the adherens junction complex that localizes to the postsynaptic and dendritic compartments. This protein is likely critical for normal cognitive function; its hemizygous loss is linked to the severe mental retardation syndrome Cri-du-Chat and it directly interacts with presenilin-1 (PS1), the protein most frequently mutated in familial Alzheimer's disease. Here we examine dendritic structure and cortical function in vivo in mice lacking delta-catenin. We find that in cerebral cortex of 5-week-old mice, dendritic complexity, spine density, and cortical responsiveness are similar between mutant and littermate controls; thereafter, mutant mice experience progressive dendritic retraction, a reduction in spine density and stability, and concomitant reductions in cortical responsiveness. Our results indicate that delta-catenin regulates the maintenance of dendrites and dendritic spines in mature cortex but does not appear to be necessary for the initial establishment of these structures during development. PMID:19914181

Matter, Cheryl; Pribadi, Mochtar; Liu, Xin; Trachtenberg, Joshua T

2009-11-12

263

Functional photoacoustic tomography for non-invasive imaging of cerebral blood oxygenation and blood volume in rat brain in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the multi-wavelength laser-based photoacoustic tomography, non-invasive in vivo imaging of functional parameters, including the hemoglobin oxygen saturation and the total concentration of hemoglobin, in small-animal brains was realized. The high sensitivity of this technique is based on the spectroscopic differences between oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin while its spatial resolution is bandwidth-limited by the photoacoustic signals rather than by the optical diffusion as in optical imaging. The point-by-point distributions of blood oxygenation and blood volume in the cerebral cortical venous vessels, altered by systemic physiological modulations including hyperoxia, normoxia and hypoxia, were visualized successfully through the intact skin and skull. This technique, with its prominent intrinsic advantages, can potentially accelerate the progress in neuroscience and provide important new insights into cerebrovascular physiology and brain function that are of great significance to the neuroscience community.

Wang, Xueding; Xie, Xueyi; Ku, Geng; Stoica, George; Wang, Lihong V.

2005-04-01

264

Kidney Function After In Vivo Gene Silencing of Uncoupling Protein-2 in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Kidney uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2) increases in streptozotocin-induced diabetes, resulting in mitochondria uncoupling, i.e., increased oxygen consumption unrelated to active transport. The present study aimed to investigate the role of UCP-2 for normal and diabetic kidney function utilizing small interference RNA (siRNA) to reduce protein expression. Diabetic animals had increased glomerular filtration rate and kidney oxygen consumption, resulting in decreased oxygen tension and transported sodium per consumed oxygen. UCP-2 protein levels decreased 2 and 50% after UCP-2 siRNA administration in control and diabetic animals respectively. Kidney function was unaffected by in vivo siRNA-mediated gene silencing of UCP-2. The reason for the lack of effect of reducing UCP-2 is presently unknown but may involve compensatory mitochondrial uncoupling by the adenosine nucleotide transporter. PMID:22879036

Welch, William J.; Wilcox, Christopher S.; Palm, Fredrik

2014-01-01

265

Inhibition of polymorphonuclear leucocyte functions in vivo by Yersinia enterocolitica lipopolysaccharide.  

PubMed Central

A single intravenous injection of 5 micrograms of Yersinia enterocolitica lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhibits rabbit polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) chemotaxis, enzyme secretion, and respiratory burst activation in response to partially purified rabbit C5a and leucotriene B4 (LTB4). Respiratory burst activation is also inhibited in response to platelet activating factor (PAF). In contrast, all these responses to n-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) remain unaltered. This LPS does not modulate PMN activation in vitro or activate the respiratory burst. Thus Y enterocolitica LPS acts in vivo by inhibiting PMN responses to endogenous mediators of inflammation. This inhibition presumably impairs the elimination of pathogens and might, therefore, provide favourable conditions for induction by bacteria of further immunological consequences. PMID:2538104

Hartiala, K T; Granberg, I; Toivanen, A; Viljanen, M

1989-01-01

266

In vivo functional photoacoustic tomography of traumatic brain injury in rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we demonstrate the potential of photoacoustic tomography for the study of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats in vivo. Based on spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography that can detect the absorption rates of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobins, the blood oxygen saturation and total blood volume in TBI rat brains were visualized. Reproducible cerebral trauma was induced using a fluid percussion TBI device. The time courses of the hemodynamic response following the trauma initiation were imaged with multi-wavelength photoacoustic tomography with bandwidth-limited spatial resolution through the intact skin and skull. In the pilot set of experiments, trauma induced hematomas and blood oxygen saturation level changes were detected, a finding consistent with the known physiological responses to TBI. This new imaging method will be useful for future studies on TBI-related metabolic activities and the effects of therapeutic agents.

Oh, Jung-Taek; Song, Kwang-Hyung; Li, Meng-Lin; Stoica, George; Wang, Lihong V.

2006-02-01

267

Synthesis of fluorine-18 functionalized nanoparticles for use as in vivo molecular imaging agents.  

PubMed

Nanoparticles containing fluorine-18 were prepared from block copolymers made by ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). Using the fast initiating ruthenium metathesis catalyst (H2IMes)(pyr)2(Cl)2Ru=CHPh, low polydispersity amphiphilic block copolymers were prepared from a cinnamoyl-containing hydrophobic norbornene monomer and a mesyl-terminated PEG-containing hydrophilic norbornene monomer. Self-assembly into micelles and subsequent cross-linking of the micelle cores by light-activated dimerization of the cinnamoyl groups yielded stable nanoparticles. Incorporation of fluorine-18 was achieved by nucleophilic displacement of the mesylates by the radioactive fluoride ion with 31% incorporation of radioactivity. The resulting positron-emitting nanoparticles are to be used as in vivo molecular imaging agents for use in tumor imaging. PMID:18452296

Matson, John B; Grubbs, Robert H

2008-05-28

268

Synthesis of Fluorine-18 Functionalized Nanoparticles for Use as in Vivo Molecular Imaging Agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles containing fluorine-18 were prepared from block co-polymers made by ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). Using the fast initiating ruthenium metathesis catalyst (H2IMes)(pyr)2(Cl)2RuCHPh, narrow polydispersity, amphiphilic block copolymers were prepared from a cinnamoyl-containing, hydrophobic norbornene monomer and a mesylate-terminated, PEG-containing hydrophilic norbornene monomer. Self-assembly into micelles and subsequent crosslinking of the micelle cores by light-activated dimerization of the cinnamoyl groups yielded stable nanoparticles. Incorporation of fluorine-18 was achieved by nucleophilic displacement of the mesylates with the radioactive fluoride ion with 31% incorporation of radioactivity. The resulting positron-emitting nanoparticles are to be used as in vivo molecular imaging agents in tumor imaging.

Matson, John B.; Grubbs, Robert H.

269

Preferential accumulation within tumors and in vivo imaging by functionalized luminescent dendrimer lanthanide complexes  

PubMed Central

We have created a dendrimer complex suitable for preferential accumulation within liver tumors and luminescence imaging by substituting thirty-two naphthalimide fluorophores on the surface of the dendrimer and incorporating eight europium cations within the branches. We demonstrate the utility and performance of this luminescent dendrimer complex to detect hepatic tumors generated via direct subcapsular implantation or via splenic injections of colorectal cancer cells (CC531) into WAG/RijHsd rats. Luminescence imaging of the tumors after injection of the dendrimer complex via hepatic arterial infusion revealed that the dendrimer complex can preferentially accumulate within liver tumors. Further investigation indicated that dendrimer luminescence in hepatic tumors persisted in vivo. Due to the incorporation of lanthanide cations, this luminescence agent presents a strong resistance against photobleaching. These studies show the dendrimer complex has great potential to serve as an innovative accumulation and imaging agent for the detection of metastatic tumors in our rat hepatic model. PMID:21925728

Alcala, Marco A.; Shade, Chad M.; Uh, Hyounsoo; Kwan, Shu Ying; Bischof, Matthias; Thompson, Zachary P.; Gogick, Kristy A.; Meier, Adam R.; Strein, Timothy G.; Bartlett, David L.; Modzelewski, Ruth A.; Lee, Yong J.; Petoud, Stéphane; Brown, Charles Komen

2011-01-01

270

In vivo biological responses to silk proteins functionalized with bone sialoprotein.  

PubMed

Recombinant 6mer?+?BSP protein, combining six repeats of the consensus sequence for Nephila clavipes dragline (6mer) and bone sialoprotein sequence (BSP), shows good support for cell viability and induces the nucleation of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate during osteoblast in vitro culture. The present study is conducted to characterize this bioengineered protein-based biomaterial further for in vivo behavior related to biocompatibility. 6mer?+?BSP protein films are implanted in subcutaneous pouches in the back of mice and responses are evaluated by flow cytometry and histology. The results show no major differences between the inflammatory responses induced by 6mer?+?BSP films and the responses observed for the controls. Thus, this new chimeric protein could represent an alternative for bone regeneration applications. PMID:23359587

Gomes, Sķlvia; Gallego-Llamas, Jabier; Leonor, Isabel B; Mano, Joćo F; Reis, Rui L; Kaplan, David L

2013-04-01

271

Lipopolysaccharide enhances Fc?R-dependent functions in vivo through CD11b/CD18 up-regulation  

PubMed Central

Fc receptors for immunoglobulin G (IgG) (Fc?R) mediate several defence mechanisms in the course of inflammatory and infectious diseases. In Gram-negative infections, cellular wall lipopolysaccharides (LPS) modulate different immune responses. We have recently demonstrated that murine LPS in vivo treatment significantly increases Fc?R-dependent clearance of immune complexes (IC). In addition, we and others have reported the induction of adhesion molecules on macrophages and neutrophils by LPS in vivo and by tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in vitro. The aim of this paper was to investigate CD11b/CD18 participation in LPS enhancing effects on Fc?-dependent functionality of tissue macrophages. Our results have demonstrated that LPS can enhance antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and IC-triggered cytotoxicity (IC-Ctx), two reactions which involve the Fc?-receptor but different lytic mechanisms. In vitro incubation of splenocytes from LPS-treated mice with anti-CD11b/CD18 abrogated ADCC and IC-Ctx enhancement, without affecting Fc?R expression. Similar results were obtained with physiological concentrations of fibrinogen. In this way cytotoxic values of LPS-splenocytes decreased to the basal levels of control mice. Time and temperature requirements for such inhibition strongly suggested that anti-CD11b/CD18 could modulate intracellular signals leading to downregulation of Fc?R functionality. Data presented herein support the hypothesis that functional and/or physical associations between integrins and Fc?R could be critical for the modulation of effector functions during an inflammatory response. PMID:10447764

Rubel, C; Miliani De Marval, P; Vermeulen, M; Isturiz, M A; Palermo, M S

1999-01-01

272

In vivo analysis of highly conserved Nef activities in HIV-1 replication and pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background The HIV-1 accessory protein, Nef, is decisive for progression to AIDS. In vitro characterization of the protein has described many Nef activities of unknown in vivo significance including CD4 downregulation and a number of activities that depend on Nef interacting with host SH3 domain proteins. Here, we use the BLT humanized mouse model of HIV-1 infection to assess their impact on viral replication and pathogenesis and the selection pressure to restore these activities using enforced in vivo evolution. Results We followed the evolution of HIV-1LAI (LAI) with a frame-shifted nef (LAINeffs) during infection of BLT mice. LAINeffs was rapidly replaced in blood by virus with short deletions in nef that restored the open reading frame (LAINeffs?-1 and LAINeffs?-13). Subsequently, LAINeffs?-1 was often replaced by wild type LAI. Unexpectedly, LAINeffs?-1 and LAINeffs?-13 Nefs were specifically defective for CD4 downregulation activity. Viruses with these mutant nefs were used to infect BLT mice. LAINeffs?-1 and LAINeffs?-13 exhibited three-fold reduced viral replication (compared to LAI) and a 50% reduction of systemic CD4+ T cells (>90% for LAI) demonstrating the importance of CD4 downregulation. These results also demonstrate that functions other than CD4 downregulation enhanced viral replication and pathogenesis of LAINeffs?-1 and LAINeffs?-13 compared to LAINeffs. To gain insight into the nature of these activities, we constructed the double mutant P72A/P75A. Multiple Nef activities can be negated by mutating the SH3 domain binding site (P72Q73V74P75L76R77) to P72A/P75A and this mutation does not affect CD4 downregulation. Virus with nef mutated to P72A/P75A closely resembled the wild-type virus in vivo as viral replication and pathogenesis was not significantly altered. Unlike LAINeffs described above, the P72A/P75A mutation had a very weak tendency to revert to wild type sequence. Conclusions The in vivo phenotype of Nef is significantly dependent on CD4 downregulation but minimally on the numerous Nef activities that require an intact SH3 domain binding motif. These results suggest that CD4 downregulation plus one or more unknown Nef activities contribute to enhanced viral replication and pathogenesis and are suitable targets for anti-HIV therapy. Enforced evolution studies in BLT mice will greatly facilitate identification of these critical activities. PMID:24172637

2013-01-01

273

Functional Analysis of Arabidopsis Sucrose Transporters  

SciTech Connect

Sucrose is the main photosynthetic product that is transported in the vasculature of plants. The long-distance transport of carbohydrates is required to support the growth and development of net-importing (sink) tissues such as fruit, seeds and roots. This project is focused on understanding the transport mechanism sucrose transporters (SUTs). These are proton-coupled sucrose uptake transporters (membrane proteins) that are required for transport of sucrose in the vasculature and uptake into sink tissues. The accomplishments of this project included: 1) the first analysis of substrate specificity for any SUT. This was accomplished using electrophysiology to analyze AtSUC2, a sucrose transporter from companion cells in Arabidopsis. 2) the first analysis of the transport activity for a monocot SUT. The transport kinetics and substrate specificity of HvSUT1 from barley were studied. 3) the first analysis of a sucrose transporter from sugarcane. and 4) the first analysis of transport activity of a sugar alcohol transporter homolog from plants, AtPLT5. During this period four primary research papers, funded directly by the project, were published in refereed journals. The characterization of several sucrose transporters was essential for the current effort in the analysis of structure/function for this gene family. In particular, the demonstration of strong differences in substrate specificity between type I and II SUTs was important to identify targets for site-directed mutagenesis.

John M. Ward

2009-03-31

274

Human Müller glia with stem cell characteristics differentiate into retinal ganglion cell (RGC) precursors in vitro and partially restore RGC function in vivo following transplantation.  

PubMed

Müller glia with stem cell characteristics have been identified in the adult human eye, and although there is no evidence that they regenerate retina in vivo, they can be induced to grow and differentiate into retinal neurons in vitro. We differentiated human Müller stem cells into retinal ganglion cell (RGC) precursors by stimulation with fibroblast growth factor 2 together with NOTCH inhibition using the ?-secretase inhibitor N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT). Differentiation into RGC precursors was confirmed by gene and protein expression analysis, changes in cytosolic [Ca(2+)] in response to neurotransmitters, and green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression by cells transduced with a transcriptional BRN3b-GFP reporter vector. RGC precursors transplanted onto the inner retinal surface of Lister hooded rats depleted of RGCs by N-methyl-d-aspartate aligned onto the host RGC layer at the site of transplantation but did not extend long processes toward the optic nerve. Cells were observed extending processes into the RGC layer and expressing RGC markers in vivo. This migration was observed only when adjuvant anti-inflammatory and matrix degradation therapy was used for transplantation. RGC precursors induced a significant recovery of RGC function in the transplanted eyes as determined by improvement of the negative scotopic threshold response of the electroretinogram (indicative of RGC function). The results suggest that transplanted RGC precursors may be capable of establishing local interneuron synapses and possibly release neurotrophic factors that facilitate recovery of RGC function. These cells constitute a promising source of cells for cell-based therapies to treat retinal degenerative disease caused by RGC dysfunction. PMID:23197778

Singhal, Shweta; Bhatia, Bhairavi; Jayaram, Hari; Becker, Silke; Jones, Megan F; Cottrill, Phillippa B; Khaw, Peng T; Salt, Thomas E; Limb, G Astrid

2012-03-01

275

A peptide targeting an interaction interface disrupts the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer to block signaling and function in vitro and in vivo: effective selective antagonism.  

PubMed

Although the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer has emerging physiological relevance and a postulated role in different neuropsychiatric disorders, such as drug addiction, depression, and schizophrenia, there is a need for pharmacological tools that selectively target such receptor complexes in order to analyze their biological and pathophysiological functions. Since no selective antagonists for the D1-D2 heteromer are available, serial deletions and point mutations were used to precisely identify the amino acids involved in an interaction interface between the receptors, residing within the carboxyl tail of the D1 receptor that interacted with the D2 receptor to form the D1-D2 receptor heteromer. It was determined that D1 receptor carboxyl tail residues (404)Glu and (405)Glu were critical in mediating the interaction with the D2 receptor. Isolated mutation of these residues in the D1 receptor resulted in the loss of agonist activation of the calcium signaling pathway mediated through the D1-D2 receptor heteromer. The physical interaction between the D1 and D2 receptor could be disrupted, as shown by coimmunoprecipitation and BRET analysis, by a small peptide generated from the D1 receptor sequence that contained these amino acids, leading to a switch in G-protein affinities and loss of calcium signaling, resulting in the inhibition of D1-D2 heteromer function. The use of the D1-D2 heteromer-disrupting peptide in vivo revealed a pathophysiological role for the D1-D2 heteromer in the modulation of behavioral despair. This peptide may represent a novel pharmacological tool with potential therapeutic benefits in depression treatment.-Hasbi, A., Perreault, M. L., Shen, M. Y. F., Zhang, L., To, R., Fan, T., Nguyen, T., Ji, X., O'Dowd, B. F., George, S. R. A peptide targeting an interaction interface disrupts the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer to block signaling and function in vitro and in vivo: effective selective antagonism. PMID:25063849

Hasbi, Ahmed; Perreault, Melissa L; Shen, Maurice Y F; Zhang, Lucia; To, Ryan; Fan, Theresa; Nguyen, Tuan; Ji, Xiaodong; O'Dowd, Brian F; George, Susan R

2014-11-01

276

Parametric spectrum analysis of 2D NMR signals. Application to in Vivo J spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parametric modeling techniques for spectrum analysis, based on the linear prediction principle, have previously been proposed to process NMR data. In this paper, they are tested on different practical NMR signals, and especially on in vivo 2D NMR spectroscopy data. The linear prediction version of the maximum entropy method, using AR modeling, and the Prony method are outlined with some considerations about the choice of the AR algorithm. Then simulation and experimental results obtained with the Prony method are presented and compared with those obtained with classical 2D Fourier transform processing. The data processed here result from homonuclear 2D J-resolved spectroscopy experiments performed to measure the spin-spin coupling constants between the three phosphorus nuclei of ATP in the rat brain. The parametric techniques (especially the Prony method) applied in both dimensions yield increased resolution and sensitivity and their ability to process limited data allows the total acquisition time to be reduced without loss of resolution. Although the noise may damage the performances, the results obtained here, on in vivo 2D data, are quite encouraging.

Luthon, F.; Blanpain, R.; Decorps, M.; Albrand, J. P.

277

Delayed near-infrared analysis permits visualization of rodent retinal pigment epithelium layer in vivo.  

PubMed

Patches of atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) have not been described in rodent models of retinal degeneration, as they have the clinical setting using fundus autofluorescence. We hypothesize that prelabeling the RPE would increase contrast and allow for improved visualization of RPE loss in vivo. Here, we demonstrate a new technique termed “delayed near-infrared analysis (DNIRA)” that permits ready detection of rat RPE, using optical imaging in the near-infrared (IR) spectrum with aid of indocyanine green (ICG) dye. Using DNIRA, we demonstrate a fluorescent RPE signal that is detected using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy up to 28 days following ICG injection. This signal is apparent only after ICG injection, is dose dependent, requires the presence of the ICG filters (795/810 nm excitation/emission), does not appear in the IR reflectance channel, and is eliminated in the presence of sodium iodate, a toxin that causes RPE loss. Rat RPE explants confirm internalization of ICG dye. Together with normal retinal electrophysiology, these findings demonstrate that DNIRA is a new and safe noninvasive optical imaging technique for in vivo visualization of the RPE in models of retinal disease. PMID:25003755

Pankova, Natalie; Zhao, Xu; Liang, Huiyuan; Baek, David Sung Hyeon; Wang, Hai; Boyd, Shelley

2014-07-01

278

Delayed near-infrared analysis permits visualization of rodent retinal pigment epithelium layer in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patches of atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) have not been described in rodent models of retinal degeneration, as they have the clinical setting using fundus autofluorescence. We hypothesize that prelabeling the RPE would increase contrast and allow for improved visualization of RPE loss in vivo. Here, we demonstrate a new technique termed "delayed near-infrared analysis (DNIRA)" that permits ready detection of rat RPE, using optical imaging in the near-infrared (IR) spectrum with aid of indocyanine green (ICG) dye. Using DNIRA, we demonstrate a fluorescent RPE signal that is detected using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy up to 28 days following ICG injection. This signal is apparent only after ICG injection, is dose dependent, requires the presence of the ICG filters (795/810 nm excitation/emission), does not appear in the IR reflectance channel, and is eliminated in the presence of sodium iodate, a toxin that causes RPE loss. Rat RPE explants confirm internalization of ICG dye. Together with normal retinal electrophysiology, these findings demonstrate that DNIRA is a new and safe noninvasive optical imaging technique for in vivo visualization of the RPE in models of retinal disease.

Pankova, Natalie; Zhao, Xu; Liang, Huiyuan; Baek, David Sung Hyeon; Wang, Hai; Boyd, Shelley

2014-07-01

279

Principal components analysis of FT-Raman spectra of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FT-Raman spectroscopy is a modern analytical tool and it is believed that its use for skin cancer diagnosis will lead to several advantages for patients, e.g., faster results and a minimization of invasivity. This article reports results of an ex Vivo study of the FT-Raman spectra regarding differentiation between non-diseased and malignant human skin lesions, Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC). A Nd: YAG laser at 1064nm was used as the excitation source in the FT-Raman, RFS 100/S Spectrometer, Bruker. Thirty-nine sets of human skin samples, 18 histopathologically diagnosed as non-diseased, and 21 as BCC, were obtained during routine therapeutic procedures required by the primary disease. No sample preparation was needed to promote the FT-Raman spectra collection. The main spectral features, which may differentiate the sample, were found in the shift region of Amide I (1640 to 1680 cm-1), Amide III (1220 to 1330cm-1), proteins and lipids (1400 to 1500 cm-1), amino acids (939 to 940 cm-1) and deoxyribonucleic acid (1600 to 1620cm-1). Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was applied to FT-Raman spectra of Basal Cell Carcinoma. Analysis was performed on mean-normalized and mean-centered data of the non-diseased skin and BCC spectra. The dynamic loading of PCA was expanded into 2D contour by calculating a variance-covariance matrix. PCA was used to verify the statistical differences in the sample. This technique applied over all samples identified tissue type within 83% of sensitivity and 100% specificity. The PCA technique proved efficient for analysis in skin tissue ex vivo, results were significant and coherent.

Martin, Airton A.; Bitar Carter, Renata A.; de Oliveira Nunes, Lilian; Loschiavo Arisawa, Emilia A.; Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.

2004-07-01

280

FFTF Plant transition function analysis report  

SciTech Connect

The document contains the functions, function definitions, function interfaces, function interface definitions, Input Computer Automated Manufacturing Definition (IDEFO) diagrams, and function hierarchy charts that describe what needs to be performed to deactivate FFTF.

Lund, D.P.; FFTF Working Group

1995-09-01

281

PUREX Plant deactivation function analysis report  

SciTech Connect

The document contains the functions, function definitions, function interfaces, function interface definitions, Input Computer Automated Manufacturing Definition (IDEFO) diagrams, and a function hierarchy chart that describe what needs to be performed to deactivate PUREX.

Lund, D.P.; PUREX Working Group

1995-09-01

282

Analysis of body calcium (regional changes in body calcium by in vivo neutron activation analysis)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of space flight on urine and fecal calcium loss was documented during the three long-term Skylab flights. Neutron activation analysis was used to determine regional calcium loss. Various designs for regional analysis were investigated.

Suki, W.; Johnson, P. C.; Leblanc, A.; Evans, H. J.

1981-01-01

283

Analysis of Functional Domains on Glutamate Synthase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutamate synthases (GOGAT) were analyzed to identify the functional binding domains of the substrate (glutamine) and cofactors (FMN, NAD(P)H, FAD, (3Fe-4S)1+,0 and (4Fe-4S)2+,1+ clusters and ferredoxin) on this enzyme. The published amino acid sequences of six different NAD(P)H- dependent GOGATs (NAD(P)H-GOGAT) and ten different ferredoxin-dependent GOGATs (Fd-GOGAT) were used for this analysis. The amino acid sequences of these sixteen GOGATs

Barbaros NALBANTO

284

Pharmacokinetic and toxicological evaluation of multi-functional thiol-6-fluoro-6-deoxy-d-glucose gold nanoparticles in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We synthesized a novel, multi-functional, radiosensitizing agent by covalently linking 6-fluoro-6-deoxy-d-glucose (6-FDG) to gold nanoparticles (6-FDG-GNPs) via a thiol functional group. We then assessed the bio-distribution and pharmacokinetic properties of 6-FDG-GNPs in vivo using a murine model. At 2 h, following intravenous injection of 6-FDG-GNPs into the murine model, approximately 30% of the 6-FDG-GNPs were distributed to three major organs: the liver, the spleen and the kidney. PEGylation of the 6-FDG-GNPs was found to significantly improve the bio-distribution of 6-FDG-GNPs by avoiding unintentional uptake into these organs, while simultaneously doubling the cellular uptake of GNPs in implanted breast MCF-7 adenocarcinoma. When combined with radiation, PEG-6-FDG-GNPs were found to increase the apoptosis of the MCF-7 breast adenocarinoma cells by radiation both in vitro and in vivo. Pharmacokinetic data indicate that GNPs reach their maximal concentrations at a time window of two to four hours post-injection, during which optimal radiation efficiency can be achieved. PEG-6-FDG-GNPs are thus novel nanoparticles that preferentially accumulate in targeted cancer cells where they act as potent radiosensitizing agents. Future research will aim to substitute the 18F atom into the 6-FDG molecule so that the PEG-6-FDG-GNPs can also function as radiotracers for use in positron emission tomography scanning to aid cancer diagnosis and image guided radiation therapy planning.

Roa, Wilson; Xiong, Yeping; Chen, Jie; Yang, Xiaoyan; Song, Kun; Yang, Xiaohong; Kong, Beihua; Wilson, John; Xing, James Z.

2012-09-01

285

Radiofrequency time-domain EPR imaging: instrumentation development and recent results in functional physiological in vivo imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron Paramagnetic Resonance is an emerging technique finding applications in functional physiological imaging. Traditionally EPR imaging developed as a CW (continuous wave) technique involving the measurement of free radical distribution in vivo using constant frequency and field-sweep modality almost identical to the early developments of MRI. As in CT and PET this involved the generation of projections in presence of gradients and the reconstruction of images via filtered back-projection. The large line-width and the concomitant short relaxation times posed a serious challenge for the development of time-domain methods akin to modern pulsed NMR & MRI. With the recent availability of narrow line stable non-toxic radicals based on triarylmethyl (TAM), ultra fast data acquisition systems (signal digitizer and summer), very fast electronic switches and low-noise amplifiers, we have developed time-domain imaging schemes in EPR operating in the radiofrequency region Using a novel pure-phase encoding scheme, we are able to generate 2 and 3 dimensional spatial images and spectral-spatial images that adds an additional functional dimension to these images. The special space-encoding scheme with fast gradient ramping allow rapid in vivo imaging of small animals with superior spatial and functional information with good temporal resolution that can provide valuable physiological and pharmacokinetic insight. Our main thrust has been in the investigation of tumor hypoxia and tumor reoxygenation for the purpose of minimizing the radiation dose for maximum tumor cell killing. These and some of the allied imaging methods, and results from tumor investigation will be presented.

Subramanian, Sankaran; Devasahayam, Nallathamby; Krishna, M. C.

2007-02-01

286

Reversion analysis of dynein intermediate chain function.  

PubMed

The ODA6 locus of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii encodes a 70 kDa intermediate chain protein of the flagellar outer row dynein ATPase, and mutations at this locus prevent assembly of the entire outer row dynein arm complex. To initiate a structure-function analysis of the 70 kDa protein, we used transformation with chimeric mutant/wild-type genes to localize the defect in one assembly mutation, oda6-95. Sequence analysis revealed a frame-shift mutation in codon 53, which is followed by a stop codon after 13 amino acids in the new reading frame. By selecting intragenic pseudorevertants of this mutation we obtained 11 new oda6 alleles. Many of these pseudorevertants encode intermediate chain proteins that permit assembly of outer row arms but do not restore full wild-type motility. Revertant strains fall into two phenotypic classes, one with average beat frequencies of 54 Hz (similar to wild type) and one with average frequencies of 27 Hz (compared with 24 Hz for oda6-95) during normal forward swimming. Low beat frequency strains also display abnormalities during photophobic reversal (symmetric waveform). Amplification and sequence analysis of revertant alleles indicated that each reversion caused a second frame-shift, within a 115 nt interval, which restored the original reading frame, and that phenotypic severity was related to both direction (5' or 3') and distance between the original mutation and the reversion event. On the basis of immunoblot analysis of outer arm proteins, we conclude that revertant motility defects do not correlate with deficits in assembly of a specific dynein heavy chain or intermediate chain polypeptide, and electron microscopy confirms that revertants have normal outer arm structures. These results suggest that the 70 kDa intermediate chain plays a direct role in outer arm function distinct from its role in the assembly process. PMID:8227195

Mitchell, D R; Kang, Y

1993-08-01

287

Rapid experience-dependent plasticity of synapse function and structure in ferret visual cortex in vivo  

E-print Network

The rules by which visual experience influences neuronal responses and structure in the developing brain are not well understood. To elucidate the relationship between rapid functional changes and dendritic spine remodeling ...

Yu, Hongbo

288

Effects of ex vivo ?-tocopherol on airway macrophage function in healthy and mild allergic asthmatics.  

PubMed

Elevated inflammation and altered immune responses are features found in atopic asthmatic airways. Recent studies indicate ?-tocopherol (GT) supplementation can suppress airway inflammation in allergic asthma. We studied the effects of in vitro GT supplementation on receptor-mediated phagocytosis and expression of cell surface molecules associated with innate and adaptive immunity on sputum-derived macrophages. Cells from nonsmoking healthy (n = 6) and mild house dust mite-sensitive allergic asthmatics (n = 6) were treated ex vivo with GT (300 µM) or saline (control). Phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan A bioparticles (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and expression of surface molecules associated with innate and adaptive immunity were assessed using flow cytometry. GT caused significantly decreased (p < 0.05) internalization of attached zymosan bioparticles and decreased (p < 0.05) macrophage expression of CD206, CD36 and CD86 in allergic asthmatics but not in controls. Overall, GT caused downregulation of both innate and adaptive immune response elements, and atopic status appears to be an important factor. PMID:23689260

Geiser, Marianne; Lay, John C; Bennett, William D; Zhou, Haibo; Wang, Xiaoyan; Peden, David B; Alexis, Neil E

2013-01-01

289

In vivo resistance to bacterial biofilm formation on tympanostomy tubes as a function of tube material.  

PubMed

Adherent bacterial biofilms have been implicated in the irreversible contamination of implanted medical devices. We evaluated the resistance of various tympanostomy (pressure equalization [PE]) tube materials to biofilm formation using an in vivo model. PE tubes of silicone, silver oxide-impregnated silicone, fluoroplastic, silver oxide-impregnated fluoroplastic, and ion-bombarded silicone were inserted into the tympanic membranes of 18 Hartley guinea pigs. Staphylococcus aureus was then inoculated into the middle ears. An additional 8 guinea pigs were used as controls; the PE tubes were inserted without middle ear inoculation. All PE tubes were removed on day 10 and analyzed for bacterial contamination using culture, immunofluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All infected ears developed otitis media with otorrhea, but none of the animal control ears drained. Fluorescence imaging of the animal control tubes showed large cellular components consistent with inflammation. The infected tubes showed heavy DNA fluorescence consistent with bacteria and inflammatory cells. All animal control tubes except the ion-bombarded silicone tubes showed adherent inflammatory film on SEM. Also, all tubes placed in infected ears except the ion-bombarded silicone tubes showed adherent bacterial and inflammatory films on SEM. Nonadherent surface properties such as the ion-bombarded silicone may be helpful in preventing chronic PE tube contamination. PMID:10229584

Saidi, I S; Biedlingmaier, J F; Whelan, P

1999-05-01

290

In vivo functional chronic imaging of a small animal model using optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy.  

PubMed

Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) has been validated as a valuable tool for label-free volumetric microvascular imaging. More importantly, the advantages of noninvasiveness and measurement consistency suggest the use of OR-PAM for chronic imaging of intact microcirculation. Here, such chronic imaging is demonstrated for the first time by monitoring the healing process of laser-induced microvascular lesions in a small animal model in vivo. The central part of a 1 mm by 1 mm region in a nude mouse ear was treated under a continuous-wave laser to create a microvascular lesion for chronic study. The region of interest was imaged before the laser treatment, immediately after the treatment, and throughout the healing process using both the authors' OR-PAM system and a commercial transmission-mode optical microscope. Three-dimensional microvascular morphology and blood oxygenation information were imaged simultaneously at capillary-level resolution. Transmission-mode optical microscopic images were acquired for comparison. OR-PAM has potential important applications in microcirculatory physiology or pathophysiology, tumor angiogenesis, laser microsurgery, and neuroscience. PMID:19610320

Hu, Song; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V

2009-06-01

291

[Suppressive effects of lanoconazole on arthus phenomenon in vivo and on production and functions of TNF in vitro].  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory effect of lanoconazole (LCZ) was investigated in vivo and in vitro. The effect of LCZ was evaluated on the inflammatory reactions elicited by intradermal injection of ovalbumin to ovalbumin-immunized rabbits, as an Arthus phenomenon. A one or two % cream preparation of LCZ was topically applied on the lesion daily after challenging injection until the inflamation had diminished. By macroscopic observation and measuring the diameter of edema, erythema, hemorrhage and necrosis, the effects of LCZ on the reactions were compared with the reactions of the sites administered withcream vehicle as reference agent. Two % LCZ showed an anti-hemorrhagic effect. The in vitro effect of LCZ on production and functions of an inflammatory cytokine, TNF was also examined. LCZ suppressed the production of TNF by murine peritoneal macrophages at 20 micro g/ml and the adhesion of neutrophils at 100 micro g/ml. Moreover, LCZ significantly suppressed the growth inhibitory activity of TNF against L929 fibroblasts at 0.5 micro g/ml. A very low concentration of LCZ might protect the fibroblasts from immunological cytotoxicity in vivo. These findings suggest that LCZ has a suppressive activity to inflammatory responses and this suppressive action may be due to its protective activity to cells like fibroblasts. PMID:10777820

Mitsuya, M; Wada, K; Ishibashi, H; Tansho, S; Abe, S; Yamaguchi, H

2000-01-01

292

In Vivo Regulation of NGF-Mediated Functions by Nedd4-2 Ubiquitination of TrkA  

PubMed Central

Trk neurotrophin receptor ubiquitination in response to ligand activation regulates signaling, trafficking, and degradation of the receptors. However, the in vivo consequences of Trk ubiquitination remain to be addressed. We have developed a mouse model with a mutation in the TrkA neurotrophin receptor (P782S) that results in reduced ubiquitination due to a lack of binding to the E3 ubiquitin ligase, Nedd4-2. In vivo analyses of TrkAP782S indicate that defective ubiquitination of the TrkA mutant results in an altered trafficking and degradation of the receptor that affects the survival of sensory neurons. The dorsal root ganglia from the TrkAP782S knock-in mice display an increased number of neurons expressing CGRP and substance P. Moreover, the mutant mice show enhanced sensitivity to thermal and inflammatory pain. Our results indicate that the ubiquitination of the TrkA neurotrophin receptor plays a critical role in NGF-mediated functions, such as neuronal survival and sensitivity to pain. PMID:24760869

Yu, Tao; Calvo, Laura; Anta, Begona; Lopez-Benito, Saray; Lopez-Bellido, Roger; Vicente-Garcia, Cristina; Tessarollo, Lino; Rodriguez, Raquel E.

2014-01-01

293

Microfluidic worm-chip for in vivo analysis of neuronal activity upon dynamic chemical stimulations.  

PubMed

Conventional neuronal analysis at the single neuron level usually involves culturing of neurons in vitro and analysis of neuronal activities by electrophysiological or pharmacological methods. However, the extracellular environments of in vitro neuronal analysis cannot mimic the exact surroundings of the neurons. Here, we report a microfluidic worm-chip for in vivo analysis of neuronal activities upon dynamic chemical stimulations. A comb-shaped microvalve was developed to immobilize whole animal for high-resolution imaging of neuronal activities. Using a sequential sample introduction system, multiple chemical stimuli were delivered to an individual Caenorhabditis elegans nose tip based on programmed interface shifting of laminar flows. ASH sensory neuron responses to various stimuli in individual C. elegans were quantitatively evaluated, and mutants were significantly defective in neuronal responses to certain stimulus in comparison to others. Sensory reduction in the magnitude of the response to repetitive chemical stimulation with different durations was also found. Our study explored the possibility of real-time detection of neuronal activities in individual animals upon multiple stimulations. PMID:21763804

Wang, Jingjing; Feng, Xiaojun; Du, Wei; Liu, Bi-Feng

2011-09-01

294

Enhanced green fluorescent protein expression in Pleurotus ostreatus for in vivo analysis of fungal laccase promoters.  

PubMed

The laccase family of Pleurotus ostreatus has been widely characterized, and studies of the genes coding for laccase isoenzymes in P. ostreatus have so far led to the identification of four different genes and the corresponding cDNAs, poxc, pox1, poxa1b and poxa3. Analyses of P. ostreatus laccase promoters poxc, pox1, poxa1b and poxa3 have allowed identification of several putative response elements, and sequences of metal-responsive elements involved in the formation of complexes with fungal proteins have been identified in poxc and poxa1b promoters. In this work, development of a system for in vivo analysis of P. ostreatus laccase promoter poxc by enhanced green fluorescent protein expression is performed, based on a poly ethylene glycol-mediated procedure for fungal transformation. A quantitative measurement of fluorescence expressed in P. ostreatus transformants is hereby reported for the first time for this fungus. PMID:22893518

Amore, Antonella; Honda, Yoichi; Faraco, Vincenza

2012-10-01

295

In Vitro and In Vivo Models for Analysis of Resistance to Anticancer Molecular Therapies  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of classical and molecular therapies in cancer is hampered by the occurrence of primary (intrinsic) and secondary (acquired) refractoriness of tumours to selected therapeutic regimens. Nevertheless, the increased knowledge of the genetic, molecular and metabolic mechanisms underlying cancer results in the generation of a correspondingly increasing number of druggable targets and molecular drugs. Thus, a current challenge in molecular oncology and medicinal chemistry is to cope with the increased need for modelling, both in cellular and animal systems, the genetic assets associated to cancer resistance to drugs. In this review, we summarize the current strategies for generation and analysis of in vitro and in vivo models, which may reveal useful to extract information on the molecular basis of intrinsic and acquired resistance to anticancer molecular agents. PMID:23992330

Rosa, Roberta; Monteleone, Francesca; Zambrano, Nicola; Bianco, Roberto

2014-01-01

296

Functional analysis of 11 novel GBA alleles.  

PubMed

Gaucher disease is the most frequent lysosomal storage disorder due to the deficiency of the acid ?-glucosidase, encoded by the GBA gene. In this study, we report the structural and functional characterization of 11 novel GBA alleles. Seven single missense alleles, P159S, N188I, E235K, P245T, W312S, S366R and W381C, and two alleles carrying in cis mutations, (N188S; G265R) and (E326K; D380N), were studied for enzyme activity in transiently transfected cells. All mutants were inactive except the P159S, which retained 15% of wild-type activity. To further characterize the alleles carrying two in cis mutations, we expressed constructs bearing singly each mutation. The presence of G265R or D380N mutations completely abolished enzyme activity, while N188S and E326K mutants retained 25 and 54% of wild-type activity, respectively. Two mutations, affecting the acceptor splice site of introns 5 (c.589-1G>A) and 9 (c.1389-1G>A), led to the synthesis of aberrant mRNA. Unpredictably, family studies showed that two alleles resulted from germline or 'de novo' mutations. These results strengthen the importance of performing a complete and accurate molecular analysis of the GBA gene in order to avoid misleading conclusions and provide a comprehensive functional analysis of new GBA mutations. PMID:24022302

Malini, Erika; Grossi, Serena; Deganuto, Marta; Rosano, Camillo; Parini, Rossella; Dominisini, Silvia; Cariati, Roberta; Zampieri, Stefania; Bembi, Bruno; Filocamo, Mirella; Dardis, Andrea

2014-04-01

297

Correlation energy functional from jellium surface analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the wave-vector analysis of the jellium exchange-correlation surface energy, we show that the PBEint generalized gradient approximation (GGA) of Fabiano et al. [Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.82.113104 82, 113104 (2010)] is one of the most accurate density functionals for jellium surfaces, being able to describe both exchange and correlation parts of the surface energy, without error compensations. We show that the stabilized jellium model allows us to achieve a realistic description of the correlation surface energy of simple metals at any wave vector k. The PBEint correlation is then used to construct a meta-GGA correlation functional, modifying the one-electron self-correlation-free Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria (TPSS) one. We find that this new functional (named JS) performs in agreement with fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo estimates of the jellium surfaces, and is accurate for spherical atoms and ions of different spin-polarization and for Hooke’s atom for any value of the spring constant.

Constantin, Lucian A.; Chiodo, Letizia; Fabiano, Eduardo; Bodrenko, Igor; Sala, Fabio Della

2011-07-01

298

ASSOCIATION OF MARGINAL FOLATE DEPLETION WITH INCREASED HUMAN CHROMOSOMAL DAMAGE IN VIVO: DEMONSTRATION BY ANALYSIS OF MICRONUCLEATED ERYTHROCYTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent studies have demonstrated that in the absence of spleen function, frequencies of micronuclei (Howell-Jolly bodies) in peripheral rbcs can be used to measure in vivo cytogenetic damage. mong 20 subjects studied 6 months after splenectomy 1 had a frequency of micronucleated ...

299

Functional loads on freestanding and connected implants in three-unit mandibular prostheses opposing complete dentures: an in vivo study.  

PubMed

In vivo measurements of vertical forces and bending moments during biting and chewing were carried out on 10 three-unit prostheses in the posterior mandibles of five patients. Each patient had two prostheses, one supported by two implants and the other supported by one implant and one tooth. The results demonstrated no major difference in functional load magnitudes related to the support type. The distribution of load between the abutments was influenced more by the prosthesis geometry and implant placement than by the difference in load characteristics of tooth and implant. This conclusion, however, is limited to one implant connected to a tooth, because multiple implants form a considerably stiffer unit than do teeth. An increase in vertical load resulting from cantilever extensions on the prostheses was documented, both at bite fork measurements and during chewing. No substantial lateral bending was registered, probably because the flat occlusal surfaces and the presence of the opposing complete denture reduced lateral forces. PMID:9197098

Gunne, J; Rangert, B; Glantz, P O; Svensson, A

1997-01-01

300

Hybrid fusions show that inter-monomer electron transfer robustly supports cytochrome bc1 function in vivo.  

PubMed

Electronic connection between Qo and Qi quinone catalytic sites of dimeric cytochrome bc1 is a central feature of the energy-conserving Q cycle. While both the intra- and inter-monomer electron transfers were shown to connect the sites in the enzyme, mechanistic and physiological significance of the latter remains unclear. Here, using a series of mutated hybrid cytochrome bc1-like complexes, we show that inter-monomer electron transfer robustly sustains the function of the enzyme in vivo, even when the two subunits in a dimer come from different species. This indicates that minimal requirement for bioenergetic efficiency is to provide a chain of cofactors for uncompromised electron flux between the catalytic sites, while the details of protein scaffold are secondary. PMID:25089001

Ekiert, Robert; Czapla, Monika; Sarewicz, Marcin; Osyczka, Artur

2014-08-22

301

Enhanced Control of In Vivo Bone Formation with Surface Functionalized Alginate Microbeads Incorporating Heparin and Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2  

PubMed Central

In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a surface functionalization delivery platform incorporating heparin onto strontium alginate microbeads surfaces would convert this “naive carriers” into “mini-reservoirs” for localized in vivo delivery of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) that will induce functional bone regeneration. In vitro evaluation confirmed that (1) heparin incorporation could immobilize and prolong rhBMP-2 release for approximately 3 weeks; (2) a significant decrease (p<0.01) in rhBMP-2 burst release is attainable depending on initial protein load; and (3) rhBMP-2 released from surface functionalized microbeads retained bioactivity and stimulated higher alkaline phosphatase activity in cultured C2C12 cells when compared with daily administration of fresh bolus rhBMP-2. Subsequently, surface functionalized microbeads were used for in vivo delivery of rhBMP-2 at local sites of posterolateral spinal fusion surgery in rats. The microbeads were loaded into the pores of medical-grade polyepsilone caprolactone-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds before implantation. Results revealed robust bone formation and a biomechanically solid fusion after 6 weeks. When compared with a control group consisting of an equivalent amount of rhBMP-2 that was directly adsorbed onto bare-surfaced microbeads with no heparin, a 5.3-fold increase in bone volume fraction and a 2.6-fold increase in bending stiffness (flexion/extension) were observed. When compared with collagen sponge carriers of rhBMP-2, a 1.5-fold and a 1.3-fold increase in bone volume fraction and bending stiffness were observed, respectively. More importantly, 3D micro-computed tomography images enabled the visualization of a well-contained newly formed bone at ipsilateral implant sites with surface functionalized rhBMP-2 delivery. This was absent with collagen sponge carriers where newly formed bone tissue was poorly contained and crossed over the posterior midline to contralateral implants. These findings are important because of complications with current rhBMP-2 delivery method, including excessive, uncontrolled bone formation. PMID:22894570

Abbah, Sunny Akogwu; Liu, Jing; Goh, James Cho Hong

2013-01-01

302

Functional involvements of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 in smooth muscle differentiation from stem cells in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

To investigate the functional involvements of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1) in smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation from stem cells, embryonic stem cells were cultivated on collagen IV-coated plates to allow for SMC differentiation. We found that hnRNPA1 gene and protein expression was upregulated significantly during differentiation and coexpressed with SMC differentiation markers in the stem cell-derived SMCs as well as embryonic SMCs of 12.5 days of mouse embryos. hnRNPA1 knockdown resulted in downregulation of smooth muscle markers and transcription factors, while enforced expression of hnRNPA1 enhanced the expression of these genes. Importantly, knockdown of hnRNPA1 also resulted in impairment of SMC differentiation in vivo. Moreover, we demonstrated that hnRNPA1 could transcriptionally regulate SMC gene expression through direct binding to promoters of Acta2 and Tagln genes using luciferase and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. We further demonstrated that the binding sites for serum response factor (SRF), a well-investigated SMC transcription factor, within the promoter region of the Acta2 and Tagln genes were responsible for hnRNPA1-mediated Acta2 and Tagln gene expression using in vitro site-specific mutagenesis and luciferase activity analyses. Finally, we also demonstrated that hnRNPA1 upregulated the expression of SRF, myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2c (MEF2c), and myocardin through transcriptional activation and direct binding to promoters of the SRF, MEF2c, and Myocd genes. Our findings demonstrated that hnRNPA1 plays a functional role in SMC differentiation from stem cells in vitro and in vivo. This indicates that hnRNPA1 is a potential modulating target for deriving SMCs from stem cells and cardiovascular regenerative medicine. PMID:23335105

Huang, Yuan; Lin, Luyang; Yu, Xiaotian; Wen, Guanmei; Pu, Xiangyuan; Zhao, Hanqing; Fang, Changcun; Zhu, Jianhua; Ye, Shu; Zhang, Li; Xiao, Qingzhong

2013-05-01

303

Mitochondrial function and increased convective O2 transport: implications for the assessment of mitochondrial respiration in vivo.  

PubMed

Although phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS)-based evidence suggests that in vivo peak mitochondrial respiration rate in young untrained adults is limited by the intrinsic mitochondrial capacity of ATP synthesis, it remains unknown whether a large, locally targeted increase in convective O2 delivery would alter this interpretation. Consequently, we examined the effect of superimposing reactive hyperemia (RH), induced by a period of brief ischemia during the last minute of exercise, on oxygen delivery and mitochondrial function in the calf muscle of nine young adults compared with free-flow conditions (FF). To this aim, we used an integrative experimental approach combining 31P-MRS, Doppler ultrasound imaging, and near-infrared spectroscopy. Limb blood flow [area under the curve (AUC), 1.4 ± 0.8 liters in FF and 2.5 ± 0.3 liters in RH, P < 0.01] and convective O2 delivery (AUC, 0.30 ± 0.16 liters in FF and 0.54 ± 0.05 liters in RH, P < 0.01), were significantly increased in RH compared with FF. RH was also associated with significantly higher capillary blood flow (P < 0.05) and faster tissue reoxygenation mean response times (70 ± 15 s in FF and 24 ± 15 s in RH, P < 0.05). This resulted in a 43% increase in estimated peak mitochondrial ATP synthesis rate (29 ± 13 mM/min in FF and 41 ± 14 mM/min in RH, P < 0.05) whereas the phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery time constant in RH was not significantly different (P = 0.22). This comprehensive assessment of local skeletal muscle O2 availability and utilization in untrained subjects reveals that mitochondrial function, assessed in vivo by 31P-MRS, is limited by convective O2 delivery rather than an intrinsic mitochondrial limitation. PMID:23813526

Layec, Gwenael; Haseler, Luke J; Trinity, Joel D; Hart, Corey R; Liu, Xin; Le Fur, Yann; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Richardson, Russell S

2013-09-01

304

Mitochondrial function and increased convective O2 transport: implications for the assessment of mitochondrial respiration in vivo  

PubMed Central

Although phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS)-based evidence suggests that in vivo peak mitochondrial respiration rate in young untrained adults is limited by the intrinsic mitochondrial capacity of ATP synthesis, it remains unknown whether a large, locally targeted increase in convective O2 delivery would alter this interpretation. Consequently, we examined the effect of superimposing reactive hyperemia (RH), induced by a period of brief ischemia during the last minute of exercise, on oxygen delivery and mitochondrial function in the calf muscle of nine young adults compared with free-flow conditions (FF). To this aim, we used an integrative experimental approach combining 31P-MRS, Doppler ultrasound imaging, and near-infrared spectroscopy. Limb blood flow [area under the curve (AUC), 1.4 ± 0.8 liters in FF and 2.5 ± 0.3 liters in RH, P < 0.01] and convective O2 delivery (AUC, 0.30 ± 0.16 liters in FF and 0.54 ± 0.05 liters in RH, P < 0.01), were significantly increased in RH compared with FF. RH was also associated with significantly higher capillary blood flow (P < 0.05) and faster tissue reoxygenation mean response times (70 ± 15 s in FF and 24 ± 15 s in RH, P < 0.05). This resulted in a 43% increase in estimated peak mitochondrial ATP synthesis rate (29 ± 13 mM/min in FF and 41 ± 14 mM/min in RH, P < 0.05) whereas the phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery time constant in RH was not significantly different (P = 0.22). This comprehensive assessment of local skeletal muscle O2 availability and utilization in untrained subjects reveals that mitochondrial function, assessed in vivo by 31P-MRS, is limited by convective O2 delivery rather than an intrinsic mitochondrial limitation. PMID:23813526

Haseler, Luke J.; Trinity, Joel D.; Hart, Corey R.; Liu, Xin; Le Fur, Yann; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Richardson, Russell S.

2013-01-01

305

Comparison and analysis of objective functions in flux balance analysis.  

PubMed

Flux balance analysis (FBA) is currently one of the most important and used techniques for estimation of metabolic reaction rates (fluxes). This mathematical approach utilizes an optimization criterion in order to select a distribution of fluxes from the feasible space delimited by the metabolic reactions and some restrictions imposed over them, assuming that cellular metabolism is in steady state. Therefore, the obtained flux distribution depends on the specific objective function used. Multiple studies have been aimed to compare distinct objective functions at given conditions, in order to determine which of those functions produces values of fluxes closer to real data when used as objective in the FBA; in other words, what is the best objective function for modeling cell metabolism at a determined environmental condition. However, these comparative studies have been designed in very dissimilar ways, and in general, several factors that can change the ideal objective function in a cellular condition have not been adequately considered. Additionally, most of them have used only one dataset for representing one condition of cell growth, and different measuring techniques have been used. For these reasons, a rigorous study on the effect of factors such as the quantity of used data, the number and type of fluxes utilized as input data, and the selected classification of growth conditions, are required in order to obtain useful conclusions for these comparative studies, allowing limiting clearly the application range on any of those results. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 30:985-991, 2014. PMID:25044958

Garcķa Sįnchez, Carlos Eduardo; Torres Sįez, Rodrigo Gonzalo

2014-09-01

306

In vivo P-glycoprotein function before and after epilepsy surgery  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To study the functional activity of the multidrug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) at the blood-brain barrier of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy using (R)-[11C]verapamil (VPM)-PET before and after temporal lobe surgery to assess whether postoperative changes in seizure frequency and antiepileptic drug load are associated with changes in Pgp function. Methods: Seven patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy underwent VPM-PET scans pre- and postsurgery. Patients were followed up for a median of 6 years (range 4–7) after surgery. Pgp immunoreactivity in surgically resected hippocampal specimens was determined with immunohistochemistry. Results: Optimal surgical outcome, defined as seizure freedom and withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs, was associated with higher temporal lobe Pgp function before surgery, higher Pgp-positive staining in surgically resected hippocampal specimens, and reduction in global Pgp function postoperatively, compared with nonoptimal surgery outcome. Conclusions: The data from our pilot study suggest that Pgp overactivity in epilepsy is dynamic, and complete seizure control and elimination of antiepileptic medication is associated with reversal of overactivity, although these findings will require confirmation in a larger patient cohort. PMID:25186858

Bauer, Martin; Karch, Rudolf; Zeitlinger, Markus; Liu, Joan; Koepp, Matthias J.; Asselin, Marie-Claude; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Hainfellner, Johannes A.; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Mitterhauser, Markus; Muller, Markus; Pataraia, Ekaterina

2014-01-01

307

IN VITRO/IN VIVO COMPARISON OF YOLK SAC FUNCTION AND EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Yolk sac function and development of rat embryos grown in vitro for 24 hrs starting on day 10.5 were compared to those of embryos grown in utero. he embryos grown in vitro had significantly fewer somites, shorter crown-rump length and smaller yolk sac diameter when compared to th...

308

In vivo Three-Dimensional Superresolution Fluorescence Tracking using a Double-Helix Point Spread Function  

PubMed Central

The point spread function (PSF) of a widefield fluorescence microscope is not suitable for three-dimensional super-resolution imaging. We characterize the localization precision of a unique method for 3D superresolution imaging featuring a double-helix point spread function (DH-PSF). The DH-PSF is designed to have two lobes that rotate about their midpoint in any transverse plane as a function of the axial position of the emitter. In effect, the PSF appears as a double helix in three dimensions. By comparing the Cramer-Rao bound of the DH-PSF with the standard PSF as a function of the axial position, we show that the DH-PSF has a higher and more uniform localization precision than the standard PSF throughout a 2 ?m depth of field. Comparisons between the DH-PSF and other methods for 3D super-resolution are briefly discussed. We also illustrate the applicability of the DH-PSF for imaging weak emitters in biological systems by tracking the movement of quantum dots in glycerol and in live cells. PMID:20563317

Lew, Matthew D.; Thompson, Michael A.; Badieirostami, Majid; Moerner, W. E.

2010-01-01

309

Customizable, multi-functional fluorocarbon nanoparticles for quantitative in vivo imaging using 19F MRI and optical imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring cell trafficking in vivo noninvasively is critical to improving cellular therapeutics, drug delivery, and understanding disease progression. In vivo imaging, of which magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a key modality, is commonly used for such monitoring. 19F MRI allows extremely specific detection and quantification of cell numbers directly from in vivo image data, longitudinally and without ionizing radiation. We

Mangala Srinivas; Luis J. Cruz; Fernando Bonetto; Arend Heerschap; Carl G. Figdor; I. Jolanda M. de Vries

2010-01-01

310

Faujasites incorporated tissue engineering scaffolds for wound healing: in vitro and in vivo analysis.  

PubMed

Exploring the possibility of using inorganic faujasites in tissue engineering scaffolds is a prospective approach in regenerative medicine. Novel gelatin/hyaluronic acid (HA)/faujasite porous scaffolds with low surface energy were fabricated by lyophilization. The pore size of gelatin/HA scaffold was 50-2000 ?m, whereas it was greatly reduced to 10-250 ?m after incorporation of 2.4% (w/w) of faujasites in polymer matrix, GH(2.4%). Micro computed tomography analysis showed that the porosity of GH(2.4%) was 90.6%. The summative effect was ideal for growth of dermal fibroblasts and cellular attachment. XRD analysis revealed that the embedded faujasites maintained their crystallinity in the polymer matrix even though they interacted with the polymers as indicated by FT-IR analysis. Coupling with effective reinforcement of faujasites, GH(2.4%) demonstrated compression modulus of 929 ± 7 Pa and glass transition temperature of 31 ± 0.05 °C. It exhibited controlled swelling and degradation, allowing sufficient space for tissue regrowth. The latter is further supported by capability of faujasites to provide efficient oxygen supply to fibroblast cells. GH(2.4%) showed a cell viability of 91 ± 8% on NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell lines. The in vivo studies on Sprague-Dawley rats revealed its ability to enhance wound healing by accelerating re-epithelization and collagen deposition. These findings indicated its potential as excellent wound dressing material. PMID:24102066

Ninan, Neethu; Muthiah, Muthunarayanan; Park, In-Kyu; Elain, Anne; Wong, Tin Wui; Thomas, Sabu; Grohens, Yves

2013-11-13

311

Topics in functional data analysis with biological applications  

E-print Network

Functional data analysis (FDA) is an active field of statistics, in which the primary subjects in the study are curves. My dissertation consists of two innovative applications of functional data analysis in biology. The data that motivated...

Li, Yehua

2009-06-02

312

Chronic In Vivo Imaging Shows No Evidence of Dendritic Plasticity or Functional Remapping in the Contralesional Cortex after Stroke  

PubMed Central

Most stroke survivors exhibit a partial recovery from their deficits. This presumably occurs because of remapping of lost capabilities to functionally related brain areas. Functional brain imaging studies suggest that remapping in the contralateral uninjured cortex might represent a transient stage of compensatory plasticity. Some postmortem studies have also shown that cortical lesions, including stroke, can trigger dendritic plasticity in the contralateral hemisphere, but the data are controversial. We used longitudinal in vivo two-photon microscopy in the contralateral homotopic cortex to record changes in dendritic spines of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in green fluorescent protein mice. We could not detect de novo growth of dendrites or changes in the density or turnover of spines for up to 4 weeks after stroke. We also used intrinsic optical signal imaging to investigate whether the forepaw (FP) sensory representation is remapped to the spared homotopic cortex after stroke. Stimulation of the contralateral FP reliably produced strong intrinsic signals in the spared hemisphere, but we could never detect a signal with ipsilateral FP stimulation after stroke. This lack of contralateral plasticity at the level of apical dendrites of layer 5 pyramidal neurons and FP sensory maps suggests that the contralesional cortex may not contribute to functional recovery after stroke and that, at least in mice, the peri-infarct cortex plays the dominant role in postischemic plasticity. PMID:22499800

Johnston, David G.; Denizet, Marie; Mostany, Ricardo

2013-01-01

313

An intramolecular t-SNARE complex functions in vivo without the syntaxin NH2-terminal regulatory domain.  

PubMed

Membrane fusion in the secretory pathway is mediated by SNAREs (located on the vesicle membrane [v-SNARE] and the target membrane [t-SNARE]). In all cases examined, t-SNARE function is provided as a three-helix bundle complex containing three approximately 70-amino acid SNARE motifs. One SNARE motif is provided by a syntaxin family member (the t-SNARE heavy chain), and the other two helices are contributed by additional t-SNARE light chains. The syntaxin family is the most conformationally dynamic group of SNAREs and appears to be the major focus of SNARE regulation. An NH2-terminal region of plasma membrane syntaxins has been assigned as a negative regulatory element in vitro. This region is absolutely required for syntaxin function in vivo. We now show that the required function of the NH2-terminal regulatory domain (NRD) of the yeast plasma membrane syntaxin, Sso1p, can be circumvented when t-SNARE complex formation is made intramolecular. Our results suggest that the NRD is required for efficient t-SNARE complex formation and does not recruit necessary scaffolding factors. PMID:16401725

Van Komen, Jeffrey S; Bai, Xiaoyang; Scott, Brenton L; McNew, James A

2006-01-16

314

The ex-vivo intestinal absorption rate of uranium is a two-phase function of supply.  

PubMed

The concentration-dependent absorption behaviour of uranium was investigated with surviving intestinal segments of rat jejunums, using an ex-vivo model. The results showed a monotonic slightly nonlinear increase in absorption as uranium concentrations increased. This trend was observed over the entire concentration range tested. In the lower concentration range a slower linear ascent was observed while a steeper linear ascent was found for the higher concentration range. Statistical fit was only slightly poorer for an exponential function in the range of lower values and a logarithmic function in the range of higher values. The proportion of uranium absorbed expressed as percent of uranium concentrations in the perfusion solutions followed a monotonically increasing trend from 20 to around 200 ?g/l uranium in the perfusion solutions, which thereafter appears to reach a plateau, as further increase towards concentrations around 400 ?g/l is not substantial. The uranium concentration administered had no effect on the vitality and consequently the functionality of the intestinal segments, measured in terms of active glucose transport. The results imply that uranium concentrations of more than 20 ?g/l in drinking water, for example, could lead to elevated absorption rates and thus to higher internal exposures to consider when setting of Guideline values in this concentration range. PMID:24793262

Konietzka, Rainer; Heinze, Rita; Seiwert, Margarete; Dieter, Hermann H

2014-07-01

315

Ultrathin sP(EO-stat-PO) hydrogel coatings are biocompatible and preserve functionality of surface bound growth factors in vivo.  

PubMed

Hydrogel coatings prepared from reactive star shaped polyethylene oxide based prepolymers (NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO)) minimize unspecific protein adsorption in vitro, while proteins immobilized on NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO) coatings retain their structure and biological function. The aim of the present study was to assess biocompatibility and the effect on early osseointegrative properties of a NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO) coating with additional RGD-peptides and augmentation with bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP) used on a medical grade high-density polyethylene (HDPE) base under in vivo circumstances. For testing of biocompatibility dishes with large amounts of bulk NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO) were implanted subcutaneously into 14 Wistar rats. In a second set-up functionalization of implants with ultrathin surface layers by coating ammonia-plasma treated HDPE with NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO), functionalization with linear RGD-peptides, and augmentation with RGD and BMP-4 was analyzed. Therefore, implants were placed subcutaneously in the paravertebral tissue and transcortically in the distal femur of another 14 Wistar rats. Both tests revealed no signs of enhanced inflammation of the surrounding tissue analyzed by CD68, IL-1ß-/TNF-?-antibody staining, nor systemic toxic reactions according to histological analysis of various organs. The mean thickness of the fibrous tissue surrounding the femoral implants was highest in native HDPE-implants and tended to be lower in all NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO) modified implants. Micro-CT analysis revealed a significant increase of peri-implant bone volume in RGD/BMP-4 coated samples. These results demonstrate that even very low amounts of surface bound growth factors do have significant effects when immobilized in an environment that retains their biological function. Hence, NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO)-coatings could offer an attractive platform to improve integration of orthopedic implants. PMID:23801500

Neuerburg, Carl; Recknagel, Stefan; Fiedler, Jörg; Groll, Jürgen; Moeller, Martin; Bruellhoff, Kristina; Reichel, Heiko; Ignatius, Anita; Brenner, Rolf E

2013-10-01

316

In Vivo Function of Hsp90 Is Dependent on ATP Binding and ATP Hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), an abundant molecular chaperone in the eukaryotic cytosol, is in- volved in the folding of a set of cell regulatory proteins and in the re-folding of stress-denatured polypeptides. The basic mechanism of action of Hsp90 is not yet un- derstood. In particular, it has been debated whether Hsp90 function is ATP dependent. A recent crystal

Wolfgang M. J. Obermann; Holger Sondermann; Alicia A. Russo; Nikola P. Pavletich; F. Ulrich Hartl

1998-01-01

317

Identification of new tumor suppressor genes based on in vivo functional inactivation of a candidate gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a step towards developing a new functional test for the identification of tumor suppressor genes, human wild type and mutant RB genes were expressed in the mouse A9 fibrosarcoma cell line under the transcriptional regulation of the tetracycline repressor using two new vectors: pLNCtTA and pETI. Following passage of the transfectants in immunodeficient SCID mice, the wild type RB

Jingfeng Li; Alexei I Protopopov; Rinat Z Gizatullin; Csaba Kiss; Vladimir I Kashuba; Gösta Winberg; George Klein; Eugene R Zabarovsky

1999-01-01

318

Dicer-dependent microRNAs control maturation, function, and maintenance of Langerhans cells in vivo.  

PubMed

Dendritic cells (DCs) are central for the induction of T cell immunity and tolerance. Fundamental for DCs to control the immune system is their differentiation from precursors into various DC subsets with distinct functions and locations in lymphoid organs and tissues. In contrast to the differentiation of epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) and their seeding into the epidermis, LC maturation, turnover, and MHC class II Ag presentation capacities are strictly dependent on the presence of Dicer, which generates mature microRNAs (miRNAs). Absence of miRNAs caused a strongly disturbed steady-state homeostasis of LCs by increasing their turnover and apoptosis rate, leading to progressive ablation of LCs with age. The failure to maintain LCs populating the epidermis was accompanied by a proapoptotic gene expression signature. Dicer-deficient LCs showed largely increased cell sizes and reduced expression levels of the C-type lectin receptor Langerin, resulting in the lack of Birbeck granules. In addition, LCs failed to properly upregulate MHC class II, CD40, and CD86 surface molecules upon stimulation, which are critical hallmarks of functional DC maturation. This resulted in inefficient induction of CD4 T cell proliferation, whereas Dicer-deficient LCs could properly stimulate CD8 T cells. Taken together, Dicer-dependent generation of miRNAs affects homeostasis and function of epidermal LCs. PMID:20530258

Kuipers, Harmjan; Schnorfeil, Frauke M; Fehling, Hans-Jörg; Bartels, Helmut; Brocker, Thomas

2010-07-01

319

TrkA In Vivo Function Is Negatively Regulated by Ubiquitination  

PubMed Central

TrkA is a tyrosine kinase receptor required for development and survival of the peripheral nervous system. In the adult, TrkA and its ligand NGF are peripheral pain mediators, particularly in inflammatory pain states. However, how TrkA regulates the function of nociceptive neurons and whether its activity levels may lead to sensory abnormalities is still unclear. Here we report the characterization of a 3 aa (KFG) domain that negatively regulates TrkA level and function in response to NGF. Deletion of this domain in mouse causes a reduction of TrkA ubiquitination leading to an increase in TrkA protein levels and activity. The number of dorsal root ganglia neurons is not affected by the mutation. However, mutant mice have enhanced thermal sensitivity and inflammatory pain. Together, these data suggest that ubiquitination is a mechanism used in nociceptive neurons to regulate TrkA level and function. Our results may enhance our understanding of how ubiquitination affects TrkA activation following noxious thermal stimulation and inflammatory pain. PMID:24623787

Kiris, Erkan; Wang, Ting; Yanpallewar, Sudhirkumar; Dorsey, Susan G.; Becker, Jodi; Bavari, Sina; Palko, Mary Ellen

2014-01-01

320

3,3?-Diindolylmethane Stimulates Murine Immune Function In Vitro and In Vivo*  

PubMed Central

3,3?-Diindolylmethane (DIM), a major condensation product of indole-3-carbinol (I3C), exhibits chemopreventive properties in animal models of cancer. Recent studies have shown that DIM stimulates interferon-gamma (IFN-?) production and potentiates the IFN-? signaling pathway in human breast cancer cells via a mechanism that includes increased expression of the IFN-? receptor. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that DIM modulates the murine immune function. Specifically, the effects of DIM were evaluated in a panel of murine immune function tests that included splenocyte proliferation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cytokine production and resistance to viral infection. DIM was found to induce proliferation of splenocytes as well as augment mitogen- and IL-2-induced splenocyte proliferation. DIM also stimulated the production of ROS by murine peritoneal macrophage cultures. Oral administration of DIM, but not intraperitoneal injection (i.p.), induced elevation of serum cytokines in mice, including interleukin (IL)-6, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), IL-12 and IFN-?. Finally, in a model of enteric virus infection, oral DIM administration to mice enhanced both clearance of reovirus from the GI tract and the subsequent mucosal IgA response. Thus, DIM is a potent stimulator of immune function. This property might contribute to the cancer inhibitory effects of this indole. PMID:17707631

Xue, Ling; Pestka, James J.; Li, Maoxiang; Firestone, Gary L; Bjeldanes, Leonard F.

2008-01-01

321

Effects of systemic glucocorticosteroids on peripheral neutrophil functions in asthmatic subjects: an ex vivo study  

PubMed Central

In 21 asthmatic subjects, several functions of isolated peripheral neutrophils (chemokinesis and chemotaxis toward 10% E. coli; superoxide anion generation after PMA; leukotriene B4 (LTB4) release from whole blood and isolated neutrophtls, before and after different stimuli) were evaluated during an acute exacerbation of asthma, and after 14 – 54 days of treatment with systemic glucocorticosteroids (GCS). During acute exacerbation, superoxide anion generation was higher in asthmatics than in eleven normal subjects (39.2 ± 14.1 vs. 25.2 ± 7.3 nmol, p < 0.05); there was a significant correlation between FEV1 (% of predicted) and neutrophil chemotaxis (r = ?0.52, p = 0.04). After treatment, there was no significant change in all neutrophil functions, except for a decrease in neutrophil chemotaxis in subjects who showed an FEV1 increase > 20% after GCS treatment (from 131 ± 18 to 117 ± 21 ?m, p = 0.005). Chemokinesis sicantly decreased in all subjects, and the changes significantly correlated with an arbitrary score of the total administered dose of GCS (r = 0.57, p < 0.05). These data suggest that neutrophil activation plays a minor role in asthma, and that treatment with GCS is not able to modify most functions of peripheral neutrophils in asthmatic subjects; chemotaxis seems to be related only to the severity of the asthma and it could reflect the improvement of the disease. PMID:18475647

Bancalari, L.; Giannessi, D.; Bernini, W.; Lazzerini, G.; Sicari, R.; Bacci, E.; Dente, F. L.; Vagaggini, B.; Caterina, R. De

1995-01-01

322

Functional characterization of dopamine transporter in vivo using Drosophila melanogaster behavioral assays  

PubMed Central

Dopamine mediates diverse functions such as motivation, reward, attention, learning/memory and sleep/arousal. Recent studies using model organisms including the fruit fly, have elucidated various physiological functions of dopamine, and identified specific neural circuits for these functions. Flies with mutations in the Drosophila dopamine transporter (dDAT) gene show enhanced dopamine signaling, and short sleep and memory impairment phenotypes. However, understanding the mechanism by which dopamine signaling causes these phenotypes requires an understanding of the dynamics of dopamine release. Here we report the effects of dDAT expression on behavioral traits. We show that dDAT expression in a subset of dopaminergic neurons is sufficient for normal sleep. dDAT expression in other cell types such as Kenyon cells and glial cells can also rescue the short sleep phenotype of dDAT mutants. dDAT mutants also show a down-regulation of the D1-like dopamine receptor dDA1, and this phenotype is rescued when dDAT is expressed in the same cell types in which it rescues sleep. On the other hand, dDAT overexpression in mushroom bodies, which are the target of memory forming dopamine neurons, abolishes olfactory aversive memory. Our data demonstrate that expression of extrasynaptic dopamine transporters can rescue some aspects of dopamine signaling in dopamine transporter mutants. These results provide novel insights into regulatory systems that modulate dopamine signaling.

Ueno, Taro; Kume, Kazuhiko

2014-01-01

323

Comprehensive processing, display and analysis for in vivo MR spectroscopic imaging.  

PubMed

Image reconstruction for magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) requires specialized spatial and spectral data processing methods and benefits from the use of several sources of prior information that are not commonly available, including MRI-derived tissue segmentation, morphological analysis and spectral characteristics of the observed metabolites. In addition, incorporating information obtained from MRI data can enhance the display of low-resolution metabolite images and multiparametric and regional statistical analysis methods can improve detection of altered metabolite distributions. As a result, full MRSI processing and analysis can involve multiple processing steps and several different data types. In this paper, a processing environment is described that integrates and automates these data processing and analysis functions for imaging of proton metabolite distributions in the normal human brain. The capabilities include normalization of metabolite signal intensities and transformation into a common spatial reference frame, thereby allowing the formation of a database of MR-measured human metabolite values as a function of acquisition, spatial and subject parameters. This development is carried out under the MIDAS project (Metabolite Imaging and Data Analysis System), which provides an integrated set of MRI and MRSI processing functions. It is anticipated that further development and distribution of these capabilities will facilitate more widespread use of MRSI for diagnostic imaging, encourage the development of standardized MRSI acquisition, processing and analysis methods and enable improved mapping of metabolite distributions in the human brain. PMID:16763967

Maudsley, A A; Darkazanli, A; Alger, J R; Hall, L O; Schuff, N; Studholme, C; Yu, Y; Ebel, A; Frew, A; Goldgof, D; Gu, Y; Pagare, R; Rousseau, F; Sivasankaran, K; Soher, B J; Weber, P; Young, K; Zhu, X

2006-06-01

324

Inverse computational analysis of in vivo corneal elastic modulus change after collagen crosslinking for keratoconus  

PubMed Central

Corneal collagen crosslinking with riboflavin photosensitization and ultraviolet irradiation is a novel approach to limiting the progression of keratoconus in patients by increasing the elastic modulus of the degenerate cornea. Beneficial reductions in corneal steepness and aberrations after crosslinking also frequently occur. In a previous study, we described a computational modeling approach to simulating topographic progression in keratoconus and regression of disease with corneal collagen crosslinking. In the current study, this model has been expanded and applied to the inverse problem of estimating longitudinal time-dependent changes in the corneal elastic modulus after crosslinking using in vivo measurements from 16 human eyes. Topography measured before crosslinking was used to construct a patient-specific finite element model with assumed hyperelastic properties. Then the properties of the cornea were altered using an inverse optimization method to minimize the difference between the model-predicted and in vivo corneal shape after crosslinking. Effects of assumptions regarding sclera-to-cornea elastic modulus ratio and spatial attenuation of treatment effect due to ultraviolet beam characteristics on the predicted change in elastic modulus were also investigated. Corneal property changes computed by inverse finite element analysis provided excellent geometric agreement with clinical topography measurements in patient eyes post-crosslinking. Over all post-treatment time points, the estimated increase in corneal elastic modulus was 110.8±48.1%, and slightly less stiffening was required to produce the same amount of corneal topographic regression of disease when the sclera-to-cornea modulus ratio was increased. Including the effect of beam attenuation resulted in greater estimates of stiffening in the anterior cornea. Corneal shape responses to crosslinking varied considerably and emphasize the importance of a patient-specific approach. PMID:23664859

Sinha Roy, Abhijit; Rocha, Karol M.; Randleman, J. Bradley; Stulting, R. Doyle; Dupps, William J.

2014-01-01

325

Microarray analysis in rat liver slices correctly predicts in vivo hepatotoxicity  

SciTech Connect

The microarray technology, developed for the simultaneous analysis of a large number of genes, may be useful for the detection of toxicity in an early stage of the development of new drugs. The effect of different hepatotoxins was analyzed at the gene expression level in the rat liver both in vivo and in vitro. As in vitro model system the precision-cut liver slice model was used, in which all liver cell types are present in their natural architecture. This is important since drug-induced toxicity often is a multi-cellular process involving not only hepatocytes but also other cell types such as Kupffer and stellate cells. As model toxic compounds lipopolysaccharide (LPS, inducing inflammation), paracetamol (necrosis), carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}, fibrosis and necrosis) and gliotoxin (apoptosis) were used. The aim of this study was to validate the rat liver slice system as in vitro model system for drug-induced toxicity studies. The results of the microarray studies show that the in vitro profiles of gene expression cluster per compound and incubation time, and when analyzed in a commercial gene expression database, can predict the toxicity and pathology observed in vivo. Each toxic compound induces a specific pattern of gene expression changes. In addition, some common genes were up- or down-regulated with all toxic compounds. These data show that the rat liver slice system can be an appropriate tool for the prediction of multi-cellular liver toxicity. The same experiments and analyses are currently performed for the prediction of human specific toxicity using human liver slices.

Elferink, M.G.L. [Department of Pharmacokinetics and Drug Delivery, Groningen Research Institute for Pharmacy, University of Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: M.G.L.Elferink@rug.nl; Olinga, P.; Draaisma, A.L.; Merema, M.T. [Department of Pharmacokinetics and Drug Delivery, Groningen Research Institute for Pharmacy, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Bauerschmidt, S.; Polman, J. [Molecular Design and Informatics, NV Organon part of Schering-Plough Corporation, Oss (Netherlands); Schoonen, W.G. [Pharmacology, NV Organon part of Schering-Plough Corporation, Oss (Netherlands); Groothuis, G.M.M. [Department of Pharmacokinetics and Drug Delivery, Groningen Research Institute for Pharmacy, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

2008-06-15

326

The necessity of functional analysis for space exploration programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

? As NASA moves toward expanded commercial spaceflight within its human exploration capability, there is increased emphasis on how to allocate responsibilities between government and commercial organizations to achieve coordinated program objectives. The practice of program-level functional analysis offers an opportunity for improved understanding of collaborative functions among heterogeneous partners. Functional analysis is contrasted with the physical analysis more commonly

A. Terry Morris; Julian C. Breidenthal

2011-01-01

327

The necessity of functional analysis for space exploration programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

As NASA moves toward expanded commercial spaceflight within its human exploration capability, there is increased emphasis on how to allocate responsibilities between government and commercial organizations to achieve coordinated program objectives. The practice of program-level functional analysis offers an opportunity for improved understanding of collaborative functions among heterogeneous partners. Functional analysis is contrasted with the physical analysis more commonly done

A. Terry Morris; Julian C. Breidenthal

2011-01-01

328

Functional analysis of problem behavior: a review.  

PubMed Central

Functional analysis methodology focuses on the identification of variables that influence the occurrence of problem behavior and has become a hallmark of contemporary approaches to behavioral assessment. In light of the widespread use of pretreatment functional analyses in articles published in this and other journals, we reviewed the literature in an attempt to identify best practices and directions for future research. Studies included in the present review were those in which (a) a pretreatment assessment based on (b) direct observation and measurement of (c) problem behavior was conducted under (d) at least two conditions involving manipulation of an environmental variable in an attempt (e) to demonstrate a relation between the environmental event and behavior. Studies that met the criteria for inclusion were quantified and critically evaluated along a number of dimensions related to subject and setting characteristics, parametric and qualitative characteristics of the methodology, types of assessment conditions, experimental designs, topographies of problem behaviors, and the manner in which data were displayed and analyzed. PMID:12858983

Hanley, Gregory P; Iwata, Brian A; McCord, Brandon E

2003-01-01

329

An inducible CiliaGFP mouse model for in vivo visualization and analysis of cilia in live tissue  

PubMed Central

Background Cilia are found on nearly every cell type in the mammalian body, and have been historically classified as either motile or immotile. Motile cilia are important for fluid and cellular movement; however, the roles of non-motile or primary cilia in most tissues remain unknown. Several genetic syndromes, called the ciliopathies, are associated with defects in cilia structure or function and have a wide range of clinical presentations. Much of what we know about the formation and maintenance of cilia comes from model systems like C. elegans and Chalmydomonas. Studies of mammalian cilia in live tissues have been hampered by difficulty visualizing them. Results To facilitate analyses of mammalian cilia function we generated an inducible CiliaGFP mouse by targeting mouse cDNA encoding a cilia-localized protein somatostatin receptor 3 fused to GFP (Sstr3::GFP) into the ROSA26 locus. In this system, Sstr3::GFP is expressed from the ubiquitous ROSA26 promoter after Cre mediated deletion of an upstream Neo cassette flanked by lox P sites. Fluorescent cilia labeling was observed in a variety of live tissues and after fixation. Both cell-type specific and temporally regulated cilia labeling were obtained using multiple Cre lines. The analysis of renal cilia in anesthetized live mice demonstrates that cilia commonly lay nearly parallel to the apical surface of the tubule. In contrast, in more deeply anesthetized mice the cilia display a synchronized, repetitive oscillation that ceases upon death, suggesting a relationship to heart beat, blood pressure or glomerular filtration. Conclusions The ability to visualize cilia in live samples within the CiliaGFP mouse will greatly aid studies of ciliary function. This mouse will be useful for in vivo genetic and pharmacological screens to assess pathways regulating cilia motility, signaling, assembly, trafficking, resorption and length control and to study cilia regulated physiology in relation to ciliopathy phenotypes. PMID:23819925

2013-01-01

330

Effects of GC7101, a Novel Prokinetic Agent on Gastric Motor Function: Ex Vivo Study  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims GC7101, an extract of Lonicera Flos, is a novel developing drug for reflux esophagitis and functional dyspepsia. However, the drug’s exact pharmacological mechanism of action remains unclear. This study assessed the effects of GC7101 on gastrointestinal (GI) motor function. Methods We used male guinea pigs to evaluate the effects of GC7101 on GI motility. The contraction of antral circular muscle in the presence of different doses of GC7101 was measured in a tissue bath. The prokinetic effects of GC7101 were tested using the charcoal transit assay from the pylorus to the most distal point of migration of charcoal mixture. To clarify the mechanism of action of GC7101, atropine, dopamine and the selective 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 receptor antagonist, GR113808 were used. Results The maximal amplitude of circular muscle contraction was induced by 5 mg mL?1 GC7101. The area under the curve of contraction was significantly increased at 5 mg mL?1 GC7101. Addition of 10?6 M atropine, 10?8 M dopamine or 10?7 M GR 113808 to GC7101 5 mg mL?1 decreased the amplitude and area under curve compared to GC7101 5 mg mL?1 alone. GC7101 accelerated GI transit in a dose dependent manner except 100 mg kg?1. Delayed GI transit caused by atropine, dopamine and GR 113808 was restored by GC7101 50 mg kg?1. Conclusions GC7101, an extract of Lonicera Flos, exerts a gastric prokinetic effect in guinea pig through cholinergic, antidopaminergic and serotonergic mechanisms. Therefore, GC7101 might be a novel drug for the treatment of functional dyspepsia. PMID:25273117

Jung, Da Hyun; Choi, Eun Ju; Jeon, Han Ho; Lee, Young Ho; Park, Hyojin

2014-01-01

331

Measurement of calcium in sections of a human skeleton using a reactor spectrum-in vivo activation analysis technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors influencing the precision of measuring changes in the calcium content of sections of bone including vertebrae using reactor neutrons for partial body in vivo activation analysis have been examined and quantified. These factors include (a) the choice of incident neutron spectrum (b) the uniformity of activation with depth in the body, (c) reproducibility, (d) interfering reactions, (e) sensitivity and

K. Boddy; D. Glaros; I. Robertson

1975-01-01

332

Big-Brained People are Smarter: A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between In Vivo Brain Volume and Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between brain volume and intelligence has been a topic of a scientific debate since at least the 1830s. To address the debate, a meta-analysis of the relationship between in vivo brain volume and intelligence was conducted. Based on 37 samples across 1530 people, the population correlation was estimated at 0.33. The correlation is…

McDaniel, Michael A.

2005-01-01

333

Effect directed analysis of riverine sediments—The usefulness of Potamopyrgus antipodarum for in vivo effect confirmation of endocrine disruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vivo tests are not commonly used in effect directed analysis (EDA) approaches. In the present study, a novel methodology was developed whereby Potamopyrgus antipodarum, which is known to be sensitive to endocrine disrupting compounds, was used as test organism. Field sediments from a polluted site in the north of Belgium were extracted and fractionated using three coupled and automatically

Claudia Schmitt; Georg Streck; Marja Lamoree; P. E. G. Leonards; Werner Brack; Eric de Deckere

2011-01-01

334

Parametric Cost Analysis: A Design Function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parametric cost analysis uses equations to map measurable system attributes into cost. The measures of the system attributes are called metrics. The equations are called cost estimating relationships (CER's), and are obtained by the analysis of cost and technical metric data of products analogous to those to be estimated. Examples of system metrics include mass, power, failure_rate, mean_time_to_repair, energy _consumed, payload_to_orbit, pointing_accuracy, manufacturing_complexity, number_of_fasteners, and percent_of_electronics_weight. The basic assumption is that a measurable relationship exists between system attributes and the cost of the system. If a function exists, the attributes are cost drivers. Candidates for metrics include system requirement metrics and engineering process metrics. Requirements are constraints on the engineering process. From optimization theory we know that any active constraint generates cost by not permitting full optimization of the objective. Thus, requirements are cost drivers. Engineering processes reflect a projection of the requirements onto the corporate culture, engineering technology, and system technology. Engineering processes are an indirect measure of the requirements and, hence, are cost drivers.

Dean, Edwin B.

1989-01-01

335

Structural and functional recovery of electropermeabilized skeletal muscle in-vivo after treatment with surfactant poloxamer 188.  

PubMed

A critical requirement for cell survival after trauma is sealing of breaks in the cell membrane [M. Bier, S.M. Hammer, D.J. Canaday, R.C Lee, Kinetics of sealing for transient electropores in isolated mammalian skeletal muscle cells, Bioelectromagnetics 20 (1999) 194-201; R.C. Lee, D.C. Gaylor, D. Bhatt, D.A. Israel, Role of cell membrane rupture in the pathogenesis of electrical trauma, J. Surg. Res. 44 (1988) 709-719; R.C. Lee, J.F. Burke, E.G. Cravalho (Eds.), Electrical Trauma: The Pathophysiology, Manifestations, and Clinical Management, Cambridge University Press, 1992; B.I. Tropea, R.C. Lee, Thermal injury kinetics in electrical trauma, J. Biomech. Engr. 114 (1992) 241-250; F. Despa, D.P. Orgill, J. Newalder, R.C Lee, The relative thermal stability of tissue macromolecules and cellular structure in burn injury, Burns 31 (2005) 568-577; T.A. Block, J.N. Aarsvold, K.L. Matthews II, R.A. Mintzer, L.P. River, M. Capelli-Schellpfeffer, R.L. Wollman, S. Tripathi, C.T. Chen, R.C. Lee, The 1995 Lindberg Award. Nonthermally mediated muscle injury and necrosis in electrical trauma, J. Burn Care and Rehabil. 16 (1995) 581-588; K. Miyake, P.L. McNeil, Mechanical injury and repair of cells, Crit. Care Med. 31 (2003) S496-S501; R.C. Lee, L.P. River, F.S. Pan, R.L. Wollmann, Surfactant-induced sealing of electropermeabilized skeletal muscle membranes in vivo, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 89 (1992) 4524-4528; J.D. Marks, C.Y. Pan, T. Bushell, W. Cromie, R.C. Lee, Amphiphilic, tri-block copolymers provide potent membrane-targeted neuroprotection, FASEB J. 15 (2001) 1107-1109; B. Greenebaum, K. Blossfield, J. Hannig, C.S. Carrillo, M.A. Beckett, R.R. Weichselbaum, R.C. Lee, Poloxamer 188 prevents acute necrosis of adult skeletal muscle cells following high-dose irradiation, Burns 30 (2004) 539-547; G. Serbest, J. Horwitz, K. Barbee, The effect of poloxamer-188 on neuronal cell recovery from mechanical injury, J. Neurotrauma 22 (2005) 119-132]. The triblock copolymer surfactant Poloxamer 188 (P188) is known to increase the cell survival after membrane electroporation [R.C. Lee, L.P. River, F.S. Pan, R.L. Wollmann, Surfactant-induced sealing of electropermeabilized skeletal muscle membranes in vivo, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 89 (1992) 4524-4528; Z. Ababneh, H. Beloeil, C.B. Berde, G. Gambarota, S.E. Maier, R.V. Mulkern, Biexponential parametrization of T2 and diffusion decay curves in a rat muscle edema model: Decay curve components and water compartments, Magn. Reson. Med. 54 (2005) 524-531]. Here, we use a rat hind-limb model of electroporation injury to determine if the intravenous administration of P188 improves the recovery of the muscle function. Rat hind-limbs received a sequence of either 0, 3, 6, 9, or 12 electrical current pulses (2 A, 4 ms duration, 10 s duty cycle). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis, muscle water content and compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitudes were compared. Electroporation injury manifested edema formation and depression of the CMAP amplitudes. P188 (one bolus of 1 mg/ml of blood) was administrated 30 or 60 min after injury. Animals receiving P188 exhibited reduced tissue edema (p<0.05) and increased CMAP amplitudes (p<0.03). By comparison, treatment with 10 kDa neutral dextran, which produces similar serum osmotic effects as P188, had no effect on post-electroporation recovery. Noteworthy, the present results suggest that a single intravenous dose of P188 is effective to restore the structural integrity of damaged tissues with intact circulation. PMID:17382288

Collins, John M; Despa, Florin; Lee, Raphael C

2007-05-01

336

In vivo functional mapping of the conserved protein domains within murine Themis1.  

PubMed

Thymocyte development requires the coordinated input of signals that originate from numerous cell surface molecules. Although the majority of thymocyte signal-initiating receptors are lineage-specific, most trigger 'ubiquitous' downstream signaling pathways. T-lineage-specific receptors are coupled to these signaling pathways by lymphocyte-restricted adapter molecules. We and others recently identified a new putative adapter protein, Themis1, whose expression is largely restricted to the T lineage. Mice lacking Themis1 exhibit a severe block in thymocyte development and a striking paucity of mature T cells revealing a critical role for Themis1 in T-cell maturation. Themis1 orthologs contain three conserved domains: a proline-rich region (PRR) that binds to the ubiquitous cytosolic adapter Grb2, a nuclear localization sequence (NLS), and two copies of a novel cysteine-containing globular (CABIT) domain. In the present study, we evaluated the functional importance of each of these motifs by retroviral reconstitution of Themis1(-/-) progenitor cells. The results demonstrate an essential requirement for the PRR and NLS motifs but not the conserved CABIT cysteines for Themis1 function. PMID:24935457

Zvezdova, Ekaterina; Lee, Jan; El-Khoury, Dalal; Barr, Valarie; Akpan, Itoro; Samelson, Lawrence; Love, Paul E

2014-09-01

337

Ligand binding-dependent functions of the lipocalin NLaz: an in vivo study in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Lipocalins are small extracellular proteins mostly described as lipid carriers. The Drosophila lipocalin NLaz (neural Lazarillo) modulates the IIS pathway and regulates longevity, stress resistance, and behavior. Here, we test whether a native hydrophobic pocket structure is required for NLaz to perform its functions. We use a point mutation altering the binding pocket (NLaz(L130R)) and control mutations outside NLaz binding pocket. Tryptophan fluorescence titration reveals that NLaz(L130R) loses its ability to bind ergosterol and the pheromone 7(z)-tricosene but retains retinoic acid binding. Using site-directed transgenesis in Drosophila, we test the functionality of the ligand binding-altered lipocalin at the organism level. NLaz-dependent life span reduction, oxidative stress and starvation sensitivity, aging markers accumulation, and deficient courtship are rescued by overexpression of NLaz(WT), but not of NLaz(L130R). Transcriptional responses to aging and oxidative stress show a large set of age-responsive genes dependent on the integrity of NLaz binding pocket. Inhibition of IIS activity and modulation of oxidative stress and infection-responsive genes are binding pocket-dependent processes. Control of energy metabolites on starvation appears to be, however, insensitive to the modification of the NLaz binding pocket. PMID:24361577

Ruiz, Mario; Ganfornina, Maria D; Correnti, Colin; Strong, Roland K; Sanchez, Diego

2014-04-01

338

Transcranial imaging of functional cerebral hemodynamic changes in single blood vessels using in vivo photoacoustic microscopy  

PubMed Central

Optical imaging of changes in total hemoglobin concentration (HbT), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) provides a means to investigate brain hemodynamic regulation. However, high-resolution transcranial imaging remains challenging. In this study, we applied a novel functional photoacoustic microscopy technique to probe the responses of single cortical vessels to left forepaw electrical stimulation in mice with intact skulls. Functional changes in HbT, CBV, and SO2 in the superior sagittal sinus and different-sized arterioles from the anterior cerebral artery system were bilaterally imaged with unambiguous 36 × 65-?m2 spatial resolution. In addition, an early decrease of SO2 in single blood vessels during activation (i.e., ‘the initial dip') was observed. Our results indicate that the initial dip occurred specifically in small arterioles of activated regions but not in large veins. This technique complements other existing imaging approaches for the investigation of the hemodynamic responses in single cerebral blood vessels. PMID:22472612

Liao, Lun-De; Lin, Chin-Teng; Shih, Yen-Yu I; Duong, Timothy Q; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Wang, Po-Hsun; Wu, Robby; Tsang, Siny; Chang, Jyh-Yeong; Li, Meng-Lin; Chen, You-Yin

2012-01-01

339

Delta-catenin is required for the maintenance of neural structure and function in mature cortex in vivo  

PubMed Central

Delta (™)-catenin is a brain specific member of the adherens junction complex that localizes to the post-synaptic and dendritic compartments. This protein is likely critical for normal cognitive function; its hemizygous loss is linked to the severe mental retardation syndrome, Cri-du-Chat, and it directly interacts with Presenilin-1 (PS1), the protein most frequently mutated in familial Alzheimer's disease. Mice lacking normal ™-catenin display severe impairments in learning and memory tasks and synaptic plasticity. Here we examine dendritic structure and cortical function in vivo in mice lacking ™-catenin. We find that in cerebral cortex of 5-week-old mice dendritic complexity, spine density, and cortical responsiveness are similar between mutant and littermate controls; thereafter, mutant mice experience progressive dendritic retraction, a reduction in spine density and stability, and concomitant reductions in cortical responsiveness. Our results indicate that ™-catenin regulates the maintenance of dendrites and dendritic spines in mature cortex but does not appear to be necessary for the initial establishment of these structures during development. PMID:19914181

Matter, Cheryl; Pribadi, Mochtar; Liu, Xin; Trachtenberg, Joshua T.

2009-01-01

340

Polysaccharides from Ganoderma formosanum function as a Th1 adjuvant and stimulate cytotoxic T cell response in vivo.  

PubMed

The fungus of Ganoderma is a basidiomycete that possesses a variety of pharmacological effects and has been used in traditional Asian medicine for centuries. Ganoderma formosanum is a native Ganoderma species isolated in Taiwan, and we have previously demonstrated that PS-F2, a polysaccharide fraction purified from the submerged culture broth of G. formosanum, exhibits immunostimulatory properties in macrophages. In this study, we further characterized the adjuvant functions of PS-F2. In vitro, PS-F2 stimulated dendritic cells (DCs) to produce proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF-?, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-12/IL-23 p40. PS-F2 also stimulated DCs to express the maturation markers CD40, CD80, CD86, and MHC class II. In a murine splenocyte culture, PS-F2 treatment resulted in elevated expression of T-bet and interferon (IFN)-? in T lymphocytes. When used as an adjuvant in vivo with the ovalbumin (OVA) antigen, PS-F2 stimulated OVA-specific antibody production and primed IFN-? production in OVA-specific T lymphocytes. PS-F2-adjuvated immunization also induced OVA-specific CTLs, which protected mice from a challenge with tumor cells expressing OVA. Collectively, our data show that PS-F2 functions as an adjuvant capable of inducing a Th1-polarized adaptive immune response, which would be useful in vaccines against viruses and tumors. PMID:24252697

Pi, Chia-Chen; Chu, Ching-Liang; Lu, Chu-Ying; Zhuang, Yu-Jing; Wang, Cheng-Li; Yu, Yao-Hsuan; Wang, Hui-Yi; Lin, Chih-Chung; Chen, Chun-Jen

2014-01-01

341

Plant abiotic stress diagnostic by laser induced chlorophyll fluorescence spectral analysis of in vivo leaf tissue of biofuel species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser induced fluorescence is exploited to evaluate the effect of abiotic stresses upon the evolution and characteristics of in vivo chlorophyll emission spectra of leaves tissues of brazilian biofuel plants species(Saccharum officinarum and Jatropha curcas). The chlorophyll fluorescence spectra of 20 min predarkened intact leaves were studied employing several excitation wavelengths in the UV-VIS spectral region. Red(Fr) and far-red (FFr) chlorophyll fluorescence emission signals around 685 nm and 735 nm, respectively, were analyzed as a function of the stress intensity and the time of illumination(Kautsky effect). The Chl fluorescence ratio Fr/FFr which is a valuable nondestructive indicator of the chlorophyll content of leaves was investigated during a period of time of 30 days. The dependence of the Chl fluorescence ratio Fr/FFr upon the intensity of the abiotic stress(salinity) was examined. The results indicated that the salinity plays a major hole in the chlorophyll concentration of leaves in both plants spieces, with a significant reduction in the chlorophyll content for NaCl concentrations in the 25 - 200 mM range. The laser induced chlorophyll fluorescence analysis allowed detection of damage caused by salinity in the early stages of the plants growing process, and can be used as an early-warning indicator of salinity stress

Gouveia-Neto, Artur S.; Silva, Elias A., Jr.; Costa, Ernande B.; Bueno, Luciano A.; Silva, Luciana M. H.; Granja, Manuela M. C.; Medeiros, Maria J. L.; Cāmara, Terezinha J. R.; Willadino, Lilia G.

2010-02-01

342

Mathematical Analysis of the Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic (PKPD) Behaviour of Monoclonal Antibodies: Predicting in vivo  

E-print Network

Antibodies: Predicting in vivo Potency Philip J. Astona, , Gianne Derksa , Adewale Rajib,a,c , Balaji M the target affinity of a monoclonal antibody and its in vivo potency. The dynamics of the system is described mathematically by a target-mediated drug disposition model. As a measure of potency, we consider the minimum

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

343

Transcriptome In Vivo Analysis (TIVA) of spatially defined single cells in intact live mouse and human brain tissue  

PubMed Central

Transcriptome profiling is an indispensable tool in advancing the understanding of single cell biology, but depends upon methods capable of isolating mRNA at the spatial resolution of a single cell. Current capture methods lack sufficient spatial resolution to isolate mRNA from individual in vivo resident cells without damaging adjacent tissue. Because of this limitation, it has been difficult to assess the influence of the microenvironment on the transcriptome of individual neurons. Here, we engineered a Transcriptome In Vivo Analysis (TIVA)-tag, which upon photoactivation enables mRNA capture from single cells in live tissue. Using the TIVA-tag in combination with RNA-seq to analyze transcriptome variance among single dispersed cells and in vivo resident mouse and human neurons, we show that the tissue microenvironment shapes the transcriptomic landscape of individual cells. The TIVA methodology provides the first noninvasive approach for capturing mRNA from single cells in their natural microenvironment. PMID:24412976

Lovatt, Ditte; Ruble, Brittani K.; Lee, Jaehee; Dueck, Hannah; Kim, Tae Kyung; Fisher, Stephen; Francis, Chantal; Spaethling, Jennifer M.; Wolf, John A.; Grady, M. Sean; Ulyanova, Alexandra V.; Yeldell, Sean B.; Griepenburg, Julianne C.; Buckley, Peter T.; Kim, Junhyong; Sul, Jai-Yoon; Dmochowski, Ivan J.; Eberwine, James

2014-01-01

344

Quantification of Human Brain Metabolites from in Vivo1H NMR Magnitude Spectra Using Automated Artificial Neural Network Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long echo time (TE=270 ms) in vivo proton NMR spectra resembling human brain metabolite patterns were simulated for lineshape fitting (LF) and quantitative artificial neural network (ANN) analyses. A set of experimental in vivo1H NMR spectra were first analyzed by the LF method to match the signal-to-noise ratios and linewidths of simulated spectra to those in the experimental data. The performance of constructed ANNs was compared for the peak area determinations of choline-containing compounds (Cho), total creatine (Cr), and N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) signals using both manually phase-corrected and magnitude spectra as inputs. The peak area data from ANN and LF analyses for simulated spectra yielded high correlation coefficients demonstrating that the peak areas quantified with ANN gave similar results as LF analysis. Thus, a fully automated ANN method based on magnitude spectra has demonstrated potential for quantification of in vivo metabolites from long echo time spectroscopic imaging.

Hiltunen, Yrjö; Kaartinen, Jouni; Pulkkinen, Juhani; Häkkinen, Anna-Maija; Lundbom, Nina; Kauppinen, Risto A.

2002-01-01

345

Pharmacological inhibition of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase improves endothelial vasodilatory function in rats in vivo  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) exerts a wide range of cellular effects in the cardiovascular system. NO is short lived, but S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) functions as a stable intracellular bioavailable NO pool. Accordingly, increased levels can facilitate NO-mediated processes, and conversely, catabolism of GSNO by the regulatory enzyme GSNO reductase (GSNOR) can impair these processes. Because dysregulated GSNOR can interfere with processes relevant to cardiovascular health, it follows that inhibition of GSNOR may be beneficial. However, the effect of GSNOR inhibition on vascular activity is unknown. To study the effects of GSNOR inhibition on endothelial function, we treated rats with a small-molecule inhibitor of GSNOR (N6338) that has vasodilatory effects on isolated aortic rings and assessed effects on arterial flow-mediated dilation (FMD), an NO-dependent process. GSNOR inhibition with a single intravenous dose of N6338 preserved FMD (15.3 ± 5.4 vs. 14.2 ± 6.3%, P = nonsignificant) under partial NO synthase inhibition that normally reduces FMD by roughly 50% (14.1 ± 2.9 vs. 7.6 ± 4.4%, P < 0.05). In hypertensive rats, daily oral administration of N6338 for 14 days reduced blood pressure (170.0 ± 5.3/122.7 ± 6.4 vs. 203.8 ± 1.9/143.7 ± 7.5 mmHg for vehicle, P < 0.001) and vascular resistance index (1.5 ± 0.4 vs. 3.2 ± 1.0 mmHg·min·l?1 for vehicle, P < 0.001), and restored FMD from an initially impaired state (7.4 ± 1.7%, day 0) to a level (13.0 ± 3.1%, day 14, P < 0.001) similar to that observed in normotensive rats. N6338 also reversed the pathological kidney changes exhibited by the hypertensive rats. GSNOR inhibition preserves FMD under conditions of impaired NO production and protects against both microvascular and conduit artery dysfunction in a model of hypertension. PMID:23349456

Chen, Qiumei; Sievers, Richard E.; Varga, Monika; Kharait, Sourabh; Haddad, Daniel J.; Patton, Aaron K.; Delany, Christopher S.; Mutka, Sarah C.; Blonder, Joan P.; Dube, Gregory P.; Rosenthal, Gary J.

2013-01-01

346

Automated In Vivo Platform for the Discovery of Functional Food Treatments of Hypercholesterolemia  

PubMed Central

The zebrafish is becoming an increasingly popular model system for both automated drug discovery and investigating hypercholesterolemia. Here we combine these aspects and for the first time develop an automated high-content confocal assay for treatments of hypercholesterolemia. We also create two algorithms for automated analysis of cardiodynamic data acquired by high-speed confocal microscopy. The first algorithm computes cardiac parameters solely from the frequency-domain representation of cardiodynamic data while the second uses both frequency- and time-domain data. The combined approach resulted in smaller differences relative to manual measurements. The methods are implemented to test the ability of a methanolic extract of the hawthorn plant (Crataegus laevigata) to treat hypercholesterolemia and its peripheral cardiovascular effects. Results demonstrate the utility of these methods and suggest the extract has both antihypercholesterolemic and postitively inotropic properties. PMID:23349685

Littleton, Robert M.; Haworth, Kevin J.; Tang, Hong; Setchell, Kenneth D. R.; Nelson, Sandra; Hove, Jay R.

2013-01-01

347

Functional Analysis of Variance for Association Studies  

PubMed Central

While progress has been made in identifying common genetic variants associated with human diseases, for most of common complex diseases, the identified genetic variants only account for a small proportion of heritability. Challenges remain in finding additional unknown genetic variants predisposing to complex diseases. With the advance in next-generation sequencing technologies, sequencing studies have become commonplace in genetic research. The ongoing exome-sequencing and whole-genome-sequencing studies generate a massive amount of sequencing variants and allow researchers to comprehensively investigate their role in human diseases. The discovery of new disease-associated variants can be enhanced by utilizing powerful and computationally efficient statistical methods. In this paper, we propose a functional analysis of variance (FANOVA) method for testing an association of sequence variants in a genomic region with a qualitative trait. The FANOVA has a number of advantages: (1) it tests for a joint effect of gene variants, including both common and rare; (2) it fully utilizes linkage disequilibrium and genetic position information; and (3) allows for either protective or risk-increasing causal variants. Through simulations, we show that FANOVA outperform two popularly used methods – SKAT and a previously proposed method based on functional linear models (FLM), – especially if a sample size of a study is small and/or sequence variants have low to moderate effects. We conduct an empirical study by applying three methods (FANOVA, SKAT and FLM) to sequencing data from Dallas Heart Study. While SKAT and FLM respectively detected ANGPTL 4 and ANGPTL 3 associated with obesity, FANOVA was able to identify both genes associated with obesity. PMID:25244256

Vsevolozhskaya, Olga A.; Zaykin, Dmitri V.; Greenwood, Mark C.; Wei, Changshuai; Lu, Qing

2014-01-01

348

Theoretical analysis and experimental evaluation of laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy in ex vivo porcine pancreas.  

PubMed

Laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) has been recently applied to pancreas in animal models for ablation purpose. Assessment of thermal effects due to the laser-pancreatic tissue interaction is a critical factor in validating the procedure feasibility and safety. A mathematical model based on bioheat equation and its experimental assessment was developed. The LITT procedure was performed on 40 ex vivo porcine pancreases, with an Nd:YAG (1064 nm) energy of 1000 J and power from 1.5 up to 10 W conveyed by a quartz optical fiber with 300 ?m diameter. Six fiber Bragg grating sensors have been utilized to measure temperature distribution as a function of time at fixed distances from the applicator tip within pancreas undergoing LITT. Simulations and experiments show temperature variations ? T steeply decreasing with distance from the applicator at higher power values: at 6 W, ?T > 40 °C at 5 mm and ? T is approximately equal to 5 °C at 10 mm. ? T nonlinearly increases with power close to the applicator. Ablated and coagulated tissue volumes have also been measured and experimental results agree with theoretical ones. Despite the absence of data in the current literature on pancreas optical parameters, the model allowed a quite good prediction of thermal effects. The prediction of LITT effects on pancreas is necessary to assess laser dosimetry. PMID:22929361

Saccomandi, Paola; Schena, Emiliano; Caponero, Michele Arturo; Di Matteo, Francesco Maria; Martino, Margareth; Pandolfi, Monica; Silvestri, Sergio

2012-10-01

349

In vivo measurement of carpal tunnel pressure in the functioning hand.  

PubMed

We recorded directly the pressure within the carpal tunnel during nine different functional positions of the hand and wrist in 102 hands of 92 subjects. Carpal tunnel syndrome was present in 81 hands, and 21 served as controls. A significant rise in pressure was recorded not only with wrist flexion but also with wrist extension, making a fist, holding objects, and isolated isometric flexion of a finger against resistance. Intratunnel pressure dropped after 1 minute of hand and wrist exercises and remained below the resting pressure for over 15 minutes of continuous measurement. We did not observe a rebound phenomenon. Clinical Application: Non-surgical treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome should also include a significant reduction in making a fist, holding objects, pushing, and isolated finger work such as key punching and typing. Activities that require sustained contracture of finger flexor muscles (eg, grasp and hold) also should be avoided. Brief intermittent wrist and hand exercise is recommended to reduce the intratunnel pressure. PMID:8522756

Seradge, H; Jia, Y C; Owens, W

1995-09-01

350

In vivo alterations in skeletal muscle form and function after disuse atrophy.  

PubMed

Prolonged reductions in muscle activity and mechanical loading (e.g., bed rest, cast immobilization) result in alterations in skeletal muscle form and function. The purpose of this review article was to synthesize recent findings from several studies on the dramatic effects of disuse on skeletal muscle morphology and muscle performance in humans. Specifically, the following are discussed: 1) how the antigravity muscles are most susceptible to atrophy and how the degree of atrophy varies between muscle groups; 2) how disuse alters muscle composition by increasing intermuscular adipose tissue; 3) the influence of different disuse models on regulating the loss of muscle mass and strength, with immobilization causing greater reductions than bed rest and limb suspension do; 4) the observation that disuse decreases strength to a greater extent than muscle mass and the role of adaptations in both neural and contractile properties that influences this excessive loss of strength; 5) the equivocal findings on the effect of disuse on muscle fatigue resistance; and 6) the reduction in motor control after prolonged disuse. Lastly, emerging data warranting further inquiry into the modulating role of biological sex on disuse-induced adaptations are also discussed. PMID:19727027

Clark, Brian C

2009-10-01

351

Identification of Functionally Important TonB-ExbD Periplasmic Domain Interactions In Vivo  

PubMed Central

In Gram-negative bacteria, the cytoplasmic membrane proton-motive force energizes the active transport of TonB-dependent ligands through outer membrane TonB-gated transporters. In Escherichia coli, cytoplasmic membrane proteins ExbB and ExbD couple the proton-motive force to conformational changes in TonB, which are hypothesized to form the basis of energy transduction through direct contact with the transporters. While the role of ExbB is not well understood, contact between periplasmic domains of TonB and ExbD is required, with the conformational response of TonB to presence or absence of proton motive force being modulated through ExbD. A region (residues 92 to 121) within the ExbD periplasmic domain was previously identified as being important for TonB interaction. Here, the specific sites of periplasmic domain interactions between that region and the TonB carboxy terminus were identified by examining 270 combinations of 45 TonB and 6 ExbD individual cysteine substitutions for disulfide-linked heterodimer formation. ExbD residues A92C, K97C, and T109C interacted with multiple TonB substitutions in four regions of the TonB carboxy terminus. Two regions were on each side of the TonB residues known to interact with the TonB box of TonB-gated transporters, suggesting that ExbD positions TonB for correct interaction at that site. A third region contained a functionally important glycine residue, and the fourth region involved a highly conserved predicted amphipathic helix. Three ExbD substitutions, F103C, L115C, and T121C, were nonreactive with any TonB cysteine substitutions. ExbD D25, a candidate to be on a proton translocation pathway, was important to support efficient TonB-ExbD heterodimerization at these specific regions. PMID:22493017

Ollis, Anne A.

2012-01-01

352

Differential Carbonylation of Proteins as a Function of in vivo Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

This study reports for the first time qualitative and quantitative differences in carbonylated proteins shed into blood as a function of increasing levels of OS. Carbonylated proteins in freshly drawn blood from pairs of diabetic and lean rats were derivatized with biotin hydrazide, dialyzed, and enriched with avidin affinity chromatography. Proteins thus selected were used in several ways. Differences between control and diabetic subjects in relative concentration of proteins was achieved by differential labeling of tryptic digests with iTRAQ™ reagents followed by reversed phase chromatography (RPC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Identification and characterization of OS induced post-translational modification sites in contrast was achieved by fractionation of affinity selected proteins before proteolysis and RPC-MS/MS. Relative quantification of peptides bearing oxidative modifications was achieved for the first time by selective reaction monitoring (SRM). Approximately 1.7% of the proteins in Zucker diabetic rat plasma were selected by the avidin affinity column as compared to 0.98% in lean animal plasma. Among the thirty five proteins identified and quantified, Apo AII, clusterin, hemopexin precursor and potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 7 showed the most dramatic changes in concentration. Seventeen carbonylation sites were identified and quantified, eleven of which changed more than 2 fold in oxidation state. Three types of carbonylation were identified at these sites; direct oxidative cleavage from reactive oxygen species, glycation and addition of advanced glycation end products, and addition of lipid peroxidation products. Direct oxidation was the dominant form of carbonylation observed while hemoglobin and murinoglobulin 1 homolog were the most heavily oxidized proteins. PMID:21800835

Madian, Ashraf G.; Myracle, Angela D.; Diaz-Maldonado, Naomi; Rochelle, Nishi S.; Janle, Elsa M.; Regnier, Fred E.

2011-01-01

353

Inhibition of Wee1 sensitizes cancer cells to antimetabolite chemotherapeutics in vitro and in vivo, independent of p53 functionality.  

PubMed

Inhibition of Wee1 is emerging as a novel therapeutic strategy for cancer, and some data suggest that cells with dysfunctional p53 are more sensitive to Wee1 inhibition combined with conventional chemotherapy than those with functional p53. We and others found that Wee1 inhibition sensitizes leukemia cells to cytarabine. Thus, we sought to determine whether chemosensitization by Wee1 inhibition is dependent on p53 dysfunction and whether combining Wee1 inhibition is tolerable and effective in vivo. Synergistic inhibition of proliferation with a Wee1 inhibitor in clinical development, MK1775, and cytarabine was observed in all acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cell lines tested, regardless of p53 functionality. Mechanistic studies indicate that inhibition of Wee1 abrogates the S-phase checkpoint and augments apoptosis induced by cytarabine. In AML and lung cancer cell lines, genetic disruption of p53 did not alter the cells' enhanced sensitivity to antimetabolites with Wee1 inhibition. Finally, mice with AML were treated with cytarabine and/or MK1775. The combination of MK1775 and cytarabine was well tolerated in mice and enhanced the antileukemia effects of cytarabine, including survival. Thus, inhibition of Wee1 sensitizes hematologic and solid tumor cell lines to antimetabolite chemotherapeutics, whether p53 is functional or not, suggesting that the use of p53 mutation as a predictive biomarker for response to Wee1 inhibition may be restricted to certain cancers and/or chemotherapeutics. These data provide preclinical justification for testing MK1775 and cytarabine in patients with leukemia. PMID:24121103

Van Linden, Annemie A; Baturin, Dmitry; Ford, James B; Fosmire, Susan P; Gardner, Lori; Korch, Christopher; Reigan, Philip; Porter, Christopher C

2013-12-01

354

EFFECT OF OIL COMBUSTION PARTICLE BIOAVAILABLE CONSTITUENTS ON EX VIVO VASCULAR FUNCTION OF AORTAS RECOVERED FROM NORMAL AND TYPE 2 DIABETIC RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Effect of Oil Combustion Particle Bioavailable Constituents on Ex Vivo Vascular Function of Aortae Recovered from Healthy and Early Type 2 Diabetic Rats KL Dreher1, SE Kelly2, SD Proctor2, and JC Russell2. 1National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, US EPA, RTP, NC;...

355

In vivo snapshot hyperspectral image analysis of age-related macular degeneration  

PubMed Central

Drusen, the hallmark lesions of age related macular degeneration (AMD), are biochemically heterogeneous and the identification of their biochemical distribution is key to the understanding of AMD. Yet the challenges are to develop imaging technology and analytics, which respect the physical generation of the hyperspectral signal in the presence of noise, artifacts, and multiple mixed sources while maximally exploiting the full data dimensionality to uncover clinically relevant spectral signatures. This paper reports on the statistical analysis of hyperspectral signatures of drusen and anatomical regions of interest using snapshot hyperspectral imaging and non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). We propose physical meaningful priors as initialization schemes to NMF for finding low-rank decompositions that capture the underlying physiology of drusen and the macular pigment. Preliminary results show that snapshot hyperspectral imaging in combination with NMF is able to detect biochemically meaningful components of drusen and the macular pigment. To our knowledge, this is the first reported demonstration in vivo of the separate absorbance peaks for lutein and zeaxanthin in macular pigment. PMID:21096261

Lee, Noah; Wielaard, J.; Fawzi, A. A.; Sajda, P.; Laine, A. F.; Martin, G.; Humayun, M. S.; Smith, R. T.

2014-01-01

356

Host defense peptides for treatment of colorectal carcinoma - a comparative in vitro and in vivo analysis  

PubMed Central

Host defense peptides (HDP) constitute effector molecules of the innate immune system. Besides acting against microbia and fungi, they exhibit broad and selective oncolytic activity. The underlying mechanism is at least partially attributable to elevated surface-exposed levels of phosphatidylserine (PS) on tumor targets. In this study, comprehensive analysis of NK-2-based derivatives (C7A, C7A-D21K, and C7A-?) was done on patient-derived ultra-low passage colorectal carcinoma (CRC) cell lines. Peptides were designed to improve antitumoral potential. Mellitin was used as positive control and a non-toxic peptide (NK11) served as negative control. Subsequently, effectiveness of local HDP application was determined in xenopatients. Generally, CRC lines displayed a heterogeneous pattern of surface-exposed PS, which was usually below standard CRC cells. Of note, five out of seven cell lines were susceptible towards HDP-mediated lysis (lytic activity of peptides: C7A-D21K > C7A-?= C7A). Oncolytic activity correlated mostly with surface-exposed PS levels. Apoptosis as well as necrosis were involved in killing. In an in vivo experiment, substantial growth inhibition of HROC24 xenografts was observed after HDP therapy and, surprisingly, also after NK11 treatment. These promising data underline the high potential of HDPs for oncolytic therapies and may provide a rationale for optimizing preclinical treatment schedules based on NK-2. PMID:24962950

Maletzki, Claudia; Klier, Ulrike; Marinkovic, Samuel; Klar, Ernst; Andra, Jorg; Linnebacher, Michael

2014-01-01

357

Detection and analysis of gene expression during infection by in vivo expression technology.  

PubMed Central

Many limitations associated with the use of in vitro models for study of bacterial pathogenesis can be overcome by the use of technologies that detect pathogen gene expression during the course of infection within an intact animal. In vivo expression technology (IVET) accomplishes this with versatility: it has been developed with a variety of reporter systems which allow for either in vivo selection or ex vivo screening. Selectable gene fusion systems generally allow for the complementation of a bacterial metabolic defect that is lethal in vivo, or for antibiotic resistance during the course of in vivo antibiotic challenge. In contrast, the screenable gene fusion system uses a site-specific DNA recombinase that, when expressed in vivo, excises a selectable gene cassette from the bacterial chromosome. Loss of this cassette can then be either screened or selected for ex vivo. The recombinase-based IVET can be used to detect genes that are transcriptionally induced during infection, including those expressed transiently or at low levels and, in addition, can be used to monitor the spatial and temporal expression of specific genes during the course of infection. PMID:10874732

Merrell, D S; Camilli, A

2000-01-01

358

Amplitude and frequency content analysis of optoacoustic signals in laser heated ex-vivo tissues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser thermal therapy involves heating tissue using light to temperatures between 55 °C and 95 °C for several minutes resulting in coagulation and cell death. This treatment method has been under investigation for use as a minimally invasive method for eradicating solid tumors and cancer cells. Optoacoustic imaging involves exposing optically absorbing media to nanosecond pulsed laser light causing rapid localized heating and inducing acoustic waves to be detected by wideband transducers. It has been proposed as a real-time, noninvasive method for monitoring laser thermal therapy. This thesis investigates the use of optoacoustics to discriminate between native and coagulated ex-vivo tissues (porcine tenderloin muscle, bovine liver and bovine kidney). Tissues were heated using a 1000 mum core optical fibre coupled to an 810 nm diode laser to generate lesions. Samples were scanned at 1064 nm using a prototype reverse-mode optoacoustic system consisting of a pulsed laser coupled to a bifurcated fibre bundle, and an 8 element annular array wideband ultrasound transducer with a central frequency of ˜5 MHz. Thermal coagulation effects were analyzed using optoacoustic signal amplitude-based and frequency-based analysis. Significant differences (p<0.05) in optoacoustic signals, between native and coagulated porcine muscle, were observed with both amplitude-based and frequency-based analysis methods. Inconsistencies in the amplitude-based analysis were observed in the bovine liver and bovine kidney. Significant differences between native and coagulated bovine liver tissues were observed in two of the three frequency parameters of interest (slope and midband fit, p<0.05). No significant differences between native and coagulated bovine kidney tissues using frequency-based analysis. Amplitude-based analysis methods take advantage of the optical and thermo-mechanical properties of the tissues, while the frequency-based method extracts metrics related physical parameters of the absorbers (such as size, shape and concentration). By isolating the samples from temperature influence (by acquiring OA data of native and coagulated tissues at constant temperature) we have demonstrated that optoacoustics can be used to directly detect tissue damage in two of these three tissue types. The results of this work support the evidence that optoacoustic imaging could be a tool for real-time monitoring of laser thermal heating, but warrant further investigation.

Laderoute, Annie

359

Automation and uncertainty analysis of a method for in-vivo range verification in particle therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce the automation of the range difference calculation deduced from particle-irradiation induced ?+-activity distributions with the so-called most-likely-shift approach, and evaluate its reliability via the monitoring of algorithm- and patient-specific uncertainty factors. The calculation of the range deviation is based on the minimization of the absolute profile differences in the distal part of two activity depth profiles shifted against each other. Depending on the workflow of positron emission tomography (PET)-based range verification, the two profiles under evaluation can correspond to measured and simulated distributions, or only measured data from different treatment sessions. In comparison to previous work, the proposed approach includes an automated identification of the distal region of interest for each pair of PET depth profiles and under consideration of the planned dose distribution, resulting in the optimal shift distance. Moreover, it introduces an estimate of uncertainty associated to the identified shift, which is then used as weighting factor to ‘red flag’ problematic large range differences. Furthermore, additional patient-specific uncertainty factors are calculated using available computed tomography (CT) data to support the range analysis. The performance of the new method for in-vivo treatment verification in the clinical routine is investigated with in-room PET images for proton therapy as well as with offline PET images for proton and carbon ion therapy. The comparison between measured PET activity distributions and predictions obtained by Monte Carlo simulations or measurements from previous treatment fractions is performed. For this purpose, a total of 15 patient datasets were analyzed, which were acquired at Massachusetts General Hospital and Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center with in-room PET and offline PET/CT scanners, respectively. Calculated range differences between the compared activity distributions are reported in a 2D map in beam-eye-view. In comparison to previously proposed approaches, the new most-likely-shift method shows more robust results for assessing in-vivo the range from strongly varying PET distributions caused by differing patient geometry, ion beam species, beam delivery techniques, PET imaging concepts and counting statistics. The additional visualization of the uncertainties and the dedicated weighting strategy contribute to the understanding of the reliability of observed range differences and the complexity in the prediction of activity distributions. The proposed method promises to offer a feasible technique for clinical routine of PET-based range verification.

Frey, K.; Unholtz, D.; Bauer, J.; Debus, J.; Min, C. H.; Bortfeld, T.; Paganetti, H.; Parodi, K.

2014-10-01

360

Partition function based analysis of cosmic microwave background maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an alternative method to analyse cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps. We base our analysis on the study of the partition function. This function is used to examine the CMB maps, making use of the different information embedded at different scales and moments. Using the partition function in a likelihood analysis in two dimensions (Q_rms-PS, n), we find the

J. M. Diego; E. Martķnez-Gonzįlez; J. L. Sanz; Silvia Mollerach; Vicent J. Martķnez

1999-01-01

361

In vivo two-photon uncaging of glutamate revealing the structure-function relationships of dendritic spines in the neocortex of adult mice  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two-photon (2P) uncaging of caged neurotransmitters can efficiently stimulate individual synapses and is widely used to characterize synaptic functions in brain slice preparations. Here we extended 2P uncaging to neocortical pyramidal neurons in adult mice in vivo where caged glutamate was applied from the pial surface. To validate the methodology, we applied a small fluorescent probe using the same method, and confirmed that its concentrations were approximately homogenous up to 200 ?m below the cortical surface, and that the extracellular space of the neocortex was as large as 22%. In fact, in vivo whole-cell recording revealed that 2P glutamate uncaging could elicit transient currents (2pEPSCs) very similar to excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). A spatial resolution of glutamate uncaging was 0.6–0.8 ?m up to the depth of 200 ?m, and in vivo 2P uncaging was able to stimulate single identified spines. Automated three-dimensional (3-D) mapping of such 2pEPSCs which covered the surfaces of dendritic branches revealed that functional AMPA receptor expression was stable and proportional to spine volume. Moreover, in vivo 2P Ca2+ imaging and uncaging suggested that the amplitudes of glutamate-induced Ca2+ transients were inversely proportional to spine volume. Thus, the key structure–function relationships hold in dendritic spines in adult neocortex in vivo, as in young hippocampal slice preparations. In vivo 2P uncaging will be a powerful tool to investigate properties of synapses in the neocortex. PMID:21486811

Noguchi, Jun; Nagaoka, Akira; Watanabe, Satoshi; Ellis-Davies, Graham C R; Kitamura, Kazuo; Kano, Masanobu; Matsuzaki, Masanori; Kasai, Haruo

2011-01-01

362

In depth analysis of the in vivo toxicity of venom from the jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris.  

PubMed

Jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris, a synonym of Nemopilema nomurai, which has often bloomed in the China Sea in recent years, is becoming an increasing threat to human health and life as a result of its strong toxicity. Each year, hundreds of thousands of people were stung, especially in the high season, and the victims suffered itch, edema, myalgia, dyspnea, hypotension, shock and even death. Here, we present the in-depth analysis of the in vivo toxicity of the venom from the jellyfish S. meleagris by using both an acute toxicological approach and pathological analyses. The venom showed an LD50 of approximately 2.92 ?g/g body weight in mice following an intravenous injection and caused renal glomerular swelling, renal vesicle stricture, renal tubules dilatation, hepatic blood sinusoid dilatation, pulmonary edema and malignant pleural effusion. The pathological sections analysis showed that the kidney and liver were significantly damaged, but the heart, spleen and stomach had no observed changes. Additionally, the hemanalysis showed an increase of white blood cells (WBC), middle cells (Mid), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood urine nitrogen (BUN) and uric acid (UA) in the blood. Moreover, the mice also displayed convulsions, mouth bleeding, piloerection, dyspnea and death after the injection of the venom. In conclusion, this venom has a strong toxicity to the kidney of the mice and the acute renal failure might be one of the most important factors for the death after a severe sting. Hopefully, the present study will provide a significant reference for the treatment of stings by the jellyfish S. meleagris in the future. PMID:25305553

Li, Rongfeng; Yu, Huahua; Yue, Yang; Liu, Song; Xing, Ronge; Chen, Xiaolin; Wang, Xueqin; Li, Pengcheng

2014-12-15

363

Nature, source and function of pigments in tardigrades: in vivo raman imaging of carotenoids in Echiniscus blumi.  

PubMed

Tardigrades are microscopic aquatic animals with remarkable abilities to withstand harsh physical conditions such as dehydration or exposure to harmful highly energetic radiation. The mechanisms responsible for such robustness are presently little known, but protection against oxidative stresses is thought to play a role. Despite the fact that many tardigrade species are variously pigmented, scarce information is available about this characteristic. By applying Raman micro-spectroscopy on living specimens, pigments in the tardigrade Echiniscus blumi are identified as carotenoids, and their distribution within the animal body is visualized. The dietary origin of these pigments is demonstrated, as well as their presence in the eggs and in eye-spots of these animals, together with their absence in the outer layer of the animal (i.e., cuticle and epidermis). Using in-vivo semi-quantitative Raman micro-spectroscopy, a decrease in carotenoid content is detected after inducing oxidative stress, demonstrating that this approach can be used for studying the role of carotenoids in oxidative stress-related processes in tardigrades. This approach could be thus used in further investigations to test several hypotheses concerning the function of these carotenoids in tardigrades as photo-protective pigments against ionizing radiations or as antioxidants defending these organisms against the oxidative stress occurring during desiccation processes. PMID:23185564

Bonifacio, Alois; Guidetti, Roberto; Altiero, Tiziana; Sergo, Valter; Rebecchi, Lorena

2012-01-01

364

Nature, Source and Function of Pigments in Tardigrades: In Vivo Raman Imaging of Carotenoids in Echiniscus blumi  

PubMed Central

Tardigrades are microscopic aquatic animals with remarkable abilities to withstand harsh physical conditions such as dehydration or exposure to harmful highly energetic radiation. The mechanisms responsible for such robustness are presently little known, but protection against oxidative stresses is thought to play a role. Despite the fact that many tardigrade species are variously pigmented, scarce information is available about this characteristic. By applying Raman micro-spectroscopy on living specimens, pigments in the tardigrade Echiniscus blumi are identified as carotenoids, and their distribution within the animal body is visualized. The dietary origin of these pigments is demonstrated, as well as their presence in the eggs and in eye-spots of these animals, together with their absence in the outer layer of the animal (i.e., cuticle and epidermis). Using in-vivo semi-quantitative Raman micro-spectroscopy, a decrease in carotenoid content is detected after inducing oxidative stress, demonstrating that this approach can be used for studying the role of carotenoids in oxidative stress-related processes in tardigrades. This approach could be thus used in further investigations to test several hypotheses concerning the function of these carotenoids in tardigrades as photo-protective pigments against ionizing radiations or as antioxidants defending these organisms against the oxidative stress occurring during desiccation processes. PMID:23185564

Bonifacio, Alois; Guidetti, Roberto; Altiero, Tiziana; Sergo, Valter; Rebecchi, Lorena

2012-01-01

365

Salmonid alphavirus replicon is functional in fish, mammalian and insect cells and in vivo in shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei).  

PubMed

The Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is the etiological agent of pancreas disease in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and Sleeping disease in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). SAV differs from alphaviruses infecting terrestrial animals in that it infects salmonid fish at low temperatures and does not use an arthropod vector for transmission. In this study we have shown that a SAVbased replicon could express proteins when driven by the subgenomic promoter in vitro in cells from fish, mammals and insects, as well as in vivo in shrimps (Litopanaeus vannamei). The SAV-replicon was found to be functional at temperatures ranging from 4 to 37°C. Protein expression was slow and moderate compared to that reported from terrestrial alphavirus replicons or from vectors where protein expression was under control of the immediate early CMV-promoter. No cytopathic effect was visually observable in cells transfected with SAV-replicon vectors. Double stranded RNA was present for several days after transfection of the SAV-replicon in fish cell lines and its presence was indicated also in shrimp. The combination of prolonged dsRNA production, low toxicity, and wide temperature range for expression, may potentially be advantageous for the use of the SAV replicon to induce immune responses in aquaculture of fish and shrimp. PMID:24120486

Olsen, Christel M; Pemula, Anand Kumar; Braaen, Stine; Sankaran, Krishnan; Rimstad, Espen

2013-11-19

366

WEIGHT FUNCTIONS IN TIME-FREQUENCY ANALYSIS KARLHEINZ GROCHENIG  

E-print Network

WEIGHT FUNCTIONS IN TIME-FREQUENCY ANALYSIS KARLHEINZ GRĀØOCHENIG Abstract. We discuss the most common types of weight functions in harmonic analysis and how they occur in time-frequency analysis. As a general rule, sub- multiplicative weights characterize algebra properties, moderate weight charac- terize

Feichtinger, Hans Georg

367

In Vivo Systematic Analysis of Candida albicans Zn2-Cys6 Transcription Factors Mutants for Mice Organ Colonization  

PubMed Central

The incidence of fungal infections in immuno-compromised patients increased considerably over the last 30 years. New treatments are therefore needed against pathogenic fungi. With Candida albicans as a model, study of host-fungal pathogen interactions might reveal new sources of therapies. Transcription factors (TF) are of interest since they integrate signals from the host environment and participate in an adapted microbial response. TFs of the Zn2-Cys6 class are specific to fungi and are important regulators of fungal metabolism. This work analyzed the importance of the C. albicans Zn2-Cys6 TF for mice kidney colonization. For this purpose, 77 Zn2-Cys6 TF mutants were screened in a systemic mice model of infection by pools of 10 mutants. We developed a simple barcoding strategy to specifically detect each mutant DNA from mice kidney by quantitative PCR. Among the 77 TF mutant strains tested, eight showed a decreased colonization including mutants for orf19.3405, orf19.255, orf19.5133, RGT1, UGA3, orf19.6182, SEF1 and orf19.2646, and four an increased colonization including mutants for orf19.4166, ZFU2, orf19.1685 and UPC2 as compared to the isogenic wild type strain. Our approach was validated by comparable results obtained with the same animal model using a single mutant and the revertant for an ORF (orf19.2646) with still unknown functions. In an attempt to identify putative involvement of such TFs in already known C. albicans virulence mechanisms, we determined their in vitro susceptibility to pH, heat and oxidative stresses, as well as ability to produce hyphae and invade agar. A poor correlation was found between in vitro and in vivo assays, thus suggesting that TFs needed for mice kidney colonization may involve still unknown mechanisms. This large-scale analysis of mice organ colonization by C. albicans can now be extended to other mutant libraries since our in vivo screening strategy can be adapted to any preexisting mutants. PMID:22073120

Vandeputte, Patrick; Ischer, Francoise; Sanglard, Dominique; Coste, Alix T.

2011-01-01

368

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the effects of piperine on P-gp function and expression  

SciTech Connect

Piperine, a major component of black pepper, is used as spice and nutrient enhancer. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of acute and prolonged piperine exposure on cellular P-gp expression and function in vitro and in vivo. Piperine at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 {mu}M, determined by MTT assay to be non-cytotoxic, was observed to inhibit P-gp mediated efflux transport of [{sup 3}H]-digoxin across L-MDR1 and Caco-2 cell monolayers. The acute inhibitory effect was dependent on piperine concentration, with abolishment of [{sup 3}H]-digoxin polarized transport attained at 50 {mu}M of piperine. In contrast, prolonged (48 and 72 h) co-incubation of Caco-2 cell monolayers with piperine (50 and 100 {mu}M) increased P-gp activity through an up-regulation of cellular P-gp protein and MDR1 mRNA levels. The up-regulated protein was functionally active, as demonstrated by a higher degree of [{sup 3}H]-digoxin efflux across the cell monolayers, but the induction was readily reversed by the removal of the spice from the culture medium. Peroral administration of piperine at the dose of 112 {mu}g/kg body weight/day to male Wistar rats for 14 consecutive days also led to increased intestinal P-gp levels. However, there was a concomitant reduction in the rodent liver P-gp although the kidney P-gp level was unaffected. Our data suggest that caution should be exercised when piperine is to be co-administered with drugs that are P-gp substrates, particularly for patients whose diet relies heavily on pepper.

Han Yi [Department of Pharmacy, National University of Singapore, 18 Science Drive 4, 117543 (Singapore); Chin Tan, Theresa May [Department of Biochemistry, National University of Singapore, 18 Science Drive 4, 117543 (Singapore); Lim, Lee-Yong [Pharmacy, School of Biomedical, Biomolecular and Chemical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)], E-mail: limly@cyllene.uwa.edu.au

2008-08-01

369

In vivo optical molecular imaging and analysis in mice using dorsal window chamber models applied to hypoxia, vasculature and fluorescent reporters  

PubMed Central

Optical techniques for functional imaging in mice have a number of key advantages over other common imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography or computed tomography, including high resolution, low cost and an extensive library of available contrast agents and reporter genes. A major challenge to such work is the limited penetration depth imposed by tissue turbidity. We describe a window chamber technique by which these limitations can be avoided. This facilitates the study of a wide range of processes, with potential endpoints including longitudinal gene expression, vascular remodeling and angiogenesis, and tumor growth and invasion. We further describe several quantitative imaging and analysis techniques for characterizing in vivo fluorescence properties and functional endpoints, including vascular morphology and oxygenation. The procedure takes ~2 h to complete, plus up to several weeks for tumor growth and treatment procedures. PMID:21886101

Palmer, Gregory M; Fontanella, Andrew N; Shan, Siqing; Hanna, Gabi; Zhang, Guoqing; Fraser, Cassandra L; Dewhirst, Mark W

2012-01-01

370

Marijuana components suppress induction and cytolytic function of murine cytotoxic T cells in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Killer lymphocytes play a major role in host defense against tumors and infectious diseases. Previously, we reported that delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and II-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (II-hydroxy-THC) suppressed the cytolytic activity of cultured natural killer (NK) cells. Also, we showed that the drugs appeared to be affecting a stage in the killing process subsequent to the binding of the killer cell to the target cell. In the present report, we have extended these studies to an examination of the effect of cannabinoids on the activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). The cytolytic activity of CTLs generated by cocultivation with either allospecific stimulators or TNP-modified-self stimulators were suppressed by both THC and II-hydroxy-THC treatment. Allospecific CTLs generated in vivo were also inhibited by an in vitro exposure to either THC or II-hydroxy-THC, and the sensitivity of these cells to drug effects appeared to be greater than the sensitivity of the in vitro generated CTLs. Suppression of cytolytic function by THC and II-hydroxy-THC was maximal after a 4-h drug treatment, suggesting that the drug effects were inducible and therefore required a finite period of time to develop maximally. As seen in previous studies involving NK cells, drug treatment of mature CTLs appears to have little effect on the binding capacity of these cells for the target. However, the maximal killing capacity of the cells and the frequency of CTLs were significantly reduced by drug treatment. In addition to suppressing the cytolytic activity of mature effector CTLs, we also show that drug treatment inhibits both the proliferation of lymphocytes responding to an allogeneic stimulus and the maturation of these lymphocytes to mature CTLs. Similarly, CTL activity developing in vivo could be inhibited by THC injection. These results suggest that CTLs are inhibited by cannabinoids by at least two mechanisms. First, the cytolytic activity of mature killers is suppressed at some point beyond the binding to the target cell. Second, the cannabinoids appear to suppress the normal development of these mature effector cells from less mature precursor cells. PMID:1850002

Klein, T W; Kawakami, Y; Newton, C; Friedman, H

1991-04-01

371

Ultrastructural and functional characterization of circulating hemocytes from the freshwater crayfish Astacus leptodactylus: Cell types and their role after in vivo artificial non-self challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The freshwater crayfish Astacus leptodactylus (Eschscholtz, 1823) is an important aquacultured decapod species as well as an invasive species in some European countries. In the current investigation we characterized the different classes of circulating blood cells in A. leptodactylus by means of light and electron microscopy analysis and we explored their reaction to different latex beads particles in vivo by

Piero Giulio Giulianini; Manuel Bierti; Simonetta Lorenzon; Silvia Battistella; Enrico Antonio Ferrero

2007-01-01

372

Statistical Analysis of UWB Channel Correlation Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various performance metrics of impulse-radio (IR) ultrawideband (UWB) receivers are closely connected to the correlation functions of the multipath channel responses to UWB pulses. Interpulse interference is related to the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the received pulse (RP), the RP energy and its fading correspond to the ACF at zero lag, and multiple access interference is connected to the cross-correlation

Klaus Witrisal; Marco Pausini

2008-01-01

373

Regulation of Epithelial Cell Morphology and Functions Approaching To More In Vivo-Like by Modifying Polyethylene Glycol on Polysulfone Membranes  

PubMed Central

Cytocompatibility is critically important in design of biomaterials for application in tissue engineering. However, the currently well-accepted “cytocompatible" biomaterials are those which promote cells to sustain good attachment/spreading. The cells on such materials usually lack the self-assembled cell morphology and high cell functions as in vivo. In our view, biomaterials that can promote the ability of cells to self-assemble and demonstrate cell-specific functions would be cytocompatible. This paper examined the interaction of polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified polysulfone (PSf) membranes with four epithelial cell types (primary liver cells, a liver tumor cell line, and two renal tubular cell lines). Our results show that PSf membranes modified with proper PEG promoted the aggregation of both liver and renal cells, but the liver cells more easily formed aggregates than the renal tubular cells. The culture on PEG-modified PSf membranes also enhanced cell-specific functions. In particular, the cells cultured on F127 membranes with the proper PEG content mimicked the in vivo ultrastructure of liver cells or renal tubules cells and displayed the highest cell functions. Gene expression data for adhesion proteins suggest that the PEG modification impaired cell-membrane interactions and increased cell-cell interactions, thus facilitating cell self-assembly. In conclusion, PEG-modified membrane could be a cytocompatible material which regulates the morphology and functions of epithelial cells in mimicking cell performance in vivo. PMID:22558349

Shen, Chong; Zhang, Guoliang; Meng, Qin

2012-01-01

374

Ultrastructural and functional characterization of circulating hemocytes from the freshwater crayfish Astacus leptodactylus: cell types and their role after in vivo artificial non-self challenge.  

PubMed

The freshwater crayfish Astacus leptodactylus (Eschscholtz, 1823) is an important aquacultured decapod species as well as an invasive species in some European countries. In the current investigation we characterized the different classes of circulating blood cells in A. leptodactylus by means of light and electron microscopy analysis and we explored their reaction to different latex beads particles in vivo by total and differential cell counts at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4h after injections. We identified hemocytes by granule size morphometry as hyaline hemocytes with no or rare tiny granules, small granule hemocytes, unimodal medium diameter granule hemocytes and both small and large granule containing hemocytes. The latter granular hemocytes showed the strongest phenoloxidase l-DOPA reactivity both in granules and cytoplasm. A. leptodactylus respond to foreign particles with strong cellular immune responses. All treatments elicited a total hemocyte increase with a conspicuous recruitment of large granule containing hemocytes. All hemocyte types mounted some phagocytic response but the small granule hemocytes were the only ones involved in phagocytic response to all foreign particles with the highest percentages. These results (1) depict the variability in decapod hemocyte functional morphology; (2) identify the small granule hemocyte as the major phagocytic cell; (3) suggest that the rather rapid recruitment of large granule hemocyte in all treatments plays a relevant role by this hemocyte type in defense against foreign particles, probably in nodule formation. PMID:16839768

Giulianini, Piero Giulio; Bierti, Manuel; Lorenzon, Simonetta; Battistella, Silvia; Ferrero, Enrico Antonio

2007-01-01

375

A functional genomics approach using radiation-induced changes in gene expression to study low dose radiation effects in vitro and in vivo  

SciTech Connect

Abstract for final report for project entitled ā??A functional genomics approach using radiation-induced changes in gene expression to study low dose radiation effects in vitro and in vivoā? which has been supported by the DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program for approximately 7 years. This project has encompassed two sequential awards, ER62683 and then ER63308, in the Gene Response Section in the Center for Cancer Research at the National Cancer Institute. The project was temporarily suspended during the relocation of the Principal Investigatorā??s laboratory to the Dept. of Genetics and Complex Diseases at Harvard School of Public Health at the end of 2004. Remaining support for the final year was transferred to this new site later in 2005 and was assigned the DOE Award Number ER64065. The major aims of this project have been 1) to characterize changes in gene expression in response to low-dose radiation responses; this includes responses in human cells lines, peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), and in vivo after human or murine exposures, as well as the effect of dose-rate on gene responses; 2) to characterize changes in gene expression that may be involved in bystander effects, such as may be mediated by cytokines and other intercellular signaling proteins; and 3) to characterize responses in transgenic mouse models with relevance to genomic stability. A variety of approaches have been used to study transcriptional events including microarray hybridization, quantitative single-probe hybridization which was developed in this laboratory, quantitative RT-PCR, and promoter microarray analysis using genomic regulatory motifs. Considering the frequent responsiveness of genes encoding cytokines and related signaling proteins that can affect cellular metabolism, initial efforts were initiated to study radiation responses at the metabolomic level and to correlate with radiation-responsive gene expression. Productivity includes twenty-four published and in press manuscripts, as well as a U.S. patent. There are several additional publications that will be submitted in 2007 that were supported in part by this program. These future publications include one manuscript on in vivo expression profiling analysis in mouse models, one manuscript on radiation responses in human cell lines, at least one on development of stress signatures in human cells, and three manuscripts on radiation metabolomics.

Fornace, Jr, A J

2007-03-03

376

Pharmacoproteomics-based reconstruction of in vivo p-glycoprotein function at blood-brain barrier and brain distribution of substrate verapamil in pentylenetetrazole-kindled epilepsy, spontaneous epilepsy, and phenytoin treatment models.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to demonstrate experimentally that alterations of in vivo transporter function at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in disease and during pharmacotherapy can be reconstructed from in vitro data based on our established pharmacoproteomic concept of reconstructing in vivo function by integrating intrinsic transport activity per transporter molecule and absolute protein expression level at the BBB. Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindled and spontaneous model of epilepsy (EL) mice were used as models of chemically induced and spontaneous epilepsy, respectively. A mouse model of antiepileptic drug treatment was prepared by consecutive 5-week administration of phenytoin (PHT). Quantitative targeted absolute proteomic analysis of 31 membrane proteins showed that P-glycoprotein (P-gp/mdr1a) protein expression levels were significantly increased in brain capillaries of PTZ (129%), EL (143%), and PHT mice (192%) compared with controls. The brain-to-plasma concentration ratios (Kp brain) of P-gp/mdr1a substrate verapamil were 0.563, 0.394, 0.432, and 0.234 in control, PTZ, EL, and PHT mice, respectively. In vivo P-gp/mdr1a function at the BBB was reconstructed from the measured P-gp/mdr1a protein expression levels and intrinsic transport activity for verapamil per P-gp/mdr1a previously reported by our group. Then, the reconstructed P-gp/mdr1a functional activities were integrated with unbound fractions of verapamil in plasma and brain to reconstruct Kp brain of verapamil. In all mice, reconstructed Kp brain values agreed well with the observed values within a 1.21-fold range. These results demonstrate that altered P-gp functions at the BBB in epilepsy and during pharmacotherapy can be reconstructed from in vitro data by means of our pharmacoproteomic approach. PMID:25061162

Uchida, Yasuo; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Terasaki, Tetsuya

2014-10-01

377

Evaluation of Functional Erythropoietin Receptor Status in Skeletal Muscle In Vivo: Acute and Prolonged Studies in Healthy Human Subjects  

PubMed Central

Background Erythropoietin receptors have been identified in human skeletal muscle tissue, but downstream signal transduction has not been investigated. We therefore studied in vivo effects of systemic erythropoietin exposure in human skeletal muscle. Methodology/Principal Findings The protocols involved 1) acute effects of a single bolus injection of erythropoietin followed by consecutive muscle biopsies for 1–10 hours, and 2) a separate study with prolonged administration for 16 days with biopsies obtained before and after. The presence of erythropoietin receptors in muscle tissue as well as activation of Epo signalling pathways (STAT5, MAPK, Akt, IKK) were analysed by western blotting. Changes in muscle protein profiles after prolonged erythropoietin treatment were evaluated by 2D gel-electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The presence of the erythropoietin receptor in skeletal muscle was confirmed, by the M20 but not the C20 antibody. However, no significant changes in phosphorylation of the Epo-R, STAT5, MAPK, Akt, Lyn, IKK, and p70S6K after erythropoietin administration were detected. The level of 8 protein spots were significantly altered after 16 days of rHuEpo treatment; one isoform of myosin light chain 3 and one of desmin/actin were decreased, while three isoforms of creatine kinase and two of glyceraldehyd-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were increased. Conclusions/Significance Acute exposure to recombinant human erythropoietin is not associated by detectable activation of the Epo-R or downstream signalling targets in human skeletal muscle in the resting situation, whereas more prolonged exposure induces significant changes in the skeletal muscle proteome. The absence of functional Epo receptor activity in human skeletal muscle indicates that the long-term effects are indirect and probably related to an increased oxidative capacity in this tissue. PMID:22384088

Christensen, Britt; Lundby, Carsten; Jessen, Niels; Nielsen, Thomas S.; Vestergaard, Poul F.; M?ller, Niels; Pilegaard, Henriette; Pedersen, Steen B.; Kopchick, John J.; J?rgensen, Jens Otto L.

2012-01-01

378

Dual-function 2-nitroimidazoles as hypoxic cell radiosensitizers and bioreductive cytotoxins: In vivo evaluation in KHT murine sarcomas  

SciTech Connect

The efficacies of a series of potential prodrugs of RSU-1069 and its alkyl-aziridine analogues were assessed. These 1-(2-haloethylamino)-3-(2-nitro-1-imidazolyl)-2-propanol compounds were designed to cyclize in vivo to generate 2-nitro-imidazoles with aziridine (RSU-1069) or alkyl-substituted aziridine (RSU-1164, RB-7040, or RSU-1150) functions. Maximum tolerated single, intraperitoneal doses (MTD) were determined in C3H/He mice bearing subcutaneous KHT sarcomas, and a drug dose-response relationship for radiosensitization was established for each compound administered at the optimum time (45-60 min) before local irradiation of tumors with a 10-Gy dose of X-rays. The potentials of the compounds as bioreductive cytotoxins were studied by administering them immediately after irradiation. Tumor cell survival was measured 18-24 h after treatment in an in vitro soft agar clonogenic assay. Results of toxicity, radiosensitization, and bioreductive cytotoxicity assays for each of the prodrugs (RB-6171, RB-6172, RB-6173, RB-6174, and RB-6175) of the alkyl-substituted aziridines were entirely consistent with complete conversion to their respective target compounds. For example, RB-6171 (the prodrug form of RSU-1164) was only about four times less efficient than RSU-1069 as a radiosensitizer and bioreductive cytotoxin but had an MTD 7.5 times higher. In contrast, prodrugs of RSU-1069 (RB-6144 and RB-6145) were two- to threefold less toxic than their expected product. RB-6144 was a poor radiosensitizer and bioreductive agent compared with RSU-1069 and was similar to RB-6170, a nonalkylating nitroimidazole. This is consistent with the observation that there is limited conversion of RB-6144 to R