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In Vivo Analysis of Lrig Genes Reveals Redundant and Independent Functions in the Inner Ear  

E-print Network

In Vivo Analysis of Lrig Genes Reveals Redundant and Independent Functions in the Inner Ear Tony compared the expression and function of the Lrigs in the inner ear, which offers a sensitive system in the inner ear throughout development, with Lrig1 and Lrig3 restricted to subsets of cells and Lrig2

Goodrich, Lisa V.


An In Vivo Functional Analysis System for Renal Gene Discovery in Drosophila Pericardial Nephrocytes  

PubMed Central

The difficulty in accessing mammalian nephrons in vivo hinders the study of podocyte biology. The Drosophila nephrocyte shares remarkable similarities to the glomerular podocyte, but the lack of a functional readout for nephrocytes makes it challenging to study this model of the podocyte, which could potentially harness the power of Drosophila genetics. Here, we present a functional analysis of nephrocytes and establish an in vivo system to screen for renal genes. We found that nephrocytes efficiently take up secreted fluorescent protein, and therefore, we generated a transgenic line carrying secreted fluorescent protein and combined it with a nephrocyte-specific driver for targeted gene knockdown, allowing the identification of genes required for nephrocyte function. To validate this system, we examined the effects of knocking down sns and duf, the Drosophila homologs of nephrin and Neph1, respectively, in pericardial nephrocytes. Knockdown of sns or duf completely abolished the accumulation of the fluorescent protein in pericardial nephrocytes. Examining the ultrastructure revealed that the formation of the nephrocyte diaphragm and lacunar structure, which is essential for protein uptake, requires sns. Our preliminary genetic screen also identified Mec2, which encodes the homolog of mammalian Podocin. Taken together, these data suggest that the Drosophila pericardial nephrocyte is a useful in vivo model to help identify genes involved in podocyte biology and facilitate the discovery of renal disease genes. PMID:23291470

Zhang, Fujian; Zhao, Ying



Analysis of in vitro and in vivo function of total knee replacements using dynamic contact models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the high incidence of osteoarthritis in human knee joint, its causes remain unknown. Total knee replacement (TKR) has been shown clinically to be effective in restoring the knee function. However, wear of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene has limited the longevity of TKRs. To address these important issues, it is necessary to investigate the in vitro and in vivo function

Dong Zhao



in vivo analysis of Drosophila deoxyribonucleoside kinase function in cell cycle, cell survival and anti-cancer drugs resistance  

E-print Network

1 in vivo analysis of Drosophila deoxyribonucleoside kinase function in cell cycle, cell survival Drosophila, deoxyribonucleoside kinase, dNK, antifolate resistance, apoptosis, proliferation, growth, dE2F1. Knecht and S.Carroll and the Bloomington Drosophila stock center for fly strains and antibodies

Boyer, Edmond


Functional effects of dopamine transporter gene genotypes on in vivo dopamine transporter functioning: a meta-analysis.  


Much psychiatric genetic research has focused on a 40-base pair variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism located in the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of the dopamine active transporter (DAT) gene (SLC6A3). This variant produces two common alleles with 9- and 10-repeats (9R and 10R). Studies associating this variant with in vivo DAT activity in humans have had mixed results. We searched for studies using positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to evaluate this association. Random effects meta-analyses assessed the association of the 3'UTR variant with DAT activity. We also evaluated heterogeneity among studies and evidence for publication bias. We found twelve studies comprising 511 subjects, 125 from PET studies and 386 from SPECT studies. The PET studies provided highly significant evidence that the 9R allele was associated with increased DAT activity in human adults. The SPECT studies were highly heterogeneous. As a group, they suggested no association between the 3'UTR polymorphism and DAT activity. When the analysis was limited to the most commonly used ligand, [123I]?-CIT, stratification by affection status dramatically reduced heterogeneity and revealed a significant association of the 9R allele with increased DAT activity for healthy subjects. In humans, the 9R allele of the 3'UTR polymorphism of SLC6A3 regulates dopamine activity in the striatal brain regions independent of the presence of neuropsychiatric illness. Differences in study methodology account for the heterogeneous results across individual studies. PMID:24061496

Faraone, S V; Spencer, T J; Madras, B K; Zhang-James, Y; Biederman, J



In vivo analysis of cellular replication.  

PubMed Central

The number of previous cell replications that a metaphase cell has undergone in the presence of BrdUrd can be determined by the differential fluorescent patterns of metaphse chromosomes stained with Hoechst dye 33258. To examine if this technique could be applied to analyzing cell cycle kinetics in vivo, we infused Wistar rats with BrdUrd for 7.5-33 hr at concentrations of the nucleotide analog that did not inhibit cellular replication. Examination of the frequency of one, two, and three or more replication cycle cells as a function of BrdUrd infusion time indicates that cell replication times for rat bone marrow cells are relatively homogeneous. Analysis of this data with a computer simulation model produced a mean cell cycle duration of 9.2 hr, which is compatible with the fastest times obtained with radioisotope studies. These results support the potential of nonradioisotope analysis of cell replication in vivo. Images PMID:266724

Schneider, E L; Sternberg, H; Tice, R R



Overcoming the heterologous bias: An in vivo functional analysis of multidrug efflux transporter, CgCdr1p in matched pair clinical isolates of Candida glabrata  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} First report to demonstrate an in vivo expression system of an ABC multidrug transporter CgCdr1p of C. glabrata. {yields} First report on the structure and functional characterization of CgCdr1p. {yields} Functional conservation of divergent but typical residues of CgCdr1p. {yields} CgCdr1p elicits promiscuity towards substrates and has a large drug binding pocket with overlapping specificities. -- Abstract: We have taken advantage of the natural milieu of matched pair of azole sensitive (AS) and azole resistant (AR) clinical isolates of Candida glabrata for expressing its major ABC multidrug transporter, CgCdr1p for structure and functional analysis. This was accomplished by tagging a green fluorescent protein (GFP) downstream of ORF of CgCDR1 and integrating the resultant fusion protein at its native chromosomal locus in AS and AR backgrounds. The characterization confirmed that in comparison to AS isolate, CgCdr1p-GFP was over-expressed in AR isolates due to its hyperactive native promoter and the GFP tag did not affect its functionality in either construct. We observed that in addition to Rhodamine 6 G (R6G) and Fluconazole (FLC), a recently identified fluorescent substrate of multidrug transporters Nile Red (NR) could also be expelled by CgCdr1p. Competition assays with these substrates revealed the presence of overlapping multiple drug binding sites in CgCdr1p. Point mutations employing site directed mutagenesis confirmed that the role played by unique amino acid residues critical to ATP catalysis and localization of ABC drug transporter proteins are well conserved in C. glabrata as in other yeasts. This study demonstrates a first in vivo novel system where over-expression of GFP tagged MDR transporter protein can be driven by its own hyperactive promoter of AR isolates. Taken together, this in vivo system can be exploited for the structure and functional analysis of CgCdr1p and similar proteins wherein the arte-factual concerns encountered in using heterologous systems are totally excluded.

Puri, Nidhi; Manoharlal, Raman; Sharma, Monika [Membrane Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India)] [Membrane Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Sanglard, Dominique [Institut de Microbiologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, 1011 Lausanne (Switzerland)] [Institut de Microbiologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, 1011 Lausanne (Switzerland); Prasad, Rajendra, E-mail: [Membrane Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India)] [Membrane Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India)



In vivo performance of a novel fluorinated magnetic resonance imaging agent for functional analysis of bile acid transport.  


A novel trifluorinated cholic acid derivative, CA-lys-TFA, was designed and synthesized for use as a tool to measure bile acid transport noninvasively using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the present study, the in vivo performance of CA-lys-TFA for measuring bile acid transport by MRI was investigated in mice. Gallbladder CA-lys-TFA content was quantified using MRI and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Results in wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice were compared to those in mice lacking expression of Asbt, the ileal bile acid transporter. (19)F signals emanating from the gallbladders of WT mice 7 h after oral gavage with 150 mg/kg CA-lys-TFA were reproducibly detected by MRI. Asbt-deficient mice administered the same dose had undetectable (19)F signals by MRI, and gallbladder bile CA-lys-TFA levels were 30-fold lower compared to WT animals. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of in vivo imaging of an orally absorbed drug using (19)F MRI. Fluorinated bile acid analogues have potential as tools to measure and detect abnormal bile acid transport by MRI. PMID:24708306

Vivian, Diana; Cheng, Kunrong; Khurana, Sandeep; Xu, Su; Kriel, Edwin H; Dawson, Paul A; Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Polli, James E



Programmable nanoparticle functionalization for in vivo targeting  

PubMed Central

The emerging demand for programmable functionalization of existing base nanocarriers necessitates development of an efficient approach for cargo loading that avoids nanoparticle redesign for each individual application. Herein, we demonstrate in vivo a postformulation strategy for lipidic nanocarrier functionalization with the use of a linker peptide, which rapidly and stably integrates cargos into lipidic membranes of nanocarriers after simple mixing through a self-assembling process. We exemplified this strategy by generating a VCAM-1-targeted perfluorocarbon nanoparticle for in vivo targeting in atherosclerosis (ApoE-deficient) and breast cancer (STAT-1-deficient) models. In the atherosclerotic model, a 4.1-fold augmentation in binding to affected aortas was observed for targeted vs. nontargeted nanoparticles (P<0.0298). Likewise, in the breast cancer model, a 4.9-fold increase in the nanoparticle signal from tumor vasculature was observed for targeted vs. nontargeted nanoparticles (P<0.0216). In each case, the nanoparticle was registered with fluorine (19F) magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the nanoparticle perfluorocarbon core, yielding a quantitative estimate of the number of tissue-bound nanoparticles. Because other common nanocarriers with lipid coatings (e.g., liposomes, micelles, etc.) can employ this strategy, this peptide linker postformulation approach is applicable to more than half of the available nanosystems currently in clinical trials or clinical uses.—Pan, H., Myerson, J. W., Hu, L., Marsh, J. N., Hou K., Scott, M. J., Allen, J. S., Hu, G., San Roman, S., Lanza, G. M., Schreiber, R. D., Schlesinger, P. H., Wickline, S. A. Programmable nanoparticle functionalization for in vivo targeting. PMID:23047896

Pan, Hua; Myerson, Jacob W.; Hu, Lingzhi; Marsh, Jon N.; Hou, Kirk; Scott, Michael J.; Allen, John S.; Hu, Grace; San Roman, Susana; Lanza, Gregory M.; Schreiber, Robert D.; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Wickline, Samuel A.



New models for analyzing mast cell functions in vivo  

PubMed Central

In addition to their well-accepted role as critical effector cells in anaphylaxis and other acute IgE-mediated allergic reactions, mast cells have been implicated in a wide variety of process that contribute to disease or help to maintain health. While some of these roles were first suggested by analyses of mast cell products or functions in vitro, it is critical to determine whether, and under which circumstances, such potential roles actually can be performed by mast cells in vivo. This review discusses recent advances in the development and analysis of mouse models to investigate the roles of mast cells and mast cell-associated products during biological responses in vivo, and comments on some of the similarities and differences in the results obtained with these newer versus older models of mast cell deficiency. PMID:23127755

Reber, Laurent L.; Marichal, Thomas; Galli, Stephen J.



Cyclin D1 Determines Mitochondrial Function In Vivo†  

PubMed Central

The cyclin D1 gene encodes a regulatory subunit of the holoenzyme that phosphorylates and inactivates the pRb tumor suppressor to promote nuclear DNA synthesis. cyclin D1 is overexpressed in human breast cancers and is sufficient for the development of murine mammary tumors. Herein, cyclin D1 is shown to perform a novel function, inhibiting mitochondrial function and size. Mitochondrial activity was enhanced by genetic deletion or antisense or small interfering RNA to cyclin D1. Global gene expression profiling and functional analysis of mammary epithelial cell-targeted cyclin D1 antisense transgenics demonstrated that cyclin D1 inhibits mitochondrial activity and aerobic glycolysis in vivo. Reciprocal regulation of these genes was observed in cyclin D1-induced mammary tumors. Cyclin D1 thus integrates nuclear DNA synthesis and mitochondrial function. PMID:16809779

Sakamaki, Toshiyuki; Casimiro, Mathew C.; Ju, Xiaoming; Quong, Andrew A.; Katiyar, Sanjay; Liu, Manran; Jiao, Xuanmao; Li, Anping; Zhang, Xueping; Lu, Yinan; Wang, Chenguang; Byers, Stephen; Nicholson, Robert; Link, Todd; Shemluck, Melvin; Yang, Jianguo; Fricke, Stanley T.; Novikoff, Phyllis M.; Papanikolaou, Alexandros; Arnold, Andrew; Albanese, Christopher; Pestell, Richard



In Vivo Imaging of Tissue Physiological Function

The National Cancer Institute's Radiation Biology Branch is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize methods for in vivo imaging.


In Vivo Calcium Imaging of Neural Network Function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Spatiotemporal activity patterns in local neural networks are fundamental to brain function. Network activity can now be measured in vivo using two-photon imaging of cell populations that are labeled with fluorescent calcium indicators. In this review, we discuss basic aspects of in vivo calcium imaging and highlight recent developments that will help to uncover operating principles of neural circuits.



Influence of genetic background on ex vivo and in vivo cardiac function in several commonly used inbred mouse strains  

PubMed Central

Inbred mouse strains play a critical role in biomedical research. Genetic homogeneity within inbred strains and their general amenability to genetic manipulation have made them an ideal resource for dissecting the physiological function(s) of individual genes. However, the inbreeding that makes inbred mice so useful also results in genetic divergence between them. This genetic divergence is often unaccounted for but may be a confounding factor when comparing studies that have utilized distinct inbred strains. Here, we compared the cardiac function of C57BL/6J mice to seven other commonly used inbred mouse strains: FVB/NJ, DBA/2J, C3H/HeJ, BALB/cJ, 129X1/SvJ, C57BL/10SnJ, and 129S1/SvImJ. The assays used to compare cardiac function were the ex vivo isolated Langendorff heart preparation and in vivo real-time hemodynamic analysis using conductance micromanometry. We report significant strain-dependent differences in cardiac function between C57BL/6J and other commonly used inbred strains. C57BL/6J maintained better cardiac function than most inbred strains after ex vivo ischemia, particularly compared with 129S1/SvImJ, 129X1/SvJ, and C57BL/10SnJ strains. However, during in vivo acute hypoxia 129X1/SvJ and 129S1/SvImJ maintained relatively normal cardiac function, whereas C57BL/6J animals showed dramatic cardiac decompensation. Additionally, C3H/HeJ showed rapid and marked cardiac decompensation in response to esmolol infusion compared with effects of other strains. These findings demonstrate the complex effects of genetic divergence between inbred strains on cardiac function. These results may help inform analysis of gene ablation or transgenic studies and further demonstrate specific quantitative traits that could be useful in discovery of genetic modifiers relevant to cardiac health and disease. PMID:20627938

Barnabei, Matthew S.; Palpant, Nathan J.



A systematic analysis of the in vitro and in vivo functions of the HD-GYP domain proteins of Vibrio cholerae.  


BackgroundThe second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) plays a central role in bacterial adaptation to extracellular stimuli, controlling processes such as motility, biofilm development, cell development and, in some pathogens, virulence. The intracellular level of c-di-GMP is controlled by the complementary activities of diguanylate cyclases containing a GGDEF domain and two classes of c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases containing an EAL or HD-GYP hydrolytic domain. Compared to the GGDEF and EAL domains, the functions of HD-GYP domain family proteins are poorly characterized. The human diarrheal pathogen Vibrio cholerae encodes nine putative HD-GYP domain proteins. To determine the contributions of HD-GYP domain proteins to c-di-GMP signaling in V. cholerae, we systematically analyzed the enzymatic functionality of each protein and their involvement in processes known to be regulated by c-di-GMP: motility, biofilm development and virulence.ResultsComplementary in vitro and in vivo experiments showed that four HD-GYP domain proteins are active c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases: VC1295, VC1348, VCA0210 and VCA0681. Mutation of individual HD-GYP domain genes, as well as combinatorial mutations of multiple HD-GYP domain genes, had no effect on motility or biofilm formation of V. cholerae under the conditions tested. Furthermore, no single HD-GYP domain gene affected intestinal colonization by V. cholerae in an infant mouse model. However, inactivation of multiple HD-GYP domain genes, including the four encoding functional phosphodiesterases, significantly attenuated colonization.ConclusionsThese results indicate that the HD-GYP family of c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases impacts signaling by this second messenger during infection. Altogether, this work greatly furthers the understanding of this important family of c-di-GMP metabolic enzymes and demonstrates a role for HD-GYP domain proteins in the virulence of V. cholerae. PMID:25343965

McKee, Robert W; Kariisa, Ankunda; Mudrak, Benjamin; Whitaker, Courtney; Tamayo, Rita



In vivo, high-throughput imaging for functional characterization of the embryonic zebrafish heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-throughput imaging allows characterizing the phenotype of large populations of cells, organs or organisms. Studying the function of organs in similar ways remains a challenge. Here, we present a semi-automatic, in vivo, high-throughput imaging and analysis method to characterize cardiac function in the embryonic heart of developing zebrafish larvae subjected to an increase of breeding temperature. We sequentially acquire high-speed

Jungho Ohn; Michael Liebling



Biophotonics techniques for structural and functional imaging, in vivo  

PubMed Central

In vivo optical imaging is being conducted in a variety of medical applications, including optical breast cancer imaging, functional brain imaging, endoscopy, exercise medicine, and monitoring the photodynamic therapy and progress of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In the past three decades, in vivo diffuse optical breast cancer imaging has shown promising results in cancer detection, and monitoring the progress of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The use of near infrared spectroscopy for functional brain imaging has been growing rapidly. In fluorescence imaging, the difference between autofluorescence of cancer lesions compared to normal tissues were used in endoscopy to distinguish malignant lesions from normal tissue or inflammation and in determining the boarders of cancer lesions in surgery. Recent advances in drugs targeting specific tumor receptors, such as AntiBodies (MAB), has created a new demand for developing non-invasive in vivo imaging techniques for detection of cancer biomarkers, and for monitoring their down regulations during therapy. Targeted treatments, combined with new imaging techniques, are expected to potentially result in new imaging and treatment paradigms in cancer therapy. Similar approaches can potentially be applied for the characterization of other disease-related biomarkers. In this chapter, we provide a review of diffuse optical and fluorescence imaging techniques with their application in functional brain imaging and cancer diagnosis. PMID:22433452

Ardeshirpour, Yasaman; Gandjbakhche, Amir H.; Najafizadeh, Laleh



Wavelet analysis for brain-function imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a new algorithmic procedure for the analysis of brain images. This procedure is specifically designed to image the activity and functional organization of the brain. The authors' results are tested on data collected and previously analyzed with the technique known as in vivo optical imaging of intrinsic signals. The authors' procedure enhances the applicability of this technique

R. A. Carmona; Wen L. Hwang; Ron D. Frostig



Neurovascular coupling: in vivo optical techniques for functional brain imaging  

PubMed Central

Optical imaging techniques reflect different biochemical processes in the brain, which is closely related with neural activity. Scientists and clinicians employ a variety of optical imaging technologies to visualize and study the relationship between neurons, glial cells and blood vessels. In this paper, we present an overview of the current optical approaches used for the in vivo imaging of neurovascular coupling events in small animal models. These techniques include 2-photon microscopy, laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDi), functional photoacoustic microscopy (fPAM), functional near-infrared spectroscopy imaging (fNIRS) and multimodal imaging techniques. The basic principles of each technique are described in detail, followed by examples of current applications from cutting-edge studies of cerebral neurovascular coupling functions and metabolic. Moreover, we provide a glimpse of the possible ways in which these techniques might be translated to human studies for clinical investigations of pathophysiology and disease. In vivo optical imaging techniques continue to expand and evolve, allowing us to discover fundamental basis of neurovascular coupling roles in cerebral physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:23631798



Analysis of creatinine in mouse and rat serum by ion exchange high performance liquid chromatography for in vivo studies of renal function.  


An ion exchange high performance liquid chromatography method was developed for determining creatinine levels in both mouse and rat serum samples. Separation of creatinine from other serum components was achieved in 10 min using a 100 x 4.1-mm, 10 microm strong cation exchange column following acetonitrile precipitation of serum proteins. Incorporation of a guard cartridge placed in-line prior to the analytical column was employed to prevent interference from compounds used in renal disease animal trials. Creatinine levels in normal and diseased animals were accurately determined in the 0.01-10 mg/dL range, and average recovery of the method was approximately 85% for both mouse and rat serum. Addition of 0.5-1.0% acetic acid to the acetonitrile used for protein precipitation significantly improved creatinine recovery to above 97% in mouse serum. The method was used for routine preclinical diagnosis of rat and mouse model renal function, and for the evaluation of renal disease treatment efficacy. PMID:17011839

Fountain, Kenneth J; Kloss, Alla; Garibyan, Ilya; Blitshteyn, Bella; Brezzani, Alexander; Kyostio-Moore, Sirkka; Zuk, Anna; Sacchiero, Robert; Cohen, Aharon S



Functional regionalization of the teleost cerebellum analyzed in vivo  

PubMed Central

There has been accumulating evidence for a regionalized organization of the cerebellum, which was mostly deduced from anatomical mapping of axonal projections of cerebellar afferents. A likewise regionalization of the cerebellar output has been suggested from lesion studies and dye-tracer experiments, but its physiological targets as well as the functional relevance of such an output regionalization are less clear. Ideally, such functional regionalization should be proven noninvasively in vivo. We here provide evidence for such a regionalization of the output from the cerebellar cortex by genetically encoded transneuronal mapping of efferent circuits of zebrafish Purkinje neurons. These identified circuits correspond to distinct regionalized Purkinje cell activity patterns in freely behaving zebrafish larvae during the performance of cerebellar-dependent behaviors. Furthermore, optogenetic interrogation of selected Purkinje cell regions during animal behavior confirms the functional regionalization of Purkinje cell efferents and reveals their contribution to behavior control as well as their function in controlling lateralized behavioral output. Our findings reveal how brain compartments serve to fulfill a multitude of functions by dedicating specialized efferent circuits to distinct behavioral tasks. PMID:25002482

Matsui, Hideaki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Babaryka, Andreas; Köster, Reinhard W.



Considerations when investigating lncRNA function in vivo.  


Although a small number of the vast array of animal long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have known effects on cellular processes examined in vitro, the extent of their contributions to normal cell processes throughout development, differentiation and disease for the most part remains less clear. Phenotypes arising from deletion of an entire genomic locus cannot be unequivocally attributed either to the loss of the lncRNA per se or to the associated loss of other overlapping DNA regulatory elements. The distinction between cis- or trans-effects is also often problematic. We discuss the advantages and challenges associated with the current techniques for studying the in vivo function of lncRNAs in the light of different models of lncRNA molecular mechanism, and reflect on the design of experiments to mutate lncRNA loci. These considerations should assist in the further investigation of these transcriptional products of the genome. PMID:25124674

Bassett, Andrew R; Akhtar, Asifa; Barlow, Denise P; Bird, Adrian P; Brockdorff, Neil; Duboule, Denis; Ephrussi, Anne; Ferguson-Smith, Anne C; Gingeras, Thomas R; Haerty, Wilfried; Higgs, Douglas R; Miska, Eric A; Ponting, Chris P



High-throughput Analysis of in vivo Protein Stability Technological Innovation and Resources  

E-print Network

The regulation of protein stability is critical for cells to maintain the proper functioning of almost every the components in proteolytic pathways that affect protein turnover and to understand the consequencesHigh-throughput Analysis of in vivo Protein Stability 1 Technological Innovation

Dunham, Maitreya



E-print Network

??ABSTRACT POLYMERSOMES: MULTI-FUNCTIONAL TOOLS FOR IN VIVO CANCER THERANOSTIC APPLICATIONS Dalia Hope Levine Dr. Daniel A. Hammer Nanoparticles are currently being developed as delivery vehicles… (more)

Levine, Dalia H



Homeostasis and function of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in vivo: lessons from TCR-transgenic Tregs  

PubMed Central

The identification of CD25 and subsequently Forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3) as markers for regulatory T cells (Tregs) has revolutionized our ability to explore this population experimentally. In a similar vein, our understanding of antigen-specific Treg responses in vivo owes much to the fortuitous generation of T-cell receptor (TCR)-transgenic Tregs. This has permitted tracking of Tregs with a defined specificity in vivo, facilitating analysis of how encounter with cognate antigen shapes Treg homeostasis and function. Here, we review the key lessons learned from a decade of analysis of TCR-transgenic Tregs and set this in the broader context of general progress in the field. Use of TCR-transgenic Tregs has led to an appreciation that Tregs are a highly dynamic proliferative population in vivo, rather than an anergic population as they were initially portrayed. It is now clear that Treg homeostasis is positively regulated by encounter with self-antigen expressed on peripheral tissues, which is likely to be relevant to the phenomenon of peripheral repertoire reshaping that has been described for Tregs and the observation that the Treg TCR specificities vary by anatomical location. Substantial evidence has also accumulated to support the role of CD28 costimulation and interleukin-2 in Treg homeostasis. The availability of TCR-transgenic Tregs has enabled analysis of Treg populations that are sufficient or deficient in particular genes, without the comparison being confounded by repertoire alterations. This approach has yielded insights into genes required for Treg function in vivo, with particular progress being made on the role of ctla-4 in this context. As the prospect of manipulating Treg populations in the clinic becomes reality, a full appreciation of the rules governing their homeostasis will prove increasingly important. PMID:24712457

Attridge, Kesley; Walker, Lucy S K



In vivo quantitative analysis of scoliotic vertebrae.  


An in vivo method based on CT images and finite element meshing had been developed to quantify and visualize the bone density distribution of scoliotic vertebrae. CT examination (axial acquisition of the apical, superior and inferior adjacent vertebral bodies) had been performed on seven girls presenting an idiopathic scoliosis. Using an in-house image processing software and the pre-post processor Patran, a surfacic finite element mesh of each body slice was proposed allowing an automatic mapping of the cancellous bone slices and a volumic mesh for the bone density distribution visualization. In the coronal plane, compared to the body geometrical centre, the body mechanical centre was shifted forward in the concavity of the curvature for six patients and in the convexity for one patient. For each patient, this shift forward was made in a same way for the three vertebrae. In the sagittal plane, the body mechanical inertia centre was shifted forward in the posterior side for 12 vertebrae, in the anterior side for 3 vertebrae and was not shifted forward for 6 vertebrae. This shift forward was made in the anterior side for the inferior adjacent vertebra. The shift forward by slice was made in a same way for each slice, excepted at the end plates. Besides, one can observe that the scoliotic deformation evolution seemed to modify the mechanical property distribution. The results may also suggest predictive criteria of evolution of the scoliotic deformities. PMID:15456072

Perie, D; De Gauzy, J Sales; Baunin, C; Hobatho, M C



Considerations when investigating lncRNA function in vivo  

PubMed Central

Although a small number of the vast array of animal long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have known effects on cellular processes examined in vitro, the extent of their contributions to normal cell processes throughout development, differentiation and disease for the most part remains less clear. Phenotypes arising from deletion of an entire genomic locus cannot be unequivocally attributed either to the loss of the lncRNA per se or to the associated loss of other overlapping DNA regulatory elements. The distinction between cis- or trans-effects is also often problematic. We discuss the advantages and challenges associated with the current techniques for studying the in vivo function of lncRNAs in the light of different models of lncRNA molecular mechanism, and reflect on the design of experiments to mutate lncRNA loci. These considerations should assist in the further investigation of these transcriptional products of the genome. DOI: PMID:25124674

Bassett, Andrew R; Akhtar, Asifa; Barlow, Denise P; Bird, Adrian P; Brockdorff, Neil; Duboule, Denis; Ephrussi, Anne; Ferguson-Smith, Anne C; Gingeras, Thomas R; Haerty, Wilfried; Higgs, Douglas R; Miska, Eric A; Ponting, Chris P



The ex vivo function and expression of function-associated antigens of peripheral blood neutrophils and monocytes.  


The availability of recombinant human granulocyte and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors (rhG-CSF and rhGM-CSF) has prompted many studies of the analysis of antigen expression and function of monocytes and neutrophils from patients receiving these factors as therapeutic agents. Preparatory procedures for leukocytes are known to alter antigen expression and so function. We therefore investigated the use of a novel procedure in which live leukocytes are analyzed by flow cytometry without isolation from blood. The expression levels of CD11b, CD13, CD14, CD16, and CD18 antigens and L-selectin (TQ1 and Leu-8 epitopes) on neutrophils and monocytes from 15 normal individuals were determined and compared with a previously used method in which the leukocytes were fixed and the erythrocytes lysed before analysis. Significant differences for the apparent expression of CD11b, CD18, and L-selectin were observed between the two methods. The reasons for this were investigated. Since the new method allowed analysis of live cells, we also investigated whether modulation of antigen expression could be determined following receptor agonist interaction. This was found to be easily achievable, and we advocate using the new procedure where possible for the ex vivo analysis of function and function-associated antigens on monocytes and neutrophils. PMID:7522183

Macey, M G; McCarthy, D A; Newland, A C



Proteomics meets genetics: SILAC labeling of Drosophila melanogaster larvae and cells for in vivo functional studies.  


Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) is an established and potent method for quantitative proteomics. When combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) and efficient algorithms for the analysis of quantitative MS data, SILAC has proven to be the strategy of choice for the in-depth characterization of functional states at the protein level. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most widely used model systems for studies of genetics and developmental biology. Despite this, a global proteomic approach in Drosophila is rarely considered. Here, we describe an adaptation of SILAC for functional investigation of fruit flies by proteomics: We illustrate how to perform efficient SILAC labeling of cells in culture and whole fly larvae. The combination of SILAC, a highly accurate global protein quantification method, and of the fruit fly, the prime genetics and developmental model, represents a unique opportunity for quantitative proteomic studies in vivo. PMID:25059620

Cuomo, Alessandro; Sanfilippo, Roberta; Vaccari, Thomas; Bonaldi, Tiziana



FRATS: Functional Regression Analysis of DTI Tract Statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides important information on the structure of white matter fiber bundles as well as detailed tissue properties along these fiber bundles in vivo. This paper presents a functional regression framework, called FRATS, for the analysis of multiple diffusion properties along fiber bundle as functions in an infinite dimensional space and their association with a set of

Hongtu Zhu; Martin Styner; Niansheng Tang; Zhexing Liu; Weili Lin; John H. Gilmore



In vitro gene regulatory networks predict in vivo function of liver  

PubMed Central

Background Evolution of toxicity testing is predicated upon using in vitro cell based systems to rapidly screen and predict how a chemical might cause toxicity to an organ in vivo. However, the degree to which we can extend in vitro results to in vivo activity and possible mechanisms of action remains to be fully addressed. Results Here we use the nitroaromatic 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) as a model chemical to compare and determine how we might extrapolate from in vitro data to in vivo effects. We found 341 transcripts differentially expressed in common among in vitro and in vivo assays in response to TNT. The major functional term corresponding to these transcripts was cell cycle. Similarly modulated common pathways were identified between in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we uncovered the conserved common transcriptional gene regulatory networks between in vitro and in vivo cellular liver systems that responded to TNT exposure, which mainly contain 2 subnetwork modules: PTTG1 and PIR centered networks. Interestingly, all 7 genes in the PTTG1 module were involved in cell cycle and downregulated by TNT both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions The results of our investigation of TNT effects on gene expression in liver suggest that gene regulatory networks obtained from an in vitro system can predict in vivo function and mechanisms. Inhibiting PTTG1 and its targeted cell cyle related genes could be key machanism for TNT induced liver toxicity. PMID:21073692



Function Point Analysis Depot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Function Point Analysis (FPA) Depot is a web application originally designed by one of the NE-C3 branch's engineers, Jamie Szafran, and created specifically for the Software Development team of the Launch Control Systems (LCS) project. The application consists of evaluating the work of each developer to be able to get a real estimate of the hours that is going to be assigned to a specific task of development. The Architect Team had made design change requests for the depot to change the schema of the application's information; that information, changed in the database, needed to be changed in the graphical user interface (GUI) (written in Ruby on Rails (RoR and the web service/server side in Java to match the database changes. These changes were made by two interns from NE-C, Ricardo Muniz from NE-C3, who made all the schema changes for the GUI in RoR and Edwin Martinez, from NE-C2, who made all the changes in the Java side.

Muniz, R.; Martinez, El; Szafran, J.; Dalton, A.



Understanding functional miRNA–target interactions in vivo by site-specific genome engineering  

PubMed Central

MicroRNA (miRNA) target recognition is largely dictated by short ‘seed’ sequences, and single miRNAs therefore have the potential to regulate a large number of genes. Understanding the contribution of specific miRNA–target interactions to the regulation of biological processes in vivo remains challenging. Here we use transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 technologies to interrogate the functional relevance of predicted miRNA response elements (MREs) to post-transcriptional silencing in zebrafish and Drosophila. We also demonstrate an effective strategy that uses CRISPR-mediated homology-directed repair with short oligonucleotide donors for the assessment of MRE activity in human cells. These methods facilitate analysis of the direct phenotypic consequences resulting from blocking specific miRNA–MRE interactions at any point during development. PMID:25135198

Bassett, Andrew R.; Azzam, Ghows; Wheatley, Lucy; Tibbit, Charlotte; Rajakumar, Timothy; McGowan, Simon; Stanger, Nathan; Ewels, Philip Andrew; Taylor, Stephen; Ponting, Chris P.; Liu, Ji-Long; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Fulga, Tudor A.



Mapping 3-D functional capillary geometry in rat skeletal muscle in vivo  

PubMed Central

We have developed a novel mapping software package to reconstruct microvascular networks in three dimensions (3-D) from in vivo video images for use in blood flow and O2 transport modeling. An intravital optical imaging system was used to collect video sequences of blood flow in microvessels at different depths in the tissue. Functional images of vessels were produced from the video sequences and were processed using automated edge tracking software to yield location and geometry data for construction of the 3-D network. The same video sequences were analyzed for hemodynamic and O2 saturation data from individual capillaries in the network. Simple user-driven commands allowed the connection of vessel segments at bifurcations, and semiautomated registration enabled the tracking of vessels across multiple focal planes and fields of view. The reconstructed networks can be rotated and manipulated in 3-D to verify vessel connections and continuity. Hemodynamic and O2 saturation measurements made in vivo can be indexed to corresponding vessels and visualized using colorized maps of the vascular geometry. Vessels in each reconstruction are saved as text-based files that can be easily imported into flow or O2 transport models with complete geometry, hemodynamic, and O2 transport conditions. The results of digital morphometric analysis of seven microvascular networks showed mean capillary diameters and overall capillary density consistent with previous findings using histology and corrosion cast techniques. The described mapping software is a valuable tool for the quantification of in vivo microvascular geometry, hemodynamics, and oxygenation, thus providing rich data sets for experiment-based computational models. PMID:22140042

Milkovich, Stephanie; Goldman, Daniel; Ellis, Christopher G.



Rat parotid cell function in vitro following x irradiation in vivo  

SciTech Connect

The effect of X irradiation on rat parotid acinar cell function was evaluated in vitro 1, 3, and 7 days following in vivo exposure to 2000 R. Several cellular functions were followed: protein secretion (amylase release), ion movement (K/sup +/ efflux and reuptake), amino acid transport (..cap alpha..-amino(/sup 14/C)isobutyric acid), and an intermediary metabolic response ((/sup 14/C)glucose oxidation). In addition both the morphologic appearance and in vivo saliva secretory ability of parotid cells were assessed. Our results demonstrate that surviving rat parotid acinar cells, isolated and studied in vitro 1-7 days following 2000 R, remain functionally intact despite in vivo diminution of secretory function.

Bodner, L.; Kuyatt, B.L.; Hand, A.R.; Baum, B.J.



Development of functional in vivo imaging of cerebral lenticulostriate artery using novel synchrotron radiation angiography.  


The lenticulostriate artery plays a vital role in the onset and development of cerebral ischemia. However, current imaging techniques cannot assess the in vivo functioning of small arteries such as the lenticulostriate artery in the brain of rats. Here, we report a novel method to achieve a high resolution multi-functional imaging of the cerebrovascular system using synchrotron radiation angiography, which is based on spatio-temporal analysis of contrast density in the arterial cross section. This method provides a unique tool for studying the sub-cortical vascular elasticity after cerebral ischemia in rats. Using this technique, we demonstrated that the vascular elasticity of the lenticulostriate artery decreased from day 1 to day 7 after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats and recovered from day 7 to day 28 compared to the controls (p < 0.001), which paralleled with brain edema formation and inversely correlated with blood flow velocity (p < 0.05). Our results demonstrated that the change of vascular elasticity was related to the levels of brain edema and the velocity of focal blood flow, suggesting that reducing brain edema is important for the improvement of the function of the lenticulostriate artery in the ischemic brain. PMID:25632958

Lin, Xiaojie; Miao, Peng; Mu, Zhihao; Jiang, Zhen; Lu, Yifan; Guan, Yongjing; Chen, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Tiqiao; Wang, Yongting; Yang, Guo-Yuan



In vivo Analysis of Choroid Plexus Morphogenesis in Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Background The choroid plexus (ChP), a component of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), produces the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and as a result plays a role in (i) protecting and nurturing the brain as well as (ii) in coordinating neuronal migration during neurodevelopment. Until now ChP development was not analyzed in living vertebrates due to technical problems. Methodology/Principal Findings We have analyzed the formation of the fourth ventricle ChP of zebrafish in the GFP-tagged enhancer trap transgenic line SqET33-E20 (Gateways) by a combination of in vivo imaging, histology and mutant analysis. This process includes the formation of the tela choroidea (TC), the recruitment of cells from rhombic lips and, finally, the coalescence of TC resulting in formation of ChP. In Notch-deficient mib mutants the first phase of this process is affected with premature GFP expression, deficient cell recruitment into TC and abnormal patterning of ChP. In Hedgehog-deficient smu mutants the second phase of the ChP morphogenesis lacks cell recruitment and TC cells undergo apoptosis. Conclusions/Significance This study is the first to demonstrate the formation of ChP in vivo revealing a role of Notch and Hedgehog signalling pathways during different developmental phases of this process. PMID:18769618

Fong, Steven H.; Ye, Zhang-Rui; Korzh, Vladimir



Transcriptomic analysis of neurulation and early organogenesis in rat embryos: an in vivo and ex vivo comparison.  


Cultured embryos mimic the morphological developmental progression of embryos (in vivo) undergoing neurulation and early organogenesis. Using available genomics technologies, comparative molecular-based assessments between cultured embryos and in vivo models may further clarify commonalities and dissimilarities, which contribute to differences between systems. Therefore, in this study, using a transcriptomic approach, we compared cultured whole rat embryos and embryos in vivo at comparable time points in development (gestational day (GD) 10 + 2-48 h, GD 0 = copulatory plug) to assess for commonalities and differences in gene expression in relation to morphology. We reveal strong parallels in time-dependent expression of genes in terms of magnitude, directionality, and functionality between whole embryo culture (WEC) and in vivo (rat). Genes changing in expression over time resemble previously hypothesized mechanisms underlying early development in mammalian systems. Furthermore, at the gene and functional level, we identify genes, which differ in expression between models, including genes related to development, oxygen transport, and metabolism. In summary, our results support the use of WEC for toxicological studies aimed at representing in vivo development during this time window at the molecular level. Additionally, we indicate genes, which differ in expression between models, providing possible insights for improvement of culture conditions. PMID:22262562

Robinson, Joshua F; Verhoef, Aart; Piersma, Aldert H



SAHA Enhances Synaptic Function and Plasticity In Vitro but Has Limited Brain Availability In Vivo and Does Not Impact Cognition  

PubMed Central

Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs) used for the treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) and under consideration for other indications. In vivo studies suggest reducing HDAC function can enhance synaptic function and memory, raising the possibility that SAHA treatment could have neurological benefits. We first examined the impacts of SAHA on synaptic function in vitro using rat organotypic hippocampal brain slices. Following several days of SAHA treatment, basal excitatory but not inhibitory synaptic function was enhanced. Presynaptic release probability and intrinsic neuronal excitability were unaffected suggesting SAHA treatment selectively enhanced postsynaptic excitatory function. In addition, long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory synapses was augmented, while long-term depression (LTD) was impaired in SAHA treated slices. Despite the in vitro synaptic enhancements, in vivo SAHA treatment did not rescue memory deficits in the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Along with the lack of behavioral impact, pharmacokinetic analysis indicated poor brain availability of SAHA. Broader assessment of in vivo SAHA treatment using high-content phenotypic characterization of C57Bl6 mice failed to demonstrate significant behavioral effects of up to 150 mg/kg SAHA following either acute or chronic injections. Potentially explaining the low brain exposure and lack of behavioral impacts, SAHA was found to be a substrate of the blood brain barrier (BBB) efflux transporters Pgp and Bcrp1. Thus while our in vitro data show that HDAC inhibition can enhance excitatory synaptic strength and potentiation, our in vivo data suggests limited brain availability may contribute to the lack of behavioral impact of SAHA following peripheral delivery. These results do not predict CNS effects of SAHA during clinical use and also emphasize the importance of analyzing brain drug levels when interpreting preclinical behavioral pharmacology. PMID:23922875

Hanson, Jesse E.; La, Hank; Plise, Emile; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Ding, Xiao; Hanania, Taleen; Sabath, Emily V.; Alexandrov, Vadim; Brunner, Dani; Leahy, Emer; Steiner, Pascal; Liu, Lichuan; Scearce-Levie, Kimberly; Zhou, Qiang



Superantigen-reactive T cells that display an anergic phenotype in vitro appear functional in vivo.  


Clonal deletion and/or inactivation establishes tolerance to self antigens. Endogenous and exogenous (bacterial) superantigens, like the staphylococcal enterotoxins, induce ligand-specific clonal anergy in vivo and thus are believed to mirror aspects of post-thymic tolerance mechanisms in mature peripheral T cells. Here we analyzed the level of anergy of ligand-responsive V beta 8+ T cells from staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB)-primed mice in vivo and in vitro. Upon in vitro restimulation with SEB, CD4+V beta 8+ and CD8+V beta 8+ T cells failed to produce IL-2. However, functional IL-2 receptors were triggered, since supplementation with IL-2 induced clonal growth in virtually all CD4+V beta 8+ and CD8+V beta 8+ T cells as determined by limiting dilution analyses. Thus in vitro unresponsiveness of lymphocytes from SEB-primed mice reflects the inability of SEB-reactive V beta 8+ T cells to produce IL-2. Surprisingly, anergy as defined in vitro was at variance with that in vivo. Following further challenge with SEB, systemic and acute lymphokine production (including IL-2 and tumor necrosis factor) occurred with almost identical peak values and kinetics to primary in vivo responses, and D-galactosamine-sensitized mice succumbed to lethal shock. Polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that CD4+V beta 8+ expressed IL-2-specific mRNA in vivo upon restimulation with SEB. While lymphokine production and expression of the IL-2 receptor was similar to the response to in vivo primary stimulation, only CD8+V beta 8+ T cells expanded clonally upon reintroduction of SEB in vivo. Hence primed V beta 8+ T cells challenged with SEB display in vitro anergy yet in vivo responsiveness, at least in part. We conclude that the state of anergy is reversible, dependent upon the quality of activation signals provided in in vivo rather than in in vitro culture conditions. PMID:7718507

Heeg, K; Gaus, H; Griese, D; Bendigs, S; Miethke, T; Wagner, H



Inflammation modulates human HDL composition and function in vivo  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Inflammation may directly impair HDL functions, in particular reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), but limited data support this concept in humans. Our study was designed to investigate this relationship. We employed low-dose human endotoxemia to assess the effects of inflammation on HDL and RCT-rel...


Effect of Processing and Storage on RBC function in vivo  

PubMed Central

Red Blood Cell (RBC) transfusion is indicated to improve oxygen delivery to tissue, and for no other purpose. We have come to appreciate that donor RBCs are fundamentally altered during processing and storage, in a fashion that both impairs oxygen transport efficacy and introduces additional risk by perturbing both immune and coagulation systems. The protean biophysical and physiologic changes in RBC function arising from storage are termed the ‘storage lesion’; many have been understood for some time; for example, we know that the oxygen affinity of stored blood rises during the storage period1 and that intracellular allosteric regulators, notably 2,3-bisphosphoglyceric acid (DPG) and ATP, are depleted during storage. Our appreciation of other storage lesion features has emerged with improved understanding of coagulation, immune and vascular signaling systems. Herein we review key features of the ‘storage lesion’. Additionally, we call particular attention to the newly appreciated role of RBCs in regulating linkage between regional blood flow and regional O2 consumption by regulating the bioavailability of key vasoactive mediators in plasma, as well as discuss how processing and storage disturbs this key signaling function and impairs transfusion efficacy. PMID:22818545

Doctor, Allan; Spinella, Phil



In vivo neuronal function of the fragile X mental retardation protein is regulated by phosphorylation  

E-print Network

In vivo neuronal function of the fragile X mental retardation protein is regulated November 7, 2011 Fragile X syndrome (FXS), caused by loss of the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) gene,7). The X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder is caused by the loss of fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1

Broadie, Kendal S.


In vivo evidence of the targeting of cartilaginous tissue by pyridinium functionalized nanoparticles.  


Ultrasmall gadolinium based particles have been functionalized with positively charged pyridinium quaternary ammonium and labelled with (111)In. Evidence of their active targeting properties towards proteoglycans has been demonstrated in vivo after intravenous injection into rats opening thus a route to cancer imaging and therapy. PMID:23467614

Morlieras, Jessica; Chezal, Jean-Michel; Miot-Noirault, Elizabeth; Vidal, Aurélien; Besse, Sophie; Kryza, David; Truillet, Charles; Mignot, Anna; Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe; Redini, Françoise; Sancey, Lucie; Lux, François; Perriat, Pascal; Janier, Marc; Tillement, Olivier




EPA Science Inventory

EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) ON EX VIVO LUTEAL FUNCTION IN THE PREGNANT F344 RAT. S. R. Bielmeier1, A. S. Murr2, D. S. Best2, J. M. Goldman2, and M. G. Narotsky2 1 Curriculum in Toxicology, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA 2 Reproductive T...



EPA Science Inventory

Effects of Bromodichloromethane (BDCM) on Ex Vivo Luteal Function In the Pregnant F344 Rat Susan R. Bielmeier1, Ashley S. Murr2, Deborah S. Best2, Jerome M. Goldman2, and Michael G. Narotsky2 1Curriculum in Toxicology, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599,...



EPA Science Inventory

EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) ON EX VIVO LUTEAL FUNCTION IN THE PREGNANT F344 RAT. S. R. Bielmeier1, A. S. Murr2, D. S. Best2, J. M. Goldman2, and M. G. Narotsky2 1 Curriculum in Toxicology, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA 2 Reproductive T...


Effects of ACL Reconstruction on In-Vivo, Dynamic Knee Function  

PubMed Central

Synopsis The purposes of this article are to discuss key factors for assessing joint function, to present some recent findings and to address the future directions for evaluating the function of the ACL-injured/reconstructed knees. Well-designed studies, using state-of-the art tools to assess knee kinematics under in vivo, dynamic, high-loading conditions, are necessary to evaluate the relative performance of different procedures for restoring normal joint motion. PMID:23177461

Tashman, Scott; Araki, Daisuke



Quantifying long-term microelectrode array functionality using chronic in vivo impedance testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term acquisition of high-quality neural recordings is a cornerstone of neuroprosthetic system design. Mitigating the experimental variability of chronically implanted arrays has been a formidable task because the sensor recording sites can be influenced by biotic and abiotic responses. Several studies have implicated changes in electrical interface impedance as a preliminary marker to infer electrode viability. Microelectrode impedance plays an important role in the monitoring of low amplitude and high-resolution extracellular neural signals. In this work, we seek to quantify long-term microelectrode array functionality and derive an impedance-based predictor for electrode functionality that correlates the recording site electrical properties with the functional neuronal recordings in vivo. High temporal resolution metrics of this type would allow one to assess, predict, and improve electrode performance in the future. In a large cohort of animals, we performed daily impedance measurements and neural signal recordings over long periods (up to 21 weeks) of time in rats using tungsten microwire arrays implanted into the somatosensory cortex. This study revealed that there was a time-varying trend in the modulation of impedance that was related to electrode performance. Single units were best detected from electrodes at time points when the electrode entered into the 40-150 K? impedance range. This impedance trend was modeled across the full cohort of animals to predict future electrode performance. The model was tested on data from all animals and was able to provide predictions of electrode performance chronically. Insight from this study can be combined with knowledge of electrode materials and histological analysis to provide a more comprehensive predictive model of electrode failure in the future.

Prasad, Abhishek; Sanchez, Justin C.



Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Ribosome Assembly and Turnover In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Although high-resolution structures of the ribosome have been solved in a series of functional states, relatively little is known about how the ribosome assembles, particularly in vivo. Here, a general method is presented for studying the dynamics of ribosome assembly and ribosomal assembly intermediates. Since significant quantities of assembly intermediates are not present under normal growth conditions, the antibiotic neomycin is used to perturb wild type E. coli. Treatment of E. coli with the antibiotic neomycin results in the accumulation of a continuum of assembly intermediates for both the 30S and 50S subunits. The protein composition and the protein stoichiometry of these intermediates were determined by quantitative mass spectrometry using purified unlabeled and 15N-labeled wild type ribosomes as external standards. The intermediates throughout the continuum are heterogeneous and are largely depleted of late-binding proteins. Pulse labeling with 15N-labeled medium timestamps the ribosomal proteins based on their time of synthesis. The assembly intermediates contain both newly synthesized proteins and proteins that originated in previously synthesized intact subunits. This observation requires either a significant amount of ribosome degradation, or the exchange or reuse of ribosomal proteins. These specific methods can be applied to any system where ribosomal assembly intermediates accumulate, including strains with deletions or mutations of assembly factors. This general approach can be applied to study the dynamics of assembly and turnover of other macromolecular complexes that can be isolated from cells. PMID:20709079

Sykes, Michael T.; Shajani, Zahra; Sperling, Edit; Beck, Andrea H.; Williamson, James R.



Defining Uremic Arterial Functional Abnormalities in Patients Recently Started on Haemodialysis: Combined In Vivo and Ex Vivo Assessment  

PubMed Central

Endothelial dysfunction is a key initiating event in vascular disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and haemodialysis (HD) patients exhibit significant vascular abnormalities. To understand this further, we examined how ex vivo intrinsic function in isolated arteries correlates with in vivo assessments of cardiovascular status in HD patients. Abdominal fat biopsies were obtained from 11 HD patients and 26 non-uremic controls. Subcutaneous arteries were dissected and mounted on a wire myograph, and cumulative concentration-response curves to noradrenalin, endothelin-1, a thromboxane A2 agonist (U46619), angiotensin II, vasopressin, bradykinin (BK), acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were constructed. Pulse wave velocity and blood pressure were measured in HD patients. Enhanced (P<0.05?0.0001) maximal contractile responses (Rmax) to all spasmogens (particularly vasopressin) were observed in arteries from HD patients compared to controls, and this effect was more pronounced in arteries with an internal diameter>600 µm. The potency (pEC50) of U46619 (P<0.01) and vasopressin (P<0.001) was also increased in arteries>600 µm of HD patients. The maximal relaxant response to the endothelium-dependent dilators ACh and BK were lower in HD patients (P<0.01-P<0.0001) (worse for ACh than BK); however the endothelium-independent dilator SNP was similar in both groups. PWV was significantly correlated with the vasoconstrictor response to vasopressin (P?=?0.042) in HD patients. HD patients are primed for hypertension and end organ demand ischaemia by a highly sensitised pressor response. The failure of arterial relaxation is mediated by endothelial dysfunction. Intrinsic vascular abnormalities may be important in sensitising HD patients to recurrent cumulative ischaemic end organ injury. PMID:25546407

Abushufa, Adil M.; Eldehni, Mohamed T.; Odudu, Aghogho; Evans, Philip D.; O?Sullivan, Saoirse E.; McIntyre, Chris W.



Morphological analysis of quiescent and activated keratocytes: a review of ex vivo and in vivo findings.  


Abstract Keratocytes are specialized, neural crest-derived mesenchymal cells occupying approximately 3% of the corneal stromal volume. They reside between the collagen lamellae and are responsible for the secretion of extracellular matrix macromolecules, thus contributing to the corneal transparency and integrity. During the regeneration process after infection, traumata and refractive surgery, the keratocytes undergo transition into divergent phenotypes, which are referred to as "activated keratocytes". Quite shortly after injury, the keratocytes lose their quiescence, enter into the cell cycle and migrate toward the site of injury. In certain types of injury, which affect the integrity of basement membrane, activated keratocytes also participate in wound closure by production of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA). Since the activated keratocytes are the major cell type contributing to tissue repair during corneal wound healing, their morphological and biochemical properties have been studied in details in experimental studies using light and electron microscopy. More recently, emerging of in vivo microscopy techniques has opened new possibilities to investigate cornea in vivo. The non-invasive nature of this imaging modality enables repeated examination of the same tissue over time and is an ideal tool to rapidly and accurately investigate corneal wound healing. However, the in vivo data on activated keratocytes are not as uniform as data from experimental ex vivo studies. There is still inconsistency in the literature findings on activated phenotypes, and often the described morphologies cannot be appreciated in in vivo images. In this article, a literature review was performed in order to interpret the morphology of different activated phenotypes, based on biological processes underlying the morphological alterations. PMID:24749788

Hovakimyan, Marina; Falke, Karen; Stahnke, Thomas; Guthoff, Rudolf; Witt, Martin; Wree, Andreas; Stachs, Oliver



How Much In Vitro Cholesterol Reducing Activity of Lactobacilli Predicts Their In Vivo Cholesterol Function?  

PubMed Central

Background: Based on literature, in vitro cholesterol removal of lactic acid bacteria has been accounted for their in vivo cholesterol reduction. But recently it has been proposed that such in vitro characteristic may not be directly relevant to their in vivo activity. The objective of this study was to find how much in vitro cholesterol reducing potential of Lactobacillus plantarum A7 (LA7), a native strain isolated from an infant fecal flora, reflects its in vivo efficiency. LA7 previously showed serum cholesterol reducing capability in mice subjected to fatty diet. Here, we investigate whether the given strain is capable of in vitro cholesterol assimilation or consumption. Method: LA7 was cultured in whole milk and de-Man–Rogosa–Sharpe (MRS) added with water-soluble cholesterol. Colorimetric method was adopted for cholesterol determination in both cultured media during incubation period. Results: No cholesterol assimilation was detected by growth and incubation of the active culture in either of the medium. Thus, in vivo cholesterol function of LA7 was not caused by cholesterol consumption. A comprehensive review of literature on the related studies also showed that there are other documented studies which evidenced the uncertainty of the direct relation between in vitro and in vivo studies. Conclusion: Cholesterol removal from the cultured media may not be considered as an appropriate integral index for selection of Lactobacillus strains with cholesterol-lowering activity. PMID:23671771

Madani, Golnoush; Mirlohi, Maryam; Yahay, Mahmoud; Hassanzadeh, Akbar



Functional analysis in applied psychology.  


Various clinical problems in recent years have been described under the general heading of 'functional analyses'. The present paper considers the background to the notion of a functional analysis and some of the differences between functional analysis and more traditional approaches. The processes involved in producing such analyses of the origin and maintenance of clinical problems are outlined, using a clinical case as an illustration. It is suggested that, amongst the features highlighted by such analyses, feedback loops will often be apparent, and that these may provide particularly valuable targets for intervention. Moreover it appears that the use of such analyses transcends, at least to some extent, the type of problem or client (in being applicable to institutional or individual problems) and in particular that the use of functional analyses transcends theoretical biases of the clinician. In this respect it provides a potential common ground for workers of different orientations. PMID:7126931

Owens, R G; Ashcroft, J B



Increased in vivo stability and functional lifetime of an implantable glucose sensor through platinum catalysis.  


Understanding and improving in vivo materials related to signal stability and preservation for active chemical sensor and biosensor transduction systems is critical in achieving implantable medical sensors for long-term in vivo applications. During human in vivo clinical testing of an implantable glucose sensor based on a glucose sensitive hydrogel, post-explant analysis showed that the boronate recognition element had been oxidized from the fluorescent indicator, causing a rapid loss of signal within hours after implant. Additional wet-bench analytical evidence and reproduction in vitro suggests reactive oxygen species, particularly hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), stemming from natural inflammatory response to the material, to be the cause of the observed oxidative de-boronation. A 3-nm thick deposition of metallic platinum (Pt) placed by plasma sputtering onto the porous surface of the hydrogel, showed immediate protection from sensor signal loss due to oxidation both in vitro and in vivo, greatly extending the useful lifetime of the implantable glucose sensor from 1 day to an expected ?6 months. This finding may represent a new strategy to protect an implanted material and/or device from in vivo oxidative damage, leading to much improved overall stability and reliability for long-term applications. PMID:23071075

Colvin, Arthur E; Jiang, Hui



Ex vivo lung function measurements in precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) from chemical allergen-sensitized mice represent a suitable alternative to in vivo studies.  


A wide range of industrial chemicals can induce respiratory allergic reactions. Hence, there is an urgent need for methods identifying and characterizing the biological action of chemicals in the lung. Here, we present an easy, reliable alternative method to measure lung function changes ex vivo after exposure to chemical allergens and compare this to invasive in vivo measurements after sensitization with the industrial chemicals trimellitic anhydride (TMA) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). Female BALB/c mice were sensitized epicutaneously with the respiratory allergen TMA and the contact sensitizer DNCB. The early allergic response to TMA and DNCB was registered in vivo and ex vivo on day 21 after inhalational challenge with dry standardized aerosols or after exposure of precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) to dissolved allergen. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to increasing doses of methacholine (MCh) was measured on the next day in vivo and ex vivo. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed for immunological characterization of local inflammation. TMA-sensitized mice showed AHR to MCh in vivo (ED(50): 0.06 microg MCh vs. 0.21 microg MCh in controls) and in PCLS (EC(50): 0.24 microM MCh vs. 0.4 microM MCh). TMA-treated animals showed increased numbers of eosinophils (12.8 x 10(4) vs. 0.7 x 10(4)) and elevated eotaxin-2 concentrations (994 pg/ml vs. 167 pg/ml) in BAL fluid 24 h after allergen challenge. In contrast, none of these parameters differed after sensitization with DNCB. The present study suggests that the effects of low molecular weight allergens, like TMA and DNCB, on ex vivo lung functions tested in PCLS reflect the in vivo situation. PMID:18775882

Henjakovic, M; Martin, C; Hoymann, H G; Sewald, K; Ressmeyer, A R; Dassow, C; Pohlmann, G; Krug, N; Uhlig, S; Braun, A



Functionalized gold nanoparticles: a detailed in vivo multimodal microscopic brain distribution study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, the in vivo distribution of polyelectrolyte multilayer coated gold nanoparticles is shown, starting from the living animal down to cellular level. The coating was designed with functional moieties to serve as a potential nano drug for prion disease. With near infrared time-domain imaging we followed the biodistribution in mice up to 7 days after intravenous injection of the nanoparticles. The peak concentration in the head of mice was detected between 19 and 24 h. The precise particle distribution in the brain was studied ex vivo by X-ray microtomography, confocal laser and fluorescence microscopy. We found that the particles mainly accumulate in the hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, and the cerebral cortex.In the present study, the in vivo distribution of polyelectrolyte multilayer coated gold nanoparticles is shown, starting from the living animal down to cellular level. The coating was designed with functional moieties to serve as a potential nano drug for prion disease. With near infrared time-domain imaging we followed the biodistribution in mice up to 7 days after intravenous injection of the nanoparticles. The peak concentration in the head of mice was detected between 19 and 24 h. The precise particle distribution in the brain was studied ex vivo by X-ray microtomography, confocal laser and fluorescence microscopy. We found that the particles mainly accumulate in the hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, and the cerebral cortex. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1-S6. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00345j

Sousa, Fernanda; Mandal, Subhra; Garrovo, Chiara; Astolfo, Alberto; Bonifacio, Alois; Latawiec, Diane; Menk, Ralf Hendrik; Arfelli, Fulvia; Huewel, Sabine; Legname, Giuseppe; Galla, Hans-Joachim; Krol, Silke



In Vivo Function of Tryptophans in the Arabidopsis UV-B Photoreceptor UVR8[W  

PubMed Central

Arabidopsis thaliana UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) is a photoreceptor specifically for UV-B light that initiates photomorphogenic responses in plants. UV-B exposure causes rapid conversion of UVR8 from dimer to monomer, accumulation in the nucleus, and interaction with CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1), which functions with UVR8 in UV-B responses. Studies in yeast and with purified UVR8 implicate several tryptophan amino acids in UV-B photoreception. However, their roles in UV-B responses in plants, and the functional significance of all 14 UVR8 tryptophans, are not known. Here we report the functions of the UVR8 tryptophans in vivo. Three tryptophans in the ?-propeller core are important in maintaining structural stability and function of UVR8. However, mutation of three other core tryptophans and four at the dimeric interface has no apparent effect on function in vivo. Mutation of three tryptophans implicated in UV-B photoreception, W233, W285, and W337, impairs photomorphogenic responses to different extents. W285 is essential for UVR8 function in plants, whereas W233 is important but not essential for function, and W337 has a lesser role. Ala mutants of these tryptophans appear monomeric and constitutively bind COP1 in plants, but their responses indicate that monomer formation and COP1 binding are not sufficient for UVR8 function. PMID:23012433

O’Hara, Andrew; Jenkins, Gareth I.



In vivo analysis of cohesin architecture using FRET in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

E-print Network

EMBO open In vivo analysis of cohesin architecture using FRET in the budding yeast Saccharomyces resonance energy transfer (FRET) to analyse inter- actions within the cohesin complex in live budding yeast chromosomes. Using FRET, we did not observe interactions between more than one cohesin com- plex in vivo

Davis, Trisha N.


Compound Ex Vivo and In Silico Method for Hemodynamic Analysis of Stented Arteries  

E-print Network

Compound Ex Vivo and In Silico Method for Hemodynamic Analysis of Stented Arteries Farhad Rikhtegar the coronary arteries of ex vivo porcine hearts, performed vascular corrosion casting, acquired the vessel in detail the stent geometry, arterial tissue prolapse, radial and axial arterial deformation as well

Daraio, Chiara


Analysis of Chlamydomonas thiamin metabolism in vivo reveals riboswitch plasticity.  


Thiamin (vitamin B1) is an essential micronutrient needed as a cofactor for many central metabolic enzymes. Animals must have thiamin in their diet, whereas bacteria, fungi, and plants can biosynthesize it de novo from the condensation of a thiazole and a pyrimidine moiety. Although the routes to biosynthesize these two heterocycles are not conserved in different organisms, in all cases exogenous thiamin represses expression of one or more of the biosynthetic pathway genes. One important mechanism for this control is via thiamin-pyrophosphate (TPP) riboswitches, regions of the mRNA to which TPP can bind directly, thus facilitating fine-tuning to maintain homeostasis. However, there is little information on how modulation of riboswitches affects thiamin metabolism in vivo. Here we use the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which regulates both thiazole and pyrimidine biosynthesis with riboswitches in the THI4 (Thiamin 4) and THIC (Thiamin C) genes, respectively, to investigate this question. Our study reveals that regulation of thiamin metabolism is not the simple dogma of negative feedback control. Specifically, balancing the provision of both of the heterocycles of TPP appears to be an important requirement. Furthermore, we show that the Chlamydomonas THIC riboswitch is controlled by hydroxymethylpyrimidine pyrophosphate, as well as TPP, but with an identical alternative splicing mechanism. Similarly, the THI4 gene is responsive to thiazole. The study not only provides insight into the plasticity of the TPP riboswitches but also shows that their maintenance is likely to be a consequence of evolutionary need as a function of the organisms' environment and the particular pathway used. PMID:23959877

Moulin, Michael; Nguyen, Ginnie T D T; Scaife, Mark A; Smith, Alison G; Fitzpatrick, Teresa B



Space station functional relationships analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A systems engineering process is developed to assist Space Station designers to understand the underlying operational system of the facility so that it can be physically arranged and configured to support crew productivity. The study analyzes the operational system proposed for the Space Station in terms of mission functions, crew activities, and functional relationships in order to develop a quantitative model for evaluation of interior layouts, configuration, and traffic analysis for any Station configuration. Development of the model involved identification of crew functions, required support equipment, criteria of assessing functional relationships, and tools for analyzing functional relationship matrices, as well as analyses of crew transition frequency, sequential dependencies, support equipment requirements, potential for noise interference, need for privacy, and overall compatability of functions. The model can be used for analyzing crew functions for the Initial Operating Capability of the Station and for detecting relationships among these functions. Note: This process (FRA) was used during Phase B design studies to test optional layouts of the Space Station habitat module. The process is now being automated as a computer model for use in layout testing of the Space Station laboratory modules during Phase C.

Tullis, Thomas S.; Bied, Barbra R.



Atypical Membrane Topology and Heteromeric Function of Drosophila Odorant Receptors In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drosophila olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) each express two odorant receptors (ORs): a divergent member of the OR family and the highly conserved, broadly expressed receptor OR83b. OR83b is essential for olfaction in vivo and enhances OR function in vitro, but the molecular mechanism by which it acts is unknown. Here we demonstrate that OR83b heterodimerizes with conventional ORs early in

Richard Benton; Silke Sachse; Stephen W. Michnick; Leslie B. Vosshall



GTP-binding proteins of the Rho/Rac family: regulation, effectors and functions in vivo  

PubMed Central

Summary Rho/Rac proteins constitute a subgroup of the Ras superfamily of GTP hydrolases. Although originally implicated in the control of cytoskeletal events, it is currently known that these GTPases coordinate diverse cellular functions, including cell polarity, vesicular trafficking, the cell cycle and transcriptomal dynamics. In this review, we will provide an overview on the recent advances in this field regarding the mechanism of regulation and signaling, and the roles in vivo of this important GTPase family. PMID:17373658

Bustelo, Xosé R.; Sauzeau, Vincent; Berenjeno, Inmaculada M.



Non-invasive in vivo imaging of pancreatic ?-cell function and survival – a perspective  

PubMed Central

A major problem in medical research is to translate in vitro observations into the living organism. In this perspective, we discuss ongoing efforts to non-invasively image pancreatic islets/?-cells by techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, and present an experimental platform, which allows in vivo imaging of pancreatic ?-cell mass and function longitudinally and at the single-cell level. Following transplantation of pancreatic islets into the anterior chamber of the eye of mice and rats, these islets are studied by functional microscopic imaging. This imaging platform can be utilized to address fundamental aspects of pancreatic islet cell biology in vivo in health and disease. These include the dynamics of pancreatic islet vascularization, islet cell innervation, signal-transduction, change in functional ?-cell mass and immune responses. Moreover, we discuss the feasibility of studying human islet cell physiology and pathology in vivo as well as the potential of using the anterior chamber of the eye as a site for therapeutic transplantation in type 1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:21477063

Leibiger, I. B.; Caicedo, A.; Berggren, P.-O.



Structural and Functional Dissection of the Abp1 ADFH Actin-binding Domain Reveals Versatile In Vivo Adapter Functions  

SciTech Connect

Abp1 is a multidomain protein that regulates the Arp2/3 complex and links proteins involved in endocytosis to the actin cytoskeleton. All of the proposed cellular functions of Abp1 involve actin filament binding, yet the actin binding site(s) on Abp1 have not been identified, nor has the importance of actin binding for Abp1 localization and function in vivo been tested. Here, we report the crystal structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Abp1 actin-binding actin depolymerizing factor homology (ADFH) domain and dissect its activities by mutagenesis. Abp1-ADFH domain and ADF/cofilin structures are similar, and they use conserved surfaces to bind actin; however, there are also key differences that help explain their differential effects on actin dynamics. Using point mutations, we demonstrate that actin binding is required for localization of Abp1 in vivo, the lethality caused by Abp1 overexpression, and the ability of Abp1 to activate Arp2/3 complex. Furthermore, we genetically uncouple ABP1 functions that overlap with SAC6, SLA1, and SLA2, showing they require distinct combinations of activities and interactions. Together, our data provide the first structural and functional view of the Abp1-actin interaction and show that Abp1 has distinct cellular roles as an adapter, linking different sets of ligands for each function.

Quintero-Monzon,O.; Rodal, A.; Strokopytov, B.; Almo, S.; Goode, B.



Texture analysis using Minkowski functionals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minkowski Functionals (MFs) are geometric measurements of 3D shapes, including volume, surface area, curvature and Euler number. MFs can be used as texture descriptors for medical image analysis in the segmentation of normal anatomy as well as in the detection/diagnosis of pathology. In this paper, we propose a method for fast computation of MFs based on integral images, which offers significantly improved accuracy and efficiency compared with previous works. In addition, MFs computed using our method are used in applications on image segmentation and pathology detection. Our experiment results clearly demonstrate the potential of MFs in such medical image analysis tasks.

Li, Xiaoxing; Mendonça, Paulo R. S.; Bhotika, Rahul



Functionalized near-infrared quantum dots for in vivo tumor vasculature imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report the use of near-infrared (NIR)-emitting alloyed quantum dots (QDs) as efficient optical probes for high contrast in vivo imaging of tumors. Alloyed CdTe1 - xSex/CdS QDs were prepared in the non-aqueous phase using the hot colloidal synthesis approach. Water dispersion of the QDs were accomplished by their encapsulation within polyethyleneglycol (PEG)-grafted phospholipid micelles. For tumor-specific delivery in vivo, the micelle-encapsulated QDs were conjugated with the cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (cRGD) peptide, which targets the ?v?3 integrins overexpressed in the angiogenic tumor vasculatures. Using in vivo NIR optical imaging of mice bearing pancreatic cancer xenografts, implanted both subcutaneously and orthotopically, we have demonstrated that systemically delivered cRGD-conjugated QDs, but not the unconjugated ones, can efficiently target and label the tumors with high signal-to-noise ratio. Histopathological analysis of major organs of the treated mice showed no evidence of systemic toxicity associated with these QDs. These experiments suggest that cRGD-conjugated NIR QDs can serve as safe and efficient probes for optical bioimaging of tumors in vivo. Furthermore, by co-encapsulating these QDs and anticancer drugs within these micelles, we have demonstrated a promising theranostic, nanosized platform for both cancer imaging and therapy.

Hu, Rui; Yong, Ken-Tye; Roy, Indrajit; Ding, Hong; Law, Wing-Cheung; Cai, Hongxing; Zhang, Xihe; Vathy, Lisa A.; Bergey, Earl J.; Prasad, Paras N.



Study of Brain Function and Bioenergetics using fMRI and In Vivo MRS at High Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The greatest merit of magnetic resonance (MR) methodology applied to medicine is its capabilities of measuring a variety of physiological parameters in vivo. MR imaging (MRI) with unique imaging contrasts can provide vital information which tightly links to brain functions at both normal and diseased states. In contrast, in vivo MR spectroscopy (MRS) is capable of determining metabolites, bioenergetics and

Wei Chen



Mapping functional domains of chloride intracellular channel (CLIC) proteins in vivo.  


Chloride intracellular channel (CLIC) proteins are small proteins distantly related to the omega family of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). CLIC proteins are expressed in a wide variety of tissues in multicellular organisms and are targeted to specific cellular membranes. Members of this family are capable in vitro of changing conformation from a globular, soluble state to a membrane-inserted state in which they provide chloride conductance. The structural basis for in vivo CLIC protein function, however, is not well understood. We have mapped the functional domains of CLIC family members using an in vivo assay for membrane localization and function of CLIC proteins in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. A<70 amino acid N-terminal domain is a key determinant of membrane localization and function of invertebrate CLIC proteins. This domain, which we term the ''PTM'' domain, named after an amphipathic putative transmembrane helix contained within it, directs distinct C. elegans CLIC homologs to distinct subcellular membranes. We find that within the PTM region, the cysteine residues required for GST-type activity are unnecessary for invertebrate CLIC function, but that specific residues within the proposed transmembrane helix are necessary for correct targeting and protein function. We find that among all tested invertebrate CLIC proteins, function appears to be completely conserved despite striking differences in the charged residues contained within the amphipathic helix. This indicates that these residues do not contribute to anion selectivity as previously suggested. We find that outside the PTM region, the remaining three-quarters of CLIC protein sequence is functionally equivalent not only among vertebrate and invertebrate CLIC proteins, but also among the more distantly related GST-omega and GST-sigma proteins. The PTM region thus provides both targeting information and CLIC functional specificity, possibly adapting GST-type proteins to function as ion channels. PMID:16737711

Berry, Katherine L; Hobert, Oliver



Noninvasive Assessment of Gene Transfer and Expression by In Vivo Functional and Morphologic Imaging in a Rabbit Tumor Model  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the importance of morphology in quantifying expression after in vivo gene transfer and to compare gene expression after intra-arterial (IA) and intra-tumoral (IT) delivery of adenovirus expressing a SSTR2-based reporter gene in a large animal tumor model. Materials and Methods Tumor directed IA or IT delivery of adenovirus containing a human somatostatin receptor type 2A (Ad-CMV-HA-SSTR2A) gene chimera or control adenovirus (Ad-CMV-GFP) was performed in VX2 tumors growing in both rabbit thighs. Three days later, 111In-octreotide was administered intravenously after CT imaging using a clinical scanner. 111In-octreotide uptake in tumors was evaluated the following day using a clinical gamma-camera. Gene expression was normalized to tumor weight with and without necrosis. This procedure was repeated on nine additional rabbits to investigate longitudinal gene expression both 5 days and 2 weeks after adenovirus delivery. CT images were used to evaluate tumor morphology and excised tissue samples were analyzed to determine 111In-octreotide biodistribution ex vivo. Results VX2 tumors infected with Ad-CMV-HA-SSTR2 had greater 111In-octreotide uptake than with control virus (P<0.05). Intra-arterial and intra-tumoral routes resulted in similar levels of gene expression. Longitudinally, expression appeared to wane at 2 weeks versus 5 days after delivery. Areas of necrosis did not demonstrate significant uptake ex vivo. Morphology identified areas of necrosis on contrast enhanced CT and upon excluding necrosis, in vivo biodistribution analysis resulted in greater percent injected dose per gram (P<0.01) and corresponded better with ex vivo biodistribution(r?=?0.72, P<0.01, Coefficient of the x-variable?=?.72) at 2 weeks than without excluding necrosis (P<0.01). Conclusion Tumor specificity and high transgene expression can be achieved in tumors via both tumor directed intra-arterial and intra-tumoral delivery in a large animal tumor model. Using clinical machines, morphologic imaging contributes to functional imaging for quantifying SSTR2-based reporter expression in vivo. PMID:23762226

Ravoori, Murali K.; Han, Lin; Singh, Sheela P.; Dixon, Katherine; Duggal, Jyoti; Liu, Ping; Uthamanthil, Rajesh; Gupta, Sanjay; Wright, Kenneth C.; Kundra, Vikas



In vivo cardiac anatomical and functional effects of wheel running in mice by magnetic resonance imaging.  


Physical activity is frequently used as a strategy to decrease pathogenesis and improve outcomes in chronic pathologies such as metabolic or cardiac diseases. In mice, it has been shown that voluntary wheel running (VWR) could induce an aerobic training effect and may provide a means of exploring the relationship between physical activity and the progression of pathology, or the effect of a drug on locomotor activity. To the best of our knowledge, in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and other non-invasive methods had not been investigated for training evaluation in mice; therefore, it was proposed to test an MRI method coupled with a cardiorespiratory gating system on C57Bl/6 mice for in vivo heart anatomical and functional characterization in both trained and untrained animals. Twenty mice were either assigned to a 12-week VWR program or to a control group (CON - no wheel in the cage). At week 12, MRI scans showed an increase in the left ventricular (LV) wall mass in the VWR group compared with the CON group. The ex vivo measurements also found an increase in the heart and LV weight, as well as an increase in oxidative enzyme activities (i.e. cytochrome c oxidase [COx] in the soleus). In addition, correlations have been observed between ex vivo LV/body weight ratio, COx activity in the soleus and in vivo MRI LV wall mass/body weight. In conclusion, mouse cardiac MRI methods coupled with a cardio-respiratory gating system are sufficiently effective and feasible for non-invasive, training-induced heart hypertrophy characterization, and may be used for longitudinal training level follow-up in mouse models of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. PMID:22328593

Aufradet, Emeline; Bessaad, Amine; Alsaid, Hasan; Schäfer, Florian; Sigovan, Monica; De Souza, Geneviève; Chirico, Erica; Martin, Cyril; Canet-Soulas, Emmanuelle



Environmentally persistent free radicals decrease cardiac function before and after ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo  

PubMed Central

Exposure to airborne particles is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. During the combustion of chlorine-containing hazardous materials and fuels, chlorinated hydrocarbons chemisorb to the surface of transition metal-oxide-containing particles, reduce the metal, and form an organic free radical. These radical-particle systems can survive in the environment for days and are called environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs). This study determined whether EPFRs could decrease left ventricular function before and after ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) in vivo. Male Brown Norway rats were dosed (8 mg/kg, i.t.) 24 hr prior to testing with particles containing the EPFR of 1, 2-dichlorobenzene (DCB230). DCB230 treatment decreased systolic and diastolic function. DCB230 also produced pulmonary and cardiac inflammation. After ischemia, systolic, but not diastolic function was significantly decreased in DCB230-treated rats. Ventricular function was not affected by I/R in control rats. There was greater oxidative stress in the heart and increased 8-isoprostane (biomarker of oxidative stress) in the plasma of treated vs control rats after I/R. These data demonstrate for the first time that DCB230 can produce inflammation and significantly decrease cardiac function at baseline and after I/R in vivo. Furthermore, these data suggest that EPFRs may be a risk factor for cardiac toxicity in healthy individuals and individuals with ischemic heart disease. Potential mechanisms involving cytokines/chemokines and/or oxidative stress are discussed. PMID:21385100

Lord, Kevin; Moll, David; Lindsey, John K.; Mahne, Sarah; Raman, Girija; Dugas, Tammy; Cormier, Stephania; Troxlair, Dana; Lomnicki, Slawo; Dellinger, Barry; Varner, Kurt



Structural determinants of Arabidopsis thaliana Hyponastic leaves 1 function in vivo.  


MicroRNAs have turned out to be important regulators of gene expression. These molecules originate from longer transcripts that are processed by ribonuclease III (RNAse III) enzymes. Dicer proteins are essential RNAse III enzymes that are involved in the generation of microRNAs (miRNAs) and other small RNAs. The correct function of Dicer relies on the participation of accessory dsRNA binding proteins, the exact function of which is not well-understood so far. In plants, the double stranded RNA binding protein Hyponastic Leaves 1 (HYL1) helps Dicer Like protein (DCL1) to achieve an efficient and precise excision of the miRNAs from their primary precursors. Here we dissected the regions of HYL1 that are essential for its function in Arabidopsis thaliana plant model. We generated mutant forms of the protein that retain their structure but affect its RNA-binding properties. The mutant versions of HYL1 were studied both in vitro and in vivo, and we were able to identify essential aminoacids/residues for its activity. Remarkably, mutation and even ablation of one of the purportedly main RNA binding determinants does not give rise to any major disturbances in the function of the protein. We studied the function of the mutant forms in vivo, establishing a direct correlation between affinity for the pri-miRNA precursors and protein activity. PMID:25409478

Burdisso, Paula; Milia, Fernando; Schapire, Arnaldo L; Bologna, Nicolás G; Palatnik, Javier F; Rasia, Rodolfo M



Structural Determinants of Arabidopsis thaliana Hyponastic Leaves 1 Function In Vivo  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs have turned out to be important regulators of gene expression. These molecules originate from longer transcripts that are processed by ribonuclease III (RNAse III) enzymes. Dicer proteins are essential RNAse III enzymes that are involved in the generation of microRNAs (miRNAs) and other small RNAs. The correct function of Dicer relies on the participation of accessory dsRNA binding proteins, the exact function of which is not well-understood so far. In plants, the double stranded RNA binding protein Hyponastic Leaves 1 (HYL1) helps Dicer Like protein (DCL1) to achieve an efficient and precise excision of the miRNAs from their primary precursors. Here we dissected the regions of HYL1 that are essential for its function in Arabidopsis thaliana plant model. We generated mutant forms of the protein that retain their structure but affect its RNA-binding properties. The mutant versions of HYL1 were studied both in vitro and in vivo, and we were able to identify essential aminoacids/residues for its activity. Remarkably, mutation and even ablation of one of the purportedly main RNA binding determinants does not give rise to any major disturbances in the function of the protein. We studied the function of the mutant forms in vivo, establishing a direct correlation between affinity for the pri-miRNA precursors and protein activity. PMID:25409478

Burdisso, Paula; Milia, Fernando; Schapire, Arnaldo L.; Bologna, Nicolás G.; Palatnik, Javier F.; Rasia, Rodolfo M.



Circumferential and functional re-entry of in-vivo slow wave activity in the porcine small intestine  

PubMed Central

Background Slow waves modulate the pattern of small intestine contractions. However, the large-scale spatial organization of intestinal slow wave pacesetting remains uncertain because most previous studies have had limited resolution. This study applied high-resolution (HR) mapping to evaluate intestinal pacesetting mechanisms and propagation patterns in-vivo. Methods HR serosal mapping was performed in anesthetized pigs using flexible arrays (256 electrodes; 32×8; 4 mm spacing), applied along the jejunum. Slow wave propagation patterns, frequencies, and velocities were calculated. Slow wave initiation sources were identified and analyzed by animation and isochronal activation mapping. Key Results Analysis comprised 32 recordings from nine pigs (mean duration 5.1±3.9 min). Slow wave propagation was analyzed, and a total of 26 sources of slow wave initiation were observed and classified as focal pacemakers (31%), sites of functional re-entry (23%) and circumferential re-entry (35%), or indeterminate sources (11%). The mean frequencies of circumferential and functional re-entry were similar (17.0±0.3 vs 17.2±0.4 cycle min?1; p=0.5), and greater than that of focal pacemakers (12.7±0.8 cycle min?1; p<0.001). Velocity was anisotropic (12.9±0.7 mm s?1 circumferential vs 9.0±0.7 mm s?1 longitudinal; p<0.05), contributing to the onset and maintenance of re-entry. Conclusions & Inferences This study has shown multiple patterns of slow wave initiation in the jejunum of anesthetized pigs. These results constitute the first description and analysis of circumferential re-entry in the gastrointestinal tract and functional re-entry in the in-vivo small intestine. Re-entry can control the direction, pattern, and frequency of slow wave propagation, and its occurrence and functional significance merit further investigation. PMID:23489929

Angeli, Timothy R.; O’Grady, Gregory; Du, Peng; Paskaranandavadivel, Niranchan; Bissett, Ian P; Cheng, Leo K



Quantitative FRAP in Analysis of Molecular Binding Dynamics In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) reveals the dynamics of fluorescently tagged molecules within live cells. These molecular dynamics are governed by diffusion of the molecule and its in vivo binding interactions. As a result, quantitative estimates of the association and dissociation rates of binding can be extracted from the FRAP. This chapter describes a systematic procedure to acquire the FRAP

James G. McNally



Analysis of the mutations inducedd by conazole fungicides in vivo  

EPA Science Inventory

The mouse liver tumorigenic conazo1e fungicides triadimefon and propiconazo1e have previously been shown to be in vivo mouse liver mutagens in the Big Blue" transgenic mutation assay when administered in feed at tumorigenic doses, whereas the nontumorigenic conazo1e myc1obutani1 ...


In vivo functional microangiography by visible-light optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

Although hemoglobin oxygen saturation (sO2) in the microvasculature is an essential physiological parameter of local tissue functions, non-invasive measurement of microvascular sO2 is still challenging. Here, we demonstrated that visible-light optical coherence tomography (vis-OCT) can simultaneously provide three-dimensional anatomical tissue morphology, visualize microvasculature at the capillary level, and measure sO2 from the microvasculature in vivo. We utilized speckle contrast caused by the moving blood cells to enhance microvascular imaging. We applied a series of short-time inverse Fourier transforms to obtain the spectroscopic profile of blood optical attenuation, from which we quantified sO2. We validated the sO2 measurement in mouse ears in vivo through hypoxia and hyperoxia challenges. We further demonstrated that vis-OCT can continuously monitor dynamic changes of microvascular sO2. PMID:25360376

Yi, Ji; Chen, Siyu; Backman, Vadim; Zhang, Hao F.



In vivo functional microangiography by visible-light optical coherence tomography.  


Although hemoglobin oxygen saturation (sO2) in the microvasculature is an essential physiological parameter of local tissue functions, non-invasive measurement of microvascular sO2 is still challenging. Here, we demonstrated that visible-light optical coherence tomography (vis-OCT) can simultaneously provide three-dimensional anatomical tissue morphology, visualize microvasculature at the capillary level, and measure sO2 from the microvasculature in vivo. We utilized speckle contrast caused by the moving blood cells to enhance microvascular imaging. We applied a series of short-time inverse Fourier transforms to obtain the spectroscopic profile of blood optical attenuation, from which we quantified sO2. We validated the sO2 measurement in mouse ears in vivo through hypoxia and hyperoxia challenges. We further demonstrated that vis-OCT can continuously monitor dynamic changes of microvascular sO2. PMID:25360376

Yi, Ji; Chen, Siyu; Backman, Vadim; Zhang, Hao F



Dynamic in vivo analysis of drug induced actin cytoskeleton degradation by digital holographic microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The actin cytoskeleton mediates a variety of crucial cellular functions as migration, intracellular transport, exocytosis, endocytosis and force generation. The highly dynamic actin fibers are therefore targets for several drugs and toxins. However the study of actin interfering processes by standard microscopy techniques fails in the detailed resolution of dynamic spatial alterations required for a deeper understanding of toxic effects. Here we applied digital holographic microscopy in the online functional analysis of the actin cytoskeleton disrupting marine toxin Latrunculin B. SEM and fluorescence microscopy showed rapid Latrunculin B induced alterations in cell morphology and actin fiber degradation in pancreas tumor cells. The dynamic digital holographic in vivo analysis of the drug dependent cellular processes demonstrated differences in the actin cytoskeleton stability of highly differentiated and dedifferentiated pancreas tumor cell lines. The spatial resolution of the morphological alterations revealed unequal changes in cell morphology. While cells with a low metastatic potential showed Latrunculin B induced cell collapse within 4 h the metastatic tumor cells were increased in cell volume indicating Latrunculin B effects also on cell water content. These data demonstrate that marker free, non-destructive online analysis of cellular morphology and dynamic spatial processes in living cells by digital holography offers new insights in actin dependent cellular mechanisms. Digital holographic microscopy was shown to be a versatile tool in the screening of toxic drug effects and cancer cell biology.

Schnekenburger, Juergen; Bredebusch, Ilona; Langehanenberg, Patrik; Domschke, Wolfram; von Bally, Gert; Kemper, Björn



Relationship between in vivo activity and in vitro measures of function and stability of a protein  

SciTech Connect

The in vivo activities of mutant proteins are readily measured and can potentially be used to estimate changes in in vitro properties such as stability or function, but this connection has not been rigorously established. Gene V protein is a small protein produced by bacteriophage f1 that binds to single-stranded DNA and to RNA and for which fitness can be assayed both in vivo and in vitro. We have assembled a large number of temperature-sensitive mutants of the gene V protein of bacteriophage f1 and measured their ability to support phage growth and replication in vivo. We have also purified many of these mutant gene V proteins and measured their stabilities and ssDNA binding affinities in vitro. Mutations at surface residues frequently yielded temperature-sensitive mutants, but remarkably, no overall correlation between in vivo activity and in vitro measures of either stability or function was found for this group. Mutations at buried residues often lead to the temperature-sensitive phenotype. At buried sites temperature sensitivity was strongly correlated with in vitro stability changes, but not with in vitro ssDNA binding affinity. The implication of these observations for protein engineering efforts is that phenotypes conferred by amino acid substitutions at buried sites can be used to identify mutants whose stabilities fall into ranges of interest, while phenotypes of mutants with surface substitutions may be much less readily interpreted, even in the case of a single-stranded-DNA-binding protein. 54 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Sandberg, W.S.; Schlunk, P.M.; Zabin, H.G. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)] [and others



Magnetic stimulation of mammalian peripheral nerves in vivo: An alternative to functional electrical stimulation.  


Functional electrical stimulation is the current gold standard for stimulating neuronal interfaces for functional neuromuscular and cortical applications, but it is not without its drawbacks. One such fault is the need to have direct electrical contact with the nerve tissue, and any side effects this causes. Functional magnetic stimulation, which works though electromagnetic induction, does not require electrical contact and may be a viable alternative to functional electrical stimulation. We are investigating the capabilities of magnetic stimulation with centimeter scale (<; 2.5 cm) coils in feline and rodent sciatic nerves in vivo. We have shown that magnetic stimulation can consistently produce the same levels of neuromuscular activation as electrical stimulation. Additionally, the position of the coil relative to the nerve influences neuromuscular activation, suggesting the possibility of selective muscle activation. PMID:25570516

Kagan, Zachary B; RamRakhyani, Anil Kumar; Khan, Faisal; Lazzi, Gianluca; Normann, Richard A; Warren, David J



Functional Multiple-Set Canonical Correlation Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We propose functional multiple-set canonical correlation analysis for exploring associations among multiple sets of functions. The proposed method includes functional canonical correlation analysis as a special case when only two sets of functions are considered. As in classical multiple-set canonical correlation analysis, computationally, the…

Hwang, Heungsun; Jung, Kwanghee; Takane, Yoshio; Woodward, Todd S.



The Intramembrane Proteases Signal Peptide Peptidase-Like 2a and 2b Have Distinct Functions In Vivo  

PubMed Central

We reported recently that the presenilin homologue signal peptide peptidase-like 2a (SPPL2a) is essential for B cell development by cleaving the N-terminal fragment (NTF) of the invariant chain (li, CD74). Based on this, we suggested that pharmacological modulation of SPPL2a may represent a novel approach to deplete B cells in autoimmune disorders. With regard to reported overlapping substrate spectra of SPPL2a and its close homologue, SPPL2b, we investigated the role of SPPL2b in CD74 NTF proteolysis and its impact on B and dendritic cell homeostasis. In heterologous expression experiments, SPPL2b was found to cleave CD74 NTF with an efficiency simliar to that of SPPL2a. For in vivo analysis, SPPL2b single-deficient and SPPL2a/SPPL2b double-deficient mice were generated and examined for CD74 NTF turnover/accumulation, B cell maturation and functionality, and dendritic cell homeostasis. We demonstrate that in vivo SPPL2b does not exhibit a physiologically relevant contribution to CD74 proteolysis in B and dendritic cells. Furthermore, we reveal that both proteases exhibit divergent subcellular localizations in B cells and different expression profiles in murine tissues. These findings suggest distinct functions of SPPL2a and SPPL2b and, based on a high abundance of SPPL2b in brain, a physiological role of this protease in the central nervous system. PMID:24492962

Schneppenheim, Janna; Hüttl, Susann; Mentrup, Torben; Lüllmann-Rauch, Renate; Rothaug, Michelle; Engelke, Michael; Dittmann, Kai; Dressel, Ralf; Araki, Masatake; Araki, Kimi; Wienands, Jürgen; Fluhrer, Regina; Saftig, Paul



In Vivo Imaging of the Photoreceptor Mosaic in Retinal Dystrophies and Correlations with Visual Function  

PubMed Central

Purpose To relate in vivo microscopic retinal changes to visual function in patients who have various forms of retinal dystrophy. Methods The UC Davis Adaptive Optics (AO) fundus camera was used to acquire in vivo retinal images at the cellular level. Visual function tests consisting of visual fields, multifocal electroretinography (mfERG), and contrast sensitivity were measured in all subjects by using stimuli that were coincident with areas imaged. Five patients with different forms of retinal dystrophy and three control subjects were recruited. Cone densities were quantified for all retinal images. Results In all images of diseased retinas, there were extensive areas of dark space between groups of photoreceptors, where no cone photoreceptors were evident. These irregular features were not seen in healthy retinas, but were apparent in patients with retinal dystrophy. There were significant correlations between functional vision losses and the extent to which these irregularities, quantified by cone density, occurred in retinal images. Conclusions AO fundus imaging is a reliable technique for assessing and quantifying the changes in the photoreceptor layer as disease progresses. Furthermore, this technique can be useful in cases where visual function tests provide borderline or ambiguous results, as it allows visualization of individual photoreceptors. PMID:16639019

Choi, Stacey S.; Doble, Nathan; Hardy, Joseph L.; Jones, Steven M.; Keltner, John L.; Olivier, Scot S.; Werner, John S.



Gain-of-function mutations indicate that Escherichia coli Kch forms a functional K+ conduit in vivo.  


Although Kch of Escherichia coli is thought to be a K(+) channel by sequence homology, there is little evidence that it actually conducts K(+) ions in vitro or in vivo. We isolated gain-of-function (GOF) Kch mutations that render bacteria specifically sensitive to K(+) ions. Millimolar added K(+), but not Na(+) or sorbitol, blocks the initiation or continuation of mutant growth in liquid media. The mutations are mapped at the RCK (or KTN) domain, which is considered to be the cytoplasmic sensor controlling the gate. Additional mutations directed to the K(+)-filter sequence rescue the GOF mutant. The apparent K(+)-specific conduction through the 'loose-cannon' mutant channel suggests that the wild-type Kch channel also conducts, albeit in a regulated manner. Changing the internal ATG does not erase the GOF toxicity, but removes kch's short second product, suggesting that it is not required for channel function in vivo. The mutant phenotypes are better explained by a perturbation of membrane potential instead of internal K(+) concentration. Possible implications on the normal function of Kch are discussed. PMID:12912904

Kuo, Mario Meng-Chiang; Saimi, Yoshiro; Kung, Ching



In vivo and in vitro CT analysis of the occiput  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arguments concerning the best procedure for occipito-cervical fusion have rarely been based upon occipital bone thickness\\u000a or only based on in vitro studies. To close this gap and to offer an outlook on preoperative evaluation of the patient, 28\\u000a patients were analysed in vivo by means of spiral CT. Ten macerated human skulls were measured by means of CT and

G. Hertel; H. Hirschfelder



Trans vivo analysis of human delayed-type hypersensitivity reactivity.  


There are clinical situations in which it may be advantageous to monitor delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses, an index of cell-mediated immunity, without exposing patients directly to the challenge antigens. For example, transplant patients may be at risk for becoming sensitized to donor antigens if injected with donor antigen during traditional skin tests. We describe an alternative method for human DTH testing, which involves the transfer of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells plus antigen into the pinnae or footpads of naive mice. This induces a measurable DTH-like swelling response, which we refer to as the "trans vivo DTH response." As proof of principle, we provide data obtained during trans vivo DTH studies with tetanus toxoid, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and alloantigens. In general, human T cells must be co-localized with antigen and human macrophages to produce swelling responses, and such responses are antigen-specific and require prior antigen sensitization. Not only does this assay offer a simple, reliable clinical monitoring device, but it also provides a model with which to study the in vivo mechanisms of human DTH responses. PMID:10439310

Carrodeguas, L; Orosz, C G; Waldman, W J; Sedmak, D D; Adams, P W; VanBuskirk, A M



Simultaneous functional photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopy of internal organs in vivo  

PubMed Central

Presently, clinicians routinely apply ultrasound endoscopy in a variety of interventional procedures which provide treatment solutions for diseased organs. Ultrasound endoscopy not only produces high resolution images, it is also safe for clinical use and broadly applicable. However, for soft tissue imaging, its mechanical wave-based image contrast fundamentally limits its ability to provide physiologically-specific functional information. By contrast, photoacoustic endoscopy possesses a unique combination of functional optical contrast and high spatial resolution at clinically-relevant depths, ideal for soft tissue imaging. With these attributes, photoacoustic endoscopy can overcome the current limitations of ultrasound endoscopy. Moreover, the benefits of photoacoustic imaging do not come at the expense of existing ultrasound functions; photoacoustic endoscopy systems are inherently compatible with ultrasound imaging, enabling multi-modality imaging with complementary contrast. Here, we present simultaneous photoacoustic and ultrasonic dual-mode endoscopy and demonstrate its ability to image internal organs in vivo, illustrating its potential clinical application. PMID:22797808

Yang, Joon-Mo; Favazza, Christopher; Chen, Ruimin; Yao, Junjie; Cai, Xin; Maslov, Konstantin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk; Wang, Lihong V.



Biomechanical regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell functions: from in vitro to in vivo understanding  

PubMed Central

Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) have critical functions in vascular diseases. Haemodynamic factors are important regulators of VSMC functions in vascular pathophysiology. VSMCs are physiologically active in the three-dimensional matrix and interact with the shear stress sensor of endothelial cells (ECs). The purpose of this review is to illustrate how haemodynamic factors regulate VSMC functions under two-dimensional conditions in vitro or three-dimensional co-culture conditions in vivo. Recent advances show that high shear stress induces VSMC apoptosis through endothelial-released nitric oxide and low shear stress upregulates VSMC proliferation and migration through platelet-derived growth factor released by ECs. This differential regulation emphasizes the need to construct more actual environments for future research on vascular diseases (such as atherosclerosis and hypertension) and cardiovascular tissue engineering. PMID:24152813

Qiu, Juhui; Zheng, Yiming; Hu, Jianjun; Liao, Donghua; Gregersen, Hans; Deng, Xiaoyan; Fan, Yubo; Wang, Guixue



Neurofibrillary tangle-bearing neurons are functionally integrated in cortical circuits in vivo  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is pathologically characterized by the deposition of extracellular amyloid-? plaques and intracellular aggregation of tau protein in neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) (1, 2). Progression of NFT pathology is closely correlated with both increased neurodegeneration and cognitive decline in AD (3) and other tauopathies, such as frontotemporal dementia (4, 5). The assumption that mislocalization of tau into the somatodendritic compartment (6) and accumulation of fibrillar aggregates in NFTs mediates neurodegeneration underlies most current therapeutic strategies aimed at preventing NFT formation or disrupting existing NFTs (7, 8). Although several disease-associated mutations cause both aggregation of tau and neurodegeneration, whether NFTs per se contribute to neuronal and network dysfunction in vivo is unknown (9). Here we used awake in vivo two-photon calcium imaging to monitor neuronal function in adult rTg4510 mice that overexpress a human mutant form of tau (P301L) and develop cortical NFTs by the age of 7–8 mo (10). Unexpectedly, NFT-bearing neurons in the visual cortex appeared to be completely functionally intact, to be capable of integrating dendritic inputs and effectively encoding orientation and direction selectivity, and to have a stable baseline resting calcium level. These results suggest a reevaluation of the common assumption that insoluble tau aggregates are sufficient to disrupt neuronal function. PMID:24368848

Kuchibhotla, Kishore V.; Wegmann, Susanne; Kopeikina, Katherine J.; Hawkes, Jonathan; Rudinskiy, Nikita; Andermann, Mark L.; Spires-Jones, Tara L.; Bacskai, Brian J.; Hyman, Bradley T.



Non invasive in vivo investigation of hepatobiliary structure and function in STII medaka (Oryzias latipes): methodology and applications  

PubMed Central

Background A novel transparent stock of medaka (Oryzias latipes; STII), recessive for all pigments found in chromatophores, permits transcutaneous imaging of internal organs and tissues in living individuals. Findings presented describe the development of methodologies for non invasive in vivo investigation in STII medaka, and the successful application of these methodologies to in vivo study of hepatobiliary structure, function, and xenobiotic response, in both 2 and 3 dimensions. Results Using brightfield, and widefield and confocal fluorescence microscopy, coupled with the in vivo application of fluorescent probes, structural and functional features of the hepatobiliary system, and xenobiotic induced toxicity, were imaged at the cellular level, with high resolution (< 1 ?m), in living individuals. The findings presented demonstrate; (1) phenotypic response to xenobiotic exposure can be investigated/imaged in vivo with high resolution (< 1 ?m), (2) hepatobiliary transport of solutes from blood to bile can be qualitatively and quantitatively studied/imaged in vivo, (3) hepatobiliary architecture in this lower vertebrate liver can be studied in 3 dimensions, and (4) non invasive in vivo imaging/description of hepatobiliary development in this model can be investigated. Conclusion The non-invasive in vivo methodologies described are a unique means by which to investigate biological structure, function and xenobiotic response with high resolution in STII medaka. In vivo methodologies also provide the future opportunity to integrate molecular mechanisms (e.g., genomic, proteomic) of disease and toxicity with phenotypic changes at the cellular and system levels of biological organization. While our focus has been the hepatobiliary system, other organ systems are equally amenable to in vivo study, and we consider the potential for discovery, within the context of in vivo investigation in STII medaka, as significant. PMID:18838008

Hardman, Ron C; Kullman, Seth W; Hinton, David E



In Vivo Evaluation of Vena Caval Filters: Can Function Be Linked to Design Characteristics?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To compare the five vena caval filters marketed in the United States and one investigational vena caval filter and to determine\\u000a whether there is an association between their design and their in vivo function.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Four of each type of filter—Simon Nitinol (SN), Bird's Nest (BN), Vena Tech (VT), Greenfield stainless steel (PSGF), Greenfield\\u000a titanium (TGF), and the investigational

Mary C. Proctor; Kyung J. Cho; Lazar J. Greenfield



Exploring Functional ?-Cell Heterogeneity In Vivo Using PSA-NCAM as a Specific Marker  

PubMed Central

Background The mass of pancreatic ?-cells varies according to increases in insulin demand. It is hypothesized that functionally heterogeneous ?-cell subpopulations take part in this process. Here we characterized two functionally distinct groups of ?-cells and investigated their physiological relevance in increased insulin demand conditions in rats. Methods Two rat ?-cell populations were sorted by FACS according to their PSA-NCAM surface expression, i.e. ?high and ?low-cells. Insulin release, Ca2+ movements, ATP and cAMP contents in response to various secretagogues were analyzed. Gene expression profiles and exocytosis machinery were also investigated. In a second part, ?high and ?low-cell distribution and functionality were investigated in animal models with decreased or increased ?-cell function: the Zucker Diabetic Fatty rat and the 48 h glucose-infused rat. Results We show that ?-cells are heterogeneous for PSA-NCAM in rat pancreas. Unlike ?low-cells, ?high-cells express functional ?-cell markers and are highly responsive to various insulin secretagogues. Whereas ?low-cells represent the main population in diabetic pancreas, an increase in ?high-cells is associated with gain of function that follows sustained glucose overload. Conclusion Our data show that a functional heterogeneity of ?-cells, assessed by PSA-NCAM surface expression, exists in vivo. These findings pinpoint new target populations involved in endocrine pancreas plasticity and in ?-cell defects in type 2 diabetes. PMID:19440374

Karaca, Melis; Castel, Julien; Tourrel-Cuzin, Cécile; Brun, Manuel; Géant, Anne; Dubois, Mathilde; Catesson, Sandra; Rodriguez, Marianne; Luquet, Serge; Cattan, Pierre; Lockhart, Brian; Lang, Jochen; Ktorza, Alain



High pressure modulated transport and signaling functions of membrane proteins in models and in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cellular membranes serve in the separation of compartments, recognition of the environment, selective transport and signal transduction. Membrane lipids and membrane proteins play distinct roles in these processes, which are affected by environmental chemical (e. g. pH) or physical (e. g. pressure and temperature) changes. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) affects fluidity and integrity of bacterial membranes instantly during the ramp, resulting in a loss of membrane potential and vital membrane protein functions. We have used the multiple drug transporter LmrA from Lactococcus lactis and ToxR, a membrane protein sensor from Photobacterium profundum, a deep-sea bacterium, and Vibrio cholerae to study membrane protein interaction and functionality in proteolioposomes and by the use of in vivo reporter systems, respectively. Both proteins require dimerization in the phospholipid bilayer for their functionality, which was favoured in the liquid crystalline lipid phase with ToxR and LmrA. Whereas LmrA, which resides in liposomes consisting of DMPC, DMPC/cholesterol or natural lipids, lost its ATPase activity above 20 or 40 MPa, it maintained its active dimeric structure in DOPC/DPPC/cholesterol liposomes up to 120 MPa. By using a specific indicator strain in which the dimerisation of ToxR initiates the transcription of lacZ it was demonstrated, that the amino acid sequence of the transmembrane domain influences HHP stability of ToxR dimerization in vivo. Thus, both the lipid structure and the nature of the protein affect membrane protein interaction. It is suggested that the protein structure determines basic functionality, e.g. principle ability or kinetics to dimerize to a functional complex, while the lipid environment modulates this property.

Vogel, R. F.; Linke, K.; Teichert, H.; Ehrmann, M. A.



Functional Analysis and Treatment of Nail Biting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study applied functional analysis methodology to nail biting exhibited by a 24-year-old female graduate student. Results from the brief functional analysis indicated variability in nail biting across assessment conditions. Functional analysis data were then used to guide treatment development and implementation. Treatment included a…

Dufrene, Brad A.; Watson, T. Steuart; Kazmerski, Jennifer S.



Equilibrium denaturation studies of the Escherichia coli factor for inversion stimulation: implications for in vivo function.  


The Factor for Inversion Stimulation (FIS) is a dimeric DNA binding protein found in enteric bacteria that is involved in various cellular processes, including stimulation of certain specialized DNA recombination events and transcription regulation of a large number of genes. The intracellular FIS concentration, when cells are grown in rich media, varies dramatically during the early logarithmic growth phase. Its broad range of concentrations could potentially affect the nature of its quaternary structure, which in turn, could affect its ability to function in vivo. Thus, we examined the stability of FIS homodimers under a wide range of concentrations relevant to in vivo expression levels. Its urea-induced equilibrium denaturation was monitored by far- and near-UV circular dichroism (CD), tyrosine fluorescence, and tyrosine fluorescence anisotropy. The denaturation transitions obtained were concentration-dependent and showed similar midpoints (C(m)) and m values, suggesting a two-state denaturation process involving the native dimer and unfolded monomers (N(2) <--> 2U). The DeltaG(H(2)O) for the unfolding of FIS determined from global and individual curve fitting was 14.2 kcal/mole. At concentrations <9 microM, the FIS dimer began to dissociate, as noted by the change in CD signal and size-exclusion high-pressure liquid chromatography retention times and peak width. The estimated dimer dissociation constant based on the CD and size-exclusion chromatography data is in the micromolar range, resulting in a DeltaG(H(2)O) of at least 5 kcal/mole less than that calculated from the urea denaturation data. This discrepancy suggests a deviation from a two-state denaturation model, perhaps due to a marginally stable monomeric intermediate. These observations have implications for the stability and function of FIS in vivo. PMID:12070319

Hobart, Sarah A; Ilin, Sergey; Moriarty, Daniel F; Osuna, Robert; Colón, Wilfredo



Metabolic Flux and Compartmentation Analysis in the Brain In vivo  

PubMed Central

Through significant developments and progresses in the last two decades, in vivo localized nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) became a method of choice to probe brain metabolic pathways in a non-invasive way. Beside the measurement of the total concentration of more than 20 metabolites, 1H MRS can be used to quantify the dynamics of substrate transport across the blood-brain barrier by varying the plasma substrate level. On the other hand, 13C MRS with the infusion of 13C-enriched substrates enables the characterization of brain oxidative metabolism and neurotransmission by incorporation of 13C in the different carbon positions of amino acid neurotransmitters. The quantitative determination of the biochemical reactions involved in these processes requires the use of appropriate metabolic models, whose level of details is strongly related to the amount of data accessible with in vivo MRS. In the present work, we present the different steps involved in the elaboration of a mathematical model of a given brain metabolic process and its application to the experimental data in order to extract quantitative brain metabolic rates. We review the recent advances in the localized measurement of brain glucose transport and compartmentalized brain energy metabolism, and how these reveal mechanistic details on glial support to glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. PMID:24194729

Lanz, Bernard; Gruetter, Rolf; Duarte, João M. N.



Murine CD83-positive T cells mediate suppressor functions in vitro and in vivo.  


The CD83 molecule (CD83) is a well-known surface marker present on mature dendritic cells (mDC). In this study, we show that CD83 is also expressed on a subset of T cells which mediate regulatory T cell (Treg)-like suppressor functions in vitro and in vivo. Treg-associated molecules including CD25, cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family-related gene (GITR), Helios and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) as well as forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) were specifically expressed by these CD83(+) T cells. In contrast, CD83(-) T cells showed a naive T cell phenotype with effector T cell properties upon activation. Noteworthy, CD83(-) T cells were not able to upregulate CD83 despite activation. Furthermore, CD83(+) T cells suppressed the proliferation and inflammatory cytokine release of CD83(-) T cells in vitro. Strikingly, stimulated CD83(+) T cells released soluble CD83 (sCD83), which has been reported to possess immunosuppressive properties. In vivo, using the murine transfer colitis model we could show that CD83(+) T cells were able to suppress colitis symptoms while CD83(-) T cells possessed effector functions. In addition, this CD83 expression is also conserved on expanded human Treg. Thus, from these studies we conclude that CD83(+) T cells share important features with regulatory T cells, identifying CD83 as a novel lineage marker to discriminate between different T cell populations. PMID:25151500

Kreiser, Simon; Eckhardt, Jenny; Kuhnt, Christine; Stein, Marcello; Krzyzak, Lena; Seitz, Christine; Tucher, Christine; Knippertz, Ilka; Becker, Christoph; Günther, Claudia; Steinkasserer, Alexander; Lechmann, Matthias



Noninvasive in vivo model demonstrating the effects of autonomic innervation on pancreatic islet function  

PubMed Central

The autonomic nervous system is thought to modulate blood glucose homeostasis by regulating endocrine cell activity in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. The role of islet innervation, however, has remained elusive because the direct effects of autonomic nervous input on islet cell physiology cannot be studied in the pancreas. Here, we used an in vivo model to study the role of islet nervous input in glucose homeostasis. We transplanted islets into the anterior chamber of the eye and found that islet grafts became densely innervated by the rich parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous supply of the iris. Parasympathetic innervation was imaged intravitally by using transgenic mice expressing GFP in cholinergic axons. To manipulate selectively the islet nervous input, we increased the ambient illumination to increase the parasympathetic input to the islet grafts via the pupillary light reflex. This reduced fasting glycemia and improved glucose tolerance. These effects could be blocked by topical application of the muscarinic antagonist atropine to the eye, indicating that local cholinergic innervation had a direct effect on islet function in vivo. By using this approach, we found that parasympathetic innervation influences islet function in C57BL/6 mice but not in 129X1 mice, which reflected differences in innervation densities and may explain major strain differences in glucose homeostasis. This study directly demonstrates that autonomic axons innervating the islet modulate glucose homeostasis. PMID:23236142

Rodriguez-Diaz, Rayner; Speier, Stephan; Molano, Ruth Damaris; Formoso, Alexander; Gans, Itai; Abdulreda, Midhat H.; Cabrera, Over; Molina, Judith; Fachado, Alberto; Ricordi, Camillo; Leibiger, Ingo; Pileggi, Antonello; Berggren, Per-Olof; Caicedo, Alejandro



Ubiquitination Regulates the Neuroprotective Function of the Deubiquitinase Ataxin-3 in Vivo*  

PubMed Central

Deubiquitinases (DUBs) are proteases that regulate various cellular processes by controlling protein ubiquitination. Cell-based studies indicate that the regulation of the activity of DUBs is important for homeostasis and is achieved by multiple mechanisms, including through their own ubiquitination. However, the physiological significance of the ubiquitination of DUBs to their functions in vivo is unclear. Here, we report that ubiquitination of the DUB ataxin-3 at lysine residue 117, which markedly enhances its protease activity in vitro, is critical for its ability to suppress toxic protein-dependent degeneration in Drosophila melanogaster. Compared with ataxin-3 with only Lys-117 present, ataxin-3 that does not become ubiquitinated performs significantly less efficiently in suppressing or delaying the onset of toxic protein-dependent degeneration in flies. According to further studies, the C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP), an E3 ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitinates ataxin-3 in vitro, is dispensable for its ubiquitination in vivo and is not required for the neuroprotective function of this DUB in Drosophila. Our work also suggests that ataxin-3 suppresses degeneration by regulating toxic protein aggregation rather than stability. PMID:24106274

Tsou, Wei-Ling; Burr, Aaron A.; Ouyang, Michelle; Blount, Jessica R.; Scaglione, K. Matthew; Todi, Sokol V.



Numerical and In Vivo Validation of Fast Cine DENSE MRI for Quantification of Regional Cardiac Function  

PubMed Central

Quantitative assessment of regional cardiac function can improve the accuracy of detecting wall motion abnormalities due to heart disease. While recently developed fast cine displacement-encoded with stimulated echoes (DENSE) MRI is a promising modality for the quantification of regional myocardial function, it has not been validated for clinical applications. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to validate the accuracy of fast cine DENSE MRI with numerical simulation and in vivo experiments. A numerical phantom was generated to model physiologically relevant deformation of the heart, and the accuracy of fast cine DENSE was evaluated against the numerical reference. For in vivo validation, 12 controls and 13 heart disease patients were imaged using both fast cine DENSE and myocardial tagged MRI. Numerical simulation demonstrated that the echo-combination DENSE reconstruction method is relatively insensitive to clinically relevant resonance frequency offsets. The strain measurements by fast cine DENSE and the numerical reference were strongly correlated and in excellent agreement (mean difference=0.00; 95% limits of agreement were 0.01 and ?0.02). The strain measurements by fast cine DENSE and myocardial tagged MRI were strongly correlated (correlation coefficient = 0.92) and in good agreement (mean difference=0.01; 95% limits of agreement were 0.07 and ?0.04). PMID:19585609

Feng, Li; Donnino, Robert; Babb, James; Axel, Leon; Kim, Daniel



Allele Compensation in Tip60+/? Mice Rescues White Adipose Tissue Function In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Adipose tissue is a key regulator of energy homestasis. The amount of adipose tissue is largely determined by adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis), a process that is regulated by the concerted actions of multiple transcription factors and cofactors. Based on in vitro studies in murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and human primary preadipocytes, the transcriptional cofactor and acetyltransferase Tip60 was recently identified as an essential adipogenic factor. We therefore investigated the role of Tip60 on adipocyte differentiation and function, and possible consequences on energy homeostasis, in vivo. Because homozygous inactivation results in early embryonic lethality, Tip60+/? mice were used. Heterozygous inactivation of Tip60 had no effect on body weight, despite slightly higher food intake by Tip60+/? mice. No major effects of heterozygous inactivation of Tip60 were observed on adipose tissue and liver, and Tip60+/? displayed normal glucose tolerance, both on a low fat and a high fat diet. While Tip60 mRNA was reduced to 50% in adipose tissue, the protein levels were unaltered, suggesting compensation by the intact allele. These findings indicate that the in vivo role of Tip60 in adipocyte differentiation and function cannot be properly addressed in Tip60+/? mice, but requires the generation of adipose tissue-specific knock out animals or specific knock-in mice. PMID:24870614

Gao, Yuan; Hamers, Nicole; Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Berger, Ruud; Lough, John; Kalkhoven, Eric



Optimized ratiometric calcium sensors for functional in vivo imaging of neurons and T lymphocytes.  


The quality of genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) has improved dramatically in recent years, but high-performing ratiometric indicators are still rare. Here we describe a series of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based calcium biosensors with a reduced number of calcium binding sites per sensor. These 'Twitch' sensors are based on the C-terminal domain of Opsanus troponin C. Their FRET responses were optimized by a large-scale functional screen in bacterial colonies, refined by a secondary screen in rat hippocampal neuron cultures. We tested the in vivo performance of the most sensitive variants in the brain and lymph nodes of mice. The sensitivity of the Twitch sensors matched that of synthetic calcium dyes and allowed visualization of tonic action potential firing in neurons and high resolution functional tracking of T lymphocytes. Given their ratiometric readout, their brightness, large dynamic range and linear response properties, Twitch sensors represent versatile tools for neuroscience and immunology. PMID:24390440

Thestrup, Thomas; Litzlbauer, Julia; Bartholomäus, Ingo; Mues, Marsilius; Russo, Luigi; Dana, Hod; Kovalchuk, Yuri; Liang, Yajie; Kalamakis, Georgios; Laukat, Yvonne; Becker, Stefan; Witte, Gregor; Geiger, Anselm; Allen, Taylor; Rome, Lawrence C; Chen, Tsai-Wen; Kim, Douglas S; Garaschuk, Olga; Griesinger, Christian; Griesbeck, Oliver



Novel peptides functionally targeting in vivo human lung cancer discovered by in vivo peptide displayed phage screening.  


Discovery of the cancer-specific peptidic ligands have been emphasized for active targeting drug delivery system and non-invasive imaging. For the discovery of useful and applicable peptidic ligands, in vivo peptide-displayed phage screening has been performed in this study using a xenograft mouse model as a mimic microenvironment to tumor. To seek human lung cancer-specific peptides, M13 phage library displaying 2.9 × 10(9) random peptides was intravenously injected into mouse model bearing A549-derived xenograft tumor through the tail vein. Then the phages emerged from a course of four rounds of biopanning in the xenograft tumor tissue. Novel peptides were categorized into four groups according to a sequence-homology phylogenicity, and in vivo tumor-targeting capacity of these peptides was validated by whole body imaging with Cy5.5-labeled phages in various cancer types. The result revealed that novel peptides accumulated only in adenocarcinoma lung cancer cell-derived xenograft tissue. For further confirmation of the specific targeting ability, in vitro cell-binding assay and immunohistochemistry in vivo tumor tissue were performed with a selected peptide. The peptide was found to bind intensely to lung cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, which was efficiently compromised with unlabeled phages in an in vitro competition assay. In conclusion, the peptides specifically targeting human lung cancer were discovered in this study, which is warranted to provide substantive feasibilities for drug delivery and imaging in terms of a novel targeted therapeutics and diagnostics. PMID:25366491

Lee, Kyoung Jin; Lee, Jae Hee; Chung, Hye Kyung; Choi, Jinhyang; Park, Jaesook; Park, Seok Soon; Ju, Eun Jin; Park, Jin; Shin, Seol Hwa; Park, Hye Ji; Ko, Eun Jung; Suh, Nayoung; Kim, InKi; Hwang, Jung Jin; Song, Si Yeol; Jeong, Seong-Yun; Choi, Eun Kyung



Clinical applications of in vivo neutron-activation analysis  

SciTech Connect

In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into and modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, enhancing uniformity, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. The work presently underway will yield significant data on a variety of environmental contaminants such as Cd. Compositional studies are determining the level of vital constituents such as nitrogen and potassium in both normal subjects and in patients with a variety of metabolic disorders. Therapeutic programs can be assessed while in progress.

Cohn, S.H.



Protective effects of Zhuyeqing liquor on the immune function of normal and immunosuppressed mice in vivo  

PubMed Central

Background Zhuyeqing Liquor (ZYQL), a well-known Chinese traditional health liquor, has various biological properties, including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunoenhancement and cardiovascular protective effects. Methods The protective effects of Zhuyeqing Liquor (ZYQL) on the immune function was investigated in vivo in normal healthy mice and immunosuppressed mice treated with Cyclophosphamide (Cy, 100 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection on days 4, 8 and 12. ZYQL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) was administered via gavage daily for 14 days. The phagocytotic function of mononuclear phagocytic system was detected with carbon clearance methods, the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interferon-gamma (IFN-?) in serum were detected with Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immune organs were weighed and organ indexes (organ weight/body weight) of thymus and spleen were calculated. Meanwhile, the activity of lysozyme (LSZ) in serum and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) in spleen tissue were measured. Results ZYQL significantly upgrades the K value for clearance of carbon particles in normal mice treated with ZYQL (400 mg/kg) and immunosuppressed mice treated with ZYQL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) together with Cy (100 mg/kg) in vivo. The treatment of ZYQL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) effectively increased the activity of serum lysozyme as well as promoted the serum levels of IL-6 and IFN-? in normal mice and immunosuppressed mice. Furthermore, ZYQL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) had an antioxidant effects in immune system by enhancing the antioxidant enzyme activity of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px in vivo. In addition, ZYQL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) effectively elevated the Cy-induced decreased organ index (thymus and spleen). Conclusions The present work shows that the dose-dependent administration of ZYQL is capable of influencing immune responses, which implying that its valuable functional health may be attributed partly to its protective effects for the immune function. PMID:24090456



Harmonic Analysis of Polynomial Threshold Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of linear threshold Boolean functions has recently attracted the attention of those interested in circuit complexity as well as of those interested in neural networks. Here a generalization of linear threshold functions is defined, namely, polynomial threshold functions, and its relation to the class of linear threshold functions is investigated. A Boolean function is polynomial threshold if it

Jehoshua Bruck



Differential Item Functioning Analysis Using Rasch Item Information Functions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis is a statistical technique used for ensuring the equity and fairness of educational assessments. This study formulates a new DIF analysis method using the information similarity index (ISI). ISI compares item information functions when data fits the Rasch model. Through simulations and an international…

Wyse, Adam E.; Mapuranga, Raymond



Body adiposity dictates different mechanisms of increased coronary reactivity related to improved in vivo cardiac function  

PubMed Central

Background Saturated fatty acid-rich high fat (HF) diets trigger abdominal adiposity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiac dysfunction. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of nascent obesity on the cardiac function of animals fed a high-fat diet and at analyzing the mechanisms by which these alterations occurred at the level of coronary reserve. Materials and methods Rats were fed a control (C) or a HF diet containing high proportions of saturated fatty acids for 3 months. Thereafter, their cardiac function was evaluated in vivo using a pressure probe inserted into the cavity of the left ventricle. Their heart was isolated, perfused iso-volumetrically according to the Langendorff mode and the coronary reserve was evaluated by determining the endothelial-dependent (EDV) and endothelial-independent (EIV) vasodilatations in the absence and presence of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase inhibitors (L-NAME and indomethacin). The fatty acid composition of cardiac phospholipids was then evaluated. Results Although all the HF-fed rats increased their abdominal adiposity, some of them did not gain body weight (HF- group) compared to the C group whereas other ones had a higher body weight (HF+). All HF rats displayed a higher in vivo cardiac activity associated with an increased EDV. In the HF- group, the improved EDV was due to an increase in the endothelial cell vasodilatation activity whereas in the HF+?group, the enhanced EDV resulted from an improved sensitivity of coronary smooth muscle cells to nitric oxide. Furthermore, in the HF- group the main pathway implicated in the EDV was the NOS pathway while in the HF+?group the COX pathway. Conclusions Nascent obesity-induced improvement of cardiac function may be supported by an enhanced coronary reserve occurring via different mechanisms. These mechanisms implicate either the endothelial cells activity or the smooth muscle cells sensitivity depending on the body adiposity of the animals. PMID:24572210



In vivo identification of mitral valve fibrosis and calcium by real-time quantitative ultrasonic analysis.  


Conventional echocardiography provides fundamental information about mitral valve morphology and function but has a relatively low specificity in evaluating valve calcific deposits, which is critical information for the preoperative decision to perform commisurotomy or replacement. In vitro radiofrequency ultrasonic quantitative analysis of the mitral valve has been demonstrated to be a reliable tool in identifying normal, fibrotic and calcific valves. This study evaluates quantitative ultrasound characterization of the mitral valve in vivo. Thirty-three patients, scheduled to undergo mitral valve replacement, and 20 normal subjects (10 young and 10 older control subjects) were studied with a 2.25-MHz transducer. Radiofrequency signal was analyzed by a microprocessor system (used with an M-mode commercially available echocardiograph) for on-line evaluation of ultrasonic backscatter with 8 bits of amplitude resolution, 40-MHz sampling rate and a 1-microsecond acquisition gate. The integrated value of the rectified radiofrequency signal amplitude was deemed the integrated backscatter index. The highest value recorded with the ultrasonic analysis from each valve was taken as representative and expressed as the percent value with respect to the pericardial integrated backscatter index value of that subject. The 33 excised mitral valves underwent histologic examination. Four groups were identified: young controls (group I, n = 10); older controls age-matched with patients (group II, n = 10); patients with fibrotic mitral valves (group III, n = 13); and patients with calcific mitral valves (group IV, n = 20).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2301264

Lattanzi, F; Picano, E; Landini, L; Mazzarisi, A; Pelosi, G; Benassi, A; Salvatore, L; Distante, A; L'Abbate, A



In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of a Novel Ferrocyanide Functionalized Nanopourous Silica Decorporation Agent for Cesium in Rats  

SciTech Connect

Novel decorporation agents are being developed to protect against radiological terrorist attacks. These sorbents, known as the self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous supports (SAMMS™), are hybrid materials where differing organic moieties are grafted onto mesoporous silica (SiO2). In vitro experiments focused on the evaluation, and optimization of SAMMS for capturing radiocesium (137Cs); based on these studies, a ferrocyanide copper (FC-Cu-EDA)-SAMMS was advanced for in vivo evaluation. In vivo experiments were conducted comparing the performance of the SAMMS vs. insoluble Prussian blue. Groups of jugular cannulated rats (4/treatment) were evaluated. Group I was administered 137Cs (~40 ?geq/kg) by intravenous (iv) injection and oral gavage; Group II was administered pre-bound 137Cs-SAMMS and sequential 137Cs + SAMMS (~61 ngeq/kg) by oral gavage; and Group III evaluated orally administered 137Cs (~0.06 ?geq/kg) followed by 0.1 g of either SAMMS or Prussian blue. Following dosing the rats were maintained in metabolism cages for 72 hour and blood, urine and fecal samples were collected for 137Cs analysis (gamma counting). Rats were then humanely euthanized, and selected tissues analyzed. Orally administered 137Cs was rapidly and well absorbed (~100% relative to iv dose), and the pharmacokinetics (blood, urine, feces & tissues) were very comparable to the iv dose group. For both exposures the urine and feces accounted for 20 and 3% of the dose, respectively. The prebound 137Cs-SAMMS was retained primarily within the feces (72% of the dose), with ~1.4% detected in the urine, suggesting that the 137Cs remained tightly bound to SAMMS. SAMMS & Prussian blue both effectively captured available 137Cs in the gut with feces accounting for 80-88% of the administered dose, while less than 2% was detected in the urine. This study suggests that the functionalized SAMMS out performs Prussian blue in vitro at low pH, but demonstrates comparable in vivo sequestration efficacy at low exposure concentrations. The comparable response may be the result of the low 137Cs dose and high sorbent dosage that was utilized. Future studies are planned to optimize SAMMS in vivo performance over a broader range of doses and conditions.

Timchalk, Charles; Creim, Jeffrey A.; Sukwarotwat, Vichaya; Wiacek, Robert J.; Addleman, Raymond S.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Yantasee, Wassana



Segmental in vivo vertebral motion during functional human lumbar spine activities  

PubMed Central

Quantitative data on the range of in vivo vertebral motion is critical to enhance our understanding of spinal pathology and to improve the current surgical treatment methods for spinal diseases. Little data have been reported on the range of lumbar vertebral motion during functional body activities. In this study, we measured in vivo 6 degrees-of-freedom (DOF) vertebral motion during unrestricted weightbearing functional body activities using a combined MR and dual fluoroscopic imaging technique. Eight asymptomatic living subjects were recruited and underwent MRI scans in order to create 3D vertebral models from L2 to L5 for each subject. The lumbar spine was then imaged using two fluoroscopes while the subject performed primary flexion-extension, left-right bending, and left-right twisting. The range of vertebral motion during each activity was determined through a previously described imaging-model matching technique at L2-3, L3-4, and L4-5 levels. Our data revealed that the upper vertebrae had a higher range of flexion than the lower vertebrae during flexion-extension of the body (L2-3, 5.4 ± 3.8°; L3-4, 4.3 ± 3.4°; L4-5, 1.9 ± 1.1°, respectively). During bending activity, the L4-5 had a higher (but not significant) range of left-right bending motion (4.7 ± 2.4°) than both L2-3 (2.9 ± 2.4°) and L3-4 (3.4 ± 2.1°), while no statistical difference was observed in left-right twisting among the three vertebral levels (L2-3, 2.5 ± 2.3°; L3-4, 2.4 ± 2.6°; and L4-5, 2.9 ± 2.1°, respectively). Besides the primary rotations reported, coupled motions were quantified in all DOFs. The coupled translation in left-right and anterior-posterior directions, on average, reached greater than 1 mm, while in the proximal-distal direction this was less than 1 mm. Overall, each vertebral level responds differently to flexion-extension and left-right bending, but similarly to the left-right twisting. This data may provide new insight into the in vivo function of human spines and can be used as baseline data for investigation of pathological spine kinematics. PMID:19301040

Wang, Shaobai; Passias, Peter; Xia, Qun; Li, Gang; Wood, Kirkham



Congenital Heart Disease–Causing Gata4 Mutation Displays Functional Deficits In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Defects of atrial and ventricular septation are the most frequent form of congenital heart disease, accounting for almost 50% of all cases. We previously reported that a heterozygous G296S missense mutation of GATA4 caused atrial and ventricular septal defects and pulmonary valve stenosis in humans. GATA4 encodes a cardiac transcription factor, and when deleted in mice it results in cardiac bifida and lethality by embryonic day (E)9.5. In vitro, the mutant GATA4 protein has a reduced DNA binding affinity and transcriptional activity and abolishes a physical interaction with TBX5, a transcription factor critical for normal heart formation. To characterize the mutation in vivo, we generated mice harboring the same mutation, Gata4 G295S. Mice homozygous for the Gata4 G295S mutant allele have normal ventral body patterning and heart looping, but have a thin ventricular myocardium, single ventricular chamber, and lethality by E11.5. While heterozygous Gata4 G295S mutant mice are viable, a subset of these mice have semilunar valve stenosis and small defects of the atrial septum. Gene expression studies of homozygous mutant mice suggest the G295S protein can sufficiently activate downstream targets of Gata4 in the endoderm but not in the developing heart. Cardiomyocyte proliferation deficits and decreased cardiac expression of CCND2, a member of the cyclin family and a direct target of Gata4, were found in embryos both homozygous and heterozygous for the Gata4 G295S allele. To further define functions of the Gata4 G295S mutation in vivo, compound mutant mice were generated in which specific cell lineages harbored both the Gata4 G295S mutant and Gata4 null alleles. Examination of these mice demonstrated that the Gata4 G295S protein has functional deficits in early myocardial development. In summary, the Gata4 G295S mutation functions as a hypomorph in vivo and leads to defects in cardiomyocyte proliferation during embryogenesis, which may contribute to the development of congenital heart defects in humans. PMID:22589735

Misra, Chaitali; Sachan, Nita; McNally, Caryn Rothrock; Koenig, Sara N.; Nichols, Haley A.; Guggilam, Anuradha; Lucchesi, Pamela A.; Pu, William T.; Srivastava, Deepak; Garg, Vidu



In Vivo Evaluation of Vena Caval Filters: Can Function Be Linked to Design Characteristics?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare the five vena caval filters marketed in the United States and one investigational vena caval filter and to determine whether there is an association between their design and their in vivo function.Methods: Four of each type of filter-Simon Nitinol (SN), Bird's Nest (BN), Vena Tech (VT), Greenfield stainless steel (PSGF), Greenfield titanium (TGF), and the investigational stent cone filter (NGF)-were studied for 60 days in 12 sheep. Radiographic and pathologic outcomes to be assessed included clot capture and resolution, vena caval penetration, position of the filter, thrombogenicity, and vessel wall reaction.Results: Filters differed with respect to the number of clot-trapping levels and the interdependence of the legs. All devices were successfully placed. Intentionally embolized clot was captured. One VT and two SN filters migrated in response to clot capture. Resolution of thrombus was variable, and related to the design of the device. Fibrin webbing was widely present with the VT, BN, and SN filters but limited in the others. The VT and NGF filters demonstrated the most stable filter base diameter.Conclusions: The performance of vena caval filters differs with respect to clot resolution and mechanical stability. Interdependent filter limbs and single-stage conical capture sites appear to result in more favorable performance in in vivo studies.

Proctor, Mary C. [Department of Surgery, University of Michigan Hospitals, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0346 (United States); Cho, Kyung J. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Hospitals, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0346 (United States); Greenfield, Lazar J. [Department of Surgery, University of Michigan Hospitals, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0346 (United States)



Cellular in vivo imaging reveals coordinated regulation of pituitary microcirculation and GH cell network function  

PubMed Central

Growth hormone (GH) exerts its actions via coordinated pulsatile secretion from a GH cell network into the bloodstream. Practically nothing is known about how the network receives its inputs in vivo and releases hormones into pituitary capillaries to shape GH pulses. Here we have developed in vivo approaches to measure local blood flow, oxygen partial pressure, and cell activity at single-cell resolution in mouse pituitary glands in situ. When secretagogue (GHRH) distribution was modeled with fluorescent markers injected into either the bloodstream or the nearby intercapillary space, a restricted distribution gradient evolved within the pituitary parenchyma. Injection of GHRH led to stimulation of both GH cell network activities and GH secretion, which was temporally associated with increases in blood flow rates and oxygen supply by capillaries, as well as oxygen consumption. Moreover, we observed a time-limiting step for hormone output at the perivascular level; macromolecules injected into the extracellular parenchyma moved rapidly to the perivascular space, but were then cleared more slowly in a size-dependent manner into capillary blood. Our findings suggest that GH pulse generation is not simply a GH cell network response, but is shaped by a tissue microenvironment context involving a functional association between the GH cell network activity and fluid microcirculation. PMID:20160103

Lafont, Chrystel; Desarménien, Michel G.; Cassou, Mathieu; Molino, François; Lecoq, Jérôme; Hodson, David; Lacampagne, Alain; Mennessier, Gérard; El Yandouzi, Taoufik; Carmignac, Danielle; Fontanaud, Pierre; Christian, Helen; Coutry, Nathalie; Fernandez-Fuente, Marta; Charpak, Serge; Le Tissier, Paul; Robinson, Iain CAF; Mollard, Patrice



In Vitro Hematological and In Vivo Vasoactivity Assessment of Dextran Functionalized Graphene  

PubMed Central

The intravenous, intramuscular or intraperitoneal administration of water solubilized graphene nanoparticles for biomedical applications will result in their interaction with the hematological components and vasculature. Herein, we have investigated the effects of dextran functionalized graphene nanoplatelets (GNP-Dex) on histamine release, platelet activation, immune activation, blood cell hemolysis in vitro, and vasoactivity in vivo. The results indicate that GNP-Dex formulations prevented histamine release from activated RBL-2H3 rat mast cells, and at concentrations ? 7?mg/ml, showed a 12–20% increase in levels of complement proteins. Cytokine (TNF-Alpha and IL-10) levels remained within normal range. GNP-Dex formulations did not cause platelet activation or blood cell hemolysis. Using the hamster cheek pouch in vivo model, the initial vasoactivity of GNP-Dex at concentrations (1–50?mg/ml) equivalent to the first pass of a bolus injection was a brief concentration-dependent dilation in arcade and terminal arterioles. However, they did not induce a pro-inflammatory endothelial dysfunction effect. PMID:24002570

Chowdhury, Sayan Mullick; Kanakia, Shruti; Toussaint, Jimmy D.; Frame, Mary D.; Dewar, Anthony M.; Shroyer, Kenneth R.; Moore, William; Sitharaman, Balaji



Increased 5-HT2A receptor expression and function following central glucocorticoid receptor knockdown in vivo.  


Central glucocorticoid receptor function may be reduced in depression. In vivo modelling of glucocorticoid receptor underfunctionality would assist in understanding its role in depressive illness. The role of glucocorticoid receptors in modulating 5-HT(2A) receptor expression and function in the central nervous system (CNS) is presently unclear, but 5-HT(2A) receptor function also appears altered in depression. With the aid of RNAse H accessibility mapping, we have developed a 21-mer antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (5'-TAAAAACAGGCTTCTGATCCT-3', termed GRAS-5) that showed 56% reduction in glucocorticoid receptor mRNA and 80% down-regulation in glucocorticoid receptor protein in rat C6 glioma cells. Sustained delivery to rat cerebral ventricles in slow release biodegradable polymer microspheres produced a marked decrease in glucocorticoid receptor mRNA and protein in hypothalamus (by 39% and 80%, respectively) and frontal cortex (by 26% and 67%, respectively) 5 days after a single injection, with parallel significant up-regulation of 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA expression (13%) and binding (21%) in frontal cortex. 5-HT(2A) receptor function, determined by DOI-head-shakes, showed a 55% increase. These findings suggest that central 5-HT(2A) receptors are, directly or indirectly, under tonic inhibitory control by glucocorticoid receptor. PMID:15476747

Islam, Aminul; Thompson, Kevin S J; Akhtar, Saghir; Handley, Sheila L



HIV Type 1 Infection Up-Regulates TLR2 and TLR4 Expression and Function in Vivo and in Vitro  

PubMed Central

Abstract Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a critical role in innate immunity against pathogens. Their stimulation induces the activation of NF-?B, an important inducer of HIV-1 replication. In recent years, an increasing number of studies using several cells types from HIV-infected patients indicate that TLRs play a key role in regulating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and viral pathogenesis. In the present study, the effect of HIV-1 stimulation of monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) subpopulations from healthy donors on the expression and functions of TLR2 and TLR4 was examined. In addition, and to complete the in vitro study, the expression pattern of TLR2 and TLR4 in 49 HIV-1-infected patients, classified according to viral load and the use of HAART, was determined and compared with 25 healthy subjects. An increase of TLR expression and production of proinflammatory cytokines were observed in MDMs and PBMCs infected with HIV-1 in vitro and in response to TLR stimulation, compared to the mock. In addition, an association between TLR expression and up-regulation of CD80 in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) was observed. The ex vivo analysis indicated increased expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs), but only of TLR2 in monocytes obtained from HIV-1-infected patients, compared to healthy subjects. Remarkably, the expression was higher in cells from patients who do not use HAART. In monocytes, there was a positive correlation between both TLRs and viral load, but not CD4+ T cell numbers. Together, our in vitro and ex vivo results suggest that TLR expression and function can be up-regulated in response to HIV-1 infection and could affect the inflammatory response. We propose that modulation of TLRs represents a mechanism to promote HIV-1 replication or AIDS progression in HIV-1-infected patients. PMID:22280204

Hernández, Juan C.; Stevenson, Mario; Latz, Eicke



In Vivo Analysis of Trapeziometacarpal Joint Kinematics during Pinch Tasks  

PubMed Central

This study investigated how the posture of the thumb while performing common pinch movements and the levels of pinch force applied by the thumb affect the arthrokinematics of the trapeziometacarpal joint in vivo. Fifteen subjects performed the pinch tasks at the distal phalange (DP), proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint, and metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint of the index finger with 0%, 50%, and 80% of maximal pinch forces by a single-axis load cell. 3D images of the thumb were obtained using the computed tomography. The results show that the reference points moved from the central region to the dorsal-radial region when changing from pinching the DP to the MP joint without pinching force being applied. Pinching with 80% of the maximum pinching force resulted in reference points being the closest to the volar-ulnar direction. Significant differences were seen between 0% and 50% of maximum pinch force, as well as between 0% and 80%, when pinching the MP joint in the distal-proximal direction. The effects of posture of the thumb and applied pinch force on the arthrokinematics of the joint were investigated with a 3D model of the trapeziometacarpal joint. Pinching with more than 50% of maximum pinch force might subject this joint to extreme displacement. PMID:24683540

Chen, Guan-Po; Jou, I-Ming; Goryacheva, Irina G.; Dosaev, Marat Z.; Su, Fong-Chin



Disruption of Tacc3 function leads to in vivo tumor regression.  


The formation of the bipolar spindle is responsible for accurate chromosomal segregation during mitosis. The dynamic instability of microtubules has an important role in this process, and has been shown to be an effective target for cancer chemotherapy. Several agents that target non-microtubule mitotic proteins, including the motor protein Eg5, Aurora kinases and Polo-like kinases, are currently being developed as chemotherapeutic drugs. However, because the efficacies of these drugs remain elusive, new molecular targets that have essential roles in tumor cells are desired. Here, we provide in vivo evidence that transforming acidic coiled-coil-3 (Tacc3) is a potential target for cancer chemotherapy. Using MRI, we showed that Tacc3 loss led to the regression of mouse thymic lymphoma in vivo, which was accompanied by massive apoptosis. By contrast, normal tissues, including the thymus, showed no overt abnormalities, despite high Tacc3 expression. in vitro analysis indicated that Tacc3 depletion induced multi-polar spindle formation, which led to mitotic arrest, followed by apoptosis. Similar responses have been observed in Burkitt's lymphoma and T-ALL. These results show that Tacc3 is a vulnerable component of the spindle assembly in lymphoma cells and is a promising cancer chemotherapy target. PMID:21685933

Yao, R; Natsume, Y; Saiki, Y; Shioya, H; Takeuchi, K; Yamori, T; Toki, H; Aoki, I; Saga, T; Noda, T



In vivo effects of monoclonal antibodies that functionally inhibit complement regulatory proteins in rats  

PubMed Central

The present work was designed to evaluate the effects of functional suppression of complement regulatory proteins in vivo. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized with Nembutal and were intravenously injected with 1 mg/kg of F(ab')2 or Fab fraction of either monoclonal antibody 5I2, which inhibits the function of rat counterpart of mouse Crry/p65, or monoclonal antibody 6D1, which inhibits the rat counterpart of CD59. Mean arterial pressure was continuously measured for 30 min. When 5I2 was injected, there was a biphasic change of mean arterial pressure, namely, the rapid increase immediately after the injection (approximately 2 min, phase 1) and the subsequent fall and slow recovery (approximately 4-30 min, phase 2). These effects were completely abrogated by pretreatment of rats with cobra venom factor. Pretreatment with carboxypeptidase inhibitor, which inhibits inactivation of anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a, induced enhanced reduction of blood pressure. Circulating leukocytes and platelets were rapidly decreased 5 min after antibody injection and became normal by 2 h. Hematocrit and erythrocyte count were continuously increased up to 2 h after injection, suggesting that there was hemoconcentration due to increased vascular permeability. Immunofluorescence study revealed binding of antibody fragments and rat C3 along the capillaries of lung, heart, and liver 5 min after injection. In contrast to 5I2, F(ab')2 fraction of 6D1, though localized to the same areas and in similar amounts, had no significant effect on the parameters measured. These data suggest that the rat counterpart of mouse Crry/p65 plays a vital role in vivo by preventing the activation of autologous complement on vascular endothelium. PMID:7525834



Artemisia scoparia Enhances Adipocyte Development and Endocrine Function In Vitro and Enhances Insulin Action In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Background Failure of adipocytes to expand during periods of energy excess can result in undesirable metabolic consequences such as ectopic fat accumulation and insulin resistance. Blinded screening studies have indicated that Artemisia scoparia (SCO) extracts can enhance adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation in cultured adipocytes. The present study tested the hypothesis that SCO treatment modulates fat cell development and function in vitro and insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue in vivo. Methods In vitro experiments utilized a Gal4-PPAR? ligand binding domain (LBD) fusion protein-luciferase reporter assay to examine PPAR? activation. To investigate the ability of SCO to modulate adipogenesis and mature fat cell function in 3T3-L1 cells, neutral lipid accumulation, gene expression, and protein secretion were measured by Oil Red O staining, qRT-PCR, and immunoblotting, respectively. For the in vivo experiments, diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD containing 1% w/w SCO for four weeks. Body weight and composition, food intake, and fasting glucose and insulin levels were measured. Phospho-activation and expression of insulin-sensitizing proteins in epididymal adipose tissue (eWAT) were measured by immunoblotting. Results Ethanolic extracts of A. scoparia significantly activated the PPAR? LBD and enhanced lipid accumulation in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. SCO increased the transcription of several PPAR? target genes in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells and rescued the negative effects of tumor necrosis factor ? on production and secretion of adiponectin and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in fully differentiated fat cells. DIO mice treated with SCO had elevated adiponectin levels and increased phosphorylation of AMPK? in eWAT when compared to control mice. In SCO-treated mice, these changes were also associated with decreased fasting insulin and glucose levels. Conclusion SCO has metabolically beneficial effects on adipocytes in vitro and adipose tissue in vivo, highlighting its potential as a metabolically favorable botanical supplement. PMID:24915004

Richard, Allison J.; Fuller, Scott; Fedorcenco, Veaceslav; Beyl, Robbie; Burris, Thomas P.; Mynatt, Randall; Ribnicky, David M.; Stephens, Jacqueline M.



Protein Polymer MRI Contrast Agents: Longitudinal Analysis of Biomaterials In Vivo  

E-print Network

Protein Polymer MRI Contrast Agents: Longitudinal Analysis of Biomaterials In Vivo Lindsay S Reson Med 65:220­228, 2011. VC 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Key words: MRI; Gd(III) contrast agent; protein. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a tomographic technique with high temporal and spatial resolution

Barron, Annelise E.


Analysis of in vivo dynamics of influenza virus infection in mice using a GFP reporter virus  

E-print Network

Analysis of in vivo dynamics of influenza virus infection in mice using a GFP reporter virus Balaji for review December 30, 2009) Influenza A virus is being extensively studied because of its major impact on human and animal health. However, the dynamics of influenza virus infection and the cell types infected


Evaluation of in vivo Liver Tissue Characterization with Spectral RF Analysis versus Elasticity  

E-print Network

Evaluation of in vivo Liver Tissue Characterization with Spectral RF Analysis versus Elasticity to assess, under active mechanical constraints, the elas- ticity of the liver, correlating with fibrosis at differ- ent locations in the liver. This paper presents a thorough evaluation of passive- mode RF

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Reconstruction of functional endometrium-like tissue in vitro and in vivo using cell sheet engineering.  


Uterus is a female specific reproductive organ and plays critical roles in allowing embryo to grow. Therefore, the endometrial disorders lead to female infertility. Hence, the regeneration of endometrium allowing fertilized ovum to implant might be valuable in the field of fertility treatment. Recently, cell sheet engineering using a temperature-responsive culture dish has advanced in regenerative medicine. With this technology, endometrial cells were harvested as a contiguous cell sheet by reducing temperature. Firstly, mouse endometrial cell sheets were re-cultured for 3 days to evaluate the function. Histological analyses revealed that endometrial epithelial cell-specific cytokeratin 18 and female-specific hormone receptors, estrogen receptor ? and progesterone receptor, were expressed. Furthermore, endometrial epithelial cells constructed epithelial layer at the apical side. Then, endometrial cell sheets from green-fluorescent-protein rat cells were transplanted onto the buttock muscle of nude rat for evaluating the function in vivo. Histological analyses showed that endometrial cell sheets reconstructed endometrium-like tissue, which was found to form uterus-specific endometrial glands having hormonal receptor to estrogen. In this study, endometrial cell sheets were speculated to contribute to the regeneration of functional endometrium as a new therapy. PMID:24602616

Takagi, Soichi; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Kuramoto, Goro; Ishitani, Ken; Matsui, Hideo; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo



Characterization of the RND family of multidrug efflux pumps: in silico to in vivo confirmation of four functionally distinct subgroups.  


We have developed a generalized profile that identifies members of the root-nodulation-cell-division (RND) family of efflux pumps and classifies them into four functional subfamilies. According to Z-score values, efflux pumps can be grouped by their metabolic function, thus making it possible to distinguish pumps involved in antibiotic resistance (group 1) from those involved in metal resistance (group 3). In silico data regarding efflux pumps in group 1 were validated after identification of RND efflux pumps in a number of environmental microbes that were isolated as resistant to ethidium bromide. Analysis of the Pseudomonas putida KT2440 genome identified efflux pumps in all groups. A collection of mutants in efflux pumps and a screening platform consisting of 50 drugs were created to assign a function to the efflux pumps. We validated in silico data regarding efflux pumps in groups 1 and 3 using 9 different mutants. Four mutants belonging to group 2 were found to be more sensitive than the wild-type to oxidative stress-inducing agents such as bipyridyl and methyl viologen. The two remaining mutants belonging to group 4 were found to be more sensitive than the parental to tetracycline and one of them was particularly sensitive to rubidium and chromate. By effectively combining in vivo data with generalized profiles and gene annotation data, this approach allowed the assignment, according to metabolic function, of both known and uncharacterized RND efflux pumps into subgroups, thereby providing important new insight into the functions of proteins within this family. PMID:21255364

Godoy, Patricia; Molina-Henares, Antonio J; de la Torre, Jesús; Duque, Estrella; Ramos, Juan L



Transcriptome Analysis in Chicken Cecal Epithelia upon Infection by Eimeria tenella In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Coccidiosis, caused by various Eimeria species, is a major parasitic disease in chickens. However, our understanding on how chickens respond to coccidian infection is highly limited at both molecular and cellular levels. The present study employed the Affymetrix chicken genome array and performed transcriptome analysis on chicken cecal epithelia in response to infection for 4.5 days in vivo by the cecal-specific species E. tenella. By Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM), we have identified 7,099 probe sets with q-values at <0.05, in which 4,033 and 3,066 genes were found to be up- or down-regulated in response to parasite infection. The reliability of the microarray data were validated by real-time qRT-PCR of 20 genes with varied fold changes in expression (i.e., correlation coefficient between microarray and qRT-PCR datasets: R2?=?0.8773, p<0.0001). Gene ontology analysis, KEGG pathway mapping and manual annotations of regulated genes indicated that up-regulated genes were mainly involved in immunity/defense, responses to various stimuli, apoptosis/cell death and differentiation, signal transduction and extracellular matrix (ECM), whereas down-regulated genes were mainly encoding general metabolic enzymes, membrane components, and some transporters. Chickens mustered complex cecal eipthelia molecular and immunological responses in response to E. tenella infection, which included pathways involved in cytokine production and interactions, natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, and intestinal IgA production. In response to the pathogenesis and damage caused by infection, chicken cecal epithelia reduced general metabolism, DNA replication and repair, protein degradation, and mitochondrial functions. PMID:23737974

Guo, Aijiang; Cai, Jianping; Gong, Wei; Yan, Hongbin; Luo, Xuenong; Tian, Guangfu; Zhang, Shaohua; Zhang, Haili; Zhu, Guan; Cai, Xuepeng



In Vivo Tumour Classification By Scatter Analysis Of Echograms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a clinical pilot study radiofrequency echograms were acquired during routine echography of intraocular tumours. The data acquisition was performed with an "add-on" device, which was developed at our laboratory. The acquired data were pre-processed to remove the effects due to equipment performance and beam characteristics. The analysis was performed in the frequency domain (acoustospectrography) and acoustic tissue parameters like the attentuation coefficient and backscatter cross section estimated. In addition the gray level statistics of B-mode images were analysed. A set of parameters was thus obtained which was subjected to a discriminant analysis, based on a classification of the tumours by histology (i.e. after removal of the eyes). The results show a significant discriminability between different tumours and even between histological types of the same tumour (choroidal melanoma).

Romijn, R. L.; Thijssen, Johan M.



Functional Changes in Neocortical Activity in Huntington's Disease Model Mice: An in vivo Intracellular Study  

PubMed Central

Studies of animal models of Huntington's disease (HD) have revealed that neocortical and neostriatal neurons of these animals in vitro exhibit a number of morphological and physiological changes, including increased input resistance and changes in neocortical synaptic inputs. We measured the functional effects of polyglutamate accumulation in neocortical neurons in R6/2 mice (8–14 weeks of age) and their age-matched non-transgenic littermates using in vivo intracellular recordings. All neurons showed spontaneous membrane potential fluctuations. The current/voltage and the firing properties of the HD neocortical neurons were significantly altered, especially in the physiologically relevant current range around and below threshold. As a result, membrane potential transitions from the Down state to Up state were evoked with smaller currents in HD neocortical neurons than in controls. The excitation-to-frequency curves of the HD mice were significantly steeper than those of controls, indicating a smaller input–output dynamic range for these neurons. Increased likelihood of Down to Up state transitions could cause pathological recruitment of corticostriatal assemblies by increasing correlated neuronal activity. We measured coherence of the in vivo intracellular recordings with simultaneously recorded electrocorticograms. We found that the peak of the coherence at <5?Hz was significantly smaller in the HD animals, indicating that the amount of coherence in the state transitions of single neurons is less correlated with global activity than non-transgenic controls. We propose that decreased correlation of neocortical inputs may be a major physiological cause underlying the errors in sensorimotor pattern generation in HD. PMID:21720524

Stern, Edward A.



Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Modulates the Function of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Retinal edema, the accumulation of extracellular fluid in the retina is usually attributed to inner blood retina barrier (BRB) leakage. Vascular endothelial growth factor plays an important role in this process. The effects of VEGF on the outer BRB, the RPE, however, have received limited attention. Here, we present a methodology to assess how VEGF modulates the integrity of the RPE barrier in vivo. Methods. Control subretinal blebs (1–5 ?L) and blebs containing VEGF (1–100 ?g/mL), placental growth factor (PlGF; 100 ?g/mL), or albumin (100–1000 ?g/mL) were injected into New Zealand White or Dutch Belted rabbits with IOP maintained at 10, 15, or 20 mm Hg. One-hour intravitreal pretreatment with ZM323881 (10 ?M/L) was used to inhibit the VEGF response. Fluid resorption was followed by optical coherence tomography for 1 hour. Retinal pigment epithelium leakage was assessed by fluorescein angiography. Results. Increasing IOP resulted in an elevated rate of bleb resorption, while increasing albumin concentration in the bleb decreased the rate of resorption. Vascular endothelial growth factor, but not PlGF, caused a significant, concentration-dependent decrease in the rate of fluid resorption, which was reversed by ZM323881. Compared with albumin-filled blebs, VEGF-filled blebs showed accelerated early-phase leakage from the choroid. Conclusions. Consistent with a localized modulation of RPE function, VEGF induced a significant reduction in fluid resorption and an increase in hydraulic conductivity. Our results establish VEGF as a major cytokine regulating RPE barrier properties in vivo and indicate that the RPE is a principal factor in the pathogenesis of retinal edema. PMID:24550368

Dahrouj, Mohammad; Alsarraf, Oday; McMillin, Jake C.; Liu, Yueying; Crosson, Craig E.; Ablonczy, Zsolt



Impact of hydrogel nanoparticle size and functionalization on in vivo behavior for lung imaging and therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Polymer chemistry offers the possibility of synthesizing multifunctional nanoparticles which incorporate moieties that enhance diagnostic and therapeutic targeting of cargo delivery to the lung. However, since rules for predicting particle behavior following modification are not well defined, it is essential that probes for tracking fate in vivo are also included. Accordingly, we designed polyacrylamide-based hydrogel particles of differing sizes, functionalized with a nona-arginine cell-penetrating peptide (Arg9), and labeled with imaging components to assess lung retention and cellular uptake after intratracheal administration. Radiolabeled microparticles (1–5 µm diameter) and nanoparticles (20–40 nm diameter) without and with Arg9 showed diffuse airspace distribution by positron emission tomography imaging. Biodistribution studies revealed that particle clearance and extrapulmonary distribution was, in part, size dependent. Microparticles were rapidly cleared by mucociliary routes but unexpectedly, also through the circulation. In contrast, nanoparticles had prolonged lung retention enhanced by Arg9 and were significantly restricted to the lung. For all particle types, uptake was predominant in alveolar macrophages, and, to a lesser extent, lung epithelial cells. In general, particles did not induce local inflammatory responses, with the exception of microparticles bearing Arg9. Whereas microparticles may be advantageous for short-term applications, nano-sized particles constitute an efficient high-retention and non-inflammatory vehicle for the delivery of diagnostic imaging agents and therapeutics to lung airspaces and alveolar macrophages that can be enhanced by Arg9. Importantly, our results show that minor particle modifications may significantly impact in vivo behavior within the complex environments of the lung, underscoring the need for animal modeling. PMID:19852512

Liu, Yongjian; Ibricevic-Richardson, Aida; Cohen, Joel A.; Cohen, Jessica L.; Gunsten, Sean P.; Fréchet, Jean M. J.; Walter, Michael J.; Welch, Michael J.; Brody, Steven L.



Rank estimation and the multivariate analysis of in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetric data  

PubMed Central

Principal component regression has been used in the past to separate current contributions from different neuromodulators measured with in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. Traditionally, a percent cumulative variance approach has been used to determine the rank of the training set voltammetric matrix during model development, however this approach suffers from several disadvantages including the use of arbitrary percentages and the requirement of extreme precision of training sets. Here we propose that Malinowski’s F-test, a method based on a statistical analysis of the variance contained within the training set, can be used to improve factor selection for the analysis of in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetric data. These two methods of rank estimation were compared at all steps in the calibration protocol including the number of principal components retained, overall noise levels, model validation as determined using a residual analysis procedure, and predicted concentration information. By analyzing 119 training sets from two different laboratories amassed over several years, we were able to gain insight into the heterogeneity of in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetric data and study how differences in factor selection propagate throughout the entire principal component regression analysis procedure. Visualizing cyclic voltammetric representations of the data contained in the retained and discarded principal components showed that using Malinowski’s F-test for rank estimation of in vivo training sets allowed for noise to be more accurately removed. Malinowski’s F-test also improved the robustness of our criterion for judging multivariate model validity, even though signal-to-noise ratios of the data varied. In addition, pH change was the majority noise carrier of in vivo training sets while dopamine prediction was more sensitive to noise. PMID:20527815

Keithley, Richard B.; Carelli, Regina M.; Wightman, R. Mark



Polyglycerolsulfate Functionalized Gold Nanorods as Optoacoustic Signal Nanoamplifiers for In Vivo Bioimaging of Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

We have synthesized a targeted imaging agent for rheumatoid arthritis based on polysulfated gold nanorods. The CTAB layer on gold nanorods was first replaced with PEG-thiol and then with dendritic polyglycerolsulfate at elevated temperature, which resulted in significantly reduced cytotoxicity compared to polyanionic gold nanorods functionalized by non-covalent approaches. In addition to classical characterization methods, we have established a facile UV-VIS based BaCl2 agglomeration assay to confirm a quantitative removal of unbound ligand. With the help of a competitive surface plasmon resonance-based L-selectin binding assay and a leukocyte adhesion-based flow cell assay, we have demonstrated the high inflammation targeting potential of the synthesized gold nanorods in vitro. In combination with the surface plasmon resonance band of AuNRs at 780 nm, these findings permitted the imaging of inflammation in an in vivo mouse model for rheumatoid arthritis with high contrast using multispectral optoacoustic tomography. The study offers a robust method for otherwise difficult to obtain covalently functionalized polyanionic gold nanorods, which are suitable for biological applications as well as a low-cost, actively targeted, and high contrast imaging agent for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. This paves the way for further research in other inflammation associated pathologies, in particular, when photothermal therapy can be applied. PMID:24723984

Vonnemann, Jonathan; Beziere, Nicolas; Böttcher, Christoph; Riese, Sebastian B.; Kuehne, Christian; Dernedde, Jens; Licha, Kai; von Schacky, Claudio; Kosanke, Yvonne; Kimm, Melanie; Meier, Reinhard; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Haag, Rainer



A transcription blocker isolated from a designed repeat protein combinatorial library by in vivo functional screen  

PubMed Central

A highly diverse DNA library coding for ankyrin seven-repeat proteins (ANK-N5C) was designed and constructed by a PCR-based combinatorial assembly strategy. A bacterial melibiose fermentation assay was adapted for in vivo functional screen. We isolated a transcription blocker that completely inhibits the melibiose-dependent expression of ?-galactosidase (MelA) and melibiose permease (MelB) of Escherichia coli by specifically preventing activation of the melAB operon. High-resolution crystal structural determination reveals that the designed ANK-N5C protein has a typical ankyrin fold, and the specific transcription blocker, ANK-N5C-281, forms a domain-swapped dimer. Functional tests suggest that the activity of MelR, a DNA-binding transcription activator and a member of AraC family of transcription factors, is inhibited by ANK-N5C-281 protein. All ANK-N5C proteins are expected to have a concave binding area with negative surface potential, suggesting that the designed ANK-N5C library proteins may facilitate the discovery of binders recognizing structural motifs with positive surface potential, like in DNA-binding proteins. Overall, our results show that the established library is a useful tool for the discovery of novel bioactive reagents. PMID:25627011

Tikhonova, Elena B.; Ethayathulla, Abdul S.; Su, Yue; Hariharan, Parameswaran; Xie, Shicong; Guan, Lan



In vivo effects of eltrombopag on platelet function in immune thrombocytopenia: no evidence of platelet activation  

PubMed Central

The effects of eltrombopag, a thrombopoietin-receptor agonist, on platelet function in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) are not fully characterized. This study used whole blood flow cytometry to examine platelet function in 20 patients receiving eltrombopag treatment at days 0, 7, and 28. Platelet surface expression of activated GPIIb/IIIa, P-selectin, and GPIb was measured with and without low and high adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP) concentrations. Before eltrombopag treatment with no ex vivo agonist, platelet activation was higher in ITP patients than controls. Platelet GPIb and activated GPIIb/IIIa expression without added agonist was unchanged following eltrombopag treatment, whereas a slight increase in P-selectin was observed. Expression of P-selectin and activated GPIIb/IIIa in response to high-dose ADP was lower during eltrombopag treatment than at baseline. Eltrombopag led to a slight increase in platelet reactivity to TRAP only in responders to eltrombopag but not to levels above those in controls; whole blood experiments demonstrated that this increase was probably because of higher platelet counts rather than higher platelet reactivity. In conclusion, although thrombocytopenic ITP patients have higher baseline platelet activation than controls, eltrombopag did not cause platelet activation or hyper-reactivity, irrespective of whether the platelet count increased. PMID:22294727

Psaila, Bethan; Bussel, James B.; Linden, Matthew D.; Babula, Bracken; Li, Youfu; Barnard, Marc R.; Tate, Chinara; Mathur, Kanika; Frelinger, Andrew L.



Functional remodeling of benign human prostatic tissues in vivo by spontaneously immortalized progenitor and intermediate cells.  


Tissue remodeling or regeneration is believed to initiate from multipotent stem and progenitor cells. We report here the establishment of two spontaneously immortalized adult non-tumorigenic human prostate epithelial cell lines, NHPrE1 and BHPrE1. NHPrE1 (CD133(high)/CD44(high)/OCT4(high)/PTEN(high)) was characterized as a putative progenitor cell, and BHPrE1 (p63(high)/p53(high)/p21(WAF1)(high)/RB(high)) was characterized as a putative epithelial intermediate cell. Genomic analysis demonstrated an abnormal karyotype with genomic rearrangements including PTEN amplification in NHPrE1 and CTNNB1 (beta-catenin) amplification in BHPrE1 cells. Embedded three-dimensional culture of NHPrE1 showed greater branching than BHPrE1. A tissue recombination-xenografting model was utilized to compare remodeling of human prostatic tissues in vivo. A series of tissue recombinants, made by mixing different ratios of human prostatic epithelial cells and inductive rat urogenital sinus mesenchyme, were grafted to the renal capsule of severe combined immunodeficient mice. Both cell lines were able to regenerate benign secretory ductal-acinar architecture in vivo, containing intact basal and luminal epithelial layers confirmed by the expression of appropriate CK profiles. Prostate-specific antigen, 15-lipoxygenase-2, androgen receptor, and NKX3.1 proteins were appropriately expressed in the regenerated epithelia. Regeneration of benign prostatic glandular structures could be achieved using as few as 10 NHPrE1 cells, whereas 200,000 BHPrE1 cells were required to achieve prostatic architecture. This suggests a greater proportion of progenitor/stem cells in NHPrE1 than in BHPrE1. These cell lines provide important data on progenitor and intermediate cell phenotypes and represent significant new tools for the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of human prostatic regeneration, pathogenesis, and carcinogenesis. PMID:20020426

Jiang, Ming; Strand, Douglas W; Fernandez, Suzanne; He, Yue; Yi, Yajun; Birbach, Andreas; Qiu, Qingchao; Schmid, Johannes; Tang, Dean G; Hayward, Simon W



The SH2 domain protein Shep1 regulates the in vivo signaling function of the scaffolding protein Cas  

PubMed Central

The members of the p130Cas (Cas) family are important scaffolding proteins that orchestrate cell adhesion, migration and invasiveness downstream of integrin adhesion receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases by recruiting enzymes and structural molecules. Shep1, BCAR3/AND-34 and NSP1 define a recently identified family of SH2 domain-containing proteins that constitutively bind Cas proteins through a Cdc25-type nucleotide exchange factor-like domain. To gain insight into the functional interplay between Shep1 and Cas in vivo, we have inactivated the Shep1 gene in the mouse through Cre-mediated deletion of the exon encoding the SH2 domain. Analysis of Cas tyrosine phosphorylation in the brains of newborn mice, where Shep1 is highly expressed, revealed a strong decrease in Cas substrate domain phosphorylation in knockout compared to wild-type brains. Src family kinases bind to Cas via their SH3 and SH2 domains, which contributes to their activation, and phosphorylate multiple tyrosines in Cas substrate domain. These tyrosine phosphorylated motifs represent docking sites for the Crk adaptor, linking Cas to the downstream Rac1 and Rap1 GTPases to regulate cell adhesion and actin cytoskeleton organization. Accordingly, we detected lower Cas-Crk association and lower phosphorylation of the Src activation loop in Shep1 knockout brains compared to wild-type. Conversely, Shep1 transfection in COS cells increases Cas tyrosine phosphorylation. The SH2 domain is likely critical for the effects of Shep1 on Cas and Src signaling because the knockout mice express Shep1 fragments that lack the amino-terminal region including the SH2 domain, presumably due to aberrant translation from internal ATG codons. These fragments retain the ability to increase Cas levels in transfected cells, similar to full-length Shep1. However, they do not affect Cas phosphorylation on their own or in the presence of co-transfected full-length Shep1. They also do not show dominant negative effects on the activity of full-lengh Shep1 in vivo because the heterozygous mice, which express the fragments, have a normal life span. This is in contrast to the homozygous knockout mice, most of which die soon after birth. These data demonstrate that Shep1 plays a critical role in the in vivo regulation of Src activity and Cas downstream signaling through Crk, and suggest that the SH2 domain of Shep1 is critical for these effects. PMID:20603213

Roselli, Severine; Wallez, Yann; Wang, Lei; Vervoort, Virginie; Pasquale, Elena B



Teacher Praise: A Functional Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher praise typically does not function as a reinforcer. Rather, it is reactive to and under the control of student behavior. Its effects must be understood using concepts from attribution and social learning/reinforcement theories. (Author/GK)

Brophy, Jere



Functional Techniques for Data Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This dissertation develops a new general method of solving Prony's problem. Two special cases of this new method have been developed previously. They are the Matrix Pencil and the Osculatory Interpolation. The dissertation shows that they are instances of a more general solution type which allows a wide ranging class of linear functional to be used in the solution of the problem. This class provides a continuum of functionals which provide new methods that can be used to solve Prony's problem.

Tomlinson, John R.



Sensitivity analysis of near-infrared functional lymphatic imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-infrared imaging of lymphatic drainage of injected indocyanine green (ICG) has emerged as a new technology for clinical imaging of lymphatic architecture and quantification of vessel function, yet the imaging capabilities of this approach have yet to be quantitatively characterized. We seek to quantify its capabilities as a diagnostic tool for lymphatic disease. Imaging is performed in a tissue phantom for sensitivity analysis and in hairless rats for in vivo testing. To demonstrate the efficacy of this imaging approach to quantifying immediate functional changes in lymphatics, we investigate the effects of a topically applied nitric oxide (NO) donor glyceryl trinitrate ointment. Premixing ICG with albumin induces greater fluorescence intensity, with the ideal concentration being 150 ?g/mL ICG and 60 g/L albumin. ICG fluorescence can be detected at a concentration of 150 ?g/mL as deep as 6 mm with our system, but spatial resolution deteriorates below 3 mm, skewing measurements of vessel geometry. NO treatment slows lymphatic transport, which is reflected in increased transport time, reduced packet frequency, reduced packet velocity, and reduced effective contraction length. NIR imaging may be an alternative to invasive procedures measuring lymphatic function in vivo in real time.

Weiler, Michael; Kassis, Timothy; Dixon, J. Brandon



Soil engineering in vivo: harnessing natural biogeochemical systems for sustainable, multi-functional engineering solutions  

PubMed Central

Carbon sequestration, infrastructure rehabilitation, brownfields clean-up, hazardous waste disposal, water resources protection and global warming—these twenty-first century challenges can neither be solved by the high-energy consumptive practices that hallmark industry today, nor by minor tweaking or optimization of these processes. A more radical, holistic approach is required to develop the sustainable solutions society needs. Most of the above challenges occur within, are supported on, are enabled by or grown from soil. Soil, contrary to conventional civil engineering thought, is a living system host to multiple simultaneous processes. It is proposed herein that ‘soil engineering in vivo’, wherein the natural capacity of soil as a living ecosystem is used to provide multiple solutions simultaneously, may provide new, innovative, sustainable solutions to some of these great challenges of the twenty-first century. This requires a multi-disciplinary perspective that embraces the science of biology, chemistry and physics and applies this knowledge to provide multi-functional civil and environmental engineering designs for the soil environment. For example, can native soil bacterial species moderate the carbonate cycle in soils to simultaneously solidify liquefiable soil, immobilize reactive heavy metals and sequester carbon—effectively providing civil engineering functionality while clarifying the ground water and removing carbon from the atmosphere? Exploration of these ideas has begun in earnest in recent years. This paper explores the potential, challenges and opportunities of this new field, and highlights one biogeochemical function of soil that has shown promise and is developing rapidly as a new technology. The example is used to propose a generalized approach in which the potential of this new field can be fully realized. PMID:20829246

DeJong, Jason T.; Soga, Kenichi; Banwart, Steven A.; Whalley, W. Richard; Ginn, Timothy R.; Nelson, Douglas C.; Mortensen, Brina M.; Martinez, Brian C.; Barkouki, Tammer



In vivo mutation analysis using the ?X174 transgenic mouse and comparisons with other transgenes and endogenous genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ?X174 transgenic mouse was first developed as an in vivo Ames test, detecting base pair substitution (bps) at a single bp in a reversion assay. A forward mutational assay was also developed, which is a gain of function assay that also detects bps exclusively. Later work with both assays focused on establishing that a mutation was fixed in vivo

Carrie R. Valentine; Robert R. Delongchamp; Mason G. Pearce; Heather F. Rainey; Vasily N. Dobrovolsky; Heinrich V. Malling; Robert H. Heflich



In Vivo Imaging and Quantitative Analysis of Leukocyte Directional Migration and Polarization in Inflamed Tissue  

PubMed Central

Directional migration of transmigrated leukocytes to the site of injury is a central event in the inflammatory response. Here, we present an in vivo chemotaxis assay enabling the visualization and quantitative analysis of subtype-specific directional motility and polarization of leukocytes in their natural 3D microenvironment. Our technique comprises the combination of i) semi-automated in situ microinjection of chemoattractants or bacteria as local chemotactic stimulus, ii) in vivo near-infrared reflected-light oblique transillumination (RLOT) microscopy for the visualization of leukocyte motility and morphology, and iii) in vivo fluorescence microscopy for the visualization of different leukocyte subpopulations or fluorescence-labeled bacteria. Leukocyte motility parameters are quantified off-line in digitized video sequences using computer-assisted single cell tracking. Here, we show that perivenular microinjection of chemoattractants [macrophage inflammatory protein-1? (MIP-1?/Ccl3), platelet-activating factor (PAF)] or E. coli into the murine cremaster muscle induces target-oriented intravascular adhesion and transmigration as well as polarization and directional interstitial migration of leukocytes towards the locally administered stimuli. Moreover, we describe a crucial role of Rho kinase for the regulation of directional motility and polarization of transmigrated leukocytes in vivo. Finally, combining in vivo RLOT and fluorescence microscopy in Cx3CR1gfp/gfp mice (mice exhibiting green fluorescent protein-labeled monocytes), we are able to demonstrate differences in the migratory behavior of monocytes and neutrophils. Taken together, we propose a novel approach for investigating the mechanisms and spatiotemporal dynamics of subtype-specific motility and polarization of leukocytes during their directional interstitial migration in vivo. PMID:19259262

Khandoga, Alexander Georg; Khandoga, Andrej; Reichel, Christoph Andreas; Bihari, Peter; Rehberg, Markus; Krombach, Fritz



A New Functional Suppressor tRNA/ Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetase Pair for the in Vivo  

E-print Network

analyzed biochemical data available for tRNATyr/TyrRS pairs from a variety of organisms. This analysis, together with in vivo complemen- tation assays, has afforded a new orthogonal tRNACUA Tyr /TyrRS pair cannot be amino- acylated by bacterial synthetases, nor do their TyrRS aminoacylate bacterial t

Magliery, Thomas J.


Functional Data Analysis in Brain Imaging Studies  

PubMed Central

Functional data analysis (FDA) considers the continuity of the curves or functions, and is a topic of increasing interest in the statistics community. FDA is commonly applied to time-series and spatial-series studies. The development of functional brain imaging techniques in recent years made it possible to study the relationship between brain and mind over time. Consequently, an enormous amount of functional data is collected and needs to be analyzed. Functional techniques designed for these data are in strong demand. This paper discusses three statistically challenging problems utilizing FDA techniques in functional brain imaging analysis. These problems are dimension reduction (or feature extraction), spatial classification in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, and the inverse problem in magneto-encephalography studies. The application of FDA to these issues is relatively new but has been shown to be considerably effective. Future efforts can further explore the potential of FDA in functional brain imaging studies. PMID:21833205

Tian, Tian Siva



Function of dopamine transporter is compromised in DYT1 transgenic animal model in vivo.  


Early onset torsion dystonia (DYT1), the most common form of hereditary primary dystonia, is caused by a mutation in the TOR1A gene, which codes for the protein, torsinA. We previously examined the effect of the human mutant torsinA on striatal dopaminergic function in a conventional transgenic mouse model of DYT1 dystonia (hMT1), in which human mutant torsinA is expressed under the cytomegalovirus promotor. Systemic administration of amphetamine did not increase dopamine (DA) release as efficiently in these mice as compared with wild-type transgenic and non-transgenic mice. We, now, studied the contribution of the DA transporter (DAT) to amphetamine-induced DA release in hMT1 transgenic mice using in vivo no-net flux microdialysis. This method applies different concentrations of DA through the microdialysis probe and measures DA concentration at the output of the probe following an equilibrium period. The slope (extraction fraction) is the measure of the DAT activity in vivo. The slope for hMT1 transgenic mice was 0.58 +/- 0.07 and for non-transgenic animals, 0.87 +/- 0.06 (p < 0.05). We further investigated the efficacy of nomifensine (a specific DAT inhibitor) in inhibiting amphetamine-induced DA release. Local application of nomifensine 80 min before the systemic application of amphetamine inhibited DA release in both transgenic mice and their non-transgenic littermates. The efficiency of the inhibition appeared to be different, with mean values of 48% for hMT1 transgenic mice versus 84% for non-transgenic littermates. Moreover, we have evaluated basal and amphetamine-induced locomotion in hMT1 transgenic mice compared with their non-transgenic littermates, using an O-maze behavioral chamber. Basal levels of locomotion in the hMT1 transgenic mice showed that they moved much less than their non-transgenic littermates (0.9 +/- 0.3 m for transgenic mice vs. 2.4 +/- 0.7 m for non-transgenic littermates, p < 0.05). This relative reduction in locomotion was also observed following amphetamine administration (48.5 +/- 6.7 m for transgenics vs. 73.7 +/- 9.8 m for non-transgenics, p < 0.05). These results support the finding that there are altered dynamics of DA release and reuptake in hMT1 transgenic mice in vivo, with DAT activity is reduced in the presence of mutant torsinA, which is consistent with behavioral consequences such as reduced locomotion and (previously described) abnormal motor phenotypes such as increased hind-base width and impaired performance on the raised-beam task. These data implies that altered DAT function may contribute to impaired DA neurotransmission and clinical symptoms in human DYT1 dystonia. PMID:20132487

Hewett, Jeff; Johanson, Peter; Sharma, Nutan; Standaert, David; Balcioglu, Aygul



In vivo Analysis of Tissue Response to Plasma-Treated Collagen-I-Coated Titanium Alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo tissue response to low-pressure plasma-pretreated collagen-I-coated titanium implant in a middle-term mouse model. Methods: Plasma-treated collagen-coated titanium implants were transplanted into the dorsal skinfold chambers of BALB\\/c mice. Untreated, regular titanium implant material served as control. The neovascularization (functional vessel density) of the implant border zone and of

J. Hauser; A. Ring; A. Schaffran; L. Henrich; S. A. Esenwein; H. U. Steinau; I. Stricker; S. Langer



In vivo radiofrequency ultrasound analysis of normal human heart structures.  


Twenty young subjects were studied with a microprocessor system for quantitative analysis of backscattered radiofrequency (RF) signals from normal heart structures. This system allows an "on line" quantitative evaluation of the amplitude of the RF "native" signal, before the chain of processing and display, with the acquisition gate displayed on a conventional M-mode machine. Septum, posterior wall, and anterior mitral leaflet were analyzed. The gate length was kept at 3 microseconds (2.35 mm) for the ventricular walls (excluding endo- and epicardial reflections), and at 1 microsecond (0.8 mm) for the mitral valve. Integrated backscatter index (IBI) was calculated as the time integral of [u(t)[, where u(t) = i(t) X s(t); is the time sequence of backscattered echoes and s(t) is the time gate delimiting the thickness of the insonated tissue. The IBI was expressed in percent, normalized for the pericardial interface (the strongest reflection was assumed to be 100%). The percent IBI for the septum was found to be 22 +/- 4%; for the posterior wall it was 17 +/- 3%; for the anterior mitral leaflet it was 5 +/- 2%. A second reading of the same structures was performed by the previous observer and by a new one. Good intraobserver (r = 0.92) and interobserver (r = 0.88) correlations were obtained. In conclusion, a regional variation in echo amplitude from different heart structures can be observed in man. This set of values can be used as normal values for future studies in pathologic conditions. PMID:3134434

Lattanzi, F; Picano, E; Mazzarisi, A; Landini, L; Benassi, A; Masini, M; Distante, A; L'Abbate, A



Functional graphene oxide as a plasmid-based Stat3 siRNA carrier inhibits mouse malignant melanoma growth in vivo.  


Graphene oxide (GO) has attracted intensive interest in the biomedical field in recent years. We investigate whether the use of functional graphene oxide as an efficient delivery system for delivering specific molecular antitumor therapeutics in vivo could achieve a more excellent antitumor effect. Constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) promotes survival in a wide spectrum of human cancers. In this paper, we study the in vivo behavior of graphene oxide chemically functionalized with polyethylenimine and polyethylene glycol (GO-PEI-PEG) as a plasmid-based Stat3-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) carrier in mouse malignant melanoma. The in vivo results indicate significant regression in tumor growth and tumor weight after plasmid-based Stat3 siRNA delivered by GO-PEI-PEG treatment. Moreover, there was no significant side effect from GO-PEI-PEG treatment according to histological examination and blood chemistry analysis in mice. Thus, our work is the first success of using GO-PEI-PEG as a promising carrier for plasmid Stat3 siRNA delivery and down-regulation of Stat3 by a polymer-mediated vehicle and suggests the great promise of graphene in biomedical applications such as cancer treatment. PMID:23425941

Yin, Di; Li, Yang; Lin, Hang; Guo, Baofeng; Du, Yanwei; Li, Xin; Jia, Huijie; Zhao, Xuejian; Tang, Jun; Zhang, Ling



Energy function analysis for power system stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy Function Analysis for Power System Stability presents the concept of energy function, which has found wide-spread applications for power systems in recent years. The most recent advances in five distinct areas are reviewed: Development of energy functions for structure preserving models, which can incorporate non-linear load models; energy functions which include a detailed model of the generating unit (i.e.

M. A. Pai



Characterization of Functional Domains of the SMN Protein in Vivo* Received for publication, June 1, 2001, and in revised form, September 20, 2001  

E-print Network

Characterization of Functional Domains of the SMN Protein in Vivo* Received for publication, June 1 previously established a genetic system based on the chicken pre-B cell line DT40, in which expression of SMN protein is regulated by tetracycline, to study the function of SMN in vivo. Depletion of SMN protein

Dreyfuss, Gideon


The effects of heat on skin barrier function and in vivo dermal absorption.  


Enhanced delivery of ingredients across the stratum corneum (SC) is of great interest for improving the efficacy of topically applied formulations. Various methods for improving dermal penetration have been reported including galvanic devices and micro-needles. From a safety perspective it is important that such approaches do not compromise SC barrier function. This study investigates the influence of topically applied heat in vivo on the dermal uptake and penetration of a model active, allantoin from gel and lotion formulations. A custom designed device was used to deliver 42°C for 30s daily to human subjects after application of two formulations containing allantoin. The results were compared with sites treated with formulations containing no active and no heat, and a control site. In addition to penetration of allantoin, the integrity of the SC was monitored using trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements. The results showed that just 30s of 42°C topically applied heat was enough to cause significantly more penetration of allantoin from the lotion formulation compared with no application of heat. TEWL data indicated that the integrity of the skin was not compromised by the treatment. However, the application of heat did not promote enhanced penetration of the active from the gel formulation. Vehicle composition is therefore an important factor when considering thermal enhancement strategies for targeting actives to the skin. PMID:24445121

Oliveira, Gabriela; Leverett, Jesse C; Emamzadeh, Mandana; Lane, Majella E



In vivo effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali) extract on reproductive functions in the rat.  


An aqueous extract of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali; TA) roots is traditionally used to enhance male sexuality. Because previous studies are limited to only few sperm parameters or testosterone concentration, this study investigated the in vivo effects of TA on body and organ weight as well as functional sperm parameters in terms of safety and efficacy in the management of male infertility. Forty-two male rats were divided into a control, low-dose (200 mg kg(-1) BW) and high-dose (800 mg kg(-1) BW) group (n = 14). Rats were force-fed for 14 days and then sacrificed. Total body and organ weights of the prostate, testes, epididymides, gastrocnemius muscle and the omentum were recorded. Moreover, testosterone concentration, sperm concentration, motility, velocity, vitality, acrosome reaction and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were assessed. Whilst TA decreased BW by 5.7% (P = 0.0276) and omentum fat by 31.9% (P = 0.0496), no changes in organ weights were found for the prostate, testes and epididymides. Testosterone concentration increased by 30.2% (P = 0.0544). Muscle weight also increased, yet not significantly. Whilst sperm concentration, total and progressive motility and vitality increased significantly, MMP improved markedly (P = 0.0765) by 25.1%. Because no detrimental effect could be observed, TA appears safe for possible treatment of male infertility and ageing male problems. PMID:23464350

Solomon, M C; Erasmus, N; Henkel, R R



Neurotrophic Factor Artemin Promotes Invasiveness and Neurotrophic Function of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma In Vivo and In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the neurotrophic factor Artemin on neuroplasticity and perineural invasion of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Methods Artemin expressions were detected in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma tissues by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Artemin overexpression and RNA interference in the pancreatic cancer cell lines were performed to evaluate the effects of Artemin on cell proliferation, invasion, and neurotrophic activity in vitro and in nude orthotopic transplantation tumor models. Results Artemin expression in pancreatic cancer tissues was related to the incidence of lymphatic metastasis and perineural invasion as well as the mean density and total area of nerve fibers. Overexpression of Artemin in pancreatic cancer cell lines improved colony formation, cell migration, matrigel invasion, and neurotrophic activity in vitro. This overexpression also increased the volume of nude orthotopic transplantation tumors; promoted cancer cell invasion of the peripheral organs, nerves, vessels, and lymph nodes; and stimulated the proliferation of peritumoral nerve fibers. Artemin depletion by RNA interference had an inhibitory effect mentioned previously. Conclusions Artemin could promote invasiveness and neurotrophic function of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, Artemin could be used as a new therapeutic target of pancreatic carcinoma. PMID:25243385

Gao, Li; Bo, Haiji; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Jing; Zhu, Minghua



In vivo activation of neutrophil function in hamsters by recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.  

PubMed Central

The in vivo effect of Escherichia coli-derived recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on neutrophil function was studied in golden Syrian hamsters. Significant increases in superoxide generation and specific binding of N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine were observed in neutrophils isolated 4 h following a single subcutaneous injection of the factor (30 micrograms/kg). However, phagocytotic activity was not significantly stimulated in hamsters treated with the factor. Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor hastened the recovery of peripheral neutrophil counts in animals made leukopenic by prior treatment with cyclophosphamide. Beginning several hours after infection, resistance to lethal infection following intraperitoneal injection of Staphylococcus aureus was increased when neutropenic animals were treated daily with the factor. This protective effect was associated with increased peritoneal neutrophil counts and a decreased incidence of positive peritoneal bacterial cultures at 24 h after the start of treatment. These results suggest that recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of bacterial infections in neutropenic patients. PMID:2459064

Cohen, A M; Hines, D K; Korach, E S; Ratzkin, B J



Glycan variants of a respiratory syncytial virus antibody with enhanced effector function and in vivo efficacy  

PubMed Central

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause devastating lower respiratory tract infections in preterm infants or when other serious health problems are present. Immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab (Synagis), a humanized IgG1 mAb, is the current standard of care for preventing RSV infection in at-risk neonates. We have explored the contribution of effector function to palivizumab efficacy using a plant-based expression system to produce palivizumab N-glycan structure variants with high homogeneity on different antibody isotypes. We compared these isotype and N-glycoform variants with commercially available palivizumab with respect to both in vitro receptor and C1q binding and in vivo efficacy. Whereas the affinity for antigen and neutralization activity of each variant were indistinguishable from those of palivizumab, their Fc? receptor binding profiles were very different, which was reflected in either a reduced or enhanced ability to influence the RSV lung titer in challenged cotton rats. Enhanced Fc? receptor binding was associated with reduced viral lung titers compared with palivizumab, whereas abrogation of receptor binding led to a drastic reduction in efficacy. The results support the hypotheses that classic antibody neutralization is a minor component of efficacy by palivizumab in the cotton rat and that antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity activity can significantly enhance the efficacy of this antiviral mAb. PMID:24711420

Hiatt, Andrew; Bohorova, Natasha; Bohorov, Ognian; Goodman, Charles; Kim, Do; Pauly, Michael H.; Velasco, Jesus; Whaley, Kevin J.; Piedra, Pedro A.; Gilbert, Brian E.; Zeitlin, Larry



Glycan variants of a respiratory syncytial virus antibody with enhanced effector function and in vivo efficacy.  


Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause devastating lower respiratory tract infections in preterm infants or when other serious health problems are present. Immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab (Synagis), a humanized IgG1 mAb, is the current standard of care for preventing RSV infection in at-risk neonates. We have explored the contribution of effector function to palivizumab efficacy using a plant-based expression system to produce palivizumab N-glycan structure variants with high homogeneity on different antibody isotypes. We compared these isotype and N-glycoform variants with commercially available palivizumab with respect to both in vitro receptor and C1q binding and in vivo efficacy. Whereas the affinity for antigen and neutralization activity of each variant were indistinguishable from those of palivizumab, their Fc? receptor binding profiles were very different, which was reflected in either a reduced or enhanced ability to influence the RSV lung titer in challenged cotton rats. Enhanced Fc? receptor binding was associated with reduced viral lung titers compared with palivizumab, whereas abrogation of receptor binding led to a drastic reduction in efficacy. The results support the hypotheses that classic antibody neutralization is a minor component of efficacy by palivizumab in the cotton rat and that antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity activity can significantly enhance the efficacy of this antiviral mAb. PMID:24711420

Hiatt, Andrew; Bohorova, Natasha; Bohorov, Ognian; Goodman, Charles; Kim, Do; Pauly, Michael H; Velasco, Jesus; Whaley, Kevin J; Piedra, Pedro A; Gilbert, Brian E; Zeitlin, Larry



Phenotypic and in vivo functional characterization of immortalized human fetal liver cells  

PubMed Central

We report the establishment and characterization of immortalized human fetal liver progenitor cells by expression of the Simian virus 40 large T (SV40 LT) antigen. Well-characterized cells at various passages were transplanted into nude mice with acute liver injury and tested for functional capacity. The SV40LT antigen-immortalized fetal liver cells showed a morphology similar to primary cells. Cultured cells demonstrated stable phenotypic expression in various passages, of hepatic markers such as albumin, CK 8, CK18, transcription factors HNF-4? and HNF-1? and CYP3A/7. The cells did not stain for any of the tested cancer-associated markers. Albumin, HNF-4? and CYP3A7 expression was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Flow cytometry showed expression of some progenitor cell markers. In vivo study showed that the cells expressed both fetal and differentiated hepatocytes markers. Our study suggests new approaches to expand hepatic progenitor cells, analyze their fate in animal models aiming at cell therapy of hepatic diseases. PMID:24730442

Patil, Pradeep B.; Begum, Setara; Joshi, Meghnad; Kleman, Marika I; Olausson, Michael



In vivo function of Tic22, a protein import component of the intermembrane space of chloroplasts.  


Preprotein import into chloroplasts depends on macromolecular machineries in the outer and inner chloroplast envelope membrane (TOC and TIC). It was suggested that both machineries are interconnected by components of the intermembrane space (IMS). That is, amongst others, Tic22, of which two closely related isoforms exist in Arabidopsis thaliana, namely atTic22-III and atTic22-IV. We investigated the function of Tic22 in vivo by analyzing T-DNA insertion lines of the corresponding genes. While the T-DNA insertion in the individual genes caused only slight defects, a double mutant of both isoforms showed retarded growth, a pale phenotype under high-light conditions, a reduced import rate, and a reduction in the photosynthetic performance of the plants. The latter is supported by changes in the metabolite content of mutant plants when compared to wild-type. Thus, our results support the notion that Tic22 is directly involved in chloroplast preprotein import and might point to a particular importance of Tic22 in chloroplast biogenesis at times of high import rates. PMID:23204504

Rudolf, Mareike; Machettira, Anu B; Groß, Lucia E; Weber, Katrin L; Bolte, Kathrin; Bionda, Tihana; Sommer, Maik S; Maier, Uwe G; Weber, Andreas P M; Schleiff, Enrico; Tripp, Joanna



In vivo functional and myeloarchitectonic mapping of human primary auditory areas  

PubMed Central

In contrast to vision, where retinotopic mapping alone can define areal borders, primary auditory areas such as A1 are best delineated by combining in vivo tonotopic mapping with post mortem cyto- or myelo-architectonics from the same individual. We combined high-resolution (800 ?m) quantitative T1 mapping with phase-encoded tonotopic methods to map primary auditory areas (A1 and R) within the ‘auditory core’ of human volunteers. We first quantitatively characterize the highly myelinated auditory core in terms of shape, area, cortical depth profile, and position, with our data showing considerable correspondence to post-mortem myeloarchitectonic studies, both in cross-participant averages and in individuals. The core region contains two ‘mirror-image‘ tonotopic maps oriented along the same axis as observed in macaque and owl monkey. We suggest that thee two maps within the core are the human analogues of primate auditory areas A1 and R. The core occupies a much smaller portion of tonotopically organized cortex on the superior temporal plane and gyrus than is generally supposed. The multi-modal approach to defining the auditory core will facilitate investigations of structure-function relationships, comparative neuroanatomical studies, and promises new biomarkers for diagnosis and clinical studies. PMID:23152594

Dick, Frederic; Tierney, Adam Taylor; Lutti, Antoine; Josephs, Oliver; Sereno, Martin I.; Weiskopf, Nikolaus



Functional integrity of the interrenal tissue of yellow perch from contaminated sites tested in vivo  

SciTech Connect

The normal activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI axis) in response to capture is disrupted in fish subjected to life-long exposure to heavy metals, PCBs and PAHs. The ability to increase plasma cortisol in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) from sites contaminated by heavy metals and organic compounds, and from a reference site was assessed by the Capture stress test and by the ACTH Challenge test, a new standardized in vivo method designed for field studies. The effects of seasonal factors, such as temperature and gonadal maturity on these tests were investigated. Measures of liver and muscle glycogen and histopathology were made to further characterize the biochemical and structural changes that may occur along with hormonal changes. The Capture stress test showed that an acute source of stress induced a lower cortisol response in fish from the highly contaminated site compared to the reference site, revealing a functional impairment of the HPI axis. The ACTH Challenge test showed that the hormonal responsiveness of the cortisol-secreting interrenal tissue, stimulated by a standard dose of ACTH injected i.p., was lower in fish from the highly contaminated site than the reference site. Spring is the season during which the impairment was the most evident. The possibility of using the reduced capacity of feral fish to respond to a standardized ACTH Challenge as an early bioindicator of toxic stress is discussed.

Girard, C.; Brodeur, J.C.; Hontela, A. [Univ. du Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)



In Vivo Characterization of Traumatic Brain Injury Neuropathology with Structural and Functional Neuroimaging  

PubMed Central

Quantitative neuroimaging is increasingly used to study the effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on brain structure and function. This paper reviews quantitative structural and functional neuroimaging studies of patients with TBI, with an emphasis on the effects of diffuse axonal injury (DAI), the primary neuropathology in TBI. Quantitative structural neuroimaging has evolved from simple planometric measurements through targeted region-of-interest analyses to whole-brain analysis of quantified tissue compartments. Recent studies converge to indicate widespread volume loss of both gray and white matter in patients with moderate-to-severe TBI. These changes can be documented even when patients with focal lesions are excluded. Broadly speaking, performance on standard neuropsychological tests of speeded information processing are related to these changes, but demonstration of specific brain-behavior relationships requires more refined experimental behavioral measures. The functional consequences of these structural changes can be imaged with activation functional neuroimaging. Although this line of research is at an early stage, results indicate that TBI causes a more widely dispersed activation in frontal and posterior cortices. Further progress in analysis of the consequences of TBI on neural structure and function will require control of variability in neuropathology and behavior. PMID:17020478




Fluorescence spectroscopic analysis (FSA) detects quantitative changes in atherosclerotic plaque collagen and elastin content In Vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to assess the capacity for in vivo fluorescence spectroscopi8c analysis of arterial collagen and elastin, fluorescence emission intensity was recorded form rabbit aorta after angioplasty and stent implant, and correlated with extracted elastin and collagen content. FEI from saline treated rabbits after stent implant was higher between 485 and 500 nm than after anti-inflammatory treatment. FEI was significantly decreased after implantation of shorter stents at 476-500 nm. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated an excellent correlation between FEI and elastin and HPLC- measured collagen content at 486-500 nm and 476-480 nm respectively. Conclusions: FEI recorded in vivo form arterial intimal surface, can be successfully used for quantitative assessment of compositional changes in connective tissue. Stent implant can induce changes in intimal arterial structure at discrete sites distant from the stent implant site.

Christov, Alexander M.; Dai, Erbin; Liu, Liying; Guan, Haiyan; Bernards, Mark A.; Cavers, Paul B.; Susko, David; Lucas, Alexandra



Corneal Viscoelastic Properties from Finite-Element Analysis of In Vivo Air-Puff Deformation  

PubMed Central

Biomechanical properties are an excellent health marker of biological tissues, however they are challenging to be measured in-vivo. Non-invasive approaches to assess tissue biomechanics have been suggested, but there is a clear need for more accurate techniques for diagnosis, surgical guidance and treatment evaluation. Recently air-puff systems have been developed to study the dynamic tissue response, nevertheless the experimental geometrical observations lack from an analysis that addresses specifically the inherent dynamic properties. In this study a viscoelastic finite element model was built that predicts the experimental corneal deformation response to an air-puff for different conditions. A sensitivity analysis reveals significant contributions to corneal deformation of intraocular pressure and corneal thickness, besides corneal biomechanical properties. The results show the capability of dynamic imaging to reveal inherent biomechanical properties in vivo. Estimates of corneal biomechanical parameters will contribute to the basic understanding of corneal structure, shape and integrity and increase the predictability of corneal surgery. PMID:25121496

Kling, Sabine; Bekesi, Nandor; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Pascual, Daniel; Marcos, Susana



The effect of glycerol-containing peritoneal dialysis fluid on peritoneal macrophage function in vivo.  


Though glucose is universally applied as osmotic agent in CAPD, there is great interest in the use of alternative osmotic agents. Glycerol-containing peritoneal dialysis fluids (G-PDF) have been used in an attempt to minimize the metabolic effects of long-term exposure to glucose, especially in patients with diabetes. Since data were lacking, we studied the effect of G-PDF on peritoneal macrophage (PMO) function. In a randomized cross-over setting eight stable diabetic CAPD patients performed the third and fourth exchange of the day with either G-PDF or with glucose-containing PDF (D-PDF) of comparable osmolality. The next day the patients who had used G-PDF were switched to D-PDF and vice versa. PMO were isolated from the effluents and tested for their phagocytic capacity and chemiluminescence response. No differences were encountered in total and differential white cell counts between G-PDF and D-PDF effluents. PMO phagocytic capacity for both S. epidermidis (SE) and E. coli (EC) was significantly depressed after the instillation of G-PDF as compared to D-PDF (SE: 52 +/- 2.7 vs 69 +/- 5.0%, p less than 0.02, and EC: 44 +/- 5.7 vs 63 +/- 6.7%, p less than 0.02). The same held true for peak chemiluminescence response (5.3 +/- 1.36 vs 7.2 +/- 1.43% of control cells, p less than 0.005). Thus, G-PDF may compromise PMO function in vivo more than D-PDF despite its more favourable metabolic profile as compared to D-PDF for diabetic patients. PMID:1680414

de Fijter, C W; Verbrugh, H A; Oe, P L; Peters, E D; van der Meulen, J; Donker, A J; Verhoef, J; Lameire, N



Optogenetic analysis of synaptic function  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce optogenetic investigation of neurotransmission (OptIoN) for time-resolved and quantitative assessment of synaptic function via behavioral and electrophysiological analyses. We photo-triggered release of acetylcholine or ?-aminobutyric acid at Caenorhabditis elegans neuromuscular junctions using targeted expression of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Channelrhodopsin-2. In intact Channelrhodopsin-2 transgenic worms, photostimulation instantly induced body elongation (for ?-aminobutyric acid) or contraction (for acetylcholine), which we analyzed

Jana F Liewald; Martin Brauner; Greg J Stephens; Magali Bouhours; Christian Schultheis; Mei Zhen; Alexander Gottschalk



Quantification of in vivo tumor invasion and vascularization by computerized image analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The matrix-inserted surface transplantation model is an in vivo assay used to analyse the kinetics of tumor–vessel interactions during different stages of skin carcinoma progression. This system allows the study of host–tumor interface, i.e. penetration of tumor cells into normal host tissue as well as infiltration of normal host cells into the tumor. In the present study, image analysis algorithms

S. Blacher; M. Jost; L. Melen-Lamalle; L. R. Lund; J. Romer; J. M. Foidart; A. Noël



Functional data analysis view of functional near infrared spectroscopy data.  


Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a powerful tool for the study of oxygenation and hemodynamics of living tissues. Despite the continuous nature of the processes generating the data, analysis of fNIRS data has been limited to discrete-time methods. We propose a technique, namely functional data analysis (fDA), that converts discrete samples to continuous curves. We used fNIRS data collected on forehead during a cold pressor test (CPT) from 20 healthy subjects. Using functional principal component analysis, oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxyhemoglobin (Hb) curves were decomposed into several components based on variability across the subjects. Each component corresponded to an experimental condition and provided qualitative and quantitative information of the shape and weight of that component. Furthermore, we applied functional canonical correlation analysis to investigate the interaction between Hb and HbO2 curves. We showed that the variation of Hb and HbO2 was positively correlated during the CPT, with a "far" channel on right forehead showing a smaller and faster HbO2 variation than Hb. This research suggests the fDA platform for the analysis of fNIRS data, which solves problem of high dimensionality, enables study of response dynamics, enhances characterization of the evoked response, and may improve design of future fNIRS experiments. PMID:24247748

Barati, Zeinab; Zakeri, Issa; Pourrezaei, Kambiz



In vitro and in vivo analysis of transcription within the replication region of plasmid pIP501.  


Derivatives of the conjugative streptococcal plasmid pIP501 replicate stably in Bacillus subtilis. The region essential for replication of pIP501 has been narrowed down to a 2.2 kb DNA segment, the sequence of which has been determined. This region comprises two genes, copR and repR, proposed to be involved in copy control and replication. By in vitro and in vivo transcriptional analysis we characterized three active promoters, pI, pII and pIII within this region. A putative fourth promoter (pIV) was neither active in vitro nor in vivo. We showed that copR is transcribed from promoter pI while the repR gene is transcribed from promoter pII located just downstream of copR. The pII transcript encompasses a 329 nucleotide (nt) long leader sequence. A counter transcript that was complementary to a major part of this leader was found to originate from a third promoter pIII. The secondary structure of the counter transcript revealed several stem-loop regions. A regulatory function for this antisense RNA in the control of repR expression is proposed. Comparative analysis of the replication regions of pAM beta 1 and pSM19035 suggested a similar organization of transcriptional units, suggesting that an antisense RNA is produced by these plasmids also. PMID:1379669

Brantl, S; Nuez, B; Behnke, D



Microtubule depolymerization normalizes in vivo myocardial contractile function in dogs with pressure-overload left ventricular hypertrophy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: Because initially compensatory myocardial hypertrophy in response to pressure overloading may eventually decompensate to myocardial failure, mechanisms responsible for this transition have long been sought. One such mechanism established in vitro is densification of the cellular microtubule network, which imposes a viscous load that inhibits cardiocyte contraction. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the present study, we extended this in vitro finding to the in vivo level and tested the hypothesis that this cytoskeletal abnormality is important in the in vivo contractile dysfunction that occurs in experimental aortic stenosis in the adult dog. In 8 dogs in which gradual stenosis of the ascending aorta had caused severe left ventricular (LV) pressure overloading (gradient, 152+/-16 mm Hg) with contractile dysfunction, LV function was measured at baseline and 1 hour after the intravenous administration of colchicine. Cardiocytes obtained by biopsy before and after in vivo colchicine administration were examined in tandem. Microtubule depolymerization restored LV contractile function both in vivo and in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: These and additional corroborative data show that increased cardiocyte microtubule network density is an important mechanism for the ventricular contractile dysfunction that develops in large mammals with adult-onset pressure-overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

Koide, M.; Hamawaki, M.; Narishige, T.; Sato, H.; Nemoto, S.; DeFreyte, G.; Zile, M. R.; Cooper G, I. V.; Carabello, B. A.



Design and analysis of a novel mechanical loading machine for dynamic in vivo axial loading  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the construction of a loading machine for performing in vivo, dynamic mechanical loading of the rodent forearm. The loading machine utilizes a unique type of electromagnetic actuator with no mechanically resistive components (servotube), allowing highly accurate loads to be created. A regression analysis of the force created by the actuator with respect to the input voltage demonstrates high linear correlation (R2 = 1). When the linear correlation is used to create dynamic loading waveforms in the frequency (0.5–10 Hz) and load (1–50 N) range used for in vivo loading, less than 1% normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) is computed. Larger NRMSE is found at increased frequencies, with 5%–8% occurring at 40 Hz, and reasons are discussed. Amplifiers (strain gauge, linear voltage displacement transducer (LVDT), and load cell) are constructed, calibrated, and integrated, to allow well-resolved dynamic measurements to be recorded at each program cycle. Each of the amplifiers uses an active filter with cutoff frequency at the maximum in vivo loading frequencies (50 Hz) so that electronic noise generated by the servo drive and actuator are reduced. The LVDT and load cell amplifiers allow evaluation of stress-strain relationships to determine if in vivo bone damage is occurring. The strain gauge amplifier allows dynamic force to strain calibrations to occur for animals of different sex, age, and strain. Unique features are integrated into the loading system, including a weightless mode, which allows the limbs of anesthetized animals to be quickly positioned and removed. Although the device is constructed for in vivo axial bone loading, it can be used within constraints, as a general measurement instrument in a laboratory setting. PMID:22380131

Macione, James; Nesbitt, Sterling; Pandit, Vaibhav; Kotha, Shiva



Design and analysis of a novel mechanical loading machine for dynamic in vivo axial loading.  


This paper describes the construction of a loading machine for performing in vivo, dynamic mechanical loading of the rodent forearm. The loading machine utilizes a unique type of electromagnetic actuator with no mechanically resistive components (servotube), allowing highly accurate loads to be created. A regression analysis of the force created by the actuator with respect to the input voltage demonstrates high linear correlation (R(2) = 1). When the linear correlation is used to create dynamic loading waveforms in the frequency (0.5-10 Hz) and load (1-50 N) range used for in vivo loading, less than 1% normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) is computed. Larger NRMSE is found at increased frequencies, with 5%-8% occurring at 40 Hz, and reasons are discussed. Amplifiers (strain gauge, linear voltage displacement transducer (LVDT), and load cell) are constructed, calibrated, and integrated, to allow well-resolved dynamic measurements to be recorded at each program cycle. Each of the amplifiers uses an active filter with cutoff frequency at the maximum in vivo loading frequencies (50 Hz) so that electronic noise generated by the servo drive and actuator are reduced. The LVDT and load cell amplifiers allow evaluation of stress-strain relationships to determine if in vivo bone damage is occurring. The strain gauge amplifier allows dynamic force to strain calibrations to occur for animals of different sex, age, and strain. Unique features are integrated into the loading system, including a weightless mode, which allows the limbs of anesthetized animals to be quickly positioned and removed. Although the device is constructed for in vivo axial bone loading, it can be used within constraints, as a general measurement instrument in a laboratory setting. PMID:22380131

Macione, James; Nesbitt, Sterling; Pandit, Vaibhav; Kotha, Shiva



Development of a fluorescence-based in vivo phagocytosis assay to measure mononuclear phagocyte system function in the rat.  


Abstract The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) which provides protection against infection is made up of phagocytic cells that engulf and digest bacteria or other foreign substances. Suppression of the MPS may lead to decreased clearance of pathogenic microbes. Drug delivery systems and immunomodulatory therapeutics that target phagocytes have a potential to inhibit MPS function. Available methods to measure inhibition of MPS function use uptake of radioactively-labeled cells or labor-intensive semi-quantitative histologic techniques. The objective of this work was to develop a non-radioactive quantitative method to measure MPS function in vivo by administering heat-killed E. coli conjugated to a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye (Bioparticles®). Fluorescence of the Bioparticles® is increased at low pH when they are in phagocytic lysosomes. The amount of Bioparticles® phagocytosed by MPS organs in rats was determined by measuring fluorescence intensity in livers and spleens ex vivo using an IVIS® Spectrum Pre-clinical In Vivo Imaging System. Phagocytosis of the particles by peripheral blood neutrophils was measured by flow cytometry. To assess method sensitivity, compounds likely to suppress the MPS [clodronate-containing liposomes, carboxylate-modified latex particles, maleic vinyl ether (MVE) polymer] were administered to rats prior to injection of the Bioparticles®. The E. coli particles consistently co-localized with macrophage markers in the liver but not in the spleen. All of the compounds tested decreased phagocytosis in the liver, but had no consistent effects on phagocytic activity in the spleen. In addition, administration of clodronate liposomes and MVE polymer increased the percentage of peripheral blood neutrophils that phagocytosed the Bioparticles®. In conclusion, an in vivo rat model was developed that measures phagocytosis of E. coli particles in the liver and may be used to assess the impact of test compounds on MPS function. Still, the detection of inhibition of splenic macrophage function will require further assay development. PMID:25027674

Tartaro, Karrie; VanVolkenburg, Maria; Wilkie, Dean; Coskran, Timothy M; Kreeger, John M; Kawabata, Thomas T; Casinghino, Sandra



In Vivo Application of Optogenetics for Neural Circuit Analysis Biomedical Engineering Department, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States  

E-print Network

In Vivo Application of Optogenetics for Neural Circuit Analysis Xue Han Biomedical Engineering Department, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States ABSTRACT: Optogenetics combines optical temporal precision, optogenetic tools have enabled new ways to probe the causal role of specific cells

Han, Xue


In vivo skin biophysical behaviour and surface topography as a function of ageing.  


Normal skin ageing is characterised by an alteration of the underlying connective tissue with measurable consequences on global skin biophysical properties. The cutis laxa syndrome, a rare genetic disorder, is considered as an accelerated ageing process since patients appear prematurely aged due to alterations of dermal elastic fibres. In the present study, we compared the topography and the biomechanical parameters of normal aged skin with an 17 year old cutis laxa patient. Skin topography analyses were conducted on normal skin at different ages. The results indicate that the skin relief highly changes as a function of ageing. The cutaneous lines change from a relatively isotropic orientation to a highly anisotropic orientation. This reorganisation of the skin relief during the ageing process might be due to a modification of the skin mechanical properties, and particularly to a modification of the dermis mechanical properties. A specific bio-tribometer, based on the indentationtechnique under light load, has been developed to study the biophysical properties of the human skin in vivo through two main parameters: the physico-chemical properties of the skin surface, by measuring the maximum adhesion force between the skin and the bio-tribometer; and the bulk mechanical properties. Our results show that the pull-off force between the skin and the biotribometer as well as the skin Young's modulus decrease with age. In the case of the young cutis laxa patient, the results obtained were similar to those observed for aged individuals. These results are very interesting and encouraging since they would allow the monitoring of the cutis laxa skin in a standardised and non-invasive way to better characterize either the evolution of the disease or the benefit of a treatment. PMID:23664827

Pailler-Mattei, C; Debret, R; Vargiolu, R; Sommer, P; Zahouani, H



Impact of RNA Editing on Functions of the Serotonin 2C Receptor in vivo  

PubMed Central

Transcripts encoding 5-HT2C receptors are modified posttranscriptionally by RNA editing, generating up to 24 protein isoforms. In recombinant cells, the fully edited isoform, 5-HT2C-VGV, exhibits blunted G-protein coupling and reduced constitutive activity. The present studies examine the signal transduction properties of 5-HT2C-VGV receptors in brain to determine the in vivo consequences of altered editing. Using mice solely expressing the 5-HT2C-VGV receptor (VGV/Y), we demonstrate reduced G-protein coupling efficiency and high-affinity agonist binding of brain 5-HT2C-VGV receptors. However, enhanced behavioral sensitivity to a 5-HT2C receptor agonist was also seen in mice expressing 5-HT2C-VGV receptors, an unexpected finding given the blunted G-protein coupling. In addition, mice expressing 5-HT2C-VGV receptors had greater sensitivity to a 5-HT2C inverse agonist/antagonist enhancement of dopamine turnover relative to wild-type mice. These behavioral and biochemical results are most likely explained by increases in 5-HT2C receptor binding sites in the brains of mice solely expressing 5-HT2C-VGV receptors. We conclude that 5-HT2C-VGV receptor signaling in brain is blunted, but this deficiency is masked by a marked increase in 5-HT2C receptor binding site density in mice solely expressing the VGV isoform. These findings suggest that RNA editing may regulate the density of 5-HT2C receptor binding sites in brain. We further caution that the pattern of 5-HT2C receptor RNA isoforms may not reflect the pattern of protein isoforms, and hence the inferred overall function of the receptor. PMID:20582266

Olaghere da Silva, Uade B.; Morabito, Michael V.; Canal, Clinton E.; Airey, David C.; Emeson, Ronald B.; Sanders-Bush, Elaine



In vivo neutron activation analysis: body composition studies in health and disease  

SciTech Connect

In vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation is an important tool in medical research. It has provided a direct quantitative measure of body composition of human beings in vivo. Basic physiological differences related to age, sex, race, and body size have been assessed by this noninvasive technique. The diagnosis and management of patients with various metabolic disorders and diseases has also been demonstrated. Two major facilities at Brookhaven are being utilized exclusively for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen, hydrogen, and potassium. These elements serve as the basis for a four compartment model of body composition: protein, water, mineral ash, and fat. Variations in these compartments are demonstrated in clinical research programs investigating obesity, anorexia, cancer, renal failure, osteoporosis, and normal aging. IVNAA continues to provide a unique approach to the evaluation of clinical diagnosis, efficacy of therapeutic regimens, and monitoring of the aging process. Classical balance studies usually require the patient to be admitted to a hospital for extended periods of confinement. IVNAA, however, allows for clinical management of the patient on an out-patient basis, an important aspect for treatment of chronic diseases. 25 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.



Global analysis of the eukaryotic pathways and networks regulated by Salmonella typhimurium in mouse intestinal infection in vivo  

PubMed Central

Background Acute enteritis caused by Salmonella is a public health concern. Salmonella infection is also known to increase the risk of inflammatory bowel diseases and cancer. Therefore, it is important to understand how Salmonella works in targeting eukaryotic pathways in intestinal infection. However, the global physiological function of Salmonella typhimurium in intestinal mucosa in vivo is unclear. In this study, a whole genome approach combined with bioinformatics assays was used to investigate the in vivo genetic responses of the mouse colon to Salmonella. We focused on the intestinal responses in the early stage (8 hours) and late stage (4 days) after Salmonella infection. Results Of the 28,000 genes represented on the array, our analysis of mRNA expression in mouse colon mucosa showed that a total of 856 genes were expressed differentially at 8 hours post-infection. At 4 days post-infection, a total of 7558 genes were expressed differentially. 23 differentially expressed genes from the microarray data was further examined by real-time PCR. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis identified that the most significant pathway associated with the differentially expressed genes in 8 hours post-infection is oxidative phosphorylation, which targets the mitochondria. At the late stage of infection, a series of pathways associated with immune and inflammatory response, proliferation, and apoptosis were identified, whereas the oxidative phosphorylation was shut off. Histology analysis confirmed the biological role of Salmonella, which induced a physiological state of inflammation and proliferation in the colon mucosa through the regulation of multiple signaling pathways. Most of the metabolism-related pathways were targeted by down-regulated genes, and a general repression process of metabolic pathways was observed. Network analysis supported IFN-? and TNF-? function as mediators of the immune/inflammatory response for host defense against pathogen. Conclusion Our study provides novel genome-wide transcriptional profiling data on the mouse colon mucosa's response to the Salmonella typhimurium infection. Building the pathways and networks of interactions between these genes help us to understand the complex interplay in the mice colon during Salmonella infection, and further provide new insights into the molecular cascade, which is mobilized to combat Salmonella-associated colon infection in vivo. PMID:21172007



Understanding of Brain Function Multivariate Pattern Analysis  

E-print Network

of multivariate pattern analysis techniques to fMRI datasets is in- troduced. PyMVPA makes use of Python's ability goals of functional brain imaging. Standard univariate fMRI analysis methods, which correlate cognitive analyses of fMRI data. This in turn prevents the adoption of these methods by a large number of research

Bucci, David J.


Inhibition of adenine nucleotide translocator pore function and protection against apoptosis in vivo by an HIV protease inhibitor  

PubMed Central

Inhibitors of HIV protease have been shown to have antiapoptotic effects in vitro, yet whether these effects are seen in vivo remains controversial. In this study, we have evaluated the impact of the HIV protease inhibitor (PI) nelfinavir, boosted with ritonavir, in models of nonviral disease associated with excessive apoptosis. In mice with Fas-induced fatal hepatitis, Staphylococcal enterotoxin B–induced shock, and middle cerebral artery occlusion–induced stroke, we demonstrate that PIs significantly reduce apoptosis and improve histology, function, and/or behavioral recovery in each of these models. Further, we demonstrate that both in vitro and in vivo, PIs block apoptosis through the preservation of mitochondrial integrity and that in vitro PIs act to prevent pore function of the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) subunit of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex. PMID:15937550

Weaver, Joel G.R.; Tarze, Agathe; Moffat, Tia C.; LeBras, Morgane; Deniaud, Aurelien; Brenner, Catherine; Bren, Gary D.; Morin, Mario Y.; Phenix, Barbara N.; Dong, Li; Jiang, Susan X.; Sim, Valerie L.; Zurakowski, Bogdan; Lallier, Jessica; Hardin, Heather; Wettstein, Peter; van Heeswijk, Rolf P.G.; Douen, Andre; Kroemer, Romano T.; Hou, Sheng T.; Bennett, Steffany A.L.; Lynch, David H.; Kroemer, Guido; Badley, Andrew D.



Surface Characterization by Structure Function Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure function is a tool for characterizing technical surfaces which exhibits a number of advantages over Fourier-based analysis methods. So it is optimally suited for analyzing the height distributions of surfaces measured by full-field non-contacting methods. After the definition of line- and area-structure function and offering effective procedures for their calculation this tutorial paper presents examples using simulated and measured data of machined surfaces as well as optical components. Comparisons with the results of Fourier-based evaluations clearly prove the advantages of structure function analysis.

Kreis, T.; Burke, J.; Bergmann, R. B.



FALL STrUCTUrE, dYNAMiCS & FUNCTiON Mouse in-vivo MRI probe and proton RF coil for the UWB 900 MRI scanner.  

E-print Network

FALL STrUCTUrE, dYNAMiCS & FUNCTiON Figure 1. Mouse in-vivo MRI probe and proton RF coil for the UWB 900 MRI scanner. In vivo Mr imaging at 21.1 T Victor D. Schepkin, Samuel C. Grant and Timothy A imaging experiments using the Magnet lab world-record 900 uWB magnet. ExpEriMENTAL Testing the in vivo Mri

Weston, Ken


In Vivo Image Analysis of BoHV-4-Based Vector in Mice  

PubMed Central

Due to its biological characteristics bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) has been considered as an appropriate gene delivery vector. Its genomic clone, modified as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), is better genetically manipulable and can be used as an efficient gene delivery and vaccine vector. Although a large amount of data have been accumulated in vitro on this specific aspect, the same cannot be asserted for the in vivo condition. Therefore, here we investigated the fate of a recombinant BoHV-4 strain expressing luciferase (BoHV-4-A-CMVluc?TK) after intraperitoneal or intravenous inoculation in mice, by generating a novel recombinant BoHV-4 expressing luciferase (BoHV-4-A-CMVluc?TK) and by following the virus replication through in vivo imaging analysis. BoHV-4-A-CMVluc?TK was first characterized in vitro where it was shown, on one hand that its replication properties are identical to those of the parental virus, and on the other that the transduced/infected cells strongly express luciferase. When BoHV-4-A-CMVluc?TK was inoculated in mice, either intraperitoneally or intravenously, BoHV-4-A-CMVluc?TK infection/transduction was exclusively localized to the liver, as detected by in vivo image analysis, and in particular almost exclusively in the hepatocytes, as determined by immuno-histochemistry. These data, that add a new insight on the biology of BoHV-4 in vivo, provide the first indication for the potential use of a BoHV-4-based vector in gene-transfer in the liver. PMID:24752229

Franceschi, Valentina; Stellari, Fabio Franco; Mangia, Carlo; Jacca, Sarah; Lavrentiadou, Sophia; Cavirani, Sandro; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Donofrio, Gaetano



Fucoidan Can Function as an Adjuvant In Vivo to Enhance Dendritic Cell Maturation and Function and Promote Antigen-Specific T Cell Immune Responses  

PubMed Central

Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide purified from brown algae, has a variety of immune-modulation effects, including promoting antigen uptake and enhancing anti-viral and anti-tumor effects. However, the effect of fucoidan in vivo, especially its adjuvant effect on in vivo anti-tumor immune responses, was not fully investigated. In this study, we investigated the effect of fucoidan on the function of spleen dendritic cells (DCs) and its adjuvant effect in vivo. Systemic administration of fucoidan induced up-regulation of CD40, CD80 and CD86 expression and production of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-? in spleen cDCs. Fucoidan also promoted the generation of IFN-?-producing Th1 and Tc1 cells in an IL-12-dependent manner. When used as an adjuvant in vivo with ovalbumin (OVA) antigen, fucoidan promoted OVA-specific antibody production and primed IFN-? production in OVA-specific T cells. Moreover, fucoidan enhanced OVA-induced up-regulation of MHC class I and II on spleen cDCs and strongly prompted the proliferation of OVA-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells. Finally, OVA immunization with fucoidan as adjuvant protected mice from the challenge with B16-OVA tumor cells. Taken together, these results suggest that fucoidan can function as an adjuvant to induce Th1 immune response and CTL activation, which may be useful in tumor vaccine development. PMID:24911024

Jin, Jun-O; Zhang, Wei; Du, Jiang-Yuan; Wong, Ka-Wing; Oda, Tatsuya; Yu, Qing



Functional principal components analysis of workload capacity functions  

PubMed Central

Workload capacity, an important concept in many areas of psychology, describes processing efficiency across changes in workload. The capacity coefficient is a function across time that provides a useful measure of this construct. Until now, most analyses of the capacity coefficient have focused on the magnitude of this function, and often only in terms of a qualitative comparison (greater than or less than one). This work explains how a functional extension of principal components analysis can capture the time-extended information of these functional data, using a small number of scalar values chosen to emphasize the variance between participants and conditions. This approach provides many possibilities for a more fine-grained study of differences in workload capacity across tasks and individuals. PMID:23475829

Burns, Devin M.; Houpt, Joseph W.; Townsend, James T.; Endres, Michael J.



Relations among Functional Systems in Behavior Analysis  

PubMed Central

This paper proposes that an organism's integrated repertoire of operant behavior has the status of a biological system, similar to other biological systems, like the nervous, cardiovascular, or immune systems. Evidence from a number of sources indicates that the distinctions between biological and behavioral events is often misleading, engendering counterproductive explanatory controversy. A good deal of what is viewed as biological (often thought to be inaccessible or hypothetical) can become publicly measurable variables using currently available and developing technologies. Moreover, such endogenous variables can serve as establishing operations, discriminative stimuli, conjoint mediating events, and maintaining consequences within a functional analysis of behavior and need not lead to reductionistic explanation. I suggest that explanatory misunderstandings often arise from conflating different levels of analysis and that behavior analysis can extend its reach by identifying variables operating within a functional analysis that also serve functions in other biological systems. PMID:17575907

Thompson, Travis



Inhibitory Monoclonal Antibodies against Mouse Proteases Raised in Gene-Deficient Mice Block Proteolytic Functions in vivo  

PubMed Central

Identification of targets for cancer therapy requires the understanding of the in vivo roles of proteins, which can be derived from studies using gene-targeted mice. An alternative strategy is the administration of inhibitory monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), causing acute disruption of the target protein function(s). This approach has the advantage of being a model for therapeutic targeting. mAbs for use in mouse models can be obtained through immunization of gene-deficient mice with the autologous protein. Such mAbs react with both species-specific epitopes and epitopes conserved between species. mAbs against proteins involved in extracellular proteolysis, including plasminogen activators urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), their inhibitor PAI-1, the uPA receptor (uPAR), two matrix metalloproteinases (MMP9 and MMP14), as well as the collagen internalization receptor uPARAP, have been developed. The inhibitory mAbs against uPA and uPAR block plasminogen activation and thereby hepatic fibrinolysis in vivo. Wound healing, another plasmin-dependent process, is delayed by an inhibitory mAb against uPA in the adult mouse. Thromboembolism can be inhibited by anti-PAI-1 mAbs in vivo. In conclusion, function-blocking mAbs are well-suited for targeted therapy in mouse models of different diseases, including cancer. PMID:22754528

Lund, Ida K.; Rasch, Morten G.; Ingvarsen, Signe; Pass, Jesper; Madsen, Daniel H.; Engelholm, Lars H.; Behrendt, Niels; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla



Functional analysis of colonic bacterial metabolism: relevant to health?  

PubMed Central

With the use of molecular techniques, numerous studies have evaluated the composition of the intestinal microbiota in health and disease. However, it is of major interest to supplement this with a functional analysis of the microbiota. In this review, the different approaches that have been used to characterize microbial metabolites, yielding information on the functional end products of microbial metabolism, have been summarized. To analyze colonic microbial metabolites, the most conventional way is by application of a hypothesis-driven targeted approach, through quantification of selected metabolites from carbohydrate (e.g., short-chain fatty acids) and protein fermentation (e.g., p-cresol, phenol, ammonia, or H2S), secondary bile acids, or colonic enzymes. The application of stable isotope-labeled substrates can provide an elegant solution to study these metabolic pathways in vivo. On the other hand, a top-down approach can be followed by applying metabolite fingerprinting techniques based on 1H-NMR or mass spectrometric analysis. Quantification of known metabolites and characterization of metabolite patterns in urine, breath, plasma, and fecal samples can reveal new pathways and give insight into physiological regulatory processes of the colonic microbiota. In addition, specific metabolic profiles can function as a diagnostic tool for the identification of several gastrointestinal diseases, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Nevertheless, future research will have to evaluate the relevance of associations between metabolites and different disease states. PMID:22016433

Hamer, Henrike M.; De Preter, Vicky; Windey, Karen



Medical applications of in vivo neutron inelastic scattering and neutron activation analysis: Technical similarities to detection of explosives and contraband  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutritional status of patients can be evaluated by monitoring changes in elemental body composition. Fast neutron activation (for N and P) and neutron inelastic scattering (for C and O) are used in vivo to assess elements characteristic of specific body compartments. There are similarities between the body composition techniques and the detection of hidden explosives and narcotics. All samples have to be examined in depth and the ratio of elements provides a "signature" of the chemical of interest. The N/H and C/O ratios measure protein and fat content in the body. Similarly, a high C/O ratio is characteristic of narcotics and a low C/O together with a strong presence of N is a signature of some explosives. The available time for medical applications is about 20 min—compared to a few seconds for the detection of explosives—but the permitted radiation exposure is limited. In vivo neutron analysis is used to measure H, O, C, N, P, Na, Cl, and Ca for the study of the mechanisms of lean tissue depletion with aging and wasting diseases, and to investigate methods of preserving function and quality of life in the elderly.

Kehayias, J. J.



HelioScan: a software framework for controlling in vivo microscopy setups with high hardware flexibility, functional diversity and extendibility.  


Intravital microscopy such as in vivo imaging of brain dynamics is often performed with custom-built microscope setups controlled by custom-written software to meet specific requirements. Continuous technological advancement in the field has created a need for new control software that is flexible enough to support the biological researcher with innovative imaging techniques and provide the developer with a solid platform for quickly and easily implementing new extensions. Here, we introduce HelioScan, a software package written in LabVIEW, as a platform serving this dual role. HelioScan is designed as a collection of components that can be flexibly assembled into microscope control software tailored to the particular hardware and functionality requirements. Moreover, HelioScan provides a software framework, within which new functionality can be implemented in a quick and structured manner. A specific HelioScan application assembles at run-time from individual software components, based on user-definable configuration files. Due to its component-based architecture, HelioScan can exploit synergies of multiple developers working in parallel on different components in a community effort. We exemplify the capabilities and versatility of HelioScan by demonstrating several in vivo brain imaging modes, including camera-based intrinsic optical signal imaging for functional mapping of cortical areas, standard two-photon laser-scanning microscopy using galvanometric mirrors, and high-speed in vivo two-photon calcium imaging using either acousto-optic deflectors or a resonant scanner. We recommend HelioScan as a convenient software framework for the in vivo imaging community. PMID:23416135

Langer, Dominik; van 't Hoff, Marcel; Keller, Andreas J; Nagaraja, Chetan; Pfäffli, Oliver A; Göldi, Maurice; Kasper, Hansjörg; Helmchen, Fritjof



Integrating EMR-Linked and In Vivo Functional Genetic Data to Identify New Genotype-Phenotype Associations  

PubMed Central

The coupling of electronic medical records (EMR) with genetic data has created the potential for implementing reverse genetic approaches in humans, whereby the function of a gene is inferred from the shared pattern of morbidity among homozygotes of a genetic variant. We explored the feasibility of this approach to identify phenotypes associated with low frequency variants using Vanderbilt's EMR-based BioVU resource. We analyzed 1,658 low frequency non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) with a minor allele frequency (MAF)<10% collected on 8,546 subjects. For each nsSNP, we identified diagnoses shared by at least 2 minor allele homozygotes and with an association p<0.05. The diagnoses were reviewed by a clinician to ascertain whether they may share a common mechanistic basis. While a number of biologically compelling clinical patterns of association were observed, the frequency of these associations was identical to that observed using genotype-permuted data sets, indicating that the associations were likely due to chance. To refine our analysis associations, we then restricted the analysis to 711 nsSNPs in genes with phenotypes in the On-line Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) or knock-out mouse phenotype databases. An initial comparison of the EMR diagnoses to the known in vivo functions of the gene identified 25 candidate nsSNPs, 19 of which had significant genotype-phenotype associations when tested using matched controls. Twleve of the 19 nsSNPs associations were confirmed by a detailed record review. Four of 12 nsSNP-phenotype associations were successfully replicated in an independent data set: thrombosis (F5,rs6031), seizures/convulsions (GPR98,rs13157270), macular degeneration (CNGB3,rs3735972), and GI bleeding (HGFAC,rs16844401). These analyses demonstrate the feasibility and challenges of using reverse genetics approaches to identify novel gene-phenotype associations in human subjects using low frequency variants. As increasing amounts of rare variant data are generated from modern genotyping and sequence platforms, model organism data may be an important tool to enable discovery. PMID:24949630

Mosley, Jonathan D.; Van Driest, Sara L.; Weeke, Peter E.; Delaney, Jessica T.; Wells, Quinn S.; Bastarache, Lisa; Roden, Dan M.; Denny, Josh C.



Comparison of polyethylene tibial insert damage from in vivo function and in vitro wear simulation.  


Function and wear of total knee arthroplasties were compared by analysis of damage patterns on polyethylene tibial inserts retrieved from patients (Group R) with inserts obtained after in vitro force-controlled knee joint wear simulation. Two simulator input profiles were evaluated, including standard walking (Group W), and combined walking and stair descent (Group W + S), simulating varied activities and a more severe physiological environment. Damage regions on all inserts were quantitatively assessed. On average, inserts in all groups had internally rotated damage patterns and the greatest articular deformation in the lateral compartment. These patterns were more pronounced in Group W + S compared to Group W. Deformation rates of simulated inserts were analogous to about six years of physiologic function. However, both groups of simulated inserts generally underestimated the magnitude of damage area and extent observed on retrieved inserts, consistent with differences in the simulator's tibiofemoral contact mechanics and those known to occur in patients during functional activities. Modification of simulator inputs, such as the increased anteroposterior excursion and more severe loading conditions in Group W + S, can generate greater wear volume, larger damage areas, and increased surface deformation rates compared to standard inputs. PMID:18932244

Harman, Melinda K; DesJardins, John; Benson, Lisa; Banks, Scott A; LaBerge, Martine; Hodge, W Andrew



Camostat attenuates airway epithelial sodium channel function in vivo through the inhibition of a channel-activating protease.  


Inhibition of airway epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) function enhances mucociliary clearance (MCC). ENaC is positively regulated by channel-activating proteases (CAPs), and CAP inhibitors are therefore predicted to be beneficial in diseases associated with impaired MCC. The aims of the present study were to 1) identify low-molecular-weight inhibitors of airway CAPs and 2) to establish whether such CAP inhibitors would translate into a negative regulation of ENaC function in vivo, with a consequent enhancement of MCC. To this end, camostat, a trypsin-like protease inhibitor, provided a potent (IC(50) approximately 50 nM) and prolonged attenuation of ENaC function in human airway epithelial cell models that was reversible upon the addition of excess trypsin. In primary human bronchial epithelial cells, a potency order of placental bikunin > camostat > 4-guanidinobenzoic acid 4-carboxymethyl-phenyl ester > aprotinin > soybean trypsin inhibitor = alpha1-antitrypsin, was largely consistent with that observed for inhibition of prostasin, a molecular candidate for the airway CAP. In vivo, topical airway administration of camostat induced a potent and prolonged attenuation of ENaC activity in the guinea pig trachea (ED(50) = 3 microg/kg). When administered by aerosol inhalation in conscious sheep, camostat enhanced MCC out to at least 5 h after inhaled dosing. In summary, camostat attenuates ENaC function and enhances MCC, providing an opportunity for this approach toward the negative regulation of ENaC function to be tested therapeutically. PMID:19190233

Coote, K; Atherton-Watson, H C; Sugar, R; Young, A; MacKenzie-Beevor, A; Gosling, M; Bhalay, G; Bloomfield, G; Dunstan, A; Bridges, R J; Sabater, J R; Abraham, W M; Tully, D; Pacoma, R; Schumacher, A; Harris, J; Danahay, H



L-type CaV1.2 calcium channels: from in vitro findings to in vivo function.  


The L-type Cav1.2 calcium channel is present throughout the animal kingdom and is essential for some aspects of CNS function, cardiac and smooth muscle contractility, neuroendocrine regulation, and multiple other processes. The L-type CaV1.2 channel is built by up to four subunits; all subunits exist in various splice variants that potentially affect the biophysical and biological functions of the channel. Many of the CaV1.2 channel properties have been analyzed in heterologous expression systems including regulation of the L-type CaV1.2 channel by Ca(2+) itself and protein kinases. However, targeted mutations of the calcium channel genes confirmed only some of these in vitro findings. Substitution of the respective serines by alanine showed that ?-adrenergic upregulation of the cardiac CaV1.2 channel did not depend on the phosphorylation of the in vitro specified amino acids. Moreover, well-established in vitro phosphorylation sites of the CaV?2 subunit of the cardiac L-type CaV1.2 channel were found to be irrelevant for the in vivo regulation of the channel. However, the molecular basis of some kinetic properties, such as Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation and facilitation, has been approved by in vivo mutagenesis of the CaV1.2?1 gene. This article summarizes recent findings on the in vivo relevance of well-established in vitro results. PMID:24382889

Hofmann, Franz; Flockerzi, Veit; Kahl, Sabine; Wegener, Jörg W



Engineering robust and functional vascular networks in vivo with human adult and cord blood-derived progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

The success of therapeutic vascularization and tissue engineering will rely on our ability to create vascular networks using human cells that can be obtained readily, expanded safely ex vivo and produce robust vasculogenic activity in vivo. Here we describe the formation of functional microvascular beds in immunodeficient mice by co-implantation of human endothelial and mesenchymal progenitor cells (EPCs and MPCs) isolated from blood and bone marrow. Evaluation of implants after one week revealed an extensive network of human blood vessels containing erythrocytes, indicating the rapid formation of functional anastomoses within the host vasculature. The implanted EPCs were restricted to the luminal aspect of the vessels; MPCs were adjacent to lumens, confirming their role as perivascular cells. Importantly, the engineered vascular networks remained patent at 4 weeks in vivo. This rapid formation of long-lasting microvascular networks by postnatal progenitor cells obtained from non-invasive sources constitutes an important step forward in the development of clinical strategies for tissue vascularization. PMID:18556575

Melero-Martin, Juan M.; De Obaldia, Maria E.; Kang, Soo-Young; Khan, Zia A.; Yuan, Lei; Oettgen, Peter; Bischoff, Joyce



Slam haplotypes modulate the response to LPS in vivo through control of NKT cell number and function1  

PubMed Central

CD1d-restricted NKT cells comprise an innate-like T cell subset that hasbeen demonstrated to play a role in amplifying the response of innate immune leukocytesto TLR ligands. The Slam locus contains genes that have been implicated in both innate and adaptive immune responses. Here, we demonstrate that divergent Slam locus haplotypesmodulate the response of macrophages to TLR ligands such as LPS through their control of NKT cell number and function. In response to LPS challenge in vivo, macrophage TNF production in Slam haplotype-2-associated 129S1/SvImJ and 129X1/SvJ mice was significantly impaired in comparison to macrophage TNF production in Slam haplotype -1-positive C57BL/6J mice. Although no cell-intrinsic differences in macrophage responses to LPS were observed between strains, 129 mice were found to be deficient in liver NKT cell number, in NKT cell cytokine production in response to the CD1d ligand ?-galactosylceramide, and in NKT cell IFN-? production after LPS challenge in vivo. Using B6.129 c1congenic mice and adoptive transfer, we found that divergent Slam haplotypes controlled both the response to LPS in vivo as well as the diminished NKT cell number and function, and that these phenotypes were associated with differential expression of SLAM family receptors on NKT cells. These data suggest that the polymorphisms that distinguish two Slam haplotypes significantly modulate the innate immune response in vivothrough their effect on NKT cell s. PMID:20530260

Aktan, Idil; Chant, Alan; Borg, Zachary D.; Damby, David E.; Leenstra, Paige; Lilley, Graham; Petty, Joseph; Suratt, Benjamin T.; Teuscher, Cory; Wakeland, Edward K.; Poynter, Matthew E.; Boyson, Jonathan E.



In vivo tracking of platelets: circulating degranulated platelets rapidly lose surface P-selectin but continue to circulate and function.  

PubMed Central

To examine the hypothesis that surface P-selectin-positive (degranulated) platelets are rapidly cleared from the circulation, we developed novel methods for tracking of platelets and measurement of platelet function in vivo. Washed platelets prepared from nonhuman primates (baboons) were labeled with PKH2 (a lipophilic fluorescent dye), thrombin-activated, washed, and reinfused into the same baboons. Three-color whole blood flow cytometry was used to simultaneously (i) identify platelets with a mAb directed against glycoprotein (GP)IIb-IIIa (integrin alpha 11b beta 3), (ii) distinguish infused platelets by their PKH2 fluorescence, and (iii) analyze platelet function with mAbs. Two hours after infusion of autologous thrombin-activated platelets (P-selectin-positive, PKH2-labeled), 95 +/- 1% (mean +/- SEM, n = 5) of the circulating PKH2-labeled platelets had become P-selectin-negative. Compared with platelets not activated with thrombin preinfusion, the recovery of these circulating PKH2-labeled, P-selectin-negative platelets was similar 24 h after infusion and only slightly less 48 h after infusion. The loss of platelet surface P-selectin was fully accounted for by a 67.1 +/- 16.7 ng/ml increase in the plasma concentration of soluble P-selectin. The circulating PKH2-labeled, P-selectin-negative platelets were still able to function in vivo, as determined by their (i) participation in platelet aggregates emerging from a bleeding time wound, (ii) binding to Dacron in an arteriovenous shunt, (iii) binding of mAb PAC1 (directed against the fibrinogen binding site on GPIIb-IIIa), and (iv) generation of procoagulant platelet-derived microparticles. In summary, (i) circulating degranulated platelets rapidly lose surface P-selectin to the plasma pool, but continue to circulate and function; and (ii) we have developed novel three-color whole blood flow cytometric methods for tracking of platelets and measurement of platelet function in vivo. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 5 PMID:8876231

Michelson, A D; Barnard, M R; Hechtman, H B; MacGregor, H; Connolly, R J; Loscalzo, J; Valeri, C R



Construction of a reporter vector system for in vivo analysis of promoter activity in Propionibacterium freudenreichii.  


A beta-galactosidase reporter system for the analysis of promoter elements in Propionibacterium freudenreichii was designed. The pTD210 in vivo reporter vector was constructed using a promoterless lacZ gene from Bifidobacterium longum cloned into the pAMT1 plasmid. The utility of the pTD210 reporter vector was demonstrated by an investigation of six predicted promoters in P. freudenreichii. The system produced accurate and reproducible measurements that facilitated both promoter identification and the quantification of promoter activities. PMID:18424545

Faye, Therese; Asebø, Anita; Salehian, Zhian; Langsrud, Thor; Nes, Ingolf F; Brede, Dag Anders



Surface loop resonator design for in vivo EPR tooth dosimetry using finite element analysis.  


Finite element analysis is used to evaluate and design L-band surface loop resonators for in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) tooth dosimetry. This approach appears to be practical and useful for the systematic examination and evaluation of resonator configurations to enhance the precision of dose estimates. The effects of loop positioning in the mouth are examined, and it is shown that the sensitivity to loop position along a row of molars is decreased as the loop is moved away from the teeth. PMID:20065703

Pollock, Jennifer D; Williams, Benjamin B; Sidabras, Jason W; Grinberg, Oleg; Salikhov, Ildar; Lesniewski, Piotr; Kmiec, Maciej; Swartz, Harold M



Pineal Function: Impact of Microarray Analysis  

PubMed Central

Microarray analysis has provided a new understanding of pineal function by identifying genes that are highly expressed in this tissue relative to other tissues and also by identifying over 600 genes that are expressed on a 24-hour schedule. This effort has highlighted surprising similarity to the retina and has provided reason to explore new avenues of study including intracellular signaling, signal transduction, transcriptional cascades, thyroid/retinoic acid hormone signaling, metal biology, RNA splicing, and the role the pineal gland plays in the immune/inflammation response. The new foundation that microarray analysis has provided will broadly support future research on pineal function. PMID:19622385

Klein, David C.; Bailey, Michael J.; Carter, David A.; Kim, Jong-so; Shi, Qiong; Ho, Anthony; Chik, Constance; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Morin, Fabrice; Ganguly, Surajit; Rath, Martin F.; Møller, Morten; Sugden, David; Rangel, Zoila G.; Munson, Peter J.; Weller, Joan L.; Coon, Steven L.



The S. cerevisiae SAGA complex functions in vivo as a coactivator  

E-print Network

, Massachusetts 02115, USA Previous studies demonstrated that the SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5-Acetyltransferase) complex, but not the SAGA component Gcn5. We have now examined whether SAGA is directly required as a coactivator in vivo. The SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5-Acetyltransferase) complex of S. cerevisiae is a large multiprotein complex

Winston, Fred


Psychological Stress Exerts an Adjuvant Effect on Skin Dendritic Cell Functions In Vivo1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological stress affects the pathophysiology of infectious, inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases. However, the mechanisms by which stress could modulate immune responses in vivo are poorly understood. In this study, we report that application of a psychological stress before immunization exerts an adjuvant effect on dendritic cell (DC), resulting in increased primary and memory Ag-specific T cell immune responses. Acute stress

Pierre Saint-Mezard; Cyril Chavagnac; Sophie Bosset; Marius Ionescu; Eric Peyron; Dominique Kaiserlian; Jean-Francois Nicolas; Frederic Berard



In vivo enhancer analysis of human conserved non-coding sequences.  


Identifying the sequences that direct the spatial and temporal expression of genes and defining their function in vivo remains a significant challenge in the annotation of vertebrate genomes. One major obstacle is the lack of experimentally validated training sets. In this study, we made use of extreme evolutionary sequence conservation as a filter to identify putative gene regulatory elements, and characterized the in vivo enhancer activity of a large group of non-coding elements in the human genome that are conserved in human-pufferfish, Takifugu (Fugu) rubripes, or ultraconserved in human-mouse-rat. We tested 167 of these extremely conserved sequences in a transgenic mouse enhancer assay. Here we report that 45% of these sequences functioned reproducibly as tissue-specific enhancers of gene expression at embryonic day 11.5. While directing expression in a broad range of anatomical structures in the embryo, the majority of the 75 enhancers directed expression to various regions of the developing nervous system. We identified sequence signatures enriched in a subset of these elements that targeted forebrain expression, and used these features to rank all approximately 3,100 non-coding elements in the human genome that are conserved between human and Fugu. The testing of the top predictions in transgenic mice resulted in a threefold enrichment for sequences with forebrain enhancer activity. These data dramatically expand the catalogue of human gene enhancers that have been characterized in vivo, and illustrate the utility of such training sets for a variety of biological applications, including decoding the regulatory vocabulary of the human genome. PMID:17086198

Pennacchio, Len A; Ahituv, Nadav; Moses, Alan M; Prabhakar, Shyam; Nobrega, Marcelo A; Shoukry, Malak; Minovitsky, Simon; Dubchak, Inna; Holt, Amy; Lewis, Keith D; Plajzer-Frick, Ingrid; Akiyama, Jennifer; De Val, Sarah; Afzal, Veena; Black, Brian L; Couronne, Olivier; Eisen, Michael B; Visel, Axel; Rubin, Edward M



In-Vivo functional optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with stimulated Raman scattering fiber-laser source.  


In this paper a multi-wavelength optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) system using stimulated Raman scattering is demonstrated for both phantom and in vivo imaging. A 1-ns pulse width ytterbium-doped fiber laser is coupled into a single-mode polarization maintaining fiber. Discrete Raman-shifted wavelength peaks extending to nearly 800 nm are generated with pulse energies sufficient for OR-PAM imaging. Bandpass filters are used to select imaging wavelengths. A dual-mirror galvanometer system was used to scan the focused outputs across samples of carbon fiber networks, 200?m dye-filled tubes, and Swiss Webster mouse ears. Photoacoustic signals were collected in transmission mode and used to create maximum amplitude projection C-scan images. Double dye experiments and in vivo oxygen saturation estimation confirmed functional imaging potential. PMID:24575346

Hajireza, Parsin; Forbrich, Alexander; Zemp, Roger



In-Vivo functional optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with stimulated Raman scattering fiber-laser source  

PubMed Central

In this paper a multi-wavelength optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) system using stimulated Raman scattering is demonstrated for both phantom and in vivo imaging. A 1-ns pulse width ytterbium-doped fiber laser is coupled into a single-mode polarization maintaining fiber. Discrete Raman-shifted wavelength peaks extending to nearly 800 nm are generated with pulse energies sufficient for OR-PAM imaging. Bandpass filters are used to select imaging wavelengths. A dual-mirror galvanometer system was used to scan the focused outputs across samples of carbon fiber networks, 200?m dye-filled tubes, and Swiss Webster mouse ears. Photoacoustic signals were collected in transmission mode and used to create maximum amplitude projection C-scan images. Double dye experiments and in vivo oxygen saturation estimation confirmed functional imaging potential. PMID:24575346

Hajireza, Parsin; Forbrich, Alexander; Zemp, Roger



High-mobility group box 1 is dispensable for autophagy, mitochondrial quality control, and organ function in vivo.  


In vitro studies have demonstrated a critical role for high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in autophagy and the autophagic clearance of dysfunctional mitochondria, resulting in severe mitochondrial fragmentation and profound disturbances of mitochondrial respiration in HMGB1-deficient cells. Here, we investigated the effects of HMGB1 deficiency on autophagy and mitochondrial function in vivo, using conditional Hmgb1 ablation in the liver and heart. Unexpectedly, deletion of Hmgb1 in hepatocytes or cardiomyocytes, two cell types with abundant mitochondria, did not alter mitochondrial structure or function, organ function, or long-term survival. Moreover, hepatic autophagy and mitophagy occurred normally in the absence of Hmgb1, and absence of Hmgb1 did not significantly affect baseline and glucocorticoid-induced hepatic gene expression. Collectively, our findings suggest that HMGB1 is dispensable for autophagy, mitochondrial quality control, the regulation of gene expression, and organ function in the adult organism. PMID:24606906

Huebener, Peter; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Pradere, Jean-Philippe; Quinzii, Catarina M; Friedman, Richard; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Trent, Chad M; Mederacke, Ingmar; Zhao, Enpeng; Dapito, Dianne H; Lin, Yuxi; Goldberg, Ira J; Czaja, Mark J; Schwabe, Robert F



In vivo Comet assay--statistical analysis and power calculations of mice testicular cells.  


The in vivo Comet assay is a sensitive method for evaluating DNA damage. A recurrent concern is how to analyze the data appropriately and efficiently. A popular approach is to summarize the raw data into a summary statistic prior to the statistical analysis. However, consensus on which summary statistic to use has yet to be reached. Another important consideration concerns the assessment of proper sample sizes in the design of Comet assay studies. This study aims to identify a statistic suitably summarizing the % tail DNA of mice testicular samples in Comet assay studies. A second aim is to provide curves for this statistic outlining the number of animals and gels to use. The current study was based on 11 compounds administered via oral gavage in three doses to male mice: CAS no. 110-26-9, CAS no. 512-56-1, CAS no. 111873-33-7, CAS no. 79-94-7, CAS no. 115-96-8, CAS no. 598-55-0, CAS no. 636-97-5, CAS no. 85-28-9, CAS no. 13674-87-8, CAS no. 43100-38-5 and CAS no. 60965-26-6. Testicular cells were examined using the alkaline version of the Comet assay and the DNA damage was quantified as % tail DNA using a fully automatic scoring system. From the raw data 23 summary statistics were examined. A linear mixed-effects model was fitted to the summarized data and the estimated variance components were used to generate power curves as a function of sample size. The statistic that most appropriately summarized the within-sample distributions was the median of the log-transformed data, as it most consistently conformed to the assumptions of the statistical model. Power curves for 1.5-, 2-, and 2.5-fold changes of the highest dose group compared to the control group when 50 and 100 cells were scored per gel are provided to aid in the design of future Comet assay studies on testicular cells. PMID:25440908

Hansen, Merete Kjær; Sharma, Anoop Kumar; Dybdahl, Marianne; Boberg, Julie; Kulahci, Murat



Edge function analysis of glacier mechanics problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The edge function method is considered for the analysis of plane strain problems in glacier mechanics. The essence of the approach is the approximation of the solution by a linear combination of analytical solutions (based on the complex variable formulation of anisotropic elasticity) of the field equations. The unknowns in the linear combination are obtained from a system of equations

W. Tad Pfeffer



Phenotyping mouse pulmonary function in vivo with the lung diffusing capacity.  


The mouse is now the primary animal used to model a variety of lung diseases. To study the mechanisms that underlie such pathologies, phenotypic methods are needed that can quantify the pathologic changes. Furthermore, to provide translational relevance to the mouse models, such measurements should be tests that can easily be done in both humans and mice. Unfortunately, in the present literature few phenotypic measurements of lung function have direct application to humans. One exception is the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, which is a measurement that is routinely done in humans. In the present report, we describe a means to quickly and simply measure this diffusing capacity in mice. The procedure involves brief lung inflation with tracer gases in an anesthetized mouse, followed by a 1 min gas analysis time. We have tested the ability of this method to detect several lung pathologies, including emphysema, fibrosis, acute lung injury, and influenza and fungal lung infections, as well as monitoring lung maturation in young pups. Results show significant decreases in all the lung pathologies, as well as an increase in the diffusing capacity with lung maturation. This measurement of lung diffusing capacity thus provides a pulmonary function test that has broad application with its ability to detect phenotypic structural changes with most of the existing pathologic lung models. PMID:25590416

Limjunyawong, Nathachit; Fallica, Jonathan; Ramakrishnan, Amritha; Datta, Kausik; Gabrielson, Matthew; Horton, Maureen; Mitzner, Wayne



The functional analysis of problematic verbal behavior.  


This study describes procedures and outcomes in a functional analysis of problem behavior of 2 public school students. For a 13-year-old honors student, bizarre tacts (labeled as psychotic speech by school staff) were maintained by attention. For a 15-year-old with autism, the functional analysis revealed that perseverative mands for toileting were controlled by attention; mands for edible items were controlled by access to any food item; and mands for nonedible items were maintained by access to the specific item manded. The "problematic" aspects of the verbal behavior differed-the bizarre speech was problematic based on its content, but the perseverative verbalizations resulted in high response cost for classroom staff. Research in the area of problematic verbal behavior is sparse and warrants further attention from behavior analysts who work in public school settings. This research demonstrates the applicability and relevance of functionally analyzing problematic verbal behavior in public school settings. PMID:22477228

Ewing, Christopher B; Magee, Sandy K; Ellis, Janet



The functional analysis of problematic verbal behavior  

PubMed Central

This study describes procedures and outcomes in a functional analysis of problem behavior of 2 public school students. For a 13-year-old honors student, bizarre tacts (labeled as psychotic speech by school staff) were maintained by attention. For a 15-year-old with autism, the functional analysis revealed that perseverative mands for toileting were controlled by attention; mands for edible items were controlled by access to any food item; and mands for nonedible items were maintained by access to the specific item manded. The “problematic” aspects of the verbal behavior differed—the bizarre speech was problematic based on its content, but the perseverative verbalizations resulted in high response cost for classroom staff. Research in the area of problematic verbal behavior is sparse and warrants further attention from behavior analysts who work in public school settings. This research demonstrates the applicability and relevance of functionally analyzing problematic verbal behavior in public school settings. PMID:22477228

Ewing, Christopher B.; Magee, Sandy K.; Ellis, Janet



HIV1 viral protein R compromises cellular immune function in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) is a virion-associated gene product that profoundly affects T cell proliferation, induces apoptosis and can affect cytokine production in part through interfering with NF-?B-mediated transcription from host cells. Collectively, these effects support that Vpr could influence immune activation in vivo. However, this effect of Vpr has not been explored previously. Here we examined the effect

Velpandi Ayyavoo; Karuppiah Muthumani; Sagar Kudchodkar; Donghui Zhang; P. Ramanathan; Nathanael S. Dayes; J. J. Kim; Jeong-Im Sin; Luis J. Montaner; David B. Weiner



Simultaneous estimation of physiological parameters and the input function - in vivo PET data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) is widely used for the in-vivo measurement of the regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRGlc) with [ 18F]fluorodeoxy-D-glucose (FDG), and is used for the clinical evaluation of neurological diseases. However, in addition to the acquisition of dynamic images, continuous arterial blood sampling is the conventional method of obtaining the tracer time-activity curve

Koon-pong Wong; David Dagan Feng; Steven R. Meikle; Michael J. Fulham



Epigenetic modulation of human breast cancer by metallofullerenol nanoparticles: in vivo treatment and in vitro analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-hydroxylated endohedral metallofullerenol [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles possess the general physico-chemical characteristics of most nanoparticles. They also exhibit uniquely low toxicity and antineoplastic efficacy. In the current study, the molecular mechanisms and epigenetic characteristics of the antineoplastic action of these nanoparticles are explored. Human breast cancer MCF-7 and human umbilical vein endothelial ECV304 cell lines were used. Cell viability assay, cell hierarchical cluster analysis by cDNA microarray, semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were conducted to investigate the changes in molecular and cellular signaling pathways caused by [Gd@C82(OH)22]n. The results demonstrated the high antitumor activity and low cytotoxicity of [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles both in vivo and in vitro. Their possible anti-tumor mechanisms were also discussed. The present study may provide new insight into the mechanism of action of these nanoparticles.

Meng, Jie; Xing, Jianmin; Wang, Yingze; Lu, Juan; Zhao, Yuliang; Gao, Xueyun; Wang, Paul C.; Jia, Lee; Liang, Xingjie



Interference with Ca2+ release activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel function delays T-cell arrest in vivo  

PubMed Central

Summary Entry of lymphocytes into secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) involves intravascular arrest and intracellular calcium ion ([Ca2+]i) elevation. TCR activation triggers increased [Ca2+]i and can arrest T-cell motility in vitro. However the requirement for [Ca2+]i elevation in arresting T cells in vivo has not been tested. Here, we have manipulated the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel pathway required for [Ca2+]i elevation in T cells through genetic deletion of stromal interaction molecule (STIM) 1 or by expression of a dominant negative ORAI1 channel subunit (ORAI1-DN). Interestingly, the absence of CRAC did not interfere with homing of naïve CD4+ T cells to SLOs and only moderately reduced crawling speeds in vivo. T cells expressing ORAI1-DN lacked TCR activation induced [Ca2+]i elevation, yet arrested motility similar to control T cells in vitro. In contrast, antigen specific ORAI1-DN T cells had a two-fold delayed onset of arrest following injection of OVA peptide in vivo. CRAC channel function is not required for homing to SLOs, but enhances spatiotemporal coordination of TCR signaling and motility arrest. PMID:23939929

Waite, Janelle C.; Vardhana, Santosh; Shaw, Patrick J.; Jang, Jung-Eun; McCarl, Christie-Ann; Cameron, Thomas O.; Feske, Stefan; Dustin, Michael L.



Role of vascular networks in extending glucose sensor function: Impact of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis on continuous glucose monitoring in vivo.  


The concept of increased blood vessel (BV) density proximal to glucose sensors implanted in the interstitial tissue increases the accuracy and lifespan of sensors is accepted, despite limited existing experimental data. Interestingly, there is no previous data or even conjecture in the literature on the role of lymphatic vessels (LV) alone, or in combination with BV, in enhancing continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in vivo. To investigate the impact of inducing vascular networks (BV and LV) at sites of glucose sensor implantation, we utilized adenovirus based local gene therapy of vascular endothelial cell growth factor-A (VEGF-A) to induce vessels at sensor implantation sites. The results of these studies demonstrated that (1) VEGF-A based local gene therapy increases vascular networks (blood vessels and lymphatic vessels) at sites of glucose sensor implantation; and (2) this local increase of vascular networks enhances glucose sensor function in vivo from 7 days to greater than 28 days postsensor implantation. This data provides "proof of concept" for the effective usage of local angiogenic factor (AF) gene therapy in mammalian models in an effort to extend CGM in vivo. It also supports the practice of a variety of viral and nonviral vectors as well as gene products (e.g. anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrosis genes) to engineer "implant friendly tissues" for the usage with implantable glucose sensors as well as other implantable devices. PMID:24243850

Klueh, Ulrike; Antar, Omar; Qiao, Yi; Kreutzer, Donald L



In Vivo Assessment of Endothelial Function in Human Lower Extremity Arteries  

PubMed Central

Objective Endothelial function has been measured in preclinical studies, in human brachial and coronary arteries, but not in lower extremity arteries affected by atherosclerosis. We describe a novel, first-in-man, evaluation of endothelial function of the superficial femoral arteries (SFA) in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Methods Patients with PAD (n=25) requiring lower extremity angiography were enrolled. Endothelial dependent relaxation (EDR) was measured using intravascular ultrasound and a Doppler Flow wire after the infusion of acetylcholine (Ach). IVUS derived virtual histology (IVUS-VH) of the same vessel was calculated. Endothelial independent relaxation (EIR) was measured with infusion of nitroglycerin (NTG, 200 µg). Levels of nitric oxide (NOx) and serum metabolites were determined by laboratory analysis. Results Patients (mean age 62, 48% male) had a history of hypertension (80%), coronary disease (36%), and diabetes (40%). The mean SFA diameter was 5.2 ± 1 mm (range 3.2–6.9 mm). Patients tolerated Ach infusion with no side effects or adverse events. EDR increased over baseline for all patients with Ach infusion 10?6-10?4. Diameter (0.5% at Ach 10?4) and area (1.8% at Ach 10?4) changes in the diseased SFA were modest and insignificant. But, average peak velocity of blood flow (APV) significantly increased 26, 46 and 63% with Ach infusion 10?6-10?4. Calculations of limb volumetric flow (Q, mL/s, 68%, Ach 10?4) were significantly increased after Ach infusion. Lower extremity NOx levels were slightly lower than systemic venous levels (P = .04). NTG infusion indicated normal smooth muscle responsiveness (3% diameter, 9% area, and 116% velocity change over baseline). IVUS-VH plaque stratification indicated predominantly fibrous morphology (46%; necrotic core, 29%; calcium, 18%). Atheroma burden was 14.9 ± 5.5 mm3/cm and did not correlate with endothelial responsiveness. Conclusions Endothelial function can be measured directly in human lower extremity arteries at the sites of vascular disease. Despite extensive atherosclerosis, endothelial function is still intact. These data support the application of regional endothelial-specific biological therapies in patients with PAD. PMID:23830159

Kashyap, Vikram S.; Lakin, Ryan O.; Feiten, Lindsay E.; Bishop, Paul; Sarac, Timur P.



Stochastic precision analysis of 2D cardiac strain estimation in vivo.  


Ultrasonic strain imaging has been applied to echocardiography and carries great potential to be used as a tool in the clinical setting. Two-dimensional (2D) strain estimation may be useful when studying the heart due to the complex, 3D deformation of the cardiac tissue. Increasing the framerate used for motion estimation, i.e. motion estimation rate (MER), has been shown to improve the precision of the strain estimation, although maintaining the spatial resolution necessary to view the entire heart structure in a single heartbeat remains challenging at high MERs. Two previously developed methods, the temporally unequispaced acquisition sequence (TUAS) and the diverging beam sequence (DBS), have been used in the past to successfully estimate in vivo axial strain at high MERs without compromising spatial resolution. In this study, a stochastic assessment of 2D strain estimation precision is performed in vivo for both sequences at varying MERs (65, 272, 544, 815?Hz for TUAS; 250, 500, 1000, 2000?Hz for DBS). 2D incremental strains were estimated during left ventricular contraction in five healthy volunteers using a normalized cross-correlation function and a least-squares strain estimator. Both sequences were shown capable of estimating 2D incremental strains in vivo. The conditional expected value of the elastographic signal-to-noise ratio (E(SNRe|?)) was used to compare strain estimation precision of both sequences at multiple MERs over a wide range of clinical strain values. The results here indicate that axial strain estimation precision is much more dependent on MER than lateral strain estimation, while lateral estimation is more affected by strain magnitude. MER should be increased at least above 544?Hz to avoid suboptimal axial strain estimation. Radial and circumferential strain estimations were influenced by the axial and lateral strain in different ways. Furthermore, the TUAS and DBS were found to be of comparable precision at similar MERs. PMID:25330746

Bunting, E A; Provost, J; Konofagou, E E



Long-Term Persistence of Functional Thymic Epithelial Progenitor Cells In Vivo under Conditions of Low FOXN1 Expression  

PubMed Central

Normal thymus function reflects interactions between developing T-cells and several thymic stroma cell types. Within the stroma, key functions reside in the distinct cortical and medullary thymic epithelial cell (TEC) types. It has been demonstrated that, during organogenesis, all TECs can be derived from a common thymic epithelial progenitor cell (TEPC). The properties of this common progenitor are thus of interest. Differentiation of both cTEC and mTEC depends on the epithelial-specific transcription factor FOXN1, although formation of the common TEPC from which the TEC lineage originates does not require FOXN1. Here, we have used a revertible severely hypomorphic allele of Foxn1, Foxn1R, to test the stability of the common TEPC in vivo. By reactivating Foxn1 expression postnatally in Foxn1R/? mice we demonstrate that functional TEPCs can persist in the thymic rudiment until at least 6 months of age, and retain the potential to give rise to both cortical and medullary thymic epithelial cells (cTECs and mTECs). These data demonstrate that the TEPC-state is remarkably stable in vivo under conditions of low Foxn1 expression, suggesting that manipulation of FOXN1 activity may prove a valuable method for long term maintenance of TEPC in vitro. PMID:25531271

Jin, Xin; Nowell, Craig S.; Ulyanchenko, Svetlana; Stenhouse, Frances H.; Blackburn, C. Clare



Methods: implementation of in vitro and ex vivo phagocytosis and respiratory burst function assessments in safety testing.  


Functional innate immune assessments, including phagocytosis and respiratory burst, are at the forefront of immunotoxicology evaluation in pre-clinical animal species. Although in the clinic and in academic science, phagocytosis, and respiratory burst assessments have been reported for over two decades, the implementation of phagocytosis and respiratory burst analyses in toxicology safety programs is just recently gaining publicity. Discussed herein are general methods, both microtiter plate-based and flow cytometric-based, for assessing phagocytosis and respiratory burst in pre-clinical species including mouse, rat, dog, and monkey. This methods-centric discussion includes a review of technologies and descriptions of method applications, with examples of results from analyses testing reported inhibitors (rottlerin, wortmannin, and SB203580) of phagocytosis and respiratory burst. Justification of implementation, strategic experimental design planning, and feasibility aspects of evaluating test article effects on phagocytosis and respiratory burst function are described within the context of a case study. The case study involves investigation of the effects of a small molecule p38 kinase inhibitor, BMS-582949, on phagocytosis and respiratory burst functions in rat and monkey neutrophils and monocytes in vitro, as well as ex vivo in these innate immune cells from monkeys administered BMS-582949 during a 1-week repeat dose investigative study. The results of the in vitro and ex vivo assessments demonstrated that BMS-582949 inhibited phagocytosis and respiratory burst. These findings correlated with incidences of opportunistic infections observed in rat and monkey toxicity studies. PMID:23173903

Freebern, Wendy J; Bigwarfe, Tammy J; Price, Karen D; Haggerty, Helen G



In vivo direct reprogramming of reactive glial cells into functional neurons after brain injury and in an Alzheimer's disease model.  


Loss of neurons after brain injury and in neurodegenerative disease is often accompanied by reactive gliosis and scarring, which are difficult to reverse with existing treatment approaches. Here, we show that reactive glial cells in the cortex of stab-injured or Alzheimer's disease (AD) model mice can be directly reprogrammed into functional neurons in vivo using retroviral expression of a single neural transcription factor, NeuroD1. Following expression of NeuroD1, astrocytes were reprogrammed into glutamatergic neurons, while NG2 cells were reprogrammed into glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. Cortical slice recordings revealed both spontaneous and evoked synaptic responses in NeuroD1-converted neurons, suggesting that they integrated into local neural circuits. NeuroD1 expression was also able to reprogram cultured human cortical astrocytes into functional neurons. Our studies therefore suggest that direct reprogramming of reactive glial cells into functional neurons in vivo could provide an alternative approach for repair of injured or diseased brain. PMID:24360883

Guo, Ziyuan; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Zheng; Chen, Yuchen; Wang, Fan; Chen, Gong



Encapsulation of human islets in novel inhomogeneous alginate-Ca2+/Ba2+ microbeads: in vitro and in vivo function  

PubMed Central

Microencapsulation may allow for immunosuppression free islet transplantation. Herein we investigated whether human islets can be shipped safely to a remote encapsulation core facility and maintain in vitro and in vivo functionality. In non-encapsulated islets before and encapsulated islets after shipment, viability was 88.3±2.5 and 87.5±2.7% (n=6, p=0.30). Stimulation index after static glucose incubation was 5.4±0.5 and 6.3±0.4 (n=6, p=0.18), respectively. After intraperitoneal transplantation, long-term normoglycemia was consistently achieved with 3,000, 5,000, and 10,000 IEQ encapsulated human islets. When transplanting 1,000 IEQ, mice returned to hyperglycemia after 30–55 (n=4/7) and 160 days (n=3/7). Transplanted mice showed human oral glucose tolerance with lower glucose levels than non-diabetic control mice. Capsules retrieved after transplantation were intact, with only minimal overgrowth. This study shows that human islets maintained the viability and in vitro function after encapsulation and the inhomogeneous alginate-Ca2+/Ba2+ microbeads allows for long-term in vivo human islet graft function, despite long-distance shipment. PMID:18925451

Qi, Meirigeng; Strand, Berit Løkensgard; Mørch, Yrr; Lacík, Igor; Wang, Yong; Salehi, Payam; Barbaro, Barbara; Gangemi, Antonio; Kuechle, Joseph; Romagnoli, Travis; Hansen, Michael A.; Rodriguez, Lisette A.; Benedetti, Enrico; Hunkeler, David; Skjåk-Bræk, Gudmund; Oberholzer, José



Functional diversity for REST (NRSF) is defined by in vivo binding affinity hierarchies at the DNA sequence level  

PubMed Central

The molecular events that contribute to, and result from, the in vivo binding of transcription factors to their cognate DNA sequence motifs in mammalian genomes are poorly understood. We demonstrate that variations within the DNA sequence motifs that bind the transcriptional repressor REST (NRSF) encode in vivo DNA binding affinity hierarchies that contribute to regulatory function during lineage-specific and developmental programs in fundamental ways. First, canonical sequence motifs for REST facilitate strong REST binding and control functional classes of REST targets that are common to all cell types, whilst atypical motifs participate in weak interactions and control those targets, which are cell- or tissue-specific. Second, variations in REST binding relate directly to variations in expression and chromatin configurations of REST's target genes. Third, REST clearance from its binding sites is also associated with variations in the RE1 motif. Finally, and most surprisingly, weak REST binding sites reside in DNA sequences that show the highest levels of constraint through evolution, thus facilitating their roles in maintaining tissue-specific functions. These relationships have never been reported in mammalian systems for any transcription factor. PMID:19401398

Bruce, Alexander W.; López-Contreras, Andrés J.; Flicek, Paul; Down, Thomas A.; Dhami, Pawandeep; Dillon, Shane C.; Koch, Christoph M.; Langford, Cordelia F.; Dunham, Ian; Andrews, Robert M.; Vetrie, David



The Ras/Rap GTPase activating protein RASA3: From gene structure to in vivo functions.  


RASA3 (or GTPase Activating Protein III, R-Ras GTPase-activating protein, GAP1(IP4BP)) is a GTPase activating protein of the GAP1 subfamily which targets Ras and Rap1. RASA3 was originally purified from pig platelet membranes through its intrinsic ability to bind inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (I(1,3,4,5)P4) with high affinity, hence its first name GAP1(IP4BP) (for GAP1 subfamily member which binds I(1,3,4,5)P4). RASA3 was thus the first I(1,3,4,5)P4 receptor identified and cloned. The in vitro and in vivo functions of RASA3 remained somewhat elusive for a long time. However, recently, using genetically-modified mice and cells derived from these mice, the function of RASA3 during megakaryopoiesis, megakaryocyte adhesion and migration as well as integrin signaling has been reported. The goal of this review is thus to summarize and comment recent and less recent data in the literature on RASA3, in particular on the in vivo function of this specific GAP1 subfamily member. PMID:25294679

Schurmans, Stéphane; Polizzi, Séléna; Scoumanne, Ariane; Sayyed, Sufyan; Molina-Ortiz, Patricia



Analysis of platelet function and dysfunction.  


Although platelets act as central players of haemostasis only their cross-talk with other blood cells, plasma factors and the vascular compartment enables the formation of a stable thrombus. Multiple activation processes and complex signalling networks are responsible for appropriate platelet function. Thus, a variety of platelet function tests are available for platelet research and diagnosis of platelet dysfunction. However, universal platelet function tests that are sensitive to all platelet function defects do not exist and therefore diagnostic algorithms for suspected platelet function disorders are still recommended in clinical practice. Based on the current knowledge of human platelet activation this review evaluates point-of-care related screening tests in comparison with specific platelet function assays and focuses on their diagnostic utility in relation to severity of platelet dysfunction. Further, systems biology-based platelet function methods that integrate global and specific analysis of platelet vessel wall interaction (advanced flow chamber devices) and post-translational modifications (platelet proteomics) are presented and their diagnostic potential is addressed. PMID:25482925

Jurk, K



Assessing human 5-HT function in vivo with pharmacoMRI.  


A number of novel ways of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualise the action of drugs on animal and human brain (pharmacoMRI or phMRI) are becoming established tools in translational psychopharmacology. Using drugs with known pharmacology it is possible to investigate how neurotransmitter systems are involved in neural systems engaged by other processes, such as cognitive challenge (modulation phMRI) or to examine the acute effects of the drug itself in the brain (challenge phMRI). In this article we discuss the principles behind phMRI and review studies investigating the effect of serotonin (5-HT) manipulations. 5-HT modulation phMRI studies show the involvement of 5-HT in a broad range of neural processes ranging from motor function through 'cold' cognition, such as memory and response inhibition, to emotional processing. We highlight findings in brain areas that show some consistency or complementarity across studies, such as the ventrolateral orbitofrontal cortex where modulation by 5-HT is task-specific, and the amygdala in emotional processing where 5-HT is predominantly inhibitory. 5-HT challenge phMRI is promising but as yet few studies have been carried out. New ways of analysing phMRI data include connectivity analysis which holds the promise of going beyond identifying isolated areas of activation/modulation to understanding functional circuits and their neurochemistry. 5-HT phMRI now needs to be taken into patient populations and methods of investigating treatment effects need to be developed. If this is successful then phMRI will provide a genuinely exciting opportunity for the rapid development of better treatments for psychiatric conditions. PMID:18621068

Anderson, I M; McKie, S; Elliott, R; Williams, S R; Deakin, J F W



Selection of Antibodies for Intracellular Function Using a Two-Hybrid in vivo System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of antibodies inside cells has been used successfully to ablate protein function. This finding suggests that the technology should have an impact on disease treatment and in functional genomics where proteins of unknown function are predicted from genomic sequences. A major hindrance is the paucity of antibodies that function in eukaryotic cells, presumably because the antibodies fold incorrectly in

Michela Visintin; Eric Tse; Hakan Axelson; Terence H. Rabbitts; Antonino Cattaneo



Automated volumetric stent analysis of in-vivo intracoronary optical coherence tomography three-dimensional datasets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intra-vascular Optical Coherence Tomography (IV-OCT) is an appropriate imaging modality for the evaluation of stent struts apposition and coverage in the coronary arteries. Most often, image analysis is performed by a time-consuming manual contour tracing process. Recently, we proposed an algorithm for fully automated lumen morphology and individual stent struts apposition/coverage quantification. In this manuscript further developments allowing for automatic segmentation of the stent contour are presented. As such, quantification of in-stent area, malapposition cross-sectional area (i.e. the area representing the space from the stent surface to the vessel wall) and coverage cross-sectional area (i.e. the area of the tissue covering the stent surface) are automatically obtained. Volumetric measurements of malapposition and coverage are then achieved through the analysis of equally-spaced consecutive IV-OCT cross-sectional images. In addition, uncovered and malapposed struts are automatically clustered through consecutive slices according to their three-dimensional spatial position. Finally, properties of each cluster (e.g. malapposition/coverage volumes and struts spatial location and distribution) are quantified allowing for a volumetric analysis of the implanted device. Validation of the algorithm was obtained taking as a reference manual measurements performed by an expert cardiologist. 102 in-vivo images, taken at random from 8 different patients, were both automatically and manually analyzed quantifying lumen and stent area. High Pearson's correlation coefficients (Rarea = 0.99) and Bland-Altman statistics, showing no significant bias and good limits of agreement, proved that the presented algorithm provides a robust and fast tool to automatically estimate apposition and coverage of stent through an entire in-vivo IV-OCT pullback. Such a tool will be important for the integration of this technology in clinical routine and large clinical trials.

Ughi, Giovanni J.; Adriaenssens, Tom; Onsea, Kevin; Dubois, Christophe; Coosemans, Mark; Sinnaeve, Peter; Desmet, Walter; D'hooge, Jan



A critical analysis of current in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays  

PubMed Central

The study of angiogenesis has grown exponentially over the past 40 years with the recognition that angiogenesis is essential for numerous pathologies and, more recently, with the advent of successful drugs to inhibit angiogenesis in tumours. The main problem with angiogenesis research remains the choice of appropriate assays to evaluate the efficacy of potential new drugs and to identify potential targets within the angiogenic process. This selection is made more complex by the recognition that heterogeneity occurs, not only within the endothelial cells themselves, but also within the specific microenvironment to be studied. Thus, it is essential to choose the assay conditions and cell types that most closely resemble the angiogenic disease being studied. This is especially important when aiming to translate data from in vitro to in vivo and from preclinical to the clinic. Here we critically review and highlight recent advances in the principle assays in common use including those for endothelial cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and co-culture with fibroblasts and mural cells in vitro, vessel outgrowth from organ cultures and in vivo assays such as chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), zebrafish, sponge implantation, corneal, dorsal air sac, chamber and tumour angiogenesis models. Finally, we briefly discuss the direction likely to be taken in future studies, which include the use of increasingly sophisticated imaging analysis systems for data acquisition. PMID:19563606

Staton, Carolyn A; Reed, Malcolm W R; Brown, Nicola J



Delayed near-infrared analysis permits visualization of rodent retinal pigment epithelium layer in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patches of atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) have not been described in rodent models of retinal degeneration, as they have the clinical setting using fundus autofluorescence. We hypothesize that prelabeling the RPE would increase contrast and allow for improved visualization of RPE loss in vivo. Here, we demonstrate a new technique termed "delayed near-infrared analysis (DNIRA)" that permits ready detection of rat RPE, using optical imaging in the near-infrared (IR) spectrum with aid of indocyanine green (ICG) dye. Using DNIRA, we demonstrate a fluorescent RPE signal that is detected using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy up to 28 days following ICG injection. This signal is apparent only after ICG injection, is dose dependent, requires the presence of the ICG filters (795/810 nm excitation/emission), does not appear in the IR reflectance channel, and is eliminated in the presence of sodium iodate, a toxin that causes RPE loss. Rat RPE explants confirm internalization of ICG dye. Together with normal retinal electrophysiology, these findings demonstrate that DNIRA is a new and safe noninvasive optical imaging technique for in vivo visualization of the RPE in models of retinal disease.

Pankova, Natalie; Zhao, Xu; Liang, Huiyuan; Baek, David Sung Hyeon; Wang, Hai; Boyd, Shelley



Functional Data Analysis of Tree Data Objects  

PubMed Central

Data analysis on non-Euclidean spaces, such as tree spaces, can be challenging. The main contribution of this paper is establishment of a connection between tree data spaces and the well developed area of Functional Data Analysis (FDA), where the data objects are curves. This connection comes through two tree representation approaches, the Dyck path representation and the branch length representation. These representations of trees in Euclidean spaces enable us to exploit the power of FDA to explore statistical properties of tree data objects. A major challenge in the analysis is the sparsity of tree branches in a sample of trees. We overcome this issue by using a tree pruning technique that focuses the analysis on important underlying population structures. This method parallels scale-space analysis in the sense that it reveals statistical properties of tree structured data over a range of scales. The effectiveness of these new approaches is demonstrated by some novel results obtained in the analysis of brain artery trees. The scale space analysis reveals a deeper relationship between structure and age. These methods are the first to find a statistically significant gender difference. PMID:25346588

Shen, Dan; Shen, Haipeng; Bhamidi, Shankar; Maldonado, Yolanda Muñoz; Kim, Yongdai; Marron, J. S.



Optimizing relativistic energy density functionals: covariance analysis  

E-print Network

The stability of model parameters for a class of relativistic energy density functionals, characterized by contact (point-coupling) effective inter-nucleon interactions and density-dependent coupling parameters, is analyzed using methods of statistical analysis. A set of pseudo-observables in infinite and semi-infinite nuclear matter is used to define a quality measure $\\chi^2$ for subsequent analysis. We calculate uncertainties of model parameters and correlation coefficients between parameters, and determine the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the matrix of second derivatives of $\\chi^2$ at the minimum. This allows to examine the stability of the density functional in nuclear matter, and to deduce weakly and strongly constrained combinations of parameters. In addition, we also compute uncertainties of observables that are not included in the calculation of $\\chi^2$: binding energy of asymmetric nuclear matter, surface thickness of semi-infinite nuclear matter, binding energies and charge radii of finite nuclei.

Tamara Niksic; Nils Paar; Paul-Gerhard Reinhard; Dario Vretenar



The Functional Analysis of Quantum Information Theory  

E-print Network

This book is a compilation of notes from a two-week international workshop on the "The Functional Analysis of Quantum Information Theory" that was held at the Institute of Mathematical Sciences during 26/12/2011-06/01/2012. The workshop was devoted to the mathematical framework of quantized functional analysis (QFA), and aimed at illustrating its applications to problems in quantum communication. The lectures were given by Gilles Pisier (Pierre and Marie Curie University and Texas A&M), K.R. Parthasarathy (ISI Delhi), Vern Paulsen (University of Houston), and Andreas Winter (Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona). Topics discussed include Operator Spaces and Completely bounded maps, Schmidt number and Schmidt rank of bipartite entangled states, Operator Systems and Completely Positive Maps, and, Operator Methods in Quantum Information.

Ved Prakash Gupta; Prabha Mandayam; V. S. Sunder



Chemical analysis in vivo and in vitro by Raman spectroscopy – from single cells to humans  

PubMed Central

Summary The gold standard for clinical diagnostics of tissues is immunofluorescence staining. Toxicity of many fluorescent dyes precludes their application in vivo. Raman spectroscopy, a chemically specific, label-free diagnostic technique, is rapidly gaining in acceptance as a powerful alternative. It has the ability to probe the chemical composition of biological materials in a nondestructive and mostly non-perturbing manner. We review the most recent developments in Raman spectroscopy in the life sciences, detailing advances in technology that have improved the ability to screen for diseases. Its role in the monitoring of biological function and mapping the intracellular chemical microenvironment will be discussed. Applications including endoscopy, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and coherent Raman scattering (CRS) will be reviewed. PMID:19268566

Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Weeks, Tyler



Analysis of body calcium (regional changes in body calcium by in vivo neutron activation analysis)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of space flight on urine and fecal calcium loss was documented during the three long-term Skylab flights. Neutron activation analysis was used to determine regional calcium loss. Various designs for regional analysis were investigated.

Suki, W.; Johnson, P. C.; Leblanc, A.; Evans, H. J.



Goserelin can inhibit ovarian cancer proliferation and simultaneously protect ovarian function from cisplatin: an in vitro and in vivo study.  


This study investigates whether goserelin can inhibit ovarian cancer proliferation and protect ovarian function from cisplatin (CDDP). We evaluated proliferation and AKT phosphorylation in goserelin-treated ES-2 and SKOV3-ip ovarian cancer cells. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in human granulosa cells (hGCs) cotreated with goserelin and CDDP was measured by ELISA. Tumour volumes, Ki-67 expression, estrus, follicles, ovarian volumes, and serum AMH were compared in nude mice bearing transplanted tumours treated with goserelin and/or CDDP. Our results showed that goserelin inhibited cellular proliferation and AKT phosphorylation in vitro, and inhibited tumour growth and Ki-67 expression in vivo. Goserelin and CDDP cotreatment decreased the estrus cycles of the nude mice and prolonged estrus duration. Goserelin abrogated the CDDP-induced down-regulation of primary and preantral follicle percentage and ovarian volume. Goserelin increased AMH secretion in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, goserelin inhibited ovarian cancer proliferation and simultaneously protected ovarian function from CDDP. PMID:23684357

Zhang, Ying; Ding, Jing Xin; Tao, Xiang; Lu, Zhi Ying; Wang, Jia Jia; Feng, Wei Wei; Hua, Ke Qin



Delta-catenin is required for the maintenance of neural structure and function in mature cortex in vivo.  


Delta-catenin is a brain-specific member of the adherens junction complex that localizes to the postsynaptic and dendritic compartments. This protein is likely critical for normal cognitive function; its hemizygous loss is linked to the severe mental retardation syndrome Cri-du-Chat and it directly interacts with presenilin-1 (PS1), the protein most frequently mutated in familial Alzheimer's disease. Here we examine dendritic structure and cortical function in vivo in mice lacking delta-catenin. We find that in cerebral cortex of 5-week-old mice, dendritic complexity, spine density, and cortical responsiveness are similar between mutant and littermate controls; thereafter, mutant mice experience progressive dendritic retraction, a reduction in spine density and stability, and concomitant reductions in cortical responsiveness. Our results indicate that delta-catenin regulates the maintenance of dendrites and dendritic spines in mature cortex but does not appear to be necessary for the initial establishment of these structures during development. PMID:19914181

Matter, Cheryl; Pribadi, Mochtar; Liu, Xin; Trachtenberg, Joshua T



Lipopolysaccharide enhances Fc?R-dependent functions in vivo through CD11b/CD18 up-regulation  

PubMed Central

Fc receptors for immunoglobulin G (IgG) (Fc?R) mediate several defence mechanisms in the course of inflammatory and infectious diseases. In Gram-negative infections, cellular wall lipopolysaccharides (LPS) modulate different immune responses. We have recently demonstrated that murine LPS in vivo treatment significantly increases Fc?R-dependent clearance of immune complexes (IC). In addition, we and others have reported the induction of adhesion molecules on macrophages and neutrophils by LPS in vivo and by tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in vitro. The aim of this paper was to investigate CD11b/CD18 participation in LPS enhancing effects on Fc?-dependent functionality of tissue macrophages. Our results have demonstrated that LPS can enhance antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and IC-triggered cytotoxicity (IC-Ctx), two reactions which involve the Fc?-receptor but different lytic mechanisms. In vitro incubation of splenocytes from LPS-treated mice with anti-CD11b/CD18 abrogated ADCC and IC-Ctx enhancement, without affecting Fc?R expression. Similar results were obtained with physiological concentrations of fibrinogen. In this way cytotoxic values of LPS-splenocytes decreased to the basal levels of control mice. Time and temperature requirements for such inhibition strongly suggested that anti-CD11b/CD18 could modulate intracellular signals leading to downregulation of Fc?R functionality. Data presented herein support the hypothesis that functional and/or physical associations between integrins and Fc?R could be critical for the modulation of effector functions during an inflammatory response. PMID:10447764

Rubel, C; Miliani De Marval, P; Vermeulen, M; Isturiz, M A; Palermo, M S



In Vivo Readout of CFTR Function: Ratiometric Measurement of CFTR-Dependent Secretion by Individual, Identifiable Human Sweat Glands  

PubMed Central

To assess CFTR function in vivo, we developed a bioassay that monitors and compares CFTR-dependent and CFTR-independent sweat secretion in parallel for multiple (?50) individual, identified glands in each subject. Sweating was stimulated by intradermally injected agonists and quantified by optically measuring spherical sweat bubbles in an oil-layer that contained dispersed, water soluble dye particles that partitioned into the sweat bubbles, making them highly visible. CFTR-independent secretion (M-sweat) was stimulated with methacholine, which binds to muscarinic receptors and elevates cytosolic calcium. CFTR-dependent secretion (C-sweat) was stimulated with a ?-adrenergic cocktail that elevates cytosolic cAMP while blocking muscarinic receptors. A C-sweat/M-sweat ratio was determined on a gland-by-gland basis to compensate for differences unrelated to CFTR function, such as gland size. The average ratio provides an approximately linear readout of CFTR function: the heterozygote ratio is ?0.5 the control ratio and for CF subjects the ratio is zero. During assay development, we measured C/M ratios in 6 healthy controls, 4 CF heterozygotes, 18 CF subjects and 4 subjects with ‘CFTR-related’ conditions. The assay discriminated all groups clearly. It also revealed consistent differences in the C/M ratio among subjects within groups. We hypothesize that these differences reflect, at least in part, levels of CFTR expression, which are known to vary widely. When C-sweat rates become very low the C/M ratio also tended to decrease; we hypothesize that this nonlinearity reflects ductal fluid absorption. We also discovered that M-sweating potentiates the subsequent C-sweat response. We then used potentiation as a surrogate for drugs that can increase CFTR-dependent secretion. This bioassay provides an additional method for assessing CFTR function in vivo, and is well suited for within-subject tests of systemic, CFTR-directed therapeutics. PMID:24204751

Wine, Jeffrey J.; Char, Jessica E.; Chen, Jonathan; Cho, Hyung-ju; Dunn, Colleen; Frisbee, Eric; Joo, Nam Soo; Milla, Carlos; Modlin, Sara E.; Park, Il-Ho; Thomas, Ewart A. C.; Tran, Kim V.; Verma, Rohan; Wolfe, Marlene H.



Development of an Ex Vivo Model for the Study of Cerebrovascular Function Utilizing Isolated Mouse Olfactory Artery  

PubMed Central

Objective Cerebral vessels, such as intracerebral perforating arterioles isolated from rat brain, have been widely used as an ex vivo model to study the cerebrovascular function associated with cerebrovascular disorders and the therapeutic effects of various pharmacological agents. These perforating arterioles, however, have demonstrated differences in the vascular architecture and reactivity compared with a larger leptomeningeal artery which has been commonly implicated in cerebrovascular disease. In this study, therefore, we developed the method for studying cerebrovascular function utilizing the olfactory artery isolated from the mouse brain. Methods The olfactory artery (OA) was isolated from the C57/BL6 wild-type mouse brain. After removing connective tissues, one side of the isolated vessel segment (approximately -500 µm in length) was cannulated and the opposite end of the vessel was completely sealed while being viewed with an inverted microscope. After verifying the absence of pressure leakage, we examined the vascular reactivity to various vasoactive agents under the fixed intravascular pressure (60 mm Hg). Results We found that the isolated mouse OAs were able to constrict in response to vasoconstrictors, including KCl, phenylephrine, endothelin-1, and prostaglandin PGH2. Moreover, this isolated vessel demonstrated vasodilation in a dose-dependent manner when vasodilatory agents, acetylcholine and bradykinin, were applied. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the isolated olfactory artery would provide as a useful ex vivo model to study the molecular and cellular mechanisms of vascular function underlying cerebrovascular disorders and the direct effects of such disease-modifying pathways on cerebrovascular function utilizing pharmacological agents and genetically modified mouse models.

Dietrich, Hans H.; Han, Byung Hee; Zipfel, Gregory J.



Global analysis of the eukaryotic pathways and networks regulated by Salmonella typhimurium in mouse intestinal infection in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Acute enteritis caused by Salmonella is a public health concern. Salmonella infection is also known to increase the risk of inflammatory bowel diseases and cancer. Therefore, it is important to understand how Salmonella works in targeting eukaryotic pathways in intestinal infection. However, the global physiological function of Salmonella typhimurium in intestinal mucosa in vivo is unclear. In this study,

Xingyin Liu; Rong Lu; Yinglin Xia; Jun Sun



The mouse ortholog of NEIL3 is a functional DNA glycosylase in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

To protect cells from oxidative DNA damage and mutagenesis, organisms possess multiple glycosylases to recognize the damaged bases and to initiate the Base Excision Repair pathway. Three DNA glycosylases have been identified in mammals that are homologous to the Escherichia coli Fpg and Nei proteins, Neil1, Neil2, and Neil3. Neil1 and Neil2 in human and mouse have been well characterized while the properties of the Neil3 protein remain to be elucidated. In this study, we report the characterization of Mus musculus (house mouse) Neil3 (MmuNeil3) as an active DNA glycosylase both in vitro and in vivo. In duplex DNA, MmuNeil3 recognizes the oxidized purines, spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp), guanidinohydantoin (Gh), 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyG) and 4,6-diamino- 5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyA), but not 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG). Interestingly, MmuNeil3 prefers lesions in single-stranded DNA and in bubble structures. In contrast to other members of the family that use the N-terminal proline as the nucleophile, MmuNeil3 forms a Schiff base intermediate via its N-terminal valine. We expressed the glycosylase domain of MmuNeil3 (MmuNeil3?324) in an Escherichia coli triple mutant lacking Fpg, Nei, and MutY glycosylase activities and showed that MmuNeil3 greatly reduced both the spontaneous mutation frequency and the level of FapyG in the DNA, suggesting that Neil3 plays a role in repairing FapyG in vivo. PMID:20185759

Liu, Minmin; Bandaru, Viswanath; Bond, Jeffrey P.; Jaruga, Pawel; Zhao, Xiaobei; Christov, Plamen P.; Burrows, Cynthia J.; Rizzo, Carmelo J.; Dizdaroglu, Miral; Wallace, Susan S.



TIMELESS Is an Important Mediator of CK2 Effects on Circadian Clock Function In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Circadian oscillations in clock components are central to generation of self-sustained 24-h periodicity. In the Drosophila molecular clock, accumulation, phosphorylation, and degradation of PERIOD (PER) and TIMELESS (TIM) proteins govern period length. Yet little is known about the kinases that phosphorylate TIM in vivo. It has been shown previously that the protein kinase CK2 phosphorylates TIM in vitro. Here, we identify a role for CK2 in TIM regulation in vivo. Induction of a dominant-negative CK2?, CK2?Tik (Tik), increases TIM protein and tim transcript levels, reduces oscillation amplitude, and results in persistent cytoplasmic TIM localization. Exposure to light and subsequent TIM degradation results in an increase in the fraction of the transcriptional repressor PER that is nuclear and suppression of per and tim RNA levels. TIM protein, but not tim transcript, levels are elevated in Tik mutants in a per01 background. In contrast, Tik effects on PER are undetectable in a tim01 background, suggesting that TIM is required for CK2 effects on PER. To identify potential CK2 target sites, we assayed TIM phosphorylation rhythms in a deletion mutant that removes a conserved serine-rich domain and found that TIM protein does not show robust rhythmic changes in mobility by Western blotting, a hallmark of rhythmic phosphorylation. The period lengthening effects in Tik heterozygotes are reduced in a timUL mutant that disrupts a putative CK2 phosphorylation site. Together, these data indicate that TIM is an important mediator of CK2 effects on circadian rhythms. PMID:18815259

Meissner, Rose-Anne; Kilman, Valerie L.; Lin, Jui-Ming; Allada, Ravi



Ageing alters perivascular nerve function of mouse mesenteric arteries in vivo  

PubMed Central

Mesenteric arteries (MAs) are studied widely in vitro but little is known of their reactivity in vivo. Transgenic animals have enabled Ca2+ signalling to be studied in isolated MAs but the reactivity of these vessels in vivo is undefined. We tested the hypothesis that ageing alters MA reactivity to perivascular nerve stimulation (PNS) and adrenoreceptor (AR) activation during blood flow control. First- (1A), second- (2A) and third-order (3A) MAs of pentobarbital-anaesthetized Young (3–6 months) and Old (24–26 months) male and female Cx40BAC-GCaMP2 transgenic mice (C57BL/6 background; positive or negative for the GCaMP2 transgene) were studied with intravital microscopy. A segment of jejunum was exteriorized and an MA network was superfused with physiological salt solution (pH 7.4, 37°C). Resting tone was ? 10% in MAs of Young and Old mice; diameters were ?5% (1A), 20% (2A) and 40% (3A) smaller (P? 0.05) in Old mice. Throughout MA networks, vasoconstriction increased with PNS frequency (1–16 Hz) but was ?20% less in Young vs. Old mice (P? 0.05) and was inhibited by tetrodotoxin (1 ?m). Capsaicin (10 ?m; to inhibit sensory nerves) enhanced MA constriction to PNS (P? 0.05) by ?20% in Young but not Old mice. Phenylephrine (an ?1AR agonist) potency was greater in Young mice (P? 0.05) with similar efficacy (?60% constriction) across ages and MA branches. Constrictions to UK14304 (an ?2AR agonist) were less (?20%; P? 0.05) and were unaffected by ageing. Irrespective of sex or transgene expression, ageing consistently reduced the sensitivity of MAs to ?1AR vasoconstriction while blunting the attenuation of sympathetic vasoconstriction by sensory nerves. These findings imply substantive alterations in splanchnic blood flow control with ageing. PMID:23247111

Westcott, Erika B; Segal, Steven S



Functional analysis and treatment of eye poking.  


In four studies we analyzed the eye poking of a youth with profound disabilities. In Study 1, a functional analysis showed that eye poking occurred during the no-attention condition, but not during demand, attention or recreation conditions. The analysis did not identify socially mediated variables involved in the maintenance of eye poking; rather, eye poking may have been maintained by consequences produced directly by the response. In Study 2 we had the student wear goggles to prevent potential reinforcement from finger-eye contact. The results of Study 2 indicated that eye-poking attempts were reduced when the student wore goggles. We then tested in Study 3 the effects of two alternative topographies of stimulation. Study 3 demonstrated that eye poking was reduced when a video game was provided as a competing source of visual stimulation, and that music was less effective in reducing eye poking. In Study 4, a contingency analysis using the video game was conducted in an attempt to (a) reduce the frequency of eye poking and (b) study whether the video game functioned as a reinforcer. The results of Study 4 demonstrated substantive reductions in the frequency of eye poking, and suggested that the video game served as a reinforcer. PMID:7706147

Kennedy, C H; Souza, G



Pharmacokinetic and toxicological evaluation of multi-functional thiol-6-fluoro-6-deoxy-d-glucose gold nanoparticles in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We synthesized a novel, multi-functional, radiosensitizing agent by covalently linking 6-fluoro-6-deoxy-d-glucose (6-FDG) to gold nanoparticles (6-FDG-GNPs) via a thiol functional group. We then assessed the bio-distribution and pharmacokinetic properties of 6-FDG-GNPs in vivo using a murine model. At 2 h, following intravenous injection of 6-FDG-GNPs into the murine model, approximately 30% of the 6-FDG-GNPs were distributed to three major organs: the liver, the spleen and the kidney. PEGylation of the 6-FDG-GNPs was found to significantly improve the bio-distribution of 6-FDG-GNPs by avoiding unintentional uptake into these organs, while simultaneously doubling the cellular uptake of GNPs in implanted breast MCF-7 adenocarcinoma. When combined with radiation, PEG-6-FDG-GNPs were found to increase the apoptosis of the MCF-7 breast adenocarinoma cells by radiation both in vitro and in vivo. Pharmacokinetic data indicate that GNPs reach their maximal concentrations at a time window of two to four hours post-injection, during which optimal radiation efficiency can be achieved. PEG-6-FDG-GNPs are thus novel nanoparticles that preferentially accumulate in targeted cancer cells where they act as potent radiosensitizing agents. Future research will aim to substitute the 18F atom into the 6-FDG molecule so that the PEG-6-FDG-GNPs can also function as radiotracers for use in positron emission tomography scanning to aid cancer diagnosis and image guided radiation therapy planning.

Roa, Wilson; Xiong, Yeping; Chen, Jie; Yang, Xiaoyan; Song, Kun; Yang, Xiaohong; Kong, Beihua; Wilson, John; Xing, James Z.



The development of a facility for partial body in vivo activation analysis using californium-252 neutron sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consideration of the nuclear and physical properties of 252Cf, which is spontaneously fissile, suggests that it is a very suitable radioisotopic source of neutrons for partial body i n vivo activation analysis. A facility is described, which has been developed for use in the clinical environment, and is both simple in construction and operation and economical. The performance in the

Keith Boddy; Ian Robertson; Dimitris Glaros



Toll-like receptor 3 regulates cord blood-derived endothelial cell function in vitro and in vivo.  


Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (cEPC) are capable of homing to neovascularisation sites, in which they proliferate and differentiate into endothelial cells. Transplantation of cEPC-derived cells, in particular those isolated from umbilical cord blood (UCB), has emerged as a promising approach in the treatment of cardio-vascular diseases. After in vivo transplantation, these cells may be exposed to local or systemic inflammation or pathogens, of which they are a common target. Because Toll-like receptors (TLR) are critical in detecting pathogens and in initiating inflammatory responses, we hypothesized that TLR may govern UCB cEPC-derived cells function. While these cells expressed almost all TLR, we found that only TLR3 dramatically impaired cell properties. TLR3 activation inhibited cell proliferation, modified cell cycle entry, impaired the in vitro angiogenic properties and induced pro-inflammatory cytokines production. The anti-angiogenic effect of TLR3 activation was confirmed in vivo in a hind-limb ischemic mice model. Moreover, TLR3 activation consistently leads to an upregulation of miR-29b, -146a and -155 and to a deregulation of cytoskeleton and cell cycle regulator. Hence, TLR3 activation is likely to be a key regulator of cEPC-derived cells properties. PMID:23748743

Grelier, Aurore; Cras, Audrey; Balitrand, Nicole; Delmau, Catherine; Lecourt, Séverine; Lepelletier, Yves; Riesterer, Hélène; Freida, Delphine; Lataillade, Jean-Jacques; Lebousse-Kerdiles, Marie-Caroline; Cuccini, Wendy; Peffault de Latour, Regis; Marolleau, Jean-Pierre; Uzan, Georges; Larghero, Jérôme; Vanneaux, Valérie



In vivo assessment of corneal barrier function through non-invasive impedance measurements using a flexible probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cornea is a transparent structure composed of three layers: the epithelium, the stroma and the endothelium. To maintain its ransparency the stroma remains in a constant state of dehydration. Consequently, any ion flow disorder through the covering layers can compromise the barrier function and, therefore the corneal homeostasis. Since ionic permeability has a fundamental impact on the passive electrical properties of living tissues, in this work it is proposed and demonstrated a diagnosis method based on tetrapolar impedance measurements performed by electrodes placed on the corneal surface. The contribution of each cornea layer to the total measured impedance has been analysed over a frequency range. Following the obtained guidelines, a flexible probe with integrated electrodes has been developed and manufactured using SU-8 photoresin. The feasibility of the proposed method has been evaluated in vivo by monitoring corneal epithelium wound healing. Obtained impedance measurements have been compared with measurements of permeability to sodium fluorescein from different excised corneas. Successful results demonstrate the feasibility of this novel flexible sensor and its capability to quantify corneal permeability in vivo in a noninvasive way.

Guimera, A.; Illa, X.; Traver, E.; Marchan, S.; Herrero, C.; Lagunas, C.; Maldonado, M. J.; Ivorra, A.; Villa, R.



Functionalized conducting polymer as an enzyme-immobilizing substrate: an amperometric glutamate microbiosensor for in vivo measurements.  


The functionalized conducting polymer (CP) of 5, 2':5', 2' '-terthiophene-3'-carboxylic acid on a platinum microelectrode was prepared through the electropolymerization process using cyclic voltammetry and was used as a substrate for the immobilization of enzymes. The nanoparticles of the CP were obtained at a high scan rate in the cyclic voltammetric experiment. A needle-type amperometric glutamate microbiosensor based on the covalent immobilization of glutamate oxidase (GlOx) onto the CP layer was fabricated for in vivo measurements. The surfaces of the CP/Pt and GlOx/CP/Pt were characterized by QCM, ESCA, and AFM. The biosensor efficiently detected glutamate through the oxidation of enzymatically generated H2O2 at approximately +0.45 V versus Ag/AgCl. Various experimental parameters, such as pH, temperature, and the applied potential in the detection step were optimized. The interference effects from other biological compounds were examined, and ascorbate and dopamine interferences were observed, which were completely minimized by coimmobilizing ascorbate oxidase and by coating the sensor surface with a cationic polymer, polyethyleneimine. A linear calibration plot for glutamate was obtained between 0.2 and 100 microM with a detection limit of 0.1 +/- 0.03 microM. The proposed glutamate microbiosensor was successfully used for in vivo monitoring of the extracellular glutamate released by cocaine stimulation. PMID:16053298

Rahman, Md Aminur; Kwon, Nak-Hyun; Won, Mi-Sook; Choe, Eun Sang; Shim, Yoon-Bo



In Vivo Regulation of NGF-Mediated Functions by Nedd4-2 Ubiquitination of TrkA  

PubMed Central

Trk neurotrophin receptor ubiquitination in response to ligand activation regulates signaling, trafficking, and degradation of the receptors. However, the in vivo consequences of Trk ubiquitination remain to be addressed. We have developed a mouse model with a mutation in the TrkA neurotrophin receptor (P782S) that results in reduced ubiquitination due to a lack of binding to the E3 ubiquitin ligase, Nedd4-2. In vivo analyses of TrkAP782S indicate that defective ubiquitination of the TrkA mutant results in an altered trafficking and degradation of the receptor that affects the survival of sensory neurons. The dorsal root ganglia from the TrkAP782S knock-in mice display an increased number of neurons expressing CGRP and substance P. Moreover, the mutant mice show enhanced sensitivity to thermal and inflammatory pain. Our results indicate that the ubiquitination of the TrkA neurotrophin receptor plays a critical role in NGF-mediated functions, such as neuronal survival and sensitivity to pain. PMID:24760869

Yu, Tao; Calvo, Laura; Anta, Begoña; López-Benito, Saray; López-Bellido, Roger; Vicente-García, Cristina; Tessarollo, Lino; Rodriguez, Raquel E.



Rapid in vivo analysis of synthetic promoters for plant pathogen phytosensing  

PubMed Central

Background We aimed to engineer transgenic plants for the purpose of early detection of plant pathogen infection, which was accomplished by employing synthetic pathogen inducible promoters fused to reporter genes for altered phenotypes in response to the pathogen infection. Toward this end, a number of synthetic promoters consisting of inducible regulatory elements fused to a red fluorescent protein (RFP) reporter were constructed for use in phytosensing. Results For rapid analysis, an Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression assay was evaluated, then utilized to assess the inducibility of each synthetic promoter construct in vivo. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi) leaves were infiltrated with Agrobacterium harboring the individual synthetic promoter-reporter constructs. The infiltrated tobacco leaves were re-infiltrated with biotic (bacterial pathogens) or abiotic (plant defense signal molecules salicylic acid, ethylene and methyl jasmonate) agents 24 and 48 hours after initial agroinfiltration, followed by RFP measurements at relevant time points after treatment. These analyses indicated that the synthetic promoter constructs were capable of conferring the inducibility of the RFP reporter in response to appropriate phytohormones and bacterial pathogens, accordingly. Conclusions These observations demonstrate that the Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression is an efficient method for in vivo assays of promoter constructs in less than one week. Our results provide the opportunity to gain further insights into the versatility of the expression system as a potential tool for high-throughput in planta expression screening prior to generating stably transgenic plants for pathogen phytosensing. This system could also be utilized for temporary phytosensing; e.g., not requiring stably transgenic plants. PMID:22093754



Inverse computational analysis of in vivo corneal elastic modulus change after collagen crosslinking for keratoconus  

PubMed Central

Corneal collagen crosslinking with riboflavin photosensitization and ultraviolet irradiation is a novel approach to limiting the progression of keratoconus in patients by increasing the elastic modulus of the degenerate cornea. Beneficial reductions in corneal steepness and aberrations after crosslinking also frequently occur. In a previous study, we described a computational modeling approach to simulating topographic progression in keratoconus and regression of disease with corneal collagen crosslinking. In the current study, this model has been expanded and applied to the inverse problem of estimating longitudinal time-dependent changes in the corneal elastic modulus after crosslinking using in vivo measurements from 16 human eyes. Topography measured before crosslinking was used to construct a patient-specific finite element model with assumed hyperelastic properties. Then the properties of the cornea were altered using an inverse optimization method to minimize the difference between the model-predicted and in vivo corneal shape after crosslinking. Effects of assumptions regarding sclera-to-cornea elastic modulus ratio and spatial attenuation of treatment effect due to ultraviolet beam characteristics on the predicted change in elastic modulus were also investigated. Corneal property changes computed by inverse finite element analysis provided excellent geometric agreement with clinical topography measurements in patient eyes post-crosslinking. Over all post-treatment time points, the estimated increase in corneal elastic modulus was 110.8±48.1%, and slightly less stiffening was required to produce the same amount of corneal topographic regression of disease when the sclera-to-cornea modulus ratio was increased. Including the effect of beam attenuation resulted in greater estimates of stiffening in the anterior cornea. Corneal shape responses to crosslinking varied considerably and emphasize the importance of a patient-specific approach. PMID:23664859

Sinha Roy, Abhijit; Rocha, Karol M.; Randleman, J. Bradley; Stulting, R. Doyle; Dupps, William J.



Antisense peptide nucleic acid-functionalized cationic nanocomplex for in vivo mRNA detection  

PubMed Central

Acute lung injury (ALI) is a complex syndrome with many aetiologies, resulting in the upregulation of inflammatory mediators in the host, followed by dyspnoea, hypoxemia and pulmonary oedema. A central mediator is inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) that drives the production of NO and continued inflammation. Thus, it is useful to have diagnostic and therapeutic agents for targeting iNOS expression. One general approach is to target the precursor iNOS mRNA with antisense nucleic acids. Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) have many advantages that make them an ideal platform for development of antisense theranostic agents. Their membrane impermeability, however, limits biological applications. Here, we report the preparation of an iNOS imaging probe through electrostatic complexation between a radiolabelled antisense PNA-YR9 · oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) hybrid and a cationic shell-cross-linked knedel-like nanoparticle (cSCK). The Y (tyrosine) residue was used for 123I radiolabelling, whereas the R9 (arginine9) peptide was included to facilitate cell exit of untargeted PNA. Complete binding of the antisense PNA-YR9 · ODN hybrid to the cSCK was achieved at an 8 : 1 cSCK amine to ODN phosphate (N/P) ratio by a gel retardation assay. The antisense PNA-YR9 · ODN · cSCK nanocomplexes efficiently entered RAW264.7 cells, whereas the PNA-YR9 · ODN alone was not taken up. Low concentrations of 123I-labelled antisense PNA-YR9 · ODN complexed with cSCK showed significantly higher retention of radioactivity when iNOS was induced in lipopolysaccharide+interferon-?-activated RAW264.7 cells when compared with a mismatched PNA. Moreover, statistically, greater retention of radioactivity from the antisense complex was also observed in vivo in an iNOS-induced mouse lung after intratracheal administration of the nanocomplexes. This study demonstrates the specificity and sensitivity by which the radiolabelled nanocomplexes can detect iNOS mRNA in vitro and in vivo and their potential for early diagnosis of ALI. PMID:24427537

Shen, Yuefei; Shrestha, Ritu; Ibricevic, Aida; Gunsten, Sean P.; Welch, Michael J.; Wooley, Karen L.; Brody, Steven L.; Taylor, John-Stephen A.; Liu, Yongjian



Interaction of bovine respiratory syncytial virus with bovine alveolar macrophages in vivo: effects of virus infection upon selected cell functions.  

PubMed Central

The effect of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) upon alveolar macrophage (AM) function was investigated using an in vivo calf inoculation model. Alveolar macrophages were collected sequentially from live calves at multiple time points during the 14 day period following viral inoculation. Alveolar macrophages from bronchoalveolar lavage fluids were purified by density gradient centrifugation (> 95% AM) prior to in vitro evaluation of cell functions. There were significant but variable and inconsistent differences in the functions of AM from the BRSV inoculated calves compared to the control calves. Fc-receptor mediated phagocytosis was either increased or unchanged by BRSV inoculation. Nonopsonized phagocytosis was decreased during the early postinoculation period and later increased. There was a variable effect on AM phagosome lysosome fusion with increased fusion activity on postinoculation days 2 through 5, 7 and 12 but reduced activity on days 6 and 10. The AM respiratory burst, as measured by nitroblue tetrazolium dye reduction, was essentially unaffected with a reduction in activity on day 10 only. In this model, BRSV inoculation of calves primarily resulted in an alteration of the membrane associated phagocytic functions of the alveolar macrophages (p < 0.05). PMID:8143252

Olchowy, T W; Ames, T R; Molitor, T W



Real-time molecular profiling of photochemically induced rat thrombosis in vivo through quantitative Raman analysis of blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A device of an animal thrombosis model in vivo coupled with a Raman system for near-surface blood vessels is proposed in this letter. The dual-function set up is capable of simultaneously establishing a photochemically induced artificial thrombus model and collecting in vivo Raman data of both arterial and venous blood, and it provides the first observation of rat thrombosis under the physiological conditions from the beginning to the final form. The real-time and quantitative molecular profiling of flowing blood and the spectra of blood cells in the process of thrombosis provides an insight into the occurring mechanism of thrombosis and a promising method for the in vivo screening of new antithrombotic and thrombolytic drugs.

Lin, M. M.; Shen, A. G.; Yao, H. L.; Zhang, Z. Z.; Hu, J. M.



The Oncogenic EWS-FLI1 Protein Binds In Vivo GGAA Microsatellite Sequences with Potential Transcriptional Activation Function  

PubMed Central

The fusion between EWS and ETS family members is a key oncogenic event in Ewing tumors and important EWS-FLI1 target genes have been identified. However, until now, the search for EWS-FLI1 targets has been limited to promoter regions and no genome-wide comprehensive analysis of in vivo EWS-FLI1 binding sites has been undertaken. Using a ChIP-Seq approach to investigate EWS-FLI1-bound DNA sequences in two Ewing cell lines, we show that this chimeric transcription factor preferentially binds two types of sequences including consensus ETS motifs and microsatellite sequences. Most bound sites are found outside promoter regions. Microsatellites containing more than 9 GGAA repeats are very significantly enriched in EWS-FLI1 immunoprecipitates. Moreover, in reporter gene experiments, the transcription activation is highly dependent upon the number of repeats that are included in the construct. Importantly, in vivo EWS-FLI1-bound microsatellites are significantly associated with EWS-FLI1-driven gene activation. Put together, these results point out the likely contribution of microsatellite elements to long-distance transcription regulation and to oncogenesis. PMID:19305498

Boeva, Valentina; Zynovyev, Andrei; Barillot, Emmanuel; Delattre, Olivier



Functional analysis of novel aquaporins from Fasciola gigantica.  


Fascioliasis, caused by liver flukes of the genus Fasciola, is an important disease of ruminants. In order to identify a potential new drug target we have studied aquaporin (AQP) in Fasciola gigantica. AQPs facilitate the transport of water, glycerol and other small solutes across biological membranes. The structure, function, and pathology of AQPs have been extensively studied in mammals but data for AQPs from trematodes is still limited. In the present study, we have functionally characterized two closely related AQP isoforms, FgAQP-1 and FgAQP-2, from the trematode F. gigantica. Immunohistochemical analysis located the FgAQPs in the tegumental cells, their processes and the tegument itself. In addition, they were present in the epithelial linings of testes and ovary. Expression in Xenopus oocytes of these FgAQPs increased osmotic water permeability 3-4-fold but failed to increase glycerol and urea permeability. AQPs have two highly conserved NPA motifs that are important for the function of the channel pore. In FgAQP-1 and FgAQP-2 the first NPA motif is changed to TAA. Substitution of Thr with Asn in the TAA motif of FgAQP-1 increased its water permeability twofold but did not affect urea and glycerol impermeability while the substitution at the pore mouth of Cys204 by Tyr caused loss of water permeability. In addition, the FgAQPs did not increase methylamine and ammonia permeability after expression in yeast. In comparison to rat AQP-1 the described FgAQPs showed low water permeability and further in vivo analyses are necessary to determine their contribution to osmoregulation in Fasciola. PMID:21073907

Geadkaew, Amornrat; von Bülow, Julia; Beitz, Eric; Grams, Suksiri Vichasri; Viyanant, Vithoon; Grams, Rudi



Polymer Fiber Probes Enable Optical Control of Spinal Cord and Muscle Function In Vivo  

E-print Network

Restoration of motor and sensory functions in paralyzed patients requires the development of tools for simultaneous recording and stimulation of neural activity in the spinal cord. In addition to its complex neurophysiology, ...

Lu, Chi


Chromosome mechanics in vivo: quantitative analysis of nonrigid 3D chromosome motion in Drosophila embryos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chromosomes are often arranged into specific configurations. One example is the metaphase plate of the Drosophila embryo in which chromosomes are arranged into a parallel bundle. How is this configuration established and maintained? Quantitative analysis of chromosomes motion in vivo should help answer this question by providing a measure of the relevant mechanical properties of the chromosomes themselves. In addition, motion analysis will allow us to study interactions of chromosomes with the mitotic spindle. In order to analyze moving mitotic chromosomes, we acquire time-lapse 3D images of chromosomes in living Drosophila embryos, and then interactively model the chromosome configuration at each time point. A model-based motion estimation algorithm is then applied. From the motion estimate, we can visualize trajectories of different regions on the chromosomes, such as centromeres and telomeres, during metaphase and during prometaphase congression. In addition, quantitative estimates of mechanical properties such as mobility and flexibility can be computed. In this preliminary report we describe computational tools for tracking and visualizing 3D chromosome motion, and for detecting oscillations in position along the mitotic spindle.

Marshall, Wallace F.; Agard, David A.; Sedat, John W.



Embryonic lineage analysis using three-dimensional, time-lapse in-vivo fluorescent microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drosophila melanogaster has become one of the most extensively studied organisms because of its amenability to genetic analysis. Unfortunately, the biochemistry and cell biology ofDrosophila has lagged behind. To this end we have been microinjecting fluorescently labelled proteins into the living embryo and observing the behavior of these proteins to determine their role in the cell cycle and development. Imaging of these fluorescent probes is an extremely important element to this form of analysis. We have taken advantage of the sensitivity and well behaved characteristics of the charge coupled device (CCD) camera in conjunction with digital image enhancement schemes to produce highly accurate images of these fluorescent probes in vivo. One of our major goals is to produce a detailed map of cell fate so that we can understand how fate is determined and maintained. In order produce such a detailed map, protocols for following the movements and mitotic behavior of a large number of cells in three dimensions over relatively long periods of time were developed. We will present our results using fluorescently labelled histone proteins as a marker for nuclear location1. In addition, we will also present our initial results using a photoactivatable analog of fluorescein to mark single cells so that their long range fate can be unambiguously determined.

Minden, Jonathan; Kam, Zvi; Agard, David A.; Sedat, John W.; Alberts, Bruce



Docosahexaenoic acid and phosphatidylserine improves the antioxidant activities in vitro and in vivo and cognitive functions of the developing brain.  


Fish oil during early postnatal period may modulate the impact of oxidative stress in the developing brain and thus improve memory and cognitive behaviour. This study investigated the impacts of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3) and/or phosphatidylserine (PS) on antioxidant activities in vitro, and the beneficial effects of feeding with DHA and/or PS on antioxidant activities in brain and liver tissues and on the cognitive functions of the developing brain. Results indicated that DHA and/or PS significantly enhanced antioxidant activities and increased cell viabilities in vitro. Feeding with DHA and/or PS supplementation not only significantly improved escape latency of animals, but it also improved the oxidative parameters in the brain, enhanced glutathione peroxidase activity as well as reduced nitric mono-oxide levels in the liver. DHA and PS may serve to protect cells from oxidative stress and further improve learning and memory ability in vivo. PMID:23265497

Chaung, Hso-Chi; Chang, Chin-Dong; Chen, Pi-Hang; Chang, Chia-Jung; Liu, Shyh-Hwa; Chen, Chih-Cheng



Plant abiotic stress diagnostic by laser induced chlorophyll fluorescence spectral analysis of in vivo leaf tissue of biofuel species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser induced fluorescence is exploited to evaluate the effect of abiotic stresses upon the evolution and characteristics of in vivo chlorophyll emission spectra of leaves tissues of brazilian biofuel plants species(Saccharum officinarum and Jatropha curcas). The chlorophyll fluorescence spectra of 20 min predarkened intact leaves were studied employing several excitation wavelengths in the UV-VIS spectral region. Red(Fr) and far-red (FFr) chlorophyll fluorescence emission signals around 685 nm and 735 nm, respectively, were analyzed as a function of the stress intensity and the time of illumination(Kautsky effect). The Chl fluorescence ratio Fr/FFr which is a valuable nondestructive indicator of the chlorophyll content of leaves was investigated during a period of time of 30 days. The dependence of the Chl fluorescence ratio Fr/FFr upon the intensity of the abiotic stress(salinity) was examined. The results indicated that the salinity plays a major hole in the chlorophyll concentration of leaves in both plants spieces, with a significant reduction in the chlorophyll content for NaCl concentrations in the 25 - 200 mM range. The laser induced chlorophyll fluorescence analysis allowed detection of damage caused by salinity in the early stages of the plants growing process, and can be used as an early-warning indicator of salinity stress

Gouveia-Neto, Artur S.; Silva, Elias A., Jr.; Costa, Ernande B.; Bueno, Luciano A.; Silva, Luciana M. H.; Granja, Manuela M. C.; Medeiros, Maria J. L.; Câmara, Terezinha J. R.; Willadino, Lilia G.



Ultrathin sP(EO-stat-PO) hydrogel coatings are biocompatible and preserve functionality of surface bound growth factors in vivo.  


Hydrogel coatings prepared from reactive star shaped polyethylene oxide based prepolymers (NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO)) minimize unspecific protein adsorption in vitro, while proteins immobilized on NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO) coatings retain their structure and biological function. The aim of the present study was to assess biocompatibility and the effect on early osseointegrative properties of a NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO) coating with additional RGD-peptides and augmentation with bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP) used on a medical grade high-density polyethylene (HDPE) base under in vivo circumstances. For testing of biocompatibility dishes with large amounts of bulk NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO) were implanted subcutaneously into 14 Wistar rats. In a second set-up functionalization of implants with ultrathin surface layers by coating ammonia-plasma treated HDPE with NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO), functionalization with linear RGD-peptides, and augmentation with RGD and BMP-4 was analyzed. Therefore, implants were placed subcutaneously in the paravertebral tissue and transcortically in the distal femur of another 14 Wistar rats. Both tests revealed no signs of enhanced inflammation of the surrounding tissue analyzed by CD68, IL-1ß-/TNF-?-antibody staining, nor systemic toxic reactions according to histological analysis of various organs. The mean thickness of the fibrous tissue surrounding the femoral implants was highest in native HDPE-implants and tended to be lower in all NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO) modified implants. Micro-CT analysis revealed a significant increase of peri-implant bone volume in RGD/BMP-4 coated samples. These results demonstrate that even very low amounts of surface bound growth factors do have significant effects when immobilized in an environment that retains their biological function. Hence, NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO)-coatings could offer an attractive platform to improve integration of orthopedic implants. PMID:23801500

Neuerburg, Carl; Recknagel, Stefan; Fiedler, Jörg; Groll, Jürgen; Moeller, Martin; Bruellhoff, Kristina; Reichel, Heiko; Ignatius, Anita; Brenner, Rolf E



Correlation energy functional from jellium surface analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the wave-vector analysis of the jellium exchange-correlation surface energy, we show that the PBEint generalized gradient approximation (GGA) of Fabiano et al. [Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.82.113104 82, 113104 (2010)] is one of the most accurate density functionals for jellium surfaces, being able to describe both exchange and correlation parts of the surface energy, without error compensations. We show that the stabilized jellium model allows us to achieve a realistic description of the correlation surface energy of simple metals at any wave vector k. The PBEint correlation is then used to construct a meta-GGA correlation functional, modifying the one-electron self-correlation-free Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria (TPSS) one. We find that this new functional (named JS) performs in agreement with fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo estimates of the jellium surfaces, and is accurate for spherical atoms and ions of different spin-polarization and for Hooke’s atom for any value of the spring constant.

Constantin, Lucian A.; Chiodo, Letizia; Fabiano, Eduardo; Bodrenko, Igor; Sala, Fabio Della



Enhanced control of in vivo bone formation with surface functionalized alginate microbeads incorporating heparin and human bone morphogenetic protein-2.  


In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a surface functionalization delivery platform incorporating heparin onto strontium alginate microbeads surfaces would convert this "naive carriers" into "mini-reservoirs" for localized in vivo delivery of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) that will induce functional bone regeneration. In vitro evaluation confirmed that (1) heparin incorporation could immobilize and prolong rhBMP-2 release for approximately 3 weeks; (2) a significant decrease (p<0.01) in rhBMP-2 burst release is attainable depending on initial protein load; and (3) rhBMP-2 released from surface functionalized microbeads retained bioactivity and stimulated higher alkaline phosphatase activity in cultured C(2)C(12) cells when compared with daily administration of fresh bolus rhBMP-2. Subsequently, surface functionalized microbeads were used for in vivo delivery of rhBMP-2 at local sites of posterolateral spinal fusion surgery in rats. The microbeads were loaded into the pores of medical-grade polyepsilone caprolactone-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds before implantation. Results revealed robust bone formation and a biomechanically solid fusion after 6 weeks. When compared with a control group consisting of an equivalent amount of rhBMP-2 that was directly adsorbed onto bare-surfaced microbeads with no heparin, a 5.3-fold increase in bone volume fraction and a 2.6-fold increase in bending stiffness (flexion/extension) were observed. When compared with collagen sponge carriers of rhBMP-2, a 1.5-fold and a 1.3-fold increase in bone volume fraction and bending stiffness were observed, respectively. More importantly, 3D micro-computed tomography images enabled the visualization of a well-contained newly formed bone at ipsilateral implant sites with surface functionalized rhBMP-2 delivery. This was absent with collagen sponge carriers where newly formed bone tissue was poorly contained and crossed over the posterior midline to contralateral implants. These findings are important because of complications with current rhBMP-2 delivery method, including excessive, uncontrolled bone formation. PMID:22894570

Abbah, Sunny Akogwu; Liu, Jing; Goh, James Cho Hong; Wong, Hee-Kit



In Vivo Inflammatory Effects of Ceria Nanoparticles on CD-1 Mouse: Evaluation by Hematological, Histological, and TEM Analysis  

PubMed Central

The attention on CeO2-NPs environmental and in vivo effects is due to their presence in diesel exhaust and in diesel filters that release a more water-soluble form of ceria NPs, as well as to their use for medical applications. In this work, acute and subacute in vivo toxicity assays demonstrate no lethal effect of these NPs. Anyhow, performing in vivo evaluations on CD-1 mouse systems, we demonstrate that it is even not correct to assert that ceria NPs are harmless for living systems as they can induce status of inflammation, revealed by hematological-chemical-clinical assays as well as histological and TEM microscope observations. TEM analysis showed the presence of NPs in alveolar macrophages. Histological evaluation demonstrated the NPs presence in lungs tissues and this can be explained by assuming their ability to go into the blood stream and lately into the organs (generating inflammation). PMID:25032226

Poma, Anna; Ragnelli, Anna Maria; de Lapuente, Joaquin; Ramos, David; Borras, Miquel; Di Gioacchino, Mario; Santucci, Sandro; De Marzi, Laura



Transcriptome In Vivo Analysis (TIVA) of spatially defined single cells in intact live mouse and human brain tissue  

PubMed Central

Transcriptome profiling is an indispensable tool in advancing the understanding of single cell biology, but depends upon methods capable of isolating mRNA at the spatial resolution of a single cell. Current capture methods lack sufficient spatial resolution to isolate mRNA from individual in vivo resident cells without damaging adjacent tissue. Because of this limitation, it has been difficult to assess the influence of the microenvironment on the transcriptome of individual neurons. Here, we engineered a Transcriptome In Vivo Analysis (TIVA)-tag, which upon photoactivation enables mRNA capture from single cells in live tissue. Using the TIVA-tag in combination with RNA-seq to analyze transcriptome variance among single dispersed cells and in vivo resident mouse and human neurons, we show that the tissue microenvironment shapes the transcriptomic landscape of individual cells. The TIVA methodology provides the first noninvasive approach for capturing mRNA from single cells in their natural microenvironment. PMID:24412976

Lovatt, Ditte; Ruble, Brittani K.; Lee, Jaehee; Dueck, Hannah; Kim, Tae Kyung; Fisher, Stephen; Francis, Chantal; Spaethling, Jennifer M.; Wolf, John A.; Grady, M. Sean; Ulyanova, Alexandra V.; Yeldell, Sean B.; Griepenburg, Julianne C.; Buckley, Peter T.; Kim, Junhyong; Sul, Jai-Yoon; Dmochowski, Ivan J.; Eberwine, James



In vitro granulocyte adherence and in vivo margination: two associated complement-dependent functions  

PubMed Central

To study mechanisms and mediators regulating the distribution of intravascular granulocytes between circulating and marginated pools, a human model with extreme transient margination, the neutropenia of continuous flow filtration leukophoresis, was analyzed. Studies in animals demonstrated the existence of a complement (C)-derived granulocytopenia-inducing factor. Thus, autologous plasma, exposed to nylon fibers (NF) of the filtration system, produced an acute selective decrement of circulating granulocytes and monocytes. This phenomenon was blocked by decomplementing plasma, by pretreatment of plasma with EDTA or hydrazine, and by preheating at 56 degrees C, but did occur after recombination of heat-inactivated and hydrazine-treated plasma before NF exposure. Preheating plasma at 50 degrees C did not inhibit the neutropenic response, suggesting involvement of the classical pathway of C activation. Ultrafiltration studies indicated that the NF-provoked neutropenia-inducing factor has a mol wt in the range of 10,000-30,000, and is heat stable (56 degrees C). To analyze the hypothesis that C- induced neutrophil margination might be consequent to increased cell adhesiveness to endothelial surfaces, the role of C in promoting granulocyte adherence was evaluated in vitro. Measured with a plastic Petridish assay, granulocyte adherence was significantly reduced in heat- inactivated (56 degrees C) and hydrazine-treated plasma, but adherence promoting capacity was restored by mixing the two plasmas, or by adding purified C3 to hydrazine-treated plasma. After exposure to activated C, neutrophils showed significantly increased adhesiveness which was maintained when cells were resuspended in heat-inactivated plasma, but progressively lost when resuspended in fresh plasma. On the basis of these results we conclude that granulocyte adhesiveness in vitro and margination in vivo are closely associated, C-dependent phenomena. PMID:894188

Fehr, J; Jacob, HS



In vivo mitochondrial inhibition alters corticostriatal synaptic function and the modulatory effects of neurotrophins.  


Experimental evidence has revealed the role of mitochondria in various aspects of neuronal physiology. Mitochondrial failure results in alterations that underlie the pathogeneses of many neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease (HD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) has been used to model failure; for example, systemic administration of 3-NP imitates the striatal degeneration that is exhibited in the postmortem tissue of patients afflicted with HD. We have demonstrated that low, sub-chronic doses of 3-NP are sufficient to initiate the damage to striatal neurons that is associated with changes in neurotrophin expression levels. However, the mechanisms underlying the alterations in neuronal activity and neurotransmission due to 3-NP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction remain to be elucidated. In this paper, we focus on how corticostriatal transmission and its modulation by neurotrophins are altered in vivo after 5 days of mitochondrial inhibition with 3-NP. Recordings of population spikes and a paired pulse (PP) stimulation protocol were used to document changes in corticostriatal synapses in 3-NP-treated brain slices. The corticostriatal synapses were modulated by neurotrophins but displayed differential amplitude increases in the presence of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), or neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5) under control conditions. Neurotrophin-mediated synaptic modulation was decreased in slices from 3-NP-treated mice. The protein and mRNA levels of neurotrophins and their receptors were also modified in the 3-NP-treated tissue. Neuronal structural evaluation demonstrated that synaptic length and density were reduced in the 3-NP-treated mice, which partially explained the changes in the amplitudes of the synaptic field responses. Our results demonstrate that corticostriatal synapses are differentially modulated by neurotrophins and that this modulation is altered by mitochondrial failure. Mitochondrial dysfunction also affects neurotransmitter release in corticostriatal synapses, neurotrophin availability, dendritic arborization and the lengths of the striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). PMID:25241069

Mendoza, E; Miranda-Barrientos, J A; Vázquez-Roque, R A; Morales-Herrera, E; Ruelas, A; De la Rosa, G; Flores, G; Hernández-Echeagaray, E



Divergence function, duality, and convex analysis.  


From a smooth, strictly convex function phi: Rn --> R, a parametric family of divergence function Dphi(alpha) may be introduced: [ equation: see text] for x, y epsilon int dom (Phi) subset Rn, and for alpha in R, with Dphi(+/-1) defined through taking the limit of alpha. Each member is shown to induce an alpha-independent Riemannian metric, as well as a pair of dual alpha-connections, which are generally nonflat, except for alpha = +/-1. In the latter case, Dphi(+/-1) reduces to the (nonparametric) Bregman divergence, which is representable using phi and its convex conjugate phi* and becomes the canonical divergence for dually flat spaces (Amari, 1982, 1985; Amari & Nagaoka, 2000). This formulation based on convex analysis naturally extends the informationgeometric interpretation of divergence functions (Eguchi, 1983) to allow the distinction between two different kinds of duality: referential duality (alpha <--> -alpha) and representational duality (phi <--> phi*). When applied to (not necessarily normalized) probability densities, the concept of conjugated representations of densities is introduced, so that +/-alpha-connections defined on probability densities embody both referential and representational duality and are hence themselves bidual. When restricted to a finite-dimensional affine submanifold, the natural parameters of a certain representation of densities and the expectation parameters under its conjugate representation form biorthogonal coordinates. The alpha representation (indexed by beta now, beta epsilon [-1, 1]) is shown to be the only measure-invariant representation. The resulting two-parameter family of divergence functionals D(alpha,beta), (alpha, beta) epsilon [-1, 1] x [-1, 1] induces identical Fisher information but bidual alpha-connection pairs; it reduces in form to Amari's alpha-divergence family when alpha = +/-1 or when beta = 1, but to the family of Jensen difference (Rao, 1987) when beta = -1. PMID:15006028

Zhang, Jun



Downregulation of the antigen presenting cell function(s) of pulmonary dendritic cells in vivo by resident alveolar macrophages  

PubMed Central

Class II major histocompatibility complex (Ia)-bearing dendritic cells (DC) from airway epithelium and lung parenchyma express low-moderate antigen presenting cell (APC) activity when freshly isolated. However, this function is markedly upregulated during overnight culture in a manner analogous to epidermal Langerhans cells. The in vitro "maturation" process is inhibited by coculture with pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) across a semipermeable membrane, and the degree of inhibition achieved can be markedly increased by the presence of tumor necrosis factor alpha. In addition, PAM-mediated suppression of DC function is abrogated via inhibition of the nitric oxide synthetase pathway. Functional maturation of the DC is accompanied by increased expression of surface Ia, which is also inhibited in the presence of PAM. Prior elimination of PAM from DC donors via intratracheal administration of the cytotoxic drug dichloromethylene diphosphonate in liposomes, 24-72 h before lung DC preparation, achieves a comparable upregulation of APC activity, suggesting that (consistent with the in vitro data) the resident PAM population actively suppresses the APC function of lung DC in situ. In support of the feasibility of such a regulatory mechanism, electron microscopic examination of normal lung fixed by intravascular perfusion in the inflated state (which optimally preserves PAM in situ), revealed that the majority are preferentially localized in recesses at the alveolar septal junctions. In this position, the PAM are in intimate association with the alveolar epithelial surface, and are effectively separated by as little as 0.2 microns from underlying interstitial spaces which contain the peripheral lung DC population. A similar juxtaposition of airway intraepithelial DC is demonstrated with underlying submucosal tissue macrophages, where the separation between the two cell populations is effectively the width of the basal lamina. PMID:8426110



Selective Delivery of an Anticancer Drug with Aptamer-Functionalized Liposomes to Breast Cancer Cells in Vitro and in Vivo  

PubMed Central

Selective targeting of cancer cells is a critical step in cancer diagnosis and therapy. To address this need, DNA aptamers have attracted significant attention as possible targeting ligands. However, while their use in targeting cancer cells in vitro has been reported, their effectiveness has rarely been established in vivo. Here we report the development of a liposomal drug delivery system for targeted anticancer chemotherapy. Liposomes were prepared containing doxorubicin as a payload, and functionalized with AS1411, a DNA aptamer with strong binding affinity for nucleolin. AS1411 aptamer-functionalized liposomes increased cellular internalization and cytotoxicity to MCF-7 breast cancer cells as compared to non-targeting liposomes. Furthermore, targeted liposomal doxorubicin improved antitumor efficacy against xenograft MCF-7 breast tumors in athymic nude mice, attributable to their enhanced tumor tissue penetration. This study suggests that AS1411 aptamer-functionalized liposomes can recognize nucleolin overexpressed on MCF-7 cell surface, and therefore enable drug delivery with high specificity and selectivity. PMID:24159374

Xing, Hang; Tang, Li; Yang, Xujuan; Hwang, Kevin; Wang, Wendan; Yin, Qian; Wong, Ngo Yin; Dobrucki, Lawrence W.; Yasui, Norio; Katzenellenbogen, John A.; Helferich, William G.; Cheng, Jianjun; Lu, Yi



Tomato Functional Genomics Database: a comprehensive resource and analysis package  

E-print Network

Tomato Functional Genomics Database: a comprehensive resource and analysis package for tomato, 2010 ABSTRACT Tomato Functional Genomics Database (TFGD) provides a comprehensive resource to store, query, mine, analyze, visualize and integrate large-scale tomato functional genomics data sets

Klee, Harry J.


The necessity of functional analysis for space exploration programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

As NASA moves toward expanded commercial spaceflight within its human exploration capability, there is increased emphasis on how to allocate responsibilities between government and commercial organizations to achieve coordinated program objectives. The practice of program-level functional analysis offers an opportunity for improved understanding of collaborative functions among heterogeneous partners. Functional analysis is contrasted with the physical analysis more commonly done

A. Terry Morris; Julian C. Breidenthal



The necessity of functional analysis for space exploration programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

? As NASA moves toward expanded commercial spaceflight within its human exploration capability, there is increased emphasis on how to allocate responsibilities between government and commercial organizations to achieve coordinated program objectives. The practice of program-level functional analysis offers an opportunity for improved understanding of collaborative functions among heterogeneous partners. Functional analysis is contrasted with the physical analysis more commonly

A. Terry Morris; Julian C. Breidenthal



Analysis of in vivo 3-D internal kinematics of the joints of the foot [MRI analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a methodology for the analysis of three-dimensional (3-D) kinematics of live joints of the foot based on tomographic image data acquired via magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. A mechanical jig facilitates acquisition of MR images corresponding to different positions of the joint in a pronation-supination motion. The surfaces of the individual tarsal bones are constructed by segmenting the

Jayaram K. Udupa; Bruce Elliot Hirsch; Howard J. Hillstrom; Gary R. Bauer; J. Bruce Kneeland



An approach to the functional anatomy of the sacroiliac joints in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This first part of this paper is a review of the literature on the functional anatomy of the sacroiliac joint followed by a preliminary biomechanical study of the fresh post mortem pelvis. The latter was done in order to determine the coefficients of the screw matrix and the position of the instantaneous centers of rotation during the symmetrical movements

B. Lavignolle; J. M. Vital; J. Senegas; J. Destandau; B. Toson; P. Bouyx; P. Morlier; G. Delorme; A. Calabet



The human protein Hugl-1 substitutes for Drosophila Lethal giant larvae tumour suppressor function in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drosophila lethal giant larvae (lgl), discs large (dlg) and scribble (scrib) are tumour suppressor genes acting in a common pathway, whose loss of function leads to disruption of cell polarity and tissue architecture, uncontrolled proliferation and growth of neoplastic lesions. Mammalian homologues of these genes are highly conserved and evidence is emerging concerning their role in cell proliferation control and

Daniela Grifoni; Flavio Garoia; Christoph C Schimanski; Gösta Schmitz; Elisa Laurenti; Peter R Galle; Annalisa Pession; Sandro Cavicchi; Dennis Strand



In vivo P-glycoprotein function before and after epilepsy surgery  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To study the functional activity of the multidrug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) at the blood-brain barrier of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy using (R)-[11C]verapamil (VPM)-PET before and after temporal lobe surgery to assess whether postoperative changes in seizure frequency and antiepileptic drug load are associated with changes in Pgp function. Methods: Seven patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy underwent VPM-PET scans pre- and postsurgery. Patients were followed up for a median of 6 years (range 4–7) after surgery. Pgp immunoreactivity in surgically resected hippocampal specimens was determined with immunohistochemistry. Results: Optimal surgical outcome, defined as seizure freedom and withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs, was associated with higher temporal lobe Pgp function before surgery, higher Pgp-positive staining in surgically resected hippocampal specimens, and reduction in global Pgp function postoperatively, compared with nonoptimal surgery outcome. Conclusions: The data from our pilot study suggest that Pgp overactivity in epilepsy is dynamic, and complete seizure control and elimination of antiepileptic medication is associated with reversal of overactivity, although these findings will require confirmation in a larger patient cohort. PMID:25186858

Bauer, Martin; Karch, Rudolf; Zeitlinger, Markus; Liu, Joan; Koepp, Matthias J.; Asselin, Marie-Claude; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Hainfellner, Johannes A.; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Mitterhauser, Markus; Müller, Markus; Pataraia, Ekaterina



In vivo imaging and genetic analysis link bacterial motility and symbiosis in the zebrafish gut  

PubMed Central

Complex microbial communities reside within the intestines of humans and other vertebrates. Remarkably little is known about how these microbial consortia are established in various locations within the gut, how members of these consortia behave within their dynamic ecosystems, or what microbial factors mediate mutually beneficial host–microbial interactions. Using a gnotobiotic zebrafish–Pseudomonas aeruginosa model, we show that the transparency of this vertebrate species, coupled with methods for raising these animals under germ-free conditions can be used to monitor microbial movement and localization within the intestine in vivo and in real time. Germ-free zebrafish colonized with isogenic P. aeruginosa strains containing deletions of genes related to motility and pathogenesis revealed that loss of flagellar function results in attenuation of evolutionarily conserved host innate immune responses but not conserved nutrient responses. These results demonstrate the utility of gnotobiotic zebrafish in defining the behavior and localization of bacteria within the living vertebrate gut, identifying bacterial genes that affect these processes, and assessing the impact of these genes on host–microbial interactions. PMID:17456593

Rawls, John F.; Mahowald, Michael A.; Goodman, Andrew L.; Trent, Chad M.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.



Pattern recognition analysis of in vivo enzyme-substrate fluorescence velocities in microorganism detection and identification.  

PubMed Central

A spectrometric technique is presented that combines most of the important criteria necessary for efficient detection and identification of microorganisms. These criteria include simplicity of experimental design, various degrees of sensitivity and selectivity, convenience, and total reaction times of less than 15 min. The study takes advantage of the inherent extracellular enzymes present in living as opposed to dead, non-enzyme-producing organisms. Sequentially these are harnessed in in vivo reactions with a substrate containing a select organic functional group that is known to be cleaved or hydrolyzed by a certain enzyme. The substrate is tailored so that one of the products can be induced to fluoresce, and by using a conventional spectrofluorimeter the rate at which the fluorescence appears can be recorded. By subjecting the same bacterial sample to a number of different enzyme substrates, a pattern of fluorescence response rates emerges from a 7 by 7 microorganism-substrate matrix. Detection limits ranged from 3.6 X 10(2) to 3.5 X 10(8) cells per ml for the Bacillus globigii-indoxyl acetate and Escherichia coli-diacetylfluorescein pairs, respectively. The specificity and versatility of the method for bacterial determination is demonstrated in probing different bacterial enzymes through their spectrally active metabolic products. PMID:3089149

Snyder, A P; Wang, T T; Greenberg, D B



In vivo analysis of Purkinje cell firing properties during postnatal mouse development.  


Purkinje cell activity is essential for controlling motor behavior. During motor behavior Purkinje cells fire two types of action potentials: simple spikes that are generated intrinsically and complex spikes that are induced by climbing fiber inputs. Although the functions of these spikes are becoming clear, how they are established is still poorly understood. Here, we used in vivo electrophysiology approaches conducted in anesthetized and awake mice to record Purkinje cell activity starting from the second postnatal week of development through to adulthood. We found that the rate of complex spike firing increases sharply at 3 wk of age whereas the rate of simple spike firing gradually increases until 4 wk of age. We also found that compared with adult, the pattern of simple spike firing during development is more irregular as the cells tend to fire in bursts that are interrupted by long pauses. The regularity in simple spike firing only reached maturity at 4 wk of age. In contrast, the adult complex spike pattern was already evident by the second week of life, remaining consistent across all ages. Analyses of Purkinje cells in alert behaving mice suggested that the adult patterns are attained more than a week after the completion of key morphogenetic processes such as migration, lamination, and foliation. Purkinje cell activity is therefore dynamically sculpted throughout postnatal development, traversing several critical events that are required for circuit formation. Overall, we show that simple spike and complex spike firing develop with unique developmental trajectories. PMID:25355961

Arancillo, Marife; White, Joshua J; Lin, Tao; Stay, Trace L; Sillitoe, Roy V



Lack of Functionally-Active Sweet Taste Receptors in the Jejunum in vivo in the Rat  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND When studied in enterocyte-like cell lines (Caco-2 and RIE cells), agonists and antagonists of the sweet taste receptor (STR) augment and decrease glucose uptake, respectively. We hypothesize that exposure to STR agonists and antagonists in vivo will augment glucose absorption in the rat. MATERIAL/METHODS 30-cm segments of jejunum in anesthetized rats were perfused with iso-osmolar solutions containing 10, 35, and 100 mM glucose solutions (n=6 rats, each group) with and without the STR agonist 2 mM acesulfame potassium (AceK) and the STR inhibitor 10 ?M U-73122 (inhibitor of the PLC pathway). Carrier-mediated absorption of glucose was calculated by using stereospecific and non-stereospecific 14C-D-glucose and 3H-L-glucose, respectively. RESULTS Addition of the STR agonist AceK to the 10, 35, and 100 mM glucose solutions had no substantive effects on glucose absorption from 2.1±0.2 to 2.0±0.3, 5.8±0.2 to 4.8±0.2, and 15.5±2.3 to 15.7±2.7 ?mol/min/30-cm intestinal segment (p>0.05), respectively. Addition of the STR inhibitor (U-73122) also had no effect on absorption in the 10, 35, and 100 mM solutions from 2.3±0.1 to 2.1±0.2, 7.7±0.5 to 7.2±0.5, and 15.7±0.9 to 15.2±1.1 ?mol/min/30-cm intestinal segment, respectively. CONCLUSION Provision of glucose directly into rat jejunum does not augment glucose absorption via STR-mediated mechanisms within the jejunum in the rat. Our experiments show either no major role of STRs in mediating postprandial augmentation of glucose absorption or that proximal gastrointestinal tract stimulation of STR or other luminal factors may be required for absorption of glucose to be augmented by STR. PMID:23531453

Chaudhry, Rizwan M.; Garg, Alok; Abdelfatah, Mohamed M.; Duenes, Judith A.; Sarr, Michael G.



Correspondence between Traditional Models of Functional Analysis and a Functional Analysis of Manding Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functional analysis procedures have been effectively used to determine the maintaining variables for challenging behavior and subsequently develop effective interventions. However, fear of evoking dangerous topographies of maladaptive behavior and concerns for reinforcing infrequent maladaptive behavior present challenges for people working in…

LaRue, Robert H.; Sloman, Kimberly N.; Weiss, Mary Jane; Delmolino, Lara; Hansford, Amy; Szalony, Jill; Madigan, Ryan; Lambright, Nathan M.



Functional analysis and treatment of cigarette pica.  

PubMed Central

A series of analyses was conducted to assess and treat the pica of cigarette butts by a young man with mental retardation and autism. First, we demonstrated that pica was maintained in a condition with no social consequences when the available cigarettes contained nicotine but not when the cigarettes contained herbs without nicotine. Second, a choice assessment (Fisher et al., 1992) confirmed that tobacco was preferred over the other components of the cigarette (e.g., paper, filter, etc.). Third, an analogue functional analysis (Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman & Richman, 1982/1994) demonstrated that cigarette pica was maintained independent of social consequences. Fourth, a treatment designed to interrupt the hypothesized response-reinforcer relationship reduced consumption of cigarettes to zero. Finally, because cigarette pica occurred primarily when the individual was alone or under minimal supervision, a procedure based on stimulus control was developed to improve the effectiveness of the intervention in these situations. PMID:8995829

Piazza, C C; Hanley, G P; Fisher, W W



Effects of systemic glucocorticosteroids on peripheral neutrophil functions in asthmatic subjects: an ex vivo study  

PubMed Central

In 21 asthmatic subjects, several functions of isolated peripheral neutrophils (chemokinesis and chemotaxis toward 10% E. coli; superoxide anion generation after PMA; leukotriene B4 (LTB4) release from whole blood and isolated neutrophtls, before and after different stimuli) were evaluated during an acute exacerbation of asthma, and after 14 – 54 days of treatment with systemic glucocorticosteroids (GCS). During acute exacerbation, superoxide anion generation was higher in asthmatics than in eleven normal subjects (39.2 ± 14.1 vs. 25.2 ± 7.3 nmol, p < 0.05); there was a significant correlation between FEV1 (% of predicted) and neutrophil chemotaxis (r = ?0.52, p = 0.04). After treatment, there was no significant change in all neutrophil functions, except for a decrease in neutrophil chemotaxis in subjects who showed an FEV1 increase > 20% after GCS treatment (from 131 ± 18 to 117 ± 21 ?m, p = 0.005). Chemokinesis sicantly decreased in all subjects, and the changes significantly correlated with an arbitrary score of the total administered dose of GCS (r = 0.57, p < 0.05). These data suggest that neutrophil activation plays a minor role in asthma, and that treatment with GCS is not able to modify most functions of peripheral neutrophils in asthmatic subjects; chemotaxis seems to be related only to the severity of the asthma and it could reflect the improvement of the disease. PMID:18475647

Bancalari, L.; Giannessi, D.; Bernini, W.; Lazzerini, G.; Sicari, R.; Bacci, E.; Dente, F. L.; Vagaggini, B.; Caterina, R. De



Functional characterization of dopamine transporter in vivo using Drosophila melanogaster behavioral assays  

PubMed Central

Dopamine mediates diverse functions such as motivation, reward, attention, learning/memory and sleep/arousal. Recent studies using model organisms including the fruit fly, have elucidated various physiological functions of dopamine, and identified specific neural circuits for these functions. Flies with mutations in the Drosophila dopamine transporter (dDAT) gene show enhanced dopamine signaling, and short sleep and memory impairment phenotypes. However, understanding the mechanism by which dopamine signaling causes these phenotypes requires an understanding of the dynamics of dopamine release. Here we report the effects of dDAT expression on behavioral traits. We show that dDAT expression in a subset of dopaminergic neurons is sufficient for normal sleep. dDAT expression in other cell types such as Kenyon cells and glial cells can also rescue the short sleep phenotype of dDAT mutants. dDAT mutants also show a down-regulation of the D1-like dopamine receptor dDA1, and this phenotype is rescued when dDAT is expressed in the same cell types in which it rescues sleep. On the other hand, dDAT overexpression in mushroom bodies, which are the target of memory forming dopamine neurons, abolishes olfactory aversive memory. Our data demonstrate that expression of extrasynaptic dopamine transporters can rescue some aspects of dopamine signaling in dopamine transporter mutants. These results provide novel insights into regulatory systems that modulate dopamine signaling. PMID:25232310

Ueno, Taro; Kume, Kazuhiko



FAM20C functions intracellularly within both ameloblasts and odontoblasts in vivo  

PubMed Central

FAM20C, also known as Golgi Casein Kinase (G-CK), is proposed to be the archetype for a family of secreted kinases that phosphorylate target proteins in the Golgi and in extracellular matrices, but FAM20C serving an extracellular function is controversial. FAM20C phosphorylates secretory calcium-binding phosphoproteins (SCPPs), which are associated with the evolution of biomineralization in vertebrates. Current models of biomineralization assume SCPP proteins are secreted as phosphoproteins and their phosphates are essential for protein conformation and function. It would be a radical departure from current theories if proteins in mineralizing matrices were dephosphorylated as part of the mineralization mechanism and rephosphorylated in the extracellular milieu by FAM20C using ATP. To see if such mechanisms are possible in the formation of dental enamel, we tested the hypothesis that FAM20C is secreted by ameloblasts and accumulates in the enamel extracellular matrix during tooth development. FAM20C localization was determined by immunohistochemistry in Day 5 mouse incisors and molars and by Western blot analyses of proteins extracted from pig enamel organ epithelia (EOE) and enamel shavings. FAM20C localized intracellularly within ameloblasts and odontoblasts in a pattern consistent with Golgi localization. Western blots detected FAM20C in the EOE extracts but not in the enamel matrix. We conclude that FAM20C is not a constituent of the enamel extracellular matrix and functions intracellularly within ameloblasts. PMID:23703840

Wang, Shih-Kai; Samann, Andrew C.; Hu, Jan C-C.; Simmer, James P.



In vivo degradation of orthodontic miniscrew implants: surface analysis of as-received and retrieved specimens.  


This study investigated in vivo degradation of Ti-6Al-4V alloy miniscrew implants. Miniscrew implants were placed in patients, and the surfaces were studied upon retrieval by scanning electron microscopy, microscale X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, elastic recoil detection analysis and nanoindentation testing. Bone-like structures were formed on the retrieved specimens. The hardness and elastic modulus of the surfaces of the retrieved specimens were significantly lower than the as-received specimens, although no statistically significant differences were observed for the hardness and elastic modulus in the bulk region. Thick organic over-layer containing carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen, with the thickness greater than 50 nm, covered the retrieved specimens, and higher concentrations of hydrogen were detected in the retrieved specimens compared with the as-received specimens. Minimal degradation of the bulk mechanical properties of miniscrew implants was observed after clinical use, although precipitation of bone-like structures, formation of a carbonaceous contamination layer, and hydrogen absorption were observed on the surfaces of miniscrew implants. PMID:25631268

Iijima, Masahiro; Muguruma, Takeshi; Kawaguchi, Masahiro; Yasuda, Yoshitaka; Mizoguchi, Itaru



Benchmarking the MCNP code for Monte Carlo modelling of an in vivo neutron activation analysis system.  


The Monte Carlo computer code MCNP (version 4A) has been used to develop a personal computer-based model of the Swansea in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) system. The model included specification of the neutron source (252Cf), collimators, reflectors and shielding. The MCNP model was 'benchmarked' against fast neutron and thermal neutron fluence data obtained experimentally from the IVNAA system. The Swansea system allows two irradiation geometries using 'short' and 'long' collimators, which provide alternative dose rates for IVNAA. The data presented here relate to the short collimator, although results of similar accuracy were obtained using the long collimator. The fast neutron fluence was measured in air at a series of depths inside the collimator. The measurements agreed with the MCNP simulation within the statistical uncertainty (5-10%) of the calculations. The thermal neutron fluence was measured and calculated inside the cuboidal water phantom. The depth of maximum thermal fluence was 3.2 cm (measured) and 3.0 cm (calculated). The width of the 50% thermal fluence level across the phantom at its mid-depth was found to be the same by both MCNP and experiment. This benchmarking exercise has given us a high degree of confidence in MCNP as a tool for the design of IVNAA systems. PMID:9606084

Natto, S A; Lewis, D G; Ryde, S J



Adaptation of Leishmania donovani to Cutaneous and Visceral Environments: in Vivo Selection and Proteomic Analysis.  


Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by Leishmania protozoa. Two main forms are found in the Old World, self-limited cutaneous leishmaniasis and potentially fatal visceral leishmaniasis, with parasite dissemination to liver, bone marrow, and spleen. The Leishmania donovani species complex is the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis worldwide, but atypical L. donovani strains can cause cutaneous leishmaniasis. We hypothesized that L. donovani can adapt to survive in response to restrictions imposed by the host environment. To assess this, we performed in vivo selection in BALB/c mice with a cutaneous L. donovani clinical isolate to select for parasites with increased capacity to survive in visceral organs. We then performed whole cell proteomic analysis and compared this visceral-selected strain to the original cutaneous clinical isolate and to a visceral leishmaniasis clinical isolate. Overall, there were no major shifts in proteomic profiles; however, translation, biosynthetic processes, antioxidant protection, and signaling were elevated in visceral strains. Conversely, transport and trafficking were elevated in the cutaneous strain. Overall, these results provide new insight into the adaptability of Leishmania parasites to the host environment and on the factors that mediate their ability to survive in different organs. PMID:25536015

McCall, Laura-Isobel; Zhang, Wen-Wei; Dejgaard, Kurt; Atayde, Vanessa Diniz; Mazur, Alexander; Ranasinghe, Shalindra; Liu, Jing; Olivier, Martin; Nilsson, Tommy; Matlashewski, Greg



Host defense peptides for treatment of colorectal carcinoma – a comparative in vitro and in vivo analysis  

PubMed Central

Host defense peptides (HDP) constitute effector molecules of the innate immune system. Besides acting against microbia and fungi, they exhibit broad and selective oncolytic activity. The underlying mechanism is at least partially attributable to elevated surface-exposed levels of phosphatidylserine (PS) on tumor targets. In this study, comprehensive analysis of NK-2-based derivatives (C7A, C7A-D21K, and C7A-?) was done on patient-derived ultra-low passage colorectal carcinoma (CRC) cell lines. Peptides were designed to improve antitumoral potential. Mellitin was used as positive control and a non-toxic peptide (NK11) served as negative control. Subsequently, effectiveness of local HDP application was determined in xenopatients. Generally, CRC lines displayed a heterogeneous pattern of surface-exposed PS, which was usually below standard CRC cells. Of note, five out of seven cell lines were susceptible towards HDP-mediated lysis (lytic activity of peptides: C7A-D21K > C7A-?= C7A). Oncolytic activity correlated mostly with surface-exposed PS levels. Apoptosis as well as necrosis were involved in killing. In an in vivo experiment, substantial growth inhibition of HROC24 xenografts was observed after HDP therapy and, surprisingly, also after NK11 treatment. These promising data underline the high potential of HDPs for oncolytic therapies and may provide a rationale for optimizing preclinical treatment schedules based on NK-2. PMID:24962950

Maletzki, Claudia; Klier, Ulrike; Marinkovic, Samuel; Klar, Ernst; Andrä, Jörg; Linnebacher, Michael



Amplitude and frequency content analysis of optoacoustic signals in laser heated ex-vivo tissues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser thermal therapy involves heating tissue using light to temperatures between 55 °C and 95 °C for several minutes resulting in coagulation and cell death. This treatment method has been under investigation for use as a minimally invasive method for eradicating solid tumors and cancer cells. Optoacoustic imaging involves exposing optically absorbing media to nanosecond pulsed laser light causing rapid localized heating and inducing acoustic waves to be detected by wideband transducers. It has been proposed as a real-time, noninvasive method for monitoring laser thermal therapy. This thesis investigates the use of optoacoustics to discriminate between native and coagulated ex-vivo tissues (porcine tenderloin muscle, bovine liver and bovine kidney). Tissues were heated using a 1000 mum core optical fibre coupled to an 810 nm diode laser to generate lesions. Samples were scanned at 1064 nm using a prototype reverse-mode optoacoustic system consisting of a pulsed laser coupled to a bifurcated fibre bundle, and an 8 element annular array wideband ultrasound transducer with a central frequency of ˜5 MHz. Thermal coagulation effects were analyzed using optoacoustic signal amplitude-based and frequency-based analysis. Significant differences (p<0.05) in optoacoustic signals, between native and coagulated porcine muscle, were observed with both amplitude-based and frequency-based analysis methods. Inconsistencies in the amplitude-based analysis were observed in the bovine liver and bovine kidney. Significant differences between native and coagulated bovine liver tissues were observed in two of the three frequency parameters of interest (slope and midband fit, p<0.05). No significant differences between native and coagulated bovine kidney tissues using frequency-based analysis. Amplitude-based analysis methods take advantage of the optical and thermo-mechanical properties of the tissues, while the frequency-based method extracts metrics related physical parameters of the absorbers (such as size, shape and concentration). By isolating the samples from temperature influence (by acquiring OA data of native and coagulated tissues at constant temperature) we have demonstrated that optoacoustics can be used to directly detect tissue damage in two of these three tissue types. The results of this work support the evidence that optoacoustic imaging could be a tool for real-time monitoring of laser thermal heating, but warrant further investigation.

Laderoute, Annie


Functional analysis of problem behavior: a review.  

PubMed Central

Functional analysis methodology focuses on the identification of variables that influence the occurrence of problem behavior and has become a hallmark of contemporary approaches to behavioral assessment. In light of the widespread use of pretreatment functional analyses in articles published in this and other journals, we reviewed the literature in an attempt to identify best practices and directions for future research. Studies included in the present review were those in which (a) a pretreatment assessment based on (b) direct observation and measurement of (c) problem behavior was conducted under (d) at least two conditions involving manipulation of an environmental variable in an attempt (e) to demonstrate a relation between the environmental event and behavior. Studies that met the criteria for inclusion were quantified and critically evaluated along a number of dimensions related to subject and setting characteristics, parametric and qualitative characteristics of the methodology, types of assessment conditions, experimental designs, topographies of problem behaviors, and the manner in which data were displayed and analyzed. PMID:12858983

Hanley, Gregory P; Iwata, Brian A; McCord, Brandon E



Human milk metagenome: a functional capacity analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Human milk contains a diverse population of bacteria that likely influences colonization of the infant gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies, however, have been limited to characterization of this microbial community by 16S rRNA analysis. In the present study, a metagenomic approach using Illumina sequencing of a pooled milk sample (ten donors) was employed to determine the genera of bacteria and the types of bacterial open reading frames in human milk that may influence bacterial establishment and stability in this primal food matrix. The human milk metagenome was also compared to that of breast-fed and formula-fed infants’ feces (n?=?5, each) and mothers’ feces (n?=?3) at the phylum level and at a functional level using open reading frame abundance. Additionally, immune-modulatory bacterial-DNA motifs were also searched for within human milk. Results The bacterial community in human milk contained over 360 prokaryotic genera, with sequences aligning predominantly to the phyla of Proteobacteria (65%) and Firmicutes (34%), and the genera of Pseudomonas (61.1%), Staphylococcus (33.4%) and Streptococcus (0.5%). From assembled human milk-derived contigs, 30,128 open reading frames were annotated and assigned to functional categories. When compared to the metagenome of infants’ and mothers’ feces, the human milk metagenome was less diverse at the phylum level, and contained more open reading frames associated with nitrogen metabolism, membrane transport and stress response (P?functionality of the human milk metagenome are warranted. PMID:23705844



In vivo MRI analysis of depth-dependent ultrastructure in human knee cartilage at 7 T.  


Signal intensities of T2-weighted magnetic resonance images depend on the local fiber arrangement in hyaline cartilage. The aims of this study were to determine whether angle-sensitive MRI at 7 T can be used to quantify the cartilage ultrastructure of the knee in vivo and to assess potential differences with age. Ten younger (21-30) and ten older (55-76 years old) healthy volunteers were imaged with a T2-weighted spin-echo sequence in a 7 T whole-body MRI. A "fascicle" model was assumed to describe the depth-dependent fiber arrangement of cartilage. The R/T boundary positions between radial and transitional zones were assessed from intensity profiles in small regions of interest in the femur and tibia, and normalized to cartilage thickness using logistic curve fits. The quality of our highly resolved (0.3 × 0.3 × 1.0 mm(3)) MR cartilage images were high enough for quantitative analysis (goodness of fit R(2) = 0.91 ± 0.09). Between younger and older subjects, normalized positions of the R/T boundary, with value 0 at the bone-cartilage interface and 1 at the cartilage surface, were significantly (p < 0.05) different in femoral (0.51 ± 0.12 versus 0.41 ± 0.10), but not in tibial cartilage (0.65 ± 0.11 versus 0.57 ± 0.09, p = 0.119). Within both age groups, differences between femoral and tibial R/T boundaries were significant. Using a fascicle model and angle-sensitive MRI, the depth-dependent anisotropic fiber arrangement of knee cartilage could be assessed in vivo from a single 7 T MR image. The derived quantitative parameter, thickness of the radial zone, may serve as an indicator of the structural integrity of cartilage. This method may potentially be suitable to detect and monitor early osteoarthritis because the progressive disintegration of the anisotropic network is also indicative of arthritic changes in cartilage. PMID:23801556

Garnov, Nikita; Gründer, Wilfried; Thörmer, Gregor; Trampel, Robert; Turner, Robert; Kahn, Thomas; Busse, Harald



Automation and uncertainty analysis of a method for in-vivo range verification in particle therapy.  


We introduce the automation of the range difference calculation deduced from particle-irradiation induced ?(+)-activity distributions with the so-called most-likely-shift approach, and evaluate its reliability via the monitoring of algorithm- and patient-specific uncertainty factors. The calculation of the range deviation is based on the minimization of the absolute profile differences in the distal part of two activity depth profiles shifted against each other. Depending on the workflow of positron emission tomography (PET)-based range verification, the two profiles under evaluation can correspond to measured and simulated distributions, or only measured data from different treatment sessions. In comparison to previous work, the proposed approach includes an automated identification of the distal region of interest for each pair of PET depth profiles and under consideration of the planned dose distribution, resulting in the optimal shift distance. Moreover, it introduces an estimate of uncertainty associated to the identified shift, which is then used as weighting factor to 'red flag' problematic large range differences. Furthermore, additional patient-specific uncertainty factors are calculated using available computed tomography (CT) data to support the range analysis. The performance of the new method for in-vivo treatment verification in the clinical routine is investigated with in-room PET images for proton therapy as well as with offline PET images for proton and carbon ion therapy. The comparison between measured PET activity distributions and predictions obtained by Monte Carlo simulations or measurements from previous treatment fractions is performed. For this purpose, a total of 15 patient datasets were analyzed, which were acquired at Massachusetts General Hospital and Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center with in-room PET and offline PET/CT scanners, respectively. Calculated range differences between the compared activity distributions are reported in a 2D map in beam-eye-view. In comparison to previously proposed approaches, the new most-likely-shift method shows more robust results for assessing in-vivo the range from strongly varying PET distributions caused by differing patient geometry, ion beam species, beam delivery techniques, PET imaging concepts and counting statistics. The additional visualization of the uncertainties and the dedicated weighting strategy contribute to the understanding of the reliability of observed range differences and the complexity in the prediction of activity distributions. The proposed method promises to offer a feasible technique for clinical routine of PET-based range verification. PMID:25211629

Frey, K; Unholtz, D; Bauer, J; Debus, J; Min, C H; Bortfeld, T; Paganetti, H; Parodi, K



Automation and uncertainty analysis of a method for in-vivo range verification in particle therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce the automation of the range difference calculation deduced from particle-irradiation induced ?+-activity distributions with the so-called most-likely-shift approach, and evaluate its reliability via the monitoring of algorithm- and patient-specific uncertainty factors. The calculation of the range deviation is based on the minimization of the absolute profile differences in the distal part of two activity depth profiles shifted against each other. Depending on the workflow of positron emission tomography (PET)-based range verification, the two profiles under evaluation can correspond to measured and simulated distributions, or only measured data from different treatment sessions. In comparison to previous work, the proposed approach includes an automated identification of the distal region of interest for each pair of PET depth profiles and under consideration of the planned dose distribution, resulting in the optimal shift distance. Moreover, it introduces an estimate of uncertainty associated to the identified shift, which is then used as weighting factor to ‘red flag’ problematic large range differences. Furthermore, additional patient-specific uncertainty factors are calculated using available computed tomography (CT) data to support the range analysis. The performance of the new method for in-vivo treatment verification in the clinical routine is investigated with in-room PET images for proton therapy as well as with offline PET images for proton and carbon ion therapy. The comparison between measured PET activity distributions and predictions obtained by Monte Carlo simulations or measurements from previous treatment fractions is performed. For this purpose, a total of 15 patient datasets were analyzed, which were acquired at Massachusetts General Hospital and Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center with in-room PET and offline PET/CT scanners, respectively. Calculated range differences between the compared activity distributions are reported in a 2D map in beam-eye-view. In comparison to previously proposed approaches, the new most-likely-shift method shows more robust results for assessing in-vivo the range from strongly varying PET distributions caused by differing patient geometry, ion beam species, beam delivery techniques, PET imaging concepts and counting statistics. The additional visualization of the uncertainties and the dedicated weighting strategy contribute to the understanding of the reliability of observed range differences and the complexity in the prediction of activity distributions. The proposed method promises to offer a feasible technique for clinical routine of PET-based range verification.

Frey, K.; Unholtz, D.; Bauer, J.; Debus, J.; Min, C. H.; Bortfeld, T.; Paganetti, H.; Parodi, K.



Hepatic sirtuin 1 is dispensable for fibrate-induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? function in vivo.  


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) mediates metabolic remodeling, resulting in enhanced mitochondrial and peroxisomal ?-oxidation of fatty acids. In addition to the physiological stimuli of fasting and high-fat diet, PPAR? is activated by the fibrate class of drugs for the treatment of dyslipidemia. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an important regulator of energy homeostasis, was downregulated in fibrate-treated wild-type mice, suggesting PPAR? regulation of Sirt1 gene expression. The impact of SIRT1 loss on PPAR? functionality in vivo was assessed in hepatocyte-specific knockout mice that lack the deacetylase domain of SIRT1 (Sirt1(?Liv)). Knockout mice were treated with fibrates or fasted for 24 h to activate PPAR?. Basal expression of the PPAR? target genes Cyp4a10 and Cyp4a14 was reduced in Sirt1(?Liv) mice compared with wild-type mice. However, no difference was observed between wild-type and Sirt1(?Liv) mice in either fasting- or fibrate-mediated induction of PPAR? target genes. Similar to the initial results, there was no difference in fibrate-activated PPAR? gene induction. To assess the relationship between SIRT1 and PPAR? in a pathophysiological setting, Sirt1(?Liv) mice were maintained on a high-fat diet for 14 wk, followed by fibrate treatment. Sirt1(?Liv) mice exhibited increased body mass compared with control mice. In the context of a high-fat diet, Sirt1(?Liv) mice did not respond to the cholesterol-lowering effects of the fibrate treatment. However, there were no significant differences in PPAR? target gene expression. These results suggest that, in vivo, SIRT1 deacetylase activity does not significantly impact induced PPAR? activity. PMID:24496310

Bonzo, Jessica A; Brocker, Chad; Jiang, Changtao; Wang, Rui-Hong; Deng, Chu-Xia; Gonzalez, Frank J



Creation of Nonischemic Functional Mitral Regurgitation by Annular Dilatation and Nonplanar Modification in a Chronic In Vivo Swine Model  

PubMed Central

Background Mechanisms and treatments of nonischemic functional mitral regurgitation (NIMR) are not fully established in part due to a lack of proper large animal models. We developed a novel technique of NIMR creation in a swine model by making multiple small incisions in the mitral annulus. Methods and Results Ex-vivo experiments using isolated swine hearts (n=10) showed a 15% increase in annular area (6.8 to 7.8cm2) after 16 incisions were made along the posterior mitral annulus of a pressurized left ventricle (LV). In an in vivo swine model (n=7, 46.4±2.2kg) NIMR was created by making 14-26 2mm incisions in the atrial aspect of the mitral annulus using a cardioport video-assisted imaging system in the beating heart. Animals were sacrificed at 4 weeks (n=4) and 6 weeks (n=3). Three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography was obtained before and immediately after NIMR creation, and at euthanasia; vena contracta area (VCA), mitral annular dimension, LV volume, and inter-papillary muscle distance were measured. The mitral annular incisions resulted in mild-moderate mitral regurgitation and an increased VCA. NIMR creation altered mitral valve (MV) geometry by decreasing mitral annular nonplanarity and increasing annular area, primarily in the anteroposterior dimension. NIMR creation did not significantly change LV volume or inter-papillary muscle distance. Longer follow-up period did not significantly affect these outcomes. Conclusions NIMR can successfully be created in a beating-heart swine model and results in dilatation and 3D changes in mitral annular geometry. This model can enhance the experimental validation of new valve repair devices and techniques. PMID:24030417

Yamauchi, Haruo; Feins, Eric N.; Vasilyev, Nikolay V.; Shimada, Shogo; Zurakowski, David; del Nido, Pedro J.



Irrigation of human prepared root canal – ex vivo based computational fluid dynamics analysis  

PubMed Central

Aim To analyze the influence of the needle type, insertion depth, and irrigant flow rate on irrigant flow pattern, flow velocity, and apical pressure by ex-vivo based endodontic irrigation computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Methods Human upper canine root canal was prepared using rotary files. Contrast fluid was introduced in the root canal and scanned by computed tomography (CT) providing a three-dimensional object that was exported to the computer-assisted design (CAD) software. Two probe points were established in the apical portion of the root canal model for flow velocity and pressure measurement. Three different CAD models of 27G irrigation needles (closed-end side-vented, notched open-end, and bevel open-end) were created and placed at 25, 50, 75, and 95% of the working length (WL). Flow rates of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 mL/s were simulated. A total of 60 irrigation simulations were performed by CFD fluid flow solver. Results Closed-end side-vented needle required insertion depth closer to WL, regarding efficient irrigant replacement, compared to open-end irrigation needle types, which besides increased velocity produced increased irrigant apical pressure. For all irrigation needle types and needle insertion depths, the increase of flow rate was followed by an increased irrigant apical pressure. Conclusions The human root canal shape obtained by CT is applicable in the CFD analysis of endodontic irrigation. All the analyzed values –irrigant flow pattern, velocity, and pressure – were influenced by irrigation needle type, as well as needle insertion depth and irrigant flow rate. PMID:23100209

Šnjari?, Damir; ?arija, Zoran; Braut, Alen; Halaji, Adelaida; Kova?evi?, Maja; Kuiš, Davor



Delta-catenin is required for the maintenance of neural structure and function in mature cortex in vivo  

PubMed Central

Delta (™)-catenin is a brain specific member of the adherens junction complex that localizes to the post-synaptic and dendritic compartments. This protein is likely critical for normal cognitive function; its hemizygous loss is linked to the severe mental retardation syndrome, Cri-du-Chat, and it directly interacts with Presenilin-1 (PS1), the protein most frequently mutated in familial Alzheimer's disease. Mice lacking normal ™-catenin display severe impairments in learning and memory tasks and synaptic plasticity. Here we examine dendritic structure and cortical function in vivo in mice lacking ™-catenin. We find that in cerebral cortex of 5-week-old mice dendritic complexity, spine density, and cortical responsiveness are similar between mutant and littermate controls; thereafter, mutant mice experience progressive dendritic retraction, a reduction in spine density and stability, and concomitant reductions in cortical responsiveness. Our results indicate that ™-catenin regulates the maintenance of dendrites and dendritic spines in mature cortex but does not appear to be necessary for the initial establishment of these structures during development. PMID:19914181

Matter, Cheryl; Pribadi, Mochtar; Liu, Xin; Trachtenberg, Joshua T.



Recombinant human stem cell factor (kit ligand) promotes human mast cell and melanocyte hyperplasia and functional activation in vivo  

PubMed Central

Stem cell factor (SCF), also known as mast cell growth factor, kit ligand, and steel factor, is the ligand for the tyrosine kinase receptor (SCFR) that is encoded by the c-kit proto-oncogene. We analyzed the effects of recombinant human SCF (r-hSCF, 5-50 micrograms/kg/day, injected subcutaneously) on mast cells and melanocytes in a phase I study of 10 patients with advanced breast carcinoma. A wheal and flare reaction developed at each r-hSCF injection site; by electron microscopy, most dermal mast cells at these sites exhibited extensive, anaphylactic-type degranulation. A 14-d course of r-hSCF significantly increased dermal mast cell density at sites distant to those injected with the cytokine and also increased both urinary levels of the major histamine metabolite, methyl- histamine, and serum levels of mast cell alpha-tryptase. Five subjects developed areas of persistent hyperpigmentation at r-hSCF injection sites; by light microscopy, these sites exhibited markedly increased epidermal melanization and increased numbers of melanocytes. The demonstration that r-hSCF can promote both the hyperplasia and the functional activation of human mast cells and melanocytes in vivo has implications for our understanding of the role of endogenous SCF in health and disease. These findings also indicate that the interaction between SCF and its receptor represents a potential therapeutic target for regulating the numbers and functional activity of both mast cells and cutaneous melanocytes. PMID:8676090



In vivo optical molecular imaging and analysis in mice using dorsal window chamber models applied to hypoxia, vasculature and fluorescent reporters  

PubMed Central

Optical techniques for functional imaging in mice have a number of key advantages over other common imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography or computed tomography, including high resolution, low cost and an extensive library of available contrast agents and reporter genes. A major challenge to such work is the limited penetration depth imposed by tissue turbidity. We describe a window chamber technique by which these limitations can be avoided. This facilitates the study of a wide range of processes, with potential endpoints including longitudinal gene expression, vascular remodeling and angiogenesis, and tumor growth and invasion. We further describe several quantitative imaging and analysis techniques for characterizing in vivo fluorescence properties and functional endpoints, including vascular morphology and oxygenation. The procedure takes ~2 h to complete, plus up to several weeks for tumor growth and treatment procedures. PMID:21886101

Palmer, Gregory M; Fontanella, Andrew N; Shan, Siqing; Hanna, Gabi; Zhang, Guoqing; Fraser, Cassandra L; Dewhirst, Mark W



A USPL functional system with articulated mirror arm for in-vivo applications in dentistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultra-short pulsed laser (USPL) systems for dental application have overcome many of their initial disadvantages. However, a problem that has not yet been addressed and solved is the beam delivery into the oral cavity. The functional system that is introduced in this study includes an articulated mirror arm, a scanning system as well as a handpiece, allowing for freehand preparations with ultra-short laser pulses. As laser source an Nd:YVO4 laser is employed, emitting pulses with a duration of tp < 10 ps at a repetition rate of up to 500 kHz. The centre wavelength is at 1064 nm and the average output power can be tuned up to 9 W. The delivery system consists of an articulated mirror arm, to which a scanning system and a custom made handpiece are connected, including a 75 mm focussing lens. The whole functional system is compact in size and moveable. General characteristics like optical losses and ablation rate are determined and compared to results employing a fixed setup on an optical table. Furthermore classical treatment procedures like cavity preparation are being demonstrated on mammoth ivory. This study indicates that freehand preparation employing an USPL system is possible but challenging, and accompanied by a variety of side-effects. The ablation rate with fixed handpiece is about 10 mm3/min. Factors like defocussing and blinding affect treatment efficiency. Laser sources with higher average output powers might be needed in order to reach sufficient preparation speeds.

Schelle, Florian; Meister, Jörg; Dehn, Claudia; Oehme, Bernd; Bourauel, Christoph; Frentzen, Mathias



PubMed Central

Ex-vivo identification of donor specific unresponsiveness in organ transplant recipients is important for immunosuppression (IS) minimization. We tested three groups of stable living-related-donor-kidney transplant patients upto 11 years post-operatively, i.e., 20 haploidenticals with donor bone marrow cell (DBMC) infusions, 8 non-infused haploidentical controls (haplo-controls) and 11 HLA-identical controls (HLA-Id), using multiple ex vivo immune assays. None developed donor specific antibodies. The majority showed donor specific CTL unresponsiveness from year one onwards. 13/20 DBMC recipients became specifically donor MLR non-reactive. Depletion of donor cells in DBMC recipients still MLR reactive increased donor specific reactivity by 75±36% (p=0.04). Adding them back in low concentration caused antigen specific inhibition. The frequencies of ELISPOT granzyme-B and interferon-? producing cells somewhat paralleled the CTL and MLR responses. In the transvivo-DTH, 14/19 DBMC recipients demonstrated donor specific unresponsiveness and 16/19 showed “linked suppression”, vs 0/8 and 1/8 haplo-controls and vs. 6/10 and 1/10 HLA-ids respectively. Most importantly, when all 6 assays were performed simultaneously, 10/18 DBMC, 5/10 HLA-id but no haplo-controls were specifically donor unresponsive long-term. We propose that a cluster-analysis combining these assays will reveal tolerant recipients in whom IS minimization may safely be tested. This appears to have occurred in many DBMC infused recipients. PMID:20153397

Mathew, James M.; Ciancio, Gaetano; Burke, George W.; Garcia-Morales, Rolando O.; Rosen, Anne; Wang, Edward; Gomez, Carmen I.; Blomberg, Bonnie B.; Fuller, Laphalle; Esquenazi, Violet; Ricordi, Camillo; Miller, Joshua



Functional analysis of verbal behavior: a brief review.  


A variation of the preintervention functional analysis of problem behavior has recently been extended to identify the function of verbal behavior emitted by children with autism. Recent research suggests that a functional analysis of verbal behavior might be beneficial in evaluating previous instruction and guiding the selection of future educational targets and instructional procedures. The present paper reviews previous literature on the functional analysis of verbal behavior and identifies avenues for future research. PMID:24114111

Plavnick, Joshua B; Normand, Matthew P



In vivo functional efficacy of tumor-specific T cells expanded using HLA-Ig based artificial Antigen Presenting Cells (aAPC)  

PubMed Central

Summary Adoptive immunotherapy for treatment of cancers and infectious diseases is often hampered by a high degree of variability in the final T cell product and the limited in vivo function and survival of ex vivo expanded antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTL). This has stimulated interest in development of standardized artificial Antigen Presenting Cells (aAPC) to reliably expand antigen specific CTL. However for successful immunotherapy the aAPC ex vivo generated CTL must have anti-tumor activity in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that HLA-Ig based aAPC stimulated tumor-specific CTL from human peripheral blood T lymphocytes showed robust expansion and functional activity in a human/SCID mouse melanoma model. HLA-Ig based aAPC expanded CTL were detected in the peripheral blood up to 15 days after transfer. Non-invasive bioluminescence imaging of tumor bearing mice demonstrated antigen dependent localization of transferred CTL to the tumor site. Moreover, adoptive transfer of HLA-Ig based aAPC generated CTL inhibited the tumor growth both in prevention and in treatment modes of therapy and was comparable to that achieved by dendritic cell expanded CTL. Thus, our data demonstrate potential therapeutic in vivo activity of HLA-Ig based aAPC expanded CTL to control tumor growth. PMID:18563409

Durai, Malarvizhi; Krueger, Christine; Ye, Zhaohui; Cheng, Linzhao; Mackensen, Andreas; Oelke, Mathias; Schneck, Jonathan P




EPA Science Inventory

Effect of Oil Combustion Particle Bioavailable Constituents on Ex Vivo Vascular Function of Aortae Recovered from Healthy and Early Type 2 Diabetic Rats KL Dreher1, SE Kelly2, SD Proctor2, and JC Russell2. 1National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, US EPA, RTP, NC;...


A model genetic system for testing the in vivo function of peptide toxins.  


We have developed a model genetic system for analyzing the function of peptide toxins from animal venoms. We engineered and propagated strains of Drosophila melanogaster expressing heat-inducible transgenes encoding either kappa-ACTX-Hv1c or omega-ACTX-Hv1a, two insect-specific neurotoxic peptides found in the venom of the Australian funnel-web spider Hadronyche versuta. Heat induction of transgene expression for 20 min was sufficient to kill all transgenic flies, indicating that the ion channels targeted by these toxins are viable insecticide targets. The unusual phenotype of flies induced to express omega-ACTX-Hv1a recapitulates that of a hypomorphic allele of the high-voltage-activated calcium channel Dmca1D, suggesting that this is likely to be the target of omega-ACTX-Hv1a. PMID:17141372

Tedford, Hugo W; Maggio, Francesco; Reenan, Robert A; King, Glenn



In Vivo Approaches to Dissecting the Function of RNA Helicases in Eukaryotic Ribosome Assembly  

PubMed Central

In eukaryotes, ribosome biogenesis involves the nucleolar transcription and processing of pre-ribosomal RNA molecules (pre-rRNA) in a complex pathway requiring the participation of myriad protein and ribonucleoprotein factors. Through efforts aimed at categorizing and characterizing these factors, at least 20 RNA helicases have been shown to interact with or participate in the activities of the major ribosome biogenesis complexes. Unfortunately, little is known about the enzymatic properties of most of these helicases, and less is known about their roles in ribosome biogenesis and pre-rRNA maturation. This chapter presents approaches for characterizing RNA helicases involved in ribosome biogenesis. Included are methods for depletion of specific protein targets, with standard protocols for assaying the typical ribosome biogenesis defects that may result. Procedures and rationales for mutagenic studies of target proteins are discussed, as well as several approaches for identifying protein–protein interactions in order to determine functional context and potential cofactors of RNA helicases. PMID:22713326

Rawling, David C.; Baserga, Susan J.



Development of optical neuroimaging to detect drug-induced brain functional changes in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deficits in prefrontal function play a crucial role in compulsive cocaine use, which is a hallmark of addiction. Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex might result from effects of cocaine on neurons as well as from disruption of cerebral blood vessels. However, the mechanisms underlying cocaine's neurotoxic effects are not fully understood, partially due to technical limitations of current imaging techniques (e.g., PET, fMRI) to differentiate vascular from neuronal effects at sufficiently high temporal and spatial resolutions. We have recently developed a multimodal imaging platform which can simultaneously characterize the changes in cerebrovascular hemodynamics, hemoglobin oxygenation and intracellular calcium fluorescence for monitoring the effects of cocaine on the brain. Such a multimodality imaging technique (OFI) provides several uniquely important merits, including: 1) a large field-of-view, 2) high spatiotemporal resolutions, 3) quantitative 3D imaging of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) networks, 4) label-free imaging of hemodynamic changes, 5) separation of vascular compartments (e.g., arterial and venous vessels) and monitoring of cortical brain metabolic changes, 6) discrimination of cellular (neuronal) from vascular responses. These imaging features have been further advanced in combination with microprobes to form micro-OFI that allows quantification of drug effects on subcortical brain. In addition, our ultrahigh-resolution ODT (?ODT) enables 3D microangiography and quantitative imaging of capillary CBF networks. These optical strategies have been used to investigate the effects of cocaine on brain physiology to facilitate the studies of brain functional changes induced by addictive substance to provide new insights into neurobiological effects of the drug on the brain.

Du, Congwu; Pan, Yingtian



Brain basis of early parent–infant interactions: psychology, physiology, and in vivo functional neuroimaging studies  

PubMed Central

Parenting behavior critically shapes human infants’ current and future behavior. The parent–infant relationship provides infants with their first social experiences, forming templates of what they can expect from others and how to best meet others’ expectations. In this review, we focus on the neurobiology of parenting behavior, including our own functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain imaging experiments of parents. We begin with a discussion of background, perspectives and caveats for considering the neurobiology of parent–infant relationships. Then, we discuss aspects of the psychology of parenting that are significantly motivating some of the more basic neuroscience research. Following that, we discuss some of the neurohormones that are important for the regulation of social bonding, and the dysregulation of parenting with cocaine abuse. Then, we review the brain circuitry underlying parenting, proceeding from relevant rodent and nonhuman primate research to human work. Finally, we focus on a study-by-study review of functional neuroimaging studies in humans. Taken together, this research suggests that networks of highly conserved hypothalamic–midbrain–limbic–paralimbic–cortical circuits act in concert to support aspects of parent response to infants, including the emotion, attention, motivation, empathy, decision-making and other thinking that are required to navigate the complexities of parenting. Specifically, infant stimuli activate basal forebrain regions, which regulate brain circuits that handle specific nurturing and caregiving responses and activate the brain’s more general circuitry for handling emotions, motivation, attention, and empathy – all of which are crucial for effective parenting. We argue that an integrated understanding of the brain basis of parenting has profound implications for mental health. PMID:17355399

Swain, James E.; Lorberbaum, Jeffrey P.; Kose, Samet; Strathearn, Lane



The Dehn function of Stallings' group To appear in Geometric and Functional Analysis  

E-print Network

The Dehn function of Stallings' group To appear in Geometric and Functional Analysis Will Dison Classification: 20F65 Keywords: Dehn function, Stallings' group, isoperimetric function, finiteness properties In memoriam John R. Stallings, 1935­2008. Abstract We prove that the Dehn function of a group of Stallings

Riley, Tim


RNA Interference Mutant Induction In Vivo Demonstrates the Essential Nature of Trypanosome Flagellar Function during Mammalian Infection?  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate that trypanosomes compromised in flagellar function are rapidly cleared from infected mice. Analysis of the PFR2 bloodstream RNA interference mutant revealed that defective cell motility occurred prior to cytokinesis failure. This validation provides a paradigm for the flagellum as a target for future assays and interventions against this human pathogen. PMID:17513568

Griffiths, Samantha; Portman, Neil; Taylor, Philip R.; Gordon, Siamon; Ginger, Michael L.; Gull, Keith



Correlation, functional analysis and optical pattern recognition  

SciTech Connect

Correlation integrals have played a central role in optical pattern recognition. The success of correlation, however, has been limited. What is needed is a mathematical operation more complex than correlation. Suitably complex operations are the functionals defined on the Hilbert space of Lebesgue square integrable functions. Correlation is a linear functional of a parameter. In this paper, we develop a representation of functionals in terms of inner products or equivalently correlation functions. We also discuss the role of functionals in neutral networks. Having established a broad relation of correlation to pattern recognition, we discuss the computation of correlation functions using acousto-optics.

Dickey, F.M.; Lee, M.L.; Stalker, K.T.



Structural basis for the MukB-topoisomerase IV interaction and its functional implications in vivo  

PubMed Central

Chromosome partitioning in Escherichia coli is assisted by two interacting proteins, topoisomerase (topo) IV and MukB. MukB stimulates the relaxation of negative supercoils by topo IV; to understand the mechanism of their action and to define this functional interplay, we determined the crystal structure of a minimal MukB–topo IV complex to 2.3?Å resolution. The structure shows that the so-called ‘hinge' region of MukB forms a heterotetrameric assembly with a C-terminal DNA binding domain (CTD) on topo IV's ParC subunit. Biochemical studies show that the hinge stimulates topo IV by competing for a site on the CTD that normally represses activity on negatively supercoiled DNA, while complementation tests using mutants implicated in the interaction reveal that the cellular dependency on topo IV derives from a joint need for both strand passage and MukB binding. Interestingly, the configuration of the MukB·topo IV complex sterically disfavours intradimeric interactions, indicating that the proteins may form oligomeric arrays with one another, and suggesting a framework by which MukB and topo IV may collaborate during daughter chromosome disentanglement. PMID:24097060

Vos, Seychelle M; Stewart, Nichole K; Oakley, Martha G; Berger, James M



Dynamic noninvasive monitoring of renal function in vivo by fluorescence lifetime imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kidneys normally filter the blood of excess salts and metabolic products, such as urea, while retaining plasma proteins. In diseases such as multiple myeloma and diabetes mellitus, the renal function is compromised and protein escapes into the urine. In this study, we present the use of fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLI) to image excess serum protein in urine (proteinuria). The near-infrared fluorescent dye LS-288 has distinct lifetimes when bound to protein versus free in solution, providing contrast between the protein-rich viscera and the mostly protein-free bladder. FLI with LS-288 in mice revealed that fluorescence lifetime (FLT) differences in the bladder relative to surrounding tissues was due to the fractional contributions of the bound and unbound dye molecules. The FLT of LS-288 decreased in the case of proteinuria while fluorescence intensity was unchanged. The results show that FLI can be useful for the dynamic imaging of protein-losing nephropathy due to diabetes mellitus and other renal diseases and suggest the potential use of the FLI to distinguish tumors from fluid-filled cysts in the body.

Goiffon, Reece J.; Akers, Walter J.; Berezin, Mikhail Y.; Lee, Hyeran; Achilefu, Samuel



Formulation of Functionalized PLGA-PEG Nanoparticles for In Vivo Targeted Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticle (NP) size has been shown to significantly effect the biodistribution of targeted and non-targeted NPs in an organ specific manner. Herein we have developed NPs from carboxy-terminated poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-b-PEG-COOH) polymer and studied the effects of altering the following formulation parameters on the size of NPs, including: 1) polymer concentration, 2) drug loading, 3) water miscibility of solvent, and 4) the ratio of water to solvent. We found that NP mean volumetric size correlates linearly with polymer concentration for NPs between 70 and 250 nm in diameter (linear coefficient = 0.99 for NPs formulated with solvents studied). NPs with desirable size, drug loading, and polydispersity were conjugated to the A10 RNA aptamer (Apt) that binds to the Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA), and NP and NP-Apt biodistribution was evaluated in a LNCaP (PSMA+) xenograft mouse model of PCa. The surface functionalization of NPs with the A10 PSMA aptamer significantly enhanced delivery of NPs to tumors vs. equivalent NPs lacking the A10 PSMA aptamer (a 3.77-fold increase at 24 hrs; NP-Apt 0.83% ± 0.21% vs. NP 0.22% ± 0.07% of injected dose per gram of tissue; mean ± s.d., n = 4, p = 0.002). The ability to control NP size together with targeted delivery may result in favorable biodistribution and development of clinically relevant targeted therapies. PMID:17055572

Cheng, Jianjun; Teply, Benjamin A.; Sherifi, Ines; Sung, Josephine; Luther, Gaurav; Gu, Frank X.; Levy-Nissenbaum, Etgar; Radovic-Moreno, Aleksandar F.; Langer, Robert; Farokhzad, Omid C.



Interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae glutaredoxin 5 and SPT10 and their in vivo functions.  


Glutaredoxin 5 (Grx5) is a monothiol member of the Grx family that comprises two dithiol and three monothiol members. Using a yeast two-hybrid system, we isolated a Grx5-binding protein, SPT10, which has been previously suggested to act as a global transcriptional regulator of specific histone genes. We find that among the five members of the Grx family and two members of the thioredoxin (Trx) family (Trx1 and Trx2), Grx5 alone interacts with SPT10 via an intermolecular disulfide linkage between Cys60 of Grx5 and Cys385 of SPT10. To evaluate the physiological function of the Grx5/SPT10 interaction, we investigated the phenotypes of three null mutant strains (Grx5?, SPT10?, and Grx5?SPT10?). Taken together, the results show that all of these phenotypes are probably a consequence of the disruption of the interaction between Grx5 and SPT10. From this study, we suggest an interaction between Grx5 and SPT10 via intermolecular disulfide linkage and propose a model for a role of Grx5 in the regulation of protein expression under the control of SPT10. PMID:22326886

Oh, Young-Mee; Hong, Seung-Keun; Yeon, Jeong-Tae; Cha, Mee-Kyung; Kim, Il-Han



Asymptotic analysis of T-hypergeometric functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define the T-hypergeometric functions as a generalization of the hypergeometric functions associated with root systems of Heckman and Opdam. In the geometric setting, the T-hypergeometric functions can be specialized to Harish-Chandra’s spherical functions on Riemannian symmetric spaces of noncompact type, and also to the spherical functions on noncompactly causal symmetric spaces. After describing their regularity properties, we prove estimates

Angela Pasquale



A Numerical Analysis Model for the Interpretation of In Vivo Platelet Consumption Data  

PubMed Central

Unlike anemias, most thrombocytopenias cannot be separated into those due to impaired production and those due to accelerated consumption. While rapid clearance of labeled platelets from the bloodstream can be followed in thrombocytopenic individuals, no model exists for quantitatively inferring from autologous or allogeneic platelet consumption data what changes in random consumption, lifespan dependent consumption, and platelet production rate may have caused the thrombocytopenia. Here we describe a numerical analysis model which resolves these issues. The model applies three parameter values (a random consumption rate constant, a lognormally-distributed platelet lifespan, and the standard deviation of the latter) to a matrix comprising a series of platelet cohorts which are sequentially produced and fractionally consumed in a series of time intervals. The cohort platelet counts achieved after equilibration of production and consumption both enumerate the population age distribution and sum to the population platelet count. Continued platelet consumption after production is halted then serves to model in vivo platelet consumption data, with consumption rate in the first such interval defining the equilibrium platelet production rate. We use a least squares fitting procedure to find parameter values which best fit observed platelet consumption data obtained in WT and thrombocytopenic WASP(-) mice. Equilibrium platelet age distributions are then ‘grafted’ into the matrix to allow modeling of the consumption of WT platelets in WASP(-) recipients, and vice versa. The optimal parameter values obtained indicate that random WT platelet consumption accounts for a larger fraction of platelet turnover than was previously suspected. Platelet WASP deficiency accelerates random consumption, and a trans effect of recipient WASP deficiency contributes to this. Application of the model to clinical data will allow distinctions to be made between thrombocytopenias due primarily to impaired platelet production and those due to acceleration of random or lifespan-dependent platelet consumption. PMID:23383066

Strom, Ted S.



Theory and numerical analysis of Volterra functional equations  

E-print Network

Theory and numerical analysis of Volterra functional equations (TU Chemnitz, 22-26 September 2008 to the situation in the numerical analysis of more general Volterra functional equations in which delays occur and integro- differential equations of Volterra type and their numerical analysis, focusing on collocation

Potts, Daniel


In vivo assessment of protease dynamics in cutaneous wound healing by degradomics analysis of porcine wound exudates.  


Proteases control complex tissue responses by modulating inflammation, cell proliferation and migration, and matrix remodeling. All these processes are orchestrated in cutaneous wound healing to restore the skin's barrier function upon injury. Altered protease activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of healing impairments, and proteases are important targets in diagnosis and therapy of this pathology. Global assessment of proteolysis at critical turning points after injury will define crucial events in acute healing that might be disturbed in healing disorders. As optimal biospecimens, wound exudates contain an ideal proteome to detect extracellular proteolytic events, are noninvasively accessible, and can be collected at multiple time points along the healing process from the same wound in the clinics. In this study, we applied multiplexed Terminal Amine Isotopic Labeling of Substrates (TAILS) to globally assess proteolysis in early phases of cutaneous wound healing. By quantitative analysis of proteins and protein N termini in wound fluids from a clinically relevant pig wound model, we identified more than 650 proteins and discerned major healing phases through distinctive abundance clustering of markers of inflammation, granulation tissue formation, and re-epithelialization. TAILS revealed a high degree of proteolysis at all time points after injury by detecting almost 1300 N-terminal peptides in ?450 proteins. Quantitative positional proteomics mapped pivotal interdependent processing events in the blood coagulation and complement cascades, temporally discerned clotting and fibrinolysis during the healing process, and detected processing of complement C3 at distinct time points after wounding and by different proteases. Exploiting data on primary cleavage specificities, we related candidate proteases to cleavage events and revealed processing of the integrin adapter protein kindlin-3 by caspase-3, generating new hypotheses for protease-substrate relations in the healing skin wound in vivo. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium with identifier PXD001198. PMID:25516628

Sabino, Fabio; Hermes, Olivia; Egli, Fabian E; Kockmann, Tobias; Schlage, Pascal; Croizat, Pierre; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N; Smola, Hans; Auf dem Keller, Ulrich



Organelle-specific isoenzymes of plant V-ATPase as revealed by in vivo-FRET analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The V-ATPase (VHA) is a protein complex of 13 different VHA-subunits. It functions as an ATP driven rotary-motor that electrogenically translocates H+ into endomembrane compartments. In Arabidopsis thaliana V-ATPase is encoded by 23 genes posing the question of specific versus redundant function of multigene encoded isoforms. Results The transmembrane topology and stoichiometry of the proteolipid VHA-c" as well as the stoichiometry of the membrane integral subunit VHA-e within the V-ATPase complex were investigated by in vivo fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). VHA-c", VHA-e1 and VHA-e2, VHA-a, VHA-c3, truncated variants of VHA-c3 and a chimeric VHA-c/VHA-c" hybrid were fused to cyan (CFP) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), respectively. The constructs were employed for transfection experiments with Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll protoplasts. Subcellular localization and FRET analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) demonstrated that (i.) the N- and C-termini of VHA-c" are localised in the vacuolar lumen, (ii.) one copy of VHA-c" is present within the VHA-complex, and (iii.) VHA-c" is localised at the ER and associated Golgi bodies. (iv.) A similar localisation was observed for VHA-e2, whereas (v.) the subcellular localisation of VHA-e1 indicated the trans Golgi network (TGN)-specifity of this subunit. Conclusion The plant proteolipid ring is a highly flexible protein subcomplex, tolerating the incorporation of truncated and hybrid proteolipid subunits, respectively. Whereas the membrane integral subunit VHA-e is present in two copies within the complex, the proteolipid subunit VHA-c" takes part in complex formation with only one copy. However, neither VHA-c" isoform 1 nor any of the two VHA-e isoforms were identified at the tonoplast. This suggest a function in endomembrane specific VHA-assembly or targeting rather than proton transport. PMID:18507826

Seidel, Thorsten; Schnitzer, Daniel; Golldack, Dortje; Sauer, Markus; Dietz, Karl-Josef




PubMed Central

The ?93 Cysteine (?93Cys) residue of hemoglobin is conserved in vertebrates but its function in the red blood cell (RBC) remains unclear. Since this residue is present at concentrations more than two orders of magnitude higher than enzymatic components of the RBC antioxidant network, a role in the scavenging of reactive species was hypothesized. Initial studies utilizing mice that express human hemoglobin with either Cys (B93C) or Ala (B93A) at the ?93 positions, demonstrated that loss of the ?93Cys did not affect activities nor expression of established components of the RBC antioxidant network (catalase, superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxin-2, glutathione peroxidase, GSH:GSSG ratios). Interestingly, exogenous addition to RBC of reactive species that are involved in vascular inflammation demonstrated a role for the ?93Cys in hydrogen peroxide and chloramine consumption. To simulate oxidative stress and inflammation in vivo, mice were challenged with LPS. Notably, LPS induced a greater degree of hypotension and lung injury in B93A versus B93C mice, which was associated with greater formation of RBC reactive species and accumulation of DMPO-reactive epitopes in the lung. These data suggest that the ?93Cys is an important effector within the RBC antioxidant network contributing to the modulation of tissue injury during vascular inflammation. PMID:23159546

Vitturi, Dario A.; Sun, Chiao-Wang; Harper, Victoria M; Thrash-Williams, Bessy; Cantu-Medellin, Nadiezhda; Chacko, Balu K.; Peng, Ning; Dai, Yanying; Michael Wyss, J.; Townes, Tim; Patel, Rakesh P.



Specific combinations of SR proteins associate with single pre-messenger RNAs in vivo and contribute different functions  

PubMed Central

Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are required for messenger RNA (mRNA) processing, export, surveillance, and translation. We show that in Chironomus tentans, nascent transcripts associate with multiple types of SR proteins in specific combinations. Alternative splicing factor (ASF)/SF2, SC35, 9G8, and hrp45/SRp55 are all present in Balbiani ring (BR) pre-messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs) preferentially when introns appear in the pre-mRNA and when cotranscriptional splicing takes place. However, hrp45/SRp55 is distributed differently in the pre-mRNPs along the gene compared with ASF/SF2, SC35, and 9G8, suggesting functional differences. All four SR proteins are associated with the BR mRNPs during export to the cytoplasm. Interference with SC35 indicates that SC35 is important for the coordination of splicing, transcription, and 3? end processing and also for nucleocytoplasmic export. ASF/SF2 is associated with polyribosomes, whereas SC35, 9G8, and hrp45/SRp55 cosediment with monoribosomes. Thus, individual endogenous pre-mRNPs/mRNPs bind multiple types of SR proteins during transcription, and these SR proteins accompany the mRNA and play different roles during the gene expression pathway in vivo. PMID:19221196

Björk, Petra; Jin, ShaoBo; Zhao, Jian; Singh, Om Prakash; Persson, Jan-Olov; Hellman, Ulf



Nature, source and function of pigments in tardigrades: in vivo raman imaging of carotenoids in Echiniscus blumi.  


Tardigrades are microscopic aquatic animals with remarkable abilities to withstand harsh physical conditions such as dehydration or exposure to harmful highly energetic radiation. The mechanisms responsible for such robustness are presently little known, but protection against oxidative stresses is thought to play a role. Despite the fact that many tardigrade species are variously pigmented, scarce information is available about this characteristic. By applying Raman micro-spectroscopy on living specimens, pigments in the tardigrade Echiniscus blumi are identified as carotenoids, and their distribution within the animal body is visualized. The dietary origin of these pigments is demonstrated, as well as their presence in the eggs and in eye-spots of these animals, together with their absence in the outer layer of the animal (i.e., cuticle and epidermis). Using in-vivo semi-quantitative Raman micro-spectroscopy, a decrease in carotenoid content is detected after inducing oxidative stress, demonstrating that this approach can be used for studying the role of carotenoids in oxidative stress-related processes in tardigrades. This approach could be thus used in further investigations to test several hypotheses concerning the function of these carotenoids in tardigrades as photo-protective pigments against ionizing radiations or as antioxidants defending these organisms against the oxidative stress occurring during desiccation processes. PMID:23185564

Bonifacio, Alois; Guidetti, Roberto; Altiero, Tiziana; Sergo, Valter; Rebecchi, Lorena



Loss of Tsc1 in vivo impairs hippocampal mGluR-LTD and increases excitatory synaptic function  

PubMed Central

The autism-spectrum disorder Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is caused by mutations in the Tsc1 or Tsc2 genes whose protein products form a heterodimeric complex that negatively regulates mTOR-dependent protein translation. Although several forms of synaptic plasticity, including metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression (mGluR-LTD), depend on protein translation at the time of induction, it is unknown if these forms of plasticity require signaling through the Tsc1/2 complex. To examine this possibility, we postnatally deleted Tsc1 in vivo in a subset of hippocampal CA1 neurons using viral delivery of Cre recombinase in mice. We found that hippocampal mGluR-LTD was abolished by loss of Tsc1, whereas a protein synthesis-independent form of NMDA receptor-dependent LTD was preserved. Additionally, AMPA and NMDA receptor mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and miniature spontaneous EPSC frequency were enhanced in Tsc1 KO neurons. These changes in synaptic function occurred in the absence of alterations in spine density, morphology, or pre-synaptic release probability. Our findings indicate that signaling through Tsc1/2 is required for the expression of specific forms of hippocampal synaptic plasticity as well as the maintenance of normal excitatory synaptic strength. Furthermore, these data suggest that perturbations of synaptic signaling may contribute to the pathogenesis of TSC. PMID:21677170

Bateup, Helen S.; Takasaki, Kevin T.; Saulnier, Jessica L.; Denefrio, Cassandra L.; Sabatini, Bernardo L.



Salmonid alphavirus replicon is functional in fish, mammalian and insect cells and in vivo in shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei).  


The Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is the etiological agent of pancreas disease in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and Sleeping disease in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). SAV differs from alphaviruses infecting terrestrial animals in that it infects salmonid fish at low temperatures and does not use an arthropod vector for transmission. In this study we have shown that a SAVbased replicon could express proteins when driven by the subgenomic promoter in vitro in cells from fish, mammals and insects, as well as in vivo in shrimps (Litopanaeus vannamei). The SAV-replicon was found to be functional at temperatures ranging from 4 to 37°C. Protein expression was slow and moderate compared to that reported from terrestrial alphavirus replicons or from vectors where protein expression was under control of the immediate early CMV-promoter. No cytopathic effect was visually observable in cells transfected with SAV-replicon vectors. Double stranded RNA was present for several days after transfection of the SAV-replicon in fish cell lines and its presence was indicated also in shrimp. The combination of prolonged dsRNA production, low toxicity, and wide temperature range for expression, may potentially be advantageous for the use of the SAV replicon to induce immune responses in aquaculture of fish and shrimp. PMID:24120486

Olsen, Christel M; Pemula, Anand Kumar; Braaen, Stine; Sankaran, Krishnan; Rimstad, Espen



Gold nanoparticle-DNA aptamer composites as a universal carrier for in vivo delivery of biologically functional proteins.  


Although the delivery of biologically functional protein(s) into mammalian cells could be of tremendous value to biomedical research, the development of such technology has been hindered by the lack of a safe and effective delivery method. Here, we present a simple, efficient, and versatile gold nanoparticle-DNA aptamer conjugate (AuNP-Apt)-based system, with nanoblock-like properties, that allows any recombinant protein to be loaded without additional modifications and delivered into mammalian living systems. AuNP-Apt-based protein delivery system was able to deliver various proteins into variety of cell types in vitro without showing cytotoxicity. This AuNP-Apt system was also effective for the local and systemic targeted delivery of proteins in vivo. A local injection of the AuNP-Apt loaded with the apoptosis-inducing BIM protein efficiently inhibited the growth of xenograft tumors in mice. Furthermore, an intravenous injection of AuNP-Apt loaded with both epidermal growth factor (EGF) and BIM resulted in the targeted delivery of BIM into a xenograft tumor derived from EGF receptor-overexpressing cancer cells with no detectable systemic toxicity. Our findings show that this system can serve as an innovative platform for the development of protein-based biomedical applications. PMID:25450403

Ryou, Sang-Mi; Yeom, Ji-Hyun; Kang, Hyo Jung; Won, Miae; Kim, Jin-Sik; Lee, Boeun; Seong, Maeng-Je; Ha, Nam-Chul; Bae, Jeehyeon; Lee, Kangseok



Geochip-Based Functional Gene Analysis of Anodophilic  

E-print Network

that the functional and phylogenetic diversity of MEC microbial communities after 4 months was quite high despite microbial diversity. Multivariateanalysesshowedthatcommunitiesthatdeveloped in the MECs were well separatedGeochip-Based Functional Gene Analysis of Anodophilic Communities in Microbial Electrolysis Cells


Functional and differential proteomic analyses to identify platelet derived factors affecting ex vivo expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells  

PubMed Central

Background Multilineage differentiation, immunomodulation and secretion of trophic factors render mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) highly attractive for clinical application. Human platelet derivatives such as pooled human platelet lysate (pHPL) and thrombin-activated platelet releasate in plasma (tPRP) have been introduced as alternatives to fetal bovine serum (FBS) to achieve GMP-compliance. However, whereas both pHPL and tPRP support similar proliferation kinetics of lipoaspirate-derived MSC (LA-MSC), only pHPL significantly accelerates bone marrow-derived MSC (BM-MSC) expansion. To identify functionally bioactive factors affecting ex vivo MSC expansion, a differential proteomic approach was performed and identified candidate proteins were evaluated within a bioassay. Results Two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), MALDI-TOF analyses and complementary Western blotting revealed 20 differential protein species. 14 candidate proteins occured at higher concentrations in pHPL compared to tPRP and 6 at higher concentrations in tPRP. The candidate proteins fibrinogen and apolipoprotein A1 differentially affected LA- and BM-MSC proliferation. In a second set of experiments, reference cytokines known to foster proliferation in FBS were tested for their effects in the human supplements. Interestingly although these cytokines promoted proliferation in FBS, they failed to do so when added to the humanized system. Conclusions The differential proteomic approach identified novel platelet derived factors differentially acting on human MSC proliferation. Complementary testing of reference cytokines revealed a lack of stimulation in the human supplements compared to FBS. The data describe a new coherent approach to combine proteomic technologies with functional testing to develop novel, humanized, GMP-compliant conditions for MSC expansion. PMID:24168020



In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the effects of piperine on P-gp function and expression  

SciTech Connect

Piperine, a major component of black pepper, is used as spice and nutrient enhancer. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of acute and prolonged piperine exposure on cellular P-gp expression and function in vitro and in vivo. Piperine at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 {mu}M, determined by MTT assay to be non-cytotoxic, was observed to inhibit P-gp mediated efflux transport of [{sup 3}H]-digoxin across L-MDR1 and Caco-2 cell monolayers. The acute inhibitory effect was dependent on piperine concentration, with abolishment of [{sup 3}H]-digoxin polarized transport attained at 50 {mu}M of piperine. In contrast, prolonged (48 and 72 h) co-incubation of Caco-2 cell monolayers with piperine (50 and 100 {mu}M) increased P-gp activity through an up-regulation of cellular P-gp protein and MDR1 mRNA levels. The up-regulated protein was functionally active, as demonstrated by a higher degree of [{sup 3}H]-digoxin efflux across the cell monolayers, but the induction was readily reversed by the removal of the spice from the culture medium. Peroral administration of piperine at the dose of 112 {mu}g/kg body weight/day to male Wistar rats for 14 consecutive days also led to increased intestinal P-gp levels. However, there was a concomitant reduction in the rodent liver P-gp although the kidney P-gp level was unaffected. Our data suggest that caution should be exercised when piperine is to be co-administered with drugs that are P-gp substrates, particularly for patients whose diet relies heavily on pepper.

Han Yi [Department of Pharmacy, National University of Singapore, 18 Science Drive 4, 117543 (Singapore); Chin Tan, Theresa May [Department of Biochemistry, National University of Singapore, 18 Science Drive 4, 117543 (Singapore); Lim, Lee-Yong [Pharmacy, School of Biomedical, Biomolecular and Chemical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)], E-mail:



The gold nanoparticle size and exposure duration effect on the liver and kidney function of rats: In vivo  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticles (NPs) offer a great possibility for biomedical application, not only to deliver pharmaceutics, but also to be used as novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Currently, there are no data available regarding to what extent the degree of the toxicity and the accumulation of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are present in in vivo administration. This study aimed to address the GNP size and exposure duration effect on the liver and kidney function of rats: in vivo. Methods A total of 30 healthy male Wistar-Kyoto rats of the same age (12 weeks old) and weighing 220–240 g of King Saud University colony were used. Animals were randomly divided into groups, two GNP-treated rat groups and one control group (CG). The 50 ?l of 10 and 50 nm GNPs was intraperitoneally administered in rats for exposure duration of 3 days. Then, several biochemical parameters such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea (UREA) and creatinine (CREA) were evaluated. Results In this study, the AST values increased with the administration of 10 and 50 nm GNPs compared with the control. The AST values significantly increased with 10 nm GNPs compared with 50 nm GNPs and control. The GGT and ALT values decreased with the administration of 10 and 50 nm GNPs compared with the control. The GGT and ALT values significantly decreased with 50 nm GNPs compared with 10 nm GNPs and control. The ALP values significantly decreased with the administration of 10 and 50 nm GNPs compared with the control. The decrease in ALP values with 10 nm GNPs was higher than those compared with 50 nm GNPs. In this study, the levels of UREA and CREA values increased in a non significant manner after the administration of 10 and 50 nm GNPs compared with the control. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the increase in the enzymes AST and the decrease in ALP are smaller GNPs (10 nm) size-dependent for exposure duration of 3 days; while the decrease in the enzymes GGT and ALT are bigger GNPs (50 nm) size-dependent. The levels of UREA and CREA values indicated no significant changes with the administration of 10 and 50 nm GNPs for exposure duration of 3 days compared with the control. The administration of 10 and 50 nm GNPs for short exposure duration of 3 days induced only significant variations with some liver enzymes while kidney showed no significant variations. This study suggests that synthesis and metabolism of GNPs as well as the protection of the liver will be more important issues for medical applications of gold-based nanomaterials in future. PMID:23961234

Abdelhalim, Mohamed Anwar K.; Abdelmottaleb Moussa, Sherif A.



Impact of the functional status of saeRS on in vivo phenotypes of Staphylococcus aureus?sarA mutants.  


We investigated the in vivo relevance of the impact of sarA and saeRS on protease production using derivatives of the USA300 strain LAC. The results confirmed that mutation of saeRS or sarA reduces virulence in a bacteremia model to a comparable degree. However, while eliminating protease production restored virulence in the sarA mutant, it had little impact in the saeRS mutant. Additionally, constitutive activation of saeRS (saeRS(C)) enhanced the virulence of LAC and largely restored virulence in the isogenic sarA mutant. Based on these results, together with our analysis of the representative virulence factors alpha toxin, protein A (Spa), and extracellular nucleases, we propose a model in which the attenuation of saeRS mutants is defined primarily by decreased production of such factors, while constitutive activation of saeRS increases virulence, and reverses the attenuation of sarA mutants, because it results in both increased production and decreased protease-mediated degradation of these same factors. This regulatory balance was also apparent in a murine model of catheter-associated infection, with the results suggesting that the impact of saeRS on nuclease production plays an important role during the early stages of these infections that is partially offset by increased protease production in sarA mutants. PMID:24779437

Beenken, Karen E; Mrak, Lara N; Zielinska, Agnieszka K; Atwood, Danielle N; Loughran, Allister J; Griffin, Linda M; Matthews, K Alice; Anthony, Allison M; Spencer, Horace J; Skinner, Robert A; Post, Ginell R; Lee, Chia Y; Smeltzer, Mark S



The Mark Coventry Award: Articular contact estimation in TKA using in vivo kinematics and finite element analysis.  


In vivo fluoroscopy is a well-known technique to analyze joint kinematics of the replaced knee. With this method, however, the contact areas between femoral and tibial components, fundamental for monitoring wear and validating design concepts, are hard to identify. We developed and tested a novel technique to assess condylar and post-cam contacts in TKA. The technique uses in vivo motion data of the replaced knee from standard fluoroscopy as input for finite element models of the prosthesis components. In these models, tibiofemoral contact patterns at the condyles and post-cam articulations were calculated during various activities. To test for feasibility, the technique was applied to a bicruciate posterior-stabilized prosthesis. Sensitivity of the finite element analysis, validation of the technique, and in vivo tests were performed. To test for potential in the clinical setting, five patients were preliminarily analyzed during chair rising-sitting, stair climbing, and step up-down. For each task and patient, the condylar contact points and contact line rotation were calculated. The results were repeatable and consistent with corresponding calculations from traditional fluoroscopic analysis. Specifically, natural knee kinematics, which shows rolling back and screw home, seemed replicated in all motor tasks. Post-cam contact was observed on both the anterior and posterior faces. Anterior contact is limited to flexion angle close to extension; posterior contact occurs in deeper flexion but is dependent on the motor task. The data suggest the proposed technique provides reliable information to analyze post-cam contacts. PMID:19548042

Catani, Fabio; Innocenti, Bernardo; Belvedere, Claudio; Labey, Luc; Ensini, Andrea; Leardini, Alberto



A functional genomics approach using radiation-induced changes in gene expression to study low dose radiation effects in vitro and in vivo  

SciTech Connect

Abstract for final report for project entitled â??A functional genomics approach using radiation-induced changes in gene expression to study low dose radiation effects in vitro and in vivoâ? which has been supported by the DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program for approximately 7 years. This project has encompassed two sequential awards, ER62683 and then ER63308, in the Gene Response Section in the Center for Cancer Research at the National Cancer Institute. The project was temporarily suspended during the relocation of the Principal Investigatorâ??s laboratory to the Dept. of Genetics and Complex Diseases at Harvard School of Public Health at the end of 2004. Remaining support for the final year was transferred to this new site later in 2005 and was assigned the DOE Award Number ER64065. The major aims of this project have been 1) to characterize changes in gene expression in response to low-dose radiation responses; this includes responses in human cells lines, peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), and in vivo after human or murine exposures, as well as the effect of dose-rate on gene responses; 2) to characterize changes in gene expression that may be involved in bystander effects, such as may be mediated by cytokines and other intercellular signaling proteins; and 3) to characterize responses in transgenic mouse models with relevance to genomic stability. A variety of approaches have been used to study transcriptional events including microarray hybridization, quantitative single-probe hybridization which was developed in this laboratory, quantitative RT-PCR, and promoter microarray analysis using genomic regulatory motifs. Considering the frequent responsiveness of genes encoding cytokines and related signaling proteins that can affect cellular metabolism, initial efforts were initiated to study radiation responses at the metabolomic level and to correlate with radiation-responsive gene expression. Productivity includes twenty-four published and in press manuscripts, as well as a U.S. patent. There are several additional publications that will be submitted in 2007 that were supported in part by this program. These future publications include one manuscript on in vivo expression profiling analysis in mouse models, one manuscript on radiation responses in human cell lines, at least one on development of stress signatures in human cells, and three manuscripts on radiation metabolomics.

Fornace, Jr, A J



Proteomic Analysis of the Left Ventricle Post-myocardial Infarction to Identify In Vivo Candidate Matrix Metalloproteinase Substrates  

PubMed Central

Left ventricular remodeling post-myocardial infarction (MI) involves a multitude of mechanisms that regulate the repair response. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a major family of proteolytic enzymes that coordinate extracellular matrix turnover. Both MMP-7 deletion and MMP-9 deletion reduce of the left ventricle post-MI, but the mechanisms have not been fully clarified. Both MMP-7 and MMP-9 have a large number of known in vitro substrates, but in vivo substrates for these two MMPs in the myocardial infarction setting are incompletely identified. Advances in proteomic techniques have enabled comprehensive profiling of protein expression in cells and tissue. In this chapter, we describe a protocol for the proteomic analysis of in vivo candidate MMP substrates in the post-MI left ventricle using two-dimensional electrophoresis, liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, and immunoblotting. PMID:23955744

Yabluchanskiy, Andriy; Li, Yaojun; de Castro Brás, Lisandra E.; Hakala, Kevin; Weintraub, Susan T.; Lindsey, Merry L.



Non-Coding RNAs Regulating Morphine Function: With Emphasis on the In vivo and In vitro Functions of miR-190  

PubMed Central

Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), especially microRNAs, are reported to be involved in a variety of biological processes, including several processes related to drug addiction. It has been suggested that the biological functions of opioids, one typical type of addictive drugs, are regulated by ncRNAs. In the current review, we examine a variety of mechanisms through which ncRNAs could regulate ?-opioid receptor (OPRM1) activities and thereby contribute to the development of opioid addiction. Using miR-23b as an example, we present the possible ways in which ncRNA-mediated regulation of OPRM1 expression could impact opioid addiction. Using miR-190 as an example, we demonstrate the critical roles played by ncRNAs in the signal cascade from receptor to systemic responses, including the possible modulation of adult neurogenesis and in vivo contextual memory. After discussing the possible targets of ncRNAs involved in the development of opioid addiction, we summarize the mechanisms underlying the interaction between ncRNAs and opioid addiction and present suggestions for further study. PMID:22715342

Zheng, Hui; Law, Ping-Yee; Loh, Horace H.



RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Development and analysis of an in vivo-  

E-print Network

of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Xin Fang, Anders Wallqvist, Jaques Reifman* Abstract Background: During infection, Mycobacterium tuberculosis confronts a generally hostile and nutrient-poor in vivo host environment. Existing of double-gene deletions on M. tuberculosis growth in the host environment, explore metabolic adaptations


PEGylated insulin in PLGA microparticles. In vivo and in vitro analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel controlled release formulation has been developed with PEGylated human insulin encapsulated in PLGA microspheres that produces multi-day release in vivo. The insulin is specifically PEGylated at the amino terminus of the B chain with a relatively low molecular weight PEG (5000 Da). Insulin with this modification retains full biological activity, but has a limited serum half-life, making encapsulation

Kenneth D. Hinds; Kathleen M. Campbell; Kathleen M. Holland; Danny H. Lewis; Claude A. Piché; Paul G. Schmidt



In vivo analysis of antithrombotic effectiveness of recombinant hirudin on microvascular thrombus formation and recanalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study was undertaken to evaluate in vivo the effect of recombinant hirudin (r-hirudin [HBW 023]), a potent thrombin inhibitor, on the process of microvascular thrombus formation and recanalization. Methods: Thrombosis was induced photochemically in distinct arterioles (n = 25) and venules (n = 30) of the ear of 16 hairless hr\\/hr mice (8 to 10 weeks old, 25

Frank Roesken; Brigitte Vollmar; Martin Rücker; Dirk Seiffge; Michael D. Menger



Affinity for, and localization of, PEG-functionalized silica nanoparticles to sites of damage in an ex vivo spinal cord injury model  

PubMed Central

Background Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to serious neurological and functional deficits through a chain of pathophysiological events. At the molecular level, progressive damage is initially revealed by collapse of plasma membrane organization and integrity produced by breaches. Consequently, the loss of its role as a semi-permeable barrier that generally mediates the regulation and transport of ions and molecules eventually results in cell death. In previous studies, we have demonstrated the functional recovery of compromised plasma membranes can be induced by the application of the hydrophilic polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG) after both spinal and brain trauma in adult rats and guinea pigs. Additionally, efforts have been directed towards a nanoparticle-based PEG application. The in vivo and ex vivo applications of PEG-decorated silica nanoparticles following CNS injury were able to effectively and efficiently enhance resealing of damaged cell membranes. Results The possibility for selectivity of tetramethyl rhodamine-dextran (TMR) dye-doped, PEG-functionalized silica nanoparticles (TMR-PSiNPs) to damaged spinal cord was evaluated using an ex vivo model of guinea pig SCI. Crushed and nearby undamaged spinal cord tissues exhibited an obvious difference in both the imbibement and accumulation of the TMR-PSiNPs, revealing selective labeling of compression-injured tissues. Conclusions These data show that appropriately functionalized nanoparticles can be an efficient means to both 1.) carry drugs, and 2.) apply membrane repair agents where they are needed in focally damaged nervous tissue. PMID:22979980



Analysis of ssb mutations in vivo implicates SSB protein in two distinct pathways of SOS induction and in recombinational DNA repair.  


Site-directed mutations in the Escherichia coli ssb gene were tested for the ability to complement a chromosomal ssb deletion for viability, and only the ssb W54-->G mutation failed to do so at the pSC101 copy level. Non-aromatic amino acid substitutions for SSB Trp-54 (ssb W54-->L and ssb W54-->S) produced the greatest effects on in vivo protein function including altered marker linkage subsequent to generalized transduction, extreme UV sensitivity, and a lack of ability to support SOS induction. Additionally, the ssb-113 (ssb P176-->S) mutation demonstrated the existence of both uvrA-dependent and uvrA-independent components of SOS induction. Although nucleotide excision repair appeared unaffected by alterations in the SSB protein, the mutational analysis suggests a direct role for SSB in recombinational repair. PMID:9140971

Carlini, L E; Porter, R D



Flow-injection analysis systems with different detection devices and other related techniques for the in vitro and in vivo determination of dopamine as neurotransmitter. A review.  


Dopamine (DA) is one of the most important catecholamine neurotransmitters in the human central nervous system in the brain and plays a key role in the functioning of the renal, hormonal, and cardiovascular systems. Abnormal levels of dopamine are related to neurological disorders, such as schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease and the control and fluctuations of the amount of dopamine are extremely important in monitoring with analytical systems in the human brain. This review covers the attributes of flow-injection analysis systems with different detection devices and other related techniques for the in vitro and in vivo determination of dopamine as neurotransmitter and points out the advantages and disadvantages in the implementation thereof. PMID:23182572

van Staden, Jacobus F; van Staden, Raluca I Stefan



Sequence Analysis of In Vivo Defective Interfering-Like RNA of Influenza A H1N1 Pandemic Virus  

PubMed Central

Influenza virus defective interfering (DI) particles are naturally occurring noninfectious virions typically generated during in vitro serial passages in cell culture of the virus at a high multiplicity of infection. DI particles are recognized for the role they play in inhibiting viral replication and for the impact they have on the production of infectious virions. To date, influenza virus DI particles have been reported primarily as a phenomenon of cell culture and in experimentally infected embryonated chicken eggs. They have also been isolated from a respiratory infection of chickens. Using a sequencing approach, we characterize several subgenomic viral RNAs from human nasopharyngeal specimens infected with the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. The distribution of these in vivo-derived DI-like RNAs was similar to that of in vitro DIs, with the majority of the defective RNAs generated from the PB2 (segment 1) of the polymerase complex, followed by PB1 and PA. The lengths of the in vivo-derived DI-like segments also are similar to those of known in vitro DIs, and the in vivo-derived DI-like segments share internal deletions of the same segments. The presence of identical DI-like RNAs in patients linked by direct contact is compatible with transmission between them. The functional role of DI-like RNAs in natural infections remains to be established. PMID:23678180

Saira, Kazima; Lin, Xudong; DePasse, Jay V.; Halpin, Rebecca; Twaddle, Alan; Stockwell, Timothy; Angus, Brian; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Delfino, Marina; Dugan, Vivien; Dwyer, Dominic E.; Freiberg, Matthew; Horban, Andrzej; Losso, Marcelo; Lynfield, Ruth; Wentworth, Deborah N.; Holmes, Edward C.; Davey, Richard; Wentworth, David E.



Elements of the Polycomb Repressor SU(Z)12 Needed for Histone H3-K27 Methylation, the Interface with E(Z), and In Vivo Function  

PubMed Central

Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is an essential chromatin-modifying enzyme that implements gene silencing. PRC2 methylates histone H3 on lysine-27 and is conserved from plants to flies to humans. In Drosophila melanogaster, PRC2 contains four core subunits: E(Z), SU(Z)12, ESC, and NURF55. E(Z) bears a SET domain that houses the enzyme active site. However, PRC2 activity depends upon critical inputs from SU(Z)12 and ESC. The stimulatory mechanisms are not understood. We present here functional dissection of the SU(Z)12 subunit. SU(Z)12 contains two highly conserved domains: an ?140-amino-acid VEFS domain and a Cys2-His2 zinc finger (ZnF). Analysis of recombinant PRC2 bearing VEFS domain alterations, including some modeled after leukemia mutations, identifies distinct elements needed for SU(Z)12 assembly with E(Z) and stimulation of histone methyltransferase. The results define an extensive VEFS subdomain that organizes the SU(Z)12-E(Z) interface. Although the SU(Z)12 ZnF is not needed for methyltransferase in vitro, genetic rescue assays show that the ZnF is required in vivo. Chromatin immunoprecipitations reveal that this ZnF facilitates PRC2 binding to a genomic target. This study defines functionally critical SU(Z)12 elements, including key determinants of SU(Z)12-E(Z) communication. Together with recent findings, this illuminates PRC2 modulation by conserved inputs from its noncatalytic subunits. PMID:24100017

Rai, Aswathy N.; Vargas, Marcus L.; Wang, Liangjun; Andersen, Erica F.; Miller, Ellen L.



Immunochemical analysis of myosin heavy chain during avian myogenesis in vivo and in vitro  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) against the myosin heavy chain (MHC) of adult chicken pectoralis muscle have been tested for reactivity with pectoralis myosin at selected stages of chick development in vivo and in vitro. Three such McAbs, MF 20 and MF 14, which bind to light meromyosin, and MF 30, which binds to myosin subfragment two (S2), were used to assay the appearance and accumulation of specific MHC epitopes with: (a) indirect, solid phase radioimmune assay (RIA), (b) immunoautoradiography, (c) immunofluorescence microscopy. McAb MF 20 bound strongly and equivalently to MHC at all stages of embryonic development in vivo. In contrast, the MF 30 epitope was barely detectable at 12 d of incubation but its concentration rose rapidly just before hatching. No detectable binding of MF 14 to pectoralis myosin could be measured during myogenesis in vivo until 1 wk after hatching. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that all three epitopes accumulate in the same myocytes of the developing pectoralis muscle. Since all three McAbs bound with high activity to native and denatured forms of myosin, it is unlikely that differential antibody reactivity can be explained by conformational changes in myosin during development in vivo. When myogenesis in vitro was monitored using the same McAbs, MF 20 bound to the MHC at all stages tested while reactivity of MF 30 and MF 14 with myosin from cultured muscle was never observed. Thus, this study demonstrates three different immunochemical states of the MHC during development in vivo of chick pectoralis muscle and the absence of later occurring immunochemical transitions in the MHC of cultured embryonic muscle. PMID:6185504



Functional data analysis: classification and regression  

E-print Network

analysis. . . . 45 12 The B-spline basis. Comparisons of leave-one-out error estimates of SVM (linear, polynomial d = 2 and polynimial d = 3 kernels) with Fisher LDA and nonparametric discriminant analysis. ...... 46 13 The Fourier basis. Comparisons... of leave-one-out error estimates of SVM (linear, polynomial d = 2 and polynimial d = 3 kernels) with Fisher LDA and nonparametric discriminant analysis. ...... 47 FIGURE ix Page 14 Simulation data. The estimated values (red dotted lines) and data values...

Lee, Ho-Jin



Application of an amine functionalized biopolymer in the colonic delivery of glycyrrhizin: a design and in vivo efficacy study.  


In our current study, a newer amine functionalized guar gum derivative was studied for its efficacy in colonic drug delivery. Glycyrrhizic acid mono-ammonium salt was used as the model drug. Drug-loaded microparticles were formulated by ionic crosslinking using sodium tripolyphosphate. The Scanning Electron Microscopic study revealed spherical particles of sizes from 4.9 ± 3.8 ?m to 6.9 ± 3.9 ?m. The FT-IR studies presented a possible interaction between the drug and the polymer. The drug was encapsulated in amorphous form as observed from the powder X-Ray Diffraction studies. A cumulative drug release study was carried out in simulated gastric, intestinal, and colonic fluids. The cumulative drug release studies presented a burst release followed by a sustained release of the drug in simulated colonic fluid containing rat cecal contents. The drug-polymer ratio was optimised using a 3(2) factorial design by taking the amounts of glycyrrhizic acid (X1) and guar gum alkyl amine (X2) as the independant variables. The percent cumulative drug release at 240 mins (Q240), 720 mins (Q720), and at 1,440 mins (Q1440) were considered as the dependant variables. The efficacy of the optimized formulation was studied in a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced rat colitis model. The tissue's nitric oxide, malondialdehyde, and myeloperoxidase activities were found to be much lower in the microparticle-treated group compared to free drug-treated group. The histology of the colonic tissue from the treated group of animals revealed almost no infiltration of inflammatory cells in the tissue for the microparticle-treated group of animals. The synthesized amine derivative of guar gum was found to be better in vitro with a better in vivo efficacy in the colonic delivery of glycyrrhizic acid monoammonium salt and can be considered as a newer modified biopolymer for colonic drug delivery. PMID:24482776

Kumar De, Amit; Datta, Sriparna; Mukherjee, Arup



In vivo and in vitro examination of the functional significances of novel lamin gene mutations in heart failure patients  

PubMed Central

Context: Lamin A/C (LMNA) gene variations have been reported in more than one third of genotyped families with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). However, the relationship between LMNA mutation and the development of DCM is poorly understood. Methods and results: We found that end stage DCM patients carrying LMNA mutations displayed either dramatic ultrastructural changes of the cardiomyocyte nucleus (D192G) or nonspecific changes (R541S). Overexpression of the D192G lamin C dramatically increased the size of intranuclear speckles and reduced their number. This phenotype was only partially reversed by coexpression of the D192G and wild type lamin C. Moreover, the D192G mutation precludes insertion of lamin C into the nuclear envelope when co-transfected with the D192G lamin A. By contrast, the R541S phenotype was entirely reversed by coexpression of the R541S and wild type lamin C. As lamin speckle size is known to be correlated with regulation of transcription, we assessed the SUMO1 distribution pattern in the presence of mutated lamin C and showed that D192G lamin C expression totally disrupts the SUMO1 pattern. Conclusion: Our in vivo and in vitro results question the relationship of causality between LMNA mutations and the development of heart failure in some DCM patients and therefore, the reliability of genetic counselling. However, LMNA mutations producing speckles result not only in nuclear envelope structural damage, but may also lead to the dysregulation of cellular functions controlled by sumoylation, such as transcription, chromosome organisation, and nuclear trafficking. PMID:16061563

Sylvius, N; Bilinska, Z; Veinot, J; Fidzianska, A; Bolongo, P; Poon, S; McKeown, P; Davies, R; Chan, K; Tang, A; Dyack, S; Grzybowski, J; Ruzyllo, W; McBride, H; Tesson, F



Application of an Amine Functionalized Biopolymer in the Colonic Delivery of Glycyrrhizin: A Design and In Vivo Efficacy Study  

PubMed Central

In our current study, a newer amine functionalized guar gum derivative was studied for its efficacy in colonic drug delivery. Glycyrrhizic acid mono-ammonium salt was used as the model drug. Drug-loaded microparticles were formulated by ionic crosslinking using sodium tripolyphosphate. The Scanning Electron Microscopic study revealed spherical particles of sizes from 4.9 ± 3.8 ?m to 6.9 ± 3.9 ?m. The FT-IR studies presented a possible interaction between the drug and the polymer. The drug was encapsulated in amorphous form as observed from the powder X-Ray Diffraction studies. A cumulative drug release study was carried out in simulated gastric, intestinal, and colonic fluids. The cumulative drug release studies presented a burst release followed by a sustained release of the drug in simulated colonic fluid containing rat cecal contents. The drug-polymer ratio was optimised using a 32 factorial design by taking the amounts of glycyrrhizic acid (X1) and guar gum alkyl amine (X2) as the independant variables. The percent cumulative drug release at 240 mins (Q240), 720 mins (Q720), and at 1,440 mins (Q1440) were considered as the dependant variables. The efficacy of the optimized formulation was studied in a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced rat colitis model. The tissue’s nitric oxide, malondialdehyde, and myeloperoxidase activities were found to be much lower in the microparticle-treated group compared to free drug-treated group. The histology of the colonic tissue from the treated group of animals revealed almost no infiltration of inflammatory cells in the tissue for the microparticle-treated group of animals. The synthesized amine derivative of guar gum was found to be better in vitro with a better in vivo efficacy in the colonic delivery of glycyrrhizic acid monoammonium salt and can be considered as a newer modified biopolymer for colonic drug delivery. PMID:24482776

Kumar De, Amit; Datta, Sriparna; Mukherjee, Arup



Evaluation of Functional Erythropoietin Receptor Status in Skeletal Muscle In Vivo: Acute and Prolonged Studies in Healthy Human Subjects  

PubMed Central

Background Erythropoietin receptors have been identified in human skeletal muscle tissue, but downstream signal transduction has not been investigated. We therefore studied in vivo effects of systemic erythropoietin exposure in human skeletal muscle. Methodology/Principal Findings The protocols involved 1) acute effects of a single bolus injection of erythropoietin followed by consecutive muscle biopsies for 1–10 hours, and 2) a separate study with prolonged administration for 16 days with biopsies obtained before and after. The presence of erythropoietin receptors in muscle tissue as well as activation of Epo signalling pathways (STAT5, MAPK, Akt, IKK) were analysed by western blotting. Changes in muscle protein profiles after prolonged erythropoietin treatment were evaluated by 2D gel-electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The presence of the erythropoietin receptor in skeletal muscle was confirmed, by the M20 but not the C20 antibody. However, no significant changes in phosphorylation of the Epo-R, STAT5, MAPK, Akt, Lyn, IKK, and p70S6K after erythropoietin administration were detected. The level of 8 protein spots were significantly altered after 16 days of rHuEpo treatment; one isoform of myosin light chain 3 and one of desmin/actin were decreased, while three isoforms of creatine kinase and two of glyceraldehyd-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were increased. Conclusions/Significance Acute exposure to recombinant human erythropoietin is not associated by detectable activation of the Epo-R or downstream signalling targets in human skeletal muscle in the resting situation, whereas more prolonged exposure induces significant changes in the skeletal muscle proteome. The absence of functional Epo receptor activity in human skeletal muscle indicates that the long-term effects are indirect and probably related to an increased oxidative capacity in this tissue. PMID:22384088

Christensen, Britt; Lundby, Carsten; Jessen, Niels; Nielsen, Thomas S.; Vestergaard, Poul F.; Møller, Niels; Pilegaard, Henriette; Pedersen, Steen B.; Kopchick, John J.; Jørgensen, Jens Otto L.



Complex spectral analysis and test function spaces  

E-print Network

We consider complex eigenstates of unstable Hamiltonian and its physically meaningful regions. Starting from a simple model of a discrete state interacting with a continuum via a general potential, we show that its Lippmann-Schwinger solution set can be decomposed into a free-field set, a set containing lower half plane pole of Green's function and a set containing upper half pole of Green's function. From here distinctive complex eigenstates corresponding to each pole are constructed. We note that on the real line square integrable functions can be decomposed into Hardy class above and below functions which behave well in their respective complex half planes. Test function restriction formulas which remove unphysical growth are given. As a specific example we consider Friedrichs model which solutions and complex eigenstates are known, and compare numerically calculated total time evolution with test function restricted complex eigenstates for various cases. The results shows that test function restricted complex eigenstates capture the essence of decay phenomena quite well.

Sungyun Kim



Examination of bioluminescent excitation responses using empirical orthogonal function analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioluminescent intensities were measured August 30th-September 4th, 2004 in the Gulf of Maine with the HIDEX III Bathyphotometer. Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis and complex empirical orthogonal function (CEOF) analysis were applied to these data sets in order to determine a unique excitation response for each species of bioluminescent organism encountered in the data sets. Using the results of the

Jesse W. Davis; E. D. Thosteson; Lee Frey; E. A. Widder



Fast static analysis of C++ virtual function calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual functions make code easier for programmers to reuse but also make it harder for compilers to analyze. We investigate the ability of three static analysis algorithms to improve C++ programs by resolving virtual function calls, thereby reducing compiled code size and reducing program complexity so as to improve both human and automated program understanding and analysis. In measurements of

David F. Bacon; Peter F. Sweeney



Staphylococcal biofilm formation on the surface of three different calcium phosphate bone grafts: a qualitative and quantitative in vivo analysis.  


Differences in physico-chemical characteristics of bone grafts to fill bone defects have been demonstrated to influence in vitro bacterial biofilm formation. Aim of the study was to investigate in vivo staphylococcal biofilm formation on different calcium phosphate bone substitutes. A foreign-body guinea-pig infection model was used. Teflon cages prefilled with ?-tricalcium phosphate, calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite, or dicalcium phosphate (DCP) scaffold were implanted subcutaneously. Scaffolds were infected with 2 × 10(3) colony-forming unit of Staphylococcus aureus (two strains) or S. epidermidis and explanted after 3, 24 or 72 h of biofilm formation. Quantitative and qualitative biofilm analysis was performed by sonication followed by viable counts, and microcalorimetry, respectively. Independently of the material, S. aureus formed increasing amounts of biofilm on the surface of all scaffolds over time as determined by both methods. For S. epidermidis, the biofilm amount decreased over time, and no biofilm was detected by microcalorimetry on the DCP scaffolds after 72 h of infection. However, when using a higher S. epidermidis inoculum, increasing amounts of biofilm were formed on all scaffolds as determined by microcalorimetry. No significant variation in staphylococcal in vivo biofilm formation was observed between the different materials tested. This study highlights the importance of in vivo studies, in addition to in vitro studies, when investigating biofilm formation of bone grafts. PMID:25693675

Furustrand Tafin, Ulrika; Betrisey, Bertrand; Bohner, Marc; Ilchmann, Thomas; Trampuz, Andrej; Clauss, Martin



Mutational analysis of Sse1 (Hsp110) suggests an integral role for this chaperone in yeast prion propagation in vivo.  


The yeast Hsp110 chaperone Sse1 is a conserved protein that is a noncanonical member of the Hsp70 protein superfamily. Sse1 influences the cellular response to heat stress and has also been implicated in playing a role in the propagation of prions in yeast. Sse1 can seemingly exert its effects in vivo through direct or indirect actions by influencing the nucleotide exchange activity of canonical cytosolic Hsp70s. Using a genetic screen based on the inability to propagate the yeast [PSI(+)] prion, we have identified 13 new Sse1 mutants that are predicted to alter chaperone function through a variety of different mechanisms. Not only are these new Sse1 mutants altered in the ability to propagate and cure yeast prions but also to varying degrees in the ability to grow at elevated temperatures. The expression levels of chaperone proteins known to influence yeast prion propagation are unaltered in the Sse1 mutants, suggesting that the observed phenotypic effects are caused by direct functional alterations in these mutants. Mapping the location of the mutants onto the Sse1 crystal structure suggests that more than one functional alteration in Sse1 may result in changes in prion propagation and ability to function at elevated temperatures. All Sse1 mutants isolated provide essential functions in the cell under normal growth conditions, further demonstrating that essential chaperone functions in vivo can to some degree at least be detached from those related to propagation of prions. Our results suggest that Sse1 can influence prion propagation through a variety of different mechanisms. PMID:23797105

Moran, Ciara; Kinsella, Gemma K; Zhang, Zai-Rong; Perrett, Sarah; Jones, Gary W



Longitudinal, 3D In Vivo Imaging of Sebaceous Glands by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: Normal Function and Response to Cryotherapy.  


Sebaceous glands perform complex functions, and they are centrally involved in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Current techniques for studying sebaceous glands are mostly static in nature, whereas the gland's main function-excretion of sebum via the holocrine mechanism-can only be evaluated over time. We present a longitudinal, real-time alternative-the in vivo, label-free imaging of sebaceous glands using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) microscopy, which is used to selectively visualize lipids. In mouse ears, CARS microscopy revealed dynamic changes in sebaceous glands during the holocrine secretion process, as well as in response to damage to the glands caused by cooling. Detailed gland structure, plus the active migration of individual sebocytes and cohorts of sebocytes, were measured. Cooling produced characteristic changes in sebocyte structure and migration. This study demonstrates that CARS microscopy is a promising tool for studying the sebaceous gland and its associated disorders in three dimensions in vivo. PMID:25026458

Jung, Yookyung; Tam, Joshua; Jalian, H Ray; Anderson, R Rox; Evans, Conor L



In Vivo Genetic Analysis Indicates That PhoP-PhoQ and the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 Type III Secretion System Contribute Independently to Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Virulence  

PubMed Central

Many virulence factors are required for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to replicate intracellularly and proliferate systemically within mice. In this work, we have carried out genetic analyses in vivo to determine the functional relationship between two major virulence factors necessary for systemic infection by S. enterica serovar Typhimurium: the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2) type III secretion system (TTSS) and the PhoP-PhoQ two-component regulatory system. Although previous work suggested that PhoP-PhoQ regulates SPI-2 TTSS gene expression in vitro, in vivo competitive analysis of mutant strains indicates that these systems contribute independently to S. typhimurium virulence. Our results also suggest that mutation of phoP may compensate partially for defects in the SPI-2 TTSS by deregulating SPI-1 TTSS expression. These results provide an explanation for previous reports showing an apparent functional overlap between these two systems in vitro. PMID:11705895

Beuzón, Carmen R.; Unsworth, Kate E.; Holden, David W.



An exploration of function analysis and function allocation in the commercial flight domain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The applicability is explored of functional analysis methods to support cockpit design. Specifically, alternative techniques are studied for ensuring an effective division of responsibility between the flight crew and automation. A functional decomposition is performed of the commercial flight domain to provide the information necessary to support allocation decisions and demonstrate methodology for allocating functions to flight crew or to automation. The function analysis employed 'bottom up' and 'top down' analyses and demonstrated the comparability of identified functions, using the 'lift off' segment of the 'take off' phase as a test case. The normal flight mission and selected contingencies were addressed. Two alternative methods for using the functional description in the allocation of functions between man and machine were investigated. The two methods were compared in order to ascertain their relative strengths and weaknesses. Finally, conclusions were drawn regarding the practical utility of function analysis methods.

Mcguire, James C.; Zich, John A.; Goins, Richard T.; Erickson, Jeffery B.; Dwyer, John P.; Cody, William J.; Rouse, William B.



Morphological and histological analysis on the in vivo degradation of poly (propylene fumarate)/(calcium sulfate/?-tricalcium phosphate).  


Poly (propylene fumarate)/(Calcium sulfate/?-tricalcium phosphate) (PPF/(CaSO(4)/?-TCP)) is a kind of biodegradable composite designed for bone tissue engineering. The in vitro degradation behavior of this composite has been investigated in our previous study. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PPF molecular weight and CaSO(4)/?-TCP molar ratio on the in vivo degradation of PPF/(CaSO(4)/?-TCP) composite and the bone tissue response to PPF/(CaSO(4)/?-TCP). Total 36 PPF/(CaSO(4)/?-TCP) composite samples were implanted into 15.0 mm segmental defects in tibiae of 18 Japanese rabbits, harvested at 2, 4 and 8 weeks after the operation, and analyzed using radiographic and histological analysis to assess the in vivo degradation of the composites as well as tissue response to the implants. The in vivo degradation results show that all the samples maintained their original shape. Tissues penetrated into the pores which formed by the degradation of CaSO(4)/?-TCP spheres near the surface of the composites. The rate of in vivo degradation and pore forming increased with a decrease in PPF molecular weight and an increase in CaSO(4)/?-TCP molar ratio. No inflammatory reaction was observed after implantation, and the composites are capable of in situ pore forming. In particular, the pore forming rate can be adjusted by varying the composition of the composites. These results may indicate that PPF/(CaSO(4)/?-TCP) is a promising osteogenic scaffold for its controllable degradation rate and excellent biocompatibility. PMID:21448654

Cai, Zhongyu; Zhang, Tao; Di, Lizhi; Xu, Dong-Ming; Xu, Dong-Hao; Yang, De-An



Record And Analysis Of High-Speed Photomicrography On Rheology Of Red Blood Cells In Vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microcirculation is the basic functional unit of blood circulation in human body. The oxygen needed and the carbon dioxide discharged in human body were accomplished in the case of flow and deformation of red blood cells (RBC) in capillaries. The rheology of RBC performs an important function for maintaining normal blood irrigation and nutritional metabolism. Obviously, for blood irrigation, dynamic mechanism of RBC, blood cell microrheology, law of mivrocirculation and cause of disease, it has very important significance to study quantitatively the rheology of RBC in the capillaries of live animal. In recent years, Tianjin University, cooperating with the Institute of Hematology, used the method of high speed photomicrography to record the flow states of RBC in the capillaries of the hamster cheek pouch and the frog web. Some systems were assembled through the study of luminous energy transmission, illumination system and optical match. These systems included the microhigh-speed camera system, the microhighspeed video recorder system and the microhighspeed camera system combining with an image enhancement tube. Some useful results were obtained by the photography of the flow states of RBC, film analysis and data processing. These results provided the beneficial data for the dynamic mechanism that RBC were deformed by the different blood flow field.

Jian, Zhang; Yuju, Lin; Jizong, Wu; Qiang, Wang; Guishan, Li; Ni, Liang



Titanium implants with modified surfaces: Meta-analysis of in vivo osteointegration.  


Titanium-based implants are widely used in modern clinical practice, but their "optimal" properties in terms of porosity and topology, roughness and hydrophilic parameters are being a subject of intensive discussions. Recent in vitro results have shown a possibility to optimize the surface of an implant with maximal repelling of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis) and improvement in human osteogenic and endothelial cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. In this work, these different grades titanium implants were tested in vivo using the same analytical methodology. In addition to material parameters, key histomorphometrical parameters such a regeneration area, bone adaptation area and bone-to-implant contact were determined after 2 and 4weeks of implantation in rabbit animal model. Porous implants have more clear differences than non-porous ones, with the best optimum values obtained on hydrothermally treated electrophoretically deposited titanium. These in vivo data correlate well with the optimal prediction made by in vitro tests. PMID:25686935

Gasik, Michael; Braem, Annabel; Chaudhari, Amol; Duyck, Joke; Vleugels, Jozef



Analysis of ECs and related compounds in plasma: artifactual isomerization and ex vivo enzymatic generation of 2-MGs.  


The analysis of peripheral endocannabinoids (ECs) is a good biomarker of the EC system. Their concentrations, from clinical studies, strongly depend on sample collection and time processing conditions taking place in clinical and laboratory settings. The analysis of 2-monoacylglycerols (MGs) (i.e., 2-arachidonoylglycerol or 2-oleoylglycerol) is a particularly challenging issue because of their ex vivo formation and chemical isomerization that occur after blood sample collection. We provide evidence that their ex vivo formation can be minimized by adding Orlistat, an enzymatic lipase inhibitor, to plasma. Taking into consideration the low cost of Orlistat, we recommend its addition to plasma collecting tubes while maintaining sample cold chain until storage. We have validated a method for the determination of the EC profile of a range of MGs and N-acylethanolamides in plasma that preserves the original isomer ratio of MGs. Nevertheless, the chemical isomerization of 2-MGs can only be avoided by an immediate processing and analysis of samples due to their instability during conservation. We believe that this new methodology can aid in the harmonization of the measurement of ECs and related compounds in clinical samples. PMID:24610889

Pastor, Antoni; Farré, Magí; Fitó, Montserrat; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; de la Torre, Rafael



In vivo effect of coronary laser angioplasty on atherosclerotic plaques: Histopathologic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information from histopathologic examination of coronary arterial atherosclerotic plaques treated with in vivo laser energy is sparse. Directional atherectomy provides biopsies for study of tissue changes (injury) due to coronary arterial debulking devices, including laser. Sixteen patients who presented with acute ischemic coronary syndromes underwent debulking of a total of 17 obstructive intracoronary lesions with pulsed-wave holmium:YAG laser (2.1 ?m

On Topaz; Anthony J Minisi; Laxmi Mohanty; Nanny Bailey; Jack L Titus



In vivo analysis of the pivot shift phenomenon during computer navigated ACL reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

ACL insufficiency can be documented clinically with the pivot shift maneuver, but the specific pathologic kinematics of the\\u000a pivot shift is difficult to quantify. Navigation provides an opportunity to analyze in vivo the motions that comprise the\\u000a pivot shift and the kinematic changes that are inherent after ACL reconstruction. We hypothesized that tibial rotation, anterior\\u000a tibial translation (ATT), acceleration of

Russell F. Warren; Fatima C. Stanford; Daniel Kendoff; Andrew D. Pearle



Effect of Perinatal secondhand tobacco smoke exposure on in vivo and intrinsic airway structure/function in non-human primates  

SciTech Connect

Infants exposed to second hand smoke (SHS) experience more problems with wheezing. This study was designed to determine if perinatal SHS exposure increases intrinsic and/or in vivo airway responsiveness to methacholine and whether potential structural/cellular alterations in the airway might explain the change in responsiveness. Pregnant rhesus monkeys were exposed to filtered air (FA) or SHS (1 mg/m{sup 3} total suspended particulates) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week starting at 50 days gestational age. The mother/infant pairs continued the SHS exposures postnatally. At 3 months of age each infant: 1) had in vivo lung function measurements in response to inhaled methacholine, or 2) the right accessory lobe filled with agarose, precision-cut to 600 {mu}m slices, and bathed in increasing concentrations of methacholine. The lumenal area of the central airway was determined using videomicrometry followed by fixation and histology with morphometry. In vivo tests showed that perinatal SHS increases baseline respiratory rate and decreases responsiveness to methacholine. Perinatal SHS did not alter intrinsic airway responsiveness in the bronchi. However in respiratory bronchioles, SHS exposure increased airway responsiveness at lower methacholine concentrations but decreased it at higher concentrations. Perinatal SHS did not change eosinophil profiles, epithelial volume, smooth muscle volume, or mucin volume. However it did increase the number of alveolar attachments in bronchi and respiratory bronchioles. In general, as mucin increased, airway responsiveness decreased. We conclude that perinatal SHS exposure alters in vivo and intrinsic airway responsiveness, and alveolar attachments.

Joad, Jesse P. [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California at Davis, Davis, California, 95616 (United States)], E-mail:; Kott, Kayleen S.; Bric, John M.; Peake, Janice L.; Pinkerton, Kent E. [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California at Davis, Davis, California, 95616 (United States)



A quantitative look inside the body: minimally invasive infrared analysis in vivo.  


Today's minimally invasive biosensors are often based on chemical reagents and suffer from, e.g., oxygen dependence, toxic reaction products, excess analyte consumption, and/or degradation of the reagents. Here, we show the first successful analyte quantification by means of a minimally invasive sensor in vivo, which does not use chemical reactions. The concentration of glucose is determined continuously in vivo using transcutaneous, fiber-based mid-infrared laser spectroscopy. When comparing the infrared data measured in vivo with the 127 reference readings of glucose obtained in vitro, an overall standard deviation of 17.5% and a median of the absolute values of the relative deviations of 11.0% are achieved. The encouraging results open up the path toward a reagent-free long-term implant for the continuous surveillance of metabolites. In addition, the high sampling rate facilitates important research in body metabolism as well as its application outside the field of medicine such as real-time analyte sensing during fermentation. PMID:25329042

Vran?i?, Christian; Kröger, Niels; Gretz, Norbert; Neudecker, Sabine; Pucci, Annemarie; Petrich, Wolfgang



Robust analysis, sectors, and quadratic functionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working from a topological separation framework it is shown that integral quadratic constraints useful for robust analysis must have the form ?-??z*S*diag{I,-I}Szd?, for some invertible (possibly frequency dependent) matrix S. It is further shown that many of the integral quadratic constraints used in robustness analysis may be put into a positivity form with a fixed or known generalized sector transform

Keat-Choon Goh; M. G. Safonov



Structural Group Analysis of Functional Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present here a new method for cerebral activation detection. This method is performed on individual activation maps of\\u000a any sort and aims at performing a multi-subject group analysis while preserving individual information and overcoming problems\\u000a induced by spatial normalisation. The analysis is made through a multi-scale object-based description of individual maps.\\u000a It is these structural descriptions which are compared,

Olivier Coulon; Jean-francois Mangin; Jean-baptiste Poline; Vincent Frouin; Isabelle Bloch



Upholding the T cell immune-regulatory function of CD31 inhibits the formation of T/B immunological synapses in vitro and attenuates the development of experimental autoimmune arthritis in vivo.  


CD31, a trans-homophilic inhibitory receptor expressed on both T- and B-lymphocytes, drives the mutual detachment of interacting leukocytes. Intriguingly, T cell CD31 molecules relocate to the immunological synapse (IS), where the T and B cells establish a stable interaction. Here, we show that intact CD31 molecules, which are able to drive an inhibitory signal, are concentrated at the periphery of the IS but are excluded from the center of the IS. At this site, were the cells establish the closest contact, the CD31 molecules are cleaved, and most of the extracellular portion of the protein, including the trans-homophilic binding sites, is shed from the cell surface. T cells lacking CD31 trans-homophilic binding sites easily establish stable interactions with B cells; at the opposite, CD31 signaling agonists inhibit T/B IS formation as well as the ensuing helper T cell activation and function. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry analysis of experimental T/B IS shows that the T cell inhibitory effects of CD31 agonists depend on SHP-2 signaling, which reduces the phosphorylation of ZAP70. The analysis of synovial tissue biopsies from patients affected by rheumatoid arthritis showed that T cell CD31 molecules are excluded from the center of the T/B cell synapses in vivo. Interestingly, the administration of CD31 agonists in vivo significantly attenuated the development of the clinical signs of collagen-induced arthritis in DBA1/J mice. Altogether, our data indicate that the T cell co-inhibitory receptor CD31 prevents the formation of functional T/B immunological synapses and that therapeutic strategies aimed at sustaining CD31 signaling will attenuate the development of autoimmune responses in vivo. PMID:25277651

Clement, Marc; Fornasa, Giulia; Loyau, Stéphane; Morvan, Marion; Andreata, Francesco; Guedj, Kevin; Khallou-Laschet, Jamila; Larghi, Paola; Le Roux, Delphine; Bismuth, Georges; Chiocchia, Gilles; Hivroz, Claire; Newman, Debra K; Nicoletti, Antonino; Caligiuri, Giuseppina



Live-cell high resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy for in vivo analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa metabolomics  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is a pathogenic gram-negative bacterium that is widespread in nature, inhabiting soil, water, plants and animals. PA is a prevalent cause of deleterious human infections, particularly in patients whose host defense mechanisms have been compromised. Metabolomics is an important tool used to study host-pathogen interactions and to identify novel therapeutic targets and corresponding compounds. The aim of the present study was to report the metabolic profile of live PA bacteria using in vivo high-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), in combination with 1- and 2-dimensional HRMAS NMR. This methodology provides a new and powerful technique to rapidly interrogate the metabolome of intact bacterial cells and has several advantages over traditional techniques that identify metabolome components from disrupted cells. Furthermore, application of multidimensional HRMAS NMR, in combination with the novel technique total through-Bond correlation Spectroscopy (TOBSY), is a promising approach that may be used to obtain in vivo metabolomics information from intact live bacterial cells and can mediate such analyses in a short period of time. Moreover, HRMAS 1H NMR enables the investigation of the associations between metabolites and cell processes. In the present study, we detected and quantified several informative metabolic molecules in live PA cells, including N-acetyl, betaine, citrulline, alanine and glycine, which are important in peptidoglycan synthesis. The results provided a complete metabolic profile of PA for future studies of PA clinical isolates and mutants. In addition, this in vivo NMR biomedical approach might have clinical utility and should prove useful in gene function validation, the study of pathogenetic mechanisms, the classification of microbial strains into functional/clinical groups, the testing of anti-bacterial agents and the determination of metabolic profiles of bacterial mutants. PMID:24649014




Error Analysis in Nuclear Density Functional Theory  

E-print Network

Nuclear density functional theory (DFT) is the only microscopic, global approach to the structure of atomic nuclei. It is used in numerous applications, from determining the limits of stability to gaining a deep understanding of the formation of elements in the universe or the mechanisms that power stars and reactors. The predictive power of the theory depends on the amount of physics embedded in the energy density functional as well as on efficient ways to determine a small number of free parameters and solve the DFT equations. In this article, we discuss the various sources of uncertainties and errors encountered in DFT and possible methods to quantify these uncertainties in a rigorous manner.

Nicolas Schunck; Jordan D. McDonnell; Jason Sarich; Stefan M. Wild; Dave Higdon



toichiometric analysis has the same function in biochemistry as book-  

E-print Network

S toichiometric analysis has the same function in biochemistry as book- keeping has in business. In this simple example, the analysis merely confirms what is evident from inspection, but in larger systems,4 . But there has been no analysis of a system that encompasses most of an organ- ism's metabolic activity


Finite Element Analysis in Functional BRIAN G. RICHMOND,1  

E-print Network

Finite Element Analysis in Functional Morphology BRIAN G. RICHMOND,1 * BARTH W. WRIGHT,1 IAN GROSSE This article reviews the fundamental principles of the finite element method and the three basic steps (model element analysis. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Key words: finite-element analysis; mastication; primates; biome



E-print Network

WHITE NOISE ANALYSIS AND FUNCTIONAL INTEGRALS Ludwig Streit BiBoS, Univ. Bielefeld, D 4800 of White Noise Analysis as preparation for a discussion of a recent, mathematically rigorous and effective][5] and the corresponding Markov processes [6], rotation 1 see e.g. the remarks in [2] 1 #12; WHITE NOISE ANALYSIS


Functional Analysis in Public Schools: A Summary of 90 Functional Analyses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several review and epidemiological studies have been conducted over recent years to inform behavior analysts of functional analysis outcomes. None to date have closely examined demographic and clinical data for functional analyses conducted exclusively in public school settings. The current paper presents a data-based summary of 90 functional…

Mueller, Michael M.; Nkosi, Ajamu; Hine, Jeffrey F.



In vivo topographic analysis of lumbar facet joint space width distribution in healthy and symptomatic subjects  

PubMed Central

Study Design In vivo three-dimensional facet joint space width measurement. Objective To determine lumbar facet joint space width within clinically relevant topographical zones in vivo and its correlations with age, level and presence of lower back pain symptoms. Summary of Background Data Narrowing of the facet joint gap, articular cartilage thinning, and subarticular cortical bone hypertrophy are frequently observed age-related changes. Facet joint space width is a well-defined parameter to evaluate osteoarthritis. To the best of our knowledge, there is no other study that quantifies three-dimensional facet joint space width distribution in vivo. Methods Three-dimensional measurement to quantify facet joint space width distribution based on five clinically relevant topographic zones in a cohort of healthy and symptomatic low-back-pain volunteers using subject-based three-dimensional CT models with respect to spinal level, subject age, gender and presence/absence of lower back pain. Results Facet joint space width was 1.93±0.51 (mean ± standard deviation) mm for the central zone, 1.75±0.48 mm for the superior zone, 1.63±0.49 mm for the inferior zone, 1.48±0.44 mm for the medial and 1.65±0.48 mm for the lateral zone, respectively. There were no significant differences between right and left facet joints. Males showed larger space width than females. Overall, space width of symptomatic subjects was significantly narrower when compared against the asymptomatic group. Facet joints in the peripheral zones were narrower than in the central zone. Age-group comparisons showed local narrowing occurring as early as in the third decade at the inferior zone of L5/S1 with all the remaining zones implicated after the fourth decade. Conclusions This in vivo study shows variations in facet joint space width narrowing with spinal level and region within the facet joint and in vivo evidence of localized, age-influenced facet cartilage thinning. Techniques developed in this study may be applied in the detection of early osteoarthritis-related changes in the facet joints. PMID:22433501

Simon, Peter; Espinoza Orías, Alejandro A.; Andersson, Gunnar B. J.; An, Howard S.; Inoue, Nozomu



P3 optimization of functional potency, in vivo efficacy and oral bioavailability in 3-aminopyrazinone thrombin inhibitors bearing non-charged groups at the P1 position.  


Although the S3 pocket of the thrombin active site is lined with lipophilic amino acid residues, the accommodation of polarity within the lipophilic P3 moiety of small molecule inhibitors is possible provided that the polar functionality is capable of pointing away from the binding pocket outwards toward solvent while simultaneously allowing the lipophilic portion of the P3 ligand to interact with the S3 amino acid residues. Manipulation of this motif provided the means to effect optimization of functional potency, in vivo antithrombotic efficacy and oral bioavailability in a series of 3-aminopyrazinone thrombin inhibitors which contained non-charged groups at the P1 position. PMID:21295466

Isaacs, Richard C A; Newton, Christina L; Cutrona, Kellie J; Mercer, Swati P; Dorsey, Bruce D; McDonough, Colleen M; Cook, Jacquelynn J; Krueger, Julie A; Lewis, S Dale; Lucas, Bobby J; Lyle, Elizabeth A; Lynch, Joseph J; Miller-Stein, Cynthia; Michener, Maria T; Wallace, Audrey A; White, Rebecca B; Wong, Bradley K



Microfluidic Chip for High Efficiency Electrophoretic Analysis of Segmented Flow from a Microdialysis Probe and in Vivo Chemical Monitoring  

PubMed Central

An effective method for in vivo chemical monitoring is to couple sampling probes, such as microdialysis, to on-line analytical methods. A limitation of this approach is that in vivo chemical dynamics may be distorted by flow and diffusion broadening during transfer from sampling probe to analytical system. Converting a homogenous sample stream to segmented flow can prevent such broadening. We have developed a system for coupling segmented microdialysis flow with chip-based electrophoresis. In this system, the dialysis probe is integrated with a PDMS chip that merges dialysate with fluorogenic reagent and segments the flow into 8–10 nL plugs at 0.3–0.5 Hz separated by perfluorodecalin. The plugs flow to a glass chip where they are extracted to an aqueous stream and analyzed by electrophoresis with fluorescence detection. The novel extraction system connects the segmented flow to an electrophoresis sampling channel by a shallow and hydrophilic extraction bridge that removes the entire aqueous droplet from the oil stream. With this approach, temporal resolution was 35 s and independent of distance between sampling and analysis. Electrophoretic analysis produced separation with 223,000 ± 21,000 theoretical plates, 4.4% RSD in peak height, and detection limits of 90–180 nM for six amino acids. This performance was made possible by three key elements: 1) reliable transfer of plug flow to a glass chip; 2) efficient extraction of aqueous plugs from segmented flow; and 3) electrophoretic injection suitable for high efficiency separation with minimal dilution of sample. The system was used to detect rapid concentration changes evoked by infusing glutamate uptake inhibitor into the striatum of anesthetized rats. These results demonstrate the potential of incorporating segmented flow into separations-based sensing schemes for studying chemical dynamics in vivo with improved temporal resolution. PMID:19803495

Wang, Meng; Roman, Gregory T.; Perry, Maura L.; Kennedy, Robert T.



Large-Scale Phosphoprotein Analysis in Medicago truncatula Roots Provides Insight into in Vivo Kinase Activity in Legumes1[W  

PubMed Central

Nitrogen fixation in legumes requires the development of root organs called nodules and their infection by symbiotic rhizobia. Over the last decade, Medicago truncatula has emerged as a major model plant for the analysis of plant-microbe symbioses and for addressing questions pertaining to legume biology. While the initiation of symbiosis and the development of nitrogen-fixing root nodules depend on the activation of a protein phosphorylation-mediated signal transduction cascade in response to symbiotic signals produced by the rhizobia, few sites of in vivo phosphorylation have previously been identified in M. truncatula. We have characterized sites of phosphorylation on proteins from M. truncatula roots, from both whole cell lysates and membrane-enriched fractions, using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Here, we report 3,457 unique phosphopeptides spanning 3,404 nonredundant sites of in vivo phosphorylation on 829 proteins in M. truncatula Jemalong A17 roots, identified using the complementary tandem mass spectrometry fragmentation methods electron transfer dissociation and collision-activated dissociation. With this being, to our knowledge, the first large-scale plant phosphoproteomic study to utilize electron transfer dissociation, analysis of the identified phosphorylation sites revealed phosphorylation motifs not previously observed in plants. Furthermore, several of the phosphorylation motifs, including LxKxxs and RxxSxxxs, have yet to be reported as kinase specificities for in vivo substrates in any species, to our knowledge. Multiple sites of phosphorylation were identified on several key proteins involved in initiating rhizobial symbiosis, including SICKLE, NUCLEOPORIN133, and INTERACTING PROTEIN OF DMI3. Finally, we used these data to create an open-access online database for M. truncatula phosphoproteomic data. PMID:19923235

Grimsrud, Paul A.; den Os, Désirée; Wenger, Craig D.; Swaney, Danielle L.; Schwartz, Daniel; Sussman, Michael R.; Ané, Jean-Michel; Coon, Joshua J.



Structural Group Analysis of Functional Activation Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present here a new method for cerebral activation detection over a group of subjects. This method is performed using individual activation maps of any sort. It aims at