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1

EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) ON EX VIVO LUTEAL FUNCTION IN THE F344 RAT DURING PREGNANCY  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of Bromodichloromethane (BDCM) on Ex Vivo Luteal Function In the Pregnant F344 Rat Susan R. Bielmeier1, Ashley S. Murr2, Deborah S. Best2, Jerome M. Goldman2, and Michael G. Narotsky2 1Curriculum in Toxicology, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599,...

2

EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) ON EX VIVO LUTEAL FUNCTION IN THE F344 RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) ON EX VIVO LUTEAL FUNCTION IN THE PREGNANT F344 RAT. S. R. Bielmeier1, A. S. Murr2, D. S. Best2, J. M. Goldman2, and M. G. Narotsky2 1 Curriculum in Toxicology, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA 2 Reproductive T...

3

EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) ON EX VIVO LUTEAL FUNCTION IN THE PREGNANT F344 RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) ON EX VIVO LUTEAL FUNCTION IN THE PREGNANT F344 RAT. S. R. Bielmeier1, A. S. Murr2, D. S. Best2, J. M. Goldman2, and M. G. Narotsky2 1 Curriculum in Toxicology, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA 2 Reproductive T...

4

Luteal blood flow is a more appropriate indicator for luteal function during the bovine estrous cycle than luteal size.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the reliability of luteal blood flow (LBF) as recorded by color Doppler sonography to monitor luteal function during the estrous cycle of dairy cows and to compare the results with that for the established criterion luteal size (LS) as determined by B-mode sonography. In total, 14 consecutive sonographic examinations were carried out in 10 synchronized lactating Holstein-Friesian cows (Bos taurus) on Days 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, -5, -4, -3, -2, -1 of the estrous cycle (Day 1=ovulation). Plasma progesterone concentrations in venous blood (P(4)) were quantified by enzyme immunoassay. Luteal size was determined by sonographic measurement of the maximal cross-sectional area of the corpus luteum (CL). Luteal blood supply was estimated by calculating the maximum colored area of the CL from power Doppler sonographic images. Luteal size doubled during the luteal growth phase (until Day 7) and remained at this level during the luteal static phase (Day 8 to 16) before decreasing rather slowly during luteal regression (Days -5 to -1). Luteal blood flow doubled during the growth phase, doubled furthermore during the static phase, and decreased rapidly during luteal regression. Thus, LBF values represented highly reliable predictors of luteal status. Luteal blood flow predicted reliably a P(4)>1.0 ng/mL by reaching only 35% of the maximal values, whereas LS had to exceed 60% of the maximal values to indicate reliably a functional CL. It is concluded that LBF reflected luteal function better than LS specifically during luteal regression. PMID:20071016

Herzog, K; Brockhan-Lüdemann, M; Kaske, M; Beindorff, N; Paul, V; Niemann, H; Bollwein, H

2010-03-15

5

The effect of metritis on luteal function in dairy cows  

PubMed Central

Background Disturbed uterine involution impairs ovarian function in the first weeks after calving. This study analyzed the long-term effect of metritis on luteal function of 47 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows during the first four postpartum estrous cycles. Cows with abnormal uterine enlargement and malodorous lochia were classified as having metritis (group M, n?=?18), and all others were considered healthy (group H, n?=?29). Luteal size was measured once between days 9 and 13 of the first (group H, n?=?11; group M, n?=?12), second (group H, n?=?23; group M, n?=?18) and fourth (group H, n?=?11; group M, n?=?7) postpartum luteal phases. Serum progesterone concentration was measured at the same time. Sixteen cows (group H, n?=?9; group M, n?=?7) underwent transvaginal luteal biopsy for gene expression analysis of steroidogenic regulatory proteins during the second and fourth cycles. Cows with persistence of the corpus luteum (CL) underwent determination of luteal size, luteal biopsy and serum progesterone measurement once between days 29 and 33, followed by prostaglandin treatment to induce luteolysis. The same procedures were repeated once between days 9 and 13 of the induced cycle. Results The cows in group M had smaller first-cycle CLs than the cows in group H (p?=?0.04), but progesterone concentrations did not differ between groups. Luteal size, progesterone concentration and gene expression did not differ between the two groups during the second and fourth cycles. Compared with healthy cows (10%), there was a trend (p?=?0.07) toward a higher prevalence of persistent CLs in cows with metritis (33%). Persistent CLs were limited to the first cycle. Persistent CLs and the induced cyclic CLs did not differ with regard to the variables investigated. Conclusions An effect of metritis on luteal activity was apparent in the first postpartum estrous cycle. However, after the first postpartum cycle, no differences occurred in analyzed parameters between metritis and control cows. Therefore, a metritis is able to impair luteal activity transiently, but does not seem to have a long-term effect on luteal function. PMID:24304943

2013-01-01

6

Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide administration transiently suppresses luteal structure and function in diestrous cows.  

PubMed

The objective was to characterize the effects of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin (given i.v.) on luteal structure and function. Seven nonlactating German Holstein cows, 5.1 ± 0.8 years old (mean ± s.e.m.), were given 10? ml saline on day 10 (ovulation=day 1) of a control estrous cycle. On day 10 of a subsequent cycle, they were given 0.5 ?g/kg LPS. Luteal size decreased (from 5.2 to 3.8 cm², P?0.05) within 24 h after LPS treatment and remained smaller throughout the remainder of the cycle. Luteal blood flow decreased by 34% (P?0.05) within 3 h after LPS and remained lower for 72 h. Plasma progesterone (P?) concentrations increased (P?0.05) within the first 3 h after LPS but subsequently declined. Following LPS treatment, plasma prostaglandin (PG) F metabolites concentrations were approximately tenfold higher in LPS-treated compared with control cows (9.2 vs 0.8 ng/ml, P?0.05) within 30 min, whereas plasma PGE concentrations were nearly double (P?0.05) at 1 h after LPS. At 12 h after treatment, levels of mRNA encoding Caspase-3 in biopsies of the corpus luteum (CL) were increased (P?0.05), whereas those encoding StAR were decreased (P?0.05) in cattle given LPS vs saline. The CASP3 protein was localized in the cytoplasm and/or nuclei of luteal cells, whereas StAR was detected in the cytosol of luteal cells. In the estrous cycle following treatment with either saline or LPS, there were no significant differences between groups on luteal size, plasma P? concentrations, or gene expression. In conclusion, LPS treatment of diestrus cows transiently suppressed both the structure and function of the CL. PMID:22829687

Herzog, K; Strüve, K; Kastelic, J P; Piechotta, M; Ulbrich, S E; Pfarrer, C; Shirasuna, K; Shimizu, T; Miyamoto, A; Bollwein, H

2012-10-01

7

Salivary progesterone and luteal function in two low-fertility populations of Northeast Zaire.  

PubMed

30 Ituri women (Zaire) -- 14 Efe and 16 Balese -- were targeted as subjects in this study designed to verify that, under field conditions, the salivary steroid method can reliably discern follicular and luteal levels of progesterone in normal menstrual cycles and to examine the hypothesis that infertility among these women is due to tubal factors. Findings of normal ovulatory function in fertile women would support the hypothesis; findings of abnormal gonadal function might either indicate a chronic endocrine imbalance or the short-term effects of nutritional and other stressors. All potential subjects ranged in age between 20-35 years, were involved in stable conjugal unions, had no nursing children, and reported either no births or none within the last 6 years. 25 women completed the study. The Boston field control subjects consisted of 18 volunteers ranging in age between 18-43 years. All reported a history of regular menstrual cycles and were nither using oral steroid contraceptives nor engaged in a regular exercise program. The African women had significantly lower luteal progesterone levels than did the Boston controls. Additionally, a significantly higher proportion of the African women failed to demonstrate clear luteal activity, suggesting that a higher rate of anovulation contributed to the low average luteal progesterone levels. The composite-cross-sectional profile for the Ituri Forest women suggests that the average luteal phase for this group was shorter than for the Boston controls. Further investigations need to determine whether gonadal dysfunction such as observed in this study is a regular feature of the reproductive physiology of women in the Ituri Forest, or whether it emerges only in periods of food shortage and significant weight loss. Gonorrhea may be the major cause of infertility in the Ituri region, but it is likely that other factors directly affecting gonadal function contributed to the observed pattern of low fertility. Clearly, the study illustrates the potential usefulness of salivary steroid assays. PMID:3759049

Ellison, P T; Peacock, N R; Lager, C

1986-08-01

8

RESUMPTION OF POSTPARTUM LUTEAL FUNCTION OF PRIMIPAROUS, SUCKLED BEEF COWS EXPOSED CONTINUOUSLY TO BULL URINE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We tested the hypotheses that interval from urine exposure to resumption of luteal activity and proportions of cows that resume luteal activity by the end of the urine-exposure period do not differ between cows exposed to mature bull urine or steer urine. Thirty-eight Angus x Hereford cows, four mat...

9

Failure to maintain luteal function: a possible cause of early embryonic loss in a cow.  

PubMed Central

The effect of early pregnancy failure on the release of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) in response to oxytocin (Ot) was examined in an abnormal breeder (AB) heifer that was not able to maintain a pregnancy beyond 21 days. This animal was used in three experiments: 1) She received one intravenous injection of 100 IU Ot 17 days after the onset of oestrus (Day 0). Frequent blood samples were taken for the measurement of 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-PGF2 alpha (PGFM) by radioimmunoassay. Daily samples for progesterone (P4) determinations were taken to monitor luteal function. This was then repeated using the same animal at either day 17 or 18 or 19 (day 17-19) of pregnancy. 2) Embryos from superovulated normal breeder (NB) donors were transferred at day 7 to the AB heifer as well as to NB control animals. 3) Seven day old embryos from the superovulated AB heifer were transferred to NB recipient animals. At day 17-19 of pregnancy all the recipient heifers (experiments 2 and 3) were subjected to the same protocol as in experiment 1. The results showed that the ability of Ot to stimulate PGF2 alpha release was reduced in the NB recipients bearing viable embryos when compared to cyclic animals. However, for the AB heifer, Ot stimulated PGF2 alpha release to the same extent whether the animal was cyclic or pregnant. Furthermore, the AB animal did not have the extended luteal function associated with removal of viable embryos on day 17-19. The data suggest that the embryonic loss might have been caused by failure of the embryos to prevent the luteolytic release of PGF2 alpha. PMID:2766148

Lafrance, M; Goff, A K; Guay, P; Harvey, D

1989-01-01

10

Endothelins enhance prostaglandin (PGE(2) and PGF(2alpha)) biosynthesis and release by human luteal cells: evidence of a new paracrine/autocrine regulation of luteal function.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that endothelin-1 (ET-1) is normally found in human luteal cells, where it is able to significantly inhibit both basal and hCG-induced progesterone production. To further expand our comprehension of the possible roles of endothelins (ETs) in luteal physiology, in this study we used primary cultures of luteal cells exposed to graded doses of ET-1 and ET-3; PGF(2alpha) and PGE(2) were assayed in the culture medium to investigate whether ETs also influence cyclooxygenase activity in these cells. We found that both ETs are able to significantly stimulate PGF(2alpha) and PGE(2) release in a dose- and time-dependent manner. ET-1 was always more effective than ET-3. Experiments with two endothelin receptor antagonists (the BQ485 and BQ788 compounds, which block the ET-A and ET-B receptors, respectively) showed that the two endothelins induce PG production through different receptors and signaling pathways. In conclusion, here we demonstrate the ability of ETs to influence PG synthesis and release from human luteal cells. As PGs are deeply involved in corpus luteum activity, and ETs were also able to influence progesterone production, the present new data suggest an interesting interplay among progesterone, PGs, and ETs in the control of corpus luteum physiology. PMID:11158051

Miceli, F; Minici, F; Garcia Pardo, M; Navarra, P; Proto, C; Mancuso, S; Lanzone, A; Apa, R

2001-02-01

11

Adverse influence of coumestrol on secretory function of bovine luteal cells in the first trimester of pregnancy.  

PubMed

Coumestrol is one of a few biologically active substances present in leguminous plants, which are widely used as fodder for ruminants. Depending on the doses, coumestrol acts on the reproductive processes as an estrogen-like factor or antiestrogen to evoke a decrease in ovulation frequency, elongation of estrous cycle duration. The aim of the current investigations was to study the influence of coumestrol on secretory function of luteal cells obtained from first trimester of pregnant cows. Luteal cells (2.5 × 10(5) /mL) from 3rd to 5th, 6th to 8th, and 9th to 12th week of pregnancy were preincubated for 24 h and incubated with coumestrol (1 × 10(-6) M) for successive 48 h and the medium concentrations of progesterone (P4), oxytocin (OT), prostaglandin (PG) E2 and F2? were determined. Moreover, the expression of mRNA for neurophysin-I/oxytocin (NP-I/OT; precursor of OT) and peptidyl-glycine-?-amidating mono-oxygenase (PGA, an enzyme responsible for post-translational OT synthesis) was determined after 8 h of treatment. Coumestrol did not affect P4 secretion but increased the secretion of OT from the cells collected at all stages of gestation studied. Hence, the ratio of P4 to OT was markedly decreased. Simultaneously, coumestrol increased the expression of NP-I/OT mRNA during 9th to 12th weeks of pregnancy, and mRNA for PGA during 3rd to 5th and 9th to 12th weeks of gestation. Furthermore, coumestrol decreased PGE2 secretion from luteal cells in all studied stages of pregnancy, while it affected PGF2? metabolite (PGFM) concentration only from week 3 to 5 of pregnancy. Obtained results suggest that coumestrol impairs secretory function of the corpus luteum (CL) and this way it can affect the maintenance of pregnancy in the cow. PMID:21656645

M?ynarczuk, J; Wróbel, M H; Kotwica, J

2013-07-01

12

Influence of lysophosphatidic acid on nitric oxide-induced luteolysis in steroidogenic luteal cells in cows.  

PubMed

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) together with its active G protein-coupled receptors are present in the corpus luteum (CL) of the cow. Under in vivo conditions, LPA stimulated P4 and PGE2 secretion during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle in heifers. Furthermore, LPA maintained P4 synthesis and actions in the bovine CL in vitro. However, the effect of this phospholipid on nitric oxide (NO)-induced functional and structural luteolysis has not been investigated. The aim of the present work was to determine the effects of LPA on 1) NO-induced functional luteolysis, 2) NO-dependent PG synthesis, and 3) NO-induced structural luteolysis in cultured steroidogenic luteal cells. We documented that LPA reversed the inhibitory effect of NONOate, an NO donor, on P4 synthesis and PGE2/PGF2alpha ratio in cultured steroidogenic luteal cells. Additionally, LPA inhibited NO-induced apoptosis in cultured steroidogenic luteal cells via abrogation of the NO-dependent stimulatory influence on proapoptotic TNFalpha/TNFR1 and Fas/FasL expression, Caspase 3 activity, and the Bax/Bcl2 ratio during luteal regression in the bovine CL. In conclusion, this study proves that in the presence of LPA, NO cannot induce luteolytic capacity acquisition, leading to functional and structural luteolysis of bovine luteal cells. PMID:24307705

Kowalczyk-Zieba, Ilona; Boruszewska, Dorota; Sinderewicz, Emilia; Skarzynski, Dariusz Jan; Woclawek-Potocka, Izabela

2014-01-01

13

Estrogen promotes luteolysis by redistributing prostaglandin F2? receptors within primate luteal cells.  

PubMed

Prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?) has been proposed as a functional luteolysin in primates. However, administration of PGF2? or prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors in vivo both initiate luteolysis. These contradictory findings may reflect changes in PGF2? receptors (PTGFRs) or responsiveness to PGF2? at a critical point during the life span of the corpus luteum. The current study addressed this question using ovarian cells and tissues from female cynomolgus monkeys and luteinizing granulosa cells from healthy women undergoing follicle aspiration. PTGFRs were present in the cytoplasm of monkey granulosa cells, while PTGFRs were localized in the perinuclear region of large, granulosa-derived monkey luteal cells by mid-late luteal phase. A PTGFR agonist decreased progesterone production in luteal cells obtained at mid-late and late luteal phases, but did not decrease progesterone production by granulosa cells or luteal cells from younger corpora lutea. These findings are consistent with a role for perinuclear PTGFRs in functional luteolysis. This concept was explored using human luteinizing granulosa cells maintained in vitro as a model for luteal cell differentiation. In these cells, PTGFRs relocated from the cytoplasm to the perinuclear area in an estrogen- and estrogen receptor-dependent manner. Similar to our findings with monkey luteal cells, human luteinizing granulosa cells with perinuclear PTGFRs responded to a PTGFR agonist with decreased progesterone production. These data support the concept that PTGFR stimulation promotes functional luteolysis only when PTGFRs are located in the perinuclear region. Estrogen receptor-mediated relocation of PTGFRs within luteal cells may be a necessary step in the initiation of luteolysis in primates. PMID:25687410

Kim, Soon Ok; Markosyan, Nune; Pepe, Gerald J; Duffy, Diane M

2015-05-01

14

Conversion of cortisone to cortisol and prostaglandin F2? production by the reproductive tract of cows at the late luteal stage in vivo.  

PubMed

Previous in vitro studies demonstrated that bovine endometrium has the capacity to convert inactive cortisone to biologically active cortisol (Cr) and that Cr inhibits cytokine-stimulated prostaglandin F(2?) (PGF) production. This study was carried out to test the hypothesis that bovine reproductive tract has the capacity to convert cortisone to Cr in vivo and to evaluate the effects of intravaginal application of exogenous cortisone on uterine PGF secretion during the late luteal stage. The temporal relationships between PGF and Cr levels in uterine plasma were also determined. Catheters were inserted into jugular vein (JV), uterine vein (UV), vena cava caudalis (VCC) and aorta abdominalis (AA) of six cows on Day 15 of the oestrous cycle (ovulation = Day 0) for frequent blood collection. On Day 16, the cows were divided randomly into two groups and infused intravaginally with vaseline gel (10 ml; control; n = 3) or cortisone dissolved in vaseline gel (100 mg; n = 3). Blood samples were collected at -2, -1, -0.5, 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h after treatments (0 h). Intravaginal application of cortisone increased plasma concentrations of Cr between 0.5 and 1.5 h in UV, at 0.5 h in VCC, at 1 h in JV and at 1.5 h in AA. The plasma concentrations of PGF in UV and of PGF metabolite in JV were greater at 0.5 and 1 h in the cortisone-treated animals than in control animals. The levels of PGF in UV blood plasma decreased after Cr reached its highest levels. The overall findings suggest that the female reproductive tract has the capacity to convert cortisone to Cr in vivo. Based on the temporal changes of PGF and Cr levels in the uterine plasma, a biphasic response in PGF secretion was found to be associated to the Cr increase induced by the cortisone treatment at the late luteal stage in non-pregnant cows. PMID:22335619

Duong, H T; Skarzynski, D J; Piotrowska-Tomala, K K; Bah, M M; Jankowska, K; Warmowski, P; ?ukasik, K; Okuda, K; Acosta, T J

2012-12-01

15

A novel physiological culture system that mimics luteal angiogenesis.  

PubMed

Luteal inadequacy is a major cause of poor embryo development and infertility. Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is an essential process underpinning corpus luteum (CL) development and progesterone production. Thus, understanding the factors that regulate angiogenesis during this critical time is essential for the development of novel strategies to alleviate luteal inadequacy and infertility. This study demonstrates the development of a physiologically relevant primary culture system that mimics luteal angiogenesis. This system incorporates all luteal cell types (e.g. endothelial, steroidogenic cells, fibroblasts and pericytes). Using this approach, endothelial cells, identified by the specific marker von Willebrand factor (VWF), start to form clusters on day 2, which then proliferate and develop thread-like structures. After 9 days in culture, these tubule-like structures lengthen, thicken and form highly organized intricate networks resembling a capillary bed. Development of the vasculature was promoted by coating wells with fibronectin, as determined by image analysis (P<0.001). Progesterone production increased with time and was stimulated by LH re-enforcing the physiological relevance of the model in mimicking in vivo luteal function. LH also increased the area stained positively for VWF by twofold (P<0.05). Development of this endothelial cell network was stimulated by fibroblast growth factor 2 and vascular endothelial growth factor A, which increased total area of VWF positive staining on day 9, both independently (three- to fourfold; P<0.01) and in combination (tenfold; P<0.001). In conclusion, the successful development of endothelial cell networks in vitro provides a new opportunity to elucidate the physiological control of the angiogenic process in the developing CL. PMID:18299434

Robinson, R S; Hammond, A J; Mann, G E; Hunter, M G

2008-03-01

16

Development of a bovine luteal cell in vitro culture system suitable for co-culture with early embryos.  

PubMed

The cross talk between the corpus luteum (CL) and the early embryo, potentially relevant to pregnancy establishment, is difficult to evaluate in the in vivo bovine model. In vitro co-culture of bovine luteal cells and early embryos (days 2-8 post in vitro fertilization) may allow the deciphering of this poorly understood cross talk. However, early embryos and somatic cells require different in vitro culture conditions. The objective of this study was to develop a bovine luteal cell in vitro culture system suitable for co-culture with early embryos in order to evaluate their putative steroidogenic and prostanoid interactions. The corpora lutea of the different stages of the estrous cycle (early, mid, and late) were recovered postmortem and enriched luteal cell populations were obtained. In experiments 1 and 2, the effects of CL stage, culture medium (TCM, DMEM-F12, or SOF), serum concentration (5 or 10%), atmosphere oxygen tension (5 or 20%), and refreshment of the medium on the ability of luteal cells to produce progesterone (P(4)) were evaluated. The production of P(4) was significantly increased in early CL cultures, and luteal cells adapted well to simple media (SOF), low serum concentrations (5%), and oxygen tensions (5%). In experiment 3, previous luteal cell cryopreservation did not affect the production of P(4), PGF(2?), and PGE(2) compared to fresh cell cultures. This enables the use of pools of frozen-thawed cells to decrease the variation in cell function associated with primary cell cultures. In experiment 4, mineral oil overlaying culture wells resulted in a 50-fold decrease of the P(4) quantified in the medium, but had no effect on PGF(2?) and PGE(2) quantification. In conclusion, a luteal cell in vitro culture system suitable for the 5-d-long co-culture with early embryos was developed. PMID:23054443

Batista, M; Torres, A; Diniz, P; Mateus, L; Lopes-da-Costa, L

2012-10-01

17

Expression of Aldo-keto Reductase 1C23 in the Equine Corpus Luteum in Different Luteal Phases  

PubMed Central

Regression of the corpus luteum (CL) is characterized by a decay in progesterone (P4) production (functional luteolysis) and disappearance of luteal tissues (structural luteolysis). In mares, structural luteolysis is thought to be caused by apoptosis of luteal cells, but functional luteolysis is poorly understood. 20?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20?-HSD) catabolizes P4 into its biologically inactive form, 20?-hydroxyprogesterone (20?-OHP). In mares, aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C23, which is a member of the AKR superfamily, has 20?-HSD activity. To clarify whether AKR1C23 is associated with functional luteolysis in mares, we investigated the expression of AKR1C23 in the CL in different luteal phases. The luteal P4 concentration and levels of 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3?-HSD) mRNA were higher in the mid luteal phase than in the late and regressed luteal phases (P<0.05), but the level of 3?-HSD protein was higher in the late luteal phase than in the regressed luteal phase (P<0.05). The luteal 20?-OHP concentration and the level of AKR1C23 mRNA were higher in the late luteal phase than in the early and mid luteal phases (P<0.05), and the level of AKR1C23 protein was also highest in the late luteal phase. Taken together, these findings suggest that metabolism of P4 by AKR1C23 is one of the processes contributing to functional luteolysis in mares. PMID:24492656

KOZAI, Keisuke; HOJO, Takuo; TOKUYAMA, Shota; SZÓSTEK, Anna Z; TAKAHASHI, Masashi; SAKATANI, Miki; NAMBO, Yasuo; SKARZYNSKI, Dariusz J; OKUDA, Kiyoshi

2014-01-01

18

Effect of short-term treatment with bovine somatotropin at estrus on conception rate and luteal function of repeat-breeding dairy cows.  

PubMed

We studied the effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) at the time of estrus on progesterone concentrations and conception rates of repeat-breeding Holstein cows. We used repeat-breeding cows of varied parity (n = 510). All the animals were clinically healthy and had had at least three unsuccessful services before entering the study. After detection of estrus, the cows were randomly assigned to either a treated (n = 201) or a control (n = 309) group. The animals in the treated group were given rbST (500 mg s.c.) at the time of estrus and again 10 d later. Artificial insemination was performed 12 h after the first detection of estrus. In order to evaluate the effect of rbST on luteal function, blood samples were taken from 10 cows in each group every 3 d for 18 d, starting on the day of insemination (Day 0) to determine progesterone concentrations. Conception rates were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the cows treated with rbST (29.3%) than in the control cows (16.9%). The effects of rbST were maximal in cows with 8 or more previous unsuccessful services and in cows with 2 to 4 calvings. Progesterone concentrations tended to be higher in nonpregnant cows that were treated with rbST than in those that were not treated. The difference between groups was significant (p < 0.05) on Day 18 after insemination. In pregnant cows there were no significant differences in progesterone concentrations between treated and nontreated animals at any time. Treatment with rbST at estrus improved the conception rate of repeat-breeding Holstein cows. This effect was associated with an increase in circulating progesterone concentrations on Day 18. PMID:11414488

Morales-Roura, J S; Zarco, L; Hernández-Cerón, J; Rodríguez, G

2001-06-01

19

Interrelationships among progesterone, LH, and luteal blood flow during a pulse of a PGF2? metabolite and functional role of LH in the progesterone rebound in heifers.  

PubMed

On Day 16 (Day 0 = ovulation) or before the expected transition into the luteolytic period, heifers were not treated (control group, N = 7) or were treated with a single 0.1-mg dose of estradiol (E2) (E2 group, N = 6) or E2 combined with the GnRH antagonist acyline (E2/Ac group, N = 5). Hourly blood samples were collected from hour of treatment (Hour 0) to Hour 20. Estradiol induced a pulse of PGFM, but the peak of the pulse occurred 2 hours later (P < 0.05) and mean PGFM concentrations during the descending portion of the pulse were lower (P < 0.05) in the E2/Ac group than in the E2 group. In the E2 group, concentration of progesterone (P4) decreased (P < 0.05) during the ascending portion of the PGFM pulse, and increased (rebounded; P < 0.05) along with an LH increase during the descending portion. In the E2/Ac group, a rebound in P4 and an increase in LH were not detected during the descending portion of the PGFM pulse. The percentage of CL with color Doppler signals of blood flow increased (P < 0.04) concurrently with the PGFM increase during Hours 0 to 5 and during the ascending portion of the PGFM pulse. Blood flow and PGFM decreased concurrently. The following hypotheses were supported: (1) LH has a positive effect on PGFM pulses; (2) the rebound in P4 and the increase in LH during the descending portion of a PGFM pulse are functionally related; and (3) the increase in luteal blood flow in association with a PGFM pulse represents a direct effect of PGF2? rather than an effect of P4 or LH. PMID:23561925

Ginther, O J; Bashir, S T; Mir, R A; Santos, V G; Beg, M A

2013-04-15

20

Ovulatory response and luteal function after eCG administration at the end of a progesterone and estradiol' based treatment in postpartum anestrous beef cattle.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) administration associated to fixed-time AI (FTAI) on follicular dynamics, ovulation, corpus luteum (CL) development and serum progesterone concentrations. Multiparous suckled Hereford cows (n=46) in anestrus with 60-75 days postpartum were used. Females received an intravaginal device containing 0.5g of progesterone during 8 days and 2mg of estradiol benzoate i.m. at device insertion. At device removal 500?g of cloprostenol and 0.5mg of estradiol cypionate were administered i.m., and FTAI was performed 52-56h later. Cows were divided into two experimental groups to receive 400IU of eCG i.m. at device removal (n=23), while control group did not receive eCG (n=23). Daily ovarian ultrasonography (7.5MHz transducer) and progesterone concentrations determined by RIA were assayed from device removal until 30 or 14 days after FTAI, respectively. Treatment with eCG increased ovulation rate [65.2% (15/23) vs. 30.4% (7/23); P=0.018], ovulatory follicle diameter (14.5±0.4 vs. 13.1±0.7mm, mean±SEM; P=0.081), CL area from 6 to 14 days after FTAI (344.3±25.1 vs. 274.2±23.9mm(2); P=0.045) and mean serum progesterone concentrations from FTAI to 14 days later (3.0±0.2 vs. 1.8±0.2ng/ml; P=0.001), in comparison with control cows. In conclusion, the addition of eCG to a progesterone and estradiol' based treatment for FTAI improves ovulation rate and luteal function in anestrous cows. These findings have implications in order to increase pregnancy rates in FTAI treatments in Bos taurus beef cattle. PMID:24646633

Núñez-Olivera, R; de Castro, T; García-Pintos, C; Bó, G; Piaggio, J; Menchaca, A

2014-05-01

21

Luteal insufficiency in first trimester  

PubMed Central

Luteal phase insufficiency is one of the reasons for implantation failure and has been responsible for miscarriages and unsuccessful assisted reproduction. Luteal phase defect is seen in women with polycystic ovaries, thyroid and prolactin disorder. Low progesterone environment is created iatrogenically due to interventions in assisted reproduction. Use of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogs to prevent the LH surge and aspiration of granulosa cells during the oocyte retrieval may impair the ability of corpus luteum to produce progesterone. Treatment of the underlying disorder and use of progestational agents like progesterone/human chorionic gonadotrophin have been found to be effective in women with a history of recurrent miscarriage. There has been no proved beneficial effect of using additional agents like ascorbic acid, estrogen, prednisolone along with progesterone. Despite their widespread use, further studies are required to establish the optimal treatment. Literature review and analysis of published studies on luteal phase support. PMID:23776852

Shah, Duru; Nagarajan, Nagadeepti

2013-01-01

22

Induction of ovulation with gonadotropin-releasing hormone during proestrus in cattle: influence on subsequent follicular growth and luteal function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction of ovulation by administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is commonly practiced in cattle to treat repeat breeders or cows exhibiting long estrous periods. This treatment may, however, disturb normal reproductive functions if timing is incorrect. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of exogenous GnRH on estradiol secretion of the ovulatory follicle, occurrence of ovulation,

J Taponen; T Katila; H Rodr??guez-Mart??nez

1999-01-01

23

Proliferation of luteal steroidogenic cells in cattle.  

PubMed

The rapid growth of the corpus luteum (CL) after ovulation is believed to be mainly due to an increase in the size of luteal cells (hypertrophy) rather than an increase in their number. However, the relationship between luteal growth and the proliferation of luteal steroidogenic cells (LSCs) is not fully understood. One goal of the present study was to determine whether LSCs proliferate during CL growth. A second goal was to determine whether luteinizing hormone (LH), which is known have roles in the proliferation and differentiation of follicular cells, also affects the proliferation of LSCs. Ki-67 (a cell proliferation marker) was expressed during the early, developing and mid luteal stages and some Ki-67-positive cells co-expressed HSD3B (a steroidogenic marker). DNA content in LSCs isolated from the developing CL increased much more rapidly (indicating rapid growth) than did DNA content in LSCs isolated from the mid CL. The cell cycle-progressive genes CCND2 (cyclin D2) and CCNE1 (cyclin E1) mRNA were expressed more strongly in the small luteal cells than in the large luteal cells. LH decreased the rate of increase of DNA in LSCs isolated from the mid luteal stage but not in LSCs from the developing stage. LH suppressed CCND2 expression in LSCs from the mid luteal stage but not from the developing luteal stage. Furthermore, LH receptor (LHCGR) mRNA expression was higher at the mid luteal stage than at the developing luteal stage. The overall results suggest that the growth of the bovine CL is due to not only hypertrophy of LSCs but also an increase in their number, and that the proliferative ability of luteal steroidogenic cells decreases between the developing and mid luteal stages. PMID:24386349

Yoshioka, Shin; Abe, Hironori; Sakumoto, Ryosuke; Okuda, Kiyoshi

2013-01-01

24

Proliferation of Luteal Steroidogenic Cells in Cattle  

PubMed Central

The rapid growth of the corpus luteum (CL) after ovulation is believed to be mainly due to an increase in the size of luteal cells (hypertrophy) rather than an increase in their number. However, the relationship between luteal growth and the proliferation of luteal steroidogenic cells (LSCs) is not fully understood. One goal of the present study was to determine whether LSCs proliferate during CL growth. A second goal was to determine whether luteinizing hormone (LH), which is known have roles in the proliferation and differentiation of follicular cells, also affects the proliferation of LSCs. Ki-67 (a cell proliferation marker) was expressed during the early, developing and mid luteal stages and some Ki-67-positive cells co-expressed HSD3B (a steroidogenic marker). DNA content in LSCs isolated from the developing CL increased much more rapidly (indicating rapid growth) than did DNA content in LSCs isolated from the mid CL. The cell cycle-progressive genes CCND2 (cyclin D2) and CCNE1 (cyclin E1) mRNA were expressed more strongly in the small luteal cells than in the large luteal cells. LH decreased the rate of increase of DNA in LSCs isolated from the mid luteal stage but not in LSCs from the developing stage. LH suppressed CCND2 expression in LSCs from the mid luteal stage but not from the developing luteal stage. Furthermore, LH receptor (LHCGR) mRNA expression was higher at the mid luteal stage than at the developing luteal stage. The overall results suggest that the growth of the bovine CL is due to not only hypertrophy of LSCs but also an increase in their number, and that the proliferative ability of luteal steroidogenic cells decreases between the developing and mid luteal stages. PMID:24386349

Yoshioka, Shin; Abe, Hironori; Sakumoto, Ryosuke; Okuda, Kiyoshi

2013-01-01

25

Characterization of bovine immortalized luteal endothelial cells: action of cytokines on production and content of arachidonic acid metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The interactions between luteal, vascular endothelial, immune cells and its products: steroids, peptide hormones, prostaglandins\\u000a (PGs), growth factors and cytokines play a pivotal role in the regulation of corpus luteum (CL) function. Luteal endothelial\\u000a cells undergo many dynamic morphological changes and their action is regulated by cytokines. The aims are: (1) to establish\\u000a in vitro model for bovine luteal endothelial

Anna J Korzekwa; Gabriel Bodek; Joanna Bukowska; Agnieszka Blitek; Dariusz J Skarzynski

2011-01-01

26

Bovine luteal blood flow: basic mechanism and clinical relevance.  

PubMed

The introduction of transrectal colour Doppler sonography (CDS) has allowed the evaluation of luteal blood flow (LBF) in cows. Because appropriate angiogenesis plays a decisive role in the functioning of the corpus luteum (CL), studies on LBF may provide valuable information about the physiology and pathophysiology of the CL. Studies on cyclic cows have shown that progesterone concentrations in blood plasma can be more reliably predicted by LBF than by luteal size (LS), especially during the regression phase of the CL. In contrast with non-pregnant cows, a significant increase in LBF is seen in pregnant cows during the third week after insemination. However, because there are high interindividual variations in LBF between animals, LBF is not useful for the early diagnosis of pregnancy. Determination of LBF is more sensitive than LS for detecting the effects of acute systemic inflammation and exogenous hormones on the CL. Cows with low progesterone levels have smaller CL during the mid-luteal phase, but LBF related to LS did not differ between cows with low and high progesterone levels. In conclusion, LBF determined by CDS provides additional information about luteal function compared with LS and plasma progesterone concentrations, but its role concerning fertility in the cow is yet to be clarified. PMID:23244830

Bollwein, Heinrich; Lüttgenau, Johannes; Herzog, Kathrin

2012-01-01

27

Luteal function, largest follicle, and fertility in postpartum dairy cows treated with 14dCIDR-PGF2? versus 2xPGF2?-Ovsynch for timed AI.  

PubMed

A method for timed artificial insemination (AI) that is used for beef cows, beef heifers, and dairy heifers employs progesterone-releasing inserts, such as the controlled internal drug release (CIDR; Zoetis, New York, NY, USA) that are left in place for 14 days. The 14-day CIDR treatment is a method of presynchronization that ensures that cattle are in the late luteal phase of the estrous cycle when PGF2? is administered before timed AI. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of the 14dCIDR-PGF2? program in postpartum dairy cows by comparing it with the traditional "Presynch-Ovsynch" (2xPGF2?-Ovsynch) program. The 14dCIDR-PGF2? cows (n = 132) were treated with a CIDR insert on Day 0 for 14 days. At 19 days after CIDR removal (Day 33), the cows were treated with a luteolytic dose of PGF2?, 56 hours later were treated with an ovulatory dose of GnRH (Day 35), and 16 hours later were inseminated. The 2xPGF2?-Ovsynch cows were treated with a luteolytic dose of PGF2? on Day 0 and again on Day 14. At 12 days after the second PGF2? treatment (Day 26), the cows were treated with GnRH. At 7 days after GnRH, the cows were treated with PGF2? (Day 33), then 56 hours later treated with GnRH (Day 35), and then 16 hours later were inseminated. There was no effect of treatment or treatment by parity interaction on pregnancies per AI (P/AI) when pregnancy diagnosis was performed on Day 32 (115/263; 43.7%) or Days 60 to 90 (99/263; 37.6%) after insemination. There was an effect of parity (P < 0.05) on P/AI because primiparous cows had lesser P/AI (35/98; 35.7%) than multiparous cows (80/165; 48.5%) on Day 32. Cows observed in estrus after the presynchronization step (within 5 days after CIDR removal or within 5 days after the second PGF2? treatment) had greater P/AI than those not observed in estrus (55/103; 53.4% vs. 60/160; 37.5%; observed vs. not observed; P < 0.01; d 32 pregnancy diagnosis). When progesterone data were examined in a subset of cows (n = 208), 55.3% of cows had a "prototypical" response to treatment (i.e., the cow had an estrous cycle that was synchronized by the presynchronization treatment and then the cow responded appropriately to the subsequent PGF2? and GnRH treatments before timed AI). Collectively, cows with a prototypical response to either treatment had 52.2% P/AI that was greater (P < 0.001) than the P/AI for cows that had a nonprototypical response (19%) (P/AI determined at 60-90 days of pregnancy). In conclusion, we did not detect a difference in P/AI when postpartum dairy cows were treated with 14dCIDR-PGF2? or 2xPGF2?-Ovsynch before timed AI. The primary limitation to the success of either program was the failure of the cow to respond appropriately to the sequence of treatments. PMID:23998742

Escalante, Rebecca C; Poock, Scott E; Lucy, Matthew C

2013-11-01

28

Clinostat rotation induces apoptosis in luteal cells of the pregnant rat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent studies have shown that microgravity induces changes at the cellular level, including apoptosis. However, it is unknown whether microgravity affects luteal cell function. This study was performed to assess whether microgravity conditions generated by clinostat rotation induce apoptosis and affect steroidogenesis by luteal cells. Luteal cells isolated from the corpora lutea of Day 8 pregnant rats were placed in equal numbers in slide flasks (chamber slides). One slide flask was placed in the clinostat and the other served as a stationary control. At 48 h in the clinostat, whereas the levels of progesterone and total cellular protein decreased, the number of shrunken cells increased. To determine whether apoptosis occurred in shrunken cells, Comet and TUNEL assays were performed. At 48 h, the percentage of apoptotic cells in the clinostat increased compared with that in the control. To investigate how the microgravity conditions induce apoptosis, the active mitochondria in luteal cells were detected with JC-1 dye. Cells in the control consisted of many active mitochondria, which were evenly distributed throughout the cell. In contrast, cells in the clinostat displayed fewer active mitochondria, which were distributed either to the outer edge of the cell or around the nucleus. These results suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction induced by clinostat rotation could lead to apoptosis in luteal cells and suppression of progesterone production.

Yang, Hyunwon; Bhat, Ganapathy K.; Sridaran, Rajagopala

2002-01-01

29

Effects of IL8 and immune cells on the regulation of luteal progesterone secretion.  

PubMed

Recent studies have suggested that chemokines may mediate the luteolytic action of prostaglandin F2? (PGF). Our objective was to identify chemokines induced by PGF in vivo and to determine the effects of interleukin 8 (IL8) on specific luteal cell types in vitro. Mid-cycle cows were injected with saline or PGF, ovaries were removed after 0.5-4?h, and expression of chemokine was analyzed by qPCR. In vitro expression of IL8 was analyzed after PGF administration and with cell signaling inhibitors to determine the mechanism of PGF-induced chemokine expression. Purified neutrophils were analyzed for migration and activation in response to IL8 and PGF. Purified luteal cell types (steroidogenic, endothelial, and fibroblast cells) were used to identify which cells respond to chemokines. Neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cocultured with steroidogenic cells to determine their effect on progesterone production. IL8, CXCL2, CCL2, and CCL8 transcripts were rapidly increased following PGF treatment in vivo. The stimulatory action of PGF on IL8 mRNA expression in vitro was prevented by inhibition of p38 and JNK signaling. IL8, but not PGF, TNF, or TGFB1, stimulated neutrophil migration. IL8 had no apparent action in purified luteal steroidogenic, endothelial, or fibroblast cells, but stimulated ERK phosphorylation in neutrophils. In coculture experiments neither IL8 nor activated neutrophils altered basal or LH-stimulated luteal cell progesterone synthesis. In contrast, activated PBMCs inhibited LH-stimulated progesterone synthesis from cultured luteal cells. These data implicate a complex cascade of events during luteolysis, involving chemokine signaling, neutrophil recruitment, and immune cell action within the corpus luteum. PMID:24686456

Talbott, Heather; Delaney, Abigail; Zhang, Pan; Yu, Yangsheng; Cushman, Robert A; Cupp, Andrea S; Hou, Xiaoying; Davis, John S

2014-07-01

30

In Vivo Imaging of Tissue Physiological Function  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute's Radiation Biology Branch is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize methods for in vivo imaging.

31

Characterization of a distinctive pattern of periovulatory leptin secretion and its relationship with ovulation rate and luteal function in swine with obesity/leptin resistance.  

PubMed

Patterns of leptin secretion during the estrous cycle and the possible relationship of changes in circulating leptin during the periovulatory period with ovarian function in sows of obese (Iberian breed) and lean genotype (Large White x Landrace) were evaluated in two consecutive experiments. Plasma leptin concentrations throughout the estrous cycle in lean sows remain unchanged, but Iberian females showed a periovulatory increase in circulating leptin levels without associated changes in body condition and fatness. In these sows, plasma leptin concentrations at Days -1 and 0 of the cycle were found to be positively correlated with the ovulation rate (r=0.943 and r=0.987, respectively; P<0.05 for both), but the levels of leptin at Day 0 were negatively correlated with the progesterone release from Day 3 (r=-0.557; P<0.05) and, became more evident at Day 5 of the estrous cycle (r=-0.924; P<0.005). Such relationships were not observed in the females of the lean genotype. In conclusion, the present study indicates the existence of a distinctive pattern in the periovulatory leptin secretion in swine with obesity and leptin resistance, which is associated with the number and functionality of the corpora lutea present in the subsequent cycle. PMID:22841857

Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio; Astiz, Susana; Encinas, Teresa; Gonzalez-Añover, Pedro; Perez-Solana, Mariluz; Sanchez-Sanchez, Raul; Torres-Rovira, Laura; Tresguerres, Jesus A F

2012-10-01

32

In Vivo Calcium Imaging of Neural Network Function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Spatiotemporal activity patterns in local neural networks are fundamental to brain function. Network activity can now be measured in vivo using two-photon imaging of cell populations that are labeled with fluorescent calcium indicators. In this review, we discuss basic aspects of in vivo calcium imaging and highlight recent developments that will help to uncover operating principles of neural circuits.

2007-12-01

33

Effect of oxytocin infusion on luteal blood flow and progesterone secretion in dairy cattle  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of oxytocin infusion on corpus luteum (CL) function during early to mid-diestrus by measuring luteal size (LS) and luteal blood flow (LBF) along with plasma levels of progesterone (P4) and prostaglandin metabolites (13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2?, PGFM). On day (D) 7 of the estrus cycle (D1 = ovulation), seven cows received 100 IU of oxytocin (OXY) or placebo (PL) following a Latin square design. LS and LBF increased in both groups over time and no differences were observed between the groups. PGFM did not differ either within the groups over time or between the groups at any time point. P4 of the OXY group was higher compared to that of the the PL group 360 min after the infusion (p = 0.01) and tended to be higher at the time points 450 min, 48 h, and 72 h (all p = 0.08). Results from this study support the hypothesis that OXY is not directly involved in the mechanism(s) governing blood flow of the CL and has no remarkable effects either on luteal size or P4 and PGFM plasma levels. Further investigation is needed to elucidate the role of OXY in CL blood flow during early and late luteal phases. PMID:22437538

Brozos, Christos N.; Pancarci, Metin S.; Valencia, Javier; Beindorff, Nikola; Kiossis, Evaggelos; Bollwein, Heinrich

2012-01-01

34

Effect of oxytocin infusion on luteal blood flow and progesterone secretion in dairy cattle.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of oxytocin infusion on corpus luteum (CL) function during early to mid-diestrus by measuring luteal size (LS) and luteal blood flow (LBF) along with plasma levels of progesterone (P4) and prostaglandin metabolites (13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F(2?), PGFM). On day (D) 7 of the estrus cycle (D1 = ovulation), seven cows received 100 IU of oxytocin (OXY) or placebo (PL) following a Latin square design. LS and LBF increased in both groups over time and no differences were observed between the groups. PGFM did not differ either within the groups over time or between the groups at any time point. P4 of the OXY group was higher compared to that of the the PL group 360 min after the infusion (p = 0.01) and tended to be higher at the time points 450 min, 48 h, and 72 h (all p = 0.08). Results from this study support the hypothesis that OXY is not directly involved in the mechanism(s) governing blood flow of the CL and has no remarkable effects either on luteal size or P4 and PGFM plasma levels. Further investigation is needed to elucidate the role of OXY in CL blood flow during early and late luteal phases. PMID:22437538

Brozos, Christos N; Pancarci, Metin S; Valencia, Javier; Beindorff, Nikola; Tsousis, Georgios; Kiossis, Evaggelos; Bollwein, Heinrich

2012-03-01

35

Evaluation of bovine luteal blood flow by using color Doppler ultrasonography.  

PubMed

Since luteal vascularization plays a decisive role for the function of the corpus luteum (CL), the investigation of luteal blood flow (LBF) might give valuable information about the physiology and patho-physiology of the CL. To quantify LBF, usually Power mode color Doppler ultrasonography is used. This method detects the number of red blood cells moving through the vessels and shows them as color pixels on the B-mode image of the CL. The area of color pixels is measured with computer-assisted image analysis software and is used as a semiquantitative parameter for the assessment of LBF. Although Power mode is superior for the evaluation of LBF compared to conventional color Doppler ultrasonography, which detects the velocity of blood cells, it is still not sufficiently sensitive to detect the blood flow in the small vessels in the center of the bovine CL. Therefore, blood flow can only be measured in the bigger luteal vessels in the outer edge of the CL. Color Doppler ultrasonographic studies of the bovine estrous cycle have shown that plasma progesterone (P4) concentration can be more reliably predicted by LBF than by luteal size (LS), especially during the CL regression. During the midluteal phase, cows with low P4 level showed smaller CL, but LBF, related to LS, did not differ between cows with low and high P4 levels. In contrast to non-pregnant cows, a significant rise in LBF was observed three weeks after insemination in pregnant cows. However, LBF was not useful for an early pregnancy diagnosis due to high LBF variation among cows. When the effects of an acute systemic inflammation and exogenous hormones on the CL are examined, the LBF determination is more sensitive than LS assessment. In conclusion, color Doppler ultrasonography of the bovine CL provides additional information on luteal function compared to measurements of LS and plasma P4, but its value as a parameter concerning assessment of fertility in cows has to be clarified. PMID:24856468

Lüttgenau, J; Bollwein, H

2014-04-01

36

Mechanisms behind intrauterine device-induced luteal persistence in mares.  

PubMed

Intrauterine glass balls are used to prevent oestrous signs in sports mares, but the mechanism of action is unknown. It has been suggested that the glass ball can mimic an embryo or act via an induced chronic uterine inflammation and absent or continuous low-grade prostaglandin (PG) release. The purpose of this study was to induce prolonged luteal function in mares using a small intrauterine device (IUD) and to study the mechanisms behind prolonged IUD-induced luteal function. A uterine swab and a biopsy specimen were obtained in early oestrus. A water-filled plastic ball, diameter 20mm and weight 3.6g, was inserted into the uterus 2-4 days after ovulation; the control mares underwent similar cervical manipulation without ball insertion. The mares were examined three times per week until day 23 and twice weekly thereafter until they returned to oestrus (transrectal palpation, ultrasonography and progesterone determination). The location of the IUD was recorded and ultrasound scans were video-recorded to assess the frequency of uterine contractions. When the mare returned to oestrus, a uterine swab and biopsy specimen were obtained and the bacteriological, cytological and histological (inflammation and glandular dilation) results compared with the samples obtained before the IUD insertion. The PG F(2alpha) metabolite levels were measured in the plasma of four control mares and eight IUD mares on days 11-16. The IUD induced a prolonged luteal phase in 75% of the mares (9/12; IUD-P); the mean dioestrous length was 57.0 days. The three mares that did not respond to the IUD (IUD-N) showed a mean dioestrous length of 15.7 days and the 12 control mares 16.1 days. The inflammation and glandular dilation scores were not significantly different in pre- and post-manipulation biopsy specimens. Although locational changes of the IUD were observed, they occurred over very small distances and were mostly limited within the body-bifurcation area. The IUD-N and control mares showed increased uterine contractility 11-16 days post-ovulation, whereas the IUD-P mares did not. The control mares (n=4) and IUD-N mares (n=2) showed increased PG levels from day 14 post-ovulation, while the IUD-P mares (n=6) showed basal levels only. We concluded that the IUD did not cause continuous PG release and suggest that close contact of the IUD with the endometrium may prevent the endometrial cells from releasing PGF(2alpha). PMID:17643876

Rivera Del Alamo, M M; Reilas, T; Kindahl, H; Katila, T

2008-08-01

37

Formation of the early canine CL and the role of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in regulation of its function: An in vivo approach.  

PubMed

The mechanisms governing corpus luteum (CL) function in domestic dogs remain not fully elucidated. The upregulated expression of cyclooxygenase 2 and prostaglandin (PG) E2 synthase (PGES) at the beginning of the canine luteal phase indicated their luteotrophic roles, and the steroidogenic activity of PGE2 in the early canine CL has been confirmed in vitro. Recently, by applying a cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2)-specific inhibitor (firocoxib [Previcox]; Merial) from the day of ovulation until the midluteal phase, the luteotrophic effects of PGs have been shown in vivo. This is a follow-up study investigating the underlying endocrine mechanisms associated with the firocoxib-mediated effects on the canine CL. Experimental groups were formed with ovariohysterectomies performed on Days 5, 10, 20, or 30 of firocoxib treatments (10 mg/kg bw/24h; TGs = treated groups). Untreated dogs served as controls. A decrease of steroidogenic acute regulatory (STAR) protein expression was observed in TGs. The expression of PGE2 synthase was significantly suppressed in TGs 5 and 10, and both PGE2 and PGF2? levels were decreased in luteal homogenates, particularly from CL in TG 5. Similarly, expression of the prolactin receptor (PRLR) was diminished in TGs 5 and 20. The expression of PGE2 receptors PTGER2 (EP2) and PTGER4 (EP4), the PG- transporter (PGT), and 15-hydroxy PG dehydrogenase (HPGD) was not affected in TGs. Our results substantiate a direct luteotrophic role of PGs in the early canine CL, i.e., by upregulating the steroidogenic machinery. Additionally, the possibility of an indirect effect on PRL function arises from the increased prolactin receptor expression in response to PGE2 treatment in canine lutein cells observed in vitro. PMID:25595355

Kowalewski, M P; Ihle, S; Siemieniuch, M J; Gram, A; Boos, A; Zdu?czyk, S; Fingerhut, J; Hoffmann, B; Schuler, G; Jurczak, A; Domos?awska, A; Janowski, T

2015-04-01

38

EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE ON EX VIVO AND IN VITRO LUTEAL FUNCTION AND BROMODICHLOROMETHANE TISSUE DOSIMETRY IN THE PREGNANT F344 RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

Bromodichloromethane (BDCM), a drinking water disinfection by-product, causes pregnancy loss, i.e. full-litter resorption, in F344 rats when treated during the luteinizing hormone (LH)-dependent period. This effect is associated with reduced maternal serum progesterone (P) and LH...

39

Introduction Functional in vivo studies of the lumbar spine using  

E-print Network

Introduction Functional in vivo studies of the lumbar spine using open MRI systems are described in the locomotor system of the lumbar spine and their effects on CSF space and relevant nerve roots has not been-Definition 3D Studies of the Lumbar Spine Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging K. E. W. Eberhardt1 , B. F. Tomandl1

Blanz, Volker

40

Biophotonics techniques for structural and functional imaging, in vivo  

PubMed Central

In vivo optical imaging is being conducted in a variety of medical applications, including optical breast cancer imaging, functional brain imaging, endoscopy, exercise medicine, and monitoring the photodynamic therapy and progress of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In the past three decades, in vivo diffuse optical breast cancer imaging has shown promising results in cancer detection, and monitoring the progress of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The use of near infrared spectroscopy for functional brain imaging has been growing rapidly. In fluorescence imaging, the difference between autofluorescence of cancer lesions compared to normal tissues were used in endoscopy to distinguish malignant lesions from normal tissue or inflammation and in determining the boarders of cancer lesions in surgery. Recent advances in drugs targeting specific tumor receptors, such as AntiBodies (MAB), has created a new demand for developing non-invasive in vivo imaging techniques for detection of cancer biomarkers, and for monitoring their down regulations during therapy. Targeted treatments, combined with new imaging techniques, are expected to potentially result in new imaging and treatment paradigms in cancer therapy. Similar approaches can potentially be applied for the characterization of other disease-related biomarkers. In this chapter, we provide a review of diffuse optical and fluorescence imaging techniques with their application in functional brain imaging and cancer diagnosis. PMID:22433452

Ardeshirpour, Yasaman; Gandjbakhche, Amir H.; Najafizadeh, Laleh

2014-01-01

41

Biophotonics techniques for structural and functional imaging, in vivo.  

PubMed

In vivo optical imaging is being conducted in a variety of medical applications, including optical breast cancer imaging, functional brain imaging, endoscopy, exercise medicine, and monitoring the photodynamic therapy and progress of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In the past three decades, in vivo diffuse optical breast cancer imaging has shown promising results in cancer detection, and monitoring the progress of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The use of near infrared spectroscopy for functional brain imaging has been growing rapidly. In fluorescence imaging, the difference between autofluorescence of cancer lesions compared to normal tissues were used in endoscopy to distinguish malignant lesions from normal tissue or inflammation and in determining the boarders of cancer lesions in surgery. Recent advances in drugs targeting specific tumor receptors, such as AntiBodies (MAB), has created a new demand for developing non-invasive in vivo imaging techniques for detection of cancer biomarkers, and for monitoring their down regulations during therapy. Targeted treatments, combined with new imaging techniques, are expected to potentially result in new imaging and treatment paradigms in cancer therapy. Similar approaches can potentially be applied for the characterization of other disease-related biomarkers. In this chapter, we provide a review of diffuse optical and fluorescence imaging techniques with their application in functional brain imaging and cancer diagnosis. PMID:22433452

Ardeshirpour, Yasaman; Gandjbakhche, Amir H; Najafizadeh, Laleh

2012-01-01

42

In vivo bioluminescence for tracking cell fate and function  

PubMed Central

Tracking the fate and function of cells in vivo is paramount for the development of rational therapies for cardiac injury. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) provides a means for monitoring physiological processes in real time, ranging from cell survival to gene expression to complex molecular processes. In mice and rats, BLI provides unmatched sensitivity because of the absence of endogenous luciferase expression in mammalian cells and the low background luminescence emanating from animals. In the field of stem cell therapy, BLI provides an unprecedented means to monitor the biology of these cells in vivo, giving researchers a greater understanding of their survival, migration, immunogenicity, and potential tumorigenicity in a living animal. In addition to longitudinal monitoring of cell survival, BLI is a useful tool for semiquantitative measurements of gene expression in vivo, allowing a better optimization of drug and gene therapies. Overall, this technology not only enables rapid, reproducible, and quantitative monitoring of physiological processes in vivo but also can measure the influences of therapeutic interventions on the outcome of cardiac injuries. PMID:21666118

de Almeida, Patricia E.; van Rappard, Juliaan R. M.

2011-01-01

43

Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles as an In Vivo Delivery System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed extremely small functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for use as an in vivo delivery system for pharmaceuticals and biomolecules. We functionalized the MNPs (d = 3 nm) by silanization of amino groups on the particles with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane for subsequent cross-linking with pharmaceuticals and biomolecules. The MNPs were successfully introduced into living cells without any further modification, such as the use of cationic residues, to enhance endocytic internalization. The particles could be incorporated into the subcutaneous tissue of a mouse’s ear through the skin of the ear and could be localized by application of an external magnetic field.

Taira, Shu; Moritake, Shinji; Hatanaka, Takahiro; Ichiyanagi, Yuko; Setou, Mitsutoshi

44

Recent molecular approaches to understanding astrocyte function in vivo  

PubMed Central

Astrocytes are a predominant glial cell type in the nervous systems, and are becoming recognized as important mediators of normal brain function as well as neurodevelopmental, neurological, and neurodegenerative brain diseases. Although numerous potential mechanisms have been proposed to explain the role of astrocytes in the normal and diseased brain, research into the physiological relevance of these mechanisms in vivo is just beginning. In this review, we will summarize recent developments in innovative and powerful molecular approaches, including knockout mouse models, transgenic mouse models, and astrocyte-targeted gene transfer/expression, which have led to advances in understanding astrocyte biology in vivo that were heretofore inaccessible to experimentation. We will examine the recently improved understanding of the roles of astrocytes – with an emphasis on astrocyte signaling – in the context of both the healthy and diseased brain, discuss areas where the role of astrocytes remains debated, and suggest new research directions. PMID:24399932

Davila, David; Thibault, Karine; Fiacco, Todd A.; Agulhon, Cendra

2013-01-01

45

Subfertility Linked to Combined Luteal Insufficiency and Uterine Progesterone Resistance  

PubMed Central

Early pregnancy loss is common and can be caused by a range of factors. The Brown Norway (BN) rat exhibits reproductive dysfunction characterized by small litter size and pregnancy failure and represents a model for investigating early pregnancy loss. In this study, we investigated the establishment of pregnancy in the BN rat and gained insight into mechanisms causing its subfertility. Early stages of BN uteroplacental organization are unique. The BN primordial placenta is restricted in its development and correlates with limited BN uterine decidual development. BN uterine decidua was shown to be both structurally and functionally distinct and correlated with decreased circulating progesterone (P4) levels. Ovarian anomalies were also apparent in BN rats and included decreased ovulation rates and decreased transcript levels for some steroidogenic enzymes. Attempts to rescue the BN uterine decidual phenotype with steroid hormone therapy were ineffective. BN uteri were shown to exhibit reduced responsiveness to P4 but not to 17?-estradiol. P4 resistance was associated with decreased transcript levels for the P4 receptor (Pgr), a P4 receptor chaperone (Fkbp4), and P4 receptor coactivators (Ncoa1 and Ncoa2). In summary, the BN rat exhibits luteal insufficiency and uterine P4 resistance, which profoundly affects its ability to reproduce. PMID:20660062

Konno, Toshihiro; Graham, Amanda R.; Rempel, Lea A.; Ho-Chen, Jennifer K.; Alam, S. M. Khorshed; Bu, Pengli; Rumi, M. A. Karim; Soares, Michael J.

2010-01-01

46

Prolactin modulates luteal regression from the coeliac ganglion via the superior ovarian nerve in the late-pregnant rat.  

PubMed

There is considerable evidence of the neuroendocrine control involved in luteal regression in the rat. In addition, circulating prolactin (PRL), which increases during the night before parturition, may gain access to the coeliac ganglion (CG), indirectly impacting the physiology of the ovary because of the known connection between the CG and the ovary via the superior ovarian nerve (SON). In this work we investigated in the CG-SON-ovary system and whether PRL added to the CG has an impact, indirectly via the SON, on luteal regression on Day 21 of pregnancy. The system was incubated without (control) or with PRL added to the CG. We measured the ovarian release of progesterone (P), oestradiol and prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2?) by radioimmunoassay, and nitrites (NO) by the Griess method. Luteal mRNA expression of 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3?-HSD), 20?-HSD, aromatase, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and apoptosis regulatory factors was analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. P release, the expression of Bcl-2 and the Bcl-2:Bax ratio was lower than control preparations, while the expression of 20?-HSD and the release of NO and PGF2? were higher in the experimental group. In conclusion, PRL acts at the CG and, by a neural pathway, modulates luteal function at the end of pregnancy. PMID:25194502

Vallcaneras, Sandra S; de la Vega, Magalí; Delgado, Silvia M; Motta, Alicia; Telleria, Carlos; Rastrilla, Ana M; Casais, Marilina

2014-09-01

47

Luteal phase support in infertility treatment: a meta-analysis of the randomized trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The addition of GnRH agonist to the treatment regimen in women undergoing IVF cycles is thought to create a luteal phase defect. In an attempt to correct for this, many practitioners supplement with a variety of steroid hormones in the luteal phase. METHODS: To determine whether luteal phase support increases reproductive success in modern IVF cycles, a systematic review

E. A. Pritts; A. K. Atwood

2002-01-01

48

Functional regionalization of the teleost cerebellum analyzed in vivo  

PubMed Central

There has been accumulating evidence for a regionalized organization of the cerebellum, which was mostly deduced from anatomical mapping of axonal projections of cerebellar afferents. A likewise regionalization of the cerebellar output has been suggested from lesion studies and dye-tracer experiments, but its physiological targets as well as the functional relevance of such an output regionalization are less clear. Ideally, such functional regionalization should be proven noninvasively in vivo. We here provide evidence for such a regionalization of the output from the cerebellar cortex by genetically encoded transneuronal mapping of efferent circuits of zebrafish Purkinje neurons. These identified circuits correspond to distinct regionalized Purkinje cell activity patterns in freely behaving zebrafish larvae during the performance of cerebellar-dependent behaviors. Furthermore, optogenetic interrogation of selected Purkinje cell regions during animal behavior confirms the functional regionalization of Purkinje cell efferents and reveals their contribution to behavior control as well as their function in controlling lateralized behavioral output. Our findings reveal how brain compartments serve to fulfill a multitude of functions by dedicating specialized efferent circuits to distinct behavioral tasks. PMID:25002482

Matsui, Hideaki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Babaryka, Andreas; Köster, Reinhard W.

2014-01-01

49

Use of photoproteins for in-vivo functional imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relative opacity of mammalian tissue permits the transmission of light from internal biological light sources in small laboratory animals. As such internally expressed bioluminescence can be detected externally revealing spatiotemporal information about tagged biological functions. Enzymes that emit light, photoproteins, have been characterized photoproteins have been used as reporters in a variety of in vitro and ex vivo assays and are now being employed as sources of internal biological light that can be eternally monitored in living animals. Using this approach, spatiotemporal changes in patterns of gene expression, infectious disease and tumor cell growth can be revealed in real time. Monitoring light emissions from internal sources provides a powerful method for cellular and molecular analyses in living animals. This approach is particularly well suited for the evaluation of potential therapeutics including the efficacy of novel DNA-based therapies and vaccines.

Contag, Christopher H.

1999-07-01

50

COMPARISON OF FERTILITY, LUTEAL CHARACTERISTICS, AND LUTEAL FUNCTION BETWEEN UNILATERAL AND BILATERAL DOUBLE OVULATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bilateral ovulation may be a heritable trait that could improve prolificacy and fertility in ruminants, because bilateral double ovulations were reported to increase early embryonic survival compared to unilateral double ovulations. The current study tested the hypothesis that early embryonic surviv...

51

DHA-enriched fish oil targets B cell lipid microdomains and enhances ex vivo and in vivo B cell function  

PubMed Central

DHA is a n-3 LCPUFA in fish oil that generally suppresses T lymphocyte function. However, the effect of fish oil on B cell function remains relatively understudied. Given the important role of B cells in gut immunity and increasing human fish oil supplementation, we sought to determine whether DFO leads to enhanced B cell activation in the SMAD?/? colitis-prone mouse model, similar to that observed with C57BL/6 mice. This study tested the hypothesis that DHA from fish oil is incorporated into the B cell membrane to alter lipid microdomain clustering and enhance B cell function. Purified, splenic B cells from DFO-fed mice displayed increased DHA levels and diminished GM1 microdomain clustering. DFO enhanced LPS-induced B cell secretion of IL-6 and TNF-? and increased CD40 expression ex vivo compared with CON. Despite increased MHCII expression in the unstimulated ex vivo B cells from DFO-fed mice, we observed no difference in ex vivo OVA-FITC uptake in B cells from DFO or CON mice. In vivo, DFO increased lymphoid tissue B cell populations and surface markers of activation compared with CON. Finally, we investigated whether these ex vivo and in vivo observations were consistent with systemic changes. Indeed, DFO-fed mice had significantly higher plasma IL-5, IL-13, and IL-9 (Th2-biasing cytokines) and cecal IgA compared with CON. These results support the hypothesis and an emerging concept that fish oil enhances B cell function in vivo. PMID:23180828

Gurzell, Eric A.; Teague, Heather; Harris, Mitchel; Clinthorne, Jonathan; Shaikh, Saame Raza; Fenton, Jenifer I.

2013-01-01

52

Fertility in a high-altitude environment is compromised by luteal dysfunction: the relative roles of hypoxia and oxidative stress  

PubMed Central

Background At high altitudes, hypoxia, oxidative stress or both compromise sheep fertility. In the present work, we tested the relative effect of short- or long-term exposure to high altitude hypobaric hypoxia and oxidative stress on corpora luteal structure and function. Methods The growth dynamics of the corpora lutea during the estrous cycle were studied daily by ultrasonography in cycling sheep that were either native or naïve to high-altitude conditions and that were supplemented or not supplemented with antioxidant vitamins. Arterial and venous blood samples were simultaneously drawn for determination of gases and oxidative stress biomarkers and progesterone measurement. On day five after ovulation in the next cycle, the ovaries were removed for immunodetection of luteal HIF-1alpha and VEGF and IGF-I and to detect IGF-II gene expression. Results The results showed that both short- and long-term exposure to high-altitude conditions decreased luteal growth and IGF-I and IGF-II gene expression but increased HIF-1 alpha and VEGF immunoexpression. The level of plasma progesterone was also increased at a high altitude, although an association with increased corpus luteum vascularization was only found in sheep native to a high-altitude location. Administration of antioxidant vitamins resulted in a limited effect, which was restricted to decreased expression of oxidative stress biomarkers and luteal HIF-1alpha and VEGF immunoexpression. Conclusions Exposure of the sheep to high-altitude hypobaric hypoxia for short or long time periods affects the development and function of the corpus luteum. Moreover, the observed association of oxidative stress with hypoxia and the absence of any significant effect of antioxidant vitamins on most anatomical and functional corpus luteum traits suggests that the effects of high altitude on this ovarian structure are mainly mediated by hypoxia. Thus, these findings may help explain the decrease in sheep fertility at a high altitude. PMID:23521851

2013-01-01

53

In vivo tests of thermodynamic models of transcription repressor function.  

PubMed

One emphasis of the Gibbs Conference on Biothermodynamics is the value of thermodynamic measurements for understanding behaviors of biological systems. In this study, the correlation between thermodynamic measurements of in vitro DNA binding affinity with in vivo transcription repression was investigated for two transcription repressors. In the first system, which comprised an engineered LacI/GalR homolog, mutational changes altered the equilibrium constant for binding DNA. Changes correlated with altered repression, but estimates of in vivo repressor concentration suggest a ?25-fold discrepancy with in vitro conditions. In the second system, changes in ligand binding to BirA altered dimerization and subsequent DNA occupancy. Again, these changes correlate with altered in vivo repression, but comparison with in vitro measurements reveals a ~10-fold discrepancy. Further analysis of each system suggests that the observed discrepancies between in vitro and in vivo results reflect the contributions of additional equilibria to the transcription repression process. PMID:21715082

Tungtur, Sudheer; Skinner, Harlyn; Zhan, Hongli; Swint-Kruse, Liskin; Beckett, Dorothy

2011-11-01

54

Real-time changes of the local vasoactive peptide systems (angiotensin, endothelin) in the bovine corpus luteum after induced luteal regression.  

PubMed

There is evidence that angiotensin II (Ang II) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) may interact in an additive or synergistic way during luteal regression. The aim of the study was to investigate real time changes in luteal tissue of angiotensin and endothelin system members in mRNA expression, tissue concentrations, tissue localization, and ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) antagonist application after prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PG) induced (days 8-12) luteal regression in cow. Corpora lutea (CL) were collected by transvaginal ovaryectomy before and 2, 4, 12, 24, 48, and 64 hr (n = 5/time point) after PG injection. ACE mRNA expression (RT-PCR) increased continuously and peaked at 12, 24 hr; ECE-1 (endothelin converting enzyme) peaked at 12 hr, and both peptides in tissue (Ang II and ET-1) increased significantly and peaked at 24 hr. The expression of receptors for Ang II (AT1R and AT2R) did not change in contrast to ET receptors (ETR-A and ETR-B), which were up-regulated. Localization in tissue revealed very weak staining for Ang II and ET-1 before PG application followed by a clear increase of staining predominantly in large luteal cells, but also in endothelial cells. In two experiments, the attempt was made to block ACE by the antagonist captopril with two different doses. In both experiments with captopril, progesterone levels were not significantly different from controls. Ang II alone seems to be not essential for functional luteolysis in bovine system. In conclusion, the results suggest that both Ang II and ET-1 are in parallel up-regulated during luteal regression and may act as vasoconstrictors during functional luteolysis, but also as apoptosis inducer during functional/structural luteolysis. PMID:12658634

Schams, Dieter; Berisha, Bajram; Neuvians, Tanja; Amselgruber, Werner; Kraetzl, Wolf-Dieter

2003-05-01

55

In vivo imaging of synaptic function in the central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review gives an overview of those in vivo imaging studies on synaptic neurotransmission, which so far have been performed on patients with movement disorders and\\/or dementia. Thereby, the focus is on disease-related deficiencies within the functional entity of the dopaminergic, serotonergic, cholinergic, glutamatergic, GABAergic or opioid synapse. In vivo investigations have yielded highly consistent results on the dysfunction of

Susanne Nikolaus; Christina Antke; Hans-Wilhelm Müller

2009-01-01

56

Diesel exhaust particulate induces pulmonary and systemic inflammation in rats without impairing endothelial function ex vivo or in vivo  

PubMed Central

Background Inhalation of diesel exhaust impairs vascular function in man, by a mechanism that has yet to be fully established. We hypothesised that pulmonary exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) would cause endothelial dysfunction in rats as a consequence of pulmonary and systemic inflammation. Methods Wistar rats were exposed to DEP (0.5 mg) or saline vehicle by intratracheal instillation and hind-limb blood flow, blood pressure and heart rate were monitored in situ 6 or 24 h after exposure. Vascular function was tested by administration of the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine (ACh) and the endothelium-independent vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in vivo and ex vivo in isolated rings of thoracic aorta, femoral and mesenteric artery from DEP exposed rats. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and blood plasma were collected to assess pulmonary (cell differentials, protein levels & interleukin-6 (IL-6)) and systemic (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) and C-reactive protein (CRP)) inflammation, respectively. Results DEP instillation increased cell counts, total protein and IL-6 in BALF 6 h after exposure, while levels of IL-6 and TNF? were only raised in blood 24 h after DEP exposure. DEP had no effect on the increased hind-limb blood flow induced by ACh in vivo at 6 or 24 h. However, responses to SNP were impaired at both time points. In contrast, ex vivo responses to ACh and SNP were unaltered in arteries isolated from rats exposed to DEP. Conclusions Exposure of rats to DEP induces both pulmonary and systemic inflammation, but does not modify endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Other mechanisms in vivo limit dilator responses to SNP and these require further investigation. PMID:22480168

2012-01-01

57

Luteal phase support for assisted reproductive technologies: between past, present and future.  

PubMed

The luteal phase is defined as the period between ovulation and either the establishment of a pregnancy or the onset of menses two weeks later. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART), and in particular controlled ovarian stimulation (COS), negatively interfere with the endocrine mechanisms normally regulating the luteal phase. Up to now, there is no generally accepted opinion as to the most appropriate therapeutic schemes for luteal phase support in ART cycles. Progesterone-based protocols are the most frequently adopted, while alternative regimens including human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and GnRH agonists (GnRH-a) are controversial. A GnRH-a can be used instead of hCG for ovulation triggering and the effectiveness of luteal phase support in such new protocols is the object of a growing number of experimental studies. Currently, vaginal progesterone is considered as the first line therapy for luteal phase support (LPS). The starting-time and the duration of luteal phase supplementation after the onset of pregnancy are still debated. Despite the lack of clinical or biological evidence supporting the efficacy of luteal phase support in intrauterine insemination cycles, the use of progesterone has become a well-established practice. PMID:24285108

Lo Monte, G; Piva, I; Bazzan, E; Marci, R; Ogrin, C

2013-12-01

58

In Vivo Analysis of Lrig Genes Reveals Redundant and Independent Functions in the Inner Ear  

E-print Network

In Vivo Analysis of Lrig Genes Reveals Redundant and Independent Functions in the Inner Ear Tony compared the expression and function of the Lrigs in the inner ear, which offers a sensitive system in the inner ear throughout development, with Lrig1 and Lrig3 restricted to subsets of cells and Lrig2

Goodrich, Lisa V.

59

Inflammation modulates human HDL composition and function in vivo  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Inflammation may directly impair HDL functions, in particular reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), but limited data support this concept in humans. Our study was designed to investigate this relationship. We employed low-dose human endotoxemia to assess the effects of inflammation on HDL and RCT-rel...

60

Ex Vivo Cytosolic Delivery of Functional Macromolecules to Immune Cells  

PubMed Central

Intracellular delivery of biomolecules, such as proteins and siRNAs, into primary immune cells, especially resting lymphocytes, is a challenge. Here we describe the design and testing of microfluidic intracellular delivery systems that cause temporary membrane disruption by rapid mechanical deformation of human and mouse immune cells. Dextran, antibody and siRNA delivery performance is measured in multiple immune cell types and the approach’s potential to engineer cell function is demonstrated in HIV infection studies. PMID:25875117

Hartoularos, George C.; Eyerman, Alexandra T.; Lytton-Jean, Abigail; Angin, Mathieu; Sharma, Siddhartha; Poceviciute, Roberta; Mao, Shirley; Heimann, Megan; Liu, Sophia; Talkar, Tanya; Khan, Omar F.; Addo, Marylyn; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Anderson, Daniel G.; Langer, Robert; Lieberman, Judy; Jensen, Klavs F.

2015-01-01

61

Application of electrical stimulation for functional tissue engineering in vitro and in vivo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention provides new methods for the in vitro preparation of bioartificial tissue equivalents and their enhanced integration after implantation in vivo. These methods include submitting a tissue construct to a biomimetic electrical stimulation during cultivation in vitro to improve its structural and functional properties, and/or in vivo, after implantation of the construct, to enhance its integration with host tissue and increase cell survival and functionality. The inventive methods are particularly useful for the production of bioartificial equivalents and/or the repair and replacement of native tissues that contain electrically excitable cells and are subject to electrical stimulation in vivo, such as, for example, cardiac muscle tissue, striated skeletal muscle tissue, smooth muscle tissue, bone, vasculature, and nerve tissue.

Radisic, Milica (Inventor); Park, Hyoungshin (Inventor); Langer, Robert (Inventor); Freed, Lisa (Inventor); Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana (Inventor)

2013-01-01

62

Effect of Processing and Storage on RBC function in vivo  

PubMed Central

Red Blood Cell (RBC) transfusion is indicated to improve oxygen delivery to tissue, and for no other purpose. We have come to appreciate that donor RBCs are fundamentally altered during processing and storage, in a fashion that both impairs oxygen transport efficacy and introduces additional risk by perturbing both immune and coagulation systems. The protean biophysical and physiologic changes in RBC function arising from storage are termed the ‘storage lesion’; many have been understood for some time; for example, we know that the oxygen affinity of stored blood rises during the storage period1 and that intracellular allosteric regulators, notably 2,3-bisphosphoglyceric acid (DPG) and ATP, are depleted during storage. Our appreciation of other storage lesion features has emerged with improved understanding of coagulation, immune and vascular signaling systems. Herein we review key features of the ‘storage lesion’. Additionally, we call particular attention to the newly appreciated role of RBCs in regulating linkage between regional blood flow and regional O2 consumption by regulating the bioavailability of key vasoactive mediators in plasma, as well as discuss how processing and storage disturbs this key signaling function and impairs transfusion efficacy. PMID:22818545

Doctor, Allan; Spinella, Phil

2012-01-01

63

Anti-CEA-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for examining colorectal tumors in vivo  

PubMed Central

Although the biomarker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is expressed in colorectal tumors, the utility of an anti-CEA-functionalized image medium is powerful for in vivo positioning of colorectal tumors. With a risk of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONPs) that is lower for animals than other material carriers, anti-CEA-functionalized SPIONPs were synthesized in this study for labeling colorectal tumors by conducting different preoperatively and intraoperatively in vivo examinations. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the image variation of colorectal tumors reached the maximum at approximately 24 h. However, because MRI requires a nonmetal environment, it was limited to preoperative imaging. With the potentiality of in vivo screening and intraoperative positioning during surgery, the scanning superconducting-quantum-interference-device biosusceptometry (SSB) was adopted, showing the favorable agreement of time-varied intensity with MRI. Furthermore, biological methodologies of different tissue staining methods and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) yielded consistent results, proving that the obtained in vivo results occurred because of targeted anti-CEA SPIONPs. This indicates that developed anti-CEA SPIONPs owe the utilities as an image medium of these in vivo methodologies. PMID:24103079

2013-01-01

64

Anti-CEA-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for examining colorectal tumors in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the biomarker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is expressed in colorectal tumors, the utility of an anti-CEA-functionalized image medium is powerful for in vivo positioning of colorectal tumors. With a risk of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONPs) that is lower for animals than other material carriers, anti-CEA-functionalized SPIONPs were synthesized in this study for labeling colorectal tumors by conducting different preoperatively and intraoperatively in vivo examinations. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the image variation of colorectal tumors reached the maximum at approximately 24 h. However, because MRI requires a nonmetal environment, it was limited to preoperative imaging. With the potentiality of in vivo screening and intraoperative positioning during surgery, the scanning superconducting-quantum-interference-device biosusceptometry (SSB) was adopted, showing the favorable agreement of time-varied intensity with MRI. Furthermore, biological methodologies of different tissue staining methods and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) yielded consistent results, proving that the obtained in vivo results occurred because of targeted anti-CEA SPIONPs. This indicates that developed anti-CEA SPIONPs owe the utilities as an image medium of these in vivo methodologies.

Huang, Kai-Wen; Chieh, Jen-Jie; Lin, In-Tsang; Horng, Herng-Er; Yang, Hong-Chang; Hong, Chin-Yih

2013-10-01

65

In vivo neuronal function of the fragile X mental retardation protein is regulated by phosphorylation  

E-print Network

In vivo neuronal function of the fragile X mental retardation protein is regulated November 7, 2011 Fragile X syndrome (FXS), caused by loss of the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) gene,7). The X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder is caused by the loss of fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1

Broadie, Kendal S.

66

A Multifunctional Turnip Crinkle Virus Replication Enhancer Revealed by in vivo Functional SELEX  

E-print Network

A Multifunctional Turnip Crinkle Virus Replication Enhancer Revealed by in vivo Functional SELEX College Park College Park, MD 20742, USA The motif1-hairpin (M1H), located on (2)-strands of Turnip, Turnip Crinkle Virus; SELEX, systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment; M1H, motif1

Simon, Anne

67

Functionalized gold nanoparticles: a detailed in vivo multimodal microscopic brain distribution study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the in vivo distribution of polyelectrolyte multilayer coated gold nanoparticles is shown, starting from the living animal down to cellular level. The coating was designed with functional moieties to serve as a potential nano drug for prion disease. With near infrared time-domain imaging we followed the biodistribution in mice up to 7 days after intravenous injection

Fernanda Sousa; Subhra Mandal; Chiara Garrovo; Alberto Astolfo; Alois Bonifacio; Diane Latawiec; Ralf Hendrik Menk; Fulvia Arfelli; Sabine Huewel; Giuseppe Legname; Hans-Joachim Galla; Silke Krol

2010-01-01

68

Expression of adrenomedullin in human ovaries, ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors and cultured granulosa-luteal cells.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to characterise the expression pattern of the multifunctional vasoactive peptide adrenomedullin (ADM) in human ovarian tumors, and to find hormonal regulators of ADM expression in human ovaries. The expression of ADM messenger RNA (mRNA) was higher in granulosa cell tumors than in fibrothecomas and normal ovaries, as analysed by Northern blots. In normal ovaries, ADM immunoreactivity was localised in both granulosa and thecal cells. Eight of the 90 granulosa cell tumors (9%) showed moderate and 53 (59%) weak ADM immunoreactivity, whereas 27% (11/41) of the fibrothecomas displayed weak ADM staining. FSH, protein kinase A activator (Bu)(2)cAMP, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), activin A and the broad protein kinase regulator staurosporine decreased ADM mRNA accumulation in cultured granulosa-luteal cells time- and dose-dependently. FSH, (Bu)(2)cAMP and PGE(2) increased progesterone secretion and the accumulation of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein mRNA in these cells. In conclusion, ADM is expressed in normal human ovaries and sex cord-stromal tumors, particularly in those of granulosa cell origin. FSH, PGE(2,) (Bu)(2)cAMP and activin A suppress ADM gene expression in granulosa-luteal cells. Expression of ADM in human ovaries and its hormonal regulation in granulosa cells suggests a paracrine role for ADM in ovarian function. PMID:19253104

Liu, Jianqi; Bützow, Ralf; Hydén-Granskog, Christel; Voutilainen, Raimo

2009-02-01

69

Effects of ACL Reconstruction on In-Vivo, Dynamic Knee Function  

PubMed Central

Synopsis The purposes of this article are to discuss key factors for assessing joint function, to present some recent findings and to address the future directions for evaluating the function of the ACL-injured/reconstructed knees. Well-designed studies, using state-of-the art tools to assess knee kinematics under in vivo, dynamic, high-loading conditions, are necessary to evaluate the relative performance of different procedures for restoring normal joint motion. PMID:23177461

Tashman, Scott; Araki, Daisuke

2012-01-01

70

Evidence suggesting multiple promoting roles of luteal group IVA phospholipase A(2) in prostaglandin F(2alpha)-induced regression in pseudopregnant rats.  

PubMed

We evaluated effects of local administration of selective inhibitors of group IVA phospholipase A(2) (GIVA PLA(2)) and cyclooxygenase (COX) on exogenous prostaglandin (PG) F(2alpha)-induced luteal regression in pseudopregnant rats. Intra-bursal treatment with a GIVA PLA(2) inhibitor AACOCF(3) just prior to PGF(2alpha) (30microg, subcutaneously) on day 6 of pseudopregnancy (PSP6) prevented a decline in circulating progesterone and inhibited TUNEL-positive reactions of steroidogenic cell. Its treatment on PSP9 failed to inhibit functional regression, but reduced significantly apoptosis of steroidogenic cells and vascular endothelial cells, and suppressed the infiltration of macrophages. A COX-2-selective inhibitor NS398 inhibited the decline of progesterone and apoptosis of steroidogenic cells on PSP6 but not on PSP9. A COX-1 inhibitor SC560 exerted insignificant anti-luteolytic effects. Overall data suggest that luteal GIVA PLA(2) plays multiple promoting roles in PGF(2alpha)-induced luteal regression at least partly by a COX-2 activity-related mechanism in pseudopregnant rats. PMID:20601072

Kurusu, Shiro; Sonoda, Norifumi; Nakahara, Masato; Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Kawaminami, Mitsumori

2010-09-01

71

Defining Uremic Arterial Functional Abnormalities in Patients Recently Started on Haemodialysis: Combined In Vivo and Ex Vivo Assessment  

PubMed Central

Endothelial dysfunction is a key initiating event in vascular disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and haemodialysis (HD) patients exhibit significant vascular abnormalities. To understand this further, we examined how ex vivo intrinsic function in isolated arteries correlates with in vivo assessments of cardiovascular status in HD patients. Abdominal fat biopsies were obtained from 11 HD patients and 26 non-uremic controls. Subcutaneous arteries were dissected and mounted on a wire myograph, and cumulative concentration-response curves to noradrenalin, endothelin-1, a thromboxane A2 agonist (U46619), angiotensin II, vasopressin, bradykinin (BK), acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were constructed. Pulse wave velocity and blood pressure were measured in HD patients. Enhanced (P<0.05?0.0001) maximal contractile responses (Rmax) to all spasmogens (particularly vasopressin) were observed in arteries from HD patients compared to controls, and this effect was more pronounced in arteries with an internal diameter>600 µm. The potency (pEC50) of U46619 (P<0.01) and vasopressin (P<0.001) was also increased in arteries>600 µm of HD patients. The maximal relaxant response to the endothelium-dependent dilators ACh and BK were lower in HD patients (P<0.01-P<0.0001) (worse for ACh than BK); however the endothelium-independent dilator SNP was similar in both groups. PWV was significantly correlated with the vasoconstrictor response to vasopressin (P?=?0.042) in HD patients. HD patients are primed for hypertension and end organ demand ischaemia by a highly sensitised pressor response. The failure of arterial relaxation is mediated by endothelial dysfunction. Intrinsic vascular abnormalities may be important in sensitising HD patients to recurrent cumulative ischaemic end organ injury. PMID:25546407

Abushufa, Adil M.; Eldehni, Mohamed T.; Odudu, Aghogho; Evans, Philip D.; O?Sullivan, Saoirse E.; McIntyre, Chris W.

2014-01-01

72

Effect of ovarian follicles on luteal regression in heifers  

SciTech Connect

Our objectives were to determine whether or not ovarian follicles contribute to spontaneous luteal regression in heifers and, if so, when during diestrus do follicles exert their effect. Thirty-one Holstein heifers having displayed at least one estrous cycle (19 to 21 d) were assigned, as available, to randomized blocks for a factorial experiment. Reproductive organs were exposed through a midventral incision on d 9, 12 or 15 postestrus. Visible follicles were electrocauterized and both ovaries were x-irradiated (1,500 rads) in treated heifers, whereas ovaries of controls were exteriorized but follicles were not destroyed and ovaries were not x-irradiated. In two additional heifers, the ovary containing the corpus luteum was exteriorized and x-irradiated on d 15 postestrus, but follicles were not electrocauterized. All heifers were ovariectomized on d 24 postestrus to inventory follicles and to weigh corpora lutea. No follicles were observed in ovaries from treated animals and concentrations of estradiol-17 beta did not change over time, whereas different numbers of follicles were observed in ovaries from controls and concentrations of estradiol-17 beta increased during proestrus. Hence, treatment destroyed follicles and prevented follicular development. On d 24 postestrus, corpora lutea from treated heifers were heavier than corpora lutea from controls, independent of day when follicles were destroyed.

Villa-Godoy, A.; Ireland, J.J.; Wortman, J.A.; Ames, N.K.; Hughes, T.L.; Fogwell, R.L.

1985-02-01

73

[Effect of pregnant mare serum on bovine luteal tissue].  

PubMed

Trials were conducted with four heifers and twelve dairy cows to study the luteotropic effect of the serum of pregnant mares administered at the rates of 2000 to 3000 units. The effect of serum gonadotropin (PMSG) on ovarian activity was compared with the ovarian activity of control animals and ovarian activity after the administration of hypophyseal hormones. The highest progesterone concentration of PMSG-treated cows ranged from 41.9 to 74.3 ng per ml of milk; in the control group this range was between 32.2 and 43.1 ng per ml and in the group of gonadotropin-treated cows between 31.7 and 44.8 ng per ml. In heifers the progesterone levels increased from 3.56 to 4.58 ng per ml of plasma within 24 hours from the administration of PMSG. After 48 hours from administration the average progesterone concentration increased to 11.02 ng per ml of plasma. The animals which did not respond to PMSG administration by the growth of follicles exhibited an increased secretion of progesterone. The administration of hypophyseal hormones in the luteal stage of sexual cycle did not exert any significant influence on progesterone concentration, but stimulated the growth of follicles. PMID:6438863

Pícha, J; Barcikowski, B; Píchová, D; Míka, J; Olsa, T

1984-08-01

74

The Luteal Phase after GnRHa Trigger-Understanding An Enigma  

PubMed Central

The luteal phase of all stimulated in vitro fertilization/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycles is disrupted, which makes luteal phase support (LPS) mandatory. The cause of the disruption is thought to be the multifollicular development achieved during ovarian stimulation which results in supraphysiological concentrations of steroids se- creted by a high number of corpora lutea during the early luteal phase. This will directly inhibit luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion by the pituitary via negative feedback at the level of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, leading to a luteal phase defect. With the intro- duction of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol, it became feasible to trigger final oocyte maturation and ovulation with a single bolus of GnRH agonist (GnRHa) as an alternative to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). GnRHa trig- gering presents several advantages, including the reduction in or even elimination of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Despite the potential advantages of GnRHa trig- gering, previous randomized controlled trials reported a poor clinical outcome with high rates of early pregnancy losses, despite supplementation with a standard LPS in the form of progesterone and estradiol. Following these disappointing results, several studies now report a luteal phase rescue after modifications of the LPS, resulting in a reproductive outcome comparable to that seen after hCG triggering. We herein review luteal phase dif- ferences between the natural cycle, hCG trigger and GnRHa trigger and present the most recent data on handling the luteal phase after GnRHa triggering. PMID:25379149

Leth-Moller, Kathrine; Hammer Jagd, Sandra; Humaidan, Peter

2014-01-01

75

The Luteal Phase after GnRHa Trigger-Understanding An Enigma.  

PubMed

The luteal phase of all stimulated in vitro fertilization/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycles is disrupted, which makes luteal phase support (LPS) mandatory. The cause of the disruption is thought to be the multifollicular development achieved during ovarian stimulation which results in supraphysiological concentrations of steroids se- creted by a high number of corpora lutea during the early luteal phase. This will directly inhibit luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion by the pituitary via negative feedback at the level of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, leading to a luteal phase defect. With the intro- duction of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol, it became feasible to trigger final oocyte maturation and ovulation with a single bolus of GnRH agonist (GnRHa) as an alternative to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). GnRHa trig- gering presents several advantages, including the reduction in or even elimination of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Despite the potential advantages of GnRHa trig- gering, previous randomized controlled trials reported a poor clinical outcome with high rates of early pregnancy losses, despite supplementation with a standard LPS in the form of progesterone and estradiol. Following these disappointing results, several studies now report a luteal phase rescue after modifications of the LPS, resulting in a reproductive outcome comparable to that seen after hCG triggering. We herein review luteal phase dif- ferences between the natural cycle, hCG trigger and GnRHa trigger and present the most recent data on handling the luteal phase after GnRHa triggering. PMID:25379149

Leth-Moller, Kathrine; Hammer Jagd, Sandra; Humaidan, Peter

2014-10-01

76

Functionalized gold nanoparticles: a detailed in vivo multimodal microscopic brain distribution study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, the in vivo distribution of polyelectrolyte multilayer coated gold nanoparticles is shown, starting from the living animal down to cellular level. The coating was designed with functional moieties to serve as a potential nano drug for prion disease. With near infrared time-domain imaging we followed the biodistribution in mice up to 7 days after intravenous injection of the nanoparticles. The peak concentration in the head of mice was detected between 19 and 24 h. The precise particle distribution in the brain was studied ex vivo by X-ray microtomography, confocal laser and fluorescence microscopy. We found that the particles mainly accumulate in the hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, and the cerebral cortex.In the present study, the in vivo distribution of polyelectrolyte multilayer coated gold nanoparticles is shown, starting from the living animal down to cellular level. The coating was designed with functional moieties to serve as a potential nano drug for prion disease. With near infrared time-domain imaging we followed the biodistribution in mice up to 7 days after intravenous injection of the nanoparticles. The peak concentration in the head of mice was detected between 19 and 24 h. The precise particle distribution in the brain was studied ex vivo by X-ray microtomography, confocal laser and fluorescence microscopy. We found that the particles mainly accumulate in the hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, and the cerebral cortex. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1-S6. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00345j

Sousa, Fernanda; Mandal, Subhra; Garrovo, Chiara; Astolfo, Alberto; Bonifacio, Alois; Latawiec, Diane; Menk, Ralf Hendrik; Arfelli, Fulvia; Huewel, Sabine; Legname, Giuseppe; Galla, Hans-Joachim; Krol, Silke

2010-12-01

77

Improving microbial fitness in the mammalian gut by in vivo temporal functional metagenomics  

PubMed Central

Elucidating functions of commensal microbial genes in the mammalian gut is challenging because many commensals are recalcitrant to laboratory cultivation and genetic manipulation. We present Temporal FUnctional Metagenomics sequencing (TFUMseq), a platform to functionally mine bacterial genomes for genes that contribute to fitness of commensal bacteria in vivo. Our approach uses metagenomic DNA to construct large-scale heterologous expression libraries that are tracked over time in vivo by deep sequencing and computational methods. To demonstrate our approach, we built a TFUMseq plasmid library using the gut commensal Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (Bt) and introduced Escherichia coli carrying this library into germfree mice. Population dynamics of library clones revealed Bt genes conferring significant fitness advantages in E. coli over time, including carbohydrate utilization genes, with a Bt galactokinase central to early colonization, and subsequent dominance by a Bt glycoside hydrolase enabling sucrose metabolism coupled with co-evolution of the plasmid library and E. coli genome driving increased galactose utilization. Our findings highlight the utility of functional metagenomics for engineering commensal bacteria with improved properties, including expanded colonization capabilities in vivo. PMID:25762151

Yaung, Stephanie J; Deng, Luxue; Li, Ning; Braff, Jonathan L; Church, George M; Bry, Lynn; Wang, Harris H; Gerber, Georg K

2015-01-01

78

Improving microbial fitness in the mammalian gut by in vivo temporal functional metagenomics.  

PubMed

Elucidating functions of commensal microbial genes in the mammalian gut is challenging because many commensals are recalcitrant to laboratory cultivation and genetic manipulation. We present Temporal FUnctional Metagenomics sequencing (TFUMseq), a platform to functionally mine bacterial genomes for genes that contribute to fitness of commensal bacteria in vivo. Our approach uses metagenomic DNA to construct large-scale heterologous expression libraries that are tracked over time in vivo by deep sequencing and computational methods. To demonstrate our approach, we built a TFUMseq plasmid library using the gut commensal Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (Bt) and introduced Escherichia coli carrying this library into germfree mice. Population dynamics of library clones revealed Bt genes conferring significant fitness advantages in E. coli over time, including carbohydrate utilization genes, with a Bt galactokinase central to early colonization, and subsequent dominance by a Bt glycoside hydrolase enabling sucrose metabolism coupled with co-evolution of the plasmid library and E. coli genome driving increased galactose utilization. Our findings highlight the utility of functional metagenomics for engineering commensal bacteria with improved properties, including expanded colonization capabilities in vivo. PMID:25762151

Yaung, Stephanie J; Deng, Luxue; Li, Ning; Braff, Jonathan L; Church, George M; Bry, Lynn; Wang, Harris H; Gerber, Georg K

2015-01-01

79

Effect of luteal-phase support on endometrial microRNA expression following controlled ovarian stimulation  

PubMed Central

Background Studies suggested that microRNAs influence cellular activities in the uterus including cell differentiation and embryo implantation. In assisted reproduction cycles, luteal phase support, given to improve endometrial characteristics and to facilitate the implantation process, has been a standard practice. The effect of different types of luteal phase support using steroid hormones in relation to endometrial miRNA profiles during the peri-implantation period has not seen described. This study was designed to evaluate the expression of miRNAs during the luteal phase following controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF and the influence of different luteal phase support protocols on miRNA profiles. Methods The study was approved by the Johns Hopkins Hospital Institutional Review Board. Endometrial biopsies were obtained on the day of oocyte retrieval from 9 oocyte donors (group I). An additional endometrial biopsy was obtained 3–5?days later (Group II) after the donors were randomized into three groups. Group IIa had no luteal-phase support, group IIb had luteal support with micronized progesterone (P), and Group IIc had luteal support with progesterone plus 17-beta-estradiol (P?+?E). Total RNA was isolated and microarray analysis was performed using an Illumina miRNA expression panel. Results A total of 526 miRNAs were identified. Out of those, 216 miRNAs were differentially regulated (p?Luteal support following COS has a profound influence on miRNA profiles. Up or down regulation of miRNAs after P or P?+?E support suggest a role(s) of luteal support in the peri-implantation uterus in IVF cycles through the regulation of associated target genes. PMID:22950660

2012-01-01

80

In vivo generation of a mature and functional artificial skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Extensive loss of skeletal muscle tissue results in mutilations and severe loss of function. In vitro-generated artificial muscles undergo necrosis when transplanted in vivo before host angiogenesis may provide oxygen for fibre survival. Here, we report a novel strategy based upon the use of mouse or human mesoangioblasts encapsulated inside PEG-fibrinogen hydrogel. Once engineered to express placental-derived growth factor, mesoangioblasts attract host vessels and nerves, contributing to in vivo survival and maturation of newly formed myofibres. When the graft was implanted underneath the skin on the surface of the tibialis anterior, mature and aligned myofibres formed within several weeks as a complete and functional extra muscle. Moreover, replacing the ablated tibialis anterior with PEG-fibrinogen-embedded mesoangioblasts also resulted in an artificial muscle very similar to a normal tibialis anterior. This strategy opens the possibility for patient-specific muscle creation for a large number of pathological conditions involving muscle tissue wasting. PMID:25715804

Fuoco, Claudia; Rizzi, Roberto; Biondo, Antonella; Longa, Emanuela; Mascaro, Anna; Shapira-Schweitzer, Keren; Kossovar, Olga; Benedetti, Sara; Salvatori, Maria L; Santoleri, Sabrina; Testa, Stefano; Bernardini, Sergio; Bottinelli, Roberto; Bearzi, Claudia; Cannata, Stefano M; Seliktar, Dror; Cossu, Giulio; Gargioli, Cesare

2015-01-01

81

In vivo interrogation of gene function in the mammalian brain using CRISPR-Cas9.  

PubMed

Probing gene function in the mammalian brain can be greatly assisted with methods to manipulate the genome of neurons in vivo. The clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated endonuclease (Cas)9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) can be used to edit single or multiple genes in replicating eukaryotic cells, resulting in frame-shifting insertion/deletion (indel) mutations and subsequent protein depletion. Here, we delivered SpCas9 and guide RNAs using adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors to target single (Mecp2) as well as multiple genes (Dnmt1, Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b) in the adult mouse brain in vivo. We characterized the effects of genome modifications in postmitotic neurons using biochemical, genetic, electrophysiological and behavioral readouts. Our results demonstrate that AAV-mediated SpCas9 genome editing can enable reverse genetic studies of gene function in the brain. PMID:25326897

Swiech, Lukasz; Heidenreich, Matthias; Banerjee, Abhishek; Habib, Naomi; Li, Yinqing; Trombetta, John; Sur, Mriganka; Zhang, Feng

2015-01-01

82

Inhibition of progesterone secretion by oestradiol administered in the luteal phase of assisted conception cycles.  

PubMed

A prospective randomised study was done to assess the effect of supplemental oestradiol in addition to progesterone on the luteal steroid profiles and pregnancy outcome in stimulated cycles with and without pituitary down regulation. Women undergoing stimulated cycle IVF with GnRH-a and FSH (Group A, n = 63) or stimulated intrauterine insemination using CC and FSH (Group B, n = 55) were studied. These subjects were randomly allocated to receive either 400 mg daily of vaginally administrated Cyclogest (progesterone) alone or in combination with 2 mg daily of oral Oestradiol Valerate (E2V) during the luteal phase. Significant lower concentrations of plasma progesterone were observed in those subjects supplemented with both E2V and progesterone compared to those in whom progesterone only was given during the luteal phase (P < 0.05). Exogenous E2V had a minimal impact on plasma oestradiol concentrations and did not disguise the characterised mid luteal decline in oestradiol secretion. The suppressive effect of E2V on plasma progesterone was lost if implantation occurred normally because any small change in steroid concentrations was reversed by the rapidly increasing concentrations of HCG. Similar pregnancy rates were observed among subjects supplemented with or without oestradiol. The addition of oestradiol to the luteal supplement suppresses endogenous corpus luteum progesterone secretion irrespective of the type of assisted conception cycle and that its use is unlikely to be beneficial to the process of implantation. PMID:14569738

Tay, P Y; Lenton, E A

2003-06-01

83

Atypical Membrane Topology and Heteromeric Function of Drosophila Odorant Receptors In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drosophila olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) each express two odorant receptors (ORs): a divergent member of the OR family and the highly conserved, broadly expressed receptor OR83b. OR83b is essential for olfaction in vivo and enhances OR function in vitro, but the molecular mechanism by which it acts is unknown. Here we demonstrate that OR83b heterodimerizes with conventional ORs early in

Richard Benton; Silke Sachse; Stephen W. Michnick; Leslie B. Vosshall

2006-01-01

84

In Vivo Analysis of Functional Regions within Yeast Rap1p  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have analyzed the in vivo importance of different regions of Rap1p, a yeast transcriptional regulator and telomere binding protein. A yeast strain (SCR101) containing a regulatable RAP1 gene was used to test functional complementation by a range of Rap1p derivatives. These experiments demonstrated that the C terminus of the protein, containing the putative transcriptional activation domain and the regions

IAN R. GRAHAM; ROBIN A. HAW; KAREN G. SPINK; KATHRYN A. HALDEN; ALISTAIR CHAMBERS

1999-01-01

85

Effect of oestrus synchronization with PGF2?/eCG/hCG on luteal P4 synthesis in early pregnant gilts.  

PubMed

Administration of hormones to synchronize oestrus is a useful tool in animal breeding. However, exogenous ovarian stimulation may be detrimental to reproductive function. This study was aimed to examine whether an oestrus synchronization with PGF2?/eCG/hCG could affect luteal P4 synthesis in early pregnant gilts. Corpora lutea (CLs) were collected on days 9, 12 and 16 of pregnancy from gilts with natural (n = 16) and synchronized (n = 18) oestrus and analysed for (i) the expre-ssion of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 family 11 subfamily A polypeptide (CYP11A1), and 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3?HSD); (ii) the concentration of P4 in the luteal tissue and blood; and (iii) the expression of luteinizing hormone receptors (LHR) and oestrogen receptors (ER? and ER?). Additionally, the effect of LH on P4 secretion from CL slices collected from synchronized and naturally ovulated animals has been studied in vitro. PGF2? /eCG/hCG administration increased mRNA expression of StAR, CYP11A1, 3?HSD, and LHR on day 9 and CYP11A1 and LHR on day 12 of pregnancy compared with the control group (p < 0.05). CYP11A1, 3?HSD, LHR, ER? and ER? proteins were not affected by synchronization; only StAR protein increased in hormonally treated animals (p = 0.017). The concentration of P4 in luteal tissue was greater on day 9 (p < 0.01), but lower on day 16 (p < 0.05) in gilts with hormonally induced oestrus compared with control animals. Blood serum levels of P4 were lower in synchronized than control gilts (p < 0.001). Synchronization did not affect LH-stimulated P4 secretion from luteal slices; however, greater basal concentration of P4 in incubation medium was detected for CLs collected from synchronized than control gilts (p < 0.05). In conclusion, synchronization of oestrus with PGF2?/eCG/hCG protocol in gilts did not impair the expression of luteal P4 synthesis system, although decreased P4 concentration in the blood. PMID:25292445

Szymanska, M; Morawska-Pucinska, E; Krawczynski, K; Kiewisz, J; Ziecik, A J; Blitek, A

2014-12-01

86

Nicotine Pretreatment Increases Dysphoric Effects of Alcohol in Luteal-Phase Female Volunteers  

PubMed Central

The present report shows that nicotine enhances some of alcohol’s positive and negative effects in women and that these effects are most pronounced during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Ten low progesterone and 10 high progesterone/luteal-phase women received nicotine patch pretreatments (placebo or 21 mg) 3 hours before an alcohol challenge (0.4 g/kg). Subjective effects were recorded on mood adjective scales and the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI). Heart rate and skin temperature were recorded. Luteal-phase women reported peak positive (e.g. “stimulated”) and peak negative effects (e.g. “clumsy”, “dizzy”) almost twice as great as low progesterone women. PMID:19440397

Penetar, David M.; Kouri, Elena M.; McCarthy, Elissa M.; Lilly, Michelle M.; Peters, Erica N.; Juliano, Trisha M.; Lukas, Scott E.

2009-01-01

87

Effects of environmental tobacco smoke in vivo on rhesus monkey semen quality, sperm function, and sperm metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to use a non-human primate model to examine the effect of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in vivo on semen quality, sperm function, and sperm metabolism. Four adult rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were exposed to ETS for six months, and semen samples were collected every week for evaluation. ETS exposure in vivo did not affect

Pei-hsuan Hung; Lutz Froenicke; Ching Yu Lin; Leslie A. Lyons; Marion G. Miller; Kent E. Pinkerton; Catherine A. VandeVoort

2009-01-01

88

Structural Determinants of Arabidopsis thaliana Hyponastic Leaves 1 Function In Vivo  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs have turned out to be important regulators of gene expression. These molecules originate from longer transcripts that are processed by ribonuclease III (RNAse III) enzymes. Dicer proteins are essential RNAse III enzymes that are involved in the generation of microRNAs (miRNAs) and other small RNAs. The correct function of Dicer relies on the participation of accessory dsRNA binding proteins, the exact function of which is not well-understood so far. In plants, the double stranded RNA binding protein Hyponastic Leaves 1 (HYL1) helps Dicer Like protein (DCL1) to achieve an efficient and precise excision of the miRNAs from their primary precursors. Here we dissected the regions of HYL1 that are essential for its function in Arabidopsis thaliana plant model. We generated mutant forms of the protein that retain their structure but affect its RNA-binding properties. The mutant versions of HYL1 were studied both in vitro and in vivo, and we were able to identify essential aminoacids/residues for its activity. Remarkably, mutation and even ablation of one of the purportedly main RNA binding determinants does not give rise to any major disturbances in the function of the protein. We studied the function of the mutant forms in vivo, establishing a direct correlation between affinity for the pri-miRNA precursors and protein activity. PMID:25409478

Burdisso, Paula; Milia, Fernando; Schapire, Arnaldo L.; Bologna, Nicolás G.; Palatnik, Javier F.; Rasia, Rodolfo M.

2014-01-01

89

Comparison of the steroidogenic capacity of bovine follicular and luteal cells, and corpora lutea originating from dominant follicles of the first or second follicular wave.  

PubMed

This study, compared the endocrine function of dominant follicles of the first and second follicular waves (DF1 and DF2, respectively) and the corpora lutea that were subsequently formed. In the experiments conducted in vitro, ovaries were collected from dairy cows on day 6.1 +/- 0.2 or day 14.8 +/- 0.2 of the oestrous cycle to obtain steroidogenically active DF1 (n = 8) and DF2 (n = 7). Granulosa and thecal cells were isolated, dispersed and incubated for 16 h with testosterone (granulosa cells) or forskolin or bLH (thecal cells). Both types of cell were subsequently cultured for 9 days with forskolin and insulin. The viability of the granulosa cells was similar in DF1 and DF2, but the concentration of oestradiol in the follicular fluid was higher in DF1 than in DF2. Production of oestradiol and progesterone by granulosa cells was similar in DF1 and DF2, but androstenedione and progesterone production by thecal cells were 3.5-6.5-fold higher in DF1 than in DF2. During the 9 days of luteinization, progesterone production was similar in DF1- and DF2-derived granulosa cells, but was two- to three-fold higher in DF1- than in DF2-derived thecal cells. Experiments were also conducted in vivo. In Expt 1 in vivo, lactating cows that were assigned to ovulate DF1 or DF2 (n = 9 and 13 in replicate 1 and 2, respectively) were injected with PGF2 alpha on days 6 and 7 or on days 14 and 15 of the oestrous cycle, respectively. A wave by replicate interaction was detected for plasma progesterone concentration in the subsequent cycle: in the first replicate, progesterone production was approximately 40% higher in cows that ovulated DF1; in the second replicate, progesterone production was similar in cows that ovulated DF1 or DF2. In Expt 2, pooled plasma progesterone in the mid-luteal phase (days 12-15) after insemination of pregnant and non-pregnant cows was approximately 30% higher in cows that had ovulated DF1 (n = 32) than in cows that had ovulated DF2 (n = 22). This study showed DF1 had a higher steroidogenic capacity compared with DF2, which may be related to the hormonal environment in which the follicles developed. PMID:10690191

Wolfenson, D; Sonego, H; Shaham-Albalancy, A; Shpirer, Y; Meidan, R

1999-11-01

90

In vivo functional microangiography by visible-light optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

Although hemoglobin oxygen saturation (sO2) in the microvasculature is an essential physiological parameter of local tissue functions, non-invasive measurement of microvascular sO2 is still challenging. Here, we demonstrated that visible-light optical coherence tomography (vis-OCT) can simultaneously provide three-dimensional anatomical tissue morphology, visualize microvasculature at the capillary level, and measure sO2 from the microvasculature in vivo. We utilized speckle contrast caused by the moving blood cells to enhance microvascular imaging. We applied a series of short-time inverse Fourier transforms to obtain the spectroscopic profile of blood optical attenuation, from which we quantified sO2. We validated the sO2 measurement in mouse ears in vivo through hypoxia and hyperoxia challenges. We further demonstrated that vis-OCT can continuously monitor dynamic changes of microvascular sO2. PMID:25360376

Yi, Ji; Chen, Siyu; Backman, Vadim; Zhang, Hao F.

2014-01-01

91

Dual-selection for evolution of in vivo functional aptazymes as riboswitch parts.  

PubMed

Both synthetic biology and metabolic engineering are aided by the development of genetic control parts. One class of riboswitch parts that has great potential for sensing and regulation of protein levels is aptamer-coupled ribozymes (aptazymes). These devices are comprised of an aptamer domain selected to bind a particular ligand, a ribozyme domain, and a communication module that regulates the ribozyme activity based on the state of the aptamer. We describe a broadly applicable method for coupling a novel, newly selected aptamer to a ribozyme to generate functional aptazymes via in vitro and in vivo selection. To illustrate this approach, we describe experimental procedures for selecting aptazymes assembled from aptamers that bind p-amino-phenylalanine and a hammerhead ribozyme. Because this method uses selection, it does not rely on sequence-specific design and thus should be generalizable for the generation of in vivo operational aptazymes that respond to any targeted molecules. PMID:24549623

Goler, Jonathan A; Carothers, James M; Keasling, Jay D

2014-01-01

92

In vivo commitment and functional tissue regeneration using human embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal cells  

PubMed Central

Development of clinically relevant regenerative medicine therapies using human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) requires production of a simple and readily expandable cell population that can be directed to form functional 3D tissue in an in vivo environment. We describe an efficient derivation method and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from hESCs (hESCd-MSCs) that have multilineage differentiation potential and are capable of producing fat, cartilage, and bone in vitro. Furthermore, we highlight their in vivo survival and commitment to the chondrogenic lineage in a microenvironment comprising chondrocyte-secreted morphogenetic factors and hydrogels. Normal cartilage architecture was established in rat osteochondral defects after treatment with chondrogenically-committed hESCd-MSCs. In view of the limited available cell sources for tissue engineering applications, these embryonic-derived cells show significant potential in musculoskeletal tissue regeneration applications. PMID:19095799

Hwang, Nathaniel S.; Varghese, Shyni; Lee, H. Janice; Zhang, Zijun; Ye, Zhaohui; Bae, Jongwoo; Cheng, Linzhao; Elisseeff, Jennifer

2008-01-01

93

Structure and function of RNase AS, a polyadenylate-specific exoribonuclease affecting mycobacterial virulence in vivo.  

PubMed

The cell-envelope of Mycobacterium tuberculosis plays a key role in bacterial virulence and antibiotic resistance. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of regulation of cell-envelope formation. Here, we elucidate functional and structural properties of RNase AS, which modulates M. tuberculosis cell-envelope properties and strongly impacts bacterial virulence in vivo. The structure of RNase AS reveals a resemblance to RNase T from Escherichia coli, an RNase of the DEDD family involved in RNA maturation. We show that RNase AS acts as a 3'-5'-exoribonuclease that specifically hydrolyzes adenylate-containing RNA sequences. Also, crystal structures of complexes with AMP and UMP reveal the structural basis for the observed enzyme specificity. Notably, RNase AS shows a mechanism of substrate recruitment, based on the recognition of the hydrogen bond donor NH2 group of adenine. Our work opens a field for the design of drugs able to reduce bacterial virulence in vivo. PMID:24704253

Romano, Maria; van de Weerd, Robert; Brouwer, Femke C C; Roviello, Giovanni N; Lacroix, Ruben; Sparrius, Marion; van den Brink-van Stempvoort, Gunny; Maaskant, Janneke J; van der Sar, Astrid M; Appelmelk, Ben J; Geurtsen, Jeroen J; Berisio, Rita

2014-05-01

94

Relationship between in vivo activity and in vitro measures of function and stability of a protein  

SciTech Connect

The in vivo activities of mutant proteins are readily measured and can potentially be used to estimate changes in in vitro properties such as stability or function, but this connection has not been rigorously established. Gene V protein is a small protein produced by bacteriophage f1 that binds to single-stranded DNA and to RNA and for which fitness can be assayed both in vivo and in vitro. We have assembled a large number of temperature-sensitive mutants of the gene V protein of bacteriophage f1 and measured their ability to support phage growth and replication in vivo. We have also purified many of these mutant gene V proteins and measured their stabilities and ssDNA binding affinities in vitro. Mutations at surface residues frequently yielded temperature-sensitive mutants, but remarkably, no overall correlation between in vivo activity and in vitro measures of either stability or function was found for this group. Mutations at buried residues often lead to the temperature-sensitive phenotype. At buried sites temperature sensitivity was strongly correlated with in vitro stability changes, but not with in vitro ssDNA binding affinity. The implication of these observations for protein engineering efforts is that phenotypes conferred by amino acid substitutions at buried sites can be used to identify mutants whose stabilities fall into ranges of interest, while phenotypes of mutants with surface substitutions may be much less readily interpreted, even in the case of a single-stranded-DNA-binding protein. 54 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Sandberg, W.S.; Schlunk, P.M.; Zabin, H.G. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)] [and others

1995-09-19

95

Homeostasis and function of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in vivo: lessons from TCR-transgenic Tregs  

PubMed Central

The identification of CD25 and subsequently Forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3) as markers for regulatory T cells (Tregs) has revolutionized our ability to explore this population experimentally. In a similar vein, our understanding of antigen-specific Treg responses in vivo owes much to the fortuitous generation of T-cell receptor (TCR)-transgenic Tregs. This has permitted tracking of Tregs with a defined specificity in vivo, facilitating analysis of how encounter with cognate antigen shapes Treg homeostasis and function. Here, we review the key lessons learned from a decade of analysis of TCR-transgenic Tregs and set this in the broader context of general progress in the field. Use of TCR-transgenic Tregs has led to an appreciation that Tregs are a highly dynamic proliferative population in vivo, rather than an anergic population as they were initially portrayed. It is now clear that Treg homeostasis is positively regulated by encounter with self-antigen expressed on peripheral tissues, which is likely to be relevant to the phenomenon of peripheral repertoire reshaping that has been described for Tregs and the observation that the Treg TCR specificities vary by anatomical location. Substantial evidence has also accumulated to support the role of CD28 costimulation and interleukin-2 in Treg homeostasis. The availability of TCR-transgenic Tregs has enabled analysis of Treg populations that are sufficient or deficient in particular genes, without the comparison being confounded by repertoire alterations. This approach has yielded insights into genes required for Treg function in vivo, with particular progress being made on the role of ctla-4 in this context. As the prospect of manipulating Treg populations in the clinic becomes reality, a full appreciation of the rules governing their homeostasis will prove increasingly important. PMID:24712457

Attridge, Kesley; Walker, Lucy S K

2014-01-01

96

In vivo relevance of substrate recognition function of major Arabidopsis ubiquitin receptors  

PubMed Central

Ubiquitylation marks proteins for destruction by the 26S proteasome. These signals are deciphered and targeted by distinct direct and indirect pathways involving a set of evolutionarily conserved ubiquitin receptors. Although biochemical and structural studies have revealed the mechanistic complexity of these substrate recognition pathways, conclusive evidence of the in vivo relevance of their substrate recognition function is currently not available. We recently showed that the structural elements involved in substrate recognition are not responsible for the important roles of the ubiquitin receptor RPN10 in vegetative and reproductive growth or for the abundance of the two-capped proteasomes (RP2-CP). Moreover, Arabidopsis plants subjected to severe knockdown or knockout any of the major ubiquitin receptors displayed wild-type phenotypes. Our results clearly suggest a functional redundancy of the major Arabidopsis ubiquitin receptors, and this evolved multiplicity is probably used to secure the substrates delivery. Based on the reduced abundance of RP2-CP in rpn10-2 and a role of RPN10 in lid-base association, a structural role of RPN10 in 26S proteasome stability is likely to be more relevant in vivo. Further efforts using structural and functional analyses in higher-order mutants to identify the specific biological functions of substrate recognition for the major Arabidopsis ubiquitin receptors are described here. PMID:22751321

Lin, Ya-Ling; Fu, Hongyong

2012-01-01

97

Biomimetic engineered muscle with capacity for vascular integration and functional maturation in vivo  

PubMed Central

Tissue-engineered skeletal muscle can serve as a physiological model of natural muscle and a potential therapeutic vehicle for rapid repair of severe muscle loss and injury. Here, we describe a platform for engineering and testing highly functional biomimetic muscle tissues with a resident satellite cell niche and capacity for robust myogenesis and self-regeneration in vitro. Using a mouse dorsal window implantation model and transduction with fluorescent intracellular calcium indicator, GCaMP3, we nondestructively monitored, in real time, vascular integration and the functional state of engineered muscle in vivo. During a 2-wk period, implanted engineered muscle exhibited a steady ingrowth of blood-perfused microvasculature along with an increase in amplitude of calcium transients and force of contraction. We also demonstrated superior structural organization, vascularization, and contractile function of fully differentiated vs. undifferentiated engineered muscle implants. The described in vitro and in vivo models of biomimetic engineered muscle represent enabling technology for novel studies of skeletal muscle function and regeneration. PMID:24706792

Juhas, Mark; Engelmayr, George C.; Fontanella, Andrew N.; Palmer, Gregory M.; Bursac, Nenad

2014-01-01

98

Adult-Derived Liver Stem Cells Acquire a Cardiomyocyte Structural and Functional Phenotype ex Vivo  

PubMed Central

We examined the differentiation potential of an adult liver stem cell line (WB F344) in a cardiac microenvironment, ex vivo. WB F344 cells were established from a single cloned nonparenchymal epithelial cell isolated from a normal male adult rat liver. Genetically modified, WB F344 cells that express ?-galactosidase and green fluorescent protein or only ?-galactosidase were co-cultured with dissociated rat or mouse neonatal cardiac cells. After 4 to 14 days, WB F344-derived cardiomyocytes expressed cardiac-specific proteins and exhibited myofibrils, sarcomeres, and a nascent sarcoplasmic reticulum. Further, rhythmically beating WB F344-derived cardiomyocytes displayed calcium transients. Fluorescent recovery after photobleaching demonstrated that WB F344-derived cardiomyocytes were coupled with adjacent neonatal cardiomyocytes and other WB F344-derived cardiomyocytes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments suggested that fusion between WB F344 cells and neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes did not take place. Collectively, these results support the conclusion that these adult-derived liver stem cells respond to signals generated in a cardiac microenvironment ex vivo acquiring a cardiomyocyte phenotype and function. The identification ex vivo of microenvironmental signals that appear to cross germ layer and species specificities should prove valuable in understanding the molecular basis of adult stem cell differentiation and phenotypic plasticity. PMID:15215169

Muller-Borer, Barbara J.; Cascio, Wayne E.; Anderson, Page A.W.; Snowwaert, John N.; Frye, James R.; Desai, Niyati; Esch, Gwyn L.; Brackham, Joe A.; Bagnell, C. Robert; Coleman, William B.; Grisham, Joe W.; Malouf, Nadia N.

2004-01-01

99

Functional evaluation of malaria Pfs25 DNA vaccine by in vivo electroporation in Olive baboons  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium falciparum Pfs25 antigen, expressed on the surface of zygotes and ookinetes, is one of the leading targets for the development of a malaria transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV). Our laboratory has been evaluating DNA plasmid based Pfs25 vaccine in mice and non-human primates. Previously, we established that in vivo electroporation (EP) delivery is an effective method to improve the immunogenicity of DNA vaccine encoding Pfs25 in mice. In order to optimize the in vivo EP procedure and test for its efficacy in more clinically relevant larger animal models, we employed in vivo EP to evaluate the immune response and protective efficacy of Pfs25 encoding DNA vaccine in nonhuman primates (Olive baboons, Papio anubis). The results showed that at a dose of 2.5 mg DNA vaccine, antibody responses were significantly enhanced with EP as compared to without EP resulting in effective transmission blocking efficiency. Similar immunogenicity enhancing effect of EP was also observed with lower doses (0.5 mg and 1 mg) of DNA plasmids. Further, final boosting with a single dose of recombinant Pfs25 protein resulted in dramatically enhanced antibody titers and significantly increased functional transmission blocking efficiency. Our study suggests priming with DNA vaccine via EP along with protein boost regimen as an effective method to elicit potent immunogenicity of malaria DNA vaccines in nonhuman primates and provides the basis for further evaluation in human volunteers. PMID:23684840

Kumar, Rajesh; Nyakundi, Ruth; Kariuki, Thomas; Ozwara, Hastings; Nyamongo, Onkoba; Mlambo, Godfree; Ellefsen, Barry; Hannaman, Drew; Kumar, Nirbhay

2013-01-01

100

TYK2 Kinase Activity Is Required for Functional Type I Interferon Responses In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) is a member of the Janus kinase (JAK) family and is involved in cytokine signalling. In vitro analyses suggest that TYK2 also has kinase-independent, i.e., non-canonical, functions. We have generated gene-targeted mice harbouring a mutation in the ATP-binding pocket of the kinase domain. The Tyk2 kinase-inactive (Tyk2K923E) mice are viable and show no gross abnormalities. We show that kinase-active TYK2 is required for full-fledged type I interferon- (IFN) induced activation of the transcription factors STAT1-4 and for the in vivo antiviral defence against viruses primarily controlled through type I IFN actions. In addition, TYK2 kinase activity was found to be required for the protein’s stability. An inhibitory function was only observed upon over-expression of TYK2K923E in vitro. Tyk2K923E mice represent the first model for studying the kinase-independent function of a JAK in vivo and for assessing the consequences of side effects of JAK inhibitors. PMID:22723949

Prchal-Murphy, Michaela; Semper, Christian; Lassnig, Caroline; Wallner, Barbara; Gausterer, Christian; Teppner-Klymiuk, Ingeborg; Kobolak, Julianna; Müller, Simone; Kolbe, Thomas; Karaghiosoff, Marina; Dinnyés, Andras; Rülicke, Thomas; Leitner, Nicole R.; Strobl, Birgit; Müller, Mathias

2012-01-01

101

The unusual mycobacterial chaperonins: evidence for in vivo oligomerization and specialization of function.  

PubMed

The pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis expresses two chaperonins, one (Cpn60.1) dispensable and one (Cpn60.2) essential. These proteins have been reported not to form oligomers despite the fact that oligomerization of chaperonins is regarded as essential for their function. We show here that the Cpn60.2 homologue from Mycobacterium smegmatis also fails to oligomerize under standard conditions. However, we also show that the Cpn60.2 proteins from both organisms can replace the essential groEL gene of Escherichia coli, and that they can function with E. coli GroES cochaperonin, as well as with their cognate cochaperonin proteins, strongly implying that they form oligomers in vivo. We show that the Cpn60.1 proteins, but not the Cpn60.2 proteins, can complement for loss of the M. smegmatis cpn60.1 gene. We investigated the oligomerization of the Cpn60.2 proteins using analytical ultracentrifugation and mass spectroscopy. Both form monomers under standard conditions, but they form higher order oligomers in the presence of kosmotropes and ADP or ATP. Under these conditions, their ATPase activity is significantly enhanced. We conclude that the essential mycobacterial chaperonins, while unstable compared to many other bacterial chaperonins, do act as oligomers in vivo, and that there has been specialization of function of the mycobacterial chaperonins following gene duplication. PMID:22834700

Fan, MingQi; Rao, Tara; Zacco, Elsa; Ahmed, M Tabish; Shukla, Anshuman; Ojha, Anil; Freeke, Joanna; Robinson, Carol V; Benesch, Justin L; Lund, Peter A

2012-09-01

102

Non invasive in vivo investigation of hepatobiliary structure and function in STII medaka (Oryzias latipes): methodology and applications  

PubMed Central

Background A novel transparent stock of medaka (Oryzias latipes; STII), recessive for all pigments found in chromatophores, permits transcutaneous imaging of internal organs and tissues in living individuals. Findings presented describe the development of methodologies for non invasive in vivo investigation in STII medaka, and the successful application of these methodologies to in vivo study of hepatobiliary structure, function, and xenobiotic response, in both 2 and 3 dimensions. Results Using brightfield, and widefield and confocal fluorescence microscopy, coupled with the in vivo application of fluorescent probes, structural and functional features of the hepatobiliary system, and xenobiotic induced toxicity, were imaged at the cellular level, with high resolution (< 1 ?m), in living individuals. The findings presented demonstrate; (1) phenotypic response to xenobiotic exposure can be investigated/imaged in vivo with high resolution (< 1 ?m), (2) hepatobiliary transport of solutes from blood to bile can be qualitatively and quantitatively studied/imaged in vivo, (3) hepatobiliary architecture in this lower vertebrate liver can be studied in 3 dimensions, and (4) non invasive in vivo imaging/description of hepatobiliary development in this model can be investigated. Conclusion The non-invasive in vivo methodologies described are a unique means by which to investigate biological structure, function and xenobiotic response with high resolution in STII medaka. In vivo methodologies also provide the future opportunity to integrate molecular mechanisms (e.g., genomic, proteomic) of disease and toxicity with phenotypic changes at the cellular and system levels of biological organization. While our focus has been the hepatobiliary system, other organ systems are equally amenable to in vivo study, and we consider the potential for discovery, within the context of in vivo investigation in STII medaka, as significant. PMID:18838008

Hardman, Ron C; Kullman, Seth W; Hinton, David E

2008-01-01

103

Photoacoustics and fluorescence based nanoprobes towards functional and structural imaging in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging of chemical analytes and structural properties related to physiological activities within biological systems is of great bio-medical interest; it can contribute to the fundamental understanding of biological systems and can be applied to the diagnosis and prognosis of diseases, especially tumors. The work presented in this thesis focuses on the development and application of polymeric nanoprobe aided optical imaging of chemical analytes (Oxygen, pH) and structural properties in live cells and animal models. To this end, specific nanoprobes, based on the polyacrylamide nanoplatform, bearing both appropriate targeting functionalities, and high concentrations of sensing and contrast agents, have been developed. The nanoprobes presented here are biodegradable, biocompatible and non-toxic, rendering them safe for in vivo use. Furthermore the nanoprobes are designed to have variable optical properties that are dependent on the local concentration of the specific analyte of interest. Optical imaging techniques that are particularly suited for deep tissue applications, such as two-photon fluorescence and photoacoustics, were applied for non-invasive real-time imaging and sensing in cancer cells, tumor spheroids and animal models. Our results demonstrate that this technique enables high sensitive detection of chemical analytes with a sensitivity of <5 Torr for oxygen and <0.1 pH units in vivo, which is better than the currently available in vivo functional imaging techniques. This non-invasive and non-ionizing, yet low cost, method will enable morphological and functional evaluation across any tissue, with both high spatial and temporal resolution but without eliciting short- or long-term tissue damage. Currently no gold standard exists for such xii functional imaging. The approach presented here can be used for early detection and diagnosis of tumors, as well as for monitoring the progression of disease and therapy. This technique will also enable observing phenomena at the cellular level in vivo that would lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases as well as the disease onset, progression, and response to therapy.

Ray, Aniruddha

104

Luteal Phase Support in the Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) Cycles: A Randomized Double Blind, Placebo Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the impact of luteal phase support with vaginal progesterone on pregnancy rates in the intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles, stimulated with clomiphene citrate and human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), in sub fertile couples. Materials and methods: This prospective, randomized, double blind study was performed in a tertiary infertility center from March 2011 to January 2012. It consisted of 253 sub fertile couples undergoing ovarian stimulation for IUI cycles. They underwent ovarian stimulation with clomiphene citrate (100 mg) and hMG (75 IU) in preparation for the IUI cycle. Study group (n = 127) received luteal phase support in the form of vaginal progesterone (400 mg twice a day), and control group (n = 126) received placebo. Clinical pregnancy and abortion rates were assessed and compared between the two groups. Results: The clinical pregnancy rate was not significantly higher for supported cycles than that for the unsupported ones (15.75% vs. 12.69%, p = 0.3). The abortion rate in the patients with progesterone luteal support compared to placebo group was not statistically different (10% vs. 18.75%, p = 0.45). Conclusion: It seems that luteal phase support with vaginal progesterone was not enhanced the success of IUI cycles outcomes, when clomiphene citrate and hMG were used for ovulation stimulation. PMID:25530766

Hossein Rashidi, Batool; Davari Tanha, Fatemeh; Rahmanpour, Haleh; Ghazizadeh, Mahya

2014-01-01

105

Murine CD83-positive T cells mediate suppressor functions in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

The CD83 molecule (CD83) is a well-known surface marker present on mature dendritic cells (mDC). In this study, we show that CD83 is also expressed on a subset of T cells which mediate regulatory T cell (Treg)-like suppressor functions in vitro and in vivo. Treg-associated molecules including CD25, cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family-related gene (GITR), Helios and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) as well as forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) were specifically expressed by these CD83(+) T cells. In contrast, CD83(-) T cells showed a naive T cell phenotype with effector T cell properties upon activation. Noteworthy, CD83(-) T cells were not able to upregulate CD83 despite activation. Furthermore, CD83(+) T cells suppressed the proliferation and inflammatory cytokine release of CD83(-) T cells in vitro. Strikingly, stimulated CD83(+) T cells released soluble CD83 (sCD83), which has been reported to possess immunosuppressive properties. In vivo, using the murine transfer colitis model we could show that CD83(+) T cells were able to suppress colitis symptoms while CD83(-) T cells possessed effector functions. In addition, this CD83 expression is also conserved on expanded human Treg. Thus, from these studies we conclude that CD83(+) T cells share important features with regulatory T cells, identifying CD83 as a novel lineage marker to discriminate between different T cell populations. PMID:25151500

Kreiser, Simon; Eckhardt, Jenny; Kuhnt, Christine; Stein, Marcello; Krzyzak, Lena; Seitz, Christine; Tucher, Christine; Knippertz, Ilka; Becker, Christoph; Günther, Claudia; Steinkasserer, Alexander; Lechmann, Matthias

2015-02-01

106

Allele compensation in tip60+/- mice rescues white adipose tissue function in vivo.  

PubMed

Adipose tissue is a key regulator of energy homestasis. The amount of adipose tissue is largely determined by adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis), a process that is regulated by the concerted actions of multiple transcription factors and cofactors. Based on in vitro studies in murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and human primary preadipocytes, the transcriptional cofactor and acetyltransferase Tip60 was recently identified as an essential adipogenic factor. We therefore investigated the role of Tip60 on adipocyte differentiation and function, and possible consequences on energy homeostasis, in vivo. Because homozygous inactivation results in early embryonic lethality, Tip60+/- mice were used. Heterozygous inactivation of Tip60 had no effect on body weight, despite slightly higher food intake by Tip60+/- mice. No major effects of heterozygous inactivation of Tip60 were observed on adipose tissue and liver, and Tip60+/- displayed normal glucose tolerance, both on a low fat and a high fat diet. While Tip60 mRNA was reduced to 50% in adipose tissue, the protein levels were unaltered, suggesting compensation by the intact allele. These findings indicate that the in vivo role of Tip60 in adipocyte differentiation and function cannot be properly addressed in Tip60+/- mice, but requires the generation of adipose tissue-specific knock out animals or specific knock-in mice. PMID:24870614

Gao, Yuan; Hamers, Nicole; Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Berger, Ruud; Lough, John; Kalkhoven, Eric

2014-01-01

107

Consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation for effector T cell function in vivo  

SciTech Connect

The adoptive transfer of acutely primed and memory virus-immune CD8+ T cells causes enhanced meningitis in both cyclophosphamide (Cy) suppressed, and unsuppressed, recipients infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). The severity of meningitis is assessed by counting cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from the cisterna magna, which allows measurement of significant inflammatory process ranging from 3 to more than 300 times the background number of cells found in mice injected with virus alone. Exposure of the donor immune population to ionizing radiation prior to transfer has shown that activated T cells from mice primed 7 or 8 days previously with virus may still promote a low level of meningitis in unsuppressed recipients following as much as 800 rads, while this effect is lost totally in Cy-suppressed mice at 600 rads. Memory T cells are more susceptible and show no evidence of in vivo effector function in either recipient population subsequent to 400 rads, a dose level which also greatly reduces the efficacy of acutely-primed T cells. The results are interpreted as indicating that heavily irradiated cells that are already fully functional show evidence of primary localization to the CNS and a limited capacity to cause pathology. Secondary localization, and events that require further proliferation of the T cells in vivo, are greatly inhibited by irradiation.

Rouse, B.T.; Hartley, D.; Doherty, P.C. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (USA))

1989-01-01

108

PET and SPECT Radiotracers to Assess Function and Expression of ABC Transporters in Vivo  

PubMed Central

Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, such as P-glycoprotein (Pgp, ABCB1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) are expressed in high concentrations at various physiological barriers (e.g. blood-brain barrier, blood-testis barrier, blood-tumor barrier), where they impede the tissue accumulation of various drugs by active efflux transport. Changes in ABC transporter expression and function are thought to be implicated in various diseases, such as cancer, epilepsy, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. The availability of a non-invasive imaging method which allows for measuring ABC transporter function or expression in vivo would be of great clinical use in that it could facilitate the identification of those patients that would benefit from treatment with ABC transporter modulating drugs. To date three different kinds of imaging probes have been described to measure ABC transporters in vivo: i) radiolabelled transporter substrates ii) radiolabelled transporter inhibitors and iii) radiolabelled prodrugs which are enzymatically converted into transporter substrates in the organ of interest (e.g. brain). The design of new imaging probes to visualize efflux transporters is inter alia complicated by the overlapping substrate recognition pattern of different ABC transporter types. The present article will describe currently available ABC transporter radiotracers for positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and critically discuss strengths and limitations of individual probes and their potential clinical applications. PMID:21434859

Mairinger, Severin; Erker, Thomas; Müller, Markus; Langer, Oliver

2013-01-01

109

Selection of antibodies for intracellular function using a two-hybrid in vivo system  

PubMed Central

Expression of antibodies inside cells has been used successfully to ablate protein function. This finding suggests that the technology should have an impact on disease treatment and in functional genomics where proteins of unknown function are predicted from genomic sequences. A major hindrance is the paucity of antibodies that function in eukaryotic cells, presumably because the antibodies fold incorrectly in the cytoplasm. To overcome this problem, we have developed an in vivo assay for functional intracellular antibodies using a two-hybrid approach. In this assay, antibody, as single-chain Fv (scFv) linked to a transcriptional transactivation domain, can interact with a target antigen, linked to a LexA-DNA binding domain, and thereby activate a reporter gene. We find that several characterized antibodies can bind their target antigen in eukaryotic cells in this two-hybrid format, and we have been able to isolate intracellular binders from among sets of scFv that can bind antigen in vitro. Furthermore, we show a model selection in which a single scFv was isolated from a mixture of half a million clones, indicating that this is a robust procedure that should facilitate capture of antibody specificities from complex mixtures. The approach can provide the basis for de novo selection of intracellular scFv from libraries, such as those made from spleen RNA after immunization with antigen, for intracellular analysis of protein function based only on genomic or cDNA sequences. PMID:10518517

Visintin, Michela; Tse, Eric; Axelson, Hakan; Rabbitts, Terence H.; Cattaneo, Antonino

1999-01-01

110

Novel peptides functionally targeting in vivo human lung cancer discovered by in vivo peptide displayed phage screening.  

PubMed

Discovery of the cancer-specific peptidic ligands have been emphasized for active targeting drug delivery system and non-invasive imaging. For the discovery of useful and applicable peptidic ligands, in vivo peptide-displayed phage screening has been performed in this study using a xenograft mouse model as a mimic microenvironment to tumor. To seek human lung cancer-specific peptides, M13 phage library displaying 2.9 × 10(9) random peptides was intravenously injected into mouse model bearing A549-derived xenograft tumor through the tail vein. Then the phages emerged from a course of four rounds of biopanning in the xenograft tumor tissue. Novel peptides were categorized into four groups according to a sequence-homology phylogenicity, and in vivo tumor-targeting capacity of these peptides was validated by whole body imaging with Cy5.5-labeled phages in various cancer types. The result revealed that novel peptides accumulated only in adenocarcinoma lung cancer cell-derived xenograft tissue. For further confirmation of the specific targeting ability, in vitro cell-binding assay and immunohistochemistry in vivo tumor tissue were performed with a selected peptide. The peptide was found to bind intensely to lung cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, which was efficiently compromised with unlabeled phages in an in vitro competition assay. In conclusion, the peptides specifically targeting human lung cancer were discovered in this study, which is warranted to provide substantive feasibilities for drug delivery and imaging in terms of a novel targeted therapeutics and diagnostics. PMID:25366491

Lee, Kyoung Jin; Lee, Jae Hee; Chung, Hye Kyung; Choi, Jinhyang; Park, Jaesook; Park, Seok Soon; Ju, Eun Jin; Park, Jin; Shin, Seol Hwa; Park, Hye Ji; Ko, Eun Jung; Suh, Nayoung; Kim, InKi; Hwang, Jung Jin; Song, Si Yeol; Jeong, Seong-Yun; Choi, Eun Kyung

2015-02-01

111

The synthesis and in vivo assembly of functional antibodies in yeast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can synthesize, process and secrete higher eukaryotic proteins1-5. We have investigated the expression of immunoglobulin chains in yeast and demonstrate here (1) the synthesis, processing and secretion of light and heavy chains, (2) the glycosylation of heavy chain, (3) the intracellular localization of these foreign proteins by immunofluorescence, and (4) the detection of functional antibodies in cells co-expressing both chains. This may provide the basis of a microbial fermentation process for the production of monoclonal antibodies. The co-expression of light and heavy chains in Escherichia coli has been reported but functional antibodies were not assembled in vivo6,7. Furthermore, only low-level assembly of these chains was found in vitro.

Wood, Clive R.; Boss, Michael A.; Kenten, John H.; Calvert, Jane E.; Roberts, Nicola A.; Emtage, J. Spencer

1985-04-01

112

In vivo analysis of Kv?2 function in Xenopus embryonic myocytes  

PubMed Central

Kv1 potassium channels consist of pore-forming ? subunits as well as auxiliary ? subunits. In heterologous systems, Kv1? subunits suffice for induction of voltage-dependent potassium current (IKv). Although Kv1 channels can be expressed without auxiliary subunits in heterologous systems, coexpression with Kv? subunits has dramatic effects on surface expression and kinetic properties. Much less is known about the functional roles of Kv? subunits in vivo, despite their presence in the majority of native Kv1 channel complexes. We used an antisense approach to probe the contribution of Kv?2 subunits to native Kv1 channel function in embryonic myocytes. We compared the effects of antisense Kv?2 treatment on the whole cell IKv to those produced by overexpression of a dominant-negative Kv1? subunit. The reductions in the maximal potassium conductance produced by antisense Kv?2 treatment and elimination of Kv1? subunit function were not significantly different from each other. In addition, simultaneous elimination of Kv1? and Kv?2 subunit function resulted in no further reduction of the maximal conductance. The Kv channel complexes targeted by Kv?2 and/or Kv1? subunit elimination contributed to action potential repolarization because elimination of either or both subunits led to increases in the duration of the action potential. As for potassium conductance, the effects of elimination of both ? and ? subunits on the duration of the action potential were not additive. Taken together, the results suggest that Kv1 potassium channel complexes in vivo have a strong requirement for both ? and ? subunits. PMID:12068032

Lazaroff, Meredith A; Taylor, Alison D; Ribera, Angeles B

2002-01-01

113

In vivo analysis of Kvbeta2 function in Xenopus embryonic myocytes.  

PubMed

Kv1 potassium channels consist of pore-forming alpha subunits as well as auxiliary beta subunits. In heterologous systems, Kv1alpha subunits suffice for induction of voltage-dependent potassium current (I(Kv)). Although Kv1 channels can be expressed without auxiliary subunits in heterologous systems, coexpression with Kvbeta subunits has dramatic effects on surface expression and kinetic properties. Much less is known about the functional roles of Kvbeta subunits in vivo, despite their presence in the majority of native Kv1 channel complexes. We used an antisense approach to probe the contribution of Kvbeta2 subunits to native Kv1 channel function in embryonic myocytes. We compared the effects of antisense Kvbeta2 treatment on the whole cell I(Kv) to those produced by overexpression of a dominant-negative Kv1alpha subunit. The reductions in the maximal potassium conductance produced by antisense Kvbeta2 treatment and elimination of Kv1alpha subunit function were not significantly different from each other. In addition, simultaneous elimination of Kv1alpha and Kvbeta2 subunit function resulted in no further reduction of the maximal conductance. The Kv channel complexes targeted by Kvbeta2 and/or Kv1alpha subunit elimination contributed to action potential repolarization because elimination of either or both subunits led to increases in the duration of the action potential. As for potassium conductance, the effects of elimination of both alpha and beta subunits on the duration of the action potential were not additive. Taken together, the results suggest that Kv1 potassium channel complexes in vivo have a strong requirement for both alpha and beta subunits. PMID:12068032

Lazaroff, Meredith A; Taylor, Alison D; Ribera, Angeles B

2002-06-15

114

Administration of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist to mares at different times during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle.  

PubMed

The GnRH antagonist cetrorelix was given during the early (Days 1-5), mid (Days 6-10 or 5-12) or for the entire (Days 1-16) luteal phase of mares to inhibit the secretion of FSH and LH (Day 0=ovulation). Frequent blood sampling from Day 6 to Day 14 was used to determine the precise time-course of the suppression (cetrorelix given Days 6-10). Cetrorelix treatment caused a decrease in FSH and LH concentrations by 8 and 16 h, respectively, and an obliteration of the response to exogenous GnRH given 24h after treatment onset. Treatment never suppressed gonadotropin concentrations to undetectable levels; e.g. frequent sampling showed that the nadirs reached in FSH and LH were 46.2±6% and 33.1±11%, respectively, of pre-treatment concentrations. Daily FSH concentrations were decreased in all treatment groups but daily LH concentrations were lower only when treatment commenced at the beginning of the luteal phase; progesterone concentrations depended on the time of cetrorelix administration, but the changes suggested a role for LH in corpus luteum function. The inter-ovulatory interval was longer than controls when cetrorelix was given in the mid- or for the entire luteal phase, but was unaffected by treatment in the early phase. Nevertheless, in all groups, FSH concentrations were higher (P<0.05 when compared to Day 0, subsequent ovulation) approximately 6-10 days before this next ovulation. This consistent relationship suggests a stringent requirement for a GnRH-induced elevation of FSH above a threshold at, but only at, this time; i.e. approximately 6-10 days before ovulation. PMID:21889856

Evans, Margaret J; Alexander, Susan L; Irvine, Clifford H G; Kitson, Niere E; Taylor, T Bruce

2011-09-01

115

Exposure-in-vivo containing interventions to improve work functioning of workers with anxiety disorder: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are associated with functional disability, sickness absence, and decreased productivity. Effective treatments of anxiety disorders can result in remission of symptoms. However the effects on work related outcomes are largely unknown. Exposure in vivo is potentially well fit to improve work-related outcomes. This study systematically reviews the effectiveness of exposure-in-vivo containing interventions in reducing work-related adverse outcomes

Erik Noordik; Jac JL van der Klink; Elmer F Klingen; Karen Nieuwenhuijsen; Frank JH van Dijk

2010-01-01

116

Body adiposity dictates different mechanisms of increased coronary reactivity related to improved in vivo cardiac function  

PubMed Central

Background Saturated fatty acid-rich high fat (HF) diets trigger abdominal adiposity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiac dysfunction. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of nascent obesity on the cardiac function of animals fed a high-fat diet and at analyzing the mechanisms by which these alterations occurred at the level of coronary reserve. Materials and methods Rats were fed a control (C) or a HF diet containing high proportions of saturated fatty acids for 3 months. Thereafter, their cardiac function was evaluated in vivo using a pressure probe inserted into the cavity of the left ventricle. Their heart was isolated, perfused iso-volumetrically according to the Langendorff mode and the coronary reserve was evaluated by determining the endothelial-dependent (EDV) and endothelial-independent (EIV) vasodilatations in the absence and presence of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase inhibitors (L-NAME and indomethacin). The fatty acid composition of cardiac phospholipids was then evaluated. Results Although all the HF-fed rats increased their abdominal adiposity, some of them did not gain body weight (HF- group) compared to the C group whereas other ones had a higher body weight (HF+). All HF rats displayed a higher in vivo cardiac activity associated with an increased EDV. In the HF- group, the improved EDV was due to an increase in the endothelial cell vasodilatation activity whereas in the HF+?group, the enhanced EDV resulted from an improved sensitivity of coronary smooth muscle cells to nitric oxide. Furthermore, in the HF- group the main pathway implicated in the EDV was the NOS pathway while in the HF+?group the COX pathway. Conclusions Nascent obesity-induced improvement of cardiac function may be supported by an enhanced coronary reserve occurring via different mechanisms. These mechanisms implicate either the endothelial cells activity or the smooth muscle cells sensitivity depending on the body adiposity of the animals. PMID:24572210

2014-01-01

117

Congenital Heart Disease–Causing Gata4 Mutation Displays Functional Deficits In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Defects of atrial and ventricular septation are the most frequent form of congenital heart disease, accounting for almost 50% of all cases. We previously reported that a heterozygous G296S missense mutation of GATA4 caused atrial and ventricular septal defects and pulmonary valve stenosis in humans. GATA4 encodes a cardiac transcription factor, and when deleted in mice it results in cardiac bifida and lethality by embryonic day (E)9.5. In vitro, the mutant GATA4 protein has a reduced DNA binding affinity and transcriptional activity and abolishes a physical interaction with TBX5, a transcription factor critical for normal heart formation. To characterize the mutation in vivo, we generated mice harboring the same mutation, Gata4 G295S. Mice homozygous for the Gata4 G295S mutant allele have normal ventral body patterning and heart looping, but have a thin ventricular myocardium, single ventricular chamber, and lethality by E11.5. While heterozygous Gata4 G295S mutant mice are viable, a subset of these mice have semilunar valve stenosis and small defects of the atrial septum. Gene expression studies of homozygous mutant mice suggest the G295S protein can sufficiently activate downstream targets of Gata4 in the endoderm but not in the developing heart. Cardiomyocyte proliferation deficits and decreased cardiac expression of CCND2, a member of the cyclin family and a direct target of Gata4, were found in embryos both homozygous and heterozygous for the Gata4 G295S allele. To further define functions of the Gata4 G295S mutation in vivo, compound mutant mice were generated in which specific cell lineages harbored both the Gata4 G295S mutant and Gata4 null alleles. Examination of these mice demonstrated that the Gata4 G295S protein has functional deficits in early myocardial development. In summary, the Gata4 G295S mutation functions as a hypomorph in vivo and leads to defects in cardiomyocyte proliferation during embryogenesis, which may contribute to the development of congenital heart defects in humans. PMID:22589735

Misra, Chaitali; Sachan, Nita; McNally, Caryn Rothrock; Koenig, Sara N.; Nichols, Haley A.; Guggilam, Anuradha; Lucchesi, Pamela A.; Pu, William T.; Srivastava, Deepak; Garg, Vidu

2012-01-01

118

Selective ex-vivo photothermal ablation of human pancreatic cancer with albumin functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes.  

PubMed

The process of laser-mediated ablation of cancer cells marked with biofunctionalized carbon nanotubes is frequently called "nanophotothermolysis". We herein present a method of selective nanophotothermolisys of pancreatic cancer (PC) using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) functionalized with human serum albumin (HSA). With the purpose of testing the therapeutic value of these nanobioconjugates, we have developed an ex-vivo experimental platform. Surgically resected specimens from patients with PC were preserved in a cold medium and kept alive via intra-arterial perfusion. Additionally, the HSA-MWCNTs have been intra-arterially administered in the greater pancreatic artery under ultrasound guidance. Confocal and transmission electron microscopy combined with immunohistochemical staining have confirmed the selective accumulation of HSA-MWCNTs inside the human PC tissue. The external laser irradiation of the specimen has significantly produced extensive necrosis of the malign tissue after the intra-arterial administration of HSA-MWCNTs, without any harmful effects on the surrounding healthy parenchyma. We have obtained a selective photothermal ablation of the malign tissue based on the selective internalization of MWCNTs with HSA cargo inside the pancreatic adenocarcinoma after the ex-vivo intra-arterial perfusion. PMID:21720504

Mocan, Lucian; Tabaran, Flaviu A; Mocan, Teodora; Bele, Constantin; Orza, Anamaria Ioana; Lucan, Ciprian; Stiufiuc, Rares; Manaila, Ioana; Iulia, Ferencz; Dana, Iancu; Zaharie, Florin; Osian, Gelu; Vlad, Liviu; Iancu, Cornel

2011-01-01

119

In Vivo Evaluation of Vena Caval Filters: Can Function Be Linked to Design Characteristics?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare the five vena caval filters marketed in the United States and one investigational vena caval filter and to determine whether there is an association between their design and their in vivo function.Methods: Four of each type of filter-Simon Nitinol (SN), Bird's Nest (BN), Vena Tech (VT), Greenfield stainless steel (PSGF), Greenfield titanium (TGF), and the investigational stent cone filter (NGF)-were studied for 60 days in 12 sheep. Radiographic and pathologic outcomes to be assessed included clot capture and resolution, vena caval penetration, position of the filter, thrombogenicity, and vessel wall reaction.Results: Filters differed with respect to the number of clot-trapping levels and the interdependence of the legs. All devices were successfully placed. Intentionally embolized clot was captured. One VT and two SN filters migrated in response to clot capture. Resolution of thrombus was variable, and related to the design of the device. Fibrin webbing was widely present with the VT, BN, and SN filters but limited in the others. The VT and NGF filters demonstrated the most stable filter base diameter.Conclusions: The performance of vena caval filters differs with respect to clot resolution and mechanical stability. Interdependent filter limbs and single-stage conical capture sites appear to result in more favorable performance in in vivo studies.

Proctor, Mary C. [Department of Surgery, University of Michigan Hospitals, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0346 (United States); Cho, Kyung J. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Hospitals, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0346 (United States); Greenfield, Lazar J. [Department of Surgery, University of Michigan Hospitals, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0346 (United States)

2000-11-15

120

Characterization and in vivo functional analysis of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe ICLN gene.  

PubMed

During the early steps of snRNP biogenesis, the survival motor neuron (SMN) complex acts together with the methylosome, an entity formed by the pICln protein, WD45, and the PRMT5 methyltransferase. To expand our understanding of the functional relationship between pICln and SMN in vivo, we performed a genetic analysis of an uncharacterized Schizosaccharomyces pombe pICln homolog. Although not essential, the S. pombe ICln (SpICln) protein is important for optimal yeast cell growth. The human ICLN gene complements the ?icln slow-growth phenotype, demonstrating that the identified SpICln sequence is the bona fide human homolog. Consistent with the role of human pICln inferred from in vitro experiments, we found that the SpICln protein is required for optimal production of the spliceosomal snRNPs and for efficient splicing in vivo. Genetic interaction approaches further demonstrate that modulation of ICln activity is unable to compensate for growth defects of SMN-deficient cells. Using a genome-wide approach and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR validation tests, we also show that splicing is differentially altered in ?icln cells. Our data are consistent with the notion that splice site selection and spliceosome kinetics are highly dependent on the concentration of core spliceosomal components. PMID:24298023

Barbarossa, Adrien; Antoine, Etienne; Neel, Henry; Gostan, Thierry; Soret, Johann; Bordonné, Rémy

2014-02-01

121

Behavior of endogenous tumor-associated macrophages assessed in vivo using a functionalized nanoparticle.  

PubMed

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) invade the tumor stroma in many cancers, yet their role is incompletely understood. To visualize and better understand these critical cells in tumor progression, we screened a portfolio of rationally selected, injectable agents to image endogenous TAMs ubiquitously in three different cancer models (colon carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma, and soft tissue sarcoma). AMTA680, a functionally derivatized magneto-fluorescent nanoparticle, labeled a subset of myeloid cells with an "M2" macrophage phenotype, whereas other neighboring cells, including tumor cells and a variety of other leukocytes, remained unlabeled. We further show that AMTA680-labeled endogenous TAMs are not altered and can be tracked noninvasively at different resolutions and using various imaging modalities, e.g., fluorescence molecular tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and multiphoton and confocal intravital microscopy. Quantitative assessment of TAM distribution and activity in vivo identified that these cells cluster in delimited foci within tumors, show relatively low motility, and extend cytoplasmic protrusions for prolonged physical interactions with neighboring tumor cells. Noninvasive imaging can also be used to monitor TAM-depleting regimen quantitatively. Thus, AMTA680 or related cell-targeting agents represent appropriate injectable vehicles for in vivo analysis of the tumor microenvironment. PMID:19412430

Leimgruber, Antoine; Berger, Cedric; Cortez-Retamozo, Virna; Etzrodt, Martin; Newton, Andita P; Waterman, Peter; Figueiredo, Jose Luiz; Kohler, Rainer H; Elpek, Natalie; Mempel, Thorsten R; Swirski, Filip K; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Weissleder, Ralph; Pittet, Mikael J

2009-05-01

122

In Vitro Hematological and In Vivo Vasoactivity Assessment of Dextran Functionalized Graphene  

PubMed Central

The intravenous, intramuscular or intraperitoneal administration of water solubilized graphene nanoparticles for biomedical applications will result in their interaction with the hematological components and vasculature. Herein, we have investigated the effects of dextran functionalized graphene nanoplatelets (GNP-Dex) on histamine release, platelet activation, immune activation, blood cell hemolysis in vitro, and vasoactivity in vivo. The results indicate that GNP-Dex formulations prevented histamine release from activated RBL-2H3 rat mast cells, and at concentrations ? 7?mg/ml, showed a 12–20% increase in levels of complement proteins. Cytokine (TNF-Alpha and IL-10) levels remained within normal range. GNP-Dex formulations did not cause platelet activation or blood cell hemolysis. Using the hamster cheek pouch in vivo model, the initial vasoactivity of GNP-Dex at concentrations (1–50?mg/ml) equivalent to the first pass of a bolus injection was a brief concentration-dependent dilation in arcade and terminal arterioles. However, they did not induce a pro-inflammatory endothelial dysfunction effect. PMID:24002570

Chowdhury, Sayan Mullick; Kanakia, Shruti; Toussaint, Jimmy D.; Frame, Mary D.; Dewar, Anthony M.; Shroyer, Kenneth R.; Moore, William; Sitharaman, Balaji

2013-01-01

123

Novel Functional Complexity of Polycystin-1 by GPS Cleavage In Vivo: Role in Polycystic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Polycystin-1 (Pc1) cleavage at the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) proteolytic site (GPS) is required for normal kidney morphology in humans and mice. We found a complex pattern of endogenous Pc1 forms by GPS cleavage. GPS cleavage generates not only the heterodimeric cleaved full-length Pc1 (Pc1cFL) in which the N-terminal fragment (NTF) remains noncovalently associated with the C-terminal fragment (CTF) but also a novel (Pc1) form (Pc1deN) in which NTF becomes detached from CTF. Uncleaved Pc1 (Pc1U) resides primarily in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), whereas both Pc1cFL and Pc1deN traffic through the secretory pathway in vivo. GPS cleavage is not a prerequisite, however, for Pc1 trafficking in vivo. Importantly, Pc1deN is predominantly found at the plasma membrane of renal epithelial cells. By functional genetic complementation with five Pkd1 mouse models, we discovered that CTF plays a crucial role in Pc1deN trafficking. Our studies support GPS cleavage as a critical regulatory mechanism of Pc1 biogenesis and trafficking for proper kidney development and homeostasis. PMID:24958103

Kurbegovic, Almira; Kim, Hyunho; Xu, Hangxue; Yu, Shengqiang; Cruanès, Julie; Maser, Robin L.; Boletta, Alessandra; Trudel, Marie

2014-01-01

124

Selective ex-vivo photothermal ablation of human pancreatic cancer with albumin functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes  

PubMed Central

The process of laser-mediated ablation of cancer cells marked with biofunctionalized carbon nanotubes is frequently called “nanophotothermolysis”. We herein present a method of selective nanophotothermolisys of pancreatic cancer (PC) using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) functionalized with human serum albumin (HSA). With the purpose of testing the therapeutic value of these nanobioconjugates, we have developed an ex-vivo experimental platform. Surgically resected specimens from patients with PC were preserved in a cold medium and kept alive via intra-arterial perfusion. Additionally, the HSA-MWCNTs have been intra-arterially administered in the greater pancreatic artery under ultrasound guidance. Confocal and transmission electron microscopy combined with immunohistochemical staining have confirmed the selective accumulation of HSA-MWCNTs inside the human PC tissue. The external laser irradiation of the specimen has significantly produced extensive necrosis of the malign tissue after the intra-arterial administration of HSA-MWCNTs, without any harmful effects on the surrounding healthy parenchyma. We have obtained a selective photothermal ablation of the malign tissue based on the selective internalization of MWCNTs with HSA cargo inside the pancreatic adenocarcinoma after the ex-vivo intra-arterial perfusion. PMID:21720504

Mocan, Lucian; Tabaran, Flaviu A; Mocan, Teodora; Bele, Constantin; Orza, Anamaria Ioana; Lucan, Ciprian; Stiufiuc, Rares; Manaila, Ioana; Iulia, Ferencz; Dana, Iancu; Zaharie, Florin; Osian, Gelu; Vlad, Liviu; Iancu, Cornel

2011-01-01

125

Fish meal supplementation increases bovine plasma and luteal tissue omega-3 fatty acid composition.  

PubMed

The objective of this experiment was to determine if dietary inclusion of fish meal would increase plasma and luteal tissue concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Seventeen nonlactating Angus cows (2 to 8 yr of age) were housed in individual pens and fed a corn silage-based diet for approximately 60 d. Diets were supplemented with fish meal at 5% DMI (a rich source of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid; n = 9 cows) or corn gluten meal at 6% DMI (n = 8 cows). Body weights and jugular blood samples were collected immediately before the initiation of supplementation and every 7 d thereafter for 56 d to monitor plasma n-3 fatty acid composition and BW. Estrous cycles were synchronized using 2 injections of PGF(2?) administered at 14-d intervals. The ovary bearing the corpus luteum was surgically removed at midcycle (between d 10 and 12) after estrus synchronization, which corresponded to approximately d 60 of supplementation. The ovary was transported to the laboratory, and approximately 1.5 g of luteal tissue was stored at -80°C until analyzed for n-3 fatty acid content. Initial and ending BW did not differ (P > 0.10) between cows supplemented with fish meal and those with corn gluten meal. Plasma eicosapentaenoic acid was greater (P < 0.05) beginning at d 7 of supplementation and docosahexaenoic was greater (P < 0.05) beginning at d 14 of supplementation for cows receiving fish meal. Luteal tissue collected from fish meal-supplemented cows had greater (P < 0.05) luteal n-3 fatty acids and reduced (P < 0.05) arachidonic acid and n-6 to n-3 ratio as compared with tissue obtained from cows supplemented with corn gluten meal. Our data show that fish meal supplementation increases luteal n-3 fatty acid content and reduces available arachidonic acid content, the precursor for PGF(2?). The increase in luteal n-3 fatty acids may reduce PGF(2?) intraluteal synthesis after breeding resulting in increased fertility in cattle. PMID:22003234

White, N R; Burns, P D; Cheatham, R D; Romero, R M; Nozykowski, J P; Bruemmer, J E; Engle, T E

2012-03-01

126

The relationship between serum adiponectin and postpartum luteal activity in high-producing dairy cows.  

PubMed

The aims of the present study were to initially determine the pattern of serum adiponectin concentrations during a normal estrous cycle in high-producing postpartum dairy cows and then evaluate the relationship between the serum concentrations of adiponectin and insulin with the commencement of postpartum luteal activity and ovarian activities in clinically healthy high-producing Holstein dairy cows. During a normal estrous cycle of cows (n = 6), serum adiponectin concentrations gradually decreased (P < 0.05) after ovulation by Day-17 estrous cycle and then increased before the next ovulation. Cows with higher peak of milk yield had lower serum adiponectin concentrations by week 7 postpartum (P = 0.01). Serum adiponectin and insulin concentrations in cows with different postpartum luteal activity (based on the progesterone profile) were evaluated using the following class of cows: normal (?45 days, n = 11) and delayed (>45 days, n = 11) commencement of luteal activity (C-LA) and four different profiles of normal luteal activity (NLA, n = 5), prolonged luteal phase (n = 6), delayed first ovulation (n = 6), and anovulation (AOV, n = 5). Serum adiponectin concentrations decreased gradually by week 3 postpartum in NLA and then increased; whereas in AOV and delayed first ovulation, they were decreased after week 3 postpartum (P < 0.05). Moreover, serum adiponectin concentrations in NLA were more than AOV at weeks 5 and 7 postpartum (P = 0.05). The increase in the milk yield from weeks 1 to 7 postpartum in prolonged luteal phase (P = 0.05) and AOV (P = 0.04) cows was more than that of NLA cows. Insulin concentrations were almost maintained at a stable level in NLA cows (P > 0.05), whereas they increased in the other groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, adiponectin concentrations in cows with C-LA greater than 45 days decreased more than those with C-LA 45 days or less after week 3 postpartum (P = 0.002). Serum adiponectin concentrations at week 7 postpartum were lower in delayed C-LA (P = 0.01). Milk yield in cows with C-LA greater than 45 days increased more than cows with C-LA 45 days or less postpartum (P = 0.002). Insulin concentrations increased relatively in parallel from weeks 1 to 7 postpartum in cows either with C-LA greater than 45 or with C-LA 45 days or less. We showed for the first time the profile of serum adiponectin concentrations in a normal estrous cycle of dairy cows, and furthermore, it was found that high-producing dairy cows with higher postpartum serum adiponectin concentrations had NLA and earlier C-LA. PMID:25680575

Kafi, Mojtaba; Tamadon, Amin; Saeb, Mehdi

2015-05-01

127

Enzymatic activity is required for the in vivo functions of CARM1.  

PubMed

CARM1 is one of nine protein arginine methyltransferases that methylate arginine residues in proteins. CARM1 is recruited by many different transcription factors as a positive regulator. Gene targeting of CARM1 in mice has been performed, and knock-out mice, which are smaller than their wild-type littermates, die just after birth. It has been proposed that CARM1 has functions that are independent of its enzymatic activity. Indeed, CARM1 is found to interact with a number of proteins and may have a scaffolding function in this context. However, CARM1 methylates histone H3, PABP1, AIB1, and a number of splicing factors, which strongly suggests that its impact on transcription and splicing is primarily through its ability to modify these substrates. To unequivocally establish the importance of CARM1 enzymatic activity in vivo, we generated an enzyme-dead knock-in of this protein arginine methyltransferase. We determined that knock-in cells and mice have defects similar to those seen in their knock-out counterparts with respect to the time of embryo lethality, T cell development, adipocyte differentiation, and transcriptional coactivator activity. CARM1 requires its enzymatic activity for all of its known cellular functions. Thus, small molecule inhibitors of CARM1 will incapacitate all of the enzyme's cellular functions. PMID:19897492

Kim, Daehoon; Lee, Jaeho; Cheng, Donghang; Li, Jia; Carter, Carla; Richie, Ellen; Bedford, Mark T

2010-01-01

128

Dimerization is essential for 14-3-3zeta stability and function in vivo.  

PubMed

Members of the conserved 14-3-3 protein family spontaneously self-assemble as homo- and heterodimers via conserved sequences in the first four (alphaA-alphaD) of the nine helices that comprise them. Dimeric 14-3-3s bind conserved motifs in diverse protein targets involved in multiple essential cellular processes including signaling, intracellular trafficking, cell cycle regulation, and modulation of enzymatic activities. However, recent mostly in vitro evidence has emerged, suggesting functional and regulatory roles for monomeric 14-3-3s. We capitalized on the simplicity of the 14-3-3 family in Drosophila to investigate in vivo 14-3-3zeta monomer properties and functionality. We report that dimerization is essential for the stability and function of 14-3-3zeta in neurons. Moreover, we reveal the contribution of conserved amino acids in helices A and D to homo- and heterodimerization and their functional consequences on the viability of animals devoid of endogenous 14-3-3zeta. Finally, we present evidence suggesting endogenous homeostatic adjustment of the levels of the second family member in Drosophila, D14-3-3epsilon, to transgenic monomeric and dimerization-competent 14-3-3zeta. PMID:19920133

Messaritou, Georgia; Grammenoudi, Sofia; Skoulakis, Efthimios M C

2010-01-15

129

Dimerization Is Essential for 14-3-3? Stability and Function in Vivo*  

PubMed Central

Members of the conserved 14-3-3 protein family spontaneously self-assemble as homo- and heterodimers via conserved sequences in the first four (?A-?D) of the nine helices that comprise them. Dimeric 14-3-3s bind conserved motifs in diverse protein targets involved in multiple essential cellular processes including signaling, intracellular trafficking, cell cycle regulation, and modulation of enzymatic activities. However, recent mostly in vitro evidence has emerged, suggesting functional and regulatory roles for monomeric 14-3-3s. We capitalized on the simplicity of the 14-3-3 family in Drosophila to investigate in vivo 14-3-3? monomer properties and functionality. We report that dimerization is essential for the stability and function of 14-3-3? in neurons. Moreover, we reveal the contribution of conserved amino acids in helices A and D to homo- and heterodimerization and their functional consequences on the viability of animals devoid of endogenous 14-3-3?. Finally, we present evidence suggesting endogenous homeostatic adjustment of the levels of the second family member in Drosophila, D14-3-3?, to transgenic monomeric and dimerization-competent 14-3-3?. PMID:19920133

Messaritou, Georgia; Grammenoudi, Sofia; Skoulakis, Efthimios M. C.

2010-01-01

130

Elevation of transcription factor Islet-1 levels in vivo increases ?-cell function but not ?-cell mass.  

PubMed

A decrease in the expression of Islet-1 (Isl-1), an islet transcription factor, has been reported in several physiological settings of reduced ?-cell function. Here, we investigate whether an increased level of Isl-1 in islet cells can enhance ?-cell function and/or mass. We demonstrate that transgenic mice with Isl-1 overexpression display improved glucose tolerance and enhanced insulin secretion without significant changes in ? cell mass. From our microarray study, we identify approximately 135 differentially expressed genes in the islets of Isl-1 overexpressing mice that have been implicated to function in numerous biological processes including protein trafficking, metabolism and differentiation. Using real-time PCR we have confirmed upregulation of Caps2, Sec14l4, Slc2a10, P2rx7, Afamin, and Neurogenin 3 that may in part mediate the observed improved insulin secretion in Isl-1 overexpressing mice. These findings show for the first time that Isl-1 is a key factor in regulating adult ? cell function in vivo, and suggest that Isl-1 elevation could be beneficial to improve glucose homeostasis. PMID:22595886

Liu, Jingxuan; Walp, Erik R; May, Catherine Lee

2012-01-01

131

Elevation of transcription factor Islet-1 levels in vivo increases ?-cell function but not ?-cell mass  

PubMed Central

A decrease in the expression of Islet-1 (Isl-1), an islet transcription factor, has been reported in several physiological settings of reduced ?-cell function. Here, we investigate whether an increased level of Isl-1 in islet cells can enhance ?-cell function and/or mass. We demonstrate that transgenic mice with Isl-1 overexpression display improved glucose tolerance and enhanced insulin secretion without significant changes in ? cell mass. From our microarray study, we identify approximately 135 differentially expressed genes in the islets of Isl-1 overexpressing mice that have been implicated to function in numerous biological processes including protein trafficking, metabolism and differentiation. Using real-time PCR we have confirmed upregulation of Caps2, Sec14l4, Slc2a10, P2rx7, Afamin, and Neurogenin 3 that may in part mediate the observed improved insulin secretion in Isl-1 overexpressing mice. These findings show for the first time that Isl-1 is a key factor in regulating adult ? cell function in vivo, and suggest that Isl-1 elevation could be beneficial to improve glucose homeostasis. PMID:22595886

Liu, Jingxuan; Walp, Erik R.; May, Catherine Lee

2012-01-01

132

Effects of environmental tobacco smoke in vivo on rhesus monkey semen quality, sperm function, and sperm metabolism.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to use a non-human primate model to examine the effect of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in vivo on semen quality, sperm function, and sperm metabolism. Four adult rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were exposed to ETS for six months, and semen samples were collected every week for evaluation. ETS exposure in vivo did not affect semen quality and sperm function. The sperm X:Y chromosome ratio remained unchanged after ETS exposure. The sex ratio of the embryos fertilized by ETS-exposed males was not different from the control male. However, sperm showed changes in metabolome detected by NMR during the ETS exposure. We concluded that with the duration and level of ETS exposure in this study, semen quality and sperm function were not affected, whereas sperm did undergo metabolic changes with ETS exposure in vivo. PMID:19159676

Hung, Pei-Hsuan; Froenicke, Lutz; Lin, Ching Yu; Lyons, Leslie A; Miller, Marion G; Pinkerton, Kent E; VandeVoort, Catherine A

2009-04-01

133

Effect of body condition and dietary lipid intake on lipid metabolism, gonadotropin secretion and luteal activity in postpartum beef cows  

E-print Network

increases in luteal blood flow. Secretion of progesterone and blood flow to the luteal ovary are highly correlated (Niswender et al. , 1976). Milvae and Hansel (1985) observed that intrauterine administration of indomethacin between d 4 and 6..., Copelin et al. (1987; 1988) failed to find that corpora lutea destined to be short lived were more sensitive to prostaglandin F2N (PGF2tt). Contrary to work by Milvae and Hansel (1985), postpartum cows receiving intrauterine infusions of indomethacin...

Morgan, Allan Rae

1989-01-01

134

Formulation/Preparation of Functionalized Nanoparticles for In Vivo Targeted Drug Delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Targeted cancer therapy allows the delivery of therapeutic agents to cancer cells without incurring undesirable side effects on the neighboring healthy tissues. Over the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in the development of advanced cancer therapeutics using targeted nanoparticles. Here we describe the preparation of drug-encapsulated nanoparticles formulated with biocompatible and biodegradable poly( d, l-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-b-PEG) copolymer and surface functionalized with the A10 2-fluoropyrimidine ribonucleic acid aptamers that recognize the extracellular domain of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), a well-characterized antigen expressed on the surface of prostate cancer cells. We show that the self-assembled nanoparticles can selectively bind to PSMA-targeted prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. This formulation method may contribute to the development of highly selective and effective cancer therapeutic and diagnostic devices.

Gu, Frank; Langer, Robert; Farokhzad, Omid C.

135

Understanding functional miRNA–target interactions in vivo by site-specific genome engineering  

PubMed Central

MicroRNA (miRNA) target recognition is largely dictated by short ‘seed’ sequences, and single miRNAs therefore have the potential to regulate a large number of genes. Understanding the contribution of specific miRNA–target interactions to the regulation of biological processes in vivo remains challenging. Here we use transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 technologies to interrogate the functional relevance of predicted miRNA response elements (MREs) to post-transcriptional silencing in zebrafish and Drosophila. We also demonstrate an effective strategy that uses CRISPR-mediated homology-directed repair with short oligonucleotide donors for the assessment of MRE activity in human cells. These methods facilitate analysis of the direct phenotypic consequences resulting from blocking specific miRNA–MRE interactions at any point during development. PMID:25135198

Bassett, Andrew R.; Azzam, Ghows; Wheatley, Lucy; Tibbit, Charlotte; Rajakumar, Timothy; McGowan, Simon; Stanger, Nathan; Ewels, Philip Andrew; Taylor, Stephen; Ponting, Chris P.; Liu, Ji-Long; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Fulga, Tudor A.

2014-01-01

136

In vivo neuronal function of the fragile X mental retardation protein is regulated by phosphorylation.  

PubMed

Fragile X syndrome (FXS), caused by loss of the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) gene product (FMRP), is the most common heritable cause of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. It has been long hypothesized that the phosphorylation of serine 500 (S500) in human FMRP controls its function as an RNA-binding translational repressor. To test this hypothesis in vivo, we employed neuronally targeted expression of three human FMR1 transgenes, including wild-type (hFMR1), dephosphomimetic (S500A-hFMR1) and phosphomimetic (S500D-hFMR1), in the Drosophila FXS disease model to investigate phosphorylation requirements. At the molecular level, dfmr1 null mutants exhibit elevated brain protein levels due to loss of translational repressor activity. This defect is rescued for an individual target protein and across the population of brain proteins by the phosphomimetic, whereas the dephosphomimetic phenocopies the null condition. At the cellular level, dfmr1 null synapse architecture exhibits increased area, branching and bouton number. The phosphomimetic fully rescues these synaptogenesis defects, whereas the dephosphomimetic provides no rescue. The presence of Futsch-positive (microtubule-associated protein 1B) supernumerary microtubule loops is elevated in dfmr1 null synapses. The human phosphomimetic restores normal Futsch loops, whereas the dephosphomimetic provides no activity. At the behavioral level, dfmr1 null mutants exhibit strongly impaired olfactory associative learning. The human phosphomimetic targeted only to the brain-learning center restores normal learning ability, whereas the dephosphomimetic provides absolutely no rescue. We conclude that human FMRP S500 phosphorylation is necessary for its in vivo function as a neuronal translational repressor and regulator of synaptic architecture, and for the manifestation of FMRP-dependent learning behavior. PMID:22080836

Coffee, R Lane; Williamson, Ashley J; Adkins, Christopher M; Gray, Marisa C; Page, Terry L; Broadie, Kendal

2012-02-15

137

In vivo function and comparative genomic analyses of the Drosophila gut microbiota identify candidate symbiosis factors  

PubMed Central

Symbiosis is often characterized by co-evolutionary changes in the genomes of the partners involved. An understanding of these changes can provide insight into the nature of the relationship, including the mechanisms that initiate and maintain an association between organisms. In this study we examined the genome sequences of bacteria isolated from the Drosophila melanogaster gut with the objective of identifying genes that are important for function in the host. We compared microbiota isolates with con-specific or closely related bacterial species isolated from non-fly environments. First the phenotype of germ-free Drosophila (axenic flies) was compared to that of flies colonized with specific bacteria (gnotobiotic flies) as a measure of symbiotic function. Non-fly isolates were functionally distinct from bacteria isolated from flies, conferring slower development and an altered nutrient profile in the host, traits known to be microbiota-dependent. Comparative genomic methods were next employed to identify putative symbiosis factors: genes found in bacteria that restore microbiota-dependent traits to gnotobiotic flies, but absent from those that do not. Factors identified include riboflavin synthesis and stress resistance. We also used a phylogenomic approach to identify protein coding genes for which fly-isolate sequences were more similar to each other than to other sequences, reasoning that these genes may have a shared function unique to the fly environment. This method identified genes in Acetobacter species that cluster in two distinct genomic loci: one predicted to be involved in oxidative stress detoxification and another encoding an efflux pump. In summary, we leveraged genomic and in vivo functional comparisons to identify candidate traits that distinguish symbiotic bacteria. These candidates can serve as the basis for further work investigating the genetic requirements of bacteria for function and persistence in the Drosophila gut. PMID:25408687

Newell, Peter D.; Chaston, John M.; Wang, Yiping; Winans, Nathan J.; Sannino, David R.; Wong, Adam C. N.; Dobson, Adam J.; Kagle, Jeanne; Douglas, Angela E.

2014-01-01

138

In vivo function and comparative genomic analyses of the Drosophila gut microbiota identify candidate symbiosis factors.  

PubMed

Symbiosis is often characterized by co-evolutionary changes in the genomes of the partners involved. An understanding of these changes can provide insight into the nature of the relationship, including the mechanisms that initiate and maintain an association between organisms. In this study we examined the genome sequences of bacteria isolated from the Drosophila melanogaster gut with the objective of identifying genes that are important for function in the host. We compared microbiota isolates with con-specific or closely related bacterial species isolated from non-fly environments. First the phenotype of germ-free Drosophila (axenic flies) was compared to that of flies colonized with specific bacteria (gnotobiotic flies) as a measure of symbiotic function. Non-fly isolates were functionally distinct from bacteria isolated from flies, conferring slower development and an altered nutrient profile in the host, traits known to be microbiota-dependent. Comparative genomic methods were next employed to identify putative symbiosis factors: genes found in bacteria that restore microbiota-dependent traits to gnotobiotic flies, but absent from those that do not. Factors identified include riboflavin synthesis and stress resistance. We also used a phylogenomic approach to identify protein coding genes for which fly-isolate sequences were more similar to each other than to other sequences, reasoning that these genes may have a shared function unique to the fly environment. This method identified genes in Acetobacter species that cluster in two distinct genomic loci: one predicted to be involved in oxidative stress detoxification and another encoding an efflux pump. In summary, we leveraged genomic and in vivo functional comparisons to identify candidate traits that distinguish symbiotic bacteria. These candidates can serve as the basis for further work investigating the genetic requirements of bacteria for function and persistence in the Drosophila gut. PMID:25408687

Newell, Peter D; Chaston, John M; Wang, Yiping; Winans, Nathan J; Sannino, David R; Wong, Adam C N; Dobson, Adam J; Kagle, Jeanne; Douglas, Angela E

2014-01-01

139

Development of functional in vivo imaging of cerebral lenticulostriate artery using novel synchrotron radiation angiography.  

PubMed

The lenticulostriate artery plays a vital role in the onset and development of cerebral ischemia. However, current imaging techniques cannot assess the in vivo functioning of small arteries such as the lenticulostriate artery in the brain of rats. Here, we report a novel method to achieve a high resolution multi-functional imaging of the cerebrovascular system using synchrotron radiation angiography, which is based on spatio-temporal analysis of contrast density in the arterial cross section. This method provides a unique tool for studying the sub-cortical vascular elasticity after cerebral ischemia in rats. Using this technique, we demonstrated that the vascular elasticity of the lenticulostriate artery decreased from day 1 to day 7 after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats and recovered from day 7 to day 28 compared to the controls (p < 0.001), which paralleled with brain edema formation and inversely correlated with blood flow velocity (p < 0.05). Our results demonstrated that the change of vascular elasticity was related to the levels of brain edema and the velocity of focal blood flow, suggesting that reducing brain edema is important for the improvement of the function of the lenticulostriate artery in the ischemic brain. PMID:25632958

Lin, Xiaojie; Miao, Peng; Mu, Zhihao; Jiang, Zhen; Lu, Yifan; Guan, Yongjing; Chen, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Tiqiao; Wang, Yongting; Yang, Guo-Yuan

2015-02-21

140

Structure predicts function: Combining non-invasive electrophysiology with in-vivo histology  

PubMed Central

We present an approach for combining high resolution MRI-based myelin mapping with functional information from electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencephalography (MEG). The main contribution to the primary currents detectable with EEG and MEG comes from ionic currents in the apical dendrites of cortical pyramidal cells, aligned perpendicularly to the local cortical surface. We provide evidence from an in-vivo experiment that the variation in MRI-based myeloarchitecture measures across the cortex predicts the variation of the current density over individuals and thus is of functional relevance. Equivalent current dipole locations and moments due to pitch onset evoked response fields (ERFs) were estimated by means of a variational Bayesian algorithm. The myeloarchitecture was estimated indirectly from individual high resolution quantitative multi-parameter maps (MPMs) acquired at 800 ?m isotropic resolution. Myelin estimates across cortical areas correlated positively with dipole magnitude. This correlation was spatially specific: regions of interest in the auditory cortex provided significantly better models than those covering whole hemispheres. Based on the MPM data we identified the auditory cortical area TE1.2 as the most likely origin of the pitch ERFs measured by MEG. We can now proceed to exploit the higher spatial resolution of quantitative MPMs to identify the cortical origin of M/EEG signals, inform M/EEG source reconstruction and explore structure–function relationships at a fine structural level in the living human brain. PMID:25529007

Helbling, Saskia; Teki, Sundeep; Callaghan, Martina F.; Sedley, William; Mohammadi, Siawoosh; Griffiths, Timothy D.; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Barnes, Gareth R.

2015-01-01

141

Development of functional in vivo imaging of cerebral lenticulostriate artery using novel synchrotron radiation angiography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lenticulostriate artery plays a vital role in the onset and development of cerebral ischemia. However, current imaging techniques cannot assess the in vivo functioning of small arteries such as the lenticulostriate artery in the brain of rats. Here, we report a novel method to achieve a high resolution multi-functional imaging of the cerebrovascular system using synchrotron radiation angiography, which is based on spatio-temporal analysis of contrast density in the arterial cross section. This method provides a unique tool for studying the sub-cortical vascular elasticity after cerebral ischemia in rats. Using this technique, we demonstrated that the vascular elasticity of the lenticulostriate artery decreased from day 1 to day 7 after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats and recovered from day 7 to day 28 compared to the controls (p < 0.001), which paralleled with brain edema formation and inversely correlated with blood flow velocity (p < 0.05). Our results demonstrated that the change of vascular elasticity was related to the levels of brain edema and the velocity of focal blood flow, suggesting that reducing brain edema is important for the improvement of the function of the lenticulostriate artery in the ischemic brain.

Lin, Xiaojie; Miao, Peng; Mu, Zhihao; Jiang, Zhen; Lu, Yifan; Guan, Yongjing; Chen, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Tiqiao; Wang, Yongting; Yang, Guo-Yuan

2015-02-01

142

Atypical Membrane Topology and Heteromeric Function of Drosophila Odorant Receptors In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Drosophila olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) each express two odorant receptors (ORs): a divergent member of the OR family and the highly conserved, broadly expressed receptor OR83b. OR83b is essential for olfaction in vivo and enhances OR function in vitro, but the molecular mechanism by which it acts is unknown. Here we demonstrate that OR83b heterodimerizes with conventional ORs early in the endomembrane system in OSNs, couples these complexes to the conserved ciliary trafficking pathway, and is essential to maintain the OR/OR83b complex within the sensory cilia, where odor signal transduction occurs. The OR/OR83b complex is necessary and sufficient to promote functional reconstitution of odor-evoked signaling in sensory neurons that normally respond only to carbon dioxide. Unexpectedly, unlike all known vertebrate and nematode chemosensory receptors, we find that Drosophila ORs and OR83b adopt a novel membrane topology with their N-termini and the most conserved loops in the cytoplasm. These loops mediate direct association of ORs with OR83b. Our results reveal that OR83b is a universal and integral part of the functional OR in Drosophila. This atypical heteromeric and topological design appears to be an insect-specific solution for odor recognition, making the OR/OR83b complex an attractive target for the development of highly selective insect repellents to disrupt olfactory-mediated host-seeking behaviors of insect disease vectors. PMID:16402857

Benton, Richard; Sachse, Silke; Michnick, Stephen W

2006-01-01

143

Effect of naftazone on in vivo platelet function in the rat.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo effects of 50 mg/kg (i.p.) naftazone or ticlopidine on platelet functions in the rat. An automated isotope monitoring system (Aims plus) was used to determine the height of platelet aggregation and disaggregation (measured by the area under the curve, AUC) of 111indium-labelled platelets activated by ADP (10 microg/kg i.v.) or collagen (50 microg/kg i.v.). Fibrinogen-binding experiments were carried out with activated platelets in whole blood and measured by flow cytometry. Naftazone reduced the height of platelet aggregation induced by ADP compared with controls (P = 0.024). Ticlopidine-treated rats gave similar results (P = 0.008). Platelet disaggregation, following the aggregation induced by collagen, was significantly increased in naftazone-treated rats compared with controls (P = 0.003). Similar results were observed with ticlopidine-treated rats (P = 0.002). Fibrinogen binding to 2.5 or 5 microM ADP-stimulated platelets, from naftazone-treated rats, were significantly reduced compared with controls (P = 0.05 and 0.04 respectively). These results show that naftazone has similar inhibitory effects on rat platelet functions as ticloplidine. In conclusion, naftazone could be a useful agent to modulate platelet function in patients with cardiovascular disease. PMID:16801074

McGregor, L; Chignier, E; Bloy, C; Rousselle, C; Peltier-Pujol, F; McGregor, J L

1999-01-01

144

Histological and endocrine characterisation of the annual luteal activity in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).  

PubMed

Lynx presents a unique sexual cycle with persistent corpora lutea (CLs) and elevated serum progesterone (P?) throughout parturition and lactation. In other mammals, CLs normally disintegrate after parturition, therefore the aim of our study was to characterise the annual life cycle of lynx CLs. Ovaries from Eurasian lynxes were obtained from the National Veterinary Institute in Sweden, where tissues from killed lynx were stored at -20?°C. Ovaries from 66 animals were weighed; each corpus luteum was segmented for histology and hormone analysis. Ovary and CLs weights were constant throughout the year, peaking during pregnancy. In non-pregnant lynxes, the seasonal level of intraluteal steroids was steady for P? (3.2±1.9 s.d. ?g/g, n=53) and total oestrogens (18.3±15.5 s.d. ng/g, n=53). Within histology slides, structurally intact luteal cells were found throughout the year with the highest incidence in March/April; evidence of luteal regression was predominantly found in post-breeding season. Ovaries from pregnant animals contained two types of CLs. Group A was bigger in size with large luteal cells (P?, 72.3±65.4 s.d. ?g/g; oestrogen, 454.0±52.4 s.d. ng/g). In contrast, group B were smaller, with greater luteal regression and lower steroid concentrations (P?, 8.3±2.9 s.d. ?g/g; oestrogen, 31.5±20.4 s.d. ng/g). Our results suggest that structural luteolysis proceeds throughout the year and into next breeding cycle, resulting in two CLs types on the same ovary. PMID:22829688

Carnaby, Kim; Painer, Johanna; Söderberg, Arne; Gavier-Widèn, Dolores; Göritz, Frank; Dehnhard, Martin; Jewgenow, Katarina

2012-10-01

145

Impact of the prostaglandin-synthase 2 inhibitor celecoxib on ovulation and luteal events in women  

PubMed Central

Background Ovarian prostaglandins are critical in normal ovulation processes, thus their inhibition may provide contraceptive benefits. This study was performed to determine the effect of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) inhibitor, celecoxib, on ovulation and luteal events in women. Study design Randomized double-blind crossover design. Ovulatory reproductive-aged women underwent ovarian ultrasound and serum hormone monitoring during four menstrual cycles (control cycle, treatment cycle 1, washout cycle, treatment cycle 2). Subjects received study drug (oral celecoxib 400 mg or placebo) either 1) once daily starting on cycle day 8 and continuing until follicle rupture or the onset of next menses if follicle rupture did not occur (pre-LH surge dosing) or 2) once daily beginning with the LH surge and continued for 6 days (post-LH surge dosing). Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the above treatment schemes and received the other in the subsequent treatment cycle. The main outcomes were evidence of ovulatory and luteal dysfunction as determined by inhibited/delayed follicle rupture and reduced luteal progesterone synthesis or lifespan, respectively. Results A total of 20 women enrolled and completed the study (Group 1 = 10, Group 2 = 10) with similar demographics between groups. Nineteen subjects exhibited normal ovulation in the control cycle (one had a blunted LH peak). In comparison to control cycles, treatment cycles resulted in a significant increase in ovulatory dysfunction [pre-LH treatment: 30% (6/20), p = 0.04; post-LH treatment: 25% (5/20), p = 0.04]. Peak progesterone, estradiol, and LH levels and luteal phase length did not differ significantly between control and either treatment cycles. Conclusions Although treatment with celecoxib before or after the LH surge increases the rate of ovulatory dysfunction, most women ovulate normally. Thus, this selective COX2 inhibitor appears to be of limited usefulness as a potential emergency contraceptive. PMID:22902348

Edelman, A.B.; Jensen, J.T.; Doom, C; Hennebold, J.D.

2014-01-01

146

N-acetylcysteine impairs survival of luteal cells through mitochondrial dysfunction.  

PubMed

N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is known as an antioxidant and used for mucus viscosity reduction. However, this drug prevents or induces cell death depending on the cell type. The response of steroidogenic luteal cells to NAC is unknown. Our data shows that NAC can behave as an antioxidant or prooxidant in dependency on the concentration and mitochondrial energization. NAC elevated the flowcytometric-measured portion of hypodiploid (dying) cells. This rise was completely abolished by aurintricarboxylic acid, an inhibitor of topoisomerase II. NAC increased the secretion of nitric oxide and cellular nitrotyrosine. An image analysis indicated that cells pretreated with NAC and loaded with DHR showed a fluorescent structure probably elicited by the oxidative product of DHR, rhodamine 123 that sequesters mitochondrially. Pretreating luteal cells with NAC or adding NAC directly to mitochondrial fractions followed by assessing the mitochondrial transmembrane potential difference (Deltapsi) by the JC-1 technique demonstrated a marked decrease in Deltapsi. A protonophore restored Deltapsi and rotenone (an inhibitor of respiratory chain complex I) inhibited mitochondrial recovering. Thus, in steroidogenic luteal cells from healthy mature corpus luteum, NAC impairs cellular survival by interfering with mitochondrial metabolism. The protonophore-induced recovering of NAC-provoked decrease in Deltapsi indicates that an ATP synthase-favored route of H(+) re-entry to the matrix is essentially switched off by NAC while other respiratory chain complexes remain intact. These data may be important for therapeutic timing of treatments with NAC. (c) 2010 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:20151456

Löhrke, Berthold; Xu, Jinxian; Weitzel, Joachim M; Krüger, Burkhard; Goldammer, Tom; Viergutz, Torsten

2010-04-01

147

Luteal changes after treatment with sub-luteolytic doses of prostaglandin (cloprostenol sodium) in cattle.  

PubMed

This study characterizes the physiological and morphological changes related to partial luteolysis in bovine corpus luteum (CL) after challenges with sub-doses of cloprostenol sodium on Day 6 (D6) of the estrous cycle. Cows (n = 12/treatment) were treated as follows: Control (2 mL, saline, i.m.); 2XPGF (two treatments i.m. 500 ?g of cloprostenol sodium 2 h apart) and 1/6PGF (83.3 ?g of cloprostenol sodium, i.m., once). Plasma progesterone (P4) concentration, CL volume and blood flow were measured immediately before the treatments, then every 8 h (h) for 48 h. In the Control, P4 concentrations were higher at 48 h than at 0 h. P4 decreased 8h after 2XPGF treatment (P < 0.05), and remained low until the end of the trial. P4 decreased in 1/6PGF between 8 and 16 h (P < 0.05), then began to rebound at 24 h. Luteal volume was higher in Controls at 48 h than at 0 h. Under 1/6PGF, luteal volume decreased at 24 h (P < 0.05) and began to rebound at 32 h. Luteal volume and blood flow were reduced starting at 24 and 32 h, respectively, after 2XPGF treatment (P < 0.05). In this study, we were able to describe the partial luteolysis phenomenon, induced by a treatment of a D6CL with cloprostenol sub-dose. PMID:25578505

Trevisol, Eduardo; Ferreira, Jair Camargo; Ackermann, Camila Louise; Destro, Flavia Caroline; Marques Filho, Wolff Camargo; Carmagos, Aline Souza; Biehl, Marcos Vinicius; do Amaral, Jackson Barros; de Figueiredo Pantoja, José Carlos; Sartori, Roberto; Ferreira, João Carlos Pinheiro

2015-02-01

148

Effects of oxytocin-antagonist injections on luteal regression in the goat.  

PubMed Central

Intra-arterial administration of 0.25 ml physiological saline to the non-pregnant goat between days 12 and 20 of the oestrous cycle did not affect luteal regression, which was characterized by decreasing peripheral plasma progesterone concentration, beginning on day 13 of the oestrous cycle, and an increase in the plasma concentration of 13, 14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGFM) as oestrus approached on about day 20. Intra-arterial administration of oxytocin antagonist (OA) in saline at a dose of 0.2 microgram kg-1 body weight to goats between days 12 and 20 of the cycle significantly (P less than 0.001) delayed luteal regression beyond day 20 (to day 26). Injection of OA maintained plasma progesterone secretion at 4-5 ng ml-1 till day 23 of the cycle and suppressed the increase in PGFM concentration. Corpus luteum extract (100 microliters) of OA-treated animals released a significant (P less than 0.001) amount of PGF2 alpha from rat uterus in vitro as did authentic oxytocin. This oxytocic material failed to release PGF2 alpha during luteolysis in the goat, suggesting that oxytocin receptors for PGF2 alpha release may be occupied by OA. It is concluded that oxytocin-receptor interaction in the uterus may be the stimulus for PGF2 alpha release which triggers luteal regression in the goat. PMID:3469006

Homeida, A. M.; Khalafalla, A. E.

1987-01-01

149

Global gene expression in endometrium of high and low fertility heifers during the mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle  

PubMed Central

Background In both beef and dairy cattle, the majority of early embryo loss occurs within the first 14 days following insemination. During this time-period, embryos are completely dependent on their maternal uterine environment for development, growth and ultimately survival, therefore an optimum uterine environment is critical to their survival. The objective of this study was to investigate whether differences in endometrial gene expression during the mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle exist between crossbred beef heifers ranked as either high (HF) or low fertility (LF) (following four rounds of artificial insemination (AI)) using the Affymetrix® 23 K Bovine Gene Chip. Results Conception rates for each of the four rounds of AI were within a normal range: 70–73.3%. Microarray analysis of endometrial tissue collected on day 7 of the estrous cycle detected 419 differentially expressed genes (DEG) between HF (n?=?6) and LF (n?=?6) animals. The main gene pathways affected were, cellular growth and proliferation, angiogenesis, lipid metabolism, cellular and tissue morphology and development, inflammation and metabolic exchange. DEG included, FST, SLC45A2, MMP19, FADS1 and GALNT6. Conclusions This study highlights, some of the molecular mechanisms potentially controlling uterine endometrial function during the mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle, which may contribute to uterine endometrial mediated impaired fertility in cattle. Differentially expressed genes are potential candidate genes for the identification of genetic variation influencing cow fertility, which may be incorporated into future breeding programmes. PMID:24669966

2014-01-01

150

The past, present, and future of x-ray technology for in vivo imaging of function and form  

SciTech Connect

Scientists and clinicians have a keen interest in studying not just the structure of physiological systems, but their motion also, or more generally their form and function. This paper focuses on the technologies that underpin in vivo measurements of form and function of the human body for both research and medical treatment. A concise literature review of x-ray imaging, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, radionuclide imaging, laser Doppler velocimetry, and particle image velocimetry is presented. Additionally, a more detailed review of in vivo x-ray imaging is presented. Finally, two techniques, which the authors believe are representative of the present and future of in vivo x-ray imaging techniques, are presented.

Fouras, A.; Dubsky, S.; Hourigan, K. [Division of Biological Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia) and Fluids Laboratory for Aeronautical and Industrial Research, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Kitchen, M. J. [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Lewis, R. A. [Monash Center for Synchrotron Science, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Hooper, S. B. [Department of Physiology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

2009-05-15

151

Impact of hydrogel nanoparticle size and functionalization on in vivo behavior for lung imaging and therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Polymer chemistry offers the possibility of synthesizing multifunctional nanoparticles which incorporate moieties that enhance diagnostic and therapeutic targeting of cargo delivery to the lung. However, since rules for predicting particle behavior following modification are not well defined, it is essential that probes for tracking fate in vivo are also included. Accordingly, we designed polyacrylamide-based hydrogel particles of differing sizes, functionalized with a nona-arginine cell-penetrating peptide (Arg9), and labeled with imaging components to assess lung retention and cellular uptake after intratracheal administration. Radiolabeled microparticles (1–5 µm diameter) and nanoparticles (20–40 nm diameter) without and with Arg9 showed diffuse airspace distribution by positron emission tomography imaging. Biodistribution studies revealed that particle clearance and extrapulmonary distribution was, in part, size dependent. Microparticles were rapidly cleared by mucociliary routes but unexpectedly, also through the circulation. In contrast, nanoparticles had prolonged lung retention enhanced by Arg9 and were significantly restricted to the lung. For all particle types, uptake was predominant in alveolar macrophages, and, to a lesser extent, lung epithelial cells. In general, particles did not induce local inflammatory responses, with the exception of microparticles bearing Arg9. Whereas microparticles may be advantageous for short-term applications, nano-sized particles constitute an efficient high-retention and non-inflammatory vehicle for the delivery of diagnostic imaging agents and therapeutics to lung airspaces and alveolar macrophages that can be enhanced by Arg9. Importantly, our results show that minor particle modifications may significantly impact in vivo behavior within the complex environments of the lung, underscoring the need for animal modeling. PMID:19852512

Liu, Yongjian; Ibricevic-Richardson, Aida; Cohen, Joel A.; Cohen, Jessica L.; Gunsten, Sean P.; Fréchet, Jean M. J.; Walter, Michael J.; Welch, Michael J.; Brody, Steven L.

2009-01-01

152

In vivo estimation of the glenohumeral joint centre by functional methods: accuracy and repeatability assessment.  

PubMed

Several algorithms have been proposed for determining the centre of rotation of ball joints. These algorithms are used rather to locate the hip joint centre. Few studies have focused on the determination of the glenohumeral joint centre. However, no studies have assessed the accuracy and repeatability of functional methods for glenohumeral joint centre. This paper aims at evaluating the accuracy and the repeatability with which the glenohumeral joint rotation centre (GHRC) can be estimated in vivo by functional methods. The reference joint centre is the glenohumeral anatomical centre obtained by medical imaging. Five functional methods were tested: the algorithm of Gamage and Lasenby (2002), bias compensated (Halvorsen, 2003), symmetrical centre of rotation estimation (Ehrig et al., 2006), normalization method (Chang and Pollard, 2007), helical axis (Woltring et al., 1985). The glenohumeral anatomical centre (GHAC) was deduced from the fitting of the humeral head. Four subjects performed three cycles of three different movements (flexion/extension, abduction/adduction and circumduction). For each test, the location of the glenohumeral joint centre was estimated by the five methods. Analyses focused on the 3D location, on the repeatability of location and on the accuracy by computing the Euclidian distance between the estimated GHRC and the GHAC. For all the methods, the error repeatability was inferior to 8.25 mm. This study showed that there are significant differences between the five functional methods. The smallest distance between the estimated joint centre and the centre of the humeral head was obtained with the method of Gamage and Lasenby (2002). PMID:19875120

Lempereur, Mathieu; Leboeuf, Fabien; Brochard, Sylvain; Rousset, Jean; Burdin, Valérie; Rémy-Néris, Olivier

2010-01-19

153

Caspase inhibitors promote vestibular hair cell survival and function after aminoglycoside treatment in vivo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sensory hair cells of the inner ear undergo apoptosis after acoustic trauma or aminoglycoside antibiotic treatment, causing permanent auditory and vestibular deficits in humans. Previous studies have demonstrated a role for caspase activation in hair cell death and ototoxic injury that can be reduced by concurrent treatment with caspase inhibitors in vitro. In this study, we examined the protective effects of caspase inhibition on hair cell death in vivo after systemic injections of aminoglycosides. In one series of experiments, chickens were implanted with osmotic pumps that administrated the pan-caspase inhibitor z-Val-Ala-Asp(Ome)-fluoromethylketone (zVAD) into inner ear fluids. One day after the surgery, the animals received a 5 d course of treatment with streptomycin, a vestibulotoxic aminoglycoside. Direct infusion of zVAD into the vestibule significantly increased hair cell survival after streptomycin treatment. A second series of experiments determined whether rescued hair cells could function as sensory receptors. Animals treated with streptomycin displayed vestibular system impairment as measured by a greatly reduced vestibulo-ocular response (VOR). In contrast, animals that received concurrent systemic administration of zVAD with streptomycin had both significantly greater hair cell survival and significantly increased VOR responses, as compared with animals treated with streptomycin alone. These findings suggest that inhibiting the activation of caspases promotes the survival of hair cells and protects against vestibular function deficits after aminoglycoside treatment.

Matsui, Jonathan I.; Haque, Asim; Huss, David; Messana, Elizabeth P.; Alosi, Julie A.; Roberson, David W.; Cotanche, Douglas A.; Dickman, J. David; Warchol, Mark E.

2003-01-01

154

Polyglycerolsulfate Functionalized Gold Nanorods as Optoacoustic Signal Nanoamplifiers for In Vivo Bioimaging of Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

We have synthesized a targeted imaging agent for rheumatoid arthritis based on polysulfated gold nanorods. The CTAB layer on gold nanorods was first replaced with PEG-thiol and then with dendritic polyglycerolsulfate at elevated temperature, which resulted in significantly reduced cytotoxicity compared to polyanionic gold nanorods functionalized by non-covalent approaches. In addition to classical characterization methods, we have established a facile UV-VIS based BaCl2 agglomeration assay to confirm a quantitative removal of unbound ligand. With the help of a competitive surface plasmon resonance-based L-selectin binding assay and a leukocyte adhesion-based flow cell assay, we have demonstrated the high inflammation targeting potential of the synthesized gold nanorods in vitro. In combination with the surface plasmon resonance band of AuNRs at 780 nm, these findings permitted the imaging of inflammation in an in vivo mouse model for rheumatoid arthritis with high contrast using multispectral optoacoustic tomography. The study offers a robust method for otherwise difficult to obtain covalently functionalized polyanionic gold nanorods, which are suitable for biological applications as well as a low-cost, actively targeted, and high contrast imaging agent for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. This paves the way for further research in other inflammation associated pathologies, in particular, when photothermal therapy can be applied. PMID:24723984

Vonnemann, Jonathan; Beziere, Nicolas; Böttcher, Christoph; Riese, Sebastian B.; Kuehne, Christian; Dernedde, Jens; Licha, Kai; von Schacky, Claudio; Kosanke, Yvonne; Kimm, Melanie; Meier, Reinhard; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Haag, Rainer

2014-01-01

155

A transcription blocker isolated from a designed repeat protein combinatorial library by in vivo functional screen  

PubMed Central

A highly diverse DNA library coding for ankyrin seven-repeat proteins (ANK-N5C) was designed and constructed by a PCR-based combinatorial assembly strategy. A bacterial melibiose fermentation assay was adapted for in vivo functional screen. We isolated a transcription blocker that completely inhibits the melibiose-dependent expression of ?-galactosidase (MelA) and melibiose permease (MelB) of Escherichia coli by specifically preventing activation of the melAB operon. High-resolution crystal structural determination reveals that the designed ANK-N5C protein has a typical ankyrin fold, and the specific transcription blocker, ANK-N5C-281, forms a domain-swapped dimer. Functional tests suggest that the activity of MelR, a DNA-binding transcription activator and a member of AraC family of transcription factors, is inhibited by ANK-N5C-281 protein. All ANK-N5C proteins are expected to have a concave binding area with negative surface potential, suggesting that the designed ANK-N5C library proteins may facilitate the discovery of binders recognizing structural motifs with positive surface potential, like in DNA-binding proteins. Overall, our results show that the established library is a useful tool for the discovery of novel bioactive reagents. PMID:25627011

Tikhonova, Elena B.; Ethayathulla, Abdul S.; Su, Yue; Hariharan, Parameswaran; Xie, Shicong; Guan, Lan

2015-01-01

156

Twins, quadruplexes, and more: functional aspects of native and engineered RNA self-assembly in vivo  

PubMed Central

The primacy and power of RNA in governing many processes of life has begun to be more fully appreciated in both the discovery and inventive sciences. A variety of RNA interactions regulate gene expression, and structural self-assembly underlies many of these processes. The understanding sparked by these discoveries has inspired and informed the engineering of novel RNA structures, control elements, and genetic circuits in cells. Many of these engineered systems are built up fundamentally from RNA–RNA interactions, often combining modular, rational design with functional selection and screening. It is therefore useful to review the particular class of RNA-based regulatory mechanisms that rely on RNA self-assembly either through homomeric (self–self) or heteromeric (self–nonself) RNA–RNA interactions. Structures and sequence elements within individual RNAs create a basis for the pairing interactions, and in some instances can even lead to the formation of RNA polymers. Example systems of dimers, multimers, and polymers are reviewed in this article in the context of natural systems, wherein the function and impact of self-assemblies are understood. Following this, a brief overview is presented of specific engineered RNA self-assembly systems implemented in vivo, with lessons learned from both discovery and engineering approaches to RNA–RNA self-assembly. PMID:23914307

Lease, Richard A.; Arluison, Véronique; Lavelle, Christophe

2013-01-01

157

Expression of Fc?RIIB Tempers Memory CD8 T-cell Function in vivo  

PubMed Central

During re-infection high-affinity IgG antibodies form complexes with both soluble antigen and antigen displayed on the surface of infected cells. These interactions regulate cellular activation of both innate cells and B cells, which express specific combinations of activating Fc gamma receptors (Fc?RI, Fc?RIII, Fc?RIV) and/or the inhibitory Fc gamma receptor (Fc?RIIB). Direct proof for functional expression of Fc?R by antigen-specific CD8 T-cells is lacking. Here, we show that the majority of memory CD8 T-cells generated by bacterial or viral infection express only Fc?RIIB and that Fc?RIIB could be detected on previously activated human CD8 T-cells. Of note, Fc?R stimulation during in vivo antigen challenge not only inhibited the cytotoxicity of memory CD8 T-cells against peptide-loaded or virus-infected targets, but Fc?RIIB blockade during homologous virus challenge enhanced the secondary CD8 T-cell response. Thus, memory CD8 T-cells intrinsically express a functional Fc?RIIB, permitting antigen-antibody complexes to regulate secondary CD8 T-cell responses. PMID:24285839

Starbeck-Miller, Gabriel R.; Badovinac, Vladimir P.; Barber, Daniel L.; Harty, John T.

2013-01-01

158

Heat shock protein hsp90 regulates dioxin receptor function in vivo.  

PubMed Central

The dioxin (aryl hydrocarbon) receptor is a ligand-dependent basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) factor that binds to xenobiotic response elements of target promoters upon heterodimerization with the bHLH partner factor Arnt. Here we have replaced the bHLH motif of the dioxin receptor with a heterologous DNA-binding domain to create fusion proteins that mediate ligand-dependent transcriptional enhancement in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Previously, our experiments indicated that the ligand-free dioxin receptor is stably associated with the 90-kDa heat shock protein, hsp90. To investigate the role of hsp90 in dioxin signaling we have studied receptor function in a yeast strain where hsp90 expression can be down-regulated to about 5% relative to wild-type levels. At low levels of hsp90, ligand-dependent activation of the chimeric dioxin receptor construct was almost completely inhibited, whereas the activity of a similar chimeric construct containing the structurally related Arnt factor was not affected. Moreover, a chimeric dioxin receptor construct lacking the central ligand- and hsp90-binding region of the receptor showed constitutive transcriptional activity in yeast that was not impaired upon down-regulation of hsp90 expression levels. Thus, these data suggest that hsp90 is a critical determinant of conditional regulation of dioxin receptor function in vivo via the ligand-binding domain. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7753824

Whitelaw, M L; McGuire, J; Picard, D; Gustafsson, J A; Poellinger, L

1995-01-01

159

Transport by Populations of Fast and Slow Kinesins Uncovers Novel Family-Dependent Motor Characteristics Important for In Vivo Function  

E-print Network

Article Transport by Populations of Fast and Slow Kinesins Uncovers Novel Family-Dependent Motor Characteristics Important for In Vivo Function Go¨ker Arpag,1 Shankar Shastry,2 William O. Hancock,2,* and Erkan ABSTRACT Intracellular cargo transport frequently involves multiple motor types, either having opposite

Hancock, William O.

160

in vivo analysis of Drosophila deoxyribonucleoside kinase function in cell cycle, cell survival and anti-cancer drugs resistance  

E-print Network

1 in vivo analysis of Drosophila deoxyribonucleoside kinase function in cell cycle, cell survival Drosophila, deoxyribonucleoside kinase, dNK, antifolate resistance, apoptosis, proliferation, growth, dE2F1. Knecht and S.Carroll and the Bloomington Drosophila stock center for fly strains and antibodies

Boyer, Edmond

161

Quantifying long-term microelectrode array functionality using chronic in vivo impedance testing.  

PubMed

Long-term acquisition of high-quality neural recordings is a cornerstone of neuroprosthetic system design. Mitigating the experimental variability of chronically implanted arrays has been a formidable task because the sensor recording sites can be influenced by biotic and abiotic responses. Several studies have implicated changes in electrical interface impedance as a preliminary marker to infer electrode viability. Microelectrode impedance plays an important role in the monitoring of low amplitude and high-resolution extracellular neural signals. In this work, we seek to quantify long-term microelectrode array functionality and derive an impedance-based predictor for electrode functionality that correlates the recording site electrical properties with the functional neuronal recordings in vivo. High temporal resolution metrics of this type would allow one to assess, predict, and improve electrode performance in the future. In a large cohort of animals, we performed daily impedance measurements and neural signal recordings over long periods (up to 21 weeks) of time in rats using tungsten microwire arrays implanted into the somatosensory cortex. This study revealed that there was a time-varying trend in the modulation of impedance that was related to electrode performance. Single units were best detected from electrodes at time points when the electrode entered into the 40-150 K? impedance range. This impedance trend was modeled across the full cohort of animals to predict future electrode performance. The model was tested on data from all animals and was able to provide predictions of electrode performance chronically. Insight from this study can be combined with knowledge of electrode materials and histological analysis to provide a more comprehensive predictive model of electrode failure in the future. PMID:22442134

Prasad, Abhishek; Sanchez, Justin C

2012-04-01

162

Transdifferentiation of Fast Skeletal Muscle Into Functional Endothelium in Vivo by Transcription Factor Etv2  

PubMed Central

Etsrp/Etv2 (Etv2) is an evolutionarily conserved master regulator of vascular development in vertebrates. Etv2 deficiency prevents the proper specification of the endothelial cell lineage, while its overexpression causes expansion of the endothelial cell lineage in the early embryo or in embryonic stem cells. We hypothesized that Etv2 alone is capable of transdifferentiating later somatic cells into endothelial cells. Using heat shock inducible Etv2 transgenic zebrafish, we demonstrate that Etv2 expression alone is sufficient to transdifferentiate fast skeletal muscle cells into functional blood vessels. Following heat treatment, fast skeletal muscle cells turn on vascular genes and repress muscle genes. Time-lapse imaging clearly shows that muscle cells turn on vascular gene expression, undergo dramatic morphological changes, and integrate into the existing vascular network. Lineage tracing and immunostaining confirm that fast skeletal muscle cells are the source of these newly generated vessels. Microangiography and observed blood flow demonstrated that this new vasculature is capable of supporting circulation. Using pharmacological, transgenic, and morpholino approaches, we further establish that the canonical Wnt pathway is important for induction of the transdifferentiation process, whereas the VEGF pathway provides a maturation signal for the endothelial fate. Additionally, overexpression of Etv2 in mammalian myoblast cells, but not in other cell types examined, induced expression of vascular genes. We have demonstrated in zebrafish that expression of Etv2 alone is sufficient to transdifferentiate fast skeletal muscle into functional endothelial cells in vivo. Given the evolutionarily conserved function of this transcription factor and the responsiveness of mammalian myoblasts to Etv2, it is likely that mammalian muscle cells will respond similarly. PMID:23853546

Gomez, Gustavo A.; Lindgren, Anne G.; Huang, Haigen; Yang, Hanshuo; Yao, Shaohua; Martin, Benjamin L.; Kimelman, David; Lin, Shuo

2013-01-01

163

Soil engineering in vivo: harnessing natural biogeochemical systems for sustainable, multi-functional engineering solutions  

PubMed Central

Carbon sequestration, infrastructure rehabilitation, brownfields clean-up, hazardous waste disposal, water resources protection and global warming—these twenty-first century challenges can neither be solved by the high-energy consumptive practices that hallmark industry today, nor by minor tweaking or optimization of these processes. A more radical, holistic approach is required to develop the sustainable solutions society needs. Most of the above challenges occur within, are supported on, are enabled by or grown from soil. Soil, contrary to conventional civil engineering thought, is a living system host to multiple simultaneous processes. It is proposed herein that ‘soil engineering in vivo’, wherein the natural capacity of soil as a living ecosystem is used to provide multiple solutions simultaneously, may provide new, innovative, sustainable solutions to some of these great challenges of the twenty-first century. This requires a multi-disciplinary perspective that embraces the science of biology, chemistry and physics and applies this knowledge to provide multi-functional civil and environmental engineering designs for the soil environment. For example, can native soil bacterial species moderate the carbonate cycle in soils to simultaneously solidify liquefiable soil, immobilize reactive heavy metals and sequester carbon—effectively providing civil engineering functionality while clarifying the ground water and removing carbon from the atmosphere? Exploration of these ideas has begun in earnest in recent years. This paper explores the potential, challenges and opportunities of this new field, and highlights one biogeochemical function of soil that has shown promise and is developing rapidly as a new technology. The example is used to propose a generalized approach in which the potential of this new field can be fully realized. PMID:20829246

DeJong, Jason T.; Soga, Kenichi; Banwart, Steven A.; Whalley, W. Richard; Ginn, Timothy R.; Nelson, Douglas C.; Mortensen, Brina M.; Martinez, Brian C.; Barkouki, Tammer

2011-01-01

164

Effect of topically applied dexpanthenol on epidermal barrier function and stratum corneum hydration. Results of a human in vivo study.  

PubMed

In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study the effect of topical dexpanthenol (CAS 81-13-0) formulated in two different lipophilic vehicles on epidermal barrier function in vivo was carried out. Seven days' treatment with dexpanthenol improved stratum corneum hydration and reduced transepidermal water loss. Active treatment was statistically different from the vehicle control on both measures. Our results suggest that topical dexpanthenol formulated in either lipophilic vehicle stabilizes the skin barrier function. PMID:10965426

Gehring, W; Gloor, M

2000-07-01

165

Development of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for in vivo Functional Imaging of Biological Tissues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical coherence tomography is a rapidly developing optical imaging modality capable of noninvasively providing depth resolved information of biological tissue at micrometer scale. In this thesis, we described several OCT technologies that can be used to double the imaging depth, realize functional vasculature imaging of biological tissue and increase the imaging speed of OCT system. Aim 1: Use of a scanner to introduce spatial frequency modulation to OCT spectral interferograms for in vivo full-range Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. A novel method was developed that could easily introduce a modulation frequency onto the X-direction (i.e., B-scan) of the FDOCT scanning system, enabling full-range Fourier-domain Optical Coherence Tomography (frFDOCT). Compared to the conventional FDOCT system, the newly developed frFDOCT system can provide increased system sensitivity and deeper imaging depth. The previous technology that can achieve frFDOCT either needed multiple steps for data capturing, which is time consuming, or required additional components which increased the system's complexity. The newly developed method generates a modulation spatial frequency in the spectral interferogram by simply offsetting the probe beam at the X-scanner. Aim 2: Using optical micro-angiography to achieve in vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids. Optical Micro-Angiography (OMAG) is a functional extension of FDOCT technology. It can achieve visualization of vasculature network of biological tissue. In order to apply the OMAG method to image vasculature map of human retina and choroid, a phase compensation algorithm was developed, which could minimize the motion artifacts generated by the movements of human eye and head. Aim 3: Developing ultrahigh sensitive optical micro-angiography to achieve micro vasculature imaging of biological tissue. To improve the vasculature image quality, we developed ultrahigh sensitive OMAG (UHS-OMAG). Unlike conventional OMAG, UHS-OMAG applied the OMAG algorithm onto the slow direction of FDOCT scan (Y-direction). Because the time interval between adjacent B-frames is much longer than that between adjacent A-lines, UHS-OMAG can achieve much higher flow sensitivity compared to the conventional OMAG. In addition, the UHS-OMAG usually employed high frame rate (typically 300 frames per second) to achieve 3D scan, it cost much less time to finish one 3D scan compared to the traditional OMAG. However, when it was applied to visualize vasculature map of human tissue, the motion artifacts caused by the inevitable movements is still the biggest challenge. Based on the phase difference calculated from two adjacent B-frames, a new phase compensation algorithm was developed. Aim 4: Developing ultrahigh speed Spectral Domain OCT system through sequentially controlling two high speed line scan CMOS cameras. Two identical high speed line cameras were employed to build two home build high speed spectrometers. Through sequentially controlling the reading time period of two cameras, the imaging speed of the whole system could reach twice higher than the single camera system. The newly built 800 nm SDOCT system which can work at 500, 000 Hz A-lines capturing speed was then used to achieve in vivo 3D imaging in both high speed and large field of view mode. In addition, through combining with the OMAG algorithm, the newly developed system is capable of providing detailed micro-vasculature imaging of human retina and optic nerve head. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

An, Lin

166

The effects of heat on skin barrier function and in vivo dermal absorption.  

PubMed

Enhanced delivery of ingredients across the stratum corneum (SC) is of great interest for improving the efficacy of topically applied formulations. Various methods for improving dermal penetration have been reported including galvanic devices and micro-needles. From a safety perspective it is important that such approaches do not compromise SC barrier function. This study investigates the influence of topically applied heat in vivo on the dermal uptake and penetration of a model active, allantoin from gel and lotion formulations. A custom designed device was used to deliver 42°C for 30s daily to human subjects after application of two formulations containing allantoin. The results were compared with sites treated with formulations containing no active and no heat, and a control site. In addition to penetration of allantoin, the integrity of the SC was monitored using trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements. The results showed that just 30s of 42°C topically applied heat was enough to cause significantly more penetration of allantoin from the lotion formulation compared with no application of heat. TEWL data indicated that the integrity of the skin was not compromised by the treatment. However, the application of heat did not promote enhanced penetration of the active from the gel formulation. Vehicle composition is therefore an important factor when considering thermal enhancement strategies for targeting actives to the skin. PMID:24445121

Oliveira, Gabriela; Leverett, Jesse C; Emamzadeh, Mandana; Lane, Majella E

2014-04-10

167

Functional integrity of the interrenal tissue of yellow perch from contaminated sites tested in vivo  

SciTech Connect

The normal activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI axis) in response to capture is disrupted in fish subjected to life-long exposure to heavy metals, PCBs and PAHs. The ability to increase plasma cortisol in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) from sites contaminated by heavy metals and organic compounds, and from a reference site was assessed by the Capture stress test and by the ACTH Challenge test, a new standardized in vivo method designed for field studies. The effects of seasonal factors, such as temperature and gonadal maturity on these tests were investigated. Measures of liver and muscle glycogen and histopathology were made to further characterize the biochemical and structural changes that may occur along with hormonal changes. The Capture stress test showed that an acute source of stress induced a lower cortisol response in fish from the highly contaminated site compared to the reference site, revealing a functional impairment of the HPI axis. The ACTH Challenge test showed that the hormonal responsiveness of the cortisol-secreting interrenal tissue, stimulated by a standard dose of ACTH injected i.p., was lower in fish from the highly contaminated site than the reference site. Spring is the season during which the impairment was the most evident. The possibility of using the reduced capacity of feral fish to respond to a standardized ACTH Challenge as an early bioindicator of toxic stress is discussed.

Girard, C.; Brodeur, J.C.; Hontela, A. [Univ. du Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

1995-12-31

168

In vivo effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali) extract on reproductive functions in the rat.  

PubMed

An aqueous extract of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali; TA) roots is traditionally used to enhance male sexuality. Because previous studies are limited to only few sperm parameters or testosterone concentration, this study investigated the in vivo effects of TA on body and organ weight as well as functional sperm parameters in terms of safety and efficacy in the management of male infertility. Forty-two male rats were divided into a control, low-dose (200 mg kg(-1) BW) and high-dose (800 mg kg(-1) BW) group (n = 14). Rats were force-fed for 14 days and then sacrificed. Total body and organ weights of the prostate, testes, epididymides, gastrocnemius muscle and the omentum were recorded. Moreover, testosterone concentration, sperm concentration, motility, velocity, vitality, acrosome reaction and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were assessed. Whilst TA decreased BW by 5.7% (P = 0.0276) and omentum fat by 31.9% (P = 0.0496), no changes in organ weights were found for the prostate, testes and epididymides. Testosterone concentration increased by 30.2% (P = 0.0544). Muscle weight also increased, yet not significantly. Whilst sperm concentration, total and progressive motility and vitality increased significantly, MMP improved markedly (P = 0.0765) by 25.1%. Because no detrimental effect could be observed, TA appears safe for possible treatment of male infertility and ageing male problems. PMID:23464350

Solomon, M C; Erasmus, N; Henkel, R R

2014-05-01

169

Functionalization of iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles with targeting ligands: their physicochemical properties and in vivo behavior  

PubMed Central

Aims To develop and evaluate two tumor-specific nanoprobes by functionalization of a PEG-immobilized nanoparticle with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) or chlorotoxin (CTX) ligand that targets ?v?3 integrin and MMP-2 receptors, respectively. Materials and Methods The nanoprobes were made of iron oxide cores, biocompatible polymer coating, and surface-conjugated RGD or CTX peptide. The tumor-targeting specificity of the nanoprobes was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Results and Discussion Both nanoprobes were highly dispersive and exhibited excellent long-term stability in cell culture media. The RGD-conjugated nanoprobe displayed a strong initial accumulation near neovasculatures in tumors followed by quick clearance. Conversely, the CTX-enabled nanoprobe exhibited sustained accumulation throughout the tumor. Conclusion These findings revealed the influence of the targeting ligands on the intratumoral distribution of the ligand-enabled nanoprobes. With flexible surface chemistry, our nanoparticle platform can be used in a modular fashion to conjugate biomolecules for intended applications. PMID:21128719

Fang, Chen; Veiseh, Omid; Kievit, Forrest; Bhattarai, Narayan; Wang, Freddy; Stephen, Zach; Li, Chun; Lee, Donghoon; Ellenbogen, Richard G.; Zhang, Miqin

2010-01-01

170

Exposure to low mercury concentration in vivo impairs myocardial contractile function  

SciTech Connect

Increased cardiovascular risk after mercury exposure has been described but cardiac effects resulting from controlled chronic treatment are not yet well explored. We analyzed the effects of chronic exposure to low mercury concentrations on hemodynamic and ventricular function of isolated hearts. Wistar rats were treated with HgCl{sub 2} (1st dose 4.6 {mu}g/kg, subsequent dose 0.07 {mu}g/kg/day, im, 30 days) or vehicle. Mercury treatment did not affect blood pressure (BP) nor produced cardiac hypertrophy or changes of myocyte morphometry and collagen content. This treatment: 1) in vivo increased left ventricle end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) without changing left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) and heart rate; 2) in isolated hearts reduced LV isovolumic systolic pressure and time derivatives, and {beta}-adrenergic response; 3) increased myosin ATPase activity; 4) reduced Na{sup +}-K{sup +} ATPase (NKA) activity; 5) reduced protein expression of SERCA and phosphorylated phospholamban on serine 16 while phospholamban expression increased; as a consequence SERCA/phospholamban ratio reduced; 6) reduced sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX) protein expression and {alpha}-1 isoform of NKA, whereas {alpha}-2 isoform of NKA did not change. Chronic exposure for 30 days to low concentrations of mercury does not change BP, heart rate or LVSP but produces small but significant increase of LVEDP. However, in isolated hearts mercury treatment promoted contractility dysfunction as a result of the decreased NKA activity, reduction of NCX and SERCA and increased PLB protein expression. These findings offer further evidence that mercury chronic exposure, even at small concentrations, is an environmental risk factor affecting heart function. - Highlights: > Unchanges blood pressure, heart rate, systolic pressure. > Increases end diastolic pressure. > Promotes cardiac contractility dysfunction. > Decreases NKA activity, NCX and SERCA, increases PLB protein expression. > Small concentrations constitutes environmental cardiovascular risk factor.

Furieri, Lorena Barros; Fioresi, Mirian; Junior, Rogerio Faustino Ribeiro [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Bartolome, Maria Visitacion [Department of Physiology, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Fernandes, Aurelia Araujo [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Cachofeiro, Victoria; Lahera, Vicente [Department of Physiology, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Salaices, Mercedes [Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Stefanon, Ivanita [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Vassallo, Dalton Valentim, E-mail: daltonv2@terra.com.br [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Health Science Center of Vitoria-EMESCAM, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

2011-09-01

171

In vivo exposure to bicarbonate/lactate- and bicarbonate-buffered peritoneal dialysis fluids improves ex vivo peritoneal macrophage function.  

PubMed

The impact on peritoneal macrophage (PMO) function of acidic lactate-buffered (Lac-PDF [PD4]; 40 mmol/L of lactate; pH 5.2) and neutral-pH, bicarbonate-buffered (TB; 38 mmol/L of bicarbonate; pH 7. 3) and bicarbonate/lactate-buffered (TBL; 25 mmol/L of bicarbonate/15 mmol/L of lactate; pH 7.3) peritoneal dialysis fluids (PDFs) was compared during a study of continuous therapy with PD4, TB, or TBL. During a run-in phase of 6 weeks when all patients (n = 15) were treated with their regular dialysis regimen with Lac-PDF, median PMO tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) release values were 203.6, 89.9, and 115.5 pg TNFalpha/10(6) PMO in the patients subsequently randomized to the PD4, TB, and TBL treatment groups, respectively. Median stimulated TNFalpha values (serum-treated zymosan [STZ], 10 microgram/mL) were 1,894.6, 567.3, and 554.5 pg TNFalpha/10(6) PMO in the same groups, respectively. During the trial phase of 12 weeks, when the three groups of patients (n = 5 per group) were randomized to continuous treatment with PD4, TB, or TBL, median constitutive TNFalpha release values were 204.7, 131.4, and 155.4 pg TNFalpha/10(6) PMO, respectively. Stimulated TNFalpha values (STZ, 10 microgram/mL) were 1,911, 1,832, and 1,378 pg TNFalpha/10(6) PMO in the same groups, respectively. Repeated-measures analysis of variance comparing the run-in phase with the trial phase showed that PMO TNFalpha release was significantly elevated in patients treated with both TB (P = 0.040) and TBL (P = 0.014) but not in patients treated with Lac-PDF (P = 0. 795). These data suggest that patients continuously exposed to bicarbonate- and bicarbonate/lactate-buffered PDFs might have better preserved PMO function and thus improved host defense status. PMID:10620552

Mackenzie, R K; Jones, S; Moseley, A; Holmes, C J; Argyle, R; Williams, J D; Coles, G A; Pu, K; Faict, D; Topley, N

2000-01-01

172

Microtubule depolymerization normalizes in vivo myocardial contractile function in dogs with pressure-overload left ventricular hypertrophy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: Because initially compensatory myocardial hypertrophy in response to pressure overloading may eventually decompensate to myocardial failure, mechanisms responsible for this transition have long been sought. One such mechanism established in vitro is densification of the cellular microtubule network, which imposes a viscous load that inhibits cardiocyte contraction. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the present study, we extended this in vitro finding to the in vivo level and tested the hypothesis that this cytoskeletal abnormality is important in the in vivo contractile dysfunction that occurs in experimental aortic stenosis in the adult dog. In 8 dogs in which gradual stenosis of the ascending aorta had caused severe left ventricular (LV) pressure overloading (gradient, 152+/-16 mm Hg) with contractile dysfunction, LV function was measured at baseline and 1 hour after the intravenous administration of colchicine. Cardiocytes obtained by biopsy before and after in vivo colchicine administration were examined in tandem. Microtubule depolymerization restored LV contractile function both in vivo and in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: These and additional corroborative data show that increased cardiocyte microtubule network density is an important mechanism for the ventricular contractile dysfunction that develops in large mammals with adult-onset pressure-overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

Koide, M.; Hamawaki, M.; Narishige, T.; Sato, H.; Nemoto, S.; DeFreyte, G.; Zile, M. R.; Cooper G, I. V.; Carabello, B. A.

2000-01-01

173

Simulated conditions of microgravity suppress progesterone production by luteal cells of the pregnant rat.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess whether simulated conditions of microgravity induce changes in the production of progesterone by luteal cells of the pregnant rat ovary using an in vitro model system. The microgravity environment was simulated using either a high aspect ratio vessel (HARV) bioreactor with free fall or a clinostat without free fall of cells. A mixed population of luteal cells isolated from the corpora lutea of day 8 pregnant rats was attached to cytodex microcarrier beads (cytodex 3). These anchorage dependent cells were placed in equal numbers in the HARV or a spinner flask control vessel in culture conditions. It was found that HARV significantly reduced the daily production of progesterone from day 1 through day 8 compared to controls. Scanning electron microscopy showed that cells attached to the microcarrier beads throughout the duration of the experiment in both types of culture vessels. Cells cultured in chamber slide flasks and placed in a clinostat yielded similar results when compared to those in the HARV. Also, when they were stained by Oil Red-O for lipid droplets, the clinostat flasks showed a larger number of stained cells compared to control flasks at 48 h. Further, the relative amount of Oil Red-O staining per milligram of protein was found to be higher in the clinostat than in the control cells at 48 h. It is speculated that the increase in the level of lipid content in cells subjected to simulated conditions of microgravity may be due to a disruption in cholesterol transport and/or lesions in the steroidogenic pathway leading to a fall in the synthesis of progesterone. Additionally, the fall in progesterone in simulated conditions of microgravity could be due to apoptosis of luteal cells. PMID:12365451

Bhat, G K; Yang, H; Sridaran, R

2001-12-01

174

Simulated conditions of microgravity suppress progesterone production by luteal cells of the pregnant rat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this study was to assess whether simulated conditions of microgravity induce changes in the production of progesterone by luteal cells of the pregnant rat ovary using an in vitro model system. The microgravity environment was simulated using either a high aspect ratio vessel (HARV) bioreactor with free fall or a clinostat without free fall of cells. A mixed population of luteal cells isolated from the corpora lutea of day 8 pregnant rats was attached to cytodex microcarrier beads (cytodex 3). These anchorage dependent cells were placed in equal numbers in the HARV or a spinner flask control vessel in culture conditions. It was found that HARV significantly reduced the daily production of progesterone from day 1 through day 8 compared to controls. Scanning electron microscopy showed that cells attached to the microcarrier beads throughout the duration of the experiment in both types of culture vessels. Cells cultured in chamber slide flasks and placed in a clinostat yielded similar results when compared to those in the HARV. Also, when they were stained by Oil Red-O for lipid droplets, the clinostat flasks showed a larger number of stained cells compared to control flasks at 48 h. Further, the relative amount of Oil Red-O staining per milligram of protein was found to be higher in the clinostat than in the control cells at 48 h. It is speculated that the increase in the level of lipid content in cells subjected to simulated conditions of microgravity may be due to a disruption in cholesterol transport and/or lesions in the steroidogenic pathway leading to a fall in the synthesis of progesterone. Additionally, the fall in progesterone in simulated conditions of microgravity could be due to apoptosis of luteal cells.

Bhat, G. K.; Yang, H.; Sridaran, R.

2001-01-01

175

Women Ornament Themselves for Intrasexual Competition near Ovulation, but for Intersexual Attraction in Luteal Phase  

PubMed Central

The present study examined women's attentional bias toward ornamental objects in relation to their menstrual phase as well as to motivations of intersexual courtship or intrasexual competition. In Experiment 1, 33 healthy heterosexual women were tested in a bias-assessment visual cuing task twice: once on a high-fertility day (during the ovulatory phase) and once on a low-fertility day (during the luteal phase). They paid greater attention to pictures of ornamental objects than to pictures of non-ornamental objects near ovulation, but not during the luteal phase, suggesting an ornamental bias during the high-fertility phase. In Experiment 2, before the visual cuing task, 40 participants viewed 10 same-sex or opposite-sex facial photographs with either high or low attractiveness as priming tasks to activate the intrasexual competition or intersexual courtship motives. Results showed that women's ornamental bias was dependent on the interaction of menstrual phase and mating motive. Specifically, the ornamental bias was observed on the high-fertility day when the subjects were primed with high-attractive same-sex images (intrasexual competition) and was observed on the low-fertility day when they were primed with high-attractive opposite-sex photographs (intersexual courtship). In conclusion, the present findings confirm the hypothesis that, during the high-fertility phase, women have an attentional bias toward ornamental objects and further support the hypothesis that the ornamental bias is driven by intrasexual competition motivation near ovulation, but driven by intersexual courtship motivation during the luteal phase. PMID:25180577

Zhuang, Jin-Ying; Wang, Jia-Xi

2014-01-01

176

Maternal separation affects dopamine transporter function in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat: An in vivo electrochemical study  

PubMed Central

Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder characterised by symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a well-characterised model of this disorder and has been shown to exhibit dopamine dysregulation, one of the hypothesised causes of ADHD. Since stress experienced in the early stages of life can have long-lasting effects on behaviour, it was considered that early life stress may alter development of the dopaminergic system and thereby contribute to the behavioural characteristics of SHR. It was hypothesized that maternal separation would alter dopamine regulation by the transporter (DAT) in ways that distinguish SHR from control rat strains. Methods SHR and control Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were subjected to maternal separation for 3 hours per day from postnatal day 2 to 14. Rats were tested for separation-induced anxiety-like behaviour followed by in vivo chronoamperometry to determine whether changes had occurred in striatal clearance of dopamine by DAT. The rate of disappearance of ejected dopamine was used as a measure of DAT function. Results Consistent with a model for ADHD, SHR were more active than WKY in the open field. SHR entered the inner zone more frequently and covered a significantly greater distance than WKY. Maternal separation increased the time that WKY spent in the closed arms and latency to enter the open arms of the elevated plus maze, consistent with other rat strains. Of note is that, maternal separation failed to produce anxiety-like behaviour in SHR. Analysis of the chronoamperometric data revealed that there was no difference in DAT function in the striatum of non-separated SHR and WKY. Maternal separation decreased the rate of dopamine clearance (k-1) in SHR striatum. Consistent with this observation, the dopamine clearance time (T100) was increased in SHR. These results suggest that the chronic mild stress of maternal separation impaired the function of striatal DAT in SHR. Conclusions The present findings suggest that maternal separation failed to alter the behaviour of SHR in the open field and elevated plus maze. However, maternal separation altered the dopaminergic system by decreasing surface expression of DAT and/or the affinity of DAT for dopamine, increasing the time to clear dopamine from the extracellular fluid in the striatum of SHR. PMID:22133315

2011-01-01

177

SAHA Enhances Synaptic Function and Plasticity In Vitro but Has Limited Brain Availability In Vivo and Does Not Impact Cognition  

PubMed Central

Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs) used for the treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) and under consideration for other indications. In vivo studies suggest reducing HDAC function can enhance synaptic function and memory, raising the possibility that SAHA treatment could have neurological benefits. We first examined the impacts of SAHA on synaptic function in vitro using rat organotypic hippocampal brain slices. Following several days of SAHA treatment, basal excitatory but not inhibitory synaptic function was enhanced. Presynaptic release probability and intrinsic neuronal excitability were unaffected suggesting SAHA treatment selectively enhanced postsynaptic excitatory function. In addition, long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory synapses was augmented, while long-term depression (LTD) was impaired in SAHA treated slices. Despite the in vitro synaptic enhancements, in vivo SAHA treatment did not rescue memory deficits in the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Along with the lack of behavioral impact, pharmacokinetic analysis indicated poor brain availability of SAHA. Broader assessment of in vivo SAHA treatment using high-content phenotypic characterization of C57Bl6 mice failed to demonstrate significant behavioral effects of up to 150 mg/kg SAHA following either acute or chronic injections. Potentially explaining the low brain exposure and lack of behavioral impacts, SAHA was found to be a substrate of the blood brain barrier (BBB) efflux transporters Pgp and Bcrp1. Thus while our in vitro data show that HDAC inhibition can enhance excitatory synaptic strength and potentiation, our in vivo data suggests limited brain availability may contribute to the lack of behavioral impact of SAHA following peripheral delivery. These results do not predict CNS effects of SAHA during clinical use and also emphasize the importance of analyzing brain drug levels when interpreting preclinical behavioral pharmacology. PMID:23922875

Hanson, Jesse E.; La, Hank; Plise, Emile; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Ding, Xiao; Hanania, Taleen; Sabath, Emily V.; Alexandrov, Vadim; Brunner, Dani; Leahy, Emer; Steiner, Pascal; Liu, Lichuan; Scearce-Levie, Kimberly; Zhou, Qiang

2013-01-01

178

In vivo function of airway epithelial TLR2 in host defense against bacterial infection.  

PubMed

Decreased Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) expression has been reported in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in a murine asthma model, which may predispose the hosts to bacterial infections, leading to disease exacerbations. Since airway epithelial cells serve as the first line of respiratory mucosal defense, the present study aimed to reveal the role of airway epithelial TLR2 signaling to lung bacterial [i.e., Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp)] clearance. In vivo TLR2 gene transfer via intranasal inoculation of adenoviral vector was performed to reconstitute TLR2 expression in airway epithelium of TLR2(-/-) BALB/c mice, with or without ensuing Mp infection. TLR2 and lactotransferrin (LTF) expression in airway epithelial cells and lung Mp load were assessed. Adenovirus-mediated TLR2 gene transfer to airway epithelial cells of TLR2(-/-) mice reconstituted 30-40% TLR2 expression compared with TLR2(+/+) cells. Such airway epithelial TLR2 reconstitution in TLR2(-/-) mice significantly reduced lung Mp load (an appropriate 45% reduction), coupled with elevated LTF expression. LTF expression in mice was shown to be mainly dependent on TLR2 signaling in response to Mp infection. Exogenous human LTF protein dose-dependently decreased lung bacterial load in Mp-infected TLR2(-/-) mice. In addition, human LTF protein directly dose-dependently decreased Mp levels in vitro. These data indicate that reconstitution of airway epithelial TLR2 signaling in TLR2(-/-) mice significantly restores lung defense against bacteria (e.g., Mp) via increased lung antimicrobial protein LTF production. Our findings may offer a deliverable approach to attenuate bacterial infections in airways of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with impaired TLR2 function. PMID:21239529

Wu, Qun; Jiang, Di; Minor, Maisha N; Martin, Richard J; Chu, Hong Wei

2011-04-01

179

REVIEW ARTICLE: In vivo magnetic resonance imaging: insights into structure and function of the central nervous system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatially resolved nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques provide structural, metabolic and functional insights into the central nervous system and allow for repetitive in vivo studies of both humans and animals. Complementing its prominent role in diagnostic imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has evolved into an indispensable research tool in system-oriented neurobiology where contributions to functional genomics and translational medicine bridge the gap from molecular biology to animal models and clinical applications. This review presents an overview on some of the most relevant advances in MRI. An introduction covering the basic principles is followed by a discussion of technological improvements in instrumentation and imaging sequences including recent developments in parallel acquisition techniques. Because MRI is noninvasive in contrast to most other imaging modalities, examples focus on in vivo studies of the central nervous system in a variety of species ranging from humans to mice and insects.

Natt, Oliver; Frahm, Jens

2005-04-01

180

Characterization of In Vivo Dlg1 Deletion on T Cell Development and Function  

PubMed Central

Background The polarized reorganization of the T cell membrane and intracellular signaling molecules in response to T cell receptor (TCR) engagement has been implicated in the modulation of T cell development and effector responses. In siRNA-based studies Dlg1, a MAGUK scaffold protein and member of the Scribble polarity complex, has been shown to play a role in T cell polarity and TCR signal specificity, however the role of Dlg1 in T cell development and function in vivo remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we present the combined data from three independently-derived dlg1-knockout mouse models; two germline deficient knockouts and one conditional knockout. While defects were not observed in T cell development, TCR-induced early phospho-signaling, actin-mediated events, or proliferation in any of the models, the acute knockdown of Dlg1 in Jurkat T cells diminished accumulation of actin at the IS. Further, while Th1-type cytokine production appeared unaffected in T cells derived from mice with a dlg1germline-deficiency, altered production of TCR-dependent Th1 and Th2-type cytokines was observed in T cells derived from mice with a conditional loss of dlg1 expression and T cells with acute Dlg1 suppression, suggesting a differential requirement for Dlg1 activity in signaling events leading to Th1 versus Th2 cytokine induction. The observed inconsistencies between these and other knockout models and siRNA strategies suggest that 1) compensatory upregulation of alternate gene(s) may be masking a role for dlg1 in controlling TCR-mediated events in dlg1 deficient mice and 2) the developmental stage during which dlg1 ablation begins may control the degree to which compensatory events occur. Conclusions/Significance These findings provide a potential explanation for the discrepancies observed in various studies using different dlg1-deficient T cell models and underscore the importance of acute dlg1 ablation to avoid the upregulation of compensatory mechanisms for future functional studies of the Dlg1 protein. PMID:23028902

Tomassian, Tamar; McMahon, Kerrie-Ann; Humbert, Patrick O.; Silva, Oscar; Round, June L.; Takamiya, Kogo; Huganir, Richard L.

2012-01-01

181

Fucoidan Can Function as an Adjuvant In Vivo to Enhance Dendritic Cell Maturation and Function and Promote Antigen-Specific T Cell Immune Responses  

PubMed Central

Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide purified from brown algae, has a variety of immune-modulation effects, including promoting antigen uptake and enhancing anti-viral and anti-tumor effects. However, the effect of fucoidan in vivo, especially its adjuvant effect on in vivo anti-tumor immune responses, was not fully investigated. In this study, we investigated the effect of fucoidan on the function of spleen dendritic cells (DCs) and its adjuvant effect in vivo. Systemic administration of fucoidan induced up-regulation of CD40, CD80 and CD86 expression and production of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-? in spleen cDCs. Fucoidan also promoted the generation of IFN-?-producing Th1 and Tc1 cells in an IL-12-dependent manner. When used as an adjuvant in vivo with ovalbumin (OVA) antigen, fucoidan promoted OVA-specific antibody production and primed IFN-? production in OVA-specific T cells. Moreover, fucoidan enhanced OVA-induced up-regulation of MHC class I and II on spleen cDCs and strongly prompted the proliferation of OVA-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells. Finally, OVA immunization with fucoidan as adjuvant protected mice from the challenge with B16-OVA tumor cells. Taken together, these results suggest that fucoidan can function as an adjuvant to induce Th1 immune response and CTL activation, which may be useful in tumor vaccine development. PMID:24911024

Jin, Jun-O; Zhang, Wei; Du, Jiang-Yuan; Wong, Ka-Wing; Oda, Tatsuya; Yu, Qing

2014-01-01

182

In Vivo Persistence of Codominant Human CD8+ T Cell Clonotypes Is Not Limited by Replicative Senescence or Functional Alteration.  

PubMed

T cell responses to viral epitopes are often composed of a small number of codominant clonotypes. In this study, we show that tumor Ag-specific T cells can behave similarly. In a melanoma patient with a long lasting HLA-A2/NY-ESO-1-specific T cell response, reaching 10% of circulating CD8 T cells, we identified nine codominant clonotypes characterized by individual TCRs. These clonotypes made up almost the entire pool of highly differentiated effector cells, but only a fraction of the small pool of less differentiated "memory" cells, suggesting that the latter serve to maintain effector cells. The different clonotypes displayed full effector function and expressed TCRs with similar functional avidity. Nevertheless, some clonotypes increased, whereas others declined in numbers over the observation period of 6 years. One clonotype disappeared from circulating blood, but without preceding critical telomere shortening. In turn, clonotypes with increasing frequency had accelerated telomere shortening, correlating with strong in vivo proliferation. Interestingly, the final prevalence of the different T cell clonotypes in circulation was anticipated in a metastatic lymph node withdrawn 2 years earlier, suggesting in vivo clonotype selection driven by metastases. Together, these data provide novel insight in long term in vivo persistence of T cell clonotypes associated with continued cell turnover but not replicative senescence or functional alteration. PMID:17675498

Derré, Laurent; Bruyninx, Marc; Baumgaertner, Petra; Devevre, Estelle; Corthesy, Patricia; Touvrey, Cédric; Mahnke, Yolanda D; Pircher, Hanspeter; Voelter, Verena; Romero, Pedro; Speiser, Daniel E; Rufer, Nathalie

2007-08-15

183

The effect of cloprostenol on human luteal steroid and prostaglandin secretion in vitro.  

PubMed Central

1 Human luteal tissue slices from days 18, 21 and 25 of the menstrual cycle were superfused in vitro with Medium 199 alone or containing cloprostenol (1 microgram/ml). Concentrations of progesterone, oestradiol-17beta and prostaglandins F2alpha and E2 were determined in the superfusate samples. 2 Secretion of steroids and prostaglandins was maintained at an approximately constant level throughout the experiments (21 h in one case) when the tissue was perfused with M199 alone. 3 Superfusion with cloprostenol (1 microgram/ml) resulted in an initial depression of progesterone and oestradiol-17beta but this was not maintained, levels returning to control values or showing an increase, while superfusion with cloprostenol continued. Cloprostenol is not therefore considered to be luteolytic at this dose and under these conditions for human luteal tissue in vitro. 4 Superfusion with cloprostenol (1 microgram/ml) also resulted in a large stimulation of secretion of endogenous prostaglandin F2 alpha following a short lag phase. This stimulation was possibly due to the initial depression of progesterone secretion. A short-lived stimulation of prostaglandin E2 secretion was also observed. 5 The significance of the increase in prostaglandin E2 secretion and the interrelationships between the various changes observed with cloprostenol are difficult to interpret. PMID:890210

McDougall, A N; Walker, F M; Watson, J

1977-01-01

184

In Vitro and In Vivo Studies of Single-Walled Carbon Nanohorns with Encapsulated Metallofullerenes and Exohedrally Functionalized Quantum Dots  

SciTech Connect

Single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) are new carbonaceous materials. In this paper, we report the first successful preparation of SWNHs encapsulating trimetallic nitride template endohedral metallofullerenes (TNT-EMFs). The resultant materials were functionalized by a high-speed vibration milling method and conjugated with CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs). The successful encapsulation of TNT-EMFs and external functionalization with QDs provide a dual diagnostic platform for in vitro and in vivo biomedical applications of these new carbonaceous materials.

Zhang, Jianfei [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Ge, Jiechao [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Shultz, M.D. [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richland; Chung, Eunna [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Singh, Gurpreet [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Shu, Chunying [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Deck, Paul [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Fatouros, Panos [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richland; Henderson, Scott [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richland; Corwin, Frank [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richland; Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Rouleau, Christopher M [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Rylander, Nichole M [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Rylander, Christopher [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Gibson, Harry W [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Dorn, Harry C [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech)

2010-07-01

185

In vivo biodistribution of amino-functionalized ceria nanoparticles in rats using positron emission tomography.  

PubMed

A variety of nanoparticles have been proposed for several biomedical applications. To gauge the therapeutic potential of these nanoparticles, in vivo biodistribution is essential and mandatory. In the present study, ceria nanoparticles (5 nm average particle size) were labeled with (18)F to study their in vivo biodistribution in rats by positron emission tomography (PET). The (18)F isotope was anchored by reaction of N-succinimidyl 4-[(18)F]fluorobenzoate ((18)F-SFB) with a modified nanoparticle surface obtained by silylation with 3-aminopropylsilyl. Radiolabeled ceria nanoparticles accumulated mainly in lungs, spleen, and liver. Metabolic products of the radiolabeled nanoparticulate material were excreted into the urinary tract. PMID:23140442

Rojas, Santiago; Gispert, Juan Domingo; Abad, Sergio; Buaki-Sogo, Mireia; Victor, Victor M; Garcia, Hermenegildo; Herance, Jose Raúl

2012-12-01

186

In vivo visuotopic brain mapping with manganese-enhanced MRI and resting-state functional connectivity MRI.  

PubMed

The rodents are an increasingly important model for understanding the mechanisms of development, plasticity, functional specialization and disease in the visual system. However, limited tools have been available for assessing the structural and functional connectivity of the visual brain network globally, in vivo and longitudinally. There are also ongoing debates on whether functional brain connectivity directly reflects structural brain connectivity. In this study, we explored the feasibility of manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) via 3 different routes of Mn(2+) administration for visuotopic brain mapping and understanding of physiological transport in normal and visually deprived adult rats. In addition, resting-state functional connectivity MRI (RSfcMRI) was performed to evaluate the intrinsic functional network and structural-functional relationships in the corresponding anatomical visual brain connections traced by MEMRI. Upon intravitreal, subcortical, and intracortical Mn(2+) injection, different topographic and layer-specific Mn enhancement patterns could be revealed in the visual cortex and subcortical visual nuclei along retinal, callosal, cortico-subcortical, transsynaptic and intracortical horizontal connections. Loss of visual input upon monocular enucleation to adult rats appeared to reduce interhemispheric polysynaptic Mn(2+) transfer but not intra- or inter-hemispheric monosynaptic Mn(2+) transport after Mn(2+) injection into visual cortex. In normal adults, both structural and functional connectivity by MEMRI and RSfcMRI was stronger interhemispherically between bilateral primary/secondary visual cortex (V1/V2) transition zones (TZ) than between V1/V2 TZ and other cortical nuclei. Intrahemispherically, structural and functional connectivity was stronger between visual cortex and subcortical visual nuclei than between visual cortex and other subcortical nuclei. The current results demonstrated the sensitivity of MEMRI and RSfcMRI for assessing the neuroarchitecture, neurophysiology and structural-functional relationships of the visual brains in vivo. These may possess great potentials for effective monitoring and understanding of the basic anatomical and functional connections in the visual system during development, plasticity, disease, pharmacological interventions and genetic modifications in future studies. PMID:24394694

Chan, Kevin C; Fan, Shu-Juan; Chan, Russell W; Cheng, Joe S; Zhou, Iris Y; Wu, Ed X

2014-04-15

187

Coupling of vesicle tethering and Rab binding is required for in vivo functionality of the golgin GMAP-210  

PubMed Central

Golgins are extended coiled-coil proteins believed to participate in membrane-tethering events at the Golgi apparatus. However, the importance of golgin-mediated tethering remains poorly defined, and alternative functions for golgins have been proposed. Moreover, although golgins bind to Rab GTPases, the functional significance of Rab binding has yet to be determined. In this study, we show that depletion of the golgin GMAP-210 causes a loss of Golgi cisternae and accumulation of numerous vesicles. GMAP-210 function in vivo is dependent upon its ability to tether membranes, which is mediated exclusively by the amino-terminal ALPS motif. Binding to Rab2 is also important for GMAP-210 function, although it is dispensable for tethering per se. GMAP-210 length is also functionally important in vivo. Together our results indicate a key role for GMAP-210–mediated membrane tethering in maintaining Golgi structure and support a role for Rab2 binding in linking tethering with downstream docking and fusion events at the Golgi apparatus. PMID:25473115

Sato, Keisuke; Roboti, Peristera; Mironov, Alexander A.; Lowe, Martin

2015-01-01

188

Coupling of vesicle tethering and Rab binding is required for in vivo functionality of the golgin GMAP-210.  

PubMed

Golgins are extended coiled-coil proteins believed to participate in membrane-tethering events at the Golgi apparatus. However, the importance of golgin-mediated tethering remains poorly defined, and alternative functions for golgins have been proposed. Moreover, although golgins bind to Rab GTPases, the functional significance of Rab binding has yet to be determined. In this study, we show that depletion of the golgin GMAP-210 causes a loss of Golgi cisternae and accumulation of numerous vesicles. GMAP-210 function in vivo is dependent upon its ability to tether membranes, which is mediated exclusively by the amino-terminal ALPS motif. Binding to Rab2 is also important for GMAP-210 function, although it is dispensable for tethering per se. GMAP-210 length is also functionally important in vivo. Together our results indicate a key role for GMAP-210-mediated membrane tethering in maintaining Golgi structure and support a role for Rab2 binding in linking tethering with downstream docking and fusion events at the Golgi apparatus. PMID:25473115

Sato, Keisuke; Roboti, Peristera; Mironov, Alexander A; Lowe, Martin

2015-02-01

189

Prostate stem cell antigen-targeted nanoparticles with dual functional properties: in vivo imaging and cancer chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background: We designed dual-functional nanoparticles for in vivo application using a modified electrostatic and covalent layer-by-layer assembly strategy to address the challenge of assessment and treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Methods: Core-shell nanoparticles were formulated by integrating three distinct functional components, ie, a core constituted by poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid), docetaxel, and hydrophobic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanocrystals (SPIONs), a multilayer shell formed by poly(allylamine hydrochloride) and two different sized poly(ethylene glycol) molecules, and a single-chain prostate stem cell antigen antibody conjugated to the nanoparticle surface for targeted delivery. Results: Drug release profiles indicated that the dual-function nanoparticles had a sustained release pattern over 764 hours, and SPIONs could facilitate the controlled release of the drug in vitro. The nanoparticles showed increased antitumor efficiency and enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in vitro through targeted delivery of docetaxel and SPIONs to PC3M cells. Moreover, in nude mice bearing PC3M xenografts, the nanoparticles provided MRI negative contrast enhancement, as well as halting and even reversing tumor growth during the 76-day study duration, and without significant systemic toxicity. The lifespan of the mice treated with these targeted dual-function nanoparticles was significantly increased (Chi-square = 22.514, P < 0.0001). Conclusion: This dual-function nanomedical platform may be a promising candidate for tumor imaging and targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic agents in vivo. PMID:22888241

Gao, Xin; Luo, Yun; Wang, Yuanyuan; Pang, Jun; Liao, Chengde; Lu, Hanlun; Fang, Youqiang

2012-01-01

190

In Vitro Matured Oocytes Are More Susceptible than In Vivo Matured Oocytes to Mock ICSI Induced Functional and Genetic Changes  

PubMed Central

Background Concerns regarding the safety of ICSI have been intensified recently due to increased risk of birth defects in ICSI born children. Although fertilization rate is significantly higher in ICSI cycles, studies have failed to demonstrate the benefits of ICSI in improving the pregnancy rate. Poor technical skill, and suboptimal in vitro conditions may account for the ICSI results however, there is no report on the effects of oocyte manipulations on the ICSI outcome. Objective The present study elucidates the influence of mock ICSI on the functional and genetic integrity of the mouse oocytes. Methods Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) level, mitochondrial status, and phosphorylation of H2AX were assessed in the in vivo matured and IVM oocytes subjected to mock ICSI. Results A significant increase in ROS level was observed in both in vivo matured and IVM oocytes subjected to mock ICSI (P<0.05-0.001) whereas unique mitochondrial distribution pattern was found only in IVM oocytes (P<0.01-0.001). Importantly, differential H2AX phosphorylation was observed in both in vivo matured and IVM oocytes subjected to mock ICSI (P <0.001). Conclusion The data from this study suggests that mock ICSI can alter genetic and functional integrity in oocytes and IVM oocytes are more vulnerable to mock ICSI induced changes. PMID:25786120

Salian, Sujit Raj; Singh, Vikram Jeet; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

2015-01-01

191

Functionalized near-infrared quantum dots for in vivo tumor vasculature imaging.  

PubMed

In this paper, we report the use of near-infrared (NIR)-emitting alloyed quantum dots (QDs) as efficient optical probes for high contrast in vivo imaging of tumors. Alloyed CdTe(1 - x)Se(x)/CdS QDs were prepared in the non-aqueous phase using the hot colloidal synthesis approach. Water dispersion of the QDs were accomplished by their encapsulation within polyethyleneglycol (PEG)-grafted phospholipid micelles. For tumor-specific delivery in vivo, the micelle-encapsulated QDs were conjugated with the cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (cRGD) peptide, which targets the alpha(v)beta(3) integrins overexpressed in the angiogenic tumor vasculatures. Using in vivo NIR optical imaging of mice bearing pancreatic cancer xenografts, implanted both subcutaneously and orthotopically, we have demonstrated that systemically delivered cRGD-conjugated QDs, but not the unconjugated ones, can efficiently target and label the tumors with high signal-to-noise ratio. Histopathological analysis of major organs of the treated mice showed no evidence of systemic toxicity associated with these QDs. These experiments suggest that cRGD-conjugated NIR QDs can serve as safe and efficient probes for optical bioimaging of tumors in vivo. Furthermore, by co-encapsulating these QDs and anticancer drugs within these micelles, we have demonstrated a promising theranostic, nanosized platform for both cancer imaging and therapy. PMID:20234074

Hu, Rui; Yong, Ken-Tye; Roy, Indrajit; Ding, Hong; Law, Wing-Cheung; Cai, Hongxing; Zhang, Xihe; Vathy, Lisa A; Bergey, Earl J; Prasad, Paras N

2010-04-01

192

Functionalized near-infrared quantum dots for in vivo tumor vasculature imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report the use of near-infrared (NIR)-emitting alloyed quantum dots (QDs) as efficient optical probes for high contrast in vivo imaging of tumors. Alloyed CdTe1 - xSex/CdS QDs were prepared in the non-aqueous phase using the hot colloidal synthesis approach. Water dispersion of the QDs were accomplished by their encapsulation within polyethyleneglycol (PEG)-grafted phospholipid micelles. For tumor-specific delivery in vivo, the micelle-encapsulated QDs were conjugated with the cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (cRGD) peptide, which targets the ?v?3 integrins overexpressed in the angiogenic tumor vasculatures. Using in vivo NIR optical imaging of mice bearing pancreatic cancer xenografts, implanted both subcutaneously and orthotopically, we have demonstrated that systemically delivered cRGD-conjugated QDs, but not the unconjugated ones, can efficiently target and label the tumors with high signal-to-noise ratio. Histopathological analysis of major organs of the treated mice showed no evidence of systemic toxicity associated with these QDs. These experiments suggest that cRGD-conjugated NIR QDs can serve as safe and efficient probes for optical bioimaging of tumors in vivo. Furthermore, by co-encapsulating these QDs and anticancer drugs within these micelles, we have demonstrated a promising theranostic, nanosized platform for both cancer imaging and therapy.

Hu, Rui; Yong, Ken-Tye; Roy, Indrajit; Ding, Hong; Law, Wing-Cheung; Cai, Hongxing; Zhang, Xihe; Vathy, Lisa A.; Bergey, Earl J.; Prasad, Paras N.

2010-04-01

193

Therapeutic nanomedicine based on dual-intelligent functionalized gold nanoparticles for cancer imaging and therapy in vivo.  

PubMed

A novel strategy to construct a therapeutic system based on functionalized AuNPs which can specifically respond to tumor microenvironment was reported. In the therapeutic system, doxorubicin was conjugated to AuNPs via thiol-Au bond by using a peptide substrate, CPLGLAGG, which can be specifically cleaved by the protease. In vivo study shows that after injection of the functionalized AuNPs to the tumor-bearing mice, the over-expressed protease of MMP-2 in tumor tissue and intracellular GSH can lead to the rapid release of the anti-tumor drug (doxorubicin) from the functionalized AuNPs to inhibit tumor growth and realize fluorescently imaging simultaneously. The functionalized AuNPs with tumor-triggered drug release property can further improve the efficacy and reduce side effects significantly. PMID:23932289

Chen, Wei-Hai; Xu, Xiao-Ding; Jia, Hui-Zhen; Lei, Qi; Luo, Guo-Feng; Cheng, Si-Xue; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

2013-11-01

194

High-mobility group box 1 is dispensable for autophagy, mitochondrial quality control, and organ function in vivo.  

PubMed

In vitro studies have demonstrated a critical role for high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in autophagy and the autophagic clearance of dysfunctional mitochondria, resulting in severe mitochondrial fragmentation and profound disturbances of mitochondrial respiration in HMGB1-deficient cells. Here, we investigated the effects of HMGB1 deficiency on autophagy and mitochondrial function in vivo, using conditional Hmgb1 ablation in the liver and heart. Unexpectedly, deletion of Hmgb1 in hepatocytes or cardiomyocytes, two cell types with abundant mitochondria, did not alter mitochondrial structure or function, organ function, or long-term survival. Moreover, hepatic autophagy and mitophagy occurred normally in the absence of Hmgb1, and absence of Hmgb1 did not significantly affect baseline and glucocorticoid-induced hepatic gene expression. Collectively, our findings suggest that HMGB1 is dispensable for autophagy, mitochondrial quality control, the regulation of gene expression, and organ function in the adult organism. PMID:24606906

Huebener, Peter; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Pradere, Jean-Philippe; Quinzii, Catarina M; Friedman, Richard; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Trent, Chad M; Mederacke, Ingmar; Zhao, Enpeng; Dapito, Dianne H; Lin, Yuxi; Goldberg, Ira J; Czaja, Mark J; Schwabe, Robert F

2014-03-01

195

Isolating with physical restraint low status female monkeys during luteal phase might make an appropriate premenstrual depression syndrome model  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) have a close phylogenetic relationship to humans, and have a similar 28-day menstrual cycle with similar hormonal fluctuations. In this study, we attempt to establish the premenstrual depression syndrome of rhesus monkey (M. mulatta) models by isolation with physical restraint of low social status young female monkeys during their luteal phase.

Mingqi Qiao; Qitao Zhao; Huiyun Zhang; Haijun Wang; Ling Xue; Sheng Wei

2007-01-01

196

The impact of luteal phase support on endometrial estrogen and progesterone receptor expression: a randomized control trial  

PubMed Central

Background To assess the impact of luteal phase support on the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and progesterone receptors B (PR-B) on the endometrium of oocyte donors undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH). Methods A prospective, randomized study was conducted in women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for oocyte donation. Participants were randomized to receive no luteal support, vaginal progesterone alone, or vaginal progesterone plus orally administered 17 Beta estradiol. Endometrial biopsies were obtained at 4 time points in the luteal phase and evaluated by tissue microarray for expression of ER alpha and PR-B. Results One-hundred and eight endometrial tissue samples were obtained from 12 patients. No differences were found in expression of ER alpha and PR-B among all the specimens with the exception of one sample value. Conclusions The administration of progesterone during the luteal phase of COH for oocyte donor cycles, either with or without estrogen, does not significantly affect the endometrial expression of ER alpha and PR. PMID:22360924

2012-01-01

197

Effect of duration of the GnRH agonists in the luteal phase in the outcome of assisted reproduction cycles.  

PubMed

The effect of long-acting GnRHa, in the luteal phase, during ART cycles varies from one patient to another. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the effect of long-acting GnRHa in the luteal phase, in ART cycles, affects pregnancy rates according to the duration of its action in such phase. This is a retrospective study of 367 patients submitted to ovulation induction for in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedures that used long-acting depot GnRHa for pituitary suppression. Patients were stratified according to the period of action of the agonist in the luteal phase: group 1, ? 6 days; group 2, 7 to 12 days; and group 3, >12 days. The following variables were analyzed: ovarian response, age, infertility causes and pregnancy rates. Group 1 (n = 53) had a mean age of 33.8 ± 4.55 years (23-44 years) and a pregnancy rate of 45.2%. In group 2 (n = 118), mean age was 33.7 ± 4.5 years (24-44 years) and the pregnancy rate was 38.9%. In group 3 (n = 196), mean age was 33.7 ± 4.4 years (23-43 years) and the pregnancy rate was 47.4%. Regardless of the duration of depot GnRHa action in the luteal phase, no significant association with pregnancy rates was found. PMID:23656392

Geber, Selmo; Sampaio, Marcos

2013-06-01

198

Pulsatile secretion of gonadotrophins, ovarian steroids and ovarian oxytocin during the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle in the cow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. All hormones were determined in blood samples collected simultaneously from the caudal vena cava and jugular vein at 20-min intervals for 12 h during the early (Day 4) and mid- (~Day 11) luteal phases of the oestrous cycle in 7 cows. Mean concentrations of oestradiol, progesterone and oxytocin were greater (P < 0\\\\m=.\\\\01)in the vena cava than in the

D. L. Walters; E. Schallenberger

1984-01-01

199

TRAF binding is required for a distinct subset of in vivo B cell functions of the oncoprotein LMP1.  

PubMed

EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is important for EBV contributions to B cell transformation and many EBV-associated malignancies, as well as EBV-mediated exacerbation of autoimmunity. LMP1 functionally mimics TNF receptor (TNFR) superfamily member CD40, but LMP1 signals and downstream effects are amplified and sustained compared with CD40. CD40 and LMP1 both use TNFR-associated factor (TRAF) adaptor proteins, but in distinct ways. LMP1 functions require TRAFs 3, 5, and 6, which interact with LMP1. However, TRAFs can also contribute to signaling in the absence of direct interactions with cell surface receptors, so we investigated whether their roles in LMP1 in vivo functions require direct association. We show in this study that the LMP1 TRAF binding site was required for LMP1-mediated autoantibody production, the germinal center response to immunization, and optimal production of several isotypes of Ig, but not LMP1-dependent enlargement of secondary lymphoid organs in transgenic mice. Thus, LMP1 in vivo effects can be mediated via both TRAF binding-dependent and -independent pathways. Together with our previous findings, these results indicate that TRAF-dependent receptor functions may not always require TRAF-receptor binding. These data suggest that TRAF-mediated signaling pathways, such as those of LMP1, may be more diverse than previously appreciated. This finding has significant implications for receptor and TRAF-targeted therapies. PMID:23109728

Arcipowski, Kelly M; Bishop, Gail A

2012-12-01

200

Functional properties of neurons derived from fetal mouse neurospheres are compatible with those of neuronal precursors in vivo.  

PubMed

Neural stem cells can be propagated in culture as neurospheres, yielding neurons and glial cells upon differentiation. Although the neurosphere model is widely used, the functional properties of the neurosphere-derived neurons have been only partially characterized, and it is unclear whether repeated passaging alters their functional properties. In this study, we analyzed voltage- and transmitter-gated responses in neuron-like cells obtained by differentiating fetal mouse neurospheres at increasing passages in culture. We report that neurons fire overshooting action potentials in response to depolarizing currents up to passage 10 but loose this capability at later passages, as the density of voltage-gated Na(+) and K(+) currents decreases. In contrast, the immunoreactivity for the neuronal marker beta-tubulin remains unaltered up to passage 21, indicating that this marker is not representative of cell function. In almost all neurons, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) evoked bicuculline-sensitive whole-cell currents, resulting from the activation of GABA(A) receptors, which appeared to be excitatory, insofar as the reversal potential of GABA-gated current was about -50 mV. Much smaller currents were elicited by the glutamatergic agonist AMPA, and only occasional responses to glycine were detected. In these functional aspects, neurosphere-derived neurons are similar to immature neurons differentiating in vivo. Therefore, at least for a limited number of passages in vitro, neurospheres provide an adequate model of in vivo neurogenesis. PMID:16547970

Pagani, Francesca; Lauro, Clotilde; Fucile, Sergio; Catalano, Myriam; Limatola, Cristina; Eusebi, Fabrizio; Grassi, Francesca

2006-06-01

201

In vivo resistance to bacterial biofilm formation on tympanostomy tubes as a function of tube material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adherent bacterial biofilms have been implicated in the irreversible contamination of implanted medical devices. We evaluated the resistance of various tympanostomy (pressure equalization [PE]) tube materials to biofilm formation using an in vivo model. PE tubes of silicone, silver oxide–impregnated silicone, fluoroplastic, silver oxide–impregnated fluoroplastic, and ion-bombarded silicone were inserted into the tympanic membranes of 18 Hartley guinea pigs. Staphylococcus

IYAD S SAIDI; JOHN F BIEDLINGMAIER; PHILIP WHELAN

1999-01-01

202

In Vivo Imaging of Functional Inhibitory Networks on the Mauthner Cell of Larval Zebrafish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noninvasive in vivo calcium imaging was used to observe and characterize inhibitory circuitry in intact larval zebrafish. In the teleost hindbrain, the inhibitory network onto the major pair of reticulospinal neurons known as Mauthner cells (M-cells) has been described in detail. There are three sources of inhibition onto M-cells: recurrent inhibition mediated by an ipsilateral collateral of the M-cell axon,

Masaharu Takahashi; Madoka Narushima; Yoichi Od

2002-01-01

203

Interference with Ca(2+) release activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channel function delays T-cell arrest in vivo.  

PubMed

Entry of lymphocytes into secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) involves intravascular arrest and intracellular calcium ion ([Ca(2+)]i) elevation. TCR activation triggers increased [Ca(2+)]i and can arrest T-cell motility in vitro. However, the requirement for [Ca(2+)]i elevation in arresting T cells in vivo has not been tested. Here, we have manipulated the Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channel pathway required for [Ca(2+)]i elevation in T cells through genetic deletion of stromal interaction molecule (STIM) 1 or by expression of a dominant-negative ORAI1 channel subunit (ORAI1-DN). Interestingly, the absence of CRAC did not interfere with homing of naïve CD4(+) T cells to SLOs and only moderately reduced crawling speeds in vivo. T cells expressing ORAI1-DN lacked TCR activation induced [Ca(2+)]i elevation, yet arrested motility similar to control T cells in vitro. In contrast, antigen-specific ORAI1-DN T cells had a twofold delayed onset of arrest following injection of OVA peptide in vivo. CRAC channel function is not required for homing to SLOs, but enhances spatiotemporal coordination of TCR signaling and motility arrest. PMID:23939929

Waite, Janelle C; Vardhana, Santosh; Shaw, Patrick J; Jang, Jung-Eun; McCarl, Christie-Ann; Cameron, Thomas O; Feske, Stefan; Dustin, Michael L

2013-12-01

204

20-HETE Regulates the Angiogenic Functions of Human Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Contributes to Angiogenesis In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) contribute to postnatal neovascularization. We identified the cytochrome P450 4A/F–20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (CYP4A/F–20-HETE) system as a novel regulator of EPC functions associated with angiogenesis in vitro. Here, we explored cellular mechanisms by which 20-HETE regulates EPC angiogenic functions and assessed its contribution to EPC-mediated angiogenesis in vivo. Results showed that both hypoxia and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induce CYP4A11 gene and protein expression (the predominant 20-HETE synthases in human EPC), and this is accompanied by an increase in 20-HETE production by ?1.4- and 1.8-fold, respectively, compared with the control levels. Additional studies demonstrated that 20-HETE and VEGF have a synergistic effect on EPC proliferation, whereas 20-HETE antagonist 20-HEDGE or VEGF-neutralizing antibody negated 20-HETE- or VEGF-induced proliferation, respectively. These findings are consistent with the presence of a positive feedback regulation on EPC proliferation between the 20-HETE and the VEGF pathways. Furthermore, we found that 20-HETE induced EPC adhesion to fibronectin and endothelial cell monolayer by 40 ± 5.6 and 67 ± 10%, respectively, which was accompanied by a rapid induction of very late antigen-4 and chemokine receptor type 4 mRNA and protein expression. Basal and 20-HETE-stimulated increases in adhesion were negated by the inhibition of the CYP4A–20-HETE system. Lastly, EPC increased angiogenesis in vivo by 3.6 ± 0.2-fold using the Matrigel plug angiogenesis assay, and these increases were markedly reduced by the local inhibition of 20-HETE system. These results strengthened the notion that 20-HETE regulates the angiogenic functions of EPC in vitro and EPC-mediated angiogenesis in vivo. PMID:24403517

Chen, Li; Ackerman, Rachel; Saleh, Mohamed; Gotlinger, Katherine H.; Kessler, Michael; Mendelowitz, Lawrence G.; Falck, John R.; Arbab, Ali S.; Scicli, A. Guillermo; Schwartzman, Michal L.

2014-01-01

205

In vivo direct reprogramming of reactive glial cells into functional neurons after brain injury and in an Alzheimer's disease model.  

PubMed

Loss of neurons after brain injury and in neurodegenerative disease is often accompanied by reactive gliosis and scarring, which are difficult to reverse with existing treatment approaches. Here, we show that reactive glial cells in the cortex of stab-injured or Alzheimer's disease (AD) model mice can be directly reprogrammed into functional neurons in vivo using retroviral expression of a single neural transcription factor, NeuroD1. Following expression of NeuroD1, astrocytes were reprogrammed into glutamatergic neurons, while NG2 cells were reprogrammed into glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. Cortical slice recordings revealed both spontaneous and evoked synaptic responses in NeuroD1-converted neurons, suggesting that they integrated into local neural circuits. NeuroD1 expression was also able to reprogram cultured human cortical astrocytes into functional neurons. Our studies therefore suggest that direct reprogramming of reactive glial cells into functional neurons in vivo could provide an alternative approach for repair of injured or diseased brain. PMID:24360883

Guo, Ziyuan; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Zheng; Chen, Yuchen; Wang, Fan; Chen, Gong

2014-02-01

206

Nucleotide Binding by Lhs1p Is Essential for Its Nucleotide Exchange Activity and for Function in Vivo*  

PubMed Central

Protein translocation and folding in the endoplasmic reticulum of Saccharomyces cerevisiae involves two distinct Hsp70 chaperones, Lhs1p and Kar2p. Both proteins have the characteristic domain structure of the Hsp70 family consisting of a conserved N-terminal nucleotide binding domain and a C-terminal substrate binding domain. Kar2p is a canonical Hsp70 whose substrate binding activity is regulated by cochaperones that promote either ATP hydrolysis or nucleotide exchange. Lhs1p is a member of the Grp170/Lhs1p subfamily of Hsp70s and was previously shown to function as a nucleotide exchange factor (NEF) for Kar2p. Here we show that in addition to this NEF activity, Lhs1p can function as a holdase that prevents protein aggregation in vitro. Analysis of the nucleotide requirement of these functions demonstrates that nucleotide binding to Lhs1p stimulates the interaction with Kar2p and is essential for NEF activity. In contrast, Lhs1p holdase activity is nucleotide-independent and unaffected by mutations that interfere with ATP binding and NEF activity. In vivo, these mutants show severe protein translocation defects and are unable to support growth despite the presence of a second Kar2p-specific NEF, Sil1p. Thus, Lhs1p-dependent nucleotide exchange activity is vital for ER protein biogenesis in vivo. PMID:19759005

de Keyzer, Jeanine; Steel, Gregor J.; Hale, Sarah J.; Humphries, Daniel; Stirling, Colin J.

2009-01-01

207

Long-Term Persistence of Functional Thymic Epithelial Progenitor Cells In Vivo under Conditions of Low FOXN1 Expression  

PubMed Central

Normal thymus function reflects interactions between developing T-cells and several thymic stroma cell types. Within the stroma, key functions reside in the distinct cortical and medullary thymic epithelial cell (TEC) types. It has been demonstrated that, during organogenesis, all TECs can be derived from a common thymic epithelial progenitor cell (TEPC). The properties of this common progenitor are thus of interest. Differentiation of both cTEC and mTEC depends on the epithelial-specific transcription factor FOXN1, although formation of the common TEPC from which the TEC lineage originates does not require FOXN1. Here, we have used a revertible severely hypomorphic allele of Foxn1, Foxn1R, to test the stability of the common TEPC in vivo. By reactivating Foxn1 expression postnatally in Foxn1R/? mice we demonstrate that functional TEPCs can persist in the thymic rudiment until at least 6 months of age, and retain the potential to give rise to both cortical and medullary thymic epithelial cells (cTECs and mTECs). These data demonstrate that the TEPC-state is remarkably stable in vivo under conditions of low Foxn1 expression, suggesting that manipulation of FOXN1 activity may prove a valuable method for long term maintenance of TEPC in vitro. PMID:25531271

Jin, Xin; Nowell, Craig S.; Ulyanchenko, Svetlana; Stenhouse, Frances H.; Blackburn, C. Clare

2014-01-01

208

Biocompatible near-infrared fluorescent nanoparticles for macro and microscopic in vivo functional bioimaging.  

PubMed

Near-infrared (NIR) imaging technology has been widely used for biomedical research and applications, since it can achieve deep penetration in biological tissues due to less absorption and scattering of NIR light. In our research, polymer nanoparticles with NIR fluorophores doped were synthesized. The morphology, absorption/emission features and chemical stability of the fluorescent nanoparticles were characterized, separately. NIR fluorescent nanoparticles were then utilized as bright optical probes for macro in vivo imaging of mice, including sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping, as well as distribution and excretion monitoring of nanoparticles in animal body. Furthermore, we applied the NIR fluorescent nanoparticles in in vivo microscopic bioimaging via a confocal microscope. Under the 635 nm-CW excitation, the blood vessel architecture in the ear and the brain of mice, which were administered with nanoparticles, was visualized very clearly. The imaging depth of our one-photon microscopy, which was assisted with NIR fluorescent nanoprobes, can reach as deep as 500 ?m. Our experiments show that NIR fluorescent nanoparticles have great potentials in various deep-tissue imaging applications. PMID:25426331

Chu, Liliang; Wang, Shaowei; Li, Kanghui; Xi, Wang; Zhao, Xinyuan; Qian, Jun

2014-11-01

209

Biocompatible near-infrared fluorescent nanoparticles for macro and microscopic in vivo functional bioimaging  

PubMed Central

Near-infrared (NIR) imaging technology has been widely used for biomedical research and applications, since it can achieve deep penetration in biological tissues due to less absorption and scattering of NIR light. In our research, polymer nanoparticles with NIR fluorophores doped were synthesized. The morphology, absorption/emission features and chemical stability of the fluorescent nanoparticles were characterized, separately. NIR fluorescent nanoparticles were then utilized as bright optical probes for macro in vivo imaging of mice, including sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping, as well as distribution and excretion monitoring of nanoparticles in animal body. Furthermore, we applied the NIR fluorescent nanoparticles in in vivo microscopic bioimaging via a confocal microscope. Under the 635 nm-CW excitation, the blood vessel architecture in the ear and the brain of mice, which were administered with nanoparticles, was visualized very clearly. The imaging depth of our one-photon microscopy, which was assisted with NIR fluorescent nanoprobes, can reach as deep as 500 ?m. Our experiments show that NIR fluorescent nanoparticles have great potentials in various deep-tissue imaging applications. PMID:25426331

Chu, Liliang; Wang, Shaowei; Li, Kanghui; Xi, Wang; Zhao, Xinyuan; Qian, Jun

2014-01-01

210

The BRAF Pseudogene Functions as a Competitive Endogenous RNA and Induces Lymphoma In Vivo.  

PubMed

Research over the past decade has suggested important roles for pseudogenes in physiology and disease. In vitro experiments demonstrated that pseudogenes contribute to cell transformation through several mechanisms. However, in vivo evidence for a causal role of pseudogenes in cancer development is lacking. Here, we report that mice engineered to overexpress either the full-length murine B-Raf pseudogene Braf-rs1 or its pseudo "CDS" or "3' UTR" develop an aggressive malignancy resembling human diffuse large B cell lymphoma. We show that Braf-rs1 and its human ortholog, BRAFP1, elicit their oncogenic activity, at least in part, as competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) that elevate BRAF expression and MAPK activation in vitro and in vivo. Notably, we find that transcriptional or genomic aberrations of BRAFP1 occur frequently in multiple human cancers, including B cell lymphomas. Our engineered mouse models demonstrate the oncogenic potential of pseudogenes and indicate that ceRNA-mediated microRNA sequestration may contribute to the development of cancer. PMID:25843629

Karreth, Florian A; Reschke, Markus; Ruocco, Anna; Ng, Christopher; Chapuy, Bjoern; Léopold, Valentine; Sjoberg, Marcela; Keane, Thomas M; Verma, Akanksha; Ala, Ugo; Tay, Yvonne; Wu, David; Seitzer, Nina; Velasco-Herrera, Martin Del Castillo; Bothmer, Anne; Fung, Jacqueline; Langellotto, Fernanda; Rodig, Scott J; Elemento, Olivier; Shipp, Margaret A; Adams, David J; Chiarle, Roberto; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

2015-04-01

211

Directed dimerization: an in vivo expression system for functional studies of type II phytochromes.  

PubMed

Type II phytochromes (phy) in Arabidopsis form homodimers and heterodimers, resulting in a diverse collection of light-stable red/far-red (R/FR) sensing photoreceptors. We describe an in vivo protein engineering system and its use in characterizing the activities of these molecules. Using a phyB null mutant background, singly and doubly transgenic plants were generated that express fusion proteins containing the phyB-phyE N-terminal photosensory regions (NB-NE PSRs), a nuclear localization sequence, and small yeast protein domains that mediate either homodimerization or heterodimerization. Activity of NB/NB homodimers but not monomeric NB subunits in control of seedling and adult plant responses to R light is demonstrated. Heterodimers of the NB sequence with the chromophoreless NB(C357S) sequence, which mimic phyB Pfr/Pr photo-heterodimers, mediate R sensitivity in leaves and petioles but not hypocotyls. Homodimerization of the NC, ND and NE sequences and directed heterodimerization of these photosensory regions with the NB region reveal form-specific R-induced activities for different type II phy dimers. The experimental approach developed here of directed assembly of defined protein dimer combinations in vivo may be applicable to other systems. PMID:23738620

Liu, Peng; Sharrock, Robert A

2013-09-01

212

PEG-Mediated Synthesis of Highly Dispersive Multifunctional Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles: Their Physicochemical Properties and Function In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Multifunctional superparamagnetic nanoparticles have been developed for a wide range of applications in nanomedicine, such as serving as tumor targeted drug carriers and molecular imaging agents. To function in vivo, the development of these novel materials must overcome several challenging requirements including biocompatibility, stability in physiological solutions, non-toxicity and the ability to traverse biological barriers. Here we report a PEG-mediated synthesis process to produce well-dispersed, ultrafine, and highly stable iron oxide nanoparticles for in vivo applications. Utilizing a biocompatible PEG coating bearing amine functional groups, the produced nanoparticles serve as an effective platform with the ability to incorporate a variety of targeting, therapeutic or imaging ligands. In this study, we demonstrated tumor-specific accumulation of these nanoparticles through both magnetic resonance and optical imaging after conjugation with chlorotoxin, a peptide with high affinity toward tumors of the neuroectodermal origin, and Cy5.5, a near-infrared fluorescent dye. Furthermore, we performed preliminary biodistribution and toxicity assessments of these nanoparticles in wild-type mice through histological analysis of clearance organs and hematology assay, and the results demonstrated the relative biocompatibility of these nanoparticles. PMID:20232826

Sun, Conroy; Du, Kim; Fang, Chen; Bhattarai, Narayan; Veiseh, Omid; Kivit, Forrest; Stephen, Zachary; Lee, Donghoon; Ellenbogen, Richard G.; Ratner, Buddy; Zhang, Miqin

2010-01-01

213

Single cell electroporation for longitudinal imaging of synaptic structure and function in the adult mouse neocortex in vivo  

PubMed Central

Longitudinal imaging studies of neuronal structures in vivo have revealed rich dynamics in dendritic spines and axonal boutons. Spines and boutons are considered to be proxies for synapses. This implies that synapses display similar dynamics. However, spines and boutons do not always bear synapses, some may contain more than one, and dendritic shaft synapses have no clear structural proxies. In addition, synaptic strength is not always accurately revealed by just the size of these structures. Structural and functional dynamics of synapses could be studied more reliably using fluorescent synaptic proteins as markers for size and function. These proteins are often large and possibly interfere with circuit development, which renders them less suitable for conventional transfection or transgenesis methods such as viral vectors, in utero electroporation, and germline transgenesis. Single cell electroporation (SCE) has been shown to be a potential alternative for transfection of recombinant fluorescent proteins in adult cortical neurons. Here we provide proof of principle for the use of SCE to express and subsequently image fluorescently tagged synaptic proteins over days to weeks in vivo.

Pagès, Stéphane; Cane, Michele; Randall, Jérôme; Capello, Luca; Holtmaat, Anthony

2015-01-01

214

Goserelin can inhibit ovarian cancer proliferation and simultaneously protect ovarian function from cisplatin: an in vitro and in vivo study.  

PubMed

This study investigates whether goserelin can inhibit ovarian cancer proliferation and protect ovarian function from cisplatin (CDDP). We evaluated proliferation and AKT phosphorylation in goserelin-treated ES-2 and SKOV3-ip ovarian cancer cells. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in human granulosa cells (hGCs) cotreated with goserelin and CDDP was measured by ELISA. Tumour volumes, Ki-67 expression, estrus, follicles, ovarian volumes, and serum AMH were compared in nude mice bearing transplanted tumours treated with goserelin and/or CDDP. Our results showed that goserelin inhibited cellular proliferation and AKT phosphorylation in vitro, and inhibited tumour growth and Ki-67 expression in vivo. Goserelin and CDDP cotreatment decreased the estrus cycles of the nude mice and prolonged estrus duration. Goserelin abrogated the CDDP-induced down-regulation of primary and preantral follicle percentage and ovarian volume. Goserelin increased AMH secretion in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, goserelin inhibited ovarian cancer proliferation and simultaneously protected ovarian function from CDDP. PMID:23684357

Zhang, Ying; Ding, Jing Xin; Tao, Xiang; Lu, Zhi Ying; Wang, Jia Jia; Feng, Wei Wei; Hua, Ke Qin

2013-04-01

215

Coassembly of amphiphilic peptide EAK16-II with histidinylated analogues and implications for functionalization of ?-sheet fibrils in vivo.  

PubMed

EAK16-II (AEAEAKAKAEAEAKAK) is one of the first building blocks of environmentally responsive materials. This self-assembling peptide undergoes solution-to-gel transition when transferred from a low to high ionic strength environment. Previously we have demonstrated the histidinylated analogue EAKIIH6 (AEAEAKAKAEAEAKAKHHHHHH) coassembles with the parent peptide to render His-tags as a functionalization mechanism in vitro and in vivo. The present study aimed to understand the pathways by which the analogue coassembles with EAK16-II. The results presented herein suggested two competing but not mutually exclusive events in the coassembly. Atomic force microscopic and gel electrophoretic data showed that EAKIIH6 self-sorted to high molecular weight species without EAK16-II. Self-sorting of EAKIIH6 was inhibited by the parent peptide in a concentration dependent manner. Injecting mixtures containing EAKIIH6 subcutaneously rendered His-tags detectable in live mice for at least 312 h, despite diluting the histidinylated analogue by 10-50 folds compared to a previous formulation. The study provided a formulation by which in vivo display of His-tags was attained without excess amphiphilic peptides. By increasing coassembling efficiency, the likelihood of generating immunogenic aggregates outside the main fibrils could be minimized. These findings provide insights for rational functionalization of in situ self-gelling materials. PMID:24680662

Wen, Yi; Roudebush, Shana L; Buckholtz, Gavin A; Goehring, Thomas R; Giannoukakis, Nick; Gawalt, Ellen S; Meng, Wilson S

2014-06-01

216

Regulatory functions of self-restricted MHC class II allopeptide-specific Th2 clones in vivo  

PubMed Central

We studied T-cell clones generated from grafts of rejecting and tolerant animals and investigated the regulatory function of Th2 clones in vitro and in vivo. To prevent allograft rejection, we treated LEW strain recipient rats of WF strain kidney grafts with CTLA4Ig to block CD28-B7 costimulation. We then isolated epitope-specific T-cell clones from the engrafted tissue, using a donor-derived immunodominant class II MHC allopeptide presented by recipient antigen-presenting cells. Acutely rejected tissue from untreated animals yielded self-restricted, allopeptide-specific T-cell clones that produced IFN-?, whereas clones from tolerant animals produced IL-4 and IL-10. Adoptive transfer into naive recipients of Th1 clones, but not Th2 clones, induced alloantigen-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses. In addition, Th2 clones suppressed DTH responses mediated by Th1 clones in vivo and blocked Th1 cell proliferation and IFN-? production in vitro. A pilot human study showed that HLA-DR allopeptide-specific T-cell clones generated from patients with chronic rejection secrete Th1 cytokines, whereas those from patients with stable graft function produce Th2 cytokines in response to donor-specific HLA-DR allopeptides. We suggest that self-restricted alloantigen-specific Th2 clones may regulate the alloimmune responses and promote long-term allograft survival and tolerance. PMID:11285310

Waaga, Ana Maria; Gasser, Martin; Kist-van Holthe, Joana E.; Najafian, Nader; Müller, Angelika; Vella, John P.; Womer, Karl L.; Chandraker, Anil; Khoury, Samia J.; Sayegh, Mohamed H.

2001-01-01

217

Targeting Stat3 in the myeloid compartment drastically improves the in vivo antitumor functions of adoptively transferred T cells  

PubMed Central

Improving effector T cell functions is highly desirable for preventive or therapeutic interventions of diverse diseases. Stat3 in the myeloid compartment constrains Th-1 type immunity, dampening natural and induced antitumor immune responses. We have recently developed an in vivo siRNA delivery platform by conjugating a TLR9 agonist with siRNA that efficiently targets myeloid and B cells. Here we show that either ablating the Stat3 alleles in the myeloid compartment and B cells combined with CpG triggering or administrating the CpG-Stat3siRNA conjugates drastically augments effector functions of adoptively transferred CD8+ T cells. Specifically, we demonstrate that both approaches are capable of increasing dendritic cell and CD8+ T cell engagement in tumor draining lymph nodes. Furthermore, both approaches can significantly activate the transferred CD8+ T cells in vivo, upregulating effector molecules such as perforin, granzyme B and IFN-?. Intravital multiphoton microscopy reveals that Stat3 silencing combined with CpG triggering greatly increases killing activity and tumor infiltration of transferred T cells. These results suggest the use of CpG-Stat3siRNA, and possibly other Stat3 inhibitors, as a potent adjuvant to improve T cell therapies. PMID:20841481

Herrmann, Andreas; Kortylewski, Marcin; Kujawski, Maciej; Zhang, Chunyan; Reckamp, Karen; Armstrong, Brian; Wang, Lin; Kowolik, Claudia; Deng, Jiehui; Robert, Figlin; Yu, Hua

2010-01-01

218

The Intramembrane Proteases Signal Peptide Peptidase-Like 2a and 2b Have Distinct Functions In Vivo  

PubMed Central

We reported recently that the presenilin homologue signal peptide peptidase-like 2a (SPPL2a) is essential for B cell development by cleaving the N-terminal fragment (NTF) of the invariant chain (li, CD74). Based on this, we suggested that pharmacological modulation of SPPL2a may represent a novel approach to deplete B cells in autoimmune disorders. With regard to reported overlapping substrate spectra of SPPL2a and its close homologue, SPPL2b, we investigated the role of SPPL2b in CD74 NTF proteolysis and its impact on B and dendritic cell homeostasis. In heterologous expression experiments, SPPL2b was found to cleave CD74 NTF with an efficiency simliar to that of SPPL2a. For in vivo analysis, SPPL2b single-deficient and SPPL2a/SPPL2b double-deficient mice were generated and examined for CD74 NTF turnover/accumulation, B cell maturation and functionality, and dendritic cell homeostasis. We demonstrate that in vivo SPPL2b does not exhibit a physiologically relevant contribution to CD74 proteolysis in B and dendritic cells. Furthermore, we reveal that both proteases exhibit divergent subcellular localizations in B cells and different expression profiles in murine tissues. These findings suggest distinct functions of SPPL2a and SPPL2b and, based on a high abundance of SPPL2b in brain, a physiological role of this protease in the central nervous system. PMID:24492962

Schneppenheim, Janna; Hüttl, Susann; Mentrup, Torben; Lüllmann-Rauch, Renate; Rothaug, Michelle; Engelke, Michael; Dittmann, Kai; Dressel, Ralf; Araki, Masatake; Araki, Kimi; Wienands, Jürgen; Fluhrer, Regina; Saftig, Paul

2014-01-01

219

Kidney function after in vivo gene silencing of uncoupling protein-2 in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Kidney uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2) increases in streptozotocin-induced diabetes, resulting in mitochondria uncoupling, i.e., increased oxygen consumption unrelated to active transport. The present study aimed to investigate the role of UCP-2 for normal and diabetic kidney function utilizing small interference RNA (siRNA) to reduce protein expression. Diabetic animals had increased glomerular filtration rate and kidney oxygen consumption, resulting in decreased oxygen tension and transported sodium per consumed oxygen. UCP-2 protein levels decreased 2 and 50% after UCP-2 siRNA administration in control and diabetic animals respectively. Kidney function was unaffected by in vivo siRNA-mediated gene silencing of UCP-2. The reason for the lack of effect of reducing UCP-2 is presently unknown but may involve compensatory mitochondrial uncoupling by the adenosine nucleotide transporter. PMID:22879036

Persson, Malou Friederich; Welch, William J; Wilcox, Christopher S; Palm, Fredrik

2013-01-01

220

In Vivo Noninvasive Analysis of Human Forearm Muscle Function and Fatigue: Applications to EVA Operations and Training Maneuvers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Forearm muscle fatigue is one of the major limiting factors affecting endurance during performance of deep-space extravehicular activity (EVA) by crew members. Magnetic resonance (MR) provides in vivo noninvasive analysis of tissue level metabolism and fluid exchange dynamics in exercised forearm muscles through the monitoring of proton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P-31-MRS) parameter variations. Using a space glove box and EVA simulation protocols, we conducted a preliminary MRS/MRI study in a small group of human test subjects during submaximal exercise and recovery and following exhaustive exercise. In assessing simulated EVA-related muscle fatigue and function, this pilot study revealed substantial changes in the MR image longitudinal relaxation times (T2) as an indicator of specific muscle activation and proton flux as well as changes in spectral phosphocreatine-to-phosphate (PCr/Pi) levels as a function of tissue bioenergetic potential.

Fotedar, L. K.; Marshburn, T.; Quast, M. J.; Feeback, D. L.

1999-01-01

221

Development of an Ex Vivo Model for the Study of Cerebrovascular Function Utilizing Isolated Mouse Olfactory Artery  

PubMed Central

Objective Cerebral vessels, such as intracerebral perforating arterioles isolated from rat brain, have been widely used as an ex vivo model to study the cerebrovascular function associated with cerebrovascular disorders and the therapeutic effects of various pharmacological agents. These perforating arterioles, however, have demonstrated differences in the vascular architecture and reactivity compared with a larger leptomeningeal artery which has been commonly implicated in cerebrovascular disease. In this study, therefore, we developed the method for studying cerebrovascular function utilizing the olfactory artery isolated from the mouse brain. Methods The olfactory artery (OA) was isolated from the C57/BL6 wild-type mouse brain. After removing connective tissues, one side of the isolated vessel segment (approximately -500 µm in length) was cannulated and the opposite end of the vessel was completely sealed while being viewed with an inverted microscope. After verifying the absence of pressure leakage, we examined the vascular reactivity to various vasoactive agents under the fixed intravascular pressure (60 mm Hg). Results We found that the isolated mouse OAs were able to constrict in response to vasoconstrictors, including KCl, phenylephrine, endothelin-1, and prostaglandin PGH2. Moreover, this isolated vessel demonstrated vasodilation in a dose-dependent manner when vasodilatory agents, acetylcholine and bradykinin, were applied. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the isolated olfactory artery would provide as a useful ex vivo model to study the molecular and cellular mechanisms of vascular function underlying cerebrovascular disorders and the direct effects of such disease-modifying pathways on cerebrovascular function utilizing pharmacological agents and genetically modified mouse models. PMID:25674336

Dietrich, Hans H.; Han, Byung Hee; Zipfel, Gregory J.

2015-01-01

222

In Vivo Readout of CFTR Function: Ratiometric Measurement of CFTR-Dependent Secretion by Individual, Identifiable Human Sweat Glands  

PubMed Central

To assess CFTR function in vivo, we developed a bioassay that monitors and compares CFTR-dependent and CFTR-independent sweat secretion in parallel for multiple (?50) individual, identified glands in each subject. Sweating was stimulated by intradermally injected agonists and quantified by optically measuring spherical sweat bubbles in an oil-layer that contained dispersed, water soluble dye particles that partitioned into the sweat bubbles, making them highly visible. CFTR-independent secretion (M-sweat) was stimulated with methacholine, which binds to muscarinic receptors and elevates cytosolic calcium. CFTR-dependent secretion (C-sweat) was stimulated with a ?-adrenergic cocktail that elevates cytosolic cAMP while blocking muscarinic receptors. A C-sweat/M-sweat ratio was determined on a gland-by-gland basis to compensate for differences unrelated to CFTR function, such as gland size. The average ratio provides an approximately linear readout of CFTR function: the heterozygote ratio is ?0.5 the control ratio and for CF subjects the ratio is zero. During assay development, we measured C/M ratios in 6 healthy controls, 4 CF heterozygotes, 18 CF subjects and 4 subjects with ‘CFTR-related’ conditions. The assay discriminated all groups clearly. It also revealed consistent differences in the C/M ratio among subjects within groups. We hypothesize that these differences reflect, at least in part, levels of CFTR expression, which are known to vary widely. When C-sweat rates become very low the C/M ratio also tended to decrease; we hypothesize that this nonlinearity reflects ductal fluid absorption. We also discovered that M-sweating potentiates the subsequent C-sweat response. We then used potentiation as a surrogate for drugs that can increase CFTR-dependent secretion. This bioassay provides an additional method for assessing CFTR function in vivo, and is well suited for within-subject tests of systemic, CFTR-directed therapeutics. PMID:24204751

Wine, Jeffrey J.; Char, Jessica E.; Chen, Jonathan; Cho, Hyung-ju; Dunn, Colleen; Frisbee, Eric; Joo, Nam Soo; Milla, Carlos; Modlin, Sara E.; Park, Il-Ho; Thomas, Ewart A. C.; Tran, Kim V.; Verma, Rohan; Wolfe, Marlene H.

2013-01-01

223

Effects of "own" versus "alien" suckling on incidence of ovarian luteal activity, estrus and secretion of luteinizing hormone, oxytocin and prolactin in early postpartum beef cows  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF "OWN" VERSUS "ALIEN" SUCKLING ON INCIDENCE OF OVARIAN LUTEAL ACTIVITY, ESTRUS AND SECRETION OF LUTEINIZING HORMONE, OXYTOCIN AND PROLACTIN IN EARLY POSTPARTUM BEEF COWS A Thesis by PATRICE AUVERN SILVEIRA Submitted to the Office... of Graduate Studies of Texas A8 M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1992 Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction EFFECTS OF "OWN" VERSUS "ALIEN" SUCKLING ON INCIDENCE OF OVARIAN LUTEAL...

Silveira, Patrice Auvern

1992-01-01

224

Peroxisomes and sterol carrier protein-2 in luteal cell steroidogenesis: a possible role in cholesterol transport from lipid droplets to mitochondria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present investigation, we have studied peroxisomes and sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP2) in control and luteinizing hormone stimulated rat luteal cells. Superovulated immature rats in mid-luteal phase (8 days after ovulation) were divided into two groups (n=4\\/group) and treated with vehicle (0.2 ml saline), or luteinizing hormone (LH, 20 ?g\\/rat). In this animal model, LH acutely stimulates steroidogenesis. Thirty

S. M. L. C. Mendis-Handagama; R. F. Aten; P. A. Watkins; T. J. Scallen; H. R. Berhman

1995-01-01

225

Ex vivo culture of chimeric antigen receptor T cells generates functional CD8+ T cells with effector and central memory-like phenotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anti-tumor efficacy of adoptively transferred T cells requires their in vivo persistence and memory polarization. It is unknown if human chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-expressing T cells can also undergo memory polarization. We examined the functional status of CAR CD8+ T cells, re-directed to Lewis Y antigen (LeY-T), throughout a period of ex vivo expansion. Immediately before culture CD8+ T

P Neeson; A Shin; K M Tainton; P Guru; H M Prince; S J Harrison; S Peinert; M J Smyth; J A Trapani; M H Kershaw; P K Darcy; D S Ritchie

2010-01-01

226

Ageing alters perivascular nerve function of mouse mesenteric arteries in vivo.  

PubMed

Abstract? Mesenteric arteries (MAs) are studied widely in vitro but little is known of their reactivity in vivo. Transgenic animals have enabled Ca(2+) signalling to be studied in isolated MAs but the reactivity of these vessels in vivo is undefined. We tested the hypothesis that ageing alters MA reactivity to perivascular nerve stimulation (PNS) and adrenoreceptor (AR) activation during blood flow control. First- (1A), second- (2A) and third-order (3A) MAs of pentobarbital-anaesthetized Young (3-6 months) and Old (24-26 months) male and female Cx40(BAC)-GCaMP2 transgenic mice (C57BL/6 background; positive or negative for the GCaMP2 transgene) were studied with intravital microscopy. A segment of jejunum was exteriorized and an MA network was superfused with physiological salt solution (pH 7.4, 37°C). Resting tone was 10% in MAs of Young and Old mice; diameters were ?5% (1A), 20% (2A) and 40% (3A) smaller (P 0.05) in Old mice. Throughout MA networks, vasoconstriction increased with PNS frequency (1-16 Hz) but was ?20% less in Young vs. Old mice (P 0.05) and was inhibited by tetrodotoxin (1 ?m). Capsaicin (10 ?m; to inhibit sensory nerves) enhanced MA constriction to PNS (P 0.05) by ?20% in Young but not Old mice. Phenylephrine (an ?1AR agonist) potency was greater in Young mice (P 0.05) with similar efficacy (?60% constriction) across ages and MA branches. Constrictions to UK14304 (an ?2AR agonist) were less (?20%; P 0.05) and were unaffected by ageing. Irrespective of sex or transgene expression, ageing consistently reduced the sensitivity of MAs to ?1AR vasoconstriction while blunting the attenuation of sympathetic vasoconstriction by sensory nerves. These findings imply substantive alterations in splanchnic blood flow control with ageing. PMID:23247111

Westcott, Erika B; Segal, Steven S

2013-03-01

227

Characterization of a CREB Gain-of-Function Mutant with Constitutive Transcriptional Activity In Vivo  

PubMed Central

The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-responsive factor CREB promotes cellular gene expression, following its phosphorylation at Ser133, via recruitment of the coactivator paralogs CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300. CBP and p300, in turn, appear to mediate target gene induction via their association with RNA polymerase II complexes and via intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activities that mobilize promoter-bound nucleosomes. In addition to cAMP, a wide variety of stimuli, including hypoxia, UV irradiation, and growth factor addition, induce Ser133 phosphorylation with stoichiometry and kinetics comparable to those induced by cAMP. Yet a number of these signals are incapable of promoting target gene activation via CREB phosphorylation per se, suggesting the presence of additional regulatory events either at the level of CREB-CBP complex formation or in the subsequent recruitment of the transcriptional apparatus. Here we characterize a Tyr134Phe CREB mutant that behaves as a constitutive activator in vivo. Like protein kinase A (PKA)-stimulated wild-type CREB, the Tyr134Phe polypeptide was found to stimulate target gene expression via the Ser133-dependent recruitment of CBP and p300. Biochemical studies reveal that mutation of Tyr134 to Phe lowers the Km for PKA phosphorylation and thereby induces high levels of constitutive Ser133 phosphorylation in vivo. Consistent with its constitutive activity, Tyr134Phe CREB strongly promoted differentiation of PC12 cells in concert with suboptimal doses of nerve growth factor. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Ser133 phosphorylation is sufficient for cellular gene activation and that additional signal-dependent modifications of CBP or p300 are not required for recruitment of the transcriptional apparatus to the promoter. PMID:10825195

Du, Keyong; Asahara, Hiroshi; Jhala, Ulupi S.; Wagner, Brandee L.; Montminy, Marc

2000-01-01

228

Bombesin functionalized gold nanoparticles show in vitro and in vivo cancer receptor specificity.  

PubMed

Development of cancer receptor-specific gold nanoparticles will allow efficient targeting/optimum retention of engineered gold nanoparticles within tumors and thus provide synergistic advantages in oncology as it relates to molecular imaging and therapy. Bombesin (BBN) peptides have demonstrated high affinity toward gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptors in vivo that are overexpressed in prostate, breast, and small-cell lung carcinoma. We have synthesized a library of GRP receptor-avid nanoplatforms by conjugating gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with BBN peptides. Cellular interactions and binding affinities (IC(50)) of AuNP-BBN conjugates toward GRP receptors on human prostate cancer cells have been investigated in detail. In vivo studies using AuNP-BBN and its radiolabeled surrogate (198)AuNP-BBN, exhibiting high binding affinity (IC(50) in microgram ranges), provide unequivocal evidence that AuNP-BBN constructs are GRP-receptor-specific showing accumulation with high selectivity in GRP-receptor-rich pancreatic acne in normal mice and also in tumors in prostate-tumor-bearing, severe combined immunodeficient mice. The i.p. mode of delivery has been found to be efficient as AuNP-BBN conjugates showed reduced RES organ uptake with concomitant increase in uptake at tumor targets. The selective uptake of this new generation of GRP-receptor-specific AuNP-BBN peptide analogs has demonstrated realistic clinical potential in molecular imaging via x-ray computed tomography techniques as the contrast numbers in prostate tumor sites are severalfold higher as compared to the pretreatment group (Hounsfield unit = 150). PMID:20410458

Chanda, Nripen; Kattumuri, Vijaya; Shukla, Ravi; Zambre, Ajit; Katti, Kavita; Upendran, Anandhi; Kulkarni, Rajesh R; Kan, Para; Fent, Genevieve M; Casteel, Stan W; Smith, C Jeffrey; Boote, Evan; Robertson, J David; Cutler, Cathy; Lever, John R; Katti, Kattesh V; Kannan, Raghuraman

2010-05-11

229

Bombesin functionalized gold nanoparticles show in vitro and in vivo cancer receptor specificity  

PubMed Central

Development of cancer receptor-specific gold nanoparticles will allow efficient targeting/optimum retention of engineered gold nanoparticles within tumors and thus provide synergistic advantages in oncology as it relates to molecular imaging and therapy. Bombesin (BBN) peptides have demonstrated high affinity toward gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptors in vivo that are overexpressed in prostate, breast, and small-cell lung carcinoma. We have synthesized a library of GRP receptor-avid nanoplatforms by conjugating gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with BBN peptides. Cellular interactions and binding affinities (IC50) of AuNP–BBN conjugates toward GRP receptors on human prostate cancer cells have been investigated in detail. In vivo studies using AuNP–BBN and its radiolabeled surrogate 198AuNP–BBN, exhibiting high binding affinity (IC50 in microgram ranges), provide unequivocal evidence that AuNP–BBN constructs are GRP-receptor-specific showing accumulation with high selectivity in GRP-receptor-rich pancreatic acne in normal mice and also in tumors in prostate-tumor-bearing, severe combined immunodeficient mice. The i.p. mode of delivery has been found to be efficient as AuNP–BBN conjugates showed reduced RES organ uptake with concomitant increase in uptake at tumor targets. The selective uptake of this new generation of GRP-receptor-specific AuNP–BBN peptide analogs has demonstrated realistic clinical potential in molecular imaging via x-ray computed tomography techniques as the contrast numbers in prostate tumor sites are severalfold higher as compared to the pretreatment group (Hounsfield unit = 150). PMID:20410458

Chanda, Nripen; Kattumuri, Vijaya; Shukla, Ravi; Zambre, Ajit; Katti, Kavita; Upendran, Anandhi; Kulkarni, Rajesh R.; Kan, Para; Fent, Genevieve M.; Casteel, Stan W.; Smith, C. Jeffrey; Boote, Evan; Robertson, J. David; Cutler, Cathy; Lever, John R.; Katti, Kattesh V.; Kannan, Raghuraman

2010-01-01

230

Cellular and functional characterization of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) corpus luteum during the estrous cycle and pregnancy.  

PubMed

In the present paper, cellular composition of buffalo corpus luteum (CL) with its functional characterization based on 3?-HSD and progesterone secretory ability at different stages of estrous cycle and pregnancy was studied. Buffalo uteri along with ovaries bearing CL were collected from the local slaughter house. These were classified into different stages of estrous cycle (Stage I, II, III and IV) and pregnancy (Stage I, II and III) based on morphological appearance of CL, surface follicles on the ovary and crown rump length of conceptus. Luteal cell population, progesterone content and steroidogenic properties were studied by dispersion of luteal cells using collagenase type I enzyme, RIA and 3?-HSD activity, respectively. Large luteal cells (LLC) appeared as polyhedral or spherical in shape with a centrally placed large round nucleus and an abundance of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. However, small luteal cells (SLC) appeared to be spindle shaped with an eccentrically placed irregular nucleus and there was paucity of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. The size of SLC (range 12-23?m) and LLC (range 25-55?m) increased (P<0.01) with the advancement of stage of estrous cycle and pregnancy. The mean progesterone concentration per gram and per CL increased (P<0.01) from Stage I to III of estrous cycle with maximum concentration at Stage III of estrous cycle and pregnancy. The progesterone concentration decreased at Stage IV (day 17-20) of estrous cycle coinciding with CL regression. Total luteal cell number (LLC and SLC) also increased (P<0.01) from Stage I to III of estrous cycle and decreased (P<0.05), thereafter, at Stage IV indicating degeneration of luteal cells and regression of the CL. Total luteal cell population during pregnancy also increased (P<0.01) from Stage I to II and thereafter decreased (P>0.05) indicating cessation of mitosis. Increased (P<0.05) large luteal cell numbers from Stage I to III of estrous cycle and pregnancy coincided with the increased progesterone secretion and 3?-HSD activity of CL. Thus, proportionate increases of large compared with small luteal cells were primarily responsible for increased progesterone secretion during the advanced stages of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Total luteal cells and progesterone content per CL during the mid-luteal stage in buffalo as observed in the present study seem to be less than with cattle suggesting inherent luteal deficiency. PMID:23896394

Baithalu, Rubina Kumari; Singh, S K; Gupta, Chhavi; Raja, Anuj K; Saxena, Abhishake; Kumar, Yogendra; Singh, R; Agarwal, S K

2013-08-01

231

Impact of GnRH agonist triggering and intensive luteal steroid support on live-birth rates and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Conventional luteal support packages are inadequate to facilitate a fresh transfer after GnRH agonist (GnRHa) trigger in patients at high risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). By providing intensive luteal-phase support with oestradiol and progesterone satisfactory implantation rates can be sustained. The objective of this study was to assess the live-birth rate and incidence of OHSS after GnRHa trigger and intensive luteal steroid support compared to traditional hCG trigger and conventional luteal support in OHSS high risk Asian patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 363 women exposed to GnRHa triggering with intensive luteal support compared with 257 women exposed to conventional hCG triggering. Women at risk of OHSS were defined by ovarian response ?15 follicles ?12 mm on the day of the trigger. Results Live-birth rates were similar in both groups GnRHa vs hCG; 29.8% vs 29.2% (p?=?0.69). One late onset severe OHSS case was observed in the GnRHa trigger group (0.3%) compared to 18 cases (7%) after hCG trigger. Conclusions GnRHa trigger combined with intensive luteal steroid support in this group of OHSS high risk Asian patients can facilitate fresh embryo transfer, however, in contrast to previous reports the occurrence of late onset OHSS was not completely eliminated. PMID:24369069

2013-01-01

232

Association Between Energy Balance and Luteal Function in Lactating Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Our,objective,was,to determine,the relationship,between,energy,balance,and secretion,of progesterone,in,lactating dairy,cows.,Eight primiparous,and,24 muhiparous,lactating Holstein cows,were studied,from,parturition,to 100 d post- partum,or,conception.,Cows,calved normally,and,remained,healthy,through- out,the,study. All cows,were,fed,ad libitum,a total mixed,diet formulated,to satisfy requirements,for maintenance,and lactation. Intake of feed and,production of,milk,per,cow,were,measured,twice daily. Body,weight,was,determined weekly.,Daily energy,balance,was,de- termined,by,subtracting,energy,required for,maintenance,and,lactation,from intake,of,energy.,Concentrations,of progesterone,were,determined,in milk sampled,every,3rd d. For at,least 4 successive d postpartum, 81% of cows were,in negative,energy,balance. Varia- tion,in,energy,balance,was,explained largely by intake,of

A. Villa-Godoy; T. L. Hughes; R. S. Emery; L. T. Chapin; R. L. Fogwell

1988-01-01

233

EFFECT OF FOLLICLE SIZE AT TIME OF GNRH-INDUCED OVULATION ON LUTEAL FUNCTION AND FERTILITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

GnRH in fixed-time AI protocols results in the ovulation of a wide range of follicle sizes. Multiparous beef cows were assigned to one of three treatments: Cyclic or anestrous cows treated with the CO-Synch protocol and anestrous control cows. CO-Synch treated cows received GnRH (100 mcg; im) on d...

234

In vivo determination of RNA Structure-Function relationships: analysis of the 790 loop in ribosomal RNA 1 1 Edited by D. E. Draper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 790 loop is a conserved hairpin located between positions 786 and 796 of Escherichia coli 16 S rRNA that is required for ribosome function. Using a novel genetic approach, all positions in the loop were simultaneously mutated and functional mutant sequences were selected in vivo. This “instant evolution” experiment revealed that approximately 190 of the 262,144 possible mutant sequences

KangSeok Lee; Shikha Varma; John SantaLucia Jr; Philip R. Cunningham

1997-01-01

235

Pharmacokinetic and toxicological evaluation of multi-functional thiol-6-fluoro-6-deoxy-d-glucose gold nanoparticles in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We synthesized a novel, multi-functional, radiosensitizing agent by covalently linking 6-fluoro-6-deoxy-d-glucose (6-FDG) to gold nanoparticles (6-FDG-GNPs) via a thiol functional group. We then assessed the bio-distribution and pharmacokinetic properties of 6-FDG-GNPs in vivo using a murine model. At 2 h, following intravenous injection of 6-FDG-GNPs into the murine model, approximately 30% of the 6-FDG-GNPs were distributed to three major organs: the liver, the spleen and the kidney. PEGylation of the 6-FDG-GNPs was found to significantly improve the bio-distribution of 6-FDG-GNPs by avoiding unintentional uptake into these organs, while simultaneously doubling the cellular uptake of GNPs in implanted breast MCF-7 adenocarcinoma. When combined with radiation, PEG-6-FDG-GNPs were found to increase the apoptosis of the MCF-7 breast adenocarinoma cells by radiation both in vitro and in vivo. Pharmacokinetic data indicate that GNPs reach their maximal concentrations at a time window of two to four hours post-injection, during which optimal radiation efficiency can be achieved. PEG-6-FDG-GNPs are thus novel nanoparticles that preferentially accumulate in targeted cancer cells where they act as potent radiosensitizing agents. Future research will aim to substitute the 18F atom into the 6-FDG molecule so that the PEG-6-FDG-GNPs can also function as radiotracers for use in positron emission tomography scanning to aid cancer diagnosis and image guided radiation therapy planning.

Roa, Wilson; Xiong, Yeping; Chen, Jie; Yang, Xiaoyan; Song, Kun; Yang, Xiaohong; Kong, Beihua; Wilson, John; Xing, James Z.

2012-09-01

236

Evidence for an inhibitory role of bone morphogenetic protein(s) in the follicular-luteal transition in cattle.  

PubMed

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their receptors are expressed in ovarian theca cells (TC) and granulosa cells (GC) and BMPs have been implicated in the regulation of several aspects of follicle development including thecal androgen production and granulosal oestrogen production. Their potential involvement in luteal function has received less attention. In this study, we first compared relative abundance of mRNA transcripts for BMPs, activin-betaA and BMP/activin receptors in bovine corpus luteum (CL) and follicular theca and granulosa layers before undertaking functional in vitro experiments to test the effect of selected ligands (BMP6 and activin A) on luteinizing bovine TC and GC. Relative to beta-actin transcript abundance, CL tissue contained more BMP4 and -6 mRNA than granulosa, more BMP2 mRNA than theca but much less activin-betaA mRNA than both granulosa and theca. Transcripts for all seven BMP/activin receptors were readily detected in each tissue and two transcripts (BMPRII, ActRIIA) were more abundant in CL than either theca or granulosa, consistent with tissue responsiveness. In vitro luteinization of TC and GC from antral follicles (4-6 mm) was achieved by culturing with 5% serum for 6 days. Treatment with BMP6 (0, 2, 10, and 50 ng/ml) and activin A (0, 2, 10 and 50 ng/ml) under these conditions dose-dependently suppressed forskolin-induced progesterone (P4) secretion from both cell types without affecting cell number. BMP6 reduced forskolin-stimulated upregulation of STAR mRNA and raised 'basal' CYP17A1 mRNA level in theca-lutein cells without affecting expression of CYP11A1 or hydroxy-Delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 beta- and steroid Delta-isomerase 1 (HSD3B1). In granulosa-lutein cells, STAR transcript abundance was not affected by BMP6, whereas forskolin-induced expression of CYP11A1, HSD3B1, CYP19A1 and oxytocin transcripts was reduced. In both cell types, follistatin attenuated the suppressive effect of activin A and BMP6 on forskolin-induced P4 secretion but had no effect alone. Granulosa-lutein cells secreted low levels of endogenous activin A ( approximately 1 ng/ml); BMP6 reduced this, while raising follistatin secretion thus decreasing activin A:follistatin ratio. Collectively, these findings support inhibitory roles for BMP/activin signalling in luteinization and steroidogenesis in both TC and GC. PMID:18936084

Kayani, Amjad R; Glister, Claire; Knight, Philip G

2009-01-01

237

Factors affecting the occurrence of postpartum prolonged luteal activity in clinically healthy high-producing dairy cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to characterize risk factors affecting the occurrence of prolonged luteal phase (PLP) in postpartum, clinically healthy, high-producing dairy cows. Transrectal ultrasound examinations of the reproductive tract were performed twice weekly, from the 1st to 8th wk after calving in 151 multiparous clinically healthy lactating Holstein cows (mean ± SD of peak milk yield = 56.7 ± 7.4

Mojtaba Kafi; Abdolah Mirzaei; Amin Tamadon; Mehdi Saeb

238

Immunization of male rabbits with sheep luteal receptor to LH results in production of antibodies exhibiting hormone-agonistic and -antagonistic activities.  

PubMed

Antibodies to LH/chorionic gonadotrophin receptor (LH/CG-R; molecular weight 67 000), isolated in a homogenous state (established by SDS-PAGE and ligand blotting) from sheep luteal membrane using human CG (hCG)-Sepharose affinity chromatography, were raised in three adult male rabbits (R-I, R-II and R-III). Each of the rabbits received 20-30 micrograms of the purified receptor in Freund's complete adjuvant at a time. Primary immunization was followed by booster injection at intervals. Production of receptor antibodies was monitored by (1) determining the dilution of the serum (IgG fraction) that could specifically bind 50% of 125I-LH/CG-R added and (2) analysing sera for any change in testosterone levels. Following primary immunization and the first booster, all three rabbits exhibited a 2.5- to 6.0-fold increase in serum testosterone over basal levels and this effect was spread over a period of time (approximately 40 days) coinciding with the rise and fall of receptor antibodies. The maximal antibody titre (ED50) produced at this time ranged from 1:350 to 1:100 to below detectable limits for R-I, R-II and R-III respectively. Subsequent immunizations followed by the second booster resulted in a substantial increase in antibody titre (ED50 of 1:5000) in R-I, but this was not accompanied by any change in serum testosterone over preimmune levels, suggesting that with the progress of immunization the character of the antibody produced had also changed. Two pools of antisera from R-I collected 10 days following the booster (at day 70 (bleed I) and day 290 (bleed II)) were used in further experiments. IgG isolated from bleed I but not from bleed II antiserum showed a dose-dependent stimulation of testosterone production by mouse Leydig cells in vitro, thus confirming the in vivo hormone-mimicking activity of antibodies generated during the early immunization phase. The IgG fractions from both bleeds were, however, capable of inhibiting (1) 125I-hCG binding to crude sheep luteal membrane (EC50 of 1:70 and 1:350 for bleed I and II antisera respectively) and (2) ovine LH-stimulated testosterone production by mouse Leydig cells in vitro, indicating the presence of antagonistic antibodies irrespective of the period of time during which the rabbits were immunized. The fact that bleed I-stimulated testosterone production could be inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by the addition of IgG from bleed II to the mouse Leydig cell in vitro assay system showed that the agonistic activity is intrinsic to the bleed I antibody. The receptor antibody (bleed II) was also capable of blocking LH action in vivo, as rabbits passively (for 24 h with LH/CG-R antiserum) as well as actively (for 430 days) immunized against LH/CG-R failed to respond to a bolus injection of LH (50 micrograms). At no time, however, was the serum testosterone reduced below the basal level. This study clearly shows that, unlike with LH antibody, attempts to achieve an LH deficiency effect in vivo by resorting to immunization with holo LH receptor is difficult, as receptor antibodies exhibit both hormone-mimicking (agonistic) as well as hormone-blocking (antagonistic) activities. PMID:8882162

Jeyakumar, M; Moudgal, N R

1996-09-01

239

Structure–function studies of STAR family Quaking proteins bound to their in vivo RNA target sites  

PubMed Central

Mammalian Quaking (QKI) and its Caenorhabditis elegans homolog, GLD-1 (defective in germ line development), are evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding proteins, which post-transcriptionally regulate target genes essential for developmental processes and myelination. We present X-ray structures of the STAR (signal transduction and activation of RNA) domain, composed of Qua1, K homology (KH), and Qua2 motifs of QKI and GLD-1 bound to high-affinity in vivo RNA targets containing YUAAY RNA recognition elements (RREs). The KH and Qua2 motifs of the STAR domain synergize to specifically interact with bases and sugar-phosphate backbones of the bound RRE. Qua1-mediated homodimerization generates a scaffold that enables concurrent recognition of two RREs, thereby plausibly targeting tandem RREs present in many QKI-targeted transcripts. Structure-guided mutations reduced QKI RNA-binding affinity in vitro and in vivo, and expression of QKI mutants in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) significantly decreased the abundance of QKI target mRNAs. Overall, our studies define principles underlying RNA target selection by STAR homodimers and provide insights into the post-transcriptional regulatory function of mammalian QKI proteins. PMID:23630077

Teplova, Marianna; Hafner, Markus; Teplov, Dmitri; Essig, Katharina; Tuschl, Thomas; Patel, Dinshaw J.

2013-01-01

240

Optimization of a Model Corrected Blood Input Function from Dynamic FDG-PET Images of Small Animal Heart In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Quantitative evaluation of dynamic Positron Emission Tomography (PET) of mouse heart in vivo is challenging due to the small size of the heart and limited intrinsic spatial resolution of the PET scanner. Here, we optimized a compartment model which can simultaneously correct for spill over and partial volume effects for both blood pool and the myocardium, compute kinetic rate parameters and generate model corrected blood input function (MCBIF) from ordered subset expectation maximization – maximum a posteriori (OSEM-MAP) cardiac and respiratory gated 18F-FDG PET images of mouse heart with attenuation correction in vivo, without any invasive blood sampling. Arterial blood samples were collected from a single mouse to indicate the feasibility of the proposed method. In order to establish statistical significance, venous blood samples from n=6 mice were obtained at 2 late time points, when SP contamination from the tissue to the blood is maximum. We observed that correct bounds and initial guesses for the PV and SP coefficients accurately model the wash-in and wash-out dynamics of the tracer from mouse blood. The residual plot indicated an average difference of about 1.7% between the blood samples and MCBIF. The downstream rate of myocardial FDG influx constant, Ki (0.15±0.03 min?1), compared well with Ki obtained from arterial blood samples (P=0.716). In conclusion, the proposed methodology is not only quantitative but also reproducible. PMID:24741130

Zhong, Min; Kundu, Bijoy K.

2013-01-01

241

In Vivo Regulation of NGF-Mediated Functions by Nedd4-2 Ubiquitination of TrkA  

PubMed Central

Trk neurotrophin receptor ubiquitination in response to ligand activation regulates signaling, trafficking, and degradation of the receptors. However, the in vivo consequences of Trk ubiquitination remain to be addressed. We have developed a mouse model with a mutation in the TrkA neurotrophin receptor (P782S) that results in reduced ubiquitination due to a lack of binding to the E3 ubiquitin ligase, Nedd4-2. In vivo analyses of TrkAP782S indicate that defective ubiquitination of the TrkA mutant results in an altered trafficking and degradation of the receptor that affects the survival of sensory neurons. The dorsal root ganglia from the TrkAP782S knock-in mice display an increased number of neurons expressing CGRP and substance P. Moreover, the mutant mice show enhanced sensitivity to thermal and inflammatory pain. Our results indicate that the ubiquitination of the TrkA neurotrophin receptor plays a critical role in NGF-mediated functions, such as neuronal survival and sensitivity to pain. PMID:24760869

Yu, Tao; Calvo, Laura; Anta, Begoña; López-Benito, Saray; López-Bellido, Roger; Vicente-García, Cristina; Tessarollo, Lino; Rodriguez, Raquel E.

2014-01-01

242

In vivo assessment of corneal barrier function through non-invasive impedance measurements using a flexible probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cornea is a transparent structure composed of three layers: the epithelium, the stroma and the endothelium. To maintain its ransparency the stroma remains in a constant state of dehydration. Consequently, any ion flow disorder through the covering layers can compromise the barrier function and, therefore the corneal homeostasis. Since ionic permeability has a fundamental impact on the passive electrical properties of living tissues, in this work it is proposed and demonstrated a diagnosis method based on tetrapolar impedance measurements performed by electrodes placed on the corneal surface. The contribution of each cornea layer to the total measured impedance has been analysed over a frequency range. Following the obtained guidelines, a flexible probe with integrated electrodes has been developed and manufactured using SU-8 photoresin. The feasibility of the proposed method has been evaluated in vivo by monitoring corneal epithelium wound healing. Obtained impedance measurements have been compared with measurements of permeability to sodium fluorescein from different excised corneas. Successful results demonstrate the feasibility of this novel flexible sensor and its capability to quantify corneal permeability in vivo in a noninvasive way.

Guimera, A.; Illa, X.; Traver, E.; Marchan, S.; Herrero, C.; Lagunas, C.; Maldonado, M. J.; Ivorra, A.; Villa, R.

2013-04-01

243

Toll-like receptor 3 regulates cord blood-derived endothelial cell function in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (cEPC) are capable of homing to neovascularisation sites, in which they proliferate and differentiate into endothelial cells. Transplantation of cEPC-derived cells, in particular those isolated from umbilical cord blood (UCB), has emerged as a promising approach in the treatment of cardio-vascular diseases. After in vivo transplantation, these cells may be exposed to local or systemic inflammation or pathogens, of which they are a common target. Because Toll-like receptors (TLR) are critical in detecting pathogens and in initiating inflammatory responses, we hypothesized that TLR may govern UCB cEPC-derived cells function. While these cells expressed almost all TLR, we found that only TLR3 dramatically impaired cell properties. TLR3 activation inhibited cell proliferation, modified cell cycle entry, impaired the in vitro angiogenic properties and induced pro-inflammatory cytokines production. The anti-angiogenic effect of TLR3 activation was confirmed in vivo in a hind-limb ischemic mice model. Moreover, TLR3 activation consistently leads to an upregulation of miR-29b, -146a and -155 and to a deregulation of cytoskeleton and cell cycle regulator. Hence, TLR3 activation is likely to be a key regulator of cEPC-derived cells properties. PMID:23748743

Grelier, Aurore; Cras, Audrey; Balitrand, Nicole; Delmau, Catherine; Lecourt, Séverine; Lepelletier, Yves; Riesterer, Hélène; Freida, Delphine; Lataillade, Jean-Jacques; Lebousse-Kerdiles, Marie-Caroline; Cuccini, Wendy; Peffault de Latour, Regis; Marolleau, Jean-Pierre; Uzan, Georges; Larghero, Jérôme; Vanneaux, Valérie

2013-10-01

244

Antisense peptide nucleic acid-functionalized cationic nanocomplex for in vivo mRNA detection  

PubMed Central

Acute lung injury (ALI) is a complex syndrome with many aetiologies, resulting in the upregulation of inflammatory mediators in the host, followed by dyspnoea, hypoxemia and pulmonary oedema. A central mediator is inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) that drives the production of NO and continued inflammation. Thus, it is useful to have diagnostic and therapeutic agents for targeting iNOS expression. One general approach is to target the precursor iNOS mRNA with antisense nucleic acids. Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) have many advantages that make them an ideal platform for development of antisense theranostic agents. Their membrane impermeability, however, limits biological applications. Here, we report the preparation of an iNOS imaging probe through electrostatic complexation between a radiolabelled antisense PNA-YR9 · oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) hybrid and a cationic shell-cross-linked knedel-like nanoparticle (cSCK). The Y (tyrosine) residue was used for 123I radiolabelling, whereas the R9 (arginine9) peptide was included to facilitate cell exit of untargeted PNA. Complete binding of the antisense PNA-YR9 · ODN hybrid to the cSCK was achieved at an 8 : 1 cSCK amine to ODN phosphate (N/P) ratio by a gel retardation assay. The antisense PNA-YR9 · ODN · cSCK nanocomplexes efficiently entered RAW264.7 cells, whereas the PNA-YR9 · ODN alone was not taken up. Low concentrations of 123I-labelled antisense PNA-YR9 · ODN complexed with cSCK showed significantly higher retention of radioactivity when iNOS was induced in lipopolysaccharide+interferon-?-activated RAW264.7 cells when compared with a mismatched PNA. Moreover, statistically, greater retention of radioactivity from the antisense complex was also observed in vivo in an iNOS-induced mouse lung after intratracheal administration of the nanocomplexes. This study demonstrates the specificity and sensitivity by which the radiolabelled nanocomplexes can detect iNOS mRNA in vitro and in vivo and their potential for early diagnosis of ALI. PMID:24427537

Shen, Yuefei; Shrestha, Ritu; Ibricevic, Aida; Gunsten, Sean P.; Welch, Michael J.; Wooley, Karen L.; Brody, Steven L.; Taylor, John-Stephen A.; Liu, Yongjian

2013-01-01

245

In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of a Novel Ferrocyanide Functionalized Nanopourous Silica Decorporation Agent for Cesium in Rats  

SciTech Connect

Novel decorporation agents are being developed to protect against radiological terrorist attacks. These sorbents, known as the self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous supports (SAMMS™), are hybrid materials where differing organic moieties are grafted onto mesoporous silica (SiO2). In vitro experiments focused on the evaluation, and optimization of SAMMS for capturing radiocesium (137Cs); based on these studies, a ferrocyanide copper (FC-Cu-EDA)-SAMMS was advanced for in vivo evaluation. In vivo experiments were conducted comparing the performance of the SAMMS vs. insoluble Prussian blue. Groups of jugular cannulated rats (4/treatment) were evaluated. Group I was administered 137Cs (~40 ?geq/kg) by intravenous (iv) injection and oral gavage; Group II was administered pre-bound 137Cs-SAMMS and sequential 137Cs + SAMMS (~61 ngeq/kg) by oral gavage; and Group III evaluated orally administered 137Cs (~0.06 ?geq/kg) followed by 0.1 g of either SAMMS or Prussian blue. Following dosing the rats were maintained in metabolism cages for 72 hour and blood, urine and fecal samples were collected for 137Cs analysis (gamma counting). Rats were then humanely euthanized, and selected tissues analyzed. Orally administered 137Cs was rapidly and well absorbed (~100% relative to iv dose), and the pharmacokinetics (blood, urine, feces & tissues) were very comparable to the iv dose group. For both exposures the urine and feces accounted for 20 and 3% of the dose, respectively. The prebound 137Cs-SAMMS was retained primarily within the feces (72% of the dose), with ~1.4% detected in the urine, suggesting that the 137Cs remained tightly bound to SAMMS. SAMMS & Prussian blue both effectively captured available 137Cs in the gut with feces accounting for 80-88% of the administered dose, while less than 2% was detected in the urine. This study suggests that the functionalized SAMMS out performs Prussian blue in vitro at low pH, but demonstrates comparable in vivo sequestration efficacy at low exposure concentrations. The comparable response may be the result of the low 137Cs dose and high sorbent dosage that was utilized. Future studies are planned to optimize SAMMS in vivo performance over a broader range of doses and conditions.

Timchalk, Charles; Creim, Jeffrey A.; Sukwarotwat, Vichaya; Wiacek, Robert J.; Addleman, Raymond S.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Yantasee, Wassana

2010-09-01

246

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a novel ferrocyanide functionalized nanopourous silica decorporation agent for cesium in rats.  

PubMed

Novel decorporation agents are being developed to protect against radiological terrorist attacks. These sorbents, known as the self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous supports (SAMMS), are hybrid materials where differing organic moieties are grafted onto mesoporous silica (SiO(2)). In vitro experiments focused on the evaluation and optimization of SAMMS for capturing radiocesium ((137)Cs); therefore, based on these studies, a ferrocyanide copper (FC-Cu-EDA)-SAMMS was advanced for in vivo evaluation. In vivo experiments were conducted comparing the performance of the SAMMS vs. insoluble Prussian blue. Groups of jugular cannulated rats (4/treatment) were evaluated. Animals in Group I were administered (137)Cs chloride (approximately 40 microg kg(-1)) by intravenous (i.v.) injection or oral gavage; Group II animals were administered pre-bound (137)Cs-SAMMS or sequential Cs chloride + SAMMS (approximately 61 ng kg(-1)) by oral gavage; and Group III was orally administered (137)Cs chloride (approximately 61 ng kg(-1)) followed by either 0.1 g of SAMMS or Prussian blue. Following dosing, the rats were maintained in metabolism cages for 72 h and blood, urine, and fecal samples were collected for (137)Cs analysis (gamma counting). Rats were then humanely euthanized, and selected tissues analyzed. Orally administered (137)Cs chloride was rapidly and well absorbed (approximately 100% relative to i.v. dose), and the pharmacokinetics (blood, urine, feces, and tissues) were very comparable to the i.v. dose group. For both exposures the urine and feces accounted for 20 and 3% of the dose, respectively. The prebound (137)Cs-SAMMS was retained primarily within the feces (72% of the dose), with approximately 1.4% detected in the urine, suggesting that the (137)Cs remained tightly bound to SAMMS. SAMMS and Prussian blue both effectively captured available (137)Cs in the gut with feces accounting for 80-88% of the administered dose, while less than 2% was detected in the urine. This study suggests that the functionalized SAMMS outperforms Prussian blue in vitro at low pH, but demonstrates comparable in vivo sequestration efficacy at low exposure concentrations. The comparable response may be the result of the low (137)Cs chloride dose and high sorbent dosage that was utilized. Future studies are planned to optimize the performance of SAMMS in vivo over a broader range of doses and conditions. PMID:20699707

Timchalk, Charles; Creim, Jeffrey A; Sukwarotwat, Vichaya; Wiacek, Robert; Addleman, R Shane; Fryxell, Glen E; Yantasee, Wassana

2010-09-01

247

Ex vivo magnetofection: A novel strategy for the study of gene function in mouse organogenesis  

PubMed Central

Gene function during mouse development is often studied through the production and analysis of transgenic and knock-out models. However, these techniques are time- and resource-consuming, and require specialized equipment and expertise. We have established a new protocol for functional studies that combines organ culture of explanted fetal tissues with micro-injection and magnetically-induced transfection (“magnetofection”) of gene expression constructs. As proof-of-principle, we magnetofected cDNA constructs into genital ridge tissue as a means of gain-of-function analysis, and shRNA constructs for loss-of-function analysis. Ectopic expression of Sry induced female-to-male sex-reversal, whereas knockdown of Sox9 expression caused male-to-female sex-reversal, consistent with the known functions of these genes. Further, ectopic expression of Tmem184a, a gene of unknown function, in female genital ridges, resulted in failure of gonocytes to enter meiosis. This technique will likely be applicable to the study of gene function in a broader range of developing organs and tissues. PMID:19301396

Svingen, Terje; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Combes, Alexander N.; Hosking, Brett; Harley, Vincent R.; Sinclair, Andrew H.; Koopman, Peter

2010-01-01

248

Serum estradiol and progesterone in the mid-luteal phase predict clinical pregnancy outcome in IVF/ICSI cycles.  

PubMed

In this prospective study, we tested the hypothesis if E2 and P serum levels significantly differ during the luteal phase following in vitro-fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) therapy in conception (CC) versus non-conception (NC) cycles, and their potential in the prediction of pregnancy at the earliest point in time. Serum was sampled from the day of embryo transfer (ET) and throughout the luteal phase until ET + 14 from patients consecutively enrolling for IVF/ICSI therapy. The luteal phase was supported by vaginal P suppositories only, clinical pregnancies were detected by ultrasound and followed up until the 20th week. Overall pregnancy rate was 30.9% constituting the two study groups of CC (n = 22) and NC cycles (n = 49). Significantly, higher E2 (3326 ± 804 versus 1072 ± 233 pmol/l, p = 0.014) and P (244 ± 68 versus 73 ± 10 nmol/l, p = 0.023) were present in CC versus NC from as early as ET + 7. In the CC group, patients with ongoing pregnancies (CC-OG) as compared with miscarriages (CC-MC) had significantly higher E2 and P from ET + 7, predicting ongoing pregnancy in receiver operator characteristics analysis. PMID:23772781

Sonntag, Barbara; Loebbecke, Kay C; Nofer, Jerzy-Roch; Kiesel, Ludwig; Greb, Robert R

2013-07-01

249

Sweet taste threshold for sucrose inversely correlates with depression symptoms in female college students in the luteal phase.  

PubMed

Influences of depression symptoms on the sweet taste threshold were investigated in healthy college students (30 males and 40 females). Depression symptoms were scored by SDS (Self-Rating Depression Scale), and anxiety levels by STAI (State- and Trait-Anxiety Inventory). Recognition thresholds for sucrose were determined. In female students, the menstrual phase on the day of the experiment was self-reported. Depression symptoms, anxiety levels, and the recognition threshold for sucrose were not different among the 3 groups, i.e. males, females in the follicular phase, and females in the luteal phase. Depression symptoms were positively correlated with state and trait anxiety in all groups. The sweet taste threshold was inversely correlated with depression symptoms (r=-0.472, p=0.031) and trait anxiety (r=-0.506, p=0.019) in females in the luteal phase. In males as well as females in the follicular phase, however, no correlation between sweet taste threshold and depression was found. The results show that the recognition threshold for sucrose reduces with increased depression in females with a higher anxiety trait, but only in the luteal phase. It is hypothesized that brain regions, which spatially overlap and are responsible for both aversive emotions and gustatory processing, are susceptible to periodic changes in gonadal hormones due to the menstrual cycle. PMID:25576640

Nagai, Masanori; Matsumoto, Sayaka; Endo, Junko; Sakamoto, Reiko; Wada, Maki

2015-03-15

250

Genome-scale functional characterization of Drosophila developmental enhancers in vivo.  

PubMed

Transcriptional enhancers are crucial regulators of gene expression and animal development and the characterization of their genomic organization, spatiotemporal activities and sequence properties is a key goal in modern biology. Here we characterize the in vivo activity of 7,705 Drosophila melanogaster enhancer candidates covering 13.5% of the non-coding non-repetitive genome throughout embryogenesis. 3,557 (46%) candidates are active, suggesting a high density with 50,000 to 100,000 developmental enhancers genome-wide. The vast majority of enhancers display specific spatial patterns that are highly dynamic during development. Most appear to regulate their neighbouring genes, suggesting that the cis-regulatory genome is organized locally into domains, which are supported by chromosomal domains, insulator binding and genome evolution. However, 12 to 21 per cent of enhancers appear to skip non-expressed neighbours and regulate a more distal gene. Finally, we computationally identify cis-regulatory motifs that are predictive and required for enhancer activity, as we validate experimentally. This work provides global insights into the organization of an animal regulatory genome and the make-up of enhancer sequences and confirms and generalizes principles from previous studies. All enhancer patterns are annotated manually with a controlled vocabulary and all results are available through a web interface (http://enhancers.starklab.org), including the raw images of all microscopy slides for manual inspection at arbitrary zoom levels. PMID:24896182

Kvon, Evgeny Z; Kazmar, Tomas; Stampfel, Gerald; Yáñez-Cuna, J Omar; Pagani, Michaela; Schernhuber, Katharina; Dickson, Barry J; Stark, Alexander

2014-08-01

251

Ex vivo generation of functional immune cells by mitochondria-targeted photosensitization of cancer cells.  

PubMed

Stimulating the immune system for potent immune therapy against cancer is potentially a revolutionary method to eradicate cancer. Tumors stimulated with photosensitizers (PSs) not only kill cancer cells but also help to boost the immune system. We recently reported that tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) generated by delivery of a mitochondria-acting PS zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) to MCF-7 breast cancer cells followed by laser irradiation can lead to ex vivo stimulation of mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). The antigens generated from the breast cancer cells were also found to cause significant DC maturation and the activated DCs were able to stimulate T cells to cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells. In this protocol, we describe methods to engineer a mitochondria-targeted biodegradable nanoparticle (NP) formulation, T-ZnPc-NPs for delivery of ZnPc to the mitochondria of MCF-7 cells, subsequent photodynamic therapy (PDT) using a long wavelength laser irradiation to produce TAAs, DC stimulation by the TAAs to secrete interferon-gamma (IFN-?), and matured DC-driven T-cell activation. PMID:25634271

Marrache, Sean; Tundup, Smanla; Harn, Donald A; Dhar, Shanta

2015-01-01

252

Optical properties of neonatal skin measured in vivo as a function of age and skin pigmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the optical properties of neonatal skin is invaluable when developing new, or improving existing optical techniques for use at the neonatal intensive care. In this article, we present in vivo measurements of the absorption ?a and reduced scattering coefficient ?s' of neonatal skin between 450 and 600 nm and assess the influence of age and skin pigmentation on the optical properties. The optical properties were measured using a spatially resolved, steady state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy setup, combined with a modified spatially resolved diffusion model. The method was validated on phantoms with known values for the absorption and reduced scattering coefficient. Values of ?a and ?s' were obtained from the skin at four different body locations (forehead, sternum, hand, and foot) of 60 neonates with varying gestational age, postnatal age, and skin pigmentation. We found that ?a ranged from 0.02 to 1.25 mm-1 and ?s' was in the range of 1 to 2.8 mm-1 (5th to 95th percentile of the patient population), independent of body location. In contrast to previous studies, no to very weak correlation was observed between the optical properties and gestational maturity, but a strong dependency of the absorption coefficient on postnatal age was found for dark skinned patients.

Bosschaart, Nienke; Mentink, Rosaline; Kok, Joke H.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

2011-09-01

253

The orphan nuclear receptor SF-1 is involved in the effect of PCBs, DDT, and DDE on the secretion of steroid hormones and oxytocin from bovine luteal cells during the estrous cycle in vitro.  

PubMed

The orphan receptor steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) is involved in the regulation of ovarian steroidogenesis in cows. It is hypothesized that estrogen-like chlorinated compounds might affect SF-1, and thus impair the function of the ovary. Bovine luteal cells from the estrous cycle (Days: 1-5, 6-10, 11-15, and 16-19) were treated for 50 hours with DDT, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethene, 3,3'4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl or 2'2'4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (each at a dose of 10 ng/mL). Luteal cells were also treated with 4-(heptyloxy)phenol (1 × 10(-7) M), an SF-1 agonist, and F0160 (1 × 10(-6) M), an SF-1 blocker, jointly or separately. The secretion of progesterone and oxytocin and the expression of oxytocin precursor (NP-I/OT) messenger RNA were increased (P < 0.05) by all studied xenobiotics and 4-(heptyloxy)phenol, although they were inhibited (P < 0.05) by F0160. However, the xenobiotics did not affect (P > 0.05) SF-1 messenger RNA expression. In summary, SF-1 is involved in the adverse effect of chlorinated xenobiotics on the regulation of the bovine CL. PMID:24576709

Mlynarczuk, J; Wrobel, M H; Kotwica, J

2014-04-15

254

Polymer Fiber Probes Enable Optical Control of Spinal Cord and Muscle Function In Vivo  

E-print Network

Restoration of motor and sensory functions in paralyzed patients requires the development of tools for simultaneous recording and stimulation of neural activity in the spinal cord. In addition to its complex neurophysiology, ...

Lu, Chi

255

Hybrid fusions show that inter-monomer electron transfer robustly supports cytochrome bc1 function in vivo  

PubMed Central

Electronic connection between Qo and Qi quinone catalytic sites of dimeric cytochrome bc1 is a central feature of the energy-conserving Q cycle. While both the intra- and inter-monomer electron transfers were shown to connect the sites in the enzyme, mechanistic and physiological significance of the latter remains unclear. Here, using a series of mutated hybrid cytochrome bc1-like complexes, we show that inter-monomer electron transfer robustly sustains the function of the enzyme in vivo, even when the two subunits in a dimer come from different species. This indicates that minimal requirement for bioenergetic efficiency is to provide a chain of cofactors for uncompromised electron flux between the catalytic sites, while the details of protein scaffold are secondary. PMID:25089001

Ekiert, Robert; Czapla, Monika; Sarewicz, Marcin; Osyczka, Artur

2014-01-01

256

DNAM-1-based chimeric antigen receptors enhance T cell effector function and exhibit in vivo efficacy against melanoma.  

PubMed

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapies hold great potential for treating cancers, and new CARs that can target multiple tumor types and have the potential to target non-hematological malignancies are needed. In this study, the tumor recognition ability of a natural killer cell-activating receptor, DNAM-1 was harnessed to design CARs that target multiple tumor types. DNAM-1 ligands, PVR and nectin-2, are expressed on primary human leukemia, myeloma, ovarian cancer, melanoma, neuroblastoma, and Ewing sarcoma. DNAM-1 CARs exhibit high tumor cell cytotoxicity but low IFN-? secretion in vitro. In contrast to other CAR designs, co-stimulatory domains did not improve the expression and function of DNAM-1 CARs. A DNAM-1/CD3zeta CAR reduced tumor burden in a murine melanoma model in vivo. In conclusion, DNAM-1-based CARs may have the potential to treat PVR and nectin-2 expressing hematological and solid tumors. PMID:25549845

Wu, Ming-Ru; Zhang, Tong; Alcon, Andre; Sentman, Charles L

2015-04-01

257

Downregulation of the Antigen Presenting Cell Function(s) of Pulmonary Dendritic Cells In Vivo by Resident Alveolar Macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sllnllnal~ Class II major histocompatibility complex (Ia)-bearing dendritic cells (DC) from airway epithelium and lung parenchyma express low-moderate antigen presenting cell (APC) activity when freshly isolated. However, this function is markedly upregulated during overnight culture in a manner analogous to epidermal Langerhans cells. The in vitro \\

Patrick G. Holt; Jane Oliver; Natalie Bilyk; Christine McMenamin; Paul G. McMenamin; Georg Kraal

1993-01-01

258

Enhanced Control of In Vivo Bone Formation with Surface Functionalized Alginate Microbeads Incorporating Heparin and Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2  

PubMed Central

In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a surface functionalization delivery platform incorporating heparin onto strontium alginate microbeads surfaces would convert this “naive carriers” into “mini-reservoirs” for localized in vivo delivery of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) that will induce functional bone regeneration. In vitro evaluation confirmed that (1) heparin incorporation could immobilize and prolong rhBMP-2 release for approximately 3 weeks; (2) a significant decrease (p<0.01) in rhBMP-2 burst release is attainable depending on initial protein load; and (3) rhBMP-2 released from surface functionalized microbeads retained bioactivity and stimulated higher alkaline phosphatase activity in cultured C2C12 cells when compared with daily administration of fresh bolus rhBMP-2. Subsequently, surface functionalized microbeads were used for in vivo delivery of rhBMP-2 at local sites of posterolateral spinal fusion surgery in rats. The microbeads were loaded into the pores of medical-grade polyepsilone caprolactone-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds before implantation. Results revealed robust bone formation and a biomechanically solid fusion after 6 weeks. When compared with a control group consisting of an equivalent amount of rhBMP-2 that was directly adsorbed onto bare-surfaced microbeads with no heparin, a 5.3-fold increase in bone volume fraction and a 2.6-fold increase in bending stiffness (flexion/extension) were observed. When compared with collagen sponge carriers of rhBMP-2, a 1.5-fold and a 1.3-fold increase in bone volume fraction and bending stiffness were observed, respectively. More importantly, 3D micro-computed tomography images enabled the visualization of a well-contained newly formed bone at ipsilateral implant sites with surface functionalized rhBMP-2 delivery. This was absent with collagen sponge carriers where newly formed bone tissue was poorly contained and crossed over the posterior midline to contralateral implants. These findings are important because of complications with current rhBMP-2 delivery method, including excessive, uncontrolled bone formation. PMID:22894570

Abbah, Sunny Akogwu; Liu, Jing; Goh, James Cho Hong

2013-01-01

259

In Vivo Characterization of Traumatic Brain Injury Neuropathology with Structural and Functional Neuroimaging  

PubMed Central

Quantitative neuroimaging is increasingly used to study the effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on brain structure and function. This paper reviews quantitative structural and functional neuroimaging studies of patients with TBI, with an emphasis on the effects of diffuse axonal injury (DAI), the primary neuropathology in TBI. Quantitative structural neuroimaging has evolved from simple planometric measurements through targeted region-of-interest analyses to whole-brain analysis of quantified tissue compartments. Recent studies converge to indicate widespread volume loss of both gray and white matter in patients with moderate-to-severe TBI. These changes can be documented even when patients with focal lesions are excluded. Broadly speaking, performance on standard neuropsychological tests of speeded information processing are related to these changes, but demonstration of specific brain-behavior relationships requires more refined experimental behavioral measures. The functional consequences of these structural changes can be imaged with activation functional neuroimaging. Although this line of research is at an early stage, results indicate that TBI causes a more widely dispersed activation in frontal and posterior cortices. Further progress in analysis of the consequences of TBI on neural structure and function will require control of variability in neuropathology and behavior. PMID:17020478

LEVINE, BRIAN; FUJIWARA, ESTHER; O’CONNOR, CHARLENE; RICHARD, NADINE; KOVACEVIC, NATASA; MANDIC, MARINA; RESTAGNO, ADRIANA; EASDON, CRAIG; ROBERTSON, IAN H.; GRAHAM, SIMON J.; CHEUNG, GORDON; GAO, FUQIANG; SCHWARTZ, MICHAEL L.; BLACK, SANDRA E.

2007-01-01

260

Functionalized carbon nanotube reinforced scaffolds for bone regenerative engineering: fabrication, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.  

PubMed

Designing biodegradable scaffolds with bone-compatible mechanical properties has been a significant challenge in the field of bone tissue engineering and regenerative engineering. The objective of this work is to improve the polymeric scaffold's mechanical strength by compositing it with mechanically superior carbon nanotubes. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microsphere scaffolds exhibit mechanical properties in the range of human cancellous bone. On the other hand, carbon nanotubes have outstanding mechanical properties. The aim of this study is to improve further the mechanical strength of PLGA scaffolds such that they may be applicable for a wide range of load-bearing repair and regeneration applications. We have formed composite microspheres of PLGA containing pristine and modified (with hydroxyl (OH), carboxylic acid (COOH)) multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and fabricated them into three-dimensional porous scaffolds. Results show that by adding only 3% MWCNTs, the compressive strength and modulus was significantly increased (35 MPa, 510.99 MPa) compared to pure PLGA scaffolds (19 MPa and 166.38 MPa). Scanning electron microscopy images showed excellent cell adhesion and proliferation. In vitro studies exhibited good cell viability, proliferation and mineralization. The in vivo study, however, indicated differences in inflammatory response throughout the 12 weeks of implantation, with OH-modified MWCNTs having the least response, followed by unmodified and COOH-modified exhibiting a more pronounced response. Overall, our results show that PLGA scaffolds containing water-dispersible MWCNTs are mechanically stronger and display good cellular and tissue compatibility, and hence are potential candidates for load-bearing bone tissue engineering. PMID:24687391

Mikael, Paiyz E; Amini, Ami R; Basu, Joysurya; Josefina Arellano-Jimenez, M; Laurencin, Cato T; Sanders, Mary M; Barry Carter, C; Nukavarapu, Syam P

2014-06-01

261

Factors affecting the occurrence of postpartum prolonged luteal activity in clinically healthy high-producing dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objective was to characterize risk factors affecting the occurrence of prolonged luteal phase (PLP) in postpartum, clinically healthy, high-producing dairy cows. Transrectal ultrasound examinations of the reproductive tract were performed twice weekly, from the 1st to 8th wk after calving in 151 multiparous clinically healthy lactating Holstein cows (mean ± SD of peak milk yield = 56.7 ± 7.4 kg). Serum samples were collected twice weekly to measure progesterone and every 2 wk to detect ?-hydroxybutyrate (?HB), and ?1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). Body condition score (BCS) was recorded weekly after calving. Based on the serum progesterone profile, 52 (34.4%) cows had normal ovarian activity (NLA), whereas 36 (23.8%) cows had a prolonged luteal phase (PLP), the most prevalent type of abnormal pattern of luteal activity. Furthermore, 63 cows with short luteal activity, delayed first ovulation, or cystic ovaries were excluded from this study. Serum AGP concentrations, as an indication of postpartum chronic endometritis, were not different (P > 0.05) between cows with NLA and PLP. Categories of peak milk yields (kg) were positively correlated with the incidence (%) of cows with PLP (r = 0.87, P = 0.02). Furthermore, milk yield peak, day of milk yield peak, mean milk yield (8 wk in milk), and milk yield on the expected day of luteolysis were higher (P < 0.05) in cows with PLP than NLA, and cows with PLP had greater loss of BCS (P = 0.007) than those with NLA. The likelihood of cows with PLP decreased by 0.9-fold for every 1 d delay of commencement of luteal activity (C-LA). Moreover, the likelihood of cows with PLP increased by 1.8-fold for each 1 mmol/L increase in the 1st wk serum ?HB concentrations. In conclusion, higher mean of milk yield, greater BCS loss, earlier C-LA, and later peak milk yield were the major risk factors affecting the occurrence of postpartum PLP in clinically healthy, high-producing dairy cows. PMID:21958642

Kafi, Mojtaba; Mirzaei, Abdolah; Tamadon, Amin; Saeb, Mehdi

2012-01-15

262

Proliferation of Functional Hair Cells in Vivo in the Absence of the Retinoblastoma Protein  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In mammals, hair cell loss causes irreversible hearing and balance impairment because hair cells are terminally differentiated and do not regenerate spontaneously. By profiling gene expression in developing mouse vestibular organs, we identified the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) as a candidate regulator of cell cycle exit in hair cells. Differentiated and functional mouse hair cells with a targeted deletion of Rb1 undergo mitosis, divide, and cycle, yet continue to become highly differentiated and functional. Moreover, acute loss of Rb1 in postnatal hair cells caused cell cycle reentry. Manipulation of the pRb pathway may ultimately lead to mammalian hair cell regeneration.

Sage, Cyrille; Huang, Mingqian; Karimi, Kambiz; Gutierrez, Gabriel; Vollrath, Melissa A.; Zhang, Duan-Sun; García-Añoveros, Jaime; Hinds, Philip W.; Corwin, Jeffrey T.; Corey, David P.; Chen, Zheng-Yi

2005-02-01

263

Independent component analysis for the detection of in vivo intrinsic signals from an optical imager of retinal function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To overcome the difficulty in detection of loss of retinal activity, a functional-Retinal Imaging Device (f-RID) was developed. The device, which is based on a modified fundus camera, seeks to detect changes in optical signals that reflect functional changes in the retina. Measured changes in reflectance in response to the visual stimulus are on the order of 0.1% to 1% of the total reflected intensity level, which makes the functional signal difficult to detect by standard methods because it is masked by other physiological signals and by noise. In this paper, we present a new Independent Component Analysis (ICA) algorithm used to analyze the video sequences from a set of experiments with different patterned stimuli from cats and humans. The ICA algorithm with priors (ICA-P) uses information about the stimulation paradigms to increase the signal detection thresholds when compared to traditional ICA algorithms. The results of the analysis show that we can detect signal levels as low as 0.01% of the total reflected intensity. Also, improvement of up to 30dB in signal detection over traditional ICA algorithms is achieved. The study found that in more than 80% of the in-vivo experiments the patterned stimuli effects on the retina can be detected and extracted.

Barriga, Eduardo S.; Pattichis, Marios; Abramoff, Michael; T'so, Dan; Kwon, Young; Kardon, Randy; Soliz, Peter

2007-02-01

264

Depletion of retinal dopamine does not affect the ERG b-wave increment threshold function in goldfish in vivo.  

PubMed

Increment threshold functions of the electroretinogram (ERG) b-wave were obtained from goldfish using an in vivo preparation to study intraretinal mechanisms underlying the increase in perceived brightness induced by depletion of retinal dopamine by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Goldfish received unilateral intraocular injections of 6-OHDA plus pargyline on successive days. Depletion of retinal dopamine was confirmed by the absence of tyrosine-hydroxylase immunoreactivity at 2 to 3 weeks postinjection as compared to sham-injected eyes from the same fish. There was no difference among normal, sham-injected or 6-OHDA-injected eyes with regard to ERG waveform, intensity-response functions or increment threshold functions. Dopamine-depleted eyes showed a Purkinje shift, that is, a transition from rod-to-cone dominated vision with increasing levels of adaptation. We conclude (1) dopamine-depleted eyes are capable of photopic vision; and (2) the ERG b-wave is not diagnostic for luminosity coding at photopic backgrounds. We also predict that (1) dopamine is not required for the transition from scotopic to photopic vision in goldfish; (2) the ERG b-wave in goldfish is influenced by chromatic interactions; (3) horizontal cell spinules, though correlated with photopic mechanisms in the fish retina, are not necessary for the transition from scotopic to photopic vision; and (4) the OFF pathway, not the ON pathway, is involved in the action of dopamine on luminosity coding in the retina. PMID:7918220

Lin, Z S; Yazulla, S

1994-01-01

265

The ex-vivo intestinal absorption rate of uranium is a two-phase function of supply.  

PubMed

The concentration-dependent absorption behaviour of uranium was investigated with surviving intestinal segments of rat jejunums, using an ex-vivo model. The results showed a monotonic slightly nonlinear increase in absorption as uranium concentrations increased. This trend was observed over the entire concentration range tested. In the lower concentration range a slower linear ascent was observed while a steeper linear ascent was found for the higher concentration range. Statistical fit was only slightly poorer for an exponential function in the range of lower values and a logarithmic function in the range of higher values. The proportion of uranium absorbed expressed as percent of uranium concentrations in the perfusion solutions followed a monotonically increasing trend from 20 to around 200 ?g/l uranium in the perfusion solutions, which thereafter appears to reach a plateau, as further increase towards concentrations around 400 ?g/l is not substantial. The uranium concentration administered had no effect on the vitality and consequently the functionality of the intestinal segments, measured in terms of active glucose transport. The results imply that uranium concentrations of more than 20 ?g/l in drinking water, for example, could lead to elevated absorption rates and thus to higher internal exposures to consider when setting of Guideline values in this concentration range. PMID:24793262

Konietzka, Rainer; Heinze, Rita; Seiwert, Margarete; Dieter, Hermann H

2014-07-01

266

IN VITRO/IN VIVO COMPARISON OF YOLK SAC FUNCTION AND EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Yolk sac function and development of rat embryos grown in vitro for 24 hrs starting on day 10.5 were compared to those of embryos grown in utero. he embryos grown in vitro had significantly fewer somites, shorter crown-rump length and smaller yolk sac diameter when compared to th...

267

Correlation of mitochondrial form and function in vivo: Microinjection of substrate and nucleotides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Microinjection of adenine nucleotides and substrates into the cytoplasm of Amoeba proteus followed by EM examination has been used in an attempt to relate alterations in mitochondrial morphology with functional changes. Contracted mitochondria with dark matrix and wide cristae (Type I), and expanded mitochondria with light matrix and narrower cristae (Type II) coexist in normal active amoebae, but their numbers

Muriel J. Ord; Robert A. Smith

1982-01-01

268

The human protein Hugl-1 substitutes for Drosophila Lethal giant larvae tumour suppressor function in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drosophila lethal giant larvae (lgl), discs large (dlg) and scribble (scrib) are tumour suppressor genes acting in a common pathway, whose loss of function leads to disruption of cell polarity and tissue architecture, uncontrolled proliferation and growth of neoplastic lesions. Mammalian homologues of these genes are highly conserved and evidence is emerging concerning their role in cell proliferation control and

Daniela Grifoni; Flavio Garoia; Christoph C Schimanski; Gösta Schmitz; Elisa Laurenti; Peter R Galle; Annalisa Pession; Sandro Cavicchi; Dennis Strand

2004-01-01

269

Detection of low-amplitude in vivo intrinsic signals from an optical imager of retinal function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the early stages of some retinal diseases, such as glaucoma, loss of retinal activity may be difficult to detect with today's clinical instruments. Many of today's instruments focus on detecting changes in anatomical structures, such as the nerve fiber layer. Our device, which is based on a modified fundus camera, seeks to detect changes in optical signals that reflect functional changes in the retina. The functional imager uses a patterned stimulus at wavelength of 535nm. An intrinsic functional signal is collected at a near infrared wavelength. Measured changes in reflectance in response to the visual stimulus are on the order of 0.1% to 1% of the total reflected intensity level, which makes the functional signal difficult to detect by standard methods because it is masked by other physiological signals and by imaging system noise. In this paper, we analyze the video sequences from a set of 60 experiments with different patterned stimuli from cats. Using a set of statistical techniques known as Independent Component Analysis (ICA), we estimate the signals present in the videos. Through controlled simulation experiments, we quantify the limits of signal strength in order to detect the physiological signal of interest. The results of the analysis show that, in principle, signal levels of 0.1% (-30dB) can be detected. The study found that in 86% of the animal experiments the patterned stimuli effects on the retina can be detected and extracted. The analysis of the different responses extracted from the videos can give an insight of the functional processes present during the stimulation of the retina.

Barriga, Eduardo S.; T'so, Dan; Pattichis, Marios; Kwon, Young; Kardon, Randy; Abramoff, Michael; Soliz, Peter

2006-02-01

270

Characterization of the RND family of multidrug efflux pumps: in silico to in vivo confirmation of four functionally distinct subgroups  

PubMed Central

Summary We have developed a generalized profile that identifies members of the root?nodulation?cell?division (RND) family of efflux pumps and classifies them into four functional subfamilies. According to Z?score values, efflux pumps can be grouped by their metabolic function, thus making it possible to distinguish pumps involved in antibiotic resistance (group 1) from those involved in metal resistance (group 3). In silico data regarding efflux pumps in group 1 were validated after identification of RND efflux pumps in a number of environmental microbes that were isolated as resistant to ethidium bromide. Analysis of the Pseudomonas putida KT2440 genome identified efflux pumps in all groups. A collection of mutants in efflux pumps and a screening platform consisting of 50 drugs were created to assign a function to the efflux pumps. We validated in silico data regarding efflux pumps in groups 1 and 3 using 9 different mutants. Four mutants belonging to group 2 were found to be more sensitive than the wild?type to oxidative stress?inducing agents such as bipyridyl and methyl viologen. The two remaining mutants belonging to group 4 were found to be more sensitive than the parental to tetracycline and one of them was particularly sensitive to rubidium and chromate. By effectively combining in vivo data with generalized profiles and gene annotation data, this approach allowed the assignment, according to metabolic function, of both known and uncharacterized RND efflux pumps into subgroups, thereby providing important new insight into the functions of proteins within this family. PMID:21255364

Godoy, Patricia; Molina?Henares, Antonio J.; De La Torre, Jesús; Duque, Estrella; Ramos, Juan L.

2010-01-01

271

In Vivo Maturation of Functional Renal Organoids Formed from Embryonic Cell Suspensions  

PubMed Central

The shortage of transplantable organs provides an impetus to develop tissue-engineered alternatives. Producing tissues similar to immature kidneys from simple suspensions of fully dissociated embryonic renal cells is possible in vitro, but glomeruli do not form in the avascular environment. Here, we constructed renal organoids from single-cell suspensions derived from E11.5 kidneys and then implanted these organoids below the kidney capsule of a living rat host. This implantation resulted in further maturation of kidney tissue, formation of vascularized glomeruli with fully differentiated capillary walls, including the slit diaphragm, and appearance of erythropoietin-producing cells. The implanted tissue exhibited physiologic functions, including tubular reabsorption of macromolecules, that gained access to the tubular lumen on glomerular filtration. The ability to generate vascularized nephrons from single-cell suspensions marks a significant step to the long-term goal of replacing renal function by a tissue-engineered kidney. PMID:23085631

Benedetti, Valentina; Rizzo, Paola; Abbate, Mauro; Corna, Daniela; Azzollini, Nadia; Conti, Sara; Unbekandt, Mathieu; Davies, Jamie A.; Morigi, Marina; Benigni, Ariela; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

2012-01-01

272

Geometric modeling, functional parameter calculation, and visualization of the in-vivo distended rectal wall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rectum can distend to accommodate stool, and contracts in response to distention during defecation. Rectal motor dysfunctions are implicated in the pathophysiology of functional defecation disorders and fecal incontinence. These rectal motor functions can be studied by intra-luminal measurements of pressure by manometry, or combined with volume during rectal balloon distention. Pressure-volume (p-v) relationships provide a global index of rectal mechanical properties. However, balloon distention alone does not measure luminal radius or wall thickness, which are necessary to compute wall tension and stress respectively. It has been suggested that the elastic modulus, which is the linear slope of the stress-strain relationship, is a more accurate measure of wall stiffness. Also, measurements of compliance may not reflect differences in rectal diameter between subjects prior to inflation, and imaging is necessary to determine if, as has been suggested, rectal pressure-volume relationships are affected by extra-rectal structures. We have developed a technique to measure rectal stress:strain relationships in humans, by simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during rectal balloon distention. After a conditioning distention, a rectal balloon was distended with water from 0 to 400 ml in 50 ml steps, and imaged at each step with MRI. The fluid filled balloon was segmented from each volume, the phase-ordered binary volumes were transformed into a geometric characterization of the inflated rectal surface. Taken together with measurements of balloon pressure and of rectal wall thickness, this model of the rectal surface was used to calculate regional values of curvature, tension, strain, and stress for the rectum. In summary, this technique has the unique ability to non-invasively measure the rectal stress:strain relationship and also determine if rectal expansion is limited by extra-rectal structures. This functional information allows the direct clinical analysis of rectal motor function and offers the potential for characterizing abnormal mechanical properties of the rectal wall in disease.

Haider, Clifton R.; Manduca, Armando; Camp, Jon J.; Fletcher, Joel G.; Robb, Richard A.; Bharucha, Adil E.

2006-03-01

273

Regulation of cytoplasmic dynein function in vivo by the Drosophila Glued complex  

PubMed Central

The Drosophila Glued gene product shares sequence homology with the p150 component of vertebrate dynactin. Dynactin is a multiprotein complex that stimulates cytoplasmic dynein-mediated vesicle motility in vitro. In this report, we present biochemical, cytological, and genetic evidence that demonstrates a functional similarity between the Drosophila Glued complex and vertebrate dynactin. We show that, similar to the vertebrate homologues in dynactin, the Glued polypeptides are components of a 20S complex. Our biochemical studies further reveal differential expression of the Glued polypeptides, all of which copurify as microtubule-associated proteins. In our analysis of the Glued polypeptides encoded by the dominant mutation, Glued, we identify a truncated polypeptide that fails to assemble into the wild-type 20S complex, but retains the ability to copurify with microtubules. The spatial and temporal distribution of the Glued complex during oogenesis is shown by immunocytochemistry methods to be identical to the pattern previously described for cytoplasmic dynein. Significantly, the pattern of Glued distribution in oogenesis is dependent on dynein function, as well as several other gene products known to be required for proper dynein localization. In genetic complementation studies, we find that certain mutations in the cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain gene Dhc64C act as dominant suppressors or enhancers of the rough eye phenotype of the dominant Glued mutation. Furthermore, we show that a mutation that was previously isolated as a suppressor of the Glued mutation is an allele of Dhc64C. Together with the observed dependency of Glued localization on dynein function, these genetic interactions demonstrate a functional association between the Drosophila dynein motor and Glued complexes. PMID:7593168

1995-01-01

274

Macrophage functions measured by magnetic microparticles in vivo and in vitro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monodisperse ferrimagnetic iron-oxide particles of 1.4 ?m geometric diameter were used to study alveolar macrophage functions (phagocytosis, phagosome transport) and cytoskeletal integrity in healthy subjects and in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis as well as in cultured macrophages. Dysfunctions in phagocytosis, in phagosome transport and cytoskeletal integrity correlated with an impaired alveolar clearance and could be induced in vitro by cytoskeletal drugs.

Möller, Winfried; Kreyling, Wolfgang G.; Kohlhäufl, Martin; Häussinger, Karl; Heyder, Joachim

2001-01-01

275

Functional characterization of dopamine transporter in vivo using Drosophila melanogaster behavioral assays  

PubMed Central

Dopamine mediates diverse functions such as motivation, reward, attention, learning/memory and sleep/arousal. Recent studies using model organisms including the fruit fly, have elucidated various physiological functions of dopamine, and identified specific neural circuits for these functions. Flies with mutations in the Drosophila dopamine transporter (dDAT) gene show enhanced dopamine signaling, and short sleep and memory impairment phenotypes. However, understanding the mechanism by which dopamine signaling causes these phenotypes requires an understanding of the dynamics of dopamine release. Here we report the effects of dDAT expression on behavioral traits. We show that dDAT expression in a subset of dopaminergic neurons is sufficient for normal sleep. dDAT expression in other cell types such as Kenyon cells and glial cells can also rescue the short sleep phenotype of dDAT mutants. dDAT mutants also show a down-regulation of the D1-like dopamine receptor dDA1, and this phenotype is rescued when dDAT is expressed in the same cell types in which it rescues sleep. On the other hand, dDAT overexpression in mushroom bodies, which are the target of memory forming dopamine neurons, abolishes olfactory aversive memory. Our data demonstrate that expression of extrasynaptic dopamine transporters can rescue some aspects of dopamine signaling in dopamine transporter mutants. These results provide novel insights into regulatory systems that modulate dopamine signaling. PMID:25232310

Ueno, Taro; Kume, Kazuhiko

2014-01-01

276

TrkA In Vivo Function Is Negatively Regulated by Ubiquitination  

PubMed Central

TrkA is a tyrosine kinase receptor required for development and survival of the peripheral nervous system. In the adult, TrkA and its ligand NGF are peripheral pain mediators, particularly in inflammatory pain states. However, how TrkA regulates the function of nociceptive neurons and whether its activity levels may lead to sensory abnormalities is still unclear. Here we report the characterization of a 3 aa (KFG) domain that negatively regulates TrkA level and function in response to NGF. Deletion of this domain in mouse causes a reduction of TrkA ubiquitination leading to an increase in TrkA protein levels and activity. The number of dorsal root ganglia neurons is not affected by the mutation. However, mutant mice have enhanced thermal sensitivity and inflammatory pain. Together, these data suggest that ubiquitination is a mechanism used in nociceptive neurons to regulate TrkA level and function. Our results may enhance our understanding of how ubiquitination affects TrkA activation following noxious thermal stimulation and inflammatory pain. PMID:24623787

Kiris, Erkan; Wang, Ting; Yanpallewar, Sudhirkumar; Dorsey, Susan G.; Becker, Jodi; Bavari, Sina; Palko, Mary Ellen

2014-01-01

277

The novel costimulatory programmed death ligand 1/B7.1 pathway is functional in inhibiting alloimmune responses in vivo.  

PubMed

The programmed death ligand 1 (PDL1)/programmed death 1 (PD1) costimulatory pathway plays an important role in the inhibition of alloimmune responses as well as in the induction and maintenance of peripheral tolerance. It has been demonstrated recently that PDL1 also can bind B7.1 to inhibit T cell responses in vitro. Using the bm12 into B6 heart transplant model, we investigated the functional significance of this interaction in alloimmune responses in vivo. PD1 blockade unlike PDL1 blockade failed to accelerate bm12 allograft rejection, suggesting a role for an additional binding partner for PDL1 other than PD1 in transplant rejection. PDL1 blockade was able to accelerate allograft rejection in B7.2-deficient recipients but not B7.1-deficient recipients, indicating that PDL1 interaction with B7.1 was important in inhibiting rejection. Administration of the novel 2H11 anti-PDL1 mAb, which only blocks the PDL1-B7.1 interaction, aggravated chronic injury of bm12 allografts in B6 recipients. Aggravated chronic injury was associated with an increased frequency of alloreactive IFN-?-, IL-4-, and IL-6-producing splenocytes and a decreased percentage of regulatory T cells in the recipients. Using an in vitro cell culture assay, blockade of the interaction of PDL1 on dendritic cells with B7.1 on T cells increased IFN-? production from alloreactive CD4(+) T cells, whereas blockade of dendritic cell B7.1 interaction with T cell PDL1 did not. These data indicate that PDL1 interaction with B7.1 plays an important role in the inhibition of alloimmune responses in vivo and suggests a dominant direction for PDL1 and B7.1 interaction. PMID:21697455

Yang, Jun; Riella, Leonardo V; Chock, Susanne; Liu, Tao; Zhao, Xiaozhi; Yuan, Xueli; Paterson, Alison M; Watanabe, Toshihiko; Vanguri, Vijay; Yagita, Hideo; Azuma, Miyuki; Blazar, Bruce R; Freeman, Gordon J; Rodig, Scott J; Sharpe, Arlene H; Chandraker, Anil; Sayegh, Mohamed H

2011-08-01

278

The novel costimulatory pathway PDL1: B7.1 is functional in inhibiting alloimmune responses in vivo1  

PubMed Central

The PDL1: PD1 costimulatory pathway plays an important role in the inhibition of alloimmune responses as well as in the induction and maintenance of peripheral tolerance. It has recently been demonstrated that PDL1 can also bind B7.1 to inhibit T cell responses in vitro. Using the bm12 into B6 heart transplant model, we investigated the functional significance of this interaction in alloimmune responses in vivo. PD1 blockade unlike PDL1 blockade failed to accelerate bm12 allograft rejection suggesting a role for an additional binding partner for PDL1 other than PD1 in transplant rejection. PDL1 blockade was able to accelerate allograft rejection in B7.2-deficient recipients but not B7.1-deficient recipients, indicating that PDL1 interaction with B7.1 was important in inhibiting rejection. Administration of the novel 2H11 anti-PDL1 mAb, which only blocks PDL1: B7.1 interaction, aggravated chronic injury of bm12 allografts in B6 recipients. Aggravated chronic injury was associated with an increased frequency of alloreactive IFN-?-, IL-4-, and IL-6-producing splenocytes and a decreased percentage of regulatory T cells in the recipients. Using an in vitro cell culture assay, blockade of the interaction of PDL1 on dendritic cells with B7.1 on T cells increased IFN-? production from alloreactive CD4+ T cells, whereas blockade of dendritic cell B7.1 interaction with T cell PDL1 did not. These data indicate that PDL1 interaction with B7.1 plays an important role in the inhibition of alloimmune responses in vivo and suggests a dominant direction for PDL1 and B7.1 interaction. PMID:21697455

Yang, Jun; Riella, Leonardo V.; Chock, Susanne; Liu, Tao; Zhao, Xiaozhi; Yuan, Xueli; Paterson, Alison M.; Watanabe, Toshihiko; Vanguri, Vijay; Yagita, Hideo; Azuma, Miyuki; Blazar, Bruce R.; Freeman, Gordon J.; Rodig, Scott J.; Sharpe, Arlene H.; Chandraker, Anil; Sayegh, Mohamed H.

2011-01-01

279

In Vivo Assessment of Endothelial Function in Human Lower Extremity Arteries  

PubMed Central

Objective Endothelial function has been measured in preclinical studies, in human brachial and coronary arteries, but not in lower extremity arteries affected by atherosclerosis. We describe a novel, first-in-man, evaluation of endothelial function of the superficial femoral arteries (SFA) in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Methods Patients with PAD (n=25) requiring lower extremity angiography were enrolled. Endothelial dependent relaxation (EDR) was measured using intravascular ultrasound and a Doppler Flow wire after the infusion of acetylcholine (Ach). IVUS derived virtual histology (IVUS-VH) of the same vessel was calculated. Endothelial independent relaxation (EIR) was measured with infusion of nitroglycerin (NTG, 200 µg). Levels of nitric oxide (NOx) and serum metabolites were determined by laboratory analysis. Results Patients (mean age 62, 48% male) had a history of hypertension (80%), coronary disease (36%), and diabetes (40%). The mean SFA diameter was 5.2 ± 1 mm (range 3.2–6.9 mm). Patients tolerated Ach infusion with no side effects or adverse events. EDR increased over baseline for all patients with Ach infusion 10?6-10?4. Diameter (0.5% at Ach 10?4) and area (1.8% at Ach 10?4) changes in the diseased SFA were modest and insignificant. But, average peak velocity of blood flow (APV) significantly increased 26, 46 and 63% with Ach infusion 10?6-10?4. Calculations of limb volumetric flow (Q, mL/s, 68%, Ach 10?4) were significantly increased after Ach infusion. Lower extremity NOx levels were slightly lower than systemic venous levels (P = .04). NTG infusion indicated normal smooth muscle responsiveness (3% diameter, 9% area, and 116% velocity change over baseline). IVUS-VH plaque stratification indicated predominantly fibrous morphology (46%; necrotic core, 29%; calcium, 18%). Atheroma burden was 14.9 ± 5.5 mm3/cm and did not correlate with endothelial responsiveness. Conclusions Endothelial function can be measured directly in human lower extremity arteries at the sites of vascular disease. Despite extensive atherosclerosis, endothelial function is still intact. These data support the application of regional endothelial-specific biological therapies in patients with PAD. PMID:23830159

Kashyap, Vikram S.; Lakin, Ryan O.; Feiten, Lindsay E.; Bishop, Paul; Sarac, Timur P.

2013-01-01

280

Bacterial lipoprotein Toll-like receptor 2 agonists broadly modulate endothelial function and coagulation pathways in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) activation induces cellular and organ inflammation, and affects lung function. Since deranged endothelial function and coagulation pathways contribute to sepsis-induced organ failure, we studied the effects of bacterial lipoprotein TLR2 agonists, including peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein, Pam3Cys, and murein lipoprotein, on endothelial function and coagulation pathways in vitro and in vivo. TLR2 agonist treatment induced diverse human endothelial cells (EC) to produce IL-6 and IL-8, and to express E-selectin on their surface, including human umbilical vein EC (HUVEC), human lung microvascular EC, and human coronary artery EC. Treatment of HUVEC with TLR2 agonists caused increased monolayer permeability and had multiple coagulation effects, including increased production of plasminogen-activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and tissue factor, and decreased production of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor. TLR2 agonist treatment also increased HUVEC expression of TLR2 itself. PAL induced IL-6 production by EC from wild-type, but not from TLR2 knockout mice, indicating TLR2 specificity. Mice were challenged with TLR2 agonists, and lungs and plasmas were assessed for markers of leukocyte trafficking and coagulopathy. Wild-type mice, but not TLR2 mice, that were challenged intravenously with TLR2 agonists had increased lung levels of myeloperoxidase and mRNAs for E-selectin, P-selectin, and MCP-1, and had increased plasma PAI-1 and E-selectin levels. Intratracheally administered TLR2 agonist caused increased lung fibrin levels. These studies show that TLR2 activation by bacterial lipoproteins broadly affects endothelial function and coagulation pathways, suggesting that TLR2 activation contributes in multiple ways to endothelial activation, coagulopathy, and vascular leakage in sepsis. PMID:21169547

Shin, Hae-Sook; Xu, Fengyun; Bagchi, Aranya; Herrup, Elizabeth; Prakash, Arun; Valentine, Catherine; Kulkarni, Hrishikesh; Wilhelmsen, Kevin; Warren, Shaw; Hellman, Judith

2012-01-01

281

Enhanced Functions of Peripheral ?? T Cells in Chronic Hepatitis B Infection during Interferon ? Treatment In Vivo and In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Background ?? T cells play an important role in infectious, autoimmune, or neoplastic diseases. Here, a study was conducted to investigate the dynamic changes in phenotype and function of peripheral ?? T cells in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) during pegylated-interferon (pegIFN)-? treatment, and to explore their roles in IFN-? therapy. Methods Total 15 CHB patients with pegIFN-? therapy and 6 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled in this study. Flow cytometry was used for the study of frequency of peripheral ?? T cells, subtypes, effector or memory ?? T cells, and also the IFN-?+, TNF-?+, CD107a+ or Granzyme B+ ?? T cells in 10 patients at week 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36 and 48 of treatment. Another 5 CHB patients and 6 HC were recruited for the ?? T cell isolation, and gene expression in ?? T cells was evaluated before or after IFN-? treatment in vitro. Results Although ??T cells decreased in CHB patients during pegIFN-? therapy, their capacities to produce TNF-? and to express CD107a were enhanced. More effector ??T cells (CD27-CD45RA+) were found in the response group than in non-response group. Furthermore, IFN-? boosted the expression of Mx2 and cytokine genes in ??T cells from CHB patients in vitro. Conclusion IFN-? could enhance the cytokine production or cytotoxicity potential of ??T cells in vivo and in vitro. The enhanced function of ??T cells might contribute to the effect of IFN-? treatment. PMID:25774808

Chen, Min; Hu, Peng; Ling, Ning; Peng, Hui; Lei, Yu; Hu, Huaidong; Zhang, Dazhi; Ren, Hong

2015-01-01

282

Mitochondrial alpha-synuclein accumulation impairs complex I function in dopaminergic neurons and results in increased mitophagy in vivo  

PubMed Central

Alpha-synuclein is the major protein component of Lewy bodies, a cardinal pathological feature of the degenerating Parkinsonian brain. Alpha-synuclein has been reported to be able to intercalate into membranes via formation of an alpha-helical structure at its N-terminal end. Recent in vitro studies from various laboratories have demonstrated that alpha-synuclein can physically associate with mitochondria and interfere with mitochondrial function. ?-Syn predominantly associates with the inner mitochondrial membrane, where it can apparently interact with complex I resulting in reduced mitochondrial complex I activity and increased free radical production. However, the effect of in vivo alpha-synuclein accumulation within dopaminergic neurons on mitochondrial function has not been thoroughly studied. Examination of transgenic animals which overexpress the familial mutant A53T form of the protein selectively within dopaminergic neurons reveals that A53T localizes to the mitochondrial membranes as monomers and oligomers particularly under conditions of proteasomal inhibitory stress, and that this localization coincides with a selective age-related mitochondrial complex I inhibition and decreased substrate-specific respiration along with increases in mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy). PMID:20887775

Chinta, Shankar J.; Mallajosyula, Jyothi K.; Rane, Anand; Andersen, Julie K.

2010-01-01

283

Systematic in vivo structure-function analysis of p300 in hematopoiesis.  

PubMed

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding (CREB)-binding protein (CBP) and p300 are multidomain transcriptional coactivators that help assemble large regulatory complexes at sites of active transcription. Nullizygosity of CBP or p300 results in pervasive defects in hematopoiesis. To systematically assess the structural domains of p300 required for normal hematopoiesis, we used recombinase-mediated cassette exchange to create an allelic series of coisogenic embryonic stem cells, each expressing a different mutant of p300 from the endogenous locus. We found that deletion of either the KIX or CH1 domain caused profound and pervasive defects in hematopoiesis, whereas the loss of most other domains had only lineage-restricted effects. When expressed from the p300 locus, an extra copy of CBP largely compensated for a lack of p300. Surprisingly, mutation of the p300 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) domain had minimal effects on hematopoiesis, and actually increased progenitor and stem cell numbers and proliferative potential. Our results suggest that, in distinct contrast to other organ systems, HAT activity does not provide a critical function for hematopoietic development and emphasizes the importance of enzyme-independent functions of p300. PMID:19822904

Kimbrel, Erin A; Lemieux, Madeleine E; Xia, Xiaobo; Davis, Tina N; Rebel, Vivienne I; Kung, Andrew L

2009-11-26

284

Phenotyping mouse pulmonary function in vivo with the lung diffusing capacity.  

PubMed

The mouse is now the primary animal used to model a variety of lung diseases. To study the mechanisms that underlie such pathologies, phenotypic methods are needed that can quantify the pathologic changes. Furthermore, to provide translational relevance to the mouse models, such measurements should be tests that can easily be done in both humans and mice. Unfortunately, in the present literature few phenotypic measurements of lung function have direct application to humans. One exception is the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, which is a measurement that is routinely done in humans. In the present report, we describe a means to quickly and simply measure this diffusing capacity in mice. The procedure involves brief lung inflation with tracer gases in an anesthetized mouse, followed by a 1 min gas analysis time. We have tested the ability of this method to detect several lung pathologies, including emphysema, fibrosis, acute lung injury, and influenza and fungal lung infections, as well as monitoring lung maturation in young pups. Results show significant decreases in all the lung pathologies, as well as an increase in the diffusing capacity with lung maturation. This measurement of lung diffusing capacity thus provides a pulmonary function test that has broad application with its ability to detect phenotypic structural changes with most of the existing pathologic lung models. PMID:25590416

Limjunyawong, Nathachit; Fallica, Jonathan; Ramakrishnan, Amritha; Datta, Kausik; Gabrielson, Matthew; Horton, Maureen; Mitzner, Wayne

2015-01-01

285

A USPL functional system with articulated mirror arm for in-vivo applications in dentistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultra-short pulsed laser (USPL) systems for dental application have overcome many of their initial disadvantages. However, a problem that has not yet been addressed and solved is the beam delivery into the oral cavity. The functional system that is introduced in this study includes an articulated mirror arm, a scanning system as well as a handpiece, allowing for freehand preparations with ultra-short laser pulses. As laser source an Nd:YVO4 laser is employed, emitting pulses with a duration of tp < 10 ps at a repetition rate of up to 500 kHz. The centre wavelength is at 1064 nm and the average output power can be tuned up to 9 W. The delivery system consists of an articulated mirror arm, to which a scanning system and a custom made handpiece are connected, including a 75 mm focussing lens. The whole functional system is compact in size and moveable. General characteristics like optical losses and ablation rate are determined and compared to results employing a fixed setup on an optical table. Furthermore classical treatment procedures like cavity preparation are being demonstrated on mammoth ivory. This study indicates that freehand preparation employing an USPL system is possible but challenging, and accompanied by a variety of side-effects. The ablation rate with fixed handpiece is about 10 mm3/min. Factors like defocussing and blinding affect treatment efficiency. Laser sources with higher average output powers might be needed in order to reach sufficient preparation speeds.

Schelle, Florian; Meister, Jörg; Dehn, Claudia; Oehme, Bernd; Bourauel, Christoph; Frentzen, Mathias

286

Transcranial imaging of functional cerebral hemodynamic changes in single blood vessels using in vivo photoacoustic microscopy  

PubMed Central

Optical imaging of changes in total hemoglobin concentration (HbT), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) provides a means to investigate brain hemodynamic regulation. However, high-resolution transcranial imaging remains challenging. In this study, we applied a novel functional photoacoustic microscopy technique to probe the responses of single cortical vessels to left forepaw electrical stimulation in mice with intact skulls. Functional changes in HbT, CBV, and SO2 in the superior sagittal sinus and different-sized arterioles from the anterior cerebral artery system were bilaterally imaged with unambiguous 36 × 65-?m2 spatial resolution. In addition, an early decrease of SO2 in single blood vessels during activation (i.e., ‘the initial dip') was observed. Our results indicate that the initial dip occurred specifically in small arterioles of activated regions but not in large veins. This technique complements other existing imaging approaches for the investigation of the hemodynamic responses in single cerebral blood vessels. PMID:22472612

Liao, Lun-De; Lin, Chin-Teng; Shih, Yen-Yu I; Duong, Timothy Q; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Wang, Po-Hsun; Wu, Robby; Tsang, Siny; Chang, Jyh-Yeong; Li, Meng-Lin; Chen, You-Yin

2012-01-01

287

Ligand binding-dependent functions of the lipocalin NLaz: an in vivo study in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Lipocalins are small extracellular proteins mostly described as lipid carriers. The Drosophila lipocalin NLaz (neural Lazarillo) modulates the IIS pathway and regulates longevity, stress resistance, and behavior. Here, we test whether a native hydrophobic pocket structure is required for NLaz to perform its functions. We use a point mutation altering the binding pocket (NLaz(L130R)) and control mutations outside NLaz binding pocket. Tryptophan fluorescence titration reveals that NLaz(L130R) loses its ability to bind ergosterol and the pheromone 7(z)-tricosene but retains retinoic acid binding. Using site-directed transgenesis in Drosophila, we test the functionality of the ligand binding-altered lipocalin at the organism level. NLaz-dependent life span reduction, oxidative stress and starvation sensitivity, aging markers accumulation, and deficient courtship are rescued by overexpression of NLaz(WT), but not of NLaz(L130R). Transcriptional responses to aging and oxidative stress show a large set of age-responsive genes dependent on the integrity of NLaz binding pocket. Inhibition of IIS activity and modulation of oxidative stress and infection-responsive genes are binding pocket-dependent processes. Control of energy metabolites on starvation appears to be, however, insensitive to the modification of the NLaz binding pocket. PMID:24361577

Ruiz, Mario; Ganfornina, Maria D; Correnti, Colin; Strong, Roland K; Sanchez, Diego

2014-04-01

288

Alterations at the Cross-Bridge Level Are Associated with a Paradoxical Gain of Muscle Function In Vivo in a Mouse Model of Nemaline Myopathy  

PubMed Central

Nemaline myopathy is the most common disease entity among non-dystrophic skeletal muscle congenital diseases. The first disease causing mutation (Met9Arg) was identified in the gene encoding ?-tropomyosinslow gene (TPM3). Considering the conflicting findings of the previous studies on the transgenic (Tg) mice carrying the TPM3Met9Arg mutation, we investigated carefully the effect of the Met9Arg mutation in 8–9 month-old Tg(TPM3)Met9Arg mice on muscle function using a multiscale methodological approach including skinned muscle fibers analysis and in vivo investigations by magnetic resonance imaging and 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. While in vitro maximal force production was reduced in Tg(TPM3)Met9Arg mice as compared to controls, in vivo measurements revealed an improved mechanical performance in the transgenic mice as compared to the former. The reduced in vitro muscle force might be related to alterations occuring at the cross-bridges level with muscle-specific underlying mechanisms. In vivo muscle improvement was not associated with any changes in either muscle volume or energy metabolism. Our findings indicate that TPM3(Met9Arg) mutation leads to a mild muscle weakness in vitro related to an alteration at the cross-bridges level and a paradoxical gain of muscle function in vivo. These results clearly point out that in vitro alterations are muscle-dependent and do not necessarily translate into similar changes in vivo. PMID:25268244

Gineste, Charlotte; Ottenheijm, Coen; Le Fur, Yann; Banzet, Sébastien; Pecchi, Emilie; Vilmen, Christophe; Cozzone, Patrick J.; Koulmann, Nathalie; Hardeman, Edna C.; Bendahan, David; Gondin, Julien

2014-01-01

289

Development of optical neuroimaging to detect drug-induced brain functional changes in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deficits in prefrontal function play a crucial role in compulsive cocaine use, which is a hallmark of addiction. Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex might result from effects of cocaine on neurons as well as from disruption of cerebral blood vessels. However, the mechanisms underlying cocaine's neurotoxic effects are not fully understood, partially due to technical limitations of current imaging techniques (e.g., PET, fMRI) to differentiate vascular from neuronal effects at sufficiently high temporal and spatial resolutions. We have recently developed a multimodal imaging platform which can simultaneously characterize the changes in cerebrovascular hemodynamics, hemoglobin oxygenation and intracellular calcium fluorescence for monitoring the effects of cocaine on the brain. Such a multimodality imaging technique (OFI) provides several uniquely important merits, including: 1) a large field-of-view, 2) high spatiotemporal resolutions, 3) quantitative 3D imaging of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) networks, 4) label-free imaging of hemodynamic changes, 5) separation of vascular compartments (e.g., arterial and venous vessels) and monitoring of cortical brain metabolic changes, 6) discrimination of cellular (neuronal) from vascular responses. These imaging features have been further advanced in combination with microprobes to form micro-OFI that allows quantification of drug effects on subcortical brain. In addition, our ultrahigh-resolution ODT (?ODT) enables 3D microangiography and quantitative imaging of capillary CBF networks. These optical strategies have been used to investigate the effects of cocaine on brain physiology to facilitate the studies of brain functional changes induced by addictive substance to provide new insights into neurobiological effects of the drug on the brain.

Du, Congwu; Pan, Yingtian

2014-03-01

290

Brain basis of early parent–infant interactions: psychology, physiology, and in vivo functional neuroimaging studies  

PubMed Central

Parenting behavior critically shapes human infants’ current and future behavior. The parent–infant relationship provides infants with their first social experiences, forming templates of what they can expect from others and how to best meet others’ expectations. In this review, we focus on the neurobiology of parenting behavior, including our own functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain imaging experiments of parents. We begin with a discussion of background, perspectives and caveats for considering the neurobiology of parent–infant relationships. Then, we discuss aspects of the psychology of parenting that are significantly motivating some of the more basic neuroscience research. Following that, we discuss some of the neurohormones that are important for the regulation of social bonding, and the dysregulation of parenting with cocaine abuse. Then, we review the brain circuitry underlying parenting, proceeding from relevant rodent and nonhuman primate research to human work. Finally, we focus on a study-by-study review of functional neuroimaging studies in humans. Taken together, this research suggests that networks of highly conserved hypothalamic–midbrain–limbic–paralimbic–cortical circuits act in concert to support aspects of parent response to infants, including the emotion, attention, motivation, empathy, decision-making and other thinking that are required to navigate the complexities of parenting. Specifically, infant stimuli activate basal forebrain regions, which regulate brain circuits that handle specific nurturing and caregiving responses and activate the brain’s more general circuitry for handling emotions, motivation, attention, and empathy – all of which are crucial for effective parenting. We argue that an integrated understanding of the brain basis of parenting has profound implications for mental health. PMID:17355399

Swain, James E.; Lorberbaum, Jeffrey P.; Kose, Samet; Strathearn, Lane

2015-01-01

291

In vivo functional studies of tumor-specific retrogene NanogP8 in transgenic animals  

PubMed Central

The current study was undertaken to investigate potential oncogenic functions of NanogP8, a tumor-specific retrogene homolog of Nanog (expressed in pluripotent cells), in transgenic animal models. To this end, human primary prostate tumor-derived NanogP8 was targeted to the cytokeratin 14 (K14) cellular compartment, and two lines of K14-NanogP8 mice were derived. The line 1 animals, expressing high levels of NanogP8, experienced perinatal lethality and developmental abnormalities in multiple organs, including the skin, tongue, eye, and thymus in surviving animals. On postnatal day 5 transgenic skin, for example, there was increased c-Myc expression and Ki-67+ cells accompanied by profound abnormalities in skin development such as thickened interfollicular epidermis and dermis and lack of hypodermis and sebaceous glands. The line 3 mice, expressing low levels of NanogP8, were grossly normal except cataract development by 4–6 mo of age. Surprisingly, both lines of mice do not develop spontaneous tumors related to transgene expression. Even more unexpectedly, high levels of NanogP8 expression in L1 mice actually inhibited tumor development in a two-stage chemical carcinogenesis model. Mechanistic studies revealed that constitutive NanogP8 overexpression in adult L1 mice reduced CD34+?6+ and Lrig-1+ bulge stem cells, impaired keratinocyte migration, and repressed the expression of many stem cell-associated genes, including Bmp5, Fgfr2, Jmjd1a, and Jun. Our study, for the first time, indicates that transgenically expressed human NanogP8 is biologically functional, but suggests that high levels of NanogP8 may disrupt normal developmental programs and inhibit tumor development by depleting stem cells. PMID:23839044

Badeaux, Mark A; Jeter, Collene R; Gong, Shuai; Liu, Bigang; Suraneni, Mahipal V; Rundhaug, Joyce; Fischer, Susan M; Yang, Tao; Kusewitt, Donna; Tang, Dean G

2013-01-01

292

EFFECT OF OIL COMBUSTION PARTICLE BIOAVAILABLE CONSTITUENTS ON EX VIVO VASCULAR FUNCTION OF AORTAS RECOVERED FROM NORMAL AND TYPE 2 DIABETIC RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Effect of Oil Combustion Particle Bioavailable Constituents on Ex Vivo Vascular Function of Aortae Recovered from Healthy and Early Type 2 Diabetic Rats KL Dreher1, SE Kelly2, SD Proctor2, and JC Russell2. 1National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, US EPA, RTP, NC;...

293

Pharmacological inhibition of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase improves endothelial vasodilatory function in rats in vivo  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) exerts a wide range of cellular effects in the cardiovascular system. NO is short lived, but S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) functions as a stable intracellular bioavailable NO pool. Accordingly, increased levels can facilitate NO-mediated processes, and conversely, catabolism of GSNO by the regulatory enzyme GSNO reductase (GSNOR) can impair these processes. Because dysregulated GSNOR can interfere with processes relevant to cardiovascular health, it follows that inhibition of GSNOR may be beneficial. However, the effect of GSNOR inhibition on vascular activity is unknown. To study the effects of GSNOR inhibition on endothelial function, we treated rats with a small-molecule inhibitor of GSNOR (N6338) that has vasodilatory effects on isolated aortic rings and assessed effects on arterial flow-mediated dilation (FMD), an NO-dependent process. GSNOR inhibition with a single intravenous dose of N6338 preserved FMD (15.3 ± 5.4 vs. 14.2 ± 6.3%, P = nonsignificant) under partial NO synthase inhibition that normally reduces FMD by roughly 50% (14.1 ± 2.9 vs. 7.6 ± 4.4%, P < 0.05). In hypertensive rats, daily oral administration of N6338 for 14 days reduced blood pressure (170.0 ± 5.3/122.7 ± 6.4 vs. 203.8 ± 1.9/143.7 ± 7.5 mmHg for vehicle, P < 0.001) and vascular resistance index (1.5 ± 0.4 vs. 3.2 ± 1.0 mmHg·min·l?1 for vehicle, P < 0.001), and restored FMD from an initially impaired state (7.4 ± 1.7%, day 0) to a level (13.0 ± 3.1%, day 14, P < 0.001) similar to that observed in normotensive rats. N6338 also reversed the pathological kidney changes exhibited by the hypertensive rats. GSNOR inhibition preserves FMD under conditions of impaired NO production and protects against both microvascular and conduit artery dysfunction in a model of hypertension. PMID:23349456

Chen, Qiumei; Sievers, Richard E.; Varga, Monika; Kharait, Sourabh; Haddad, Daniel J.; Patton, Aaron K.; Delany, Christopher S.; Mutka, Sarah C.; Blonder, Joan P.; Dubé, Gregory P.; Rosenthal, Gary J.

2013-01-01

294

Pregnancy Rate Following Luteal Phase Support in Iranian Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background To assess the efficacy of luteal phase support (LPS) using intravaginal progesterone (P) on pregnancy rate in Iranian women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) who used a combination for ovulation induction consisting of letrozole or clomi- phene citrate (CC) and human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG). Materials and Methods This was a randomized clinical trial undertaken in a fertility clinic in Kashan, Isfahan Province, Iran. A total of 198 patients completed treatment and follow up. Base on chosen ovulation induction programs, they were divided into two following group: i. CC group (n=98) used a combination consisting of CC (100 mg×5 day) and HMG (150 IU×5 day) and ii. letrozole group (n=100) used a combination consisting of letrozole (5 mg×5 day) and HMG (150 IU×5 day). After human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration (5000 IU), the patients (n=122) who randomly re- ceived intravaginal P (Cyclogest, 400 mg daily) were included in LPS group, while the rest (n=123) were included in non-P cycles group. The outcome was the comparison of chemical pregnancy rate between the groups. Results Our findings showed that LPS was associated with a 10% higher pregnancy rate than in non-P cycles, although this difference did not reach statistical significant (p=0.08). LPS improved pregnancy rate in both CC (4%) and letrozole (6%) groups. In addition, patients who used letrozole for ovulation induction along with intravaginal P showed higher pregnancy rates than CC group. Conclusion Administration of vaginal P for LPS may improve the pregnancy rate in women with PCOS using letrozole or CC in combination with HMG for ovulation induc- tion (Registration Number: IRCT201206072967N4). PMID:25379150

Foroozanfard, Fatemeh; Saberi, Hamidreza; Moraveji, Seyed Alireza; Bazarganipour, Fatemeh

2014-01-01

295

Premenstrual Dysphoria and Luteal Stress in Dominant-Social-Status Female Macaques  

PubMed Central

The current study aims to extend our previous work to develop nonhuman primate model for prospectively studying the mechanism underlying premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Thirty young dominant-status female monkeys were randomly divided into the control group, the model group, and JQP group. For two consecutive menstrual cycles, from day 18 to 22, monkeys in the model and JQP groups were housed and immobilized singly in specially designed isolation cages for 5-6 hours per day. At the same time, the pharmaceutical interference effect of jingqianping (JQP) granule, a traditional Chinese medicine specifically used to cure PMDD patients, was tested using monkeys in the JQP group. The behavior and facial expressions of monkeys were photographed with an automatic vidicon and were quantitatively analyzed by “the emotion evaluation scale of female experimental macaque.” Changes in serum level of progesterone and estradiol were measured with RIA, and serum level of 5-HT, noradrenaline, and dopamine were measured with HPLC. After experiencing mentioned above stress, 70% of monkeys of model group showed PMDD symptoms during three consecutive menstrual cycles. Estradiol and progesterone serum level decreased (P < 0.01). Moreover, the peak value of secreted hormones in their follicular phase did not occur. Serum level of 5-HT and dopamine were significantly lower (P < 0.01), but the serum noradrenaline level was higher (P < 0.01). Moreover, in monkeys administered by JQP granule, both PMDD symptoms and the anormal serum level of neurotransmitters could be obviously reversed. This special luteal-phase treatment on dominant-social-status monkeys might be a feasible way to create models mimicking PMDD. PMID:24371458

Qiao, Mingqi; Zhao, Qitao; Wei, Sheng; Zhang, Huiyun; Wang, Haijun

2013-01-01

296

In vivo alterations in skeletal muscle form and function after disuse atrophy.  

PubMed

Prolonged reductions in muscle activity and mechanical loading (e.g., bed rest, cast immobilization) result in alterations in skeletal muscle form and function. The purpose of this review article was to synthesize recent findings from several studies on the dramatic effects of disuse on skeletal muscle morphology and muscle performance in humans. Specifically, the following are discussed: 1) how the antigravity muscles are most susceptible to atrophy and how the degree of atrophy varies between muscle groups; 2) how disuse alters muscle composition by increasing intermuscular adipose tissue; 3) the influence of different disuse models on regulating the loss of muscle mass and strength, with immobilization causing greater reductions than bed rest and limb suspension do; 4) the observation that disuse decreases strength to a greater extent than muscle mass and the role of adaptations in both neural and contractile properties that influences this excessive loss of strength; 5) the equivocal findings on the effect of disuse on muscle fatigue resistance; and 6) the reduction in motor control after prolonged disuse. Lastly, emerging data warranting further inquiry into the modulating role of biological sex on disuse-induced adaptations are also discussed. PMID:19727027

Clark, Brian C

2009-10-01

297

In vivo selection of lethal mutations reveals two functional domains in arginyl-tRNA synthetase.  

PubMed Central

Using random mutagenesis and a genetic screening in yeast, we isolated 26 mutations that inactivate Saccharomyces cerevisiae arginyl-tRNA synthetase (ArgRS). The mutations were identified and the kinetic parameters of the corresponding proteins were tested after purification of the expression products in Escherichia coli. The effects were interpreted in the light of the crystal structure of ArgRS. Eighteen functional residues were found around the arginine-binding pocket and eight others in the carboxy-terminal domain of the enzyme. Mutations of these residues all act by strongly impairing the rates of tRNA charging and arginine activation. Thus, ArgRS and tRNA(Arg) can be considered as a kind of ribonucleoprotein, where the tRNA, before being charged, is acting as a cofactor that activates the enzyme. Furthermore, by using different tRNA(Arg) isoacceptors and heterologous tRNA(Asp), we highlighted the crucial role of several residues of the carboxy-terminal domain in tRNA recognition and discrimination. PMID:10744027

Geslain, R; Martin, F; Delagoutte, B; Cavarelli, J; Gangloff, J; Eriani, G

2000-01-01

298

Dynamic noninvasive monitoring of renal function in vivo by fluorescence lifetime imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kidneys normally filter the blood of excess salts and metabolic products, such as urea, while retaining plasma proteins. In diseases such as multiple myeloma and diabetes mellitus, the renal function is compromised and protein escapes into the urine. In this study, we present the use of fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLI) to image excess serum protein in urine (proteinuria). The near-infrared fluorescent dye LS-288 has distinct lifetimes when bound to protein versus free in solution, providing contrast between the protein-rich viscera and the mostly protein-free bladder. FLI with LS-288 in mice revealed that fluorescence lifetime (FLT) differences in the bladder relative to surrounding tissues was due to the fractional contributions of the bound and unbound dye molecules. The FLT of LS-288 decreased in the case of proteinuria while fluorescence intensity was unchanged. The results show that FLI can be useful for the dynamic imaging of protein-losing nephropathy due to diabetes mellitus and other renal diseases and suggest the potential use of the FLI to distinguish tumors from fluid-filled cysts in the body.

Goiffon, Reece J.; Akers, Walter J.; Berezin, Mikhail Y.; Lee, Hyeran; Achilefu, Samuel

2009-03-01

299

Effect of tomato industrial processing (different hybrids, paste, and pomace) on inhibition of platelet function in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Healthy eating is among its safeguards, especially the daily intake of fruits and vegetables. In this context it has been shown that tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) presents antiplatelet activity. In the present study, we evaluated in vitro antiplatelet activity of fresh hybrid tomato process (nine hybrids: Apt 410, H 9888, Bos 8066, Sun 6366, AB3, HMX 7883, H 9665, H 7709, and H 9997), paste and its by-product of industrial processes (pomace). We assessed antiplatelet activity ex vivo and bleeding time in rats that ingested 0.1 and 1.0 g/kg of pomace each day. In studies in vitro, no significant differences in antiplatelet activity was observed in fresh tomato hybrids. Furthermore, the agro-industrial process did not affect the antiplatelet activity of paste and pomace. Likewise, pomace intake of 1.0 g/kg per day prolonged bleeding time and reduced ex vivo platelet aggregation in rats. The data obtained indicate that tomato has one or more compounds that caused antiplatelet activity. Regular consumption of tomato and its industrial derivatives could be part of a CVD prevention regimen. PMID:24325459

Rodríguez-Azúa, Rosio; Treuer, Adriana; Moore-Carrasco, Rodrigo; Cortacáns, Daniel; Gutiérrez, Margarita; Astudillo, Luis; Fuentes, Eduardo; Palomo, Iván

2014-04-01

300

Effect of Tomato Industrial Processing (Different Hybrids, Paste, and Pomace) on Inhibition of Platelet Function In Vitro, Ex Vivo, and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Abstract Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Healthy eating is among its safeguards, especially the daily intake of fruits and vegetables. In this context it has been shown that tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) presents antiplatelet activity. In the present study, we evaluated in vitro antiplatelet activity of fresh hybrid tomato process (nine hybrids: Apt 410, H 9888, Bos 8066, Sun 6366, AB3, HMX 7883, H 9665, H 7709, and H 9997), paste and its by-product of industrial processes (pomace). We assessed antiplatelet activity ex vivo and bleeding time in rats that ingested 0.1 and 1.0?g/kg of pomace each day. In studies in vitro, no significant differences in antiplatelet activity was observed in fresh tomato hybrids. Furthermore, the agro-industrial process did not affect the antiplatelet activity of paste and pomace. Likewise, pomace intake of 1.0?g/kg per day prolonged bleeding time and reduced ex vivo platelet aggregation in rats. The data obtained indicate that tomato has one or more compounds that caused antiplatelet activity. Regular consumption of tomato and its industrial derivatives could be part of a CVD prevention regimen. PMID:24325459

Rodríguez-Azúa, Rosio; Treuer, Adriana; Moore-Carrasco, Rodrigo; Cortacáns, Daniel; Gutiérrez, Margarita; Astudillo, Luis; Fuentes, Eduardo

2014-01-01

301

In vitro oocyte maturation and preantral follicle culture from the luteal-phase baboon ovary produce mature oocytes.  

PubMed

Female cancer patients who seek fertility preservation but cannot undergo ovarian stimulation and embryo preservation may consider 1) retrieval of immature oocytes followed by in vitro maturation (IVM) or 2) ovarian tissue cryopreservation followed by transplantation or in vitro follicle culture. Conventional IVM is carried out during the follicular phase of menstrual cycle. There is limited evidence demonstrating that immature oocyte retrieved during the luteal phase can mature in vitro and be fertilized to produce viable embryos. While in vitro follicle culture is successful in rodents, its application in nonhuman primates has made limited progress. The objective of this study was to investigate the competence of immature luteal-phase oocytes from baboon and to determine the effect of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on baboon preantral follicle culture and oocyte maturation in vitro. Oocytes from small antral follicle cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) with multiple cumulus layers (42%) were more likely to resume meiosis and progress to metaphase II (MII) than oocytes with a single layer of cumulus cells or less (23% vs. 3%, respectively). Twenty-four percent of mature oocytes were successfully fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and 25% of these developed to morula-stage embryos. Preantral follicles were encapsulated in fibrin-alginate-matrigel matrices and cultured to small antral stage in an FSH-independent manner. FSH negatively impacted follicle health by disrupting the integrity of oocyte and cumulus cells contact. Follicles grown in the absence of FSH produced MII oocytes with normal spindle structure. In conclusion, baboon luteal-phase COCs and oocytes from cultured preantral follicles can be matured in vitro. Oocyte meiotic competence correlated positively with the number of cumulus cell layers. This study clarifies the parameters of the follicle culture system in nonhuman primates and provides foundational data for future clinical development as a fertility preservation option for women with cancer. PMID:21123815

Xu, Min; Fazleabas, Asgerally T; Shikanov, Ariella; Jackson, Erin; Barrett, Susan L; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jenny; Kiesewetter, Sarah E; Shea, Lonnie D; Woodruff, Teresa K

2011-04-01

302

Cetrotide administration in the early luteal phase in patients at high risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: A controlled clinical study  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present pilot study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of Cetrotide administration in the early luteal phase in patients at high risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), undergoing embryo cryopreservation following superovulation. A total of 135 patients at high risk of OHSS and undergoing embryo cryopreservation were divided into two groups. In the treatment group (n=39), the patients received daily subcutaneous injections of 0.25 mg Cetrotide between days 1 and 5 following ooctye retrieval, and volume expansion and symptomatic treatment were also provided. In the control group (n=96), the patients received routine treatments, including volume expansion therapy. The serum steroid hormone concentrations of the patients were measured on days 2, 5 and 8 following ooctye retrieval, while the incidence of moderate or severe OHSS, self-evaluated clinical symptoms and various clinical indicators were recorded. The serum estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone and progesterone levels in the treatment group on days 2, 5 and 8 following oocyte retrieval were not found to differ significantly when compared with the patients in the control group (P>0.05). The incidence of severe OHSS did not differ significantly between the two groups (P>0.05). The average length of hospital stay and length of luteal phase were not found to be significantly different between the treatment and control groups (P>0.05). In conclusion, Cetrotide injections in the early luteal phase did not alter the serum steroid levels of patients at high risk of OHSS undergoing embryo cryopreservation, and were unable to reduce the incidence of severe early OHSS. However, further randomized studies are required to evaluate the effectiveness of Cetrotide in the prevention of OHSS. PMID:25371744

WANG, YA-QIN; YU, NAN; XU, WANG-MIN; XIE, QIN-ZHEN; YAN, WEN-JIE; WU, GENG-XIANG; YANG, JING

2014-01-01

303

Profiling of Luteal Transcriptome during Prostaglandin F2-Alpha Treatment in Buffalo Cows: Analysis of Signaling Pathways Associated with Luteolysis  

PubMed Central

In several species including the buffalo cow, prostaglandin (PG) F2? is the key molecule responsible for regression of corpus luteum (CL). Experiments were carried out to characterize gene expression changes in the CL tissue at various time points after administration of luteolytic dose of PGF2? in buffalo cows. Circulating progesterone levels decreased within 1 h of PGF2? treatment and evidence of apoptosis was demonstrable at 18 h post treatment. Microarray analysis indicated expression changes in several of immediate early genes and transcription factors within 3 h of treatment. Also, changes in expression of genes associated with cell to cell signaling, cytokine signaling, steroidogenesis, PG synthesis and apoptosis were observed. Analysis of various components of LH/CGR signaling in CL tissues indicated decreased LH/CGR protein expression, pCREB levels and PKA activity post PGF2? treatment. The novel finding of this study is the down regulation of CYP19A1 gene expression accompanied by decrease in expression of E2 receptors and circulating and intra luteal E2 post PGF2? treatment. Mining of microarray data revealed several differentially expressed E2 responsive genes. Since CYP19A1 gene expression is low in the bovine CL, mining of microarray data of PGF2?-treated macaques, the species with high luteal CYP19A1 expression, showed good correlation between differentially expressed E2 responsive genes between both the species. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that PGF2? interferes with luteotrophic signaling, impairs intra-luteal E2 levels and regulates various signaling pathways before the effects on structural luteolysis are manifest. PMID:25102061

Suganthi, Hepziba; Rudraiah, Medhamurthy

2014-01-01

304

Profiling of luteal transcriptome during prostaglandin F2-alpha treatment in buffalo cows: analysis of signaling pathways associated with luteolysis.  

PubMed

In several species including the buffalo cow, prostaglandin (PG) F2? is the key molecule responsible for regression of corpus luteum (CL). Experiments were carried out to characterize gene expression changes in the CL tissue at various time points after administration of luteolytic dose of PGF2? in buffalo cows. Circulating progesterone levels decreased within 1 h of PGF2? treatment and evidence of apoptosis was demonstrable at 18 h post treatment. Microarray analysis indicated expression changes in several of immediate early genes and transcription factors within 3 h of treatment. Also, changes in expression of genes associated with cell to cell signaling, cytokine signaling, steroidogenesis, PG synthesis and apoptosis were observed. Analysis of various components of LH/CGR signaling in CL tissues indicated decreased LH/CGR protein expression, pCREB levels and PKA activity post PGF2? treatment. The novel finding of this study is the down regulation of CYP19A1 gene expression accompanied by decrease in expression of E2 receptors and circulating and intra luteal E2 post PGF2? treatment. Mining of microarray data revealed several differentially expressed E2 responsive genes. Since CYP19A1 gene expression is low in the bovine CL, mining of microarray data of PGF2?-treated macaques, the species with high luteal CYP19A1 expression, showed good correlation between differentially expressed E2 responsive genes between both the species. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that PGF2? interferes with luteotrophic signaling, impairs intra-luteal E2 levels and regulates various signaling pathways before the effects on structural luteolysis are manifest. PMID:25102061

Shah, Kunal B; Tripathy, Sudeshna; Suganthi, Hepziba; Rudraiah, Medhamurthy

2014-01-01

305

Estrogen supplementation to progesterone as luteal phase support in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization: systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Meta-analyses have found conflicting results with respect to the use of progesterone or progesterone plus estrogen as luteal phase support for in vitro fertilization (IVF) protocols involving gonadotropins and/or gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs. The aim of the present study was to perform an updated meta-analysis on the efficacy of progesterone versus progesterone plus estrogen as luteal phase support.We searched the MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases (up to March 18, 2014). The search terms were (estrogen OR estradiol OR oestradiol) AND (progesterone) AND (IVF OR in vitro fertilization) AND (randomized OR prospective). We did not limit the form of estrogen and included subjects who contributed more than 1 cycle to a study. The primary outcome was clinical pregnancy rate. Secondary outcomes were ongoing pregnancy rate, fertilization rate, implantation rate, and miscarriage rate.A total of 11 articles were included in the present analysis, with variable numbers of studies assessing each outcome measure. Results of statistical analyses indicated that progesterone plus estrogen treatment was more likely to result in clinical pregnancy than progesterone alone (pooled odds ratio 1.617, 95% confidence interval 1.059-2.471; P?=?0.026). No significant difference between the 2 treatment regimens was found for the other outcome measures.Progesterone plus estrogen for luteal phase support is associated with a higher clinical pregnancy rate than progesterone alone in women undergoing IVF, but other outcomes such as ongoing pregnancy rate, fertilization rate, implantation rate, and miscarriage rate are the same for both treatments. PMID:25715250

Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Lv, Fang; Wang, Pin; Huang, Xia-Man; Liu, Kai-Feng; Pan, Yu; Dong, Nai-Jun; Ji, Yu-Rong; She, Hong; Hu, Rong

2015-02-01

306

Rumen function in vivo and in vitro in sheep fed Leucaena leucocephala.  

PubMed

The effect of Leucaena leucocephala inclusion in sheep diets upon rumen function was evaluated. Nine Pelibuey sheep, 32.6 ± 5.33 kg live weight (LW), fitted with rumen cannula were used. A complete randomized block design was employed. Two experimental periods of 60 days each, with 60-day intervals between them, were used. Experimental treatments were as follows (n = 6): T1 (control), 100 % Pennisetum purpureum grass; T2, 20 %?L. leucocephala + 80 % P. purpureum; T3, 40 %?L. leucocephala + 60 % P. purpureum. In situ rumen neutral detergent fiber (aNDF) and crude protein (CP) degradation, dry matter intake (DMI), volatile fatty acids (VFA) production, estimated methane (CH4) yield, rumen pH, ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3), and protozoa counts were measured. The aNDF in situ rumen degradation of P. purpureum and leucaena was higher (P < 0.05) in T2 and T3. Leucaena CP degradation was higher in T2 and T3 but for P. purpureum it was only significantly higher in T3. Leucaena aNDF and CP degradation rate (c) was 50 % higher (P < 0.05) in T2 and T3, but only higher in T3 for P. purpureum. Voluntary intake and rumen (N-NH3) was higher in T2 and T3 (P = 0.0001, P = 0.005, respectively). Molar VFA proportions were similar for all treatments (P > 0.05). Protozoa counts and in vitro gas production (48 h) were lower in T2 and T3 (P < 0.05, P < 0.0001). Estimated methane yield (mol CH4/day) was higher in sheep fed leucaena (P < 0.0001). However, CH4 yield relative to animal performance (mol CH4/g LW gain) was lower in T2 and T3 (P < 0.0001). In summary, these results indicate that including L. leucocephala in sheep diets did not modify rumen fermentation pattern (same VFA ratios) nor reduce the amount of CH4 per unit of DMI (mol CH4/g DMI). However, leucaena inclusion does increase rumen N-NH3, aNDF and CP digestibility, and voluntary intake. PMID:25764346

Barros-Rodríguez, Marcos Antonio; Solorio-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo; Klieve, Athol; Rojas-Herrera, Rafael Antonio; Briceño-Poot, Eduardo Gaspar; Ku-Vera, Juan Carlos

2015-04-01

307

Loss of Tsc1 in vivo impairs hippocampal mGluR-LTD and increases excitatory synaptic function  

PubMed Central

The autism-spectrum disorder Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is caused by mutations in the Tsc1 or Tsc2 genes whose protein products form a heterodimeric complex that negatively regulates mTOR-dependent protein translation. Although several forms of synaptic plasticity, including metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression (mGluR-LTD), depend on protein translation at the time of induction, it is unknown if these forms of plasticity require signaling through the Tsc1/2 complex. To examine this possibility, we postnatally deleted Tsc1 in vivo in a subset of hippocampal CA1 neurons using viral delivery of Cre recombinase in mice. We found that hippocampal mGluR-LTD was abolished by loss of Tsc1, whereas a protein synthesis-independent form of NMDA receptor-dependent LTD was preserved. Additionally, AMPA and NMDA receptor mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and miniature spontaneous EPSC frequency were enhanced in Tsc1 KO neurons. These changes in synaptic function occurred in the absence of alterations in spine density, morphology, or pre-synaptic release probability. Our findings indicate that signaling through Tsc1/2 is required for the expression of specific forms of hippocampal synaptic plasticity as well as the maintenance of normal excitatory synaptic strength. Furthermore, these data suggest that perturbations of synaptic signaling may contribute to the pathogenesis of TSC. PMID:21677170

Bateup, Helen S.; Takasaki, Kevin T.; Saulnier, Jessica L.; Denefrio, Cassandra L.; Sabatini, Bernardo L.

2011-01-01

308

An in vivo functional screen identifies ST6GalNAc2 sialyltransferase as a breast cancer metastasis suppressor.  

PubMed

To interrogate the complex mechanisms involved in the later stages of cancer metastasis, we designed a functional in vivo RNA interference (RNAi) screen combined with next-generation sequencing. Using this approach, we identified the sialyltransferase ST6GalNAc2 as a novel breast cancer metastasis suppressor. Mechanistically, ST6GalNAc2 silencing alters the profile of O-glycans on the tumor cell surface, facilitating binding of the soluble lectin galectin-3. This then enhances tumor cell retention and emboli formation at metastatic sites leading to increased metastatic burden, events that can be completely blocked by galectin-3 inhibition. Critically, elevated ST6GALNAC2, but not galectin-3, expression in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancers significantly correlates with reduced frequency of metastatic events and improved survival. These data demonstrate that the prometastatic role of galectin-3 is regulated by its ability to bind to the tumor cell surface and highlight the potential of monitoring ST6GalNAc2 expression to stratify patients with breast cancer for treatment with galectin-3 inhibitors. PMID:24520024

Murugaesu, Nirupa; Iravani, Marjan; van Weverwijk, Antoinette; Ivetic, Aleksandar; Johnson, Damian A; Antonopoulos, Aristotelis; Fearns, Antony; Jamal-Hanjani, Mariam; Sims, David; Fenwick, Kerry; Mitsopoulos, Costas; Gao, Qiong; Orr, Nick; Zvelebil, Marketa; Haslam, Stuart M; Dell, Anne; Yarwood, Helen; Lord, Christopher J; Ashworth, Alan; Isacke, Clare M

2014-03-01

309

Nature, source and function of pigments in tardigrades: in vivo raman imaging of carotenoids in Echiniscus blumi.  

PubMed

Tardigrades are microscopic aquatic animals with remarkable abilities to withstand harsh physical conditions such as dehydration or exposure to harmful highly energetic radiation. The mechanisms responsible for such robustness are presently little known, but protection against oxidative stresses is thought to play a role. Despite the fact that many tardigrade species are variously pigmented, scarce information is available about this characteristic. By applying Raman micro-spectroscopy on living specimens, pigments in the tardigrade Echiniscus blumi are identified as carotenoids, and their distribution within the animal body is visualized. The dietary origin of these pigments is demonstrated, as well as their presence in the eggs and in eye-spots of these animals, together with their absence in the outer layer of the animal (i.e., cuticle and epidermis). Using in-vivo semi-quantitative Raman micro-spectroscopy, a decrease in carotenoid content is detected after inducing oxidative stress, demonstrating that this approach can be used for studying the role of carotenoids in oxidative stress-related processes in tardigrades. This approach could be thus used in further investigations to test several hypotheses concerning the function of these carotenoids in tardigrades as photo-protective pigments against ionizing radiations or as antioxidants defending these organisms against the oxidative stress occurring during desiccation processes. PMID:23185564

Bonifacio, Alois; Guidetti, Roberto; Altiero, Tiziana; Sergo, Valter; Rebecchi, Lorena

2012-01-01

310

Nature, Source and Function of Pigments in Tardigrades: In Vivo Raman Imaging of Carotenoids in Echiniscus blumi  

PubMed Central

Tardigrades are microscopic aquatic animals with remarkable abilities to withstand harsh physical conditions such as dehydration or exposure to harmful highly energetic radiation. The mechanisms responsible for such robustness are presently little known, but protection against oxidative stresses is thought to play a role. Despite the fact that many tardigrade species are variously pigmented, scarce information is available about this characteristic. By applying Raman micro-spectroscopy on living specimens, pigments in the tardigrade Echiniscus blumi are identified as carotenoids, and their distribution within the animal body is visualized. The dietary origin of these pigments is demonstrated, as well as their presence in the eggs and in eye-spots of these animals, together with their absence in the outer layer of the animal (i.e., cuticle and epidermis). Using in-vivo semi-quantitative Raman micro-spectroscopy, a decrease in carotenoid content is detected after inducing oxidative stress, demonstrating that this approach can be used for studying the role of carotenoids in oxidative stress-related processes in tardigrades. This approach could be thus used in further investigations to test several hypotheses concerning the function of these carotenoids in tardigrades as photo-protective pigments against ionizing radiations or as antioxidants defending these organisms against the oxidative stress occurring during desiccation processes. PMID:23185564

Bonifacio, Alois; Guidetti, Roberto; Altiero, Tiziana; Sergo, Valter; Rebecchi, Lorena

2012-01-01

311

Polyethylene insert damage in unicondylar knee replacement: a comparison of in vivo function and in vitro simulation.  

PubMed

Modification of knee joint wear simulation methods has included 'anatomic attachment' of unicondylar knee replacements (UKR) onto synthetic femurs with material properties and morphology similar to human femurs. The present study assesses the effect of such modification by comparing the damage patterns on UKR polyethylene inserts after in vitro simulation using standard and modified simulation methods with those on inserts retrieved after in vivo function. Three groups of UKR inserts were evaluated after retrieval (Explant Group, n = 17) or after knee joint wear simulation with the components attached to standard metal blocks (Standard Group, n = 6) or synthetic femurs (Anatomic Group, n = 6). All UKR had similar non-conforming articular surfaces. Articular damage patterns (mode, frequency, and area) were quantified using digital image photogrammetry. Although some common damage modes were noted, knee joint wear simulation with standard or 'anatomic' attachment did not generate damage pattern sizes similar to the explanted UKR. A focal damage pattern consistent with contact between the metal femoral articular surface and the polyethylene inserts was evident on all inserts, but only the Explant Group had evidence of dispersed damage dominated by abrasive modes. Synthetic femurs added complexity to the wear simulation without generating wear patterns substantially more similar to those observed on retrieved inserts. PMID:20839650

Harman, M; Affatato, S; Spinelli, M; Zavalloni, M; Stea, S; Toni, A

2010-01-01

312

Gold nanoparticle-DNA aptamer composites as a universal carrier for in vivo delivery of biologically functional proteins.  

PubMed

Although the delivery of biologically functional protein(s) into mammalian cells could be of tremendous value to biomedical research, the development of such technology has been hindered by the lack of a safe and effective delivery method. Here, we present a simple, efficient, and versatile gold nanoparticle-DNA aptamer conjugate (AuNP-Apt)-based system, with nanoblock-like properties, that allows any recombinant protein to be loaded without additional modifications and delivered into mammalian living systems. AuNP-Apt-based protein delivery system was able to deliver various proteins into variety of cell types in vitro without showing cytotoxicity. This AuNP-Apt system was also effective for the local and systemic targeted delivery of proteins in vivo. A local injection of the AuNP-Apt loaded with the apoptosis-inducing BIM protein efficiently inhibited the growth of xenograft tumors in mice. Furthermore, an intravenous injection of AuNP-Apt loaded with both epidermal growth factor (EGF) and BIM resulted in the targeted delivery of BIM into a xenograft tumor derived from EGF receptor-overexpressing cancer cells with no detectable systemic toxicity. Our findings show that this system can serve as an innovative platform for the development of protein-based biomedical applications. PMID:25450403

Ryou, Sang-Mi; Yeom, Ji-Hyun; Kang, Hyo Jung; Won, Miae; Kim, Jin-Sik; Lee, Boeun; Seong, Maeng-Je; Ha, Nam-Chul; Bae, Jeehyeon; Lee, Kangseok

2014-12-28

313

Functional and differential proteomic analyses to identify platelet derived factors affecting ex vivo expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells  

PubMed Central

Background Multilineage differentiation, immunomodulation and secretion of trophic factors render mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) highly attractive for clinical application. Human platelet derivatives such as pooled human platelet lysate (pHPL) and thrombin-activated platelet releasate in plasma (tPRP) have been introduced as alternatives to fetal bovine serum (FBS) to achieve GMP-compliance. However, whereas both pHPL and tPRP support similar proliferation kinetics of lipoaspirate-derived MSC (LA-MSC), only pHPL significantly accelerates bone marrow-derived MSC (BM-MSC) expansion. To identify functionally bioactive factors affecting ex vivo MSC expansion, a differential proteomic approach was performed and identified candidate proteins were evaluated within a bioassay. Results Two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), MALDI-TOF analyses and complementary Western blotting revealed 20 differential protein species. 14 candidate proteins occured at higher concentrations in pHPL compared to tPRP and 6 at higher concentrations in tPRP. The candidate proteins fibrinogen and apolipoprotein A1 differentially affected LA- and BM-MSC proliferation. In a second set of experiments, reference cytokines known to foster proliferation in FBS were tested for their effects in the human supplements. Interestingly although these cytokines promoted proliferation in FBS, they failed to do so when added to the humanized system. Conclusions The differential proteomic approach identified novel platelet derived factors differentially acting on human MSC proliferation. Complementary testing of reference cytokines revealed a lack of stimulation in the human supplements compared to FBS. The data describe a new coherent approach to combine proteomic technologies with functional testing to develop novel, humanized, GMP-compliant conditions for MSC expansion. PMID:24168020

2013-01-01

314

The protein interaction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytoplasmic thiol peroxidase II with SFH2p and its in vivo function.  

PubMed

Previously, we reported that the yeast cytoplasmic thiol peroxidase type II isoform (cTPx II), a member of the TSA/AhpC family, showed a very low peroxidase activity when compared with other cytoplasmic yeast isoforms, and that cTPx II mutant (cTPx II Delta) showed a severe growth retardation compared with that of the wild-type cells. To reveal the physiological function of cTPx II in yeast cell growth, we searched for proteins which react with cTPx II. In this study, we identified a novel interaction between cTPx II and CSR1p using the yeast two-hybrid system. CSR1p (SFH2p) has been known to be one member of Sec14 homologous (SFH2) proteins. SFH2p exhibits phosphatidylinositol transfer protein activity. Interestingly, we found that cTPx II selectively bound to SFH2p among the five types of SFH proteins and Sec14p. The interaction required the dimerization of cTPx II. In addition, SFH2p also specifically bound to cTPx II among the yeast thiol peroxidase isoforms. The selective interaction of the dimer form of cTPx II (the oxidized form) with SFH2p was also confirmed by glutathione S-transferase pull-down and immunoprecipitation assays. The growth retardation, clearly reflected by the length of the lag phase, of cTPx II Delta was rescued by deleting SFH2p in the cTPx II Delta strain. The SFH2 Delta strain did not show any growth retardation. In addition, the double mutant showed a higher susceptibility to oxidative stress. This finding provides the first in vivo demonstration of the specific interaction of cTPx II with SFH2p in an oxidative stress-sensitive manner and a novel physiological function of the complex of cTPx II and SFH2p. PMID:12824182

Cha, Mee-Kyung; Hong, Seung-Keun; Oh, Young-Mee; Kim, Il-Han

2003-09-12

315

Cys18-Cys137 Disulfide Bond in Mouse Angiotensinogen Does Not Affect AngII-Dependent Functions In Vivo.  

PubMed

Renin cleavage of angiotensinogen (AGT) releases angiotensin I (AngI) in the initial step of producing all angiotensin peptides. It has been suggested recently that redox regulation of a disulfide bond in AGT involving Cys18-Cys137 may be important to its renin cleavage efficiency in vivo. The purpose of this study was to test this prediction in a mouse model by comparing AngII production and AngII-dependent functions in mice expressing wild-type AGT versus a mutated form of AGT lacking the disulfide bond. Wild-type (hepAGT+/+) and hepatocyte-specific AGT-deficient (hepAGT-/-) littermates were developed in an low-density lipoprotein receptor -/- background. hepAGT+/+ mice were injected intraperitoneally with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector containing a null insert. hepAGT-/- mice were injected with AAV containing a null insert, wild-type AGT or Cys18Ser and Cys137Ser mutated AGT. Two weeks after AAV injection, mice were fed a Western diet for 12 weeks. Administration of AAV containing either form of AGT led to similar plasma AGT concentrations in hepAGT-/- mice. High plasma renin concentrations in hepAGT-/- mice were suppressed equally by both forms of AGT, which were accompanied by comparable increases of plasma AngII concentrations similar to hepAGT+/+ mice. AAV-driven expression of both forms of AGT led to equivalent increases of systolic blood pressure and augmentation of atherosclerotic lesion size in hepAGT-/- mice. These measurements were comparable to systolic blood pressure and atherosclerotic lesions in hepAGT+/+ mice. These data indicate that the Cys18-Cys137 disulfide bond in AGT is dispensable for AngII production and AngII-dependent functions in mice. PMID:25691624

Wu, Congqing; Xu, Yinchuan; Lu, Hong; Howatt, Deborah A; Balakrishnan, Anju; Moorleghen, Jessica J; Vander Kooi, Craig W; Cassis, Lisa A; Wang, Jian-An; Daugherty, Alan

2015-04-01

316

Comparison of oral dydrogesterone with suppository vaginal progesterone for luteal-phase support in in vitro fertilization (IVF): A randomized clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Luteal phase support is mandatory in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) for optimizing outcome, so the luteal phase is supported with either progesterone, addition of estradiol to progesterone, hCG or gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists. Supplementation of luteal phase with progesterone is prescribed for women undergoing routine IVF treatment. Objective: To compare oral dydrogestrone with vaginal progesterone for luteal-phase support in IVF. Materials and Methods: We performed this prospective, randomized trial in a tertiary infertility care unit in Taleghani Hospital, Tehran, Iran. In total 80 Women with a history of male factor infertility undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF treatment (fresh cycle) randomly were divided in two groups (group A or oral dydrogesterone group and group B or vaginal progesterone group). The inclusion criteria were the use of GnRH analogue down-regulation and age less than 40 years old with regular menstrual cycles. All women were euthyroid and normoprolactinemic. Group A (n=40) received 10 mg dydrogesterone QID (40mg daily) and group B (n=40) received 400 mg suppository vaginal progesterone (cyclogest) twice per day (800 mg daily). Results: Clinical pregnancy rate in cyclogest group was higher than dydrogesterone group but the difference was not significant (p=0.52), furthermore the miscarriage rate in two group was the same .The difference between two groups regarding antral follicle, embryo number, luteal-phase duration, endometrial thickness, oocyte number and metaphase-II was not significant (p>0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that oral dydrogesterone is as effective as vaginal progesterone for luteal-phase support in women undergoing IVF. PMID:24639716

Salehpour, Saghar; Tamimi, Maryam; Saharkhiz, Nasrin

2013-01-01

317

Readthrough acetylcholinesterase (AChE-R) and regulated necrosis: pharmacological targets for the regulation of ovarian functions?  

PubMed Central

Proliferation, differentiation and death of ovarian cells ensure orderly functioning of the female gonad during the reproductive phase, which ultimately ends with menopause in women. These processes are regulated by several mechanisms, including local signaling via neurotransmitters. Previous studies showed that ovarian non-neuronal endocrine cells produce acetylcholine (ACh), which likely acts as a trophic factor within the ovarian follicle and the corpus luteum via muscarinic ACh receptors. How its actions are restricted was unknown. We identified enzymatically active acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in human ovarian follicular fluid as a product of human granulosa cells. AChE breaks down ACh and thereby attenuates its trophic functions. Blockage of AChE by huperzine A increased the trophic actions as seen in granulosa cells studies. Among ovarian AChE variants, the readthrough isoform AChE-R was identified, which has further, non-enzymatic roles. AChE-R was found in follicular fluid, granulosa and theca cells, as well as luteal cells, implying that such functions occur in vivo. A synthetic AChE-R peptide (ARP) was used to explore such actions and induced in primary, cultured human granulosa cells a caspase-independent form of cell death with a distinct balloon-like morphology and the release of lactate dehydrogenase. The RIPK1 inhibitor necrostatin-1 and the MLKL-blocker necrosulfonamide significantly reduced this form of cell death. Thus a novel non-enzymatic function of AChE-R is to stimulate RIPK1/MLKL-dependent regulated necrosis (necroptosis). The latter complements a cholinergic system in the ovary, which determines life and death of ovarian cells. Necroptosis likely occurs in the primate ovary, as granulosa and luteal cells were immunopositive for phospho-MLKL, and hence necroptosis may contribute to follicular atresia and luteolysis. The results suggest that interference with the enzymatic activities of AChE and/or interference with necroptosis may be novel approaches to influence ovarian functions. PMID:25766324

Blohberger, J; Kunz, L; Einwang, D; Berg, U; Berg, D; Ojeda, S R; Dissen, G A; Fröhlich, T; Arnold, G J; Soreq, H; Lara, H; Mayerhofer, A

2015-01-01

318

Effects of intraluteal implants of prostaglandin E1 or E2 on angiogenic growth factors in luteal tissue of Angus and Brahman cows.  

PubMed

Previously, it was reported that intraluteal implants containing prostaglandin E1 or E2 (PGE1 and PGE2) in Angus or Brahman cows prevented luteolysis by preventing loss of mRNA expression for luteal LH receptors and luteal unoccupied and occupied LH receptors. In addition, intraluteal implants containing PGE1 or PGE2 upregulated mRNA expression for FP prostanoid receptors and downregulated mRNA expression for EP2 and EP4 prostanoid receptors. Luteal weight during the estrous cycle of Brahman cows was reported to be lesser than that of Angus cows but not during pregnancy. The objective of this experiment was to determine whether intraluteal implants containing PGE1 or PGE2 alter vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), angiopoietin-1 (ANG-1), and angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) protein in Brahman or Angus cows. On Day 13 of the estrous cycle, Angus cows received no intraluteal implant and corpora lutea were retrieved, or Angus and Brahman cows received intraluteal silastic implants containing vehicle, PGE1, or PGE2 on Day 13 and corpora lutea were retrieved on Day 19. Corpora lutea slices were analyzed for VEGF, FGF-2, ANG-1, and ANG-2 angiogenic proteins via Western blot. Day-13 Angus cow luteal tissue served as preluteolytic controls. Data for VEGF were not affected (P > 0.05) by day, breed, or treatment. PGE1 or PGE2 increased (P < 0.05) FGF-2 in luteal tissue of Angus cows compared with Day-13 and Day-19 Angus controls but decreased (P < 0.05) FGF-2 in luteal tissue of Brahman cows when compared w Day-13 or Day-19 Angus controls. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of PGE1 or PGE2 on ANG-1 in Angus luteal tissue when compared with Day-13 or Day-19 controls, but ANG-1 was decreased (P < 0.05) by PGE1 or PGE2 in Brahman cows when compared with Day-19 Brahman controls. ANG-2 was increased (P < 0.05) on Day 19 in Angus Vehicle controls when compared with Day-13 Angus controls, which was prevented (P < 0.05) by PGE1 but not by PGE2 in Angus cows. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of PGE1 or PGE2 on ANG-2 in Brahman cows. PGE1 or PGE2 may alter cow luteal FGF-2, ANG-1, or ANG-2 but not VEGF to prevent luteolysis; however, species or breed differences may exist. PMID:25219846

Weems, Yoshie S; Ma, Yan; Ford, Stephen P; Nett, Terry M; Vann, Rhonda C; Lewis, Andrew W; Neuendorff, Don A; Welsh, Thomas H; Randel, Ronald D; Weems, Charles W

2014-12-01

319

Characteristics and retention of luteal structures, extended postinsemination cycle, progesterone, and pregnancy-specific protein B in serum after human chorionic gonadotropin treatment of dairy cows.  

PubMed

Our objectives were to determine characteristics (size, number, and stayability) of luteal structures formed in response to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administered on d 7 after timed artificial insemination (AI) and the influence of hCG on returns to estrus and pregnancy outcome. Holstein cows (n=328), milked 3 times daily, previously inseminated at first service were assigned randomly to a completely randomized design consisting of 2 treatments when at least 1 corpus luteum (CL) was detected on d 7 after AI. Treatment consisted of 1,000 IU hCG or 1 mL of saline (control) administered i.m. Blood was collected and luteal structures were mapped and sized by transrectal ultrasonography on d 7, 14, 21, 28, and 32 after AI. Blood also was collected on d 60 in all pregnant cows. Treatment with hCG induced new luteal structures in 70% of cows, regardless of pregnancy status or number of pretreatment CL. Cows producing greater than the median 46 kg of energy-corrected milk per day were less likely to respond to hCG. The number of total luteal structures per cow, original CL volume, and total luteal volume (original CL + new luteal structures) were increased by hCG. Progesterone concentration was greater in pregnant than nonpregnant cows on d 14 unless cows responded to hCG by forming new luteal structures. Concentrations of progesterone were greatest in pregnant, hCG-treated cows. Pregnancy per AI at d 32 or 60 after first AI was less in hCG- than saline-treated cows because pregnancy outcome for hCG cows that had only 1 pretreatment CL and failed to respond to hCG was only 55 to 61% of that observed in controls. Proportions of cows returning to estrus from 18 to 25 d after AI were less in hCG than control cows but greater for cows returning >25 d. Regardless of treatment, 25% of cows in both treatments retained at least 1 original CL to d 28 after AI and were not pregnant on d 32. Progesterone concentrations in these nonpregnant cows with retained CL between d 14 and 28 after AI were intermediate between nonpregnant cows that returned to estrus by d 25 and all pregnant cows. Concentrations of pregnancy-specific protein B were elevated in some of these nonpregnant, CL-retained cows, indicating early pregnancy loss. Retention of original luteal tissue in nonpregnant cows to d 28 after AI indicated that pregnancy had been initiated but failed, as verified by concentrations of progesterone and pregnancy-specific protein B. PMID:22818453

Stevenson, J S; Pulley, S L

2012-08-01

320

Follicular characteristics and luteal development after follicle-stimulating hormone induced multiple ovulations in heifers.  

PubMed

A protocol based on small doses of FSH was examined for the induction of double or triple (multiple) ovulations in cattle. Ovulation rate, follicular characteristics, and luteal responses were determined. In Exp. 1, three groups of estrous-synchronized, cyclic Holstein heifers were treated once daily, on d 3 to 6 of the cycle, with a FSH product (Folltropin-V): large FSH dose (total of 150 mg; n=18), medium FSH dose (total of 130 mg, n=12), and small FSH dose (total of 80 mg; n=7). Controls received saline (n=6). Prostaglandin F(2?) was injected on d 6, ultrasound-guided aspiration of surplus follicles (if needed) was performed on d 7, and GnRH was injected on d 8 to induce ovulation. The large FSH dose induced growth of more (2.6±0.3, P<0.05) large follicles than controls on d 8; medium and small FSH doses insufficiently stimulated growth of <2 large follicles. Ovulation rates were determined in subgroups of heifers (n=10, 13, 4, and 6, respectively). The large FSH dose induced greater rates (P<0.01) of mostly double and triple ovulations (90% multiple ovulations, 70% double ovulations), most of which (89%) were bilateral, with only 2 out of 10 heifers requiring aspiration of surplus follicles. Medium and small FSH doses induced fewer multiple ovulations (38% and 25%, respectively). Estradiol concentrations on d 8 did not differ among treatments, but the concentration per large follicle in controls was greater (P<0.05) than in FSH treatments. Mean corpus luteum (CL) volume in single-ovulation controls was greater (P<0.05) than that of multiple ovulations in the large FSH group and total CL volume and progesterone concentrations were numerically greater in multiple ovulations. In Exp. 2, the characteristics of follicles aspirated on d 7 from large FSH (n=11) and control heifers (n=10) were compared. Based on estradiol-to-progesterone ratio, 57% of the large FSH-treated follicles were classified as codominant/healthy follicles and 43% as subordinate/early atretic. Although concentrations of estradiol and androstenedione in FSH-treated codominant follicles were less (P<0.05) than in controls, estradiol-to-progesterone ratio indicated that those follicles were steroidogenically active. Finely tuned small doses of FSH administered during the first follicular wave can induce a large incidence of double/triple, mainly bilateral, ovulations in cattle, which may serve as a basis for treatment aimed at promoting twinning in beef cattle. PMID:23097398

Glick, G; Hogeg, M; Moallem, U; Lavon, Y; Wolfenson, D

2013-01-01

321

Premature luteal regression in a pregnant mare and subsequent pregnancy maintenance with the use of oral altrenogest.  

PubMed

Premature luteal demise or luteal insufficiency is not well characterised as a cause of pregnancy loss in domestic species, including horses. In this report, a mare inseminated with cooled-transported semen at our facility returned for a routine pregnancy diagnosis at 15 days post ovulation. Ultrasonography per rectum revealed endometrial oedema and the absence of visual indication of a corpus luteum on either ovary. Nonetheless, an embryonic vesicle small for the gestational age was identified. Daily oral altrenogest treatment was implemented immediately. Serum progesterone concentration was 0.67 ng/ml, which is below the threshold considered adequate for pregnancy maintenance in the mare. Examinations were repeated at 17, 25, 30, 39, 49, 72 and 120 days post ovulation. At 25 days post ovulation the embryonic vesicle presented normal development for the gestational age. In addition, sequential blood samples were collected to measure progesterone, equine chorionic gonadotrophin and oestrone sulphate concentrations. Although progesterone concentration did not exceed 2 ng/ml until 72 days post ovulation, all other results were unremarkable and a healthy filly was born uneventfully at 344 days post ovulation. PMID:22413930

Canisso, I F; Beltaire, K A; Bedford-Guaus, S J

2013-01-01

322

Interleukin-1 beta stimulates progesterone production by in vitro human luteal cells: evidence of a mediatory role of prostaglandins.  

PubMed

We have investigated whether IL-1 beta, a cytokine with an important role in ovarian physiology, is also involved in progesterone (P) synthesis in human luteal cells, and whether this effect is mediated via the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway. Human luteal cells were cultured for 24 h in the presence of IL-1 beta (0.01-10 ng/ml), given alone or in combination with human chorionic gonadotropin (100 ng/ml), indomethacin (1 micro g/ml), or P (100 ng/ml). We observed a significant increase in prostaglandin (PG)release after IL-1 beta treatment; the cytokine was more effective on PGE(2) than PGF(2 alpha) release. The effect of IL-1 beta was abolished by human chorionic gonadotropin, which had no action on basal PG levels when given alone; in contrast, P reduced basal, but not IL-1 beta-stimulated, PG production. Treatment with the human IL-1 receptor antagonist was associated with a decrease in both basal and IL-1 beta-stimulated PG production. Moreover, IL-1 beta induced a concentration-dependent increase in P production and release, an effect counteracted by the COX inhibitor indomethacin. In conclusion, our data show the ability of IL-1 beta to influence P secretion via the COX pathway, thereby suggesting a possible luteotropic role in human ovary based on an autocrine-paracrine mechanism. PMID:12788874

Miceli, Fiorella; Tropea, Anna; Minici, Francesca; Navarra, Pierluigi; Lanzone, Antonio; Apa, Rosanna

2003-06-01

323

Defective Mitochondrial Function In Vivo in Skeletal Muscle in Adults with Down’s Syndrome: A 31P-MRS Study  

PubMed Central

Down’s syndrome (DS) is a developmental disorder associated with intellectual disability (ID). We have previously shown that people with DS engage in very low levels of exercise compared to people with ID not due to DS. Many aspects of the DS phenotype, such as dementia, low activity levels and poor muscle tone, are shared with disorders of mitochondrial origin, and mitochondrial dysfunction has been demonstrated in cultured DS tissue. We undertook a phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) study in the quadriceps muscle of 14 people with DS and 11 non-DS ID controls to investigate the post-exercise resynthesis kinetics of phosphocreatine (PCr), which relies on mitochondrial respiratory function and yields a measure of muscle mitochondrial function in vivo. We found that the PCr recovery rate constant was significantly decreased in adults with DS compared to non-DS ID controls (1.7±0.1 min?1 vs 2.1±0.1 min?1 respectively) who were matched for physical activity levels, indicating that muscle mitochondrial function in vivo is impaired in DS. This is the first study to investigate mitochondrial function in vivo in DS using 31P-MRS. Our study is consistent with previous in vitro studies, supporting a theory of a global mitochondrial defect in DS. PMID:24391872

Phillips, Alexander C.; Sleigh, Alison; McAllister, Catherine J.; Brage, Soren; Carpenter, T. Adrian; Kemp, Graham J.; Holland, Anthony J.

2013-01-01

324

How mitochondrial dysfunction affects zebrafish development and cardiovascular function: an in vivo model for testing mitochondria-targeted drugs  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Mitochondria are a drug target in mitochondrial dysfunction diseases and in antiparasitic chemotherapy. While zebrafish is increasingly used as a biomedical model, its potential for mitochondrial research remains relatively unexplored. Here, we perform the first systematic analysis of how mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitors affect zebrafish development and cardiovascular function, and assess multiple quinones, including ubiquinone mimetics idebenone and decylubiquinone, and the antimalarial atovaquone. Experimental Approach Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were chronically and acutely exposed to mitochondrial inhibitors and quinone analogues. Concentration-response curves, developmental and cardiovascular phenotyping were performed together with sequence analysis of inhibitor-binding mitochondrial subunits in zebrafish versus mouse, human and parasites. Phenotype rescuing was assessed in co-exposure assays. Key Results Complex I and II inhibitors induced developmental abnormalities, but their submaximal toxicity was not additive, suggesting active alternative pathways for complex III feeding. Complex III inhibitors evoked a direct normal-to-dead transition. ATP synthase inhibition arrested gastrulation. Menadione induced hypochromic anaemia when transiently present following primitive erythropoiesis. Atovaquone was over 1000-fold less lethal in zebrafish than reported for Plasmodium falciparum, and its toxicity partly rescued by the ubiquinone precursor 4-hydroxybenzoate. Idebenone and decylubiquinone delayed rotenone- but not myxothiazol- or antimycin-evoked cardiac dysfunction. Conclusion and Implications This study characterizes pharmacologically induced mitochondrial dysfunction phenotypes in zebrafish, laying the foundation for comparison with future studies addressing mitochondrial dysfunction in this model organism. It has relevant implications for interpreting zebrafish disease models linked to complex I/II inhibition. Further, it evidences zebrafish's potential for in vivo efficacy or toxicity screening of ubiquinone analogues or antiparasitic mitochondria-targeted drugs. PMID:23758163

Pinho, Brígida R; Santos, Miguel M; Fonseca-Silva, Anabela; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Oliveira, Jorge M A

2013-01-01

325

Ex vivo lung perfusion to improve donor lung function and increase the number of organs available for transplantation  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the initial clinical experience of ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) at the Fondazione Ca’ Granda in Milan between January 2011 and May 2013. EVLP was considered if donor PaO2/FiO2 was below 300 mmHg or if lung function was doubtful. Donors with massive lung contusion, aspiration, purulent secretions, pneumonia, or sepsis were excluded. EVLP was run with a low-flow, open atrium and low hematocrit technique. Thirty-five lung transplants from brain death donors were performed, seven of which after EVLP. EVLP donors were older (54 ± 9 years vs. 40 ± 15 years, EVLP versus Standard, P < 0.05), had lower PaO2/FiO2 (264 ± 78 mmHg vs. 453 ± 119 mmHg, P < 0.05), and more chest X-ray abnormalities (P < 0.05). EVLP recipients were more often admitted to intensive care unit as urgent cases (57% vs. 18%, P = 0.05); lung allocation score at transplantation was higher (79 [40–84] vs. 39 [36–46], P < 0.05). After transplantation, primary graft dysfunction (PGD72 grade 3, 32% vs. 28%, EVLP versus Standard, P = 1), mortality at 30 days (0% vs. 0%, P = 1), and overall survival (71% vs. 86%, EVLP versus Standard P = 0.27) were not different between groups. EVLP enabled a 20% increase in available donor organs and resulted in successful transplants with lungs that would have otherwise been rejected (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01967953). PMID:24628890

Valenza, Franco; Rosso, Lorenzo; Coppola, Silvia; Froio, Sara; Palleschi, Alessandro; Tosi, Davide; Mendogni, Paolo; Salice, Valentina; Ruggeri, Giulia M; Fumagalli, Jacopo; Villa, Alessandro; Nosotti, Mario; Santambrogio, Luigi; Gattinoni, Luciano

2014-01-01

326

Ex Vivo Expansion of Functional Human UCB-HSCs/HPCs by Coculture with AFT024-hkirre Cells  

PubMed Central

Kiaa1867 (human Kirre, hKirre) has a critical role in brain development and/or maintenance of the glomerular slit diaphragm in kidneys. Murine homolog of this gene, mKirre expressed in OP9 and AFT024 cells could support hematopoietic stem cells/hematopoietic progenitor cells (HSC/HPC) expansion in vitro. HKirre is also expressed in human FBMOB-hTERT cell line and fetal liver fibroblast-like cells but its function has remained unclear. In this paper, we cloned a hKirre gene from human fetal liver fibroblast-like cells and established a stably overexpressing hKirre-AFT024 cell line. Resultant cells could promote self-renewal and ex vivo expansion of HSCs/HPCs significantly higher than AFT024-control cells transformed with mock plasmid. The Expanded human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) CD34+ cells retained the capacity of multipotent differentiation as long as 8 weeks and successfully repopulated the bone marrow of sublethally irradiated NOD/SCID mice, which demonstrated the expansion of long-term primitive transplantable HSCs/HPCs. Importantly, hkirre could upregulate the expressions of Wnt-5A, BMP4, and SDF-1 and downregulate TGF-? with other hematopoietic growth factors. By SDS-PAGE and Western Blot analysis, a ~89?kDa protein in total lysate of AFT024-hKirre was identified. Supernatants from AFT024-hkirre could also support CD34+CD38? cells expansion. These results demonstrated that the AFT024-hKirre cells have the ability to efficiently expand HSCs/HPCs. PMID:24719861

Khan, Muti ur Rehman; Ali, Ijaz; Jiao, Wei; Wang, Yun; Masood, Saima; Yousaf, Muhammad Zubair; Javaid, Aqeel; Ahmad, Shafique; Feng, Meifu

2014-01-01

327

Longitudinal, 3D in vivo imaging of sebaceous glands by coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy: normal function and response to cryotherapy.  

PubMed

Sebaceous glands perform complex functions, and they are centrally involved in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Current techniques for studying sebaceous glands are mostly static in nature, whereas the gland's main function-excretion of sebum via the holocrine mechanism-can only be evaluated over time. We present a longitudinal, real-time alternative-the in vivo, label-free imaging of sebaceous glands using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) microscopy, which is used to selectively visualize lipids. In mouse ears, CARS microscopy revealed dynamic changes in sebaceous glands during the holocrine secretion process, as well as in response to damage to the glands caused by cooling. Detailed gland structure, plus the active migration of individual sebocytes and cohorts of sebocytes, were measured. Cooling produced characteristic changes in sebocyte structure and migration. This study demonstrates that CARS microscopy is a promising tool for studying the sebaceous gland and its associated disorders in three dimensions in vivo. PMID:25026458

Jung, Yookyung; Tam, Joshua; Jalian, H Ray; Anderson, R Rox; Evans, Conor L

2015-01-01

328

Integrating EMR-Linked and In Vivo Functional Genetic Data to Identify New Genotype-Phenotype Associations  

PubMed Central

The coupling of electronic medical records (EMR) with genetic data has created the potential for implementing reverse genetic approaches in humans, whereby the function of a gene is inferred from the shared pattern of morbidity among homozygotes of a genetic variant. We explored the feasibility of this approach to identify phenotypes associated with low frequency variants using Vanderbilt's EMR-based BioVU resource. We analyzed 1,658 low frequency non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) with a minor allele frequency (MAF)<10% collected on 8,546 subjects. For each nsSNP, we identified diagnoses shared by at least 2 minor allele homozygotes and with an association p<0.05. The diagnoses were reviewed by a clinician to ascertain whether they may share a common mechanistic basis. While a number of biologically compelling clinical patterns of association were observed, the frequency of these associations was identical to that observed using genotype-permuted data sets, indicating that the associations were likely due to chance. To refine our analysis associations, we then restricted the analysis to 711 nsSNPs in genes with phenotypes in the On-line Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) or knock-out mouse phenotype databases. An initial comparison of the EMR diagnoses to the known in vivo functions of the gene identified 25 candidate nsSNPs, 19 of which had significant genotype-phenotype associations when tested using matched controls. Twleve of the 19 nsSNPs associations were confirmed by a detailed record review. Four of 12 nsSNP-phenotype associations were successfully replicated in an independent data set: thrombosis (F5,rs6031), seizures/convulsions (GPR98,rs13157270), macular degeneration (CNGB3,rs3735972), and GI bleeding (HGFAC,rs16844401). These analyses demonstrate the feasibility and challenges of using reverse genetics approaches to identify novel gene-phenotype associations in human subjects using low frequency variants. As increasing amounts of rare variant data are generated from modern genotyping and sequence platforms, model organism data may be an important tool to enable discovery. PMID:24949630

Mosley, Jonathan D.; Van Driest, Sara L.; Weeke, Peter E.; Delaney, Jessica T.; Wells, Quinn S.; Bastarache, Lisa; Roden, Dan M.; Denny, Josh C.

2014-01-01

329

Immunolocalization and in vivo Functional Analysis by RNAi of the Aedes Kinin Receptor in Female Mosquitoes of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera, Culicidae)  

E-print Network

, such as Anopheles gambiae, Leucophaea maderae, Periplaneta americana, Locusta migratoria, Acheta domesticus, Culex salinarius, Helicoverpa zea, Musca domestica, Drosophila melanogaster, and the tick Boophilus microplus (Blackburn et al., 1995; Cantera and N... IMMUNOLOCALIZATION AND IN VIVO FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS BY RNAI OF THE AEDES KININ RECEPTOR IN FEMALE MOSQUITOES OF AEDES AEGYPTI (L.) (DIPTERA, CULICIDAE) A Thesis by CYMON NICHOLE KERSCH Submitted to the Office of Graduate...

Kersch, Cymon

2012-02-14

330

Analysis of the Peroxidase Activity of Rice (Oryza Sativa) Recombinant Hemoglobin 1: Implications for the In Vivo Function of Hexacoordinate Non-Symbiotic Hemoglobins in Plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In plants, it has been proposed that hexacoordinate (class 1) non-symbiotic Hbs (nsHb-1) function in vivo as peroxidases. However, little is known about the peroxidase activity of nsHb-1. We evaluated the peroxidase activity of rice recombinant Hb1 (a nsHb-1) by using the guaiacol/H2O2 system at pH ...

331

Endocrine control of ovarian function in dogs and other carnivores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovarian function in dogs is minimally but successfully evolved and adapted for fertility, and represents a basic model for examining the more complex evolution of ovarian activity in other carnivores and mammals in general. Canids are monoestrous, polytocous, spontaneous ovulators with a spontaneous luteal function producing progesterone for the duration of a normal 2-month pregnancy and unaffected by hysterectomy. They

P. W. Concannon; V. D. Castracane; M. Temple; A. Montanez

332

The impact of ex vivo clinical grade activation protocols on human T cell phenotype and function for the generation of genetically modified cells for adoptive cell transfer therapy  

PubMed Central

Optimized conditions for the ex vivo activation, genetic manipulation, and expansion of human lymphocytes for adoptive cell therapy (ACT) may lead to protocols that maximize their in vivo function. We analyzed the effects of four clinical grade activation and expansion protocols over three weeks on cell proliferative rate, immunophenotype, cell metabolism, and transduction efficiency of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Peak lentiviral transduction efficiency was early (days 2 to 4), at a time when cells demonstrated a larger size, maximal uptake of metabolic substrates, and the highest level of proximal TCR signaling engagement. Anti-CD2/3/28 activation beads induced greater proliferation rate and skewed PBMCs early on to a CD4 phenotype when compared to the cells cultured in OKT3. Multicolor surface phenotyping demonstrated that changes in T cell surface markers that define T cell functional phenotypes were dependent on the time spent in culture as opposed to the particular activation protocol. In conclusion, ex vivo activation of human PBMCs for ACT demonstrate defined immunophenotypic and functional signatures over time, with cells early on showing larger sizes, higher transduction efficiency, maximal metabolic activity and ZAP-70 activation. PMID:20842061

Tumeh, Paul C.; Koya, Richard C.; Chodon, Thinle; Graham, Nicholas A.; Graeber, Thomas G.; Comin-Anduix, Begoña; Ribas, Antoni

2011-01-01

333

Expression and Function of 3beta Hydroxisteroid Dehydrogenase (3? HSD) Type II and Corticosteroid Binding Globulin (CBG) in Granulosa Cells from Ovaries of Women with and without Endometriosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To investigate the secretion of progesterone (P4) and corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) by granulosa luteal cells (GC) as well as the mRNA levels of CBG and 3ß hydroxisteroid dehydrogenase (3ß HSD), in women with and without endometriosis in vivo and in vitro.

Nicolás Garrido; Jan S. Krüssel; José Remohí; Carlos Simón; Antonio Pellicer

2002-01-01

334

Effect of Perinatal secondhand tobacco smoke exposure on in vivo and intrinsic airway structure/function in non-human primates  

SciTech Connect

Infants exposed to second hand smoke (SHS) experience more problems with wheezing. This study was designed to determine if perinatal SHS exposure increases intrinsic and/or in vivo airway responsiveness to methacholine and whether potential structural/cellular alterations in the airway might explain the change in responsiveness. Pregnant rhesus monkeys were exposed to filtered air (FA) or SHS (1 mg/m{sup 3} total suspended particulates) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week starting at 50 days gestational age. The mother/infant pairs continued the SHS exposures postnatally. At 3 months of age each infant: 1) had in vivo lung function measurements in response to inhaled methacholine, or 2) the right accessory lobe filled with agarose, precision-cut to 600 {mu}m slices, and bathed in increasing concentrations of methacholine. The lumenal area of the central airway was determined using videomicrometry followed by fixation and histology with morphometry. In vivo tests showed that perinatal SHS increases baseline respiratory rate and decreases responsiveness to methacholine. Perinatal SHS did not alter intrinsic airway responsiveness in the bronchi. However in respiratory bronchioles, SHS exposure increased airway responsiveness at lower methacholine concentrations but decreased it at higher concentrations. Perinatal SHS did not change eosinophil profiles, epithelial volume, smooth muscle volume, or mucin volume. However it did increase the number of alveolar attachments in bronchi and respiratory bronchioles. In general, as mucin increased, airway responsiveness decreased. We conclude that perinatal SHS exposure alters in vivo and intrinsic airway responsiveness, and alveolar attachments.

Joad, Jesse P. [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California at Davis, Davis, California, 95616 (United States)], E-mail: jesse.joad@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu; Kott, Kayleen S.; Bric, John M.; Peake, Janice L.; Pinkerton, Kent E. [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California at Davis, Davis, California, 95616 (United States)

2009-02-01

335

Bisphenol A Exposure during Adulthood Causes Augmentation of Follicular Atresia and Luteal Regression by Decreasing 17?-Estradiol Synthesis via Downregulation of Aromatase in Rat Ovary  

PubMed Central

Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) has been detected in human body fluids, such as serum and ovarian follicular fluids. Several reports indicated that BPA exposure is associated with the occurrence of several female reproductive diseases resulting from the disruption of steroid hormone biosynthesis in the adult ovary. Objective: We hypothesized that long-term exposure to low concentrations of BPA disrupts 17?-estradiol (E2) production in granulosa cells via an alteration of steroidogenic proteins in ovarian cells. Methods: Adult female rats received BPA for 90 days by daily gavage at doses of 0, 0.001, or 0.1 mg/kg body weight. We determined serum levels of E2, testosterone (T), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). We also analyzed the expressions of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc), 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isomerase (3?-HSD), and aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom) in the ovary. Results: Exposure to BPA significantly decreased E2 serum concentration, which was accompanied by augmented follicular atresia and luteal regression via increase of caspase-3–associated apoptosis in ovarian cells. After BPA exposure, P450arom and StAR protein levels were significantly decreased in granulosa cells and theca-interstitial (T-I) cells, respectively. However, P450scc and 3?-HSD protein levels remained unchanged. The increase in LH levels appeared to be associated with the decreased synthesis of T in T-I cells after BPA exposure via homeostatic positive feedback regulation. Conclusions: BPA exposure during adulthood can disturb the maintenance of normal ovarian functions by reducing E2. The steroidogenic proteins StAR and P450arom appear to be targeted by BPA. PMID:23512349

Lee, Seung Gee; Chung, Jin-Yong; Park, Ji-Eun; Oh, Seunghoon; Yoon, Yong-Dal; Yoo, Ki Soo; Yoo, Young Hyun

2013-01-01

336

Husbandry Factors and the Resumption of Luteal Activity in Open and Zero-Grazed Dairy Cows in Urban and Peri-Urban Kampala, Uganda  

PubMed Central

Contents The study investigated the influence of selected husbandry factors on interval to resumption of post-partum cyclicity among dairy cows in urban and peri-urban Kampala. A prospective study of 85 day post-partum period of 59 dairy cows in open (n = 38) and zero grazing (n = 21) systems was conducted on 24 farms. Cows of parity 1–6 were recruited starting 15–30 days post-partum. Progesterone (P4) content in milk taken at 10–12 day intervals was analysed using ELISA. The cow P4 profiles were classified into ‘normal’ (< 56 days), ‘delayed’ (> 56 days), ‘ceased’ or ‘prolonged’ (if started < 56 days but with abnormal P4 displays) resumption of luteal activity and tested for association with husbandry and cow factors. Of the 59 cows, luteal activity in 81.4% resumed normally and in 18.6%, delayed. Only 23.7% maintained regular luteal activity, while the others had ceased (10.2%), prolonged (37.3%) or unclear luteal activity (20.3%). There were no differences between open and zero-grazed cows. Milk production was higher (p < 0.05) in zero than open grazing, in urban than peri-urban and in cows fed on brew waste (p < 0.001) compared with mill products and banana peels. Results suggest that luteal activity resumes normally in a majority of cows, although only a minority experienced continued normal cyclicity once ovulation had occurred, in the two farming systems irrespective of feed supplements or water, and that supplementing with brew waste is beneficial for milk production. PMID:24930481

Kanyima, BM; Båge, R; Owiny, DO; Ntallaris, T; Lindahl, J; Magnusson, U; Nassuna-Musoke, MG

2014-01-01

337

HCG (1500IU) administration on day 3 after oocytes retrieval, following GnRH-agonist trigger for final follicular maturation, results in high sufficient mid luteal progesterone levels - a proof of concept  

PubMed Central

Background Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) which combining GnRH antagonist co-treatment and GnRH agonist trigger with an additional 1500 IU hCG luteal rescue on day of oocytes retrieval, has become a common tool aiming to reduce severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). In the present, proof of concept study, we evaluate whether by deferring the hCG rescue bolus for 3 days, we are still able to rescue the luteal phase. Methods Patients undergoing the GnRH-antagonist protocol, who were considered at high risk for developing severe OHSS and received GnRH-agonist for final oocyte maturation, were included. For luteal phase support, all patients received an “intense” luteal support. Those who had no signs of early moderate OHSS on day 3 after oocytes retrieval were instructed to inject 1500 IU of HCG bolus (hCG group). Ovarian stimulation characteristics and mid luteal progesterone levels were compared between those who received the HCG bolus and those who did not. Results Eleven IVF cycles were evaluated, 5 in the hCG group and 6 in the intense luteal support only group. While no in-between group differences were observed in ovarian stimulation characteristics, significantly higher mid luteal progesterone levels (>127 nmol/L vs 42.1?±?14.5 nmol/L, respectively) and a non-significant increase in pregnancy rate (40% vs 16.6%, respectively), were observed in those who receive the hCG bolus compared to those who did not. Conclusions hCG luteal rescue should be offered 3 days after oocytes retrieval only to those patients with no signs of early moderate OHSS. Further studies are required to elucidate the appropriate regimen of luteal HCG administration in patients undergoing final follicular maturation with GnRH-agonist. PMID:24694069

2014-01-01

338

A critical role for suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 in promoting M1 macrophage activation and function in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

Macrophages respond to their microenvironment and develop polarized functions critical for orchestrating appropriate inflammatory responses. Classical (M1) activation eliminates pathogens while alternative (M2) activation promotes regulation and repair. M1 macrophage activation is strongly associated with suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3) expression in vitro, but the functional consequences of this are unclear and the role of SOCS3 in M1-macrophage polarization in vivo remains controversial. To address these questions, we defined the characteristics and function of SOCS3-expressing macrophages in vivo and identified potential mechanisms of SOCS3 action. Macrophages infiltrating inflamed glomeruli in a model of acute nephritis show significant up-regulation of SOCS3 that co-localizes with the M1-activation marker, inducible nitric oxide synthase. Numbers of SOCS3hi-expressing, but not SOCS1hi-expressing, macrophages correlate strongly with the severity of renal injury, supporting their inflammatory role in vivo. Adoptive transfer of SOCS3-short interfering RNA-silenced macrophages into a peritonitis model demonstrated the importance of SOCS3 in driving production of pro-inflammatory IL-6 and nitric oxide, while curtailing expression of anti-inflammatory IL-10 and SOCS1. SOCS3-induced pro-inflammatory effects were due, at least in part, to its role in controlling activation and nuclear accumulation of nuclear factor-?B and activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. We show for the first time that SOCS3 also directs the functions of human monocyte-derived macrophages, including efficient M1-induced cytokine production (IL-1?, IL-6, IL-23, IL-12), attenuated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activity and ability of antigen-loaded macrophages to drive T-cell responses. Hence, M1-associated SOCS3 was a positive regulator of pro-inflammatory responses in our rodent models and up-regulated SOCS3 is essential for effective M1-macrophage activation and function in human macrophages. PMID:24088176

Arnold, Christina E; Whyte, Claire S; Gordon, Peter; Barker, Robert N; Rees, Andrew J; Wilson, Heather M

2014-01-01

339

Temporal gene expression in equine corpora lutea based on serial biopsies in vivo.  

PubMed

A biopsy procedure was developed to enable repeated sampling of a single equine corpus luteum (CL) over the course of an estrous cycle. The tissue collected was utilized in characterizing mRNA abundance for genes involved in luteal formation, function, and regression in the cyclic mare. Serial biopsies of CL in cyclic mares (2.7 to 27.5 mg per biopsy) were collected using an ultrasound-guided transvaginal technique. Biopsies were collected from each mare on d 2 and 5 (d 0 = ovulation) of the estrous cycle, and every other day from d 12 through luteolysis. Samples were obtained from 4 mares with normal estrous cycles and 1 mare with a retained CL. The biopsy procedure did not adversely affect luteal size or function, as measured by luteal area and serum concentrations of progesterone. Real-time reverse-transcription PCR was used to quantify steady state mRNA concentrations in each tissue sample obtained. Mean abundance of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) mRNA was not different (P = 0.102 to 0.964) on any of the sampling dates, but a trend for mRNA encoding StAR to decrease between d 12 and 14 (P = 0.10) was observed. Values for mRNA encoding StAR were positively correlated to serum concentrations of progesterone on d 5 (R = 0.95; P = 0.05) and 14 (R > 0.99; P < 0.01). Steady-state abundance of mRNA for 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, ? 5-? 4 isomerase (3?-HSD) declined between d 12 and 14 (P = 0.15). There were positive correlations between mRNA for 3?-HSD and concentrations of progesterone on d 5 (R = 0.94; P = 0.06) and 12 (R > 0.99; P = 0.05). No difference was detected in abundance of mRNA encoding cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2; P = 0.340 to 0.840) or caspase-3 (P = 0.517 to 0.882) between any of the sampling dates. A successful luteal biopsy procedure was developed that did not negatively affect luteal function, and abundance of mRNA encoding StAR, 3?-HSD, cox-2, and caspase-3 was characterized in luteal biopsy tissue collected on d 2, 5, 12, and 14 of the estrous cycle in the mare. PMID:20852074

Slough, T L; Rispoli, L A; Carnevale, E M; Niswender, G D; Bruemmer, J E

2011-02-01

340

AZD3514: a small molecule that modulates androgen receptor signaling and function in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Continued androgen receptor (AR) expression and signaling is a key driver in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) after classical androgen ablation therapies have failed, and therefore remains a target for the treatment of progressive disease. Here, we describe the biological characterization of AZD3514, an orally bioavailable drug that inhibits androgen-dependent and -independent AR signaling. AZD3514 modulates AR signaling through two distinct mechanisms, an inhibition of ligand-driven nuclear translocation of AR and a downregulation of receptor levels, both of which were observed in vitro and in vivo. AZD3514 inhibited testosterone-driven seminal vesicle development in juvenile male rats and the growth of androgen-dependent Dunning R3327H prostate tumors in adult rats. Furthermore, this class of compound showed antitumor activity in the HID28 mouse model of CRPC in vivo. AZD3514 is currently in phase I clinical evaluation. PMID:23861347

Loddick, Sarah A; Ross, Sarah J; Thomason, Andrew G; Robinson, David M; Walker, Graeme E; Dunkley, Tom P J; Brave, Sandra R; Broadbent, Nicola; Stratton, Natalie C; Trueman, Dawn; Mouchet, Elizabeth; Shaheen, Fadhel S; Jacobs, Vivien N; Cumberbatch, Marie; Wilson, Joanne; Jones, Rhys D O; Bradbury, Robert H; Rabow, Alfred; Gaughan, Luke; Womack, Chris; Barry, Simon T; Robson, Craig N; Critchlow, Susan E; Wedge, Stephen R; Brooks, A Nigel

2013-09-01

341

AZD3514: a small molecule that modulates androgen receptor signaling and function in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

Continued androgen receptor (AR) expression and signaling is a key driver in castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) after classical androgen ablation therapies have failed, and therefore remains a target for the treatment of progressive disease. Here we describe the biological characterization of AZD3514, an orally bioavailable drug that inhibits androgen-dependent and–independent AR signaling. AZD3514 modulates AR signaling through two distinct mechanisms, an inhibition of ligand driven nuclear translocation of AR and a down-regulation of receptor levels, both of which were observed in vitro and in vivo. AZD3514 inhibited testosterone-driven seminal vesicle development in juvenile male rats and the growth of androgen-dependent Dunning R3327H prostate tumors in adult rats. Furthermore, this class of compound demonstrated anti-tumor activity in the HID28 mouse model of CRPC in vivo. AZD3514 is currently in Phase I clinical evaluation. PMID:23861347

Loddick, Sarah A; Ross, Sarah J; Thomason, Andrew G; Robinson, David M; Walker, Graeme E; Dunkley, Tom PJ; Brave, Sandra R; Broadbent, Nicola; Stratton, Natalie C; Trueman, Dawn; Mouchet, Elizabeth; Shaheen, Fadhel S; Jacobs, Vivien N; Cumberbatch, Marie; Wilson, Joanne; Jones, Rhys D O; Bradbury, Robert H; Rabow, Alfred; Gaughan, Luke; Womack, Chris; Barry, Simon T; Robson, Craig N; Critchlow, Susan E; Wedge, Stephen R; Brooks, Nigel A

2013-01-01

342

Hsp70 promotes antigen-presenting cell function and converts T-cell tolerance to autoimmunity in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogens or pathogen-associated molecular patterns can signal to cells of the innate immune system and trigger effective adaptive immunity. However, relatively little is known about how the innate immune system detects tissue injury or necrosis. Evidence suggests that the release of heat-shock proteins (HSPs) may provide adjuvant-like signals, but the ability of HSPs to promote activation or tolerance in vivo

Douglas G Millar; Kristine M Garza; Bernhard Odermatt; Alisha R Elford; Nobuyuki Ono; Zihai Li; Pamela S Ohashi

2003-01-01

343

Gaussian-function-based deconvolution method to determine the penetration ability of petrolatum oil into in vivo human skin using confocal Raman microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human skin pre-treated with petrolatum was analyzed in vivo using confocal Raman microscopy in order to determine the penetration depth of the oil into the skin. The broad Raman peak (2820–3030?cm?1) measured in vivo on human skin in the high wavenumber region exhibits two prominent main Raman peaks at 2880?cm?1 and 2935?cm?1 that originated from cutaneous lipids and keratin and two main peak shoulders at 2850?cm?1 and 2980?cm?1 that originated from lipids and keratin, respectively. Topical application of petrolatum oil onto the skin gives rise to an increase of the intensity of the broad lipid–keratin Raman peak (2820–3030?cm?1). Herewith, not only the intensity of the lipid part but also of the keratin part is increased, making the normalization to keratin and the determination of the petrolatum penetration profile erroneous. To solve this problem, the Gaussian-function-based deconvolution method is introduced in analyzing the Raman spectrum of the lipid–keratin peak and the least square method is applied for analyzing the petrolatum penetration profile. Results obtained in vivo show that the petrolatum oil does not penetrate deeper than 10?µm into intact human skin.

Choe, Chun-Sik; Lademann, Jürgen; Darvin, Maxim E.

2014-10-01

344

Evolutionary conserved nucleotides within the E.coli 4.5S RNA are required for association with P48 in vitro and for optimal function in vivo.  

PubMed Central

E.coli 4.5S RNA is homologous to domain IV of eukaryotic SPR7S RNA, the RNA component of the signal recognition particle. The 4.5S RNA is associated in vivo with a 48kD protein (P48), which is homologous to a protein component of the signal recognition particle, SRP54. In addition to secondary structural features, a number of nucleotides are conserved between the 4.5S RNA and domain IV of all other characterised SRP-like RNAs from eubacteria, arachaebacteria and eukaryotes. This domain consists of an extended stem-loop structure; conserved nucleotides lie within the terminal loop and within single-stranded regions bulged from the stem immediately preceding the loop. This conserved region is a candidate for the SRP54/P48 binding site. To determine the functional importance of this region within the 4.5S RNA, mutations were introduced into the 4.5S RNA coding sequence. Mutated alleles were tested for their function in vivo and for the ability of the corresponding RNAs to bind P48 in vitro. Single point mutations in conserved nucleotides within the terminal tetranucleotide loop do not affect P48 binding in vitro and produce only slight growth defects. This suggests that the sequence of the loop may be important for the structure of the molecule rather than for specific interactions with P48. On the other hand, nucleotides within the single-stranded regions bulged from the stem were found to be important both for the binding of P48 to the RNA and for optimal function of the RNA in vivo. Images PMID:1281314

Wood, H; Luirink, J; Tollervey, D

1992-01-01

345

RNAi-based biosynthetic pathway screens to identify in vivo functions of non-nucleic acid-based metabolites such as lipids.  

PubMed

The field of metabolomics continues to catalog new compounds, but their functional analysis remains technically challenging, and roles beyond metabolism are largely unknown. Unbiased genetic/RNAi screens are powerful tools to identify the in vivo functions of protein-encoding genes, but not of nonproteinaceous compounds such as lipids. They can, however, identify the biosynthetic enzymes of these compounds-findings that are usually dismissed, as these typically synthesize multiple products. Here, we provide a method using follow-on biosynthetic pathway screens to identify the endpoint biosynthetic enzyme and thus the compound through which they act. The approach is based on the principle that all subsequently identified downstream biosynthetic enzymes contribute to the synthesis of at least this one end product. We describe how to systematically target lipid biosynthetic pathways; optimize targeting conditions; take advantage of pathway branchpoints; and validate results by genetic assays and biochemical analyses. This approach extends the power of unbiased genetic/RNAi screens to identify in vivo functions of non-nucleic acid-based metabolites beyond their metabolic roles. It will typically require several months to identify a metabolic end product by biosynthetic pathway screens, but this time will vary widely depending, among other factors, on the end product's location in the pathway, which determines the number of screens required for its identification. PMID:25837419

Zhang, Hongjie; Abraham, Nessy; Khan, Liakot A; Gobel, Verena

2015-05-01

346

Cathelicidin Host Defence Peptide Augments Clearance of Pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection by Its Influence on Neutrophil Function In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Cathelicidins are multifunctional cationic host-defence peptides (CHDP; also known as antimicrobial peptides) and an important component of innate host defence against infection. In addition to microbicidal potential, these peptides have properties with the capacity to modulate inflammation and immunity. However, the extent to which such properties play a significant role during infection in vivo has remained unclear. A murine model of acute P. aeruginosa lung infection was utilised, demonstrating cathelicidin-mediated enhancement of bacterial clearance in vivo. The delivery of exogenous synthetic human cathelicidin LL-37 was found to enhance a protective pro-inflammatory response to infection, effectively promoting bacterial clearance from the lung in the absence of direct microbicidal activity, with an enhanced early neutrophil response that required both infection and peptide exposure and was independent of native cathelicidin production. Furthermore, although cathelicidin-deficient mice had an intact early cellular inflammatory response, later phase neutrophil response to infection was absent in these animals, with significantly impaired clearance of P. aeruginosa. These findings demonstrate the importance of the modulatory properties of cathelicidins in pulmonary infection in vivo and highlight a key role for cathelicidins in the induction of protective pulmonary neutrophil responses, specific to the infectious milieu. In additional to their physiological roles, CHDP have been proposed as future antimicrobial therapeutics. Elucidating and utilising the modulatory properties of cathelicidins has the potential to inform the development of synthetic peptide analogues and novel therapeutic approaches based on enhancing innate host defence against infection with or without direct microbicidal targeting of pathogens. PMID:24887410

Beaumont, Paula E.; McHugh, Brian; Gwyer Findlay, Emily; Mackellar, Annie; Mackenzie, Karen J.; Gallo, Richard L.; Govan, John R. W.; Simpson, A. John; Davidson, Donald J.

2014-01-01

347

Effects of dietary omega–3 fatty acids on ventricular function in dogs with healed myocardial infarctions: in vivo and in vitro studies  

PubMed Central

Since omega–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) can alter ventricular myocyte calcium handling, these fatty acids could adversely affect cardiac contractile function, particularly following myocardial infarction. Therefore, 4 wk after myocardial infarction, dogs were randomly assigned to either placebo (corn oil, 1 g/day, n = 16) or n-3 PUFAs supplement [docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) + eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ethyl esters; 1, 2, or 4 g/day; n = 7, 8, and 12, respectively] groups. In vivo, ventricular function was evaluated by echocardiography before and after 3 mo of treatment. At the end of the 3-mo period, hearts were removed and in vitro function was evaluated using right ventricular trabeculae and isolated left ventricular myocytes. The treatment elicited significant (P < 0.0001) dose-dependent increases (16.4-fold increase with 4 g/day) in left ventricular tissue and red blood cell n-3 PUFA levels (EPA + DHA, placebo, 0.42 ± 0.04; 1 g/day, 3.02 ± 0.23; 2 g/day, 3.63 ± 0.17; and 4 g/day, 6.97 ± 0.33%). Regardless of the dose, n-3 PUFA treatment did not alter ventricular function in the intact animal (e.g., 4 g/day, fractional shortening: pre, 42.9 ± 1.6 vs. post, 40.1 ± 1.7%; placebo: pre, 39.2 ± 1.3 vs. post, 38.4 ± 1.6%). The developed force per cross-sectional area, changes in length- and frequency-dependent behavior in contractile force, and the inotropic response to ?-adrenoceptor activation were also similar for trabeculae obtained from placebo- or n-3 PUFA-treated dogs. Finally, calcium currents and calcium transients were the same in myocytes from n-3 PUFA- and placebo-treated dogs. Thus dietary n-3 PUFAs did not adversely alter either in vitro or in vivo ventricular contractile function in dogs with healed infarctions. PMID:20097770

Nishijima, Yoshinori; Belevych, Andriy E.; Terentyev, Dmitry; Xu, Ying; Haizlip, Kaylan M.; Monasky, Michelle M.; Hiranandani, Nitisha; Harris, William S.; Gyorke, Sandor; Carnes, Cynthia A.; Janssen, Paul M. L.

2010-01-01

348

Synchrotron-based angiography for investigation of the regulation of vasomotor function in the microcirculation in vivo.  

PubMed

1. Real-time imaging of the vascular networks of any organ system in vivo is possible with synchrotron radiation (SR) angiography. In this review, we discuss the advantages of SR angiography over clinical X-ray imaging and other non-ionizing imaging modalities. Current limitations are also described. 2. The usefulness of dual-energy and temporal subtraction approaches to K-edge iodine imaging are compared. 3. High-resolution images of the microcirculation in small animals are now being collected routinely by multiple research groups through public access research programmes at synchrotrons worldwide. Such images are permitting unrivalled insights into vasomotor regulation deep within intact organ systems, such as the brain, kidney, lung and heart. For example, recent observations indicate changes in vascular control mechanisms in pulmonary hypertension that are specific to certain branching segments of the pulmonary circulation. 4. New possibilities for non-iodinated contrast agents in SR angiography are briefly described. 5. High-resolution angiography in vivo using SR will now allow us to identify vessels with localized or non-uniform vasoconstriction in states such as diabetes or to characterize the extent of endothelial dysfunction in the circulation following hypertension or ischaemic-reperfusion injury. In the near future, this research is expected to reveal the contribution of resistance vessel dysfunction to diverse pathophysiological states, such as stroke, hypertension and ischaemic heart disease. PMID:18986322

Shirai, Mikiyasu; Schwenke, Daryl O; Eppel, Gabriela A; Evans, Roger G; Edgley, Amanda J; Tsuchimochi, Hirotsugu; Umetani, Keiji; Pearson, James T

2009-01-01

349

Invariant Chain–independent Function of H-2M in the Formation of Endogenous Peptide–Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Complexes In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Efficient loading of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules with peptides requires the invariant chain (Ii) and the class II–like molecule H-2M. Recent in vitro biochemical studies suggest that H2-M may function as a chaperone to rescue empty class II dimers. To test this hypothesis in vivo, we generated mice lacking both Ii and H-2M (Ii?/?M?/?). Antigen presenting cells (APCs) from Ii?/?M?/? mice, as compared with APCs from Ii?/? mice, exhibit a significant reduction in their ability to present self-peptides to a panel of class II I-Ab–restricted T cells. As a consequence of this defect in the loading of self peptides, CD4+ thymocyte development is profoundly impaired in Ii?/?M?/? mice, resulting in a peripheral CD4+ T cell population with low levels of T cell receptor expression. These findings are consistent with the idea that H-2M functions as a chaperone in the peptide loading of class II molecules in vivo. PMID:9432982

Kovats, Susan; Grubin, Catherine E.; Eastman, Susan; deRoos, Paul; Dongre, Ashok; Kaer, Luc Van; Rudensky, Alexander Y.

1998-01-01

350

The morphological transformation and inhibition of growth of bovine luteal cells in tissue culture induced by luteinizing hormone and dibutyryl cyclic AMP.  

PubMed

The luteal cells obtained from bovine corpus luteum by enzymatic treatment have been maintained in tissue culture. When the cells were maintained in the absence of luteinizing hormone or dibutyryl cyclic AMP, they grew parallel to one another and were elongated, thus giving to the culture a fibroblastic appearance. No contact inhibition was observed and the progestin secretion rate was low (3 pg per cell per day). In contrast, when luteinizing hormone or dibutyryl cyclic AMP was present, the cells became polygonal, growing as a monolayer and taking the appearance of epithelial cells. In this case contact inhibition was observed. The rate of progestin secretion was 250 pg per cell per day. As soon as luteinizing hormone or dibutyryl cyclic AMP was removed from the media, the cells reverted to a fibroblastic appearance. Agents such as colcemid, vinblastin or cytochalasin B inhibited the morphological effect of luteinizing hormone or dibutyryl cyclic AMP. Since those agents are known to inhibit the assembly of microtubules, the data suggest that LH and dibutyryl cyclic AMP act by promoting the organization of microtubules from protein monomers. This microtubular system (cytoskeleton) is responsible for the morphological appearance of the cells. Concomitant with the morphological changes induced by luteinizing hormone and dibutyryl cyclic AMP an inhibition in the growth rate of luteal cells was observed. It suggests that by raising the intracellular level of cyclic AMP the luteinizing hormone inhibits the division of luteal cells and is not, for that reason, a mitogenic agent. A similar effect was obtained with other agents known to stimulate cyclic AMP production such asthe prostaglandins. Steroids such as glucocorticoids and testosterone but not progesterone also inhibited the growth rate. It is concluded that luteinizing hormone by controlling the level of cyclic AMP within the luteal cells is responsible for the expression of the phenotype of the cells and the maintenance of differentiation. PMID:163187

Gospodarowicz, D; Gospodarowicz, F

1975-02-01

351

Luteal activity of Abadeh ecotype does in summer and winter and the effect of kisspeptin-10 on luteinizing hormone secretion in the anestrus does  

PubMed Central

The aims of the present study were to evaluate luteal activity in Abadeh ecotype goat during summer and winter and also the effect of a single dose kisspeptin-10 injection on the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) in female anestrous goats. In the first study, progesterone (P4) concentration in 10 goats in summer (n = 6) and winter (n = 4) were measured every other day. Moreover, in summer group, a male teaser goat was left in the herd on days of sampling for one hour. Goats with P4 concentration ?1 ng mL-1, at least two consecutive measurements, were considered with luteal activity. In the second study, the anestrous phase was confirmed by P4 measurement 20 and 10 days before the kisspeptin injection in five female Abadeh ecotype goats (4 to 5 years old). The goats were given a single IV injection of saline (2 mL) as control group and the same goats (1 hr after the last blood sampling) were given kisspeptin (1 ?g kg-1) as treatment group. The blood samples were collected at –60, –40, –20 and 0 min (before injection), and 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80, 100, 120 and 140 min after the injection and LH concentration were measured. A single IV injection of 1 µg kg-1 of kisspeptin-10 did not stimulate the release of LH in female anestrous goats. In summer, in the presence of teaser goat, luteal activity was seen in all goats. In the absence of male goat in winter, some goats showed luteal activity and others showed anestrus. PMID:25610575

Arjmand, Mohammad; Mirzaei, Abdolah; Jafarzadeh Shirazi, Mohammad Reza; Tamadon, Amin; Salehi, Mohammad Saied; Saeb, Mehdi; Namavar, Mohammad Reza; Zandi, Mohammad Reza; Shahheidari, Hojatollah; Moradi, Sara

2014-01-01

352

Endometrial tumor necrosis factor   (TNF ) is a likely mediator of early luteal phase mifepristone-mediated negative effector action on the preimplantation embryo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytokines and growth factors are important mediators of progesterone-regulated endometrial receptivity and embryo develop- ment. Early luteal phase administration of a potent antiprogestin-like mifepristone to the rhesus monkey results in endometrial desynchrony, loss of embryo viability and implantation failure. In the present study, administration of mifepristone (2 mg\\/kg body weight, s.c.) on day 2 after ovulation resulted in a significant

PGL Lalitkumar; J Sengupta; D Ghosh

2005-01-01

353

Establishment of a Transgenic Zebrafish Line for Superficial Skin Ablation and Functional Validation of Apoptosis Modulators In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Background Zebrafish skin is composed of enveloping and basal layers which form a first-line defense system against pathogens. Zebrafish epidermis contains ionocytes and mucous cells that aid secretion of acid/ions or mucous through skin. Previous studies demonstrated that fish skin is extremely sensitive to external stimuli. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that modulate skin cell apoptosis in zebrafish. Methodology/Principal Findings This study aimed to create a platform to conduct conditional skin ablation and determine if it is possible to attenuate apoptotic stimuli by overexpressing potential apoptosis modulating genes in the skin of live animals. A transgenic zebrafish line of Tg(krt4:NTR-hKikGR)cy17 (killer line), which can conditionally trigger apoptosis in superficial skin cells, was first established. When the killer line was incubated with the prodrug metrodinazole, the superficial skin displayed extensive apoptosis as judged by detection of massive TUNEL- and active caspase 3-positive signals. Great reductions in NTR-hKikGR+ fluorescent signals accompanied epidermal cell apoptosis. This indicated that NTR-hKikGR+ signal fluorescence can be utilized to evaluate apoptotic events in vivo. After removal of metrodinazole, the skin integrity progressively recovered and NTR-hKikGR+ fluorescent signals gradually restored. In contrast, either crossing the killer line with testing lines or transiently injecting the killer line with testing vectors that expressed human constitutive active Akt1, mouse constitutive active Stat3, or HPV16 E6 element displayed apoptosis-resistant phenotypes to cytotoxic metrodinazole as judged by the loss of reduction in NTR-hKikGR+ fluorescent signaling. Conclusion/Significance The killer/testing line binary system established in the current study demonstrates a nitroreductase/metrodinazole system that can be utilized to conditionally perform skin ablation in a real-time manner, and provides a valuable tool to visualize and quantify the anti-apoptotic potential of interesting target genes in vivo. The current work identifies a potential use for transgenic zebrafish as a high-throughput platform to validate potential apoptosis modulators in vivo. PMID:21655190

Chen, Chi-Fang; Chu, Che-Yu; Chen, Te-Hao; Lee, Shyh-Jye; Shen, Chia-Ning; Hsiao, Chung-Der

2011-01-01

354

25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and In Vivo Insulin Sensitivity and ?-Cell Function Relative to Insulin Sensitivity in Black and White Youth  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To examine the relationships between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and in vivo insulin sensitivity and ?-cell function relative to insulin sensitivity, disposition index (DI), in black and white youth. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were analyzed in banked specimens in healthy youth aged 8 to 18 years who had existing data on hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic and hyperglycemic clamp to assess insulin sensitivity and secretion, and measurements of body composition, and abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). RESULTS A total of 183 research volunteers (mean ± SD; age, 12.6 ± 2.2 years; 98 white, 98 male, 92 obese) were studied. Analysis of HbA1c, fasting glucose and insulin, insulin sensitivity, and DI across quartiles of plasma 25(OH)D revealed no differences among whites. In blacks, the observed significance of higher insulin sensitivity and DI in the highest quartile of 25(OH)D disappeared after adjusting for any of the adiposity measures (BMI or fat mass or VAT or SAT). The difference in insulin sensitivity (9.4 ± 1.2 vs. 5.6 ± 0.5 mg/kg/min per ?U/mL; P = 0.006) between 25(OH)D nondeficient (?20 ng/mL) versus deficient (<20 ng/mL) black youth also was negated when adjusted for adiposity. CONCLUSIONS In healthy youth, plasma 25(OH)D concentrations bear no independent relationship to parameters of glucose homeostasis and in vivo insulin sensitivity and ?-cell function relative to insulin sensitivity. It remains to be determined whether in youth with dysglycemia the relationships are different and whether vitamin D optimization enhances insulin sensitivity and ?-cell function. PMID:22238280

Rajakumar, Kumaravel; de las Heras, Javier; Lee, SoJung; Holick, Michael F.; Arslanian, Silva A.

2012-01-01

355

Frequency modulation of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) during the luteal-follicular transition: evidence for FSH control of inhibin B in normal women.  

PubMed

To isolate the impact of GnRH pulse frequency on FSH secretion and to examine the effect of differing levels of FSH on inhibin B secretion during the luteal-follicular transition, exogenous GnRH was administered to GnRH-deficient women using one of two regimens, and the results were compared to those in normal women. In the GnRH-deficient women, the GnRH pulse frequency was increased from every 4 h in the late luteal phase to every 90 min on the day of menses to mimic normal cycling women (physiological frequency transition; n = 8 studies) or the GnRH pulse frequency was kept constant at a late luteal phase frequency of every 4 h through the first 6 days of the subsequent early follicular phase of cycle 2 (slow frequency transition; n = 6 studies). The differential rise in FSH secretion induced in these studies allowed us to examine the subsequent contribution of varying levels of FSH to inhibin B secretion. A physiological regimen of GnRH during the luteal-follicular transition resulted in a rise in FSH and inhibin B levels that did not differ from that in normal cycling women and a normal follicular phase length. On the other hand, maintaining a luteal frequency of GnRH for 6 days into the subsequent early follicular phase produced FSH levels significantly lower than those in the physiological transition (P < 0.05), with the greatest difference seen on the day after menses (9.1 +/- 1.0 vs. 16.4 +/- 1.4 IU/L for the slow and physiological transition groups, respectively; P < 0.005), but no difference in LH. This slower rise of FSH secretion in the slow frequency group was associated with significantly lower inhibin B levels (43.3 +/- 21.5 vs. 140.0 +/- 24.4 pg/mL, mean days 1, 3, and 5; P < 0.02), a later doubling of estradiol from baseline (day 9.6 +/- 0.9 vs. day 5.6 +/- 0.1; P < 0.02), and a longer follicular phase length (16.0 +/- 1.4 vs. 11.6 +/- 0.9 days; P < 0.05) compared with those in the physiological transition group. In conclusion, during the luteal-follicular transition, the GnRH pulse frequency contributes to but is not solely responsible for the FSH rise that initiates folliculogenesis. Alteration of FSH dynamics induced by changes in GnRH pulse frequency in GnRH-deficient women provides evidence that FSH stimulates inhibin B production in the human. Timely follicular development indicated by both estradiol and inhibin B secretion appears to be dependent on the pattern of increase in FSH during the luteal-follicular transition. PMID:9253348

Welt, C K; Martin, K A; Taylor, A E; Lambert-Messerlian, G M; Crowley, W F; Smith, J A; Schoenfeld, D A; Hall, J E

1997-08-01

356

Correlation between mixed-function oxidase enzyme induction and aflatoxin B/sub 1/-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in the chick embryo, in vivo  

SciTech Connect

The unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) technique has been adapted for use in the chick embryo, in vivo, to determine the relationship between induction of the mixed-function oxidase (MFO) enzyme system and genetic damage from an indirect-acting mutagen-carcinogen. Embryos were injected at 6 days of incubation (DI) with either phenobarbital (PB), a specific inducer of P-450-associated enzyme activities, or 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB), a specific inducer of P/sub 1/-450-associated enzyme activities. Aflatoxin B/sub 1/ (AFB1) was injected 24 hr later (7 DI), followed by a 5-hr continuous /sup 3/H-thymidine exposure. The livers were removed, prepared for autoradiography, and hepatocytes were scored for an increase in grains/nucleus, indicative of UDS. Aflatoxin B/sub 1/ caused a dose-related increase in UDS in all control and induction groups. Phenobarbital-induced embryos had an increased UDS response while TCB-induced embryos had a decreased UDS response, relative to noninduced embryos, for each dosage of AFB1. This suggests that the genotoxicity of an indirect-acting mutagen-carcinogen can be either increased or decreased, in vivo, depending on the inducer used. The chick embryo provides an excellent system for studying the effect of MFO induction on the genotoxicity of promutagen-carcinogens in a developing system.

Hamilton, J.W.; Bloom, S.E.

1984-01-01

357

Intranasal Administration of Human MSC for Ischemic Brain Injury in the Mouse: In Vitro and In Vivo Neuroregenerative Functions  

PubMed Central

Intranasal treatment with C57BL/6 MSCs reduces lesion volume and improves motor and cognitive behavior in the neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) mouse model. In this study, we investigated the potential of human MSCs (hMSCs) to treat HI brain injury in the neonatal mouse. Assessing the regenerative capacity of hMSCs is crucial for translation of our knowledge to the clinic. We determined the neuroregenerative potential of hMSCs in vitro and in vivo by intranasal administration 10 d post-HI in neonatal mice. HI was induced in P9 mouse pups. 1×106 or 2×106 hMSCs were administered intranasally 10 d post-HI. Motor behavior and lesion volume were measured 28 d post-HI. The in vitro capacity of hMSCs to induce differentiation of mouse neural stem cell (mNSC) was determined using a transwell co-culture differentiation assay. To determine which chemotactic factors may play a role in mediating migration of MSCs to the lesion, we performed a PCR array on 84 chemotactic factors 10 days following sham-operation, and at 10 and 17 days post-HI. Our results show that 2×106 hMSCs decrease lesion volume, improve motor behavior, and reduce scar formation and microglia activity. Moreover, we demonstrate that the differentiation assay reflects the neuroregenerative potential of hMSCs in vivo, as hMSCs induce mNSCs to differentiate into neurons in vitro. We also provide evidence that the chemotactic factor CXCL10 may play an important role in hMSC migration to the lesion site. This is suggested by our finding that CXCL10 is significantly upregulated at 10 days following HI, but not at 17 days after HI, a time when MSCs no longer reach the lesion when given intranasally. The results described in this work also tempt us to contemplate hMSCs not only as a potential treatment option for neonatal encephalopathy, but also for a plethora of degenerative and traumatic injuries of the nervous system. PMID:25396420

Donega, Vanessa; Nijboer, Cora H.; Braccioli, Luca; Slaper-Cortenbach, Ineke; Kavelaars, Annemieke; van Bel, Frank; Heijnen, Cobi J.

2014-01-01

358

Folic acid-functionalized up-conversion nanoparticles: toxicity studies in vivo and in vitro and targeted imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Folate receptors (FRs) are overexpressed on a variety of human cancer cells and tissues, including cancers of the breast, ovaries, endometrium, and brain. This over-expression of FRs can be used to target folate-linked imaging specifically to FR-expressing tumors. Fluorescence is emerging as a powerful new modality for molecular imaging in both the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Combining innovative molecular biology and chemistry, we prepared three kinds of folate-targeted up-conversion nanoparticles as imaging agents (UCNC-FA: UCNC-Er-FA, UCNC-Tm-FA, and UCNC-Er,Tm-FA). In vivo and in vitro toxicity studies showed that these nanoparticles have both good biocompatibility and low toxicity. Moreover, the up-conversion luminescence imaging indicated that they have good targeting to HeLa cells and can therefore serve as potential fluorescent contrast agents.Folate receptors (FRs) are overexpressed on a variety of human cancer cells and tissues, including cancers of the breast, ovaries, endometrium, and brain. This over-expression of FRs can be used to target folate-linked imaging specifically to FR-expressing tumors. Fluorescence is emerging as a powerful new modality for molecular imaging in both the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Combining innovative molecular biology and chemistry, we prepared three kinds of folate-targeted up-conversion nanoparticles as imaging agents (UCNC-FA: UCNC-Er-FA, UCNC-Tm-FA, and UCNC-Er,Tm-FA). In vivo and in vitro toxicity studies showed that these nanoparticles have both good biocompatibility and low toxicity. Moreover, the up-conversion luminescence imaging indicated that they have good targeting to HeLa cells and can therefore serve as potential fluorescent contrast agents. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Up-conversion luminescence spectra of UCNC-Er and UCNC-Er-FA, UCNC-Tm and UCNC-Tm-FA. Confocal luminescence imaging data collected as a series along the Z optical axis. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02312a

Sun, Lining; Wei, Zuwu; Chen, Haige; Liu, Jinliang; Guo, Jianjian; Cao, Ming; Wen, Tieqiao; Shi, Liyi

2014-07-01

359

The relationship between the diameter of chemically-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes and their organ biodistribution profiles in vivo.  

PubMed

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exhibit unique properties which have led to their applications in the biomedical field as novel delivery systems for diagnosis and therapy purposes. We have previously reported that the degree of functionalization of CNTs is a key factor determining their biological behaviour. The present study broadens the spectrum by investigating the impact of the diameter of CNTs using two series of multi-walled CNTs (MWNTs) with distinct differences in their diameters. Both MWNTs were doubly functionalized by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and amidation reactions, allowing the appended functional groups to be further conjugated with radionuclide chelating moieties and antibodies or antibody fragments. All constructs possessed comparable degree of functionalization and were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, gel electrophoresis and surface plasmon resonance. The MWNT conjugates were radio-labelled with indium-111, which thereby enabled in vivo single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging and organ biodistribution study using ?-scintigraphy. The narrow MWNTs (average diameter: 9.2 nm) demonstrated enhanced tissue affinity including non-reticular endothelial tissues compared to the wider MWNTs (average diameter: 39.5 nm). The results indicate that the higher aspect ratio of narrow MWNTs may be beneficial for their future biological applications due to higher tissue accumulation. PMID:25168822

Wang, Julie T-W; Fabbro, Chiara; Venturelli, Enrica; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Chaloin, Olivier; Da Ros, Tatiana; Methven, Laura; Nunes, Antonio; Sosabowski, Jane K; Mather, Stephen J; Robinson, Martyn K; Amadou, Julien; Prato, Maurizio; Bianco, Alberto; Kostarelos, Kostas; Al-Jamal, Khuloud T

2014-11-01

360

Co-Introduced Functional CCR2 Potentiates In Vivo Anti-Lung Cancer Functionality Mediated by T Cells Double Gene-Modified to Express WT1-Specific T-Cell Receptor  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Although gene-modification of T cells to express tumor-related antigen-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) or chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) has clinically proved promise, there still remains room to improve the clinical efficacy of re-directed T-cell based antitumor adoptive therapy. In order to achieve more objective clinical responses using ex vivo-expanded tumor-responsive T cells, the infused T cells need to show adequate localized infiltration into the tumor. Methodology/Principal Findings Human lung cancer cells variously express a tumor antigen, Wilms' Tumor gene product 1 (WT1), and an inflammatory chemokine, CCL2. However, CCR2, the relevant receptor for CCL2, is rarely expressed on activated T-lymphocytes. A HLA-A2402+ human lung cancer cell line, LK79, which expresses high amounts of both CCL2 and WT1 mRNA, was employed as a target. Normal CD8+ T cells were retrovirally gene-modified to express both CCR2 and HLA-A*2402-restricted and WT1235–243 nonapeptide-specific TCR as an effector. Anti-tumor functionality mediated by these effector cells against LK79 cells was assessed both in vitro and in vivo. Finally the impact of CCL2 on WT1 epitope-responsive TCR signaling mediated by the effector cells was studied. Introduced CCR2 was functionally validated using gene-modified Jurkat cells and human CD3+ T cells both in vitro and in vivo. Double gene-modified CD3+ T cells successfully demonstrated both CCL2-tropic tumor trafficking and cytocidal reactivity against LK79 cells in vitro and in vivo. CCL2 augmented the WT1 epitope-responsive TCR signaling shown by relevant luciferase production in double gene-modified Jurkat/MA cells to express luciferase and WT1-specific TCR, and CCL2 also dose-dependently augmented WT1 epitope-responsive IFN-? production and CD107a expression mediated by these double gene-modifiedCD3+ T cells. Conclusion/Significance Introduction of the CCL2/CCR2 axis successfully potentiated in vivo anti-lung cancer reactivity mediated by CD8+ T cells double gene-modified to express WT1-specific TCR and CCR2 not only via CCL2-tropic tumor trafficking, but also CCL2-enhanced WT1-responsiveness. PMID:23441216

Asai, Hiroaki; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; An, Jun; Ochi, Toshiki; Miyazaki, Yukihiro; Nagai, Kozo; Okamoto, Sachiko; Mineno, Junichi; Kuzushima, Kiyotaka; Shiku, Hiroshi; Inoue, Hirofumi; Yasukawa, Masaki

2013-01-01

361

Impact of the functional status of saeRS on in vivo phenotypes of Staphylococcus aureus?sarA mutants.  

PubMed

We investigated the in vivo relevance of the impact of sarA and saeRS on protease production using derivatives of the USA300 strain LAC. The results confirmed that mutation of saeRS or sarA reduces virulence in a bacteremia model to a comparable degree. However, while eliminating protease production restored virulence in the sarA mutant, it had little impact in the saeRS mutant. Additionally, constitutive activation of saeRS (saeRS(C)) enhanced the virulence of LAC and largely restored virulence in the isogenic sarA mutant. Based on these results, together with our analysis of the representative virulence factors alpha toxin, protein A (Spa), and extracellular nucleases, we propose a model in which the attenuation of saeRS mutants is defined primarily by decreased production of such factors, while constitutive activation of saeRS increases virulence, and reverses the attenuation of sarA mutants, because it results in both increased production and decreased protease-mediated degradation of these same factors. This regulatory balance was also apparent in a murine model of catheter-associated infection, with the results suggesting that the impact of saeRS on nuclease production plays an important role during the early stages of these infections that is partially offset by increased protease production in sarA mutants. PMID:24779437

Beenken, Karen E; Mrak, Lara N; Zielinska, Agnieszka K; Atwood, Danielle N; Loughran, Allister J; Griffin, Linda M; Matthews, K Alice; Anthony, Allison M; Spencer, Horace J; Skinner, Robert A; Post, Ginell R; Lee, Chia Y; Smeltzer, Mark S

2014-06-01

362

Effects of ex vivo Gamma-Tocopherol on Airway Macrophage Function in Healthy and Mild Allergic Asthmatics  

PubMed Central

Elevated inflammation and altered immune responses are features found in atopic asthmatic airways. Recent studies indicate gamma-tocopherol (GT) supplementation can suppress airway inflammation in allergic asthma. We studied the effects of in vitro GT supplementation on receptor-mediated phagocytosis and expression of cell surface molecules associated with innate and adaptive immunity on sputum-derived macrophages. Cells from non-smoking healthy (n = 6) and mild house dust mite-sensitive (HDM) allergic asthmatics (n = 6) were treated ex vivo with GT (300 ?M) or saline (control). Phagocytosis of opsonized Zymosan A bioparticles (S. cerevisiae) and expression of surface molecules associated with innate and adaptive immunity were assessed using flow cytometry. GT caused significantly decreased (P < 0.05) internalization of attached Zymosan bioparticles and decreased (P < 0.05) macrophage expression of CD206, CD36 and CD86 in allergic asthmatics but not in controls. Overall, GT caused down-regulation of both innate and adaptive immune response elements and atopic status appears to be an important factor. PMID:23689260

Geiser, Marianne; Lay, John C.; Bennett, William D.; Zhou, Haibo; Wang, Xiaoyan; Peden, David B.; Alexis, Neil E.

2013-01-01

363

Functional Identification of Tumor Suppressor Genes Through an in vivo RNA Interference Screen in a Mouse Lymphoma Model  

E-print Network

Short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) capable of stably suppressing gene function by RNA interference (RNAi) can mimic tumor-suppressor-gene loss in mice. By selecting for shRNAs capable of accelerating lymphomagenesis in a ...

Bric, Anka

364

What Can Current Stimulation Tell Us about the Vascular Function of Endogenous Prostacyclin in Healthy Rat Skin In Vivo?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In endothelial function, prostacyclin (PGI2) is as important as nitric oxide (NO); however, no test assesses specifically the vascular function of endogenous PGI2. We hypothesized that PGI2 has a dominant role in cathodal current-induced vasodilation (CIV) described in human skin. We thus aimed to study, in physiological conditions, the PGI2 involvement in cathodal CIV in rats in order to use

Stéphanie Gohin; Dominique Sigaudo-Roussel; Agnès Conjard-Duplany; Laurence Dubourg; Jean Louis Saumet; Bérengère Fromy

2011-01-01

365

Functional neuroanatomy of the human premotor oculomotor brainstem nuclei: insights from postmortem and advanced in vivo imaging studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable progress has been made recently in the field of the functional neuroanatomy of the primate oculomotor system,\\u000a which has also improved our understanding of the structure, organization and function of the human oculomotor system. In the\\u000a present review we provide for the first time an overview of the neuroanatomical basis of eye movement control in humans as\\u000a revealed by

Udo Rüb; Joanna C. Jen; Heiko Braak; Thomas Deller

2008-01-01

366

In vivo function of the conserved non-catalytic domain of Werner syndrome helicase in DNA replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Werner syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by genomic instability, elevated recombination and replication defects. The WRN gene encodes a RecQ helicase whose function(s) in cellular DNA metabolism is not well understood. To investigate the role of WRN in replication, we examined its ability to rescue cellular phenotypes of a yeast dna2 mutant defective in a helicase -endonuclease that participates

Sudha Sharma; Joshua A. Sommers; Robert M. Brosh

2004-01-01

367

A human ICAM-1 antibody isolated by a function-first approach has potent macrophage-dependent antimyeloma activity in vivo.  

PubMed

We isolated a tumor B-cell-targeting antibody, BI-505, from a highly diversified human phage-antibody library, using a pioneering "function-first" approach involving screening for (1) specificity for a tumor B cell surface receptor, (2) induction of tumor programmed cell death, and (3) enhanced in vivo antitumor activity compared to currently used treatments. BI-505 bound to intercellular adhesion molecule-1, identifying a previously unrecognized role for this receptor as a therapeutic target in cancer. The BI-505 epitope was strongly expressed on the surface of multiple myeloma cells from both newly diagnosed and relapsed patients. BI-505 had potent macrophage-dependent antimyeloma activity and conferred enhanced survival compared to currently used treatments in advanced experimental models of multiple myeloma. PMID:23597564

Veitonmäki, Niina; Hansson, Markus; Zhan, Fenghuang; Sundberg, Annika; Löfstedt, Tobias; Ljungars, Anne; Li, Zhan-Chun; Martinsson-Niskanen, Titti; Zeng, Ming; Yang, Ye; Danielsson, Lena; Kovacek, Mathilda; Lundqvist, Andrea; Mårtensson, Linda; Teige, Ingrid; Tricot, Guido; Frendéus, Björn

2013-04-15

368

Characterization of the alpha-gamma and alpha-beta complex: evidence for an in vivo functional role of alpha-crystallin as a molecular chaperone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous studies have demonstrated that in vitro, alpha-crystallin can protect other lens proteins against extensive denaturation and aggregation. The mechanism of this protection involves preferential binding of the partially denatured protein to a central region of the native alpha-crystallin complex. To test whether a similar phenomenon might occur in vivo, a high molecular weight aggregate (HMWA) fraction was isolated from the aged bovine lens. Negative staining of this preparation revealed the presence of particles of 13-14 nm diameter, characteristic of alpha-crystallin. Immunolocalization of the same particles using antiserum specific for gamma- and beta-crystallins demonstrated preferential binding of these crystallins to the central region of the alpha-crystallin complex. Together, these results provide evidence that in the intact lens, the alpha-crystallins are functionally important molecular chaperones.

Boyle, D.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

1994-01-01

369

The N-Ethyl-N-Nitrosourea-Induced Goldenticket Mouse Mutant Reveals an Essential Function of Sting in the In Vivo Interferon Response to Listeria monocytogenes and Cyclic Dinucleotides ?  

PubMed Central

Type I interferons (IFNs) are central regulators of the innate and adaptive immune responses to viral and bacterial infections. Type I IFNs are induced upon cytosolic detection of microbial nucleic acids, including DNA, RNA, and the bacterial second messenger cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP). In addition, a recent study demonstrated that the intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes stimulates a type I IFN response due to cytosolic detection of bacterially secreted c-di-AMP. The transmembrane signaling adaptor Sting (Tmem173, Mita, Mpys, Eris) has recently been implicated in the induction of type I IFNs in response to cytosolic DNA and/or RNA. However, the role of Sting in response to purified cyclic dinucleotides or during in vivo L. monocytogenes infection has not been addressed. In order to identify genes important in the innate immune response, we have been conducting a forward genetic mutagenesis screen in C57BL/6 mice using the mutagen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU). Here we describe a novel mutant mouse strain, Goldenticket (Gt), that fails to produce type I IFNs upon L. monocytogenes infection. By genetic mapping and complementation experiments, we found that Gt mice harbor a single nucleotide variant (T596A) of Sting that functions as a null allele and fails to produce detectable protein. Analysis of macrophages isolated from Gt mice revealed that Sting is absolutely required for the type I interferon response to both c-di-GMP and c-di-AMP. Additionally, Sting is required for the response to c-di-GMP and L. monocytogenes in vivo. Our results provide new functions for Sting in the innate interferon response to pathogens. PMID:21098106

Sauer, John-Demian; Sotelo-Troha, Katia; von Moltke, Jakob