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1

EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) ON EX VIVO LUTEAL FUNCTION IN THE F344 RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) ON EX VIVO LUTEAL FUNCTION IN THE PREGNANT F344 RAT. S. R. Bielmeier1, A. S. Murr2, D. S. Best2, J. M. Goldman2, and M. G. Narotsky2 1 Curriculum in Toxicology, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA 2 Reproductive T...

2

EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) ON EX VIVO LUTEAL FUNCTION IN THE PREGNANT F344 RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) ON EX VIVO LUTEAL FUNCTION IN THE PREGNANT F344 RAT. S. R. Bielmeier1, A. S. Murr2, D. S. Best2, J. M. Goldman2, and M. G. Narotsky2 1 Curriculum in Toxicology, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA 2 Reproductive T...

3

EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) ON EX VIVO LUTEAL FUNCTION IN THE F344 RAT DURING PREGNANCY  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of Bromodichloromethane (BDCM) on Ex Vivo Luteal Function In the Pregnant F344 Rat Susan R. Bielmeier1, Ashley S. Murr2, Deborah S. Best2, Jerome M. Goldman2, and Michael G. Narotsky2 1Curriculum in Toxicology, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599,...

4

Isolation and functional aspects of free luteal cells  

SciTech Connect

Methods of luteal cell isolation employ enzymatic treatment of luteal tissue with collagenase and deoxyribonuclease. Additional enzymes such as hyaluronidase or Pronase are also used in some instances. Isolated luteal cells retain the morphological characteristics of steroid secreting cells after isolation. They contain mitochondria, variable amounts of lipid droplets, and an extensive smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Isolated luteal cells have been used in numerous studies to examine the regulation of steriodogenesis by luteinizing hormone (LH). LH receptor binding studies were employed to quantitate specific properties of hormone-receptor interaction in relation to cellular function. Binding of (/sup 125/I)LH to bovine luteal cells and membranes was compared and it was concluded that the enzymatic treatment used to isolate cells did not change the LH receptor binding kinetics.

Luborsky, J.L.; Berhrman, H.R.

1985-01-01

5

[Effect of serum prolactin levels on luteal function in patients with recurrent abortions].  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the role of prolactin (PRL) on the regulation of luteal function, a series of clinical and laboratory examinations were carried out in 30 patients with history of habitual abortion. The following parameters were included: serum hormone levels by radioimmunoassay during follicular and luteal phase, ultrasonic scan of ovary and endometrial biopsy. The results indicated that: (1) The serum level of PRL was normal in 86.7% of the patients (26/30), and hyperprolactin either hypoprolactinemia accounted for 6.6% of the patients. Both hyperprolactinemia and hypoprolactinemia had abnormal development of follicles and/or luteal function deficiency (LPD) in varying degrees. (2) There were 42.3% of patients with LPD, and abnormal follicular development was one of the important causes for LPD. (3) The concentration of serum PRL showed a marked decrease in patients with spontaneous abortion (P < 0.05) as compared to that of women who went to term. It indicated that PRL level might be associated with luteal function during early pregnancy. PMID:8504708

Gu, F

1993-01-01

6

Inhibition of Delta-Like Ligand 4 Induces Luteal Hypervascularization Followed by Functional and Structural Luteolysis in the Primate Ovary  

PubMed Central

Using specific inhibitors established that angiogenesis in the ovarian follicle and corpus luteum is driven by vascular endothelial growth factor. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the Notch ligand, delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4) negatively regulates vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated vessel sprouting and branching. To investigate the role of Dll4 in regulation of the ovarian vasculature, we administered a neutralizing antibody to Dll4 to marmosets at the periovulatory period. The vasculature was examined on luteal d 3 or d 10: angiogenesis was determined by incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine, staining for CD31 and cell death by staining for activated caspase-3. Ovulatory progesterone rises were monitored to determine effects of treatment on luteal function and time to recover normal cycles in a separate group of animals. Additionally, animals were treated in the follicular or midluteal phase to determine effects of Dll4 inhibition on follicular development and luteal function. Controls were treated with human IgG (Fc). Corpora lutea from marmosets treated during the periovulatory period exhibited increased angiogenesis and increased vascular density on luteal d 3, but plasma progesterone was significantly suppressed. By luteal d 10, corpora lutea in treated ovaries were significantly reduced in size, with involution of luteal cells, increased cell death, and suppressed plasma progesterone concentrations. In contrast, initiation of anti-Dll4 treatment during the midluteal phase produced only a slight suppression of progesterone for the remainder of the cycle. Moreover, Dll4 inhibition had no appreciable effect on follicular development. These results show that Dll4 has a specific and critical role in the development of the normal luteal vasculature. PMID:22334711

Hastings, Julie M.; Allan, Deborah; Morris, Keith D.; Rudge, John S.; Wiegand, Stanley J.

2012-01-01

7

Adverse influence of coumestrol on secretory function of bovine luteal cells in the first trimester of pregnancy.  

PubMed

Coumestrol is one of a few biologically active substances present in leguminous plants, which are widely used as fodder for ruminants. Depending on the doses, coumestrol acts on the reproductive processes as an estrogen-like factor or antiestrogen to evoke a decrease in ovulation frequency, elongation of estrous cycle duration. The aim of the current investigations was to study the influence of coumestrol on secretory function of luteal cells obtained from first trimester of pregnant cows. Luteal cells (2.5 × 10(5) /mL) from 3rd to 5th, 6th to 8th, and 9th to 12th week of pregnancy were preincubated for 24 h and incubated with coumestrol (1 × 10(-6) M) for successive 48 h and the medium concentrations of progesterone (P4), oxytocin (OT), prostaglandin (PG) E2 and F2? were determined. Moreover, the expression of mRNA for neurophysin-I/oxytocin (NP-I/OT; precursor of OT) and peptidyl-glycine-?-amidating mono-oxygenase (PGA, an enzyme responsible for post-translational OT synthesis) was determined after 8 h of treatment. Coumestrol did not affect P4 secretion but increased the secretion of OT from the cells collected at all stages of gestation studied. Hence, the ratio of P4 to OT was markedly decreased. Simultaneously, coumestrol increased the expression of NP-I/OT mRNA during 9th to 12th weeks of pregnancy, and mRNA for PGA during 3rd to 5th and 9th to 12th weeks of gestation. Furthermore, coumestrol decreased PGE2 secretion from luteal cells in all studied stages of pregnancy, while it affected PGF2? metabolite (PGFM) concentration only from week 3 to 5 of pregnancy. Obtained results suggest that coumestrol impairs secretory function of the corpus luteum (CL) and this way it can affect the maintenance of pregnancy in the cow. PMID:21656645

M?ynarczuk, J; Wróbel, M H; Kotwica, J

2013-07-01

8

The Effect of Luteal \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Luteolysis is associated with tissue remodeling probably involving the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their specific tissue in- hibitors (TIMPs). This study investigated the expression and local- ization of the major MMPs and TIMPs in the human corpus luteum throughout the luteal phase and after luteal rescue with hCG. Cor- pora lutea (n 5 9) were collected at hysterectomy and were

W. COLIN DUNCAN; ALAN S. MCNEILLY; PETER J. ILLINGWORTH

2010-01-01

9

Functions and transcriptional regulation of thrombospondins and their interrelationship with fibroblast growth factor-2 in bovine luteal cells.  

PubMed

Previously, we showed luteal stage-specific regulation of angiogenesis-modulating factors by prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2alpha). Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and thrombospondins (THBSs) exhibited the most divergent profile of induction by PGF2alpha. We therefore examined the transcriptional regulation and roles of THBSs in luteal cells and studied their interaction with FGF2. THBSs and their receptors exhibited cell-specific expression: THBS1 was the predominant form in luteal endothelial cells (LEC), whereas luteinized granulosa cells (LGC) expressed mostly THBS2. CD36 was confined to LGC, but CD47 did not exhibit preferential expression between LEC and LGC. THBS1 and THBS2 were both stimulated in vitro by PGF2a and its analog in LGC. In contrast, luteinizing signals (LH and insulin) decreased the expression of THBS1, THBS2, and CD36. Importantly, LH increased FGF2 expression, suggesting that THBSs and FGF2 are conversely regulated. We found that FGF2 inhibited THBS1 and vice versa, and that THBS1 treatment decreased FGF2 expression, suggesting reciprocal inhibition. In agreement, ablation of THBS1 by specific small interference RNAs elevated FGF2 levels. THBS1 reduced LEC numbers and promoted apoptosis by activation of caspase-3. In contrast, FGF2 reduced basal and THBS1-induced caspase-3 levels. Consistent with these findings, small interference RNA silencing of THBS1 in luteal cells reduced the levels of active caspase-3 and improved the survival of cells when challenged with staurosporine. Taken together, these studies suggest that THBSs are suppressed during luteinization but are induced by PGF2alpha in luteolysis. THBS1 has antiangiogenic, proapoptotic properties; these, together with its ability to inhibit FGF2 expression and activity, can promote luteolysis. PMID:25061096

Farberov, Svetlana; Meidan, Rina

2014-09-01

10

Sodium cloprostenol administered at a continuous low dosage induces polydipsia and suppresses luteal function in early dioestrous bitches.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine whether sodium cloprostenol administered at a continuous low dosage induced luteolysis and polydipsia in early dioestrous bitches. Sodium cloprostenol was administered subcutaneously to greyhounds at doses of 4.04-5.19 microg/kg/day (treated group, n=5) or 0 microg/kg/day (control group, n=5) delivered by mini-osmotic pumps for 7 days. The treated bitches and two of the control bitches were in early dioestrus (Days 5-14, and 6 and 10, respectively) when the mini-osmotic pump was inserted (Day 0). Concentrations of plasmatic progesterone were measured in dioestrous bitches each day from Day -2 to 7, and then weekly until Day 90. Daily intake of water was ascertained in all bitches from Day -2 until Day 10, and their weight was measured on Days -2, 6 and 13. Biochemical analyses on plasma for concentrations of urea and glucose, and urinalyses were performed on all bitches before (Day -1), during (Day 4) and after treatment (Day 10). Concentrations of plasmatic progesterone declined dramatically and rapidly in treated bitches after Day 0 to <2.9 ng/ml but were not similarly affected in the dioestrous control bitches. However, in three of five treated bitches, concentrations of plasmatic progesterone increased to >1 ng/ml in the period from Day 10 to 90 indicating that luteolysis was incomplete. All treated bitches were polydipsic (intake of water >100 ml/kg/day) for 2-6 days during the period of treatment, and for 0-2 days immediately after treatment (Days 7 and 8). One control bitch was polydipsic on Days -2, -1 and 0. The treated bitches were also polyuric since they were hyposthenuric (<1.007, n=4) or isothenuric (1.010, n=1) on Day 4, their weight did not increase and no gastrointestinal or respiratory effects were observed. The control bitches were always hypersthenuric when measured during and after treatment (>1.021). Biochemical analyses of plasma and other data obtained from urinalyses did not reveal any differences between groups. This study indicated that sodium cloprostenol administered at a continuous low dosage induced polydipsia and suppressed luteal function in early dioestrous bitches. PMID:11408119

Watts, J R; Wright, P J; Parry, B W

2001-07-01

11

Ovulatory response and luteal function after eCG administration at the end of a progesterone and estradiol' based treatment in postpartum anestrous beef cattle.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) administration associated to fixed-time AI (FTAI) on follicular dynamics, ovulation, corpus luteum (CL) development and serum progesterone concentrations. Multiparous suckled Hereford cows (n=46) in anestrus with 60-75 days postpartum were used. Females received an intravaginal device containing 0.5g of progesterone during 8 days and 2mg of estradiol benzoate i.m. at device insertion. At device removal 500?g of cloprostenol and 0.5mg of estradiol cypionate were administered i.m., and FTAI was performed 52-56h later. Cows were divided into two experimental groups to receive 400IU of eCG i.m. at device removal (n=23), while control group did not receive eCG (n=23). Daily ovarian ultrasonography (7.5MHz transducer) and progesterone concentrations determined by RIA were assayed from device removal until 30 or 14 days after FTAI, respectively. Treatment with eCG increased ovulation rate [65.2% (15/23) vs. 30.4% (7/23); P=0.018], ovulatory follicle diameter (14.5±0.4 vs. 13.1±0.7mm, mean±SEM; P=0.081), CL area from 6 to 14 days after FTAI (344.3±25.1 vs. 274.2±23.9mm(2); P=0.045) and mean serum progesterone concentrations from FTAI to 14 days later (3.0±0.2 vs. 1.8±0.2ng/ml; P=0.001), in comparison with control cows. In conclusion, the addition of eCG to a progesterone and estradiol' based treatment for FTAI improves ovulation rate and luteal function in anestrous cows. These findings have implications in order to increase pregnancy rates in FTAI treatments in Bos taurus beef cattle. PMID:24646633

Núñez-Olivera, R; de Castro, T; García-Pintos, C; Bó, G; Piaggio, J; Menchaca, A

2014-05-01

12

Conceptus-induced changes in the gene expression of blood immune cells and the ultrasound-accessed luteal function in beef cattle: how early can we detect pregnancy?  

PubMed

We aimed to identify the functional characteristics of the corpus luteum (CL) by color Doppler ultrasonography and changes in interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during early pregnancy in beef cows. We then aimed to use these features to establish earlier pregnancy diagnosis methods. In experiment 1, the CL size and blood flow were accessed by Doppler ultrasonography, and the PBMCs were isolated on Days 8, 12, 15, 18, 20, 22, 25, 30, 45, and 60 post-timed artificial insemination (TAI) from pregnant (n = 10) and nonpregnant cows (n = 12). The abundance of ISG (OAS1, MX1, MX2, and ISG15) transcripts was measured by quantitative PCR. Analyses of OAS1 and MX2 expression in isolated PBMCs (ISG-PBMC method) and Doppler imaging of CL (Doppler-US method) were performed to test the accuracy of these methods for the diagnosis of pregnancy on Day 20 post-TAI (n = 110; experiment 2). In experiment 1, the luteal volume and blood flow were reduced in nonpregnant cows during the first weeks post-TAI, but an evaluation of CL vascularization and size was efficient in identifying nonpregnant cows on Day 20 post-TAI. The expression of ISGs in PBMCs can be stimulated by the presence of a viable conceptus between Days 15 and 22 post-TAI, and the expression of these genes reaches a peak on Day 20. In experiment 2, the Doppler-US and ISG-PBMC methods resulted in similar specificity (85.5 and 87.7%, respectively). However, only the Doppler-US method resulted in 100% sensitivity. In conclusion, the greatest abundance of ISGs in PBMCs and a high detection of luteolysis by Doppler imaging on Day 20 post-TAI can be feasibly used for the earlier detection of nonpregnant cows in reproductive programs. The level of accuracy for our described pregnancy methods is high on Day 20 (80%-91%), but only the Doppler imaging method results in an absence of false-negative diagnoses. PMID:25210129

Pugliesi, Guilherme; Miagawa, Bruna T; Paiva, Yasmin N; França, Moana R; Silva, Luciano A; Binelli, Mario

2014-10-01

13

Proliferation of Luteal Steroidogenic Cells in Cattle  

PubMed Central

The rapid growth of the corpus luteum (CL) after ovulation is believed to be mainly due to an increase in the size of luteal cells (hypertrophy) rather than an increase in their number. However, the relationship between luteal growth and the proliferation of luteal steroidogenic cells (LSCs) is not fully understood. One goal of the present study was to determine whether LSCs proliferate during CL growth. A second goal was to determine whether luteinizing hormone (LH), which is known have roles in the proliferation and differentiation of follicular cells, also affects the proliferation of LSCs. Ki-67 (a cell proliferation marker) was expressed during the early, developing and mid luteal stages and some Ki-67-positive cells co-expressed HSD3B (a steroidogenic marker). DNA content in LSCs isolated from the developing CL increased much more rapidly (indicating rapid growth) than did DNA content in LSCs isolated from the mid CL. The cell cycle-progressive genes CCND2 (cyclin D2) and CCNE1 (cyclin E1) mRNA were expressed more strongly in the small luteal cells than in the large luteal cells. LH decreased the rate of increase of DNA in LSCs isolated from the mid luteal stage but not in LSCs from the developing stage. LH suppressed CCND2 expression in LSCs from the mid luteal stage but not from the developing luteal stage. Furthermore, LH receptor (LHCGR) mRNA expression was higher at the mid luteal stage than at the developing luteal stage. The overall results suggest that the growth of the bovine CL is due to not only hypertrophy of LSCs but also an increase in their number, and that the proliferative ability of luteal steroidogenic cells decreases between the developing and mid luteal stages. PMID:24386349

Yoshioka, Shin; Abe, Hironori; Sakumoto, Ryosuke; Okuda, Kiyoshi

2013-01-01

14

Cantharidin and norcantharidin inhibit caprine luteal cell steroidogenesis in vitro.  

PubMed

Cantharidin and its analog norcantharidin are active constituents of Mylabris, have been demonstrated to ailments for a variety of cancers. But several reports of cantharidin's natural or accidental toxicoses in field animals and humans showed a strong connection between cantharidin and its abortifacient and aphrodisiac properties. However, their exact cellular mechanisms in steroidogenesis remains poorly understood. Thus this study was aimed to explore the effects of cantharidin on luteal cell steroidogensis and to compare its effect with that of norcantharidin. For this purpose, luteal cells isolated from corpora lutea of native Taiwan goats were maintained in vitro and treated for 4 and 24 h with cantharidin and norcantharidin (0.1, 1.0, and 10 ?g ml(-1)) to assess their steroidogenic effects. Progesterone (P(4)) levels and steroidogenic enzyme expression were assessed by enzyme immunoassay and Western blot methods, respectively. In caprine luteal cells, cantharidin and norcantharidin repressed basal P(4) production, as well as that mediated by ovine luteinizing hormone (oLH), 8-bromo-cyclic AMP (8-Br-cAMP), 22R-hydroxycholesterol (22R-OHC) and pregnenolone (P(5)). They also inhibited the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein, cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc) enzyme, and 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3?-HSD) enzyme. Additionally, the greater inhibitory effect was detected using cantharidin, when it is compared with that of norcantharidin. Our results suggest that ingestion of cantharidin may decrease luteal steroidogenesis, and the decline in luteal P(4) levels may disrupt reproductive functions in humans as well as animals. PMID:20594813

Twu, Nae-Fang; Srinivasan, Ramanujam; Chou, Chung-Hsi; Wu, Leang-Shin; Chiu, Chih-Hsien

2012-01-01

15

Programmable nanoparticle functionalization for in vivo targeting  

PubMed Central

The emerging demand for programmable functionalization of existing base nanocarriers necessitates development of an efficient approach for cargo loading that avoids nanoparticle redesign for each individual application. Herein, we demonstrate in vivo a postformulation strategy for lipidic nanocarrier functionalization with the use of a linker peptide, which rapidly and stably integrates cargos into lipidic membranes of nanocarriers after simple mixing through a self-assembling process. We exemplified this strategy by generating a VCAM-1-targeted perfluorocarbon nanoparticle for in vivo targeting in atherosclerosis (ApoE-deficient) and breast cancer (STAT-1-deficient) models. In the atherosclerotic model, a 4.1-fold augmentation in binding to affected aortas was observed for targeted vs. nontargeted nanoparticles (P<0.0298). Likewise, in the breast cancer model, a 4.9-fold increase in the nanoparticle signal from tumor vasculature was observed for targeted vs. nontargeted nanoparticles (P<0.0216). In each case, the nanoparticle was registered with fluorine (19F) magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the nanoparticle perfluorocarbon core, yielding a quantitative estimate of the number of tissue-bound nanoparticles. Because other common nanocarriers with lipid coatings (e.g., liposomes, micelles, etc.) can employ this strategy, this peptide linker postformulation approach is applicable to more than half of the available nanosystems currently in clinical trials or clinical uses.—Pan, H., Myerson, J. W., Hu, L., Marsh, J. N., Hou K., Scott, M. J., Allen, J. S., Hu, G., San Roman, S., Lanza, G. M., Schreiber, R. D., Schlesinger, P. H., Wickline, S. A. Programmable nanoparticle functionalization for in vivo targeting. PMID:23047896

Pan, Hua; Myerson, Jacob W.; Hu, Lingzhi; Marsh, Jon N.; Hou, Kirk; Scott, Michael J.; Allen, John S.; Hu, Grace; San Roman, Susana; Lanza, Gregory M.; Schreiber, Robert D.; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Wickline, Samuel A.

2013-01-01

16

The enzymes in cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism in human corpora lutea: dependence on luteal phase, cellular and subcellular distribution.  

PubMed

Eicosanoids synthesized within corpus luteum are presumed to regulate luteal function in women. However, the potential cellular source(s) of the eicosanoids, whether small and large luteal cells differ in eicosanoid synthesis and whether eicosanoids other than prostaglandin (PG)E2, PGF2 alpha and 6-keto-PGI1 alpha can be synthesized, have not been investigated. The present immunocytochemical studies were undertaken to answer these questions using mono and polyclonal antibodies to several enzymes in arachidonic acid metabolism by cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways. Human corpora lutea from early (n = 5), mid (n = 6) and late (n = 3) luteal phases were specifically immunostained for all the enzymes. All the enzymes were present in small and large luteal cells as well as in non luteal cells. However, small luteal cells contained more immunoreactive 5-lipoxygenase, PGD2 and PGF2 alpha synthases; large luteal cells contained more TXA2 synthase and 12-lipoxygenase; small and large luteal cells contained similar amounts of cyclooxygenase and PGI2 synthase. In all the cells, immunoreactive PGD2, PGI2 and TXA2 synthases increased from early to mid luteal phase and then declined in late luteal phase. Cyclooxygenase, 5- and 12-lipoxygenases and PGF2 alpha synthase, on the other hand, increased from early to mid and mid to late luteal phases. Immunoreactive cyclooxygenase and 5- and 12-lipoxygenases were present primarily in rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and/or smooth ER and cytoplasm. Quite unexpectedly, all three enzymes were also found in nuclear membranes, condensed chromatin and especially at the perimeter of condensed chromatin. Dispersed chromatin contained very little or no immunoreactive enzyme. These results indicate that regulation of human luteal function by eicosanoids synthesized within the corpus luteum is complex involving perhaps a) small and large luteal as well as non luteal cells, b) eicosanoids which have not been previously considered to play a role in luteal function and c) coordinate regulation of more than one enzyme in the pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism. PMID:1909033

Mitchell, D E; Lei, Z M; Rao, C V

1991-05-01

17

Rotational dynamics of luteinizing hormone receptors on bovine and ovine luteal cell plasma membranes.  

PubMed

To determine whether LH receptor rotational diffusion is similar in closely related species, we compared the rotational correlation times of LH receptors on bovine CL membranes with those of LH receptors on sheep small luteal cells and luteal cell plasma membranes using time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy techniques. After binding of erythrosin isothiocyanate (ErITC)-derived bovine LH (bLH), ErITC-ovine LH (oLH), or ErITC-hCG, there was no difference in the initial and final anisotropy at 4 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 25 degrees C, and 37 degrees C, indicating that the bLH receptor was rotationally immobile on the time scale of our experiments. On these same membrane preparations, the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor occupied by ErITC-murine EGF exhibited temperature-dependent rotational correlation times of 80 +/- 5 microseconds, 111 +/- 7 microseconds, 254 +/- 4 microseconds, and > 1000 microseconds at 4 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 25 degrees C, and 37 degrees C, respectively. Slower rotational times for EGF receptor observed at higher temperatures suggested the occurrence of temperature-dependent receptor aggregation. Like the bLH receptor, the oLH receptor on intact cells and on CL plasma membranes was rotationally immobile on the time scale of our experiments when occupied by ErITC-hCG. However, the oLH-occupied receptors on small luteal cells and on luteal cell membranes had comparable rotational correlation times at 37 degrees C. These results suggest that bLH receptors are present in large, rotationally immobile structures, whereas the receptor-containing structure formed on ovine luteal cells depends on whether that receptor is occupied by hCG or oLH. Also, despite the similarities between reproductive function in these species, the LH-occupied receptor appears to be organized differently in the plasma membranes of these hormone-responsive luteal cells. PMID:7578689

Philpot, C J; Rahman, N A; Kenny, N; Barisas, B G; Roess, D A

1995-09-01

18

In Vivo Imaging of Tissue Physiological Function  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute's Radiation Biology Branch is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize methods for in vivo imaging.

19

Stimulatory effect of vascular endothelial growth factor on progesterone production and survivability of cultured bubaline luteal cells.  

PubMed

The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on progesterone (P4) synthesis in cultured luteal cells from different stages of the estrous cycle and on expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STARD1), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side chain cleavage (CYP11A1) and 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B), antiapoptotic gene PCNA, and proapoptotic gene BAX in luteal cells obtained from mid-luteal phase (MLP) of estrous cycle in buffalo. Corpus luteum samples from the early luteal phase (ELP; day 1st-4th; n=4), MLP (day 5th-10th; n=4), and the late luteal phase (LLP; day 11th-16th; n=4) of oestrous cycle were obtained from a slaughterhouse. Luteal cell cultures were treated with VEGF (0, 1, 10 and 100 ng/ml) for 24, 48 and 72h. Progesterone was assessed by RIA, while mRNA expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results indicated a dose- and time-dependent stimulatory effect of VEGF on P4 synthesis and expression of steroidogenic enzymes. Moreover, VEGF treatment led to an increase in PCNA expression and decrease in BAX expression. In summary, these findings suggest that VEGF acts locally in the bubaline CL to modulate steroid hormone synthesis and cell survivability, which indicates that this factor has an important role as a regulator of CL development and function in buffalo. PMID:24998155

Chouhan, V S; Dangi, S S; Gupta, M; Babitha, V; Khan, F A; Panda, R P; Yadav, V P; Singh, G; Sarkar, M

2014-08-01

20

Ruptured Corpus Luteal Cyst: CT Findings  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the CT findings of ruptured corpus luteal cysts. Materials and Methods Six patients with a surgically proven ruptured corpus luteal cyst were included in this series. The prospective CT findings were retrospectively analyzed in terms of the size and shape of the cyst, the thickness and enhancement pattern of its wall, the attenuation of its contents, and peritoneal fluid. Results The mean diameter of the cysts was 2.8 (range, 1.5-4.8) cm; three were round and three were oval. The mean thickness of the cyst wall was 4.7 (range, 1-10) mm; in all six cases it showed strong enhancement, and in three was discontinuous. In five of six cases, the cystic contents showed high attenuation. Peritoneal fluid was present in all cases, and its attenuation was higher, especially around the uterus and adnexa, than that of urine present in the bladder. Conclusion In a woman in whom CT reveals the presence of an ovarian cyst with an enhancing rim and highly attenuated contents, as well as highly attenuated peritoneal fluid, a ruptured corpus luteal cyst should be suspected. Other possible evidence of this is focal interruption of the cyst wall and the presence of peritoneal fluid around the adnexa. PMID:12679633

Choi, Hyuck Jae; Kim, Sun Ho; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Park, Chang Min; Lee, Hak Jong; Moon, Min Hoan; Jeong, Jun Yong

2003-01-01

21

Mutant mouse models and their contribution to our knowledge of corpus luteum development, function and regression  

PubMed Central

The corpus luteum is a unique organ, which is transitory in nature. The development, maintenance and regression of the corpus luteum are regulated by endocrine, paracrine and autocrine signaling events. Defining the specific mediators of luteal development, maintenance and regression has been difficult and often perplexing due to the complexity that stems from the variety of cell types that make up the luteal tissue. Moreover, some regulators may serve dual functions as a luteotropic and luteolytic agent depending on the temporal and spatial environment in which they are expressed. As a result, some confusion is present in the interpretation of in vitro and in vivo studies. More recently investigators have utilized mutant mouse models to define the functional significance of specific gene products. The goal of this mini-review is to identify and discuss mutant mouse models that have luteal anomalies, which may provide some clues as to the significance of specific regulators of corpus luteum function. PMID:14613537

Henkes, Luiz E; Davis, John S; Rueda, Bo R

2003-01-01

22

In vivo imaging of subcutaneous structures using functional photoacoustic microscopy  

E-print Network

In vivo imaging of subcutaneous structures using functional photoacoustic microscopy Hao F Zhang1.2007.108 Functional photoacoustic microscopy (fPAM) is a hybrid technology that permits noninvasive. Although various methods for light delivery can be applied, an optical-ultrasonic confocal illumination

Wang, Lihong

23

In vivo activation and functions of the protease factor XII.  

PubMed

Combinations of proinflammatory and procoagulant reactions are the unifying principle for a variety of disorders affecting the cardiovascular system. Factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor) is a plasma protease that initiates the contact system. The biochemistry of the contact system in vitro is well understood; however, its in vivo functions are just beginning to emerge. The current review concentrates on activators and functions of the FXII-driven contact system in vivo. Elucidating its physiologic activities offers the exciting opportunity to develop strategies for the safe interference with both thrombotic and inflammatory diseases. PMID:25187064

Björkqvist, J; Nickel, K F; Stavrou, E; Renné, T

2014-11-01

24

Effects of Aspirin and Hypothermia on Platelet Function in Vivo.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hypothermia, aspirin, and cardiopulmonary bypass can each induce a platelet function defect, but it is not known if the effects of aspirin and hypothermia are additive in this regard. To address this question in humans in vivo, the forearm skin temperatur...

A. D. Michelson, M. R. Barnard, S. F. Khuri, M. J. Rohrer, H. MacGregor

1997-01-01

25

ERK1/2 is involved in luteal cell autophagy regulation during corpus luteum regression via an mTOR-independent pathway.  

PubMed

Autophagy is known to be regulated by the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (AKT) and/or mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathways, leading to activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a major negative regulator of autophagy. However, some reports have also suggested that autophagic regulation by the PI3K-AKT and/or MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathways may not be mediated by mTOR activity, and there is no direct evidence of the involvement of these pathways in luteal cell autophagy regulation. To elucidate the luteal cell-specific regulatory mechanisms of autophagy induction during corpus luteum (CL) regression, we evaluated whether luteal cell autophagy is regulated by the PI3K-AKT pathway and/or MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathway and if this regulation is mediated by mTOR. We found that autophagy induction increased despite mTOR activation in luteal cells cultured with prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?), an important mediator of CL regression, suggesting that PGF2?-induced autophagy is independent of mTOR regulation. We also found that PGF2?-induced autophagy was not mediated by AKT activity, because AKT inhibition using a PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin) did not change autophagy induction or mTOR activity. In contrast, ERK1/2 activity increased in PGF2?-treated luteal cells, as did the levels of autophagy induction despite increased mTOR activity. Furthermore, PGF2?-mediated up-regulation of luteal cell autophagy was reversed by addition of ERK1/2 inhibitors, despite a decrease in mTOR activity. These in vitro results suggest that luteal cell autophagy is induced by increased ERK1/2 activity during CL regression, and is independent of mTOR activity. This finding was further supported by in vivo experiments in a pseudo-pregnant rat model, which showed that induction of luteal cell autophagy increased during luteal stage progression and that this was accompanied by increased ERK1/2 and mTOR activity. Taken together, our findings indicate that activation of ERK1/2 is a key event in the induction of luteal cell autophagy during CL regression which is not associated with mTOR regulation. PMID:25107837

Choi, JongYeob; Jo, MinWha; Lee, EunYoung; Choi, DooSeok

2014-10-01

26

Analysis of the functional specificity of RS domains in vivo.  

PubMed Central

A number of splicing factors contain extensive regions that are rich in arginine and serine (RS domains). These domains are thought to facilitate protein-protein interactions that are critical in the regulation of alternative splicing. Using a domain swap strategy, we have tested the ability of RS domains from several proteins to substitute in vivo for an essential RS domain in the Drosophila splicing regulator TRA-2. By several criteria, RS domains were found to vary significantly in their ability to support the splicing regulation functions of TRA-2. The RS domain of dU2AF50 functioned efficiently, while that of the dSRp55 protein did not. Moreover, we find similar differences in the ability of RS domains to direct fusion proteins to discrete subnuclear sites at which TRA-2 associates with spermatocyte chromosomes. These results indicate that RS domains are not all functionally equivalent in vivo. PMID:9774348

Dauwalder, B; Mattox, W

1998-01-01

27

Involvement of microtubules in lipoprotein degradation and utilization for steroidogenesis in cultured rat luteal cells  

SciTech Connect

Cells isolated from superovulated rat ovaries metabolize low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) of human or rat origin and use the lipoprotein-derived cholesterol as a precursor for progesterone production. Under in vitro conditions, both lipoproteins are internalized and degraded in the lysosomes, although degradation of HDL is of lower magnitude than that of LDL. In this report we have examined the role of cellular microtubules in the internalization and degradation of human LDL and HDL in cultured rat luteal cells. The microtubule depolymerizing agents colchicine, podophyllotoxin, vinblastine, and nocodazole as well as taxol, deuterium oxide, and dimethyl sulfoxide, which are known to rapidly polymerize cellular tubulin into microtubules, were used to block the function of microtubules. When these antimicrotubule agents were included in the incubations, degradation of the apolipoproteins of (/sup 125/I)iodo-LDL and (/sup 125/I)iodo-HDL by the luteal cells was inhibited by 50-85% compared to untreated control values. Maximum inhibitory effects were observed when the cells were preincubated with the inhibitor for at least 4 h at 37 C before treatment with the labeled lipoprotein. Lipoprotein-stimulated progesterone production by luteal cells was also inhibited by 50% or more in the presence of antimicrotubule agents. However, basal and hCG-stimulated progesterone production were unaffected by these inhibitors. The binding of (/sup 125/I)iodo-LDL and (/sup 125/I)iodo-HDL to luteal cell plasma membrane receptors was not affected by the microtubule inhibitors. Although binding was unaffected and degradation was impaired in the presence of the inhibitors, there was no detectable accumulation of undegraded lipoprotein within the cells during the 24 h of study.

Rajan, V.P.; Menon, K.M.

1985-12-01

28

Biophotonics techniques for structural and functional imaging, in vivo  

PubMed Central

In vivo optical imaging is being conducted in a variety of medical applications, including optical breast cancer imaging, functional brain imaging, endoscopy, exercise medicine, and monitoring the photodynamic therapy and progress of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In the past three decades, in vivo diffuse optical breast cancer imaging has shown promising results in cancer detection, and monitoring the progress of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The use of near infrared spectroscopy for functional brain imaging has been growing rapidly. In fluorescence imaging, the difference between autofluorescence of cancer lesions compared to normal tissues were used in endoscopy to distinguish malignant lesions from normal tissue or inflammation and in determining the boarders of cancer lesions in surgery. Recent advances in drugs targeting specific tumor receptors, such as AntiBodies (MAB), has created a new demand for developing non-invasive in vivo imaging techniques for detection of cancer biomarkers, and for monitoring their down regulations during therapy. Targeted treatments, combined with new imaging techniques, are expected to potentially result in new imaging and treatment paradigms in cancer therapy. Similar approaches can potentially be applied for the characterization of other disease-related biomarkers. In this chapter, we provide a review of diffuse optical and fluorescence imaging techniques with their application in functional brain imaging and cancer diagnosis. PMID:22433452

Ardeshirpour, Yasaman; Gandjbakhche, Amir H.; Najafizadeh, Laleh

2014-01-01

29

Cyclin D1 Determines Mitochondrial Function In Vivo  

PubMed Central

The cyclin D1 gene encodes a regulatory subunit of the holoenzyme that phosphorylates and inactivates the pRb tumor suppressor to promote nuclear DNA synthesis. cyclin D1 is overexpressed in human breast cancers and is sufficient for the development of murine mammary tumors. Herein, cyclin D1 is shown to perform a novel function, inhibiting mitochondrial function and size. Mitochondrial activity was enhanced by genetic deletion or antisense or small interfering RNA to cyclin D1. Global gene expression profiling and functional analysis of mammary epithelial cell-targeted cyclin D1 antisense transgenics demonstrated that cyclin D1 inhibits mitochondrial activity and aerobic glycolysis in vivo. Reciprocal regulation of these genes was observed in cyclin D1-induced mammary tumors. Cyclin D1 thus integrates nuclear DNA synthesis and mitochondrial function. PMID:16809779

Sakamaki, Toshiyuki; Casimiro, Mathew C.; Ju, Xiaoming; Quong, Andrew A.; Katiyar, Sanjay; Liu, Manran; Jiao, Xuanmao; Li, Anping; Zhang, Xueping; Lu, Yinan; Wang, Chenguang; Byers, Stephen; Nicholson, Robert; Link, Todd; Shemluck, Melvin; Yang, Jianguo; Fricke, Stanley T.; Novikoff, Phyllis M.; Papanikolaou, Alexandros; Arnold, Andrew; Albanese, Christopher; Pestell, Richard

2006-01-01

30

Intermittent, luteal phase nefazodone treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder.  

PubMed

Three outpatients who fulfilled full DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PDD) were successfully treated with intermittent (luteal phase) nefazodone. They received the medication at low doses of up to 100 mg/day (50 mg b.i.d.), for 2 weeks through the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle only. All the patients reported a marked symptomatic improvement, including full remission of their emotional symptoms, and two achieved in addition full remission of their somatic symptoms. Side-effects reported during the treatment were mild. The use of luteal phase nefazodone seems to be a promising treatment strategy for the management of PDD. It offers advantages over daily dosing throughout the menstrual cycle, such as reduced incidence and severity of side-effects, and avoids the stigma that may accompany the continuous use of psychopharmacological treatment, with the advantage that compliance may be improved. PMID:11277610

Kodesh, A; Katz, S; Lerner, A G; Finkel, B; Sigal, M

2001-03-01

31

Progesterone receptors and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression in equine luteal tissue.  

PubMed

Steroid hormones act via specific receptors, and these play an important physiological role in the ovary. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cellular distribution of progesterone receptors and their staining intensity in different equine luteal structures during the breeding season, as well as their relationship to luteal cell composition, cell proliferation pattern and plasma progesterone (P4) concentration. There was an increase in proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in large luteal cells from the corpus hemorrhagicum (CH) to mid-luteal phase, followed by a decrease toward the late luteal stage. In the CH, the number of large luteal cells was lower than in other structures. Only large luteal cells showed positive staining for P(4) receptors. An increase in staining intensity for P(4) receptors was observed between CH and mid-phase corpus luteum, and CH and late-phase corpus luteum. Synthesis of P(4) started at a very early stage of the luteal structure and was accompanied by an increase in P(4) receptors and PCNA expression, and proliferation of large luteal cells, until mid-luteal phase. These data suggest that large luteal cells might play an important role in the regulation or synthesis of P(4) in equine luteal structures. PMID:16263072

da Costa, R P Roberto; Branco, V; Pessa, P; Silva, J Robalo; Ferreira-Dias, G

2005-01-01

32

Luteal phase support in infertility treatment: a meta-analysis of the randomized trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The addition of GnRH agonist to the treatment regimen in women undergoing IVF cycles is thought to create a luteal phase defect. In an attempt to correct for this, many practitioners supplement with a variety of steroid hormones in the luteal phase. METHODS: To determine whether luteal phase support increases reproductive success in modern IVF cycles, a systematic review

E. A. Pritts; A. K. Atwood

2002-01-01

33

GAGA factor isoforms have distinct but overlapping functions in vivo.  

PubMed

The Drosophila melanogaster GAGA factor (encoded by the Trithorax-like [Trl] gene) is required for correct chromatin architecture at diverse chromosomal sites. The Trl gene encodes two alternatively spliced isoforms of the GAGA factor (GAGA-519 and GAGA-581) that are identical except for the length and sequence of the C-terminal glutamine-rich (Q) domain. In vitro and tissue culture experiments failed to find any functional difference between the two isoforms. We made a set of transgenes that constitutively express cDNAs coding for either of the isoforms with the goal of elucidating their roles in vivo. Phenotypic analysis of the transgenes in Trl mutant background led us to the conclusion that GAGA-519 and GAGA-581 perform different, albeit largely overlapping, functions. We also expressed a fusion protein with LacZ disrupting the Q domain of GAGA-519. This LacZ fusion protein compensated for the loss of wild-type GAGA factor to a surprisingly large extent. This suggests that the Q domain either is not required for the essential functions performed by the GAGA protein or is exclusively used for tetramer formation. These results are inconsistent with a major role of the Q domain in chromatin remodeling or transcriptional activation. We also found that GAGA-LacZ was able to associate with sites not normally occupied by the GAGA factor, pointing to a role of the Q domain in binding site choice in vivo. PMID:11713290

Greenberg, A J; Schedl, P

2001-12-01

34

Neurovascular coupling: in vivo optical techniques for functional brain imaging  

PubMed Central

Optical imaging techniques reflect different biochemical processes in the brain, which is closely related with neural activity. Scientists and clinicians employ a variety of optical imaging technologies to visualize and study the relationship between neurons, glial cells and blood vessels. In this paper, we present an overview of the current optical approaches used for the in vivo imaging of neurovascular coupling events in small animal models. These techniques include 2-photon microscopy, laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDi), functional photoacoustic microscopy (fPAM), functional near-infrared spectroscopy imaging (fNIRS) and multimodal imaging techniques. The basic principles of each technique are described in detail, followed by examples of current applications from cutting-edge studies of cerebral neurovascular coupling functions and metabolic. Moreover, we provide a glimpse of the possible ways in which these techniques might be translated to human studies for clinical investigations of pathophysiology and disease. In vivo optical imaging techniques continue to expand and evolve, allowing us to discover fundamental basis of neurovascular coupling roles in cerebral physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:23631798

2013-01-01

35

Functional regionalization of the teleost cerebellum analyzed in vivo.  

PubMed

There has been accumulating evidence for a regionalized organization of the cerebellum, which was mostly deduced from anatomical mapping of axonal projections of cerebellar afferents. A likewise regionalization of the cerebellar output has been suggested from lesion studies and dye-tracer experiments, but its physiological targets as well as the functional relevance of such an output regionalization are less clear. Ideally, such functional regionalization should be proven noninvasively in vivo. We here provide evidence for such a regionalization of the output from the cerebellar cortex by genetically encoded transneuronal mapping of efferent circuits of zebrafish Purkinje neurons. These identified circuits correspond to distinct regionalized Purkinje cell activity patterns in freely behaving zebrafish larvae during the performance of cerebellar-dependent behaviors. Furthermore, optogenetic interrogation of selected Purkinje cell regions during animal behavior confirms the functional regionalization of Purkinje cell efferents and reveals their contribution to behavior control as well as their function in controlling lateralized behavioral output. Our findings reveal how brain compartments serve to fulfill a multitude of functions by dedicating specialized efferent circuits to distinct behavioral tasks. PMID:25002482

Matsui, Hideaki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Babaryka, Andreas; Köster, Reinhard W

2014-08-12

36

Functional imaging: monitoring heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regulation of genetic elements can be monitored in living animals using photoproteins as reporters. Heme oxygenase (HO) is the key catabolic enzyme in the heme degradation pathway. Here, HO expression serves as a model for in vivo functional imaging of transcriptional regulation of a clinically relevant gene. HO enzymatic activity is inhibited by heme analogs, metalloporphyrins, but many members of this family of compounds also activate transcription of the HO-1 promoter. The degree of transcriptional activation by twelve metalloporphyrins, differing at the central metal and porphyrin ring substituents, was evaluated in both NIH 3T3 stable lines and transgenic animals containing HO-1 promoter-luciferase gene fusions. In the correlative cell culture assays, the metalloporphyrins increased transcription form the full length HO promoter fusion to varying degrees, but none increased transcription from a truncated HO-1 promoter. These results suggested that one or both of the two distal enhancer elements located at -4 and -10 Kb upstream from transcriptional start are required for HO-1 induction by heme and its analogs. The full-length HO-1-luc fusion was then evaluated as a transgene in mice. It was possible to monitor the effects of the metalloporphyrins, SnMP and ZnPP, in living animals over time. This spatiotemporal analyses of gene expression in vivo implied that alterations in porphyrin ring substituents and the central metal may affect the extent of gene activation. These data further indicate that using photoprotein reporters, subtle differences in gene expression can be monitored in living animals.

Zhang, Weisheng; Reilly-Contag, Pamela; Stevenson, David K.; Contag, Christopher H.

1999-07-01

37

Degradation of high density lipoprotein in cultured rat luteal cells  

SciTech Connect

In rat ovary luteal cells, degradation of high density lipoprotein (HDL) to tricholoracetic acid (TCA)-soluble products accounts for only a fraction of the HDL-derived cholesterol used for steroidogenesis. In this study the authors have investigated the fate of /sup 125/I)HDL bound to cultured luteal cells using pulse-chase technique. Luteal cell cultures were pulse labeled with (/sup 125/I)HDL/sub 3/ and reincubated in the absence of HDL. By 24 h about 50% of the initallay bound radioactivity was released into the medium, of which 60-65% could be precipitated with 10% TCA. Gel filtration of the chase incubation medium on 10% agarose showed that the amount of TCA-soluble radioactivity was nearly completely accounted for by a sharp peak in the low molecular weight region which was identified as 96% monoiodotyrosine by paper chromatography. The TCA-precipitable radioactivity was nearly completely accounted for by a sharp peak in the low molecular weight region which was identified as 96% monoiodotyrosine by paper chromatography. The TCA-precipitable radioactivity eluted over a wide range of molecular weights (15,000-80,000), and there was very little intact HDL present. Electrophoresis of the chase medium showed that component of the TCA-precipitable portion had mobility similar to apo AI. Lysosomal inhibitors of receptor-mediated endocytosis had no effect on the composition or quantity of radioactivity released during chase incubation. The results show that HDL/sub 3/ binding to luteal cells is followed by complete degradation of the lipoprotein, although the TCA-soluble part does not reflect the extent of degradation.

Rajan, V.P.; Menon, K.M.J.

1986-03-01

38

Diesel exhaust particulate induces pulmonary and systemic inflammation in rats without impairing endothelial function ex vivo or in vivo  

PubMed Central

Background Inhalation of diesel exhaust impairs vascular function in man, by a mechanism that has yet to be fully established. We hypothesised that pulmonary exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) would cause endothelial dysfunction in rats as a consequence of pulmonary and systemic inflammation. Methods Wistar rats were exposed to DEP (0.5 mg) or saline vehicle by intratracheal instillation and hind-limb blood flow, blood pressure and heart rate were monitored in situ 6 or 24 h after exposure. Vascular function was tested by administration of the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine (ACh) and the endothelium-independent vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in vivo and ex vivo in isolated rings of thoracic aorta, femoral and mesenteric artery from DEP exposed rats. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and blood plasma were collected to assess pulmonary (cell differentials, protein levels & interleukin-6 (IL-6)) and systemic (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) and C-reactive protein (CRP)) inflammation, respectively. Results DEP instillation increased cell counts, total protein and IL-6 in BALF 6 h after exposure, while levels of IL-6 and TNF? were only raised in blood 24 h after DEP exposure. DEP had no effect on the increased hind-limb blood flow induced by ACh in vivo at 6 or 24 h. However, responses to SNP were impaired at both time points. In contrast, ex vivo responses to ACh and SNP were unaltered in arteries isolated from rats exposed to DEP. Conclusions Exposure of rats to DEP induces both pulmonary and systemic inflammation, but does not modify endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Other mechanisms in vivo limit dilator responses to SNP and these require further investigation. PMID:22480168

2012-01-01

39

Luteal activity of pregnant rats with hypo-and hyperthyroidism  

PubMed Central

Background Luteal activity is dependent on the interaction of various growth factors, cytokines and hormones, including the thyroid hormones, being that hypo- and hyperthyroidism alter the gestational period and are also a cause of miscarriage and stillbirth. Because of that, we evaluated the proliferation, apoptosis and expression of angiogenic factors and COX-2 in the corpus luteum of hypo- and hyperthyroid pregnant rats. Methods Seventy-two adult female rats were equally distributed into three groups: hypothyroid, hyperthyroid and control. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism were induced by the daily administration of propylthiouracil and L-thyroxine, respectively. The administration began five days before becoming pregnant and the animals were sacrificed at days 10, 14, and 19 of gestation. We performed an immunohistochemical analysis to evaluate the expression of CDC-47, VEGF, Flk-1 (VEGF receptor) and COX-2. Apoptosis was evaluated by the TUNEL assay. We assessed the gene expression of VEGF, Flk-1, caspase 3, COX-2 and PGF2? receptor using real time RT-PCR. The data were analyzed by SNK test. Results Hypothyroidism reduced COX-2 expression on day 10 and 19 (P?luteal cell proliferation on day 10 and 14 (p?

2014-01-01

40

Nitric Oxide Effects on the Function of Aged Cells Ex Vivo and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Background Angiogenesis is impaired in most aged tissues. Accordingly, there is great interest in interventions that improve the ability of aged cells to undergo blood vessel formation and subsequent tissue repair. Materials and Methods Nitric oxide (NO), a mediator proposed to enhance angiogenesis, was administered (as the precursor SNAP, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine) to aortic ring explants from aged mice and to aged mice in two separate in vivo experiments; a PVA sponge implant model of angiogenesis and full thickness excisional dermal wounds. Results SNAP inhibited angiogenesis from the mouse aortic ring explants. However, there was a trend toward increased blood vessel formation in the sponges from the aged mice treated with SNAP. SNAP did not detectably enhance dermal wound healing or angiogenesis, but it significantly inhibited epidermal closure. Conclusion These data underscore the complexity of using a single agent, even one with multiple mechanisms such as NO, to improve a clinical outcome such as angiogenesis or wound repair in aged animals. PMID:19180990

Reed, May J.; Eyman, Daniel; Karres, Nathan

2009-01-01

41

Resurrection of DNA Function In Vivo from an Extinct Genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a burgeoning repository of information available from ancient DNA that can be used to understand how genomes have evolved and to determine the genetic features that defined a particular species. To assess the functional consequences of changes to a genome, a variety of methods are needed to examine extinct DNA function. We isolated a transcriptional enhancer element from

Andrew J. Pask; Richard R. Behringer; Marilyn B. Renfree; Erik I. Svensson

2008-01-01

42

Rat parotid cell function in vitro following x irradiation in vivo  

SciTech Connect

The effect of X irradiation on rat parotid acinar cell function was evaluated in vitro 1, 3, and 7 days following in vivo exposure to 2000 R. Several cellular functions were followed: protein secretion (amylase release), ion movement (K/sup +/ efflux and reuptake), amino acid transport (..cap alpha..-amino(/sup 14/C)isobutyric acid), and an intermediary metabolic response ((/sup 14/C)glucose oxidation). In addition both the morphologic appearance and in vivo saliva secretory ability of parotid cells were assessed. Our results demonstrate that surviving rat parotid acinar cells, isolated and studied in vitro 1-7 days following 2000 R, remain functionally intact despite in vivo diminution of secretory function.

Bodner, L.; Kuyatt, B.L.; Hand, A.R.; Baum, B.J.

1984-02-01

43

The effects of flavanol-rich cocoa and aspirin on ex vivo platelet function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Flavanols modulate platelet function in vitro, but less is known of their in vivo effects and how they compare to pharmacological platelet inhibitors. We investigated the effect of a flavanol-rich cocoa beverage (897 mg\\/ml) in combination with and in comparison to aspirin on platelet function and activation in healthy subjects. Methods and results: On separate test days in a

Debra A Pearson; Teresa G Paglieroni; Dietrich Rein; Ted Wun; Derek D Schramm; Janice F Wang; Roberta R Holt; Robert Gosselin; Harold H Schmitz; Carl L Keen

2002-01-01

44

Ovarian testosterone and luteal histology following injection of the prostaglandin analog, Cloprostenol  

E-print Network

OVARIAN TESTOSTERONE AND LUTEAL HISTOLOGY FOLLOWING INJECTION OF THE PROSTAGLANDIN ANALOG, CLOPROSTENOL A Thesis by JAMES GORDON BETTS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1983 Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction OVARIAN TESTOSTERONE AND LUTEAL HISTOLOGY FOLLOWING INJECTION OF THE PROSTAGLANDIN ANALOG, CLOPROSTENOL A Thesis by James Gordon Betts Approved as to sty...

Betts, James Gordon

2012-06-07

45

In vivo functional tests for assessing immunotoxicity in birds.  

PubMed

Various methods have been adapted for assessing the effects of environmental contaminants on the structure and function of the immune system in wild and captive birds. This chapter describes two integrative functional assays that have been adapted to a variety of avian species and have proven to be sensitive biomarkers for immunotoxicological effects. The phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin test measures T cell-mediated immunity. PHA is injected intra- or sub-dermally into the wing web of the elbow joint (or interdigitary skin or wattle). The PHA stimulates T lymphocytes to release cytokines that cause an inflammatory influx of leukocytes and fluid. The thickness of the wing web is measured before and 24 h after injection. A stimulation index, which reflects T cell function, is calculated as the increase in skin thickness caused by the PHA minus the increase caused by an injection of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) in the other wing web. In addition to its sensitivity to contaminants, ecological studies have shown that the PHA skin response is positively associated with rates of survival and colonization of new areas (i.e., ability to found new local populations) in wild birds.The sheep red blood cell (SRBC) hemagglutination assay measures the antibody response to immunization with SRBC antigens, integrating the functions of B lymphocytes, helper T lymphocytes, and macrophages. A SRBC suspension is injected i.v., and a blood sample is collected approximately 6 days later. Plasma (or serum) from the blood sample is serially diluted in a microtiter plate, and SRBCs are added. The magnitude of the antibody response is defined as the titer - the highest dilution of plasma in which the concentration of antibody is sufficient to agglutinate the SRBCs. Both IgM and IgG titers can be measured. This avian test is very similar in principle to the anti-SRBC ELISA and splenic plaque forming assays used for immunotoxicological testing in rodents. However, this avian hemagglutination assay does not require a species-specific secondary antibody (as does the ELISA), and this minimally invasive, nonlethal procedure is amenable to studies of protected species, as opposed to the splenic assay. The PHA and SRBC assays have been employed successfully in both the laboratory and field. In ecological studies birds must be recaptured 24 h or 6 days after the initial injections, limiting their use in some species. However, their sensitivity to a variety of contaminants and their ease of adaptability to a variety of species have made the PHA and SRBC tests some of the most commonly used assays for screening and monitoring immunotoxicity in birds. PMID:19967526

Grasman, Keith A

2010-01-01

46

Effect of Processing and Storage on RBC function in vivo  

PubMed Central

Red Blood Cell (RBC) transfusion is indicated to improve oxygen delivery to tissue, and for no other purpose. We have come to appreciate that donor RBCs are fundamentally altered during processing and storage, in a fashion that both impairs oxygen transport efficacy and introduces additional risk by perturbing both immune and coagulation systems. The protean biophysical and physiologic changes in RBC function arising from storage are termed the ‘storage lesion’; many have been understood for some time; for example, we know that the oxygen affinity of stored blood rises during the storage period1 and that intracellular allosteric regulators, notably 2,3-bisphosphoglyceric acid (DPG) and ATP, are depleted during storage. Our appreciation of other storage lesion features has emerged with improved understanding of coagulation, immune and vascular signaling systems. Herein we review key features of the ‘storage lesion’. Additionally, we call particular attention to the newly appreciated role of RBCs in regulating linkage between regional blood flow and regional O2 consumption by regulating the bioavailability of key vasoactive mediators in plasma, as well as discuss how processing and storage disturbs this key signaling function and impairs transfusion efficacy. PMID:22818545

Doctor, Allan; Spinella, Phil

2012-01-01

47

MITOCHONDRIA: investigation of in vivo muscle mitochondrial function by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The most important function of mitochondria is the production of energy in the form of ATP. The socio-economic impact of human diseases that affect skeletal muscle mitochondrial function is growing, and improving their clinical management critically depends on the development of non-invasive assays to assess mitochondrial function and monitor the effects of interventions. 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides two approaches that have been used to assess in vivo ATP synthesis in skeletal muscle: measuring Pi?ATP exchange flux using saturation transfer in resting muscle, and measuring phosphocreatine recovery kinetics after exercise. However, Pi?ATP exchange does not represent net mitochondrial ATP synthesis flux and has no simple relationship with mitochondrial function. Post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery kinetics, on the other hand, yield reliable measures of muscle mitochondrial capacity in vivo, whose ability to define the site of functional defects is enhanced by combination with other non-invasive techniques. PMID:24569118

Prompers, Jeanine J; Wessels, Bart; Kemp, Graham J; Nicolay, Klaas

2014-05-01

48

Application of electrical stimulation for functional tissue engineering in vitro and in vivo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention provides new methods for the in vitro preparation of bioartificial tissue equivalents and their enhanced integration after implantation in vivo. These methods include submitting a tissue construct to a biomimetic electrical stimulation during cultivation in vitro to improve its structural and functional properties, and/or in vivo, after implantation of the construct, to enhance its integration with host tissue and increase cell survival and functionality. The inventive methods are particularly useful for the production of bioartificial equivalents and/or the repair and replacement of native tissues that contain electrically excitable cells and are subject to electrical stimulation in vivo, such as, for example, cardiac muscle tissue, striated skeletal muscle tissue, smooth muscle tissue, bone, vasculature, and nerve tissue.

Radisic, Milica (Inventor); Park, Hyoungshin (Inventor); Langer, Robert (Inventor); Freed, Lisa (Inventor); Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana (Inventor)

2013-01-01

49

Impaired steroidogenesis in the luteal phase of the reproductive cycle and during pregnancy in rhesus monkeys immunized with the beta-subunit of ovine luteinizing hormone.  

PubMed

Monkeys immunized with the beta-subunit of ovine luteinizing hormone (oLH beta) develop antibodies which cross react with rhesus chorionic gonadotropin (rhCG) and luteinizing hormone (rhLH). Immunization causes shortened menstrual cycles and reduced fertility. Fertility can be restored by administration of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) during the first 5 weeks of pregnancy. In the present study, we have measured the effects of circulating oLH beta-antibodies on peripheral estradiol, progesterone and 17 alpha OH-progesterone (17OH-P) concentrations throughout the menstrual cycle and during gestation in monkeys which became pregnant following MPA-treatment. Progesterone concentrations were markedly reduced during the luteal phase in cycling animals and the luteal phase of the cycle was significantly shorter as compared to non-immunized controls. Concentrations of estradiol and 17OH-P in the peripheral circulation were not affected by the oLH beta-antibodies. In immunized monkeys which became pregnant following MPA-treatment, progesterone and 17OH-P levels were consistently lower and estradiol concentrations were increased during the second and third trimesters. Our results show that circulating antibodies to oLH beta have multiple endocrinological effects. Corpus luteum function is impaired in cycling monkeys and during the early part of pregnancy. In addition, the pattern of steroid secretion remains abnormal in pregnant monkeys even after the luteal-placental shift. PMID:7078153

Spinola, P G; Seidman, L S; Sundaram, K; Thau, R B

1982-02-01

50

In vivo functional retinal optical coherence tomography fOCT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Probing the retina with flicker light of defined frequencies allowed to offset the detection for intrinsic signals from proband motion artifacts as well as blood flow. In addition the fast imaging sequence capability of FDOCT is promising for the assessment of fast physiologic changes within retinal structures. For the present study two measurement protocols are evaluated: first, taking fast tomogram series across a flickered region, and then constructing via frequency analysis and bandpass filtering a functional OCT tomogram similar to fMRI. The second protocol consists of a fast local A-scan series at 17kHz rate with 1Hz flicker. 'Light-on' time is 250ms. 'Lights off' time is 750ms. 500ms before 'light-on' is used for calculating the baseline. Finally the average over 5 cycles is taken. A clear negative response is found at the outer photoreceptor segment for both 'light-on' and 'light-off' edge. The response appears to be stronger for the 'light off' edge. The shape of the responses is analysed and might eventually be used in linear regression models to enhance the sensitivity of our fOCT approach.

Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Schmoll, Tilman

2009-02-01

51

The In Vivo Effects of General and Epidural Anesthesia on Human Immune Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impaired in vivo immunity is often observed after major surgery and is multifactorial. We conducted a random- ized clinical study to determine the independent effects of general anesthesia (GA) and of lumbar epidural an- esthesia (LEA) on human immune function in the ab- sence of surgical trauma. Nineteen healthy volunteers were randomized to receive GA with thiopental and isoflurane, LEA

Marcia A. Procopio; Athos J. Rassias; Joyce A. DeLeo; Janice Pahl; Laurie Hildebrandt; Mark P. Yeager

2001-01-01

52

Ageing-related changes in the in vivo function of rat liver macroautophagy and proteolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autophagy is a universal, highly regulated mechanism responsible for the degradation of long-lived proteins, cytomembranes and organelles during fasting and may be the cell repair mechanism that mediates the anti-ageing effects of calorie restriction (Bergamini and Gori, 1995). The function of autophagy was studied in vivo on male Sprague Dawley rats fed ad libitum or 40% food restricted. Autophagy was

Alessandra Del Roso; Simona Vittorini; Gabriella Cavallini; Alessio Donati; Zina Gori; Matilde Masini; Maria Pollera; Ettore Bergamini

2003-01-01

53

Effect of in vivo chronic exposure to clotrimazole on zebrafish testis function1 Baudiffier Damien1  

E-print Network

Effect of in vivo chronic exposure to clotrimazole on zebrafish testis function1 2 Baudiffier;2 Abstract31 32 Clotrimazole is an azole fungicide used as a human pharmaceutical that is known to inhibit showed that a 7 days34 exposure to clotrimazole induced the expression of genes related

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

54

In vivo Function of Homing Receptors Participating in Lymphocyte Recirculation: Transfer Analysis in SCID Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to examine the in vivo function of the adhesion molecules implicated in lymphocyte homing, blocking effects of antibodies against various adhesion molecules on lymphocyte migration were tested in SCID mice into which BALB\\/c donor splenocytes had been transferred. It was proved that the transferred donor splenocytes migrated to peripheral lymph nodes (LNs) of SCID mice. T and B

Saburo Saito; Naruo Kuwashima; Haruko Koizumi; Tatsuji Nomura; Hideo Yagita; Ko Okumura; Akira Sonoda; Takushi Tadakuma; Hisako Tanaka

1995-01-01

55

Phorbol ester receptors in bovine luteal cells: relationship to protein kinase C.  

PubMed

We investigated the binding kinetics of the tumor-promoting phorbol ester, phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate (PBt2) to dispersed total bovine luteal cells, purified small luteal cells, and purified luteal protein kinase C (PKC). Saturation analysis and competitive displacement techniques were used. Binding of [3H]PBt2 to total luteal cell preparations resulted in two distinct affinities. The high affinity component was characterized by a Kd of 4.5 +/- 1.5 nM. Analysis of [3H]PBt2 binding to total cells using competitive displacement demonstrated that the low affinity binding was specific and displaceable but dependent on concentrations of [3H]PBt2 far above the Kd for the high affinity binding. In contrast to the total cell preparations, only high affinity binding was observed in intact purified small luteal cells (Kd = 0.96 +/- 0.04 nM). Partial purification of luteal cytosolic PKC by DEAE-Sephadex chromatography resulted in co-elution of PKC enzyme activity and the [3H]PBt2 binding activity. Under conditions of saturating calcium (0.1 mM) and phosphatidylserine (PS) (100 micrograms/tube) concentrations, binding to the partially purified PKC preparation was found to be of a single high affinity and exhibited a Kd (1.3 +/- 0.2 nM) similar to the high affinity binding observed in intact cells. These results suggest that the primary phorbol ester receptor in luteal cells is PKC. However, a low affinity, high capacity [3H]PBt2 binding site also exists within the corpus luteum, either in the large cells or in the accessory cell fraction which consists mainly of endothelial cells. PMID:2328828

Dowd, J P; Alila, H W; Hansel, W

1990-03-01

56

The Luteal Phase after GnRHa Trigger-Understanding An Enigma  

PubMed Central

The luteal phase of all stimulated in vitro fertilization/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycles is disrupted, which makes luteal phase support (LPS) mandatory. The cause of the disruption is thought to be the multifollicular development achieved during ovarian stimulation which results in supraphysiological concentrations of steroids se- creted by a high number of corpora lutea during the early luteal phase. This will directly inhibit luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion by the pituitary via negative feedback at the level of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, leading to a luteal phase defect. With the intro- duction of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol, it became feasible to trigger final oocyte maturation and ovulation with a single bolus of GnRH agonist (GnRHa) as an alternative to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). GnRHa trig- gering presents several advantages, including the reduction in or even elimination of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Despite the potential advantages of GnRHa trig- gering, previous randomized controlled trials reported a poor clinical outcome with high rates of early pregnancy losses, despite supplementation with a standard LPS in the form of progesterone and estradiol. Following these disappointing results, several studies now report a luteal phase rescue after modifications of the LPS, resulting in a reproductive outcome comparable to that seen after hCG triggering. We herein review luteal phase dif- ferences between the natural cycle, hCG trigger and GnRHa trigger and present the most recent data on handling the luteal phase after GnRHa triggering. PMID:25379149

Leth-Moller, Kathrine; Hammer Jagd, Sandra; Humaidan, Peter

2014-01-01

57

The Luteal Phase after GnRHa Trigger-Understanding An Enigma.  

PubMed

The luteal phase of all stimulated in vitro fertilization/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycles is disrupted, which makes luteal phase support (LPS) mandatory. The cause of the disruption is thought to be the multifollicular development achieved during ovarian stimulation which results in supraphysiological concentrations of steroids se- creted by a high number of corpora lutea during the early luteal phase. This will directly inhibit luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion by the pituitary via negative feedback at the level of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, leading to a luteal phase defect. With the intro- duction of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol, it became feasible to trigger final oocyte maturation and ovulation with a single bolus of GnRH agonist (GnRHa) as an alternative to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). GnRHa trig- gering presents several advantages, including the reduction in or even elimination of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Despite the potential advantages of GnRHa trig- gering, previous randomized controlled trials reported a poor clinical outcome with high rates of early pregnancy losses, despite supplementation with a standard LPS in the form of progesterone and estradiol. Following these disappointing results, several studies now report a luteal phase rescue after modifications of the LPS, resulting in a reproductive outcome comparable to that seen after hCG triggering. We herein review luteal phase dif- ferences between the natural cycle, hCG trigger and GnRHa trigger and present the most recent data on handling the luteal phase after GnRHa triggering. PMID:25379149

Leth-Moller, Kathrine; Hammer Jagd, Sandra; Humaidan, Peter

2014-10-01

58

Anti-CEA-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for examining colorectal tumors in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the biomarker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is expressed in colorectal tumors, the utility of an anti-CEA-functionalized image medium is powerful for in vivo positioning of colorectal tumors. With a risk of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONPs) that is lower for animals than other material carriers, anti-CEA-functionalized SPIONPs were synthesized in this study for labeling colorectal tumors by conducting different preoperatively and intraoperatively in vivo examinations. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the image variation of colorectal tumors reached the maximum at approximately 24 h. However, because MRI requires a nonmetal environment, it was limited to preoperative imaging. With the potentiality of in vivo screening and intraoperative positioning during surgery, the scanning superconducting-quantum-interference-device biosusceptometry (SSB) was adopted, showing the favorable agreement of time-varied intensity with MRI. Furthermore, biological methodologies of different tissue staining methods and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) yielded consistent results, proving that the obtained in vivo results occurred because of targeted anti-CEA SPIONPs. This indicates that developed anti-CEA SPIONPs owe the utilities as an image medium of these in vivo methodologies.

Huang, Kai-Wen; Chieh, Jen-Jie; Lin, In-Tsang; Horng, Herng-Er; Yang, Hong-Chang; Hong, Chin-Yih

2013-10-01

59

Effects of ACL Reconstruction on In-Vivo, Dynamic Knee Function  

PubMed Central

Synopsis The purposes of this article are to discuss key factors for assessing joint function, to present some recent findings and to address the future directions for evaluating the function of the ACL-injured/reconstructed knees. Well-designed studies, using state-of-the art tools to assess knee kinematics under in vivo, dynamic, high-loading conditions, are necessary to evaluate the relative performance of different procedures for restoring normal joint motion. PMID:23177461

Tashman, Scott; Araki, Daisuke

2012-01-01

60

How Much In Vitro Cholesterol Reducing Activity of Lactobacilli Predicts Their In Vivo Cholesterol Function?  

PubMed Central

Background: Based on literature, in vitro cholesterol removal of lactic acid bacteria has been accounted for their in vivo cholesterol reduction. But recently it has been proposed that such in vitro characteristic may not be directly relevant to their in vivo activity. The objective of this study was to find how much in vitro cholesterol reducing potential of Lactobacillus plantarum A7 (LA7), a native strain isolated from an infant fecal flora, reflects its in vivo efficiency. LA7 previously showed serum cholesterol reducing capability in mice subjected to fatty diet. Here, we investigate whether the given strain is capable of in vitro cholesterol assimilation or consumption. Method: LA7 was cultured in whole milk and de-Man–Rogosa–Sharpe (MRS) added with water-soluble cholesterol. Colorimetric method was adopted for cholesterol determination in both cultured media during incubation period. Results: No cholesterol assimilation was detected by growth and incubation of the active culture in either of the medium. Thus, in vivo cholesterol function of LA7 was not caused by cholesterol consumption. A comprehensive review of literature on the related studies also showed that there are other documented studies which evidenced the uncertainty of the direct relation between in vitro and in vivo studies. Conclusion: Cholesterol removal from the cultured media may not be considered as an appropriate integral index for selection of Lactobacillus strains with cholesterol-lowering activity. PMID:23671771

Madani, Golnoush; Mirlohi, Maryam; Yahay, Mahmoud; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

2013-01-01

61

Functionalized gold nanoparticles: a detailed in vivo multimodal microscopic brain distribution study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, the in vivo distribution of polyelectrolyte multilayer coated gold nanoparticles is shown, starting from the living animal down to cellular level. The coating was designed with functional moieties to serve as a potential nano drug for prion disease. With near infrared time-domain imaging we followed the biodistribution in mice up to 7 days after intravenous injection of the nanoparticles. The peak concentration in the head of mice was detected between 19 and 24 h. The precise particle distribution in the brain was studied ex vivo by X-ray microtomography, confocal laser and fluorescence microscopy. We found that the particles mainly accumulate in the hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, and the cerebral cortex.In the present study, the in vivo distribution of polyelectrolyte multilayer coated gold nanoparticles is shown, starting from the living animal down to cellular level. The coating was designed with functional moieties to serve as a potential nano drug for prion disease. With near infrared time-domain imaging we followed the biodistribution in mice up to 7 days after intravenous injection of the nanoparticles. The peak concentration in the head of mice was detected between 19 and 24 h. The precise particle distribution in the brain was studied ex vivo by X-ray microtomography, confocal laser and fluorescence microscopy. We found that the particles mainly accumulate in the hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, and the cerebral cortex. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1-S6. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00345j

Sousa, Fernanda; Mandal, Subhra; Garrovo, Chiara; Astolfo, Alberto; Bonifacio, Alois; Latawiec, Diane; Menk, Ralf Hendrik; Arfelli, Fulvia; Huewel, Sabine; Legname, Giuseppe; Galla, Hans-Joachim; Krol, Silke

2010-12-01

62

In Vivo Function of Tryptophans in the Arabidopsis UV-B Photoreceptor UVR8[W  

PubMed Central

Arabidopsis thaliana UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) is a photoreceptor specifically for UV-B light that initiates photomorphogenic responses in plants. UV-B exposure causes rapid conversion of UVR8 from dimer to monomer, accumulation in the nucleus, and interaction with CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1), which functions with UVR8 in UV-B responses. Studies in yeast and with purified UVR8 implicate several tryptophan amino acids in UV-B photoreception. However, their roles in UV-B responses in plants, and the functional significance of all 14 UVR8 tryptophans, are not known. Here we report the functions of the UVR8 tryptophans in vivo. Three tryptophans in the ?-propeller core are important in maintaining structural stability and function of UVR8. However, mutation of three other core tryptophans and four at the dimeric interface has no apparent effect on function in vivo. Mutation of three tryptophans implicated in UV-B photoreception, W233, W285, and W337, impairs photomorphogenic responses to different extents. W285 is essential for UVR8 function in plants, whereas W233 is important but not essential for function, and W337 has a lesser role. Ala mutants of these tryptophans appear monomeric and constitutively bind COP1 in plants, but their responses indicate that monomer formation and COP1 binding are not sufficient for UVR8 function. PMID:23012433

O'Hara, Andrew; Jenkins, Gareth I.

2012-01-01

63

Comparison of Intramuscular and Intravaginal Progesterone for Luteal Phase Support in IVF Cycles: a randomized clinical trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This research was designed to compare the effectiveness of intramuscular progesterone and vaginal progesterone to support luteal phase in IVF cycles. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial 182 infertile patients between 20-40 years old were selected for rapid ZIFT cycles. In order to support luteal phase Cyclogest suppository (400 mg BID) was used for 77 cases and

Katayon Berjis; Abotaleb Sarem; Mansoureh Moaya; Nahid Mohamad

2008-01-01

64

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of T and B lymphocyte functions in AKR mice.  

PubMed Central

To investigate whether AKR spontaneous leukaemogenesis is associated with a reduction in functional activity of T lymphocytes, the PHA response of AKR blood cells at different ages up to and including the preleukaemic period was studied. No significant differences were observed among young, adult and preleukaemic donors. In addition, the in vitro and in vivo AKR lymphocyte functions were compared with those of CBA lymphocytes by means of their response to stimulation with T and B lymphocyte selective mitogens (PHA, Con A and LSP respectively), and their response to immunization with thymus dependent (SRBC) or independent (LPS) antigens. We observed in vitro that while the B lymphocytes responded normally to mitogen, an intrinsic hyporeactivity to mitogens characterizes the T lymphocytes. Moreover, AKR mice exhibited a reduced in vivo response to both thymus dependent and independent antigens. PMID:786361

Collavo, D.; Biasi, G.; Colombatti, A.; Chieco-Bianchi, L.

1975-01-01

65

Recent Developments in the Understanding of Astrocyte Function in the Cerebellum In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have contributed to our understanding of astrocytes, especially Bergmann glia, in the cerebellum; but, until\\u000a recently, none has looked at their function in vivo. Multicell bolus loading of fluorescent calcium indicators in combination\\u000a with the astrocytic marker SR101 has allowed imaging of up to hundreds of astrocytes at once in the intact cerebellum. In\\u000a addition, the selective targeting

Tycho M. Hoogland; Bernd Kuhn

2010-01-01

66

In Vivo Analysis of Functional Regions within Yeast Rap1p  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have analyzed the in vivo importance of different regions of Rap1p, a yeast transcriptional regulator and telomere binding protein. A yeast strain (SCR101) containing a regulatable RAP1 gene was used to test functional complementation by a range of Rap1p derivatives. These experiments demonstrated that the C terminus of the protein, containing the putative transcriptional activation domain and the regions

IAN R. GRAHAM; ROBIN A. HAW; KAREN G. SPINK; KATHRYN A. HALDEN; ALISTAIR CHAMBERS

1999-01-01

67

Examination of Stratum Corneum Barrier Function In Vivo by Infrared Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally accepted that the stratum corneum (SC) is the least permeable layer of the epidermis. Histologically, though, the SC is a non-uniform, inhomogeneous membrane, and the question “Is barrier function distributed uniformly across the SC thickness?” has been posed. To address this issue, human ventral forearm SC has been studied in vivo by attenuated-total-reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy during

D. Bommannan; Russell O. Potts; Richard H. Guy

1990-01-01

68

Increased uncoupling protein 3 content does not affect mitochondrial function in human skeletal muscle in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphocreatine (PCr) resynthesis rate following intense anoxic contraction can be used as a sensi- tive index of in vivo mitochondrial function. We examined the effect of a diet-induced increase in uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) expression on postexercise PCr resynthesis in skeletal muscle. Nine healthy male volunteers undertook 20 one-legged maximal voluntary contractions with limb blood flow occluded to deplete muscle

Matthijs K. C. Hesselink; Paul L. Greenhaff; Dimitru Constantin-Teodosiu; Eric Hultman; Wim H. M. Saris; Robby Nieuwlaat; Gert Schaart; Esther Kornips; Patrick Schrauwen

2003-01-01

69

In Vivo Functional Assay of a Recombinant Aquaporin in Pichia pastoris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water channel protein PvTIP3;1 (-TIP) is a member of the major intrinsic protein (MIP) membrane channel family. We overexpressed this eukaryotic aquaporin in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, and immunogold labeling of cellular cryosections showed that the protein accumulated in the plasma membrane, as well as vacuolar and other intracellular membranes. We then developed an in vivo functional assay

Mark J. Daniels; Malcolm R. Wood; Mark Yeager

2006-01-01

70

Fission yeast Uve1 and Apn2 function in distinct oxidative damage repair pathways in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the endonuclease Uve1 functions as the first step in an alternate UV photo-product repair pathway that is distinct from nucleotide excision repair (NER). Based upon the broad substrate specificity of Uve1 in vitro, and the observation that Uve1 mutants accumulate spontaneous mutations at an elevated rate in vivo, we and others have hypothesized that this protein might

J. Lee A Fraser; Erin Neill; Scott Davey

2003-01-01

71

Atypical Membrane Topology and Heteromeric Function of Drosophila Odorant Receptors In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drosophila olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) each express two odorant receptors (ORs): a divergent member of the OR family and the highly conserved, broadly expressed receptor OR83b. OR83b is essential for olfaction in vivo and enhances OR function in vitro, but the molecular mechanism by which it acts is unknown. Here we demonstrate that OR83b heterodimerizes with conventional ORs early in

Richard Benton; Silke Sachse; Stephen W. Michnick; Leslie B. Vosshall

2006-01-01

72

Functional Studies of the Carboxy-Terminal Repeat Domain of Drosophila RNA Polymerase II in Vivo  

PubMed Central

To understand the in vivo function of the unique and conserved carboxy-terminal repeat domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RpII215), we have studied RNA polymerase II biosynthesis, activity and genetic function in Drosophila RpII215 mutants that possessed all (C4), half (W81) or none (IIt) of the CTD repeats. We have discovered that steady-state mRNA levels from transgenes encoding a fully truncated, CTD-less subunit (IIt) are essentially equal to wild-type levels, whereas the levels of the CTD-less subunit itself and the amount of polymerase harboring it (Pol IIT) are significantly lower than wild type. In contrast, for the half-CTD mutant (W81), steady-state mRNA levels are somewhat lower than for wild type or IIt, while W81 subunit and polymerase amounts are much less than wild type. Finally, we have tested genetically the ability of CTD mutants to complement (rescue) partially functional RpII215 alleles and have found that IIt fails to complement whereas W81 complements partially to completely. These results suggest that removal of the entire CTD renders polymerase completely defective in vivo, whereas eliminating half of the CTD results in a polymerase with significant in vivo activity. PMID:7498740

Brickey, W. J.; Greenleaf, A. L.

1995-01-01

73

Structural and Functional Dissection of the Abp1 ADFH Actin-binding Domain Reveals Versatile In Vivo Adapter Functions  

SciTech Connect

Abp1 is a multidomain protein that regulates the Arp2/3 complex and links proteins involved in endocytosis to the actin cytoskeleton. All of the proposed cellular functions of Abp1 involve actin filament binding, yet the actin binding site(s) on Abp1 have not been identified, nor has the importance of actin binding for Abp1 localization and function in vivo been tested. Here, we report the crystal structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Abp1 actin-binding actin depolymerizing factor homology (ADFH) domain and dissect its activities by mutagenesis. Abp1-ADFH domain and ADF/cofilin structures are similar, and they use conserved surfaces to bind actin; however, there are also key differences that help explain their differential effects on actin dynamics. Using point mutations, we demonstrate that actin binding is required for localization of Abp1 in vivo, the lethality caused by Abp1 overexpression, and the ability of Abp1 to activate Arp2/3 complex. Furthermore, we genetically uncouple ABP1 functions that overlap with SAC6, SLA1, and SLA2, showing they require distinct combinations of activities and interactions. Together, our data provide the first structural and functional view of the Abp1-actin interaction and show that Abp1 has distinct cellular roles as an adapter, linking different sets of ligands for each function.

Quintero-Monzon,O.; Rodal, A.; Strokopytov, B.; Almo, S.; Goode, B.

2005-01-01

74

A functional biphasic biomaterial homing mesenchymal stem cells for in vivo cartilage regeneration.  

PubMed

Cartilage regeneration after trauma is still a great challenge for clinicians and researchers due to many reasons, such as joint load-bearing, synovial movement and the paucity of endogenous repair cells. To overcome these limitations, we constructed a functional biomaterial using a biphasic scaffold platform and a bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs)-specific affinity peptide. The biphasic scaffold platform retains more cells homogeneously within the sol-gel transition of chitosan and provides sufficient solid matrix strength. This biphasic scaffold platform is functionalized with an affinity peptide targeting a cell source of interest, BMSCs. The presence of conjugated peptide gives this system a biological functionality towards BMSC-specific homing both in vitro and in vivo. The functional biomaterial can stimulate stem cell proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation during in vitro culture. Six months after in vivo implantation, compared with routine surgery or control scaffolds, the functional biomaterials induced superior cartilage repair without complications, as indicated by histological observations, magnetic resonance imaging and biomechanical properties. Beyond cartilage repair, this functional biphasic scaffold may provide a biomaterial framework for one-step tissue engineering strategy by homing endogenous cells to stimulate tissue regeneration. PMID:25176065

Huang, Hongjie; Zhang, Xin; Hu, Xiaoqing; Shao, Zhenxing; Zhu, Jingxian; Dai, Linghui; Man, Zhentao; Yuan, Lan; Chen, Haifeng; Zhou, Chunyan; Ao, Yingfang

2014-12-01

75

Ex vivo generation of a functional and regenerative wound epithelium from axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) skin.  

PubMed

Urodele amphibians (salamanders) are unique among adult vertebrates in their ability to regenerate structurally complete and fully functional limbs. Regeneration is a stepwise process that requires interactions between keratinocytes, nerves and fibroblasts. The formation of a wound epithelium covering the amputation site is an early and necessary event in the process but the molecular mechanisms that underlie the role of the wound epithelium in regeneration remain unclear. We have developed an ex vivo model that recapitulates many features of in vivo wound healing. The model comprises a circular explant of axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) limb skin with a central circular, full thickness wound. Re-epithelialization of the wound area is rapid (typically <11?h) and is dependent on metalloproteinase activity. The ex vivo wound epithelium is viable, responds to neuronal signals and is able to participate in ectopic blastema formation and limb regeneration. This ex vivo model provides a reproducible and tractable system in which to study the cellular and molecular events that underlie wound healing and regeneration. PMID:20874715

Ferris, Donald R; Satoh, Akira; Mandefro, Berhan; Cummings, Gillian M; Gardiner, David M; Rugg, Elizabeth L

2010-10-01

76

Comparison of the steroidogenic capacity of bovine follicular and luteal cells, and corpora lutea originating from dominant follicles of the first or second follicular wave.  

PubMed

This study, compared the endocrine function of dominant follicles of the first and second follicular waves (DF1 and DF2, respectively) and the corpora lutea that were subsequently formed. In the experiments conducted in vitro, ovaries were collected from dairy cows on day 6.1 +/- 0.2 or day 14.8 +/- 0.2 of the oestrous cycle to obtain steroidogenically active DF1 (n = 8) and DF2 (n = 7). Granulosa and thecal cells were isolated, dispersed and incubated for 16 h with testosterone (granulosa cells) or forskolin or bLH (thecal cells). Both types of cell were subsequently cultured for 9 days with forskolin and insulin. The viability of the granulosa cells was similar in DF1 and DF2, but the concentration of oestradiol in the follicular fluid was higher in DF1 than in DF2. Production of oestradiol and progesterone by granulosa cells was similar in DF1 and DF2, but androstenedione and progesterone production by thecal cells were 3.5-6.5-fold higher in DF1 than in DF2. During the 9 days of luteinization, progesterone production was similar in DF1- and DF2-derived granulosa cells, but was two- to three-fold higher in DF1- than in DF2-derived thecal cells. Experiments were also conducted in vivo. In Expt 1 in vivo, lactating cows that were assigned to ovulate DF1 or DF2 (n = 9 and 13 in replicate 1 and 2, respectively) were injected with PGF2 alpha on days 6 and 7 or on days 14 and 15 of the oestrous cycle, respectively. A wave by replicate interaction was detected for plasma progesterone concentration in the subsequent cycle: in the first replicate, progesterone production was approximately 40% higher in cows that ovulated DF1; in the second replicate, progesterone production was similar in cows that ovulated DF1 or DF2. In Expt 2, pooled plasma progesterone in the mid-luteal phase (days 12-15) after insemination of pregnant and non-pregnant cows was approximately 30% higher in cows that had ovulated DF1 (n = 32) than in cows that had ovulated DF2 (n = 22). This study showed DF1 had a higher steroidogenic capacity compared with DF2, which may be related to the hormonal environment in which the follicles developed. PMID:10690191

Wolfenson, D; Sonego, H; Shaham-Albalancy, A; Shpirer, Y; Meidan, R

1999-11-01

77

Structural Determinants of Arabidopsis thaliana Hyponastic Leaves 1 Function In Vivo  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs have turned out to be important regulators of gene expression. These molecules originate from longer transcripts that are processed by ribonuclease III (RNAse III) enzymes. Dicer proteins are essential RNAse III enzymes that are involved in the generation of microRNAs (miRNAs) and other small RNAs. The correct function of Dicer relies on the participation of accessory dsRNA binding proteins, the exact function of which is not well-understood so far. In plants, the double stranded RNA binding protein Hyponastic Leaves 1 (HYL1) helps Dicer Like protein (DCL1) to achieve an efficient and precise excision of the miRNAs from their primary precursors. Here we dissected the regions of HYL1 that are essential for its function in Arabidopsis thaliana plant model. We generated mutant forms of the protein that retain their structure but affect its RNA-binding properties. The mutant versions of HYL1 were studied both in vitro and in vivo, and we were able to identify essential aminoacids/residues for its activity. Remarkably, mutation and even ablation of one of the purportedly main RNA binding determinants does not give rise to any major disturbances in the function of the protein. We studied the function of the mutant forms in vivo, establishing a direct correlation between affinity for the pri-miRNA precursors and protein activity. PMID:25409478

Burdisso, Paula; Milia, Fernando; Schapire, Arnaldo L.; Bologna, Nicolás G.; Palatnik, Javier F.; Rasia, Rodolfo M.

2014-01-01

78

Environmentally persistent free radicals decrease cardiac function before and after ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo.  

PubMed

Exposure to airborne particles is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. During the combustion of chlorine-containing hazardous materials and fuels, chlorinated hydrocarbons chemisorb to the surface of transition metal-oxide-containing particles, reduce the metal, and form an organic free radical. These radical-particle systems can survive in the environment for days and are called environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs). This study determined whether EPFRs could decrease left ventricular function before and after ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) in vivo. Male Brown-Norway rats were dosed (8?mg/kg, intratracheal) 24?h prior to testing with particles containing the EPFR of 1, 2-dichlorobenzene (DCB230). DCB230 treatment decreased systolic and diastolic function. DCB230 also produced pulmonary and cardiac inflammation. After ischemia, systolic, but not diastolic function was significantly decreased in DCB230-treated rats. Ventricular function was not affected by I/R in control rats. There was greater oxidative stress in the heart and increased 8-isoprostane (biomarker of oxidative stress) in the plasma of treated vs. control rats after I/R. These data demonstrate for the first time that DCB230 can produce inflammation and significantly decrease cardiac function at baseline and after I/R in vivo. Furthermore, these data suggest that EPFRs may be a risk factor for cardiac toxicity in healthy individuals and individuals with ischemic heart disease. Potential mechanisms involving cytokines/chemokines and/or oxidative stress are discussed. PMID:21385100

Lord, Kevin; Moll, David; Lindsey, John K; Mahne, Sarah; Raman, Girija; Dugas, Tammy; Cormier, Stephania; Troxlair, Dana; Lomnicki, Slawo; Dellinger, Barry; Varner, Kurt

2011-04-01

79

Stiffened yeast telomerase RNA supports RNP function in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

The 1157-nt Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomerase RNA, TLC1, in addition to providing a 16-nt template region for reverse transcription, has been proposed to act as a scaffold for protein subunits. Although accessory subunits of the telomerase ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex function even when their binding sites are relocated on the yeast telomerase RNA, the physical nature of the RNA scaffold has not been directly analyzed. Here we explore the structure-function organization of the yeast telomerase RNP by extensively stiffening the three long arms of TLC1, which connect essential and important accessory protein subunits Ku, Est1, and Sm(7), to its central catalytic hub. This 956-nt triple-stiff-arm TLC1 (TSA-T) reconstitutes active telomerase with TERT (Est2) in vitro. Furthermore, TSA-T functions in vivo, even maintaining longer telomeres than TLC1 on a per RNA basis. We also tested functional contributions of each stiffened arm within TSA-T and found that the stiffened Est1 and Ku arms contribute to telomere lengthening, while stiffening the terminal arm reduces telomere length and telomerase RNA abundance. The fact that yeast telomerase tolerates significant stiffening of its RNA subunit in vivo advances our understanding of the architectural and functional organization of this RNP and, more broadly, our conception of the world of lncRNPs. PMID:22850424

Lebo, Kevin J; Zappulla, David C

2012-09-01

80

Effect of a micronized purified flavonoid fraction on in vivo platelet functions in the rat.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a micronized purified flavonoid fraction (MPFF) on in vivo rat platelet functions. Platelet aggregation and disaggregation were evaluated by a noninvasive, automated isotope monitoring system (AimsPlus). Indium-labeled platelets were injected into anesthetized rats and stimulated by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (10 microg/kg, i.v.) or collagen (50 microg/kg, i.v.). Fibrinogen binding to ex vivo ADP-activated platelets was determined by flow cytometry. MPFF (100 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced ADP-induced platelet aggregation (p<0.05) and increased platelet disaggregation (p<0.05) compared with controls. Moreover, MPFF inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation (p<0.001) and increased platelet disaggregation (p<0.01). In addition, fibrinogen binding to 2.5 or 5 microM ADP-stimulated platelets also was reduced significantly (p<0.05 and 0.01, respectively). These results show that MPFF inhibits in vivo rat platelet functions. PMID:10336239

McGregor, L; Bellangeon, M; Chignier, E; Lerond, L; Rousselle, C; McGregor, J L

1999-05-15

81

In vivo functional microangiography by visible-light optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

Although hemoglobin oxygen saturation (sO2) in the microvasculature is an essential physiological parameter of local tissue functions, non-invasive measurement of microvascular sO2 is still challenging. Here, we demonstrated that visible-light optical coherence tomography (vis-OCT) can simultaneously provide three-dimensional anatomical tissue morphology, visualize microvasculature at the capillary level, and measure sO2 from the microvasculature in vivo. We utilized speckle contrast caused by the moving blood cells to enhance microvascular imaging. We applied a series of short-time inverse Fourier transforms to obtain the spectroscopic profile of blood optical attenuation, from which we quantified sO2. We validated the sO2 measurement in mouse ears in vivo through hypoxia and hyperoxia challenges. We further demonstrated that vis-OCT can continuously monitor dynamic changes of microvascular sO2. PMID:25360376

Yi, Ji; Chen, Siyu; Backman, Vadim; Zhang, Hao F.

2014-01-01

82

Functional cooperation of the proapoptotic Bcl2 family proteins Bmf and Bim in vivo.  

PubMed

Bcl2-modifying factor (Bmf) is a member of the BH3-only group of proapoptotic proteins. To test the role of Bmf in vivo, we constructed mice with a series of mutated Bmf alleles that disrupt Bmf expression, prevent Bmf phosphorylation by the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) on Ser(74), or mimic Bmf phosphorylation on Ser(74). We report that the loss of Bmf causes defects in uterovaginal development, including an imperforate vagina and hydrometrocolpos. We also show that the phosphorylation of Bmf on Ser(74) can contribute to a moderate increase in levels of Bmf activity. Studies of compound mutants with the related gene Bim demonstrated that Bim and Bmf exhibit partially redundant functions in vivo. Thus, developmental ablation of interdigital webbing on mouse paws and normal lymphocyte homeostasis require the cooperative activity of Bim and Bmf. PMID:19841067

Hübner, Anette; Cavanagh-Kyros, Julie; Rincon, Mercedes; Flavell, Richard A; Davis, Roger J

2010-01-01

83

Functional Cooperation of the Proapoptotic Bcl2 Family Proteins Bmf and Bim In Vivo ?  

PubMed Central

Bcl2-modifying factor (Bmf) is a member of the BH3-only group of proapoptotic proteins. To test the role of Bmf in vivo, we constructed mice with a series of mutated Bmf alleles that disrupt Bmf expression, prevent Bmf phosphorylation by the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) on Ser74, or mimic Bmf phosphorylation on Ser74. We report that the loss of Bmf causes defects in uterovaginal development, including an imperforate vagina and hydrometrocolpos. We also show that the phosphorylation of Bmf on Ser74 can contribute to a moderate increase in levels of Bmf activity. Studies of compound mutants with the related gene Bim demonstrated that Bim and Bmf exhibit partially redundant functions in vivo. Thus, developmental ablation of interdigital webbing on mouse paws and normal lymphocyte homeostasis require the cooperative activity of Bim and Bmf. PMID:19841067

Hubner, Anette; Cavanagh-Kyros, Julie; Rincon, Mercedes; Flavell, Richard A.; Davis, Roger J.

2010-01-01

84

OCT-4 expression in follicular and luteal phase endometrium: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background The stem cell marker Octamer-4 (OCT-4) is expressed in human endometrium. Menstrual cycle-dependency of OCT-4 expression has not been investigated to date. Methods In a prospective, single center cohort study of 98 women undergoing hysteroscopy during the follicular (n = 49) and the luteal (n = 40) phases of the menstrual cycle, we obtained endometrial samples. Specimens were investigated for OCT-4 expression on the mRNA and protein levels using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Expression of OCT-4 was correlated to menstrual cycle phase. Results Of 89 women sampled, 49 were in the follicular phase and 40 were in the luteal phase. OCT-4 mRNA was detected in all samples. Increased OCT-4 mRNA levels in the follicular and luteal phases was found in 35/49 (71%) and 27/40 (68%) of women, respectively (p = 0.9). Increased expression of OCT-4 protein was identified in 56/89 (63%) samples. Increased expression of OCT-4 protein in the follicular and luteal phases was found in 33/49 (67%) and 23/40 (58%) of women, respectively (p = 0.5). Conclusions On the mRNA and protein levels, OCT-4 is not differentially expressed during the menstrual cycle. Endometrial OCT-4 is not involved in or modulated by hormone-induced cyclical changes of the endometrium. PMID:20412569

2010-01-01

85

Automatic Classification of African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) Follicular and Luteal Patrick J. Clemins1  

E-print Network

Automatic Classification of African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) Follicular and Luteal Rumbles University, P.O. Box 1881, Milwaukee, WI 53201 INTRODUCTION Recent research in African elephant vocalizations the reproductive status of a female African elephant. The classification system is based on current state

Johnson, Michael T.

86

Impact of ovarian stimulation on mid-luteal endometrial tissue and secretion markers of receptivity.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ovarian stimulation for IVF on endometrial secretion and tissue markers of receptivity in the mid-luteal phase. In 10 oocyte donors, endometrial secretions and biopsies were sampled 5 days after spontaneous ovulation and oocyte retrieval in consecutive cycles. Four subjects received progesterone in the luteal phase of the stimulated cycles. Mid-luteal endometrial maturation in the stimulated cycle was compared with the spontaneous cycle, by histological dating, Ki-67, oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression, secretion levels of leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF), glycodelin A (GdA) and progesterone, and protein profile. No significant differences in histological markers, expression of Ki-67, PR, ER, secretion protein profiles or concentrations of LIF, GdA, or progesterone were observed when comparing natural with stimulated cycles. Progesterone supplementation of stimulated cycles was associated with significantly lower Ki-67 (P = 0.03) and ER (P = 0.04) expression compared with the non-supplemented stimulated cycle. In this pilot study, ovarian stimulation was not demonstrated to alter the studied markers of endometrial maturation in the mid-luteal phase. PMID:18854111

van der Gaast, M H; Classen-Linke, I; Krusche, C A; Beier-Hellwig, K; Fauser, B C J M; Beier, H M; Macklon, N S

2008-10-01

87

Biomimetic engineered muscle with capacity for vascular integration and functional maturation in vivo  

PubMed Central

Tissue-engineered skeletal muscle can serve as a physiological model of natural muscle and a potential therapeutic vehicle for rapid repair of severe muscle loss and injury. Here, we describe a platform for engineering and testing highly functional biomimetic muscle tissues with a resident satellite cell niche and capacity for robust myogenesis and self-regeneration in vitro. Using a mouse dorsal window implantation model and transduction with fluorescent intracellular calcium indicator, GCaMP3, we nondestructively monitored, in real time, vascular integration and the functional state of engineered muscle in vivo. During a 2-wk period, implanted engineered muscle exhibited a steady ingrowth of blood-perfused microvasculature along with an increase in amplitude of calcium transients and force of contraction. We also demonstrated superior structural organization, vascularization, and contractile function of fully differentiated vs. undifferentiated engineered muscle implants. The described in vitro and in vivo models of biomimetic engineered muscle represent enabling technology for novel studies of skeletal muscle function and regeneration. PMID:24706792

Juhas, Mark; Engelmayr, George C.; Fontanella, Andrew N.; Palmer, Gregory M.; Bursac, Nenad

2014-01-01

88

Microfibril-associated Glycoprotein 2 (MAGP2) Loss of Function Has Pleiotropic Effects in Vivo*  

PubMed Central

Microfibril-associated glycoprotein (MAGP) 1 and 2 are evolutionarily related but structurally divergent proteins that are components of microfibrils of the extracellular matrix. Using mice with a targeted inactivation of Mfap5, the gene for MAGP2 protein, we demonstrate that MAGPs have shared as well as unique functions in vivo. Mfap5?/? mice appear grossly normal, are fertile, and have no reduction in life span. Cardiopulmonary development is typical. The animals are normotensive and have vascular compliance comparable with age-matched wild-type mice, which is indicative of normal, functional elastic fibers. Loss of MAGP2 alone does not significantly alter bone mass or architecture, and loss of MAGP2 in tandem with loss of MAGP1 does not exacerbate MAGP1-dependent osteopenia. MAGP2-deficient mice are neutropenic, which contrasts with monocytopenia described in MAGP1-deficient animals. This suggests that MAGP1 and MAGP2 have discrete functions in hematopoiesis. In the cardiovascular system, MAGP1;MAGP2 double knockout mice (Mfap2?/?;Mfap5?/?) show age-dependent aortic dilation. These findings indicate that MAGPs have shared primary functions in maintaining large vessel integrity. In solid phase binding assays, MAGP2 binds active TGF?1, TGF?2, and BMP2. Together, these data demonstrate that loss of MAGP2 expression in vivo has pleiotropic effects potentially related to the ability of MAGP2 to regulate growth factors or participate in cell signaling. PMID:23963447

Combs, Michelle D.; Knutsen, Russell H.; Broekelmann, Thomas J.; Toennies, Holly M.; Brett, Thomas J.; Miller, Chantel A.; Kober, Daniel L.; Craft, Clarissa S.; Atkinson, Jeffrey J.; Shipley, J. Michael; Trask, Barbara C.; Mecham, Robert P.

2013-01-01

89

Microfibril-associated glycoprotein 2 (MAGP2) loss of function has pleiotropic effects in vivo.  

PubMed

Microfibril-associated glycoprotein (MAGP) 1 and 2 are evolutionarily related but structurally divergent proteins that are components of microfibrils of the extracellular matrix. Using mice with a targeted inactivation of Mfap5, the gene for MAGP2 protein, we demonstrate that MAGPs have shared as well as unique functions in vivo. Mfap5(-/-) mice appear grossly normal, are fertile, and have no reduction in life span. Cardiopulmonary development is typical. The animals are normotensive and have vascular compliance comparable with age-matched wild-type mice, which is indicative of normal, functional elastic fibers. Loss of MAGP2 alone does not significantly alter bone mass or architecture, and loss of MAGP2 in tandem with loss of MAGP1 does not exacerbate MAGP1-dependent osteopenia. MAGP2-deficient mice are neutropenic, which contrasts with monocytopenia described in MAGP1-deficient animals. This suggests that MAGP1 and MAGP2 have discrete functions in hematopoiesis. In the cardiovascular system, MAGP1;MAGP2 double knockout mice (Mfap2(-/-);Mfap5(-/-)) show age-dependent aortic dilation. These findings indicate that MAGPs have shared primary functions in maintaining large vessel integrity. In solid phase binding assays, MAGP2 binds active TGF?1, TGF?2, and BMP2. Together, these data demonstrate that loss of MAGP2 expression in vivo has pleiotropic effects potentially related to the ability of MAGP2 to regulate growth factors or participate in cell signaling. PMID:23963447

Combs, Michelle D; Knutsen, Russell H; Broekelmann, Thomas J; Toennies, Holly M; Brett, Thomas J; Miller, Chantel A; Kober, Daniel L; Craft, Clarissa S; Atkinson, Jeffrey J; Shipley, J Michael; Trask, Barbara C; Mecham, Robert P

2013-10-01

90

Critical Role of Tissue Mast Cells in Controlling Long Term Glucose Sensor Function in Vivo  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the specific cells, mediators and mechanisms involved in the loss of glucose sensor function (GSF) in vivo. Since mast cells (MC) are known to be key effector cells in inflammation and wound healing, we hypothesized that MC and their products are major contributors to the skin inflammation and wound healing that controls GSF at sites of sensor implantation. To test this hypothesis we utilized a murine model of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in vivo in both normal C57BL/6 mice (mast cell sufficient), as well as mast cell deficient B6.Cg-KitW-sh/HNihrJaeBsmJ (Sash) mice over a 28 day CGM period. As expected, both strains of mice displayed excellent CGM for the first 7 days post sensor implantation (PSI). CGM in the mast cell sufficient C57BL/6 mice was erratic over the remaining 21 days PSI. CGM in the mast cell deficient Sash mice displayed excellent sensor function for the entire 28 day of CGM. Histopathologic evaluation of implantation sites demonstrated that tissue reactions in Sash mice were dramatically less compared to the reactions in normal C57BL/6 mice. Additionally, mast cells were also seen to be consistently associated with the margins of sensor tissue reactions in normal C57BL/6 mice. Finally, direct injection of bone marrow derived mast cells at sites of sensor implantation induced an acute and dramatic loss of sensor function in both C57BL/6 and Sash mice. These results demonstrate the key role of mast cells in controlling glucose sensor function in vivo. PMID:20226521

Klueh, Ulrike; Kaur, Manjot; Qiao, Yi; Kreutzer, Donald L.

2010-01-01

91

Biomechanical regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell functions: from in vitro to in vivo understanding  

PubMed Central

Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) have critical functions in vascular diseases. Haemodynamic factors are important regulators of VSMC functions in vascular pathophysiology. VSMCs are physiologically active in the three-dimensional matrix and interact with the shear stress sensor of endothelial cells (ECs). The purpose of this review is to illustrate how haemodynamic factors regulate VSMC functions under two-dimensional conditions in vitro or three-dimensional co-culture conditions in vivo. Recent advances show that high shear stress induces VSMC apoptosis through endothelial-released nitric oxide and low shear stress upregulates VSMC proliferation and migration through platelet-derived growth factor released by ECs. This differential regulation emphasizes the need to construct more actual environments for future research on vascular diseases (such as atherosclerosis and hypertension) and cardiovascular tissue engineering. PMID:24152813

Qiu, Juhui; Zheng, Yiming; Hu, Jianjun; Liao, Donghua; Gregersen, Hans; Deng, Xiaoyan; Fan, Yubo; Wang, Guixue

2014-01-01

92

Neurofibrillary tangle-bearing neurons are functionally integrated in cortical circuits in vivo.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is pathologically characterized by the deposition of extracellular amyloid-? plaques and intracellular aggregation of tau protein in neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) (1, 2). Progression of NFT pathology is closely correlated with both increased neurodegeneration and cognitive decline in AD (3) and other tauopathies, such as frontotemporal dementia (4, 5). The assumption that mislocalization of tau into the somatodendritic compartment (6) and accumulation of fibrillar aggregates in NFTs mediates neurodegeneration underlies most current therapeutic strategies aimed at preventing NFT formation or disrupting existing NFTs (7, 8). Although several disease-associated mutations cause both aggregation of tau and neurodegeneration, whether NFTs per se contribute to neuronal and network dysfunction in vivo is unknown (9). Here we used awake in vivo two-photon calcium imaging to monitor neuronal function in adult rTg4510 mice that overexpress a human mutant form of tau (P301L) and develop cortical NFTs by the age of 7-8 mo (10). Unexpectedly, NFT-bearing neurons in the visual cortex appeared to be completely functionally intact, to be capable of integrating dendritic inputs and effectively encoding orientation and direction selectivity, and to have a stable baseline resting calcium level. These results suggest a reevaluation of the common assumption that insoluble tau aggregates are sufficient to disrupt neuronal function. PMID:24368848

Kuchibhotla, Kishore V; Wegmann, Susanne; Kopeikina, Katherine J; Hawkes, Jonathan; Rudinskiy, Nikita; Andermann, Mark L; Spires-Jones, Tara L; Bacskai, Brian J; Hyman, Bradley T

2014-01-01

93

TYK2 Kinase Activity Is Required for Functional Type I Interferon Responses In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) is a member of the Janus kinase (JAK) family and is involved in cytokine signalling. In vitro analyses suggest that TYK2 also has kinase-independent, i.e., non-canonical, functions. We have generated gene-targeted mice harbouring a mutation in the ATP-binding pocket of the kinase domain. The Tyk2 kinase-inactive (Tyk2K923E) mice are viable and show no gross abnormalities. We show that kinase-active TYK2 is required for full-fledged type I interferon- (IFN) induced activation of the transcription factors STAT1-4 and for the in vivo antiviral defence against viruses primarily controlled through type I IFN actions. In addition, TYK2 kinase activity was found to be required for the protein’s stability. An inhibitory function was only observed upon over-expression of TYK2K923E in vitro. Tyk2K923E mice represent the first model for studying the kinase-independent function of a JAK in vivo and for assessing the consequences of side effects of JAK inhibitors. PMID:22723949

Prchal-Murphy, Michaela; Semper, Christian; Lassnig, Caroline; Wallner, Barbara; Gausterer, Christian; Teppner-Klymiuk, Ingeborg; Kobolak, Julianna; Muller, Simone; Kolbe, Thomas; Karaghiosoff, Marina; Dinnyes, Andras; Rulicke, Thomas; Leitner, Nicole R.; Strobl, Birgit; Muller, Mathias

2012-01-01

94

Photoacoustics and fluorescence based nanoprobes towards functional and structural imaging in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging of chemical analytes and structural properties related to physiological activities within biological systems is of great bio-medical interest; it can contribute to the fundamental understanding of biological systems and can be applied to the diagnosis and prognosis of diseases, especially tumors. The work presented in this thesis focuses on the development and application of polymeric nanoprobe aided optical imaging of chemical analytes (Oxygen, pH) and structural properties in live cells and animal models. To this end, specific nanoprobes, based on the polyacrylamide nanoplatform, bearing both appropriate targeting functionalities, and high concentrations of sensing and contrast agents, have been developed. The nanoprobes presented here are biodegradable, biocompatible and non-toxic, rendering them safe for in vivo use. Furthermore the nanoprobes are designed to have variable optical properties that are dependent on the local concentration of the specific analyte of interest. Optical imaging techniques that are particularly suited for deep tissue applications, such as two-photon fluorescence and photoacoustics, were applied for non-invasive real-time imaging and sensing in cancer cells, tumor spheroids and animal models. Our results demonstrate that this technique enables high sensitive detection of chemical analytes with a sensitivity of <5 Torr for oxygen and <0.1 pH units in vivo, which is better than the currently available in vivo functional imaging techniques. This non-invasive and non-ionizing, yet low cost, method will enable morphological and functional evaluation across any tissue, with both high spatial and temporal resolution but without eliciting short- or long-term tissue damage. Currently no gold standard exists for such xii functional imaging. The approach presented here can be used for early detection and diagnosis of tumors, as well as for monitoring the progression of disease and therapy. This technique will also enable observing phenomena at the cellular level in vivo that would lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases as well as the disease onset, progression, and response to therapy.

Ray, Aniruddha

95

Functional class switch recombination may occur 'in vivo' in Waldenström macroglobulinaemia.  

PubMed

Waldenström macroglobulinaemia (WM) malignant cells have been considered incapable of undergoing class switch recombination (CSR). However, we report a WM patient who developed an IgG M-component 4 years after diagnosis. When the second monoclonal component appeared, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed the presence of pre (Cmu) and postswitch (Cgamma) clonotypic isotypes; sequencing of these isotypes demonstrated that both corresponded to the single clone amplified at diagnosis, including the same complementarity-determining region 3 and somatic mutation pattern. This proves that WM cells can undergo a functional in vivo CSR. PMID:17096687

Martín-Jiménez, Patricia; García-Sanz, Ramón; Sarasquete, María E; Ocio, Enrique; Pérez, José J; González, Marcos; San Miguel, Jesús F

2007-01-01

96

Non invasive in vivo investigation of hepatobiliary structure and function in STII medaka (Oryzias latipes): methodology and applications  

PubMed Central

Background A novel transparent stock of medaka (Oryzias latipes; STII), recessive for all pigments found in chromatophores, permits transcutaneous imaging of internal organs and tissues in living individuals. Findings presented describe the development of methodologies for non invasive in vivo investigation in STII medaka, and the successful application of these methodologies to in vivo study of hepatobiliary structure, function, and xenobiotic response, in both 2 and 3 dimensions. Results Using brightfield, and widefield and confocal fluorescence microscopy, coupled with the in vivo application of fluorescent probes, structural and functional features of the hepatobiliary system, and xenobiotic induced toxicity, were imaged at the cellular level, with high resolution (< 1 ?m), in living individuals. The findings presented demonstrate; (1) phenotypic response to xenobiotic exposure can be investigated/imaged in vivo with high resolution (< 1 ?m), (2) hepatobiliary transport of solutes from blood to bile can be qualitatively and quantitatively studied/imaged in vivo, (3) hepatobiliary architecture in this lower vertebrate liver can be studied in 3 dimensions, and (4) non invasive in vivo imaging/description of hepatobiliary development in this model can be investigated. Conclusion The non-invasive in vivo methodologies described are a unique means by which to investigate biological structure, function and xenobiotic response with high resolution in STII medaka. In vivo methodologies also provide the future opportunity to integrate molecular mechanisms (e.g., genomic, proteomic) of disease and toxicity with phenotypic changes at the cellular and system levels of biological organization. While our focus has been the hepatobiliary system, other organ systems are equally amenable to in vivo study, and we consider the potential for discovery, within the context of in vivo investigation in STII medaka, as significant. PMID:18838008

Hardman, Ron C; Kullman, Seth W; Hinton, David E

2008-01-01

97

High pressure modulated transport and signaling functions of membrane proteins in models and in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cellular membranes serve in the separation of compartments, recognition of the environment, selective transport and signal transduction. Membrane lipids and membrane proteins play distinct roles in these processes, which are affected by environmental chemical (e. g. pH) or physical (e. g. pressure and temperature) changes. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) affects fluidity and integrity of bacterial membranes instantly during the ramp, resulting in a loss of membrane potential and vital membrane protein functions. We have used the multiple drug transporter LmrA from Lactococcus lactis and ToxR, a membrane protein sensor from Photobacterium profundum, a deep-sea bacterium, and Vibrio cholerae to study membrane protein interaction and functionality in proteolioposomes and by the use of in vivo reporter systems, respectively. Both proteins require dimerization in the phospholipid bilayer for their functionality, which was favoured in the liquid crystalline lipid phase with ToxR and LmrA. Whereas LmrA, which resides in liposomes consisting of DMPC, DMPC/cholesterol or natural lipids, lost its ATPase activity above 20 or 40 MPa, it maintained its active dimeric structure in DOPC/DPPC/cholesterol liposomes up to 120 MPa. By using a specific indicator strain in which the dimerisation of ToxR initiates the transcription of lacZ it was demonstrated, that the amino acid sequence of the transmembrane domain influences HHP stability of ToxR dimerization in vivo. Thus, both the lipid structure and the nature of the protein affect membrane protein interaction. It is suggested that the protein structure determines basic functionality, e.g. principle ability or kinetics to dimerize to a functional complex, while the lipid environment modulates this property.

Vogel, R. F.; Linke, K.; Teichert, H.; Ehrmann, M. A.

2008-07-01

98

Translation initiation factors are not required for Dicistroviridae IRES function in vivo  

PubMed Central

The cricket paralysis virus (CrPV) intergenic region (IGR) internal ribosome entry site (IRES) uses an unusual mechanism of initiating translation, whereby the IRES occupies the P-site of the ribosome and the initiating tRNA enters the A-site. In vitro experiments have demonstrated that the CrPV IGR IRES is able to bind purified ribosomes and form 80S complexes capable of synthesizing small peptides in the absence of any translation initiation factors. These results suggest that initiation by this IRES is factor-independent. To determine whether the IGR IRES functions in the absence of initiation factors in vivo, we assayed IGR IRES activity in various yeast strains harboring mutations in canonical translation initiation factors. We used a dicistronic reporter assay in yeast to determine whether the CrPV IGR IRES is able to promote translation sufficient to support growth in the presence of various deletions or mutations in translation initiation factors. Using this assay, we have previously shown that the CrPV IGR IRES functions efficiently in yeast when ternary complexes (eIF2•GTP•initiator tRNAmet) are reduced. Here, we demonstrate that the CrPV IGR IRES activity does not require the eukaryotic initiation factors eIF4G1 or eIF5B, and it is enhanced when eIF2B, the eIF3b subunit of eIF3, or eIF4E are impaired. Taken together, these data support a model in which the CrPV IGR IRES is capable of initiating protein synthesis in the absence of any initiation factors in vivo, and suggests that the CrPV IGR IRES initiates translation by directly recruiting the ribosomal subunits in vivo. PMID:19299549

Deniz, Nilsa; Lenarcic, Erik M.; Landry, Dori M.; Thompson, Sunnie R.

2009-01-01

99

Alterations in luteal production of androstenedione, testosterone, and estrone, but not estradiol, during mid- and late pregnancy in pigs: effects of androgen deficiency.  

PubMed

Recently, we have found that flutamide-induced androgen deficiency altered progesterone production in the porcine corpus luteum (CL) during mid- and late pregnancy. Herein, we tested whether flutamide administration subsequently influences androgen and estrogen metabolism in the CL of pregnancy. Pregnant gilts were treated with flutamide between Days 43 and 49 (GD50F), 83 and 89 (GD90F), or 101 and 107 (GD108F) of gestation. Corpora lutea (CLs) were collected from treated and nontreated (control) pigs. The concentrations of androstenedione (A4), testosterone (T), estrone (E1), and estradiol (E2) together with the levels of expression of mRNAs and proteins for cytochrome P450 17?-hydroxylase/c17-20 lyase (CYP17A1), 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17?-HSD1), cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A1), and 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 7 (17?-HSD7) were measured in the CL of control and flutamide-treated animals. Steroidogenic enzymes were also immunolocalized in luteal tissues. The luteal concentrations of A4 and T were higher in the GD50F (P = 0.006, P = 0.03) and GD108F (P = 0.005, P = 0.035) groups, but lower in the GD90F (P = 0.004, P = 0.014) group. The E1 level was greater only in the GD90F (P = 0.03) and GD108F (P = 0.035) groups, whereas E2 concentration was not affected by flutamide treatment. Increased luteal CYP17A1 mRNA and protein expression was found in the GD50F (P = 0.002, P = 0.03) and GD108F (P = 0.0026, P = 0.03) groups, but reduced in the GD90F (P = 0.002, P = 0.03) group. mRNA of 17?-HSD1 was upregulated in the GD50F (P = 0.0005) group, but downregulated in the GD90F (P = 0.002) and GD108F (P = 0.0005) groups. In contrast, 17?-HSD1 protein expression was higher in the GD50F and GD108F (P = 0.03) groups, but lower in the GD90F (P = 0.03) group. Both CYP19A1 mRNA and protein levels were greater in the GD90F (P = 0.001, P = 0.028) and GD108F (P = 0.005, P = 0.03) groups. Neither 17?-HSD7 mRNA nor protein level were affected by flutamide exposure. Both CYP17A1 and 17?-HSD1 were immunolocalized exclusively in small luteal cells, whereas CYP19A1 and 17?-HSD7 were found in large luteal cells of control and flutamide-treated CLs. Overall, flutamide administration led to the alterations in A4, T, and E1, but not in E2, production in the CL of pregnancy in pigs, probably because of disrupted steroidogenic enzymes expression. These changes suggest that androgens are important modulators of luteal function during pregnancy in pigs. PMID:25011982

Grzesiak, Malgorzata; Knapczyk-Stwora, Katarzyna; Ciereszko, Renata E; Wieciech, Iwona; Slomczynska, Maria

2014-09-15

100

Consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation for effector T cell function in vivo  

SciTech Connect

The adoptive transfer of acutely primed and memory virus-immune CD8+ T cells causes enhanced meningitis in both cyclophosphamide (Cy) suppressed, and unsuppressed, recipients infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). The severity of meningitis is assessed by counting cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from the cisterna magna, which allows measurement of significant inflammatory process ranging from 3 to more than 300 times the background number of cells found in mice injected with virus alone. Exposure of the donor immune population to ionizing radiation prior to transfer has shown that activated T cells from mice primed 7 or 8 days previously with virus may still promote a low level of meningitis in unsuppressed recipients following as much as 800 rads, while this effect is lost totally in Cy-suppressed mice at 600 rads. Memory T cells are more susceptible and show no evidence of in vivo effector function in either recipient population subsequent to 400 rads, a dose level which also greatly reduces the efficacy of acutely-primed T cells. The results are interpreted as indicating that heavily irradiated cells that are already fully functional show evidence of primary localization to the CNS and a limited capacity to cause pathology. Secondary localization, and events that require further proliferation of the T cells in vivo, are greatly inhibited by irradiation.

Rouse, B.T.; Hartley, D.; Doherty, P.C. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (USA))

1989-01-01

101

Allele Compensation in Tip60+/? Mice Rescues White Adipose Tissue Function In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Adipose tissue is a key regulator of energy homestasis. The amount of adipose tissue is largely determined by adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis), a process that is regulated by the concerted actions of multiple transcription factors and cofactors. Based on in vitro studies in murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and human primary preadipocytes, the transcriptional cofactor and acetyltransferase Tip60 was recently identified as an essential adipogenic factor. We therefore investigated the role of Tip60 on adipocyte differentiation and function, and possible consequences on energy homeostasis, in vivo. Because homozygous inactivation results in early embryonic lethality, Tip60+/? mice were used. Heterozygous inactivation of Tip60 had no effect on body weight, despite slightly higher food intake by Tip60+/? mice. No major effects of heterozygous inactivation of Tip60 were observed on adipose tissue and liver, and Tip60+/? displayed normal glucose tolerance, both on a low fat and a high fat diet. While Tip60 mRNA was reduced to 50% in adipose tissue, the protein levels were unaltered, suggesting compensation by the intact allele. These findings indicate that the in vivo role of Tip60 in adipocyte differentiation and function cannot be properly addressed in Tip60+/? mice, but requires the generation of adipose tissue-specific knock out animals or specific knock-in mice. PMID:24870614

Gao, Yuan; Hamers, Nicole; Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Berger, Ruud; Lough, John; Kalkhoven, Eric

2014-01-01

102

Noninvasive in vivo model demonstrating the effects of autonomic innervation on pancreatic islet function  

PubMed Central

The autonomic nervous system is thought to modulate blood glucose homeostasis by regulating endocrine cell activity in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. The role of islet innervation, however, has remained elusive because the direct effects of autonomic nervous input on islet cell physiology cannot be studied in the pancreas. Here, we used an in vivo model to study the role of islet nervous input in glucose homeostasis. We transplanted islets into the anterior chamber of the eye and found that islet grafts became densely innervated by the rich parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous supply of the iris. Parasympathetic innervation was imaged intravitally by using transgenic mice expressing GFP in cholinergic axons. To manipulate selectively the islet nervous input, we increased the ambient illumination to increase the parasympathetic input to the islet grafts via the pupillary light reflex. This reduced fasting glycemia and improved glucose tolerance. These effects could be blocked by topical application of the muscarinic antagonist atropine to the eye, indicating that local cholinergic innervation had a direct effect on islet function in vivo. By using this approach, we found that parasympathetic innervation influences islet function in C57BL/6 mice but not in 129X1 mice, which reflected differences in innervation densities and may explain major strain differences in glucose homeostasis. This study directly demonstrates that autonomic axons innervating the islet modulate glucose homeostasis. PMID:23236142

Rodriguez-Diaz, Rayner; Speier, Stephan; Molano, Ruth Damaris; Formoso, Alexander; Gans, Itai; Abdulreda, Midhat H.; Cabrera, Over; Molina, Judith; Fachado, Alberto; Ricordi, Camillo; Leibiger, Ingo; Pileggi, Antonello; Berggren, Per-Olof; Caicedo, Alejandro

2012-01-01

103

E-cadherin is essential for in vivo epidermal barrier function by regulating tight junctions  

PubMed Central

Cadherin adhesion molecules are key determinants of morphogenesis and tissue architecture. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the morphogenetic contributions of cadherins remain poorly understood in vivo. Besides supporting cell–cell adhesion, cadherins can affect a wide range of cellular functions that include activation of cell signalling pathways, regulation of the cytoskeleton and control of cell polarity. To determine the role of E-cadherin in stratified epithelium of the epidermis, we have conditionally inactivated its gene in mice. Here we show that loss of E-cadherin in the epidermis in vivo results in perinatal death of mice due to the inability to retain a functional epidermal water barrier. Absence of E-cadherin leads to improper localization of key tight junctional proteins, resulting in permeable tight junctions and thus altered epidermal resistance. In addition, both Rac and activated atypical PKC, crucial for tight junction formation, are mislocalized. Surprisingly, our results indicate that E-cadherin is specifically required for tight junction, but not desmosome, formation and this appears to involve signalling rather than cell contact formation. PMID:15775979

Tunggal, Judith A; Helfrich, Iris; Schmitz, Annika; Schwarz, Heinz; Gunzel, Dorothee; Fromm, Michael; Kemler, Rolf; Krieg, Thomas; Niessen, Carien M

2005-01-01

104

Allele compensation in tip60+/- mice rescues white adipose tissue function in vivo.  

PubMed

Adipose tissue is a key regulator of energy homestasis. The amount of adipose tissue is largely determined by adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis), a process that is regulated by the concerted actions of multiple transcription factors and cofactors. Based on in vitro studies in murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and human primary preadipocytes, the transcriptional cofactor and acetyltransferase Tip60 was recently identified as an essential adipogenic factor. We therefore investigated the role of Tip60 on adipocyte differentiation and function, and possible consequences on energy homeostasis, in vivo. Because homozygous inactivation results in early embryonic lethality, Tip60+/- mice were used. Heterozygous inactivation of Tip60 had no effect on body weight, despite slightly higher food intake by Tip60+/- mice. No major effects of heterozygous inactivation of Tip60 were observed on adipose tissue and liver, and Tip60+/- displayed normal glucose tolerance, both on a low fat and a high fat diet. While Tip60 mRNA was reduced to 50% in adipose tissue, the protein levels were unaltered, suggesting compensation by the intact allele. These findings indicate that the in vivo role of Tip60 in adipocyte differentiation and function cannot be properly addressed in Tip60+/- mice, but requires the generation of adipose tissue-specific knock out animals or specific knock-in mice. PMID:24870614

Gao, Yuan; Hamers, Nicole; Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Berger, Ruud; Lough, John; Kalkhoven, Eric

2014-01-01

105

In vivo functional analysis of the human mitochondrial DNA polymerase POLG expressed in cultured human cells.  

PubMed

The human gene POLG encodes the catalytic subunit of mitochondrial DNA polymerase, but its precise roles in mtDNA metabolism in vivo have not hitherto been documented. By expressing POLG fusion proteins in cultured human cells, we show that the enzyme is targeted to mitochondria, where the Myc epitope-tagged POLG is catalytically active as a DNA polymerase. Long-term culture of cells expressing wild-type POLG-myc revealed no alterations in mitochondrial function. Expression of POLG-myc mutants created dominant phenotypes demonstrating important roles for the protein in mtDNA maintenance and integrity. The D198A amino acid replacement abolished detectable 3'-5' (proofreading) exonuclease activity and led to the accumulation of a significant load (1:1700) of mtDNA point mutations during 3 months of continuous culture. Further culture resulted in the selection of cells with an inactivated mutator polymerase, and a reduced mutation load in mtDNA. Transient expression of POLG-myc variants D890N or D1135A inhibited endogenous mitochondrial DNA polymerase activity and caused mtDNA depletion. Deletion of the POLG CAG repeat did not affect enzymatic properties, but modestly up-regulated expression. These findings demonstrate that POLG exonuclease and polymerase functions are essential for faithful mtDNA maintenance in vivo, and indicate the importance of key residues for these activities. PMID:10827171

Spelbrink, J N; Toivonen, J M; Hakkaart, G A; Kurkela, J M; Cooper, H M; Lehtinen, S K; Lecrenier, N; Back, J W; Speijer, D; Foury, F; Jacobs, H T

2000-08-11

106

In vivo analysis of Kvbeta2 function in Xenopus embryonic myocytes.  

PubMed

Kv1 potassium channels consist of pore-forming alpha subunits as well as auxiliary beta subunits. In heterologous systems, Kv1alpha subunits suffice for induction of voltage-dependent potassium current (I(Kv)). Although Kv1 channels can be expressed without auxiliary subunits in heterologous systems, coexpression with Kvbeta subunits has dramatic effects on surface expression and kinetic properties. Much less is known about the functional roles of Kvbeta subunits in vivo, despite their presence in the majority of native Kv1 channel complexes. We used an antisense approach to probe the contribution of Kvbeta2 subunits to native Kv1 channel function in embryonic myocytes. We compared the effects of antisense Kvbeta2 treatment on the whole cell I(Kv) to those produced by overexpression of a dominant-negative Kv1alpha subunit. The reductions in the maximal potassium conductance produced by antisense Kvbeta2 treatment and elimination of Kv1alpha subunit function were not significantly different from each other. In addition, simultaneous elimination of Kv1alpha and Kvbeta2 subunit function resulted in no further reduction of the maximal conductance. The Kv channel complexes targeted by Kvbeta2 and/or Kv1alpha subunit elimination contributed to action potential repolarization because elimination of either or both subunits led to increases in the duration of the action potential. As for potassium conductance, the effects of elimination of both alpha and beta subunits on the duration of the action potential were not additive. Taken together, the results suggest that Kv1 potassium channel complexes in vivo have a strong requirement for both alpha and beta subunits. PMID:12068032

Lazaroff, Meredith A; Taylor, Alison D; Ribera, Angeles B

2002-06-15

107

In vivo analysis of Kv?2 function in Xenopus embryonic myocytes  

PubMed Central

Kv1 potassium channels consist of pore-forming ? subunits as well as auxiliary ? subunits. In heterologous systems, Kv1? subunits suffice for induction of voltage-dependent potassium current (IKv). Although Kv1 channels can be expressed without auxiliary subunits in heterologous systems, coexpression with Kv? subunits has dramatic effects on surface expression and kinetic properties. Much less is known about the functional roles of Kv? subunits in vivo, despite their presence in the majority of native Kv1 channel complexes. We used an antisense approach to probe the contribution of Kv?2 subunits to native Kv1 channel function in embryonic myocytes. We compared the effects of antisense Kv?2 treatment on the whole cell IKv to those produced by overexpression of a dominant-negative Kv1? subunit. The reductions in the maximal potassium conductance produced by antisense Kv?2 treatment and elimination of Kv1? subunit function were not significantly different from each other. In addition, simultaneous elimination of Kv1? and Kv?2 subunit function resulted in no further reduction of the maximal conductance. The Kv channel complexes targeted by Kv?2 and/or Kv1? subunit elimination contributed to action potential repolarization because elimination of either or both subunits led to increases in the duration of the action potential. As for potassium conductance, the effects of elimination of both ? and ? subunits on the duration of the action potential were not additive. Taken together, the results suggest that Kv1 potassium channel complexes in vivo have a strong requirement for both ? and ? subunits. PMID:12068032

Lazaroff, Meredith A; Taylor, Alison D; Ribera, Angeles B

2002-01-01

108

Protective effects of Zhuyeqing liquor on the immune function of normal and immunosuppressed mice in vivo  

PubMed Central

Background Zhuyeqing Liquor (ZYQL), a well-known Chinese traditional health liquor, has various biological properties, including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunoenhancement and cardiovascular protective effects. Methods The protective effects of Zhuyeqing Liquor (ZYQL) on the immune function was investigated in vivo in normal healthy mice and immunosuppressed mice treated with Cyclophosphamide (Cy, 100 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection on days 4, 8 and 12. ZYQL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) was administered via gavage daily for 14 days. The phagocytotic function of mononuclear phagocytic system was detected with carbon clearance methods, the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interferon-gamma (IFN-?) in serum were detected with Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immune organs were weighed and organ indexes (organ weight/body weight) of thymus and spleen were calculated. Meanwhile, the activity of lysozyme (LSZ) in serum and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) in spleen tissue were measured. Results ZYQL significantly upgrades the K value for clearance of carbon particles in normal mice treated with ZYQL (400 mg/kg) and immunosuppressed mice treated with ZYQL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) together with Cy (100 mg/kg) in vivo. The treatment of ZYQL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) effectively increased the activity of serum lysozyme as well as promoted the serum levels of IL-6 and IFN-? in normal mice and immunosuppressed mice. Furthermore, ZYQL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) had an antioxidant effects in immune system by enhancing the antioxidant enzyme activity of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px in vivo. In addition, ZYQL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) effectively elevated the Cy-induced decreased organ index (thymus and spleen). Conclusions The present work shows that the dose-dependent administration of ZYQL is capable of influencing immune responses, which implying that its valuable functional health may be attributed partly to its protective effects for the immune function. PMID:24090456

2013-01-01

109

The putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55 affects osteoclast function in vitro and bone mass in vivo  

PubMed Central

GPR55 is a G protein-coupled receptor recently shown to be activated by certain cannabinoids and by lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI). However, the physiological role of GPR55 remains unknown. Given the recent finding that the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 affect bone metabolism, we examined the role of GPR55 in bone biology. GPR55 was expressed in human and mouse osteoclasts and osteoblasts; expression was higher in human osteoclasts than in macrophage progenitors. Although the GPR55 agonists O-1602 and LPI inhibited mouse osteoclast formation in vitro, these ligands stimulated mouse and human osteoclast polarization and resorption in vitro and caused activation of Rho and ERK1/2. These stimulatory effects on osteoclast function were attenuated in osteoclasts generated from GPR55?/? macrophages and by the GPR55 antagonist cannabidiol (CBD). Furthermore, treatment of mice with this non-psychoactive constituent of cannabis significantly reduced bone resorption in vivo. Consistent with the ability of GPR55 to suppress osteoclast formation but stimulate osteoclast function, histomorphometric and microcomputed tomographic analysis of the long bones from male GPR55?/? mice revealed increased numbers of morphologically inactive osteoclasts but a significant increase in the volume and thickness of trabecular bone and the presence of unresorbed cartilage. These data reveal a role of GPR55 in bone physiology by regulating osteoclast number and function. In addition, this study also brings to light an effect of both the endogenous ligand, LPI, on osteoclasts and of the cannabis constituent, CBD, on osteoclasts and bone turnover in vivo. PMID:19805329

Whyte, Lauren S.; Ryberg, Erik; Sims, Natalie A.; Ridge, Susan A.; Mackie, Ken; Greasley, Peter J.; Ross, Ruth A.; Rogers, Michael J.

2009-01-01

110

A controlled study of light therapy in women with late luteal phase dysphoric disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies suggest that light therapy, as used to treat seasonal affective disorder, may be beneficial for pre-menstrual depressive disorders. We conducted a six-menstrual cycle randomized, double-blind, counter-balanced, crossover study of dim vs. bright light therapy in women with late luteal phase dysphoric disorder (LLPDD). Fourteen women who met DSM-III-R criteria for LLPDD completed two menstrual cycles of prospective baseline

Raymond W. Lam; Diana Carter; Shaila Misri; Annie J. Kuan; Lakshmi N. Yatham; Athanasios P. Zis

1999-01-01

111

Luteal phase serum cell-free DNA as a marker of failed pregnancyafter assisted reproductive technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: DNA-damaging factors have been reported in patients that failed to achieve pregnancy after assisted reproductive technologies (ART). The hypothesis was that increased circulating cell-free DNA released by damaged cells could predict unfavorable conditions leading to failed ART treatment. The objective was to compare the relative concentrations of cell-free DNA in the luteal phase sera of nonpregnant versus pregnant patients.

Elaine A. Hart; William C. Patton; John D. Jacobson; Alan King; Johannah Corselli; Philip J. Chan

2005-01-01

112

Equine chorionic gonadotropin alters luteal cell morphologic features related to progesterone synthesis.  

PubMed

Exogenous eCG for stimulation of a single dominant follicle or for superovulation are common strategies to improve reproductive efficiency by increasing pregnancy rates and embryo production, respectively. Morphofunctional changes in the CL of eCG-treated cattle include increases in CL volume and plasma progesterone concentrations. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that eCG alters the content of luteal cells and mitochondria related to hormone production. Twelve crossbred beef cows were synchronized and then allocated into three groups (four cows per group) and received no further treatment (control) or were given eCG either before or after follicular deviation (superovulation and stimulation of the dominant follicle, respectively). Six days after ovulation, cows were slaughtered and CL collected for morphohistologic and ultrastructural analysis. Mitochondrial volume per CL was highest in superovulated followed by stimulated and then control cows (18,500 ± 2630, 12,300 ± 2640, and 7670 ± 3400 ?m(3); P < 0.001), and the density of spherical mitochondria and the total number of large luteal cells were increased (P < 0.05) in stimulated cows compared with the other two groups (110.32 ± 14.22, 72.26 ± 8.77, and 70.46 ± 9.58 mitochondria per ?m(3) and 678 ± 147, 245 ± 199, and 346 ± 38 × 10(6) cells, respectively. However, the largest diameters of the large luteal cells were increased in superovulated and control cows versus stimulated ones (32.32 ± 0.06, 31.59 ± 0.81, and 29.44 ± 0.77 ?m; P < 0.0001). In contrast, the total number of small luteal cells was increased in superovulated cows (1456 ± 268, 492 ± 181, and 822 ± 461 × 10(6), P < 0.05). In conclusion, there were indications of cellular changes related to increased hormonal production (stimulatory treatment) and increased CL volume (superovulatory treatment). PMID:23273432

Rigoglio, Nathia N; Fátima, Luciana A; Hanassaka, Jaqueline Y; Pinto, Gizélia L; Machado, Alex S D; Gimenes, Lindsay U; Baruselli, Pietro S; Rennó, Francisco P; Moura, Carlos E B; Watanabe, Il-Sei; Papa, Paula C

2013-03-01

113

Higher sweating rate and skin blood flow during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.  

PubMed

Evaporation by sweating is the most effective way to remove heat from the body. Sweat rates increase under both local and whole-body heat stress. Men and women differ in how they respond to heat, because sexual steroids alter resting body core temperature and the threshold for sweating and skin blood flow (SBF) during heating. The purpose of the present study was to compare local sweat rates and cutaneous vasodilatation during heat exposure in women with a regular menstrual cycle. The cutaneous vasodilatation was judged by measuring the SBF. Eight female and nine male subjects participated in this study, and their age range was 24-29 years. Female subjects were tested twice throughout one full menstrual cycle: once during the middle follicular phases and once during the luteal phase. Subjects remained in a temperature-regulated room at 41°C and 21% of relative humidity for 40 minutes. Sweat rate was recorded from the forehead, forearm, and thigh, and skin temperature and SBF were measured on the thigh and forehead. We found that the sweating rate and SBF were greater in the luteal phase compared to follicular phase (p<0.05). Since both SBF and sweating were controlled by the sympathetic nerve system, the sympathetic outflow was greater during whole body heat exposure in the luteal phase. In contrast, for men, there was no significant difference in sweating and SBF over the same calendar period (p>0.05). We propose the enhanced sympathetic activity in the luteal phase with a regular menstrual cycle. PMID:25230913

Lee, Haneul; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Shah, Nirali; Awali, Abdulaziz; Shah, Karan; Alotaibi, Mohammed; Yim, JongEun

2014-01-01

114

Segmental in vivo vertebral motion during functional human lumbar spine activities  

PubMed Central

Quantitative data on the range of in vivo vertebral motion is critical to enhance our understanding of spinal pathology and to improve the current surgical treatment methods for spinal diseases. Little data have been reported on the range of lumbar vertebral motion during functional body activities. In this study, we measured in vivo 6 degrees-of-freedom (DOF) vertebral motion during unrestricted weightbearing functional body activities using a combined MR and dual fluoroscopic imaging technique. Eight asymptomatic living subjects were recruited and underwent MRI scans in order to create 3D vertebral models from L2 to L5 for each subject. The lumbar spine was then imaged using two fluoroscopes while the subject performed primary flexion-extension, left-right bending, and left-right twisting. The range of vertebral motion during each activity was determined through a previously described imaging-model matching technique at L2-3, L3-4, and L4-5 levels. Our data revealed that the upper vertebrae had a higher range of flexion than the lower vertebrae during flexion-extension of the body (L2-3, 5.4 ± 3.8°; L3-4, 4.3 ± 3.4°; L4-5, 1.9 ± 1.1°, respectively). During bending activity, the L4-5 had a higher (but not significant) range of left-right bending motion (4.7 ± 2.4°) than both L2-3 (2.9 ± 2.4°) and L3-4 (3.4 ± 2.1°), while no statistical difference was observed in left-right twisting among the three vertebral levels (L2-3, 2.5 ± 2.3°; L3-4, 2.4 ± 2.6°; and L4-5, 2.9 ± 2.1°, respectively). Besides the primary rotations reported, coupled motions were quantified in all DOFs. The coupled translation in left-right and anterior-posterior directions, on average, reached greater than 1 mm, while in the proximal-distal direction this was less than 1 mm. Overall, each vertebral level responds differently to flexion-extension and left-right bending, but similarly to the left-right twisting. This data may provide new insight into the in vivo function of human spines and can be used as baseline data for investigation of pathological spine kinematics. PMID:19301040

Wang, Shaobai; Passias, Peter; Xia, Qun; Li, Gang; Wood, Kirkham

2009-01-01

115

Characterization and In Vivo Functional Analysis of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe ICLN Gene  

PubMed Central

During the early steps of snRNP biogenesis, the survival motor neuron (SMN) complex acts together with the methylosome, an entity formed by the pICln protein, WD45, and the PRMT5 methyltransferase. To expand our understanding of the functional relationship between pICln and SMN in vivo, we performed a genetic analysis of an uncharacterized Schizosaccharomyces pombe pICln homolog. Although not essential, the S. pombe ICln (SpICln) protein is important for optimal yeast cell growth. The human ICLN gene complements the ?icln slow-growth phenotype, demonstrating that the identified SpICln sequence is the bona fide human homolog. Consistent with the role of human pICln inferred from in vitro experiments, we found that the SpICln protein is required for optimal production of the spliceosomal snRNPs and for efficient splicing in vivo. Genetic interaction approaches further demonstrate that modulation of ICln activity is unable to compensate for growth defects of SMN-deficient cells. Using a genome-wide approach and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR validation tests, we also show that splicing is differentially altered in ?icln cells. Our data are consistent with the notion that splice site selection and spliceosome kinetics are highly dependent on the concentration of core spliceosomal components. PMID:24298023

Barbarossa, Adrien; Antoine, Etienne; Neel, Henry; Gostan, Thierry; Soret, Johann

2014-01-01

116

In Vitro Hematological and In Vivo Vasoactivity Assessment of Dextran Functionalized Graphene  

PubMed Central

The intravenous, intramuscular or intraperitoneal administration of water solubilized graphene nanoparticles for biomedical applications will result in their interaction with the hematological components and vasculature. Herein, we have investigated the effects of dextran functionalized graphene nanoplatelets (GNP-Dex) on histamine release, platelet activation, immune activation, blood cell hemolysis in vitro, and vasoactivity in vivo. The results indicate that GNP-Dex formulations prevented histamine release from activated RBL-2H3 rat mast cells, and at concentrations ? 7?mg/ml, showed a 12–20% increase in levels of complement proteins. Cytokine (TNF-Alpha and IL-10) levels remained within normal range. GNP-Dex formulations did not cause platelet activation or blood cell hemolysis. Using the hamster cheek pouch in vivo model, the initial vasoactivity of GNP-Dex at concentrations (1–50?mg/ml) equivalent to the first pass of a bolus injection was a brief concentration-dependent dilation in arcade and terminal arterioles. However, they did not induce a pro-inflammatory endothelial dysfunction effect. PMID:24002570

Chowdhury, Sayan Mullick; Kanakia, Shruti; Toussaint, Jimmy D.; Frame, Mary D.; Dewar, Anthony M.; Shroyer, Kenneth R.; Moore, William; Sitharaman, Balaji

2013-01-01

117

Novel functional complexity of polycystin-1 by GPS cleavage in vivo: role in polycystic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Polycystin-1 (Pc1) cleavage at the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) proteolytic site (GPS) is required for normal kidney morphology in humans and mice. We found a complex pattern of endogenous Pc1 forms by GPS cleavage. GPS cleavage generates not only the heterodimeric cleaved full-length Pc1 (Pc1(cFL)) in which the N-terminal fragment (NTF) remains noncovalently associated with the C-terminal fragment (CTF) but also a novel (Pc1) form (Pc1(deN)) in which NTF becomes detached from CTF. Uncleaved Pc1 (Pc1(U)) resides primarily in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), whereas both Pc1(cFL) and Pc1(deN) traffic through the secretory pathway in vivo. GPS cleavage is not a prerequisite, however, for Pc1 trafficking in vivo. Importantly, Pc1(deN) is predominantly found at the plasma membrane of renal epithelial cells. By functional genetic complementation with five Pkd1 mouse models, we discovered that CTF plays a crucial role in Pc1(deN) trafficking. Our studies support GPS cleavage as a critical regulatory mechanism of Pc1 biogenesis and trafficking for proper kidney development and homeostasis. PMID:24958103

Kurbegovic, Almira; Kim, Hyunho; Xu, Hangxue; Yu, Shengqiang; Cruanès, Julie; Maser, Robin L; Boletta, Alessandra; Trudel, Marie; Qian, Feng

2014-09-01

118

Automated measurement of neural foramen cross-sectional area during in vivo functional movement.  

PubMed

An automated technique to measure neural foramen cross-sectional area during in vivo, multi-planar movements is presented. This method combines three-dimensional (3D) models of each vertebra obtained from CT scans with in vivo movement data collected using high-speed biplane radiography. A novel computer algorithm that automatically traces a path around the bony boundary that defines the neural foramen at every frame of X-ray data is described. After identifying the neural foramen boundary, the cross-sectional area is calculated. The technique is demonstrated using data collected from a patient with cervical radiculopathy who is tested before and after conservative treatment. The technique presented here can be applied when 3D, dynamic, functional movements are performed. Neural foramen cross-sectional area can be quantified at specific angles of intervertebral rotation, allowing for matched comparisons between two trials or two test sessions. The present technique is ideal for longitudinal studies involving subjects who receive conservative or surgical treatments that may affect spine motion. PMID:21736429

Anderst, William J

2012-01-01

119

Global gene expression in endometrium of high and low fertility heifers during the mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle  

PubMed Central

Background In both beef and dairy cattle, the majority of early embryo loss occurs within the first 14 days following insemination. During this time-period, embryos are completely dependent on their maternal uterine environment for development, growth and ultimately survival, therefore an optimum uterine environment is critical to their survival. The objective of this study was to investigate whether differences in endometrial gene expression during the mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle exist between crossbred beef heifers ranked as either high (HF) or low fertility (LF) (following four rounds of artificial insemination (AI)) using the Affymetrix® 23 K Bovine Gene Chip. Results Conception rates for each of the four rounds of AI were within a normal range: 70–73.3%. Microarray analysis of endometrial tissue collected on day 7 of the estrous cycle detected 419 differentially expressed genes (DEG) between HF (n?=?6) and LF (n?=?6) animals. The main gene pathways affected were, cellular growth and proliferation, angiogenesis, lipid metabolism, cellular and tissue morphology and development, inflammation and metabolic exchange. DEG included, FST, SLC45A2, MMP19, FADS1 and GALNT6. Conclusions This study highlights, some of the molecular mechanisms potentially controlling uterine endometrial function during the mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle, which may contribute to uterine endometrial mediated impaired fertility in cattle. Differentially expressed genes are potential candidate genes for the identification of genetic variation influencing cow fertility, which may be incorporated into future breeding programmes. PMID:24669966

2014-01-01

120

In vivo functional properties of juxtaglomerular neurons in the mouse olfactory bulb  

PubMed Central

Juxtaglomerular neurons represent one of the largest cellular populations in the mammalian olfactory bulb yet their role for signal processing remains unclear. We used two-photon imaging and electrophysiological recordings to clarify the in vivo properties of these cells and their functional organization in the juxtaglomerular space. Juxtaglomerular neurons coded for many perceptual characteristics of the olfactory stimulus such as (1) identity of the odorant, (2) odorant concentration, (3) odorant onset, and (4) offset. The odor-responsive neurons clustered within a narrow area surrounding the glomerulus with the same odorant specificity, with ~80% of responding cells located ?20 ?m from the glomerular border. This stereotypic spatial pattern of activated cells persisted at different odorant concentrations and was found for neurons both activated and inhibited by the odorant. Our data identify a principal glomerulus with a narrow shell of juxtaglomerular neurons as a basic odor coding unit in the glomerular layer and underline the important role of intraglomerular circuitry. PMID:23459031

Homma, R.; Kovalchuk, Y.; Konnerth, A.; Cohen, L. B.; Garaschuk, O.

2013-01-01

121

Molecular motor function in axonal transport in vivo probed by genetic and computational analysis in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Bidirectional axonal transport driven by kinesin and dynein along microtubules is critical to neuronal viability and function. To evaluate axonal transport mechanisms, we developed a high-resolution imaging system to track the movement of amyloid precursor protein (APP) vesicles in Drosophila segmental nerve axons. Computational analyses of a large number of moving vesicles in defined genetic backgrounds with partial reduction or overexpression of motor proteins enabled us to test with high precision existing and new models of motor activity and coordination in vivo. We discovered several previously unknown features of vesicle movement, including a surprising dependence of anterograde APP vesicle movement velocity on the amount of kinesin-1. This finding is largely incompatible with the biophysical properties of kinesin-1 derived from in vitro analyses. Our data also suggest kinesin-1 and cytoplasmic dynein motors assemble in stable mixtures on APP vesicles and their direction and velocity are controlled at least in part by dynein intermediate chain. PMID:22398725

Reis, Gerald F.; Yang, Ge; Szpankowski, Lukasz; Weaver, Carole; Shah, Sameer B.; Robinson, John T.; Hays, Thomas S.; Danuser, Gaudenz; Goldstein, Lawrence S. B.

2012-01-01

122

Mouse strain differences in metabolic fluxes and function of ex vivo working hearts.  

PubMed

In mice, genetic background is known to influence various parameters, including cardiac function. Its impact on cardiac energy substrate metabolism-a factor known to be closely related to function and contributes to disease development-is, however, unclear. This was examined in this study. In commonly used control mouse substrains SJL/JCrNTac, 129S6/SvEvTac, C57Bl/6J, and C57Bl/6NCrl, we assessed the functional and metabolic phenotypes of 3-mo-old working mouse hearts perfused ex vivo with physiological concentrations of (13)C-labeled carbohydrates (CHO) and a fatty acid (FA). Marked variations in various functional and metabolic flux parameters were observed among all mouse substrains, although the pattern observed differed for these parameters. For example, among all strains, C57Bl/6NCrl hearts had a greater cardiac output (+1.7-fold vs. SJL/JCrNTac and C57Bl/6J; P < 0.05), whereas at the metabolic level, 129S6/SvEvTac hearts stood out by displaying (vs. all 3 strains) a striking shift from exogenous FA (~-3.5-fold) to CHO oxidation as well as increased glycolysis (+1.7-fold) and FA incorporation into triglycerides (+2-fold). Correlation analyses revealed, however, specific linkages between 1) glycolysis, FA oxidation, and pyruvate metabolism and 2) cardiac work, oxygen consumption with heart rate, respectively. This implies that any genetically determined factors affecting a given metabolic flux parameter may impact on the associated functional parameters. Our results emphasize the importance of selecting the appropriate control strain for cardiac metabolic studies using transgenic mice, a factor that has often been neglected. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the diversity of strain-specific cardiac metabolic and functional profiles, particularly the 129S6/SvEvTac, may ultimately disclose new specific metabolic targets for interventions in heart disease. PMID:24186097

Vaillant, Fanny; Lauzier, Benjamin; Poirier, Isabelle; Gélinas, Roselle; Rivard, Marie-Eve; Robillard Frayne, Isabelle; Thorin, Eric; Des Rosiers, Christine

2014-01-01

123

In vivo function and comparative genomic analyses of the Drosophila gut microbiota identify candidate symbiosis factors  

PubMed Central

Symbiosis is often characterized by co-evolutionary changes in the genomes of the partners involved. An understanding of these changes can provide insight into the nature of the relationship, including the mechanisms that initiate and maintain an association between organisms. In this study we examined the genome sequences of bacteria isolated from the Drosophila melanogaster gut with the objective of identifying genes that are important for function in the host. We compared microbiota isolates with con-specific or closely related bacterial species isolated from non-fly environments. First the phenotype of germ-free Drosophila (axenic flies) was compared to that of flies colonized with specific bacteria (gnotobiotic flies) as a measure of symbiotic function. Non-fly isolates were functionally distinct from bacteria isolated from flies, conferring slower development and an altered nutrient profile in the host, traits known to be microbiota-dependent. Comparative genomic methods were next employed to identify putative symbiosis factors: genes found in bacteria that restore microbiota-dependent traits to gnotobiotic flies, but absent from those that do not. Factors identified include riboflavin synthesis and stress resistance. We also used a phylogenomic approach to identify protein coding genes for which fly-isolate sequences were more similar to each other than to other sequences, reasoning that these genes may have a shared function unique to the fly environment. This method identified genes in Acetobacter species that cluster in two distinct genomic loci: one predicted to be involved in oxidative stress detoxification and another encoding an efflux pump. In summary, we leveraged genomic and in vivo functional comparisons to identify candidate traits that distinguish symbiotic bacteria. These candidates can serve as the basis for further work investigating the genetic requirements of bacteria for function and persistence in the Drosophila gut. PMID:25408687

Newell, Peter D.; Chaston, John M.; Wang, Yiping; Winans, Nathan J.; Sannino, David R.; Wong, Adam C. N.; Dobson, Adam J.; Kagle, Jeanne; Douglas, Angela E.

2014-01-01

124

Artemisia scoparia Enhances Adipocyte Development and Endocrine Function In Vitro and Enhances Insulin Action In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Background Failure of adipocytes to expand during periods of energy excess can result in undesirable metabolic consequences such as ectopic fat accumulation and insulin resistance. Blinded screening studies have indicated that Artemisia scoparia (SCO) extracts can enhance adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation in cultured adipocytes. The present study tested the hypothesis that SCO treatment modulates fat cell development and function in vitro and insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue in vivo. Methods In vitro experiments utilized a Gal4-PPAR? ligand binding domain (LBD) fusion protein-luciferase reporter assay to examine PPAR? activation. To investigate the ability of SCO to modulate adipogenesis and mature fat cell function in 3T3-L1 cells, neutral lipid accumulation, gene expression, and protein secretion were measured by Oil Red O staining, qRT-PCR, and immunoblotting, respectively. For the in vivo experiments, diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD containing 1% w/w SCO for four weeks. Body weight and composition, food intake, and fasting glucose and insulin levels were measured. Phospho-activation and expression of insulin-sensitizing proteins in epididymal adipose tissue (eWAT) were measured by immunoblotting. Results Ethanolic extracts of A. scoparia significantly activated the PPAR? LBD and enhanced lipid accumulation in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. SCO increased the transcription of several PPAR? target genes in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells and rescued the negative effects of tumor necrosis factor ? on production and secretion of adiponectin and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in fully differentiated fat cells. DIO mice treated with SCO had elevated adiponectin levels and increased phosphorylation of AMPK? in eWAT when compared to control mice. In SCO-treated mice, these changes were also associated with decreased fasting insulin and glucose levels. Conclusion SCO has metabolically beneficial effects on adipocytes in vitro and adipose tissue in vivo, highlighting its potential as a metabolically favorable botanical supplement. PMID:24915004

Richard, Allison J.; Fuller, Scott; Fedorcenco, Veaceslav; Beyl, Robbie; Burris, Thomas P.; Mynatt, Randall; Ribnicky, David M.; Stephens, Jacqueline M.

2014-01-01

125

Presenilin controls kinesin-1 and dynein function during APP-vesicle transport in vivo  

PubMed Central

Neurons and other cells require intracellular transport of essential components for viability and function. Previous work has shown that while net amyloid precursor protein (APP) transport is generally anterograde, individual vesicles containing APP move bi-directionally. This discrepancy highlights our poor understanding of the in vivo regulation of APP-vesicle transport. Here, we show that reduction of presenilin (PS) or suppression of gamma-secretase activity substantially increases anterograde and retrograde velocities for APP vesicles. Strikingly, PS deficiency has no effect on an unrelated cargo vesicle class containing synaptotagmin, which is powered by a different kinesin motor. Increased velocities caused by PS or gamma-secretase reduction require functional kinesin-1 and dynein motors. Together, our findings suggest that a normal function of PS is to repress kinesin-1 and dynein motor activity during axonal transport of APP vesicles. Furthermore, our data suggest that axonal transport defects induced by loss of PS-mediated regulatory effects on APP-vesicle motility could be a major cause of neuronal and synaptic defects observed in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) pathogenesis. Thus, perturbations of APP/PS transport could contribute to early neuropathology observed in AD, and highlight a potential novel therapeutic pathway for early intervention, prior to neuronal loss and clinical manifestation of disease. PMID:23710041

Gunawardena, Shermali; Yang, Ge; Goldstein, Lawrence S.B.

2013-01-01

126

Presenilin controls kinesin-1 and dynein function during APP-vesicle transport in vivo.  

PubMed

Neurons and other cells require intracellular transport of essential components for viability and function. Previous work has shown that while net amyloid precursor protein (APP) transport is generally anterograde, individual vesicles containing APP move bi-directionally. This discrepancy highlights our poor understanding of the in vivo regulation of APP-vesicle transport. Here, we show that reduction of presenilin (PS) or suppression of gamma-secretase activity substantially increases anterograde and retrograde velocities for APP vesicles. Strikingly, PS deficiency has no effect on an unrelated cargo vesicle class containing synaptotagmin, which is powered by a different kinesin motor. Increased velocities caused by PS or gamma-secretase reduction require functional kinesin-1 and dynein motors. Together, our findings suggest that a normal function of PS is to repress kinesin-1 and dynein motor activity during axonal transport of APP vesicles. Furthermore, our data suggest that axonal transport defects induced by loss of PS-mediated regulatory effects on APP-vesicle motility could be a major cause of neuronal and synaptic defects observed in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) pathogenesis. Thus, perturbations of APP/PS transport could contribute to early neuropathology observed in AD, and highlight a potential novel therapeutic pathway for early intervention, prior to neuronal loss and clinical manifestation of disease. PMID:23710041

Gunawardena, Shermali; Yang, Ge; Goldstein, Lawrence S B

2013-10-01

127

Atypical Membrane Topology and Heteromeric Function of Drosophila Odorant Receptors In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Drosophila olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) each express two odorant receptors (ORs): a divergent member of the OR family and the highly conserved, broadly expressed receptor OR83b. OR83b is essential for olfaction in vivo and enhances OR function in vitro, but the molecular mechanism by which it acts is unknown. Here we demonstrate that OR83b heterodimerizes with conventional ORs early in the endomembrane system in OSNs, couples these complexes to the conserved ciliary trafficking pathway, and is essential to maintain the OR/OR83b complex within the sensory cilia, where odor signal transduction occurs. The OR/OR83b complex is necessary and sufficient to promote functional reconstitution of odor-evoked signaling in sensory neurons that normally respond only to carbon dioxide. Unexpectedly, unlike all known vertebrate and nematode chemosensory receptors, we find that Drosophila ORs and OR83b adopt a novel membrane topology with their N-termini and the most conserved loops in the cytoplasm. These loops mediate direct association of ORs with OR83b. Our results reveal that OR83b is a universal and integral part of the functional OR in Drosophila. This atypical heteromeric and topological design appears to be an insect-specific solution for odor recognition, making the OR/OR83b complex an attractive target for the development of highly selective insect repellents to disrupt olfactory-mediated host-seeking behaviors of insect disease vectors. PMID:16402857

Benton, Richard; Sachse, Silke; Michnick, Stephen W

2006-01-01

128

A preliminary study on the induction of dioestrous ovulation in the mare - a possible method for inducing prolonged luteal phase  

PubMed Central

Background Strong oestrous symptoms in the mare can cause problems with racing, training and handling. Since long-acting progesterone treatment is not permitted in mares at competition (e.g. according to FEI rules), there is a need for methods to suppress unwanted cyclicity. Spontaneous dioestrous ovulations in the late luteal phase may cause a prolongation of the luteal phase in mares. Methods In this preliminary study, in an attempt to induce ovulation during the luteal phase, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (3000 IU) was injected intramuscularly in four mares (experimental group) in the luteal phase when a dioestrous follicle ? 30 mm was detected. A fifth mare included in this group was not treated due to no detectable dioestrous follicles ? 30 mm. Four control mares were similarly injected with saline. The mares were followed with ultrasound for 72 hours post injection or until ovulation. Blood samples for progesterone analysis were obtained twice weekly for one month and thereafter once weekly for another two to four months. Results Three of the hCG-treated mares ovulated within 72 hours after treatment and developed prolonged luteal phases of 58, 68 and 82 days respectively. One treated mare never ovulated after the hCG injection and progesterone levels fell below 3 nmol/l nine days post treatment. Progesterone levels in the control mares were below 3 nmol/l within nine days after saline injection, except for one mare, which developed a spontaneously prolonged luteal phase of 72 days. Conclusion HCG treatment may be a method to induce prolonged luteal phases in the mare provided there is a dioestrous follicle ? 30 mm that ovulates post-treatment. However, the method needs to be tested on a larger number of mares to be able to draw conclusions regarding its effectiveness. PMID:16987391

Hedberg, Ylva; Dalin, Anne-Marie; Santesson, Malin; Kindahl, Hans

2006-01-01

129

In vivo circulation, clearance, and biodistribution of polyglycerol grafted functional red blood cells.  

PubMed

The in vivo circulation of hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG) grafted red blood cells (RBCs) was investigated in mice. The number of HPG molecules grafted per RBC was measured using tritium labeled HPGs ((3)H-HPG) of different molecular weights; the values ranged from 1 × 10(5) to 2 × 10(6) molecules per RBC. HPG-grafted RBCs were characterized in vitro by measuring the electrophoretic mobility, complement mediated lysis, and osmotic fragility. Our results show that RBCs grafted with 1.5 × 10(5) HPG molecules per RBC having molecular weights 20 and 60 kDa have similar characteristics as that of control RBCs. The in vivo circulation of HPG-grafted RBCs was measured by a tail vain injection of (3)H-HPG60K-RBC in mice. The radioactivity of isolated RBCs, whole blood, plasma, different organs, urine and feces was evaluated at different time intervals. The portion of (3)H-HPG60K-RBC that survived the first day in mice (52%) remained in circulation for 50 days. Minimal accumulation radioactivity in organs other than liver and spleen was observed suggesting the normal clearance mechanism of modified RBCs. Animals gained normal weights and no abnormalities observed in necropsy analysis. The stability of the ester-amide linker between the RBC and HPG was evaluated by comparing the clearance rate of (3)H-HPG60K-RBC and PKH-26 lipid fluorescent membrane marker labeled HPG60K-RBCs. HPG modified RBCs combine the many advantages of a dendritic polymer and RBCs, and hold great promise in systemic drug delivery and other applications of functional RBC. PMID:22261097

Chapanian, Rafi; Constantinescu, Iren; Brooks, Donald E; Scott, Mark D; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N

2012-04-01

130

Impact of hydrogel nanoparticle size and functionalization on in vivo behavior for lung imaging and therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Polymer chemistry offers the possibility of synthesizing multifunctional nanoparticles which incorporate moieties that enhance diagnostic and therapeutic targeting of cargo delivery to the lung. However, since rules for predicting particle behavior following modification are not well defined, it is essential that probes for tracking fate in vivo are also included. Accordingly, we designed polyacrylamide-based hydrogel particles of differing sizes, functionalized with a nona-arginine cell-penetrating peptide (Arg9), and labeled with imaging components to assess lung retention and cellular uptake after intratracheal administration. Radiolabeled microparticles (1–5 µm diameter) and nanoparticles (20–40 nm diameter) without and with Arg9 showed diffuse airspace distribution by positron emission tomography imaging. Biodistribution studies revealed that particle clearance and extrapulmonary distribution was, in part, size dependent. Microparticles were rapidly cleared by mucociliary routes but unexpectedly, also through the circulation. In contrast, nanoparticles had prolonged lung retention enhanced by Arg9 and were significantly restricted to the lung. For all particle types, uptake was predominant in alveolar macrophages, and, to a lesser extent, lung epithelial cells. In general, particles did not induce local inflammatory responses, with the exception of microparticles bearing Arg9. Whereas microparticles may be advantageous for short-term applications, nano-sized particles constitute an efficient high-retention and non-inflammatory vehicle for the delivery of diagnostic imaging agents and therapeutics to lung airspaces and alveolar macrophages that can be enhanced by Arg9. Importantly, our results show that minor particle modifications may significantly impact in vivo behavior within the complex environments of the lung, underscoring the need for animal modeling. PMID:19852512

Liu, Yongjian; Ibricevic-Richardson, Aida; Cohen, Joel A.; Cohen, Jessica L.; Gunsten, Sean P.; Frechet, Jean M. J.; Walter, Michael J.; Welch, Michael J.; Brody, Steven L.

2009-01-01

131

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Modulates the Function of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Retinal edema, the accumulation of extracellular fluid in the retina is usually attributed to inner blood retina barrier (BRB) leakage. Vascular endothelial growth factor plays an important role in this process. The effects of VEGF on the outer BRB, the RPE, however, have received limited attention. Here, we present a methodology to assess how VEGF modulates the integrity of the RPE barrier in vivo. Methods. Control subretinal blebs (1–5 ?L) and blebs containing VEGF (1–100 ?g/mL), placental growth factor (PlGF; 100 ?g/mL), or albumin (100–1000 ?g/mL) were injected into New Zealand White or Dutch Belted rabbits with IOP maintained at 10, 15, or 20 mm Hg. One-hour intravitreal pretreatment with ZM323881 (10 ?M/L) was used to inhibit the VEGF response. Fluid resorption was followed by optical coherence tomography for 1 hour. Retinal pigment epithelium leakage was assessed by fluorescein angiography. Results. Increasing IOP resulted in an elevated rate of bleb resorption, while increasing albumin concentration in the bleb decreased the rate of resorption. Vascular endothelial growth factor, but not PlGF, caused a significant, concentration-dependent decrease in the rate of fluid resorption, which was reversed by ZM323881. Compared with albumin-filled blebs, VEGF-filled blebs showed accelerated early-phase leakage from the choroid. Conclusions. Consistent with a localized modulation of RPE function, VEGF induced a significant reduction in fluid resorption and an increase in hydraulic conductivity. Our results establish VEGF as a major cytokine regulating RPE barrier properties in vivo and indicate that the RPE is a principal factor in the pathogenesis of retinal edema. PMID:24550368

Dahrouj, Mohammad; Alsarraf, Oday; McMillin, Jake C.; Liu, Yueying; Crosson, Craig E.; Ablonczy, Zsolt

2014-01-01

132

Hypoprolactinemia and ovarian function.  

PubMed

Thirty-two patients with ovarian hyperstimulation were randomized to receive bromocriptine or placebo from cycle day 5 onward. Bromocriptine decreased serum and follicular fluid prolactin (PRL), accelerated ovarian follicle growth, increased serum and follicular fluid estradiol, lowered luteal phase progesterone, and shortened the luteal phase length of the cycle. The maximal luteal phase estradiol and progesterone concentrations correlated with each other in the placebo group, but not in the bromocriptine group. These findings indicate that hypoprolactinemia interferes with ovarian function. The unchanged concentrations of gonadotropic hormones and pattern of luteinizing hormone pulsation during bromocriptine suggest direct ovarian effects of hypoprolactinemia. Because PRL suppression enhanced follicular responses and inhibited corpus luteum formation and function, the follicular and corpus luteum actions of PRL may be different. PMID:3342895

Kauppila, A; Martikainen, H; Puistola, U; Reinilä, M; Rönnberg, L

1988-03-01

133

Twins, quadruplexes, and more: functional aspects of native and engineered RNA self-assembly in vivo  

PubMed Central

The primacy and power of RNA in governing many processes of life has begun to be more fully appreciated in both the discovery and inventive sciences. A variety of RNA interactions regulate gene expression, and structural self-assembly underlies many of these processes. The understanding sparked by these discoveries has inspired and informed the engineering of novel RNA structures, control elements, and genetic circuits in cells. Many of these engineered systems are built up fundamentally from RNA–RNA interactions, often combining modular, rational design with functional selection and screening. It is therefore useful to review the particular class of RNA-based regulatory mechanisms that rely on RNA self-assembly either through homomeric (self–self) or heteromeric (self–nonself) RNA–RNA interactions. Structures and sequence elements within individual RNAs create a basis for the pairing interactions, and in some instances can even lead to the formation of RNA polymers. Example systems of dimers, multimers, and polymers are reviewed in this article in the context of natural systems, wherein the function and impact of self-assemblies are understood. Following this, a brief overview is presented of specific engineered RNA self-assembly systems implemented in vivo, with lessons learned from both discovery and engineering approaches to RNA–RNA self-assembly. PMID:23914307

Lease, Richard A.; Arluison, Veronique; Lavelle, Christophe

2013-01-01

134

Humanized large-scale expanded endothelial colony-forming cells function in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

Endothelial progenitor cells are critically involved in essential biologic processes, such as vascular homeostasis, regeneration, and tumor angiogenesis. Endothelial colony–forming cells (ECFCs) are endothelial progenitor cells with robust proliferative potential. Their profound vessel-forming capacity makes them a promising tool for innovative experimental, diagnostic, and therapeutic strategies. Efficient and safe methods for their isolation and expansion are presently lacking. Based on the previously established efficacy of animal serum–free large-scale clinical-grade propagation of mesenchymal stromal cells, we hypothesized that endothelial lineage cells may also be propagated efficiently following a comparable strategy. Here we demonstrate that human ECFCs can be recovered directly from unmanipulated whole blood. A novel large-scale animal protein-free humanized expansion strategy preserves the progenitor hierarchy with sustained proliferation potential of more than 30 population doublings. By applying large-scale propagated ECFCs in various test systems, we observed vascular networks in vitro and perfused vessels in vivo. After large-scale expansion and cryopreservation phenotype, function, proliferation, and genomic stability were maintained. For the first time, proliferative, functional, and storable ECFCs propagated under humanized conditions can be explored in terms of their therapeutic applicability and risk profile. PMID:19321860

Reinisch, Andreas; Hofmann, Nicole A.; Obenauf, Anna C.; Kashofer, Karl; Rohde, Eva; Schallmoser, Katharina; Flicker, Karin; Lanzer, Gerhard; Linkesch, Werner; Speicher, Michael R.

2009-01-01

135

Conserved fate and function of ferumoxides-labeled neural precursor cells in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Recent progress in cell therapy research for brain diseases has raised the need for non-invasive monitoring of transplanted cells. For therapeutic application in multiple sclerosis, transplanted cells need to be tracked both spatially and temporally, in order to assess their migration and survival in the host tissue. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of superparamagnetic iron oxide-(SPIO)-labeled cells has been widely used for high resolution monitoring of the biodistribution of cells after transplantation into the central nervous system (CNS). Here we labeled mouse glial-committed neural precursor cells (NPCs) with the clinically approved SPIO contrast agent ferumoxides and examined their survival and differentiation in vitro, as well as their functional response to environmental signals present within the inflamed brain of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice in vivo. We show that ferumoxides labeling does not affect NPC survival and pluripotency in vitro. Following intracerebroventricular (ICV) transplantation in EAE mice, ferumoxides-labeled NPCs responded to inflammatory cues in a similar fashion as unlabeled cells. Ferumoxides-labeled NPCs migrated over comparable distances in white matter tracts and differentiated equally into the glial lineages. Furthermore, ferumoxides-labeled NPCs inhibited lymph node cell proliferation in vitro, similarly to non-labeled cells, suggesting a preserved immunomodulatory function. These results demonstrate that ferumoxides-based MRI cell tracking is well suited for non-invasive monitoring of NPC transplantation. PMID:19885865

Cohen, Mikhal E; Muja, Naser; Fainstein, Nina; Bulte, Jeff W M; Ben-Hur, Tamir

2010-04-01

136

In vivo and in vitro functional characterization of Andersen's syndrome mutations.  

PubMed

The inward rectifier K(+) channel Kir2.1 carries all Andersen's syndrome mutations identified to date. Patients exhibit symptoms of periodic paralysis, cardiac dysrhythmia and multiple dysmorphic features. Here, we report the clinical manifestations found in three families with Andersen's syndrome. Molecular genetics analysis identified two novel missense mutations in the KCNJ2 gene leading to amino acid changes C154F and T309I of the Kir2.1 open reading frame. Patch clamp experiments showed that the two mutations produced a loss of channel function. When co-expressed with Kir2.1 wild-type (WT) channels, both mutations exerted a dominant-negative effect leading to a loss of the inward rectifying K(+) current. Confocal microscopy imaging in HEK293 cells is consistent with a co-assembly of the EGFP-fused mutant proteins with WT channels and proper traffick to the plasma membrane to produce silent channels alone or as hetero-tetramers with WT. Functional expression in C2C12 muscle cell line of newly as well as previously reported Andersen's syndrome mutations confirmed that these mutations act through a dominant-negative effect by altering channel gating or trafficking. Finally, in vivo electromyographic evaluation showed a decrease in muscle excitability in Andersen's syndrome patients. We hypothesize that Andersen's syndrome-associated mutations and hypokalaemic periodic paralysis-associated calcium channel mutations may lead to muscle membrane hypoexcitability via a common mechanism. PMID:15831539

Bendahhou, Saïd; Fournier, Emmanuel; Sternberg, Damien; Bassez, Guillaume; Furby, Alain; Sereni, Carole; Donaldson, Matthew R; Larroque, Marie-Madeleine; Fontaine, Bertrand; Barhanin, Jacques

2005-06-15

137

Thermal analysis of laser interstitial thermotherapy in ex vivo fibro-fatty tissue using exponential functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A therapeutic procedure to treat small, surface breast tumours up to 10 mm in radius plus a 5 mm margin of healthy, surrounding tissue using laser interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) is currently being investigated. The purpose of this study is to analyse and model the thermal and coagulative response of ex vivo fibro-fatty tissue, a model for breast tissue, during experimental laser interstitial thermotherapy at 980 nm. Laser radiation at 980 nm was delivered interstitially through a diffusing tip optical fibre inserted into a fibro-fatty tissue model to produce controlled heating at powers ranging from 3.2 to 8.0 W. Tissue temperature was measured with thermocouples placed at 15 positions around the fibre. The induced coagulation zone was measured on gross anatomical sections. Thermal analysis indicates that a finite sum of exponential functions is an approximate solution to the heat conduction equation that more accurately predicts the time-temperature dependence in tissue prior to carbonization (T < 100 °C) during LITT than the traditional model using a single exponential function. Analysis of the ellipsoid coagulation volume induced in tissue indicates that the 980 nm wavelength does not penetrate deep enough in fibro-fatty tissue to produce a desired 30 mm diameter (14.1 × 103 mm3) coagulation volume without unwanted tissue liquefaction and carbonization.

Salas, Nelson, Jr.; Manns, Fabrice; Milne, Peter J.; Denham, David B.; Minhaj, Ahmed M.; Parel, Jean-Marie; Robinson, David S.

2004-05-01

138

Ex vivo perfusion of human spleens maintains clearing and processing functions.  

PubMed

The spleen plays a central role in the pathophysiology of several potentially severe diseases such as inherited red cell membrane disorders, hemolytic anemias, and malaria. Research on these diseases is hampered by ethical constraints that limit human spleen tissue explorations. We identified a surgical situation--left splenopancreatectomy for benign pancreas tumors--allowing spleen retrieval at no risk for patients. Ex vivo perfusion of retrieved intact spleens for 4 to 6 hours maintained a preserved parenchymal structure, vascular flow, and metabolic activity. Function preservation was assessed by testing the ability of isolated-perfused spleens to retain Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes preexposed to the antimalarial drug artesunate (Art-iRBCs). More than 95% of Art-iRBCs were cleared from the perfusate in 2 hours. At each transit through isolated-perfused spleens, parasite remnants were removed from 0.2% to 0.23% of Art-iRBCs, a proportion consistent with the 0.02% to 1% pitting rate previously established in artesunate-treated patients. Histologic analysis showed that more than 90% of Art-iRBCs were retained and processed in the red pulp, providing the first direct evidence of a zone-dependent parasite clearance by the human spleen. Human-specific physiologic or pathophysiologic mechanisms involving clearing or processing functions of the spleen can now be experimentally explored in a human tissue context. PMID:16384927

Buffet, Pierre A; Milon, Geneviève; Brousse, Valentine; Correas, Jean-Michel; Dousset, Bertrand; Couvelard, Anne; Kianmanesh, Reza; Farges, Olivier; Sauvanet, Alain; Paye, François; Ungeheuer, Marie-Noëlle; Ottone, Catherine; Khun, Huot; Fiette, Laurence; Guigon, Ghislaine; Huerre, Michel; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; David, Peter H

2006-05-01

139

Caspase inhibitors promote vestibular hair cell survival and function after aminoglycoside treatment in vivo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sensory hair cells of the inner ear undergo apoptosis after acoustic trauma or aminoglycoside antibiotic treatment, causing permanent auditory and vestibular deficits in humans. Previous studies have demonstrated a role for caspase activation in hair cell death and ototoxic injury that can be reduced by concurrent treatment with caspase inhibitors in vitro. In this study, we examined the protective effects of caspase inhibition on hair cell death in vivo after systemic injections of aminoglycosides. In one series of experiments, chickens were implanted with osmotic pumps that administrated the pan-caspase inhibitor z-Val-Ala-Asp(Ome)-fluoromethylketone (zVAD) into inner ear fluids. One day after the surgery, the animals received a 5 d course of treatment with streptomycin, a vestibulotoxic aminoglycoside. Direct infusion of zVAD into the vestibule significantly increased hair cell survival after streptomycin treatment. A second series of experiments determined whether rescued hair cells could function as sensory receptors. Animals treated with streptomycin displayed vestibular system impairment as measured by a greatly reduced vestibulo-ocular response (VOR). In contrast, animals that received concurrent systemic administration of zVAD with streptomycin had both significantly greater hair cell survival and significantly increased VOR responses, as compared with animals treated with streptomycin alone. These findings suggest that inhibiting the activation of caspases promotes the survival of hair cells and protects against vestibular function deficits after aminoglycoside treatment.

Matsui, Jonathan I.; Haque, Asim; Huss, David; Messana, Elizabeth P.; Alosi, Julie A.; Roberson, David W.; Cotanche, Douglas A.; Dickman, J. David; Warchol, Mark E.

2003-01-01

140

In vivo visualization of endolyphatic hydrops in patients with Meniere's disease: correlation with audiovestibular function.  

PubMed

Our objective is to determine whether the degree of endolymphatic hydrops as it is detected in vivo in patients with definite Meniere's disease correlates with audiovestibular function. In this prospective study, 37 patients with definite Meniere's disease according to AAO-HNS criteria were included. Intratympanic contrast enhanced temporal bone MRI was performed using a 3D FLAIR protocol. The degree of endolymphatic hydrops in the cochlea and the vestibulum was graded on a Likert scale (0-3). The degree of hydrops was then analyzed with respect to its correlation with audiometric hearing levels, electrocochleographic SP/AP ratios, interaural amplitude ratios of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and degree of horizontal semicircular canal paresis on caloric irrigation. There was a significant correlation between the degree of hydrops on the one hand and the averaged hearing level at 0.25-1 and 0.5-3 kHz and the vestibular evoked myogenic potential interaural amplitude ratio on the other hand. A trend toward a correlation was noticed between the hydrops and the caloric response, no correlation was noticed between the hydrops and the SP/AP ratio. The degree of endolymphatic hydrops correlates with a progressive loss of auditory and sacculus function in patients with Meniere`s disease. PMID:21431434

Gürkov, Robert; Flatz, Wilhem; Louza, Julia; Strupp, Michael; Krause, Eike

2011-12-01

141

Corpora lutea of pregnant and pseudopregnant domestic cats reveal similar steroidogenic capacities during the luteal life span.  

PubMed

In domestic cats, luteal phases of pregnancy and pseudopregnancy (non-pregnant luteal phase) differ in the course and level of plasma progesterone (P4). Therefore, we assumed differences in luteal steroidogenic capacities. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of intraluteal steroid biogenesis in the domestic cat. We quantitatively measured relative mRNA levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR), cytochrome P450 oxidases (CYP), hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSD), steroid reductase (SRD) and enzymes involved in sulfoconjugation of steroids, i.e. sulfotransferase (SULT) and sulfatase (STS). Protein expression was analysed by Western Blot for HSD3B. Additionally, intraluteal steroid contents were determined. During the pseudopregnant luteal phase, expression of STAR (p=0.005), HSD3B1 (p<0.0001), CYP19A1 (p<0.0001) and HSD17B7 (p=0.008) decreased from formation of the corpus luteum (CL) onwards. HSD3B protein expression was highest in the development/maintenance stage of CL and declined during the subsequent luteal phase of pregnancy and pseudopregnancy. This was in accordance with decreasing intraluteal levels of P4, oestrogens and androgens. In contrast, expression of SRD5A1 (p<0.001) increased with progression through stages of the pseudopregnant CL, being indicative of P4 metabolism via an alternate pathway to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Compared to the formation stage, expression of SULT1E1 was higher in all other luteal stages of pseudopregnancy (p=0.004), implying a potential sulfoconjugation of oestrogens. Expression of CYP11A1 and CYP17A1 was unaffected by the luteal stage (p>0.05), suggesting a permanent capacity of cat CL to convert progestogens via androgen and oestrogen pathways. In general, mRNA expression profiles of steroidogenic enzymes during the pregnant luteal phase reflected the pseudopregnancy profiles. Intraluteal oestrogen (p<0.0001) and androgen (p=0.008) levels were higher in the formation stage compared to the following luteal stages of pseudopregnancy. Concentrations of P4 were higher in the development/maintenance compared to the regression stages (p=0.01). We conclude that cat CL of the same histomorphological stage are characterised by identical steroidogenic capacities independently of an on-going pregnancy. PMID:25138635

Zschockelt, Lina; Amelkina, Olga; Siemieniuch, Marta J; Koster, Stefanie; Jewgenow, Katarina; Braun, Beate C

2014-10-01

142

In vivo imaging of synaptic function in the central nervous system: II. Mental and affective disorders.  

PubMed

This review gives an overview of those in vivo imaging studies on synaptic neurotransmission, which so far have been performed on patients with mental and affective disorders. Thereby, the focus is on disease-related deficiencies within the functional entities of the dopaminergic, serotonergic, cholinergic, histaminergic, glutamatergic, or GABAergic synapse. So far, in vivo investigations have yielded rather inconsistent results on the dysfunctions of specific synaptic constituents in the pathophysiology of the diseases covered by this overview. Among the more congruent results are the findings of increased synthesis (8 out of a total of 12 reports) and release of dopamine (4 out of 4 reports) in the striatum of schizophrenic patients, which supports the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. Results on both dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission are inconsistent in both major depressive disorder and bipolar illness, and fail to clearly agree with the dopamine and/or serotonin hypothesis of depression. The majority of in vivo findings suggest no alterations (25 out of a total of 50 reports on serotonin synthesis, transporter as well as receptor binding) rather than a deficiency (merely 13 out of these 50 reports) of cortical serotonergic neurotransmission in major depression, whereas a decrease of cortical serotonergic neurotransmission (3 out of a total on 5 reports) can be assumed in bipolar illness. In borderline personality disorder, an increased binding of serotonin transporter binding was observed (merely 1 report). Due to the limited evidence, this result only with due caution may be interpreted as an indication for increased availability of serotonin in the synaptic cleft. Patients with Tourette syndrome exhibited increases of DAT binding in the neostriatum (5 out of 10 reports) increases of dopamine storage and dopamine release in the ventral striatum (1 report, each). Moreover, striatal D2 receptor binding was found to be decreased in advanced stages of the disease. Results, tentatively, may be interpreted in terms of an increased dopaminergic neurotransmission in the mesolimbic system. There is limited evidence of decreased dopamine synthesis in both children and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (4 out of a total of 10 reports). These findings as well as the reduction of striatal dopamine release observed in adults (merely 1 report) are in line with the notion of mesocortical dopaminergic hypofunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Thereby, however, in children, results on dopamine synthesis indicate a deficiency in the ventral tegmentum rather than in the prefrontal cortex, whereas, with increasing age, the prefrontal cortex rather than the sites of origin of DAergic innervation become predominantly affected (merely 1 report, each). In anxiety disorders, varying results have been obtained for both pre- and/or postsynaptic dopaminergic, serotonergic and GABAergic binding sites. Thereby, results on posttraumatic stress disorder are homogenous reporting a decrease of GABA A receptor binding in all investigated brain regions including striatum, thalamus, neocortex and limbic system (2 out of 2 reports, each). Moreover, patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder displayed increases of dopamine transporter binding (2 out of 4 reports) and decreases of both D1 (merely 1 report) and D2 receptor binding (4 out of 5 reports), respectively. These findings, tentatively, may be interpreted in terms of an increased availability of synaptic dopamine in the neostriatum, which is compensated for both pre- and postsynaptically by increasing dopamine reuptake into the presynaptic terminal, and decreasing (inhibitory) signal transduction of efferent fibers. The observed reduction of GABA A receptor binding in frontocortical neurons (in 11 out of a total of 21 reports on anxiety disorders) is in line with this assumption. The inconsistency (and, partially, also incompleteness) of in vivo findings on mental and affective disorders constitutes a major result of this overview. Discrepancies

Nikolaus, Susanne; Antke, Christina; Müller, Hans-Wilhelm

2009-12-01

143

Soil engineering in vivo: harnessing natural biogeochemical systems for sustainable, multi-functional engineering solutions  

PubMed Central

Carbon sequestration, infrastructure rehabilitation, brownfields clean-up, hazardous waste disposal, water resources protection and global warming—these twenty-first century challenges can neither be solved by the high-energy consumptive practices that hallmark industry today, nor by minor tweaking or optimization of these processes. A more radical, holistic approach is required to develop the sustainable solutions society needs. Most of the above challenges occur within, are supported on, are enabled by or grown from soil. Soil, contrary to conventional civil engineering thought, is a living system host to multiple simultaneous processes. It is proposed herein that ‘soil engineering in vivo’, wherein the natural capacity of soil as a living ecosystem is used to provide multiple solutions simultaneously, may provide new, innovative, sustainable solutions to some of these great challenges of the twenty-first century. This requires a multi-disciplinary perspective that embraces the science of biology, chemistry and physics and applies this knowledge to provide multi-functional civil and environmental engineering designs for the soil environment. For example, can native soil bacterial species moderate the carbonate cycle in soils to simultaneously solidify liquefiable soil, immobilize reactive heavy metals and sequester carbon—effectively providing civil engineering functionality while clarifying the ground water and removing carbon from the atmosphere? Exploration of these ideas has begun in earnest in recent years. This paper explores the potential, challenges and opportunities of this new field, and highlights one biogeochemical function of soil that has shown promise and is developing rapidly as a new technology. The example is used to propose a generalized approach in which the potential of this new field can be fully realized. PMID:20829246

DeJong, Jason T.; Soga, Kenichi; Banwart, Steven A.; Whalley, W. Richard; Ginn, Timothy R.; Nelson, Douglas C.; Mortensen, Brina M.; Martinez, Brian C.; Barkouki, Tammer

2011-01-01

144

Quantifying long-term microelectrode array functionality using chronic in vivo impedance testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term acquisition of high-quality neural recordings is a cornerstone of neuroprosthetic system design. Mitigating the experimental variability of chronically implanted arrays has been a formidable task because the sensor recording sites can be influenced by biotic and abiotic responses. Several studies have implicated changes in electrical interface impedance as a preliminary marker to infer electrode viability. Microelectrode impedance plays an important role in the monitoring of low amplitude and high-resolution extracellular neural signals. In this work, we seek to quantify long-term microelectrode array functionality and derive an impedance-based predictor for electrode functionality that correlates the recording site electrical properties with the functional neuronal recordings in vivo. High temporal resolution metrics of this type would allow one to assess, predict, and improve electrode performance in the future. In a large cohort of animals, we performed daily impedance measurements and neural signal recordings over long periods (up to 21 weeks) of time in rats using tungsten microwire arrays implanted into the somatosensory cortex. This study revealed that there was a time-varying trend in the modulation of impedance that was related to electrode performance. Single units were best detected from electrodes at time points when the electrode entered into the 40-150 K? impedance range. This impedance trend was modeled across the full cohort of animals to predict future electrode performance. The model was tested on data from all animals and was able to provide predictions of electrode performance chronically. Insight from this study can be combined with knowledge of electrode materials and histological analysis to provide a more comprehensive predictive model of electrode failure in the future.

Prasad, Abhishek; Sanchez, Justin C.

2012-04-01

145

Advanced Molecular Profiling in Vivo Detects Novel Function of Dickkopf-3 in the Regulation of Bone Formation  

E-print Network

development(1) and fracture healing.(2) Endochondral bone formation is a multistep process that involves to verify and understand the complexity of endochondral bone forma- tion. In a rat fracture model, severalAdvanced Molecular Profiling in Vivo Detects Novel Function of Dickkopf-3 in the Regulation of Bone

Domany, Eytan

146

Water Sorption-desorption Test of the Skin in Vivo for Functional Assessment of the Stratum Corneum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the evidence from previous studies that the hydration state of the skin surface can be evaluated quickly and quantitatively in terms of conductance to the high frequency electric current of 3.5 MHz, a simple in vivo function test has been established that furnishes information on the hygroscopic property and water-holding capacity of the stratum corneum in a few

Hachiro Tagami; Yuko Kanamaru; Kunio Inoue; Shoko Suehisa; Fumio Inoue; Keiji Iwatsuki; Kohdo Yoshikuni; Mizuho Yamada

1982-01-01

147

Development of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for in vivo Functional Imaging of Biological Tissues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical coherence tomography is a rapidly developing optical imaging modality capable of noninvasively providing depth resolved information of biological tissue at micrometer scale. In this thesis, we described several OCT technologies that can be used to double the imaging depth, realize functional vasculature imaging of biological tissue and increase the imaging speed of OCT system. Aim 1: Use of a scanner to introduce spatial frequency modulation to OCT spectral interferograms for in vivo full-range Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. A novel method was developed that could easily introduce a modulation frequency onto the X-direction (i.e., B-scan) of the FDOCT scanning system, enabling full-range Fourier-domain Optical Coherence Tomography (frFDOCT). Compared to the conventional FDOCT system, the newly developed frFDOCT system can provide increased system sensitivity and deeper imaging depth. The previous technology that can achieve frFDOCT either needed multiple steps for data capturing, which is time consuming, or required additional components which increased the system's complexity. The newly developed method generates a modulation spatial frequency in the spectral interferogram by simply offsetting the probe beam at the X-scanner. Aim 2: Using optical micro-angiography to achieve in vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids. Optical Micro-Angiography (OMAG) is a functional extension of FDOCT technology. It can achieve visualization of vasculature network of biological tissue. In order to apply the OMAG method to image vasculature map of human retina and choroid, a phase compensation algorithm was developed, which could minimize the motion artifacts generated by the movements of human eye and head. Aim 3: Developing ultrahigh sensitive optical micro-angiography to achieve micro vasculature imaging of biological tissue. To improve the vasculature image quality, we developed ultrahigh sensitive OMAG (UHS-OMAG). Unlike conventional OMAG, UHS-OMAG applied the OMAG algorithm onto the slow direction of FDOCT scan (Y-direction). Because the time interval between adjacent B-frames is much longer than that between adjacent A-lines, UHS-OMAG can achieve much higher flow sensitivity compared to the conventional OMAG. In addition, the UHS-OMAG usually employed high frame rate (typically 300 frames per second) to achieve 3D scan, it cost much less time to finish one 3D scan compared to the traditional OMAG. However, when it was applied to visualize vasculature map of human tissue, the motion artifacts caused by the inevitable movements is still the biggest challenge. Based on the phase difference calculated from two adjacent B-frames, a new phase compensation algorithm was developed. Aim 4: Developing ultrahigh speed Spectral Domain OCT system through sequentially controlling two high speed line scan CMOS cameras. Two identical high speed line cameras were employed to build two home build high speed spectrometers. Through sequentially controlling the reading time period of two cameras, the imaging speed of the whole system could reach twice higher than the single camera system. The newly built 800 nm SDOCT system which can work at 500, 000 Hz A-lines capturing speed was then used to achieve in vivo 3D imaging in both high speed and large field of view mode. In addition, through combining with the OMAG algorithm, the newly developed system is capable of providing detailed micro-vasculature imaging of human retina and optic nerve head. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

An, Lin

148

Simulated conditions of microgravity suppress progesterone production by luteal cells of the pregnant rat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this study was to assess whether simulated conditions of microgravity induce changes in the production of progesterone by luteal cells of the pregnant rat ovary using an in vitro model system. The microgravity environment was simulated using either a high aspect ratio vessel (HARV) bioreactor with free fall or a clinostat without free fall of cells. A mixed population of luteal cells isolated from the corpora lutea of day 8 pregnant rats was attached to cytodex microcarrier beads (cytodex 3). These anchorage dependent cells were placed in equal numbers in the HARV or a spinner flask control vessel in culture conditions. It was found that HARV significantly reduced the daily production of progesterone from day 1 through day 8 compared to controls. Scanning electron microscopy showed that cells attached to the microcarrier beads throughout the duration of the experiment in both types of culture vessels. Cells cultured in chamber slide flasks and placed in a clinostat yielded similar results when compared to those in the HARV. Also, when they were stained by Oil Red-O for lipid droplets, the clinostat flasks showed a larger number of stained cells compared to control flasks at 48 h. Further, the relative amount of Oil Red-O staining per milligram of protein was found to be higher in the clinostat than in the control cells at 48 h. It is speculated that the increase in the level of lipid content in cells subjected to simulated conditions of microgravity may be due to a disruption in cholesterol transport and/or lesions in the steroidogenic pathway leading to a fall in the synthesis of progesterone. Additionally, the fall in progesterone in simulated conditions of microgravity could be due to apoptosis of luteal cells.

Bhat, G. K.; Yang, H.; Sridaran, R.

2001-01-01

149

In vivo functional analysis of the Dicistroviridae intergenic region internal ribosome entry sites  

PubMed Central

Some viral and cellular messages use an alternative mechanism to initiate protein synthesis that involves internal recruitment of the ribosome to an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). The Dicistroviridae intergenic regions (IGR) have been studied as model IRESs to understand the mechanism of IRES-mediated translation. In this study, the in vivo activity of IGR IRESs were compared. Our analysis demonstrates that Class I and II IGR IRESs have comparable translation efficiency in yeast and that Class II is significantly more active in mammalian cells. Furthermore, while Class II IGR IRES activity was enhanced in yeast grown at a higher temperature, temperature did not affect IGR IRES activity in mammalian cells. This suggests that Class II IRESs may not function optimally with yeast ribosomes. Examination of chimeric IGR IRESs, established that the IRES strength and temperature sensitivity are mediated by the ribosome binding domain. In addition, the sequence of the first translated codon is also an important determinant of IRES activity. Our findings provide us with a comprehensive overview of IGR IRES activities and allow us to begin to understand the differences between Classes I and II IGR IRESs. PMID:21646337

Hertz, Marla I.; Thompson, Sunnie R.

2011-01-01

150

Localization of recombination proteins and Srs2 reveals anti-recombinase function in vivo  

PubMed Central

Homologous recombination (HR), although an important DNA repair mechanism, is dangerous to the cell if improperly regulated. The Srs2 “anti-recombinase” restricts HR by disassembling the Rad51 nucleoprotein filament, an intermediate preceding the exchange of homologous DNA strands. Here, we cytologically characterize Srs2 function in vivo and describe a novel mechanism for regulating the initiation of HR. We find that Srs2 is recruited separately to replication and repair centers and identify the genetic requirements for recruitment. In the absence of Srs2 activity, Rad51 foci accumulate, and surprisingly, can form in the absence of Rad52 mediation. However, these Rad51 foci do not represent repair-proficient filaments, as determined by recombination assays. Antagonistic roles for Rad52 and Srs2 in Rad51 filament formation are also observed in vitro. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Srs2 removes Rad51 indiscriminately from DNA, while the Rad52 protein coordinates appropriate filament reformation. This constant breakdown and rebuilding of filaments may act as a stringent quality control mechanism during HR. PMID:19506039

Burgess, Rebecca C.; Lisby, Michael; Altmannova, Veronika; Krejci, Lumir; Sung, Patrick

2009-01-01

151

Light-induced electron transfer in Arabidopsis cryptochrome-1 correlates with in vivo function.  

PubMed

Cryptochromes are blue light-activated photoreceptors found in multiple organisms with significant similarity to photolyases, a class of light-dependent DNA repair enzymes. Unlike photolyases, cryptochromes do not repair DNA and instead mediate blue light-dependent developmental, growth, and/or circadian responses by an as yet unknown mechanism of action. It has recently been shown that Arabidopsis cryptochrome-1 retains photolyase-like photoreduction of its flavin cofactor FAD by intraprotein electron transfer from tryptophan and tyrosine residues. Here we demonstrate that substitution of two conserved tryptophans that are constituents of the flavin-reducing electron transfer chain in Escherichia coli photolyase impairs light-induced electron transfer in the Arabidopsis cryptochrome-1 photoreceptor in vitro. Furthermore, we show that these substitutions result in marked reduction of light-activated autophosphorylation of cryptochrome-1 in vitro and of its photoreceptor function in vivo, consistent with biological relevance of the electron transfer reaction. These data support the possibility that light-induced flavin reduction via the tryptophan chain is the primary step in the signaling pathway of plant cryptochrome. PMID:15774475

Zeugner, Anke; Byrdin, Martin; Bouly, Jean-Pierre; Bakrim, Nadia; Giovani, Baldissera; Brettel, Klaus; Ahmad, Margaret

2005-05-20

152

Functional integrity of the interrenal tissue of yellow perch from contaminated sites tested in vivo  

SciTech Connect

The normal activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI axis) in response to capture is disrupted in fish subjected to life-long exposure to heavy metals, PCBs and PAHs. The ability to increase plasma cortisol in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) from sites contaminated by heavy metals and organic compounds, and from a reference site was assessed by the Capture stress test and by the ACTH Challenge test, a new standardized in vivo method designed for field studies. The effects of seasonal factors, such as temperature and gonadal maturity on these tests were investigated. Measures of liver and muscle glycogen and histopathology were made to further characterize the biochemical and structural changes that may occur along with hormonal changes. The Capture stress test showed that an acute source of stress induced a lower cortisol response in fish from the highly contaminated site compared to the reference site, revealing a functional impairment of the HPI axis. The ACTH Challenge test showed that the hormonal responsiveness of the cortisol-secreting interrenal tissue, stimulated by a standard dose of ACTH injected i.p., was lower in fish from the highly contaminated site than the reference site. Spring is the season during which the impairment was the most evident. The possibility of using the reduced capacity of feral fish to respond to a standardized ACTH Challenge as an early bioindicator of toxic stress is discussed.

Girard, C.; Brodeur, J.C.; Hontela, A. [Univ. du Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

1995-12-31

153

[In vivo studies of the main functional systems in the heteronemertean pilidium larva].  

PubMed

There is performed in vivo morphological study of the White Sea heteronemerteans belonging to the type of pilidium pyramidale (conussoidale). Based on the layer-by-layer microshooting with subsequent computer processing, development of the pilidium digestive, nervous, and muscle systems is described from the stage following at once the gastrula to the premetamorphose larva. Peculiarities of structural organization of the main functional systems are revealed depending on the larva size and the stage of formation of imaginal discs. It is first shown that even in the not completely formed pilidium, neurons are located not only in integuments and wall of the digestive tract, but also in the depth of cupola along the central muscle retractor. Their processes are distributed between the main body parts and organs by seeming to perform connections of the apical organ and central muscle retractor with the digestive tract, blades, and the nerve plexus of the cupola wall. In the digestive tract between pharynx and stomach in the formed pilidium, the sphincter is first revealed. It has been shown that in the course of larva development, the non-orderly arranged and poorly developed muscle fibers gradually form in the blade the fan-like, whereas in the cupola wall, the net-like structure. PMID:20799611

Za?tseva, O V; Fliachinskaia, L P

2010-01-01

154

In Vivo Quantification Reveals Extensive Natural Variation in Mitochondrial Form and Function in Caenorhabditis briggsae  

PubMed Central

We have analyzed natural variation in mitochondrial form and function among a set of Caenorhabditis briggsae isolates known to harbor mitochondrial DNA structural variation in the form of a heteroplasmic nad5 gene deletion (nad5?) that correlates negatively with organismal fitness. We performed in vivo quantification of 24 mitochondrial phenotypes including reactive oxygen species level, membrane potential, and aspects of organelle morphology, and observed significant among-isolate variation in 18 traits. Although several mitochondrial phenotypes were non-linearly associated with nad5? levels, most of the among-isolate phenotypic variation could be accounted for by phylogeographic clade membership. In particular, isolate-specific mitochondrial membrane potential was an excellent predictor of clade membership. We interpret this result in light of recent evidence for local adaptation to temperature in C. briggsae. Analysis of mitochondrial-nuclear hybrid strains provided support for both mtDNA and nuclear genetic variation as drivers of natural mitochondrial phenotype variation. This study demonstrates that multicellular eukaryotic species are capable of extensive natural variation in organellar phenotypes and highlights the potential of integrating evolutionary and cell biology perspectives. PMID:22952781

Hicks, Kiley A.; Howe, Dana K.; Leung, Aubrey; Denver, Dee R.; Estes, Suzanne

2012-01-01

155

Phenotypic and in vivo functional characterization of immortalized human fetal liver cells  

PubMed Central

We report the establishment and characterization of immortalized human fetal liver progenitor cells by expression of the Simian virus 40 large T (SV40 LT) antigen. Well-characterized cells at various passages were transplanted into nude mice with acute liver injury and tested for functional capacity. The SV40LT antigen-immortalized fetal liver cells showed a morphology similar to primary cells. Cultured cells demonstrated stable phenotypic expression in various passages, of hepatic markers such as albumin, CK 8, CK18, transcription factors HNF-4? and HNF-1? and CYP3A/7. The cells did not stain for any of the tested cancer-associated markers. Albumin, HNF-4? and CYP3A7 expression was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Flow cytometry showed expression of some progenitor cell markers. In vivo study showed that the cells expressed both fetal and differentiated hepatocytes markers. Our study suggests new approaches to expand hepatic progenitor cells, analyze their fate in animal models aiming at cell therapy of hepatic diseases. PMID:24730442

Patil, Pradeep B.; Begum, Setara; Joshi, Meghnad; Kleman, Marika I; Olausson, Michael

2014-01-01

156

The effects of heat on skin barrier function and in vivo dermal absorption.  

PubMed

Enhanced delivery of ingredients across the stratum corneum (SC) is of great interest for improving the efficacy of topically applied formulations. Various methods for improving dermal penetration have been reported including galvanic devices and micro-needles. From a safety perspective it is important that such approaches do not compromise SC barrier function. This study investigates the influence of topically applied heat in vivo on the dermal uptake and penetration of a model active, allantoin from gel and lotion formulations. A custom designed device was used to deliver 42°C for 30s daily to human subjects after application of two formulations containing allantoin. The results were compared with sites treated with formulations containing no active and no heat, and a control site. In addition to penetration of allantoin, the integrity of the SC was monitored using trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements. The results showed that just 30s of 42°C topically applied heat was enough to cause significantly more penetration of allantoin from the lotion formulation compared with no application of heat. TEWL data indicated that the integrity of the skin was not compromised by the treatment. However, the application of heat did not promote enhanced penetration of the active from the gel formulation. Vehicle composition is therefore an important factor when considering thermal enhancement strategies for targeting actives to the skin. PMID:24445121

Oliveira, Gabriela; Leverett, Jesse C; Emamzadeh, Mandana; Lane, Majella E

2014-04-10

157

Glycan variants of a respiratory syncytial virus antibody with enhanced effector function and in vivo efficacy  

PubMed Central

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause devastating lower respiratory tract infections in preterm infants or when other serious health problems are present. Immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab (Synagis), a humanized IgG1 mAb, is the current standard of care for preventing RSV infection in at-risk neonates. We have explored the contribution of effector function to palivizumab efficacy using a plant-based expression system to produce palivizumab N-glycan structure variants with high homogeneity on different antibody isotypes. We compared these isotype and N-glycoform variants with commercially available palivizumab with respect to both in vitro receptor and C1q binding and in vivo efficacy. Whereas the affinity for antigen and neutralization activity of each variant were indistinguishable from those of palivizumab, their Fc? receptor binding profiles were very different, which was reflected in either a reduced or enhanced ability to influence the RSV lung titer in challenged cotton rats. Enhanced Fc? receptor binding was associated with reduced viral lung titers compared with palivizumab, whereas abrogation of receptor binding led to a drastic reduction in efficacy. The results support the hypotheses that classic antibody neutralization is a minor component of efficacy by palivizumab in the cotton rat and that antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity activity can significantly enhance the efficacy of this antiviral mAb. PMID:24711420

Hiatt, Andrew; Bohorova, Natasha; Bohorov, Ognian; Goodman, Charles; Kim, Do; Pauly, Michael H.; Velasco, Jesus; Whaley, Kevin J.; Piedra, Pedro A.; Gilbert, Brian E.; Zeitlin, Larry

2014-01-01

158

Exposure to low mercury concentration in vivo impairs myocardial contractile function  

SciTech Connect

Increased cardiovascular risk after mercury exposure has been described but cardiac effects resulting from controlled chronic treatment are not yet well explored. We analyzed the effects of chronic exposure to low mercury concentrations on hemodynamic and ventricular function of isolated hearts. Wistar rats were treated with HgCl{sub 2} (1st dose 4.6 {mu}g/kg, subsequent dose 0.07 {mu}g/kg/day, im, 30 days) or vehicle. Mercury treatment did not affect blood pressure (BP) nor produced cardiac hypertrophy or changes of myocyte morphometry and collagen content. This treatment: 1) in vivo increased left ventricle end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) without changing left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) and heart rate; 2) in isolated hearts reduced LV isovolumic systolic pressure and time derivatives, and {beta}-adrenergic response; 3) increased myosin ATPase activity; 4) reduced Na{sup +}-K{sup +} ATPase (NKA) activity; 5) reduced protein expression of SERCA and phosphorylated phospholamban on serine 16 while phospholamban expression increased; as a consequence SERCA/phospholamban ratio reduced; 6) reduced sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX) protein expression and {alpha}-1 isoform of NKA, whereas {alpha}-2 isoform of NKA did not change. Chronic exposure for 30 days to low concentrations of mercury does not change BP, heart rate or LVSP but produces small but significant increase of LVEDP. However, in isolated hearts mercury treatment promoted contractility dysfunction as a result of the decreased NKA activity, reduction of NCX and SERCA and increased PLB protein expression. These findings offer further evidence that mercury chronic exposure, even at small concentrations, is an environmental risk factor affecting heart function. - Highlights: > Unchanges blood pressure, heart rate, systolic pressure. > Increases end diastolic pressure. > Promotes cardiac contractility dysfunction. > Decreases NKA activity, NCX and SERCA, increases PLB protein expression. > Small concentrations constitutes environmental cardiovascular risk factor.

Furieri, Lorena Barros; Fioresi, Mirian; Junior, Rogerio Faustino Ribeiro [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Bartolome, Maria Visitacion [Department of Physiology, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Fernandes, Aurelia Araujo [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Cachofeiro, Victoria; Lahera, Vicente [Department of Physiology, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Salaices, Mercedes [Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Stefanon, Ivanita [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Vassallo, Dalton Valentim, E-mail: daltonv2@terra.com.br [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Health Science Center of Vitoria-EMESCAM, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

2011-09-01

159

Onset and duration of luteal activity postpartum and their effect on first insemination conception rate in lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

The incidence of different types of luteal activity postpartum and their effect on reproductive performance were studied in 21 postpartum dairy cows. Progesterone concentrations in defatted milk collected 3 times a week were determined by EIA. Reproductive tract examination was undertaken every other week postpartum. Body weight and body condition score (BCS) were measured before and after calving and the average 100-day milk yield was calculated. Nine (42.9%) cows had normal ovarian activity (first luteal activity < or = 50 days postpartum followed by regular cycles), 5 (23.8%) had prolonged luteal phase (PLP; ovarian cycle with luteal activity > or = 20 days pre-service) and in 7 (33.3%) cows the first luteal activity was shown later than 50 days postpartum (DOV). When compared with normal cows, both PLP and DOV had longer interval to first insemination (63.1 +/- 22.0 days versus 77.6 +/- 21.6 and 93.0 +/- 22.3 days, P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively), lower first insemination conception rate (88.9% versus 0.0% and 57.1%, P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively) and greater BCS loss (0.81 +/- 0.2 versus 1.05 +/- 0.21 and 1.04 +/- 0.10, respectively, P<0.01). Cows with PLP showed longer interval to uterine involution than normal and DOV groups (54.0 +/- 8.3 days versus 42.4 +/- 5.5 and 43.3 +/- 8.3 days, respectively, P<0.01) and higher 100-day milk yield (38.8 +/- 2.7 kg versus 33.6 +/- 4.7 and 29.9 +/- 6.1 kg, respectively, P<0.01). In conclusion, more than half of the cows had abnormal luteal activity postpartum, which adversely affected reproductive performance. PMID:16276059

Hommeida, Abdelrahim; Nakao, Toshihiko; Kubota, Hirokazu

2005-10-01

160

In vivo exposure to bicarbonate/lactate- and bicarbonate-buffered peritoneal dialysis fluids improves ex vivo peritoneal macrophage function.  

PubMed

The impact on peritoneal macrophage (PMO) function of acidic lactate-buffered (Lac-PDF [PD4]; 40 mmol/L of lactate; pH 5.2) and neutral-pH, bicarbonate-buffered (TB; 38 mmol/L of bicarbonate; pH 7. 3) and bicarbonate/lactate-buffered (TBL; 25 mmol/L of bicarbonate/15 mmol/L of lactate; pH 7.3) peritoneal dialysis fluids (PDFs) was compared during a study of continuous therapy with PD4, TB, or TBL. During a run-in phase of 6 weeks when all patients (n = 15) were treated with their regular dialysis regimen with Lac-PDF, median PMO tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) release values were 203.6, 89.9, and 115.5 pg TNFalpha/10(6) PMO in the patients subsequently randomized to the PD4, TB, and TBL treatment groups, respectively. Median stimulated TNFalpha values (serum-treated zymosan [STZ], 10 microgram/mL) were 1,894.6, 567.3, and 554.5 pg TNFalpha/10(6) PMO in the same groups, respectively. During the trial phase of 12 weeks, when the three groups of patients (n = 5 per group) were randomized to continuous treatment with PD4, TB, or TBL, median constitutive TNFalpha release values were 204.7, 131.4, and 155.4 pg TNFalpha/10(6) PMO, respectively. Stimulated TNFalpha values (STZ, 10 microgram/mL) were 1,911, 1,832, and 1,378 pg TNFalpha/10(6) PMO in the same groups, respectively. Repeated-measures analysis of variance comparing the run-in phase with the trial phase showed that PMO TNFalpha release was significantly elevated in patients treated with both TB (P = 0.040) and TBL (P = 0.014) but not in patients treated with Lac-PDF (P = 0. 795). These data suggest that patients continuously exposed to bicarbonate- and bicarbonate/lactate-buffered PDFs might have better preserved PMO function and thus improved host defense status. PMID:10620552

Mackenzie, R K; Jones, S; Moseley, A; Holmes, C J; Argyle, R; Williams, J D; Coles, G A; Pu, K; Faict, D; Topley, N

2000-01-01

161

Protease proteomics: revealing protease in vivo functions using systems biology approaches.  

PubMed

Proteases irreversibly modify proteins by cleaving their amide bonds and are implicated in virtually every important biological process such as immunity, development and tissue repair. Accordingly, it is easy to see that deregulated proteolysis is a pathognomic feature of many diseases. Most of the current information available on proteases was acquired using in vitro methods, which reveals molecular structure, enzyme kinetics and active-site specificity. However, considerably less is known about the relevant biological functions and combined roles of proteases in moulding the proteome. Although models using genetically modified animals are powerful, they are slow to develop, they can be difficult to interpret, and while useful, they remain only models of human disease. Therefore, to understand how proteases accomplish their tasks in organisms and how they participate in pathology, we need to elucidate the protease degradome-the repertoire of proteases expressed by a cell, a tissue or an organism at a particular time-their expression level, activation state, their biological substrates, also known as the substrate degradome-the repertoire of substrates for each protease-and the effect of the activity of each protease on the pathways of the system under study. Achieving this goal is challenging because several proteases might cleave the same protein, and proteases also form pathways and interact to form the protease web [Overall, C.M., Kleifeld, O., 2006. Tumour microenvironment - opinion: validating matrix metalloproteinases as drug targets and anti-targets for cancer therapy. Nat. Rev. Cancer 6 (3), 227-239]. Hence, the net proteolytic potential of the degradome at a particular time on a substrate and pathway must also be understood. Proteomics offers one of the few routes to the understanding of proteolysis in complex in vivo systems and especially in man where genetic manipulations are impossible. The aim of this chapter is to review methods and tools that allow researchers to study protease biological functions using proteomics and mass spectrometry. We describe methods to assess protease expression at the messenger RNA level using DNA microarrays and at the protein level using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. We also review methods to reveal and quantify the activity state of proteases and to identify their biological substrates. The information acquired using these high throughput, high content techniques can then be interpreted with different bioinformatics approaches to reveal the effects of proteolysis on the system under study. Systems biology of the protease web-degradomics in the broadest sense-promises to reveal the functions of proteases in homeostasis and in disease states. This will indicate which proteases participate in defined pathologies and will help targeting specific proteases for disease treatments. PMID:18571712

Doucet, Alain; Overall, Christopher M

2008-10-01

162

Maternal separation affects dopamine transporter function in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat: An in vivo electrochemical study  

PubMed Central

Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder characterised by symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a well-characterised model of this disorder and has been shown to exhibit dopamine dysregulation, one of the hypothesised causes of ADHD. Since stress experienced in the early stages of life can have long-lasting effects on behaviour, it was considered that early life stress may alter development of the dopaminergic system and thereby contribute to the behavioural characteristics of SHR. It was hypothesized that maternal separation would alter dopamine regulation by the transporter (DAT) in ways that distinguish SHR from control rat strains. Methods SHR and control Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were subjected to maternal separation for 3 hours per day from postnatal day 2 to 14. Rats were tested for separation-induced anxiety-like behaviour followed by in vivo chronoamperometry to determine whether changes had occurred in striatal clearance of dopamine by DAT. The rate of disappearance of ejected dopamine was used as a measure of DAT function. Results Consistent with a model for ADHD, SHR were more active than WKY in the open field. SHR entered the inner zone more frequently and covered a significantly greater distance than WKY. Maternal separation increased the time that WKY spent in the closed arms and latency to enter the open arms of the elevated plus maze, consistent with other rat strains. Of note is that, maternal separation failed to produce anxiety-like behaviour in SHR. Analysis of the chronoamperometric data revealed that there was no difference in DAT function in the striatum of non-separated SHR and WKY. Maternal separation decreased the rate of dopamine clearance (k-1) in SHR striatum. Consistent with this observation, the dopamine clearance time (T100) was increased in SHR. These results suggest that the chronic mild stress of maternal separation impaired the function of striatal DAT in SHR. Conclusions The present findings suggest that maternal separation failed to alter the behaviour of SHR in the open field and elevated plus maze. However, maternal separation altered the dopaminergic system by decreasing surface expression of DAT and/or the affinity of DAT for dopamine, increasing the time to clear dopamine from the extracellular fluid in the striatum of SHR. PMID:22133315

2011-01-01

163

Microtubule depolymerization normalizes in vivo myocardial contractile function in dogs with pressure-overload left ventricular hypertrophy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: Because initially compensatory myocardial hypertrophy in response to pressure overloading may eventually decompensate to myocardial failure, mechanisms responsible for this transition have long been sought. One such mechanism established in vitro is densification of the cellular microtubule network, which imposes a viscous load that inhibits cardiocyte contraction. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the present study, we extended this in vitro finding to the in vivo level and tested the hypothesis that this cytoskeletal abnormality is important in the in vivo contractile dysfunction that occurs in experimental aortic stenosis in the adult dog. In 8 dogs in which gradual stenosis of the ascending aorta had caused severe left ventricular (LV) pressure overloading (gradient, 152+/-16 mm Hg) with contractile dysfunction, LV function was measured at baseline and 1 hour after the intravenous administration of colchicine. Cardiocytes obtained by biopsy before and after in vivo colchicine administration were examined in tandem. Microtubule depolymerization restored LV contractile function both in vivo and in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: These and additional corroborative data show that increased cardiocyte microtubule network density is an important mechanism for the ventricular contractile dysfunction that develops in large mammals with adult-onset pressure-overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

Koide, M.; Hamawaki, M.; Narishige, T.; Sato, H.; Nemoto, S.; DeFreyte, G.; Zile, M. R.; Cooper G, I. V.; Carabello, B. A.

2000-01-01

164

Enzymatic Characterization and In Vivo Function of Five Terminal Oxidases in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

The ubiquitous opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa has five aerobic terminal oxidases: bo3-type quinol oxidase (Cyo), cyanide-insensitive oxidase (CIO), aa3-type cytochrome c oxidase (aa3), and two cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidases (cbb3-1 and cbb3-2). These terminal oxidases are differentially regulated under various growth conditions and are thought to contribute to the survival of this microorganism in a wide variety of environmental niches. Here, we constructed multiple mutant strains of P. aeruginosa that express only one aerobic terminal oxidase to investigate the enzymatic characteristics and in vivo function of each enzyme. The Km values of Cyo, CIO, and aa3 for oxygen were similar and were 1 order of magnitude higher than those of cbb3-1 and cbb3-2, indicating that Cyo, CIO, and aa3 are low-affinity enzymes and that cbb3-1 and cbb3-2 are high-affinity enzymes. Although cbb3-1 and cbb3-2 exhibited different expression patterns in response to oxygen concentration, they had similar Km values for oxygen. Both cbb3-1 and cbb3-2 utilized cytochrome c4 as the main electron donor under normal growth conditions. The electron transport chains terminated by cbb3-1 and cbb3-2 generate a proton gradient across the cell membrane with similar efficiencies. The electron transport chain of aa3 had the highest proton translocation efficiency, whereas that of CIO had the lowest efficiency. The enzymatic properties of the terminal oxidases reported here are partially in agreement with their regulatory patterns and may explain the environmental adaptability and versatility of P. aeruginosa. PMID:25182500

Arai, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Takuro; Osamura, Tatsuya; Hirai, Takehiro; Sakai, Yoshiaki; Ishii, Masaharu

2014-12-15

165

p53-Targeted LSD1 Functions in Repression of Chromatin Structure and Transcription In Vivo? †  

PubMed Central

Despite years of study focused on the tumor suppressor p53, little is understood about its functions in normal, differentiated cells. We found that p53 directly interacts with lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) to alter chromatin structure and confer developmental repression of the tumor marker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and sequential ChIP of developmentally staged liver showed that p53 and LSD1 cooccupy a p53 response element, concomitant with dimethylated histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me2) demethylation and postnatal repression of AFP transcription. In p53-null mice, LSD1 binding is depleted, H3K4me2 is increased, and H3K9me2 remains unchanged compared to those of the wild type, underscoring the specificity of p53-LSD1 complexes in demethylation of H3K4me2. We performed partial hepatectomy of wild-type mouse liver and induced a regenerative response, which led to a loss of p53, increased H3K4me2, and decreased LSD1 interaction at AFP chromatin, in parallel with reactivation of AFP expression. In contrast, nuclear translocation of p53 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts led to p53 interaction with p21/CIP1 chromatin, without recruitment of LSD1, and to activation of p21/CIP1. These findings reveal that LSD1 is targeted to chromatin by p53, likely in a gene-specific manner, and define a molecular mechanism by which p53 mediates transcription repression in vivo during differentiation. PMID:18573881

Tsai, Wen-Wei; Nguyen, Thi T.; Shi, Yang; Barton, Michelle Craig

2008-01-01

166

In Vivo Functional Assay of a Recombinant Aquaporin in Pichia pastoris  

PubMed Central

The water channel protein PvTIP3;1 (?-TIP) is a member of the major intrinsic protein (MIP) membrane channel family. We overexpressed this eukaryotic aquaporin in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, and immunogold labeling of cellular cryosections showed that the protein accumulated in the plasma membrane, as well as vacuolar and other intracellular membranes. We then developed an in vivo functional assay for water channel activity that measures the change in optical absorbance of spheroplasts following an osmotic shock. Spheroplasts of wild-type P. pastoris displayed a linear relationship between absorbance and osmotic shock level. However, spheroplasts of P. pastoris expressing PvTIP3;1 showed a break in this linear relationship corresponding to hypo-osmotically induced lysis. It is the difference between control and transformed spheroplasts under conditions of hypo-osmotic shock that forms the basis of our aquaporin activity assay. The aquaporin inhibitor mercury chloride blocked water channel activity but had no effect on wild-type yeast. Osmotically shocked yeast cells were affected only slightly by expression of the Escherichia coli glycerol channel GlpF, which belongs to the MIP family but is a weak water channel. The important role that aquaporins play in human physiology has led to a growing interest in their potential as drug targets for treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure, as well as other fluid overload states. The simplicity of this assay that is specific for water channel activity should enable rapid screening for compounds that modulate water channel activity. PMID:16461705

Daniels, Mark J.; Wood, Malcolm R.; Yeager, Mark

2006-01-01

167

SAHA enhances synaptic function and plasticity in vitro but has limited brain availability in vivo and does not impact cognition.  

PubMed

Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs) used for the treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) and under consideration for other indications. In vivo studies suggest reducing HDAC function can enhance synaptic function and memory, raising the possibility that SAHA treatment could have neurological benefits. We first examined the impacts of SAHA on synaptic function in vitro using rat organotypic hippocampal brain slices. Following several days of SAHA treatment, basal excitatory but not inhibitory synaptic function was enhanced. Presynaptic release probability and intrinsic neuronal excitability were unaffected suggesting SAHA treatment selectively enhanced postsynaptic excitatory function. In addition, long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory synapses was augmented, while long-term depression (LTD) was impaired in SAHA treated slices. Despite the in vitro synaptic enhancements, in vivo SAHA treatment did not rescue memory deficits in the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Along with the lack of behavioral impact, pharmacokinetic analysis indicated poor brain availability of SAHA. Broader assessment of in vivo SAHA treatment using high-content phenotypic characterization of C57Bl6 mice failed to demonstrate significant behavioral effects of up to 150 mg/kg SAHA following either acute or chronic injections. Potentially explaining the low brain exposure and lack of behavioral impacts, SAHA was found to be a substrate of the blood brain barrier (BBB) efflux transporters Pgp and Bcrp1. Thus while our in vitro data show that HDAC inhibition can enhance excitatory synaptic strength and potentiation, our in vivo data suggests limited brain availability may contribute to the lack of behavioral impact of SAHA following peripheral delivery. These results do not predict CNS effects of SAHA during clinical use and also emphasize the importance of analyzing brain drug levels when interpreting preclinical behavioral pharmacology. PMID:23922875

Hanson, Jesse E; La, Hank; Plise, Emile; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Ding, Xiao; Hanania, Taleen; Sabath, Emily V; Alexandrov, Vadim; Brunner, Dani; Leahy, Emer; Steiner, Pascal; Liu, Lichuan; Scearce-Levie, Kimberly; Zhou, Qiang

2013-01-01

168

Defective mitochondrial function in vivo in skeletal muscle in adults with Down's syndrome: a 31P-MRS study.  

PubMed

Down's syndrome (DS) is a developmental disorder associated with intellectual disability (ID). We have previously shown that people with DS engage in very low levels of exercise compared to people with ID not due to DS. Many aspects of the DS phenotype, such as dementia, low activity levels and poor muscle tone, are shared with disorders of mitochondrial origin, and mitochondrial dysfunction has been demonstrated in cultured DS tissue. We undertook a phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS) study in the quadriceps muscle of 14 people with DS and 11 non-DS ID controls to investigate the post-exercise resynthesis kinetics of phosphocreatine (PCr), which relies on mitochondrial respiratory function and yields a measure of muscle mitochondrial function in vivo. We found that the PCr recovery rate constant was significantly decreased in adults with DS compared to non-DS ID controls (1.7 ± 0.1 min(-1) vs 2.1 ± 0.1 min(-1) respectively) who were matched for physical activity levels, indicating that muscle mitochondrial function in vivo is impaired in DS. This is the first study to investigate mitochondrial function in vivo in DS using (31)P-MRS. Our study is consistent with previous in vitro studies, supporting a theory of a global mitochondrial defect in DS. PMID:24391872

Phillips, Alexander C; Sleigh, Alison; McAllister, Catherine J; Brage, Soren; Carpenter, T Adrian; Kemp, Graham J; Holland, Anthony J

2013-01-01

169

Defective Mitochondrial Function In Vivo in Skeletal Muscle in Adults with Down's Syndrome: A 31P-MRS Study  

PubMed Central

Down’s syndrome (DS) is a developmental disorder associated with intellectual disability (ID). We have previously shown that people with DS engage in very low levels of exercise compared to people with ID not due to DS. Many aspects of the DS phenotype, such as dementia, low activity levels and poor muscle tone, are shared with disorders of mitochondrial origin, and mitochondrial dysfunction has been demonstrated in cultured DS tissue. We undertook a phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) study in the quadriceps muscle of 14 people with DS and 11 non-DS ID controls to investigate the post-exercise resynthesis kinetics of phosphocreatine (PCr), which relies on mitochondrial respiratory function and yields a measure of muscle mitochondrial function in vivo. We found that the PCr recovery rate constant was significantly decreased in adults with DS compared to non-DS ID controls (1.7±0.1 min?1 vs 2.1±0.1 min?1 respectively) who were matched for physical activity levels, indicating that muscle mitochondrial function in vivo is impaired in DS. This is the first study to investigate mitochondrial function in vivo in DS using 31P-MRS. Our study is consistent with previous in vitro studies, supporting a theory of a global mitochondrial defect in DS. PMID:24391872

Phillips, Alexander C.; Sleigh, Alison; McAllister, Catherine J.; Brage, Soren; Carpenter, T. Adrian; Kemp, Graham J.; Holland, Anthony J.

2013-01-01

170

Characterization of In Vivo Dlg1 Deletion on T Cell Development and Function  

PubMed Central

Background The polarized reorganization of the T cell membrane and intracellular signaling molecules in response to T cell receptor (TCR) engagement has been implicated in the modulation of T cell development and effector responses. In siRNA-based studies Dlg1, a MAGUK scaffold protein and member of the Scribble polarity complex, has been shown to play a role in T cell polarity and TCR signal specificity, however the role of Dlg1 in T cell development and function in vivo remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we present the combined data from three independently-derived dlg1-knockout mouse models; two germline deficient knockouts and one conditional knockout. While defects were not observed in T cell development, TCR-induced early phospho-signaling, actin-mediated events, or proliferation in any of the models, the acute knockdown of Dlg1 in Jurkat T cells diminished accumulation of actin at the IS. Further, while Th1-type cytokine production appeared unaffected in T cells derived from mice with a dlg1germline-deficiency, altered production of TCR-dependent Th1 and Th2-type cytokines was observed in T cells derived from mice with a conditional loss of dlg1 expression and T cells with acute Dlg1 suppression, suggesting a differential requirement for Dlg1 activity in signaling events leading to Th1 versus Th2 cytokine induction. The observed inconsistencies between these and other knockout models and siRNA strategies suggest that 1) compensatory upregulation of alternate gene(s) may be masking a role for dlg1 in controlling TCR-mediated events in dlg1 deficient mice and 2) the developmental stage during which dlg1 ablation begins may control the degree to which compensatory events occur. Conclusions/Significance These findings provide a potential explanation for the discrepancies observed in various studies using different dlg1-deficient T cell models and underscore the importance of acute dlg1 ablation to avoid the upregulation of compensatory mechanisms for future functional studies of the Dlg1 protein. PMID:23028902

Tomassian, Tamar; McMahon, Kerrie-Ann; Humbert, Patrick O.; Silva, Oscar; Round, June L.; Takamiya, Kogo; Huganir, Richard L.

2012-01-01

171

In vivo subsurface morphological and functional cellular and subcellular imaging of the gastrointestinal tract with confocal mini-microscopy  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate a newly developed hand-held confocal probe for in vivo microscopic imaging of the complete gastrointestinal tract in rodents. METHODS: A novel rigid confocal probe (diameter 7 mm) was designed with optical features similar to the flexible endomicroscopy system for use in humans using a 488 nm single line laser for fluorophore excitation. Light emission was detected at 505 to 750 nm. The field of view was 475 ?m × 475 ?m. Optical slice thickness was 7 ?m with a lateral resolution of 0.7 ?m. Subsurface serial images at different depths (surface to 250 ?m) were generated in real time at 1024 × 1024 pixels (0.8 frames/s) by placing the probe onto the tissue in gentle, stable contact. Tissue specimens were sampled for histopathological correlation. RESULTS: The esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine and meso, liver, pancreas and gall bladder were visualised in vivo at high resolution in n = 48 mice. Real time microscopic imaging with the confocal mini-microscopy probe was easy to achieve. The different staining protocols (fluorescein, acriflavine, FITC-labelled dextran and L. esculentum lectin) each highlighted specific aspects of the tissue, and in vivo imaging correlated excellently with conventional histology. In vivo blood flow monitoring added a functional quality to morphologic imaging. CONCLUSION: Confocal microscopy is feasible in vivo allowing the visualisation of the complete GI tract at high resolution even of subsurface tissue structures. The new confocal probe design evaluated in this study is compatible with laparoscopy and significantly expands the field of possible applications to intra-abdominal organs. It allows immediate testing of new in vivo staining and application options and therefore permits rapid transfer from animal studies to clinical use in patients. PMID:17465494

Goetz, Martin; Memadathil, Beena; Biesterfeld, Stefan; Schneider, Constantin; Gregor, Sebastian; Galle, Peter R; Neurath, Markus F; Kiesslich, Ralf

2007-01-01

172

Fucoidan can function as an adjuvant in vivo to enhance dendritic cell maturation and function and promote antigen-specific T cell immune responses.  

PubMed

Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide purified from brown algae, has a variety of immune-modulation effects, including promoting antigen uptake and enhancing anti-viral and anti-tumor effects. However, the effect of fucoidan in vivo, especially its adjuvant effect on in vivo anti-tumor immune responses, was not fully investigated. In this study, we investigated the effect of fucoidan on the function of spleen dendritic cells (DCs) and its adjuvant effect in vivo. Systemic administration of fucoidan induced up-regulation of CD40, CD80 and CD86 expression and production of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-? in spleen cDCs. Fucoidan also promoted the generation of IFN-?-producing Th1 and Tc1 cells in an IL-12-dependent manner. When used as an adjuvant in vivo with ovalbumin (OVA) antigen, fucoidan promoted OVA-specific antibody production and primed IFN-? production in OVA-specific T cells. Moreover, fucoidan enhanced OVA-induced up-regulation of MHC class I and II on spleen cDCs and strongly prompted the proliferation of OVA-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells. Finally, OVA immunization with fucoidan as adjuvant protected mice from the challenge with B16-OVA tumor cells. Taken together, these results suggest that fucoidan can function as an adjuvant to induce Th1 immune response and CTL activation, which may be useful in tumor vaccine development. PMID:24911024

Jin, Jun-O; Zhang, Wei; Du, Jiang-Yuan; Wong, Ka-Wing; Oda, Tatsuya; Yu, Qing

2014-01-01

173

Influence of Red Blood Cells on Lung Function in an ex Vivo Rat Heart-Lung Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crystalloid perfusates commonly are utilized for lung preservation in extracorporeal small animal lung models. However, the function of these grafts is limited. In a new ex-vivo rat heart-lung model the role of red blood cells added to the crystalloid perfusate was investigated. Heart-lung blocks were rapidly excised (n = 9, each group) and the blocks were connected to the extracorporeal

Tatsuo Fukuse; Johannes M. Albes; Yutaka Takahashi; Harald Brandes; Bernard Hausen; Hans-Joachim Schäfers

1995-01-01

174

The effect of PCB126, 77, and 153 on the intracellular mobilization of Ca+2 in bovine granulosa and luteal cells after FSH and LH surge in vitro.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of persistent environmental pollutants that impair cattle reproduction. Among other effects, PCBs can disturb the intracellular mobilization of Ca(+2) in several cell types. Hence, it is possible that they disrupt the transduction of intracellular signals generated from gonadotropin (FSH/LH) receptors. In steroidogenic ovarian cells, a defect in Ca(+2) mobilization may have a detrimental influence on two important processes: the secretion of steroids (E2 or/and P4) and their morphological and functional differentiation. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of PCBs: 126 (dioxin-like) 77 (ambivalent) and 153 (estrogen-like) and a mixture of PCBs (Aroclor 1248) on these processes. Bovine granulosa and luteal cells were incubated for 72 hrs with PCBs (100 ng/ml), followed by Fura 2AM dye, and the fluctuations in intracellular Ca(+2) mobilization after FSH/LH treatment were determined using an inverted microscope coupled with a CCD camera. The intensity and area of fluorescence excited by UV light were detected in the green spectrum of visible light. Aroclor 1248 and PCBs 153 and 77 significantly decreased (P < 0.01-0.001) the effect of FSH on intracellular Ca(+2) mobilization in granulosa cells. In luteal cells, the most effective PCB on this process was PCB 77. The results revealed adverse effects of PCBs on the mobilization of intracellular Ca(+2). Moreover, the estrogen-like congeners were found to more effectively disturb this process than the dioxin-like PCB 126. Hence, it is possible for PCBs to have a negative influence on reproductive processes by affecting calcium mobilization. PMID:24195274

Mlynarczuk, J; Kowalik, M

2013-01-01

175

FALL STrUCTUrE, dYNAMiCS & FUNCTiON Mouse in-vivo MRI probe and proton RF coil for the UWB 900 MRI scanner.  

E-print Network

FALL STrUCTUrE, dYNAMiCS & FUNCTiON Figure 1. Mouse in-vivo MRI probe and proton RF coil for the UWB 900 MRI scanner. In vivo Mr imaging at 21.1 T Victor D. Schepkin, Samuel C. Grant and Timothy A imaging experiments using the Magnet lab world-record 900 uWB magnet. ExpEriMENTAL Testing the in vivo Mri

Weston, Ken

176

In vivo imaging of myocardial cell death using a peptide probe and assessment of long-term heart function.  

PubMed

During acute myocardial infarction (AMI), both apoptosis and necrosis of myocardial cells could occur and lead to left ventricular (LV) functional decline. Here we determined whether in vivo imaging signals of myocardial cell death by ApoPep-1 (CQRPPR), a peptide probe that binds to apoptotic and necrotic cells through histone H1, at an early stage after AMI showed correlation with the long-term heart function. AMI was induced using a rat model of ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. Fluorescence-labeled ApoPep-1 was administered by intravenous injection into rats 2h after reperfusion. Ex vivo imaging of hearts isolated 2h after peptide injection showed higher levels of near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) signals at hearts of I/R rats than those of sham-operated rats. The fluorescent peptide was rapidly cleared from the blood and did not bind to red and white blood cells. Localization of fluorescent ApoPep-1 at the area of cell death was demonstrated by co-staining of myocardial tissue with TUNEL. The intensity of in vivo NIRF imaging signals by homing of ApoPep-1 to injured myocardium of I/R rats obtained 2h after peptide injection (equivalent to 4h after injury) showed strong and moderate correlation with the change in the LV ejection fractions (r(2)=0.82) and the size of the fibrotic area (r(2)=0.64), respectively, observed at four weeks after injury. These results suggest that ApoPep-1-mediated in vivo imaging signals of myocardial cell death, including both apoptosis and necrosis, at an early stage of AMI could be a potential biomarker for assessment of long-term outcome of heart function. PMID:24021357

Acharya, Bodhraj; Wang, Kai; Kim, In-San; Kang, Woongchol; Moon, Chanil; Lee, Byung-Heon

2013-11-28

177

In vivo visuotopic brain mapping with manganese-enhanced MRI and resting-state functional connectivity MRI.  

PubMed

The rodents are an increasingly important model for understanding the mechanisms of development, plasticity, functional specialization and disease in the visual system. However, limited tools have been available for assessing the structural and functional connectivity of the visual brain network globally, in vivo and longitudinally. There are also ongoing debates on whether functional brain connectivity directly reflects structural brain connectivity. In this study, we explored the feasibility of manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) via 3 different routes of Mn(2+) administration for visuotopic brain mapping and understanding of physiological transport in normal and visually deprived adult rats. In addition, resting-state functional connectivity MRI (RSfcMRI) was performed to evaluate the intrinsic functional network and structural-functional relationships in the corresponding anatomical visual brain connections traced by MEMRI. Upon intravitreal, subcortical, and intracortical Mn(2+) injection, different topographic and layer-specific Mn enhancement patterns could be revealed in the visual cortex and subcortical visual nuclei along retinal, callosal, cortico-subcortical, transsynaptic and intracortical horizontal connections. Loss of visual input upon monocular enucleation to adult rats appeared to reduce interhemispheric polysynaptic Mn(2+) transfer but not intra- or inter-hemispheric monosynaptic Mn(2+) transport after Mn(2+) injection into visual cortex. In normal adults, both structural and functional connectivity by MEMRI and RSfcMRI was stronger interhemispherically between bilateral primary/secondary visual cortex (V1/V2) transition zones (TZ) than between V1/V2 TZ and other cortical nuclei. Intrahemispherically, structural and functional connectivity was stronger between visual cortex and subcortical visual nuclei than between visual cortex and other subcortical nuclei. The current results demonstrated the sensitivity of MEMRI and RSfcMRI for assessing the neuroarchitecture, neurophysiology and structural-functional relationships of the visual brains in vivo. These may possess great potentials for effective monitoring and understanding of the basic anatomical and functional connections in the visual system during development, plasticity, disease, pharmacological interventions and genetic modifications in future studies. PMID:24394694

Chan, Kevin C; Fan, Shu-Juan; Chan, Russell W; Cheng, Joe S; Zhou, Iris Y; Wu, Ed X

2014-04-15

178

Psychological Stress Exerts an Adjuvant Effect on Skin Dendritic Cell Functions In Vivo1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological stress affects the pathophysiology of infectious, inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases. However, the mechanisms by which stress could modulate immune responses in vivo are poorly understood. In this study, we report that application of a psychological stress before immunization exerts an adjuvant effect on dendritic cell (DC), resulting in increased primary and memory Ag-specific T cell immune responses. Acute stress

Pierre Saint-Mezard; Cyril Chavagnac; Sophie Bosset; Marius Ionescu; Eric Peyron; Dominique Kaiserlian; Jean-Francois Nicolas; Frederic Berard

2003-01-01

179

Functionalized near-infrared quantum dots for in vivo tumor vasculature imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report the use of near-infrared (NIR)-emitting alloyed quantum dots (QDs) as efficient optical probes for high contrast in vivo imaging of tumors. Alloyed CdTe1 - xSex/CdS QDs were prepared in the non-aqueous phase using the hot colloidal synthesis approach. Water dispersion of the QDs were accomplished by their encapsulation within polyethyleneglycol (PEG)-grafted phospholipid micelles. For tumor-specific delivery in vivo, the micelle-encapsulated QDs were conjugated with the cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (cRGD) peptide, which targets the ?v?3 integrins overexpressed in the angiogenic tumor vasculatures. Using in vivo NIR optical imaging of mice bearing pancreatic cancer xenografts, implanted both subcutaneously and orthotopically, we have demonstrated that systemically delivered cRGD-conjugated QDs, but not the unconjugated ones, can efficiently target and label the tumors with high signal-to-noise ratio. Histopathological analysis of major organs of the treated mice showed no evidence of systemic toxicity associated with these QDs. These experiments suggest that cRGD-conjugated NIR QDs can serve as safe and efficient probes for optical bioimaging of tumors in vivo. Furthermore, by co-encapsulating these QDs and anticancer drugs within these micelles, we have demonstrated a promising theranostic, nanosized platform for both cancer imaging and therapy.

Hu, Rui; Yong, Ken-Tye; Roy, Indrajit; Ding, Hong; Law, Wing-Cheung; Cai, Hongxing; Zhang, Xihe; Vathy, Lisa A.; Bergey, Earl J.; Prasad, Paras N.

2010-04-01

180

Isolation and Ex Vivo Characterization of the Immunophenotype and Function of Microglia/Macrophage Populations in Normal Dog Retina  

PubMed Central

Microglia are the primary resident immune cells of the retina and are involved in the pathogenesis of various retinal diseases. In this study, we optimized experimental conditions to isolate microglia from canine retinas and characterized ex vivo their immunophenotype and function using flow cytometry (FACS). The most suitable protocol included a mechanical dissociation of the retina and an enzymatic digestion using DNAse and collagenase. Extraction was carried out by density gradient centrifugation, and retinal microglia accumulated on distinct interfaces of 1.072 and 1.088 g/mL of a Percoll gradient. Immunophenotypical characterization was performed with monoclonal antibodies CD11b, CD11c, CD18, CD45, CD44, B7-1 (CD80), B7-2 (CD86), CD1c, ICAM-1 (CD54), CD14, MHCI, MHCII, CD68, CD3, CD4, CD8?, and CD21. The most prevalent microglia population in the normal canine retina is CD11bhighCD45low. Functionally, retinal microglia exhibited phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation activities. To conclude, ex vivo examinations of retinal microglia are feasible and possibly reflect the in vivo conditions, avoiding artifacts observed in tissue culture. The established method will be relevant to examine microglia from diseased canine retinas in order to elucidate their roles in degenerative processes. PMID:24664716

Genini, Sem; Beltran, William A.; Stein, Veronika M.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.

2014-01-01

181

In-Vivo functional optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with stimulated Raman scattering fiber-laser source  

PubMed Central

In this paper a multi-wavelength optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) system using stimulated Raman scattering is demonstrated for both phantom and in vivo imaging. A 1-ns pulse width ytterbium-doped fiber laser is coupled into a single-mode polarization maintaining fiber. Discrete Raman-shifted wavelength peaks extending to nearly 800 nm are generated with pulse energies sufficient for OR-PAM imaging. Bandpass filters are used to select imaging wavelengths. A dual-mirror galvanometer system was used to scan the focused outputs across samples of carbon fiber networks, 200?m dye-filled tubes, and Swiss Webster mouse ears. Photoacoustic signals were collected in transmission mode and used to create maximum amplitude projection C-scan images. Double dye experiments and in vivo oxygen saturation estimation confirmed functional imaging potential. PMID:24575346

Hajireza, Parsin; Forbrich, Alexander; Zemp, Roger

2014-01-01

182

Therapeutic nanomedicine based on dual-intelligent functionalized gold nanoparticles for cancer imaging and therapy in vivo.  

PubMed

A novel strategy to construct a therapeutic system based on functionalized AuNPs which can specifically respond to tumor microenvironment was reported. In the therapeutic system, doxorubicin was conjugated to AuNPs via thiol-Au bond by using a peptide substrate, CPLGLAGG, which can be specifically cleaved by the protease. In vivo study shows that after injection of the functionalized AuNPs to the tumor-bearing mice, the over-expressed protease of MMP-2 in tumor tissue and intracellular GSH can lead to the rapid release of the anti-tumor drug (doxorubicin) from the functionalized AuNPs to inhibit tumor growth and realize fluorescently imaging simultaneously. The functionalized AuNPs with tumor-triggered drug release property can further improve the efficacy and reduce side effects significantly. PMID:23932289

Chen, Wei-Hai; Xu, Xiao-Ding; Jia, Hui-Zhen; Lei, Qi; Luo, Guo-Feng; Cheng, Si-Xue; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

2013-11-01

183

Ex vivo assessment of cellular immune function - applications in patient care and clinical studies.  

PubMed

Cellular ex vivo assays have a broad range of applications in patient care and clinical studies, especially when they are standardized and highly sensitive. As compared to analyses by molecular genetics such as the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) testing, they are usually more global. These assays partly mimic the in vivo situation, relying on a complex interaction of various immune cells. For example, they can be used to determine modulation of alloresponses by treatment or underlying disease, diagnose and quantify primary and secondary cellular immunodeficiency, follow-up vaccination responses, measure adoptive transfer of virus-specific immunity via hematopoietic stem cell or liver transplantation, assess allergy, antimicrobial immunity and also rare effector/memory cells directed against tumor antigens. This review will first shortly describe various cellular in vitro methods and then present applications, summarizing some own studies performed within the last 18?years. PMID:25329632

Lindemann, M

2014-11-01

184

The neurexin ligands, neuroligins and leucine-rich repeat transmembrane proteins, perform convergent and divergent synaptic functions in vivo  

PubMed Central

Synaptic cell adhesion molecules, including the neurexin ligands, neuroligins (NLs) and leucine-rich repeat transmembrane proteins (LRRTMs), are thought to organize synapse assembly and specify synapse function. To test the synaptic role of these molecules in vivo, we performed lentivirally mediated knockdown of NL3, LRRTM1, and LRRTM2 in CA1 pyramidal cells of WT and NL1 KO mice at postnatal day (P)0 (when synapses are forming) and P21 (when synapses are largely mature). P0 knockdown of NL3 in WT or NL1 KO neurons did not affect excitatory synaptic transmission, whereas P0 knockdown of LRRTM1 and LRRTM2 selectively reduced AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic currents. P0 triple knockdown of NL3 and both LRRTMs in NL1 KO mice yielded greater reductions in AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated currents, suggesting functional redundancy between NLs and LRRTMs during early synapse development. In contrast, P21 knockdown of LRRTMs did not alter excitatory transmission, whereas NL manipulations supported a role for NL1 in maintaining NMDA receptor-mediated transmission. These results show that neurexin ligands in vivo form a dynamic synaptic cell adhesion network, with compensation between NLs and LRRTMs during early synapse development and functional divergence upon synapse maturation. PMID:21953696

Soler-Llavina, Gilberto J.; Fuccillo, Marc V.; Ko, Jaewon; Sudhof, Thomas C.; Malenka, Robert C.

2011-01-01

185

Dual-function 2-nitroimidazoles as hypoxic cell radiosensitizers and bioreductive cytotoxins: In vivo evaluation in KHT murine sarcomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacies of a series of potential prodrugs of RSU-1069 and its alkyl-aziridine analogues were assessed. These 1-(2-haloethylamino)-3-(2-nitro-1-imidazolyl)-2-propanol compounds were designed to cyclize in vivo to generate 2-nitro-imidazoles with aziridine (RSU-1069) or alkyl-substituted aziridine (RSU-1164, RB-7040, or RSU-1150) functions. Maximum tolerated single, intraperitoneal doses (MTD) were determined in C3H\\/He mice bearing subcutaneous KHT sarcomas, and a drug dose-response relationship for

S. Cole; I. J. Stratford; G. E. Adams; E. M. Fielden; T. C. Jenkins

1990-01-01

186

Fxr1 knockout mice show a striated muscle phenotype: implications for Fxr1p function in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

FXR1 is one of the two known homologues of FMR1. FXR1 shares a high degree\\u000a of sequence homology with FMR1 and also encodes two KH domains and an RGG\\u000a domain, conferring RNA-binding capabilities. In comparison with FMRP, very\\u000a little is known about the function of FXR1P in vivo. Mouse knockout (KO)\\u000a models exist for both Fmr1 and Fxr2. To study

Edwin J. Mientjes; Rob Willemsen; Laura L. Kirkpatrick; Ingeborg M. Nieuwenhuizen; Marianne Hoogeveen-Westerveld; Marcel Verweij; Surya Reis; Barbara Bardoni; Andre T. Hoogeveen; Ben A. Oostra; David L. Nelson

2004-01-01

187

Biocompatible near-infrared fluorescent nanoparticles for macro and microscopic in vivo functional bioimaging  

PubMed Central

Near-infrared (NIR) imaging technology has been widely used for biomedical research and applications, since it can achieve deep penetration in biological tissues due to less absorption and scattering of NIR light. In our research, polymer nanoparticles with NIR fluorophores doped were synthesized. The morphology, absorption/emission features and chemical stability of the fluorescent nanoparticles were characterized, separately. NIR fluorescent nanoparticles were then utilized as bright optical probes for macro in vivo imaging of mice, including sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping, as well as distribution and excretion monitoring of nanoparticles in animal body. Furthermore, we applied the NIR fluorescent nanoparticles in in vivo microscopic bioimaging via a confocal microscope. Under the 635 nm-CW excitation, the blood vessel architecture in the ear and the brain of mice, which were administered with nanoparticles, was visualized very clearly. The imaging depth of our one-photon microscopy, which was assisted with NIR fluorescent nanoprobes, can reach as deep as 500 ?m. Our experiments show that NIR fluorescent nanoparticles have great potentials in various deep-tissue imaging applications.

Chu, Liliang; Wang, Shaowei; Li, Kanghui; Xi, Wang; Zhao, Xinyuan; Qian, Jun

2014-01-01

188

Functional in vivo imaging of cysteine cathepsin activity in murine model of inflammation.  

PubMed

Near-infrared fluorophore (NIRF)-labeled imaging probes are becoming increasingly important in bio-molecular imaging applications, that is, in animal models for tumor imaging or inflammation studies. In this study we showed that the previously introduced chemical concept of 'Reverse Design' represents an efficient strategy for the generation of selective probes for cysteine proteases from chemically optimized protease inhibitors for investigations in proteomic lysates as well as for in vivo molecular imaging studies. The newly developed activity-based probe AW-091 was demonstrated to be highly selective for cathepsin S in vitro and proved useful in monitoring cysteine cathepsin activity in vivo, that is, in zymosan-induced mouse model of inflammation. AW-091 showed higher signal-to-background ratios at earlier time points than the commercially available polymer-based ProSense680 (VisEn Medical) and thus represents an efficient new tool for studying early proteolytic processes leading to various diseases, including inflammation, cancer, and rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, the fluorescent signal originating from the cleaved AW-091 was shown to be reduced by the administration of an anti-inflammatory drug, dexamethasone and by the cathepsin inhibitor E-64, providing a valuable system for the evaluation of small-molecule inhibitors of cathepsins. PMID:21130662

Cagli?, Dejan; Globisch, Anja; Kindermann, Maik; Lim, Ngee-Han; Jeske, Volker; Juretschke, Hans-Paul; Bartnik, Eckart; Weithmann, K Ulrich; Nagase, Hideaki; Turk, Boris; Wendt, K Ulrich

2011-02-01

189

Effect of LH and prolactin on steroid secretion by perifused luteal tissue from pregnant gilts with induced hypoprolactinemia or after passive immunoneutralization of LH.  

PubMed

The study was performed using luteal tissue obtained from 24 pregnant gilts. Group I was treated with bromocriptine (BR) from 37th to 42nd day of gestation. Group II was treated with homologous anti-pLH serum from 37th to 42nd day of pregnancy. Group III was given BR from 67th to 72nd day of gestation. Group IV received anti-pLH serum from 67th to 72nd day of pregnancy. The effect of exogenous LH or prolactin (100 ng/ml) on secretion of progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) by luteal tissue was studied using perifusion technique. Prolactin caused a significant (P < 0.05) increase in P4 secretion by luteal tissue from gilts in groups I and IV. Both LH and prolactin decreased (P < 0.05) estradiol secretion by luteal tissue obtained from gilts from group IV. Luteinizing hormone stimulated (P < 0.05) P4 and E2 secretion by luteal tissue from gilts from groups IV and II, respectively. The results demonstrate that both LH and prolactin have a regulatory role in steroid secretion by luteal tissue of gilts in the mid- and late periods of pregnancy. PMID:1308710

Szafra?ska, B; Grazul-Bilska, A; Prza?a, J

1992-01-01

190

Oral contraceptive effects on food choice during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. A laboratory based study.  

PubMed

Fifty-five women were recruited and assigned to a control group or an oral contraceptive (OC) use group. For the control groups menstrual cycle phase was determined using a menstrual calendar and only participants with regular cycles were recruited. Testing was carried out during a single day of the luteal and follicular phases, where participants were asked to consume and rate sweet and savoury snacks. Participants in the OC group were tested on the equivalent days of their pill calendar. In both groups, the luteal phase induced a greater caloric intake of sweet foods without altering hedonic ratings. No significant interactions between either phase or flavour with OC use on food intake or hedonic food ratings were found. At least for snack items, OC do not seem to alter the caloric intake fluctuations that occur during a normal menstrual cycle. PMID:20561549

Tucci, S A; Murphy, L E; Boyland, E J; Dye, L; Halford, J C G

2010-12-01

191

The rare DAT coding variant Val559 perturbs DA neuron function, changes behavior, and alters in vivo responses to psychostimulants.  

PubMed

Despite the critical role of the presynaptic dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT, SLC6A3) in DA clearance and psychostimulant responses, evidence that DAT dysfunction supports risk for mental illness is indirect. Recently, we identified a rare, nonsynonymous Slc6a3 variant that produces the DAT substitution Ala559Val in two male siblings who share a diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with other studies identifying the variant in subjects with bipolar disorder (BPD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previously, using transfected cell studies, we observed that although DAT Val559 displays normal total and surface DAT protein levels, and normal DA recognition and uptake, the variant transporter exhibits anomalous DA efflux (ADE) and lacks capacity for amphetamine (AMPH)-stimulated DA release. To pursue the significance of these findings in vivo, we engineered DAT Val559 knock-in mice, and here we demonstrate in this model the presence of elevated extracellular DA levels, altered somatodendritic and presynaptic D2 DA receptor (D2R) function, a blunted ability of DA terminals to support depolarization and AMPH-evoked DA release, and disruptions in basal and psychostimulant-evoked locomotor behavior. Together, our studies demonstrate an in vivo functional impact of the DAT Val559 variant, providing support for the ability of DAT dysfunction to impact risk for mental illness. PMID:25331903

Mergy, Marc A; Gowrishankar, Raajaram; Gresch, Paul J; Gantz, Stephanie C; Williams, John; Davis, Gwynne L; Wheeler, C Austin; Stanwood, Gregg D; Hahn, Maureen K; Blakely, Randy D

2014-11-01

192

The Intramembrane Proteases Signal Peptide Peptidase-Like 2a and 2b Have Distinct Functions In Vivo  

PubMed Central

We reported recently that the presenilin homologue signal peptide peptidase-like 2a (SPPL2a) is essential for B cell development by cleaving the N-terminal fragment (NTF) of the invariant chain (li, CD74). Based on this, we suggested that pharmacological modulation of SPPL2a may represent a novel approach to deplete B cells in autoimmune disorders. With regard to reported overlapping substrate spectra of SPPL2a and its close homologue, SPPL2b, we investigated the role of SPPL2b in CD74 NTF proteolysis and its impact on B and dendritic cell homeostasis. In heterologous expression experiments, SPPL2b was found to cleave CD74 NTF with an efficiency simliar to that of SPPL2a. For in vivo analysis, SPPL2b single-deficient and SPPL2a/SPPL2b double-deficient mice were generated and examined for CD74 NTF turnover/accumulation, B cell maturation and functionality, and dendritic cell homeostasis. We demonstrate that in vivo SPPL2b does not exhibit a physiologically relevant contribution to CD74 proteolysis in B and dendritic cells. Furthermore, we reveal that both proteases exhibit divergent subcellular localizations in B cells and different expression profiles in murine tissues. These findings suggest distinct functions of SPPL2a and SPPL2b and, based on a high abundance of SPPL2b in brain, a physiological role of this protease in the central nervous system. PMID:24492962

Schneppenheim, Janna; Huttl, Susann; Mentrup, Torben; Lullmann-Rauch, Renate; Rothaug, Michelle; Engelke, Michael; Dittmann, Kai; Dressel, Ralf; Araki, Masatake; Araki, Kimi; Wienands, Jurgen; Fluhrer, Regina; Saftig, Paul

2014-01-01

193

Delta-catenin is required for the maintenance of neural structure and function in mature cortex in vivo.  

PubMed

Delta-catenin is a brain-specific member of the adherens junction complex that localizes to the postsynaptic and dendritic compartments. This protein is likely critical for normal cognitive function; its hemizygous loss is linked to the severe mental retardation syndrome Cri-du-Chat and it directly interacts with presenilin-1 (PS1), the protein most frequently mutated in familial Alzheimer's disease. Here we examine dendritic structure and cortical function in vivo in mice lacking delta-catenin. We find that in cerebral cortex of 5-week-old mice, dendritic complexity, spine density, and cortical responsiveness are similar between mutant and littermate controls; thereafter, mutant mice experience progressive dendritic retraction, a reduction in spine density and stability, and concomitant reductions in cortical responsiveness. Our results indicate that delta-catenin regulates the maintenance of dendrites and dendritic spines in mature cortex but does not appear to be necessary for the initial establishment of these structures during development. PMID:19914181

Matter, Cheryl; Pribadi, Mochtar; Liu, Xin; Trachtenberg, Joshua T

2009-11-12

194

Functional photoacoustic tomography for non-invasive imaging of cerebral blood oxygenation and blood volume in rat brain in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the multi-wavelength laser-based photoacoustic tomography, non-invasive in vivo imaging of functional parameters, including the hemoglobin oxygen saturation and the total concentration of hemoglobin, in small-animal brains was realized. The high sensitivity of this technique is based on the spectroscopic differences between oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin while its spatial resolution is bandwidth-limited by the photoacoustic signals rather than by the optical diffusion as in optical imaging. The point-by-point distributions of blood oxygenation and blood volume in the cerebral cortical venous vessels, altered by systemic physiological modulations including hyperoxia, normoxia and hypoxia, were visualized successfully through the intact skin and skull. This technique, with its prominent intrinsic advantages, can potentially accelerate the progress in neuroscience and provide important new insights into cerebrovascular physiology and brain function that are of great significance to the neuroscience community.

Wang, Xueding; Xie, Xueyi; Ku, Geng; Stoica, George; Wang, Lihong V.

2005-04-01

195

In Vivo Noninvasive Analysis of Human Forearm Muscle Function and Fatigue: Applications to EVA Operations and Training Maneuvers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Forearm muscle fatigue is one of the major limiting factors affecting endurance during performance of deep-space extravehicular activity (EVA) by crew members. Magnetic resonance (MR) provides in vivo noninvasive analysis of tissue level metabolism and fluid exchange dynamics in exercised forearm muscles through the monitoring of proton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P-31-MRS) parameter variations. Using a space glove box and EVA simulation protocols, we conducted a preliminary MRS/MRI study in a small group of human test subjects during submaximal exercise and recovery and following exhaustive exercise. In assessing simulated EVA-related muscle fatigue and function, this pilot study revealed substantial changes in the MR image longitudinal relaxation times (T2) as an indicator of specific muscle activation and proton flux as well as changes in spectral phosphocreatine-to-phosphate (PCr/Pi) levels as a function of tissue bioenergetic potential.

Fotedar, L. K.; Marshburn, T.; Quast, M. J.; Feeback, D. L.

1999-01-01

196

Kidney Function After In Vivo Gene Silencing of Uncoupling Protein-2 in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Kidney uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2) increases in streptozotocin-induced diabetes, resulting in mitochondria uncoupling, i.e., increased oxygen consumption unrelated to active transport. The present study aimed to investigate the role of UCP-2 for normal and diabetic kidney function utilizing small interference RNA (siRNA) to reduce protein expression. Diabetic animals had increased glomerular filtration rate and kidney oxygen consumption, resulting in decreased oxygen tension and transported sodium per consumed oxygen. UCP-2 protein levels decreased 2 and 50% after UCP-2 siRNA administration in control and diabetic animals respectively. Kidney function was unaffected by in vivo siRNA-mediated gene silencing of UCP-2. The reason for the lack of effect of reducing UCP-2 is presently unknown but may involve compensatory mitochondrial uncoupling by the adenosine nucleotide transporter. PMID:22879036

Welch, William J.; Wilcox, Christopher S.; Palm, Fredrik

2014-01-01

197

Control of progesterone production in small and large bovine luteal cells separated by flow cytometry.  

PubMed

Corpora lutea were collected from Holstein heifers on Days 10 and 12 of the oestrous cycle and the cells were dispersed with collagenase. The dispersed cells were separated into preparations of highly purified (90-99%) small (less than 20 microns) and large (greater than 25 microns) luteal cells by unit gravity sedimentation and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Net progesterone accumulation by 1 x 10(5) small cells and 1 x 10(3) large cells during 2 and 4 h incubations, respectively, were measured after additions of LH, PGF-2 alpha, and phorbol esters, alone and in combination. Progesterone synthesis was increased (P less than 0.05) by phorbol dibutyrate (PBt2) or PGF-2 alpha (P less than 0.05) in small, but not in large, luteal cells (10.1 +/- 3.0 and 18.1 +/- 5.0 ng/10(5) cells for 0 and 50 nM-PBt2, and 19.9 +/- 3.2 and 44.2 +/- 9.3 ng/10(5) cells for 0 and 1 microgram PGF-2 alpha/ml). The previously reported stimulatory effects of PKC activation and PGF-2 alpha addition to total dispersed cell preparations are therefore entirely attributable to the small, theca-derived cells. Small cells responded to low levels of LH (9.1 +/- 1.1, 69.0 +/- 5.4 and 154.7 +/- 41.4 ng/10(5) cells for 0, 1 and 5 ng LH/ml, respectively, P less than 0.05), while large cells responded only to high levels of LH (1635 +/- 318, 2662 +/- 459 and 3386 +/- 335 pg/10(3) cells for 0, 100 and 1000 ng LH/ml, respectively, P less than 0.05). PGF-2 alpha inhibited LH-, 8-Br-cAMP- and forskolin-stimulated progesterone synthesis in the large cells (3052 +/- 380, 3498 +/- 418, 3202 +/- 391 pg/10(3) cells for 1 microgram LH/ml, and 0.5 mM-8-Br-cAMP, and 1 microM-forskolin respectively and 1750 +/- 487, 2255 +/- 468, 2165 +/- 442 pg/10(3) cells for PGF-2 alpha + LH, PGF-2 alpha + 8-Br-cAMP and PGF-2 alpha + forskolin, respectively), indicating that the inhibitory effect of PGF-2 alpha on progesterone synthesis in large cells occurs at a site distal to cAMP generation. These results suggest that the large cells are the targets of the luteolytic effects of PGF-2 alpha, while the small cells are responsible for the previously reported luteotrophic effect of PGF-2 alpha in vitro. PMID:3163003

Alila, H W; Dowd, J P; Corradino, R A; Harris, W V; Hansel, W

1988-03-01

198

Inhibition of polymorphonuclear leucocyte functions in vivo by Yersinia enterocolitica lipopolysaccharide.  

PubMed Central

A single intravenous injection of 5 micrograms of Yersinia enterocolitica lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhibits rabbit polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) chemotaxis, enzyme secretion, and respiratory burst activation in response to partially purified rabbit C5a and leucotriene B4 (LTB4). Respiratory burst activation is also inhibited in response to platelet activating factor (PAF). In contrast, all these responses to n-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) remain unaltered. This LPS does not modulate PMN activation in vitro or activate the respiratory burst. Thus Y enterocolitica LPS acts in vivo by inhibiting PMN responses to endogenous mediators of inflammation. This inhibition presumably impairs the elimination of pathogens and might, therefore, provide favourable conditions for induction by bacteria of further immunological consequences. PMID:2538104

Hartiala, K T; Granberg, I; Toivanen, A; Viljanen, M

1989-01-01

199

In vivo functional photoacoustic tomography of traumatic brain injury in rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we demonstrate the potential of photoacoustic tomography for the study of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats in vivo. Based on spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography that can detect the absorption rates of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobins, the blood oxygen saturation and total blood volume in TBI rat brains were visualized. Reproducible cerebral trauma was induced using a fluid percussion TBI device. The time courses of the hemodynamic response following the trauma initiation were imaged with multi-wavelength photoacoustic tomography with bandwidth-limited spatial resolution through the intact skin and skull. In the pilot set of experiments, trauma induced hematomas and blood oxygen saturation level changes were detected, a finding consistent with the known physiological responses to TBI. This new imaging method will be useful for future studies on TBI-related metabolic activities and the effects of therapeutic agents.

Oh, Jung-Taek; Song, Kwang-Hyung; Li, Meng-Lin; Stoica, George; Wang, Lihong V.

2006-02-01

200

Synthesis of fluorine-18 functionalized nanoparticles for use as in vivo molecular imaging agents.  

PubMed

Nanoparticles containing fluorine-18 were prepared from block copolymers made by ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). Using the fast initiating ruthenium metathesis catalyst (H2IMes)(pyr)2(Cl)2Ru=CHPh, low polydispersity amphiphilic block copolymers were prepared from a cinnamoyl-containing hydrophobic norbornene monomer and a mesyl-terminated PEG-containing hydrophilic norbornene monomer. Self-assembly into micelles and subsequent cross-linking of the micelle cores by light-activated dimerization of the cinnamoyl groups yielded stable nanoparticles. Incorporation of fluorine-18 was achieved by nucleophilic displacement of the mesylates by the radioactive fluoride ion with 31% incorporation of radioactivity. The resulting positron-emitting nanoparticles are to be used as in vivo molecular imaging agents for use in tumor imaging. PMID:18452296

Matson, John B; Grubbs, Robert H

2008-05-28

201

Synthesis of Fluorine-18 Functionalized Nanoparticles for Use as in Vivo Molecular Imaging Agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles containing fluorine-18 were prepared from block co-polymers made by ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). Using the fast initiating ruthenium metathesis catalyst (H2IMes)(pyr)2(Cl)2RuCHPh, narrow polydispersity, amphiphilic block copolymers were prepared from a cinnamoyl-containing, hydrophobic norbornene monomer and a mesylate-terminated, PEG-containing hydrophilic norbornene monomer. Self-assembly into micelles and subsequent crosslinking of the micelle cores by light-activated dimerization of the cinnamoyl groups yielded stable nanoparticles. Incorporation of fluorine-18 was achieved by nucleophilic displacement of the mesylates with the radioactive fluoride ion with 31% incorporation of radioactivity. The resulting positron-emitting nanoparticles are to be used as in vivo molecular imaging agents in tumor imaging.

Matson, John B.; Grubbs, Robert H.

202

Preferential accumulation within tumors and in vivo imaging by functionalized luminescent dendrimer lanthanide complexes  

PubMed Central

We have created a dendrimer complex suitable for preferential accumulation within liver tumors and luminescence imaging by substituting thirty-two naphthalimide fluorophores on the surface of the dendrimer and incorporating eight europium cations within the branches. We demonstrate the utility and performance of this luminescent dendrimer complex to detect hepatic tumors generated via direct subcapsular implantation or via splenic injections of colorectal cancer cells (CC531) into WAG/RijHsd rats. Luminescence imaging of the tumors after injection of the dendrimer complex via hepatic arterial infusion revealed that the dendrimer complex can preferentially accumulate within liver tumors. Further investigation indicated that dendrimer luminescence in hepatic tumors persisted in vivo. Due to the incorporation of lanthanide cations, this luminescence agent presents a strong resistance against photobleaching. These studies show the dendrimer complex has great potential to serve as an innovative accumulation and imaging agent for the detection of metastatic tumors in our rat hepatic model. PMID:21925728

Alcala, Marco A.; Shade, Chad M.; Uh, Hyounsoo; Kwan, Shu Ying; Bischof, Matthias; Thompson, Zachary P.; Gogick, Kristy A.; Meier, Adam R.; Strein, Timothy G.; Bartlett, David L.; Modzelewski, Ruth A.; Lee, Yong J.; Petoud, Stéphane; Brown, Charles Komen

2011-01-01

203

In vivo biological responses to silk proteins functionalized with bone sialoprotein.  

PubMed

Recombinant 6mer?+?BSP protein, combining six repeats of the consensus sequence for Nephila clavipes dragline (6mer) and bone sialoprotein sequence (BSP), shows good support for cell viability and induces the nucleation of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate during osteoblast in vitro culture. The present study is conducted to characterize this bioengineered protein-based biomaterial further for in vivo behavior related to biocompatibility. 6mer?+?BSP protein films are implanted in subcutaneous pouches in the back of mice and responses are evaluated by flow cytometry and histology. The results show no major differences between the inflammatory responses induced by 6mer?+?BSP films and the responses observed for the controls. Thus, this new chimeric protein could represent an alternative for bone regeneration applications. PMID:23359587

Gomes, Sílvia; Gallego-Llamas, Jabier; Leonor, Isabel B; Mano, João F; Reis, Rui L; Kaplan, David L

2013-04-01

204

Lipopolysaccharide enhances Fc?R-dependent functions in vivo through CD11b/CD18 up-regulation  

PubMed Central

Fc receptors for immunoglobulin G (IgG) (Fc?R) mediate several defence mechanisms in the course of inflammatory and infectious diseases. In Gram-negative infections, cellular wall lipopolysaccharides (LPS) modulate different immune responses. We have recently demonstrated that murine LPS in vivo treatment significantly increases Fc?R-dependent clearance of immune complexes (IC). In addition, we and others have reported the induction of adhesion molecules on macrophages and neutrophils by LPS in vivo and by tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in vitro. The aim of this paper was to investigate CD11b/CD18 participation in LPS enhancing effects on Fc?-dependent functionality of tissue macrophages. Our results have demonstrated that LPS can enhance antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and IC-triggered cytotoxicity (IC-Ctx), two reactions which involve the Fc?-receptor but different lytic mechanisms. In vitro incubation of splenocytes from LPS-treated mice with anti-CD11b/CD18 abrogated ADCC and IC-Ctx enhancement, without affecting Fc?R expression. Similar results were obtained with physiological concentrations of fibrinogen. In this way cytotoxic values of LPS-splenocytes decreased to the basal levels of control mice. Time and temperature requirements for such inhibition strongly suggested that anti-CD11b/CD18 could modulate intracellular signals leading to downregulation of Fc?R functionality. Data presented herein support the hypothesis that functional and/or physical associations between integrins and Fc?R could be critical for the modulation of effector functions during an inflammatory response. PMID:10447764

Rubel, C; Miliani De Marval, P; Vermeulen, M; Isturiz, M A; Palermo, M S

1999-01-01

205

Functional remodeling of benign human prostatic tissues in vivo by spontaneously immortalized progenitor and intermediate cells.  

PubMed

Tissue remodeling or regeneration is believed to initiate from multipotent stem and progenitor cells. We report here the establishment of two spontaneously immortalized adult non-tumorigenic human prostate epithelial cell lines, NHPrE1 and BHPrE1. NHPrE1 (CD133(high)/CD44(high)/OCT4(high)/PTEN(high)) was characterized as a putative progenitor cell, and BHPrE1 (p63(high)/p53(high)/p21(WAF1)(high)/RB(high)) was characterized as a putative epithelial intermediate cell. Genomic analysis demonstrated an abnormal karyotype with genomic rearrangements including PTEN amplification in NHPrE1 and CTNNB1 (beta-catenin) amplification in BHPrE1 cells. Embedded three-dimensional culture of NHPrE1 showed greater branching than BHPrE1. A tissue recombination-xenografting model was utilized to compare remodeling of human prostatic tissues in vivo. A series of tissue recombinants, made by mixing different ratios of human prostatic epithelial cells and inductive rat urogenital sinus mesenchyme, were grafted to the renal capsule of severe combined immunodeficient mice. Both cell lines were able to regenerate benign secretory ductal-acinar architecture in vivo, containing intact basal and luminal epithelial layers confirmed by the expression of appropriate CK profiles. Prostate-specific antigen, 15-lipoxygenase-2, androgen receptor, and NKX3.1 proteins were appropriately expressed in the regenerated epithelia. Regeneration of benign prostatic glandular structures could be achieved using as few as 10 NHPrE1 cells, whereas 200,000 BHPrE1 cells were required to achieve prostatic architecture. This suggests a greater proportion of progenitor/stem cells in NHPrE1 than in BHPrE1. These cell lines provide important data on progenitor and intermediate cell phenotypes and represent significant new tools for the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of human prostatic regeneration, pathogenesis, and carcinogenesis. PMID:20020426

Jiang, Ming; Strand, Douglas W; Fernandez, Suzanne; He, Yue; Yi, Yajun; Birbach, Andreas; Qiu, Qingchao; Schmid, Johannes; Tang, Dean G; Hayward, Simon W

2010-02-01

206

Ex vivo magnetofection: A novel strategy for the study of gene function in mouse organogenesis  

PubMed Central

Gene function during mouse development is often studied through the production and analysis of transgenic and knock-out models. However, these techniques are time- and resource-consuming, and require specialized equipment and expertise. We have established a new protocol for functional studies that combines organ culture of explanted fetal tissues with micro-injection and magnetically-induced transfection (“magnetofection”) of gene expression constructs. As proof-of-principle, we magnetofected cDNA constructs into genital ridge tissue as a means of gain-of-function analysis, and shRNA constructs for loss-of-function analysis. Ectopic expression of Sry induced female-to-male sex-reversal, whereas knockdown of Sox9 expression caused male-to-female sex-reversal, consistent with the known functions of these genes. Further, ectopic expression of Tmem184a, a gene of unknown function, in female genital ridges, resulted in failure of gonocytes to enter meiosis. This technique will likely be applicable to the study of gene function in a broader range of developing organs and tissues. PMID:19301396

Svingen, Terje; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Combes, Alexander N.; Hosking, Brett; Harley, Vincent R.; Sinclair, Andrew H.; Koopman, Peter

2010-01-01

207

Pharmacokinetic and toxicological evaluation of multi-functional thiol-6-fluoro-6-deoxy-d-glucose gold nanoparticles in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We synthesized a novel, multi-functional, radiosensitizing agent by covalently linking 6-fluoro-6-deoxy-d-glucose (6-FDG) to gold nanoparticles (6-FDG-GNPs) via a thiol functional group. We then assessed the bio-distribution and pharmacokinetic properties of 6-FDG-GNPs in vivo using a murine model. At 2 h, following intravenous injection of 6-FDG-GNPs into the murine model, approximately 30% of the 6-FDG-GNPs were distributed to three major organs: the liver, the spleen and the kidney. PEGylation of the 6-FDG-GNPs was found to significantly improve the bio-distribution of 6-FDG-GNPs by avoiding unintentional uptake into these organs, while simultaneously doubling the cellular uptake of GNPs in implanted breast MCF-7 adenocarcinoma. When combined with radiation, PEG-6-FDG-GNPs were found to increase the apoptosis of the MCF-7 breast adenocarinoma cells by radiation both in vitro and in vivo. Pharmacokinetic data indicate that GNPs reach their maximal concentrations at a time window of two to four hours post-injection, during which optimal radiation efficiency can be achieved. PEG-6-FDG-GNPs are thus novel nanoparticles that preferentially accumulate in targeted cancer cells where they act as potent radiosensitizing agents. Future research will aim to substitute the 18F atom into the 6-FDG molecule so that the PEG-6-FDG-GNPs can also function as radiotracers for use in positron emission tomography scanning to aid cancer diagnosis and image guided radiation therapy planning.

Roa, Wilson; Xiong, Yeping; Chen, Jie; Yang, Xiaoyan; Song, Kun; Yang, Xiaohong; Kong, Beihua; Wilson, John; Xing, James Z.

2012-09-01

208

Radiofrequency time-domain EPR imaging: instrumentation development and recent results in functional physiological in vivo imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron Paramagnetic Resonance is an emerging technique finding applications in functional physiological imaging. Traditionally EPR imaging developed as a CW (continuous wave) technique involving the measurement of free radical distribution in vivo using constant frequency and field-sweep modality almost identical to the early developments of MRI. As in CT and PET this involved the generation of projections in presence of gradients and the reconstruction of images via filtered back-projection. The large line-width and the concomitant short relaxation times posed a serious challenge for the development of time-domain methods akin to modern pulsed NMR & MRI. With the recent availability of narrow line stable non-toxic radicals based on triarylmethyl (TAM), ultra fast data acquisition systems (signal digitizer and summer), very fast electronic switches and low-noise amplifiers, we have developed time-domain imaging schemes in EPR operating in the radiofrequency region Using a novel pure-phase encoding scheme, we are able to generate 2 and 3 dimensional spatial images and spectral-spatial images that adds an additional functional dimension to these images. The special space-encoding scheme with fast gradient ramping allow rapid in vivo imaging of small animals with superior spatial and functional information with good temporal resolution that can provide valuable physiological and pharmacokinetic insight. Our main thrust has been in the investigation of tumor hypoxia and tumor reoxygenation for the purpose of minimizing the radiation dose for maximum tumor cell killing. These and some of the allied imaging methods, and results from tumor investigation will be presented.

Subramanian, Sankaran; Devasahayam, Nallathamby; Krishna, M. C.

2007-02-01

209

Luteal Phase Support in assisted reproductive technology treatment: focus on Endometrin(R) (progesterone) vaginal insert.  

PubMed

Supplementation of progesterone in the luteal phase and continuance of progesterone therapy during the first trimester has been found in several studies to have benefits in promoting fertility, preventing miscarriages and even preventing pre-term labor. Though it can be administered orally, intramuscularly or even sublingually, a very effective route with fewer side effects can be achieved by an intravaginal route. The first vaginal preparations were not made commercially but were compounded by pharmacies. This had the disadvantage of lack of control by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ensuring efficacy of the preparations. Furthermore there was a lack of precise dosing leading to batch to batch variation. The first commercially approved vaginal progesterone preparation in the United States was a vaginal gel which has proven very effective. The main side effect was accumulation of a buildup of the vaginal gel sometimes leading to irritation. Natural micronized progesterone for vaginal administration with the brand name of Utrogestan A((R)) had been approved even before the gel in certain European countries. Endometrin((R)) vaginal tablets are the newest natural progesterone approved by the FDA. Comparisons to the vaginal gel and to intramuscular progesterone have shown similar efficacy especially in studies following controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and oocyte egg retrieval and embryo transfer. Larger studies are needed to compare side effects. PMID:19753133

Check, Jerome H

2009-08-01

210

Rapid experience-dependent plasticity of synapse function and structure in ferret visual cortex in vivo  

E-print Network

The rules by which visual experience influences neuronal responses and structure in the developing brain are not well understood. To elucidate the relationship between rapid functional changes and dendritic spine remodeling ...

Yu, Hongbo

211

Effects of ex vivo ?-tocopherol on airway macrophage function in healthy and mild allergic asthmatics.  

PubMed

Elevated inflammation and altered immune responses are features found in atopic asthmatic airways. Recent studies indicate ?-tocopherol (GT) supplementation can suppress airway inflammation in allergic asthma. We studied the effects of in vitro GT supplementation on receptor-mediated phagocytosis and expression of cell surface molecules associated with innate and adaptive immunity on sputum-derived macrophages. Cells from nonsmoking healthy (n = 6) and mild house dust mite-sensitive allergic asthmatics (n = 6) were treated ex vivo with GT (300 µM) or saline (control). Phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan A bioparticles (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and expression of surface molecules associated with innate and adaptive immunity were assessed using flow cytometry. GT caused significantly decreased (p < 0.05) internalization of attached zymosan bioparticles and decreased (p < 0.05) macrophage expression of CD206, CD36 and CD86 in allergic asthmatics but not in controls. Overall, GT caused downregulation of both innate and adaptive immune response elements, and atopic status appears to be an important factor. PMID:23689260

Geiser, Marianne; Lay, John C; Bennett, William D; Zhou, Haibo; Wang, Xiaoyan; Peden, David B; Alexis, Neil E

2013-01-01

212

In vivo resistance to bacterial biofilm formation on tympanostomy tubes as a function of tube material.  

PubMed

Adherent bacterial biofilms have been implicated in the irreversible contamination of implanted medical devices. We evaluated the resistance of various tympanostomy (pressure equalization [PE]) tube materials to biofilm formation using an in vivo model. PE tubes of silicone, silver oxide-impregnated silicone, fluoroplastic, silver oxide-impregnated fluoroplastic, and ion-bombarded silicone were inserted into the tympanic membranes of 18 Hartley guinea pigs. Staphylococcus aureus was then inoculated into the middle ears. An additional 8 guinea pigs were used as controls; the PE tubes were inserted without middle ear inoculation. All PE tubes were removed on day 10 and analyzed for bacterial contamination using culture, immunofluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All infected ears developed otitis media with otorrhea, but none of the animal control ears drained. Fluorescence imaging of the animal control tubes showed large cellular components consistent with inflammation. The infected tubes showed heavy DNA fluorescence consistent with bacteria and inflammatory cells. All animal control tubes except the ion-bombarded silicone tubes showed adherent inflammatory film on SEM. Also, all tubes placed in infected ears except the ion-bombarded silicone tubes showed adherent bacterial and inflammatory films on SEM. Nonadherent surface properties such as the ion-bombarded silicone may be helpful in preventing chronic PE tube contamination. PMID:10229584

Saidi, I S; Biedlingmaier, J F; Whelan, P

1999-05-01

213

In vivo functional chronic imaging of a small animal model using optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy.  

PubMed

Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) has been validated as a valuable tool for label-free volumetric microvascular imaging. More importantly, the advantages of noninvasiveness and measurement consistency suggest the use of OR-PAM for chronic imaging of intact microcirculation. Here, such chronic imaging is demonstrated for the first time by monitoring the healing process of laser-induced microvascular lesions in a small animal model in vivo. The central part of a 1 mm by 1 mm region in a nude mouse ear was treated under a continuous-wave laser to create a microvascular lesion for chronic study. The region of interest was imaged before the laser treatment, immediately after the treatment, and throughout the healing process using both the authors' OR-PAM system and a commercial transmission-mode optical microscope. Three-dimensional microvascular morphology and blood oxygenation information were imaged simultaneously at capillary-level resolution. Transmission-mode optical microscopic images were acquired for comparison. OR-PAM has potential important applications in microcirculatory physiology or pathophysiology, tumor angiogenesis, laser microsurgery, and neuroscience. PMID:19610320

Hu, Song; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V

2009-06-01

214

[Suppressive effects of lanoconazole on arthus phenomenon in vivo and on production and functions of TNF in vitro].  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory effect of lanoconazole (LCZ) was investigated in vivo and in vitro. The effect of LCZ was evaluated on the inflammatory reactions elicited by intradermal injection of ovalbumin to ovalbumin-immunized rabbits, as an Arthus phenomenon. A one or two % cream preparation of LCZ was topically applied on the lesion daily after challenging injection until the inflamation had diminished. By macroscopic observation and measuring the diameter of edema, erythema, hemorrhage and necrosis, the effects of LCZ on the reactions were compared with the reactions of the sites administered withcream vehicle as reference agent. Two % LCZ showed an anti-hemorrhagic effect. The in vitro effect of LCZ on production and functions of an inflammatory cytokine, TNF was also examined. LCZ suppressed the production of TNF by murine peritoneal macrophages at 20 micro g/ml and the adhesion of neutrophils at 100 micro g/ml. Moreover, LCZ significantly suppressed the growth inhibitory activity of TNF against L929 fibroblasts at 0.5 micro g/ml. A very low concentration of LCZ might protect the fibroblasts from immunological cytotoxicity in vivo. These findings suggest that LCZ has a suppressive activity to inflammatory responses and this suppressive action may be due to its protective activity to cells like fibroblasts. PMID:10777820

Mitsuya, M; Wada, K; Ishibashi, H; Tansho, S; Abe, S; Yamaguchi, H

2000-01-01

215

In Vivo Regulation of NGF-Mediated Functions by Nedd4-2 Ubiquitination of TrkA  

PubMed Central

Trk neurotrophin receptor ubiquitination in response to ligand activation regulates signaling, trafficking, and degradation of the receptors. However, the in vivo consequences of Trk ubiquitination remain to be addressed. We have developed a mouse model with a mutation in the TrkA neurotrophin receptor (P782S) that results in reduced ubiquitination due to a lack of binding to the E3 ubiquitin ligase, Nedd4-2. In vivo analyses of TrkAP782S indicate that defective ubiquitination of the TrkA mutant results in an altered trafficking and degradation of the receptor that affects the survival of sensory neurons. The dorsal root ganglia from the TrkAP782S knock-in mice display an increased number of neurons expressing CGRP and substance P. Moreover, the mutant mice show enhanced sensitivity to thermal and inflammatory pain. Our results indicate that the ubiquitination of the TrkA neurotrophin receptor plays a critical role in NGF-mediated functions, such as neuronal survival and sensitivity to pain. PMID:24760869

Yu, Tao; Calvo, Laura; Anta, Begona; Lopez-Benito, Saray; Lopez-Bellido, Roger; Vicente-Garcia, Cristina; Tessarollo, Lino; Rodriguez, Raquel E.

2014-01-01

216

In vivo and in vitro peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor polymerization: functional significance in drug ligand and cholesterol binding.  

PubMed

Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) is an 18 kDa high-affinity drug ligand and cholesterol binding protein involved in various cell functions. Antisera for distinct PBR areas identified immunoreactive proteins of 18, 40, and 56 kDa and occasionally 72, 90, and 110 kDa in testicular Leydig and breast cancer cells. These sizes may correspond to PBR polymers and correlated to the levels of reactive oxygen species. Treatment of Leydig cells with human chorionic gonadotropin rapidly induced free radical, PBR polymer, and steroid formation. UV photoirradiation generates ROS species, which increased the size of intramembraneous particles of recombinant PBR reconstituted into proteoliposomes consistent with polymer formation, determined both by SDS-PAGE and by freeze-fracture electron microscopy. Spectroscopic analysis revealed the formation of dityrosines as the covalent cross-linker between PBR monomers. Moreover, photoirradiation increased PK 11195 drug ligand binding and reduced cholesterol binding capacity of proteoliposomes. Further addition of PK 11195 drug ligand to polymers increased the rate of cholesterol binding. These data indicate that reactive oxygen species induce in vivo and in vitro the formation of covalent PBR polymers. We propose that the PBR polymer might be the functional unit responsible for ligand-activated cholesterol binding and that PBR polymerization is a dynamic process modulating the function of this receptor in cholesterol transport and other cell-specific PBR-mediated functions. PMID:12693947

Delavoie, Franck; Li, Hua; Hardwick, Matthew; Robert, Jean-Claude; Giatzakis, Christoforos; Péranzi, Gabriel; Yao, Zhi-Xing; Maccario, Jean; Lacapère, Jean-Jacques; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

2003-04-22

217

In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of a Novel Ferrocyanide Functionalized Nanopourous Silica Decorporation Agent for Cesium (Cs) in Rats  

PubMed Central

Novel decorporation agents are being developed to protect against radiological terrorist attacks. These sorbents, known as the self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous supports (SAMMS™), are hybrid materials where differing organic moieties are grafted onto mesoporous silica (SiO2). In vitro experiments focused on the evaluation, and optimization of SAMMS for capturing radiocesium (137Cs); therefore based on these studies, a ferrocyanide copper (FC-Cu-EDA)-SAMMS was advanced for in vivo evaluation. In vivo experiments were conducted comparing the performance of the SAMMS vs. insoluble Prussian blue. Groups of jugular cannulated rats (4/treatment) were evaluated. Animals in group I were administered 137Cs chloride (~40 ?g/kg) by intravenous (iv) injection or oral gavage; Group II animals were administered pre-bound 137Cs- SAMMS or sequential 137Cs chloride + SAMMS (~61 ng/kg) by oral gavage; and Group III was orally administered 137Cs chloride (~61 ng/kg) followed by either 0.1 g of SAMMS or Prussian blue. Following dosing, the rats were maintained in metabolism cages for 72 hour and blood, urine and fecal samples were collected for 137Cs analysis (gamma counting). Rats were then humanely euthanized, and selected tissues analyzed. Orally administered 137Cs chloride was rapidly and well absorbed (~100% relative to iv dose), and the pharmacokinetics (blood, urine, feces & tissues) were very comparable to the iv dose group. For both exposures the urine and feces accounted for 20 and 3% of the dose, respectively. The prebound 137Cs-SAMMS was retained primarily within the feces (72% of the dose), with ~1.4% detected in the urine, suggesting that the 137Cs remained tightly bound to SAMMS. SAMMS & Prussian blue both effectively captured available 137Cs in the gut with feces accounting for 80–88% of the administered dose, while less than 2% was detected in the urine. This study suggests that the functionalized SAMMS outperforms Prussian blue in vitro at low pH, but demonstrates comparable in vivo sequestration efficacy at low exposure concentrations. The comparable response may be the result of the low 137Cs chloride dose and high sorbent dosage that was utilized. Future studies are planned to optimize SAMMS in vivo performance over a broader range of doses and conditions. PMID:20699707

Timchalk, Charles; Creim, Jeffrey A; Sukwarotwat, Vichaya; Wiacek, Robert; Addleman, R Shane; Fryxell, Glen E; Yantasee, Wassana

2009-01-01

218

Form and function of the corpus luteum during the human menstrual cycle  

PubMed Central

Objective To characterize the growth and regression of the corpus luteum (CL) during an interovulatory interval (IOI) using serial transvaginal ultrasonography. Methods Fifty healthy women of reproductive age with a history of regular menstrual cycles underwent daily transvaginal ultrasonography for one IOI. Measurements of luteal area and luteal numerical pixel value (NPV) were recorded each day after ovulation until the CL could no longer be detected. Blood was drawn every third day during the IOI to measure serum concentrations of progesterone and estradiol-17?. Results Corpora lutea were of two morphological types: those with a central fluid-filled cavity (CFFC) (78%) and those without (22%). Eighty-eight percent of women exhibited a CL containing a CFFC 2 days after ovulation, followed by 34% 13 days after ovulation and 2% 27 days after ovulation. Luteal area, progesterone concentration and estradiol concentration increased for approximately the first 6 days following ovulation followed by a subsequent decline. Luteal NPV decreased from days 1 to 11 and increased during days 11–16. Changes in luteal area, NPV, progesterone and estradiol concentrations did not differ in women with two versus three waves of follicular development. Conclusions Peak luteal function, as determined by maximum luteal area, progesterone concentration and estradiol concentration, is observed 6 days following ovulation. Luteal NPV is reflective of morphological and endocrinological changes in the CL. The development of a CFFC during luteinization is a normal physiological phenomenon. The CL can be detected, but is not functional, during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. PMID:15846762

BAERWALD, A. R.; ADAMS, G. P.; PIERSON, R. A.

2010-01-01

219

Functional loads on freestanding and connected implants in three-unit mandibular prostheses opposing complete dentures: an in vivo study.  

PubMed

In vivo measurements of vertical forces and bending moments during biting and chewing were carried out on 10 three-unit prostheses in the posterior mandibles of five patients. Each patient had two prostheses, one supported by two implants and the other supported by one implant and one tooth. The results demonstrated no major difference in functional load magnitudes related to the support type. The distribution of load between the abutments was influenced more by the prosthesis geometry and implant placement than by the difference in load characteristics of tooth and implant. This conclusion, however, is limited to one implant connected to a tooth, because multiple implants form a considerably stiffer unit than do teeth. An increase in vertical load resulting from cantilever extensions on the prostheses was documented, both at bite fork measurements and during chewing. No substantial lateral bending was registered, probably because the flat occlusal surfaces and the presence of the opposing complete denture reduced lateral forces. PMID:9197098

Gunne, J; Rangert, B; Glantz, P O; Svensson, A

1997-01-01

220

In vivo imaging of integration and function of striatal grafts in rodent and nonhuman primate animal models.  

PubMed

The assessment of the therapeutic efficacy of cell transplantation in repairing dysfunctional or degenerating brain tissues is conditioned by our capacity to follow up the grafted cells longitudinally in a noninvasive fashion. In fact, to date, postmortem histological analysis remains the main method used to characterize cell survival, maturation, differentiation, and absence of adverse effects upon intracerebral grafting. However, the increasing availability of sophisticated imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and spectroscopy offers the possibility to directly exploit anatomical and functional information coming from the grafted cells in vivo. This, in turn, opens the way to the amelioration of existing applications and the development of new methodologies capable of addressing challenges arising in the preclinical transplantation field in views of a clinical application. This review summarizes the principles of the different imaging techniques and their validation in the preclinical setting in animal models of striatal degeneration. PMID:23195426

Hantraye, Philippe; Badin, Romina Aron

2012-01-01

221

Hybrid fusions show that inter-monomer electron transfer robustly supports cytochrome bc1 function in vivo.  

PubMed

Electronic connection between Qo and Qi quinone catalytic sites of dimeric cytochrome bc1 is a central feature of the energy-conserving Q cycle. While both the intra- and inter-monomer electron transfers were shown to connect the sites in the enzyme, mechanistic and physiological significance of the latter remains unclear. Here, using a series of mutated hybrid cytochrome bc1-like complexes, we show that inter-monomer electron transfer robustly sustains the function of the enzyme in vivo, even when the two subunits in a dimer come from different species. This indicates that minimal requirement for bioenergetic efficiency is to provide a chain of cofactors for uncompromised electron flux between the catalytic sites, while the details of protein scaffold are secondary. PMID:25089001

Ekiert, Robert; Czapla, Monika; Sarewicz, Marcin; Osyczka, Artur

2014-08-22

222

Enhanced Control of In Vivo Bone Formation with Surface Functionalized Alginate Microbeads Incorporating Heparin and Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2  

PubMed Central

In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a surface functionalization delivery platform incorporating heparin onto strontium alginate microbeads surfaces would convert this “naive carriers” into “mini-reservoirs” for localized in vivo delivery of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) that will induce functional bone regeneration. In vitro evaluation confirmed that (1) heparin incorporation could immobilize and prolong rhBMP-2 release for approximately 3 weeks; (2) a significant decrease (p<0.01) in rhBMP-2 burst release is attainable depending on initial protein load; and (3) rhBMP-2 released from surface functionalized microbeads retained bioactivity and stimulated higher alkaline phosphatase activity in cultured C2C12 cells when compared with daily administration of fresh bolus rhBMP-2. Subsequently, surface functionalized microbeads were used for in vivo delivery of rhBMP-2 at local sites of posterolateral spinal fusion surgery in rats. The microbeads were loaded into the pores of medical-grade polyepsilone caprolactone-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds before implantation. Results revealed robust bone formation and a biomechanically solid fusion after 6 weeks. When compared with a control group consisting of an equivalent amount of rhBMP-2 that was directly adsorbed onto bare-surfaced microbeads with no heparin, a 5.3-fold increase in bone volume fraction and a 2.6-fold increase in bending stiffness (flexion/extension) were observed. When compared with collagen sponge carriers of rhBMP-2, a 1.5-fold and a 1.3-fold increase in bone volume fraction and bending stiffness were observed, respectively. More importantly, 3D micro-computed tomography images enabled the visualization of a well-contained newly formed bone at ipsilateral implant sites with surface functionalized rhBMP-2 delivery. This was absent with collagen sponge carriers where newly formed bone tissue was poorly contained and crossed over the posterior midline to contralateral implants. These findings are important because of complications with current rhBMP-2 delivery method, including excessive, uncontrolled bone formation. PMID:22894570

Abbah, Sunny Akogwu; Liu, Jing; Goh, James Cho Hong

2013-01-01

223

HIV Type 1 Infection Up-Regulates TLR2 and TLR4 Expression and Function in Vivo and in Vitro  

PubMed Central

Abstract Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a critical role in innate immunity against pathogens. Their stimulation induces the activation of NF-?B, an important inducer of HIV-1 replication. In recent years, an increasing number of studies using several cells types from HIV-infected patients indicate that TLRs play a key role in regulating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and viral pathogenesis. In the present study, the effect of HIV-1 stimulation of monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) subpopulations from healthy donors on the expression and functions of TLR2 and TLR4 was examined. In addition, and to complete the in vitro study, the expression pattern of TLR2 and TLR4 in 49 HIV-1-infected patients, classified according to viral load and the use of HAART, was determined and compared with 25 healthy subjects. An increase of TLR expression and production of proinflammatory cytokines were observed in MDMs and PBMCs infected with HIV-1 in vitro and in response to TLR stimulation, compared to the mock. In addition, an association between TLR expression and up-regulation of CD80 in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) was observed. The ex vivo analysis indicated increased expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs), but only of TLR2 in monocytes obtained from HIV-1-infected patients, compared to healthy subjects. Remarkably, the expression was higher in cells from patients who do not use HAART. In monocytes, there was a positive correlation between both TLRs and viral load, but not CD4+ T cell numbers. Together, our in vitro and ex vivo results suggest that TLR expression and function can be up-regulated in response to HIV-1 infection and could affect the inflammatory response. We propose that modulation of TLRs represents a mechanism to promote HIV-1 replication or AIDS progression in HIV-1-infected patients. PMID:22280204

Hernandez, Juan C.; Stevenson, Mario; Latz, Eicke

2012-01-01

224

Functional involvements of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 in smooth muscle differentiation from stem cells in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

To investigate the functional involvements of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1) in smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation from stem cells, embryonic stem cells were cultivated on collagen IV-coated plates to allow for SMC differentiation. We found that hnRNPA1 gene and protein expression was upregulated significantly during differentiation and coexpressed with SMC differentiation markers in the stem cell-derived SMCs as well as embryonic SMCs of 12.5 days of mouse embryos. hnRNPA1 knockdown resulted in downregulation of smooth muscle markers and transcription factors, while enforced expression of hnRNPA1 enhanced the expression of these genes. Importantly, knockdown of hnRNPA1 also resulted in impairment of SMC differentiation in vivo. Moreover, we demonstrated that hnRNPA1 could transcriptionally regulate SMC gene expression through direct binding to promoters of Acta2 and Tagln genes using luciferase and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. We further demonstrated that the binding sites for serum response factor (SRF), a well-investigated SMC transcription factor, within the promoter region of the Acta2 and Tagln genes were responsible for hnRNPA1-mediated Acta2 and Tagln gene expression using in vitro site-specific mutagenesis and luciferase activity analyses. Finally, we also demonstrated that hnRNPA1 upregulated the expression of SRF, myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2c (MEF2c), and myocardin through transcriptional activation and direct binding to promoters of the SRF, MEF2c, and Myocd genes. Our findings demonstrated that hnRNPA1 plays a functional role in SMC differentiation from stem cells in vitro and in vivo. This indicates that hnRNPA1 is a potential modulating target for deriving SMCs from stem cells and cardiovascular regenerative medicine. PMID:23335105

Huang, Yuan; Lin, Luyang; Yu, Xiaotian; Wen, Guanmei; Pu, Xiangyuan; Zhao, Hanqing; Fang, Changcun; Zhu, Jianhua; Ye, Shu; Zhang, Li; Xiao, Qingzhong

2013-05-01

225

Mitochondrial function and increased convective O2 transport: implications for the assessment of mitochondrial respiration in vivo.  

PubMed

Although phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS)-based evidence suggests that in vivo peak mitochondrial respiration rate in young untrained adults is limited by the intrinsic mitochondrial capacity of ATP synthesis, it remains unknown whether a large, locally targeted increase in convective O2 delivery would alter this interpretation. Consequently, we examined the effect of superimposing reactive hyperemia (RH), induced by a period of brief ischemia during the last minute of exercise, on oxygen delivery and mitochondrial function in the calf muscle of nine young adults compared with free-flow conditions (FF). To this aim, we used an integrative experimental approach combining 31P-MRS, Doppler ultrasound imaging, and near-infrared spectroscopy. Limb blood flow [area under the curve (AUC), 1.4 ± 0.8 liters in FF and 2.5 ± 0.3 liters in RH, P < 0.01] and convective O2 delivery (AUC, 0.30 ± 0.16 liters in FF and 0.54 ± 0.05 liters in RH, P < 0.01), were significantly increased in RH compared with FF. RH was also associated with significantly higher capillary blood flow (P < 0.05) and faster tissue reoxygenation mean response times (70 ± 15 s in FF and 24 ± 15 s in RH, P < 0.05). This resulted in a 43% increase in estimated peak mitochondrial ATP synthesis rate (29 ± 13 mM/min in FF and 41 ± 14 mM/min in RH, P < 0.05) whereas the phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery time constant in RH was not significantly different (P = 0.22). This comprehensive assessment of local skeletal muscle O2 availability and utilization in untrained subjects reveals that mitochondrial function, assessed in vivo by 31P-MRS, is limited by convective O2 delivery rather than an intrinsic mitochondrial limitation. PMID:23813526

Layec, Gwenael; Haseler, Luke J; Trinity, Joel D; Hart, Corey R; Liu, Xin; Le Fur, Yann; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Richardson, Russell S

2013-09-01

226

Mitochondrial function and increased convective O2 transport: implications for the assessment of mitochondrial respiration in vivo  

PubMed Central

Although phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS)-based evidence suggests that in vivo peak mitochondrial respiration rate in young untrained adults is limited by the intrinsic mitochondrial capacity of ATP synthesis, it remains unknown whether a large, locally targeted increase in convective O2 delivery would alter this interpretation. Consequently, we examined the effect of superimposing reactive hyperemia (RH), induced by a period of brief ischemia during the last minute of exercise, on oxygen delivery and mitochondrial function in the calf muscle of nine young adults compared with free-flow conditions (FF). To this aim, we used an integrative experimental approach combining 31P-MRS, Doppler ultrasound imaging, and near-infrared spectroscopy. Limb blood flow [area under the curve (AUC), 1.4 ± 0.8 liters in FF and 2.5 ± 0.3 liters in RH, P < 0.01] and convective O2 delivery (AUC, 0.30 ± 0.16 liters in FF and 0.54 ± 0.05 liters in RH, P < 0.01), were significantly increased in RH compared with FF. RH was also associated with significantly higher capillary blood flow (P < 0.05) and faster tissue reoxygenation mean response times (70 ± 15 s in FF and 24 ± 15 s in RH, P < 0.05). This resulted in a 43% increase in estimated peak mitochondrial ATP synthesis rate (29 ± 13 mM/min in FF and 41 ± 14 mM/min in RH, P < 0.05) whereas the phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery time constant in RH was not significantly different (P = 0.22). This comprehensive assessment of local skeletal muscle O2 availability and utilization in untrained subjects reveals that mitochondrial function, assessed in vivo by 31P-MRS, is limited by convective O2 delivery rather than an intrinsic mitochondrial limitation. PMID:23813526

Haseler, Luke J.; Trinity, Joel D.; Hart, Corey R.; Liu, Xin; Le Fur, Yann; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Richardson, Russell S.

2013-01-01

227

In vivo P-glycoprotein function before and after epilepsy surgery  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To study the functional activity of the multidrug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) at the blood-brain barrier of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy using (R)-[11C]verapamil (VPM)-PET before and after temporal lobe surgery to assess whether postoperative changes in seizure frequency and antiepileptic drug load are associated with changes in Pgp function. Methods: Seven patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy underwent VPM-PET scans pre- and postsurgery. Patients were followed up for a median of 6 years (range 4–7) after surgery. Pgp immunoreactivity in surgically resected hippocampal specimens was determined with immunohistochemistry. Results: Optimal surgical outcome, defined as seizure freedom and withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs, was associated with higher temporal lobe Pgp function before surgery, higher Pgp-positive staining in surgically resected hippocampal specimens, and reduction in global Pgp function postoperatively, compared with nonoptimal surgery outcome. Conclusions: The data from our pilot study suggest that Pgp overactivity in epilepsy is dynamic, and complete seizure control and elimination of antiepileptic medication is associated with reversal of overactivity, although these findings will require confirmation in a larger patient cohort. PMID:25186858

Bauer, Martin; Karch, Rudolf; Zeitlinger, Markus; Liu, Joan; Koepp, Matthias J.; Asselin, Marie-Claude; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Hainfellner, Johannes A.; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Mitterhauser, Markus; Muller, Markus; Pataraia, Ekaterina

2014-01-01

228

IN VITRO/IN VIVO COMPARISON OF YOLK SAC FUNCTION AND EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Yolk sac function and development of rat embryos grown in vitro for 24 hrs starting on day 10.5 were compared to those of embryos grown in utero. he embryos grown in vitro had significantly fewer somites, shorter crown-rump length and smaller yolk sac diameter when compared to th...

229

In vivo Three-Dimensional Superresolution Fluorescence Tracking using a Double-Helix Point Spread Function  

PubMed Central

The point spread function (PSF) of a widefield fluorescence microscope is not suitable for three-dimensional super-resolution imaging. We characterize the localization precision of a unique method for 3D superresolution imaging featuring a double-helix point spread function (DH-PSF). The DH-PSF is designed to have two lobes that rotate about their midpoint in any transverse plane as a function of the axial position of the emitter. In effect, the PSF appears as a double helix in three dimensions. By comparing the Cramer-Rao bound of the DH-PSF with the standard PSF as a function of the axial position, we show that the DH-PSF has a higher and more uniform localization precision than the standard PSF throughout a 2 ?m depth of field. Comparisons between the DH-PSF and other methods for 3D super-resolution are briefly discussed. We also illustrate the applicability of the DH-PSF for imaging weak emitters in biological systems by tracking the movement of quantum dots in glycerol and in live cells. PMID:20563317

Lew, Matthew D.; Thompson, Michael A.; Badieirostami, Majid; Moerner, W. E.

2010-01-01

230

Customizable, multi-functional fluorocarbon nanoparticles for quantitative in vivo imaging using 19F MRI and optical imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring cell trafficking in vivo noninvasively is critical to improving cellular therapeutics, drug delivery, and understanding disease progression. In vivo imaging, of which magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a key modality, is commonly used for such monitoring. 19F MRI allows extremely specific detection and quantification of cell numbers directly from in vivo image data, longitudinally and without ionizing radiation. We

Mangala Srinivas; Luis J. Cruz; Fernando Bonetto; Arend Heerschap; Carl G. Figdor; I. Jolanda M. de Vries

2010-01-01

231

Chronic In Vivo Imaging Shows No Evidence of Dendritic Plasticity or Functional Remapping in the Contralesional Cortex after Stroke  

PubMed Central

Most stroke survivors exhibit a partial recovery from their deficits. This presumably occurs because of remapping of lost capabilities to functionally related brain areas. Functional brain imaging studies suggest that remapping in the contralateral uninjured cortex might represent a transient stage of compensatory plasticity. Some postmortem studies have also shown that cortical lesions, including stroke, can trigger dendritic plasticity in the contralateral hemisphere, but the data are controversial. We used longitudinal in vivo two-photon microscopy in the contralateral homotopic cortex to record changes in dendritic spines of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in green fluorescent protein mice. We could not detect de novo growth of dendrites or changes in the density or turnover of spines for up to 4 weeks after stroke. We also used intrinsic optical signal imaging to investigate whether the forepaw (FP) sensory representation is remapped to the spared homotopic cortex after stroke. Stimulation of the contralateral FP reliably produced strong intrinsic signals in the spared hemisphere, but we could never detect a signal with ipsilateral FP stimulation after stroke. This lack of contralateral plasticity at the level of apical dendrites of layer 5 pyramidal neurons and FP sensory maps suggests that the contralesional cortex may not contribute to functional recovery after stroke and that, at least in mice, the peri-infarct cortex plays the dominant role in postischemic plasticity. PMID:22499800

Johnston, David G.; Denizet, Marie; Mostany, Ricardo

2013-01-01

232

An intramolecular t-SNARE complex functions in vivo without the syntaxin NH2-terminal regulatory domain.  

PubMed

Membrane fusion in the secretory pathway is mediated by SNAREs (located on the vesicle membrane [v-SNARE] and the target membrane [t-SNARE]). In all cases examined, t-SNARE function is provided as a three-helix bundle complex containing three approximately 70-amino acid SNARE motifs. One SNARE motif is provided by a syntaxin family member (the t-SNARE heavy chain), and the other two helices are contributed by additional t-SNARE light chains. The syntaxin family is the most conformationally dynamic group of SNAREs and appears to be the major focus of SNARE regulation. An NH2-terminal region of plasma membrane syntaxins has been assigned as a negative regulatory element in vitro. This region is absolutely required for syntaxin function in vivo. We now show that the required function of the NH2-terminal regulatory domain (NRD) of the yeast plasma membrane syntaxin, Sso1p, can be circumvented when t-SNARE complex formation is made intramolecular. Our results suggest that the NRD is required for efficient t-SNARE complex formation and does not recruit necessary scaffolding factors. PMID:16401725

Van Komen, Jeffrey S; Bai, Xiaoyang; Scott, Brenton L; McNew, James A

2006-01-16

233

The ex-vivo intestinal absorption rate of uranium is a two-phase function of supply.  

PubMed

The concentration-dependent absorption behaviour of uranium was investigated with surviving intestinal segments of rat jejunums, using an ex-vivo model. The results showed a monotonic slightly nonlinear increase in absorption as uranium concentrations increased. This trend was observed over the entire concentration range tested. In the lower concentration range a slower linear ascent was observed while a steeper linear ascent was found for the higher concentration range. Statistical fit was only slightly poorer for an exponential function in the range of lower values and a logarithmic function in the range of higher values. The proportion of uranium absorbed expressed as percent of uranium concentrations in the perfusion solutions followed a monotonically increasing trend from 20 to around 200 ?g/l uranium in the perfusion solutions, which thereafter appears to reach a plateau, as further increase towards concentrations around 400 ?g/l is not substantial. The uranium concentration administered had no effect on the vitality and consequently the functionality of the intestinal segments, measured in terms of active glucose transport. The results imply that uranium concentrations of more than 20 ?g/l in drinking water, for example, could lead to elevated absorption rates and thus to higher internal exposures to consider when setting of Guideline values in this concentration range. PMID:24793262

Konietzka, Rainer; Heinze, Rita; Seiwert, Margarete; Dieter, Hermann H

2014-07-01

234

In Vivo Function of Hsp90 Is Dependent on ATP Binding and ATP Hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), an abundant molecular chaperone in the eukaryotic cytosol, is in- volved in the folding of a set of cell regulatory proteins and in the re-folding of stress-denatured polypeptides. The basic mechanism of action of Hsp90 is not yet un- derstood. In particular, it has been debated whether Hsp90 function is ATP dependent. A recent crystal

Wolfgang M. J. Obermann; Holger Sondermann; Alicia A. Russo; Nikola P. Pavletich; F. Ulrich Hartl

1998-01-01

235

Identification of new tumor suppressor genes based on in vivo functional inactivation of a candidate gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a step towards developing a new functional test for the identification of tumor suppressor genes, human wild type and mutant RB genes were expressed in the mouse A9 fibrosarcoma cell line under the transcriptional regulation of the tetracycline repressor using two new vectors: pLNCtTA and pETI. Following passage of the transfectants in immunodeficient SCID mice, the wild type RB

Jingfeng Li; Alexei I Protopopov; Rinat Z Gizatullin; Csaba Kiss; Vladimir I Kashuba; Gösta Winberg; George Klein; Eugene R Zabarovsky

1999-01-01

236

Dicer-dependent microRNAs control maturation, function, and maintenance of Langerhans cells in vivo.  

PubMed

Dendritic cells (DCs) are central for the induction of T cell immunity and tolerance. Fundamental for DCs to control the immune system is their differentiation from precursors into various DC subsets with distinct functions and locations in lymphoid organs and tissues. In contrast to the differentiation of epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) and their seeding into the epidermis, LC maturation, turnover, and MHC class II Ag presentation capacities are strictly dependent on the presence of Dicer, which generates mature microRNAs (miRNAs). Absence of miRNAs caused a strongly disturbed steady-state homeostasis of LCs by increasing their turnover and apoptosis rate, leading to progressive ablation of LCs with age. The failure to maintain LCs populating the epidermis was accompanied by a proapoptotic gene expression signature. Dicer-deficient LCs showed largely increased cell sizes and reduced expression levels of the C-type lectin receptor Langerin, resulting in the lack of Birbeck granules. In addition, LCs failed to properly upregulate MHC class II, CD40, and CD86 surface molecules upon stimulation, which are critical hallmarks of functional DC maturation. This resulted in inefficient induction of CD4 T cell proliferation, whereas Dicer-deficient LCs could properly stimulate CD8 T cells. Taken together, Dicer-dependent generation of miRNAs affects homeostasis and function of epidermal LCs. PMID:20530258

Kuipers, Harmjan; Schnorfeil, Frauke M; Fehling, Hans-Jörg; Bartels, Helmut; Brocker, Thomas

2010-07-01

237

TrkA In Vivo Function Is Negatively Regulated by Ubiquitination  

PubMed Central

TrkA is a tyrosine kinase receptor required for development and survival of the peripheral nervous system. In the adult, TrkA and its ligand NGF are peripheral pain mediators, particularly in inflammatory pain states. However, how TrkA regulates the function of nociceptive neurons and whether its activity levels may lead to sensory abnormalities is still unclear. Here we report the characterization of a 3 aa (KFG) domain that negatively regulates TrkA level and function in response to NGF. Deletion of this domain in mouse causes a reduction of TrkA ubiquitination leading to an increase in TrkA protein levels and activity. The number of dorsal root ganglia neurons is not affected by the mutation. However, mutant mice have enhanced thermal sensitivity and inflammatory pain. Together, these data suggest that ubiquitination is a mechanism used in nociceptive neurons to regulate TrkA level and function. Our results may enhance our understanding of how ubiquitination affects TrkA activation following noxious thermal stimulation and inflammatory pain. PMID:24623787

Kiris, Erkan; Wang, Ting; Yanpallewar, Sudhirkumar; Dorsey, Susan G.; Becker, Jodi; Bavari, Sina; Palko, Mary Ellen

2014-01-01

238

3,3?-Diindolylmethane Stimulates Murine Immune Function In Vitro and In Vivo*  

PubMed Central

3,3?-Diindolylmethane (DIM), a major condensation product of indole-3-carbinol (I3C), exhibits chemopreventive properties in animal models of cancer. Recent studies have shown that DIM stimulates interferon-gamma (IFN-?) production and potentiates the IFN-? signaling pathway in human breast cancer cells via a mechanism that includes increased expression of the IFN-? receptor. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that DIM modulates the murine immune function. Specifically, the effects of DIM were evaluated in a panel of murine immune function tests that included splenocyte proliferation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cytokine production and resistance to viral infection. DIM was found to induce proliferation of splenocytes as well as augment mitogen- and IL-2-induced splenocyte proliferation. DIM also stimulated the production of ROS by murine peritoneal macrophage cultures. Oral administration of DIM, but not intraperitoneal injection (i.p.), induced elevation of serum cytokines in mice, including interleukin (IL)-6, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), IL-12 and IFN-?. Finally, in a model of enteric virus infection, oral DIM administration to mice enhanced both clearance of reovirus from the GI tract and the subsequent mucosal IgA response. Thus, DIM is a potent stimulator of immune function. This property might contribute to the cancer inhibitory effects of this indole. PMID:17707631

Xue, Ling; Pestka, James J.; Li, Maoxiang; Firestone, Gary L; Bjeldanes, Leonard F.

2008-01-01

239

Effects of systemic glucocorticosteroids on peripheral neutrophil functions in asthmatic subjects: an ex vivo study  

PubMed Central

In 21 asthmatic subjects, several functions of isolated peripheral neutrophils (chemokinesis and chemotaxis toward 10% E. coli; superoxide anion generation after PMA; leukotriene B4 (LTB4) release from whole blood and isolated neutrophtls, before and after different stimuli) were evaluated during an acute exacerbation of asthma, and after 14 – 54 days of treatment with systemic glucocorticosteroids (GCS). During acute exacerbation, superoxide anion generation was higher in asthmatics than in eleven normal subjects (39.2 ± 14.1 vs. 25.2 ± 7.3 nmol, p < 0.05); there was a significant correlation between FEV1 (% of predicted) and neutrophil chemotaxis (r = ?0.52, p = 0.04). After treatment, there was no significant change in all neutrophil functions, except for a decrease in neutrophil chemotaxis in subjects who showed an FEV1 increase > 20% after GCS treatment (from 131 ± 18 to 117 ± 21 ?m, p = 0.005). Chemokinesis sicantly decreased in all subjects, and the changes significantly correlated with an arbitrary score of the total administered dose of GCS (r = 0.57, p < 0.05). These data suggest that neutrophil activation plays a minor role in asthma, and that treatment with GCS is not able to modify most functions of peripheral neutrophils in asthmatic subjects; chemotaxis seems to be related only to the severity of the asthma and it could reflect the improvement of the disease. PMID:18475647

Bancalari, L.; Giannessi, D.; Bernini, W.; Lazzerini, G.; Sicari, R.; Bacci, E.; Dente, F. L.; Vagaggini, B.; Caterina, R. De

1995-01-01

240

Functional characterization of dopamine transporter in vivo using Drosophila melanogaster behavioral assays  

PubMed Central

Dopamine mediates diverse functions such as motivation, reward, attention, learning/memory and sleep/arousal. Recent studies using model organisms including the fruit fly, have elucidated various physiological functions of dopamine, and identified specific neural circuits for these functions. Flies with mutations in the Drosophila dopamine transporter (dDAT) gene show enhanced dopamine signaling, and short sleep and memory impairment phenotypes. However, understanding the mechanism by which dopamine signaling causes these phenotypes requires an understanding of the dynamics of dopamine release. Here we report the effects of dDAT expression on behavioral traits. We show that dDAT expression in a subset of dopaminergic neurons is sufficient for normal sleep. dDAT expression in other cell types such as Kenyon cells and glial cells can also rescue the short sleep phenotype of dDAT mutants. dDAT mutants also show a down-regulation of the D1-like dopamine receptor dDA1, and this phenotype is rescued when dDAT is expressed in the same cell types in which it rescues sleep. On the other hand, dDAT overexpression in mushroom bodies, which are the target of memory forming dopamine neurons, abolishes olfactory aversive memory. Our data demonstrate that expression of extrasynaptic dopamine transporters can rescue some aspects of dopamine signaling in dopamine transporter mutants. These results provide novel insights into regulatory systems that modulate dopamine signaling.

Ueno, Taro; Kume, Kazuhiko

2014-01-01

241

Effects of GC7101, a Novel Prokinetic Agent on Gastric Motor Function: Ex Vivo Study  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims GC7101, an extract of Lonicera Flos, is a novel developing drug for reflux esophagitis and functional dyspepsia. However, the drug’s exact pharmacological mechanism of action remains unclear. This study assessed the effects of GC7101 on gastrointestinal (GI) motor function. Methods We used male guinea pigs to evaluate the effects of GC7101 on GI motility. The contraction of antral circular muscle in the presence of different doses of GC7101 was measured in a tissue bath. The prokinetic effects of GC7101 were tested using the charcoal transit assay from the pylorus to the most distal point of migration of charcoal mixture. To clarify the mechanism of action of GC7101, atropine, dopamine and the selective 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 receptor antagonist, GR113808 were used. Results The maximal amplitude of circular muscle contraction was induced by 5 mg mL?1 GC7101. The area under the curve of contraction was significantly increased at 5 mg mL?1 GC7101. Addition of 10?6 M atropine, 10?8 M dopamine or 10?7 M GR 113808 to GC7101 5 mg mL?1 decreased the amplitude and area under curve compared to GC7101 5 mg mL?1 alone. GC7101 accelerated GI transit in a dose dependent manner except 100 mg kg?1. Delayed GI transit caused by atropine, dopamine and GR 113808 was restored by GC7101 50 mg kg?1. Conclusions GC7101, an extract of Lonicera Flos, exerts a gastric prokinetic effect in guinea pig through cholinergic, antidopaminergic and serotonergic mechanisms. Therefore, GC7101 might be a novel drug for the treatment of functional dyspepsia. PMID:25273117

Jung, Da Hyun; Choi, Eun Ju; Jeon, Han Ho; Lee, Young Ho; Park, Hyojin

2014-01-01

242

Cytoplasmic Ca2+ at low submicromolar concentration stimulates mitochondrial metabolism in rat luteal cells.  

PubMed

The cytoplasmic Ca2+ signal is transferred to the mitochondrial matrix and activates mitochondrial dehydrogenases. The requirement for supramicromolar cytoplasmic [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) in perimitochondrial microdomains in this response has been suggested. We studied the correlation between [Ca2+]i, mitochondrial [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]m) and mitochondrial formation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) [NAD(P)H] in the presence of submicromolar [Ca2+]i in cultured rat "large" luteal cells. [Ca2+]i was monitored fluorimetrically with fura-PE3, [Ca2+]m with rhod-2 and NAD(P)H with autofluorescence. In intact cells, prostaglandin F2alpha, which induces both intracellular Ca2+ release and Ca2+ entry, stimulated mitochondrial NAD(P)H formation. Thapsigargin-induced Ca2+ release and subsequent capacitative Ca2+ entry, both resulting in Ca2+ responses not exceeding 150-200 nM, also enhanced the reduction of pyridine nucleotides. As shown in inhibitor studies, the increased steady-state NAD(P)H level was due to activation of Ca2+-dependent dehydrogenases. [Ca2+]m, measured in permeabilized cells, increased moderately, but significantly, following elevation of [Ca2+]i from 50 to 180 nM, showed a further gradual increase at higher submicromolar [Ca2+]i values and rose steeply at supramicromolar [Ca2+]i. In summary, our results demonstrate that, in a steroid-producing cell type, net mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and mitochondrial dehydrogenation can be activated even by low submicromolar increases of [Ca2+]i. PMID:11294250

Szabadkai, G; Pitter, J G; Spät, A

2001-02-01

243

Pregnancy Rate Following Luteal Phase Support in Iranian Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background To assess the efficacy of luteal phase support (LPS) using intravaginal progesterone (P) on pregnancy rate in Iranian women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) who used a combination for ovulation induction consisting of letrozole or clomi- phene citrate (CC) and human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG). Materials and Methods This was a randomized clinical trial undertaken in a fertility clinic in Kashan, Isfahan Province, Iran. A total of 198 patients completed treatment and follow up. Base on chosen ovulation induction programs, they were divided into two following group: i. CC group (n=98) used a combination consisting of CC (100 mg×5 day) and HMG (150 IU×5 day) and ii. letrozole group (n=100) used a combination consisting of letrozole (5 mg×5 day) and HMG (150 IU×5 day). After human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration (5000 IU), the patients (n=122) who randomly re- ceived intravaginal P (Cyclogest, 400 mg daily) were included in LPS group, while the rest (n=123) were included in non-P cycles group. The outcome was the comparison of chemical pregnancy rate between the groups. Results Our findings showed that LPS was associated with a 10% higher pregnancy rate than in non-P cycles, although this difference did not reach statistical significant (p=0.08). LPS improved pregnancy rate in both CC (4%) and letrozole (6%) groups. In addition, patients who used letrozole for ovulation induction along with intravaginal P showed higher pregnancy rates than CC group. Conclusion Administration of vaginal P for LPS may improve the pregnancy rate in women with PCOS using letrozole or CC in combination with HMG for ovulation induc- tion (Registration Number: IRCT201206072967N4). PMID:25379150

Foroozanfard, Fatemeh; Saberi, Hamidreza; Moraveji, Seyed Alireza; Bazarganipour, Fatemeh

2014-01-01

244

Premenstrual Dysphoria and Luteal Stress in Dominant-Social-Status Female Macaques  

PubMed Central

The current study aims to extend our previous work to develop nonhuman primate model for prospectively studying the mechanism underlying premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Thirty young dominant-status female monkeys were randomly divided into the control group, the model group, and JQP group. For two consecutive menstrual cycles, from day 18 to 22, monkeys in the model and JQP groups were housed and immobilized singly in specially designed isolation cages for 5-6 hours per day. At the same time, the pharmaceutical interference effect of jingqianping (JQP) granule, a traditional Chinese medicine specifically used to cure PMDD patients, was tested using monkeys in the JQP group. The behavior and facial expressions of monkeys were photographed with an automatic vidicon and were quantitatively analyzed by “the emotion evaluation scale of female experimental macaque.” Changes in serum level of progesterone and estradiol were measured with RIA, and serum level of 5-HT, noradrenaline, and dopamine were measured with HPLC. After experiencing mentioned above stress, 70% of monkeys of model group showed PMDD symptoms during three consecutive menstrual cycles. Estradiol and progesterone serum level decreased (P < 0.01). Moreover, the peak value of secreted hormones in their follicular phase did not occur. Serum level of 5-HT and dopamine were significantly lower (P < 0.01), but the serum noradrenaline level was higher (P < 0.01). Moreover, in monkeys administered by JQP granule, both PMDD symptoms and the anormal serum level of neurotransmitters could be obviously reversed. This special luteal-phase treatment on dominant-social-status monkeys might be a feasible way to create models mimicking PMDD. PMID:24371458

Qiao, Mingqi; Zhao, Qitao; Wei, Sheng; Zhang, Huiyun; Wang, Haijun

2013-01-01

245

In vivo functional mapping of the conserved protein domains within murine Themis1.  

PubMed

Thymocyte development requires the coordinated input of signals that originate from numerous cell surface molecules. Although the majority of thymocyte signal-initiating receptors are lineage-specific, most trigger 'ubiquitous' downstream signaling pathways. T-lineage-specific receptors are coupled to these signaling pathways by lymphocyte-restricted adapter molecules. We and others recently identified a new putative adapter protein, Themis1, whose expression is largely restricted to the T lineage. Mice lacking Themis1 exhibit a severe block in thymocyte development and a striking paucity of mature T cells revealing a critical role for Themis1 in T-cell maturation. Themis1 orthologs contain three conserved domains: a proline-rich region (PRR) that binds to the ubiquitous cytosolic adapter Grb2, a nuclear localization sequence (NLS), and two copies of a novel cysteine-containing globular (CABIT) domain. In the present study, we evaluated the functional importance of each of these motifs by retroviral reconstitution of Themis1(-/-) progenitor cells. The results demonstrate an essential requirement for the PRR and NLS motifs but not the conserved CABIT cysteines for Themis1 function. PMID:24935457

Zvezdova, Ekaterina; Lee, Jan; El-Khoury, Dalal; Barr, Valarie; Akpan, Itoro; Samelson, Lawrence; Love, Paul E

2014-09-01

246

Ligand binding-dependent functions of the lipocalin NLaz: an in vivo study in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Lipocalins are small extracellular proteins mostly described as lipid carriers. The Drosophila lipocalin NLaz (neural Lazarillo) modulates the IIS pathway and regulates longevity, stress resistance, and behavior. Here, we test whether a native hydrophobic pocket structure is required for NLaz to perform its functions. We use a point mutation altering the binding pocket (NLaz(L130R)) and control mutations outside NLaz binding pocket. Tryptophan fluorescence titration reveals that NLaz(L130R) loses its ability to bind ergosterol and the pheromone 7(z)-tricosene but retains retinoic acid binding. Using site-directed transgenesis in Drosophila, we test the functionality of the ligand binding-altered lipocalin at the organism level. NLaz-dependent life span reduction, oxidative stress and starvation sensitivity, aging markers accumulation, and deficient courtship are rescued by overexpression of NLaz(WT), but not of NLaz(L130R). Transcriptional responses to aging and oxidative stress show a large set of age-responsive genes dependent on the integrity of NLaz binding pocket. Inhibition of IIS activity and modulation of oxidative stress and infection-responsive genes are binding pocket-dependent processes. Control of energy metabolites on starvation appears to be, however, insensitive to the modification of the NLaz binding pocket. PMID:24361577

Ruiz, Mario; Ganfornina, Maria D; Correnti, Colin; Strong, Roland K; Sanchez, Diego

2014-04-01

247

Transcranial imaging of functional cerebral hemodynamic changes in single blood vessels using in vivo photoacoustic microscopy  

PubMed Central

Optical imaging of changes in total hemoglobin concentration (HbT), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) provides a means to investigate brain hemodynamic regulation. However, high-resolution transcranial imaging remains challenging. In this study, we applied a novel functional photoacoustic microscopy technique to probe the responses of single cortical vessels to left forepaw electrical stimulation in mice with intact skulls. Functional changes in HbT, CBV, and SO2 in the superior sagittal sinus and different-sized arterioles from the anterior cerebral artery system were bilaterally imaged with unambiguous 36 × 65-?m2 spatial resolution. In addition, an early decrease of SO2 in single blood vessels during activation (i.e., ‘the initial dip') was observed. Our results indicate that the initial dip occurred specifically in small arterioles of activated regions but not in large veins. This technique complements other existing imaging approaches for the investigation of the hemodynamic responses in single cerebral blood vessels. PMID:22472612

Liao, Lun-De; Lin, Chin-Teng; Shih, Yen-Yu I; Duong, Timothy Q; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Wang, Po-Hsun; Wu, Robby; Tsang, Siny; Chang, Jyh-Yeong; Li, Meng-Lin; Chen, You-Yin

2012-01-01

248

Delta-catenin is required for the maintenance of neural structure and function in mature cortex in vivo  

PubMed Central

Delta (™)-catenin is a brain specific member of the adherens junction complex that localizes to the post-synaptic and dendritic compartments. This protein is likely critical for normal cognitive function; its hemizygous loss is linked to the severe mental retardation syndrome, Cri-du-Chat, and it directly interacts with Presenilin-1 (PS1), the protein most frequently mutated in familial Alzheimer's disease. Mice lacking normal ™-catenin display severe impairments in learning and memory tasks and synaptic plasticity. Here we examine dendritic structure and cortical function in vivo in mice lacking ™-catenin. We find that in cerebral cortex of 5-week-old mice dendritic complexity, spine density, and cortical responsiveness are similar between mutant and littermate controls; thereafter, mutant mice experience progressive dendritic retraction, a reduction in spine density and stability, and concomitant reductions in cortical responsiveness. Our results indicate that ™-catenin regulates the maintenance of dendrites and dendritic spines in mature cortex but does not appear to be necessary for the initial establishment of these structures during development. PMID:19914181

Matter, Cheryl; Pribadi, Mochtar; Liu, Xin; Trachtenberg, Joshua T.

2009-01-01

249

Polysaccharides from Ganoderma formosanum function as a Th1 adjuvant and stimulate cytotoxic T cell response in vivo.  

PubMed

The fungus of Ganoderma is a basidiomycete that possesses a variety of pharmacological effects and has been used in traditional Asian medicine for centuries. Ganoderma formosanum is a native Ganoderma species isolated in Taiwan, and we have previously demonstrated that PS-F2, a polysaccharide fraction purified from the submerged culture broth of G. formosanum, exhibits immunostimulatory properties in macrophages. In this study, we further characterized the adjuvant functions of PS-F2. In vitro, PS-F2 stimulated dendritic cells (DCs) to produce proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF-?, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-12/IL-23 p40. PS-F2 also stimulated DCs to express the maturation markers CD40, CD80, CD86, and MHC class II. In a murine splenocyte culture, PS-F2 treatment resulted in elevated expression of T-bet and interferon (IFN)-? in T lymphocytes. When used as an adjuvant in vivo with the ovalbumin (OVA) antigen, PS-F2 stimulated OVA-specific antibody production and primed IFN-? production in OVA-specific T lymphocytes. PS-F2-adjuvated immunization also induced OVA-specific CTLs, which protected mice from a challenge with tumor cells expressing OVA. Collectively, our data show that PS-F2 functions as an adjuvant capable of inducing a Th1-polarized adaptive immune response, which would be useful in vaccines against viruses and tumors. PMID:24252697

Pi, Chia-Chen; Chu, Ching-Liang; Lu, Chu-Ying; Zhuang, Yu-Jing; Wang, Cheng-Li; Yu, Yao-Hsuan; Wang, Hui-Yi; Lin, Chih-Chung; Chen, Chun-Jen

2014-01-01

250

Profiling of Luteal Transcriptome during Prostaglandin F2-Alpha Treatment in Buffalo Cows: Analysis of Signaling Pathways Associated with Luteolysis  

PubMed Central

In several species including the buffalo cow, prostaglandin (PG) F2? is the key molecule responsible for regression of corpus luteum (CL). Experiments were carried out to characterize gene expression changes in the CL tissue at various time points after administration of luteolytic dose of PGF2? in buffalo cows. Circulating progesterone levels decreased within 1 h of PGF2? treatment and evidence of apoptosis was demonstrable at 18 h post treatment. Microarray analysis indicated expression changes in several of immediate early genes and transcription factors within 3 h of treatment. Also, changes in expression of genes associated with cell to cell signaling, cytokine signaling, steroidogenesis, PG synthesis and apoptosis were observed. Analysis of various components of LH/CGR signaling in CL tissues indicated decreased LH/CGR protein expression, pCREB levels and PKA activity post PGF2? treatment. The novel finding of this study is the down regulation of CYP19A1 gene expression accompanied by decrease in expression of E2 receptors and circulating and intra luteal E2 post PGF2? treatment. Mining of microarray data revealed several differentially expressed E2 responsive genes. Since CYP19A1 gene expression is low in the bovine CL, mining of microarray data of PGF2?-treated macaques, the species with high luteal CYP19A1 expression, showed good correlation between differentially expressed E2 responsive genes between both the species. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that PGF2? interferes with luteotrophic signaling, impairs intra-luteal E2 levels and regulates various signaling pathways before the effects on structural luteolysis are manifest. PMID:25102061

Suganthi, Hepziba; Rudraiah, Medhamurthy

2014-01-01

251

Cetrotide administration in the early luteal phase in patients at high risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: A controlled clinical study  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present pilot study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of Cetrotide administration in the early luteal phase in patients at high risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), undergoing embryo cryopreservation following superovulation. A total of 135 patients at high risk of OHSS and undergoing embryo cryopreservation were divided into two groups. In the treatment group (n=39), the patients received daily subcutaneous injections of 0.25 mg Cetrotide between days 1 and 5 following ooctye retrieval, and volume expansion and symptomatic treatment were also provided. In the control group (n=96), the patients received routine treatments, including volume expansion therapy. The serum steroid hormone concentrations of the patients were measured on days 2, 5 and 8 following ooctye retrieval, while the incidence of moderate or severe OHSS, self-evaluated clinical symptoms and various clinical indicators were recorded. The serum estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone and progesterone levels in the treatment group on days 2, 5 and 8 following oocyte retrieval were not found to differ significantly when compared with the patients in the control group (P>0.05). The incidence of severe OHSS did not differ significantly between the two groups (P>0.05). The average length of hospital stay and length of luteal phase were not found to be significantly different between the treatment and control groups (P>0.05). In conclusion, Cetrotide injections in the early luteal phase did not alter the serum steroid levels of patients at high risk of OHSS undergoing embryo cryopreservation, and were unable to reduce the incidence of severe early OHSS. However, further randomized studies are required to evaluate the effectiveness of Cetrotide in the prevention of OHSS. PMID:25371744

WANG, YA-QIN; YU, NAN; XU, WANG-MIN; XIE, QIN-ZHEN; YAN, WEN-JIE; WU, GENG-XIANG; YANG, JING

2014-01-01

252

RANKL expression in normal and malignant breast tissue responds to progesterone and is up-regulated during the luteal phase.  

PubMed

The receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL) acts as a paracrine factor in progesterone-induced mammary epithelial proliferation and tumorigenesis. This evidence comes mainly from mouse models. Our aim was to examine whether RANKL expression in human normal and malignant breast is under the control of progesterone throughout the menstrual cycle. Breast epithelial samples were obtained by random fine needle aspiration (rFNA) of the contralateral unaffected breasts (CUB) of 18 breast cancer patients, with simultaneous serum hormone measurements. Genes correlated with serum progesterone levels were identified through Illumina microarray analysis. Validation was performed using qRT-PCR in rFNA samples from CUB of an additional 53 women and using immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays of 61 breast cancer samples. Expression of RANKL, DIO2, and MYBPC1 was correlated with serum progesterone in CUB, and was significantly higher in luteal phase. RANKL and MYBPC1 mRNA expression were highly correlated between CUB and matched tumor samples. RANKL protein expression was also significantly increased in the luteal phase and highly correlated with serum progesterone levels in cancer samples, especially in hormone receptor positive tumors. The regulatory effects of progesterone on the expression of RANKL, DIO2, and MYBPC1 were confirmed in three-dimensional cultures of normal breast organoids. In normal breast and in breast cancer, RANKL mRNA and protein expression fluctuate with serum progesterone with highest levels in the luteal phase, suggesting that RANKL is a modulator of progesterone signaling in normal and malignant breast tissue and a potential biomarker of progesterone action and blockade. PMID:25007964

Hu, Hong; Wang, Jun; Gupta, Akash; Shidfar, Ali; Branstetter, Daniel; Lee, Oukseub; Ivancic, David; Sullivan, Megan; Chatterton, Robert T; Dougall, William C; Khan, Seema A

2014-08-01

253

Pharmacological inhibition of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase improves endothelial vasodilatory function in rats in vivo  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) exerts a wide range of cellular effects in the cardiovascular system. NO is short lived, but S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) functions as a stable intracellular bioavailable NO pool. Accordingly, increased levels can facilitate NO-mediated processes, and conversely, catabolism of GSNO by the regulatory enzyme GSNO reductase (GSNOR) can impair these processes. Because dysregulated GSNOR can interfere with processes relevant to cardiovascular health, it follows that inhibition of GSNOR may be beneficial. However, the effect of GSNOR inhibition on vascular activity is unknown. To study the effects of GSNOR inhibition on endothelial function, we treated rats with a small-molecule inhibitor of GSNOR (N6338) that has vasodilatory effects on isolated aortic rings and assessed effects on arterial flow-mediated dilation (FMD), an NO-dependent process. GSNOR inhibition with a single intravenous dose of N6338 preserved FMD (15.3 ± 5.4 vs. 14.2 ± 6.3%, P = nonsignificant) under partial NO synthase inhibition that normally reduces FMD by roughly 50% (14.1 ± 2.9 vs. 7.6 ± 4.4%, P < 0.05). In hypertensive rats, daily oral administration of N6338 for 14 days reduced blood pressure (170.0 ± 5.3/122.7 ± 6.4 vs. 203.8 ± 1.9/143.7 ± 7.5 mmHg for vehicle, P < 0.001) and vascular resistance index (1.5 ± 0.4 vs. 3.2 ± 1.0 mmHg·min·l?1 for vehicle, P < 0.001), and restored FMD from an initially impaired state (7.4 ± 1.7%, day 0) to a level (13.0 ± 3.1%, day 14, P < 0.001) similar to that observed in normotensive rats. N6338 also reversed the pathological kidney changes exhibited by the hypertensive rats. GSNOR inhibition preserves FMD under conditions of impaired NO production and protects against both microvascular and conduit artery dysfunction in a model of hypertension. PMID:23349456

Chen, Qiumei; Sievers, Richard E.; Varga, Monika; Kharait, Sourabh; Haddad, Daniel J.; Patton, Aaron K.; Delany, Christopher S.; Mutka, Sarah C.; Blonder, Joan P.; Dube, Gregory P.; Rosenthal, Gary J.

2013-01-01

254

In vivo measurement of carpal tunnel pressure in the functioning hand.  

PubMed

We recorded directly the pressure within the carpal tunnel during nine different functional positions of the hand and wrist in 102 hands of 92 subjects. Carpal tunnel syndrome was present in 81 hands, and 21 served as controls. A significant rise in pressure was recorded not only with wrist flexion but also with wrist extension, making a fist, holding objects, and isolated isometric flexion of a finger against resistance. Intratunnel pressure dropped after 1 minute of hand and wrist exercises and remained below the resting pressure for over 15 minutes of continuous measurement. We did not observe a rebound phenomenon. Clinical Application: Non-surgical treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome should also include a significant reduction in making a fist, holding objects, pushing, and isolated finger work such as key punching and typing. Activities that require sustained contracture of finger flexor muscles (eg, grasp and hold) also should be avoided. Brief intermittent wrist and hand exercise is recommended to reduce the intratunnel pressure. PMID:8522756

Seradge, H; Jia, Y C; Owens, W

1995-09-01

255

In vivo alterations in skeletal muscle form and function after disuse atrophy.  

PubMed

Prolonged reductions in muscle activity and mechanical loading (e.g., bed rest, cast immobilization) result in alterations in skeletal muscle form and function. The purpose of this review article was to synthesize recent findings from several studies on the dramatic effects of disuse on skeletal muscle morphology and muscle performance in humans. Specifically, the following are discussed: 1) how the antigravity muscles are most susceptible to atrophy and how the degree of atrophy varies between muscle groups; 2) how disuse alters muscle composition by increasing intermuscular adipose tissue; 3) the influence of different disuse models on regulating the loss of muscle mass and strength, with immobilization causing greater reductions than bed rest and limb suspension do; 4) the observation that disuse decreases strength to a greater extent than muscle mass and the role of adaptations in both neural and contractile properties that influences this excessive loss of strength; 5) the equivocal findings on the effect of disuse on muscle fatigue resistance; and 6) the reduction in motor control after prolonged disuse. Lastly, emerging data warranting further inquiry into the modulating role of biological sex on disuse-induced adaptations are also discussed. PMID:19727027

Clark, Brian C

2009-10-01

256

Arrestin in ciliary invertebrate photoreceptors: molecular identification and functional analysis in vivo.  

PubMed

Arrestin was identified in ciliary photoreceptors of Pecten irradians, and its role in terminating the light response was established electrophysiologically. Downstream effectors in these unusual visual cells diverge from both microvillar photoreceptors and rods and cones; the finding that key regulatory mechanisms of the early steps of visual excitation are conserved across such distant lineages of photoreceptors underscores that a common blueprint for phototransduction exists across metazoa. Arrestin was detected by Western blot analysis of retinal lysates, and localized in ciliary photoreceptors by immunostaining of whole-eye cryosections and dissociated cells. Two arrestin isoforms were molecularly identified by PCR; these present the canonical N- and C-arrestin domains, and are identical at the nucleotide level over much of their sequence. A high degree of homology to various ?-arrestins (up to 70% amino acid identity) was found. In situ hybridization localized the two transcripts within the retina, but failed to reveal finer spatial segregation, possibly because of insufficient differences between the riboprobes. Intracellular dialysis of anti arrestin antibodies into voltage-clamped ciliary photoreceptors produced a gradual slow-down of the photocurrent falling phase, leaving a tail that decayed over many seconds after light termination. The antibodies also caused spectrally neutral flashes to elicit prolonged aftercurrents in the absence of large metarhodopsin accumulation; such aftercurrents could be quenched by chromatic illumination that photoconverts metarhodopsin back to rhodopsin. These observations indicate that the antibodies depleted functionally available arrestin, and implicate this molecule in the deactivation of the photoresponse at the rhodopsin level. PMID:21289191

Gomez, Maria Del Pilar; Espinosa, Lady; Ramirez, Nelson; Nasi, Enrico

2011-02-01

257

Identification of Functionally Important TonB-ExbD Periplasmic Domain Interactions In Vivo  

PubMed Central

In Gram-negative bacteria, the cytoplasmic membrane proton-motive force energizes the active transport of TonB-dependent ligands through outer membrane TonB-gated transporters. In Escherichia coli, cytoplasmic membrane proteins ExbB and ExbD couple the proton-motive force to conformational changes in TonB, which are hypothesized to form the basis of energy transduction through direct contact with the transporters. While the role of ExbB is not well understood, contact between periplasmic domains of TonB and ExbD is required, with the conformational response of TonB to presence or absence of proton motive force being modulated through ExbD. A region (residues 92 to 121) within the ExbD periplasmic domain was previously identified as being important for TonB interaction. Here, the specific sites of periplasmic domain interactions between that region and the TonB carboxy terminus were identified by examining 270 combinations of 45 TonB and 6 ExbD individual cysteine substitutions for disulfide-linked heterodimer formation. ExbD residues A92C, K97C, and T109C interacted with multiple TonB substitutions in four regions of the TonB carboxy terminus. Two regions were on each side of the TonB residues known to interact with the TonB box of TonB-gated transporters, suggesting that ExbD positions TonB for correct interaction at that site. A third region contained a functionally important glycine residue, and the fourth region involved a highly conserved predicted amphipathic helix. Three ExbD substitutions, F103C, L115C, and T121C, were nonreactive with any TonB cysteine substitutions. ExbD D25, a candidate to be on a proton translocation pathway, was important to support efficient TonB-ExbD heterodimerization at these specific regions. PMID:22493017

Ollis, Anne A.

2012-01-01

258

Differential Carbonylation of Proteins as a Function of in vivo Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

This study reports for the first time qualitative and quantitative differences in carbonylated proteins shed into blood as a function of increasing levels of OS. Carbonylated proteins in freshly drawn blood from pairs of diabetic and lean rats were derivatized with biotin hydrazide, dialyzed, and enriched with avidin affinity chromatography. Proteins thus selected were used in several ways. Differences between control and diabetic subjects in relative concentration of proteins was achieved by differential labeling of tryptic digests with iTRAQ™ reagents followed by reversed phase chromatography (RPC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Identification and characterization of OS induced post-translational modification sites in contrast was achieved by fractionation of affinity selected proteins before proteolysis and RPC-MS/MS. Relative quantification of peptides bearing oxidative modifications was achieved for the first time by selective reaction monitoring (SRM). Approximately 1.7% of the proteins in Zucker diabetic rat plasma were selected by the avidin affinity column as compared to 0.98% in lean animal plasma. Among the thirty five proteins identified and quantified, Apo AII, clusterin, hemopexin precursor and potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 7 showed the most dramatic changes in concentration. Seventeen carbonylation sites were identified and quantified, eleven of which changed more than 2 fold in oxidation state. Three types of carbonylation were identified at these sites; direct oxidative cleavage from reactive oxygen species, glycation and addition of advanced glycation end products, and addition of lipid peroxidation products. Direct oxidation was the dominant form of carbonylation observed while hemoglobin and murinoglobulin 1 homolog were the most heavily oxidized proteins. PMID:21800835

Madian, Ashraf G.; Myracle, Angela D.; Diaz-Maldonado, Naomi; Rochelle, Nishi S.; Janle, Elsa M.; Regnier, Fred E.

2011-01-01

259

Inhibition of Wee1 sensitizes cancer cells to antimetabolite chemotherapeutics in vitro and in vivo, independent of p53 functionality.  

PubMed

Inhibition of Wee1 is emerging as a novel therapeutic strategy for cancer, and some data suggest that cells with dysfunctional p53 are more sensitive to Wee1 inhibition combined with conventional chemotherapy than those with functional p53. We and others found that Wee1 inhibition sensitizes leukemia cells to cytarabine. Thus, we sought to determine whether chemosensitization by Wee1 inhibition is dependent on p53 dysfunction and whether combining Wee1 inhibition is tolerable and effective in vivo. Synergistic inhibition of proliferation with a Wee1 inhibitor in clinical development, MK1775, and cytarabine was observed in all acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cell lines tested, regardless of p53 functionality. Mechanistic studies indicate that inhibition of Wee1 abrogates the S-phase checkpoint and augments apoptosis induced by cytarabine. In AML and lung cancer cell lines, genetic disruption of p53 did not alter the cells' enhanced sensitivity to antimetabolites with Wee1 inhibition. Finally, mice with AML were treated with cytarabine and/or MK1775. The combination of MK1775 and cytarabine was well tolerated in mice and enhanced the antileukemia effects of cytarabine, including survival. Thus, inhibition of Wee1 sensitizes hematologic and solid tumor cell lines to antimetabolite chemotherapeutics, whether p53 is functional or not, suggesting that the use of p53 mutation as a predictive biomarker for response to Wee1 inhibition may be restricted to certain cancers and/or chemotherapeutics. These data provide preclinical justification for testing MK1775 and cytarabine in patients with leukemia. PMID:24121103

Van Linden, Annemie A; Baturin, Dmitry; Ford, James B; Fosmire, Susan P; Gardner, Lori; Korch, Christopher; Reigan, Philip; Porter, Christopher C

2013-12-01

260

EFFECT OF OIL COMBUSTION PARTICLE BIOAVAILABLE CONSTITUENTS ON EX VIVO VASCULAR FUNCTION OF AORTAS RECOVERED FROM NORMAL AND TYPE 2 DIABETIC RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Effect of Oil Combustion Particle Bioavailable Constituents on Ex Vivo Vascular Function of Aortae Recovered from Healthy and Early Type 2 Diabetic Rats KL Dreher1, SE Kelly2, SD Proctor2, and JC Russell2. 1National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, US EPA, RTP, NC;...

261

Alterations at the cross-bridge level are associated with a paradoxical gain of muscle function in vivo in a mouse model of nemaline myopathy.  

PubMed

Nemaline myopathy is the most common disease entity among non-dystrophic skeletal muscle congenital diseases. The first disease causing mutation (Met9Arg) was identified in the gene encoding ?-tropomyosinslow gene (TPM3). Considering the conflicting findings of the previous studies on the transgenic (Tg) mice carrying the TPM3Met9Arg mutation, we investigated carefully the effect of the Met9Arg mutation in 8-9 month-old Tg(TPM3)Met9Arg mice on muscle function using a multiscale methodological approach including skinned muscle fibers analysis and in vivo investigations by magnetic resonance imaging and 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. While in vitro maximal force production was reduced in Tg(TPM3)Met9Arg mice as compared to controls, in vivo measurements revealed an improved mechanical performance in the transgenic mice as compared to the former. The reduced in vitro muscle force might be related to alterations occuring at the cross-bridges level with muscle-specific underlying mechanisms. In vivo muscle improvement was not associated with any changes in either muscle volume or energy metabolism. Our findings indicate that TPM3(Met9Arg) mutation leads to a mild muscle weakness in vitro related to an alteration at the cross-bridges level and a paradoxical gain of muscle function in vivo. These results clearly point out that in vitro alterations are muscle-dependent and do not necessarily translate into similar changes in vivo. PMID:25268244

Gineste, Charlotte; Ottenheijm, Coen; Le Fur, Yann; Banzet, Sébastien; Pecchi, Emilie; Vilmen, Christophe; Cozzone, Patrick J; Koulmann, Nathalie; Hardeman, Edna C; Bendahan, David; Gondin, Julien

2014-01-01

262

Alterations at the Cross-Bridge Level Are Associated with a Paradoxical Gain of Muscle Function In Vivo in a Mouse Model of Nemaline Myopathy  

PubMed Central

Nemaline myopathy is the most common disease entity among non-dystrophic skeletal muscle congenital diseases. The first disease causing mutation (Met9Arg) was identified in the gene encoding ?-tropomyosinslow gene (TPM3). Considering the conflicting findings of the previous studies on the transgenic (Tg) mice carrying the TPM3Met9Arg mutation, we investigated carefully the effect of the Met9Arg mutation in 8–9 month-old Tg(TPM3)Met9Arg mice on muscle function using a multiscale methodological approach including skinned muscle fibers analysis and in vivo investigations by magnetic resonance imaging and 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. While in vitro maximal force production was reduced in Tg(TPM3)Met9Arg mice as compared to controls, in vivo measurements revealed an improved mechanical performance in the transgenic mice as compared to the former. The reduced in vitro muscle force might be related to alterations occuring at the cross-bridges level with muscle-specific underlying mechanisms. In vivo muscle improvement was not associated with any changes in either muscle volume or energy metabolism. Our findings indicate that TPM3(Met9Arg) mutation leads to a mild muscle weakness in vitro related to an alteration at the cross-bridges level and a paradoxical gain of muscle function in vivo. These results clearly point out that in vitro alterations are muscle-dependent and do not necessarily translate into similar changes in vivo. PMID:25268244

Gineste, Charlotte; Ottenheijm, Coen; Le Fur, Yann; Banzet, Sebastien; Pecchi, Emilie; Vilmen, Christophe; Cozzone, Patrick J.; Koulmann, Nathalie; Hardeman, Edna C.; Bendahan, David; Gondin, Julien

2014-01-01

263

In vivo two-photon uncaging of glutamate revealing the structure-function relationships of dendritic spines in the neocortex of adult mice  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two-photon (2P) uncaging of caged neurotransmitters can efficiently stimulate individual synapses and is widely used to characterize synaptic functions in brain slice preparations. Here we extended 2P uncaging to neocortical pyramidal neurons in adult mice in vivo where caged glutamate was applied from the pial surface. To validate the methodology, we applied a small fluorescent probe using the same method, and confirmed that its concentrations were approximately homogenous up to 200 ?m below the cortical surface, and that the extracellular space of the neocortex was as large as 22%. In fact, in vivo whole-cell recording revealed that 2P glutamate uncaging could elicit transient currents (2pEPSCs) very similar to excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). A spatial resolution of glutamate uncaging was 0.6–0.8 ?m up to the depth of 200 ?m, and in vivo 2P uncaging was able to stimulate single identified spines. Automated three-dimensional (3-D) mapping of such 2pEPSCs which covered the surfaces of dendritic branches revealed that functional AMPA receptor expression was stable and proportional to spine volume. Moreover, in vivo 2P Ca2+ imaging and uncaging suggested that the amplitudes of glutamate-induced Ca2+ transients were inversely proportional to spine volume. Thus, the key structure–function relationships hold in dendritic spines in adult neocortex in vivo, as in young hippocampal slice preparations. In vivo 2P uncaging will be a powerful tool to investigate properties of synapses in the neocortex. PMID:21486811

Noguchi, Jun; Nagaoka, Akira; Watanabe, Satoshi; Ellis-Davies, Graham C R; Kitamura, Kazuo; Kano, Masanobu; Matsuzaki, Masanori; Kasai, Haruo

2011-01-01

264

In vivo morphometry and functional analysis of human articular cartilage with quantitative magnetic resonance imaging - from image to data, from data to theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of form-function relationships and disease processes in human articular cartilage necessitate in vivo assessment of cartilage morphology and deformational behavior. MR imaging and advanced digital post-processing techniques have opened novel possibilities for quantitative analysis of cartilage morphology, structure, and function in health and disease. This article reviews work on three-dimensional post-processing of MR image data of articular cartilage, summarizing

Felix Eckstein; Maximilian Reiser; Karl-Hans Englmeier; Reinhard Putz

2001-01-01

265

Follicular characteristics and luteal development after follicle-stimulating hormone induced multiple ovulations in heifers.  

PubMed

A protocol based on small doses of FSH was examined for the induction of double or triple (multiple) ovulations in cattle. Ovulation rate, follicular characteristics, and luteal responses were determined. In Exp. 1, three groups of estrous-synchronized, cyclic Holstein heifers were treated once daily, on d 3 to 6 of the cycle, with a FSH product (Folltropin-V): large FSH dose (total of 150 mg; n=18), medium FSH dose (total of 130 mg, n=12), and small FSH dose (total of 80 mg; n=7). Controls received saline (n=6). Prostaglandin F(2?) was injected on d 6, ultrasound-guided aspiration of surplus follicles (if needed) was performed on d 7, and GnRH was injected on d 8 to induce ovulation. The large FSH dose induced growth of more (2.6±0.3, P<0.05) large follicles than controls on d 8; medium and small FSH doses insufficiently stimulated growth of <2 large follicles. Ovulation rates were determined in subgroups of heifers (n=10, 13, 4, and 6, respectively). The large FSH dose induced greater rates (P<0.01) of mostly double and triple ovulations (90% multiple ovulations, 70% double ovulations), most of which (89%) were bilateral, with only 2 out of 10 heifers requiring aspiration of surplus follicles. Medium and small FSH doses induced fewer multiple ovulations (38% and 25%, respectively). Estradiol concentrations on d 8 did not differ among treatments, but the concentration per large follicle in controls was greater (P<0.05) than in FSH treatments. Mean corpus luteum (CL) volume in single-ovulation controls was greater (P<0.05) than that of multiple ovulations in the large FSH group and total CL volume and progesterone concentrations were numerically greater in multiple ovulations. In Exp. 2, the characteristics of follicles aspirated on d 7 from large FSH (n=11) and control heifers (n=10) were compared. Based on estradiol-to-progesterone ratio, 57% of the large FSH-treated follicles were classified as codominant/healthy follicles and 43% as subordinate/early atretic. Although concentrations of estradiol and androstenedione in FSH-treated codominant follicles were less (P<0.05) than in controls, estradiol-to-progesterone ratio indicated that those follicles were steroidogenically active. Finely tuned small doses of FSH administered during the first follicular wave can induce a large incidence of double/triple, mainly bilateral, ovulations in cattle, which may serve as a basis for treatment aimed at promoting twinning in beef cattle. PMID:23097398

Glick, G; Hogeg, M; Moallem, U; Lavon, Y; Wolfenson, D

2013-01-01

266

Nature, source and function of pigments in tardigrades: in vivo raman imaging of carotenoids in Echiniscus blumi.  

PubMed

Tardigrades are microscopic aquatic animals with remarkable abilities to withstand harsh physical conditions such as dehydration or exposure to harmful highly energetic radiation. The mechanisms responsible for such robustness are presently little known, but protection against oxidative stresses is thought to play a role. Despite the fact that many tardigrade species are variously pigmented, scarce information is available about this characteristic. By applying Raman micro-spectroscopy on living specimens, pigments in the tardigrade Echiniscus blumi are identified as carotenoids, and their distribution within the animal body is visualized. The dietary origin of these pigments is demonstrated, as well as their presence in the eggs and in eye-spots of these animals, together with their absence in the outer layer of the animal (i.e., cuticle and epidermis). Using in-vivo semi-quantitative Raman micro-spectroscopy, a decrease in carotenoid content is detected after inducing oxidative stress, demonstrating that this approach can be used for studying the role of carotenoids in oxidative stress-related processes in tardigrades. This approach could be thus used in further investigations to test several hypotheses concerning the function of these carotenoids in tardigrades as photo-protective pigments against ionizing radiations or as antioxidants defending these organisms against the oxidative stress occurring during desiccation processes. PMID:23185564

Bonifacio, Alois; Guidetti, Roberto; Altiero, Tiziana; Sergo, Valter; Rebecchi, Lorena

2012-01-01

267

Nature, Source and Function of Pigments in Tardigrades: In Vivo Raman Imaging of Carotenoids in Echiniscus blumi  

PubMed Central

Tardigrades are microscopic aquatic animals with remarkable abilities to withstand harsh physical conditions such as dehydration or exposure to harmful highly energetic radiation. The mechanisms responsible for such robustness are presently little known, but protection against oxidative stresses is thought to play a role. Despite the fact that many tardigrade species are variously pigmented, scarce information is available about this characteristic. By applying Raman micro-spectroscopy on living specimens, pigments in the tardigrade Echiniscus blumi are identified as carotenoids, and their distribution within the animal body is visualized. The dietary origin of these pigments is demonstrated, as well as their presence in the eggs and in eye-spots of these animals, together with their absence in the outer layer of the animal (i.e., cuticle and epidermis). Using in-vivo semi-quantitative Raman micro-spectroscopy, a decrease in carotenoid content is detected after inducing oxidative stress, demonstrating that this approach can be used for studying the role of carotenoids in oxidative stress-related processes in tardigrades. This approach could be thus used in further investigations to test several hypotheses concerning the function of these carotenoids in tardigrades as photo-protective pigments against ionizing radiations or as antioxidants defending these organisms against the oxidative stress occurring during desiccation processes. PMID:23185564

Bonifacio, Alois; Guidetti, Roberto; Altiero, Tiziana; Sergo, Valter; Rebecchi, Lorena

2012-01-01

268

Salmonid alphavirus replicon is functional in fish, mammalian and insect cells and in vivo in shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei).  

PubMed

The Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is the etiological agent of pancreas disease in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and Sleeping disease in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). SAV differs from alphaviruses infecting terrestrial animals in that it infects salmonid fish at low temperatures and does not use an arthropod vector for transmission. In this study we have shown that a SAVbased replicon could express proteins when driven by the subgenomic promoter in vitro in cells from fish, mammals and insects, as well as in vivo in shrimps (Litopanaeus vannamei). The SAV-replicon was found to be functional at temperatures ranging from 4 to 37°C. Protein expression was slow and moderate compared to that reported from terrestrial alphavirus replicons or from vectors where protein expression was under control of the immediate early CMV-promoter. No cytopathic effect was visually observable in cells transfected with SAV-replicon vectors. Double stranded RNA was present for several days after transfection of the SAV-replicon in fish cell lines and its presence was indicated also in shrimp. The combination of prolonged dsRNA production, low toxicity, and wide temperature range for expression, may potentially be advantageous for the use of the SAV replicon to induce immune responses in aquaculture of fish and shrimp. PMID:24120486

Olsen, Christel M; Pemula, Anand Kumar; Braaen, Stine; Sankaran, Krishnan; Rimstad, Espen

2013-11-19

269

Body Size in Relation to Urinary Estrogens and Estrogen Metabolites (EM) among Premenopausal Women during the Luteal Phase  

PubMed Central

Estrogen metabolism profiles may play an important role in the relationship between body size and breast carcinogenesis. Previously, we observed inverse associations between current body mass index (BMI) and plasma levels of parent estrogens (estrone and estradiol) among premenopausal women during both follicular and luteal phases. Using data from the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHS II), we assessed whether height, current BMI, and BMI at age 18 were associated with the urinary concentrations of 15 estrogens and estrogen metabolites (jointly referred to as EM) measured during the luteal phase among 603 premenopausal women. We observed inverse associations with total EM for height (Ptrend=0.01) and current BMI (Ptrend=0.01), but not BMI at age 18 (Ptrend=0.26). Six EMs were 18–27% lower in women with a height 68+ inches versus ?62 inches, primarily in the methylated catechol pathway (Ptrend=0.04). Eight EMs were 18–50% lower in women with a BMI of 30+ versus <20, primarily in the 2-catechol and methylated catechol pathways (Ptrend<0.001 for both). Our results suggest that height and current BMI are associated with estrogen metabolism profiles in premenopausal women. Further studies with timed urine and blood collections are required to confirm and extend our findings. PMID:23011724

Xie, Jing; Eliassen, A. Heather; Xu, Xia; Matthews, Charles E.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Tworoger, Shelley S.

2012-01-01

270

Persistent Borna Disease Virus infection changes expression and function of astroglial gap junctions in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed

Neonatal Borna Disease Virus (BDV) infection of the Lewis rat brain leads to dentate gyrus (DG) degeneration, underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Since astroglial gap junction (GJ) coupling is known to influence neurodegenerative processes, the question arose whether persistent BDV infection influences astroglial connexins (Cx) Cx43 and Cx30 in the hippocampal formation (HiF) of Lewis rats. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis of forebrain (FB) samples revealed a virus dependent reduction of both Cx types 8 but not 4 weeks post infection (p.i.). Immunohistochemistry revealed an increase of Cx43 in the DG and a decrease in the CA3 region 4 and 8 weeks p.i. Cx30, which was detectable only 8 weeks p.i., revealed a BDV dependent increase in DG and CA3 regions. BDV dependent astrogliosis as revealed by immunodetection of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) correlated not with astroglial connexin expression. With regard to functional coupling as revealed by scrape loading, BDV infection resulted in increased spreading of the GJ permeant dye Lucifer yellow in primary hippocampal astroglial cultures, and in increased expression of Cx43 and Cx30 as revealed by immunocytochemistry. In conclusion, persistent BDV infection of the Lewis rat brain leads to changes in astroglial Cx expression both in vivo and in vitro and of functional coupling in vitro. Distribution and time course of these changes suggest them to be a direct result of neurodegeneration in the DG and an indirect effect of neuronal deafferentiation in the CA3 region. PMID:18028885

Köster-Patzlaff, Christiane; Hosseini, Seyed Mehdi; Reuss, Bernhard

2007-12-12

271

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the effects of piperine on P-gp function and expression  

SciTech Connect

Piperine, a major component of black pepper, is used as spice and nutrient enhancer. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of acute and prolonged piperine exposure on cellular P-gp expression and function in vitro and in vivo. Piperine at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 {mu}M, determined by MTT assay to be non-cytotoxic, was observed to inhibit P-gp mediated efflux transport of [{sup 3}H]-digoxin across L-MDR1 and Caco-2 cell monolayers. The acute inhibitory effect was dependent on piperine concentration, with abolishment of [{sup 3}H]-digoxin polarized transport attained at 50 {mu}M of piperine. In contrast, prolonged (48 and 72 h) co-incubation of Caco-2 cell monolayers with piperine (50 and 100 {mu}M) increased P-gp activity through an up-regulation of cellular P-gp protein and MDR1 mRNA levels. The up-regulated protein was functionally active, as demonstrated by a higher degree of [{sup 3}H]-digoxin efflux across the cell monolayers, but the induction was readily reversed by the removal of the spice from the culture medium. Peroral administration of piperine at the dose of 112 {mu}g/kg body weight/day to male Wistar rats for 14 consecutive days also led to increased intestinal P-gp levels. However, there was a concomitant reduction in the rodent liver P-gp although the kidney P-gp level was unaffected. Our data suggest that caution should be exercised when piperine is to be co-administered with drugs that are P-gp substrates, particularly for patients whose diet relies heavily on pepper.

Han Yi [Department of Pharmacy, National University of Singapore, 18 Science Drive 4, 117543 (Singapore); Chin Tan, Theresa May [Department of Biochemistry, National University of Singapore, 18 Science Drive 4, 117543 (Singapore); Lim, Lee-Yong [Pharmacy, School of Biomedical, Biomolecular and Chemical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)], E-mail: limly@cyllene.uwa.edu.au

2008-08-01

272

Marijuana components suppress induction and cytolytic function of murine cytotoxic T cells in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Killer lymphocytes play a major role in host defense against tumors and infectious diseases. Previously, we reported that delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and II-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (II-hydroxy-THC) suppressed the cytolytic activity of cultured natural killer (NK) cells. Also, we showed that the drugs appeared to be affecting a stage in the killing process subsequent to the binding of the killer cell to the target cell. In the present report, we have extended these studies to an examination of the effect of cannabinoids on the activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). The cytolytic activity of CTLs generated by cocultivation with either allospecific stimulators or TNP-modified-self stimulators were suppressed by both THC and II-hydroxy-THC treatment. Allospecific CTLs generated in vivo were also inhibited by an in vitro exposure to either THC or II-hydroxy-THC, and the sensitivity of these cells to drug effects appeared to be greater than the sensitivity of the in vitro generated CTLs. Suppression of cytolytic function by THC and II-hydroxy-THC was maximal after a 4-h drug treatment, suggesting that the drug effects were inducible and therefore required a finite period of time to develop maximally. As seen in previous studies involving NK cells, drug treatment of mature CTLs appears to have little effect on the binding capacity of these cells for the target. However, the maximal killing capacity of the cells and the frequency of CTLs were significantly reduced by drug treatment. In addition to suppressing the cytolytic activity of mature effector CTLs, we also show that drug treatment inhibits both the proliferation of lymphocytes responding to an allogeneic stimulus and the maturation of these lymphocytes to mature CTLs. Similarly, CTL activity developing in vivo could be inhibited by THC injection. These results suggest that CTLs are inhibited by cannabinoids by at least two mechanisms. First, the cytolytic activity of mature killers is suppressed at some point beyond the binding to the target cell. Second, the cannabinoids appear to suppress the normal development of these mature effector cells from less mature precursor cells. PMID:1850002

Klein, T W; Kawakami, Y; Newton, C; Friedman, H

1991-04-01

273

Regulation of Epithelial Cell Morphology and Functions Approaching To More In Vivo-Like by Modifying Polyethylene Glycol on Polysulfone Membranes  

PubMed Central

Cytocompatibility is critically important in design of biomaterials for application in tissue engineering. However, the currently well-accepted “cytocompatible" biomaterials are those which promote cells to sustain good attachment/spreading. The cells on such materials usually lack the self-assembled cell morphology and high cell functions as in vivo. In our view, biomaterials that can promote the ability of cells to self-assemble and demonstrate cell-specific functions would be cytocompatible. This paper examined the interaction of polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified polysulfone (PSf) membranes with four epithelial cell types (primary liver cells, a liver tumor cell line, and two renal tubular cell lines). Our results show that PSf membranes modified with proper PEG promoted the aggregation of both liver and renal cells, but the liver cells more easily formed aggregates than the renal tubular cells. The culture on PEG-modified PSf membranes also enhanced cell-specific functions. In particular, the cells cultured on F127 membranes with the proper PEG content mimicked the in vivo ultrastructure of liver cells or renal tubules cells and displayed the highest cell functions. Gene expression data for adhesion proteins suggest that the PEG modification impaired cell-membrane interactions and increased cell-cell interactions, thus facilitating cell self-assembly. In conclusion, PEG-modified membrane could be a cytocompatible material which regulates the morphology and functions of epithelial cells in mimicking cell performance in vivo. PMID:22558349

Shen, Chong; Zhang, Guoliang; Meng, Qin

2012-01-01

274

Ex vivo electroporation of retinal cells: a novel, high efficiency method for functional studies in primary retinal cultures.  

PubMed

Primary retinal cultures constitute valuable tools not only for basic research on retinal cell development and physiology, but also for the identification of factors or drugs that promote cell survival and differentiation. In order to take full advantage of the benefits of this system it is imperative to develop efficient and reliable techniques for the manipulation of gene expression. However, achieving appropriate transfection efficiencies in these cultures has remained challenging. The purpose of this work was to develop and optimize a technique that would allow the transfection of chick retinal cells with high efficiency and reproducibility for multiple applications. We developed an ex vivo electroporation method applied to dissociated retinal cell cultures that offers a significant improvement over other currently available transfection techniques, increasing efficiency by five-fold. In this method, eyes were enucleated, devoid of RPE, and electroporated with GFP-encoding plasmids using custom-made electrodes. Electroporated retinas were then dissociated into single cells and plated in low density conditions, to be analyzed after 4 days of incubation. Parameters such as voltage and number of electric pulses, as well as plasmid concentration and developmental stage of the animal were optimized for efficiency. The characteristics of the cultures were assessed by morphology and immunocytochemistry, and cell viability was determined by ethidium homodimer staining. Cell imaging and counting was performed using an automated high-throughput system. This procedure resulted in transfection efficiencies in the order of 22-25% of cultured cells, encompassing both photoreceptors and non-photoreceptor neurons, and without affecting normal cell survival and differentiation. Finally, the feasibility of the technique for cell-autonomous studies of gene function in a biologically relevant context was tested by carrying out gain and loss-of-function experiments for the transcription factor PAX6. Electroporation of a plasmid construct expressing PAX6 resulted in a marked upregulation in the expression levels of this protein that could be measured in the whole culture as well as cell-intrinsically. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in the percentage of cells differentiating as photoreceptors among the transfected population. Conversely, electroporation of an RNAi construct targeting PAX6 resulted in a significant decrease in the levels of this protein, with a concomitant increase in the proportion of photoreceptors. Taken together these results provide strong proof-of-principle of the suitability of this technique for genetic studies in retinal cultures. The combination of the high transfection efficiency obtained by this method with automated high-throughput cell analysis supplies the scientific community with a powerful system for performing functional studies in a cell-autonomous manner. PMID:23370269

Vergara, M Natalia; Gutierrez, Christian; O'Brien, David R; Canto-Soler, M Valeria

2013-04-01

275

Luteal support of pregnancy in red deer ( Cervus elaphus): effect of cloprostenol, ovariectomy and lutectomy on the viability of the post-implantation embryo  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two experiments with red deer hinds we investigated (1) the sensitivity of the corpus luteum of pregnancy and the post-implantation embryo to a single injection of a prostaglandin analogue, and (2) the effects of removal of ovarian and luteal tissues on the maintenance of pregnancy. In the first experiment, groups of hinds (n = 6 per group) were given

G. W. Asher; M. W. Fisher; D. K. Berg; K. A. Waldrup; A. J. Pearse

1996-01-01

276

Ex Vivo Expansion of Functional Human UCB-HSCs/HPCs by Coculture with AFT024-hkirre Cells  

PubMed Central

Kiaa1867 (human Kirre, hKirre) has a critical role in brain development and/or maintenance of the glomerular slit diaphragm in kidneys. Murine homolog of this gene, mKirre expressed in OP9 and AFT024 cells could support hematopoietic stem cells/hematopoietic progenitor cells (HSC/HPC) expansion in vitro. HKirre is also expressed in human FBMOB-hTERT cell line and fetal liver fibroblast-like cells but its function has remained unclear. In this paper, we cloned a hKirre gene from human fetal liver fibroblast-like cells and established a stably overexpressing hKirre-AFT024 cell line. Resultant cells could promote self-renewal and ex vivo expansion of HSCs/HPCs significantly higher than AFT024-control cells transformed with mock plasmid. The Expanded human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) CD34+ cells retained the capacity of multipotent differentiation as long as 8 weeks and successfully repopulated the bone marrow of sublethally irradiated NOD/SCID mice, which demonstrated the expansion of long-term primitive transplantable HSCs/HPCs. Importantly, hkirre could upregulate the expressions of Wnt-5A, BMP4, and SDF-1 and downregulate TGF-? with other hematopoietic growth factors. By SDS-PAGE and Western Blot analysis, a ~89?kDa protein in total lysate of AFT024-hKirre was identified. Supernatants from AFT024-hkirre could also support CD34+CD38? cells expansion. These results demonstrated that the AFT024-hKirre cells have the ability to efficiently expand HSCs/HPCs. PMID:24719861

Khan, Muti ur Rehman; Ali, Ijaz; Jiao, Wei; Wang, Yun; Masood, Saima; Yousaf, Muhammad Zubair; Javaid, Aqeel; Ahmad, Shafique; Feng, Meifu

2014-01-01

277

Ex vivo expansion of functional human UCB-HSCs/HPCs by coculture with AFT024-hkirre cells.  

PubMed

Kiaa1867 (human Kirre, hKirre) has a critical role in brain development and/or maintenance of the glomerular slit diaphragm in kidneys. Murine homolog of this gene, mKirre expressed in OP9 and AFT024 cells could support hematopoietic stem cells/hematopoietic progenitor cells (HSC/HPC) expansion in vitro. HKirre is also expressed in human FBMOB-hTERT cell line and fetal liver fibroblast-like cells but its function has remained unclear. In this paper, we cloned a hKirre gene from human fetal liver fibroblast-like cells and established a stably overexpressing hKirre-AFT024 cell line. Resultant cells could promote self-renewal and ex vivo expansion of HSCs/HPCs significantly higher than AFT024-control cells transformed with mock plasmid. The Expanded human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) CD34(+) cells retained the capacity of multipotent differentiation as long as 8 weeks and successfully repopulated the bone marrow of sublethally irradiated NOD/SCID mice, which demonstrated the expansion of long-term primitive transplantable HSCs/HPCs. Importantly, hkirre could upregulate the expressions of Wnt-5A, BMP4, and SDF-1 and downregulate TGF- ? with other hematopoietic growth factors. By SDS-PAGE and Western Blot analysis, a ~89?kDa protein in total lysate of AFT024-hKirre was identified. Supernatants from AFT024-hkirre could also support CD34(+)CD38(-) cells expansion. These results demonstrated that the AFT024-hKirre cells have the ability to efficiently expand HSCs/HPCs. PMID:24719861

Khan, Muti ur Rehman; Ali, Ijaz; Jiao, Wei; Wang, Yun; Masood, Saima; Yousaf, Muhammad Zubair; Javaid, Aqeel; Ahmad, Shafique; Feng, Meifu

2014-01-01

278

Evaluation of Functional Erythropoietin Receptor Status in Skeletal Muscle In Vivo: Acute and Prolonged Studies in Healthy Human Subjects  

PubMed Central

Background Erythropoietin receptors have been identified in human skeletal muscle tissue, but downstream signal transduction has not been investigated. We therefore studied in vivo effects of systemic erythropoietin exposure in human skeletal muscle. Methodology/Principal Findings The protocols involved 1) acute effects of a single bolus injection of erythropoietin followed by consecutive muscle biopsies for 1–10 hours, and 2) a separate study with prolonged administration for 16 days with biopsies obtained before and after. The presence of erythropoietin receptors in muscle tissue as well as activation of Epo signalling pathways (STAT5, MAPK, Akt, IKK) were analysed by western blotting. Changes in muscle protein profiles after prolonged erythropoietin treatment were evaluated by 2D gel-electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The presence of the erythropoietin receptor in skeletal muscle was confirmed, by the M20 but not the C20 antibody. However, no significant changes in phosphorylation of the Epo-R, STAT5, MAPK, Akt, Lyn, IKK, and p70S6K after erythropoietin administration were detected. The level of 8 protein spots were significantly altered after 16 days of rHuEpo treatment; one isoform of myosin light chain 3 and one of desmin/actin were decreased, while three isoforms of creatine kinase and two of glyceraldehyd-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were increased. Conclusions/Significance Acute exposure to recombinant human erythropoietin is not associated by detectable activation of the Epo-R or downstream signalling targets in human skeletal muscle in the resting situation, whereas more prolonged exposure induces significant changes in the skeletal muscle proteome. The absence of functional Epo receptor activity in human skeletal muscle indicates that the long-term effects are indirect and probably related to an increased oxidative capacity in this tissue. PMID:22384088

Christensen, Britt; Lundby, Carsten; Jessen, Niels; Nielsen, Thomas S.; Vestergaard, Poul F.; M?ller, Niels; Pilegaard, Henriette; Pedersen, Steen B.; Kopchick, John J.; J?rgensen, Jens Otto L.

2012-01-01

279

Dual-function 2-nitroimidazoles as hypoxic cell radiosensitizers and bioreductive cytotoxins: In vivo evaluation in KHT murine sarcomas  

SciTech Connect

The efficacies of a series of potential prodrugs of RSU-1069 and its alkyl-aziridine analogues were assessed. These 1-(2-haloethylamino)-3-(2-nitro-1-imidazolyl)-2-propanol compounds were designed to cyclize in vivo to generate 2-nitro-imidazoles with aziridine (RSU-1069) or alkyl-substituted aziridine (RSU-1164, RB-7040, or RSU-1150) functions. Maximum tolerated single, intraperitoneal doses (MTD) were determined in C3H/He mice bearing subcutaneous KHT sarcomas, and a drug dose-response relationship for radiosensitization was established for each compound administered at the optimum time (45-60 min) before local irradiation of tumors with a 10-Gy dose of X-rays. The potentials of the compounds as bioreductive cytotoxins were studied by administering them immediately after irradiation. Tumor cell survival was measured 18-24 h after treatment in an in vitro soft agar clonogenic assay. Results of toxicity, radiosensitization, and bioreductive cytotoxicity assays for each of the prodrugs (RB-6171, RB-6172, RB-6173, RB-6174, and RB-6175) of the alkyl-substituted aziridines were entirely consistent with complete conversion to their respective target compounds. For example, RB-6171 (the prodrug form of RSU-1164) was only about four times less efficient than RSU-1069 as a radiosensitizer and bioreductive cytotoxin but had an MTD 7.5 times higher. In contrast, prodrugs of RSU-1069 (RB-6144 and RB-6145) were two- to threefold less toxic than their expected product. RB-6144 was a poor radiosensitizer and bioreductive agent compared with RSU-1069 and was similar to RB-6170, a nonalkylating nitroimidazole. This is consistent with the observation that there is limited conversion of RB-6144 to RSU-1069 in vitro. However, radiosensitization and bioreductive cytotoxicity produced by RB-6145 were only slightly less than the effects produced by RSU-1069.

Cole, S.; Stratford, I.J.; Adams, G.E.; Fielden, E.M.; Jenkins, T.C. (Medical Research Council, Didcot, Oxon (England))

1990-10-01

280

How mitochondrial dysfunction affects zebrafish development and cardiovascular function: an in vivo model for testing mitochondria-targeted drugs  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Mitochondria are a drug target in mitochondrial dysfunction diseases and in antiparasitic chemotherapy. While zebrafish is increasingly used as a biomedical model, its potential for mitochondrial research remains relatively unexplored. Here, we perform the first systematic analysis of how mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitors affect zebrafish development and cardiovascular function, and assess multiple quinones, including ubiquinone mimetics idebenone and decylubiquinone, and the antimalarial atovaquone. Experimental Approach Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were chronically and acutely exposed to mitochondrial inhibitors and quinone analogues. Concentration-response curves, developmental and cardiovascular phenotyping were performed together with sequence analysis of inhibitor-binding mitochondrial subunits in zebrafish versus mouse, human and parasites. Phenotype rescuing was assessed in co-exposure assays. Key Results Complex I and II inhibitors induced developmental abnormalities, but their submaximal toxicity was not additive, suggesting active alternative pathways for complex III feeding. Complex III inhibitors evoked a direct normal-to-dead transition. ATP synthase inhibition arrested gastrulation. Menadione induced hypochromic anaemia when transiently present following primitive erythropoiesis. Atovaquone was over 1000-fold less lethal in zebrafish than reported for Plasmodium falciparum, and its toxicity partly rescued by the ubiquinone precursor 4-hydroxybenzoate. Idebenone and decylubiquinone delayed rotenone- but not myxothiazol- or antimycin-evoked cardiac dysfunction. Conclusion and Implications This study characterizes pharmacologically induced mitochondrial dysfunction phenotypes in zebrafish, laying the foundation for comparison with future studies addressing mitochondrial dysfunction in this model organism. It has relevant implications for interpreting zebrafish disease models linked to complex I/II inhibition. Further, it evidences zebrafish's potential for in vivo efficacy or toxicity screening of ubiquinone analogues or antiparasitic mitochondria-targeted drugs. PMID:23758163

Pinho, Brigida R; Santos, Miguel M; Fonseca-Silva, Anabela; Valentao, Patricia; Andrade, Paula B; Oliveira, Jorge M A

2013-01-01

281

A Comparison of the Functionality and In Vivo Phenotypic Stability of Cartilaginous Tissues Engineered from Different Stem Cell Sources  

PubMed Central

Joint-derived stem cells are a promising alternative cell source for cartilage repair therapies that may overcome many of the problems associated with the use of primary chondrocytes (CCs). The objective of this study was to compare the in vitro functionality and in vivo phenotypic stability of cartilaginous tissues engineered using bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) and joint tissue-derived stem cells following encapsulation in agarose hydrogels. Culture-expanded BMSCs, fat pad-derived stem cells (FPSCs), and synovial membrane-derived stem cells (SDSCs) were encapsulated in agarose and maintained in a chondrogenic medium supplemented with transforming growth factor-?3. After 21 days of culture, constructs were either implanted subcutaneously into the back of nude mice for an additional 28 days or maintained for a similar period in vitro in either chondrogenic or hypertrophic media formulations. After 49 days of in vitro culture in chondrogenic media, SDSC constructs accumulated the highest levels of sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) (?2.8% w/w) and collagen (?1.8% w/w) and were mechanically stiffer than constructs engineered using other cell types. After subcutaneous implantation in nude mice, sGAG content significantly decreased for all stem cell-seeded constructs, while no significant change was observed in the control constructs engineered using primary CCs, indicating that the in vitro chondrocyte-like phenotype generated in all stem cell-seeded agarose constructs was transient. FPSCs and SDSCs appeared to undergo fibrous dedifferentiation or resorption, as evident from increased collagen type I staining and a dramatic loss in sGAG content. BMSCs followed a more endochondral pathway with increased type X collagen expression and mineralization of the engineered tissue. In conclusion, while joint tissue-derived stem cells possess a strong intrinsic chondrogenic capacity, further studies are needed to identify the factors that will lead to the generation of a more stable chondrogenic phenotype. PMID:22429262

Vinardell, Tatiana; Sheehy, Eamon J.; Buckley, Conor T.

2012-01-01

282

Affinity for, and localization of, PEG-functionalized silica nanoparticles to sites of damage in an ex vivo spinal cord injury model  

PubMed Central

Background Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to serious neurological and functional deficits through a chain of pathophysiological events. At the molecular level, progressive damage is initially revealed by collapse of plasma membrane organization and integrity produced by breaches. Consequently, the loss of its role as a semi-permeable barrier that generally mediates the regulation and transport of ions and molecules eventually results in cell death. In previous studies, we have demonstrated the functional recovery of compromised plasma membranes can be induced by the application of the hydrophilic polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG) after both spinal and brain trauma in adult rats and guinea pigs. Additionally, efforts have been directed towards a nanoparticle-based PEG application. The in vivo and ex vivo applications of PEG-decorated silica nanoparticles following CNS injury were able to effectively and efficiently enhance resealing of damaged cell membranes. Results The possibility for selectivity of tetramethyl rhodamine-dextran (TMR) dye-doped, PEG-functionalized silica nanoparticles (TMR-PSiNPs) to damaged spinal cord was evaluated using an ex vivo model of guinea pig SCI. Crushed and nearby undamaged spinal cord tissues exhibited an obvious difference in both the imbibement and accumulation of the TMR-PSiNPs, revealing selective labeling of compression-injured tissues. Conclusions These data show that appropriately functionalized nanoparticles can be an efficient means to both 1.) carry drugs, and 2.) apply membrane repair agents where they are needed in focally damaged nervous tissue. PMID:22979980

2012-01-01

283

Manipulation of the periovulatory sex steroidal milieu affects endometrial but not luteal gene expression in early diestrus Nelore cows.  

PubMed

In beef cattle, the ability to conceive has been associated positively with size of the preovulatory follicle (POF). Proestrus estradiol and subsequent progesterone concentrations can regulate the endometrium to affect receptivity and fertility. The aim of the present study was to verify the effect of the size of the POF on luteal and endometrial gene expression during subsequent early diestrus in beef cattle. Eighty-three multiparous, nonlactating, presynchronized Nelore cows received a progesterone-releasing device and estradiol benzoate on Day-10 (D-10). Animals received cloprostenol (large follicle-large CL group; LF-LCL; N = 42) or not (small follicle-small CL group; SF-SCL; N = 41) on D-10. Progesterone devices were withdrawn and cloprostenol administered 42 to 60 hours (LF-LCL) or 30 to 36 hours (SF-SCL) before GnRH treatment (D0). Tissues were collected at slaughter on D7. The LF-LCL group had larger (P < 0.0001) POF (13.24 ± 0.33 mm vs. 10.76 ± 0.29 mm), greater (P < 0.0007) estradiol concentrations on D0 (2.94 ± 0.28 pg/mL vs. 1.27 ± 0.20 pg/mL), and greater (P < 0.01) progesterone concentrations on D7 (3.71 ± 0.25 ng/mL vs. 2.62 ± 0.26 ng/mL) compared with the SF-SCL group. Luteal gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A, kinase insert domain receptor, fms-related tyrosine kinase 1, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, cytochrome P450, family 11, subfamily A, polypeptide 1, and hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 beta- and steroid delta-isomerase 7 was similar between groups. Endometrial gene expression of oxytocin receptor and peptidase inhibitor 3, skin-derived was reduced, and estrogen receptor alpha 2, aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C4, and lipoprotein lipase expression was increased in LF-LCL versus SF-SCL. Results support the hypothesis that the size of the POF alters the periovulatory endocrine milieu (i.e., proestrus estradiol and diestrus progesterone concentrations) and acts on the uterus to alter endometrial gene expression. It is proposed that the uterine environment and receptivity might also be modulated. Additionally, it is suggested that increased progesterone secretion of cows ovulating larger follicles is likely due to increased CL size rather than increased luteal expression of steroidogenic genes. PMID:24507960

Mesquita, F S; Pugliesi, G; Scolari, S C; França, M R; Ramos, R S; Oliveira, M; Papa, P C; Bressan, F F; Meirelles, F V; Silva, L A; Nogueira, G P; Membrive, C M B; Binelli, M

2014-04-01

284

Integrating EMR-Linked and In Vivo Functional Genetic Data to Identify New Genotype-Phenotype Associations  

PubMed Central

The coupling of electronic medical records (EMR) with genetic data has created the potential for implementing reverse genetic approaches in humans, whereby the function of a gene is inferred from the shared pattern of morbidity among homozygotes of a genetic variant. We explored the feasibility of this approach to identify phenotypes associated with low frequency variants using Vanderbilt's EMR-based BioVU resource. We analyzed 1,658 low frequency non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) with a minor allele frequency (MAF)<10% collected on 8,546 subjects. For each nsSNP, we identified diagnoses shared by at least 2 minor allele homozygotes and with an association p<0.05. The diagnoses were reviewed by a clinician to ascertain whether they may share a common mechanistic basis. While a number of biologically compelling clinical patterns of association were observed, the frequency of these associations was identical to that observed using genotype-permuted data sets, indicating that the associations were likely due to chance. To refine our analysis associations, we then restricted the analysis to 711 nsSNPs in genes with phenotypes in the On-line Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) or knock-out mouse phenotype databases. An initial comparison of the EMR diagnoses to the known in vivo functions of the gene identified 25 candidate nsSNPs, 19 of which had significant genotype-phenotype associations when tested using matched controls. Twleve of the 19 nsSNPs associations were confirmed by a detailed record review. Four of 12 nsSNP-phenotype associations were successfully replicated in an independent data set: thrombosis (F5,rs6031), seizures/convulsions (GPR98,rs13157270), macular degeneration (CNGB3,rs3735972), and GI bleeding (HGFAC,rs16844401). These analyses demonstrate the feasibility and challenges of using reverse genetics approaches to identify novel gene-phenotype associations in human subjects using low frequency variants. As increasing amounts of rare variant data are generated from modern genotyping and sequence platforms, model organism data may be an important tool to enable discovery. PMID:24949630

Mosley, Jonathan D.; Van Driest, Sara L.; Weeke, Peter E.; Delaney, Jessica T.; Wells, Quinn S.; Bastarache, Lisa; Roden, Dan M.; Denny, Josh C.

2014-01-01

285

Husbandry factors and the resumption of luteal activity in open and zero-grazed dairy cows in urban and peri-urban kampala, Uganda.  

PubMed

The study investigated the influence of selected husbandry factors on interval to resumption of post-partum cyclicity among dairy cows in urban and peri-urban Kampala. A prospective study of 85 day post-partum period of 59 dairy cows in open (n = 38) and zero grazing (n = 21) systems was conducted on 24 farms. Cows of parity 1-6 were recruited starting 15-30 days post-partum. Progesterone (P4) content in milk taken at 10-12 day intervals was analysed using ELISA. The cow P4 profiles were classified into 'normal' (< 56 days), 'delayed' (> 56 days), 'ceased' or 'prolonged' (if started < 56 days but with abnormal P4 displays) resumption of luteal activity and tested for association with husbandry and cow factors. Of the 59 cows, luteal activity in 81.4% resumed normally and in 18.6%, delayed. Only 23.7% maintained regular luteal activity, while the others had ceased (10.2%), prolonged (37.3%) or unclear luteal activity (20.3%). There were no differences between open and zero-grazed cows. Milk production was higher (p < 0.05) in zero than open grazing, in urban than peri-urban and in cows fed on brew waste (p < 0.001) compared with mill products and banana peels. Results suggest that luteal activity resumes normally in a majority of cows, although only a minority experienced continued normal cyclicity once ovulation had occurred, in the two farming systems irrespective of feed supplements or water, and that supplementing with brew waste is beneficial for milk production. PMID:24930481

Kanyima, B M; Båge, R; Owiny, D O; Ntallaris, T; Lindahl, J; Magnusson, U; Nassuna-Musoke, M G

2014-08-01

286

Angiotensin II increases vascular and renal endothelin-1 and functional endothelin converting enzyme activity in vivo: role of ETA receptors for endothelin regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiotensin II (Ang II)-stimulated expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1) mRNA is blocked by ETA antagonists in vitro. We studied effects of Ang II (200 ng\\/kg\\/min) and ETA antagonist LU135252 (50 mg\\/kg\\/d) in WKY rats in vivo investigating vascular and renal ET-1 protein expression, functional endothelin converting enzyme (ECE) activity, and clearance of (125I)ET-1. Infusion of Ang II for two weeks increased

M. Barton; S. Shaw; L. V. d'Uscio; P. Moreau; T. F. Luscher

1997-01-01

287

Ex vivo Enzymatic Treatment of Aged CD4 T Cells Restores Cognate T-cell Helper Function and Enhances Antibody Production in Mice  

PubMed Central

Previous in vitro studies have shown that CD4 T cells from old mice have defects in T cell receptor (TCR) signaling, immune synapse formation, activation, and proliferation. We have reported that removing a specific set of surface glycoproteins by ex vivo treatment with O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase (OSGE) can reverse many aspects of the age-related decline in CD4 T cell function. However, the specific mechanism by which this process occurs remains unclear, and it is unknown whether this enzymatic treatment can also restore important aspects of adaptive immunity in vivo. By using an in vivo model of the immune response based on adoptive transfer of CD4 T cells from pigeon cytochrome C (PCC)-specific transgenic H-2(k/k) TCR-V?11V?3 CD4+ mice to syngeneic hosts, we now demonstrat that aging diminishes CD28 costimulatory signals in CD4 T cells. These age-associated defects include changes in phosphorylation of AKT and expression of glucose transporter type I, inducible T-cell costimulatory molecule, and CD40 ligand, suggesting that the lack of CD28 costimulation contributes to age-dependent loss of CD4 function. All of these deficits can be reversed by ex vivo OSGE treatment. Blocking B7-CD28 interactions on T cells prevents OSGE-mediated restoration of T cell function, suggesting that changes in surface glycosylation, including CD28, may be responsible for age-related costimulation decline. Finally, we showed that the age-related decline in CD4 cognate helper function for immunoglobin G production and long-term humoral immunity can also be restored by OSGE treatments of CD4 T cells prior to adoptive transfer. PMID:23136198

Perkey, Eric; Miller, Richard A.; Garcia, Gonzalo G.

2012-01-01

288

Lipidation and glycosylation of a T cell antigen receptor (TCR) transmembrane hydrophobic peptide dramatically enhances in vitro and in vivo function.  

PubMed

A T cell antigen receptor (TCR) transmembrane sequence derived peptide (CP) has been shown to inhibit T cell activation both in vitro and in vivo at the membrane level of the receptor signal transduction. To examine the effect of sugar or lipid conjugations on CP function, we linked CP to 1-aminoglucosesuccinate (GS), N-myristate (MYR), mono-di-tripalmitate (LP1, LP2, or LP3), and a lipoamino acid (LA) and examined the effects of these compounds on T cell activation in vitro and by using a rat model of adjuvant-induced arthritis, in vivo. In vitro, antigen presentation results demonstrated that lipid conjugation enhanced CP's ability to lower IL-2 production from 56.99%+/-15.69 S.D. observed with CP, to 12.08%+/-3.34 S.D. observed with LA. The sugar conjugate GS resulted in only a mild loss of in vitro activity compared to CP (82.95%+/-14.96 S.D.). In vivo, lipid conjugation retarded the progression of adjuvant-induced arthritis by approximately 50%, whereas the sugar conjugated CP, GS, almost completely inhibited the progression of arthritis. This study demonstrates that hydrophobic peptide activity is markedly enhanced in vitro and in vivo by conjugation to lipids or sugars. This may have practical applications in drug delivery and bioavailability of hydrophobic peptides. PMID:16782215

Amon, Michael A; Ali, Marina; Bender, Vera; Chan, Yiu-Ngok; Toth, Istvan; Manolios, Nicholas

2006-08-01

289

Regional Homogeneity Changes in Hemodialysis Patients with End Stage Renal Disease: In Vivo Resting-State Functional MRI Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To prospectively investigate and detect early cerebral regional homogeneity (ReHo) changes in neurologically asymptomatic patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) using in vivo resting-state functional MR imaging (Rs-fMRI). Methods We enrolled 20 patients (15 men, 5 women; meanage, 37.1 years; range, 19–49 years) with ESRD and 20 healthy controls (15 men, 5 women; mean age, 38.3 years; range, 28–49 years). The mean duration of hemodialysis for the patient group was 10.7±6.4 monthes. There was no significant sex or age difference between the ESRD and control groups. Rs-fMRI was performed using a gradient-echo echo-planar imaging sequence. ReHo was calculated using software (DPARSF). Voxel-based analysis of the ReHo maps between ESRD and control groups was performed with a two-samples t test. Statistical maps were set at P value less than 0.05 and were corrected for multiple comparisons. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was administered to all participants at imaging. Results ReHo values were increased in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus and left medial frontal gyrus in the ERSD group compared with controls, but a significantly decreased ReHo value was found in the right middle temporal gyrus. There was no significant correlation between ReHo values and the duration of hemodialysis in the ESRD group. Both the patients and control subjects had normal MMSE scores (?28). Conclusions Our finding revealed that abnormal brain activity was distributed mainly in the memory and cognition related cotices in patients with ESRD. The abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity in those areas provide information on the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment in patients with ESRD, and demonstrate that Rs-fMRI with ReHo analysis is a useful non-invasive imaging tool for the detection of early cerebral ReHo changes in hemodialysis patients with ESRD. PMID:24516545

Qiu, Ying-Wei; Lv, Xiao-Fei; Shen, Sheng; Zhan, Wen-Feng; Tian, Jun-Zhang; Jiang, Gui-Hua

2014-01-01

290

Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Improving Hematopoietic Function: An In Vitro and In Vivo Model. Part 2: Effect on Bone Marrow Microenvironment  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to determine how mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) could improve bone marrow (BM) stroma function after damage, both in vitro and in vivo. Human MSC from 20 healthy donors were isolated and expanded. Mobilized selected CD34+ progenitor cells were obtained from 20 HSCT donors. For in vitro study, long-term bone marrow cultures (LTBMC) were performed using a etoposide damaged stromal model to test MSC effect in stromal confluence, capability of MSC to lodge in stromal layer as well as some molecules (SDF1, osteopontin,) involved in hematopoietic niche maintenance were analyzed. For the in vivo model, 64 NOD/SCID recipients were transplanted with CD34+ cells administered either by intravenous (IV) or intrabone (IB) route, with or without BM derived MSC. MSC lodgement within the BM niche was assessed by FISH analysis and the expression of SDF1 and osteopontin by immunohistochemistry. In vivo study showed that when the stromal damage was severe, TP-MSC could lodge in the etoposide-treated BM stroma, as shown by FISH analysis. Osteopontin and SDF1 were differently expressed in damaged stroma and their expression restored after TP-MSC addition. Human in vivo MSC lodgement was observed within BM niche by FISH, but MSC only were detected and not in the contralateral femurs. Human MSC were located around blood vessels in the subendoestal region of femurs and expressed SDF1 and osteopontin. In summary, our data show that MSC can restore BM stromal function and also engraft when a higher stromal damage was done. Interestingly, MSC were detected locally where they were administered but not in the contralateral femur. PMID:22028841

Carrancio, Soraya; Blanco, Belen; Romo, Carlos; Muntion, Sandra; Lopez-Holgado, Natalia; Blanco, Juan F.; Brinon, Jesus G.; San Miguel, Jesus F.; Sanchez-Guijo, Fermin M.; del Canizo, M. Consuelo

2011-01-01

291

Structural and functional recovery of electropermeabilized skeletal muscle in-vivo after treatment with surfactant poloxamer 188.  

PubMed

A critical requirement for cell survival after trauma is sealing of breaks in the cell membrane [M. Bier, S.M. Hammer, D.J. Canaday, R.C Lee, Kinetics of sealing for transient electropores in isolated mammalian skeletal muscle cells, Bioelectromagnetics 20 (1999) 194-201; R.C. Lee, D.C. Gaylor, D. Bhatt, D.A. Israel, Role of cell membrane rupture in the pathogenesis of electrical trauma, J. Surg. Res. 44 (1988) 709-719; R.C. Lee, J.F. Burke, E.G. Cravalho (Eds.), Electrical Trauma: The Pathophysiology, Manifestations, and Clinical Management, Cambridge University Press, 1992; B.I. Tropea, R.C. Lee, Thermal injury kinetics in electrical trauma, J. Biomech. Engr. 114 (1992) 241-250; F. Despa, D.P. Orgill, J. Newalder, R.C Lee, The relative thermal stability of tissue macromolecules and cellular structure in burn injury, Burns 31 (2005) 568-577; T.A. Block, J.N. Aarsvold, K.L. Matthews II, R.A. Mintzer, L.P. River, M. Capelli-Schellpfeffer, R.L. Wollman, S. Tripathi, C.T. Chen, R.C. Lee, The 1995 Lindberg Award. Nonthermally mediated muscle injury and necrosis in electrical trauma, J. Burn Care and Rehabil. 16 (1995) 581-588; K. Miyake, P.L. McNeil, Mechanical injury and repair of cells, Crit. Care Med. 31 (2003) S496-S501; R.C. Lee, L.P. River, F.S. Pan, R.L. Wollmann, Surfactant-induced sealing of electropermeabilized skeletal muscle membranes in vivo, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 89 (1992) 4524-4528; J.D. Marks, C.Y. Pan, T. Bushell, W. Cromie, R.C. Lee, Amphiphilic, tri-block copolymers provide potent membrane-targeted neuroprotection, FASEB J. 15 (2001) 1107-1109; B. Greenebaum, K. Blossfield, J. Hannig, C.S. Carrillo, M.A. Beckett, R.R. Weichselbaum, R.C. Lee, Poloxamer 188 prevents acute necrosis of adult skeletal muscle cells following high-dose irradiation, Burns 30 (2004) 539-547; G. Serbest, J. Horwitz, K. Barbee, The effect of poloxamer-188 on neuronal cell recovery from mechanical injury, J. Neurotrauma 22 (2005) 119-132]. The triblock copolymer surfactant Poloxamer 188 (P188) is known to increase the cell survival after membrane electroporation [R.C. Lee, L.P. River, F.S. Pan, R.L. Wollmann, Surfactant-induced sealing of electropermeabilized skeletal muscle membranes in vivo, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 89 (1992) 4524-4528; Z. Ababneh, H. Beloeil, C.B. Berde, G. Gambarota, S.E. Maier, R.V. Mulkern, Biexponential parametrization of T2 and diffusion decay curves in a rat muscle edema model: Decay curve components and water compartments, Magn. Reson. Med. 54 (2005) 524-531]. Here, we use a rat hind-limb model of electroporation injury to determine if the intravenous administration of P188 improves the recovery of the muscle function. Rat hind-limbs received a sequence of either 0, 3, 6, 9, or 12 electrical current pulses (2 A, 4 ms duration, 10 s duty cycle). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis, muscle water content and compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitudes were compared. Electroporation injury manifested edema formation and depression of the CMAP amplitudes. P188 (one bolus of 1 mg/ml of blood) was administrated 30 or 60 min after injury. Animals receiving P188 exhibited reduced tissue edema (p<0.05) and increased CMAP amplitudes (p<0.03). By comparison, treatment with 10 kDa neutral dextran, which produces similar serum osmotic effects as P188, had no effect on post-electroporation recovery. Noteworthy, the present results suggest that a single intravenous dose of P188 is effective to restore the structural integrity of damaged tissues with intact circulation. PMID:17382288

Collins, John M; Despa, Florin; Lee, Raphael C

2007-05-01

292

AZD3514: a small molecule that modulates androgen receptor signaling and function in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

Continued androgen receptor (AR) expression and signaling is a key driver in castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) after classical androgen ablation therapies have failed, and therefore remains a target for the treatment of progressive disease. Here we describe the biological characterization of AZD3514, an orally bioavailable drug that inhibits androgen-dependent and–independent AR signaling. AZD3514 modulates AR signaling through two distinct mechanisms, an inhibition of ligand driven nuclear translocation of AR and a down-regulation of receptor levels, both of which were observed in vitro and in vivo. AZD3514 inhibited testosterone-driven seminal vesicle development in juvenile male rats and the growth of androgen-dependent Dunning R3327H prostate tumors in adult rats. Furthermore, this class of compound demonstrated anti-tumor activity in the HID28 mouse model of CRPC in vivo. AZD3514 is currently in Phase I clinical evaluation. PMID:23861347

Loddick, Sarah A; Ross, Sarah J; Thomason, Andrew G; Robinson, David M; Walker, Graeme E; Dunkley, Tom PJ; Brave, Sandra R; Broadbent, Nicola; Stratton, Natalie C; Trueman, Dawn; Mouchet, Elizabeth; Shaheen, Fadhel S; Jacobs, Vivien N; Cumberbatch, Marie; Wilson, Joanne; Jones, Rhys D O; Bradbury, Robert H; Rabow, Alfred; Gaughan, Luke; Womack, Chris; Barry, Simon T; Robson, Craig N; Critchlow, Susan E; Wedge, Stephen R; Brooks, Nigel A

2013-01-01

293

In vivo imaging of the airway wall in asthma: fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy in relation to histology and lung function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Airway remodelling is a feature of asthma including fragmentation of elastic fibres observed in the superficial elastin network\\u000a of the airway wall. Fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (FCFM) is a new and non-invasive imaging technique performed\\u000a during bronchoscopy that may visualize elastic fibres, as shown by in vitro spectral analysis of elastin powder. We hypothesized that FCFM images capture in vivo

Ching Yong Yick; Jan H von der Thüsen; Elisabeth H Bel; Peter J Sterk; Peter W Kunst

2011-01-01

294

Effect of a prostaglandin E 1 analogue (gemeprost) on uterine and luteal circulation in normal first trimester pregnancies. A Doppler velocimetry study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the effects of gemeprost on utero-placental and luteal circulation and on the embryo\\/fetus in normal first trimester pregnancies. Sixty-seven women with a normal first trimester pregnancy requesting termination of pregnancy for psychosocial reasons were randomly allocated to pre-operative treatment with vaginal suppositories containing placebo or gemeprost. The women underwent transvaginal color and spectral Doppler ultrasound examination before the

Lil Valentin; Povilas Sladkevicius; Ricardo Laurini; Hanna Söderberg; Per Olofsson; Karel Marsál

1995-01-01

295

The human immunodeficiency virus Tat proteins specifically associate with TAK in vivo and require the carboxyl-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II for function.  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 encode closely related proteins, Tat-1 and Tat-2, that stimulate viral transcription. Previously, we showed that the activation domains of these proteins specifically interact in vitro with a cellular protein kinase named TAK. In vitro, TAK phosphorylates the Tat-2 but not the Tat-1 protein, a 42-kDa polypeptide of unknown identity, and the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). We now show that the 42-kDa substrate of TAK cochromatographs with TAK activity, suggesting that this 42-kDa polypeptide is a subunit of TAK. We also show that the Tat proteins specifically associate with TAK in vivo, since wild-type Tat-1 and Tat-2 proteins expressed in mammalian cells, but not mutant Tat proteins containing a nonfunctional activation domain, can be coimmunoprecipitated with TAK. We also mapped the in vivo phosphorylation sites of Tat-2 to the carboxyl terminus of the protein, but analysis of proteins with mutations at these sites suggests that phosphorylation is not essential for Tat-2 transactivation function. We further investigated whether the CTD of RNAP II is required for Tat function in vivo. Using plasmid constructs that express an alpha-amanitin-resistant RNAP II subunit with a truncated or full-length CTD, we found that an intact CTD is required for Tat function. These observations strengthen the proposal that the mechanism of action of Tat involves the recruitment or activation of TAK, resulting in activated transcription through phosphorylation of the CTD. PMID:8676484

Yang, X; Herrmann, C H; Rice, A P

1996-01-01

296

Ultrastructural and biochemical evidence for the presence of mature steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in the cytoplasm of human luteal cells.  

PubMed

The distribution of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) inside thecal and granulosa-lutein cells of human corpus luteum (CL) was assessed by immunoelectron microscopy. We found greater levels of StAR immunolabeling in steroidogenic cells from early- and mid-than in late luteal phase CL and lower levels in cells from women treated with a GnRH antagonist in the mid-luteal phase. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed significant levels of StAR antigen in the mitochondria and in the cytoplasm of luteal cells. The 30 kDa mature StAR protein was present in both mitochondria and cytosol (post-mitochondrial) fractions from homogenates of CL at different ages, whereas cytochrome c and mitochondrial HSP70 were detected only in the mitochondrial fraction. Therefore, we hypothesized that either appreciable processing of StAR 37 kDa pre-protein occurs outside the mitochondria, or mature StAR protein is selectively released into the cytoplasm after mitochondrial processing. The presence of mature StAR in the cytoplasm is consonant with the notion that StAR acts on the outer mitochondrial membrane to effect sterol import, and that StAR may interact with other cytoplasmic proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism, including hormone sensitive lipase. PMID:16162390

Sierralta, Walter D; Kohen, Paulina; Castro, Olga; Muñoz, Alex; Strauss, Jerome F; Devoto, Luigi

2005-10-20

297

Curcumin inhibits agent-induced human neutrophil functions in vitro and lipopolysaccharide-induced neutrophilic infiltration in vivo.  

PubMed

Curcumin, extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, is known to possess anti-inflammatory activities. Despite the fact that neutrophils are key player cells in inflammation, the role of curcumin on neutrophil cell biology is not well documented and, in particular, how curcumin can alter primed neutrophils is unknown. In addition, the effect of curcumin on agent-induced neutrophilic inflammation is not well documented. Here, we demonstrated that curcumin inhibited formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)- or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced suppression of human neutrophil apoptosis. In addition, we found that curcumin reversed the ability of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) to induce reactive oxygen species as assessed by flow cytometry using the CM-H2DCF-DA probe. Using an antibody array approach, curcumin was found to inhibit LPS-induced cytokine production, including MIP-1?, MIP-1?, IL-6, IL-8 (CXCL-8) and GRO-?. The inhibitory effect of curcumin on IL-8 production was confirmed by ELISA. Using both an electrophoretic mobility shift assay and a TransFactor p50 NF-?B ELISA, we demonstrated that curcumin inhibited LPS-induced NF-?B activation. In vivo, using the murine air pouch model of acute inflammation, we demonstrated that intraperitoneal administration of curcumin inhibited LPS-induced neutrophilic infiltration in vivo. As assessed by a murine antibody array approach, curcumin was found to decrease the local production of several cytokines/chemokines induced by LPS, including, but not limit to, MIP-1? and MIP-1?. We conclude that curcumin possesses potent modulatory activities on primed or agent-induced human neutrophils in vitro and that it possesses important anti-inflammatory activities in vivo by inhibiting LPS-induced neutrophilic inflammation. PMID:24157330

Antoine, Francis; Simard, Jean-Christophe; Girard, Denis

2013-12-01

298

Disruption of thyroid hormone functions by low dose exposure of tributyltin: An in vitro and in vivo approach.  

PubMed

Triorganotins, such as tributyltin chloride (TBTCl), are environmental contaminants that are commonly found in the antifouling paints used in ships and other vessels. The importance of TBTCl as an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) in different animal models is well known; however, its adverse effects on the thyroid gland are less understood. Hence, in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the thyroid-disrupting effects of this chemical using both in vitro and in vivo approaches. We used HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells for the in vitro studies, as they are a thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-positive and thyroid responsive cell line. For the in vivo studies, Swiss albino male mice were exposed to three doses of TBTCl (0.5, 5 and 50?g/kg/day) for 45days. TBTCl showed a hypo-thyroidal effect in vivo. Low-dose treatment of TBTCl exposure markedly decreased the serum thyroid hormone levels via the down-regulation of the thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg) genes by 40% and 25%, respectively, while augmenting the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) expression was up-regulated in the thyroid glands of treated mice by 6.6-fold relative to vehicle-treated mice (p<0.05). In the transient transactivation assays, TBTCl suppressed T3 mediated transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, TBTCl was found to decrease the expression of TR. The present study thus indicates that low concentrations of TBTCl suppress TR transcription by disrupting the physiological concentrations of T3/T4, followed by the recruitment of NCoR to TR, providing a novel insight into the thyroid hormone-disrupting effects of this chemical. PMID:25101840

Sharan, Shruti; Nikhil, Kumar; Roy, Partha

2014-09-15

299

Cathelicidin host defence peptide augments clearance of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection by its influence on neutrophil function in vivo.  

PubMed

Cathelicidins are multifunctional cationic host-defence peptides (CHDP; also known as antimicrobial peptides) and an important component of innate host defence against infection. In addition to microbicidal potential, these peptides have properties with the capacity to modulate inflammation and immunity. However, the extent to which such properties play a significant role during infection in vivo has remained unclear. A murine model of acute P. aeruginosa lung infection was utilised, demonstrating cathelicidin-mediated enhancement of bacterial clearance in vivo. The delivery of exogenous synthetic human cathelicidin LL-37 was found to enhance a protective pro-inflammatory response to infection, effectively promoting bacterial clearance from the lung in the absence of direct microbicidal activity, with an enhanced early neutrophil response that required both infection and peptide exposure and was independent of native cathelicidin production. Furthermore, although cathelicidin-deficient mice had an intact early cellular inflammatory response, later phase neutrophil response to infection was absent in these animals, with significantly impaired clearance of P. aeruginosa. These findings demonstrate the importance of the modulatory properties of cathelicidins in pulmonary infection in vivo and highlight a key role for cathelicidins in the induction of protective pulmonary neutrophil responses, specific to the infectious milieu. In additional to their physiological roles, CHDP have been proposed as future antimicrobial therapeutics. Elucidating and utilising the modulatory properties of cathelicidins has the potential to inform the development of synthetic peptide analogues and novel therapeutic approaches based on enhancing innate host defence against infection with or without direct microbicidal targeting of pathogens. PMID:24887410

Beaumont, Paula E; McHugh, Brian; Gwyer Findlay, Emily; Mackellar, Annie; Mackenzie, Karen J; Gallo, Richard L; Govan, John R W; Simpson, A John; Davidson, Donald J

2014-01-01

300

In vivo functions of the proprotein convertase PC5/6 during mouse development: Gdf11 is a likely substrate  

PubMed Central

The proprotein convertase PC5/6 cleaves protein precursors after basic amino acids and is essential for implantation in CD1/129/Sv/C57BL/6 mixed-background mice. Conditional inactivation of Pcsk5 in the epiblast but not in the extraembryonic tissue bypassed early embryonic lethality but resulted in death at birth. PC5/6-deficient embryos exhibited Gdf11-related phenotypes such as altered anteroposterior patterning with extra vertebrae and lack of tail and kidney agenesis. They also exhibited Gdf11-independent phenotypes, such as a smaller size, multiple hemorrhages, collapsed alveoli, and retarded ossification. In situ hybridization revealed overlapping PC5/6 and Gdf11 mRNA expression patterns. In vitro and ex vivo analyses showed that the selectivity of PC5/6 for Gdf11 essentially resides in the presence of a P1? Asn in the RSRR?N cleavage motif. This work identifies Gdf11 as a likely in vivo specific substrate of PC5/6 and opens the way to the identification of other key substrates of this convertase. PMID:18378898

Essalmani, Rachid; Zaid, Ahmed; Marcinkiewicz, Jadwiga; Chamberland, Ann; Pasquato, Antonella; Seidah, Nabil G.; Prat, Annik

2008-01-01

301

In Vivo Mitochondrial Function in HIV-Infected Persons Treated with Contemporary Anti-Retroviral Therapy: A Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study  

PubMed Central

Modern anti-retroviral therapy is highly effective at suppressing viral replication and restoring immune function in HIV-infected persons. However, such individuals show reduced physiological performance and increased frailty compared with age-matched uninfected persons. Contemporary anti-retroviral therapy is thought to be largely free from neuromuscular complications, whereas several anti-retroviral drugs previously in common usage have been associated with mitochondrial toxicity. It has recently been established that patients with prior exposure to such drugs exhibit irreversible cellular and molecular mitochondrial defects. However the functional significance of such damage remains unknown. Here we use phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) to measure in vivo muscle mitochondrial oxidative function, in patients treated with contemporary anti-retroviral therapy, and compare with biopsy findings (cytochrome c oxidase (COX) histochemistry). We show that dynamic oxidative function (post-exertional ATP (adenosine triphosphate) resynthesis) was largely maintained in the face of mild to moderate COX defects (affecting up to ?10% of fibers): ?½ ADP (half-life of adenosine diphosphate clearance), HIV-infected 22.1±9.9 s, HIV-uninfected 18.8±4.4 s, p?=?0.09. In contrast, HIV-infected patients had a significant derangement of resting state ATP metabolism compared with controls: ADP/ATP ratio, HIV-infected 1.24±0.08×10?3, HIV-uninfected 1.16±0.05×10?3, p?=?0.001. These observations are broadly reassuring in that they suggest that in vivo mitochondrial function in patients on contemporary anti-retroviral therapy is largely maintained at the whole organ level, despite histochemical (COX) defects within individual cells. Basal energy requirements may nevertheless be increased. PMID:24409305

Payne, Brendan A. I.; Hollingsworth, Kieren G.; Baxter, Joanne; Wilkins, Edmund; Lee, Vincent; Price, D. Ashley; Trenell, Michael; Chinnery, Patrick F.

2014-01-01

302

Knockout animals and natural mutations as experimental and diagnostic tool for studying tight junction functions in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two sides of functions of tight junctions; the barrier and the channel in the paracellular pathway are believed to be essential for the development and physiological functions of organs. Recent identification of molecular components of tight junctions has enabled us to analyze their functions by generating knockout mice of the corresponding genes. In addition, positional cloning has identified mutations in

Mikio Furuse

2009-01-01

303

Myor/ABF-1 Mrna Expression Marks Follicular Helper T Cells but Is Dispensable for Tfh Cell Differentiation and Function In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Follicular T helper cells (Tfh) are crucial for effective antibody responses and long term T cell-dependent humoral immunity. Although many studies are devoted to this novel T helper cell population, the molecular mechanisms governing Tfh cell differentiation have yet to be characterized. MyoR/ABF-1 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in the differentiation of the skeletal muscle and Hodgkin lymphoma. Here we show that MyoR mRNA is progressively induced during the course of Tfh-like cell differentiation in vitro and is expressed in Tfh responding to Alum-precipitated antigens in vivo. This expression pattern suggests that MyoR could play a role in the differentiation and/or function of Tfh cells. We tested this hypothesis using MyoR-deficient mice and found this deficiency had no impact on Tfh differentiation. Hence, MyoR-deficient mice developed optimal T-dependent humoral responses to Alum-precipitated antigens. In conclusion, MyoR is a transcription factor selectively up-regulated in CD4 T cells during Tfh cell differentiation in vitro and upon response to alum-protein vaccines in vivo, but the functional significance of this up-regulation remains uncertain. PMID:24386375

Debuisson, Delphine; Mari, Nathalie; Denanglaire, Sebastien

2013-01-01

304

Overcoming the heterologous bias: An in vivo functional analysis of multidrug efflux transporter, CgCdr1p in matched pair clinical isolates of Candida glabrata  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} First report to demonstrate an in vivo expression system of an ABC multidrug transporter CgCdr1p of C. glabrata. {yields} First report on the structure and functional characterization of CgCdr1p. {yields} Functional conservation of divergent but typical residues of CgCdr1p. {yields} CgCdr1p elicits promiscuity towards substrates and has a large drug binding pocket with overlapping specificities. -- Abstract: We have taken advantage of the natural milieu of matched pair of azole sensitive (AS) and azole resistant (AR) clinical isolates of Candida glabrata for expressing its major ABC multidrug transporter, CgCdr1p for structure and functional analysis. This was accomplished by tagging a green fluorescent protein (GFP) downstream of ORF of CgCDR1 and integrating the resultant fusion protein at its native chromosomal locus in AS and AR backgrounds. The characterization confirmed that in comparison to AS isolate, CgCdr1p-GFP was over-expressed in AR isolates due to its hyperactive native promoter and the GFP tag did not affect its functionality in either construct. We observed that in addition to Rhodamine 6 G (R6G) and Fluconazole (FLC), a recently identified fluorescent substrate of multidrug transporters Nile Red (NR) could also be expelled by CgCdr1p. Competition assays with these substrates revealed the presence of overlapping multiple drug binding sites in CgCdr1p. Point mutations employing site directed mutagenesis confirmed that the role played by unique amino acid residues critical to ATP catalysis and localization of ABC drug transporter proteins are well conserved in C. glabrata as in other yeasts. This study demonstrates a first in vivo novel system where over-expression of GFP tagged MDR transporter protein can be driven by its own hyperactive promoter of AR isolates. Taken together, this in vivo system can be exploited for the structure and functional analysis of CgCdr1p and similar proteins wherein the arte-factual concerns encountered in using heterologous systems are totally excluded.

Puri, Nidhi; Manoharlal, Raman; Sharma, Monika [Membrane Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India)] [Membrane Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Sanglard, Dominique [Institut de Microbiologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, 1011 Lausanne (Switzerland)] [Institut de Microbiologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, 1011 Lausanne (Switzerland); Prasad, Rajendra, E-mail: rp47jnu@gmail.com [Membrane Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India)] [Membrane Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

2011-01-07

305

Establishment of a Transgenic Zebrafish Line for Superficial Skin Ablation and Functional Validation of Apoptosis Modulators In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Background Zebrafish skin is composed of enveloping and basal layers which form a first-line defense system against pathogens. Zebrafish epidermis contains ionocytes and mucous cells that aid secretion of acid/ions or mucous through skin. Previous studies demonstrated that fish skin is extremely sensitive to external stimuli. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that modulate skin cell apoptosis in zebrafish. Methodology/Principal Findings This study aimed to create a platform to conduct conditional skin ablation and determine if it is possible to attenuate apoptotic stimuli by overexpressing potential apoptosis modulating genes in the skin of live animals. A transgenic zebrafish line of Tg(krt4:NTR-hKikGR)cy17 (killer line), which can conditionally trigger apoptosis in superficial skin cells, was first established. When the killer line was incubated with the prodrug metrodinazole, the superficial skin displayed extensive apoptosis as judged by detection of massive TUNEL- and active caspase 3-positive signals. Great reductions in NTR-hKikGR+ fluorescent signals accompanied epidermal cell apoptosis. This indicated that NTR-hKikGR+ signal fluorescence can be utilized to evaluate apoptotic events in vivo. After removal of metrodinazole, the skin integrity progressively recovered and NTR-hKikGR+ fluorescent signals gradually restored. In contrast, either crossing the killer line with testing lines or transiently injecting the killer line with testing vectors that expressed human constitutive active Akt1, mouse constitutive active Stat3, or HPV16 E6 element displayed apoptosis-resistant phenotypes to cytotoxic metrodinazole as judged by the loss of reduction in NTR-hKikGR+ fluorescent signaling. Conclusion/Significance The killer/testing line binary system established in the current study demonstrates a nitroreductase/metrodinazole system that can be utilized to conditionally perform skin ablation in a real-time manner, and provides a valuable tool to visualize and quantify the anti-apoptotic potential of interesting target genes in vivo. The current work identifies a potential use for transgenic zebrafish as a high-throughput platform to validate potential apoptosis modulators in vivo. PMID:21655190

Chen, Chi-Fang; Chu, Che-Yu; Chen, Te-Hao; Lee, Shyh-Jye; Shen, Chia-Ning; Hsiao, Chung-Der

2011-01-01

306

Effects of high density lipoprotein containing high or low beta-carotene concentrations on progesterone production and beta-carotene uptake and depletion by bovine luteal cells.  

PubMed

Luteal cells were isolated from mid-luteal heifer ovaries by collagenase digestion. Cells were cultured with DMEM/Ham's F12 medium in serum pre-treated plastic culture dishes for periods of up to 11 days. As beta-carotene is almost completely insoluble in all polar solvents, it was added to cultures in either dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), tetrahydrofuran (THF) or as high-density lipoprotein (HDL) containing high or low beta-carotene concentrations. Medium was replaced after 24 h, thereafter medium was changed every 48 h. Treatment of cells with DMSO alone or with beta-carotene (5 micromol/l) in DMSO both resulted in significant (P<0.01) stimulation of progesterone production. beta-Carotene (5 micromol/l) in THF did not alter progesterone production but 50 micromol/l beta-carotene in THF resulted in significant inhibition (P<0.02) of progesterone production on days 3 and 7. Cultures were also supplemented with bovine HDL preparations containing equal concentrations of cholesterol (25 microg/ml) but high or low beta-carotene (12.4 or 0.44 microg/mg of cholesterol). Both HDL preparations significantly stimulated progesterone production (P<0. 001) but the high beta-carotene HDL was significantly (P<0.02) more effective than the low beta-carotene HDL. However, when given together with bovine luteinizing hormone (bLH) or dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP), the high beta-carotene HDL stimulated progesterone production less than did the low HDL (P<0.01). Uptake and depletion of beta-carotene by luteal cells were also examined in culture. beta-Carotene supplementation increased luteal cell beta-carotene from an initial level of 373 ng per 10(6) cells to 2030 ng per 10(6) cells by day 6. In contrast, the levels in control cells decreased to 14% of starting values during the same period. Cells treated with HDL containing high beta-carotene on day 1 or days 1 and 3 were then incubated with or without bLH or dbcAMP for a further 2 days to investigate the effect of bLH and dbcAMP on depletion of beta-carotene by luteal cells. beta-Carotene depletion in the luteal cells was significantly higher (P<0.05) in LH- and dbcAMP-treated cells than in the control cells in both groups. These results indicate that the use of solvents such as DMSO or THF may have undesirable effects due to alteration of cell membrane permeability. Supplementation with bLH or dbcAMP may increase the metabolism of beta-carotene in luteal cells. bLH or dbcAMP together with high beta-carotene HDL may, when combined with the effect of increased beta-carotene metabolism, give less stimulation than with low beta-carotene HDL. PMID:10924828

Arikan, S; Rodway, R G

2000-09-01

307

Estimating the input function non-invasively for FDG-PET quantification with multiple linear regression analysis: simulation and verification with in vivo data.  

PubMed

A novel statistical method, namely Regression-Estimated Input Function (REIF), is proposed in this study for the purpose of non-invasive estimation of the input function for fluorine-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxy- d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) quantitative analysis. We collected 44 patients who had undergone a blood sampling procedure during their FDG-PET scans. First, we generated tissue time-activity curves of the grey matter and the whole brain with a segmentation technique for every subject. Summations of different intervals of these two curves were used as a feature vector, which also included the net injection dose. Multiple linear regression analysis was then applied to find the correlation between the input function and the feature vector. After a simulation study with in vivo data, the data of 29 patients were applied to calculate the regression coefficients, which were then used to estimate the input functions of the other 15 subjects. Comparing the estimated input functions with the corresponding real input functions, the averaged error percentages of the area under the curve and the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRGlc) were 12.13+/-8.85 and 16.60+/-9.61, respectively. Regression analysis of the CMRGlc values derived from the real and estimated input functions revealed a high correlation (r=0.91). No significant difference was found between the real CMRGlc and that derived from our regression-estimated input function (Student's t test, P>0.05). The proposed REIF method demonstrated good abilities for input function and CMRGlc estimation, and represents a reliable replacement for the blood sampling procedures in FDG-PET quantification. PMID:14740178

Fang, Yu-Hua; Kao, Tsair; Liu, Ren-Shyan; Wu, Liang-Chih

2004-05-01

308

Integrating Structural and Functional Imaging for Computer Assisted Detection of Prostate Cancer on Multi-Protocol In Vivo 3 Tesla MRI  

PubMed Central

Screening and detection of prostate cancer (CaP) currently lacks an image-based protocol which is reflected in the high false negative rates currently associated with blinded sextant biopsies. Multi-protocol magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers high resolution functional and structural data about internal body structures (such as the prostate). In this paper we present a novel comprehensive computer-aided scheme for CaP detection from high resolution in vivo multi-protocol MRI by integrating functional and structural information obtained via dynamic-contrast enhanced (DCE) and T2-weighted (T2-w) MRI, respectively. Our scheme is fully-automated and comprises (a) prostate segmentation, (b) multimodal image registration, and (c) data representation and multi-classifier modules for information fusion. Following prostate boundary segmentation via an improved active shape model, the DCE/T2-w protocols and the T2-w/ex vivo histological prostatectomy specimens are brought into alignment via a deformable, multi-attribute registration scheme. T2-w/histology alignment allows for the mapping of true CaP extent onto the in vivo MRI, which is used for training and evaluation of a multi-protocol MRI CaP classifier. The meta-classifier used is a random forest constructed by bagging multiple decision tree classifiers, each trained individually on T2-w structural, textural and DCE functional attributes. 3-fold classifier cross validation was performed using a set of 18 images derived from 6 patient datasets on a per-pixel basis. Our results show that the results of CaP detection obtained from integration of T2-w structural textural data and DCE functional data (area under the ROC curve of 0.815) significantly outperforms detection based on either of the individual modalities (0.704 (T2-w) and 0.682 (DCE)). It was also found that a meta-classifier trained directly on integrated T2-w and DCE data (data-level integration) significantly outperformed a decision-level meta-classifier, constructed by combining the classifier outputs from the individual T2-w and DCE channels. PMID:25301989

Viswanath, Satish; Bloch, B. Nicolas; Rosen, Mark; Chappelow, Jonathan; Toth, Robert; Rofsky, Neil; Lenkinski, Robert; Genega, Elisabeth; Kalyanpur, Arjun; Madabhushi, Anant

2014-01-01

309

Ex vivo cultures of microglia from young and aged rodent brain reveal age-related changes in microglial function  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand how microglial cell function may change with aging, various protocols have been developed to isolate microglia from the young and aged central nervous system (CNS). Here we report modification of an existing protocol that is marked by less debris contamination and improved yields and demonstrate that microglial functions are varied and dependent on age. Specifically, we found that

eMalick G. Njie; Ellen Boelen; Frank R. Stassen; Harry W. M. Steinbusch; David R. Borchelt; Wolfgang J. Streit

2010-01-01

310

Intranasal Administration of Human MSC for Ischemic Brain Injury in the Mouse: In Vitro and In Vivo Neuroregenerative Functions  

PubMed Central

Intranasal treatment with C57BL/6 MSCs reduces lesion volume and improves motor and cognitive behavior in the neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) mouse model. In this study, we investigated the potential of human MSCs (hMSCs) to treat HI brain injury in the neonatal mouse. Assessing the regenerative capacity of hMSCs is crucial for translation of our knowledge to the clinic. We determined the neuroregenerative potential of hMSCs in vitro and in vivo by intranasal administration 10 d post-HI in neonatal mice. HI was induced in P9 mouse pups. 1×106 or 2×106 hMSCs were administered intranasally 10 d post-HI. Motor behavior and lesion volume were measured 28 d post-HI. The in vitro capacity of hMSCs to induce differentiation of mouse neural stem cell (mNSC) was determined using a transwell co-culture differentiation assay. To determine which chemotactic factors may play a role in mediating migration of MSCs to the lesion, we performed a PCR array on 84 chemotactic factors 10 days following sham-operation, and at 10 and 17 days post-HI. Our results show that 2×106 hMSCs decrease lesion volume, improve motor behavior, and reduce scar formation and microglia activity. Moreover, we demonstrate that the differentiation assay reflects the neuroregenerative potential of hMSCs in vivo, as hMSCs induce mNSCs to differentiate into neurons in vitro. We also provide evidence that the chemotactic factor CXCL10 may play an important role in hMSC migration to the lesion site. This is suggested by our finding that CXCL10 is significantly upregulated at 10 days following HI, but not at 17 days after HI, a time when MSCs no longer reach the lesion when given intranasally. The results described in this work also tempt us to contemplate hMSCs not only as a potential treatment option for neonatal encephalopathy, but also for a plethora of degenerative and traumatic injuries of the nervous system. PMID:25396420

Donega, Vanessa; Nijboer, Cora H.; Braccioli, Luca; Slaper-Cortenbach, Ineke; Kavelaars, Annemieke; van Bel, Frank; Heijnen, Cobi J.

2014-01-01

311

Folic acid-functionalized up-conversion nanoparticles: toxicity studies in vivo and in vitro and targeted imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Folate receptors (FRs) are overexpressed on a variety of human cancer cells and tissues, including cancers of the breast, ovaries, endometrium, and brain. This over-expression of FRs can be used to target folate-linked imaging specifically to FR-expressing tumors. Fluorescence is emerging as a powerful new modality for molecular imaging in both the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Combining innovative molecular biology and chemistry, we prepared three kinds of folate-targeted up-conversion nanoparticles as imaging agents (UCNC-FA: UCNC-Er-FA, UCNC-Tm-FA, and UCNC-Er,Tm-FA). In vivo and in vitro toxicity studies showed that these nanoparticles have both good biocompatibility and low toxicity. Moreover, the up-conversion luminescence imaging indicated that they have good targeting to HeLa cells and can therefore serve as potential fluorescent contrast agents.Folate receptors (FRs) are overexpressed on a variety of human cancer cells and tissues, including cancers of the breast, ovaries, endometrium, and brain. This over-expression of FRs can be used to target folate-linked imaging specifically to FR-expressing tumors. Fluorescence is emerging as a powerful new modality for molecular imaging in both the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Combining innovative molecular biology and chemistry, we prepared three kinds of folate-targeted up-conversion nanoparticles as imaging agents (UCNC-FA: UCNC-Er-FA, UCNC-Tm-FA, and UCNC-Er,Tm-FA). In vivo and in vitro toxicity studies showed that these nanoparticles have both good biocompatibility and low toxicity. Moreover, the up-conversion luminescence imaging indicated that they have good targeting to HeLa cells and can therefore serve as potential fluorescent contrast agents. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Up-conversion luminescence spectra of UCNC-Er and UCNC-Er-FA, UCNC-Tm and UCNC-Tm-FA. Confocal luminescence imaging data collected as a series along the Z optical axis. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02312a

Sun, Lining; Wei, Zuwu; Chen, Haige; Liu, Jinliang; Guo, Jianjian; Cao, Ming; Wen, Tieqiao; Shi, Liyi

2014-07-01

312

Human Müller glia with stem cell characteristics differentiate into retinal ganglion cell (RGC) precursors in vitro and partially restore RGC function in vivo following transplantation.  

PubMed

Müller glia with stem cell characteristics have been identified in the adult human eye, and although there is no evidence that they regenerate retina in vivo, they can be induced to grow and differentiate into retinal neurons in vitro. We differentiated human Müller stem cells into retinal ganglion cell (RGC) precursors by stimulation with fibroblast growth factor 2 together with NOTCH inhibition using the ?-secretase inhibitor N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT). Differentiation into RGC precursors was confirmed by gene and protein expression analysis, changes in cytosolic [Ca(2+)] in response to neurotransmitters, and green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression by cells transduced with a transcriptional BRN3b-GFP reporter vector. RGC precursors transplanted onto the inner retinal surface of Lister hooded rats depleted of RGCs by N-methyl-d-aspartate aligned onto the host RGC layer at the site of transplantation but did not extend long processes toward the optic nerve. Cells were observed extending processes into the RGC layer and expressing RGC markers in vivo. This migration was observed only when adjuvant anti-inflammatory and matrix degradation therapy was used for transplantation. RGC precursors induced a significant recovery of RGC function in the transplanted eyes as determined by improvement of the negative scotopic threshold response of the electroretinogram (indicative of RGC function). The results suggest that transplanted RGC precursors may be capable of establishing local interneuron synapses and possibly release neurotrophic factors that facilitate recovery of RGC function. These cells constitute a promising source of cells for cell-based therapies to treat retinal degenerative disease caused by RGC dysfunction. PMID:23197778

Singhal, Shweta; Bhatia, Bhairavi; Jayaram, Hari; Becker, Silke; Jones, Megan F; Cottrill, Phillippa B; Khaw, Peng T; Salt, Thomas E; Limb, G Astrid

2012-03-01

313

Retinal pigmented epithelial cells obtained from human induced pluripotent stem cells possess functional visual cycle enzymes in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Differentiated retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells have been obtained from human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells. However, the visual (retinoid) cycle in hiPS-RPE cells has not been adequately examined. Here we determined the expression of functional visual cycle enzymes in hiPS-RPE cells compared with that of isolated wild-type mouse primary RPE (mpRPE) cells in vitro and in vivo. hiPS-RPE cells appeared morphologically similar to mpRPE cells. Notably, expression of certain visual cycle proteins was maintained during cell culture of hiPS-RPE cells, whereas expression of these same molecules rapidly decreased in mpRPE cells. Production of the visual chromophore, 11-cis-retinal, and retinosome formation also were documented in hiPS-RPE cells in vitro. When mpRPE cells with luciferase activity were transplanted into the subretinal space of mice, bioluminance intensity was preserved for >3 months. Additionally, transplantation of mpRPE into blind Lrat(-/-) and Rpe65(-/-) mice resulted in the recovery of visual function, including increased electrographic signaling and endogenous 11-cis-retinal production. Finally, when hiPS-RPE cells were transplanted into the subretinal space of Lrat(-/-) and Rpe65(-/-) mice, their vision improved as well. Moreover, histological analyses of these eyes displayed replacement of dysfunctional RPE cells by hiPS-RPE cells. Together, our results show that hiPS-RPE cells can exhibit a functional visual cycle in vitro and in vivo. These cells could provide potential treatment options for certain blinding retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:24129572

Maeda, Tadao; Lee, Mee Jee; Palczewska, Grazyna; Marsili, Stefania; Tesar, Paul J; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Takahashi, Masayo; Maeda, Akiko

2013-11-29

314

A peptide targeting an interaction interface disrupts the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer to block signaling and function in vitro and in vivo: effective selective antagonism.  

PubMed

Although the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer has emerging physiological relevance and a postulated role in different neuropsychiatric disorders, such as drug addiction, depression, and schizophrenia, there is a need for pharmacological tools that selectively target such receptor complexes in order to analyze their biological and pathophysiological functions. Since no selective antagonists for the D1-D2 heteromer are available, serial deletions and point mutations were used to precisely identify the amino acids involved in an interaction interface between the receptors, residing within the carboxyl tail of the D1 receptor that interacted with the D2 receptor to form the D1-D2 receptor heteromer. It was determined that D1 receptor carboxyl tail residues (404)Glu and (405)Glu were critical in mediating the interaction with the D2 receptor. Isolated mutation of these residues in the D1 receptor resulted in the loss of agonist activation of the calcium signaling pathway mediated through the D1-D2 receptor heteromer. The physical interaction between the D1 and D2 receptor could be disrupted, as shown by coimmunoprecipitation and BRET analysis, by a small peptide generated from the D1 receptor sequence that contained these amino acids, leading to a switch in G-protein affinities and loss of calcium signaling, resulting in the inhibition of D1-D2 heteromer function. The use of the D1-D2 heteromer-disrupting peptide in vivo revealed a pathophysiological role for the D1-D2 heteromer in the modulation of behavioral despair. This peptide may represent a novel pharmacological tool with potential therapeutic benefits in depression treatment.-Hasbi, A., Perreault, M. L., Shen, M. Y. F., Zhang, L., To, R., Fan, T., Nguyen, T., Ji, X., O'Dowd, B. F., George, S. R. A peptide targeting an interaction interface disrupts the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer to block signaling and function in vitro and in vivo: effective selective antagonism. PMID:25063849

Hasbi, Ahmed; Perreault, Melissa L; Shen, Maurice Y F; Zhang, Lucia; To, Ryan; Fan, Theresa; Nguyen, Tuan; Ji, Xiaodong; O'Dowd, Brian F; George, Susan R

2014-11-01

315

Structural Dynamics of Synapses in Vivo Correlate with Functional Changes during Experience-Dependent Plasticity in Visual Cortex  

E-print Network

The impact of activity on neuronal circuitry is complex, involving both functional and structural changes whose interaction is largely unknown. We have used optical imaging of mouse visual cortex responses and two-photon ...

Tropea, Daniela

316

Functional Identification of Tumor Suppressor Genes Through an in vivo RNA Interference Screen in a Mouse Lymphoma Model  

E-print Network

Short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) capable of stably suppressing gene function by RNA interference (RNAi) can mimic tumor-suppressor-gene loss in mice. By selecting for shRNAs capable of accelerating lymphomagenesis in a ...

Bric, Anka

317

In Vivo Structural and Functional Imaging of the Human Rubral and Inferior Olivary Nuclei: A Mini-review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few imaging studies have been devoted to the structural and functional connectivity of the red and inferior olivary nuclei\\u000a although these two nuclei represent two main targets of the cerebellum within the brainstem. However, the RN is anatomically\\u000a and functionally related to a widespread sensorimotor, limbic, and executive brain network. It projects massively onto the\\u000a principal olive with which it

Christophe Habas; Rémy Guillevin; Abdelouhab Abanou

2010-01-01

318

Anatomical and Functional Images of in vitro and in vivo Tissues by NIR Time-domain Diffuse Optical Tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near infra-red (NIR) diffuse optical tomography (DOT) has gained much attention and it will be clinically applied to imaging breast, neonatal head, and the hemodynamics of the brain because of its noninvasiveness and deep penetration in biological tissue. Prior to achieving the imaging of infant brain using DOT, the developed methodologies need to be experimentally justified by imaging some real organs with simpler structures. Here we report our results of an in vitro chicken leg and an in vivo exercising human forearm from the data measured by a multi-channel time-resolved NIR system. Tomographic images were reconstructed by a two-dimensional image reconstruction algorithm based on a modified generalized pulse spectrum technique for simultaneous reconstruction of the µa and µs´. The absolute µa- and µs´-images revealed the inner structures of the chicken leg and the forearm, where the bones were clearly distinguished from the muscle. The ?µa-images showed the blood volume changes during the forearm exercise, proving that the system and the image reconstruction algorithm could potentially be used for imaging not only the anatomic structure but also the hemodynamics in neonatal heads.

Zhao, Huijuan; Gao, Feng; Tanikawa, Yukari; Homma, Kazuhiro; Onodera, Yoichi; Yamada, Yukio

319

Computer-based evolutionary search for a nonlinear conversion function for establishing in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) of oral drug formulations.  

PubMed

Establishment of in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) accelerates optimization of desirable drug formulations and/or modification of the manufacturing processes in the scale-up and post-approval periods. This article presents a method of finding the optimal conversion function for establishing Level A point-to-point IVIVC, based on a computer-based evolutionary search technique. Gene expression programming (GEP) is a technique for optimizing a mathematical expression tree with the help of a genetic algorithm. A parameter optimization routine, which minimizes the number of parameters in the mathematical expression trees and estimates the best-fit parameter values, was implemented in the GEP algorithm. Feasibility of the computer program was investigated using the in vitro and in vivo data for sustained release diltiazem formulations. It provided a mathematical equation that, from their in vitro dissolution profiles, successfully predicts the plasma concentration profiles of three different formulations of diltiazem following oral administration. Because the present approach does not use intravenous injection data like conventional IVIVC analyses, it is widely applicable to the evaluation of various oral formulations. PMID:22146108

Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Fujita, Atsuto; Zhang, Xingyi; Sasa, Yukako; Mihara, Kiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru

2012-01-01

320

In Vivo Role of Focal Adhesion Kinase in Regulating Pancreatic ?-Cell Mass and Function Through Insulin Signaling, Actin Dynamics, and Granule Trafficking  

PubMed Central

Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) acts as an adaptor at the focal contacts serving as a junction between the extracellular matrix and actin cytoskeleton. Actin dynamics is known as a determinant step in insulin secretion. Additionally, FAK has been shown to regulate insulin signaling. To investigate the essential physiological role of FAK in pancreatic ?-cells in vivo, we generated a transgenic mouse model using rat insulin promoter (RIP)–driven Cre-loxP recombination system to specifically delete FAK in pancreatic ?-cells. These RIPcre+fakfl/fl mice exhibited glucose intolerance without changes in insulin sensitivity. Reduced ?-cell viability and proliferation resulting in decreased ?-cell mass was observed in these mice, which was associated with attenuated insulin/Akt (also known as protein kinase B) and extracellular signal–related kinase 1/2 signaling and increased caspase 3 activation. FAK-deficient ?-cells exhibited impaired insulin secretion with normal glucose sensing and preserved Ca2+ influx in response to glucose, but a reduced number of docked insulin granules and insulin exocytosis were found, which was associated with a decrease in focal proteins, paxillin and talin, and an impairment in actin depolymerization. This study is the first to show in vivo that FAK is critical for pancreatic ?-cell viability and function through regulation in insulin signaling, actin dynamics, and granule trafficking. PMID:22498697

Cai, Erica P.; Casimir, Marina; Schroer, Stephanie A.; Luk, Cynthia T.; Shi, Sally Yu; Choi, Diana; Dai, Xiao Qing; Hajmrle, Catherine; Spigelman, Aliya F.; Zhu, Dan; Gaisano, Herbert Y.; MacDonald, Patrick E.; Woo, Minna

2012-01-01

321

Correlation between mixed-function oxidase enzyme induction and aflatoxin B/sub 1/-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in the chick embryo, in vivo  

SciTech Connect

The unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) technique has been adapted for use in the chick embryo, in vivo, to determine the relationship between induction of the mixed-function oxidase (MFO) enzyme system and genetic damage from an indirect-acting mutagen-carcinogen. Embryos were injected at 6 days of incubation (DI) with either phenobarbital (PB), a specific inducer of P-450-associated enzyme activities, or 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB), a specific inducer of P/sub 1/-450-associated enzyme activities. Aflatoxin B/sub 1/ (AFB1) was injected 24 hr later (7 DI), followed by a 5-hr continuous /sup 3/H-thymidine exposure. The livers were removed, prepared for autoradiography, and hepatocytes were scored for an increase in grains/nucleus, indicative of UDS. Aflatoxin B/sub 1/ caused a dose-related increase in UDS in all control and induction groups. Phenobarbital-induced embryos had an increased UDS response while TCB-induced embryos had a decreased UDS response, relative to noninduced embryos, for each dosage of AFB1. This suggests that the genotoxicity of an indirect-acting mutagen-carcinogen can be either increased or decreased, in vivo, depending on the inducer used. The chick embryo provides an excellent system for studying the effect of MFO induction on the genotoxicity of promutagen-carcinogens in a developing system.

Hamilton, J.W.; Bloom, S.E.

1984-01-01

322

The function of the glutamate–nitric oxide–cGMP pathway in brain in vivo and learning ability decrease in parallel in mature compared with young rats  

PubMed Central

Aging is associated with cognitive impairment, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We have recently reported that the ability of rats to learn a Y-maze conditional discrimination task depends on the function of the glutamate–nitric oxide–cGMP pathway in brain. The aims of the present work were to assess whether the ability of rats to learn this task decreases with age and whether this reduction is associated with a decreased function of the glutamate–nitric oxide–cGMP pathway in brain in vivo, as analyzed by microdialysis in freely moving rats. We show that 7-mo-old rats need significantly more (192 ± 64%) trials than do 3-mo-old rats to learn the Y-maze task. Moreover, the function of the glutamate–nitric oxide–cGMP pathway is reduced by 60 ± 23% in 7-mo-old rats compared with 3-mo-old rats. The results reported support the idea that the reduction in the ability to learn the Y-maze task (and likely other types of learning) of mature compared with young rats would be a consequence of reduced function of the glutamate–nitric oxide–cGMP pathway. PMID:17412964

Piedrafita, Blanca; Cauli, Omar; Montoliu, Carmina; Felipo, Vicente

2007-01-01

323

Role of Luteal Glucocorticoid Metabolism during Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human corpus luteum (hCL) is an active, transient, and dynamic endocrine gland. It will experience extensive tissue and vascular remodeling followed by 1) demise of the whole gland without any apparent scarring or 2) maintenance of structural and functional integrity dependent on conceptus- derived human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Because cor- tisol has well-characterized roles in tissue remodeling and repair,

Michelle Myers; M. Christy Lamont; Sander van den Driesche; Nirmala Mary; K. Joo Thong; Stephen G. Hillier; W. Colin Duncan

2007-01-01

324

Functional diversity of axonemal dyneins as assessed by in vitro and in vivo motility assays of chlamydomonas mutants.  

PubMed

This review outlines the current knowledge of the functional diversity of axonemal dyneins, as revealed by studies with the model organism Chlamydomonas. Axonemal dyneins, which comprise outer and inner dynein arms, power cilia and flagella beating by producing sliding movements between adjacent outer-doublet microtubules. Outer- and inner-arm dyneins have traditionally been considered similar in structure and function. However, recent evidence suggests that they differ rather strikingly in subunit composition, axonemal arrangement, and molecular motor properties. We posit that these arms make up two largely independent motile systems; whereas outer-arm dynein can generate axonemal beating by itself under certain conditions, inner-arm dynein can generate beating only in cooperation with the central pair/radial spokes. This conclusion is supported by genome analyses of various organisms. Outer-arm dynein appears to be particularly important for nodal cilia of mammalian embryos that function for determination of left-right body asymmetry. PMID:25284382

Kamiya, Ritsu; Yagi, Toshiki

2014-10-01

325

Special conference of the American Association for Cancer Research on molecular imaging in cancer: linking biology, function, and clinical applications in vivo.  

PubMed

The AACR Special Conference on Molecular Imaging in Cancer: Linking Biology, Function, and Clinical Applications In Vivo, was held January 23-27, 2002, at the Contemporary Hotel, Walt Disney World, Orlando, FL. Co-Chairs David Piwnica-Worms, Patricia Price and Thomas Meade brought together researchers with diverse expertise in molecular biology, gene therapy, chemistry, engineering, pharmacology, and imaging to accelerate progress in developing and applying technologies for imaging specific cellular and molecular signals in living animals and humans. The format of the conference was the presentation of research that focused on basic and translational biology of cancer and current state-of-the-art techniques for molecular imaging in animal models and humans. This report summarizes the special conference on molecular imaging, highlighting the interfaces of molecular biology with animal models, instrumentation, chemistry, and pharmacology that are essential to convert the dreams and promise of molecular imaging into improved understanding, diagnosis, and management of cancer. PMID:11929844

Luker, Gary D

2002-04-01

326

A randomized, controlled trial comparing the efficacy and safety of aqueous subcutaneous progesterone with vaginal progesterone for luteal phase support of in vitro fertilization  

PubMed Central

STUDY QUESTION Is the ongoing pregnancy rate with a new aqueous formulation of subcutaneous progesterone (Prolutex®) non-inferior to vaginal progesterone (Endometrin®) when used for luteal phase support of in vitro fertilization? SUMMARY ANSWER In the per-protocol (PP) population, the ongoing pregnancy rates per oocyte retrieval at 12 weeks of gestation were comparable between Prolutex and Endometrin (41.6 versus 44.4%), with a difference between groups of ?2.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) ?9.7, 4.2), consistent with the non-inferiority of subcutaneous progesterone for luteal phase support. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Luteal phase support has been clearly demonstrated to improve pregnancy rates in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Because of the increased risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome associated with the use of hCG, progesterone has become the treatment of choice for luteal phase support. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This prospective, open-label, randomized, controlled, parallel-group, multicentre, two-arm, non-inferiority study was performed at eight fertility clinics. A total of 800 women, aged 18–42 years, with a BMI of ?30 kg/m2, with <3 prior completed assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles, exhibiting baseline (Days 2–3) FSH of ?15 IU/L and undergoing IVF at 8 centres (seven private, one academic) in the USA, were enrolled from January 2009 through June 2011. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS In total, 800 women undergoing IVF were randomized after retrieval of at least three oocytes to an aqueous preparation of progesterone administered subcutaneously (25 mg daily) or vaginal progesterone (100 mg bid daily). Randomization was performed to enrol 100 patients at each site using a randomization list that was generated with Statistical Analysis Software (SAS®). If a viable pregnancy occurred, progesterone treatment was continued up to 12 weeks of gestation. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Using a PP analysis, which included all patients who received an embryo transfer (Prolutex = 392; Endometrin = 390), the ongoing pregnancy rate per retrieval for subcutaneous versus vaginal progesterone was 41.6 versus 44.4%, with a difference between groups of ?2.8% (95% CI ?9.7, 4.2), consistent with the non-inferiority of subcutaneous progesterone for luteal phase support. In addition, rates of initial positive ?-hCG (56.4% subcutaneous versus 59.0% vaginal; 95% CI ?9.5, 4.3), clinical intrauterine pregnancy with fetal cardiac activity (42.6 versus 46.4%; 95% CI ?10.8, 3.2), implantation defined as number of gestational sacs divided by number of embryos transferred (33.2 versus 35.1%; 95% CI ?7.6, 4.0), live birth (41.1 versus 43.1%; 95% CI ?8.9, 4.9) and take-home baby (41.1 versus 42.6%; 95% CI ?8.4, 5.4) were comparable. Both formulations were well-tolerated, with no difference in serious adverse events. Analysis with the intention-to-treat population also demonstrated no difference for any outcomes between the treatment groups. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION The conclusions are limited to the progesterone dosing regimen studied and duration of treatment for the patient population examined in this study. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Subcutaneous progesterone represents a novel option for luteal phase support in women undergoing IVF who for personal reasons prefer not to use a vaginal preparation or who wish to avoid the side effects of vaginal or i.m. routes of administration. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS The study was funded by Institut Biochimique SA (IBSA). CAJ, BC, ST and CJ are employees of IBSA. FH currently consults for IBSA. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER NCT00828191. PMID:25100106

Baker, Valerie L.; Jones, Christopher A.; Doody, Kevin; Foulk, Russell; Yee, Bill; Adamson, G. David; Cometti, Barbara; DeVane, Gary; Hubert, Gary; Trevisan, Silvia; Hoehler, Fred; Jones, Clarence; Soules, Michael

2014-01-01

327

Ovarian response and endocrine changes in buffalo superovulated at midluteal and late luteal stage of the estrous cycle: a preliminary report.  

PubMed

A study was designed to determine whether superovulatory and endocrine responses in buffalo differ when gonadotropin treatment is initiated at midluteal and late luteal stages of the estrous cycle. Twenty-eight buffalo were randomized into 4 groups (A, B, C and D). Buffalo in Groups A and B (n = 8 each) were superovulated with Folltropin (total dose 25 mg) and Lutalyse. Treatments in Group A were initiated between Days 8 to 10 (midluteal group) and in Group B between Days 13 to 15 (late luteal group) of the estrous cycle. Buffalo in Groups C and D (n = 6 each) were not superovulated and served as controls. Blood samples from all groups of buffalo were collected daily for plasma progesterone and estradiol determinations. The number of corpora lutea (CL) and unovulated follicles was recorded (following per rectum palpations) 5 or 6 d post-estrus. Buffalo in Groups A and B exhibited estrus in larger proportions and earlier (49.33 +/- 3.82 h and 46.67 +/- 2.46 h, respectively) than the control Groups C and D (77.33 +/- 5.33 h and 78.0 +/- 3.83 h, respectively). Mean number of CL was higher in Group B (3.38 +/- 0.46) than in Group A (2.25 +/- 0.75), however,the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Plasma progesterone concentrations on the day of treatment were higher in late luteal superovulated and control groups than in midluteal superovulated and control groups. In both Groups A and B progesterone levels were significantly related (r = 0.78,0.76; P < 0.05) to the number of CL palpated after the superovulatory estrus. Progesterone levels on the day of estimation of ovarian response were approximately 4 times higher in Groups A and B than in Groups C and D. Peak estradiol concentrations were approximately twice as high in superovulated groups as in control groups. PMID:16727995

Beg, M A; Sanwal, P C; Yadav, M C

1997-01-15

328

Embryo implantation during the short luteal phase of the corn mouse, Calomys musculinus, and the apparent lack of a lactational diapause in South American murid rodents.  

PubMed

As the corn mouse, Calomys musculinus, has a short luteal phase (2-3 days) that is not prolonged after copulation, it was hypothesized that (i) implantation would occur at the end of this phase, that is, earlier than it occurs in most murid species that have been studied, and (ii) a lactational embryonic diapause would not occur during the luteal phase. These hypotheses were tested in females that had copulated during postpartum oestrus and were either lactating or not lactating. Data were recorded from day 3 to day 5 of pregnancy (day 1 = day after coitus), at both 03:00-05:00 h and 17:00-19:00 h. Evidence of implantation in both non-lactating and lactating animals was apparent at 03:00-05:00 h on day 4 (endometrial 'blue reaction' in all cases and failure to recover free uterine embryos in some cases) and implantation swellings appeared within 24 h in both groups. In another experiment, the increase in duration of interbirth intervals in continuously mated females and their correlation with the number of suckling young were compared among C. musculinus, C. laucha, Akodon molinae (South American murid species) and Peromyscus maniculatus (a North American murid in which a lactational embryonic diapause has been shown). The results were indicative of a lactational embryonic diapause in the North American species, but not in the South American species. It was concluded that in C. musculinus (i) implantation occurs at the end of the spontaneous luteal phase, and (ii) that a lactational embryonic diapause does not occur: the absence of a lactational embryonic diapause may be common to other South American murid rodents. PMID:11427171

Buzzio, O L; Koninckx, A; Carreno, N B; Castro-Vazquez, A

2001-05-01

329

Dicer-microRNA pathway is critical for peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery in vivo and regenerative axonogenesis in vitro.  

PubMed

Both central and peripheral axons contain pivotal microRNA (miRNA) proteins. While recent observations demonstrated that miRNA biosynthetic machinery responds to peripheral nerve lesion in an injury-regulated pattern, the physiological significance of this phenomenon remains to be elucidated. In the current paper we hypothesized that deletion of Dicer would disrupt production of Dicer-dependent miRNAs and would negatively impact regenerative axon growth. Taking advantage of tamoxifen-inducible CAG-CreERt:Dicer(fl/fl) knockout (Dicer KO), we investigated the results of Dicer deletion on sciatic nerve regeneration in vivo and regenerative axon growth in vitro. Here we show that the sciatic functional index, an indicator of functional recovery, was significantly lower in Dicer KO mice in comparison to wild-type animals. Restoration of mechanical sensitivity recorded in the von Frey test was also markedly impaired in Dicer mutants. Further, Dicer deletion impeded the recovery of nerve conduction velocity and amplitude of evoked compound action potentials in vitro. Histologically, both total number of regenerating nerve fibers and mean axonal area were notably smaller in the Dicer KO mice. In addition, Dicer-deficient neurons failed to regenerate axons in dissociated dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cultures. Taken together, our results demonstrate that knockout of Dicer clearly impedes regenerative axon growth as well as anatomical, physiological and functional recovery. Our data suggest that the intact Dicer-dependent miRNA pathway is critical for the successful peripheral nerve regeneration after injury. PMID:22178326

Wu, Di; Raafat, Abdalla; Pak, Elena; Clemens, Stefan; Murashov, Alexander K

2012-01-01

330

BRCA2 Is Ubiquitinated In Vivo and Interacts with USP11, a Deubiquitinating Enzyme That Exhibits Prosurvival Function in the Cellular Response to DNA Damage  

PubMed Central

Individuals carrying a germ line mutation of the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA2 are predisposed to breast, ovarian, and other types of cancer. The BRCA2 protein has been proposed to function in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Using an immunopurification-mass spectrometry approach to identify novel proteins that associate with the BRCA2 gene product, we found that a deubiquitinating enzyme, USP11, formed specific complexes with BRCA2. Moreover, BRCA2 was constitutively ubiquitinated in vivo in the absence of detectable proteasomal degradation. Mitomycin C (MMC) led to decreased BRCA2 protein levels associated with increased ubiquitination, consistent with proteasome-dependent degradation. While BRCA2 could be deubiquitinated by USP11 in transient overexpression assays, a catalytically inactive USP11 mutant had no effect on BRCA2 ubiquitination or protein levels. Antagonism of USP11 function either through expression of this mutant or through RNA interference increased cellular sensitivity to MMC in a BRCA2-dependent manner. All of these results imply that BRCA2 expression levels are regulated by ubiquitination in the cellular response to MMC-induced DNA damage and that USP11 participates in DNA damage repair functions within the BRCA2 pathway independently of BRCA2 deubiquitination. PMID:15314155

Schoenfeld, Alan R.; Apgar, Sarah; Dolios, Georgia; Wang, Rong; Aaronson, Stuart A.

2004-01-01

331

In vitro and in vivo characterisation of anti-murine IL-13 antibodies recognising distinct functional epitopes.  

PubMed

Interleukin-13 (IL-13) sequentially binds to IL-13Ralpha1 and IL-4Ralpha forming a high affinity signalling complex. This receptor complex is expressed on multiple cell types in the airway and signals through signal transducer and activator of transcription factor-6 (STAT-6) to stimulate the production of chemokines, cytokines and mucus. Antibodies have been generated, using the UCB Selected Lymphocyte Antibody Method (UCB SLAM), that block either binding of murine IL-13 (mIL-13) to mIL-13Ralpha1 and mIL-13Ralpha2, or block recruitment of mIL-4Ralpha to the mIL-13/mIL-13Ralpha1 complex. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) A was shown to bind to mIL-13 with high affinity (K(D) 11 pM) and prevent binding of mIL-13 to mIL-13Ralpha1. MAb B, that also bound mIL-13 with high affinity (K(D) 8 pM), was shown to prevent recruitment of mIL-4Ralpha to the mIL-13/mIL-13Ralpha1 complex. In vitro, mAbs A and B similarly neutralised mIL-13-stimulated STAT-6 activation and TF-1 cell proliferation. In vivo, mAbs A and B demonstrated equipotent, dose-dependent inhibition of eotaxin generation in mice stimulated by intraperitoneal administration of recombinant mIL-13. In an allergic lung inflammation model in mice, mAbs A and B equipotently inhibited muc5ac mucin mRNA upregulation in lung tissue measured two days after intranasal allergen challenge. These data support the design of therapeutics for the treatment of allergic airway disease that inhibits assembly of the high affinity IL-13 receptor signalling complex, by blocking the binding of IL-13 to IL-13Ralpha1 and IL-13Ralpha2, or the subsequent recruitment of IL-4Ralpha. PMID:19041426

Berry, L M; Adams, R; Airey, M; Bracher, M G; Bourne, T; Carrington, B; Cross, A S; Davies, G C G; Finney, H M; Foulkes, R; Gozzard, N; Griffin, R A; Hailu, H; Lamour, S D; Lawson, A D; Lightwood, D J; McKnight, A J; O'Dowd, V L; Oxbrow, A K F; Popplewell, A G; Shaw, S; Stephens, P E; Sweeney, B; Tomlinson, K L; Uhe, C; Palframan, R T

2009-02-01

332

Intracellular cleavable poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles for efficient siRNA delivery in vitro and in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low cytotoxicity and high efficiency delivery system with the advantages of low cost and facile fabrication is needed for the application of small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery both in vitro and in vivo. For these prerequisites, cationic polymer-mesoporous silica nanoparticles (ssCP-MSNs) were prepared by surface functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles with disulfide bond cross-linked poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA). In vitro and in vivo evaluations were performed. The synthesized ssCP-MSNs are 100-150 nm in diameter with a pore size of 10 nm and a positively charged surface with a high zeta potential of 27 mV. Consequently, the ssCP-MSNs showed an excellent binding capacity for siRNA, and an enhancement in the cell uptake and cytosolic availability of siRNA. Furthermore, the intracellular reducing cleavage of the disulfide bonds cross-linking the PDMAEMA segments led to intracellular cleavage of PDMAEMA from ssCP-MSNs, which facilitated the intracellular triggered release of siRNA. Therefore, promoted RNA interference was observed in HeLa-Luc cells, which was equal to that of Lipofectamine 2000. Significantly, compared to Lipofectamine 2000, the ssCP-MSNs were more biocompatible, with low cytotoxicity (even non-cytotoxicity) and promotion of cell proliferation to HeLa-Luc cells. The in vivo systemic distribution studies certified that ssCP-MSNs/siRNA could prolong the duration of siRNA in vivo, and that they accumulated in the adrenal gland, liver, lung, spleen, kidney, heart and thymus after intravenous injection. Encouragingly, with the ability to deliver siRNA to a tumor, ssCP-MSNs/siRNA showed a tumor suppression effect in the HeLa-Luc xenograft murine model after intravenous injection. Therefore, the ssCP-MSNs cationic polymer-mesoporous silica nanoparticles with low cytotoxicity are promising for siRNA delivery.A low cytotoxicity and high efficiency delivery system with the advantages of low cost and facile fabrication is needed for the application of small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery both in vitro and in vivo. For these prerequisites, cationic polymer-mesoporous silica nanoparticles (ssCP-MSNs) were prepared by surface functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles with disulfide bond cross-linked poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA). In vitro and in vivo evaluations were performed. The synthesized ssCP-MSNs are 100-150 nm in diameter with a pore size of 10 nm and a positively charged surface with a high zeta potential of 27 mV. Consequently, the ssCP-MSNs showed an excellent binding capacity for siRNA, and an enhancement in the cell uptake and cytosolic availability of siRNA. Furthermore, the intracellular reducing cleavage of the disulfide bonds cross-linking the PDMAEMA segments led to intracellular cleavage of PDMAEMA from ssCP-MSNs, which facilitated the intracellular triggered release of siRNA. Therefore, promoted RNA interference was observed in HeLa-Luc cells, which was equal to that of Lipofectamine 2000. Significantly, compared to Lipofectamine 2000, the ssCP-MSNs were more biocompatible, with low cytotoxicity (even non-cytotoxicity) and promotion of cell proliferation to HeLa-Luc cells. The in vivo systemic distribution studies certified that ssCP-MSNs/siRNA could prolong the duration of siRNA in vivo, and that they accumulated in the adrenal gland, liver, lung, spleen, kidney, heart and thymus after intravenous injection. Encouragingly, with the ability to deliver siRNA to a tumor, ssCP-MSNs/siRNA showed a tumor suppression effect in the HeLa-Luc xenograft murine model after intravenous injection. Therefore, the ssCP-MSNs cationic polymer-mesoporous silica nanoparticles with low cytotoxicity are promising for siRNA delivery. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00294b

Lin, Daoshu; Cheng, Qiang; Jiang, Qian; Huang, Yuanyu; Yang, Zheng; Han, Shangcong; Zhao, Yuning; Guo, Shutao; Liang, Zicai; Dong, Anjie

2013-05-01

333

Coenzyme Q improves LDL resistance to ex vivo oxidation but does not enhance endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) may cause arterial endothelial dysfunction in hyperlipidemic subjects. Antioxidants can protect LDL from oxidation and therefore improve endothelial function. Dietary supplementation with coenzyme Q (CoQ10) raises its level within LDL, which may subsequently become more resistant to oxidation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether oral supplementation of CoQ10 (50 mg

Olli T Raitakari; Robyn J McCredie; Paul Witting; Kaye A Griffiths; David Sullivan; Roland Stocker; David S Celermajer

2000-01-01

334

CD22 regulates B lymphocyte function in vivo through both ligand-dependent and ligand-independent mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of CD22 with ?2,6-linked sialic acid ligands has been widely proposed to regulate B lymphocyte function and migration. Here, we generated gene-targeted mice that express mutant CD22 molecules that do not interact with these ligands. CD22 ligand binding regulated the expression of cell surface CD22, immunoglobulin M and major histocompatibility complex class II on mature B cells, maintenance

Jonathan C Poe; Yoko Fujimoto; Minoru Hasegawa; Karen M Haas; Ann S Miller; Isaac G Sanford; Cheryl B Bock; Manabu Fujimoto; Thomas F Tedder

2004-01-01

335

Effect of altered CH2-associated carbohydrate structure on the functional properties and in vivo fate of chimeric mouse-human immunoglobulin G1  

PubMed Central

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecules are glycosylated in CH2 at Asn297; the N-linked carbohydrates attached there have been shown to contribute to antibody (Ab) stability and various effector functions. The carbohydrate attached to the IgG constant region is a complex biantennary structure. Alterations in the structure of oligosaccharide have been associated with human diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. To study the effects of altered carbohydrate structure on Ab effector function, we have used gene transfection techniques to produce mouse-human chimeric IgG1 Abs in the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line Lec 1, which is incapable of processing the high-mannose intermediate through the terminal glycosylation steps. We also produced IgG1 Abs in Pro-5, the wild-type CHO cell line that is the parent of Lec 1. The Pro-5-produced Ab (IgG1-Pro-5) was similar to IgG1-My 1, a myeloma-produced IgG1 Ab of the same specificity, in its biologic properties such as serum half-life, ability to effect complement-mediated cytolysis, and affinity for Fc gamma RI. Although the Lec 1-produced Ab, IgG1-Lec 1, was properly assembled and retained antigen specificity, it was incapable of complement-mediated hemolysis and was substantially deficient in complement consumption, C1q binding, and C1 activation. IgG1-Lec 1 also showed reduced but significant affinity for Fc gamma R1 receptors. The in vivo half-life of IgG1-Lec 1 was shorter than that of either the myeloma- or Pro-5-produced counterpart, with more being cleared during the alpha-phase and with more rapid clearance during the beta-phase. Clearance of IgG1-Lec 1 could be inhibited by the administration of yeast-derived mannan. Thus the uptake of IgG1-Lec 1 appears to be accelerated by the presence of terminally mannosylated oligosaccharide. Therefore, certain Ab functions as well as the in vivo fate of the protein are dramatically affected by altered carbohydrate structure. Expression of Igs in cell lines with defined glycosylation mutations is shown to be a useful technique for investigating the contribution of carbohydrate structure to Ab function. PMID:8064227

1994-01-01

336

An in vivo study examining the antiinflammatory effects of chamomile, meadowsweet, and willow bark in a novel functional beverage.  

PubMed

The antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties of polyphenols are well documented in vitro but there are few human studies. A herbal beverage composed of chamomile, meadowsweet, and willow bark (CMW) was developed and tested for its antiinflammatory effect in a cohort of healthy adults (n = 20) during a 4-week intervention. Subjects were randomised to either the treatment (TG) or placebo group (PG). The three herbs under study, which have been used in traditional and alternative medicine, were delivered in a berry extract matrix. This berry extract was used as a control in the experiment. The objective was to assess the herbs' effects on systemic inflammation and joint function by examining circulating cytokines and mechanical joint flexibility. Blood serum was analyzed for cytokines IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF?. There was an average decrease of 21.7% IL-1? in the treatment group, whereas the decrease seen in the placebo group was 3% but these were not statistically significant. Quartile analysis based on baseline production of TNF? demonstrated a decrease in the treatment group's IL-6 levels. This group showed improvements in mechanical joint function and pain upon movement of joints specific to the knee and lower back. Overall, no significant antiinflammatory effects were seen. The evidence is therefore inconclusive and further investigations are required using a larger cohort with some degree of elevated inflammatory activity. PMID:24237191

Drummond, Elaine M; Harbourne, Niamh; Marete, Eunice; Jacquier, J C; O'Riordan, Dolores; Gibney, Eileen R

2013-12-01

337

Monte Carlo simulation of the BEGe detector response function for in vivo measurements of 241Am in the skull  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on the procedure of the BEGe detector characterization for the Monte Carlo calibrations. A project is under way to improve the counting and operating capabilities of the Whole Body Counter (WBC) installed in SÚRO, v.v.i. (NRPI) Prague, Czech Republic. Possible emergency monitoring should mainly benefit from the rapid, safe and flexible operation of the WBC. The system of the WBC for the detection of low energy X and gamma radiation comprises four HPGe detectors intended for the routine, emergency, and research measurements of persons internally contaminated with low-energy photon emitters, mainly actinides. Among them, 241Am is the main subject of interest. A precise detection efficiency calibration of the detector is required for the measurement of activity in individual organs and tissues. The use of physical phantoms in the calibrations is often supplemented with the application of voxel phantoms and a Monte Carlo technique that are used for the calculation of the detector response function and the full energy peak efficiency. Both experimental and computational approaches have been used for the calibration of the BEGe (Broad Energy Germanium) detector. In this paper, the process of the Monte Carlo simulation of the detector response function and the peak efficiency calculation is described. Results of the simulations are provided in the paper and discussed.

Fantínová, K.; Fojtík, P.

2014-11-01

338

Further Development of a Tissue Engineered Muscle Repair Construct In Vitro for Enhanced Functional Recovery Following Implantation In Vivo in a Murine Model of Volumetric Muscle Loss Injury  

PubMed Central

Volumetric muscle loss (VML) can result from trauma and surgery in civilian and military populations, resulting in irrecoverable functional and cosmetic deficits that cannot be effectively treated with current therapies. Previous work evaluated a bioreactor-based tissue engineering approach in which muscle derived cells (MDCs) were seeded onto bladder acellular matrices (BAM) and mechanically preconditioned. This first generation tissue engineered muscle repair (TEMR) construct exhibited a largely differentiated cellular morphology consisting primarily of myotubes, and moreover, significantly improved functional recovery within 2 months of implantation in a murine latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle with a surgically created VML injury. The present report extends these initial observations to further document the importance of the cellular phenotype and composition of the TEMR construct in vitro to the functional recovery observed following implantation in vivo. To this end, three distinct TEMR constructs were created by seeding MDCs onto BAM as follows: (1) a short-term cellular proliferation of MDCs to generate primarily myoblasts without bioreactor preconditioning (TEMR-1SP), (2) a prolonged cellular differentiation and maturation period that included bioreactor preconditioning (TEMR-1SPD; identical to the first generation TEMR construct), and (3) similar treatment as TEMR-1SPD but with a second application of MDCs during bioreactor preconditioning (TEMR-2SPD); simulating aspects of “exercise” in vitro. Assessment of maximal tetanic force generation on retrieved LD muscles in vitro revealed that TEMR-1SP and TEMR-1SPD constructs promoted either an accelerated (i.e., 1 month) or a prolonged (i.e., 2 month postinjury) functional recovery, respectively, of similar magnitude. Meanwhile, TEMR-2SPD constructs promoted both an accelerated and prolonged functional recovery, resulting in twice the magnitude of functional recovery of either TEMR-1SP or TEMR-1SPD constructs. Histological and molecular analyses indicated that TEMR constructs mediated functional recovery via regeneration of functional muscle fibers either at the interface of the construct and the native tissue or within the BAM scaffolding independent of the native tissue. Taken together these findings are encouraging for the further development and clinical application of TEMR constructs as a VML injury treatment. PMID:22439962

Corona, Benjamin T.; Machingal, Masood A.; Criswell, Tracy; Vadhavkar, Manasi; Dannahower, Ashley C.; Bergman, Christopher; Zhao, Weixin

2012-01-01

339

Sequence and in vitro function of chicken, ring-necked pheasant, and Japanese quail AHR1 predict in vivo sensitivity to dioxins.  

PubMed

There are large differences in sensitivity to the toxic and biochemical effects of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) among vertebrates. Previously, we demonstrated that the difference in sensitivity between domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) and common tern (Sterna hirundo) to aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1)-dependent changes in gene expression following exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is based upon the identities of the amino acids at two sites within the ligand binding domain of AHR1 (chicken--highly sensitive; Ile324_Ser380 vs common tern--250-fold less sensitive than chicken; Val325_Ala381). Here, we tested the hypotheses that (i) the sensitivity of other avian species to TCDD, 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) is also determined by the amino acids at sites that are equivalent to sites 324 and 380 in chicken, and (ii) Ile324_Ala380 and Val324_Ser380 genotypes confer intermediate sensitivity to DLCs in birds. We compared ligand-induced transactivation function of full-length AHR1s from chicken, common tern, ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus; Ile324_Ala380) and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica; Val324_Ala380), and three Japanese quail AHR1 mutants. The results support our hypothesis that avian species can be grouped into three general classes of sensitivity to DLCs. Both AHR1 genotype and in vitro transactivation assays predict in vivo sensitivity. Contrary to the assumption that TCDD is the most potent DLC, PeCDF was more potent than TCDD at activating Japanese quail (13- to 26-fold) and common tern (23- to 30-fold) AHR1. Our results support and expand previous in vitro and in vivo work that demonstrated ligand-dependent species differences in AHR1 affinity. The findings and methods will be of use for DLC risk assessments. PMID:22296185

Farmahin, Reza; Wu, Dongmei; Crump, Doug; Hervé, Jessica C; Jones, Stephanie P; Hahn, Mark E; Karchner, Sibel I; Giesy, John P; Bursian, Steven J; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Kennedy, Sean W

2012-03-01

340

Ultrathin sP(EO-stat-PO) hydrogel coatings are biocompatible and preserve functionality of surface bound growth factors in vivo.  

PubMed

Hydrogel coatings prepared from reactive star shaped polyethylene oxide based prepolymers (NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO)) minimize unspecific protein adsorption in vitro, while proteins immobilized on NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO) coatings retain their structure and biological function. The aim of the present study was to assess biocompatibility and the effect on early osseointegrative properties of a NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO) coating with additional RGD-peptides and augmentation with bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP) used on a medical grade high-density polyethylene (HDPE) base under in vivo circumstances. For testing of biocompatibility dishes with large amounts of bulk NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO) were implanted subcutaneously into 14 Wistar rats. In a second set-up functionalization of implants with ultrathin surface layers by coating ammonia-plasma treated HDPE with NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO), functionalization with linear RGD-peptides, and augmentation with RGD and BMP-4 was analyzed. Therefore, implants were placed subcutaneously in the paravertebral tissue and transcortically in the distal femur of another 14 Wistar rats. Both tests revealed no signs of enhanced inflammation of the surrounding tissue analyzed by CD68, IL-1ß-/TNF-?-antibody staining, nor systemic toxic reactions according to histological analysis of various organs. The mean thickness of the fibrous tissue surrounding the femoral implants was highest in native HDPE-implants and tended to be lower in all NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO) modified implants. Micro-CT analysis revealed a significant increase of peri-implant bone volume in RGD/BMP-4 coated samples. These results demonstrate that even very low amounts of surface bound growth factors do have significant effects when immobilized in an environment that retains their biological function. Hence, NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO)-coatings could offer an attractive platform to improve integration of orthopedic implants. PMID:23801500

Neuerburg, Carl; Recknagel, Stefan; Fiedler, Jörg; Groll, Jürgen; Moeller, Martin; Bruellhoff, Kristina; Reichel, Heiko; Ignatius, Anita; Brenner, Rolf E

2013-10-01

341

Adjudin-mediated Sertoli-germ cell junction disassembly affects Sertoli cell barrier function in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

Adjudin, an analogue of lonidamine, affects adhesion between Sertoli and most germ cells, resulting in reversible infertility in rats, rabbits and dogs. Previous studies have described the apical ectoplasmic specialization, a hybrid-type of Sertoli cell–elongating/elongated spermatid adhesive junction, as a key target of adjudin. In this study, we ask if the function of the blood-testis barrier which is constituted by co-existing tight junctions, desmosome-gap junctions and basal ectoplasmic specializations can be maintained when the seminiferous epithelium is under assault by adjudin. We report herein that administration of a single oral dose of adjudin to adult rats increased the levels of several tight junction and basal ectoplasmic specialization proteins during germ cell loss from the seminiferous epithelium. These findings were corroborated by a functional in vitro experiment when Sertoli cells were cultured on Matrigel™-coated bicameral units in the presence of adjudin and transepithelial electrical resistance was quantified across the epithelium. Indeed, the Sertoli cell permeability barrier was shown to become tighter after adjudin treatment as evidenced by an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance. Equally important, the blood-testis barrier in adjudin-treated rats was shown to be intact 2 weeks post-treatment when its integrity was monitored following vascular administration of inulinfluorescein isothiocyanate which failed to permeate past the barrier and enter into the adluminal compartment. These results illustrate that a unique mechanism exists to maintain blood-testis barrier integrity at all costs, irrespective of the presence of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium of the testis. PMID:20713173

Su, Linlin; Cheng, C. Yan; Mruk, Dolores D.

2010-01-01

342

Expression, regulation, and function of alpha V integrins in hepatocellular carcinoma: an in vivo and in vitro study.  

PubMed

The expression of alpha V integrins by neoplastic cells contributes to the promotion of local invasion and metastasis. The most characteristic extracellular ligands of alpha V integrins are vitronectin and fibronectin. Hepatocytes are the main source of vitronectin, and the capacity to synthesize and secrete vitronectin is usually retained in hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to explore the expression, regulation, and functional role of alpha V integrins in hepatocellular carcinoma. We first analyzed the expression of alpha V integrins and their ligands fibronectin and vitronectin in 80 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma. alpha V integrin chain was detected in 44 cases and vitronectin in 50. Twenty-four of the 44 alpha V-positive tumors contained large amounts of vitronectin. These cases presented more frequently with adverse histoprognostic factors, including infiltrative growth pattern (62.5%), lack of capsule (71%), presence of capsular invasion (57%), and satellite nodules (50%). We then used HepG2 and Hep3B cell lines as in vitro models to study alpha V integrin regulation and function. HepG2 and Hep3B cells expressed alpha V integrin chain and used alpha V beta 1 and alpha V beta 5 for adhesion and migration on vitronectin. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha and transforming growth factor (TGF) beta significantly increased the expression levels of alpha V integrins and stimulated the adhesion and migration of both HepG2 and Hep3B cell lines on vitronectin. The effects of growth factors on cell adhesion and migration were reproduced by incubation with conditioned medium from rat liver myofibroblasts. In conclusion, our results support the existence of an alpha V integrin/vitronectin connection in hepatocellular carcinoma and suggest that this connection may be an adverse prognostic factor. PMID:12143051

Nejjari, Mimoun; Hafdi, Zakia; Gouysse, Géraldine; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Béatrix, Olivier; Dumortier, Jérôme; Pourreyron, Céline; Barozzi, Chiara; D'errico, Antonia; Grigioni, Walter F; Scoazec, Jean-Yves

2002-08-01

343

In Vivo Effect of Mutant ELOVL4 on the Expression and Function of Wild-Type ELOVL4  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Mutations in the elongation of very long chain fatty acids 4 (ELOVL4) gene cause human Stargardt's macular dystrophy 3 (STGD3), a juvenile onset dominant form of macular degeneration. To understand the role of the ELOVL4 protein in retinal function, several mouse models have been developed by using transgenic (TG), knock-in (Elovl4+/mut), and knockout (Elovl4+/?) approaches. Here we analyzed quantitatively the ELOVL4 protein and its enzymatic products (very long chain saturated fatty acid [VLC-FA] and VLC–polyunsaturated fatty acid [VLC-PUFA]) in the retinas of 8 to 10-week-old TG1+, TG2+, and Elovl4+/mut mice that harbor the mutant ELOVL4 and compared them to their wild-type littermates and Elovl4+/? that do not express the mutant protein. We also analyzed skin from these mice to gain insight into the pathogenesis resulting from the ELOVL4 mutation. Methods. ELOVL4 protein localization in the retina was determined by immunohistochemistry. Levels of wild-type ELOVL4 protein in skin and retinas were determined by Western blotting. Total lipids from skin and retinas were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Retinal glycerophosphatidylcholines (PC) were analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Immunohistochemical and Western analysis indicated that wild-type ELOVL4 protein was reduced in heterozygous Elovl4+/mut and Elovl4+/? retinas, but not in TG2+ retinas. We found that VLC-FA was reduced by 50% in the skin of Elovl4+/? and by 60% to 65% in Elovl4+/mut. We found VLC-PUFA levels at ?50% in both the retinas, and wild-type levels of VLC-PUFA in TG2+ retinas. Conclusions. We conclude that the presence of the mutant ELOVL4 does not affect the function of wild-type ELOVL4 in the fully developed 8- to 10-week-old retinas. PMID:24644051

Mandal, Nawajes A.; Tran, Julie-Thu A.; Zheng, Lixin; Wilkerson, Joseph L.; Brush, Richard S.; McRae, Joel; Agbaga, Martin-Paul; Zhang, Kang; Petrukhin, Konstantin; Ayyagari, Radha; Anderson, Robert E.

2014-01-01

344

The cyclophilin homolog NinaA functions as a chaperone, forming a stable complex in vivo with its protein target rhodopsin.  

PubMed Central

In Drosophila, biogenesis of the major rhodopsin, Rh1, is dependent on the presence of a photoreceptor cell-specific cyclophilin, NinaA. In ninaA mutants, Rh1 is retained within the endoplasmic reticulum and rhodopsin levels are reduced > 100-fold. Cyclophilins have been shown to be peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases and have been implicated in catalyzing protein folding. We have generated transgenic animals expressing different functional rhodopsins containing a histidine tag. We isolated these molecules from wild-type and ninaA mutant retinas, and have demonstrated that in vivo NinaA forms a specific stable protein complex with its target Rh1. We also expressed ninaA under an inducible promoter and showed that NinaA is required quantitatively for Rh1 biogenesis. These results provide the first evidence for a biologically relevant physical interaction between a cyclophilin and its cellular target, and suggest that the normal cellular role of this class of cyclophilins is to function as chaperones, possibly escorting their protein substrates through the secretory pathway. Images PMID:7957056

Baker, E K; Colley, N J; Zuker, C S

1994-01-01

345

A tool for functional plant genomics: Chimeric RNA/DNA oligonucleotides cause in vivo gene-specific mutations  

PubMed Central

Self-complementary chimeric oligonucleotides (COs) composed of DNA and modified RNA residues were evaluated as a means to (i) create stable, site-specific base substitutions in a nuclear gene and (ii) introduce a frameshift in a nuclear transgene in plant cells. To demonstrate the creation of allele-specific mutations in a member of a gene family, COs were designed to target the codon for Pro-196 of SuRA, a tobacco acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene. An amino acid substitution at Pro-196 of ALS confers a herbicide-resistance phenotype that can be used as a selectable marker in plant cells. COs were designed to contain a 25-nt homology domain comprised of a five-deoxyribonucleotide region (harboring a single base mismatch to the native ALS sequence) flanked by regions each composed of 10 ribonucleotides. After recovery of herbicide-resistant tobacco cells on selective medium, DNA sequence analyses identified base conversions in the ALS gene at the codon for Pro-196. To demonstrate a site-specific insertion of a single base into a targeted gene, COs were used to restore expression of an inactive green fluorescent protein transgene that had been designed to contain a single base deletion. Recovery of fluorescent cells confirmed the deletion correction. Our results demonstrate the application of a technology to modify individual genetic loci by catalyzing either a base substitution or a base addition to specific nuclear genes; this approach should have great utility in the area of plant functional genomics. PMID:10411951

Beetham, Peter R.; Kipp, Peter B.; Sawycky, Xenia L.; Arntzen, Charles J.; May, Gregory D.

1999-01-01

346

Phosphatidylserine exposure on the surface of Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes modulates in vivo infection and dendritic cell function  

PubMed Central

Leishmania amazonensis parasites can cause diverse forms of leishmaniasis in humans and persistent lesions in most inbred strains of mice. In both cases, the infection is characterized by a marked immunosuppression of the host. We previously showed that amastigote forms of the parasite make use of surface-exposed phosphatidylserine (PS) molecules to infect host cells and promote alternative macrophage activation, leading to uncontrolled intracellular proliferation of the parasites. In this study, we demonstrated that treatment of infected mice with an PS-targeting monoclonal antibody ameliorated parasite loads and lesion development, which correlated with increased proliferative responses by lymphocytes. In addition, we observed an enhanced dendritic cell (DC) activation and antigen presentation in vitro. Our data imply that the recognition of PS exposed on the surface of amastigotes plays a role in down-modulating DC functions, in a matter similar to that of apoptotic cell clearance. This study provides new information regarding the mechanism of immune suppression in Leishmania infection. PMID:23163958

Wanderley, Joao Luiz Mendes; Thorpe, Philip E.; Barcinsn11ki, Marcello Andre; Soong, Lynn

2012-01-01

347

Targeted Gene Deletion and In Vivo Analysis of Putative Virulence Gene Function in the Pathogenic Dermatophyte Arthroderma benhamiae?  

PubMed Central

Dermatophytes cause the majority of superficial mycoses in humans and animals. However, little is known about the pathogenicity of this specialized group of filamentous fungi, for which molecular research has been limited thus far. During experimental infection of guinea pigs by the human pathogenic dermatophyte Arthroderma benhamiae, we recently detected the activation of the fungal gene encoding malate synthase AcuE, a key enzyme of the glyoxylate cycle. By the establishment of the first genetic system for A. benhamiae, specific ?acuE mutants were constructed in a wild-type strain and, in addition, in a derivative in which we inactivated the nonhomologous end-joining pathway by deletion of the A. benhamiae KU70 gene. The absence of AbenKU70 resulted in an increased frequency of the targeted insertion of linear DNA by homologous recombination, without notably altering the monitored in vitro growth abilities of the fungus or its virulence in a guinea pig infection model. Phenotypic analyses of ?acuE mutants and complemented strains depicted that malate synthase is required for the growth of A. benhamiae on lipids, major constituents of the skin. However, mutant analysis did not reveal a pathogenic role of the A. benhamiae enzyme in guinea pig dermatophytosis or during epidermal invasion of the fungus in an in vitro model of reconstituted human epidermis. The presented efficient system for targeted genetic manipulation in A. benhamiae, paired with the analyzed infection models, will advance the functional characterization of putative virulence determinants in medically important dermatophytes. PMID:21478433

Grumbt, Maria; Defaweux, Valerie; Mignon, Bernard; Monod, Michel; Burmester, Anke; Wostemeyer, Johannes; Staib, Peter

2011-01-01

348

In vivo assessment of human brainstem cerebrovascular function: a multi-inversion time pulsed arterial spin labelling study.  

PubMed

The brainstem (BS) is involved in critical physiologic processes, including control of cardiovascular and respiratory functions. This study implements a multi-inversion time pulsed arterial spin labelling (MTI PASL) imaging sequence that addresses the challenges of BS imaging and aims to measure normal and elevated BS perfusion in healthy volunteers. An initial experiment was performed to obtain the kinetic curve of the label in the BS and consequently to estimate the label arrival times and tissue perfusion in seven participants. A second experiment estimated the BS cerebral vascular reactivity (CVR) to hypercapnia in 10 participants. Images were acquired with a gradient-echo sequence with two spiral interleaves and short echo time (TE=2.7?ms). Data were analyzed with a two-compartment model, including a tissue and arterial component. In both experiments, perfusion in the BS was significantly lower than in cortical gray matter (repeated measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA), P<0.05), which is as expected since the BS consists of gray and white matter, the latter typically showing lower perfusion. The BS CVR found here is comparable to previous reports obtained with positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Multi-inversion time pulsed ASL in combination with a two-compartment signal model can be used to assess BS perfusion and CVR. PMID:24594624

Warnert, Esther A H; Harris, Ashley D; Murphy, Kevin; Saxena, Neeraj; Tailor, Neeta; Jenkins, Nigel S; Hall, Judith E; Wise, Richard G

2014-06-01

349

High-Resolution Crystal Structure and In Vivo Function of a Kinesin-2 Homologue in Giardia intestinalis  

PubMed Central

A critical component of flagellar assembly, the kinesin-2 heterotrimeric complex powers the anterograde movement of proteinaceous rafts along the outer doublet of axonemes in intraflagellar transport (IFT). We present the first high-resolution structures of a kinesin-2 motor domain and an ATP hydrolysis–deficient motor domain mutant from the parasitic protist Giardia intestinalis. The high-resolution crystal structures of G. intestinalis wild-type kinesin-2 (GiKIN2a) motor domain, with its docked neck linker and the hydrolysis-deficient mutant GiKIN2aT104N were solved in a complex with ADP and Mg2+ at 1.6 and 1.8 ? resolutions, respectively. These high-resolution structures provide unique insight into the nucleotide coordination within the active site. G. intestinalis has eight flagella, and we demonstrate that both kinesin-2 homologues and IFT proteins localize to both cytoplasmic and membrane-bound regions of axonemes, with foci at cell body exit points and the distal flagellar tips. We demonstrate that the T104N mutation causes GiKIN2a to act as a rigor mutant in vitro. Overexpression of GiKIN2aT104N results in significant inhibition of flagellar assembly in the caudal, ventral, and posterolateral flagellar pairs. Thus we confirm the conserved evolutionary structure and functional role of kinesin-2 as the anterograde IFT motor in G. intestinalis. PMID:18463165

Hoeng, J. C.; House, S. A.; Sagolla, M. S.; Pham, J. K.; Mancuso, J. J.; Lowe, J.; Cande, W. Z.

2008-01-01

350

Protein crystallization in vivo  

E-print Network

Protein crystallization in vivo provides some fascinating examples of biological self-assembly. Here, we provide a selective survey to show the diversity of functions for which protein crystals are used, and the physical properties of the crystals thatare exploited. Where known, we emphasize how the nature of the protein-protein interactions leads to control of the crystallization behaviour.

Jonathan P. K. Doye; Wilson C. K. Poon

2005-10-03

351

Ru360, a specific mitochondrial calcium uptake inhibitor, improves cardiac post-ischaemic functional recovery in rats in vivo  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: The mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), an energy-dissipating channel activated by calcium, contributes to reperfusion damage by depolarizing the mitochondrial inner membrane potential. As mitochondrial Ca2+ overload is a main inductor of mPTP opening, we examined the effect of Ru360, a selective inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium uptake system against myocardial damage induced by reperfusion in a rat model. Experimental approach: Myocardial reperfusion injury was induced by a 5-min occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery, followed by a 5-min reperfusion in anaesthetized open-chest rats. We measured reperfusion-induced arrhythmias and functions indicative of unimpaired mitochondrial integrity to evaluate the effect of Ru360 treatment. Key results: Reperfusion elicited a high incidence of arrhythmias, haemodynamic dysfunction and loss of mitochondrial integrity. A bolus intravenous injection of Ru360 (15-50?nmol kg?1), given 30-min before ischaemia, significantly improved the above mentioned variables in the ischaemic/reperfused myocardium. Calcium uptake in isolated mitochondria from Ru360-treated ventricles was partially diminished, suggesting an interaction of this compound with the calcium uniporter. Conclusions and implications: We showed that Ru360 treatment abolishes the incidence of arrhythmias and haemodynamic dysfunction elicited by reperfusion in a whole rat model. Ru360 administration partially inhibits calcium uptake, preventing mitochondria from depolarization by the opening of the mPTP. We conclude that myocardial damage could be a consequence of failure of the mitochondrial network to maintain the membrane potential at reperfusion. Hence, it is plausible that Ru360 could be used in reperfusion therapy to prevent the occurrence of arrhythmia. PMID:17031386

de J Garcia-Rivas, G; Carvajal, K; Correa, F; Zazueta, C

2006-01-01

352

Functional analysis of the promoter region of amphioxus ?-actin gene: a useful tool for driving gene expression in vivo.  

PubMed

Amphioxus is a promising new animal model for developmental biology. To develop molecular tools for this model, we characterized the promoter region of a cytoplasmic ?-actin gene (Bb-actin-6-2) from the Chinese amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri. In situ hybridization and real time-quantitative PCR analyses showed that this gene is expressed in many tissues throughout embryonic development. Cloning of cDNA revealed two isoforms with distinct transcription start sites. Isoform #1 exhibits a similar exon/intron and regulatory element organization to that of vertebrate ?-actin, whereas isoform #2 lacks the first exon of isoform #1 and recruits its first intron as a promoter. The activities of upstream promoter regions in the two isoforms were examined using the lacZ reporter system in amphioxus embryos. The proximal promoter of isoform #1 drove reporter gene expression broadly in 58.6 % of injected embryos. That of isoform #2 exhibited much higher activity (91.5 %) than that of isoform #1 or the human EF-1-? gene (38.2 %). We determined the minimal promoter regions of the two isoforms via functional analysis. These two regions, alone or inserted a random DNA fragment upstream, had no detectable activity, but when an upstream enhancer was inserted, the promoters directed reporter gene expression in 61.0 and 93.8 %, respectively, of injected embryos in a tissue-specific manner. Our study not only provides insight into the regulatory mechanism underlying amphioxus Bb-actin-6-2 gene expression, but also identifies two sets of efficient proximal and minimal promoters. These promoters could be used to construct gene expression vectors for transgenic studies using amphioxus as a model. PMID:25078982

Feng, Jun; Li, Guang; Liu, Xin; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yi-Quan

2014-10-01

353

Functional EF-Hands in Neuronal Calcium Sensor GCAP2 Determine Its Phosphorylation State and Subcellular Distribution In Vivo, and Are Essential for Photoreceptor Cell Integrity  

PubMed Central

The neuronal calcium sensor proteins GCAPs (guanylate cyclase activating proteins) switch between Ca2+-free and Ca2+-bound conformational states and confer calcium sensitivity to guanylate cyclase at retinal photoreceptor cells. They play a fundamental role in light adaptation by coupling the rate of cGMP synthesis to the intracellular concentration of calcium. Mutations in GCAPs lead to blindness. The importance of functional EF-hands in GCAP1 for photoreceptor cell integrity has been well established. Mutations in GCAP1 that diminish its Ca2+ binding affinity lead to cell damage by causing unabated cGMP synthesis and accumulation of toxic levels of free cGMP and Ca2+. We here investigate the relevance of GCAP2 functional EF-hands for photoreceptor cell integrity. By characterizing transgenic mice expressing a mutant form of GCAP2 with all EF-hands inactivated (EF?GCAP2), we show that GCAP2 locked in its Ca2+-free conformation leads to a rapid retinal degeneration that is not due to unabated cGMP synthesis. We unveil that when locked in its Ca2+-free conformation in vivo, GCAP2 is phosphorylated at Ser201 and results in phospho-dependent binding to the chaperone 14-3-3 and retention at the inner segment and proximal cell compartments. Accumulation of phosphorylated EF?GCAP2 at the inner segment results in severe toxicity. We show that in wildtype mice under physiological conditions, 50% of GCAP2 is phosphorylated correlating with the 50% of the protein being retained at the inner segment. Raising mice under constant light exposure, however, drastically increases the retention of GCAP2 in its Ca2+-free form at the inner segment. This study identifies a new mechanism governing GCAP2 subcellular distribution in vivo, closely related to disease. It also identifies a pathway by which a sustained reduction in intracellular free Ca2+ could result in photoreceptor damage, relevant for light damage and for those genetic disorders resulting in “equivalent-light” scenarios. PMID:25058152

Rosa, Jose Luis; Chen, Jeannie; Mendez, Ana

2014-01-01

354

Functional roles of capsaicin-sensitive intrinsic neural circuit in the regulation of esophageal peristalsis in rats: in vivo studies using a novel method.  

PubMed

A well-developed myenteric plexus exists in the esophagus composed of striated muscle layers, but its functional role in controlling peristaltic movements remains to be clarified. The purpose of this study was to clarify the role of a local neural reflex consisting of capsaicin-sensitive primary afferent neurons and intrinsic neurons in esophageal peristalsis. We firstly devised a method to measure peristaltic movement of esophagus in vivo in rats. Rats were anesthetized with urethane, and esophageal intraluminal pressure and propelled intraluminal liquid volume were recorded. In the experimental system, an intraluminal pressure stimulus evoked periodic changes in intraluminal pressure of the esophagus, which were consistently accompanied by intraluminal liquid propulsion. Bilateral vagotomy abolished changes in intraluminal pressure as well as liquid propulsion. These results indicate that the novel method is appropriate for inducing peristalsis in the esophagus composed of striated muscles. Then, by using the method, we examined functional roles of the local reflex in esophageal peristalsis. For that purpose, we used rats in which capsaicin-sensitive neurons had been destroyed. The esophagus of capsaicin-treated rats showed a multiphasic rise in intraluminal pressure, which may due to noncoordinated contractions of esophageal muscles, whereas a monophasic response was observed in the intact rat esophagus. In addition, destruction of capsaicin-sensitive neurons increased the propelled liquid volume and lowered the pressure threshold for initiating peristalsis. These results suggest that the local neural reflex consisting of capsaicin-sensitive neurons and intrinsic neurons contributes to coordination of peristalsis and suppresses mechanosensory function of vagal afferents in the esophagus. PMID:24650548

Shima, Takeshi; Shiina, Takahiko; Naitou, Kiyotada; Nakamori, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Yasutake

2014-05-01

355

Ex vivo expansion of normal and chronic myeloid leukemic stem cells without functional alteration using a NUP98HOXA10homeodomain fusion gene  

PubMed Central

HOX genes have been implicated as regulators of normal and leukemic stem cell functionality, but the extent to which these activities are linked is poorly understood. Previous studies revealed that transduction of primitive mouse hematopoietic cells with a NUP98HOXA10homeodomain (NA10HD) fusion gene enables a subsequent rapid and marked expansion in vitro of hematopoietic stem cell numbers without causing their transformation or deregulated expansion in vivo. To determine whether forced expression of NA10HD in primitive human cells would have a similar effect, we compared the number of long-term culture-initiating cells (LTC-ICs) present in cultures of lenti-NA10HD versus control virus-transduced CD34+ cells originally isolated from human cord blood and chronic phase (CP) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. We found that NA10HD greatly increases outputs of both normal and Ph+/BCR-ABL+ LTC-ICs, and this effect is particularly pronounced in cultures containing growth factor-producing feeders. Interestingly, NA10HD did not affect the initial cell cycle kinetics of the transduced cells nor their subsequent differentiation. Moreover, immunodeficient mice repopulated with NA10HD-transduced CP-CML cells for more than 8 months showed no evidence of altered behavior. Thus, NA10HD provides a novel tool to enhance both normal and CP-CML stem cell expansion in vitro, without apparently altering other properties. PMID:22868969

Sloma, I; Imren, S; Beer, P A; Zhao, Y; Lecault, V; Leung, D; Raghuram, K; Brimacombe, C; Lambie, K; Piret, J; Hansen, C; Humphries, R K; Eaves, C J

2013-01-01

356

In vivo subcellular localization of Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV) non-structural proteins in insect cells reveals their putative functions.  

PubMed

The in vivo subcellular localization of Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV, Fijivirus, Reoviridae) non-structural proteins fused to GFP was analyzed by confocal microscopy. P5-1 showed a cytoplasmic vesicular-like distribution that was lost upon deleting its PDZ binding TKF motif, suggesting that P5-1 interacts with cellular PDZ proteins. P5-2 located at the nucleus and its nuclear import was affected by the deletion of its basic C-termini. P7-1 and P7-2 also entered the nucleus and therefore, along with P5-2, could function as regulators of host gene expression. P6 located in the cytoplasm and in perinuclear cloud-like inclusions, was driven to P9-1 viroplasm-like structures and co-localized with P7-2, P10 and ?-tubulin, suggesting its involvement in viroplasm formation and viral intracellular movement. Finally, P9-2 was N-glycosylated and located at the plasma membrane in association with filopodia-like protrusions containing actin, suggesting a possible role in virus cell-to-cell movement and spread. PMID:22608534

Maroniche, Guillermo A; Mongelli, Vanesa C; Llauger, Gabriela; Alfonso, Victoria; Taboga, Oscar; del Vas, Mariana

2012-09-01

357

Ultrastructural and functional characterization of circulating hemocytes from the freshwater crayfish Astacus leptodactylus: cell types and their role after in vivo artificial non-self challenge.  

PubMed

The freshwater crayfish Astacus leptodactylus (Eschscholtz, 1823) is an important aquacultured decapod species as well as an invasive species in some European countries. In the current investigation we characterized the different classes of circulating blood cells in A. leptodactylus by means of light and electron microscopy analysis and we explored their reaction to different latex beads particles in vivo by total and differential cell counts at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4h after injections. We identified hemocytes by granule size morphometry as hyaline hemocytes with no or rare tiny granules, small granule hemocytes, unimodal medium diameter granule hemocytes and both small and large granule containing hemocytes. The latter granular hemocytes showed the strongest phenoloxidase l-DOPA reactivity both in granules and cytoplasm. A. leptodactylus respond to foreign particles with strong cellular immune responses. All treatments elicited a total hemocyte increase with a conspicuous recruitment of large granule containing hemocytes. All hemocyte types mount