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Sample records for vivo luteal function

  1. EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) ON EX VIVO LUTEAL FUNCTION IN THE F344 RAT DURING PREGNANCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Bromodichloromethane (BDCM) on Ex Vivo Luteal Function In the Pregnant F344 Rat

    Susan R. Bielmeier1, Ashley S. Murr2, Deborah S. Best2, Jerome M. Goldman2, and Michael G. Narotsky2

    1Curriculum in Toxicology, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599,...

  2. EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) ON EX VIVO LUTEAL FUNCTION IN THE F344 RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) ON EX VIVO LUTEAL FUNCTION IN THE PREGNANT F344 RAT.

    S. R. Bielmeier1, A. S. Murr2, D. S. Best2, J. M. Goldman2, and M. G. Narotsky2

    1 Curriculum in Toxicology, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    2 Reproductive T...

  3. EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) ON EX VIVO LUTEAL FUNCTION IN THE PREGNANT F344 RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) ON EX VIVO LUTEAL FUNCTION IN THE PREGNANT F344 RAT.

    S. R. Bielmeier1, A. S. Murr2, D. S. Best2, J. M. Goldman2, and M. G. Narotsky2

    1 Curriculum in Toxicology, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    2 Reproductive T...

  4. Isolation and functional aspects of free luteal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luborsky, J.L.; Berhrman, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    Methods of luteal cell isolation employ enzymatic treatment of luteal tissue with collagenase and deoxyribonuclease. Additional enzymes such as hyaluronidase or Pronase are also used in some instances. Isolated luteal cells retain the morphological characteristics of steroid secreting cells after isolation. They contain mitochondria, variable amounts of lipid droplets, and an extensive smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Isolated luteal cells have been used in numerous studies to examine the regulation of steriodogenesis by luteinizing hormone (LH). LH receptor binding studies were employed to quantitate specific properties of hormone-receptor interaction in relation to cellular function. Binding of (/sup 125/I)LH to bovine luteal cells and membranes was compared and it was concluded that the enzymatic treatment used to isolate cells did not change the LH receptor binding kinetics.

  5. Effects of bromodichloromethane on ex vivo and in vitro luteal function and bromodichloromethane tissue dosimetry in the pregnant F344 rat.

    PubMed

    Bielmeier, S R; Murr, A S; Best, D S; Harrison, R A; Pegram, R A; Goldman, J M; Narotsky, M G

    2007-08-01

    Bromodichloromethane (BDCM), a drinking water disinfection by-product, causes pregnancy loss, i.e. full-litter resorption, in F344 rats when treated during the luteinizing hormone (LH)-dependent period. This effect is associated with reduced maternal serum progesterone (P) and LH levels, suggesting that BDCM disrupts secretion of LH. To test the hypothesis that BDCM also affects luteal responsiveness to LH, we used ex vivo and in vitro approaches. For the ex vivo study (i.e., in vivo exposure followed by in vitro assessment), dams were dosed by gavage on gestation days (GD) 6-9 (plug day=GD 0) at 0 or 100 mg/kg/d. One hour after the GD-9 dose, rats were killed, blood was collected, and tissue concentrations of BDCM were assessed. Corpora lutea (CL) were incubated with or without hCG, an LH agonist, to stimulate P secretion. For the in vitro study, CL were pooled from untreated F344 rats on GD 9 and cultured with BDCM at 0, 0.01, 0.10 or 3.0 mM. BDCM was found at highest concentrations in adrenal, ovarian, adipose, and hypothalamic tissues. BDCM treatment decreased serum P and LH levels in vivo. Ex vivo, however, BDCM-exposed CL showed >2-fold increases in P secretion relative to controls. Both control and BDCM-exposed CL displayed a 2.4-fold increase in P secretion in response to hCG challenge. In contrast, in vitro exposures reduced CL responsiveness in a dose-related fashion while baseline levels were unaffected. It is unclear if the ex vivo 'rebound' reflects the removal of the CL from a possible direct inhibitory influence of BDCM, or a response to diminished LH stimulation in vivo. Thus, these data suggest that BDCM disrupts pregnancy in F344 rats via two modes: disruption of LH secretion, and disruption of the CL's ability to respond to LH. PMID:17344021

  6. Regulation of bovine intra-luteal function by peptide hormones.

    PubMed

    Schams, D

    1992-12-01

    There is increasing evidence for the existence of substances in ovarian tissues and fluids which are able to act locally, either alone or by modulating the actions of the gonadotropins, thus modifying the functions of ovarian cells. There are now clear data for oxytocin (OT), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in luteal tissue, with regard to specific expression of mRNA, secretion of peptid and receptors. Biological effects of these growth factors and others on luteal tissue were determined during the estrous cycle using two different in vitro systems; a novel microdialysis system (MDS) of intact luteal tissue and culture of luteal cells. The concentrations of secreted progesterone and OT were used as parameters. MDS; OT was most stimulative during the early luteal phase (days 5-7) and decreased continuously from days 8-12 to days 15-18. During early and mid stages bFGF was the most potent stimulator and at the late stage IGF-1 and IGF-2 were most stimulatory. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) stimulated the release of OT most effective at the early luteal stage. Results from the cell culture system (where no cell to cell contact exists) showed a different pattern. IGF-1 and IGF-2 had a stimulatory effect during long and short term stimulation, bFGF only during short term and OT showed no effect. Receptors were found for all peptides examined of luteal cells. A model of an intraovarian cascade-like system for the amplification of luteal function is presented. PMID:1343964

  7. The effect of metritis on luteal function in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Disturbed uterine involution impairs ovarian function in the first weeks after calving. This study analyzed the long-term effect of metritis on luteal function of 47 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows during the first four postpartum estrous cycles. Cows with abnormal uterine enlargement and malodorous lochia were classified as having metritis (group M, n?=?18), and all others were considered healthy (group H, n?=?29). Luteal size was measured once between days 9 and 13 of the first (group H, n?=?11; group M, n?=?12), second (group H, n?=?23; group M, n?=?18) and fourth (group H, n?=?11; group M, n?=?7) postpartum luteal phases. Serum progesterone concentration was measured at the same time. Sixteen cows (group H, n?=?9; group M, n?=?7) underwent transvaginal luteal biopsy for gene expression analysis of steroidogenic regulatory proteins during the second and fourth cycles. Cows with persistence of the corpus luteum (CL) underwent determination of luteal size, luteal biopsy and serum progesterone measurement once between days 29 and 33, followed by prostaglandin treatment to induce luteolysis. The same procedures were repeated once between days 9 and 13 of the induced cycle. Results The cows in group M had smaller first-cycle CLs than the cows in group H (p?=?0.04), but progesterone concentrations did not differ between groups. Luteal size, progesterone concentration and gene expression did not differ between the two groups during the second and fourth cycles. Compared with healthy cows (10%), there was a trend (p?=?0.07) toward a higher prevalence of persistent CLs in cows with metritis (33%). Persistent CLs were limited to the first cycle. Persistent CLs and the induced cyclic CLs did not differ with regard to the variables investigated. Conclusions An effect of metritis on luteal activity was apparent in the first postpartum estrous cycle. However, after the first postpartum cycle, no differences occurred in analyzed parameters between metritis and control cows. Therefore, a metritis is able to impair luteal activity transiently, but does not seem to have a long-term effect on luteal function. PMID:24304943

  8. Human granulosa-luteal cells secrete parathyroid hormone-related protein in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gutmann, J N; Burtis, W J; Dreyer, B E; Andrade-Gordon, P; Penzias, A S; Polan, M L; Insogna, K L

    1993-05-01

    The presence of mRNA transcripts and/or immunoreactivity for PTH-related protein (PTHrP) in several normal mammalian tissues suggests a possible paracrine or autocrine role for this hormone. Since immunohistochemical studies of human ovary demonstrate the presence PTHrP immunoreactivity in this tissue, we wondered if ovarian follicular fluid (OVFF) might contain PTHrP. We retrospectively analyzed 28 OVFF samples obtained at ova harvest in 21 women undergoing in vitro fertilization. Fourteen samples contained significant adenylate cyclase-stimulating activity in a PTHrP-sensitive bioassay. In a subsequent prospective analysis, 41 of 45 freshly obtained OVFF samples demonstrated significant activity. This bioactivity was completely neutralized by antisera to PTHrP, but was unaffected by antisera to PTH. Fifteen OVFF samples were also analyzed in a sensitive 2-site immunoradiometric assay for PTHrP, and all 15 demonstrated significant levels of the hormone. The PTHrP levels did not correlate with the presence of an ovum in the follicle or with follicular fluid calcium. Short term (24- to 48-h) cultures of granulosa-luteal cells established from 5 OVFF samples demonstrated constitutive secretion of PTHrP using the immunoradiometric assay. Neither progesterone nor estrogen affected basal secretion. RNase protection analysis of cellular RNA prepared from cultured granulosa-luteal cells demonstrated the presence of mRNA for PTHrP in these cells. We conclude that 1) human OVFF obtained after stimulation with FSH and LH contain high concentrations of PTHrP; and 2) the granulosa-luteal cell is capable of secreting PTHrP both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:8496323

  9. Colour Doppler Ultrasonography as a Tool to Assess Luteal Function in Santa Inês Ewes.

    PubMed

    Figueira, L M; Fonseca, J F; Arashiro, Ekn; Souza-Fabjan, Jmg; Ribeiro, Acs; Oba, E; Viana, Jhm; Brandão, F Z

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate luteal dynamics in the Santa Inês ewes using colour Doppler (CD) ultrasonography. Oestrus was synchronized in nulliparous females (n = 18), and subsequently, they were only teased (n = 6) or teased and mated (n = 12). Blood samples were collected daily for plasma progesterone (P4 ) concentrations. Ultrasonographic images of corpora lutea (CL) in CD mode were obtained for further analysis in its largest diameter. The CD mode allowed an early sequential monitoring of CL that was visualized by the first time 0.77 ± 0.62 days after ovulation, with luteal area 29.68 ± 13.21 mm(2) . During the luteogenesis, a progressive increase was observed, followed by a plateau of luteal area, vascularization area and plasma concentrations of P4 reaching maximum values in D11 (124.0 ± 38.0 mm(2) , 52.78 ± 24.08 mm(2) and 11.23 ± 4.89 ng/ml, respectively). In the luteolysis, the plasma concentrations of P4 decreased sharply, whereas luteal and vascularization area gradually. The vascularization area was positively correlated with plasma concentrations of P4 during the luteogenesis (r = 0.22) and luteolysis (r = 0.48). The luteal dynamics of Santa Inês ewes showed patterns similar to those observed in other sheep breeds studied. The CD ultrasonography has the potential to be used as a tool to assess luteal function in sheep. PMID:25970377

  10. Luteal angiogenesis and its control.

    PubMed

    Woad, Kathryn J; Robinson, Robert S

    2016-07-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting ones, is critical to luteal structure and function. In addition, it is a complex and tightly regulated process. Not only does rapid and extensive angiogenesis occur to provide the corpus luteum with an unusually high blood flow and support its high metabolic rate, but in the absence of pregnancy, the luteal vasculature must rapidly regress to enable the next cycle of ovarian activity. This review describes a number of key endogenous stimulatory and inhibitory factors, which act in a delicate balance to regulate luteal angiogenesis and ultimately luteal function. In vitro luteal angiogenesis cultures have demonstrated critical roles for fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) in endothelial cell proliferation and sprouting, although other factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and platelet-derived growth factor were important modulators in the control of luteal angiogenesis. Post-transcriptional regulation by small non-coding microRNAs is also likely to play a central role in the regulation of luteal angiogenesis. Appropriate luteal angiogenesis requires the coordinated activity of numerous factors expressed by several cell types at different times, and this review will also describe the role of perivascular pericytes and the importance of vascular maturation and stability. It is hoped that a better understanding of the critical processes underlying the transition from follicle to corpus luteum and subsequent luteal development will benefit the management of luteal function in the future. PMID:27177965

  11. RESUMPTION OF POSTPARTUM LUTEAL FUNCTION OF PRIMIPAROUS, SUCKLED BEEF COWS EXPOSED CONTINUOUSLY TO BULL URINE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested the hypotheses that interval from urine exposure to resumption of luteal activity and proportions of cows that resume luteal activity by the end of the urine-exposure period do not differ between cows exposed to mature bull urine or steer urine. Thirty-eight Angus x Hereford cows, four mat...

  12. Failure to maintain luteal function: a possible cause of early embryonic loss in a cow.

    PubMed Central

    Lafrance, M; Goff, A K; Guay, P; Harvey, D

    1989-01-01

    The effect of early pregnancy failure on the release of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) in response to oxytocin (Ot) was examined in an abnormal breeder (AB) heifer that was not able to maintain a pregnancy beyond 21 days. This animal was used in three experiments: 1) She received one intravenous injection of 100 IU Ot 17 days after the onset of oestrus (Day 0). Frequent blood samples were taken for the measurement of 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-PGF2 alpha (PGFM) by radioimmunoassay. Daily samples for progesterone (P4) determinations were taken to monitor luteal function. This was then repeated using the same animal at either day 17 or 18 or 19 (day 17-19) of pregnancy. 2) Embryos from superovulated normal breeder (NB) donors were transferred at day 7 to the AB heifer as well as to NB control animals. 3) Seven day old embryos from the superovulated AB heifer were transferred to NB recipient animals. At day 17-19 of pregnancy all the recipient heifers (experiments 2 and 3) were subjected to the same protocol as in experiment 1. The results showed that the ability of Ot to stimulate PGF2 alpha release was reduced in the NB recipients bearing viable embryos when compared to cyclic animals. However, for the AB heifer, Ot stimulated PGF2 alpha release to the same extent whether the animal was cyclic or pregnant. Furthermore, the AB animal did not have the extended luteal function associated with removal of viable embryos on day 17-19. The data suggest that the embryonic loss might have been caused by failure of the embryos to prevent the luteolytic release of PGF2 alpha. PMID:2766148

  13. Effects of beta-carotene and vitamin A on bovine luteal function

    SciTech Connect

    Graves-Hoagland, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Initially, the direct effects of B-carotene and vitamin A on progesterone (P4) production were studied by exposing dispersed luteal cells to these compounds in vitro. There were no positive relationships between P4 and B-carotene or vitamin A. However, a negative, and perhaps toxic, effect of a large dose of B-carotene on P4 reproduction was noted. A positive relationship between plasma B-carotene and percent change of P4 in the medium of dispersed luteal cells was demonstrated when these plasma metabolites were measured in slaughterhouse cows from which CL were obtained for incubation. This relationship was only present during the winter when plasma levels of B-carotene and vitamin A were considerably lower. Preliminary investigations into the mechanism of action of B-carotene and/or vitamin A were initiated. Luteal tissue ribonucleic acid (RNA), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the RNA to DNA ratio and total protein concentration were measured to study the influence of plasma levels of B-carotene and vitamin A on the protein synthetic capacity of luteal tissue. There were no relationships detected, however, RNA concentration and the RNA to DNA ratio of luteal tissue were greater during the summer. The percent binding of radiolabeled vitamin A was greater in the nuclear than in the cytoplasmic component of the luteal cell.

  14. Effects of body condition and protein supplementation on LH secretion and luteal function in sheep.

    PubMed

    Meza-Herrera, C A; Ross, T; Hallford, D; Hawkins, D; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A

    2007-10-01

    In ruminants, nutrition is one of the exogenous inputs affecting reproductive function at different levels of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-gonadal axis. However, the exact mechanisms or even the identification of the signalling metabolic compounds by which nutrition affects reproductive function still need further clarification. The role of static body condition (BC) and its interaction with a short-term protein supplementation (PL), on secretion of metabolic hormones [growth hormone (GH), insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)], as well as on secretion of LH and progesterone (P4) was evaluated in sheep. Twenty-four Rambouillet ewes divided into two groups, with lower (LBC) and higher body condition (HBC), were randomly assigned within BC to one of two PL levels: low (LPL, 24% of crude protein; 14 g/animal/day), and high (HPL, 44% of crude protein; 30 g/animal/day). The secretion of GH, insulin, IGF-1 and LH was evaluated on day 10 of the oestrous cycle; appearance and timing of oestrous behaviour were previously detected using rams. Progesterone secretion was evaluated on day 13 of the same cycle. No differences were found (p > 0.05) between PL groups on serum GH concentrations during the sampling period (overall mean of 4.0 +/- 0.3 ng/ml), but a trend for lower values in HBC sheep was found (3.6 +/- 0.4 vs 4.4 +/- 0.4 ng/ml, p = 0.06). A BC effect was observed (p < 0.05) on serum IGF-1 level, with higher values in HBC sheep (p < 0.05). Neither BC nor PL affected (p > 0.05) secretion of LH and the number of corpora lutea, nor serum P4 and insulin concentrations. Results indicate a predominance of the static component of nutrition on sheep metabolic hormone responses, GH and IGF-1, with no effect of short-term PL on secretion of pituitary and ovarian hormones as well as luteal number and activity. PMID:17845600

  15. Adverse influence of coumestrol on secretory function of bovine luteal cells in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Młynarczuk, J; Wróbel, M H; Kotwica, J

    2013-07-01

    Coumestrol is one of a few biologically active substances present in leguminous plants, which are widely used as fodder for ruminants. Depending on the doses, coumestrol acts on the reproductive processes as an estrogen-like factor or antiestrogen to evoke a decrease in ovulation frequency, elongation of estrous cycle duration. The aim of the current investigations was to study the influence of coumestrol on secretory function of luteal cells obtained from first trimester of pregnant cows. Luteal cells (2.5 × 10(5) /mL) from 3rd to 5th, 6th to 8th, and 9th to 12th week of pregnancy were preincubated for 24 h and incubated with coumestrol (1 × 10(-6) M) for successive 48 h and the medium concentrations of progesterone (P4), oxytocin (OT), prostaglandin (PG) E2 and F2α were determined. Moreover, the expression of mRNA for neurophysin-I/oxytocin (NP-I/OT; precursor of OT) and peptidyl-glycine-α-amidating mono-oxygenase (PGA, an enzyme responsible for post-translational OT synthesis) was determined after 8 h of treatment. Coumestrol did not affect P4 secretion but increased the secretion of OT from the cells collected at all stages of gestation studied. Hence, the ratio of P4 to OT was markedly decreased. Simultaneously, coumestrol increased the expression of NP-I/OT mRNA during 9th to 12th weeks of pregnancy, and mRNA for PGA during 3rd to 5th and 9th to 12th weeks of gestation. Furthermore, coumestrol decreased PGE2 secretion from luteal cells in all studied stages of pregnancy, while it affected PGF2α metabolite (PGFM) concentration only from week 3 to 5 of pregnancy. Obtained results suggest that coumestrol impairs secretory function of the corpus luteum (CL) and this way it can affect the maintenance of pregnancy in the cow. PMID:21656645

  16. Partial Recovery of Luteal Function after Bariatric Surgery in Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Rochester, Dana; Jain, Akas; Polotsky, Alex J; Polotsky, Hanah; Gibbs, Karen; Isaac, Barbara; Zeitlian, Gohar; Hickmon, Cheryl; Feng, Sophia; Santoro, Nanette

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether obesity related reproductive endocrine abnormalities in ovulatory women are reversible with weight loss Design Observational cohort study. Setting Healthy volunteers in an academic research environment. Patients Women age 18–48 with regular menstrual cycles 21–40 days with a BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 planning to undergo bariatric surgery were recruited. Intervention 25 eumenorrheic (non-PCOS) women with a mean BMI of 47.3 +/− 5.2 kg/m2 were sampled with daily menstrual cycle urinary hormones prior to (n=25) and 6 months after (n=9) weight loss surgery resulting in >25% reduction initial body weight. Daily hormones were compared pre- and post-operatively, and to 14 normal weight controls. Main Outcome Measures LH, FSH, estradiol and progesterone metabolites measured daily for one menstrual cycle. Group means were compared using t-tests among ovulatory cycles. Results Luteal Pdg increased from 32.8 ± 10.9 to 73.7 ± 30.5 ug/mgCr (p<0.001) and whole cycle LH increased from 168.8 ± 24.2 to 292.1 ± 79.6 mIU/mgCr (p<0.001) after surgically induced weight loss. Luteal Pdg remained lower than normal weight controls (151.7 ± 111.1 ug/mgCr). Obese women took longer to attain a postovulatory Pdg rise >2mcg/mg creatinine than controls (3.91 ± 1.51 versus 1.71 ± 1.59 days); this improved post-operatively (2.4 ± 1.82 days, p=0.046). Whole cycle E1c was similar to controls at baseline, but decreased after weight loss (from 1026.7 ± 194.2 to 605.4 ± 167.1 ng/mgCr, p<0.001). FSH did not relate to body size in this sample. Conclusions Women of very high BMI have deficient luteal LH and Pdg excretion and a delayed ovulatory Pdg rise compared to normal weight women. Although all of these parameters improved with weight loss, Pdg did not approach levels seen in normal weight women. LH may be less effective in stimulating the corpus luteum in obesity. The large postoperative decrease in E1c may reflect the loss of estrone-producing adipose tissue after weight loss. PMID:18829008

  17. Luteal and placental function in the bitch: spatio-temporal changes in prolactin receptor (PRLr) expression at dioestrus, pregnancy and normal and induced parturition

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Endocrine mechanisms governing canine reproductive function remain still obscure. Progesterone (P4) of luteal origin is required for maintenance of pregnancy. Corpora lutea (CL) are gonadotrop-independent during the first third of dioestrus; afterwards prolactin (PRL) is the primary luteotropic factor. Interestingly, the increasing PRL levels are accompanied by decreasing P4 concentrations, thus luteal regression/luteolysis occurs in spite of an increased availability of gonadotropic support. PRL acts through its receptor (PRLr), the expression of which has not yet been thoroughly investigated at the molecular and cellular level in the dog. Methods The expression of PRLr was assessed in CL of non-pregnant dogs during the course of dioestrus (days 5, 15, 25, 35, 45, 65 post ovulation; p.o.) as well as in CL, the utero/placental compartments (Ut/Pl) and interplacental free polar zones (interplacental sites) from pregnant dogs during the pre-implantation, post-implantation and mid-gestation period of pregnancy and during the normal and antigestagen-induced luteolysis. Expression of PRLr was tested by Real Time PCR, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results In non-pregnant CL the PRLr expression was significantly upregulated at day 15 p.o. and decreased significantly afterwards, towards the end of dioestrus. CL of pregnancy showed elevated PRLr expression until mid gestation while prepartal downregulation was observed. Interestingly, placental but not interplacental expression of PRLr was strongly time-related; a significant upregulation was observed towards mid-gestation. Within the CL PRLr was localized to the luteal cells; in the Ut/Pl it was localized to the fetal trophoblast and epithelial cells of glandular chambers. Moreover, in mid-pregnant animals treated with an antigestagen, both the luteal and placental, but not the uterine PRLr were significantly downregulated. Conclusions The data presented suggest that the luteal provision of P4 in both pregnant and non-pregnant dogs may be regulated at the PRLr level. Furthermore, a role of PRL not only in maintaining the canine CL function but also in regulating the placental function is strongly suggested. A possible functional interrelationship between luteal P4 and placental and luteal PRLr expression also with respect to the prepartal luteolysis is implied. PMID:21812980

  18. Assessment of luteal function in the vervet monkey as a means to develop a model for obesity-related reproductive phenotype.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Mila C; May, Margaret C; Chosich, Justin; Bradford, Andrew P; Lasley, Bill; Gee, Nancy; Santoro, Nanette; Appt, Susan E; Polotsky, Alex J

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the current study was to characterize luteal function in vervet monkeys. Urine from 12 adult female vervets housed at an academic research center was collected for 10 weeks from single-caged monkeys in order to assess evidence of luteal activity (ELA) as determined by urinary excretion of pregnanediol glucuronide (Pdg) and estrone conjugates (E1c). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed on the monkeys to assess body composition, bone density, and fat mass. Menstrual cyclicity was determined using records of vaginal bleeding. ELA was observed in 9 monkeys and was characterized by a late follicular rise in E1c followed by a progressive increase in Pdg excretion. Mean menstrual cycle length was 26.7 ± 3.8 days and the average day of luteal transition was 14 ± 1.8. Three monkeys without ELA had a clearly defined E1c rise (mean 12-fold from nadir) followed by an E1c drop that was not accompanied by Pdg rise and coincided with vaginal bleeding. Among the 9 ELA monkeys, excretion of E1c tended to negatively associate with fat mass, although this finding did not reach statistical significance (r = -0.61, p = 0.08). Similar to women, vervet monkeys experience an increase in E1c late in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle which is followed by a subsequent luteal Pdg peak. Assessment of urinary reproductive hormones allows for identification of cardinal menstrual cycle events; thus, the similarity of vervet cycles to human menstrual cycles makes them a useful model for obesity-related human reproductive impairment. PMID:23278149

  19. A comparison of ovarian follicular and luteal cell gene expression profiles provides insight into cellular identities and functions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After ovulation, somatic cells of the ovarian follicle (theca and granulosa cells) become the small and large luteal cells of the corpus luteum. Aside from known cell type-specific receptors and steroidogenic enzymes, little is known about the differences in the gene expression profiles of these fou...

  20. Oral Progestin Priming Increases Ovarian Sensitivity to Gonadotropin Stimulation and Improves Luteal Function in the Cat1

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Rosemary A.; Pelican, Katharine M.; Crosier, Adrienne E.; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S.; Wildt, David E.; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Howard, JoGayle

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT As the only domesticated species known to exhibit both induced and spontaneous ovulation, the cat is a model for understanding the nuances of ovarian control. To explore ovarian sensitivity to exogenous gonadotropins and the influence of progestin priming, we conducted a study of queens that were down-regulated with oral progestin or allowed to cycle normally, followed by low or high doses of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Our metrics included 1) fecal steroid metabolite profiles before and after ovulation induction, 2) laparoscopic examination of ovarian follicles and corpora lutea (CL) on Days 2 and 17 (Day 0 = hCG administration), and 3) ovariohysterectomy (Day 17) to assess CL progesterone concentrations, morphometrics, and histology. Reproductive tracts from time-matched, naturally mated queens (n = 6) served as controls. Every progestin-primed cat (n = 12) produced the desired response of morphologically similar, fresh CL (regardless of eCG/hCG dose) by Day 2, whereas 41.7% of unprimed counterparts (n = 12) failed to ovulate or had variable-aged CL suggestive of prior spontaneous ovulation (P < 0.05). The ovarian response to low, but not high, eCG/hCG was improved (P < 0.05) in primed compared to unprimed cats, indicating increased sensitivity to gonadotropin in the progestin-primed ovary. Progestin priming prevented hyperelevated fecal steroid metabolites and normalized CL progesterone capacity, but only when combined with low eCG/hCG. However, priming failed to prevent ancillary CL formation, smaller CL mass, or abnormal luteal cell density, which were common to all eCG/hCG-treated cats. Thus, the domestic cat exposed to eCG/hCG produces CL with structural and functional aberrations. These anomalies can be partially mitigated by progestin priming, possibly due to a protective effect of progestin associated with enhanced ovarian sensitivity to gonadotropins. PMID:23100619

  1. Dendritic function in vivo.

    PubMed

    Grienberger, Christine; Chen, Xiaowei; Konnerth, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Dendrites are the predominant entry site for excitatory synaptic potentials in most types of central neurons. There is increasing evidence that dendrites are not just passive transmitting devices but play active roles in synaptic integration through linear and non-linear mechanisms. Frequently, excitatory synapses are formed on dendritic spines. In addition to relaying incoming electrical signals, spines can play important roles in modifying these signals through complex biochemical processes and, thereby, determine learning and memory formation. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the function of spines and dendrites in central mammalian neurons in vivo by focusing particularly on insights obtained from Ca(2+) imaging studies. PMID:25432423

  2. Effect of dietary energy restriction on follicular development and luteal function in nonlactating beef cows.

    PubMed

    Burns, P D; Spitzer, J C; Henricks, D M

    1997-04-01

    Twenty nonlactating beef cows were used to determine the effects of dietary energy restriction on ovarian follicular and corpus luteum (CL) development. Cows were fed to either gain (controls) or lose (restricted; RES) body weight. Observations continued until RES cows developed a subfunctional CL (progesterone [P4] < 1.5 ng/mL on d 10 of a cycle; n = 4) or had functional CL (P4 > or = 1.5 ng/mL on d 10 of a cycle; n = 6) followed by anestrus, at which time observations were discontinued on individual controls. Estrous cycles were then standardized for all cows. For RES cows developing subfunctional CL, cycle A was the cycle before development of the subfunctional CL, and cycle B was the 11-d period during development of a subfunctional CL. For RES cows with a functional CL, cycle A was the next to last cycle before anestrus, and cycle B was the 11-d period during formation of a functional CL. Daily P4 concentrations did not differ (P > .10) between controls or RES cows developing functional CL during cycle B but were lower (P < .05) in RES cows developing subfunctional CL. Ovulatory follicles and CL were smaller (P < .05) in RES cows during cycles A and B compared with controls. Daily IGF-l concentrations were higher on d 2 through 4 of both cycles in RES cows developing functional CL compared with RES cows developing subfunctional CL (P < .05). Feeding diets limited in energy resulted in two types of CL. These differences may have been due to IGF-I concentrations. PMID:9110223

  3. Metabolic and luteal function in winter-calving Spanish beef cows as affected by calf management and breed.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Rodrguez, J; Palacio, J; Sanz, A

    2010-06-01

    This experiment aimed at evaluating the effect of calf management and breed on the metabolic and luteal function of post-partum beef cows fed at maintenance. Fifty multiparous cows, 22 Parda de Montaa (PA) and 28 Pirenaica (PI), were assigned to either suckling once-daily for 30 min (RESTR) or ad libitum (ADLIB) from the day after calving. Blood samples were collected to analyse metabolites [non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyrate, total protein and urea)], insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and progesterone (P4) at different intervals. Cows from RESTR maintained their live-weight (LW) over the first 3 months post-partum, whereas ADLIB cows lost nearly 4% LW. Both genotypes showed similar LW gains during this period (p > 0.10). Calf daily gains were lower in RESTR than in ADLIB treatment (p < 0.05), but similar across breeds (p > 0.10). Milk and lactose production were lower in RESTR cows than in ADLIB (p < 0.05). Milk and protein yield were greater in PA than in PI breed (p < 0.05). Serum NEFA, total protein and urea were higher in PI cows suckling ADLIB than in the rest (p < 0.05). Cows from PI breed had greater NEFA values than PA ones on the first week post-partum (p < 0.001). Circulating IGF-I was not affected by suckling frequency, breed nor their interaction (p > 0.10). Suckling frequency, but not breed, affected the interval from calving to first ovulation (p < 0.001), being shorter in RESTR than in ADLIB cows. In conclusion, the ad libitum suckling practice improved cow milk yield and offspring gain compared to once-daily suckling for 30 min from the day after calving, at the expense of impairing the onset of cyclicity. The effect of calf management was confounded with breed on the studied blood biochemical constituents, but any of these metabolites influenced the role of endocrine IGF-I in these genotypes. PMID:19663981

  4. In vitro differentiation of bovine theca and granulosa cells into small and large luteal-like cells: morphological and functional characteristics.

    PubMed

    Meidan, R; Girsh, E; Blum, O; Aberdam, E

    1990-12-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether bovine granulosa and theca interna cells could be luteinized in vitro into luteal-like cells. Granulosa and theca cells were cultured for 9 days in the presence of forskolin (10 microM), insulin (2 micrograms/ml), insulin-like growth factor I (100 ng/ml), or a combination of these agents. During the first day of culture, granulosa and theca cells secreted estradiol and androstenedione, respectively; progesterone rose only after 3-5 days in culture and reached a maximum on the ninth day of culture. Cells incubated in the presence of forskolin plus insulin exhibited morphological and functional characteristics of luteal cells isolated from the corpus luteum. It was found that cell diameter, basal and stimulated progesterone secretion, and pattern of cell replication for both cell types were comparable to those of luteal cells. Numerous lipid droplets and intensified mitochondrial adrenodoxin staining also indicated active steroidogenesis in luteinized cells. After 9 days in culture, stimulants were withdrawn, and the culture proceeded in basal medium for an additional 5 days; elevated progesterone levels were maintained by luteinized granulosa cells (LGC), whereas in contrast a dramatic drop in progesterone production was observed in luteinized theca cells (LTC). On Day 9, cells were challenged for 3 h with LH (10 ng/ml), forskolin (10 microM), or cholera toxin (100 ng/ml), resulting in a 4-fold increase in progesterone secretion by LTC; the same treatments failed to stimulate progesterone in LGC.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2291928

  5. Thrombospondin-1 Affects Bovine Luteal Function via Transforming Growth Factor-Beta1-Dependent and Independent Actions.

    PubMed

    Farberov, Svetlana; Meidan, Rina

    2016-12-01

    Thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFB1) are specifically up-regulated by prostaglandin F2alpha in mature corpus luteum (CL). This study examined the relationship between the expression of THBS1 and TGFB1 and the underlying mechanisms of their actions in luteal endothelial cells (ECs). TGFB1 stimulated SMAD2 phosphorylation and SERPINE1 levels in dose- and time-dependent manners in luteal EC. THBS1 also elevated SERPINE1; this effect was abolished by TGFB1 receptor-1 kinase inhibitor (SB431542). The findings here further imply that THBS1 activates TGFB1 in luteal ECs: THBS1 increased the effects of latent TGFB1 on phosphorylated SMAD (phospho-SMAD) 2 and SERPINE1. THBS1 silencing significantly decreased SERPINE1 and levels of phospho-SMAD2. Lastly, THBS1 actions on SERPINE1 were inhibited by LSKL peptide (TGFB1 activation inhibitor); LSKL also counteracted latent TGFB1-induced phospho-SMAD2. We found that TGFB1 up-regulated its own mRNA levels and those of THBS1. Both compounds generated apoptosis, but THBS1 was significantly more effective (2.5-fold). Notably, this effect of THBS1 was not mediated by TGFB1. THBS1 and TGFB1 also differed in their activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Whereas TGFB1 rapidly induced phospho-p38, THBS1 had a delayed effect. Inhibition of p38 pathway by SB203580 did not modulate TGFB1 effect on cell viability, but it amplified THBS1 actions. THBS1-stimulated caspase-3 activation coincided with p38 phosphorylation, suggesting that caspase-induced DNA damage initiated p38 phosphorylation. The in vitro data suggest that a feed-forward loop exists between THBS1, TGFB1, and SERPINE1. Indeed all these three genes were similarly induced in the regressing CL. Their gene products can promote vascular instability, apoptosis, and matrix remodeling during luteolysis. PMID:26658711

  6. Development of a bovine luteal cell in vitro culture system suitable for co-culture with early embryos.

    PubMed

    Batista, M; Torres, A; Diniz, P; Mateus, L; Lopes-da-Costa, L

    2012-10-01

    The cross talk between the corpus luteum (CL) and the early embryo, potentially relevant to pregnancy establishment, is difficult to evaluate in the in vivo bovine model. In vitro co-culture of bovine luteal cells and early embryos (days 2-8 post in vitro fertilization) may allow the deciphering of this poorly understood cross talk. However, early embryos and somatic cells require different in vitro culture conditions. The objective of this study was to develop a bovine luteal cell in vitro culture system suitable for co-culture with early embryos in order to evaluate their putative steroidogenic and prostanoid interactions. The corpora lutea of the different stages of the estrous cycle (early, mid, and late) were recovered postmortem and enriched luteal cell populations were obtained. In experiments 1 and 2, the effects of CL stage, culture medium (TCM, DMEM-F12, or SOF), serum concentration (5 or 10%), atmosphere oxygen tension (5 or 20%), and refreshment of the medium on the ability of luteal cells to produce progesterone (P(4)) were evaluated. The production of P(4) was significantly increased in early CL cultures, and luteal cells adapted well to simple media (SOF), low serum concentrations (5%), and oxygen tensions (5%). In experiment 3, previous luteal cell cryopreservation did not affect the production of P(4), PGF(2α), and PGE(2) compared to fresh cell cultures. This enables the use of pools of frozen-thawed cells to decrease the variation in cell function associated with primary cell cultures. In experiment 4, mineral oil overlaying culture wells resulted in a 50-fold decrease of the P(4) quantified in the medium, but had no effect on PGF(2α) and PGE(2) quantification. In conclusion, a luteal cell in vitro culture system suitable for the 5-d-long co-culture with early embryos was developed. PMID:23054443

  7. The role of the endometrial oxytocin receptor in determining the length of the sterile oestrous cycle and ensuring maintenance of luteal function in early pregnancy in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Flint, A P; Lamming, G E; Stewart, H J; Abayasekara, D R

    1994-05-28

    The oxytocin receptor, a seven transmembrane domain, G protein-linked receptor molecule, plays a central role in determining the endocrine function of the ruminant uterine endometrium. During nonpregnant cycles the control of this molecule by circulating steroid hormones leads to regression of the corpora lutea. The kinetics of the mechanisms involved determine the time at which luteolysis occurs, and therefore the length of the oestrous cycle. In pregnancy, secretions of the trophoblast block endometrial oxytocin receptor gene expression and lead to luteal maintenance. An understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the steroidal control of oxytocin receptor gene expression will provide an explanation for the relative constancy of oestrous cycle lengths in non-pregnant animals. Unravelling the way in which trophoblast products block expression of the oxytocin receptor gene will lead to a better understanding of the reasons for the high rate of embryonic loss in domestic ruminants. PMID:7938200

  8. The luteotrophic function of galectin-1 by binding to the glycans on vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 in bovine luteal cells

    PubMed Central

    SANO, Masahiro; HASHIBA, Kazuhisa; NIO-KOBAYASHI, Junko; OKUDA, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The corpus luteum (CL) is a temporary endocrine gland producing a large amount of progesterone, which is essential for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Galectin-1 is a β-galactose-binding protein that can modify functions of membrane glycoproteins and is expressed in the CL of mice and women. However, the physiological role of galectin-1 in the CL is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the expression and localization of galectin-1 in the bovine CL and the effect of galectin-1 on cultured luteal steroidogenic cells (LSCs) with special reference to its binding to the glycans on vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2). Galectin-1 protein was highly expressed at the mid and late luteal stages in the membrane fraction of bovine CL tissue and was localized to the surface of LSCs in a carbohydrate-dependent manner. Galectin-1 increased the viability in cultured LSCs. However, the viability of LSCs was decreased by addition of β-lactose, a competitive carbohydrate inhibitor of galectin-1 binding activity. VEGFR-2 protein, like galectin-1, is also highly expressed in the mid CL, and it was modified by multi-antennary glycans, which can be recognized by galectin-1. An overlay assay using biotinylated galectin-1 revealed that galectin-1 directly binds to asparagine-linked glycans (N-glycans) on VEGFR-2. Enhancement of LSC viability by galectin-1 was suppressed by a selective inhibitor of VEGFR-2. The overall findings suggest that galectin-1 plays a role as a survival factor in the bovine CL, possibly by binding to N-glycans on VEGFR-2. PMID:26155753

  9. Conceptus-induced changes in the gene expression of blood immune cells and the ultrasound-accessed luteal function in beef cattle: how early can we detect pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Pugliesi, Guilherme; Miagawa, Bruna T; Paiva, Yasmin N; França, Moana R; Silva, Luciano A; Binelli, Mario

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to identify the functional characteristics of the corpus luteum (CL) by color Doppler ultrasonography and changes in interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during early pregnancy in beef cows. We then aimed to use these features to establish earlier pregnancy diagnosis methods. In experiment 1, the CL size and blood flow were accessed by Doppler ultrasonography, and the PBMCs were isolated on Days 8, 12, 15, 18, 20, 22, 25, 30, 45, and 60 post-timed artificial insemination (TAI) from pregnant (n = 10) and nonpregnant cows (n = 12). The abundance of ISG (OAS1, MX1, MX2, and ISG15) transcripts was measured by quantitative PCR. Analyses of OAS1 and MX2 expression in isolated PBMCs (ISG-PBMC method) and Doppler imaging of CL (Doppler-US method) were performed to test the accuracy of these methods for the diagnosis of pregnancy on Day 20 post-TAI (n = 110; experiment 2). In experiment 1, the luteal volume and blood flow were reduced in nonpregnant cows during the first weeks post-TAI, but an evaluation of CL vascularization and size was efficient in identifying nonpregnant cows on Day 20 post-TAI. The expression of ISGs in PBMCs can be stimulated by the presence of a viable conceptus between Days 15 and 22 post-TAI, and the expression of these genes reaches a peak on Day 20. In experiment 2, the Doppler-US and ISG-PBMC methods resulted in similar specificity (85.5 and 87.7%, respectively). However, only the Doppler-US method resulted in 100% sensitivity. In conclusion, the greatest abundance of ISGs in PBMCs and a high detection of luteolysis by Doppler imaging on Day 20 post-TAI can be feasibly used for the earlier detection of nonpregnant cows in reproductive programs. The level of accuracy for our described pregnancy methods is high on Day 20 (80%-91%), but only the Doppler imaging method results in an absence of false-negative diagnoses. PMID:25210129

  10. Ovulatory response and luteal function after eCG administration at the end of a progesterone and estradiol' based treatment in postpartum anestrous beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Olivera, R; de Castro, T; García-Pintos, C; Bó, G; Piaggio, J; Menchaca, A

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) administration associated to fixed-time AI (FTAI) on follicular dynamics, ovulation, corpus luteum (CL) development and serum progesterone concentrations. Multiparous suckled Hereford cows (n=46) in anestrus with 60-75 days postpartum were used. Females received an intravaginal device containing 0.5g of progesterone during 8 days and 2mg of estradiol benzoate i.m. at device insertion. At device removal 500μg of cloprostenol and 0.5mg of estradiol cypionate were administered i.m., and FTAI was performed 52-56h later. Cows were divided into two experimental groups to receive 400IU of eCG i.m. at device removal (n=23), while control group did not receive eCG (n=23). Daily ovarian ultrasonography (7.5MHz transducer) and progesterone concentrations determined by RIA were assayed from device removal until 30 or 14 days after FTAI, respectively. Treatment with eCG increased ovulation rate [65.2% (15/23) vs. 30.4% (7/23); P=0.018], ovulatory follicle diameter (14.5±0.4 vs. 13.1±0.7mm, mean±SEM; P=0.081), CL area from 6 to 14 days after FTAI (344.3±25.1 vs. 274.2±23.9mm(2); P=0.045) and mean serum progesterone concentrations from FTAI to 14 days later (3.0±0.2 vs. 1.8±0.2ng/ml; P=0.001), in comparison with control cows. In conclusion, the addition of eCG to a progesterone and estradiol' based treatment for FTAI improves ovulation rate and luteal function in anestrous cows. These findings have implications in order to increase pregnancy rates in FTAI treatments in Bos taurus beef cattle. PMID:24646633

  11. Luteal phase defects in the rhesus monkey: the significance of serum FSH:LH ratios.

    PubMed

    Wilks, J W; Hodgen, G D; Ross, G T

    1976-12-01

    Luteal phases of an abbreviated duration or suboptimal progesterone secretion were identified in the rhesus monkey. Characterization of menstrual cycles with short luteal phases (8 days) in 5 monkeys revealed the following deviations from normal: a. a failure of serum FSH to decline progressively from an early follicular phase high to a preovulatory nadir; b. a commonly inadequate, or absent, preovulatory FSH surge; c. subnormal serum LH concentrations during both the follicular and luteal portions of the menstrual cycle; d. ratios of serum FSH:LH which did not progressively decrease during the follicular phase; and e. serum estradiol concentrations below normal values during the luteal portion of the menstrual cycle. One monkey had abnormally low serum concentrations of progesterone, although the luteal phase was 19 days in duration. Serum gonadotropin and estradiol patterns in this latter monkey were identical to those observed in monkeys with short luteal phases. It is concluded that inappropriate ratios of serum FSH:LH during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle result in impaired corpus leteum function. The data document the usefulness of the nonhuman primate for investigating those luteal phase defects which also occur in the woman. PMID:826543

  12. Cantharidin and norcantharidin inhibit caprine luteal cell steroidogenesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Twu, Nae-Fang; Srinivasan, Ramanujam; Chou, Chung-Hsi; Wu, Leang-Shin; Chiu, Chih-Hsien

    2012-01-01

    Cantharidin and its analog norcantharidin are active constituents of Mylabris, have been demonstrated to ailments for a variety of cancers. But several reports of cantharidin's natural or accidental toxicoses in field animals and humans showed a strong connection between cantharidin and its abortifacient and aphrodisiac properties. However, their exact cellular mechanisms in steroidogenesis remains poorly understood. Thus this study was aimed to explore the effects of cantharidin on luteal cell steroidogensis and to compare its effect with that of norcantharidin. For this purpose, luteal cells isolated from corpora lutea of native Taiwan goats were maintained in vitro and treated for 4 and 24 h with cantharidin and norcantharidin (0.1, 1.0, and 10 ?g ml(-1)) to assess their steroidogenic effects. Progesterone (P(4)) levels and steroidogenic enzyme expression were assessed by enzyme immunoassay and Western blot methods, respectively. In caprine luteal cells, cantharidin and norcantharidin repressed basal P(4) production, as well as that mediated by ovine luteinizing hormone (oLH), 8-bromo-cyclic AMP (8-Br-cAMP), 22R-hydroxycholesterol (22R-OHC) and pregnenolone (P(5)). They also inhibited the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein, cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc) enzyme, and 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3?-HSD) enzyme. Additionally, the greater inhibitory effect was detected using cantharidin, when it is compared with that of norcantharidin. Our results suggest that ingestion of cantharidin may decrease luteal steroidogenesis, and the decline in luteal P(4) levels may disrupt reproductive functions in humans as well as animals. PMID:20594813

  13. Luteal phase deficiency: ultrasonic and biochemical insights into pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, M P; Fleming, R; Coutts, J R; MacNaughton, M C; Whitfield, C R

    1990-07-01

    Serial ovarian ultrasound and daily assessments of plasma concentrations of pituitary and ovarian hormones were used to investigate ovarian function in 175 women with unexplained infertility. Their endocrine and ultrasound profiles were compared with similarly derived data from 43 normal volunteers. Fifty-one (29.1%) of the study group showed subnormal luteal phase rises in progesterone concentrations, described as poor progesterone surge (PPS) cycles. Within this group, 23 women (45.1%) demonstrated luteal cyst formation, a pattern not seen in any of the control cycles. High concentrations of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and reduced concentrations of oestradiol (E2) were observed in the follicular phases of the PPS cycles suggesting that the phenomenon is a product of abnormal follicular metabolism. An association of PPS with infertility exists, perhaps related to a combination of disturbances in the follicular micro-environment compromising oocyte quality, a failure of oocyte release, and impaired endometrial receptivity. PMID:2117970

  14. Effects of IL8 and immune cells on the regulation of luteal progesterone secretion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies suggest that chemokines may mediate the luteolytic action of PGF2a (PGF). Our objective was to identify chemokines induced by PGF in vivo and to determine the effects of IL8 on specific luteal cell types in vitro. Midcycle cows were injected with saline or PGF, ovaries were removed ...

  15. Quantification of sinusoidal cell function in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shiratori, Y; Tananka, M; Kawase, T; Shiina, S; Komatsu, Y; Omata, M

    1993-02-01

    Although the clearance and distribution of ligand molecules in circulation represent the function of hepatic sinusoidal cells, these mechanisms revealed a network that is more intricate than would at first seem, since several receptors are common to not only one type of cell, but also to two or three types of cells in the liver. In the case of latex particles in which their uptake by a particular cell type seems to be determined by their size, sinusoidal endothelial cells are able to internalize particles up to 0.23 microns under physiologic conditions, in vivo, and larger particles are taken up by Kupffer cells. However, when the phagocytic function of Kupffer cells is impaired by frog virus 3 or alcohol, endothelial cells have been found to take up particles larger than 1 micron in diameter after the injection of an excess amount of latex particles. Endothelial cells would thus constitute a second line of defense in the liver in that they remove foreign materials from the blood when Kupffer cell phagocytic function is totally disturbed. This potential role may not, however, be fully expressed under physiologic conditions when Kupffer cells are active in clearing foreign substance from the circulation. The functions of liver sinusoidal cells are varied and complex and these cells can be regarded as "a sinusoidal cell unit." This cellular interaction must be taken into account for any quantitative analysis. PMID:8446907

  16. Clinostat rotation induces apoptosis in luteal cells of the pregnant rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Hyunwon; Bhat, Ganapathy K.; Sridaran, Rajagopala

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that microgravity induces changes at the cellular level, including apoptosis. However, it is unknown whether microgravity affects luteal cell function. This study was performed to assess whether microgravity conditions generated by clinostat rotation induce apoptosis and affect steroidogenesis by luteal cells. Luteal cells isolated from the corpora lutea of Day 8 pregnant rats were placed in equal numbers in slide flasks (chamber slides). One slide flask was placed in the clinostat and the other served as a stationary control. At 48 h in the clinostat, whereas the levels of progesterone and total cellular protein decreased, the number of shrunken cells increased. To determine whether apoptosis occurred in shrunken cells, Comet and TUNEL assays were performed. At 48 h, the percentage of apoptotic cells in the clinostat increased compared with that in the control. To investigate how the microgravity conditions induce apoptosis, the active mitochondria in luteal cells were detected with JC-1 dye. Cells in the control consisted of many active mitochondria, which were evenly distributed throughout the cell. In contrast, cells in the clinostat displayed fewer active mitochondria, which were distributed either to the outer edge of the cell or around the nucleus. These results suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction induced by clinostat rotation could lead to apoptosis in luteal cells and suppression of progesterone production.

  17. Effects of IL8 and Immune Cells on the Regulation of Luteal Progesterone Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Talbott, Heather; Delaney, Abigail; Zhang, Pan; Yu, Yangsheng; Cushman, Robert A.; Cupp, Andrea; Hou, Xiaoying; Davis, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that chemokines may mediate the luteolytic action of PGF2? (PGF). Our objective was to identify chemokines induced by PGF in vivo and to determine the effects of IL8 on specific luteal cell types in vitro. Midcycle cows were injected with saline or PGF, ovaries were removed after 0.5 4 h and chemokine expression was analyzed by qPCR. In vitro expression of IL8 was analyzed after PGF administration and with cell signaling inhibitors to determine the mechanism of PGF-induced chemokine expression. Purified neutrophils were analyzed for migration and activation in response to IL8 and PGF. Purified luteal cell types (steroidogenic, endothelial and fibroblast cells) were used to identify which cells respond to chemokines. Neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were co-cultured with steroidogenic cells to determine their effect on progesterone production. IL8, CXCL2, CCL2, and CCL8 transcripts were rapidly increased following PGF treatment in vivo and. The stimulatory action of PGF on IL8 mRNA expression in vitro was prevented by inhibition of p38 and JNK signaling. IL8, but not PGF, TNF, or TGFB1, stimulated neutrophil migration. IL8 had no apparent action in purified luteal steroidogenic, endothelial, or fibroblast cells, but IL8 stimulated ERK phosphorylation in neutrophils. In co-culture experiments neither IL8 nor activated neutrophils altered basal or LH-stimulated luteal cell progesterone synthesis. In contrast, activated PBMCs inhibited LH-stimulated progesterone synthesis from cultured luteal cells. These data implicate a complex cascade of events during luteolysis involving chemokine signaling, neutrophil recruitment, and immune cell action within the corpus luteum. PMID:24686456

  18. Analysis of microarray data from the macaque corpus luteum; the search for common themes in primate luteal regression

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, C.V.; Bogan, R.L.; Hennebold, J.D.; Stouffer, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The factors and processes involved in regression of the primate corpus luteum (CL) are complex and not fully understood. Systemic identification of those genes that are differentially expressed utilizing macaque model systems of luteal regression could help clarify some of the important molecular events involved in loss of primate luteal structure and function during luteolysis. In addition, examining gene pathways involved in luteal regression may help elucidate novel approaches for overcoming infertility or designing ovary-based contraceptives. This review provides an overview of the current published microarray experiments evaluating the transcriptome of the macaque CL, and compares and contrasts the data from spontaneous, GnRH antagonist and prostaglandin F2?-induced luteal regression. In addition, further uses of these databases are discussed, as well as limitations of both array technology and the rhesus macaque genome array. PMID:20855453

  19. Gestating for 22 months: luteal development and pregnancy maintenance in elephants.

    PubMed

    Lueders, Imke; Niemuller, Cheryl; Rich, Peter; Gray, Charlie; Hermes, Robert; Goeritz, Frank; Hildebrandt, Thomas B

    2012-09-22

    The corpus luteum, a temporally established endocrine gland, formed on the ovary from remaining cells of the ovulated follicle, plays a key role in maintaining the early mammalian pregnancy by secreting progesterone. Despite being a monovular species, 2-12 corpora lutea (CLs) were found on the elephant ovaries during their long pregnancy lasting on average 640 days. However, the function and the formation of the additional CLs and their meaning remain unexplained. Here, we show from the example of the elephant, the close relationship between the maternally determined luteal phase length, the formation of multiple luteal structures and their progestagen secretion, the timespan of early embryonic development until implantation and maternal recognition. Through three-dimensional and Colour Flow ultrasonography of the ovaries and the uterus, we conclude that pregnant elephants maintain active CL throughout gestation that appear as main source of progestagens. Two LH peaks during the follicular phase ensure the development of a set of 5.4 2.7 CLs. Accessory CLs (acCLs) form prior to ovulation after the first luteinizing hormone (LH) peak, while the ovulatory CL (ovCL) forms after the second LH peak. After five to six weeks (the normal luteal phase lifespan), all existing CLs begin to regress. However, they resume growing as soon as an embryo becomes ultrasonographically apparent on day 49 2. After this time, all pregnancy CLs grow significantly larger than in a non-conceptive luteal phase and are maintained until after parturition. The long luteal phase is congruent with a slow early embryonic development and luteal rescue only starts 'last minute', with presumed implantation of the embryo. Our findings demonstrate a highly successful reproductive solution, different from currently described mammalian models. PMID:22719030

  20. Luteinizing hormone inhibits conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone in luteal cells from rats on day 19 of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Stocco, C O; Deis, R P

    1999-03-01

    We have previously reported that intrabursal ovarian administration of LH at the end of pregnancy in rats induces a decrease in luteal progesterone (P4) synthesis and an increase in P4 metabolism. However, whether this local luteolytic effect of LH is exerted directly on luteal cells or on other structures, such as follicular or stromal cells, to modify luteal function is unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of LH on isolated luteal cells obtained on Day 19 of pregnancy. Incubation of luteal cells with 1, 10, 100, or 1000 ng/ml of ovine LH (oLH) for 6 h did not modify basal P4 production. The addition to the culture medium of 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol (22R-HC, 10 microgram/ml), a membrane-permeable P4 precursor, or pregnenolone (10(-2) microM) induced a significant increase in P4 accumulation in the medium in relation to the control value. When luteal cells were preincubated for 2 h with oLH, a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in the 22R-HC- or pregnenolone-stimulated P4 accumulation was observed. Incubation of luteal cells with dibutyryl cAMP (1 mM, a cAMP analogue) plus isobutylmethylxanthine (1 mM, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor) also inhibited pregnenolone-stimulated P4 accumulation. Incubation with an inositol triphosphate synthesis inhibitor, neomycin (1 mM), or an inhibitor of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, (8,9-N, N-diethylamino)octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate (1 mM), did not prevent the decrease in pregnenolone-stimulated P4 secretion induced by oLH. It was concluded that the luteolytic action of LH in late pregnancy is due, at least in part, to a direct action on the luteal cells and that an increase in intracellular cAMP level might mediate this effect. PMID:10026123

  1. Luteal maintenance of pregnancy in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Stansfield, F J; Allen, W R

    2012-06-01

    The ovaries of eight African elephant foetuses and their mothers between 2 and 22 months of gestation, and those of two cycling and two lactating elephants, were examined grossly, histologically and immunocytochemically, with emphasis on the development and regression of accessory corpora lutea (CL) of pregnancy and the steroidogenic capacities of the accessory CL and the foetal ovaries. The results supported recent findings that the accessory CL form as a result of luteinisation, with and without ovulation, of medium-sized follicles during the 3-week inter-luteal period of the oestrous cycle. They enlarge significantly and become steroidogenically active around 5 weeks of gestation, probably in response to the placental lactogen which is secreted by the implanting trophoblast of the conceptus. The large luteal cells stained strongly for 3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD) activity throughout the 22-month gestation period although they showed vacuolation and other degenerative changes in the final months of gestation coincident with hypertrophy and hyperplasia of 3βHSD-positive interstitial cells in the foetal gonads. It is proposed that the progestagens secreted by the enlarged gonads of the elephant foetus may function both to assist the maternal ovaries in supporting the pregnancy state and to induce torpor and intrauterine immobility of the rapidly growing foetus. PMID:22457432

  2. Natural Micronized Progesterone Sustained Release (SR) and Luteal Phase: Role Redefined!!

    PubMed

    Malik, Sonia; Krishnaprasad, Korukonda

    2016-02-01

    Role of progesterone in reproductive medicine is evolving with its suggested clinical role for the hormonal and nonhormonal actions in reproductive medicine. The main function of progesterone is to induce 'secretory' changes in endometrium that is further complimented by its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory actions. It positively modulates PIBF, NK cells and HOXA 10 genes for better implantation. MHRA recommends Serum Progesterone levels ≥14ng/ml in the mid-luteal phase for supporting pregnancy adequately. Oral Natural Micronized Progesterone SR formulation represents a therapeutic advance in this direction offering 'therapeutic compliance' with oral formulation while avoiding the local side effects related to long-term patient compliance in reproductive disorders. The formulation offers round the clock efficiency and efficacy with single dose administration thereby improving patient convenience and compliance. This formulation has been marketed globally since 1986 utilizing the well validated drug delivery system involving Methylcellulose base. The clinical utility of this formulation is further suggested especially in various conditions related with luteal phase insufficiency and Bad obstetric history (BOH) or luteal phase support in ART. The level of evidence has been quite robust with several clinical studies including Prescription Event Monitoring and Investigator initiated studies supporting the clinical role of oral NMP SR formulation especially in 'Real world' clinic settings for Luteal phase insufficiency that may be physiological or iatrogenic. PMID:27042538

  3. Natural Micronized Progesterone Sustained Release (SR) and Luteal Phase: Role Redefined!!

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Role of progesterone in reproductive medicine is evolving with its suggested clinical role for the hormonal and nonhormonal actions in reproductive medicine. The main function of progesterone is to induce ‘secretory’ changes in endometrium that is further complimented by its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory actions. It positively modulates PIBF, NK cells and HOXA 10 genes for better implantation. MHRA recommends Serum Progesterone levels ≥14ng/ml in the mid-luteal phase for supporting pregnancy adequately. Oral Natural Micronized Progesterone SR formulation represents a therapeutic advance in this direction offering ‘therapeutic compliance’ with oral formulation while avoiding the local side effects related to long-term patient compliance in reproductive disorders. The formulation offers round the clock efficiency and efficacy with single dose administration thereby improving patient convenience and compliance. This formulation has been marketed globally since 1986 utilizing the well validated drug delivery system involving Methylcellulose base. The clinical utility of this formulation is further suggested especially in various conditions related with luteal phase insufficiency and Bad obstetric history (BOH) or luteal phase support in ART. The level of evidence has been quite robust with several clinical studies including Prescription Event Monitoring and Investigator initiated studies supporting the clinical role of oral NMP SR formulation especially in ‘Real world’ clinic settings for Luteal phase insufficiency that may be physiological or iatrogenic. PMID:27042538

  4. Simultaneous ex vivo Functional Testing of Two Retinas by in vivo Electroretinogram System

    PubMed Central

    Vinberg, Frans; Kefalov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    An In vivo electroretinogram (ERG) signal is composed of several overlapping components originating from different retinal cell types, as well as noise from extra-retinal sources. Ex vivo ERG provides an efficient method to dissect the function of retinal cells directly from an intact isolated retina of animals or donor eyes. In addition, ex vivo ERG can be used to test the efficacy and safety of potential therapeutic agents on retina tissue from animals or humans. We show here how commercially available in vivo ERG systems can be used to conduct ex vivo ERG recordings from isolated mouse retinas. We combine the light stimulation, electronic and heating units of a standard in vivo system with custom-designed specimen holder, gravity-controlled perfusion system and electromagnetic noise shielding to record low-noise ex vivo ERG signals simultaneously from two retinas with the acquisition software included in commercial in vivo systems. Further, we demonstrate how to use this method in combination with pharmacological treatments that remove specific ERG components in order to dissect the function of certain retinal cell types. PMID:25992809

  5. Mechanisms behind intrauterine device-induced luteal persistence in mares.

    PubMed

    Rivera Del Alamo, M M; Reilas, T; Kindahl, H; Katila, T

    2008-08-01

    Intrauterine glass balls are used to prevent oestrous signs in sports mares, but the mechanism of action is unknown. It has been suggested that the glass ball can mimic an embryo or act via an induced chronic uterine inflammation and absent or continuous low-grade prostaglandin (PG) release. The purpose of this study was to induce prolonged luteal function in mares using a small intrauterine device (IUD) and to study the mechanisms behind prolonged IUD-induced luteal function. A uterine swab and a biopsy specimen were obtained in early oestrus. A water-filled plastic ball, diameter 20mm and weight 3.6g, was inserted into the uterus 2-4 days after ovulation; the control mares underwent similar cervical manipulation without ball insertion. The mares were examined three times per week until day 23 and twice weekly thereafter until they returned to oestrus (transrectal palpation, ultrasonography and progesterone determination). The location of the IUD was recorded and ultrasound scans were video-recorded to assess the frequency of uterine contractions. When the mare returned to oestrus, a uterine swab and biopsy specimen were obtained and the bacteriological, cytological and histological (inflammation and glandular dilation) results compared with the samples obtained before the IUD insertion. The PG F(2alpha) metabolite levels were measured in the plasma of four control mares and eight IUD mares on days 11-16. The IUD induced a prolonged luteal phase in 75% of the mares (9/12; IUD-P); the mean dioestrous length was 57.0 days. The three mares that did not respond to the IUD (IUD-N) showed a mean dioestrous length of 15.7 days and the 12 control mares 16.1 days. The inflammation and glandular dilation scores were not significantly different in pre- and post-manipulation biopsy specimens. Although locational changes of the IUD were observed, they occurred over very small distances and were mostly limited within the body-bifurcation area. The IUD-N and control mares showed increased uterine contractility 11-16 days post-ovulation, whereas the IUD-P mares did not. The control mares (n=4) and IUD-N mares (n=2) showed increased PG levels from day 14 post-ovulation, while the IUD-P mares (n=6) showed basal levels only. We concluded that the IUD did not cause continuous PG release and suggest that close contact of the IUD with the endometrium may prevent the endometrial cells from releasing PGF(2alpha). PMID:17643876

  6. Identification of miRNAs associated with the follicular-luteal transition in the ruminant ovary.

    PubMed

    McBride, D; Carré, W; Sontakke, S D; Hogg, C O; Law, A; Donadeu, F X; Clinton, M

    2012-08-01

    Little is known about the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the follicular-luteal transition. The aim of this study was to identify genome-wide changes in miRNAs associated with follicular differentiation in sheep. miRNA libraries were produced from samples collected at defined stages of the ovine oestrous cycle and representing healthy growing follicles, (diameter, 4.0-5.5  mm), pre-ovulatory follicles (6.0-7.0  mm), early corpora lutea (day 3 post-oestrus) and late corpora lutea (day 9). A total of 189 miRNAs reported in sheep or other species and an additional 23 novel miRNAs were identified by sequencing these libraries. miR-21, miR-125b, let-7a and let-7b were the most abundant miRNAs overall, accounting for 40% of all miRNAs sequenced. Examination of changes in cloning frequencies across development identified nine different miRNAs whose expression decreased in association with the follicular-luteal transition and eight miRNAs whose expression increased during this transition. Expression profiles were confirmed by northern analyses, and experimentally validated targets were identified using miRTarBase. A majority of the 29 targets identified represented genes known to be actively involved in regulating follicular differentiation in vivo. Finally, luteinisation of follicular cells in vitro resulted in changes in miRNA levels that were consistent with those identified in vivo, and these changes were temporally associated with changes in the levels of putative miRNA targets in granulosa cells. In conclusion, this is the first study to characterise genome-wide miRNA profiles during different stages of follicle and luteal development. Our data identify a subset of miRNAs that are potentially important regulators of the follicular-luteal transition. PMID:22653318

  7. EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE ON EX VIVO AND IN VITRO LUTEAL FUNCTION AND BROMODICHLOROMETHANE TISSUE DOSIMETRY IN THE PREGNANT F344 RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bromodichloromethane (BDCM), a drinking water disinfection by-product, causes pregnancy loss, i.e. full-litter resorption, in F344 rats when treated during the luteinizing hormone (LH)-dependent period. This effect is associated with reduced maternal serum progesterone (P) and LH...

  8. The effect of leptin on luteal angiogenic factors during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle in goats.

    PubMed

    Wiles, Jessica R; Katchko, Robin A; Benavides, Elizabeth A; O'Gorman, Chad W; Escudero, Jean M; Keisler, Duane H; Stanko, Randy L; Garcia, Michelle R

    2014-08-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), angiopoietin 1 (Ang1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are angiogenic factors implicated in the vascular development of the corpus luteum (CL). Each factor is regulated or influenced by leptin in non-ovarian tissues. Moreover, leptin and its receptor, ObRb, have been identified in luteal tissue throughout the luteal phase. Therefore, leptin is hypothesized to influence luteal vasculature through the regulation of FGF2, Ang1, and VEGF. Multiparous, cycling crossbred female goats (does) were allocated to early (n=12), mid (n=8), and late (n=11) stages of the luteal phase for CL collection. Luteal tissue was harvested and either snap frozen in liquid N2, paraffin embedded, or cultured with leptin (0, 10(-12), 10(-11), 10(-10), 10(-9), 10(-8)M). Tissue was analyzed for FGF2, Ang1, VEGF, ObRb, and leptin expression. Angiopoietin 1, FGF2, VEGF expression was higher (P≤0.001) in the mid-luteal stage than the early stage. Expression decreased (P≤0.001) during the late luteal stage with the exception of VEGF, which remained elevated. In contrast, leptin and ObRb were lowest (P≤0.003) during the mid-luteal stage compared to the early and late stages. All factors were detected in and/or around vessels in early stage tissue compared to mid and late stages. Leptin stimulated (P≤0.02) Ang1, FGF2, and VEGF expression only in early stage luteal cultures. Collectively, these data provide evidence that leptin may be involved in the luteal angiogenic process during the early stage of CL formation. PMID:24962614

  9. The effect of leptin on luteal angiogenic factors during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle in goats

    PubMed Central

    Wiles, Jessica R.; Katchko, Robin A.; Benavides, Elizabeth A.; OGorman, Chad W.; Escudero, Jean M.; Keisler, Duane H.; Stanko, Randy L.; Garcia, Michelle R.

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), angiopoietin 1 (Ang1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are angiogenic factors implicated in the vascular development of the corpus luteum (CL). Each factor is regulated or influenced by leptin in non-ovarian tissues. Moreover, leptin and its receptor, ObRb, have been identified in luteal tissue throughout the luteal phase. Therefore, leptin is hypothesized to influence luteal vasculature through the regulation of FGF2, Ang1, and VEGF. Multiparous, cycling crossbred female goats (does) were allocated to early (n=12), mid (n=8), and late (n=11) stages of the luteal phase for CL collection. Luteal tissue was harvested and either snap frozen in liquid N2, paraffin embedded, or cultured with leptin (0, 10?12, 10?11, 10?10, 10?9, 10?8 M). Tissue was analyzed for FGF2, Ang1, VEGF, ObRb, and leptin expression. Angiopoietin 1, FGF2, VEGF expression was higher (P?0.001) in the mid-luteal stage than the early stage. Expression decreased (P?0.001) during the late luteal stage with the exception of VEGF, which remained elevated. In contrast, leptin and ObRb were lowest (P?0.003) during the mid-luteal stage compared to the early and late stages. All factors were detected in and/or around vessels in early stage tissue compared to mid and late stages. Leptin stimulated (P?0.02) Ang1, FGF2, and VEGF expression only in early stage luteal cultures. Collectively, these data provide evidence that leptin may be involved in the luteal angiogenic process during the early stage of CL formation. PMID:24962614

  10. Gelatinases, endonuclease and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor during development and regression of swine luteal tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Luciana Andrea; Turba, Maria Elena; Zannoni, Augusta; Bacci, Maria Laura; Forni, Monica

    2006-01-01

    Background The development and regression of corpus luteum (CL) is characterized by an intense angiogenesis and angioregression accompanied by luteal tissue and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is the main regulator of angiogenesis, promoting endothelial cell mitosis and differentiation. After the formation of neovascular tubes, the remodelling of ECM is essential for the correct development of CL, particularly by the action of specific class of proteolytic enzymes known as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). During luteal regression, characterized by an apoptotic process and successively by an intense ECM and luteal degradation, the activation of Ca++/Mg++-dependent endonucleases and MMPs activity are required. The levels of expression and activity of VEGF, MMP-2 and -9, and Ca++/Mg++-dependent endonucleases throughout the oestrous cycle and at pregnancy were analyzed. Results Different patterns of VEGF, MMPs and Ca++/Mg++-dependent endonuclease were observed in swine CL during different luteal phases and at pregnancy. Immediately after ovulation, the highest levels of VEGF mRNA/protein and MMP-9 activity were detected. On days 5–14 after ovulation, VEGF expression and MMP-2 and -9 activities are at basal levels, while Ca++/Mg++-dependent endonuclease levels increased significantly in relation to day 1. Only at luteolysis (day 17), Ca++/Mg++-dependent endonuclease and MMP-2 spontaneous activity increased significantly. At pregnancy, high levels of MMP-9 and VEGF were observed. Conclusion Our findings, obtained from a precisely controlled in vivo model of CL development and regression, allow us to determine relationships among VEGF, MMPs and endonucleases during angiogenesis and angioregression. Thus, CL provides a very interesting model for studying factors involved in vascular remodelling. PMID:17137503

  11. ATF3 Expression in the Corpus Luteum: Possible Role in Luteal Regression†

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Dagan; Hou, Xiaoying; Talbott, Heather; Cushman, Robert; Cupp, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the induction and possible role of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) in the corpus luteum. Postpubertal cattle were treated at midcycle with prostaglandin F2α(PGF) for 0–4 hours. Luteal tissue was processed for immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and isolation of protein and RNA. Ovaries were also collected from midluteal phase and first-trimester pregnant cows. Luteal cells were prepared and sorted by centrifugal elutriation to obtain purified small (SLCs) and large luteal cells (LLCs). Real-time PCR and in situ hybridization showed that ATF3 mRNA increased within 1 hour of PGF treatment in vivo. Western blot and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that ATF3 protein was expressed in the nuclei of LLC within 1 hour and was maintained for at least 4 hours. PGF treatment in vitro increased ATF3 expression only in LLC, whereas TNF induced ATF3 in both SLCs and LLCs. PGF stimulated concentration- and time-dependent increases in ATF3 and phosphorylation of MAPKs in LLCs. Combinations of MAPK inhibitors suppressed ATF3 expression in LLCs. Adenoviral-mediated expression of ATF3 inhibited LH-stimulated cAMP response element reporter luciferase activity and progesterone production in LLCs and SLCs but did not alter cell viability or change the expression or activity of key regulators of progesterone synthesis. In conclusion, the action of PGF in LLCs is associated with the rapid activation of stress-activated protein kinases and the induction of ATF3, which may contribute to the reduction in steroid synthesis during luteal regression. ATF3 appears to affect gonadotropin-stimulated progesterone secretion at a step or steps downstream of PKA signaling and before cholesterol conversion to progesterone. PMID:24196350

  12. Resurrection of DNA function in vivo from an extinct genome.

    PubMed

    Pask, Andrew J; Behringer, Richard R; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2008-01-01

    There is a burgeoning repository of information available from ancient DNA that can be used to understand how genomes have evolved and to determine the genetic features that defined a particular species. To assess the functional consequences of changes to a genome, a variety of methods are needed to examine extinct DNA function. We isolated a transcriptional enhancer element from the genome of an extinct marsupial, the Tasmanian tiger (Thylacinus cynocephalus or thylacine), obtained from 100 year-old ethanol-fixed tissues from museum collections. We then examined the function of the enhancer in vivo. Using a transgenic approach, it was possible to resurrect DNA function in transgenic mice. The results demonstrate that the thylacine Col2A1 enhancer directed chondrocyte-specific expression in this extinct mammalian species in the same way as its orthologue does in mice. While other studies have examined extinct coding DNA function in vitro, this is the first example of the restoration of extinct non-coding DNA and examination of its function in vivo. Our method using transgenesis can be used to explore the function of regulatory and protein-coding sequences obtained from any extinct species in an in vivo model system, providing important insights into gene evolution and diversity. PMID:18493600

  13. Resurrection of DNA Function In Vivo from an Extinct Genome

    PubMed Central

    Pask, Andrew J.; Behringer, Richard R.; Renfree, Marilyn B.

    2008-01-01

    There is a burgeoning repository of information available from ancient DNA that can be used to understand how genomes have evolved and to determine the genetic features that defined a particular species. To assess the functional consequences of changes to a genome, a variety of methods are needed to examine extinct DNA function. We isolated a transcriptional enhancer element from the genome of an extinct marsupial, the Tasmanian tiger (Thylacinus cynocephalus or thylacine), obtained from 100 year-old ethanol-fixed tissues from museum collections. We then examined the function of the enhancer in vivo. Using a transgenic approach, it was possible to resurrect DNA function in transgenic mice. The results demonstrate that the thylacine Col2A1 enhancer directed chondrocyte-specific expression in this extinct mammalian species in the same way as its orthologue does in mice. While other studies have examined extinct coding DNA function in vitro, this is the first example of the restoration of extinct non-coding DNA and examination of its function in vivo. Our method using transgenesis can be used to explore the function of regulatory and protein-coding sequences obtained from any extinct species in an in vivo model system, providing important insights into gene evolution and diversity. PMID:18493600

  14. ERK1/2 is involved in luteal cell autophagy regulation during corpus luteum regression via an mTOR-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Choi, JongYeob; Jo, MinWha; Lee, EunYoung; Choi, DooSeok

    2014-10-01

    Autophagy is known to be regulated by the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (AKT) and/or mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathways, leading to activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a major negative regulator of autophagy. However, some reports have also suggested that autophagic regulation by the PI3K-AKT and/or MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathways may not be mediated by mTOR activity, and there is no direct evidence of the involvement of these pathways in luteal cell autophagy regulation. To elucidate the luteal cell-specific regulatory mechanisms of autophagy induction during corpus luteum (CL) regression, we evaluated whether luteal cell autophagy is regulated by the PI3K-AKT pathway and/or MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathway and if this regulation is mediated by mTOR. We found that autophagy induction increased despite mTOR activation in luteal cells cultured with prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), an important mediator of CL regression, suggesting that PGF2α-induced autophagy is independent of mTOR regulation. We also found that PGF2α-induced autophagy was not mediated by AKT activity, because AKT inhibition using a PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin) did not change autophagy induction or mTOR activity. In contrast, ERK1/2 activity increased in PGF2α-treated luteal cells, as did the levels of autophagy induction despite increased mTOR activity. Furthermore, PGF2α-mediated up-regulation of luteal cell autophagy was reversed by addition of ERK1/2 inhibitors, despite a decrease in mTOR activity. These in vitro results suggest that luteal cell autophagy is induced by increased ERK1/2 activity during CL regression, and is independent of mTOR activity. This finding was further supported by in vivo experiments in a pseudo-pregnant rat model, which showed that induction of luteal cell autophagy increased during luteal stage progression and that this was accompanied by increased ERK1/2 and mTOR activity. Taken together, our findings indicate that activation of ERK1/2 is a key event in the induction of luteal cell autophagy during CL regression which is not associated with mTOR regulation. PMID:25107837

  15. Translational approaches to functional platelet production ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Balduini, Alessandra; Di Buduo, Christian A; Kaplan, David L

    2016-01-27

    Platelets, which are released by megakaryocytes, play key roles in haemostasis, angiogenesis, immunity, tissue regeneration and wound healing. The scarcity of clinical cures for life threatening platelet diseases is in a large part due to limited insight into the mechanisms that control the developmental process of megakaryocytes and the mechanisms that govern the production of platelets within the bone marrow. To overcome these limitations, functional human tissue models have been developed and studied to extrapolate ex vivo outcomes for new insight on bone marrow functions in vivo. There are many challenges that these models must overcome, from faithfully mimicking the physiological composition and functions of bone marrow, to the collection of the platelets generated and validation of their viability and function for human use. The overall goal is to identify innovative instruments to study mechanisms of platelet release, diseases related to platelet production and new therapeutic targets starting from human progenitor cells. PMID:26353819

  16. Involvement of microtubules in lipoprotein degradation and utilization for steroidogenesis in cultured rat luteal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rajan, V.P.; Menon, K.M.

    1985-12-01

    Cells isolated from superovulated rat ovaries metabolize low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) of human or rat origin and use the lipoprotein-derived cholesterol as a precursor for progesterone production. Under in vitro conditions, both lipoproteins are internalized and degraded in the lysosomes, although degradation of HDL is of lower magnitude than that of LDL. In this report we have examined the role of cellular microtubules in the internalization and degradation of human LDL and HDL in cultured rat luteal cells. The microtubule depolymerizing agents colchicine, podophyllotoxin, vinblastine, and nocodazole as well as taxol, deuterium oxide, and dimethyl sulfoxide, which are known to rapidly polymerize cellular tubulin into microtubules, were used to block the function of microtubules. When these antimicrotubule agents were included in the incubations, degradation of the apolipoproteins of (/sup 125/I)iodo-LDL and (/sup 125/I)iodo-HDL by the luteal cells was inhibited by 50-85% compared to untreated control values. Maximum inhibitory effects were observed when the cells were preincubated with the inhibitor for at least 4 h at 37 C before treatment with the labeled lipoprotein. Lipoprotein-stimulated progesterone production by luteal cells was also inhibited by 50% or more in the presence of antimicrotubule agents. However, basal and hCG-stimulated progesterone production were unaffected by these inhibitors. The binding of (/sup 125/I)iodo-LDL and (/sup 125/I)iodo-HDL to luteal cell plasma membrane receptors was not affected by the microtubule inhibitors. Although binding was unaffected and degradation was impaired in the presence of the inhibitors, there was no detectable accumulation of undegraded lipoprotein within the cells during the 24 h of study.

  17. Dendritic spines: from structure to in vivo function.

    PubMed

    Rochefort, Nathalie L; Konnerth, Arthur

    2012-08-01

    Dendritic spines arise as small protrusions from the dendritic shaft of various types of neuron and receive inputs from excitatory axons. Ever since dendritic spines were first described in the nineteenth century, questions about their function have spawned many hypotheses. In this review, we introduce understanding of the structural and biochemical properties of dendritic spines with emphasis on components studied with imaging methods. We then explore advances in in vivo imaging methods that are allowing spine activity to be studied in living tissue, from super-resolution techniques to calcium imaging. Finally, we review studies on spine structure and function in vivo. These new results shed light on the development, integration properties and plasticity of spines. PMID:22791026

  18. Intravital FRET: Probing Cellular and Tissue Function in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Radbruch, Helena; Bremer, Daniel; Mothes, Ronja; Günther, Robert; Rinnenthal, Jan Leo; Pohlan, Julian; Ulbricht, Carolin; Hauser, Anja E; Niesner, Raluca

    2015-01-01

    The development of intravital Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) is required to probe cellular and tissue function in the natural context: the living organism. Only in this way can biomedicine truly comprehend pathogenesis and develop effective therapeutic strategies. Here we demonstrate and discuss the advantages and pitfalls of two strategies to quantify FRET in vivo-ratiometrically and time-resolved by fluorescence lifetime imaging-and show their concrete application in the context of neuroinflammation in adult mice. PMID:26006244

  19. Luteal phase support post IVF: individualized early stop.

    PubMed

    Segal, Linoy; Breyzman, Tatiana; Kol, Shahar

    2015-11-01

    While the need for progesterone-based luteal phase support is well documented, the required treatment duration is not well established, and a practitioners' survey showed a wide range of empiric stopping points. It is suggested that an early stop can be based on assessing endogenous luteal activity on the day of pregnancy test. To examine this approach, data were retrospectively collected on 99 patients with positive pregnancy test and high serum concentrations of oestradiol and progesterone (≥ 1000 pmol/l and ≥ 110 nmol/l, respectively), whose luteal support was stopped, and compared with those of 85 patients who did not meet the above criteria, and so luteal support was continued until gestational week 9. Both groups were comparable in terms of live birth and miscarriage rates. We conclude that in the face of strong endogenous luteal activity, exogenous support can be stopped on pregnancy test day, without affecting pregnancy outcome. Further research is needed to substantiate this finding. PMID:26371712

  20. Biophotonics techniques for structural and functional imaging, in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ardeshirpour, Yasaman; Gandjbakhche, Amir H; Najafizadeh, Laleh

    2012-01-01

    In vivo optical imaging is being conducted in a variety of medical applications, including optical breast cancer imaging, functional brain imaging, endoscopy, exercise medicine, and monitoring the photodynamic therapy and progress of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In the past three decades, in vivo diffuse optical breast cancer imaging has shown promising results in cancer detection, and monitoring the progress of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The use of near infrared spectroscopy for functional brain imaging has been growing rapidly. In fluorescence imaging, the difference between autofluorescence of cancer lesions compared to normal tissues were used in endoscopy to distinguish malignant lesions from normal tissue or inflammation and in determining the boarders of cancer lesions in surgery. Recent advances in drugs targeting specific tumor receptors, such as AntiBodies (MAB), has created a new demand for developing non-invasive in vivo imaging techniques for detection of cancer biomarkers, and for monitoring their down regulations during therapy. Targeted treatments, combined with new imaging techniques, are expected to potentially result in new imaging and treatment paradigms in cancer therapy. Similar approaches can potentially be applied for the characterization of other disease-related biomarkers. In this chapter, we provide a review of diffuse optical and fluorescence imaging techniques with their application in functional brain imaging and cancer diagnosis. PMID:22433452

  1. Mitochondrial function in vivo: spectroscopy provides window on cellular energetics.

    PubMed

    Amara, Catherine E; Marcinek, David J; Shankland, Eric G; Schenkman, Kenneth A; Arakaki, Lorilee S L; Conley, Kevin E

    2008-12-01

    Mitochondria integrate the key metabolic fluxes in the cell. This role places this organelle at the center of cellular energetics and, hence, mitochondrial dysfunction underlies a growing number of human disorders and age-related degenerative diseases. Here we present novel analytical and technical methods for evaluating mitochondrial metabolism and (dys)function in human muscle in vivo. Three innovations involving advances in optical spectroscopy (OS) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) permit quantifying key compounds in energy metabolism to yield mitochondrial oxidation and phosphorylation fluxes. The first of these uses analytical methods applied to optical spectra to measure hemoglobin (Hb) and myoglobin (Mb) oxygenation states and relative contents ([Hb]/[Mb]) to determine mitochondrial respiration (O2 uptake) in vivo. The second uses MRS methods to quantify key high-energy compounds (creatine phosphate, PCr, and adenosine triphosphate, ATP) to determine mitochondrial phosphorylation (ATP flux) in vivo. The third involves a functional test that combines these spectroscopic approaches to determine mitochondrial energy coupling (ATP/O2), phosphorylation capacity (ATP(max)) and oxidative capacity (O2max) of muscle. These new developments in optical and MR tools allow us to determine the function and capacity of mitochondria noninvasively in order to identify specific defects in vivo that are associated with disease in human and animal muscle. The clinical implication of this unique diagnostic probe is the insight into the nature and extent of dysfunction in metabolic and degenerative disorders, as well as the ability to follow the impact of interventions designed to reverse these disorders. PMID:18930151

  2. In vivo investigation of cilia structure and function using Xenopus

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Eric R.; Wallingford, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Cilia are key organelles in development and homeostasis. The ever-expanding complement of cilia associated proteins necessitates rapid and tractable models for in vivo functional investigation. Xenopus laevis provides an attractive model for such studies, having multiple ciliated populations, including primary and multiciliated tissues. The rapid external development of Xenopus and the large cells make it an especially excellent platform for imaging studies. Here we present embryological and cell-biological methods for the investigation of cilia structure and function in Xenopus laevis, with a focus on quantitative live and fixed imaging. PMID:25837389

  3. Free-radical probes for functional in vivo EPR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, S.; Krishna, M. C.

    2007-02-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) is one of the recent functional imaging modalities that can provide valuable in vivo physiological information on its own merit and aids as a complimentary imaging technique to MRI and PET of tissues especially with respect to in vivo pO II (oxygen partial pressure), redox status and pharmacology. EPR imaging mainly deals with the measurement of distribution and in vivo dynamics and redox changes using special nontoxic paramagnetic spin probes that can be infused into the object of investigation. These spin probes should be characterized by simple EPR spectra, preferably with narrow EPR lines. The line width should be reversibly sensitive to the concentration of in vivo pO II with a linear dependence. Several non-toxic paramagnetic probes, some particulate and insoluble and others water-soluble and infusible (by intravenous or intramuscular injection) have been developed which can be effectively used to quantitatively assess tissue redox status, and tumor hypoxia. Quantitative assessment of the redox status of tissue in vivo is important in investigating oxidative stress, and that of tissue pO II is very important in radiation oncology. Other areas in which EPR imaging and oxymetry may help are in the investigation of tumorangiogenesis, wound healing, oxygenation of tumor tissue by the ingestion of oxygen-rich gases, etc. The correct choice of the spin probe will depend on the modality of measurement (whether by CW or time-domain EPR imaging) and the particular physiology interrogated. Examples of the available spin probes and some EPR imaging applications employing them are presented.

  4. Luteal support with vaginal micronized progesterone gel in assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Penzias, Alan S; Alper, Michael M

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the rationale for vaginal progesterone treatment as luteal support in IVF, and the clinical experience with vaginal micronized progesterone gel. It was found that luteal support with exogenous progesterone significantly improves implantation and pregnancy rates after IVF. Vaginal administration offers a number of potential advantages over intramuscular injection in terms of tolerability and convenience. The clinical experience with Crinone 8%, a vaginal gel containing 90 mg micronized progesterone in a polycarbophil base, indicates that the use of this preparation is associated with pregnancy rates comparable with those achieved after intramuscular administration of progesterone. Moreover, in studies in which patient preferences have been assessed, significantly higher preferences for vaginal micronized progesterone gel have been reported, compared with intramuscular administration or vaginal suppositories. In conclusion, the vaginal micronized progesterone gel used in this study provided effective and well-tolerated luteal support in women undergoing IVF. PMID:12735861

  5. In vivo quantitation of metabolites with an incomplete model function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, E.; Capobianco, E.; de Beer, R.; van Ormondt, D.; Graveron-Demilly, D.

    2009-10-01

    Metabolites can serve as biomarkers. Estimation of metabolite concentrations from an in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) signal often uses a reference signal to estimate a model function of the spectral lineshape. When no reference signal is available, the a priori unknown in vivo lineshape must be inferred from the data at hand. This makes quantitation of metabolites from in vivo MRS signals a semi-parametric estimation problem which, in turn, implies setting of hyper-parameters by users of the software involved. Estimation of metabolite concentrations is usually done by nonlinear least-squares (NLLS) fitting of a physical model function based on minimizing the residue. In this work, the semi-parametric task is handled by complementing the usual criterion of minimal residue with a second criterion acting in tandem with it. This second criterion is derived from the general physical knowledge that the width of the line is limited. The limit on the width is a hyper-parameter; its setting appeared not critical so far. The only other hyper-parameter is the relative weight of the two criteria. But its setting too is not critical. Attendant estimation errors, obtained from a Monte Carlo calculation, show that the two-criterion NLLS approach successfully handles the semi-parametric aspect of metabolite quantitation.

  6. Relationships between luteal activity, fertility, blood metabolites and body condition score in multiparous Estonian Holstein dairy cows under different management.

    PubMed

    Samarütel, Jaak; Waldmann, Andres; Ling, Katri; Jaakson, Hanno; Kaart, Tanel; Leesmäe, Andres; Kärt, Olav

    2008-11-01

    The objective was to compare the relationships between luteal activity and fertility, and relate these parameters to metabolic indices and body condition changes in multiparous Estonian Holstein cows on two commercial dairy farms under different management and levels of production and nutrition (higher, H, n=54 (71 lactations) and lower, L, n=39 (39 lactations)). For statistical analysis cows were categorized according to their milk progesterone (P4) profiles as follows: normal ovarian function; delayed start of cyclicity (DC) (interval from calving to first luteal response (P45 ng/ml up to and more than 50 d respectively, followed by regular cyclicity); cessation of luteal activity (prolonged interluteal interval, P4<5 ng/ml, with a duration of 14 d between two adjacent luteal phases); prolonged luteal activity (P4 levels 5 ng/ml for 20 d without preceding insemination). The Mixed procedure of the SAS system was used to compare milk production traits, blood metabolites (ketone bodies, non-esterified fatty acids, total cholesterol) and aspartate aminotransferase, body condition scores (BCS) and fertility parameters between the two farms, and also fertility parameters between the farms within P4 categories. Differences in milk fat/protein ratio, ketone body levels and BCS indicated a deeper negative energy balance (NEB) during the first month after calving on farm L. On both farms nearly 50% of the recently calved dairy cows suffered from ovarian dysfunction during the post-partum period. Delayed start of cyclicity was the most prevalent abnormal P4 profile, 25% and 28% on farms H and L, respectively. Prolonged luteal activity accounted for one-third of atypical ovarian patterns on farm H, and cessation of luteal activity on farm L. On farm L, DC cows had lower BCS values from day 10 to day 90 after calving compared with normal cows (P<0.01) and cows lost more BCS (1.2 units) during the 40 d after calving than normal resumption cows (0.75 units; P<0.05). On farm H with moderate NEB the delayed start of ovulation post partum did not impair subsequent reproductive performance. PMID:19032798

  7. Novel in vivo techniques to visualize kidney anatomy and function.

    PubMed

    Peti-Peterdi, János; Kidokoro, Kengo; Riquier-Brison, Anne

    2015-07-01

    Intravital imaging using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has become an increasingly popular and widely used experimental technique in kidney research over the past few years. MPM allows deep optical sectioning of the intact, living kidney tissue with submicron resolution, which is unparalleled among intravital imaging approaches. MPM has solved a long-standing critical technical barrier in renal research to study several complex and inaccessible cell types and anatomical structures in vivo in their native environment. Comprehensive and quantitative kidney structure and function MPM studies helped our better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the healthy and diseased kidney. This review summarizes recent in vivo MPM studies with a focus on the glomerulus and the filtration barrier, although select, glomerulus-related renal vascular and tubular functions are also mentioned. The latest applications of serial MPM of the same glomerulus in vivo, in the intact kidney over several days, during the progression of glomerular disease are discussed. This visual approach, in combination with genetically encoded fluorescent markers of cell lineage, has helped track the fate and function (e.g., cell calcium changes) of single podocytes during the development of glomerular pathologies, and provided visual proof for the highly dynamic, rather than static, nature of the glomerular environment. Future intravital imaging applications have the promise to further push the limits of optical microscopy, and to advance our understanding of the mechanisms of kidney injury. Also, MPM will help to study new mechanisms of tissue repair and regeneration, a cutting-edge area of kidney research. PMID:25738253

  8. Novel in vivo techniques to visualize kidney anatomy and function

    PubMed Central

    Peti-Peterdi, János; Kidokoro, Kengo; Riquier-Brison, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Intravital imaging using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has become an increasingly popular and widely used experimental technique in kidney research over the past few years. MPM allows deep optical sectioning of the intact, living kidney tissue with submicron resolution which is unparalleled among intravital imaging approaches. MPM has solved a long-standing critical technical barrier in renal research to study several complex and inaccessible cell types and anatomical structures in vivo in their native environment. Comprehensive and quantitative kidney structure and function MPM studies helped our better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the healthy and diseased kidney. This review summarizes recent in vivo MPM studies with a focus on the glomerulus and the filtration barrier, although select, glomerulus-related renal vascular and tubular functions are also mentioned. The latest applications of serial MPM of the same glomerulus in vivo, in the intact kidney over several days, during the progression of glomerular disease are discussed. This visual approach, in combination with genetically encoded fluorescent markers of cell lineage, has helped to track the fate and function (e.g. cell calcium changes) of single podocytes during the development of glomerular pathologies, and provided visual proof for the highly dynamic rather than static nature of the glomerular environment. Future intravital imaging applications have the promise to further push the limits of optical microscopy, and to advance our understanding of the mechanisms of kidney injury. Also, MPM will help to study new mechanisms of tissue repair and regeneration, a cutting edge area of kidney research. PMID:25738253

  9. Natural influence of season on follicular, luteal, and endocrinological turnover in Indian crossbred cows.

    PubMed

    Satheshkumar, S; Brindha, K; Roy, A; Devanathan, T G; Kathiresan, D; Kumanan, K

    2015-07-01

    The study was aimed at investigating the effect of seasonal changes on follicular and luteal dynamics in vivo in normally cycling crossbred cows during summer and winter months of the year. Six healthy regularly cycling Jersey crossbred nonlactating pluriparous cows were used for the study. Follicular and luteal developmental pattern was studied every other day throughout the estrous cycle by scanning the ovaries during two periods of a year viz., hot season (April to June; n = 16) and cold season (December to February; n = 12). Plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations were measured on Days 0 (estrus), 6, and 12 of the estrous cycle. Among the 12 cycles studied during the cold season, 11 (91.7%) had three waves and one had two waves. Of 16 cycles studied during the hot season, eight (50%) had two waves, four (25%) had three waves, and the remaining four cycles had single (n = 2) and four waves (n = 2). High P4 concentrations during the midcycle would have suppressed the dominant follicle of the second follicular wave and induced the emergence of the third wave during the cold season. The first follicular wave (wave I) of the cycle emerged much earlier (Day 0.5 ± 0.3) during the cold season than that in the hot season (Day 1.7 ± 0.4). The ovulatory wave emerged significantly earlier during the hot season (Day 11.5 ± 1.3) than in the cold season (Day 14.8 ± 0.4), and hence, the growth phase of ovulatory follicle significantly increased during the former season (11.0 ± 1.4 days) than the latter (5.8 ± 0.2 days). The ovulatory follicle attained a significantly larger diameter (12.8 ± 0.8 mm) to express the estrus during the hot season when compared to the cold season (11.3 ± 0.4 mm), which might be indicative of alterations in steroidogenic activity within the follicular microenvironment. During the midphase of the cycle, a period critical for embryonic sustenance, the P4 level was significantly reduced in the hot months indicating suppression of luteal activity during hot period of the year. Thus, it could be concluded that increased incidence of two follicular waves associated with a prolonged growth phase of the ovulatory follicle, and altered luteal endocrine activity during the hot season might be associated with decreased fertility in crossbred cattle. PMID:25840841

  10. Neurovascular coupling: in vivo optical techniques for functional brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Liao, Lun-De; Tsytsarev, Vassiliy; Delgado-Martínez, Ignacio; Li, Meng-Lin; Erzurumlu, Reha; Vipin, Ashwati; Orellana, Josue; Lin, Yan-Ren; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Chen, You-Yin; Thakor, Nitish V

    2013-01-01

    Optical imaging techniques reflect different biochemical processes in the brain, which is closely related with neural activity. Scientists and clinicians employ a variety of optical imaging technologies to visualize and study the relationship between neurons, glial cells and blood vessels. In this paper, we present an overview of the current optical approaches used for the in vivo imaging of neurovascular coupling events in small animal models. These techniques include 2-photon microscopy, laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDi), functional photoacoustic microscopy (fPAM), functional near-infrared spectroscopy imaging (fNIRS) and multimodal imaging techniques. The basic principles of each technique are described in detail, followed by examples of current applications from cutting-edge studies of cerebral neurovascular coupling functions and metabolic. Moreover, we provide a glimpse of the possible ways in which these techniques might be translated to human studies for clinical investigations of pathophysiology and disease. In vivo optical imaging techniques continue to expand and evolve, allowing us to discover fundamental basis of neurovascular coupling roles in cerebral physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:23631798

  11. The regulation of oxytocin gene expression in early bovine luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Furuya, K; McArdle, C A; Ivell, R

    1990-03-26

    The oxytocin gene is maximally expressed in the cells of the early bovine corpus luteum (1-5 days post-ovulation) and provides an excellent marker for luteinization, having been up-regulated in vivo at ovulation. However, it is down-regulated again later in the luteal phase. To help understand the mechanisms involved in regulating this gene, and hence differentiation in the early bovine corpus luteum, oxytocin secretion into the medium as well as oxytocin mRNA were measured in serum-free cultures of early luteal cells in the presence or absence of various effectors. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) deferred the endogenous down-regulation of the gene and hence increased oxytocin peptide secretion in the first days of culture. Prostaglandin F2 alpha had no influence on oxytocin mRNA levels but reduced the stimulatory effect of IGF-I on peptide secretion, indicating an effect at the post-transcriptional level. Oestradiol had no effect either on oxytocin mRNA levels or on oxytocin secretion. PMID:2340952

  12. The clinical relevance of luteal phase deficiency: a committee opinion.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Luteal phase deficiency (LPD) has been described in healthy normally menstruating women and in association with other medical conditions. While progesterone is important for the process of implantation and early embryonic development, LPD, as an independent entity causing infertility, has not been proven. PMID:22819186

  13. Notch Signaling Pathway Regulates Progesterone Secretion in Murine Luteal Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Shuangmei; Peng, Lichao; Dong, Qiming; Bao, Riqiang; Lv, Qiulan; Tang, Min; Hu, Chuan; Li, Gang; Liang, Shangdong; Zhang, Chunping

    2015-10-01

    Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway, which involves in various cell life activities. Other studies and our report showed that the Notch signaling plays very important role in follicle development in mammalian ovaries. In luteal cells, Notch ligand, delta-like ligand 4, is involved in normal luteal vasculature. In this study, murine luteal cells were cultured in vitro and treated with Notch signaling inhibitors, L-658,458 and N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycinet-butyl ester (DAPT). We found that L-658,458 and DAPT treatment decrease basal and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-stimulated progesterone secretion. On the contrary, overexpression of intracellular domain of Notch3 increased basal and hCG-stimulated progesterone secretion. Further studies demonstrated that Notch signaling regulated the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and CYP11A, 2 key enzymes for progesterone synthesis. In conclusion, Notch signaling plays important role in regulating progesterone secretion in murine luteal cells. PMID:25701842

  14. Characterization and regulation of type A endothelin receptor gene expression in bovine luteal cell types.

    PubMed

    Mamluk, R; Levy, N; Rueda, B; Davis, J S; Meidan, R

    1999-05-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that endothelin-1 (ET-1), a 21-amino acid vasoconstrictor peptide, has a paracrine regulatory role in bovine corpus luteum (CL). The peptide is produced within the gland where it inhibits progesterone production by acting via the selective type A endothelin (ETA) receptors. The present study was designed to characterize ETA receptor gene expression in different ovarian cell types and its hormonal regulation. ETA receptor messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were high in follicular cells as well as in CL during luteal regression. At this latter stage, high ETA receptor expression concurred with low prostaglandin F2alpha receptor mRNA. The ETA receptor gene was expressed by all three major cell populations of the bovine CL; i.e. small and large luteal cells, as well as in luteal endothelial cells. Among these various cell populations, the highest ETA receptor mRNA levels were found in endothelial cells. cAMP elevating agents, forskolin and LH, suppressed ETA receptor mRNA expression in luteinized theca cells (LTC). This inhibition was dose dependent and was evident already after 24 h of incubation. In luteinized granulosa cells (LGC), 10 and 100 ng/ml of insulin-like growth factor I and insulin (only at a concentration of 2000 ng/ml) markedly decreased ETA receptor mRNA levels. In both LGC and LTC there was an inverse relationship between ETA receptor gene expression and progesterone production; insulin (in LGC) and forskolin (in LTC) enhanced progesterone production while inhibiting ETA receptor mRNA levels. Our findings may therefore suggest that, during early stages of luteinization when peak levels of both LH and insulin-like growth factor I exist, the expression of ETA receptors in the gland are suppressed. This study demonstrates physiologically relevant regulatory mechanisms controlling ETA receptor gene expression and further supports the inhibitory role of ET-1 in CL function. PMID:10218961

  15. Effect of isradipine on in-vivo platelet function.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, J; Kritz, H; Schmid, P; Pirich, C; Sinzinger, H

    1997-06-01

    In animal studies calcium channel blockers (CCB's) and especially isradipine, a second generation dihydropyridine, interrupt the sequence of events culminating in the formation of atherosclerotic lesions. The effect of 4 weeks isradipine treatment (5mg daily) on blood pressure and in-vivo platelet function (measured with 111Indium-oxine labeled autologous platelets) were investigated in a randomized, double-blind and placebo controlled trial in 40 patients with mild to moderate hypertension and scintigraphically diagnosed active atherosclerotic lesions of the carotid arteries. The average supine systolic/diastolic blood pressure was significantly reduced at the end of the treatment period in the isradipine group (group 1; p < 0.0001) but remained unchanged in the placebo group (group P). The heart rate was not significantly altered in either group. There were no serious side effects. The platelet uptake ratio (PUR) measured over the atherosclerotic region of the carotid artery on 4 consecutive days before and after treatment decreased significantly in group I from 1.20 to 1.15 (within groups: p < 0.0001) but remained unchanged in group P. Platelet survival increased significantly in group I (mean 5.70 hours, lower quartile 4.50, upper quartile 4.50 hours, within groups: p < 0.0001) and remained unchanged in group P. Isradipine has a beneficial effect on in-vivo platelet function as evidenced by a decreased platelet deposition on vascular lesion sites and an associated prolonged platelet survival in patients with hypertension and active atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:9211627

  16. Effect of betamethasone treatment on luteal lifespan and the LH response to GnRH in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dobson, H; Alam, M G; Kanchev, L N

    1987-05-01

    Betamethasone (a synthetic glucocorticoid, 15 mg) was administered i.m. twice daily for 10 days to 4 regularly cycling dairy cows, beginning on Day 10 of the oestrous cycle. Luteal function, monitored by plasma progesterone, was extended by 7, 9, 19 and 20 days, respectively. Luteal function in the next cycle was normal. Endogenous cortisol values were suppressed for 14, 13, 34 and 27 days, respectively. Pituitary responsiveness to 20 micrograms GnRH was assessed by LH measurement on Days -1, +3 and +7 relative to the start of betamethasone treatment. There was a progressive decrease in peak LH concentrations after each GnRH challenge compared to control cows. Hourly measurements of PGF-2 alpha metabolite during the expected period of luteolysis failed to reveal normal increases. It is suggested that betamethasone caused prolonged luteal function, either by directly inhibiting PGF-2 alpha release, or by suppressing pituitary stimulation of follicular growth and hence lowering oestradiol concentrations, since it is known that PGF-2 alpha and oestradiol act synergistically to cause luteolysis. PMID:3298644

  17. Fertility in a high-altitude environment is compromised by luteal dysfunction: the relative roles of hypoxia and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background At high altitudes, hypoxia, oxidative stress or both compromise sheep fertility. In the present work, we tested the relative effect of short- or long-term exposure to high altitude hypobaric hypoxia and oxidative stress on corpora luteal structure and function. Methods The growth dynamics of the corpora lutea during the estrous cycle were studied daily by ultrasonography in cycling sheep that were either native or naïve to high-altitude conditions and that were supplemented or not supplemented with antioxidant vitamins. Arterial and venous blood samples were simultaneously drawn for determination of gases and oxidative stress biomarkers and progesterone measurement. On day five after ovulation in the next cycle, the ovaries were removed for immunodetection of luteal HIF-1alpha and VEGF and IGF-I and to detect IGF-II gene expression. Results The results showed that both short- and long-term exposure to high-altitude conditions decreased luteal growth and IGF-I and IGF-II gene expression but increased HIF-1 alpha and VEGF immunoexpression. The level of plasma progesterone was also increased at a high altitude, although an association with increased corpus luteum vascularization was only found in sheep native to a high-altitude location. Administration of antioxidant vitamins resulted in a limited effect, which was restricted to decreased expression of oxidative stress biomarkers and luteal HIF-1alpha and VEGF immunoexpression. Conclusions Exposure of the sheep to high-altitude hypobaric hypoxia for short or long time periods affects the development and function of the corpus luteum. Moreover, the observed association of oxidative stress with hypoxia and the absence of any significant effect of antioxidant vitamins on most anatomical and functional corpus luteum traits suggests that the effects of high altitude on this ovarian structure are mainly mediated by hypoxia. Thus, these findings may help explain the decrease in sheep fertility at a high altitude. PMID:23521851

  18. Functional imaging: monitoring heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weisheng; Reilly-Contag, Pamela; Stevenson, David K.; Contag, Christopher H.

    1999-07-01

    The regulation of genetic elements can be monitored in living animals using photoproteins as reporters. Heme oxygenase (HO) is the key catabolic enzyme in the heme degradation pathway. Here, HO expression serves as a model for in vivo functional imaging of transcriptional regulation of a clinically relevant gene. HO enzymatic activity is inhibited by heme analogs, metalloporphyrins, but many members of this family of compounds also activate transcription of the HO-1 promoter. The degree of transcriptional activation by twelve metalloporphyrins, differing at the central metal and porphyrin ring substituents, was evaluated in both NIH 3T3 stable lines and transgenic animals containing HO-1 promoter-luciferase gene fusions. In the correlative cell culture assays, the metalloporphyrins increased transcription form the full length HO promoter fusion to varying degrees, but none increased transcription from a truncated HO-1 promoter. These results suggested that one or both of the two distal enhancer elements located at -4 and -10 Kb upstream from transcriptional start are required for HO-1 induction by heme and its analogs. The full-length HO-1-luc fusion was then evaluated as a transgene in mice. It was possible to monitor the effects of the metalloporphyrins, SnMP and ZnPP, in living animals over time. This spatiotemporal analyses of gene expression in vivo implied that alterations in porphyrin ring substituents and the central metal may affect the extent of gene activation. These data further indicate that using photoprotein reporters, subtle differences in gene expression can be monitored in living animals.

  19. Degradation of high density lipoprotein in cultured rat luteal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rajan, V.P.; Menon, K.M.J.

    1986-03-01

    In rat ovary luteal cells, degradation of high density lipoprotein (HDL) to tricholoracetic acid (TCA)-soluble products accounts for only a fraction of the HDL-derived cholesterol used for steroidogenesis. In this study the authors have investigated the fate of /sup 125/I)HDL bound to cultured luteal cells using pulse-chase technique. Luteal cell cultures were pulse labeled with (/sup 125/I)HDL/sub 3/ and reincubated in the absence of HDL. By 24 h about 50% of the initallay bound radioactivity was released into the medium, of which 60-65% could be precipitated with 10% TCA. Gel filtration of the chase incubation medium on 10% agarose showed that the amount of TCA-soluble radioactivity was nearly completely accounted for by a sharp peak in the low molecular weight region which was identified as 96% monoiodotyrosine by paper chromatography. The TCA-precipitable radioactivity was nearly completely accounted for by a sharp peak in the low molecular weight region which was identified as 96% monoiodotyrosine by paper chromatography. The TCA-precipitable radioactivity eluted over a wide range of molecular weights (15,000-80,000), and there was very little intact HDL present. Electrophoresis of the chase medium showed that component of the TCA-precipitable portion had mobility similar to apo AI. Lysosomal inhibitors of receptor-mediated endocytosis had no effect on the composition or quantity of radioactivity released during chase incubation. The results show that HDL/sub 3/ binding to luteal cells is followed by complete degradation of the lipoprotein, although the TCA-soluble part does not reflect the extent of degradation.

  20. The Effects of Smoked Nicotine on Measures of Subjective states and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Hormones in Women during the Follicular and Luteal Phases of the Menstrual Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Goletiani, Nathalie V.; Siegel, Arthur J.; Lukas, Scott E.; Hudson, James I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the acute effects of cigarette smoking on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) hormones and subjective states as a function of the menstrual cycle in nicotine-dependent women. Methods Seventeen healthy nicotine-dependent women were studied during the follicular and/or luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Due to observation of a possible bimodal distribution of progesterone levels within the luteal phase group, we performed a set of a posteriori analyses. Therefore, we divided the luteal group into a low progesterone and a high progesterone groups. Results Smoked nicotine activated HPA, measured by ACTH, cortisol, and DHEA response and affected subjective states in both follicular and luteal phases, with increased “High”, “Rush”, and decreased “Craving”. The HPA stimulation revealed a blunting of ACTH response. There was only modest evidence for a blunting of subjective state responses in the luteal phase. However upon post hoc analyses, the high progesterone luteal group showed a marked blunting of measures of subjective states and a blunted ACTH response. Examining the association between hormone and measures of subjective states revealed tentative associations of ACTH stimulation with increased “Rush” and “Craving”, and DHEA stimulation with increased “Craving”. Conclusions This pilot study suggests that menstrual cycle phase differences in progesterone levels may attenuate nicotine’s addictive effects via diminution of its reinforcing properties, and augmentation of its aversive effects interfering with the pleasure associated with cigarette smoking. PMID:25783522

  1. Molecular Signatures of Immune Activation and Epithelial Barrier Remodeling Are Enhanced during the Luteal Phase of the Menstrual Cycle: Implications for HIV Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Kelly B.; Novak, Richard M.; McCorrister, Stuart; Shaw, Souradet; Westmacott, Garrett R.; Ball, Terry B.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Burgener, Adam

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The variable infectivity and transmissibility of HIV/SHIV has been recently associated with the menstrual cycle, with particular susceptibility observed during the luteal phase in nonhuman primate models and ex vivo human explant cultures, but the mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we performed an unbiased, mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis to better understand the mucosal immunological processes underpinning this observed susceptibility to HIV infection. Cervicovaginal lavage samples (n = 19) were collected, characterized as follicular or luteal phase using days since last menstrual period, and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. Biological insights from these data were gained using a spectrum of computational methods, including hierarchical clustering, pathway analysis, gene set enrichment analysis, and partial least-squares discriminant analysis with LASSO feature selection. Of the 384 proteins identified, 43 were differentially abundant between phases (P < 0.05, ≥2-fold change). Cell-cell adhesion proteins and antiproteases were reduced, and leukocyte recruitment (interleukin-8 pathway, P = 1.41E–5) and extravasation proteins (P = 5.62E–4) were elevated during the luteal phase. LASSO/PLSDA identified a minimal profile of 18 proteins that best distinguished the luteal phase. This profile included cytoskeletal elements and proteases known to be involved in cellular movement. Gene set enrichment analysis associated CD4+ T cell and neutrophil gene set signatures with the luteal phase (P < 0.05). Taken together, our findings indicate a strong association between proteins involved in tissue remodeling and leukocyte infiltration with the luteal phase, which may represent potential hormone-associated mechanisms of increased susceptibility to HIV. IMPORTANCE Recent studies have discovered an enhanced susceptibility to HIV infection during the progesterone-dominant luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. However, the mechanism responsible for this enhanced susceptibility has not yet been determined. Understanding the source of this vulnerability will be important for designing efficacious HIV prevention technologies for women. Furthermore, these findings may also be extrapolated to better understand the impact of exogenous hormone application, such as the use of hormonal contraceptives, on HIV acquisition risk. Hormonal contraceptives are the most widely used contraceptive method in sub-Saharan Africa, the most HIV-burdened area of the world. For this reason, research conducted to better understand how hormones impact host immunity and susceptibility factors important for HIV infection is a global health priority. PMID:26085144

  2. In vivo tests of thermodynamic models of transcription repressor function

    PubMed Central

    Tungtur, Sudheer; Skinner, Harlyn; Zhan, Hongli; Swint-Kruse, Liskin; Beckett, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    One emphasis of the Gibbs Conference on Biothermodynamics is the value of thermodynamic measurements for understanding behaviors of biological systems. In this study, the correlation between thermodynamic measurements of in vitro DNA binding affinity with in vivo transcription repression was investigated for two transcription repressors. In the first system, which comprised an engineered LacI/GalR homolog, mutational changes altered the equilibrium constant for binding DNA. Changes correlated with altered repression, but estimates of in vivo repressor concentration suggest a ≥25-fold discrepancy with in vitro conditions. In the second system, changes in ligand binding to BirA altered dimerization and subsequent DNA occupancy. Again, these changes correlate with altered in vivo repression, but comparison with in vitro measurements reveals a ~10-fold discrepancy. Further analysis of each system suggests that the observed discrepancies between in vitro and in vivo results reflect the contributions of additional equilibria to the transcription repression process. PMID:21715082

  3. Real-time changes of the local vasoactive peptide systems (angiotensin, endothelin) in the bovine corpus luteum after induced luteal regression.

    PubMed

    Schams, Dieter; Berisha, Bajram; Neuvians, Tanja; Amselgruber, Werner; Kraetzl, Wolf-Dieter

    2003-05-01

    There is evidence that angiotensin II (Ang II) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) may interact in an additive or synergistic way during luteal regression. The aim of the study was to investigate real time changes in luteal tissue of angiotensin and endothelin system members in mRNA expression, tissue concentrations, tissue localization, and ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) antagonist application after prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PG) induced (days 8-12) luteal regression in cow. Corpora lutea (CL) were collected by transvaginal ovaryectomy before and 2, 4, 12, 24, 48, and 64 hr (n = 5/time point) after PG injection. ACE mRNA expression (RT-PCR) increased continuously and peaked at 12, 24 hr; ECE-1 (endothelin converting enzyme) peaked at 12 hr, and both peptides in tissue (Ang II and ET-1) increased significantly and peaked at 24 hr. The expression of receptors for Ang II (AT1R and AT2R) did not change in contrast to ET receptors (ETR-A and ETR-B), which were up-regulated. Localization in tissue revealed very weak staining for Ang II and ET-1 before PG application followed by a clear increase of staining predominantly in large luteal cells, but also in endothelial cells. In two experiments, the attempt was made to block ACE by the antagonist captopril with two different doses. In both experiments with captopril, progesterone levels were not significantly different from controls. Ang II alone seems to be not essential for functional luteolysis in bovine system. In conclusion, the results suggest that both Ang II and ET-1 are in parallel up-regulated during luteal regression and may act as vasoconstrictors during functional luteolysis, but also as apoptosis inducer during functional/structural luteolysis. PMID:12658634

  4. Assessment of quantitative and qualitative changes of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans in normal breast tissue during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Júnior, J A Dos Santos; de Lima, C R; Michelacci, Y M C da Silva; Nazário, A C Pinto

    2015-01-01

    The effect of sex hormones on extracellular matrix compounds, such as proteoglycans (PGs) and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), in mammary tissue remains poorly understood. The elucidation of extracellular matrix component functions could clarify pathophysiological conditions, such as cyclical mastalgia (breast pain). The authors examined the quantitative and qualitative changes of PGs and GAGs in normal breast tissue during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Twenty-eight eumenorrheic patients with benign breast nodules were divided into groups: Group A included 15 follicular patients and Group B included 13 luteal phase patients. Breast tissue adjacent to the nodules was biochemically analyzed to evaluate the types and concentrations of PGS and GAGs. The distribution of proteoglycans during the menstrual cycle was analyzed with immunofluorescence. PG concentrations were elevated (p < 0.01) during the luteal phase compared with the follicular phase, whereas the concentrations of GAGs did not differ significantly. Immunofluorescence revealed that decorin was mainly found in the intralobular stroma. PG concentrations were elevated during the luteal phase, likely due to the influence of sex hormones on macromolecular synthesis. The PG decorin was observed in normal breast tissue in the intralobular stroma. Although the concentration of GAGs, including dermatan and heparan sulfate, varied cyclically, the differences were not significant. PMID:26524806

  5. Luteolytic effect of LH: inhibition of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and stimulation of 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase luteal activities in late pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Stocco, C O; Deis, R P

    1996-09-01

    The mechanisms associated with the onset of luteolysis in the pregnant rat are not well known. The effect of a specific rat LH antiserum (AS-rLH) and of ovine LH (oLH) on luteal steroidogenesis on day 19 of pregnancy was examined. Rat LH antiserum administered intrabursally at 1000-1100 h on day 19 of pregnancy prevented the physiological decrease in 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta-HSD) activity, the increase in 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20 alpha-HSD) activity and the fall in serum progesterone (P4) level observed at 1800 h on day 21 of pregnancy. To see if oLH has a direct effect on luteal steroidogenesis, the gonadotrophin was injected into the periovarian bursa. The intrabursa treatment with 1 microgram oLH on day 19 of pregnancy at 0800-0900 h did not modify corpus luteal function 36 h after treatment, but treatment with 4 micrograms oLH per ovary induced a significant progressive decrease in luteal 3 beta-HSD activity starting 12 h after treatment, while a significant increase in 20 alpha-HSD activity, concomitant with a decrease in serum P4 level, occurred 48 h after treatment. Luteal P4 content decreased with respect to control groups 36 and 48 h after intrabursal treatment with 4 micrograms oLH. The intrabursal administration of 8 micrograms oLH induced an increase in 20 alpha-HSD activity and a decrease in 3 beta-HSD activity 36 h after treatment. Administration of 4 micrograms oLH per ovary on day 8 of pregnancy induced a significant increase in serum P4 levels without modifying 3 beta-HSD activity. In rats treated with oLH on day 19 of pregnancy the decrease in 3 beta-HSD activity occurred 36 h before the significant increase in 20 alpha-HSD activity and serum P4 level. In conclusion, the luteal enzymatic activity changes and the significant decrease in the intraluteal P4 concentration induced by the intrabursal administration of oLH and the clear effect of AS-rLH preventing the physiological luteal changes preceding parturition provide good evidence of an intraovarian action of LH during the normal progression of luteolysis in late pregnant rats. PMID:8882161

  6. Luteolytic action of RU486: modulation of luteal 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities in late pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Tellería, C M; Stocco, C O; Deis, R P

    1995-06-01

    The effect of the synthetic antiprogestin RU486 on luteal function in late pregnant rats was studied by evaluating the activities of the enzymes 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta-HSD) and 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20 alpha-HSD). RU486 (2 mg/kg) administered to rats on day 18 of pregnancy at 10.00 h induced preterm delivery 26.4 +/- 0.35 h (n = 8) after treatment. Luteal 3 beta-HSD activity increased 24 and 34 h after RU486 injection, but a significant and progressive decrease started at 48 h with the maximal reduction 72 h after RU486 treatment, when compared with controls. Serum progesterone concentration decreased at the time of 3 beta-HSD activity reduction. Interestingly, 20 alpha-HSD activity started to increase 58 h after RU486 injection. The administration of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, diclofenac (1.3 mg/kg), on days 17-19 of pregnancy to RU486-treated rats, delayed abortion and the duration of delivery, and prevented the decrease in 3 beta-HSD and the increase in 20 alpha-HSD activities observed 58 h after antiprogesterone treatment. RU486 administered intrabursally (1 microgram per ovary) on day 20 (14.00-15.00 h) increased 3 beta-HSD and decreased 20 alpha-HSD luteal activities at 18.00 h on day 21 of pregnancy, without modifying serum progesterone concentration, when compared with normal pregnant rats. In conclusion, the luteolytic process after preterm delivery induced by RU486 administration in late pregnant rats is characterized by a decrease in luteal 3 beta-HSD activity and circulating progesterone, which may trigger the increase in luteal 20 alpha-HSD activity. Prostaglandins seems to be involved in the increase of 20 alpha-HSD activity and therefore, in the demise of corpora lutea. PMID:7779760

  7. Blood-Induced Interference of Glucose Sensor Function in Vitro: Implications for in Vivo Sensor Function

    PubMed Central

    Klueh, Ulrike; Liu, Zenghe; Ouyang, Tianmei; Cho, Brian; Feldman, Ben; Henning, Timothy P.; Kreutzer, Don

    2007-01-01

    Background Although tissue hemorrhages, with resulting blood clots, are associated with glucose sensor implantation, virtually nothing known is about the impact of red blood cells and red blood cell clots on sensor function in vitro or in vivo. In these studies, we tested the hypothesis that blood can directly interfere with glucose sensor function in vitro. Methods To test this hypothesis, heparinized human whole blood (HWB) and nonheparinized human whole blood (WB) were obtained from normal individuals. Aliquots of HWB and WB samples were also fractionated into plasma, serum, and total leukocyte (TL) components. Resulting HWB, WB, and WB components were incubated in vitro with an amperometric glucose sensor for 24 hours at 37°C. During incubation, blood glucose levels were determined periodically using a glucose monitor, and glucose sensor function (GSF) was monitored continuously as nanoampere output. Results Heparinized human whole blood had no significant effect on GSF in vitro, nor did TL, serum, or plasmaderived clots from WB. Sensors incubated with WB displayed a rapid signal loss associated with clot formation at 37°C. The half-life was 0.8 ± 0.2 hours (n = 16) for sensors incubated with WB compared to 3.2 ± 0.5 (n = 12) for sensors incubated with HWB with a blood glucose level of approximately 100 mg/dl. Conclusions These studies demonstrated that human whole blood interfered with GSF in vitro. These studies further demonstrated that this interference was related to blood clot formation, as HWB, serum, plasma-derived clots, or TL did not interfere with GSF in vitro in the same way that WB did. These in vitro studies supported the concept that the formation of blood clots at sites of glucose sensor implantation could have a negative impact on GSF in vivo. PMID:19885155

  8. The influence of adiponectin on the transcriptomic profile of porcine luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Szeszko, Karol; Smolinska, Nina; Kiezun, Marta; Dobrzyn, Kamil; Maleszka, Anna; Kaminski, Tadeusz

    2016-03-01

    Reproductive functions are closely related to nutritional status. Recent studies suggest that adiponectin may be a hormonal link between them. Adiponectin is an adipocytokine, abundantly expressed in adipose tissues. It plays a dominant role in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism by stimulating fatty acid oxidation, decreasing plasma triglycerides, and increasing cells' sensitivity to insulin and has direct antiatherosclerotic effects. The hormone is also postulated to play a modulatory role in the regulation of the reproductive system. The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed genes (DE-genes) in response to adiponectin treatment of porcine luteal ovarian cells. The global expression of genes in the porcine ovary was investigated using the Porcine (V2) Two-color gene expression microarray, 4??44 (Agilent, USA). Analysis of the microarray data showed that 701 genes were differentially expressed and 389 genes showed a fold change greater than 1.2 (p?luteal cells. These results provide a basis for future work describing the detailed interactions and relationships explaining local regulation of adiponectin actions in the ovary of pigs. PMID:26715409

  9. Insulin-like growth factor-I stimulates steroidogenesis in rabbit luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Constantino, C X; Keyes, P L; Kostyo, J L

    1991-04-01

    A potential role of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in the regulation of steroidogenesis in the rabbit corpus luteum was investigated using a primary culture of luteal cells obtained 3 days after ovulation. Dissociated cells were cultured for 1 day in the presence of medium 199 and 10% fetal bovine serum; thereafter, the cells were cultured in medium 199 containing 0.1% BSA, gentamicin (50 micrograms/ml), and hormones or growth factors, and without serum. IGF-I (human recombinant, 100 ng/ml) was as effective as LH (ovine, 10 ng/ml) in maintaining progesterone accumulation through 4 days of culture. Estradiol (10(-8) M), either alone or in combination with LH or IGF-I failed to stimulate progesterone accumulation, which was not surprising since these cells did not possess estrogen receptors. The stimulation of progesterone by IGF-I was not detectable until 24-36 h after introduction of the growth factor to the cultures, whereas stimulation by LH was observed within 2 h. The steroidogenic effect of IGF-I was not attributable to increased cell number, as DNA values or [3H]thymidine incorporation were unchanged by IGF-I. IGF-I increased functional enzymatic activity, observed as increased progesterone accumulation in the presence of 25-hydroxycholesterol used as exogenous substrate. These data indicate that luteal cells have the capacity to respond to IGF-I, raising the possibility that IGF-I has a role in the regulation of steroidogenesis in the rabbit corpus luteum. PMID:2004596

  10. In vivo characterization of regenerative peripheral nerve interface function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursu, Daniel C.; Urbanchek, Melanie G.; Nedic, Andrej; Cederna, Paul S.; Gillespie, R. Brent

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Regenerative peripheral nerve interfaces (RPNIs) are neurotized free autologous muscle grafts equipped with electrodes to record myoelectric signals for prosthesis control. Viability of rat RPNI constructs have been demonstrated using evoked responses. In vivo RPNI characterization is the next critical step for assessment as a control modality for prosthetic devices. Approach. Two RPNIs were created in each of two rats by grafting portions of free muscle to the ends of divided peripheral nerves (peroneal in the left and tibial in the right hind limb) and placing bipolar electrodes on the graft surface. After four months, we examined in vivo electromyographic signal activity and compared these signals to muscular electromyographic signals recorded from autologous muscles in two rats serving as controls. An additional group of two rats in which the autologous muscles were denervated served to quantify cross-talk in the electrode recordings. Recordings were made while rats walked on a treadmill and a motion capture system tracked the hind limbs. Amplitude and periodicity of signals relative to gait were quantified, correlation between electromyographic and motion recording were assessed, and a decoder was trained to predict joint motion. Main Results. Raw RPNI signals were active during walking, with amplitudes of 1 mVPP, and quiet during standing, with amplitudes less than 0.1 mVPP. RPNI signals were periodic and entrained with gait. A decoder predicted bilateral ankle motion with greater than 80% reliability. Control group signal activity agreed with literature. Denervated group signals remained quiescent throughout all evaluations. Significance. In vivo myoelectric RPNI activity encodes neural activation patterns associated with gait. Signal contamination from muscles adjacent to the RPNI is minimal, as demonstrated by the low amplitude signals obtained from the Denervated group. The periodicity and entrainment to gait of RPNI recordings suggests the transduced signals were generated via central nervous system control.

  11. RECQL4 Regulates p53 Function In Vivo During Skeletogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Linchao; Harutyunyan, Karine; Jin, Weidong; Wu, Jianhong; Yang, Tao; Chen, Yuqing; Joeng, Kyu Sang; Bae, Yangjin; Tao, Jianning; Dawson, Brian C; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Lee, Brendan; Wang, Lisa L

    2015-06-01

    RECQ DNA helicases play critical roles in maintaining genomic stability, but their role in development has been less well studied. Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, RAPADILINO, and Baller-Gerold syndrome are rare genetic disorders caused by mutations in the RECQL4 gene. These patients have significant skeletal developmental abnormalities including radial ray, limb and craniofacial defects. To investigate the role of Recql4 in the developing skeletal system, we generated Recql4 conditional knockout mice targeting the skeletal lineage. Inactivation of Recql4 using the Prx1-Cre transgene led to limb abnormalities and craniosynostosis mimicking the major bone findings in human RECQL4 patients. These Prx1-Cre(+) ;Recql4(fl/fl) mice as well as Col2a1-Cre(+) ;Recql4(fl/fl) mice exhibited growth plate defects and an increased p53 response in affected tissues. Inactivation of Trp53 in these Recql4 mutants resulted in genetic rescue of the skeletal phenotypes, indicating an in vivo interaction between Recql4 and Trp53, and p53 activation as an underlying mechanism for the developmental bone abnormalities in RECQL4 disorders. Our findings show that RECQL4 is critical for skeletal development by modulating p53 activity in vivo. PMID:25556649

  12. In vitro gene regulatory networks predict in vivo function of liver

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Evolution of toxicity testing is predicated upon using in vitro cell based systems to rapidly screen and predict how a chemical might cause toxicity to an organ in vivo. However, the degree to which we can extend in vitro results to in vivo activity and possible mechanisms of action remains to be fully addressed. Results Here we use the nitroaromatic 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) as a model chemical to compare and determine how we might extrapolate from in vitro data to in vivo effects. We found 341 transcripts differentially expressed in common among in vitro and in vivo assays in response to TNT. The major functional term corresponding to these transcripts was cell cycle. Similarly modulated common pathways were identified between in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we uncovered the conserved common transcriptional gene regulatory networks between in vitro and in vivo cellular liver systems that responded to TNT exposure, which mainly contain 2 subnetwork modules: PTTG1 and PIR centered networks. Interestingly, all 7 genes in the PTTG1 module were involved in cell cycle and downregulated by TNT both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions The results of our investigation of TNT effects on gene expression in liver suggest that gene regulatory networks obtained from an in vitro system can predict in vivo function and mechanisms. Inhibiting PTTG1 and its targeted cell cyle related genes could be key machanism for TNT induced liver toxicity. PMID:21073692

  13. Luteal activity of pregnant rats with hypo-and hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Luteal activity is dependent on the interaction of various growth factors, cytokines and hormones, including the thyroid hormones, being that hypo- and hyperthyroidism alter the gestational period and are also a cause of miscarriage and stillbirth. Because of that, we evaluated the proliferation, apoptosis and expression of angiogenic factors and COX-2 in the corpus luteum of hypo- and hyperthyroid pregnant rats. Methods Seventy-two adult female rats were equally distributed into three groups: hypothyroid, hyperthyroid and control. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism were induced by the daily administration of propylthiouracil and L-thyroxine, respectively. The administration began five days before becoming pregnant and the animals were sacrificed at days 10, 14, and 19 of gestation. We performed an immunohistochemical analysis to evaluate the expression of CDC-47, VEGF, Flk-1 (VEGF receptor) and COX-2. Apoptosis was evaluated by the TUNEL assay. We assessed the gene expression of VEGF, Flk-1, caspase 3, COX-2 and PGF2α receptor using real time RT-PCR. The data were analyzed by SNK test. Results Hypothyroidism reduced COX-2 expression on day 10 and 19 (P < 0.05), endothelial/pericyte and luteal cell proliferation on day 10 and 14 (p < 0.05), apoptotic cell numbers on day 19 (p < 0.05) and the expression of Flk-1 and VEGF on day 14 and 19, respectively (p < 0.05). Hyperthyroidism increased the expression of COX-2 on day 19 (P < 0.05) and the proliferative activity of endothelial/pericytes cells on day 14 (p <0.05), as well as the expression of VEGF and Flk-1 on day 19 (P < 0.05). Conclusions Hypothyroidism reduces the proliferation, apoptosis and expression of angiogenic factors and COX-2in the corpus luteum of pregnant rats, contrary to what is observed in hyperthyroid animals, being this effect dependent of the gestational period. PMID:25298361

  14. Luteal P4 synthesis in early pregnant gilts after induction of estrus with PMSG/hCG.

    PubMed

    Blitek, Agnieszka; Szymanska, Magdalena; Pieczywek, Marta; Morawska-Pucinska, Ewa

    2016-03-01

    The present study was designed to examine whether an estrus induction with gonadotropins could affect luteal P4 synthesis in early pregnant gilts. Sixteen prepubertal gilts received 750IU of PMSG and 500IU of hCG 72h later. Prepubertal gilts in the control group (n=17) were observed daily for estrus behavior. All gilts were inseminated in their first estrus. Corpora lutea (CLs) were collected on days 10, 12 and 15 of pregnancy and analyzed for (1) the mRNA and protein expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 family 11 subfamily A polypeptide 1 (CYP11A1), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD); (2) the tissue concentration of P4; and (3) the mRNA expression of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and estrogen receptors (ESR1 and ESR2). Additionally, P4 concentration was analyzed in blood serum of all animals. PMSG/hCG injections to induce estrus decreased mRNA expression of StAR, CYP11A1 and 3βHSD on day 10 and CYP11A1 on day 12 of pregnancy compared with the control group, while CYP11A1 and 3βHSD proteins were down-regulated on day 10 in the hormonally-treated gilts. Concentrations of P4 in luteal tissue and blood serum were also lower in animals after gonadotropin-induced estrus. In contrast, LHR and ESR1 mRNA expression was greater in PMSG/hCG-treated than control gilts on day 15 of gestation. In conclusion, induction of estrus with a PMSG/hCG protocol in prepubertal gilts impaired expression of the luteal P4 synthesis system. Low P4 content may, in turn, induce local mechanisms involving LHR and ESR1 expression to support CL function. PMID:26781360

  15. In vivo functional imaging of human cone photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Jonnal, Ravi S.; Rha, Jungtae; Zhang, Yan; Cense, Barry; Gao, Weihua; Miller, Donald T.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate a novel non-invasive optical technique for observing fast physiological processes, in particular phototransduction, in single photoreceptor cells in the living human eye. The method takes advantage of the interference of multiple reflections within the outer segments (OS) of cones. This self-interference phenomenon is highly sensitive to phase changes such as those caused by variations in refractive index and scatter within the photoreceptor cell. A high-speed (192 Hz) flood-illumination retina camera equipped with adaptive optics (AO) is used to observe individual photoreceptors, and to monitor changes in their reflectance in response to visible stimuli (“scintillation”). AO and high frame rates are necessary for resolving individual cones and their fast temporal dynamics, respectively. Scintillation initiates within 5 to 10 ms after the onset of the stimulus flash, lasts 300 to 400 ms, is observed at visible and near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths, and is highly sensitive to the coherence length of the imaging light source. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of in vivo optical imaging of the fast physiological processes that accompany phototransduction in individual photoreceptors. PMID:19550903

  16. In vivo functional imaging of human cone photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Jonnal, Ravi S.; Rha, Jungtae; Zhang, Yan; Cense, Barry; Gao, Weihua; Miller, Donald T.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluate a novel non-invasive optical technique for observing fast physiological processes, in particular phototransduction, in single photoreceptor cells in the living human eye. The method takes advantage of the interference of multiple reflections within the outer segments (OS) of cones. This self-interference phenomenon is highly sensitive to phase changes such as those caused by variations in refractive index and scatter within the photoreceptor cell. A high-speed (192 Hz) flood-illumination retina camera equipped with adaptive optics (AO) is used to observe individual photoreceptors, and to monitor changes in their reflectance in response to visible stimuli (“scintillation”). AO and high frame rates are necessary for resolving individual cones and their fast temporal dynamics, respectively. Scintillation initiates within 5 to 10 ms after the onset of the stimulus flash, lasts 300 to 400 ms, is observed at visible and near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths, and is highly sensitive to the coherence length of the imaging light source. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of in vivo optical imaging of the fast physiological processes that accompany phototransduction in individual photoreceptors. PMID:19606274

  17. Rat parotid cell function in vitro following x irradiation in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Bodner, L.; Kuyatt, B.L.; Hand, A.R.; Baum, B.J.

    1984-02-01

    The effect of X irradiation on rat parotid acinar cell function was evaluated in vitro 1, 3, and 7 days following in vivo exposure to 2000 R. Several cellular functions were followed: protein secretion (amylase release), ion movement (K/sup +/ efflux and reuptake), amino acid transport (..cap alpha..-amino(/sup 14/C)isobutyric acid), and an intermediary metabolic response ((/sup 14/C)glucose oxidation). In addition both the morphologic appearance and in vivo saliva secretory ability of parotid cells were assessed. Our results demonstrate that surviving rat parotid acinar cells, isolated and studied in vitro 1-7 days following 2000 R, remain functionally intact despite in vivo diminution of secretory function.

  18. GABAA receptor modulating steroid antagonists (GAMSA) are functional in vivo.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Maja; Strömberg, Jessica; Ragagnin, Gianna; Doverskog, Magnus; Bäckström, Torbjörn

    2016-06-01

    GABAA receptor modulating steroid antagonists (GAMSA) selectively inhibit neurosteroid-mediated enhancement of GABA-evoked currents at the GABAA receptor. 3α-hydroxy-neurosteroids, notably allopregnanolone and tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC), potentiate GABAA receptor-mediated currents. On the contrary, various 3β-hydroxy-steroids antagonize this positive neurosteroid-mediated modulation. Importantly, GAMSAs are specific antagonists of the positive neurosteroid-modulation of the receptor and do not inhibit GABA-evoked currents. Allopregnanolone and THDOC have both negative and positive actions. Allopregnanolone can impair encoding/consolidation and retrieval of memories. Chronic administration of a physiological allopregnanolone concentration reduces cognition in mice models of Alzheimer's disease. In humans an allopregnanolone challenge impairs episodic memory and in hepatic encephalopathy cognitive deficits are accompanied by increased brain ammonia and allopregnanolone. Hippocampal slices react in vitro to ammonia by allopregnanolone synthesis in CA1 neurons, which blocks long-term potentiation (LTP). Thus, allopregnanolone may impair learning and memory by interfering with hippocampal LTP. Contrary, pharmacological treatment with allopregnanolone can promote neurogenesis and positively influence learning and memory of trace eye-blink conditioning in mice. In rat the GAMSA UC1011 inhibits an allopregnanolone-induced learning impairment and the GAMSA GR3027 restores learning and motor coordination in rats with hepatic encephalopathy. In addition, the GAMSA isoallopregnanolone antagonizes allopregnanolone-induced anesthesia in rats, and in humans it antagonizes allopregnanolone-induced sedation and reductions in saccadic eye velocity. 17PA is also an effective GAMSA in vivo, as it antagonizes allopregnanolone-induced anesthesia and spinal analgesia in rats. In vitro the allopregnanolone/THDOC-increased GABA-mediated GABAA receptor activity is antagonized by isoallopregnanolone, UC1011, GR3027 and 17PA, while the effect of GABA itself is not affected. PMID:26523675

  19. Inflammation modulates human HDL composition and function in vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inflammation may directly impair HDL functions, in particular reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), but limited data support this concept in humans. Our study was designed to investigate this relationship. We employed low-dose human endotoxemia to assess the effects of inflammation on HDL and RCT-rel...

  20. Comparison of Follicular and Luteal Phase Mucosal Markers of HIV Susceptibility in Healthy Women.

    PubMed

    Thurman, Andrea Ries; Chandra, Neelima; Yousefieh, Nazita; Zalenskaya, Irina; Kimble, Thomas; Asin, Susana; Rollenhagen, Christiane; Anderson, Sharon M; Herold, Betsy; Mesquita, Pedro M M; Richardson-Harman, Nicola; Cunningham, Tina; Schwartz, Jill L; Doncel, Gustavo F

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in vaginal immune cell populations, vaginal tissue gene expression, antimicrobial activity of the cervicovaginal (CV) lavage (CVL), vaginal flora, and p24 antigen production from CV tissues after ex vivo human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection between follicular (FOL) and luteal (LUT) phases of the menstrual cycle. CV tissue biopsies, CV secretions, and blood samples were obtained as part of two longitudinal clinical trials of healthy women (CONRAD D11-119 and A12-124 studies). Participants (n = 39) were HIV-seronegative women not using exogenous hormone supplementation, with normal menstrual cycles, who were screened to exclude sexually transmitted and reproductive tract infections. Serum levels of estradiol and progesterone were significantly higher in the LUT versus the FOL phase of the menstrual cycle. Controlling for race, reported contraceptive use/sexual practices, and clinical trial, we found no differences in vaginal tissue immune cell populations and activation status, transcriptomes, inhibition of HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2 and Escherichia coli by the CVL, vaginal pH or Nugent score, or production of p24 antigen after ex vivo infection by HIV-1BaL between CV samples obtained in the FOL phase versus the LUT phase of the menstrual cycle. There were no significant correlations between serum estradiol and progesterone levels and CV endpoints. The hypothesis that the LUT phase of the menstrual cycle represents a more vulnerable stage for mucosal infection with HIV was not supported by data from samples obtained from the lower genital tract (ectocervix and vagina) from these two clinical trials. PMID:26750085

  1. Natural and artificial methods for inducing the luteal phase in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Johnston, S D; McGowan, M R; O'Callaghan, P; Cox, R; Nicolson, V

    2000-09-01

    An experiment was conducted in which female koalas were mated for different durations of intromission and ejaculation to confirm that the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle in koalas is induced by the physical act of mating. Results showed that induction of a luteal phase in the koala usually required a complete duration of penile thrusting behaviour from the male. It is proposed that induction of a luteal phase in koalas may involve a copuloceptive reflex, triggered by the thrusting of the male's penis into the female's urogenital sinus. Although interrupted mating in koalas may be used to induce a luteal phase in preparation for an artificial insemination programme, this study showed that there is a 12.5% probability that pregnancy will result from semen prematurely emitted by the teaser male. A dose of 250 iu hCG was administered intramuscularly to eight oestrous females to determine whether it was possible to induce a luteal phase artificially. In contrast to control females, which received sterile saline injections, all females injected with hCG showed a significant increase in progestogen concentration above that of basal values, indicating that a luteal phase had been induced successfully. PMID:11006146

  2. Ex Vivo Cytosolic Delivery of Functional Macromolecules to Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hartoularos, George C.; Eyerman, Alexandra T.; Lytton-Jean, Abigail; Angin, Mathieu; Sharma, Siddhartha; Poceviciute, Roberta; Mao, Shirley; Heimann, Megan; Liu, Sophia; Talkar, Tanya; Khan, Omar F.; Addo, Marylyn; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Anderson, Daniel G.; Langer, Robert; Lieberman, Judy; Jensen, Klavs F.

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular delivery of biomolecules, such as proteins and siRNAs, into primary immune cells, especially resting lymphocytes, is a challenge. Here we describe the design and testing of microfluidic intracellular delivery systems that cause temporary membrane disruption by rapid mechanical deformation of human and mouse immune cells. Dextran, antibody and siRNA delivery performance is measured in multiple immune cell types and the approach’s potential to engineer cell function is demonstrated in HIV infection studies. PMID:25875117

  3. Assessment of progesterone profiles and postpartum onset of luteal activity in spring calving Hereford beef suckler cattle

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Reproduction is the single greatest factor limiting beef cattle production. Previous research on beef suckler luteal activity has largely focused on the mechanisms, and duration, of postpartum anoestrus. However, the temporal pattern of luteal activity after resumption of post-partum ovarian activity, and the impact of pattern type on days open (DO) in purebred beef suckler cows, are unknown. Methods Progesterone concentration was measured in milk samples taken thrice weekly from 120 lactations, in 87 animals, on 3 farms, over two years. Onset of luteal activity (OLA) was defined as the first day milk progesterone concentration exceeded 3 ng/ml for two successive measurements, or exceeded 5 ng/ml once. It was defined as delayed if it occurred more than 61 days postpartum. A short initial luteal phase consisted of progesterone concentrations which exceeded 3 ng/ml for fewer than 4 sequential measurements. Temporal progesterone patterns were classified as: 1) Normal cyclicity; 2) Cessation of luteal activity; 3) Prolonged luteal activity; 4) Erratic phase: failure to conform to 1, 2 or 3. Data concerning parity, previous calving interval, breeding values, calf birth and 200-d weight were obtained from the Norwegian Beef Cattle Recording System database. Results The mean (SD) OLA was 41 d (20). Parity and calf birth weight were inversely correlated with OLA. Delayed OLA occurred in 14.4% of lactations. A short first luteal phase occurred in 61.5% of lactations, but this was unrelated to irregular luteal phase occurrence, pregnancy or DO. Irregular luteal phases occurred in 22% of lactations. The irregularities were: prolonged luteal phase (11%); cessation of luteal activity (5%); erratic luteal activity (6%). Early OLA was associated with prolonged luteal phases. DO was positively correlated with irregular luteal phases and negatively correlated with calf 200-d weight. Conclusions This study demonstrates that irregular luteal phases negatively affect reproductive performance in purebred beef suckler cattle. A moderate incidence of irregular luteal phases was seen in the study population. Whilst a positive relationship was seen between OLA and DO, unfavourable associations between early OLA and incidence of irregular luteal phases should be considered when developing breeding programmes. PMID:20550673

  4. In vivo TRPC functions in the cardiopulmonary vasculature.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Alexander; Kalwa, Hermann; Fuchs, Beate; Grimminger, Friedrich; Weissmann, Norbert; Gudermann, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the industrialized countries. The cardiovascular system includes the systemic blood circulation, the heart and the pulmonary circulation providing sufficient blood flow and oxygen to peripheral tissues and organs according to their metabolic demand. This review focuses on three major cell types of the cardiovascular system: myocytes of the heart as well as smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells from the systemic and pulmonary circulation. Ion channels initiate and regulate contraction in all three cell types, and the identification of their genes has significantly improved our knowledge of signal transduction pathways in these cells. Among the ion channels expressed in smooth muscle cells, cation channels of the TRPC family allow for the entry of Na(+) and Ca(2+). Physiological functions of TRPC1, TRPC3, TRPC4, TRPC5, TRPC6 and TRPC7 in the cardiovascular system, dissected by down-regulating channel activity in isolated tissues or by the analysis of gene-deficient mouse models, are reviewed. Possible functional roles and physiological regulation of TRPCs as homomeric or heteromeric channels in these cell types are discussed. Moreover, TRP channels may also be responsible for pathophysiological processes of the cardiovascular system like hypertension as well as cardiac hypertrophy and increased endothelial permeability. PMID:17433435

  5. A complementation assay for in vivo protein structure/function analysis in Physcomitrella patens (Funariaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Scavuzzo-Duggan, Tess R.; Chaves, Arielle M.; Roberts, Alison W.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: A method for rapid in vivo functional analysis of engineered proteins was developed using Physcomitrella patens. Methods and Results: A complementation assay was designed for testing structure/function relationships in cellulose synthase (CESA) proteins. The components of the assay include (1) construction of test vectors that drive expression of epitope-tagged PpCESA5 carrying engineered mutations, (2) transformation of a ppcesa5 knockout line that fails to produce gametophores with test and control vectors, (3) scoring the stable transformants for gametophore production, (4) statistical analysis comparing complementation rates for test vectors to positive and negative control vectors, and (5) analysis of transgenic protein expression by Western blotting. The assay distinguished mutations that generate fully functional, nonfunctional, and partially functional proteins. Conclusions: Compared with existing methods for in vivo testing of protein function, this complementation assay provides a rapid method for investigating protein structure/function relationships in plants. PMID:26191463

  6. [The implantation receptive luteal phase of the endometrium. On the current status of molecular and cell biology research].

    PubMed

    Beier, H M; Beier-Hellwig, K; Sterzik, K

    2001-06-01

    The biological aim of the differentiation and maturation of endometrial tissue compartments during any menstrual cycle is the achievement of suitable conditions for blastocyst implantation and the establishment of pregnancy. Infertility and early embryonic loss are frequently caused by insufficient endometrial differentiation. Even any incomplete receptivity stage of the luteal phase endometrium will prevent attachment and implantation. We have studied the physiological changes throughout an endometrial cycle to elucidate causes of endometrial insufficiency leading to subfertility or infertility. Up to now, the histological changes described by Noyes et al. are understood as classical diagnostic approaches. However, evidence is accumulating that molecular deficits of endometrial differentiation are by no means detectable histologically, and consequently ask for the research on new diagnostic methods and parameters. There are histochemical localizations of specific protein molecules, adhesion molecules and cytokines, which permit by far more detailed and significant molecular analyses than any classical morphological means could yield. Moreover, there are convincing arguments to use further biochemical assessments on proteins of the uterine secretions as specific diagnostic parameters. The electrophoretical resolution presents typical protein patterns, which in turn can be interpreted as characteristic reflexions of the functional phases of the endometrial cycle. What is demonstrated as the so-called adequate luteal phase protein pattern clearly is the product of the receptive endometrium, reflecting the "implantation window". This is established already two days after ovulation and persists usually eight further days, if the endometrial cycle is undisturbed (15th to 24th day of the cycle). PMID:11488159

  7. Functional dissection of synaptic circuits: in vivo patch-clamp recording in neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Can; Zhang, Guangwei; Xiong, Ying; Zhou, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal activity is dominated by synaptic inputs from excitatory or inhibitory neural circuits. With the development of in vivo patch-clamp recording, especially in vivo voltage-clamp recording, researchers can not only directly measure neuronal activity, such as spiking responses or membrane potential dynamics, but also quantify synaptic inputs from excitatory and inhibitory circuits in living animals. This approach enables researchers to directly unravel different synaptic components and to understand their underlying roles in particular brain functions. Combining in vivo patch-clamp recording with other techniques, such as two-photon imaging or optogenetics, can provide even clearer functional dissection of the synaptic contributions of different neurons or nuclei. Here, we summarized current applications and recent research progress using the in vivo patch-clamp recording method and focused on its role in the functional dissection of different synaptic inputs. The key factors of a successful in vivo patch-clamp experiment and possible solutions based on references and our experiences were also discussed. PMID:26052270

  8. Application of electrical stimulation for functional tissue engineering in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radisic, Milica (Inventor); Park, Hyoungshin (Inventor); Langer, Robert (Inventor); Freed, Lisa (Inventor); Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention provides new methods for the in vitro preparation of bioartificial tissue equivalents and their enhanced integration after implantation in vivo. These methods include submitting a tissue construct to a biomimetic electrical stimulation during cultivation in vitro to improve its structural and functional properties, and/or in vivo, after implantation of the construct, to enhance its integration with host tissue and increase cell survival and functionality. The inventive methods are particularly useful for the production of bioartificial equivalents and/or the repair and replacement of native tissues that contain electrically excitable cells and are subject to electrical stimulation in vivo, such as, for example, cardiac muscle tissue, striated skeletal muscle tissue, smooth muscle tissue, bone, vasculature, and nerve tissue.

  9. Semen-induced luteal phase and identification of a LH surge in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Johnston, S D; O'Callaghan, P; Nilsson, K; Tzipori, G; Curlewis, J D

    2004-11-01

    The koala ovulates in response to mating. The purpose of this study was to document the LH surge induced by copulation and to investigate the potential roles of mechanical stimulation of the urogenital sinus and deposition of semen in induction of the luteal phase. In experiment 1, serial blood samples from four koalas that underwent normal mating showed elevated concentrations of LH approximately 24-32 h post-coitus. There was no corresponding elevation in LH in koalas (n=4) that were exposed to the presence of a male but received no physical contact. In experiment 2, koalas on day 2 of oestrus were exposed to one of the following treatments (n=9 per group): artificial insemination with 1 ml 0.9% sterile saline (control group), insemination with 1 ml koala semen, stimulation of the urogenital sinus with a purpose built glass rod (designed to mimic the action of the penis during natural mating) and urogenital stimulation with the glass rod followed by insemination of 1 ml koala semen. Confirmation of a luteal phase was based on evidence of a prolonged return to oestrus, parturition and/or elevated progesterone concentrations. Insemination of saline (0/9) and urogenital stimulation (0/9) failed to induce a luteal phase. Insemination of semen without glass rod stimulation resulted in a luteal phase in 4/9 koalas, three of which gave birth. Insemination of semen in combination with urogenital stimulation produced a luteal phase in 7/9 koalas, four of which gave birth. Semen had a significant effect on induction of the koala luteal phase (P <0.001) but glass rod stimulation had no such effect (P=0.335). It was concluded that semen must be involved in the induction of a luteal phase in the koala. The results presented in this study will serve to improve optimal timing and induction of ovulation for artificial insemination in the koala. PMID:15509709

  10. In vivo imaging of neutrotransmitter functions in brain, heart and tumors. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, D.E.

    1991-12-31

    This volume contains the proceedings of a symposium entitled ``In Vivo Imaging of Neurotransmitter Function in Brain, Heart, and Tumors`` held August 24--25, 1990 in Montreal Canada. The six individual papers contained herein are separately abstracted and indexed for the database.

  11. In vivo imaging of neutrotransmitter functions in brain, heart and tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of a symposium entitled In Vivo Imaging of Neurotransmitter Function in Brain, Heart, and Tumors'' held August 24--25, 1990 in Montreal Canada. The six individual papers contained herein are separately abstracted and indexed for the database.

  12. AAV-mediated in vivo functional selection of tissue-protective factors against ischaemia

    PubMed Central

    Ruozi, Giulia; Bortolotti, Francesca; Falcione, Antonella; Dal Ferro, Matteo; Ukovich, Laura; Macedo, Antero; Zentilin, Lorena; Filigheddu, Nicoletta; Cappellari, Gianluca Gortan; Baldini, Giovanna; Zweyer, Marina; Barazzoni, Rocco; Graziani, Andrea; Zacchigna, Serena; Giacca, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Functional screening of expression libraries in vivo would offer the possibility of identifying novel biotherapeutics without a priori knowledge of their biochemical function. Here we describe a procedure for the functional selection of tissue-protective factors based on the in vivo delivery of arrayed cDNA libraries from the mouse secretome using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors. Application of this technique, which we call FunSel, in the context of acute ischaemia, revealed that the peptide ghrelin protects skeletal muscle and heart from ischaemic damage. When delivered to the heart using an AAV9 vector, ghrelin markedly reduces infarct size and preserves cardiac function over time. This protective activity associates with the capacity of ghrelin to sustain autophagy and remove dysfunctional mitochondria after myocardial infarction. Our findings describe an innovative tool to identify biological therapeutics and reveal a novel role of ghrelin as an inducer of myoprotective autophagy. PMID:26066847

  13. AAV-mediated in vivo functional selection of tissue-protective factors against ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Ruozi, Giulia; Bortolotti, Francesca; Falcione, Antonella; Dal Ferro, Matteo; Ukovich, Laura; Macedo, Antero; Zentilin, Lorena; Filigheddu, Nicoletta; Gortan Cappellari, Gianluca; Baldini, Giovanna; Zweyer, Marina; Barazzoni, Rocco; Graziani, Andrea; Zacchigna, Serena; Giacca, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Functional screening of expression libraries in vivo would offer the possibility of identifying novel biotherapeutics without a priori knowledge of their biochemical function. Here we describe a procedure for the functional selection of tissue-protective factors based on the in vivo delivery of arrayed cDNA libraries from the mouse secretome using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors. Application of this technique, which we call FunSel, in the context of acute ischaemia, revealed that the peptide ghrelin protects skeletal muscle and heart from ischaemic damage. When delivered to the heart using an AAV9 vector, ghrelin markedly reduces infarct size and preserves cardiac function over time. This protective activity associates with the capacity of ghrelin to sustain autophagy and remove dysfunctional mitochondria after myocardial infarction. Our findings describe an innovative tool to identify biological therapeutics and reveal a novel role of ghrelin as an inducer of myoprotective autophagy. PMID:26066847

  14. Time related changes in luteal prostaglandin synthesis and steroidogenic capacity during pregnancy, normal and antiprogestin induced luteolysis in the bitch.

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, Mariusz Pawel; Beceriklisoy, Hakki Bülent; Aslan, Selim; Agaoglu, Ali Reha; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2009-11-01

    In nonpregnant and pregnant dogs the corpora lutea (CL) are the only source of progesterone (P4) which shows an almost identical secretion pattern until the rapid decrease of P4 prior to parturition. For the nonpregnant dog clear evidence has been obtained that physiological luteal regression is devoid of a functional role of the PGF2alpha-system and seems to depend on the provision of StAR. Yet in pregnant dogs the rapid prepartal luteal regression, coinciding with an increase of PGF2alpha, may be indicative for different regulatory mechanisms. To assess this situation and by applying semi-quantitative Real Time (Taq Man) RT-PCR, expression patterns were determined for the following factors in CL of pregnant and prepartal dogs and of mid-pregnant dogs treated with the antiprogestin Aglepristone: cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox2), prostaglandin E2 synthase (PGES), prostaglandin F2alpha synthase (PGFS), its receptors (EP2, EP4 an FP), the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), 3beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase (3betaHSD) and the progesterone receptor (PR). Peripheral plasma P4 concentrations were determined by RIA. CL were collected via ovariohysterectomy from pregnant bitches (n=3-5) on days 8-12 (Group 1, pre-implantation period), days 18-25 (Group 2, post-implantation period), days 35-40 (Group 3, mid-gestation period) and during the prepartal progesterone decline (Group 4). Additionally, CL were obtained from groups of 5 mid-pregnant dogs (days 40-45) 24h, respectively 72h after the second treatment with Aglepristone. Expression of Cox2 and PGES was highest during the pre-implantation period, that of PGFS and FP during the post-implantation period. EP4 and EP2 revealed a constant expression pattern throughout pregnancy with a prepartal upregulation of EP2. 3betaHSD and StAR decreased significantly from the pre-implatation period to prepartal luteolysis, it was matched by the course of P4 concentrations. Expression of the PR was higher during mid-gestation and prepartal luteolysis than in the two preceding periods. After application of Aglepristone the overall mRNA-expression resembled the situation during prepartal luteolysis except for EP2, which remained unchanged. These data suggest that - as in the nonpregnant bitch - also in the pregnant bitch luteal production of prostaglandins is associated with luteal support rather than luteolysis. On the other hand induction of luteolysis by the PR blocker Aglepristone points to a role of luteal P4 as an autocrine factor in a positive loop feedback system controlling the availability of P4, StAR and 3betaHSD. PMID:19162415

  15. Progesterone stimulation by LH involves the phospholipase-C pathway in bovine luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Ryo; Shibaya, Masami; Skarzynski, Dariusz J; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2004-04-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH)-stimulated steroidogenesis in luteal cells is known to be mediated through the activation of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase, and to be also modulated by calcium-dependent mechanisms. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that LH stimulates progesterone (P4) production in bovine luteal cells through activation of phospholipase (PL) C by using a cell culture system. Bovine mid-luteal cells (Days 8-12 of the estrous cycle) were cultured for 24 h and then exposed to a PLC inhibitor (U-73122; 10 microM) with or without LH (10 ng/ml) for 4 h. U-73122 blocked LH-stimulated P4 production without affecting cAMP accumulation. Moreover, exposure of luteal cells to PLC increased P4 production in a dose-dependent manner. These results support the hypothesis that the luteotropic action of LH in bovine luteal cells is mediated not only by activation of adenylate cyclase but also by activation of PLC. PMID:15118253

  16. Cutaneous respirometry by dynamic measurement of mitochondrial oxygen tension for monitoring mitochondrial function in vivo.

    PubMed

    Harms, Floor A; Voorbeijtel, Wilhelmina J; Bodmer, Sander I A; Raat, Nicolaas J H; Mik, Egbert G

    2013-09-01

    Progress in diagnosis and treatment of mitochondrial dysfunction in chronic and acute disease could greatly benefit from techniques for monitoring of mitochondrial function in vivo. In this study we demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo respirometry in skin. Mitochondrial oxygen measurements by means of oxygen-dependent delayed fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX are shown to provide a robust basis for measurement of local oxygen disappearance rate (ODR). The fundamental principles behind the technology are described, together with an analysis method for retrievel of respirometry data. The feasibility and reproducibility of this clinically useful approach are demonstrated in a series of rats. PMID:23063685

  17. In-vivo visualization and functional characterization of primary somatic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chao; Donnelly, David F.; LaMotte, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    In-vivo electrophysiological recordings from cell bodies of primary sensory neurons are used to determine sensory function but are commonly performed blindly and without access to voltage-(patch-clamp) electrophysiology or optical imaging. We present a procedure to visualize and patch-clamp the neuronal cell body in the dorsal root ganglion, in vivo, manipulate its chemical environment, determine its receptive field properties, and remove it either to obtain subsequent molecular analyses or to gain access to deeper lying cells. This method allows the association of the peripheral transduction capacities of a sensory neuron with the biophysical and chemical characteristics of its cell body. PMID:20558205

  18. Change of uterine histroph proteins during follicular and luteal phase in pigs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Song, Eun-Ji; Hwangbo, Yong; Lee, Seunghyung; Park, Choon-Keun

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine protein expression patterns of uterine histroph (UH) during the follicular phase (FP) and luteal phase (LP) in pigs. Forty-nine common proteins were identified from FP and LP samples; five were significantly down-regulated (>1.5-fold), while 15 were significantly up-regulated (>1.5-fold) in LPUH compared with FPUH (P<0.05). The 20 differentially-expressed proteins are involved in cell proliferation, cell responses, translation, transport, and metabolism and their molecular functions include nucleic acid binding, oxygen activity, enzymatic activity, growth activity, iron binding, and redox binding. Protein expression of vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGFD), coatomer subunit gamma-2 (G2COP), collagen alpha 4 chain (COL4), cysteine rich protein 2 (CRP2), myoglobin (MYG), and galactoside 3-L-fucosyltransferase 4 (FUT4) was analyzed by Western blotting. These proteins were significantly higher in LPUH compared to FPUH (P<0.05). These data expand our understanding of changes in the intrauterine environment during the pre-implantation period in pigs. PMID:26968245

  19. Biochemical regulation of in vivo function of plant calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPK).

    PubMed

    Liese, Anja; Romeis, Tina

    2013-07-01

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) is a major second messenger in plant signal transduction mediating stress- and developmental processes. Plant Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are mono-molecular Ca(2+)-sensor/protein kinase effector proteins, which perceive Ca(2+) signals and translate them into protein phosphorylation and thus represent an ideal tool for signal transduction. This review focuses on recent developments in CDPK structural analysis and CDPK in vivo phosphorylation substrate identification. We discuss mechanisms implicated in the in vivo regulation of CDPK activity including Ca(2+) binding to the CDPK EF-hands, Ca(2+)-triggered intra-molecular conformation changes, and CDPK (auto)-phosphorylation. Moreover, we address regulation and integration into signaling cascades of selected members of the plant CDPK family, for which in vivo function and phosphorylation in abiotic and biotic stress signaling have been demonstrated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 12th European Symposium on Calcium. PMID:23123193

  20. A protein targeting signal that functions in polarized epithelial cells in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Ali, S; Hall, J; Hazlewood, G P; Hirst, B H; Gilbert, H J

    1996-01-01

    Eukaryotic membrane-associated polypeptides often contain a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor that signals the attachment of GPI lipids to these proteins. The GPI anchor can function as a basolateral or apical targeting signal in mammalian cells cultured in vitro, although the function of the GPI anchor in vivo remains to be elucidated. In this study we have evaluated the effect of fusing a GPI anchor sequence to a prokaryotic reporter protein on the cellular location of the polypeptide in polarized epithelial cells of transgenic mice. The bacterial enzyme, when fused to a eukaryotic signal peptide, was secreted through the basolateral membrane of small-intestinal enterocytes; however, when the enzyme was lined to the GPI anchor sequence the polypeptide was redirected to the apical surface of the epithelial cells. These data provide the first direct evidence that the GPI anchor functions as an apical membrane protein sorting signal in polarized epithelial cells in vivo. PMID:8645168

  1. Stimulation of LH, FSH, and luteal blood flow by GnRH during the luteal phase in mares.

    PubMed

    Castro, T; Oliveira, F A; Siddiqui, M A R; Baldrighi, J M; Wolf, C A; Ginther, O J

    2016-03-01

    A study was performed on the effect of a single dose per mare of 0 (n=9), 100 (n=8), or 300 (n=9) of GnRH on Day 10 (Day 0=ovulation) on concentrations of LH, FSH, and progesterone (P4) and blood flow to the CL ovary. Hormone concentration and blood flow measurements were performed at hours 0 (hour of treatment), 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6. Blood flow was assessed by spectral Doppler ultrasonography for resistance to blood flow in an ovarian artery before entry into the CL ovary. The percentage of the CL with color Doppler signals of blood flow was estimated from videotapes of real-time color Doppler imaging by an operator who was unaware of mare identity, hour, or treatment dose. Concentrations of LH and FSH increased (P < 0.05) at hour 0.25 and decreased (P < 0.05) over hours 1 to 6; P4 concentration was not altered by treatment. Blood flow resistance decreased between hours 0 and 1, but the decrease was greater (P < 0.05) for the 100-?g dose than for the 300-?g dose. The percentage of CL with blood flow signals increased (P < 0.05) between hours 0 and 1 with no significant difference between the 100- and 300-?g doses. The results supported the hypothesis that GnRH increases LH concentration, vascular perfusion of the CL ovary, and CL blood flow during the luteal phase; however, P4 concentration was not affected. PMID:26600292

  2. Nicotine Pretreatment Increases Dysphoric Effects of Alcohol in Luteal-Phase Female Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Penetar, David M.; Kouri, Elena M.; McCarthy, Elissa M.; Lilly, Michelle M.; Peters, Erica N.; Juliano, Trisha M.; Lukas, Scott E.

    2009-01-01

    The present report shows that nicotine enhances some of alcohol’s positive and negative effects in women and that these effects are most pronounced during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Ten low progesterone and 10 high progesterone/luteal-phase women received nicotine patch pretreatments (placebo or 21 mg) 3 hours before an alcohol challenge (0.4 g/kg). Subjective effects were recorded on mood adjective scales and the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI). Heart rate and skin temperature were recorded. Luteal-phase women reported peak positive (e.g. “stimulated”) and peak negative effects (e.g. “clumsy”, “dizzy”) almost twice as great as low progesterone women. PMID:19440397

  3. Luteal phase of the menstrual cycle increases sweating rate during exercise.

    PubMed

    Garcia, A M C; Lacerda, M G; Fonseca, I A T; Reis, F M; Rodrigues, L O C; Silami-Garcia, E

    2006-09-01

    The present study evaluated whether the luteal phase elevation of body temperature would be offset during exercise by increased sweating, when women are normally hydrated. Eleven women performed 60 min of cycling exercise at 60% of their maximal work load at 32 degrees C and 80% relative air humidity. Each subject participated in two identical experimental sessions: one during the follicular phase (between days 5 and 8) and the other during the luteal phase (between days 22 and 25). Women with serum progesterone >3 ng/mL, in the luteal phase were classified as group 1 (N = 4), whereas the others were classified as group 2 (N = 7). Post-exercise urine volume (213 +/- 80 vs 309 +/- 113 mL) and specific urine gravity (1.008 +/- 0.003 vs 1.006 +/- 0.002) changed (P < 0.05) during the luteal phase compared to the follicular phase in group 1. No menstrual cycle dependence was observed for these parameters in group 2. Sweat rate was higher (P < 0.05) in the luteal (3.10 +/- 0.81 g m-2 min-1) than in the follicular phase (2.80 +/- 0.64 g m(-2) min(-1)) only in group 1. During exercise, no differences related to menstrual cycle phases were seen in rectal temperature, heart rate, rate of perceived exertion, mean skin temperature, and pre- and post-exercise body weight. Women exercising in a warm and humid environment with water intake seem to be able to adapt to the luteal phase increase of basal body temperature through reduced urinary volume and increased sweating rate. PMID:16981051

  4. Functionalized gold nanoparticles: a detailed in vivo multimodal microscopic brain distribution study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Fernanda; Mandal, Subhra; Garrovo, Chiara; Astolfo, Alberto; Bonifacio, Alois; Latawiec, Diane; Menk, Ralf Hendrik; Arfelli, Fulvia; Huewel, Sabine; Legname, Giuseppe; Galla, Hans-Joachim; Krol, Silke

    2010-12-01

    In the present study, the in vivo distribution of polyelectrolyte multilayer coated gold nanoparticles is shown, starting from the living animal down to cellular level. The coating was designed with functional moieties to serve as a potential nano drug for prion disease. With near infrared time-domain imaging we followed the biodistribution in mice up to 7 days after intravenous injection of the nanoparticles. The peak concentration in the head of mice was detected between 19 and 24 h. The precise particle distribution in the brain was studied ex vivo by X-ray microtomography, confocal laser and fluorescence microscopy. We found that the particles mainly accumulate in the hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, and the cerebral cortex.In the present study, the in vivo distribution of polyelectrolyte multilayer coated gold nanoparticles is shown, starting from the living animal down to cellular level. The coating was designed with functional moieties to serve as a potential nano drug for prion disease. With near infrared time-domain imaging we followed the biodistribution in mice up to 7 days after intravenous injection of the nanoparticles. The peak concentration in the head of mice was detected between 19 and 24 h. The precise particle distribution in the brain was studied ex vivo by X-ray microtomography, confocal laser and fluorescence microscopy. We found that the particles mainly accumulate in the hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, and the cerebral cortex. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1-S6. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00345j

  5. In Vivo Function of Tryptophans in the Arabidopsis UV-B Photoreceptor UVR8[W

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, Andrew; Jenkins, Gareth I.

    2012-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) is a photoreceptor specifically for UV-B light that initiates photomorphogenic responses in plants. UV-B exposure causes rapid conversion of UVR8 from dimer to monomer, accumulation in the nucleus, and interaction with CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1), which functions with UVR8 in UV-B responses. Studies in yeast and with purified UVR8 implicate several tryptophan amino acids in UV-B photoreception. However, their roles in UV-B responses in plants, and the functional significance of all 14 UVR8 tryptophans, are not known. Here we report the functions of the UVR8 tryptophans in vivo. Three tryptophans in the β-propeller core are important in maintaining structural stability and function of UVR8. However, mutation of three other core tryptophans and four at the dimeric interface has no apparent effect on function in vivo. Mutation of three tryptophans implicated in UV-B photoreception, W233, W285, and W337, impairs photomorphogenic responses to different extents. W285 is essential for UVR8 function in plants, whereas W233 is important but not essential for function, and W337 has a lesser role. Ala mutants of these tryptophans appear monomeric and constitutively bind COP1 in plants, but their responses indicate that monomer formation and COP1 binding are not sufficient for UVR8 function. PMID:23012433

  6. Improving microbial fitness in the mammalian gut by in vivo temporal functional metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Yaung, Stephanie J; Deng, Luxue; Li, Ning; Braff, Jonathan L; Church, George M; Bry, Lynn; Wang, Harris H; Gerber, Georg K

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating functions of commensal microbial genes in the mammalian gut is challenging because many commensals are recalcitrant to laboratory cultivation and genetic manipulation. We present Temporal FUnctional Metagenomics sequencing (TFUMseq), a platform to functionally mine bacterial genomes for genes that contribute to fitness of commensal bacteria in vivo. Our approach uses metagenomic DNA to construct large-scale heterologous expression libraries that are tracked over time in vivo by deep sequencing and computational methods. To demonstrate our approach, we built a TFUMseq plasmid library using the gut commensal Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (Bt) and introduced Escherichia coli carrying this library into germfree mice. Population dynamics of library clones revealed Bt genes conferring significant fitness advantages in E. coli over time, including carbohydrate utilization genes, with a Bt galactokinase central to early colonization, and subsequent dominance by a Bt glycoside hydrolase enabling sucrose metabolism coupled with co-evolution of the plasmid library and E. coli genome driving increased galactose utilization. Our findings highlight the utility of functional metagenomics for engineering commensal bacteria with improved properties, including expanded colonization capabilities in vivo. PMID:25762151

  7. In vivo interrogation of gene function in the mammalian brain using CRISPR-Cas9

    PubMed Central

    Swiech, Lukasz; Heidenreich, Matthias; Banerjee, Abhishek; Habib, Naomi; Li, Yinqing; Trombetta, John; Sur, Mriganka; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Probing gene function in the mammalian brain can be greatly assisted with methods to manipulate the genome of neurons in vivo. The clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated endonuclease (Cas)9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9)1 can be used to edit single or multiple genes in replicating eukaryotic cells, resulting in frame-shifting insertion/deletion (indel) mutations and subsequent protein depletion. Here, we delivered SpCas9 and guide RNAs using adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors to target single (Mecp2) as well as multiple genes (Dnmt1, Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b) in the adult mouse brain in vivo. We characterized the effects of genome modifications in postmitotic neurons using biochemical, genetic, electrophysiological and behavioral readouts. Our results demonstrate that AAV-mediated SpCas9 genome editing can enable reverse genetic studies of gene function in the brain. PMID:25326897

  8. In vivo generation of a mature and functional artificial skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Fuoco, Claudia; Rizzi, Roberto; Biondo, Antonella; Longa, Emanuela; Mascaro, Anna; Shapira-Schweitzer, Keren; Kossovar, Olga; Benedetti, Sara; Salvatori, Maria L; Santoleri, Sabrina; Testa, Stefano; Bernardini, Sergio; Bottinelli, Roberto; Bearzi, Claudia; Cannata, Stefano M; Seliktar, Dror; Cossu, Giulio; Gargioli, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    Extensive loss of skeletal muscle tissue results in mutilations and severe loss of function. In vitro-generated artificial muscles undergo necrosis when transplanted in vivo before host angiogenesis may provide oxygen for fibre survival. Here, we report a novel strategy based upon the use of mouse or human mesoangioblasts encapsulated inside PEG-fibrinogen hydrogel. Once engineered to express placental-derived growth factor, mesoangioblasts attract host vessels and nerves, contributing to in vivo survival and maturation of newly formed myofibres. When the graft was implanted underneath the skin on the surface of the tibialis anterior, mature and aligned myofibres formed within several weeks as a complete and functional extra muscle. Moreover, replacing the ablated tibialis anterior with PEG-fibrinogen-embedded mesoangioblasts also resulted in an artificial muscle very similar to a normal tibialis anterior. This strategy opens the possibility for patient-specific muscle creation for a large number of pathological conditions involving muscle tissue wasting. PMID:25715804

  9. A chemical-genetic approach to study G protein regulation of ? cell function in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Guettier, Jean-Marc; Gautam, Dinesh; Scarselli, Marco; de Azua, Inigo Ruiz; Li, Jian Hua; Rosemond, Erica; Ma, Xiaochao; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Armbruster, Blaine N.; Lu, Huiyan; Roth, Bryan L.; Wess, Jrgen

    2009-01-01

    Impaired functioning of pancreatic ? cells is a key hallmark of type 2 diabetes. ? cell function is modulated by the actions of different classes of heterotrimeric G proteins. The functional consequences of activating specific ? cell G protein signaling pathways in vivo are not well understood at present, primarily due to the fact that ? cell G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are also expressed by many other tissues. To circumvent these difficulties, we developed a chemical-genetic approach that allows for the conditional and selective activation of specific ? cell G proteins in intact animals. Specifically, we created two lines of transgenic mice each of which expressed a specific designer GPCR in ? cells only. Importantly, the two designer receptors differed in their G protein-coupling properties (Gq/11 versus Gs). They were unable to bind endogenous ligand(s), but could be efficiently activated by an otherwise pharmacologically inert compound (clozapine-N-oxide), leading to the conditional activation of either ? cell Gq/11 or Gs G proteins. Here we report the findings that conditional and selective activation of ? cell Gq/11 signaling in vivo leads to striking increases in both first- and second-phase insulin release, greatly improved glucose tolerance in obese, insulin-resistant mice, and elevated ? cell mass, associated with pathway-specific alterations in islet gene expression levels. Selective stimulation of ? cell Gs triggered qualitatively similar in vivo metabolic effects. Thus, this developed chemical-genetic strategy represents a powerful approach to study G protein regulation of ? cell function in vivo. PMID:19858481

  10. Direct link between RACK1 function and localization at the ribosome in vivo.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Scott M; Gilbert, Wendy V; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2009-03-01

    The receptor for activated C-kinase (RACK1), a conserved protein implicated in numerous signaling pathways, is a stoichiometric component of eukaryotic ribosomes located on the head of the 40S ribosomal subunit. To test the hypothesis that ribosome association is central to the function of RACK1 in vivo, we determined the 2.1-A crystal structure of RACK1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Asc1p) and used it to design eight mutant versions of RACK1 to assess roles in ribosome binding and in vivo function. Conserved charged amino acids on one side of the beta-propeller structure were found to confer most of the 40S subunit binding affinity, whereas an adjacent conserved and structured loop had little effect on RACK1-ribosome association. Yeast mutations that confer moderate to strong defects in ribosome binding mimic some phenotypes of a RACK1 deletion strain, including increased sensitivity to drugs affecting cell wall biosynthesis and translation elongation. Furthermore, disruption of RACK1's position at the 40S ribosomal subunit results in the failure of the mRNA binding protein Scp160 to associate with actively translating ribosomes. These results provide the first direct evidence that RACK1 functions from the ribosome, implying a physical link between the eukaryotic ribosome and cell signaling pathways in vivo. PMID:19114558

  11. Functional Studies of the Carboxy-Terminal Repeat Domain of Drosophila RNA Polymerase II in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Brickey, W. J.; Greenleaf, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    To understand the in vivo function of the unique and conserved carboxy-terminal repeat domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RpII215), we have studied RNA polymerase II biosynthesis, activity and genetic function in Drosophila RpII215 mutants that possessed all (C4), half (W81) or none (IIt) of the CTD repeats. We have discovered that steady-state mRNA levels from transgenes encoding a fully truncated, CTD-less subunit (IIt) are essentially equal to wild-type levels, whereas the levels of the CTD-less subunit itself and the amount of polymerase harboring it (Pol IIT) are significantly lower than wild type. In contrast, for the half-CTD mutant (W81), steady-state mRNA levels are somewhat lower than for wild type or IIt, while W81 subunit and polymerase amounts are much less than wild type. Finally, we have tested genetically the ability of CTD mutants to complement (rescue) partially functional RpII215 alleles and have found that IIt fails to complement whereas W81 complements partially to completely. These results suggest that removal of the entire CTD renders polymerase completely defective in vivo, whereas eliminating half of the CTD results in a polymerase with significant in vivo activity. PMID:7498740

  12. In vivo suppressive function of myeloid-derived suppressor cells is limited to the inflammatory site

    PubMed Central

    Haverkamp, Jessica M.; Crist, Scott A.; Elzey, Bennett D.; Cimen, Cansu; Ratliff, Timothy L.

    2011-01-01

    Current thinking suggests that despite the heterogeneity of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), all Gr-1+CD11b+ cells can become suppressive when exposed to inflammatory stimuli. In vitro evaluation shows MDSC from multiple tissue sites have suppressive activity, and in vivo inhibition of MDSC function enhances T cell responses. However, the relative capacity of MDSC present at localized inflammatory sites or in peripheral tissues to suppress T cell responses in vivo has not been directly evaluated. We now demonstrate that during a tissue specific inflammatory response, MDSC inhibition of CD8 T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production is restricted to the inflammatory site. Using a prostate specific inflammatory model and a heterotopic prostate tumor model, we show that MDSC from inflammatory sites or from tumor tissue possess immediate capacity to inhibit T cell function, whereas those isolated from peripheral tissues (spleens and liver) are not suppressive without activation of iNOS by exposure to IFN-γ. These data show MDSC are important regulators of immune responses in the prostate during acute inflammation and the chronic inflammatory setting of tumor growth and that regulation of T cell function by MDSC during a localized inflammatory response is restricted in vivo to the site of an ongoing immune response. PMID:21287554

  13. Structural and Functional Dissection of the Abp1 ADFH Actin-binding Domain Reveals Versatile In Vivo Adapter Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Quintero-Monzon,O.; Rodal, A.; Strokopytov, B.; Almo, S.; Goode, B.

    2005-01-01

    Abp1 is a multidomain protein that regulates the Arp2/3 complex and links proteins involved in endocytosis to the actin cytoskeleton. All of the proposed cellular functions of Abp1 involve actin filament binding, yet the actin binding site(s) on Abp1 have not been identified, nor has the importance of actin binding for Abp1 localization and function in vivo been tested. Here, we report the crystal structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Abp1 actin-binding actin depolymerizing factor homology (ADFH) domain and dissect its activities by mutagenesis. Abp1-ADFH domain and ADF/cofilin structures are similar, and they use conserved surfaces to bind actin; however, there are also key differences that help explain their differential effects on actin dynamics. Using point mutations, we demonstrate that actin binding is required for localization of Abp1 in vivo, the lethality caused by Abp1 overexpression, and the ability of Abp1 to activate Arp2/3 complex. Furthermore, we genetically uncouple ABP1 functions that overlap with SAC6, SLA1, and SLA2, showing they require distinct combinations of activities and interactions. Together, our data provide the first structural and functional view of the Abp1-actin interaction and show that Abp1 has distinct cellular roles as an adapter, linking different sets of ligands for each function.

  14. Impact of clomiphene citrate during ovarian stimulation on the luteal phase after GnRH agonist trigger.

    PubMed

    Derksen, L; Tournaye, H; Stoop, D; Van Vaerenbergh, I; Bourgain, C; Polyzos, N P; Haentjens, P; Blockeel, C

    2014-03-01

    The use of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist to trigger final oocyte maturation in a GnRH antagonist protocol has been associated with poorer clinical outcomes due to an increased luteal-phase defect. It has been shown that LH activity is crucial in a normal luteal phase. Studies assessing the LH concentrations after clomiphene citrate co-treatment have observed increased luteal-phase LH concentrations. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to analyse the effect of clomiphene citrate on the endocrine profile in the luteal phase when using GnRH agonist trigger. This was evaluated in eight oocyte donors undergoing ovarian stimulation using clomiphene citrate in combination with recombinant FSH compared with a control group of five donors treated with recombinant FSH only. The endocrine profile was comparable in both groups, except for serum LH concentrations on the day after trigger (121.3±53.0IU/l versus 52.9±21.5IU/l, respectively, P=0.022). No significant differences in LH concentrations were found on the day of trigger or 5days after oocyte retrieval. In conclusion, a luteal-phase defect was observed despite treatment with clomiphene citrate during ovarian stimulation. The use of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist to trigger ovulation in IVF has been associated with poorer pregnancy outcomes due to an increased luteal-phase defect. The luteal phase is the last phase of the menstrual cycle and is defined as the period between ovulation and the beginning of pregnancy or menses. It has been shown the activity of LH is crucial in a normal luteal phase. Studies assessing the LH concentrations after clomiphene citrate, an oestrogen receptor inhibitor, co-treatment have observed increased luteal-phase LH concentrations. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to analyse the effect of clomiphene citrate on menstrual cycle day 2-6 on the hormone profile in the luteal phase when using GnRH agonist trigger. This was evaluated was in eight oocyte donors undergoing ovarian stimulation using recombinant FSH compared with a control cohort of donors treated with recombinant FSH only. The current prospective cohort study reports higher LH concentrations on the day after GnRH agonist trigger, but not 5days after oocyte retrieval (i.e. in the luteal phase). In conclusion, a luteal-phase defect was observed despite the administration of clomiphene citrate during ovarian stimulation. Additional treatment with clomiphene citrate in the follicular phase is therefore not a valid alternative to prevent luteal-phase defect after GnRH agonist trigger. PMID:24456700

  15. Anti-cytokine auto-vaccinations as tools for the analysis of cytokine function in vivo.

    PubMed

    Uyttenhove, Catherine; Van Snick, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Braking B cell tolerance to generate antibodies against autologous cytokines or chemokines offers an alternative to gene inactivation for functional analysis of these factors in vivo. It is clearly less potent than the genetic approach but offers the advantage of extreme flexibility. The basic principle is to enable a self-reactive B cell to attract T cell help by presenting foreign peptides, a process we called "deceptive" antigen presentation. We here review the different auto-vaccine procedures that are currently used and provide several examples of functional information acquired by this procedure or by mAbs derived from auto-vaccinated mice. PMID:22236653

  16. Swainsonine induces caprine luteal cells apoptosis via mitochondrial-mediated caspase-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Huang, Yong; Zhao, Xiaomin; Zhang, Wenlong; Dong, Feng; Du, Qian; Tong, Dewen

    2014-10-01

    Swainsonine (SW) is an indolizidine alkaloid isolated from a number of poisonous plants. We have previously reported that SW inhibited luteal cell progesterone production by inducing caprine luteal cell apoptosis in vitro; however, the molecular mechanism of this phenomenon remains unclear. In this study, SW-treated luteal cells showed apoptosis characteristics, including nuclear fragmentation, DNA ladder formation, and phosphatidylserine externalization. Further studies showed that SW activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, which subsequently cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. SW also increased in Bax/BcL-2 ratios, promoted Bax translocation from the cytosol to mitochondria, and triggered the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytoplasm. However, Fas and Fas ligand induction or caspase-8 activity did not appear any significant changes. Additional analysis also showed that pan-caspase inhibitor, caspase-9 inhibitor, or caspase-3 inhibitor almost completely protected the cells from SW-induced apoptosis, but not caspase-8 inhibitor. Overall, these data demonstrated that SW induced luteal cells apoptosis through a mitochondrial-mediated caspase-dependent pathway. PMID:24977789

  17. Luteal phase administration of agents for the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Ellen W

    2004-01-01

    This review focuses on current information about luteal phase administration (i.e. typically for the last 2 weeks of the menstrual cycle) of pharmacological agents for the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Compared with continuous administration, a luteal phase administration regimen reduces the exposure to medication and lowers the costs of treatment. Based on evidence from randomised clinical trials, SSRIs are the first-line treatment for PMDD at this time. Of these agents, sertraline, fluoxetine and paroxetine (as an extended-release formulation) are approved by the US FDA for luteal phase, as well as continuous, administration. Clinical trials of these agents and citalopram have demonstrated that symptom reduction is similar with both administration regimens. When used to treat PMDD, SSRI doses are consistent with those used for major depressive disorder. The medications are well tolerated; discontinuation symptoms with this intermittent administration regimen have not been reported. Other medications that have been examined in clinical trials for PMDD or severe premenstrual syndrome (PMS) using luteal phase administration include buspirone, alprazolam, tryptophan and progesterone. Buspirone and alprazolam show only modest efficacy in PMS (in some but not all studies), but there may be a lower incidence of sexual adverse effects with these medications than with SSRIs. Symptom reduction with tryptophan was significantly greater than with placebo, but the availability of this medication is strictly limited because of safety concerns. Progesterone has consistently failed to show efficacy for severe PMS/PMDD in large, randomised, placebo-controlled trials. PMID:15139800

  18. ATF3 Expression in the corpus luteum: possible role in luteal regression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study investigated the induction and possible role of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) in the corpus luteum. Postpubertal cattle were treated at midcycle with prostaglandin F2alpha(PGF) for 0–4 hours. Luteal tissue was processed for immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, an...

  19. OCT-4 expression in follicular and luteal phase endometrium: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The stem cell marker Octamer-4 (OCT-4) is expressed in human endometrium. Menstrual cycle-dependency of OCT-4 expression has not been investigated to date. Methods In a prospective, single center cohort study of 98 women undergoing hysteroscopy during the follicular (n = 49) and the luteal (n = 40) phases of the menstrual cycle, we obtained endometrial samples. Specimens were investigated for OCT-4 expression on the mRNA and protein levels using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Expression of OCT-4 was correlated to menstrual cycle phase. Results Of 89 women sampled, 49 were in the follicular phase and 40 were in the luteal phase. OCT-4 mRNA was detected in all samples. Increased OCT-4 mRNA levels in the follicular and luteal phases was found in 35/49 (71%) and 27/40 (68%) of women, respectively (p = 0.9). Increased expression of OCT-4 protein was identified in 56/89 (63%) samples. Increased expression of OCT-4 protein in the follicular and luteal phases was found in 33/49 (67%) and 23/40 (58%) of women, respectively (p = 0.5). Conclusions On the mRNA and protein levels, OCT-4 is not differentially expressed during the menstrual cycle. Endometrial OCT-4 is not involved in or modulated by hormone-induced cyclical changes of the endometrium. PMID:20412569

  20. Environmentally persistent free radicals decrease cardiac function before and after ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lord, Kevin; Moll, David; Lindsey, John K.; Mahne, Sarah; Raman, Girija; Dugas, Tammy; Cormier, Stephania; Troxlair, Dana; Lomnicki, Slawo; Dellinger, Barry; Varner, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. During the combustion of chlorine-containing hazardous materials and fuels, chlorinated hydrocarbons chemisorb to the surface of transition metal-oxide-containing particles, reduce the metal, and form an organic free radical. These radical-particle systems can survive in the environment for days and are called environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs). This study determined whether EPFRs could decrease left ventricular function before and after ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) in vivo. Male Brown Norway rats were dosed (8 mg/kg, i.t.) 24 hr prior to testing with particles containing the EPFR of 1, 2-dichlorobenzene (DCB230). DCB230 treatment decreased systolic and diastolic function. DCB230 also produced pulmonary and cardiac inflammation. After ischemia, systolic, but not diastolic function was significantly decreased in DCB230-treated rats. Ventricular function was not affected by I/R in control rats. There was greater oxidative stress in the heart and increased 8-isoprostane (biomarker of oxidative stress) in the plasma of treated vs control rats after I/R. These data demonstrate for the first time that DCB230 can produce inflammation and significantly decrease cardiac function at baseline and after I/R in vivo. Furthermore, these data suggest that EPFRs may be a risk factor for cardiac toxicity in healthy individuals and individuals with ischemic heart disease. Potential mechanisms involving cytokines/chemokines and/or oxidative stress are discussed. PMID:21385100

  1. Progesterone, oestradiol, FSH and LH concentrations in serum of progesterone-treated pregnant bitches with suspected luteal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Tibold, A; Thuróczy, J

    2009-07-01

    In the bitch, the corpus luteum is the only source of circulating progesterone throughout pregnancy. Inadequate luteal function may be a cause of abortion or foetal resorption observed after early pregnancy diagnosis. In our study of factors involved in canine luteal inadequacy, 35 pregnant bitches from different breeds were allocated to groups of healthy control (n = 15) vs hypoluteoid (n = 20) pregnant bitches, based on presence or absence of clinical signs of impending abortion and on progesterone concentrations below 10 ng/ml at the 4th-5th week of pregnancy. Hypoluteoid bitches were treated daily with 10-mg natural progesterone in injectable form (Luteosan inj.; Alvetra and Werfft AG, Vienna, Austria) until day 60. Serum progesterone, 17beta-oestradiol, FSH and LH concentrations were measured in samples obtained weekly using ELISA previously validated for dog serum. The exogenous progesterone supplementation was presumed to be sufficient to prevent foetal loss in 15 of the 20 treated bitches. The mean serum progesterone concentration in control pregnant bitches did not decrease below 10 ng/ml until the 8th week of pregnancy. Progesterone concentrations in progesterone-treated hypoluteoid bitches at week 4 were lower than in controls (p < 0.05), but although numerically higher did not differ significantly from those of controls during the period of treatment. Serum 17beta-oestradiol concentrations of healthy bitches were variable, were at most time higher than those of treated animals and slowly decreased until parturition; those of treated bitches remained unchanged during the study. Serum FSH and LH concentrations did not differ between groups. Additional studies involving untreated pregnancies showing equivalent evidence of hypoluteoidism as well as assay of circulating relaxin and prolactin in treated and untreated bitches are needed to better determine the causes and effects of hypoluteoidism in pregnant bitches. PMID:19754551

  2. Broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies require Fc effector functions for in vivo activity

    PubMed Central

    Bournazos, Stylianos; Klein, Florian; Pietzsch, John; Seaman, Michael S.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Ravetch, Jeffrey V.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against HIV-1 provide both effective pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment of HIV-1 infection in murine and non-human primate models, suggesting their potential use in humans. While much is known about the role of variable domains in the neutralization breadth and potency of these bNAbs, the contribution of Fc domains to their activities is, by contrast, poorly characterized. Assessment of the in vivo activity of several bNAbs revealed that FcγR-mediated effector function contributes substantially to their capacity to block viral entry, suppress viremia and confer therapeutic activity. Enhanced in vivo potency of anti-HIV-1 bNAbs was associated with preferential engagement of activating, but not inhibitory FcγRs and Fc domain-engineered bNAb variants with selective binding capacity for activating FcγRs displayed augmented protective activity. These findings reveal key roles for Fc effector function in the in vivo activity of anti-HIV-1 bNAbs and provide novel strategies for generating bNAbs with improved efficacy. PMID:25215485

  3. Dynamic contrast-enhanced optical imaging of in vivo organ function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoozegar, Cyrus B.; Wang, Tracy; Bouchard, Matthew B.; McCaslin, Addason F. H.; Blaner, William S.; Levenson, Richard M.; Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.

    2012-09-01

    Conventional approaches to optical small animal molecular imaging suffer from poor resolution, limited sensitivity, and unreliable quantitation, often reducing their utility in practice. We previously demonstrated that the in vivo dynamics of an injected contrast agent could be exploited to provide high-contrast anatomical registration, owing to the temporal differences in each organ's response to the circulating fluorophore. This study extends this approach to explore whether dynamic contrast-enhanced optical imaging (DyCE) can allow noninvasive, in vivo assessment of organ function by quantifying the differing cellular uptake or wash-out dynamics of an agent in healthy and damaged organs. Specifically, we used DyCE to visualize and measure the organ-specific uptake dynamics of indocyanine green before and after induction of transient liver damage. DyCE imaging was performed longitudinally over nine days, and blood samples collected at each imaging session were analyzed for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a liver enzyme assessed clinically as a measure of liver damage. We show that changes in DyCE-derived dynamics of liver and kidney dye uptake caused by liver damage correlate linearly with ALT concentrations, with an r2 value of 0.91. Our results demonstrate that DyCE can provide quantitative, in vivo, longitudinal measures of organ function with inexpensive and simple data acquisition.

  4. Dual-selection for evolution of in vivo functional aptazymes as riboswitch parts.

    PubMed

    Goler, Jonathan A; Carothers, James M; Keasling, Jay D

    2014-01-01

    Both synthetic biology and metabolic engineering are aided by the development of genetic control parts. One class of riboswitch parts that has great potential for sensing and regulation of protein levels is aptamer-coupled ribozymes (aptazymes). These devices are comprised of an aptamer domain selected to bind a particular ligand, a ribozyme domain, and a communication module that regulates the ribozyme activity based on the state of the aptamer. We describe a broadly applicable method for coupling a novel, newly selected aptamer to a ribozyme to generate functional aptazymes via in vitro and in vivo selection. To illustrate this approach, we describe experimental procedures for selecting aptazymes assembled from aptamers that bind p-amino-phenylalanine and a hammerhead ribozyme. Because this method uses selection, it does not rely on sequence-specific design and thus should be generalizable for the generation of in vivo operational aptazymes that respond to any targeted molecules. PMID:24549623

  5. Functional and molecular characterization of ex vivo cultured epiretinal membrane cells from human proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Veréb, Zoltán; Lumi, Xhevat; Andjelic, Sofija; Globocnik-Petrovic, Mojca; Urbancic, Mojca; Hawlina, Marko; Facskó, Andrea; Petrovski, Goran

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of the cell surface marker phenotype of ex vivo cultured cells growing out of human fibrovascular epiretinal membranes (fvERMs) from proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) can give insight into their function in immunity, angiogenesis, and retinal detachment. FvERMs from uneventful vitrectomies due to PDR were cultured adherently ex vivo. Surface marker analysis, release of immunity- and angiogenesis-pathway-related factors upon TNF α activation and measurement of the intracellular calcium dynamics upon mechano-stimulation using fluorescent dye Fura-2 were all performed. FvERMs formed proliferating cell monolayers when cultured ex vivo, which were negative for endothelial cell markers (CD31, VEGFR2), partially positive for hematopoietic- (CD34, CD47) and mesenchymal stem cell markers (CD73, CD90/Thy-1, and PDGFR β ), and negative for CD105. CD146/MCAM and CD166/ALCAM, previously unreported in cells from fvERMs, were also expressed. Secretion of 11 angiogenesis-related factors (DPPIV/CD26, EG-VEGF/PK1, ET-1, IGFBP-2 and 3, IL-8/CXCL8, MCP-1/CCL2, MMP-9, PTX3/TSG-14, Serpin E1/PAI-1, Serpin F1/PEDF, TIMP-1, and TSP-1) were detected upon TNF α activation of fvERM cells. Mechano-stimulation of these cells induced intracellular calcium propagation representing functional viability and role of these cells in tractional retinal detachment, thus serving as a model for studying tractional forces present in fvERMs in PDR ex vivo. PMID:24195074

  6. Serum progesterone in pregnant bitches supplemented with progestin because of expected or suspected luteal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Günzel-Apel, A; Urhausen, C; Wolf, K; Einspanier, A; Oei, C; Piechotta, M

    2012-12-01

    Progesterone profiles of individual bitches may vary considerably both between and within individuals during pregnancy and non-pregnancy. Suspected luteal deficiency is commonly purported but is difficult to evaluate in clinical cases when progesterone is supplemented because this masks the underlying hormone changes. Therefore, in this study, suspected cases of luteal deficiency (six pregnancies from five bitches) were supplemented with oral medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), allowing measurement of endogenous progesterone using conventional assay. MPA (0.1 mg/kg) treatment commenced between days 30 and 36 after estimated ovulation and was continued for 18-28 days. Endogenous progesterone was measured throughout treatment, and blood was additionally analysed for prolactin (PRL) and relaxin (RLN) as well as MPA. The latter revealed delayed MPA clearance in two bitches, in which Caesarean operation had to be performed because of a low foetal heart rate. In two cases with confirmed basal concentrations of both P(4) and MPA at term, spontaneous parturition occurred. Low endogenous progesterone during pregnancy was not apparent in three bitches that had previously had a short inter-oestrous interval of which two had previously had confirmed short luteal phase. However, in the remaining two cases, there had been previous pregnancy failure, but in only one of these, a premature decrease in endogenous progesterone to <2 ng/ml was detected. The latter had also low concentrations of PRL and RLN. The results of this preliminary clinical study suggest that abnormal progesterone profiles in pregnancy may be uncommon in bitches even when there has been previously documented short inter-oestrous interval. However, luteal deficiency may be suspected in bitches with a history of repeated pregnancy failure or abortion. MPA supplementation appears to be efficacious for management of suspected luteal deficiency and verification of the ovarian dysfunction, but care should be taken regarding the timing of MPA withdrawal and prolongation of pregnancy because of delayed elimination of MPA from blood circulation. PMID:23279466

  7. Comparison of oral dydrogesterone with vaginal progesteronefor luteal support in IUI cycles: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Donya; Taheripanah, Robabeh; Taheripanah, Anahita; Tarighat Monfared, Vahid; Hosseini-Zijoud, Seyed-Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study, we have compared the advantages of oral dydrogestrone with vaginal progesterone (cyclogest) for luteal support in intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles. Progesterone supplementation is the first line treatment when luteal phase deficiency (LPD) can reasonably be assumed. Objective: This study was conduct to compare the effect of oral dydrogestrone with vaginal Cyclogest on luteal phase support in the IUI cycles. Materials and Methods: This prospective, randomized, double blind study was performed in a local infertility center from May 2013 to May 2014. It consisted of 150 infertile women younger than35years old undergoing ovarian stimulation for IUI cycles. They underwent ovarian stimulation with oral dydrogesterone (20 mg) as group A and vaginal cyclogest (400 mg) as group B in preparation for the IUI cycles. Clinical pregnancy and abortion rates, mid luteal progesterone (7daysafter IUI) and patient satisfaction were compared between two groups. Results: The mean serum progesterone levels was significantly higher in group A in comparison with group B (p=0.001). Pregnancy rates in group A was not statistically different in comparison with group B (p =0.58). Abortion rate in two groups was not statistically different (p =0.056) although rate of abortion was higher in group B in comparison with A group. Satisfaction rates were significantly higher in group A compared to group B (p<0.001). Conclusion: We concluded that oral dydrogestrone is effective as vaginal progesterone for luteal-phase support in woman undergoing IUI cycles. Moreover, the mean serum progesterone levels and satisfaction rates in dydrogestrone group were higher than cyclogest group. PMID:26494991

  8. In vivo NMR studies of the glutamate neurotransmitter flux and neuroenergetics: implications for brain function.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Douglas L; Behar, Kevin L; Hyder, Fahmeed; Shulman, Robert G

    2003-01-01

    Until very recently, non-invasive measurement of the glutamate-glutamine cycle in the intact mammalian brain had not been possible. In this review, we describe some studies that have led to quantitative assessment of the glutamate-glutamine cycle (Vcyc), as well as other important metabolic fluxes (e.g., glucose oxidation, CMRglc(ox)), with (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in vivo. These (13)C MRS studies clearly demonstrate that glutamate released from presynaptic neurons is taken up by the astrocyte for subsequent glutamine synthesis. Contrary to the earlier concept of a small, metabolically inactive neurotransmitter pool, in vivo (13)C MRS studies demonstrate that glutamate release and recycling is a major metabolic pathway that cannot be distinguished from its actions of neurotransmission. Furthermore, the in vivo (13)C MRS studies demonstrate in the rat cerebral cortex that increases in Vcyc and neuronal CMRglc(ox) are linearly related with a close to 1:1 slope. Measurements in human cerebral cortex are in agreement with this result. This relationship is consistent with more than two thirds of the energy yielded by glucose oxidation being used to support events associated with glutamate neurotransmission, and it supports a molecular model of a stoichiometric coupling between glutamate neurotransmission and functional glucose oxidation. (13)C MRS measurements of resting human cerebral cortex have found a high level of glutamate-glutamine cycling. This high resting neuronal activity, which is subtracted away in brain mapping studies by positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), has significant implications for the interpretations of functional imaging data. Here we review and discuss the importance of neurotransmission and neuroenergetics as measured by (13)C MRS for understanding brain function and interpreting fMRI. PMID:12524459

  9. CRISPR/Cas9 Promotes Functional Study of Testis Specific X-Linked Gene In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xue; Chen, Yuxi; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Xiya; Liang, Puping; Zhan, Shaoquan; Cao, Shanbo; Songyang, Zhou; Huang, Junjiu

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian spermatogenesis is a highly regulated multistage process of sperm generation. It is hard to uncover the real function of a testis specific gene in vitro since the in vitro model is not yet mature. With the development of the CRISPR/Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated 9) system, we can now rapidly generate knockout mouse models of testis specific genes to study the process of spermatogenesis in vivo. SYCP3-like X-linked 2 (SLX2) is a germ cell specific component, which contains a Cor1 domain and belongs to the XLR (X-linked, lymphocyte regulated) family. Previous studies suggested that SLX2 might play an important role in mouse spermatogenesis based on its subcellular localization and interacting proteins. However, the function of SLX2 in vivo is still elusive. Here, to investigate the functions of SLX2 in spermatogenesis, we disrupted the Slx2 gene by using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Since Slx2 is a testis specific X-linked gene, we obtained knockout male mice in the first generation and accelerated the study process. Compared with wild-type mice, Slx2 knockout mice have normal testis and epididymis. Histological observation of testes sections showed that Slx2 knockout affected none of the three main stages of spermatogenesis: mitosis, meiosis and spermiogenesis. In addition, we further confirmed that disruption of Slx2 did not affect the number of spermatogonial stem cells, meiosis progression or XY body formation by immunofluorescence analysis. As spermatogenesis was normal in Slx2 knockout mice, these mice were fertile. Taken together, we showed that Slx2 itself is not an essential gene for mouse spermatogenesis and CRISPR/Cas9 technique could speed up the functional study of testis specific X-linked gene in vivo. PMID:26599493

  10. Microfibril-associated Glycoprotein 2 (MAGP2) Loss of Function Has Pleiotropic Effects in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Combs, Michelle D.; Knutsen, Russell H.; Broekelmann, Thomas J.; Toennies, Holly M.; Brett, Thomas J.; Miller, Chantel A.; Kober, Daniel L.; Craft, Clarissa S.; Atkinson, Jeffrey J.; Shipley, J. Michael; Trask, Barbara C.; Mecham, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Microfibril-associated glycoprotein (MAGP) 1 and 2 are evolutionarily related but structurally divergent proteins that are components of microfibrils of the extracellular matrix. Using mice with a targeted inactivation of Mfap5, the gene for MAGP2 protein, we demonstrate that MAGPs have shared as well as unique functions in vivo. Mfap5−/− mice appear grossly normal, are fertile, and have no reduction in life span. Cardiopulmonary development is typical. The animals are normotensive and have vascular compliance comparable with age-matched wild-type mice, which is indicative of normal, functional elastic fibers. Loss of MAGP2 alone does not significantly alter bone mass or architecture, and loss of MAGP2 in tandem with loss of MAGP1 does not exacerbate MAGP1-dependent osteopenia. MAGP2-deficient mice are neutropenic, which contrasts with monocytopenia described in MAGP1-deficient animals. This suggests that MAGP1 and MAGP2 have discrete functions in hematopoiesis. In the cardiovascular system, MAGP1;MAGP2 double knockout mice (Mfap2−/−;Mfap5−/−) show age-dependent aortic dilation. These findings indicate that MAGPs have shared primary functions in maintaining large vessel integrity. In solid phase binding assays, MAGP2 binds active TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and BMP2. Together, these data demonstrate that loss of MAGP2 expression in vivo has pleiotropic effects potentially related to the ability of MAGP2 to regulate growth factors or participate in cell signaling. PMID:23963447

  11. In Vivo Imaging of the Photoreceptor Mosaic in Retinal Dystrophies and Correlations with Visual Function

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Stacey S.; Doble, Nathan; Hardy, Joseph L.; Jones, Steven M.; Keltner, John L.; Olivier, Scot S.; Werner, John S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To relate in vivo microscopic retinal changes to visual function in patients who have various forms of retinal dystrophy. Methods The UC Davis Adaptive Optics (AO) fundus camera was used to acquire in vivo retinal images at the cellular level. Visual function tests consisting of visual fields, multifocal electroretinography (mfERG), and contrast sensitivity were measured in all subjects by using stimuli that were coincident with areas imaged. Five patients with different forms of retinal dystrophy and three control subjects were recruited. Cone densities were quantified for all retinal images. Results In all images of diseased retinas, there were extensive areas of dark space between groups of photoreceptors, where no cone photoreceptors were evident. These irregular features were not seen in healthy retinas, but were apparent in patients with retinal dystrophy. There were significant correlations between functional vision losses and the extent to which these irregularities, quantified by cone density, occurred in retinal images. Conclusions AO fundus imaging is a reliable technique for assessing and quantifying the changes in the photoreceptor layer as disease progresses. Furthermore, this technique can be useful in cases where visual function tests provide borderline or ambiguous results, as it allows visualization of individual photoreceptors. PMID:16639019

  12. Value of phagocyte function screening for immunotoxicity of nanoparticles in vivo.

    PubMed

    Frhlich, Eleonore

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) present in the environment and in consumer products can cause immunotoxic effects. The immune system is very complex, and in vivo studies are the gold standard for evaluation. Due to the increased amount of NPs that are being developed, cellular screening assays to decrease the amount of NPs that have to be tested in vivo are highly needed. Effects on the unspecific immune system, such as effects on phagocytes, might be suitable for screening for immunotoxicity because these cells mediate unspecific and specific immune responses. They are present at epithelial barriers, in the blood, and in almost all organs. This review summarizes the effects of carbon, metal, and metal oxide NPs used in consumer and medical applications (gold, silver, titanium dioxide, silica dioxide, zinc oxide, and carbon nanotubes) and polystyrene NPs on the immune system. Effects in animal exposures through different routes are compared to the effects on isolated phagocytes. In addition, general problems in the testing of NPs, such as unknown exposure doses, as well as interference with assays are mentioned. NPs appear to induce a specific immunotoxic pattern consisting of the induction of inflammation in normal animals and aggravation of pathologies in disease models. The evaluation of particle action on several phagocyte functions in vitro may provide an indication on the potency of the particles to induce immunotoxicity in vivo. In combination with information on realistic exposure levels, in vitro studies on phagocytes may provide useful information on the health risks of NPs. PMID:26060398

  13. Value of phagocyte function screening for immunotoxicity of nanoparticles in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich, Eleonore

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) present in the environment and in consumer products can cause immunotoxic effects. The immune system is very complex, and in vivo studies are the gold standard for evaluation. Due to the increased amount of NPs that are being developed, cellular screening assays to decrease the amount of NPs that have to be tested in vivo are highly needed. Effects on the unspecific immune system, such as effects on phagocytes, might be suitable for screening for immunotoxicity because these cells mediate unspecific and specific immune responses. They are present at epithelial barriers, in the blood, and in almost all organs. This review summarizes the effects of carbon, metal, and metal oxide NPs used in consumer and medical applications (gold, silver, titanium dioxide, silica dioxide, zinc oxide, and carbon nanotubes) and polystyrene NPs on the immune system. Effects in animal exposures through different routes are compared to the effects on isolated phagocytes. In addition, general problems in the testing of NPs, such as unknown exposure doses, as well as interference with assays are mentioned. NPs appear to induce a specific immunotoxic pattern consisting of the induction of inflammation in normal animals and aggravation of pathologies in disease models. The evaluation of particle action on several phagocyte functions in vitro may provide an indication on the potency of the particles to induce immunotoxicity in vivo. In combination with information on realistic exposure levels, in vitro studies on phagocytes may provide useful information on the health risks of NPs. PMID:26060398

  14. Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueding; Pang, Yongjiang; Ku, Geng; Xie, Xueyi; Stoica, George; Wang, Lihong V

    2003-07-01

    Imaging techniques based on optical contrast analysis can be used to visualize dynamic and functional properties of the nervous system via optical signals resulting from changes in blood volume, oxygen consumption and cellular swelling associated with brain physiology and pathology. Here we report in vivo noninvasive transdermal and transcranial imaging of the structure and function of rat brains by means of laser-induced photoacoustic tomography (PAT). The advantage of PAT over pure optical imaging is that it retains intrinsic optical contrast characteristics while taking advantage of the diffraction-limited high spatial resolution of ultrasound. We accurately mapped rat brain structures, with and without lesions, and functional cerebral hemodynamic changes in cortical blood vessels around the whisker-barrel cortex in response to whisker stimulation. We also imaged hyperoxia- and hypoxia-induced cerebral hemodynamic changes. This neuroimaging modality holds promise for applications in neurophysiology, neuropathology and neurotherapy. PMID:12808463

  15. Rationally engineered Troponin C modulates in vivo cardiac function and performance in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Shettigar, Vikram; Zhang, Bo; Little, Sean C.; Salhi, Hussam E.; Hansen, Brian J.; Li, Ning; Zhang, Jianchao; Roof, Steve R.; Ho, Hsiang-Ting; Brunello, Lucia; Lerch, Jessica K.; Weisleder, Noah; Fedorov, Vadim V.; Accornero, Federica; Rafael-Fortney, Jill A.; Gyorke, Sandor; Janssen, Paul M. L.; Biesiadecki, Brandon J.; Ziolo, Mark T.; Davis, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment for heart disease, the leading cause of death in the world, has progressed little for several decades. Here we develop a protein engineering approach to directly tune in vivo cardiac contractility by tailoring the ability of the heart to respond to the Ca2+ signal. Promisingly, our smartly formulated Ca2+-sensitizing TnC (L48Q) enhances heart function without any adverse effects that are commonly observed with positive inotropes. In a myocardial infarction (MI) model of heart failure, expression of TnC L48Q before the MI preserves cardiac function and performance. Moreover, expression of TnC L48Q after the MI therapeutically enhances cardiac function and performance, without compromising survival. We demonstrate engineering TnC can specifically and precisely modulate cardiac contractility that when combined with gene therapy can be employed as a therapeutic strategy for heart disease. PMID:26908229

  16. TYK2 Kinase Activity Is Required for Functional Type I Interferon Responses In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Prchal-Murphy, Michaela; Semper, Christian; Lassnig, Caroline; Wallner, Barbara; Gausterer, Christian; Teppner-Klymiuk, Ingeborg; Kobolak, Julianna; Müller, Simone; Kolbe, Thomas; Karaghiosoff, Marina; Dinnyés, Andras; Rülicke, Thomas; Leitner, Nicole R.; Strobl, Birgit; Müller, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) is a member of the Janus kinase (JAK) family and is involved in cytokine signalling. In vitro analyses suggest that TYK2 also has kinase-independent, i.e., non-canonical, functions. We have generated gene-targeted mice harbouring a mutation in the ATP-binding pocket of the kinase domain. The Tyk2 kinase-inactive (Tyk2K923E) mice are viable and show no gross abnormalities. We show that kinase-active TYK2 is required for full-fledged type I interferon- (IFN) induced activation of the transcription factors STAT1-4 and for the in vivo antiviral defence against viruses primarily controlled through type I IFN actions. In addition, TYK2 kinase activity was found to be required for the protein’s stability. An inhibitory function was only observed upon over-expression of TYK2K923E in vitro. Tyk2K923E mice represent the first model for studying the kinase-independent function of a JAK in vivo and for assessing the consequences of side effects of JAK inhibitors. PMID:22723949

  17. Proteomic identification of in vivo interactors reveals novel function of skin cornification proteins.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Wilbert P; Florea, Bogdan I; Isenia, Sheena; Alia, A; Brouwer, Jaap; Backendorf, Claude

    2012-06-01

    Protection against injurious external insults and loss of vital fluids is essential for life and is in all organisms, from bacteria to plants and humans, provided by some form of barrier. Members of the small proline-rich (SPRR) protein family are major components of the cornified cell envelope (CE), a structure responsible for the barrier properties of our skin. These proteins are efficient reactive oxygen species (ROS) quenchers involved not only in the establishment of the skin's barrier function but also in cell migration and wound healing. Here, a proteomic analysis of in vivo SPRR-interacting proteins confirmed their function in CE-formation and ROS-quenching and also revealed a novel unexpected role in DNA-binding. Direct in vitro and in vivo evidence proved that the DNA-binding capacity of SPRRs is regulated by the oxidation state of the proteins. At low ROS levels, nuclear SPRR is able to bind DNA and prevent ROS-induced DNA damage. When ROS levels increase, SPRR proteins multimerize and form an effective antioxidant barrier at the cell periphery, possibly to prevent the production or infiltration of ROS. At even higher ROS exposure, DNA-binding is restituted. A molecular model explaining how the intracellular oxidation state of SPRRs likely influences their selective protective function is provided. PMID:22519520

  18. Fatigue alters in vivo function within and between limb muscles during locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Higham, Timothy E.; Biewener, Andrew A.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle fatigue, a reduction in force as a consequence of exercise, is an important factor for any animal that moves, and can result from both peripheral and/or central mechanisms. Although much is known about whole-limb force generation and activation patterns in fatigued muscles under sustained isometric contractions, little is known about the in vivo dynamics of limb muscle function in relation to whole-body fatigue. Here we show that limb kinematics and contractile function in the lateral (LG) and medial (MG) gastrocnemius of helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris) are significantly altered following fatiguing exercise at 2 m s−1 on an inclined treadmill. The two most significant findings were that the variation in muscle force generation, measured directly from the muscles' tendons, increased significantly with fatigue, and fascicle shortening in the proximal MG, but not the distal MG, decreased significantly with fatigue. We suggest that the former is a potential mechanism for decreased stability associated with fatigue. The region-specific alteration of fascicle behaviour within the MG as a result of fatigue suggests a complex response to fatigue that probably depends on muscle–aponeurosis and tendon architecture not previously explored. These findings highlight the importance of studying the integrative in vivo dynamics of muscle function in response to fatigue. PMID:19129096

  19. Copper-induced changes in reproductive functions: in vivo and in vitro effects.

    PubMed

    Roychoudhury, S; Nath, S; Massanyi, P; Stawarz, R; Kacaniova, M; Kolesarova, A

    2016-03-14

    The goal of this study is to summarize the current knowledge on the effects of one of the essential metals, copper (Cu) on the reproductive system. The development of past four decades addressing effects of Cu on reproductive organs is reviewed. The most relevant data obtained from in vivo and in vitro experiments performed on humans and other mammals, including effects of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) on the reproductive functions are presented. Short term Cu administration has been found to exert deleterious effect on intracellular organelles of rat ovarian cells in vivo. In vitro administration in porcine ovarian granulosa cells releases insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I), steroid hormone progesterone (P(4)), and induces expression of peptides related to proliferation and apoptosis. Adverse effect of Cu on male reproductive functions has been indicated by the decrease in spermatozoa parameters such as concentration, viability and motility. Copper nanoparticles are capable of generating oxidative stress in vitro thereby leading to reproductive toxicity. Toxic effect of CuNPs has been evident more in male mice than in females. Even though further investigations are necessary to arrive at a definitive conclusion, Cu notably influences the reproductive functions by interfering with both male and female reproductive systems and also hampers embryo development in dose-dependent manner. PMID:26596322

  20. Analysis of in vitro and in vivo function of total knee replacements using dynamic contact models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dong

    Despite the high incidence of osteoarthritis in human knee joint, its causes remain unknown. Total knee replacement (TKR) has been shown clinically to be effective in restoring the knee function. However, wear of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene has limited the longevity of TKRs. To address these important issues, it is necessary to investigate the in vitro and in vivo function of total knee replacements using dynamic contact models. A multibody dynamic model of an AMTI knee simulator was developed. Incorporating a wear prediction model into the contact model based on elastic foundation theory enables the contact surface to take into account creep and wear during the dynamic simulation. Comparisons of the predicted damage depth, area, and volume lost with worn retrievals from a physical machine were made to validate the model. In vivo tibial force distributions during dynamic and high flexion activities were investigated using the dynamic contact model. In vivo medial and lateral contact forces experienced by a well-aligned instrumented knee implant, as well as upper and lower bounds on contact pressures for a variety of activities were studied. For all activities, the predicted medial and lateral contact forces were insensitive to the selected material model. For this patient, the load split during the mid-stance phase of gait and during stair is more equal than anticipated. The external knee adduction torque has been proposed as a surrogate measure for medial compartment load during gait. However, a direct link between these two quantities has not been demonstrated using in vivo measurement of medial compartment load. In vivo data collected from a subject with an instrumented knee implant were analyzed to evaluate this link. The subject performed five different overground gait motions (normal, fast, slow, wide, and toe out) while instrumented implant, video motion, and ground reaction data were simultaneously collected. The high correlation coefficient results support the hypothesis that the knee adduction torque is highly correlated with medial compartment contact force and medial to total force ratio during gait.

  1. Minimally invasive microendoscopy system for in vivo functional imaging of deep nuclei in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Bocarsly, Miriam E; Jiang, Wan-Chen; Wang, Chen; Dudman, Joshua T; Ji, Na; Aponte, Yeka

    2015-11-01

    The ability to image neurons anywhere in the mammalian brain is a major goal of optical microscopy. Here we describe a minimally invasive microendoscopy system for studying the morphology and function of neurons at depth. Utilizing a guide cannula with an ultrathin wall, we demonstrated in vivo two-photon fluorescence imaging of deeply buried nuclei such as the striatum (2.5 mm depth), substantia nigra (4.4 mm depth) and lateral hypothalamus (5.0 mm depth) in mouse brain. We reported, for the first time, the observation of neuronal activity with subcellular resolution in the lateral hypothalamus and substantia nigra of head-fixed awake mice. PMID:26601017

  2. Photoacoustics and fluorescence based nanoprobes towards functional and structural imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Aniruddha

    Imaging of chemical analytes and structural properties related to physiological activities within biological systems is of great bio-medical interest; it can contribute to the fundamental understanding of biological systems and can be applied to the diagnosis and prognosis of diseases, especially tumors. The work presented in this thesis focuses on the development and application of polymeric nanoprobe aided optical imaging of chemical analytes (Oxygen, pH) and structural properties in live cells and animal models. To this end, specific nanoprobes, based on the polyacrylamide nanoplatform, bearing both appropriate targeting functionalities, and high concentrations of sensing and contrast agents, have been developed. The nanoprobes presented here are biodegradable, biocompatible and non-toxic, rendering them safe for in vivo use. Furthermore the nanoprobes are designed to have variable optical properties that are dependent on the local concentration of the specific analyte of interest. Optical imaging techniques that are particularly suited for deep tissue applications, such as two-photon fluorescence and photoacoustics, were applied for non-invasive real-time imaging and sensing in cancer cells, tumor spheroids and animal models. Our results demonstrate that this technique enables high sensitive detection of chemical analytes with a sensitivity of <5 Torr for oxygen and <0.1 pH units in vivo, which is better than the currently available in vivo functional imaging techniques. This non-invasive and non-ionizing, yet low cost, method will enable morphological and functional evaluation across any tissue, with both high spatial and temporal resolution but without eliciting short- or long-term tissue damage. Currently no gold standard exists for such xii functional imaging. The approach presented here can be used for early detection and diagnosis of tumors, as well as for monitoring the progression of disease and therapy. This technique will also enable observing phenomena at the cellular level in vivo that would lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases as well as the disease onset, progression, and response to therapy.

  3. Minimally invasive microendoscopy system for in vivo functional imaging of deep nuclei in the mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Bocarsly, Miriam E.; Jiang, Wan-chen; Wang, Chen; Dudman, Joshua T.; Ji, Na; Aponte, Yeka

    2015-01-01

    The ability to image neurons anywhere in the mammalian brain is a major goal of optical microscopy. Here we describe a minimally invasive microendoscopy system for studying the morphology and function of neurons at depth. Utilizing a guide cannula with an ultrathin wall, we demonstrated in vivo two-photon fluorescence imaging of deeply buried nuclei such as the striatum (2.5 mm depth), substantia nigra (4.4 mm depth) and lateral hypothalamus (5.0 mm depth) in mouse brain. We reported, for the first time, the observation of neuronal activity with subcellular resolution in the lateral hypothalamus and substantia nigra of head-fixed awake mice. PMID:26601017

  4. Expression and localization of IGF family members in bovine antral follicles during final growth and in luteal tissue during different stages of estrous cycle and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Schams, D; Berisha, B; Kosmann, M; Amselgruber, W M

    2002-03-01

    The objectives of the study were to monitor the detailed pattern for mRNA expression (RT-PCR and RPA) of IGFs, IGFR-1, IGFBPs, GHR and localization of protein (immunohistochemistry) for IGF-1 and IGFR-1 in bovine follicle classes during final maturation and different corpus luteum (CL) stages during estrous cycle and during pregnancy. A relative high expression of IGF-1 in theca interna (TI) was observed before selection (E<0.5ng/mL). In GC, mRNA expression increased after selection. In contrast, IGF-2 was mainly expressed in the TI. The IGFR-1 mRNA was present in the TI and GC with increasing levels during final development. The expression results were confirmed by localization of IGF-1 and IGFR-1 proteins in GC and TI. There is clear evidence for the local expression of IGFBPs in TI and GC compartment with clear regulatory differences. In CL, the highest mRNA expression of IGF-1, IGF-2 and IGFR-1 was observed during early luteal phase, followed by a decrease, and then by a tendency of an increase during the mid and late luteal phases of the cyclic CL. This level remained low during pregnancy. Intense immunostaining for IGFR-1 in CL was observed mainly in large luteal cells. Evidence for a mRNA for all six IGFBPs were obtained with distinct differences for BP-3, -4 and -5. In conclusion, this comprehensive study gives clear evidence for an important role of the IGFs and IGFBPs in bovine follicular development and CL function. The relative amounts of IGFBPs may ultimately determine ovarian IGF action. PMID:11900964

  5. Oxytocin and progesterone release from bovine corpus luteal cells in culture: effects of insulin-like growth factor I, insulin, and prostaglandins.

    PubMed

    McArdle, C A; Holtorf, A P

    1989-03-01

    The ruminant corpus luteum synthesizes and secretes oxytocin, but little is known of the regulation of these processes in the ovary. In the present work we describe a method for the preparation of cells from the early bovine corpus luteum (1-5 days postovulation) and their maintenance in serum-free culture. The release of oxytocin and progesterone from these cells was increased by the addition of insulin or insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), but not by IGF-II. Hormone release (measured between 60 and 84 h of culture) was increased approximately 5-fold (oxytocin) and 2.5-fold (progesterone) by maximally effective concentrations of IGF-I (EC50, 0.27 nM) and insulin (EC50, 1.94 nM). Sustained exposure (0-84 h) to prostaglandins (PGs) caused a dose-dependent reduction in oxytocin release in the presence of IGF-I (PGF2 alpha EC50, 31 nM; rank order of potency, PGF2 alpha greater than PGE2 greater than PGE1), but did not markedly reduce progesterone release. The inhibitory effect of PG on oxytocin production was mimicked by sustained exposure to a protein kinase-C activator (phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate), supporting the proposed role for this enzyme as a mediator of PG action. These data provide the first demonstration that oxytocin release from early bovine corpus luteal cell cultures can be regulated by insulin, IGF-I, and PGs. Since granulosa and/or luteal cells produce and respond to IGF-I and PGF2 alpha, our data indicate functional interaction of these compounds in the regulation of luteal cell activity. PMID:2645114

  6. E-cadherin is essential for in vivo epidermal barrier function by regulating tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Tunggal, Judith A; Helfrich, Iris; Schmitz, Annika; Schwarz, Heinz; Günzel, Dorothee; Fromm, Michael; Kemler, Rolf; Krieg, Thomas; Niessen, Carien M

    2005-03-23

    Cadherin adhesion molecules are key determinants of morphogenesis and tissue architecture. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the morphogenetic contributions of cadherins remain poorly understood in vivo. Besides supporting cell-cell adhesion, cadherins can affect a wide range of cellular functions that include activation of cell signalling pathways, regulation of the cytoskeleton and control of cell polarity. To determine the role of E-cadherin in stratified epithelium of the epidermis, we have conditionally inactivated its gene in mice. Here we show that loss of E-cadherin in the epidermis in vivo results in perinatal death of mice due to the inability to retain a functional epidermal water barrier. Absence of E-cadherin leads to improper localization of key tight junctional proteins, resulting in permeable tight junctions and thus altered epidermal resistance. In addition, both Rac and activated atypical PKC, crucial for tight junction formation, are mislocalized. Surprisingly, our results indicate that E-cadherin is specifically required for tight junction, but not desmosome, formation and this appears to involve signalling rather than cell contact formation. PMID:15775979

  7. PET and SPECT Radiotracers to Assess Function and Expression of ABC Transporters in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Mairinger, Severin; Erker, Thomas; Müller, Markus; Langer, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, such as P-glycoprotein (Pgp, ABCB1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) are expressed in high concentrations at various physiological barriers (e.g. blood-brain barrier, blood-testis barrier, blood-tumor barrier), where they impede the tissue accumulation of various drugs by active efflux transport. Changes in ABC transporter expression and function are thought to be implicated in various diseases, such as cancer, epilepsy, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. The availability of a non-invasive imaging method which allows for measuring ABC transporter function or expression in vivo would be of great clinical use in that it could facilitate the identification of those patients that would benefit from treatment with ABC transporter modulating drugs. To date three different kinds of imaging probes have been described to measure ABC transporters in vivo: i) radiolabelled transporter substrates ii) radiolabelled transporter inhibitors and iii) radiolabelled prodrugs which are enzymatically converted into transporter substrates in the organ of interest (e.g. brain). The design of new imaging probes to visualize efflux transporters is inter alia complicated by the overlapping substrate recognition pattern of different ABC transporter types. The present article will describe currently available ABC transporter radiotracers for positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and critically discuss strengths and limitations of individual probes and their potential clinical applications. PMID:21434859

  8. Ubiquitination regulates the neuroprotective function of the deubiquitinase ataxin-3 in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Wei-Ling; Burr, Aaron A; Ouyang, Michelle; Blount, Jessica R; Scaglione, K Matthew; Todi, Sokol V

    2013-11-29

    Deubiquitinases (DUBs) are proteases that regulate various cellular processes by controlling protein ubiquitination. Cell-based studies indicate that the regulation of the activity of DUBs is important for homeostasis and is achieved by multiple mechanisms, including through their own ubiquitination. However, the physiological significance of the ubiquitination of DUBs to their functions in vivo is unclear. Here, we report that ubiquitination of the DUB ataxin-3 at lysine residue 117, which markedly enhances its protease activity in vitro, is critical for its ability to suppress toxic protein-dependent degeneration in Drosophila melanogaster. Compared with ataxin-3 with only Lys-117 present, ataxin-3 that does not become ubiquitinated performs significantly less efficiently in suppressing or delaying the onset of toxic protein-dependent degeneration in flies. According to further studies, the C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP), an E3 ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitinates ataxin-3 in vitro, is dispensable for its ubiquitination in vivo and is not required for the neuroprotective function of this DUB in Drosophila. Our work also suggests that ataxin-3 suppresses degeneration by regulating toxic protein aggregation rather than stability. PMID:24106274

  9. Histone acetyltransferase activity and interaction with ADA2 are critical for GCN5 function in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Candau, R; Zhou, J X; Allis, C D; Berger, S L

    1997-01-01

    Yeast GCN5 is one component of a putative adaptor complex that includes ADA2 and ADA3 and functionally connects DNA-bound transcriptional activators with general transcription factors. GCN5 possesses histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity, conceptually linking transcriptional activation with enzymatic modification at chromatin. We have identified the minimal catalytic domain within GCN5 necessary to confer HAT activity and have shown that in vivo activity of GCN5 requires this domain. However, complementation of growth and transcriptional activation in gcn5- cells required not only the HAT domain of GCN5, but also interaction with ADA2. The bromodomain in GCN5 was dispensable for HAT activity and for transcriptional activation by strong activators; however, it was required for full complementation in other assays. Fusion of GCN5 to the bacterial lexA DNA binding domain activated transcription in vivo, and required both the HAT domain and the ADA2 interaction domain. These results suggest that both functions of GCN5, HAT activity and interaction with ADA2, are necessary for targeting and acetylation of nucleosomal histones. PMID:9034338

  10. Helicase Activity Plays a Crucial Role for RNase R Function in Vivo and for RNA Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Sk Tofajjen; Deutscher, Murray P

    2016-04-29

    RNase R is a 3' to 5' hydrolytic exoribonuclease that has the unusual ability to digest highly structured RNA. The enzyme possesses an intrinsic, ATP-dependent RNA helicase activity that is essential in vitro for efficient nuclease activity against double-stranded RNA substrates, particularly at lower temperatures, with more stable RNA duplexes, and for duplexes with short 3' overhangs. Here, we inquired whether the helicase activity was also important for RNase R function in vivo and for RNA metabolism. We find that strains containing a helicase-deficient RNase R due to mutations in its ATP-binding Walker motifs exhibit growth defects at low temperatures. Most importantly, cells also lacking polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase), and dependent for growth on RNase R, grow extremely poorly at 34, 37, and 42 °C and do not grow at all at 31 °C. Northern analysis revealed that in these cells, fragments of 16S and 23S rRNA accumulate to high levels, leading to interference with ribosome maturation and ultimately to cell death. These findings indicate that the intrinsic helicase activity of RNase R is required for its proper functioning in vivo and for effective RNA metabolism. PMID:27022019

  11. Consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation for effector T cell function in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Rouse, B.T.; Hartley, D.; Doherty, P.C. )

    1989-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of acutely primed and memory virus-immune CD8+ T cells causes enhanced meningitis in both cyclophosphamide (Cy) suppressed, and unsuppressed, recipients infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). The severity of meningitis is assessed by counting cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from the cisterna magna, which allows measurement of significant inflammatory process ranging from 3 to more than 300 times the background number of cells found in mice injected with virus alone. Exposure of the donor immune population to ionizing radiation prior to transfer has shown that activated T cells from mice primed 7 or 8 days previously with virus may still promote a low level of meningitis in unsuppressed recipients following as much as 800 rads, while this effect is lost totally in Cy-suppressed mice at 600 rads. Memory T cells are more susceptible and show no evidence of in vivo effector function in either recipient population subsequent to 400 rads, a dose level which also greatly reduces the efficacy of acutely-primed T cells. The results are interpreted as indicating that heavily irradiated cells that are already fully functional show evidence of primary localization to the CNS and a limited capacity to cause pathology. Secondary localization, and events that require further proliferation of the T cells in vivo, are greatly inhibited by irradiation.

  12. Murine CD83-positive T cells mediate suppressor functions in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kreiser, Simon; Eckhardt, Jenny; Kuhnt, Christine; Stein, Marcello; Krzyzak, Lena; Seitz, Christine; Tucher, Christine; Knippertz, Ilka; Becker, Christoph; Günther, Claudia; Steinkasserer, Alexander; Lechmann, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    The CD83 molecule (CD83) is a well-known surface marker present on mature dendritic cells (mDC). In this study, we show that CD83 is also expressed on a subset of T cells which mediate regulatory T cell (Treg)-like suppressor functions in vitro and in vivo. Treg-associated molecules including CD25, cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family-related gene (GITR), Helios and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) as well as forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) were specifically expressed by these CD83(+) T cells. In contrast, CD83(-) T cells showed a naive T cell phenotype with effector T cell properties upon activation. Noteworthy, CD83(-) T cells were not able to upregulate CD83 despite activation. Furthermore, CD83(+) T cells suppressed the proliferation and inflammatory cytokine release of CD83(-) T cells in vitro. Strikingly, stimulated CD83(+) T cells released soluble CD83 (sCD83), which has been reported to possess immunosuppressive properties. In vivo, using the murine transfer colitis model we could show that CD83(+) T cells were able to suppress colitis symptoms while CD83(-) T cells possessed effector functions. In addition, this CD83 expression is also conserved on expanded human Treg. Thus, from these studies we conclude that CD83(+) T cells share important features with regulatory T cells, identifying CD83 as a novel lineage marker to discriminate between different T cell populations. PMID:25151500

  13. The synthesis and in vivo assembly of functional antibodies in yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Clive R.; Boss, Michael A.; Kenten, John H.; Calvert, Jane E.; Roberts, Nicola A.; Emtage, J. Spencer

    1985-04-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can synthesize, process and secrete higher eukaryotic proteins1-5. We have investigated the expression of immunoglobulin chains in yeast and demonstrate here (1) the synthesis, processing and secretion of light and heavy chains, (2) the glycosylation of heavy chain, (3) the intracellular localization of these foreign proteins by immunofluorescence, and (4) the detection of functional antibodies in cells co-expressing both chains. This may provide the basis of a microbial fermentation process for the production of monoclonal antibodies. The co-expression of light and heavy chains in Escherichia coli has been reported but functional antibodies were not assembled in vivo6,7. Furthermore, only low-level assembly of these chains was found in vitro.

  14. Proteomics meets genetics: SILAC labeling of Drosophila melanogaster larvae and cells for in vivo functional studies.

    PubMed

    Cuomo, Alessandro; Sanfilippo, Roberta; Vaccari, Thomas; Bonaldi, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) is an established and potent method for quantitative proteomics. When combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) and efficient algorithms for the analysis of quantitative MS data, SILAC has proven to be the strategy of choice for the in-depth characterization of functional states at the protein level. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most widely used model systems for studies of genetics and developmental biology. Despite this, a global proteomic approach in Drosophila is rarely considered. Here, we describe an adaptation of SILAC for functional investigation of fruit flies by proteomics: We illustrate how to perform efficient SILAC labeling of cells in culture and whole fly larvae. The combination of SILAC, a highly accurate global protein quantification method, and of the fruit fly, the prime genetics and developmental model, represents a unique opportunity for quantitative proteomic studies in vivo. PMID:25059620

  15. Plant-PET Scans: In Vivo Mapping of Xylem and Phloem Functioning.

    PubMed

    Hubeau, Michiel; Steppe, Kathy

    2015-10-01

    Medical imaging techniques are rapidly expanding in the field of plant sciences. Positron emission tomography (PET) is advancing as a powerful functional imaging technique to decipher in vivo the function of xylem water flow (with (15)O or (18)F), phloem sugar flow (with (11)C or (18)F), and the importance of their strong coupling. However, much remains to be learned about how water flow and sugar distribution are coordinated in intact plants, both under present and future climate regimes. We propose to use PET analysis of plants (plant-PET) to visualize and generate these missing data about integrated xylem and phloem transport. These insights are crucial to understanding how a given environment will affect plant physiological processes and growth. PMID:26440436

  16. MRI of rod cell compartment-specific function in disease and treatment in vivo.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Bruce A; Bissig, David; Roberts, Robin

    2016-03-01

    Rod cell oxidative stress is a major pathogenic factor in retinal disease, such as diabetic retinopathy (DR) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Personalized, non-destructive, and targeted treatment for these diseases remains elusive since current imaging methods cannot analytically measure treatment efficacy against rod cell compartment-specific oxidative stress in vivo. Over the last decade, novel MRI-based approaches that address this technology gap have been developed. This review summarizes progress in the development of MRI since 2006 that enables earlier evaluation of the impact of disease on rod cell compartment-specific function and the efficacy of anti-oxidant treatment than is currently possible with other methods. Most of the new assays of rod cell compartment-specific function are based on endogenous contrast mechanisms, and this is expected to facilitate their translation into patients with DR and RP, and other oxidative stress-based retinal diseases. PMID:26344734

  17. In vivo imaging of the integration and function of nigral grafts in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Politis, Marios; Piccini, Paola

    2012-01-01

    In vivo functional imaging has provided objective evidence for the integration and function of nigral grafts in the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease. Clinical trials with the use of positron emission tomography have shown that transplants of human dopamine-rich fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue can survive, grow, and release dopamine providing motor symptom relief, and also that they can restore brain activation related to movement. Positron emission tomography has aided in the elucidation of the pathophysiology of serious adverse effects, so-called graft-induced dyskinesias. With the use of newly established radioligands, positron emission tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography could help to improve Parkinson's patient selection in future clinical trials by selecting those with better predicted outcomes. Moreover, positron emission tomography could help monitoring postoperational inflammatory processes around the grafted tissue and the effect of immunosuppression. Recent evidence from positron emission tomography has provided insight of how ongoing extrastriatal serotonergic denervation may have relevance to nonmotor symptoms in transplanted Parkinson's disease patients indicating new cell therapy targets for a more complete relief of symptoms. Functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging techniques could help to better assess the integration of nigral graft with the host brain by assessing the restoration of brain activation during movement and of functional and structural connectivity. This knowledge should lead to the development of new, optimized in vivo imaging protocols that could help to better schedule, monitor, and modify the clinical outcomes of future human trials assessing the efficacy of fetal or stem cell therapy in Parkinson's disease. PMID:23195420

  18. Mapping 3-D functional capillary geometry in rat skeletal muscle in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Graham M; Milkovich, Stephanie; Goldman, Daniel; Ellis, Christopher G

    2012-02-01

    We have developed a novel mapping software package to reconstruct microvascular networks in three dimensions (3-D) from in vivo video images for use in blood flow and O2 transport modeling. An intravital optical imaging system was used to collect video sequences of blood flow in microvessels at different depths in the tissue. Functional images of vessels were produced from the video sequences and were processed using automated edge tracking software to yield location and geometry data for construction of the 3-D network. The same video sequences were analyzed for hemodynamic and O2 saturation data from individual capillaries in the network. Simple user-driven commands allowed the connection of vessel segments at bifurcations, and semiautomated registration enabled the tracking of vessels across multiple focal planes and fields of view. The reconstructed networks can be rotated and manipulated in 3-D to verify vessel connections and continuity. Hemodynamic and O2 saturation measurements made in vivo can be indexed to corresponding vessels and visualized using colorized maps of the vascular geometry. Vessels in each reconstruction are saved as text-based files that can be easily imported into flow or O2 transport models with complete geometry, hemodynamic, and O2 transport conditions. The results of digital morphometric analysis of seven microvascular networks showed mean capillary diameters and overall capillary density consistent with previous findings using histology and corrosion cast techniques. The described mapping software is a valuable tool for the quantification of in vivo microvascular geometry, hemodynamics, and oxygenation, thus providing rich data sets for experiment-based computational models. PMID:22140042

  19. Demonstration of an in vivo functional beta 3-adrenoceptor in man.

    PubMed

    Enocksson, S; Shimizu, M; Lönnqvist, F; Nordenström, J; Arner, P

    1995-05-01

    Although it is well established in several mammalian species that beta 3-adrenoceptors play a major role in regulating lipolysis and thermogenesis in adipose tissue, the functional existence and role of this receptor subtype in man has been controversial. We investigated whether the beta 3-adrenoceptor functionally co-exists with beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in vivo in human adipose tissue. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue of healthy non-obese subjects was microdialyzed with equimolar concentrations of dobutamine (selective beta 1-adrenoceptor agonist), terbutaline (selective beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist), or CGP 12177 (selective beta 3-adrenoceptor agonist). All three agents caused a rapid, sustained, concentration-dependent and significant elevation of the glycerol level in the microdialysate (lipolysis index). However, only terbutaline stimulated the nutritive blood flow in adipose tissue, as measured by an ethanol escape technique. Dobutamine and CGP 12177 was equally effective in elevating the glycerol level (maximum effect 150% above baseline). Terbutaline was significantly more effective than the other two beta-agonists (maximum effect 200% above baseline). When adipose tissue was pretreated with the beta 1/beta 2-selective adrenoceptor blocker propranolol the glycerol increasing effect of dobutamine or terbutaline was inhibited by 80-85% but the glycerol response to CGP 12177 was not influenced. It is concluded that a functional beta 3-adrenoceptor is present in vivo in man. It co-exists with beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in adipose tissue and may therefore play a role in lipolysis regulation. It appears, however, that the beta 2-adrenoceptor is the most important beta-adrenoceptor subtype for the mobilization of lipids from abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue because of its concomitant stimulatory effect on lipolysis and blood flow. PMID:7738189

  20. Levonorgestrel inhibits luteinizing hormone-stimulated progesterone production in rat luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Tellería, C M; Carrizo, D G; Deis, R P

    1994-08-01

    The effects of the synthetic progestin levonorgestrel (LNG) on basal and LH-stimulated progesterone production were studied in collagenase-dispersed luteal cells obtained from 9-day pregnant rats. Luteal cells responded to ovine LH (oLH) with an increase in progesterone output which was maximal at a dose of 100 ng/ml. No effect of LNG was observed at 0.1-10 microM, but at 100 microM, it inhibited basal progesterone production. On the other hand, a dose of 10 microM LNG suppressed the stimulation of progesterone secretion induced by oLH, dibutyryl-cAMP and pregnenolone. It is suggested that the possible mechanism of action of the progestin involves a post-cAMP site and, in some way, may lead to an interference with 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity, which catalyzes the formation of progesterone from pregnenolone, the last step of progesterone biosynthesis. This study provides a different point of view supporting an autocrine control mechanism by which progesterone, the principal steroidogenic product of luteal cells, may exert a negative ultra-short loop regulation of its own biosynthesis. PMID:8049144

  1. N-acetylcysteine impairs survival of luteal cells through mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Löhrke, Berthold; Xu, Jinxian; Weitzel, Joachim M; Krüger, Burkhard; Goldammer, Tom; Viergutz, Torsten

    2010-04-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is known as an antioxidant and used for mucus viscosity reduction. However, this drug prevents or induces cell death depending on the cell type. The response of steroidogenic luteal cells to NAC is unknown. Our data shows that NAC can behave as an antioxidant or prooxidant in dependency on the concentration and mitochondrial energization. NAC elevated the flowcytometric-measured portion of hypodiploid (dying) cells. This rise was completely abolished by aurintricarboxylic acid, an inhibitor of topoisomerase II. NAC increased the secretion of nitric oxide and cellular nitrotyrosine. An image analysis indicated that cells pretreated with NAC and loaded with DHR showed a fluorescent structure probably elicited by the oxidative product of DHR, rhodamine 123 that sequesters mitochondrially. Pretreating luteal cells with NAC or adding NAC directly to mitochondrial fractions followed by assessing the mitochondrial transmembrane potential difference (Deltapsi) by the JC-1 technique demonstrated a marked decrease in Deltapsi. A protonophore restored Deltapsi and rotenone (an inhibitor of respiratory chain complex I) inhibited mitochondrial recovering. Thus, in steroidogenic luteal cells from healthy mature corpus luteum, NAC impairs cellular survival by interfering with mitochondrial metabolism. The protonophore-induced recovering of NAC-provoked decrease in Deltapsi indicates that an ATP synthase-favored route of H(+) re-entry to the matrix is essentially switched off by NAC while other respiratory chain complexes remain intact. These data may be important for therapeutic timing of treatments with NAC. (c) 2010 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:20151456

  2. Luteal changes after treatment with sub-luteolytic doses of prostaglandin (cloprostenol sodium) in cattle.

    PubMed

    Trevisol, Eduardo; Ferreira, Jair Camargo; Ackermann, Camila Louise; Destro, Flavia Caroline; Marques Filho, Wolff Camargo; Carmagos, Aline Souza; Biehl, Marcos Vinicius; do Amaral, Jackson Barros; de Figueiredo Pantoja, Jos Carlos; Sartori, Roberto; Ferreira, Joo Carlos Pinheiro

    2015-02-01

    This study characterizes the physiological and morphological changes related to partial luteolysis in bovine corpus luteum (CL) after challenges with sub-doses of cloprostenol sodium on Day 6 (D6) of the estrous cycle. Cows (n = 12/treatment) were treated as follows: Control (2 mL, saline, i.m.); 2XPGF (two treatments i.m. 500 ?g of cloprostenol sodium 2 h apart) and 1/6PGF (83.3 ?g of cloprostenol sodium, i.m., once). Plasma progesterone (P4) concentration, CL volume and blood flow were measured immediately before the treatments, then every 8 h (h) for 48 h. In the Control, P4 concentrations were higher at 48 h than at 0 h. P4 decreased 8h after 2XPGF treatment (P < 0.05), and remained low until the end of the trial. P4 decreased in 1/6PGF between 8 and 16 h (P < 0.05), then began to rebound at 24 h. Luteal volume was higher in Controls at 48 h than at 0 h. Under 1/6PGF, luteal volume decreased at 24 h (P < 0.05) and began to rebound at 32 h. Luteal volume and blood flow were reduced starting at 24 and 32 h, respectively, after 2XPGF treatment (P < 0.05). In this study, we were able to describe the partial luteolysis phenomenon, induced by a treatment of a D6CL with cloprostenol sub-dose. PMID:25578505

  3. Selective ex-vivo photothermal ablation of human pancreatic cancer with albumin functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Mocan, Lucian; Tabaran, Flaviu A; Mocan, Teodora; Bele, Constantin; Orza, Anamaria Ioana; Lucan, Ciprian; Stiufiuc, Rares; Manaila, Ioana; Iulia, Ferencz; Dana, Iancu; Zaharie, Florin; Osian, Gelu; Vlad, Liviu; Iancu, Cornel

    2011-01-01

    The process of laser-mediated ablation of cancer cells marked with biofunctionalized carbon nanotubes is frequently called “nanophotothermolysis”. We herein present a method of selective nanophotothermolisys of pancreatic cancer (PC) using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) functionalized with human serum albumin (HSA). With the purpose of testing the therapeutic value of these nanobioconjugates, we have developed an ex-vivo experimental platform. Surgically resected specimens from patients with PC were preserved in a cold medium and kept alive via intra-arterial perfusion. Additionally, the HSA-MWCNTs have been intra-arterially administered in the greater pancreatic artery under ultrasound guidance. Confocal and transmission electron microscopy combined with immunohistochemical staining have confirmed the selective accumulation of HSA-MWCNTs inside the human PC tissue. The external laser irradiation of the specimen has significantly produced extensive necrosis of the malign tissue after the intra-arterial administration of HSA-MWCNTs, without any harmful effects on the surrounding healthy parenchyma. We have obtained a selective photothermal ablation of the malign tissue based on the selective internalization of MWCNTs with HSA cargo inside the pancreatic adenocarcinoma after the ex-vivo intra-arterial perfusion. PMID:21720504

  4. In Vivo Evaluation of Vena Caval Filters: Can Function Be Linked to Design Characteristics?

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, Mary C.; Cho, Kyung J.; Greenfield, Lazar J.

    2000-11-15

    Purpose: To compare the five vena caval filters marketed in the United States and one investigational vena caval filter and to determine whether there is an association between their design and their in vivo function.Methods: Four of each type of filter-Simon Nitinol (SN), Bird's Nest (BN), Vena Tech (VT), Greenfield stainless steel (PSGF), Greenfield titanium (TGF), and the investigational stent cone filter (NGF)-were studied for 60 days in 12 sheep. Radiographic and pathologic outcomes to be assessed included clot capture and resolution, vena caval penetration, position of the filter, thrombogenicity, and vessel wall reaction.Results: Filters differed with respect to the number of clot-trapping levels and the interdependence of the legs. All devices were successfully placed. Intentionally embolized clot was captured. One VT and two SN filters migrated in response to clot capture. Resolution of thrombus was variable, and related to the design of the device. Fibrin webbing was widely present with the VT, BN, and SN filters but limited in the others. The VT and NGF filters demonstrated the most stable filter base diameter.Conclusions: The performance of vena caval filters differs with respect to clot resolution and mechanical stability. Interdependent filter limbs and single-stage conical capture sites appear to result in more favorable performance in in vivo studies.

  5. In Vitro Hematological and In Vivo Vasoactivity Assessment of Dextran Functionalized Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Sayan Mullick; Kanakia, Shruti; Toussaint, Jimmy D.; Frame, Mary D.; Dewar, Anthony M.; Shroyer, Kenneth R.; Moore, William; Sitharaman, Balaji

    2013-01-01

    The intravenous, intramuscular or intraperitoneal administration of water solubilized graphene nanoparticles for biomedical applications will result in their interaction with the hematological components and vasculature. Herein, we have investigated the effects of dextran functionalized graphene nanoplatelets (GNP-Dex) on histamine release, platelet activation, immune activation, blood cell hemolysis in vitro, and vasoactivity in vivo. The results indicate that GNP-Dex formulations prevented histamine release from activated RBL-2H3 rat mast cells, and at concentrations ≥ 7 mg/ml, showed a 12–20% increase in levels of complement proteins. Cytokine (TNF-Alpha and IL-10) levels remained within normal range. GNP-Dex formulations did not cause platelet activation or blood cell hemolysis. Using the hamster cheek pouch in vivo model, the initial vasoactivity of GNP-Dex at concentrations (1–50 mg/ml) equivalent to the first pass of a bolus injection was a brief concentration-dependent dilation in arcade and terminal arterioles. However, they did not induce a pro-inflammatory endothelial dysfunction effect. PMID:24002570

  6. Cellular in vivo imaging reveals coordinated regulation of pituitary microcirculation and GH cell network function

    PubMed Central

    Lafont, Chrystel; Desarménien, Michel G.; Cassou, Mathieu; Molino, François; Lecoq, Jérôme; Hodson, David; Lacampagne, Alain; Mennessier, Gérard; El Yandouzi, Taoufik; Carmignac, Danielle; Fontanaud, Pierre; Christian, Helen; Coutry, Nathalie; Fernandez-Fuente, Marta; Charpak, Serge; Le Tissier, Paul; Robinson, Iain CAF; Mollard, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) exerts its actions via coordinated pulsatile secretion from a GH cell network into the bloodstream. Practically nothing is known about how the network receives its inputs in vivo and releases hormones into pituitary capillaries to shape GH pulses. Here we have developed in vivo approaches to measure local blood flow, oxygen partial pressure, and cell activity at single-cell resolution in mouse pituitary glands in situ. When secretagogue (GHRH) distribution was modeled with fluorescent markers injected into either the bloodstream or the nearby intercapillary space, a restricted distribution gradient evolved within the pituitary parenchyma. Injection of GHRH led to stimulation of both GH cell network activities and GH secretion, which was temporally associated with increases in blood flow rates and oxygen supply by capillaries, as well as oxygen consumption. Moreover, we observed a time-limiting step for hormone output at the perivascular level; macromolecules injected into the extracellular parenchyma moved rapidly to the perivascular space, but were then cleared more slowly in a size-dependent manner into capillary blood. Our findings suggest that GH pulse generation is not simply a GH cell network response, but is shaped by a tissue microenvironment context involving a functional association between the GH cell network activity and fluid microcirculation. PMID:20160103

  7. Functional Evaluation of ESSomatic Cell Hybrids In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kitai; Liu, Jun; Ng, Kitwa; Daley, George Q.; Verma, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have previously been reported to reprogram somatic cells following fusion. The resulting ESsomatic cell hybrids have been shown to adopt the transcriptional profile of ESCs, suggesting that the pluripotent program is dominant. ESsomatic cell hybrids have most characteristics of pluripotent cells in vitro; however, it remains unclear whether the somatic genome is an active partner in the hybrid cells or simply retained predominately as silent cargo. Furthermore, the functional properties of ESsomatic cell hybrids in vivo have been limited to studies on their contribution to teratomas and developing embryos/chimeras. The extent of their pluripotency remains largely unclear. Here we determined that the somatic genome is actively transcribed by generating ESsomatic cell hybrids using Rag2-deficient ESCs fused to autologous wild-type somatic cells. Rag2 expression was detected during in vitro differentiation, suggesting that the somatic genome follows the correct temporal cues during differentiation. Furthermore, ESsomatic cell hybrids maintain their tetraploid state following 4 weeks of differentiation in vivo and are immune tolerated when transferred into matched individuals. The ESsomatic cell hybrids can efficiently differentiate into hematopoietic precursors in both myeloid and lymphoid lineages in vitro, suggesting that the somatic genome is actively transcribed following cell fusion based reprogramming. However, the ESsomatic cell hybrids showed an altered hematopoietic potential following in vitro differentiation and were unable to show hematopoietic engraftment in a mouse model. PMID:24787484

  8. Novel functional complexity of polycystin-1 by GPS cleavage in vivo: role in polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Kurbegovic, Almira; Kim, Hyunho; Xu, Hangxue; Yu, Shengqiang; Cruanès, Julie; Maser, Robin L; Boletta, Alessandra; Trudel, Marie; Qian, Feng

    2014-09-01

    Polycystin-1 (Pc1) cleavage at the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) proteolytic site (GPS) is required for normal kidney morphology in humans and mice. We found a complex pattern of endogenous Pc1 forms by GPS cleavage. GPS cleavage generates not only the heterodimeric cleaved full-length Pc1 (Pc1(cFL)) in which the N-terminal fragment (NTF) remains noncovalently associated with the C-terminal fragment (CTF) but also a novel (Pc1) form (Pc1(deN)) in which NTF becomes detached from CTF. Uncleaved Pc1 (Pc1(U)) resides primarily in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), whereas both Pc1(cFL) and Pc1(deN) traffic through the secretory pathway in vivo. GPS cleavage is not a prerequisite, however, for Pc1 trafficking in vivo. Importantly, Pc1(deN) is predominantly found at the plasma membrane of renal epithelial cells. By functional genetic complementation with five Pkd1 mouse models, we discovered that CTF plays a crucial role in Pc1(deN) trafficking. Our studies support GPS cleavage as a critical regulatory mechanism of Pc1 biogenesis and trafficking for proper kidney development and homeostasis. PMID:24958103

  9. Head-to-tail regulation is critical for the in vivo function of myosin V

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Kirk W.

    2015-01-01

    Cell organization requires regulated cargo transport along cytoskeletal elements. Myosin V motors are among the most conserved organelle motors and have been well characterized in both yeast and mammalian systems. Biochemical data for mammalian myosin V suggest that a head-to-tail autoinhibitory interaction is a primary means of regulation, but the in vivo significance of this interaction has not been studied. Here we generated and characterized mutations in the yeast myosin V Myo2p to reveal that it is regulated by a head-to-tail interaction and that loss of regulation renders the myosin V constitutively active. We show that an unregulated motor is very deleterious for growth, resulting in severe defects in Myo2-mediated transport processes, including secretory vesicle transport, mitochondrial inheritance, and nuclear orientation. All of the defects associated with motor misregulation could be rescued by artificially restoring regulation. Thus, spatial and temporal regulation of myosin V in vivo by a head-to-tail interaction is critical for the normal delivery functions of the motor. PMID:25940346

  10. In vivo ultrasound imaging of the popliteus muscle: investigation of functional characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Soda, Naoki; Fujihashi, Yuichiro; Aoki, Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to use ultrasound imaging equipment for in vivo observation of the popliteus muscle thickness during rest and exercise to examine its functional characteristics and to establish a training method for this muscle. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects included 30 healthy adults (15 men and 15 women). The measurement tasks, consisting of isometric knee flexion and extension and internal rotation of the lower leg were performed in an arbitrary order. The popliteus muscle thickness was measured using an ultrasound. [Results] The popliteus muscle thickness significantly increased in the internal rotation in 27 subjects (90%), whereas, it remained unchanged in the remaining three subjects (10%). [Conclusion] This study differed from most of the previous studies because it involved in vivo observation of the popliteus muscle. We found that ultrasound was an effective method for the measurement of popliteus muscle thickness. The results suggest that internal rotation of the lower leg is the most effective exercise for working the popliteus muscle.

  11. An In Vivo Cardiac Assay to Determine the Functional Consequences of Putative Long QT Syndrome Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Jou, Chuanchau J.; Barnett, Spencer M.; Bian, Jian-Tao; Weng, H. Cindy; Sheng, Xiaoming; Tristani-Firouzi, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Genetic testing for Long QT Syndrome (LQTS) is now a standard and integral component of clinical cardiology. A major obstacle to the interpretation of genetic findings is the lack of robust functional assays to determine the pathogenicity of identified gene variants in a high throughput manner. Objective The goal of this study was to design and test a high throughput in vivo cardiac assay to distinguish between disease-causing and benign KCNH2 (hERG1) variants, using the zebrafish as a model organism. Methods and Results We tested the ability of previously characterized LQTS hERG1 mutations and polymorphisms to restore normal repolarization in the kcnh2-knockdown embryonic zebrafish. The cardiac assay correctly identified a benign variant in 9 of 10 cases (negative predictive value 90%) while correctly identifying a disease-causing variant in 39/39 cases (positive predictive value 100%). Conclusion The in vivo zebrafish cardiac assay approaches the accuracy of the current benchmark in vitro assay for the detection of disease-causing mutations and is far superior in terms of throughput rate. Together with emerging algorithms for interpreting a positive LQTS genetic test, the zebrafish cardiac assay provides an additional tool for the final determination of pathogenicity of gene variants identified in LQTS genetic screening. PMID:23303164

  12. Formulation/Preparation of Functionalized Nanoparticles for In Vivo Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Frank; Langer, Robert; Farokhzad, Omid C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Targeted cancer therapy allows the delivery of therapeutic agents to cancer cells without incurring undesirable side effects on the neighboring healthy tissues. Over the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in the development of advanced cancer therapeutics using targeted nanoparticles. Here we describe the preparation of drug-encapsulated nanoparticles formulated with biocompatible and biodegradable poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-b-PEG) copolymer and surface functionalized with the A10 2-fluoropyrimidine ribonucleic acid aptamers that recognize the extracellular domain of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), a well-characterized antigen expressed on the surface of prostate cancer cells. We show that the self-assembled nanoparticles can selectively bind to PSMA-targeted prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. This formulation method may contribute to the development of highly selective and effective cancer therapeutic and diagnostic devices. PMID:19488725

  13. Formulation/Preparation of Functionalized Nanoparticles for In Vivo Targeted Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Frank; Langer, Robert; Farokhzad, Omid C.

    Targeted cancer therapy allows the delivery of therapeutic agents to cancer cells without incurring undesirable side effects on the neighboring healthy tissues. Over the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in the development of advanced cancer therapeutics using targeted nanoparticles. Here we describe the preparation of drug-encapsulated nanoparticles formulated with biocompatible and biodegradable poly( d, l-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-b-PEG) copolymer and surface functionalized with the A10 2-fluoropyrimidine ribonucleic acid aptamers that recognize the extracellular domain of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), a well-characterized antigen expressed on the surface of prostate cancer cells. We show that the self-assembled nanoparticles can selectively bind to PSMA-targeted prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. This formulation method may contribute to the development of highly selective and effective cancer therapeutic and diagnostic devices.

  14. A novel method for determining human ex vivo submaximal skeletal muscle mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Hey-Mogensen, Martin; Gram, Martin; Jensen, Martin Borch; Lund, Michael Taulo; Hansen, Christina Neigaard; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Dela, Flemming

    2015-09-01

    The present study utilized a novel method aiming to investigate mitochondrial function in human skeletal muscle at submaximal levels and at a predefined membrane potential. The effect of age and training status was investigated using a cross-sectional design. Ageing was found to be related to decreased leak regardless of training status. Increased training status was associated with increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide emission. Despite numerous studies, there is no consensus about whether mitochondrial function is altered with increased age. The novelty of the present study is the determination of mitochondrial function at submaximal activity rates, which is more physiologically relevant than the ex vivo functionality protocols used previously. Muscle biopsies were taken from 64 old or young male subjects (aged 60-70 or 20-30 years). Aged subjects were recruited as trained or untrained. Muscle biopsies were used for the isolation of mitochondria and subsequent measurements of DNA repair, anti-oxidant capacity and mitochondrial protein levels (complexes I-V). Mitochondrial function was determined by simultaneous measurement of oxygen consumption, membrane potential and hydrogen peroxide emission using pyruvate + malate (PM) or succinate + rotenone (SR) as substrates. Proton leak was lower in aged subjects when determined at the same membrane potential and was unaffected by training status. State 3 respiration was lower in aged untrained subjects. This effect, however, was alleviated in aged trained subjects. H2 O2 emission with PM was higher in aged subjects, and was exacerbated by training, although it was not changed when using SR. However, with a higher manganese superoxide dismuthase content, the trained aged subjects may actually have lower or similar mitochondrial superoxide emission compared to the untrained subjects. We conclude that ageing and the physical activity level in aged subjects are both related to changes in the intrinsic functionality of the mitochondrion in skeletal muscle. Both of these changes could be important factors in determining the metabolic health of the aged skeletal muscle cell. PMID:26096709

  15. Mouse strain differences in metabolic fluxes and function of ex vivo working hearts.

    PubMed

    Vaillant, Fanny; Lauzier, Benjamin; Poirier, Isabelle; Gélinas, Roselle; Rivard, Marie-Eve; Robillard Frayne, Isabelle; Thorin, Eric; Des Rosiers, Christine

    2014-01-01

    In mice, genetic background is known to influence various parameters, including cardiac function. Its impact on cardiac energy substrate metabolism-a factor known to be closely related to function and contributes to disease development-is, however, unclear. This was examined in this study. In commonly used control mouse substrains SJL/JCrNTac, 129S6/SvEvTac, C57Bl/6J, and C57Bl/6NCrl, we assessed the functional and metabolic phenotypes of 3-mo-old working mouse hearts perfused ex vivo with physiological concentrations of (13)C-labeled carbohydrates (CHO) and a fatty acid (FA). Marked variations in various functional and metabolic flux parameters were observed among all mouse substrains, although the pattern observed differed for these parameters. For example, among all strains, C57Bl/6NCrl hearts had a greater cardiac output (+1.7-fold vs. SJL/JCrNTac and C57Bl/6J; P < 0.05), whereas at the metabolic level, 129S6/SvEvTac hearts stood out by displaying (vs. all 3 strains) a striking shift from exogenous FA (~-3.5-fold) to CHO oxidation as well as increased glycolysis (+1.7-fold) and FA incorporation into triglycerides (+2-fold). Correlation analyses revealed, however, specific linkages between 1) glycolysis, FA oxidation, and pyruvate metabolism and 2) cardiac work, oxygen consumption with heart rate, respectively. This implies that any genetically determined factors affecting a given metabolic flux parameter may impact on the associated functional parameters. Our results emphasize the importance of selecting the appropriate control strain for cardiac metabolic studies using transgenic mice, a factor that has often been neglected. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the diversity of strain-specific cardiac metabolic and functional profiles, particularly the 129S6/SvEvTac, may ultimately disclose new specific metabolic targets for interventions in heart disease. PMID:24186097

  16. In vivo function and comparative genomic analyses of the Drosophila gut microbiota identify candidate symbiosis factors

    PubMed Central

    Newell, Peter D.; Chaston, John M.; Wang, Yiping; Winans, Nathan J.; Sannino, David R.; Wong, Adam C. N.; Dobson, Adam J.; Kagle, Jeanne; Douglas, Angela E.

    2014-01-01

    Symbiosis is often characterized by co-evolutionary changes in the genomes of the partners involved. An understanding of these changes can provide insight into the nature of the relationship, including the mechanisms that initiate and maintain an association between organisms. In this study we examined the genome sequences of bacteria isolated from the Drosophila melanogaster gut with the objective of identifying genes that are important for function in the host. We compared microbiota isolates with con-specific or closely related bacterial species isolated from non-fly environments. First the phenotype of germ-free Drosophila (axenic flies) was compared to that of flies colonized with specific bacteria (gnotobiotic flies) as a measure of symbiotic function. Non-fly isolates were functionally distinct from bacteria isolated from flies, conferring slower development and an altered nutrient profile in the host, traits known to be microbiota-dependent. Comparative genomic methods were next employed to identify putative symbiosis factors: genes found in bacteria that restore microbiota-dependent traits to gnotobiotic flies, but absent from those that do not. Factors identified include riboflavin synthesis and stress resistance. We also used a phylogenomic approach to identify protein coding genes for which fly-isolate sequences were more similar to each other than to other sequences, reasoning that these genes may have a shared function unique to the fly environment. This method identified genes in Acetobacter species that cluster in two distinct genomic loci: one predicted to be involved in oxidative stress detoxification and another encoding an efflux pump. In summary, we leveraged genomic and in vivo functional comparisons to identify candidate traits that distinguish symbiotic bacteria. These candidates can serve as the basis for further work investigating the genetic requirements of bacteria for function and persistence in the Drosophila gut. PMID:25408687

  17. Artemisia scoparia Enhances Adipocyte Development and Endocrine Function In Vitro and Enhances Insulin Action In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Allison J.; Fuller, Scott; Fedorcenco, Veaceslav; Beyl, Robbie; Burris, Thomas P.; Mynatt, Randall; Ribnicky, David M.; Stephens, Jacqueline M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Failure of adipocytes to expand during periods of energy excess can result in undesirable metabolic consequences such as ectopic fat accumulation and insulin resistance. Blinded screening studies have indicated that Artemisia scoparia (SCO) extracts can enhance adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation in cultured adipocytes. The present study tested the hypothesis that SCO treatment modulates fat cell development and function in vitro and insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue in vivo. Methods In vitro experiments utilized a Gal4-PPARγ ligand binding domain (LBD) fusion protein-luciferase reporter assay to examine PPARγ activation. To investigate the ability of SCO to modulate adipogenesis and mature fat cell function in 3T3-L1 cells, neutral lipid accumulation, gene expression, and protein secretion were measured by Oil Red O staining, qRT-PCR, and immunoblotting, respectively. For the in vivo experiments, diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD containing 1% w/w SCO for four weeks. Body weight and composition, food intake, and fasting glucose and insulin levels were measured. Phospho-activation and expression of insulin-sensitizing proteins in epididymal adipose tissue (eWAT) were measured by immunoblotting. Results Ethanolic extracts of A. scoparia significantly activated the PPARγ LBD and enhanced lipid accumulation in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. SCO increased the transcription of several PPARγ target genes in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells and rescued the negative effects of tumor necrosis factor α on production and secretion of adiponectin and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in fully differentiated fat cells. DIO mice treated with SCO had elevated adiponectin levels and increased phosphorylation of AMPKα in eWAT when compared to control mice. In SCO-treated mice, these changes were also associated with decreased fasting insulin and glucose levels. Conclusion SCO has metabolically beneficial effects on adipocytes in vitro and adipose tissue in vivo, highlighting its potential as a metabolically favorable botanical supplement. PMID:24915004

  18. Oxytocin and ovarian function.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, A R

    1988-01-01

    (1) Oxytocin is synthesized in the luteal cells of all species so far studied, including the human. Vasopressin is also synthesized, but at a much lower rate. (2) The oxytocin-neurophysin gene is expressed in granulosa cells and granulosa-derived luteal cells but not in theca cells. Ovulation or spontaneous luteinization initiates the gene expression which peaks in the early luteal phase and ceases around mid-cycle. (3) Luteal oxytocin concentrations rise with considerable delay after the peak of specific mRNA and reach maximal levels around mid-cycle. Oxytocin concentrations fall to low levels in the late luteal phase and in pregnancy. (4) Thecal tissue produces substances such as catecholamines and ascorbic acid that stimulate oxytocin secretion in granulosa cells. The adrenergic innervation of thecal tissue provides a source of catecholamines and may therefore serve a modulatory function in ovarian oxytocin secretion. (5) Oxytocin has little or no direct effect on luteal progesterone production. (6) Oxytocin inhibits LH-stimulated prostacyclin production in luteal cells of cows. Oxytocin may induce the release of PGF-2 alpha or lipo-oxygenase products from the ovary but this has not yet been documented. (7) PGF-2 alpha releases oxytocin from the ovary but does not turn off its synthesis. (8) The concept that ovarian oxytocin participates in the luteolytic process is gaining acceptance. In some species (sheep, goat) ovarian oxytocin acts as a hormone causing PGF-2 alpha release from the uterus. In others it acts in a paracrine or autocrine fashion on ovarian prostanoid production (cow, possibly primates).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3057201

  19. Atypical Membrane Topology and Heteromeric Function of Drosophila Odorant Receptors In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Benton, Richard; Sachse, Silke; Michnick, Stephen W

    2006-01-01

    Drosophila olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) each express two odorant receptors (ORs): a divergent member of the OR family and the highly conserved, broadly expressed receptor OR83b. OR83b is essential for olfaction in vivo and enhances OR function in vitro, but the molecular mechanism by which it acts is unknown. Here we demonstrate that OR83b heterodimerizes with conventional ORs early in the endomembrane system in OSNs, couples these complexes to the conserved ciliary trafficking pathway, and is essential to maintain the OR/OR83b complex within the sensory cilia, where odor signal transduction occurs. The OR/OR83b complex is necessary and sufficient to promote functional reconstitution of odor-evoked signaling in sensory neurons that normally respond only to carbon dioxide. Unexpectedly, unlike all known vertebrate and nematode chemosensory receptors, we find that Drosophila ORs and OR83b adopt a novel membrane topology with their N-termini and the most conserved loops in the cytoplasm. These loops mediate direct association of ORs with OR83b. Our results reveal that OR83b is a universal and integral part of the functional OR in Drosophila. This atypical heteromeric and topological design appears to be an insect-specific solution for odor recognition, making the OR/OR83b complex an attractive target for the development of highly selective insect repellents to disrupt olfactory-mediated host-seeking behaviors of insect disease vectors. PMID:16402857

  20. Development of functional in vivo imaging of cerebral lenticulostriate artery using novel synchrotron radiation angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiaojie; Miao, Peng; Mu, Zhihao; Jiang, Zhen; Lu, Yifan; Guan, Yongjing; Chen, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Tiqiao; Wang, Yongting; Yang, Guo-Yuan

    2015-02-01

    The lenticulostriate artery plays a vital role in the onset and development of cerebral ischemia. However, current imaging techniques cannot assess the in vivo functioning of small arteries such as the lenticulostriate artery in the brain of rats. Here, we report a novel method to achieve a high resolution multi-functional imaging of the cerebrovascular system using synchrotron radiation angiography, which is based on spatio-temporal analysis of contrast density in the arterial cross section. This method provides a unique tool for studying the sub-cortical vascular elasticity after cerebral ischemia in rats. Using this technique, we demonstrated that the vascular elasticity of the lenticulostriate artery decreased from day 1 to day 7 after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats and recovered from day 7 to day 28 compared to the controls (p < 0.001), which paralleled with brain edema formation and inversely correlated with blood flow velocity (p < 0.05). Our results demonstrated that the change of vascular elasticity was related to the levels of brain edema and the velocity of focal blood flow, suggesting that reducing brain edema is important for the improvement of the function of the lenticulostriate artery in the ischemic brain.

  1. Effect of naftazone on in vivo platelet function in the rat.

    PubMed

    McGregor, L; Chignier, E; Bloy, C; Rousselle, C; Peltier-Pujol, F; McGregor, J L

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo effects of 50 mg/kg (i.p.) naftazone or ticlopidine on platelet functions in the rat. An automated isotope monitoring system (Aims plus) was used to determine the height of platelet aggregation and disaggregation (measured by the area under the curve, AUC) of 111indium-labelled platelets activated by ADP (10 microg/kg i.v.) or collagen (50 microg/kg i.v.). Fibrinogen-binding experiments were carried out with activated platelets in whole blood and measured by flow cytometry. Naftazone reduced the height of platelet aggregation induced by ADP compared with controls (P = 0.024). Ticlopidine-treated rats gave similar results (P = 0.008). Platelet disaggregation, following the aggregation induced by collagen, was significantly increased in naftazone-treated rats compared with controls (P = 0.003). Similar results were observed with ticlopidine-treated rats (P = 0.002). Fibrinogen binding to 2.5 or 5 microM ADP-stimulated platelets, from naftazone-treated rats, were significantly reduced compared with controls (P = 0.05 and 0.04 respectively). These results show that naftazone has similar inhibitory effects on rat platelet functions as ticloplidine. In conclusion, naftazone could be a useful agent to modulate platelet function in patients with cardiovascular disease. PMID:16801074

  2. Presenilin controls kinesin-1 and dynein function during APP-vesicle transport in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gunawardena, Shermali; Yang, Ge; Goldstein, Lawrence S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Neurons and other cells require intracellular transport of essential components for viability and function. Previous work has shown that while net amyloid precursor protein (APP) transport is generally anterograde, individual vesicles containing APP move bi-directionally. This discrepancy highlights our poor understanding of the in vivo regulation of APP-vesicle transport. Here, we show that reduction of presenilin (PS) or suppression of gamma-secretase activity substantially increases anterograde and retrograde velocities for APP vesicles. Strikingly, PS deficiency has no effect on an unrelated cargo vesicle class containing synaptotagmin, which is powered by a different kinesin motor. Increased velocities caused by PS or gamma-secretase reduction require functional kinesin-1 and dynein motors. Together, our findings suggest that a normal function of PS is to repress kinesin-1 and dynein motor activity during axonal transport of APP vesicles. Furthermore, our data suggest that axonal transport defects induced by loss of PS-mediated regulatory effects on APP-vesicle motility could be a major cause of neuronal and synaptic defects observed in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) pathogenesis. Thus, perturbations of APP/PS transport could contribute to early neuropathology observed in AD, and highlight a potential novel therapeutic pathway for early intervention, prior to neuronal loss and clinical manifestation of disease. PMID:23710041

  3. Rapid experience-dependent plasticity of synapse function and structure in ferret visual cortex in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongbo; Majewska, Ania K.; Sur, Mriganka

    2011-01-01

    The rules by which visual experience influences neuronal responses and structure in the developing brain are not well understood. To elucidate the relationship between rapid functional changes and dendritic spine remodeling in vivo, we carried out chronic imaging experiments that tracked visual responses and dendritic spines in the ferret visual cortex following brief periods of monocular deprivation. Functional changes, which were largely driven by loss of deprived eye responses, were tightly regulated with structural changes at the level of dendritic spines, and occurred very rapidly (on a timescale of hours). The magnitude of functional changes was correlated with the magnitude of structural changes across the cortex, and both these features reversed when the deprived eye was reopened. A global rule governed how the responses to the two eyes or changes in spines were altered by monocular deprivation: the changes occurred irrespective of regional ocular dominance preference and were independently mediated by each eye, and the loss or gain of responses/spines occurred as a constant proportion of predeprivation drive by the deprived or nondeprived eye, respectively. PMID:22160713

  4. Contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography with picomolar sensitivity for functional in vivo imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liba, Orly; Sorelle, Elliott D.; Sen, Debasish; de La Zerda, Adam

    2016-03-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) enables real-time imaging of living tissues at cell-scale resolution over millimeters in three dimensions. Despite these advantages, functional biological studies with OCT have been limited by a lack of exogenous contrast agents that can be distinguished from tissue. Here we report an approach to functional OCT imaging that implements custom algorithms to spectrally identify unique contrast agents: large gold nanorods (LGNRs). LGNRs exhibit 110-fold greater spectral signal per particle than conventional GNRs, which enables detection of individual LGNRs in water and concentrations as low as 250 pM in the circulation of living mice. This translates to ~40 particles per imaging voxel in vivo. Unlike previous implementations of OCT spectral detection, the methods described herein adaptively compensate for depth and processing artifacts on a per sample basis. Collectively, these methods enable high-quality noninvasive contrast-enhanced imaging of OCT in living subjects, including detection of tumor microvasculature at twice the depth achievable with conventional OCT. Additionally, multiplexed detection of spectrally-distinct LGNRs was demonstrated to observe discrete patterns of lymphatic drainage and identify individual lymphangions and lymphatic valve functional states. These capabilities provide a powerful platform for molecular imaging and characterization of tissue noninvasively at cellular resolution, called MOZART.

  5. Contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography with picomolar sensitivity for functional in vivo imaging.

    PubMed

    Liba, Orly; SoRelle, Elliott D; Sen, Debasish; de la Zerda, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) enables real-time imaging of living tissues at cell-scale resolution over millimeters in three dimensions. Despite these advantages, functional biological studies with OCT have been limited by a lack of exogenous contrast agents that can be distinguished from tissue. Here we report an approach to functional OCT imaging that implements custom algorithms to spectrally identify unique contrast agents: large gold nanorods (LGNRs). LGNRs exhibit 110-fold greater spectral signal per particle than conventional GNRs, which enables detection of individual LGNRs in water and concentrations as low as 250 pM in the circulation of living mice. This translates to ~40 particles per imaging voxel in vivo. Unlike previous implementations of OCT spectral detection, the methods described herein adaptively compensate for depth and processing artifacts on a per sample basis. Collectively, these methods enable high-quality noninvasive contrast-enhanced imaging of OCT in living subjects, including detection of tumor microvasculature at twice the depth achievable with conventional OCT. Additionally, multiplexed detection of spectrally-distinct LGNRs was demonstrated to observe discrete patterns of lymphatic drainage and identify individual lymphangions and lymphatic valve functional states. These capabilities provide a powerful platform for molecular imaging and characterization of tissue noninvasively at cellular resolution, called MOZART. PMID:26987475

  6. In Vivo Voltage-Sensitive Dye Imaging of Subcortical Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Qinggong; Tsytsarev, Vassiliy; Liang, Chia-Pin; Akkentli, Fatih; Erzurumlu, Reha S.; Chen, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The whisker system of rodents is an excellent model to study peripherally evoked neural activity in the brain. Discrete neural modules represent each whisker in the somatosensory cortex (“barrels”), thalamus (“barreloids”), and brain stem (“barrelettes”). Stimulation of a single whisker evokes neural activity sequentially in its corresponding barrelette, barreloid, and barrel. Conventional optical imaging of functional activation in the brain is limited to surface structures such as the cerebral cortex. To access subcortical structures and image sensory-evoked neural activity, we designed a needle-based optical system using gradient-index (GRIN) rod lens. We performed voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDi) with GRIN rod lens to visualize neural activity evoked in the thalamic barreloids by deflection of whiskers in vivo. We stimulated several whiskers together to determine the sensitivity of our approach in differentiating between different barreloid responses. We also carried out stimulation of different whiskers at different times. Finally, we used muscimol in the barrel cortex to silence the corticothalamic inputs while imaging in the thalamus. Our results show that it is possible to obtain functional maps of the sensory periphery in deep brain structures such as the thalamic barreloids. Our approach can be broadly applicable to functional imaging of other core brain structures. PMID:26612326

  7. Phosphatidylcholine transfer activity of yeast Sec14p is not essential for its function in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tahotna, Dana; Holic, Roman; Poloncova, Katarina; Simockova, Maria; Griac, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Yeast phosphatidylinositol (PI)/phosphatidylcholine (PC) transfer protein, Sec14p, is essential for protein transport from the Golgi apparatus and for the cell viability. It is instrumental in maintaining the lipid composition of the Golgi membranes to be compatible with vesicle biogenesis and the secretory process by coordination of PC and PI metabolism. To address the question to which extent PC transfer ability of Sec14p is required for its essential in vivo function we generated a Sec14p mutant unable to transfer PC between membranes in the in vitro assay. Yeast cells with this modified Sec14p(D115G) as a sole Sec14p were viable with improved secretory activity compared to sec14 deficient strain. Thus, in vitro PC transfer ability of Sec14p is not required for its essential function(s) in living cells, however, yeast cells having PC transfer deficient Sec14p(D115G) as a sole Sec14p display regulatory abnormalities, including increased phospholipase D mediated PC turnover. PMID:17174597

  8. Contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography with picomolar sensitivity for functional in vivo imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liba, Orly; SoRelle, Elliott D.; Sen, Debasish; de la Zerda, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) enables real-time imaging of living tissues at cell-scale resolution over millimeters in three dimensions. Despite these advantages, functional biological studies with OCT have been limited by a lack of exogenous contrast agents that can be distinguished from tissue. Here we report an approach to functional OCT imaging that implements custom algorithms to spectrally identify unique contrast agents: large gold nanorods (LGNRs). LGNRs exhibit 110-fold greater spectral signal per particle than conventional GNRs, which enables detection of individual LGNRs in water and concentrations as low as 250 pM in the circulation of living mice. This translates to ~40 particles per imaging voxel in vivo. Unlike previous implementations of OCT spectral detection, the methods described herein adaptively compensate for depth and processing artifacts on a per sample basis. Collectively, these methods enable high-quality noninvasive contrast-enhanced imaging of OCT in living subjects, including detection of tumor microvasculature at twice the depth achievable with conventional OCT. Additionally, multiplexed detection of spectrally-distinct LGNRs was demonstrated to observe discrete patterns of lymphatic drainage and identify individual lymphangions and lymphatic valve functional states. These capabilities provide a powerful platform for molecular imaging and characterization of tissue noninvasively at cellular resolution, called MOZART. PMID:26987475

  9. In Vivo Voltage-Sensitive Dye Imaging of Subcortical Brain Function.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qinggong; Tsytsarev, Vassiliy; Liang, Chia-Pin; Akkentli, Fatih; Erzurumlu, Reha S; Chen, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The whisker system of rodents is an excellent model to study peripherally evoked neural activity in the brain. Discrete neural modules represent each whisker in the somatosensory cortex ("barrels"), thalamus ("barreloids"), and brain stem ("barrelettes"). Stimulation of a single whisker evokes neural activity sequentially in its corresponding barrelette, barreloid, and barrel. Conventional optical imaging of functional activation in the brain is limited to surface structures such as the cerebral cortex. To access subcortical structures and image sensory-evoked neural activity, we designed a needle-based optical system using gradient-index (GRIN) rod lens. We performed voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDi) with GRIN rod lens to visualize neural activity evoked in the thalamic barreloids by deflection of whiskers in vivo. We stimulated several whiskers together to determine the sensitivity of our approach in differentiating between different barreloid responses. We also carried out stimulation of different whiskers at different times. Finally, we used muscimol in the barrel cortex to silence the corticothalamic inputs while imaging in the thalamus. Our results show that it is possible to obtain functional maps of the sensory periphery in deep brain structures such as the thalamic barreloids. Our approach can be broadly applicable to functional imaging of other core brain structures. PMID:26612326

  10. In Vivo Voltage-Sensitive Dye Imaging of Subcortical Brain Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qinggong; Tsytsarev, Vassiliy; Liang, Chia-Pin; Akkentli, Fatih; Erzurumlu, Reha S.; Chen, Yu

    2015-11-01

    The whisker system of rodents is an excellent model to study peripherally evoked neural activity in the brain. Discrete neural modules represent each whisker in the somatosensory cortex (“barrels”), thalamus (“barreloids”), and brain stem (“barrelettes”). Stimulation of a single whisker evokes neural activity sequentially in its corresponding barrelette, barreloid, and barrel. Conventional optical imaging of functional activation in the brain is limited to surface structures such as the cerebral cortex. To access subcortical structures and image sensory-evoked neural activity, we designed a needle-based optical system using gradient-index (GRIN) rod lens. We performed voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDi) with GRIN rod lens to visualize neural activity evoked in the thalamic barreloids by deflection of whiskers in vivo. We stimulated several whiskers together to determine the sensitivity of our approach in differentiating between different barreloid responses. We also carried out stimulation of different whiskers at different times. Finally, we used muscimol in the barrel cortex to silence the corticothalamic inputs while imaging in the thalamus. Our results show that it is possible to obtain functional maps of the sensory periphery in deep brain structures such as the thalamic barreloids. Our approach can be broadly applicable to functional imaging of other core brain structures.

  11. Luteal Phase Deficiency in Regularly Menstruating Women: Prevalence and Overlap in Identification Based on Clinical and Biochemical Diagnostic Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Schliep, Karen C.; Mumford, Sunni L.; Hammoud, Ahmad O.; Stanford, Joseph B.; Kissell, Kerri A.; Sjaarda, Lindsey A.; Perkins, Neil J.; Ahrens, Katherine A.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Mendola, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Context: Although adequate luteal hormone production is essential for establishing pregnancy, luteal phase deficiency (LPD) is poorly characterized among eumenorrheic women. Objective: We assessed the prevalence and overlap of two established LPD diagnostic criteria: short luteal phase duration less than10 days (clinical LPD) and suboptimal luteal progesterone of 5 ng/mL or less (biochemical LPD) and their relationship with reproductive hormone concentrations. Design, Setting, and Participants: We conducted a prospective study in western New York (2005–2007) following 259 women, aged 18–44 years, for up to two menstrual cycles. Results: Among ovulatory cycles with recorded cycle lengths (n = 463), there were 41 cycles (8.9%) with clinical LPD, 39 cycles (8.4%) with biochemical LPD, and 20 cycles (4.3%) meeting both criteria. Recurrent clinical and biochemical LPD was observed in eight (3.4%) and five (2.1%) women, respectively. Clinical and biochemical LPD were each associated with lower follicular estradiol (both P ≤ .001) and luteal estradiol (P = .03 and P = .02, respectively) after adjusting for age, race, and percentage body fat. Clinical, but not biochemical, LPD was associated with lower LH and FSH across all phases of the cycle (P ≤ .001). Conclusions: Clinical and biochemical LPD were evident among regularly menstruating women. Estradiol was lower in LPD cycles under either criterion, but LH and FSH were lower only in association with shortened luteal phase (ie, clinical LPD), indicating that clinical and biochemical LPD may reflect different underlying mechanisms. Identifying ovulation in combination with a well-timed luteal progesterone measurement may serve as a cost-effective and specific tool for LPD assessment by clinicians and researchers. PMID:24606080

  12. In Vivo Analysis of Lrig Genes Reveals Redundant and Independent Functions in the Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    del Rio, Tony; Nishitani, Allison M.; Yu, Wei-Ming; Goodrich, Lisa V.

    2013-01-01

    Lrig proteins are conserved transmembrane proteins that modulate a variety of signaling pathways from worm to humans. In mammals, there are three family members Lrig1, Lrig2, and Lrig3 that are defined by closely related extracellular domains with a similar arrangement of leucine rich repeats and immunoglobulin domains. However, the intracellular domains show little homology. Lrig1 inhibits EGF signaling through internalization and degradation of ErbB receptors. Although Lrig3 can also bind ErbB receptors in vitro, it is unclear whether Lrig2 and Lrig3 exhibit similar functions to Lrig1. To gain insights into Lrig gene functions in vivo, we compared the expression and function of the Lrigs in the inner ear, which offers a sensitive system for detecting effects on morphogenesis and function. We find that all three family members are expressed in the inner ear throughout development, with Lrig1 and Lrig3 restricted to subsets of cells and Lrig2 expressed more broadly. Lrig1 and Lrig3 overlap prominently in the developing vestibular apparatus and simultaneous removal of both genes disrupts inner ear morphogenesis. This suggests that these two family members act redundantly in the otic epithelium. In contrast, although Lrig1 and Lrig2 are frequently co-expressed, Lrig1?/?;Lrig2?/? double mutant ears show no enhanced structural abnormalities. At later stages, Lrig1 expression is sustained in non-sensory tissues, whereas Lrig2 levels are enhanced in neurons and sensory epithelia. Consistent with these distinct expression patterns, Lrig1 and Lrig2 mutant mice exhibit different forms of impaired auditory responsiveness. Notably, Lrig1?/?;Lrig2?/? double mutant mice display vestibular deficits and suffer from a more severe auditory defect that is accompanied by a cochlear innervation phenotype not present in single mutants. Thus, Lrig genes appear to act both redundantly and independently, with Lrig2 emerging as the most functionally distinct family member. PMID:24086156

  13. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Modulates the Function of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Dahrouj, Mohammad; Alsarraf, Oday; McMillin, Jake C.; Liu, Yueying; Crosson, Craig E.; Ablonczy, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Retinal edema, the accumulation of extracellular fluid in the retina is usually attributed to inner blood retina barrier (BRB) leakage. Vascular endothelial growth factor plays an important role in this process. The effects of VEGF on the outer BRB, the RPE, however, have received limited attention. Here, we present a methodology to assess how VEGF modulates the integrity of the RPE barrier in vivo. Methods. Control subretinal blebs (15 ?L) and blebs containing VEGF (1100 ?g/mL), placental growth factor (PlGF; 100 ?g/mL), or albumin (1001000 ?g/mL) were injected into New Zealand White or Dutch Belted rabbits with IOP maintained at 10, 15, or 20 mm Hg. One-hour intravitreal pretreatment with ZM323881 (10 ?M/L) was used to inhibit the VEGF response. Fluid resorption was followed by optical coherence tomography for 1 hour. Retinal pigment epithelium leakage was assessed by fluorescein angiography. Results. Increasing IOP resulted in an elevated rate of bleb resorption, while increasing albumin concentration in the bleb decreased the rate of resorption. Vascular endothelial growth factor, but not PlGF, caused a significant, concentration-dependent decrease in the rate of fluid resorption, which was reversed by ZM323881. Compared with albumin-filled blebs, VEGF-filled blebs showed accelerated early-phase leakage from the choroid. Conclusions. Consistent with a localized modulation of RPE function, VEGF induced a significant reduction in fluid resorption and an increase in hydraulic conductivity. Our results establish VEGF as a major cytokine regulating RPE barrier properties in vivo and indicate that the RPE is a principal factor in the pathogenesis of retinal edema. PMID:24550368

  14. In vivo mapping of the functional regions of the DEAD-box helicase Vasa

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Mehrnoush; Lasko, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The maternally expressed Drosophila melanogaster DEAD-box helicase Vasa (Vas) is necessary for many cellular and developmental processes, including specification of primordial germ cells (pole cells), posterior patterning of the embryo, piRNA-mediated repression of transposon-encoded mRNAs, translational activation of gurken (grk) mRNA, and completion of oogenesis itself. Vas protein accumulates in the perinuclear nuage in nurse cells soon after their specification, and then at stage 10 Vas translocates to the posterior pole plasm of the oocyte. We produced a series of transgenic constructs encoding eGFP-Vas proteins carrying mutations affecting different regions of the protein, and analyzed in vivo which Vas functions each could support. We identified novel domains in the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein that are essential for localization, transposon repression, posterior patterning, and pole cell specification. One such functional region, the most C-terminal seven amino acids, is specific to Vas orthologues and is thus critical to distinguishing Vas from other closely related DEAD-box helicases. Surprisingly, we also found that many eGFP-Vas proteins carrying mutations that would be expected to abrogate DEAD-box helicase function localized to the nuage and posterior pole, and retained the capacity to support oogenesis, although they did not function in embryonic patterning, pole cell specification, grk activation, or transposon repression. We conclude from these experiments that Vas, a multifunctional protein, uses different domains and different molecular associations to carry out its various cellular and developmental roles. PMID:25795910

  15. c-Kit Receptor Signaling Regulates Islet Vasculature, β-Cell Survival, and Function In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhi-Chao; Popell, Alex; Li, Jinming; Silverstein, Jenna; Oakie, Amanda; Yee, Siu-Pok; Wang, Rennian

    2015-11-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit plays an integral role in maintaining β-cell mass and function. Although c-Kit receptor signaling promotes angiogenesis in multiple cell types, its role in islet vasculature is unknown. This study examines the effects of c-Kit-mediated vascular endothelial growth factor isoform A (VEGF-A) and islet vascularization on β-cell function and survival using in vitro cell culture and in vivo mouse models. In cultured INS-1 cells and primary islets, c-Kit regulates VEGF-A expression via the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Juvenile mice with mutated c-Kit (c-Kit(Wv/+)) showed impaired islet vasculature and β-cell dysfunction, while restoring c-Kit expression in β-cells of c-Kit(Wv/+) mice rescued islet vascular defects through modulation of the Akt/mTOR/VEGF-A pathway, indicating that c-Kit signaling in β-cells is a required regulator for maintaining normal islet vasculature. Furthermore, β-cell-specific c-Kit overexpression (c-KitβTg) in aged mice showed significantly increased islet vasculature and β-cell function, but, when exposed to a long-term high-fat diet, c-Kit signaling in c-KitβTg mice induced substantial vascular remodeling, which resulted in increased islet inflammatory responses and β-cell apoptosis. These results suggest that c-Kit-mediated VEGF-A action in β-cells plays a pivotal role in maintaining islet vascularization and function. PMID:26253609

  16. In vivo mapping of the functional regions of the DEAD-box helicase Vasa.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Mehrnoush; Lasko, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The maternally expressed Drosophila melanogaster DEAD-box helicase Vasa (Vas) is necessary for many cellular and developmental processes, including specification of primordial germ cells (pole cells), posterior patterning of the embryo, piRNA-mediated repression of transposon-encoded mRNAs, translational activation of gurken (grk) mRNA, and completion of oogenesis itself. Vas protein accumulates in the perinuclear nuage in nurse cells soon after their specification, and then at stage 10 Vas translocates to the posterior pole plasm of the oocyte. We produced a series of transgenic constructs encoding eGFP-Vas proteins carrying mutations affecting different regions of the protein, and analyzed in vivo which Vas functions each could support. We identified novel domains in the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein that are essential for localization, transposon repression, posterior patterning, and pole cell specification. One such functional region, the most C-terminal seven amino acids, is specific to Vas orthologues and is thus critical to distinguishing Vas from other closely related DEAD-box helicases. Surprisingly, we also found that many eGFP-Vas proteins carrying mutations that would be expected to abrogate DEAD-box helicase function localized to the nuage and posterior pole, and retained the capacity to support oogenesis, although they did not function in embryonic patterning, pole cell specification, grk activation, or transposon repression. We conclude from these experiments that Vas, a multifunctional protein, uses different domains and different molecular associations to carry out its various cellular and developmental roles. PMID:25795910

  17. Polyglycerolsulfate Functionalized Gold Nanorods as Optoacoustic Signal Nanoamplifiers for In Vivo Bioimaging of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Vonnemann, Jonathan; Beziere, Nicolas; Böttcher, Christoph; Riese, Sebastian B.; Kuehne, Christian; Dernedde, Jens; Licha, Kai; von Schacky, Claudio; Kosanke, Yvonne; Kimm, Melanie; Meier, Reinhard; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Haag, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    We have synthesized a targeted imaging agent for rheumatoid arthritis based on polysulfated gold nanorods. The CTAB layer on gold nanorods was first replaced with PEG-thiol and then with dendritic polyglycerolsulfate at elevated temperature, which resulted in significantly reduced cytotoxicity compared to polyanionic gold nanorods functionalized by non-covalent approaches. In addition to classical characterization methods, we have established a facile UV-VIS based BaCl2 agglomeration assay to confirm a quantitative removal of unbound ligand. With the help of a competitive surface plasmon resonance-based L-selectin binding assay and a leukocyte adhesion-based flow cell assay, we have demonstrated the high inflammation targeting potential of the synthesized gold nanorods in vitro. In combination with the surface plasmon resonance band of AuNRs at 780 nm, these findings permitted the imaging of inflammation in an in vivo mouse model for rheumatoid arthritis with high contrast using multispectral optoacoustic tomography. The study offers a robust method for otherwise difficult to obtain covalently functionalized polyanionic gold nanorods, which are suitable for biological applications as well as a low-cost, actively targeted, and high contrast imaging agent for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. This paves the way for further research in other inflammation associated pathologies, in particular, when photothermal therapy can be applied. PMID:24723984

  18. Thermal analysis of laser interstitial thermotherapy in ex vivo fibro-fatty tissue using exponential functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas, Nelson, Jr.; Manns, Fabrice; Milne, Peter J.; Denham, David B.; Minhaj, Ahmed M.; Parel, Jean-Marie; Robinson, David S.

    2004-05-01

    A therapeutic procedure to treat small, surface breast tumours up to 10 mm in radius plus a 5 mm margin of healthy, surrounding tissue using laser interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) is currently being investigated. The purpose of this study is to analyse and model the thermal and coagulative response of ex vivo fibro-fatty tissue, a model for breast tissue, during experimental laser interstitial thermotherapy at 980 nm. Laser radiation at 980 nm was delivered interstitially through a diffusing tip optical fibre inserted into a fibro-fatty tissue model to produce controlled heating at powers ranging from 3.2 to 8.0 W. Tissue temperature was measured with thermocouples placed at 15 positions around the fibre. The induced coagulation zone was measured on gross anatomical sections. Thermal analysis indicates that a finite sum of exponential functions is an approximate solution to the heat conduction equation that more accurately predicts the time-temperature dependence in tissue prior to carbonization (T < 100 °C) during LITT than the traditional model using a single exponential function. Analysis of the ellipsoid coagulation volume induced in tissue indicates that the 980 nm wavelength does not penetrate deep enough in fibro-fatty tissue to produce a desired 30 mm diameter (14.1 × 103 mm3) coagulation volume without unwanted tissue liquefaction and carbonization.

  19. Animal Models for Studying the In Vivo Functions of Cell Cycle CDKs.

    PubMed

    Risal, Sanjiv; Adhikari, Deepak; Liu, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Multiple Cdks (Cdk4, Cdk6, and Cdk2) and a mitotic Cdk (Cdk1) are involved in cell cycle progression in mammals. Cyclins, Cdk inhibitors, and phosphorylations (both activating and inhibitory) at different cellular levels tightly modulate the activities of these kinases. Based on the results of biochemical studies, it was long believed that different Cdks functioned at specific stages during cell cycle progression. However, deletion of all three interphase Cdks in mice affected cell cycle entry and progression only in certain specialized cells such as hematopoietic cells, beta cells of the pancreas, pituitary lactotrophs, and cardiomyocytes. These genetic experiments challenged the prevailing biochemical model and established that Cdks function in a cell-specific, but not a stage-specific, manner during cell cycle entry and the progression of mitosis. Recent in vivo studies have further established that Cdk1 is the only Cdk that is both essential and sufficient for driving the resumption of meiosis during mouse oocyte maturation. These genetic studies suggest a minimal-essential cell cycle model in which Cdk1 is the central regulator of cell cycle progression. Cdk1 can compensate for the loss of the interphase Cdks by forming active complexes with A-, B-, E-, and D-type Cyclins in a stepwise manner. Thus, Cdk1 plays an essential role in both mitosis and meiosis in mammals, whereas interphase Cdks are dispensable. PMID:26231715

  20. Truncated HP1 lacking a functional chromodomain induces heterochromatinization upon in vivo targeting.

    PubMed

    Brink, Maartje C; van der Velden, Yme; de Leeuw, Wim; Mateos-Langerak, Julio; Belmont, Andrew S; van Driel, Roel; Verschure, Pernette J

    2006-01-01

    Packaging of the eukaryotic genome into higher order chromatin structures is tightly related to gene expression. Pericentromeric heterochromatin is typified by accumulations of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), methylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (MeH3K9) and global histone deacetylation. HP1 interacts with chromatin by binding to MeH3K9 through the chromodomain (CD). HP1 dimerizes with itself and binds a variety of proteins through its chromoshadow domain. We have analyzed at the single cell level whether HP1 lacking its functional CD is able to induce heterochromatinization in vivo. We used a lac-operator array-based system in mammalian cells to target EGFP-lac repressor tagged truncated HP1alpha and HP1beta to a lac operator containing gene-amplified chromosome region in living cells. After targeting truncated HP1alpha or HP1beta we observe enhanced tri-MeH3K9 and recruitment of endogenous HP1alpha and HP1beta to the chromosome region. We show that CD-less HP1alpha can induce chromatin condensation, whereas the effect of truncated HP1beta is less pronounced. Our results demonstrate that after lac repressor-mediated targeting, HP1alpha and HP1beta without a functional CD are able to induce heterochromatinization. PMID:16283356

  1. Functional proteomic identification of DNA replication proteins by induced proteolysis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kanemaki, Masato; Sanchez-Diaz, Alberto; Gambus, Agnieszka; Labib, Karim

    2003-06-12

    Evolutionarily diverse eukaryotic cells share many conserved proteins of unknown function. Some are essential for cell viability, emphasising their importance for fundamental processes of cell biology but complicating their analysis. We have developed an approach to the large-scale characterization of such proteins, based on conditional and rapid degradation of the target protein in vivo, so that the immediate consequences of bulk protein depletion can be examined. Budding yeast strains have been constructed in which essential proteins of unknown function have been fused to a 'heat-inducible-degron' cassette that targets the protein for proteolysis at 37 degrees C (ref. 4). By screening the collection for defects in cell-cycle progression, here we identify three DNA replication factors that interact with each other and that have uncharacterized homologues in human cells. We have used the degron strains to show that these proteins are required for the establishment and normal progression of DNA replication forks. The degron collection could also be used to identify other, essential, proteins with roles in many other processes of eukaryotic cell biology. PMID:12768207

  2. In Vivo Functional Brain Imaging Approach Based on Bioluminescent Calcium Indicator GFP-aequorin.

    PubMed

    Lark, Arianna R; Kitamoto, Toshihiro; Martin, Jean-René

    2016-01-01

    Functional in vivo imaging has become a powerful approach to study the function and physiology of brain cells and structures of interest. Recently a new method of Ca(2+)-imaging using the bioluminescent reporter GFP-aequorin (GA) has been developed. This new technique relies on the fusion of the GFP and aequorin genes, producing a molecule capable of binding calcium and - with the addition of its cofactor coelenterazine - emitting bright light that can be monitored through a photon collector. Transgenic lines carrying the GFP-aequorin gene have been generated for both mice and Drosophila. In Drosophila, the GFP-aequorin gene has been placed under the control of the GAL4/UAS binary expression system allowing for targeted expression and imaging within the brain. This method has subsequently been shown to be capable of detecting both inward Ca(2+)-transients and Ca(2+)-released from inner stores. Most importantly it allows for a greater duration in continuous recording, imaging at greater depths within the brain, and recording at high temporal resolutions (up to 8.3 msec). Here we present the basic method for using bioluminescent imaging to record and analyze Ca(2+)-activity within the mushroom bodies, a structure central to learning and memory in the fly brain. PMID:26779599

  3. Caspase inhibitors promote vestibular hair cell survival and function after aminoglycoside treatment in vivo.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Jonathan I; Haque, Asim; Huss, David; Messana, Elizabeth P; Alosi, Julie A; Roberson, David W; Cotanche, Douglas A; Dickman, J David; Warchol, Mark E

    2003-07-01

    The sensory hair cells of the inner ear undergo apoptosis after acoustic trauma or aminoglycoside antibiotic treatment, causing permanent auditory and vestibular deficits in humans. Previous studies have demonstrated a role for caspase activation in hair cell death and ototoxic injury that can be reduced by concurrent treatment with caspase inhibitors in vitro. In this study, we examined the protective effects of caspase inhibition on hair cell death in vivo after systemic injections of aminoglycosides. In one series of experiments, chickens were implanted with osmotic pumps that administrated the pan-caspase inhibitor z-Val-Ala-Asp(Ome)-fluoromethylketone (zVAD) into inner ear fluids. One day after the surgery, the animals received a 5 d course of treatment with streptomycin, a vestibulotoxic aminoglycoside. Direct infusion of zVAD into the vestibule significantly increased hair cell survival after streptomycin treatment. A second series of experiments determined whether rescued hair cells could function as sensory receptors. Animals treated with streptomycin displayed vestibular system impairment as measured by a greatly reduced vestibulo-ocular response (VOR). In contrast, animals that received concurrent systemic administration of zVAD with streptomycin had both significantly greater hair cell survival and significantly increased VOR responses, as compared with animals treated with streptomycin alone. These findings suggest that inhibiting the activation of caspases promotes the survival of hair cells and protects against vestibular function deficits after aminoglycoside treatment. PMID:12853430

  4. In vivo studies of silk based gold nano-composite conduits for functional peripheral nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Das, Suradip; Sharma, Manav; Saharia, Dhiren; Sarma, Kushal Konwar; Sarma, Monalisa Goswami; Borthakur, Bibhuti Bhusan; Bora, Utpal

    2015-09-01

    We report a novel silk-gold nanocomposite based nerve conduit successfully tested in a neurotmesis grade sciatic nerve injury model in rats over a period of eighteen months. The conduit was fabricated by adsorbing gold nanoparticles onto silk fibres and transforming them into a nanocomposite sheet by electrospinning which is finally given a tubular structure by rolling on a stainless steel mandrel of chosen diameter. The conduits were found to promote adhesion and proliferation of Schwann cells in vitro and did not elicit any toxic or immunogenic responses in vivo. We also report for the first time, the monitoring of muscular regeneration post nerve conduit implantation by recording motor unit potentials (MUPs) through needle electromyogram. Pre-seeding the conduits with Schwann cells enhanced myelination of the regenerated tissue. Histo-morphometric and electrophysiological studies proved that the nanocomposite based conduits pre-seeded with Schwann cells performed best in terms of structural and functional regeneration of severed sciatic nerves. The near normal values of nerve conduction velocity (50 m/sec), compound muscle action potential (29.7 mV) and motor unit potential (133 μV) exhibited by the animals implanted with Schwann cell loaded nerve conduits in the present study are superior to those observed in previous reports with synthetic materials as well as collagen based nerve conduits. Animals in this group were also able to perform complex locomotory activities like stretching and jumping with excellent sciatic function index (SFI) and led a normal life. PMID:26026910

  5. Caspase inhibitors promote vestibular hair cell survival and function after aminoglycoside treatment in vivo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsui, Jonathan I.; Haque, Asim; Huss, David; Messana, Elizabeth P.; Alosi, Julie A.; Roberson, David W.; Cotanche, Douglas A.; Dickman, J. David; Warchol, Mark E.

    2003-01-01

    The sensory hair cells of the inner ear undergo apoptosis after acoustic trauma or aminoglycoside antibiotic treatment, causing permanent auditory and vestibular deficits in humans. Previous studies have demonstrated a role for caspase activation in hair cell death and ototoxic injury that can be reduced by concurrent treatment with caspase inhibitors in vitro. In this study, we examined the protective effects of caspase inhibition on hair cell death in vivo after systemic injections of aminoglycosides. In one series of experiments, chickens were implanted with osmotic pumps that administrated the pan-caspase inhibitor z-Val-Ala-Asp(Ome)-fluoromethylketone (zVAD) into inner ear fluids. One day after the surgery, the animals received a 5 d course of treatment with streptomycin, a vestibulotoxic aminoglycoside. Direct infusion of zVAD into the vestibule significantly increased hair cell survival after streptomycin treatment. A second series of experiments determined whether rescued hair cells could function as sensory receptors. Animals treated with streptomycin displayed vestibular system impairment as measured by a greatly reduced vestibulo-ocular response (VOR). In contrast, animals that received concurrent systemic administration of zVAD with streptomycin had both significantly greater hair cell survival and significantly increased VOR responses, as compared with animals treated with streptomycin alone. These findings suggest that inhibiting the activation of caspases promotes the survival of hair cells and protects against vestibular function deficits after aminoglycoside treatment.

  6. Effects of altered ventilatory patterns of rabbit pulmonary endothelial angiotensin converting enzyme function, in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Toivonen, H.J.; Catravas, J.D.

    1986-03-01

    Because alveolar pressure can influence pulmonary blood flow, volume and surface area, the authors have studied the effects of airway pressure on endothelial angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) function in rabbit lungs in vivo, utilizing indicator dilution techniques with /sup 3/H-Benzoyl-Phe-Ala-Pro (BPAP) as substate. Static inclation of the lungs to a pressure of 0 or 5 mmHg did not change percent transpulmonary metabolism and Amax/Km ratio in comparison to control measurements during conventional mechanical ventilation. When the inflation pressure was increased to 10 mmHg, percent metabolism of /sup 3/H-BPAP remained unaltered but Amax/Km decreased over 40% from control. This decrease was in close relation to the reduction in pulmonary blood flow. Addition of 5 cm H/sub 2/O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to the mechanical ventilation also decreased Amax/Km values and pulmonary blood flow but did not influence percent metabolism of /sup 3/H-BPAP. These results suggest that the detected alterations in ACE kinetics were more likely due to hemodynamic changes than enzyme dysfunction. The authors propose that high static alveolar pressures as well as PEEP did not affect angiotensin converting enzyme function, but reduced the fraction of perfused microvessels reflected in changes in Amax/Km ratios.

  7. An in vivo analysis of the vestigial gene in Drosophila melanogaster defines the domains required for Vg function.

    PubMed Central

    MacKay, Julie O; Soanes, Kelly H; Srivastava, Ajay; Simmonds, Andrew; Brook, William J; Bell, John B

    2003-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates an obligate partnership of the Drosophila melanogaster Vestigial (VG) and Scalloped (SD) proteins within the context of wing development. These two proteins interact physically and a 56-amino-acid motif within VG is necessary and sufficient for this binding. While the importance of this SD-binding domain has been clearly demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo, the remaining portions of VG have not been examined for in vivo function. Herein, additional regions within VG were tested for possible in vivo functions. The results identify two additional domains that must be present for optimal VG function as measured by the loss of ability to rescue vg mutants, to induce ectopic sd expression, and to perform other normal VG functions when they are deleted. An in vivo study such as this one is fundamentally important because it identifies domains of VG that are necessary in the cellular context in which wing development actually occurs. The results also indicate that an additional large portion of VG, outside of these two domains and the SD-binding domain, is dispensable in the execution of these normal VG functions. PMID:12702681

  8. The past, present, and future of x-ray technology for in vivo imaging of function and form

    SciTech Connect

    Fouras, A.; Dubsky, S.; Hourigan, K.; Kitchen, M. J.; Lewis, R. A.; Hooper, S. B.

    2009-05-15

    Scientists and clinicians have a keen interest in studying not just the structure of physiological systems, but their motion also, or more generally their form and function. This paper focuses on the technologies that underpin in vivo measurements of form and function of the human body for both research and medical treatment. A concise literature review of x-ray imaging, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, radionuclide imaging, laser Doppler velocimetry, and particle image velocimetry is presented. Additionally, a more detailed review of in vivo x-ray imaging is presented. Finally, two techniques, which the authors believe are representative of the present and future of in vivo x-ray imaging techniques, are presented.

  9. Segmental in vivo vertebral motion during functional human lumbar spine activities

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaobai; Passias, Peter; Xia, Qun; Li, Gang; Wood, Kirkham

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative data on the range of in vivo vertebral motion is critical to enhance our understanding of spinal pathology and to improve the current surgical treatment methods for spinal diseases. Little data have been reported on the range of lumbar vertebral motion during functional body activities. In this study, we measured in vivo 6 degrees-of-freedom (DOF) vertebral motion during unrestricted weightbearing functional body activities using a combined MR and dual fluoroscopic imaging technique. Eight asymptomatic living subjects were recruited and underwent MRI scans in order to create 3D vertebral models from L2 to L5 for each subject. The lumbar spine was then imaged using two fluoroscopes while the subject performed primary flexion-extension, left-right bending, and left-right twisting. The range of vertebral motion during each activity was determined through a previously described imaging-model matching technique at L2-3, L3-4, and L4-5 levels. Our data revealed that the upper vertebrae had a higher range of flexion than the lower vertebrae during flexion-extension of the body (L2-3, 5.4 ± 3.8°; L3-4, 4.3 ± 3.4°; L4-5, 1.9 ± 1.1°, respectively). During bending activity, the L4-5 had a higher (but not significant) range of left-right bending motion (4.7 ± 2.4°) than both L2-3 (2.9 ± 2.4°) and L3-4 (3.4 ± 2.1°), while no statistical difference was observed in left-right twisting among the three vertebral levels (L2-3, 2.5 ± 2.3°; L3-4, 2.4 ± 2.6°; and L4-5, 2.9 ± 2.1°, respectively). Besides the primary rotations reported, coupled motions were quantified in all DOFs. The coupled translation in left-right and anterior-posterior directions, on average, reached greater than 1 mm, while in the proximal-distal direction this was less than 1 mm. Overall, each vertebral level responds differently to flexion-extension and left-right bending, but similarly to the left-right twisting. This data may provide new insight into the in vivo function of human spines and can be used as baseline data for investigation of pathological spine kinematics. PMID:19301040

  10. In vitro, in vivo and ex vivo characterization of ibrutinib: a potent inhibitor of the efflux function of the transporter MRP1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Patel, Atish; Ma, Shao-Lin; Li, Xiao Jie; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Yang, Pei-Qi; Kathawala, Rishil J; Wang, Yi-Jun; Anreddy, Nagaraju; Fu, Li-Wu; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The transporter, multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1, ABCC1), plays a critical role in the development of multidrug resistance (MDR). Ibrutinib is an inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase. Here we investigated the reversal effect of ibrutinib on MRP1-mediated MDR. Experimental Approach Cytotoxicity was determined by MTT assay. The expression of protein was detected by Western blot. RT-PCR and Q-PCR were performed to detect the expression of MRP1 mRNA. The intracellular accumulation and efflux of substrates for MRP1 were measured by scintillation counter and flow cytometry. HEK293/MRP1 cell xenografts in nude mice were established to study the effects of ibrutinib in vivo. Key Results Ibrutinib significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of MRP1 substrates in HEK293/MRP1 and HL60/Adr cells overexpressing MRP1. Furthermore, ibrutinib increased the accumulation of substrates in these MRP1-overexpressing cells by inhibiting the drug efflux function of MRP1. However, mRNA and protein expression of MRP1 remained unaltered after treatment with ibrutinib in MRP1-overexpressing cells. In vivo, ibrutinib enhanced the efficacy of vincristine to inhibit the growth of HEK293/MRP1 tumour xenografts in nude mice. Importantly, ibrutinib also enhances the cytotoxicity of vincristine in primary cultures of leukaemia blasts, derived from patients. Conclusions and Implications Our results indicated that ibrutinib significantly increased the efficacy of the chemotherapeutic agents which were MRP1 substrates, in MRP1-overexpressing cells, in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo. These findings will lead to further studies on the effects of a combination of ibrutinib with chemotherapeutic agents in cancer patients overexpressing MRP1. PMID:25164592

  11. Soil engineering in vivo: harnessing natural biogeochemical systems for sustainable, multi-functional engineering solutions.

    PubMed

    DeJong, Jason T; Soga, Kenichi; Banwart, Steven A; Whalley, W Richard; Ginn, Timothy R; Nelson, Douglas C; Mortensen, Brina M; Martinez, Brian C; Barkouki, Tammer

    2011-01-01

    Carbon sequestration, infrastructure rehabilitation, brownfields clean-up, hazardous waste disposal, water resources protection and global warming-these twenty-first century challenges can neither be solved by the high-energy consumptive practices that hallmark industry today, nor by minor tweaking or optimization of these processes. A more radical, holistic approach is required to develop the sustainable solutions society needs. Most of the above challenges occur within, are supported on, are enabled by or grown from soil. Soil, contrary to conventional civil engineering thought, is a living system host to multiple simultaneous processes. It is proposed herein that 'soil engineering in vivo', wherein the natural capacity of soil as a living ecosystem is used to provide multiple solutions simultaneously, may provide new, innovative, sustainable solutions to some of these great challenges of the twenty-first century. This requires a multi-disciplinary perspective that embraces the science of biology, chemistry and physics and applies this knowledge to provide multi-functional civil and environmental engineering designs for the soil environment. For example, can native soil bacterial species moderate the carbonate cycle in soils to simultaneously solidify liquefiable soil, immobilize reactive heavy metals and sequester carbon-effectively providing civil engineering functionality while clarifying the ground water and removing carbon from the atmosphere? Exploration of these ideas has begun in earnest in recent years. This paper explores the potential, challenges and opportunities of this new field, and highlights one biogeochemical function of soil that has shown promise and is developing rapidly as a new technology. The example is used to propose a generalized approach in which the potential of this new field can be fully realized. PMID:20829246

  12. Balanced Hydroxyethylstarch (HES 130/0.4) Impairs Kidney Function In-Vivo without Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Schick, Martin Alexander; Baar, Wolfgang; Bruno, Raphael Romano; Wollborn, Jakob; Held, Christopher; Schneider, Reinhard; Flemming, Sven; Schlegel, Nicolas; Roewer, Norbert; Neuhaus, Winfried; Wunder, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Volume therapy is a standard procedure in daily perioperative care, and there is an ongoing discussion about the benefits of colloid resuscitation with hydroxyethylstarch (HES). In sepsis HES should be avoided due to a higher risk for acute kidney injury (AKI). Results of the usage of HES in patients without sepsis are controversial. Therefore we conducted an animal study to evaluate the impact of 6% HES 130/0.4 on kidney integrity with sepsis or under healthy conditions Sepsis was induced by standardized Colon Ascendens Stent Peritonitis (sCASP). sCASP-group as well as control group (C) remained untreated for 24 h. After 18 h sCASP+HES group (sCASP+VOL) and control+HES (C+VOL) received 50 ml/KG balanced 6% HES (VOL) 130/0.4 over 6 h. After 24 h kidney function was measured via Inulin- and PAH-Clearance in re-anesthetized rats, and serum urea, creatinine (crea), cystatin C and Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as well as histopathology were analysed. In vitro human proximal tubule cells (PTC) were cultured +/- lipopolysaccharid (LPS) and with 0.1-4.0% VOL. Cell viability was measured with XTT-, cell toxicity with LDH-test. sCASP induced severe septic AKI demonstrated divergent results regarding renal function by clearance or creatinine measure focusing on VOL. Soleley HES (C+VOL) deteriorated renal function without sCASP. Histopathology revealed significantly derangements in all HES groups compared to control. In vitro LPS did not worsen the HES induced reduction of cell viability in PTC cells. For the first time, we demonstrated, that application of 50 ml/KG 6% HES 130/0.4 over 6 hours induced AKI without inflammation in vivo. Severity of sCASP induced septic AKI might be no longer susceptible to the way of volume expansion. PMID:26340751

  13. Flk-1+Sca-1- mesenchymal stem cells: functional characteristics in vitro and regenerative capacity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yugang; Pan, Enshan; Wang, Yu; Zhu, Xiaoguang; Wei, Anyang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a powerful tool in regenerative medicine because of their differentiation and migration capacities. We aimed to investigate the possibility of Flk-1+Sca-1- mesenchymal stem cells (Flk-1+Sca-1- MSCs) transplantation to repair erectile function in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus (DM)-associated erectile dysfunction (ED). Methods: In this study, we isolated Flk-1+Sca-1- MSCs from bone marrow (bMSCs). Then, newborn male rats were intraperitoneally injected with 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine for the purpose of tracking endogenous Flk-1+Sca-1- MSCs. Eight weeks later, 8 of these rats were randomly chosen to serve as normal control (N group). The remaining rats were injected intraperitoneally with 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ) to induce DM. Eight of these rats were randomly chosen to serve as DM control (DM group) while another 8 rats were subject to Flk-1+Sca-1- MSCs treatment (DM+MSC group). All rats were evaluated for erectile function by intracavernous pressure (ICP) measurement. Afterward, their penile tissues were examined by histology. Results: Flk-1+Sca-1- MSCs could differentiate into skeletal muscle cells and endothelial cells in vivo and in vitro. Engrafted Flk-1+Sca-1- MSCs were shown to home to injured muscle, participate in myofibers repair and could partially reconstitute the sarcolemmal expression of myocardin and ameliorate the level of related specific pathological markers. Conclusion: Flk-1+Sca-1- MSCs could be used in the treatment erectile function in diabetes mellitus associated erectile dysfunction by promoting regeneration of nNOS-positive nerves, endothelium, and smooth muscle in the penis. PMID:26617697

  14. Human whole-blood culture system for ex vivo characterization of designer-cell function.

    PubMed

    Schukur, Lina; Geering, Barbara; Fussenegger, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Encapsulated designer cells implanted into mice are currently used to validate the efficacy of therapeutic gene networks for the diagnosis and treatment of various human diseases in preclinical research. Because many human conditions cannot be adequately replicated by animal models, complementary and alternative procedures to test future treatment strategies are required. Here we describe a novel approach utilizing an ex vivo human whole-blood culture system to validate synthetic biology-inspired designer cell-based treatment strategies. The viability and functionality of transgenic mammalian designer cells co-cultured with primary human immune cells were characterized. We demonstrated that transgenic mammalian designer cells required adequate insulation from the human blood microenvironment to maintain viability and functionality. The biomaterial alginate-(poly-l-lysine)-alginate used to encapsulate the transgenic designer cells did neither affect the viability of primary granulocytes and lymphocytes nor the functionality of lymphocytes. Additionally, alginate-encapsulated transgenic designer cells remained responsive to the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) from the whole-blood culture upon exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). TNF diffused into the alginate capsules, bound to the specific TNF receptors on the transgenic designer cells' surface and triggered the expression of the reporter gene SEAP (human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase) that was rewired to the TNF-specific signaling cascade. Human whole-blood culture systems can therefore be considered as valuable complementary assays to animal models for the validation of synthetic circuits in genetically modified mammalian cells and may speed up preclinical research in a world of personalized medicine. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 588-597. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26348251

  15. Drug-based modulation of endogenous stem cells promotes functional remyelination in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Najm, Fadi J.; Madhavan, Mayur; Zaremba, Anita; Shick, Elizabeth; Karl, Robert T.; Factor, Daniel C.; Miller, Tyler E.; Nevin, Zachary S.; Kantor, Christopher; Sargent, Alex; Quick, Kevin L.; Schlatzer, Daniela M.; Tang, Hong; Papoian, Ruben; Brimacombe, Kyle R.; Shen, Min; Boxer, Matthew B.; Jadhav, Ajit; Robinson, Andrew P.; Podojil, Joseph R.; Miller, Stephen D.; Miller, Robert H.; Tesar, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) involves an aberrant autoimmune response and progressive failure of remyelination in the central nervous system (CNS). Prevention of neural degeneration and subsequent disability requires remyelination through the generation of new oligodendrocytes, but current treatments exclusively target the immune system. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are stem cells in the CNS and the principal source of myelinating oligodendrocytes1. OPCs are abundant in demyelinated regions of MS patients, yet fail to differentiate, thereby representing a cellular target for pharmacological intervention2. To discover therapeutic compounds for enhancing myelination from endogenous OPCs, we screened a library of bioactive small molecules on mouse pluripotent epiblast stem cell (EpiSC)-derived OPCs3–5. We identified seven drugs that functioned at nanomolar doses to selectively enhance the generation of mature oligodendrocytes from OPCs in vitro. Two drugs, miconazole and clobetasol, were effective in promoting precocious myelination in organotypic cerebellar slice cultures, and in vivo in early postnatal mouse pups. Systemic delivery of each of the two drugs significantly increased the number of new oligodendrocytes and enhanced remyelination in a lysolecithin-induced mouse model of focal demyelination. Administering each of the two drugs at the peak of disease in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of chronic progressive MS resulted in striking reversal of disease severity. Immune response assays showed that miconazole functioned directly as a remyelinating drug with no effect on the immune system, whereas clobetasol was a potent immunosuppressant as well as a remyelinating agent. Mechanistic studies showed that miconazole and clobetasol functioned in OPCs through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling, respectively. Furthermore, both drugs enhanced the generation of human oligodendrocytes from human OPCs in vitro. Collectively, our results provide a rationale for testing miconazole and clobetasol, or structurally-modified derivatives, to enhance remyelination in patients. PMID:25896324

  16. Balanced Hydroxyethylstarch (HES 130/0.4) Impairs Kidney Function In-Vivo without Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Schick, Martin Alexander; Baar, Wolfgang; Bruno, Raphael Romano; Wollborn, Jakob; Held, Christopher; Schneider, Reinhard; Flemming, Sven; Schlegel, Nicolas; Roewer, Norbert; Neuhaus, Winfried; Wunder, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Volume therapy is a standard procedure in daily perioperative care, and there is an ongoing discussion about the benefits of colloid resuscitation with hydroxyethylstarch (HES). In sepsis HES should be avoided due to a higher risk for acute kidney injury (AKI). Results of the usage of HES in patients without sepsis are controversial. Therefore we conducted an animal study to evaluate the impact of 6% HES 130/0.4 on kidney integrity with sepsis or under healthy conditions Sepsis was induced by standardized Colon Ascendens Stent Peritonitis (sCASP). sCASP-group as well as control group (C) remained untreated for 24 h. After 18 h sCASP+HES group (sCASP+VOL) and control+HES (C+VOL) received 50 ml/KG balanced 6% HES (VOL) 130/0.4 over 6h. After 24h kidney function was measured via Inulin- and PAH-Clearance in re-anesthetized rats, and serum urea, creatinine (crea), cystatin C and Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as well as histopathology were analysed. In vitro human proximal tubule cells (PTC) were cultured +/- lipopolysaccharid (LPS) and with 0.1–4.0% VOL. Cell viability was measured with XTT-, cell toxicity with LDH-test. sCASP induced severe septic AKI demonstrated divergent results regarding renal function by clearance or creatinine measure focusing on VOL. Soleley HES (C+VOL) deteriorated renal function without sCASP. Histopathology revealed significantly derangements in all HES groups compared to control. In vitro LPS did not worsen the HES induced reduction of cell viability in PTC cells. For the first time, we demonstrated, that application of 50 ml/KG 6% HES 130/0.4 over 6 hours induced AKI without inflammation in vivo. Severity of sCASP induced septic AKI might be no longer susceptible to the way of volume expansion. PMID:26340751

  17. Adenosine A2A Agonist Improves Lung Function During Ex-vivo Lung Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Emaminia, Abbas; LaPar, Damien J.; Zhao, Yunge; Steidle, John F.; Harris, David A.; Linden, Joel; Kron, Irving L.; Lau, Christine L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Ex-vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is a novel technique to assess, and potentially repair marginal lungs that may otherwise be rejected for transplantation. Adenosine has been shown to protect against lung ischemia-reperfusion injury through its A2A receptor. We hypothesized that combining EVLP with adenosine A2A receptor agonist treatment would enhance lung functional quality and increase donor lung usage. Methods Eight bilateral pig lungs were harvested and flushed with cold Perfadex. After 14 hours storage at 4°C, EVLP was performed for 5 hours on two explanted lung groups: 1) Control group lungs (n=4), were perfused with Steen Solution and Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and 2) treated group lungs (n=4) received 10μM CGS21680, a selective A2A receptor agonist, in a Steen Solution-primed circuit. Lung histology, tissue cytokines, gas analysis and pulmonary function were compared between groups. Results Treated lungs demonstrated significantly less edema as reflected by wet-dry weight ratio (6.6 vs. 5.2, p<0.03) and confirmed by histology. In addition, treated lung demonstrated significantly lower levels of interferon gamma (45.1 vs. 88.5, p<0.05). Other measured tissue cytokines (interleukin (IL) 1 beta, IL-6, and IL-8) were lower in treatment group, but values failed to reach statistical significance. Oxygenation index was improved in the treated group (1.5 vs. 2.3, p<0.01) as well as mean airway pressure (10.3 vs. 13 p<0.009). Conclusions EVLP is a novel and efficient way to assess and optimize lung function and oxygen exchange within donor lungs, and the use of adenosine A2A agonist potentiates its potential. EVLP with the concomitant administration of A2A agonist may enhance donor lung quality and could increase the donor lung pool for transplantation. PMID:22051279

  18. Functional imaging of colonic mucosa with a fibered confocal microscope for real time in vivo pathology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Thomas D.; Friedland, Shai; Sahbaie, Peyman; Soetikno, Roy; Hsiung, Pei-Lin; Liu, Jonathan T.C.; Crawford, James M.; Contag, Christopher H.

    2007-01-01

    Background & Aims Histological interpretation of disease is currently performed with static images of excised tissues, and is limited by processing artifact, sampling error, and interpretive variability. To demonstrate use of functional optical imaging of viable mucosa for quantitative evaluation of colonic neoplasia in real time. Methods Fluorescein (5 mg/ml) was topically administered in (n=54) human subjects undergoing screening colonoscopy. Fluorescence images were collected with 488 nm excitation at 12 frames/second with the confocal microendoscopy system. Movement of fluorescein in the transient period (<5 sec) and the lamina propria:crypt contrast ratio in the steady state phase (>5 sec) were quantified. Results Normal mucosa showed circular crypts with uniform size, hyperplasia revealed proliferative glands with serrated lumens, and adenomas displayed distorted, elongated glands. For t<5 sec, fluorescein passed through normal epithelium with a peak speed of 1.14±0.09 μm/sec at t=0.5 sec, and accumulated into lamina propria as points-of-fluorescence that moved through the interglandular space with an average speed of 41.7±3.4 μm/sec. Passage of fluorescein through adenomatous mucosa was substantially delayed. For t>5 sec, high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy was achieved using a discriminant function to evaluate the contrast ratio to distinguish normal from lesional mucosa (91%, 87%, and 89%, respectively; p<0.001), hyperplasia from adenoma (97%, 96%, and 96%, respectively; p<0.001), and tubular from villous adenoma (100%, 92%, and 93%, respectively; p<0.001). Conclusion Confocal imaging can be performed in vivo to assess the functional behavior of tissue in real time for providing pathological interpretation, representing a new method for histological evaluation. PMID:17936692

  19. [Luteal and extraluteal receptors for hCG and LH].

    PubMed

    Licht, P; Wildt, L

    1998-01-01

    The hCG/LH receptor belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor family. The gene for the receptor has been localised to chromosome 2p21. In addition to corpus luteum and testis as the classical target tissues for hCG and LH, hCG/LH receptors have been described in a variety of non-gonadal human tissues (e.g. endometrium, myometrium, fallopian tube, placenta, amnion, chorion, prostate, CNS, adrenal gland). Besides its modulation of endocrine functions, the hCG/LH receptor does probably transmit growth-factor like activities of hCG and LH in many of these tissues. Moreover, activating as well as inactivating mutations of the hCG/LH receptor gene have been described. These mutations are localised mainly within the transmembrane region of the receptor gene (exon 11) and are responsible for characteristic diseases such as familiar, male-limited precocious puberty as well as hypogonadism of both sexes. This review deals with the molecular biology of the hCG/LH receptor, its distribution within the human body, its functions as well as with the relevance of mutations. Finally, the therapeutic use of hCG in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposis' sarcoma is discussed. PMID:9556899

  20. Fibroblast growth factor 2 is a key determinant of vascular sprouting during bovine luteal angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Woad, Kathryn J; Hunter, Morag G; Mann, George E; Laird, Mhairi; Hammond, Amanda J; Robinson, Robert S

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A are thought to be key controllers of luteal angiogenesis; however, their precise roles in the regulation and coordination of this complex process remain unknown. Thus, the temporal and spatial patterns of endothelial network formation were determined by culturing mixed cell types from early bovine corpora lutea on fibronectin in the presence of FGF2 and VEGFA (6 h to 9 days). Endothelial cells, as determined by von Willebrand factor immunohistochemistry, initially grew in cell islands (days 0-3), before undergoing a period of vascular sprouting to display a more tubule-like appearance (days 3-6), and after 9 days in culture had formed extensive intricate networks. Mixed populations of luteal cells were treated with SU1498 (VEGF receptor 2 inhibitor) or SU5402 (FGF receptor 1 inhibitor) or control on days 0-3, 3-6 or 6-9 to determine the role of FGF2 and VEGFA during these specific windows. The total area of endothelial cells was unaffected by SU1498 treatment during any window. In contrast, SU5402 treatment caused maximal reduction in the total area of endothelial cell networks on days 3-6 vs controls (mean reduction 81%; P<0.001) during the period of tubule initiation. Moreover, SU5402 treatment on days 3-6 dramatically reduced the total number of branch points (P<0.001) and degree of branching per endothelial cell island (P<0.05) in the absence of changes in mean island area. This suggests that FGF2 is a key determinant of vascular sprouting and hence critical to luteal development. PMID:21998077

  1. Simulated conditions of microgravity suppress progesterone production by luteal cells of the pregnant rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, G. K.; Yang, H.; Sridaran, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether simulated conditions of microgravity induce changes in the production of progesterone by luteal cells of the pregnant rat ovary using an in vitro model system. The microgravity environment was simulated using either a high aspect ratio vessel (HARV) bioreactor with free fall or a clinostat without free fall of cells. A mixed population of luteal cells isolated from the corpora lutea of day 8 pregnant rats was attached to cytodex microcarrier beads (cytodex 3). These anchorage dependent cells were placed in equal numbers in the HARV or a spinner flask control vessel in culture conditions. It was found that HARV significantly reduced the daily production of progesterone from day 1 through day 8 compared to controls. Scanning electron microscopy showed that cells attached to the microcarrier beads throughout the duration of the experiment in both types of culture vessels. Cells cultured in chamber slide flasks and placed in a clinostat yielded similar results when compared to those in the HARV. Also, when they were stained by Oil Red-O for lipid droplets, the clinostat flasks showed a larger number of stained cells compared to control flasks at 48 h. Further, the relative amount of Oil Red-O staining per milligram of protein was found to be higher in the clinostat than in the control cells at 48 h. It is speculated that the increase in the level of lipid content in cells subjected to simulated conditions of microgravity may be due to a disruption in cholesterol transport and/or lesions in the steroidogenic pathway leading to a fall in the synthesis of progesterone. Additionally, the fall in progesterone in simulated conditions of microgravity could be due to apoptosis of luteal cells.

  2. Women Ornament Themselves for Intrasexual Competition near Ovulation, but for Intersexual Attraction in Luteal Phase

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Jin-Ying; Wang, Jia-Xi

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined women's attentional bias toward ornamental objects in relation to their menstrual phase as well as to motivations of intersexual courtship or intrasexual competition. In Experiment 1, 33 healthy heterosexual women were tested in a bias-assessment visual cuing task twice: once on a high-fertility day (during the ovulatory phase) and once on a low-fertility day (during the luteal phase). They paid greater attention to pictures of ornamental objects than to pictures of non-ornamental objects near ovulation, but not during the luteal phase, suggesting an ornamental bias during the high-fertility phase. In Experiment 2, before the visual cuing task, 40 participants viewed 10 same-sex or opposite-sex facial photographs with either high or low attractiveness as priming tasks to activate the intrasexual competition or intersexual courtship motives. Results showed that women's ornamental bias was dependent on the interaction of menstrual phase and mating motive. Specifically, the ornamental bias was observed on the high-fertility day when the subjects were primed with high-attractive same-sex images (intrasexual competition) and was observed on the low-fertility day when they were primed with high-attractive opposite-sex photographs (intersexual courtship). In conclusion, the present findings confirm the hypothesis that, during the high-fertility phase, women have an attentional bias toward ornamental objects and further support the hypothesis that the ornamental bias is driven by intrasexual competition motivation near ovulation, but driven by intersexual courtship motivation during the luteal phase. PMID:25180577

  3. Estrogen Supplementation to Progesterone as Luteal Phase Support in Patients Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Lv, Fang; Wang, Pin; Huang, Xia-Man; Liu, Kai-Feng; Pan, Yu; Dong, Nai-Jun; Ji, Yu-Rong; She, Hong; Hu, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Meta-analyses have found conflicting results with respect to the use of progesterone or progesterone plus estrogen as luteal phase support for in vitro fertilization (IVF) protocols involving gonadotropins and/or gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs. The aim of the present study was to perform an updated meta-analysis on the efficacy of progesterone versus progesterone plus estrogen as luteal phase support. We searched the MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases (up to March 18, 2014). The search terms were (estrogen OR estradiol OR oestradiol) AND (progesterone) AND (IVF OR in vitro fertilization) AND (randomized OR prospective). We did not limit the form of estrogen and included subjects who contributed more than 1 cycle to a study. The primary outcome was clinical pregnancy rate. Secondary outcomes were ongoing pregnancy rate, fertilization rate, implantation rate, and miscarriage rate. A total of 11 articles were included in the present analysis, with variable numbers of studies assessing each outcome measure. Results of statistical analyses indicated that progesterone plus estrogen treatment was more likely to result in clinical pregnancy than progesterone alone (pooled odds ratio 1.617, 95% confidence interval 1.059–2.471; P = 0.026). No significant difference between the 2 treatment regimens was found for the other outcome measures. Progesterone plus estrogen for luteal phase support is associated with a higher clinical pregnancy rate than progesterone alone in women undergoing IVF, but other outcomes such as ongoing pregnancy rate, fertilization rate, implantation rate, and miscarriage rate are the same for both treatments. PMID:25715250

  4. Body energy reserves influence the onset of luteal activity after early weaning of beef cows.

    PubMed

    Bishop, D K; Wettemann, R P; Spicer, L J

    1994-10-01

    The influence of body energy reserves on the onset of luteal activity and concentrations of LH and IGF-I in serum was evaluated in postpartum anestrous beef cows after early weaning. Multiparous Hereford and Hereford x Angus cows (n = 24) were fed during gestation to establish body condition scores between 3 and 6 (BCS, 1 = emaciated; 9 = obese) at parturition. Concentrations of progesterone in plasma were determined weekly for 5 wk postpartum (PP). Anovulatory cows and their calves (n = 19) were confined in stalls on d 40 +/- 3 PP. Jugular cannulas were inserted on d 44 +/- 3 PP, and calves were weaned (d 0) the following day. Blood samples were collected from all cows for 4 h (every 10 min) before weaning and on d 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 after weaning and LH was quantified. Progesterone was quantified in daily blood samples until d 10, and in samples taken twice weekly until d 46. Within 25 d after weaning, 100% of the cows with BCS < or = 5 at weaning (n = 7) had initiated luteal activity, whereas only 43% (P < .01) of the cows with BCS < 5 (n = 12) had luteal activity. Mean serum IGF-I concentrations were correlated with BCS (r = .50; P < .05). Frequency of LH pulses was influenced (P < .01) by body condition at weaning but was not influenced by day after weaning. The number of LH pulses at weaning, serum IGF-I, and the interval to the onset of ovarian activity after early weaning of anestrous beef cows were influenced by BCS. PMID:7883630

  5. Luteal serum BDNF and HSP70 levels in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    PubMed

    Oral, E; Ozcan, H; Kirkan, T S; Askin, S; Gulec, M; Aydin, N

    2013-12-01

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome characterized by psychological and somatic symptoms commencing in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and concludes with menstrual bleeding. PMDD affects 3-8 % of premenopausal women and represents a significant public health problem especially in young women. Decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels are associated with several mental disorders. Heat-shock protein-70 (HSP70) is an important member of the molecular chaperone system, which provides a molecular defense against proteotoxic stress. We hypothesized that there would be changed levels of BDNF and HSP70 in women with PMDD compared with non-symptomatic women, reflecting impaired and/or activated stress-related responses involved in the underlying pathogenesis of PMDD. Female medical students were screened, and 24 women without premenstrual symptoms and 25 women with PMDD were enrolled in the study. Psychiatric evaluation and the Daily Record of Severity of Problems-Short Form were used for two consecutive menstrual cycles to diagnose PMDD. Serum BDNF and HSP70 levels were assessed in the third luteal phase. Participants with PMDD had significantly higher serum BDNF and HSP70 levels compared with controls, and there was a significant positive correlation between serum BDNF and HSP70 levels. Increased HSP70 levels may reflect cellular distress in PMDD. Increased serum BDNF levels in the luteal phase in subjects with PMDD may reflect a compensation process, which results in subsequent improvement of PMDD-associated depressive symptoms in the follicular phase. Thus, increased serum BDNF levels may be indicative of a compensating capacity in PMDD. PMID:23455589

  6. Randomized Controlled Trial of "Mind Reading" and In Vivo Rehearsal for High-Functioning Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomeer, Marcus L.; Smith, Rachael A.; Lopata, Christopher; Volker, Martin A.; Lipinski, Alanna M.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; McDonald, Christin A.; Lee, Gloria K.

    2015-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of a computer software (i.e., "Mind Reading") and in vivo rehearsal treatment on the emotion decoding and encoding skills, autism symptoms, and social skills of 43 children, ages 7-12 years with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). Children in treatment (n = 22)…

  7. Development of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for in vivo Functional Imaging of Biological Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Lin

    Optical coherence tomography is a rapidly developing optical imaging modality capable of noninvasively providing depth resolved information of biological tissue at micrometer scale. In this thesis, we described several OCT technologies that can be used to double the imaging depth, realize functional vasculature imaging of biological tissue and increase the imaging speed of OCT system. Aim 1: Use of a scanner to introduce spatial frequency modulation to OCT spectral interferograms for in vivo full-range Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. A novel method was developed that could easily introduce a modulation frequency onto the X-direction (i.e., B-scan) of the FDOCT scanning system, enabling full-range Fourier-domain Optical Coherence Tomography (frFDOCT). Compared to the conventional FDOCT system, the newly developed frFDOCT system can provide increased system sensitivity and deeper imaging depth. The previous technology that can achieve frFDOCT either needed multiple steps for data capturing, which is time consuming, or required additional components which increased the system's complexity. The newly developed method generates a modulation spatial frequency in the spectral interferogram by simply offsetting the probe beam at the X-scanner. Aim 2: Using optical micro-angiography to achieve in vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids. Optical Micro-Angiography (OMAG) is a functional extension of FDOCT technology. It can achieve visualization of vasculature network of biological tissue. In order to apply the OMAG method to image vasculature map of human retina and choroid, a phase compensation algorithm was developed, which could minimize the motion artifacts generated by the movements of human eye and head. Aim 3: Developing ultrahigh sensitive optical micro-angiography to achieve micro vasculature imaging of biological tissue. To improve the vasculature image quality, we developed ultrahigh sensitive OMAG (UHS-OMAG). Unlike conventional OMAG, UHS-OMAG applied the OMAG algorithm onto the slow direction of FDOCT scan (Y-direction). Because the time interval between adjacent B-frames is much longer than that between adjacent A-lines, UHS-OMAG can achieve much higher flow sensitivity compared to the conventional OMAG. In addition, the UHS-OMAG usually employed high frame rate (typically 300 frames per second) to achieve 3D scan, it cost much less time to finish one 3D scan compared to the traditional OMAG. However, when it was applied to visualize vasculature map of human tissue, the motion artifacts caused by the inevitable movements is still the biggest challenge. Based on the phase difference calculated from two adjacent B-frames, a new phase compensation algorithm was developed. Aim 4: Developing ultrahigh speed Spectral Domain OCT system through sequentially controlling two high speed line scan CMOS cameras. Two identical high speed line cameras were employed to build two home build high speed spectrometers. Through sequentially controlling the reading time period of two cameras, the imaging speed of the whole system could reach twice higher than the single camera system. The newly built 800 nm SDOCT system which can work at 500, 000 Hz A-lines capturing speed was then used to achieve in vivo 3D imaging in both high speed and large field of view mode. In addition, through combining with the OMAG algorithm, the newly developed system is capable of providing detailed micro-vasculature imaging of human retina and optic nerve head. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  8. In vivo imaging of synaptic function in the central nervous system: I. Movement disorders and dementia.

    PubMed

    Nikolaus, Susanne; Antke, Christina; Müller, Hans-Wilhelm

    2009-12-01

    This review gives an overview of those in vivo imaging studies on synaptic neurotransmission, which so far have been performed on patients with movement disorders and/or dementia. Thereby, the focus is on disease-related deficiencies within the functional entity of the dopaminergic, serotonergic, cholinergic, glutamatergic, GABAergic or opioid synapse. In vivo investigations have yielded highly consistent results on the dysfunction of synaptic constituents in the majority of diseases covered by this overview. Findings show presynaptic dysfunctions in idiopathic as well as early-onset Parkinson's disease with decreases in striatal dopamine synthesis (57 out of a total of 59 reports on both types of Parkinson's disease), storage (nine out of nine reports), release (two out of three reports) and transporter binding (95 out of 95 reports). In contrast, the "Parkinson plus" syndromes multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy are characterized by both pre- and postsynaptic deficiencies with reductions in striatal dopamine synthesis (11 out of a total of 11 reports on both types of "Parkinson plus" syndromes), storage (four of four reports), and transporter binding (27 out of 27 reports) as well as D1 (two out of two reports) and D2 receptor binding (34 out of 36 reports). This does not hold for the "Parkinson plus" syndromes dementia with Lewy bodies and corticobasal degeneration. For these diseases, for the time being, firm evidence of alterations in D1 and/or D2 receptor binding is lacking. In patients with Huntington's disease, mainly postsynaptic dysfunctions with reductions of striatal D1 (six out of six reports) and D2 receptor binding (15 out of 15 reports) were observed. Alzheimer's disease is characterized by both pre-and postsynaptic deficiencies of the cholinergic system with decreases of cortical acetylcholine storage (one out of two reports) and both musarinic (seven out of 10 reports) and nicotinic cholinergic receptor binding (three out of six reports). Moreover, reductions in cortical (one out of three reports) and limbic 5-HT1A (three out of three reports) and cortical (four out of four reports) and limbic 5-HT2A receptor binding (one out of two reports) were observed. Moreover, there is evidence for a cortical (four out of six reports) and cingulate (three out of three reports) increase of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor binding indicative of microglial activation. In the majority of investigations on patients with Alzheimer's disease, no alterations of presynaptic dopamine function were found, whereas all other forms of dementia including corticobasal degeneration, dementia with Lewy bodies, Parkinson's disease dementia and frontotemporal dementia were characterized by presynaptic dopaminergic deficiencies with reductions in striatal dopamine synthesis (10 out of a total of 10 reports on these types of dementia), storage (four out of four reports) and transporter binding (29 out of 29 reports). Taken together, in vivo imaging methods can be employed for the diagnosis of idiopathic and early-onset Parkinson's disease as well as "Parkinson plus" syndromes and Huntington's disease. Moreover, differentiation is feasible between, firstly, Parkinson's disease and the "Parkinson plus" syndromes multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy, secondly, multiple system atrophy/progressive supranuclear palsy and the other "Parkinson plus" syndromes dementia with Lewy bodies and corticobasal degeneration, and, thirdly, Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia. PMID:19523490

  9. Luteal Expression of Thyroid Hormone Receptors During Gestation and Postpartum in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Navas, Paola B.; Redondo, Analía L.; Cuello-Carrión, F. Darío; Roig, Laura M. Vargas; Valdez, Susana R.; Jahn, Graciela A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Progesterone (P4) is the main steroid secreted by the corpora lutea (CL) and is required for successful implantation and maintenance of pregnancy. Although adequate circulating levels of thyroid hormone (TH) are needed to support formation and maintenance of CL during pregnancy, TH signaling had not been described in this gland. We determined luteal thyroid hormone receptor isoforms (TR) expression and regulation throughout pregnancy and under the influence of thyroid status, and in vitro effects of triiodothyronine (T3) exposure on luteal P4 synthesis. Methods: Euthyroid female Wistar rats were sacrificed by decapitation on gestational day (G) 5, G10, G15, G19, or G21 of pregnancy or on day 2 postpartum (L2). Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism were induced in female Wistar rats by daily administration of thyroxine (T4; 0.25 mg/kg subcutaneously) or 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU; 0.1 g/L in drinking water), respectively. Luteal TR expression of mRNA was determined using real-time reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and of protein using Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Primary cultures of luteal cells and of luteinized granulosa cells were used to study in vitro effects of T3 on P4 synthesis. In addition, the effect of T3 on P4 synthesis under basal conditions and under stimulation with luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was evaluated. Results: TRα1, TRα2, and TRβ1 mRNA were present in CL, increasing during the first half and decreasing during the second half of pregnancy. At the protein level, TRβ1 was abundantly expressed during gestation reaching a peak at G19 and decreasing afterwards. TRα1 was barely expressed during early gestation, peaked at G19, and diminished thereafter. Expression of TRβ1 and TRα1 at the protein and mRNA level were not influenced by thyroid status. T3 neither modified P4 secretion from CL of pregnancy nor its synthesis in luteinized granulosa cells in culture. Conclusions: This study confirms for the first time the presence of TR isoforms in the CL during pregnancy and postpartum, identifying this gland as a TH target during gestation. TR expression is modulated in this tissue in accordance with the regulation of P4 metabolism, and the abrupt peripartum changes suggest a role of TH during luteolysis. However, TH actions on the CL do not seem to be related to a direct regulation of P4 synthesis. PMID:24684177

  10. In vivo imaging of synaptic function in the central nervous system: II. Mental and affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Nikolaus, Susanne; Antke, Christina; Müller, Hans-Wilhelm

    2009-12-01

    This review gives an overview of those in vivo imaging studies on synaptic neurotransmission, which so far have been performed on patients with mental and affective disorders. Thereby, the focus is on disease-related deficiencies within the functional entities of the dopaminergic, serotonergic, cholinergic, histaminergic, glutamatergic, or GABAergic synapse. So far, in vivo investigations have yielded rather inconsistent results on the dysfunctions of specific synaptic constituents in the pathophysiology of the diseases covered by this overview. Among the more congruent results are the findings of increased synthesis (8 out of a total of 12 reports) and release of dopamine (4 out of 4 reports) in the striatum of schizophrenic patients, which supports the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. Results on both dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission are inconsistent in both major depressive disorder and bipolar illness, and fail to clearly agree with the dopamine and/or serotonin hypothesis of depression. The majority of in vivo findings suggest no alterations (25 out of a total of 50 reports on serotonin synthesis, transporter as well as receptor binding) rather than a deficiency (merely 13 out of these 50 reports) of cortical serotonergic neurotransmission in major depression, whereas a decrease of cortical serotonergic neurotransmission (3 out of a total on 5 reports) can be assumed in bipolar illness. In borderline personality disorder, an increased binding of serotonin transporter binding was observed (merely 1 report). Due to the limited evidence, this result only with due caution may be interpreted as an indication for increased availability of serotonin in the synaptic cleft. Patients with Tourette syndrome exhibited increases of DAT binding in the neostriatum (5 out of 10 reports) increases of dopamine storage and dopamine release in the ventral striatum (1 report, each). Moreover, striatal D2 receptor binding was found to be decreased in advanced stages of the disease. Results, tentatively, may be interpreted in terms of an increased dopaminergic neurotransmission in the mesolimbic system. There is limited evidence of decreased dopamine synthesis in both children and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (4 out of a total of 10 reports). These findings as well as the reduction of striatal dopamine release observed in adults (merely 1 report) are in line with the notion of mesocortical dopaminergic hypofunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Thereby, however, in children, results on dopamine synthesis indicate a deficiency in the ventral tegmentum rather than in the prefrontal cortex, whereas, with increasing age, the prefrontal cortex rather than the sites of origin of DAergic innervation become predominantly affected (merely 1 report, each). In anxiety disorders, varying results have been obtained for both pre- and/or postsynaptic dopaminergic, serotonergic and GABAergic binding sites. Thereby, results on posttraumatic stress disorder are homogenous reporting a decrease of GABA A receptor binding in all investigated brain regions including striatum, thalamus, neocortex and limbic system (2 out of 2 reports, each). Moreover, patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder displayed increases of dopamine transporter binding (2 out of 4 reports) and decreases of both D1 (merely 1 report) and D2 receptor binding (4 out of 5 reports), respectively. These findings, tentatively, may be interpreted in terms of an increased availability of synaptic dopamine in the neostriatum, which is compensated for both pre- and postsynaptically by increasing dopamine reuptake into the presynaptic terminal, and decreasing (inhibitory) signal transduction of efferent fibers. The observed reduction of GABA A receptor binding in frontocortical neurons (in 11 out of a total of 21 reports on anxiety disorders) is in line with this assumption. The inconsistency (and, partially, also incompleteness) of in vivo findings on mental and affective disorders constitutes a major result of this overview. Discrepancies indicate that the regulation state of synaptic constituents may not only vary between the subtypes of disorders but also between subject cohorts and, even, individual patients depending on variables such as the predominance of symptoms, medication status or onset and duration of disease. This, for the time being, limits the application of in vivo imaging methods for differential diagnosis of mental and affective disorders. In vivo imaging results on anxiety disorders, however, are of possible interest with regard to psychoanalysis, as they offer a neurochemical correlate for Freud's theories on the pathogenesis of anxiety- and compulsion-related disorders. PMID:19523495

  11. Functional integrity of the interrenal tissue of yellow perch from contaminated sites tested in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Girard, C.; Brodeur, J.C.; Hontela, A.

    1995-12-31

    The normal activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI axis) in response to capture is disrupted in fish subjected to life-long exposure to heavy metals, PCBs and PAHs. The ability to increase plasma cortisol in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) from sites contaminated by heavy metals and organic compounds, and from a reference site was assessed by the Capture stress test and by the ACTH Challenge test, a new standardized in vivo method designed for field studies. The effects of seasonal factors, such as temperature and gonadal maturity on these tests were investigated. Measures of liver and muscle glycogen and histopathology were made to further characterize the biochemical and structural changes that may occur along with hormonal changes. The Capture stress test showed that an acute source of stress induced a lower cortisol response in fish from the highly contaminated site compared to the reference site, revealing a functional impairment of the HPI axis. The ACTH Challenge test showed that the hormonal responsiveness of the cortisol-secreting interrenal tissue, stimulated by a standard dose of ACTH injected i.p., was lower in fish from the highly contaminated site than the reference site. Spring is the season during which the impairment was the most evident. The possibility of using the reduced capacity of feral fish to respond to a standardized ACTH Challenge as an early bioindicator of toxic stress is discussed.

  12. Enhanced in vivo targeting of murine nonparenchymal liver cells with monophosphoryl lipid A functionalized microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak-Nguyen, Anette; Fichter, Michael; Dedters, Marvin; Pretsch, Leah; Gregory, Stephen H; Meyer, Claudius; Doganci, Aysefa; Diken, Mustafa; Landfester, Katharina; Baier, Grit; Gehring, Stephan

    2014-07-14

    A broad spectrum of infectious liver diseases emphasizes the need of microparticles for targeted delivery of immunomodulatory substances to the liver. Microcapsules (MCs) are particularly attractive for innovative drug and vaccine formulations, enabling the combination of antigen, drugs, and adjuvants. The present study aimed to develop microcapsules characterized by an enhanced liver deposition and accelerated uptake by nonparenchymal liver cells (NPCs). Initially, two formulations of biodegradable microcapsules were synthesized from either hydroxyethyl starch (HES) or mannose. Notably, HES-MCs accumulated primarily in the liver, while mannose particles displayed a lung preference. Functionalization of HES-MCs with anti-CD40, anti-DEC205, and/or monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) enhanced uptake of MCs by nonparenchymal liver cells in vitro. In contrast, only MPLA-coated HES-MCs promoted significantly the in vivo uptake by NPCs. Finally, HES-MCs equipped with MPLA, anti-CD40, and anti-DEC205 induced the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6 by Kupffer cells (KCs), and IFN-γ and IL-12p70 by liver dendritic cells (DCs). The enhanced uptake and activation of KCs by MPLA-HES-MCs is a promising approach to prevent or treat infection, since KCs are exploited as an entry gate in various infectious diseases, such as malaria. In parallel, loading and activating liver DCs, usually prone to tolerance, bears the potential to induce antigen specific, intrahepatic immune responses necessary to prevent and treat infections affecting the liver. PMID:24901387

  13. Glycan variants of a respiratory syncytial virus antibody with enhanced effector function and in vivo efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Hiatt, Andrew; Bohorova, Natasha; Bohorov, Ognian; Goodman, Charles; Kim, Do; Pauly, Michael H.; Velasco, Jesus; Whaley, Kevin J.; Piedra, Pedro A.; Gilbert, Brian E.; Zeitlin, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause devastating lower respiratory tract infections in preterm infants or when other serious health problems are present. Immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab (Synagis), a humanized IgG1 mAb, is the current standard of care for preventing RSV infection in at-risk neonates. We have explored the contribution of effector function to palivizumab efficacy using a plant-based expression system to produce palivizumab N-glycan structure variants with high homogeneity on different antibody isotypes. We compared these isotype and N-glycoform variants with commercially available palivizumab with respect to both in vitro receptor and C1q binding and in vivo efficacy. Whereas the affinity for antigen and neutralization activity of each variant were indistinguishable from those of palivizumab, their Fcγ receptor binding profiles were very different, which was reflected in either a reduced or enhanced ability to influence the RSV lung titer in challenged cotton rats. Enhanced Fcγ receptor binding was associated with reduced viral lung titers compared with palivizumab, whereas abrogation of receptor binding led to a drastic reduction in efficacy. The results support the hypotheses that classic antibody neutralization is a minor component of efficacy by palivizumab in the cotton rat and that antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity activity can significantly enhance the efficacy of this antiviral mAb. PMID:24711420

  14. Functions of Ribosomal Proteins in Assembly of Eukaryotic Ribosomes In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The proteome of cells is synthesized by ribosomes, complex ribonucleoproteins that in eukaryotes contain 79–80 proteins and four ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) more than 5,400 nucleotides long. How these molecules assemble together and how their assembly is regulated in concert with the growth and proliferation of cells remain important unanswered questions. Here, we review recently emerging principles to understand how eukaryotic ribosomal proteins drive ribosome assembly in vivo. Most ribosomal proteins assemble with rRNA cotranscriptionally; their association with nascent particles is strengthened as assembly proceeds. Each subunit is assembled hierarchically by sequential stabilization of their subdomains. The active sites of both subunits are constructed last, perhaps to prevent premature engagement of immature ribosomes with active subunits. Late-assembly intermediates undergo quality-control checks for proper function. Mutations in ribosomal proteins that affect mostly late steps lead to ribosomopathies, diseases that include a spectrum of cell type–specific disorders that often transition from hypoproliferative to hyperproliferative growth. PMID:25706898

  15. In vivo functional and myeloarchitectonic mapping of human primary auditory areas

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Frederic; Tierney, Adam Taylor; Lutti, Antoine; Josephs, Oliver; Sereno, Martin I.; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to vision, where retinotopic mapping alone can define areal borders, primary auditory areas such as A1 are best delineated by combining in vivo tonotopic mapping with post mortem cyto- or myelo-architectonics from the same individual. We combined high-resolution (800 μm) quantitative T1 mapping with phase-encoded tonotopic methods to map primary auditory areas (A1 and R) within the ‘auditory core’ of human volunteers. We first quantitatively characterize the highly myelinated auditory core in terms of shape, area, cortical depth profile, and position, with our data showing considerable correspondence to post-mortem myeloarchitectonic studies, both in cross-participant averages and in individuals. The core region contains two ‘mirror-image‘ tonotopic maps oriented along the same axis as observed in macaque and owl monkey. We suggest that thee two maps within the core are the human analogues of primate auditory areas A1 and R. The core occupies a much smaller portion of tonotopically organized cortex on the superior temporal plane and gyrus than is generally supposed. The multi-modal approach to defining the auditory core will facilitate investigations of structure-function relationships, comparative neuroanatomical studies, and promises new biomarkers for diagnosis and clinical studies. PMID:23152594

  16. In vivo functional properties of juxtaglomerular neurons in the mouse olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Homma, R.; Kovalchuk, Y.; Konnerth, A.; Cohen, L. B.; Garaschuk, O.

    2013-01-01

    Juxtaglomerular neurons represent one of the largest cellular populations in the mammalian olfactory bulb yet their role for signal processing remains unclear. We used two-photon imaging and electrophysiological recordings to clarify the in vivo properties of these cells and their functional organization in the juxtaglomerular space. Juxtaglomerular neurons coded for many perceptual characteristics of the olfactory stimulus such as (1) identity of the odorant, (2) odorant concentration, (3) odorant onset, and (4) offset. The odor-responsive neurons clustered within a narrow area surrounding the glomerulus with the same odorant specificity, with ~80% of responding cells located ≤20 μm from the glomerular border. This stereotypic spatial pattern of activated cells persisted at different odorant concentrations and was found for neurons both activated and inhibited by the odorant. Our data identify a principal glomerulus with a narrow shell of juxtaglomerular neurons as a basic odor coding unit in the glomerular layer and underline the important role of intraglomerular circuitry. PMID:23459031

  17. Emergence of functional subnetworks in layer 2/3 cortex induced by sequential spikes in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taekeun; Oh, Won Chan; Choi, Joon Ho; Kwon, Hyung-Bae

    2016-03-01

    During cortical circuit development in the mammalian brain, groups of excitatory neurons that receive similar sensory information form microcircuits. However, cellular mechanisms underlying cortical microcircuit development remain poorly understood. Here we implemented combined two-photon imaging and photolysis in vivo to monitor and manipulate neuronal activities to study the processes underlying activity-dependent circuit changes. We found that repeated triggering of spike trains in a randomly chosen group of layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in the somatosensory cortex triggered long-term plasticity of circuits (LTPc), resulting in the increased probability that the selected neurons would fire when action potentials of individual neurons in the group were evoked. Significant firing pattern changes were observed more frequently in the selected group of neurons than in neighboring control neurons, and the induction was dependent on the time interval between spikes, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation, and Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activation. In addition, LTPc was associated with an increase of activity from a portion of neighboring neurons with different probabilities. Thus, our results demonstrate that the formation of functional microcircuits requires broad network changes and that its directionality is nonrandom, which may be a general feature of cortical circuit assembly in the mammalian cortex. PMID:26903616

  18. Phenotypic and in vivo functional characterization of immortalized human fetal liver cells.

    PubMed

    Patil, Pradeep B; Begum, Setara; Joshi, Meghnad; Kleman, Marika I; Olausson, Michael; Sumitran-Holgersson, Suchitra

    2014-06-01

    We report the establishment and characterization of immortalized human fetal liver progenitor cells by expression of the Simian virus 40 large T (SV40 LT) antigen. Well-characterized cells at various passages were transplanted into nude mice with acute liver injury and tested for functional capacity. The SV40LT antigen-immortalized fetal liver cells showed a morphology similar to primary cells. Cultured cells demonstrated stable phenotypic expression in various passages, of hepatic markers such as albumin, CK 8, CK18, transcription factors HNF-4α and HNF-1α and CYP3A/7. The cells did not stain for any of the tested cancer-associated markers. Albumin, HNF-4α and CYP3A7 expression was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Flow cytometry showed expression of some progenitor cell markers. In vivo study showed that the cells expressed both fetal and differentiated hepatocytes markers. Our study suggests new approaches to expand hepatic progenitor cells, analyze their fate in animal models aiming at cell therapy of hepatic diseases. PMID:24730442

  19. Functionally competent eosinophils differentiated ex vivo in high purity from normal mouse bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Kimberly D.; Moser, Jennifer M.; Czapiga, Meggan; Siegel, Steven J.; Percopo, Caroline M.; Rosenberg, Helene F.

    2009-01-01

    We have devised an ex vivo culture system which generates large numbers of eosinophils at high purity (>90%) from unselected mouse bone marrow progenitors. In response to four days of culture with recombinant mouse (rm)FLT3-L and rmSCF followed by rmIL-5 alone thereafter, the resulting bone-marrow derived eosinophils (bmEos) express immunoreactive major basic protein, Siglec F, IL-5 receptor alpha chain, and transcripts encoding mouse eosinophil peroxidase, CC chemokine receptor 3, the IL-3/IL-5/GMCSF receptor common beta-chain (βc), and the transcription factor GATA-1. BmEos are functionally competent: they undergo chemotaxis toward mouse eotaxin-1 and produce characteristic cytokines, including interferon-γ, IL-4, MIP-1α and IL-6. The rodent pathogen, pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) replicates in bmEos, and elevated levels of IL-6 are detected in supernatants of bmEos cultures in response to active infection. Finally, differentiating bmEos are readily transfected with lentiviral vectors, suggesting a means for rapid production of genetically manipulated cells. PMID:18768855

  20. Dissecting the Function and Assembly of Acentriolar Microtubule Organizing Centers in Drosophila Cells In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Baumbach, Janina; Novak, Zsofia Anna; Raff, Jordan W.; Wainman, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Acentriolar microtubule organizing centers (aMTOCs) are formed during meiosis and mitosis in several cell types, but their function and assembly mechanism is unclear. Importantly, aMTOCs can be overactive in cancer cells, enhancing multipolar spindle formation, merotelic kinetochore attachment and aneuploidy. Here we show that aMTOCs can form in acentriolar Drosophila somatic cells in vivo via an assembly pathway that depends on Asl, Cnn and, to a lesser extent, Spd-2—the same proteins that appear to drive mitotic centrosome assembly in flies. This finding enabled us to ablate aMTOC formation in acentriolar cells, and so perform a detailed genetic analysis of the contribution of aMTOCs to acentriolar mitotic spindle formation. Here we show that although aMTOCs can nucleate microtubules, they do not detectably increase the efficiency of acentriolar spindle assembly in somatic fly cells. We find that they are required, however, for robust microtubule array assembly in cells without centrioles that also lack microtubule nucleation from around the chromatin. Importantly, aMTOCs are also essential for dynein-dependent acentriolar spindle pole focusing and for robust cell proliferation in the absence of centrioles and HSET/Ncd (a kinesin essential for acentriolar spindle pole focusing in many systems). We propose an updated model for acentriolar spindle pole coalescence by the molecular motors Ncd/HSET and dynein in conjunction with aMTOCs. PMID:26020779

  1. Cigarette smoke and phagocyte function: effect of chronic exposure in vivo and acute exposure in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, W R; Holt, P G; Keast, D

    1978-01-01

    Phagocytic function was studied in mice chronically exposed to cigarette smoke, and the effects of in vitro exposure to cigarette smoke on macrophage activity were also assessed. Cultures of radiolabeled Pseudomonas aeruginosa were employed to investigate phagocyte activity in vivo and in vitro. Mice were exposed on weekdays to fresh cigarette smoke for periods up to 37 weeks and the bactericidal and clearance activity of their lungs was measured. Both pulmonary clearance and bactericidal activity was impaired. The clearance of intravenously injected bacteria from the blood of smoke-exposed mice occurred at the same rate as in control mice, but the accumulation of radiolabel by the liver was decreased. In addition, the rate of elimination of radiolabel from the liver was less than the controls. Macrophages exposed to cigarette smoke in vitro initially had a depressed phagocytic rate, but if phagocytosis over a prolonged period was measured it was eventually enhanced over the rate of control macrophages. The vapor phase of cigarette smoke could also transiently inhibit and then enhance the phagocytic activity. PMID:97229

  2. The effects of heat on skin barrier function and in vivo dermal absorption.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Gabriela; Leverett, Jesse C; Emamzadeh, Mandana; Lane, Majella E

    2014-04-10

    Enhanced delivery of ingredients across the stratum corneum (SC) is of great interest for improving the efficacy of topically applied formulations. Various methods for improving dermal penetration have been reported including galvanic devices and micro-needles. From a safety perspective it is important that such approaches do not compromise SC barrier function. This study investigates the influence of topically applied heat in vivo on the dermal uptake and penetration of a model active, allantoin from gel and lotion formulations. A custom designed device was used to deliver 42°C for 30s daily to human subjects after application of two formulations containing allantoin. The results were compared with sites treated with formulations containing no active and no heat, and a control site. In addition to penetration of allantoin, the integrity of the SC was monitored using trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements. The results showed that just 30s of 42°C topically applied heat was enough to cause significantly more penetration of allantoin from the lotion formulation compared with no application of heat. TEWL data indicated that the integrity of the skin was not compromised by the treatment. However, the application of heat did not promote enhanced penetration of the active from the gel formulation. Vehicle composition is therefore an important factor when considering thermal enhancement strategies for targeting actives to the skin. PMID:24445121

  3. Glycan variants of a respiratory syncytial virus antibody with enhanced effector function and in vivo efficacy.

    PubMed

    Hiatt, Andrew; Bohorova, Natasha; Bohorov, Ognian; Goodman, Charles; Kim, Do; Pauly, Michael H; Velasco, Jesus; Whaley, Kevin J; Piedra, Pedro A; Gilbert, Brian E; Zeitlin, Larry

    2014-04-22

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause devastating lower respiratory tract infections in preterm infants or when other serious health problems are present. Immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab (Synagis), a humanized IgG1 mAb, is the current standard of care for preventing RSV infection in at-risk neonates. We have explored the contribution of effector function to palivizumab efficacy using a plant-based expression system to produce palivizumab N-glycan structure variants with high homogeneity on different antibody isotypes. We compared these isotype and N-glycoform variants with commercially available palivizumab with respect to both in vitro receptor and C1q binding and in vivo efficacy. Whereas the affinity for antigen and neutralization activity of each variant were indistinguishable from those of palivizumab, their Fcγ receptor binding profiles were very different, which was reflected in either a reduced or enhanced ability to influence the RSV lung titer in challenged cotton rats. Enhanced Fcγ receptor binding was associated with reduced viral lung titers compared with palivizumab, whereas abrogation of receptor binding led to a drastic reduction in efficacy. The results support the hypotheses that classic antibody neutralization is a minor component of efficacy by palivizumab in the cotton rat and that antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity activity can significantly enhance the efficacy of this antiviral mAb. PMID:24711420

  4. Bridging the gap: functional healing of embryonic small intestine ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Coletta, Riccardo; Roberts, Neil A; Oltrabella, Francesca; Khalil, Basem A; Morabito, Antonino; Woolf, Adrian S

    2016-02-01

    The ability to grow embryonic organs ex vivo provides an opportunity to follow their differentiation in a controlled environment, with resulting insights into normal development. Additionally, similar strategies can be used to assess effects on organogenesis of physical and chemical manipulations. This study aimed to create an organ culture model with which to test physical manipulations to enhance healing of gut segments, thus generating a single functional organ. Embryonic mouse jejunum was isolated and cut into 2-3 mm tubes, which were placed in pairs, separated by a small gap, on semi-permeable supports. Each pair was linked by a nylon suture threaded through their lumens. After 3 days in organ culture fed by defined serum-free media, the rudiments differentiated to form tubes of smooth muscle surrounding a core of rudimentary villi. Of 34 such pairs, 74% had touching and well aligned proximate ends. Of these joined structures, 80% (59% of the total pairs) had a continuous lumen, as assessed by observing the trajectories of fluorescent dextrans injected into their distal ends. Fused organ pairs formed a single functional unit, as assessed by spontaneous contraction waves propagated along their lengths. In these healed intestines, peripherin(+) neurons formed a nexus in the zone of fusion, linking the rudiment pairs. In future, this system could be used to test whether growth factors enhance fusion. Such results should in turn inform the design of novel treatments for short bowel syndrome, a potentially fatal condition with a currently limited and imperfect range of therapies. ©2015. The Authors Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26234729

  5. Resveratrol and diabetic cardiac function: focus on recent in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Turan, Belma; Tuncay, Erkan; Vassort, Guy

    2012-04-01

    Resveratrol, a natural phytoalexin found in wine has the potential to impact a variety of human diseases. Resveratrol like other polyphenols activates many of the same intracellular pathways as those activated by caloric restriction. It can quench reactive oxidative species, ROS and induce eNOS and iNOS expression. Resveratrol also can activate SIRT1, a NAD⁺-dependent deacetylase, that leads an improved in mitochondrial function, and then this procedure turns to activate the transcription factor Nrf2 that coordinates expression of key antioxidant mechanisms by binding to the antioxidant response elements. Resveratrol provides cardioprotection by triggering preconditioning and inducing autophagy. It also presents chemical similarities with estrogen and was reported to activate both nuclear and extranuclear estrogen receptors. Resveratrol treatment alleviated diabetes-induced cardiovascular system disorders via different endogeneous signaling pathways including oxidative stress/antioxidant defense system, glucose/insulin metabolism, overexpression of iNOS/nitrotyrosine, and preconditioning. Resveratrol treatment significantly reduced the blood glucose level in STZ-treated type 1 diabetic animals through insulin-dependent and insulin-independent pathways. Resveratrol triggers some of the similar intracellular insulin signalling components in myocardium such as eNOS, AKT through the AMPK pathway, and plays an essential role in Glut-4 translocation and glucose uptake in STZ-induced diabetic myocardium. However, resveratrol can exhibit hormetic action expressing health benefits at lower doses whereas being detrimental at higher doses. It might also exert antidiabetic effects by activating SIRT1 directly in the brain. This review includes a summary of the role of resveratrol and diabetic cardiac function including a brief discussion on in vitro and in vivo studies as well as our original observations in diabetic rats. PMID:22437738

  6. Exposure to low mercury concentration in vivo impairs myocardial contractile function

    SciTech Connect

    Furieri, Lorena Barros; Fioresi, Mirian; Junior, Rogerio Faustino Ribeiro; Bartolome, Maria Visitacion; Fernandes, Aurelia Araujo; Cachofeiro, Victoria; Lahera, Vicente; Salaices, Mercedes; Stefanon, Ivanita; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim

    2011-09-01

    Increased cardiovascular risk after mercury exposure has been described but cardiac effects resulting from controlled chronic treatment are not yet well explored. We analyzed the effects of chronic exposure to low mercury concentrations on hemodynamic and ventricular function of isolated hearts. Wistar rats were treated with HgCl{sub 2} (1st dose 4.6 {mu}g/kg, subsequent dose 0.07 {mu}g/kg/day, im, 30 days) or vehicle. Mercury treatment did not affect blood pressure (BP) nor produced cardiac hypertrophy or changes of myocyte morphometry and collagen content. This treatment: 1) in vivo increased left ventricle end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) without changing left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) and heart rate; 2) in isolated hearts reduced LV isovolumic systolic pressure and time derivatives, and {beta}-adrenergic response; 3) increased myosin ATPase activity; 4) reduced Na{sup +}-K{sup +} ATPase (NKA) activity; 5) reduced protein expression of SERCA and phosphorylated phospholamban on serine 16 while phospholamban expression increased; as a consequence SERCA/phospholamban ratio reduced; 6) reduced sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX) protein expression and {alpha}-1 isoform of NKA, whereas {alpha}-2 isoform of NKA did not change. Chronic exposure for 30 days to low concentrations of mercury does not change BP, heart rate or LVSP but produces small but significant increase of LVEDP. However, in isolated hearts mercury treatment promoted contractility dysfunction as a result of the decreased NKA activity, reduction of NCX and SERCA and increased PLB protein expression. These findings offer further evidence that mercury chronic exposure, even at small concentrations, is an environmental risk factor affecting heart function. - Highlights: > Unchanges blood pressure, heart rate, systolic pressure. > Increases end diastolic pressure. > Promotes cardiac contractility dysfunction. > Decreases NKA activity, NCX and SERCA, increases PLB protein expression. > Small concentrations constitutes environmental cardiovascular risk factor.

  7. Addition of gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist for luteal phase support in in-vitro fertilization: an analysis of 2739 cycles

    PubMed Central

    Şimşek, Erhan; Kılıçdağ, Esra Bulgan; Aytaç, Pınar Çağlar; Çoban, Gonca; Şimşek, Seda Yüksel; Çok, Tayfun; Haydardedeoğlu, Bülent

    2015-01-01

    Objective Luteal phase is defective in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles, and many regimens were tried for the very best luteal phase support (LPS). Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist use, which was administered as an adjunct to the luteal phase support in IVF cycles, was suggested to improve pregnancy outcome measures in certain randomized studies. We analyzed the effects of addition of GnRH agonist to standard progesterone luteal support on pregnancy outcome measures, particularly the live birth rates. Material and Methods This is a retrospective cohort study, including 2739 IVF cycles. Long GnRH agonist and antagonist stimulation IVF cycles with cleavage-stage embryo transfer were included. Cycles were divided into two groups: Group A included cycles with single-dose GnRH agonist plus progesterone LPS and Group B included progesterone only LPS. Live birth rates were the primary outcome measures of the analysis. Miscarriage rates and multiple pregnancy rates were the secondary outcome measures. Results Live birth rates were not statistically different in GnRH agonist plus progesterone (Group A) and progesterone only (Group B) groups in both the long agonist and antagonist stimulation arms (40.8%/41.2% and 32.8%/34.4%, p<0.05 respectively). Moreover, pregnancy rates, implantation rates, and miscarriage rates were found to be similar between groups. Multiple pregnancy rates in antagonist cycles were significantly higher in Group A than those in Group B (12.0% and 6.9%, respectively). Conclusion A beneficial effect of a single dose of GnRH agonist administration as a luteal phase supporting agent is yet to be determined because of the wide heterogeneity of data present in literature. Well-designed randomized clinical studies are required to clarify any effect of luteal GnRH agonist addition on pregnancy outcome measures with different doses, timing, and administration routes of GnRH agonists. PMID:26097392

  8. Effects of menstrual phase on intake of nicotine, caffeine, and alcohol and nonprescribed drugs in women with late luteal phase dysphoric disorder.

    PubMed

    Marks, J L; Hair, C S; Klock, S C; Ginsburg, B E; Pomerleau, C S

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the possibility that cigarette smoking and other drug use are affected by menstrual phase in smokers with Late Luteal Phase Dysphoric Disorder (LLPDD), we examined daily diaries rating menstrual symptomatology, smoking, alcohol and nonprescription drug use, and caffeine intake in nine female smokers meeting criteria for LLPDD. Menstrual symptomatology peaked during the premenstrual phase. Smoking, alcohol, and nonprescription drug intake were increased during menses; caffeine intake was unaffected by phase. No systematic intrasubject correlation between symptomatology and smoking was detected. It was concluded that in women with LLPDD, smoking and alcohol and nonprescription drug intake appear to vary as a function of menstrual phase. The lack of intrasubject correlations between symptomatology and intake, and the failure of peak intake to coincide with peak symptomatology, however, indicate that these effects cannot be explained simply as "self-medication" of acute episodes of dysphoric mood. PMID:7804022

  9. Tissue concentration, mRNA expression and stimulation of IGF-I in luteal tissue during the oestrous cycle and pregnancy of cows.

    PubMed

    Einspanier, R; Miyamoto, A; Schams, D; Mller, M; Brem, G

    1990-11-01

    The expression of IGF-I in bovine luteal tissue was demonstrated by parallel measurement of IGF-I tissue concentration and its mRNA; highest synthesis was observed during Days 12-17 of the cycle and the first months of pregnancy. Tissue levels of IGF-I increased from Days 1-5 to Days 12-17 of the cycle followed by a rapid decrease at luteolysis; there was a continuous decline from early pregnancy until Months 6-9. Microdialysis perfusion experiments with corpora lutea in vitro at Days 8-11 of the cycle revealed a major effect: release of progesterone and oxytocin were highly stimulated in a dose-dependent manner. We suggest that IGF-I could be important in regulating the function of the bovine corpus luteum and may act in an autocrine/paracrine way. PMID:2250243

  10. Progesterone administration for luteal phase deficiency in human reproduction: an old or new issue?

    PubMed

    Palomba, Stefano; Santagni, Susanna; La Sala, Giovanni Battista

    2015-01-01

    Luteal phase deficiency (LPD) is described as a condition of insufficient progesterone exposure to maintain a regular secretory endometrium and allow for normal embryo implantation and growth. Recently, scientific focus is turning to understand the physiology of implantation, in particular the several molecular markers of endometrial competence, through the recent transcriptomic approaches and microarray technology. In spite of the wide availability of clinical and instrumental methods for assessing endometrial competence, reproducible and reliable diagnostic tests for LPD are currently lacking, so no type-IA evidence has been proposed by the main scientific societies for assessing endometrial competence in infertile couples. Nevertheless, LPD is a very common condition that may occur during a series of clinical conditions, and during controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) and hyperstimulation (COH) programs. In many cases, the correct approach to treat LPD is the identification and correction of any underlying condition while, in case of no underlying dysfunction, the treatment becomes empiric. To date, no direct data is available regarding the efficacy of luteal phase support for improving fertility in spontaneous cycles or in non-gonadotropin induced ovulatory cycles. On the contrary, in gonadotropin in vitro fertilization (IVF) and non-IVF cycles, LPD is always present and progesterone exerts a significant positive effect on reproductive outcomes. The scientific debate still remains open regarding progesterone administration protocols, specially on routes of administration, dose and timing and the potential association with other drugs, and further research is still needed. PMID:26585269

  11. Functional and fine structural changes in isolated rat lungs challenged with endotoxin ex vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Uhlig, S.; Brasch, F.; Wollin, L.; Fehrenbach, H.; Richter, J.; Wendel, A.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to relate changes in rat lung functions caused by the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to alterations in structure. The following four experimental groups were used: 1), control in vitro, perfusion for 150 minutes; 2), LPS in vitro, perfusion for 150 minutes and infusion of 5 mg of LPS after 40 minutes; 3), control ex vivo, perfusion for 10 minutes; and 4), LPS ex vivo, lungs perfused for 10 minutes from rats treated for 110 minutes with 20 mg/kg LPS intraperitoneally. Histologically, blood-derived leukocytes were detectable only in lungs from group 4, where neutrophils were found in capillaries, interstitium, and endothelial pouches. LPS treatment increased pulmonary resistance and decreased pulmonary compliance in group 4 (ex vivo), and, to a greater extent, in group 2 (in vitro). In these two groups, formation of giant lamellar bodies in the type II pneumocytes was observed. By histological examination, the bronchoconstriction induced by LPS in vitro was localized to the terminal bronchioles. At 2 hours after LPS treatment, no edema and no change in precapillary and postcapillary resistance, capillary pressure, vascular compliance, capillary permeability, and the wet/dry ratio was observed. Thus, our major findings are that LPS induced constriction of the terminal bronchioles in vitro, formation of giant lamellar bodies in type II pneumocytes ex vivo and in vitro, and trapping of neutrophils in endothelial pouches in vivo. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:7747816

  12. Protease proteomics: revealing protease in vivo functions using systems biology approaches.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Alain; Overall, Christopher M

    2008-10-01

    Proteases irreversibly modify proteins by cleaving their amide bonds and are implicated in virtually every important biological process such as immunity, development and tissue repair. Accordingly, it is easy to see that deregulated proteolysis is a pathognomic feature of many diseases. Most of the current information available on proteases was acquired using in vitro methods, which reveals molecular structure, enzyme kinetics and active-site specificity. However, considerably less is known about the relevant biological functions and combined roles of proteases in moulding the proteome. Although models using genetically modified animals are powerful, they are slow to develop, they can be difficult to interpret, and while useful, they remain only models of human disease. Therefore, to understand how proteases accomplish their tasks in organisms and how they participate in pathology, we need to elucidate the protease degradome-the repertoire of proteases expressed by a cell, a tissue or an organism at a particular time-their expression level, activation state, their biological substrates, also known as the substrate degradome-the repertoire of substrates for each protease-and the effect of the activity of each protease on the pathways of the system under study. Achieving this goal is challenging because several proteases might cleave the same protein, and proteases also form pathways and interact to form the protease web [Overall, C.M., Kleifeld, O., 2006. Tumour microenvironment - opinion: validating matrix metalloproteinases as drug targets and anti-targets for cancer therapy. Nat. Rev. Cancer 6 (3), 227-239]. Hence, the net proteolytic potential of the degradome at a particular time on a substrate and pathway must also be understood. Proteomics offers one of the few routes to the understanding of proteolysis in complex in vivo systems and especially in man where genetic manipulations are impossible. The aim of this chapter is to review methods and tools that allow researchers to study protease biological functions using proteomics and mass spectrometry. We describe methods to assess protease expression at the messenger RNA level using DNA microarrays and at the protein level using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. We also review methods to reveal and quantify the activity state of proteases and to identify their biological substrates. The information acquired using these high throughput, high content techniques can then be interpreted with different bioinformatics approaches to reveal the effects of proteolysis on the system under study. Systems biology of the protease web-degradomics in the broadest sense-promises to reveal the functions of proteases in homeostasis and in disease states. This will indicate which proteases participate in defined pathologies and will help targeting specific proteases for disease treatments. PMID:18571712

  13. MicroRNA Induced Cardiac Reprogramming In Vivo: Evidence for Mature Cardiac Myocytes and Improved Cardiac Function

    PubMed Central

    Jayawardena, Tilanthi M.; Finch, Elizabeth A.; Zhang, Lunan; Zhang, Hengtao; Hodgkinson, Conrad P.; Pratt, Richard E.; Rosenberg, Paul B.; Mirotsou, Maria; Dzau, Victor J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale A major goal for the treatment of heart tissue damaged by cardiac injury is to develop strategies for restoring healthy heart muscle through the regeneration and repair of damaged myocardium. We recently demonstrated that administration of a specific combination of micro-RNAs (miR combo) into the infarcted myocardium leads to direct in vivo reprogramming of non-cardiac myocytes to cardiac myocytes. However, the biologic and functional consequences of such reprogramming are not yet known. Objective The aim of this study was to determine whether non-cardiac myocytes directly reprogrammed using miRNAs in vivo develop into mature functional cardiac myocytes in situ, and whether reprogramming leads to improvement of cardiac function. Methods and Results We subjected FSP1-Cre mice/tdTomato mice to cardiac injury by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and injected lentiviruses encoding miR combo or a control nontargeting miRNA. miR combo significantly increased the number of reprogramming events in vivo. Five-to-six weeks following injury, morphological and physiological properties of tdTomato− and tdTomato+ cardiac myocyte-like cells were analyzed ex vivo. tdTomato+ cells expressed cardiac myocyte markers, sarcomeric organization, excitation-contraction coupling, and action potentials characteristic of mature ventricular cardiac myocytes (tdTomato− cells). Reprogramming was associated with improvement of cardiac function, as analyzed by serial echocardiography. There was a time delayed and progressive improvement in fractional shortening and other measures of ventricular function, indicating that miR combo promotes functional recovery of damaged myocardium. Conclusions The findings from this study further validate the potential utility of miRNA-mediated reprogramming as a therapeutic approach to promote cardiac regeneration following myocardial injury. PMID:25351576

  14. Enzymatic Characterization and In Vivo Function of Five Terminal Oxidases in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Takuro; Osamura, Tatsuya; Hirai, Takehiro; Sakai, Yoshiaki; Ishii, Masaharu

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitous opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa has five aerobic terminal oxidases: bo3-type quinol oxidase (Cyo), cyanide-insensitive oxidase (CIO), aa3-type cytochrome c oxidase (aa3), and two cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidases (cbb3-1 and cbb3-2). These terminal oxidases are differentially regulated under various growth conditions and are thought to contribute to the survival of this microorganism in a wide variety of environmental niches. Here, we constructed multiple mutant strains of P. aeruginosa that express only one aerobic terminal oxidase to investigate the enzymatic characteristics and in vivo function of each enzyme. The Km values of Cyo, CIO, and aa3 for oxygen were similar and were 1 order of magnitude higher than those of cbb3-1 and cbb3-2, indicating that Cyo, CIO, and aa3 are low-affinity enzymes and that cbb3-1 and cbb3-2 are high-affinity enzymes. Although cbb3-1 and cbb3-2 exhibited different expression patterns in response to oxygen concentration, they had similar Km values for oxygen. Both cbb3-1 and cbb3-2 utilized cytochrome c4 as the main electron donor under normal growth conditions. The electron transport chains terminated by cbb3-1 and cbb3-2 generate a proton gradient across the cell membrane with similar efficiencies. The electron transport chain of aa3 had the highest proton translocation efficiency, whereas that of CIO had the lowest efficiency. The enzymatic properties of the terminal oxidases reported here are partially in agreement with their regulatory patterns and may explain the environmental adaptability and versatility of P. aeruginosa. PMID:25182500

  15. In vivo functional characterization of the transmembrane histidine kinase KinC in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Devi, Seram Nganbiton; Vishnoi, Monika; Kiehler, Brittany; Haggett, Lindsey; Fujita, Masaya

    2015-05-01

    In response to starvation, Bacillus subtilis cells differentiate into different subsets, undergoing cannibalism, biofilm formation or sporulation. These processes require a multiple component phosphorelay, wherein the master regulator Spo0A is activated upon phosphorylation by one or a combination of five histidine kinases (KinA-KinE) via two intermediate phosphotransferases, Spo0F and Spo0B. In this study, we focused on KinC, which was originally identified as a sporulation kinase and was later shown to regulate cannibalism and biofilm formation. First, genetic experiments using both the domesticated and undomesticated (biofilm forming) strains revealed that KinC activity and the membrane localization are independent of both the lipid raft marker proteins FloTA and cytoplasmic potassium concentration, which were previously shown to be required for the kinase activity. Next, we demonstrated that KinC controls cannibalism and biofilm formation in a manner dependent on phosphorelay. For further detailed characterization of KinC, we established an IPTG-inducible expression system in the domesticated strain, in which biofilm formation is defective, for simplicity of study. Using this system, we found that the N-terminal transmembrane domain is dispensable but the PAS domain is needed for the kinase activity. An in vivo chemical cross-linking experiment demonstrated that the soluble and functional KinC (KinC(ΔTM1+2)) forms a tetramer. Based on these results, we propose a revised model in which KinC becomes active by forming a homotetramer via the N-terminal PAS domain, but its activity is independent of both the lipid raft and the potassium leakage, which was previously suggested to be induced by surfactin. PMID:25701730

  16. In vivo skin biophysical behaviour and surface topography as a function of ageing.

    PubMed

    Pailler-Mattei, C; Debret, R; Vargiolu, R; Sommer, P; Zahouani, H

    2013-12-01

    Normal skin ageing is characterised by an alteration of the underlying connective tissue with measurable consequences on global skin biophysical properties. The cutis laxa syndrome, a rare genetic disorder, is considered as an accelerated ageing process since patients appear prematurely aged due to alterations of dermal elastic fibres. In the present study, we compared the topography and the biomechanical parameters of normal aged skin with an 17 year old cutis laxa patient. Skin topography analyses were conducted on normal skin at different ages. The results indicate that the skin relief highly changes as a function of ageing. The cutaneous lines change from a relatively isotropic orientation to a highly anisotropic orientation. This reorganisation of the skin relief during the ageing process might be due to a modification of the skin mechanical properties, and particularly to a modification of the dermis mechanical properties. A specific bio-tribometer, based on the indentationtechnique under light load, has been developed to study the biophysical properties of the human skin in vivo through two main parameters: the physico-chemical properties of the skin surface, by measuring the maximum adhesion force between the skin and the bio-tribometer; and the bulk mechanical properties. Our results show that the pull-off force between the skin and the biotribometer as well as the skin Young's modulus decrease with age. In the case of the young cutis laxa patient, the results obtained were similar to those observed for aged individuals. These results are very interesting and encouraging since they would allow the monitoring of the cutis laxa skin in a standardised and non-invasive way to better characterize either the evolution of the disease or the benefit of a treatment. PMID:23664827

  17. Identifying the Functional Flexion-extension Axis of the Knee: An In-Vivo Kinematics Study

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Li; Chen, Kaining; Guo, Lin; Cheng, Liangjun; Wang, Fuyou; Yang, Liu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to calculate the flexion-extension axis (FEA) of the knee through in-vivo knee kinematics data, and then compare it with two major anatomical axes of the femoral condyles: the transepicondylar axis (TEA) defined by connecting the medial sulcus and lateral prominence, and the cylinder axis (CA) defined by connecting the centers of posterior condyles. Methods The knee kinematics data of 20 healthy subjects were acquired under weight-bearing condition using bi-planar x-ray imaging and 3D-2D registration techniques. By tracking the vertical coordinate change of all points on the surface of femur during knee flexion, the FEA was determined as the line connecting the points with the least vertical shift in the medial and lateral condyles respectively. Angular deviation and distance among the TEA, CA and FEA were measured. Results The TEA-FEA angular deviation was significantly larger than that of the CA-FEA in 3D and transverse plane (3.45° vs. 1.98°, p < 0.001; 2.72° vs. 1.19°, p = 0.002), but not in the coronal plane (1.61° vs. 0.83°, p = 0.076). The TEA-FEA distance was significantly greater than that of the CA-FEA in the medial side (6.7 mm vs. 1.9 mm, p < 0.001), but not in the lateral side (3.2 mm vs. 2.0 mm, p = 0.16). Conclusion The CA is closer to the FEA compared with the TEA; it can better serve as an anatomical surrogate for the functional knee axis. PMID:26039711

  18. Functional analysis of Pro-inflammatory properties within the cerebrospinal fluid after subarachnoid hemorrhage in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To functionally characterize pro-inflammatory and vasoconstrictive properties of cerebrospinal fluid after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in vivo and in vitro. Methods The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 10 patients suffering from SAH was applied to the transparent skinfold chamber model in male NMRI mice which allows for in vivo analysis of the microcirculatory response to a superfusat. Microvascular diameter changes were quantified and the numbers of rolling and sticking leukocytes were documented using intravital multifluorescence imaging techniques. Furthermore, the pro-inflammatory properties of CSF were assessed in vitro using a monocyte transendothelial migration assay. Results CSF superfusion started to induce significant vasoconstriction on days 4 and 6 after SAH. In parallel, CSF superfusion induced a microvascular leukocyte recruitment, with a significant number of leukocytes rolling (day 6) and sticking (days 2-4) to the endothelium. CSF of patients presenting with cerebral edema induced breakdown of blood vessel integrity in our assay as evidenced by fluorescent marker extravasation. In accordance with leukocyte activation in vivo, significantly higher in vitro monocyte migration rates were found after SAH. Conclusion We functionally characterized inflammatory and vasoactive properties of patients' CSF after SAH in vivo and in vitro. This pro-inflammatory milieu in the subarachnoid space might play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of early and delayed brain injury as well as vasospasm development following SAH. PMID:22316109

  19. Microtubule depolymerization normalizes in vivo myocardial contractile function in dogs with pressure-overload left ventricular hypertrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koide, M.; Hamawaki, M.; Narishige, T.; Sato, H.; Nemoto, S.; DeFreyte, G.; Zile, M. R.; Cooper G, I. V.; Carabello, B. A.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Because initially compensatory myocardial hypertrophy in response to pressure overloading may eventually decompensate to myocardial failure, mechanisms responsible for this transition have long been sought. One such mechanism established in vitro is densification of the cellular microtubule network, which imposes a viscous load that inhibits cardiocyte contraction. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the present study, we extended this in vitro finding to the in vivo level and tested the hypothesis that this cytoskeletal abnormality is important in the in vivo contractile dysfunction that occurs in experimental aortic stenosis in the adult dog. In 8 dogs in which gradual stenosis of the ascending aorta had caused severe left ventricular (LV) pressure overloading (gradient, 152+/-16 mm Hg) with contractile dysfunction, LV function was measured at baseline and 1 hour after the intravenous administration of colchicine. Cardiocytes obtained by biopsy before and after in vivo colchicine administration were examined in tandem. Microtubule depolymerization restored LV contractile function both in vivo and in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: These and additional corroborative data show that increased cardiocyte microtubule network density is an important mechanism for the ventricular contractile dysfunction that develops in large mammals with adult-onset pressure-overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

  20. SAHA Enhances Synaptic Function and Plasticity In Vitro but Has Limited Brain Availability In Vivo and Does Not Impact Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Jesse E.; La, Hank; Plise, Emile; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Ding, Xiao; Hanania, Taleen; Sabath, Emily V.; Alexandrov, Vadim; Brunner, Dani; Leahy, Emer; Steiner, Pascal; Liu, Lichuan; Scearce-Levie, Kimberly; Zhou, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs) used for the treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) and under consideration for other indications. In vivo studies suggest reducing HDAC function can enhance synaptic function and memory, raising the possibility that SAHA treatment could have neurological benefits. We first examined the impacts of SAHA on synaptic function in vitro using rat organotypic hippocampal brain slices. Following several days of SAHA treatment, basal excitatory but not inhibitory synaptic function was enhanced. Presynaptic release probability and intrinsic neuronal excitability were unaffected suggesting SAHA treatment selectively enhanced postsynaptic excitatory function. In addition, long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory synapses was augmented, while long-term depression (LTD) was impaired in SAHA treated slices. Despite the in vitro synaptic enhancements, in vivo SAHA treatment did not rescue memory deficits in the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Along with the lack of behavioral impact, pharmacokinetic analysis indicated poor brain availability of SAHA. Broader assessment of in vivo SAHA treatment using high-content phenotypic characterization of C57Bl6 mice failed to demonstrate significant behavioral effects of up to 150 mg/kg SAHA following either acute or chronic injections. Potentially explaining the low brain exposure and lack of behavioral impacts, SAHA was found to be a substrate of the blood brain barrier (BBB) efflux transporters Pgp and Bcrp1. Thus while our in vitro data show that HDAC inhibition can enhance excitatory synaptic strength and potentiation, our in vivo data suggests limited brain availability may contribute to the lack of behavioral impact of SAHA following peripheral delivery. These results do not predict CNS effects of SAHA during clinical use and also emphasize the importance of analyzing brain drug levels when interpreting preclinical behavioral pharmacology. PMID:23922875

  1. Development of a fluorescence-based in vivo phagocytosis assay to measure mononuclear phagocyte system function in the rat.

    PubMed

    Tartaro, Karrie; VanVolkenburg, Maria; Wilkie, Dean; Coskran, Timothy M; Kreeger, John M; Kawabata, Thomas T; Casinghino, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) which provides protection against infection is made up of phagocytic cells that engulf and digest bacteria or other foreign substances. Suppression of the MPS may lead to decreased clearance of pathogenic microbes. Drug delivery systems and immunomodulatory therapeutics that target phagocytes have a potential to inhibit MPS function. Available methods to measure inhibition of MPS function use uptake of radioactively-labeled cells or labor-intensive semi-quantitative histologic techniques. The objective of this work was to develop a non-radioactive quantitative method to measure MPS function in vivo by administering heat-killed E. coli conjugated to a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye (Bioparticles(®)). Fluorescence of the Bioparticles(®) is increased at low pH when they are in phagocytic lysosomes. The amount of Bioparticles(®) phagocytosed by MPS organs in rats was determined by measuring fluorescence intensity in livers and spleens ex vivo using an IVIS(®) Spectrum Pre-clinical In Vivo Imaging System. Phagocytosis of the particles by peripheral blood neutrophils was measured by flow cytometry. To assess method sensitivity, compounds likely to suppress the MPS [clodronate-containing liposomes, carboxylate-modified latex particles, maleic vinyl ether (MVE) polymer] were administered to rats prior to injection of the Bioparticles(®). The E. coli particles consistently co-localized with macrophage markers in the liver but not in the spleen. All of the compounds tested decreased phagocytosis in the liver, but had no consistent effects on phagocytic activity in the spleen. In addition, administration of clodronate liposomes and MVE polymer increased the percentage of peripheral blood neutrophils that phagocytosed the Bioparticles(®). In conclusion, an in vivo rat model was developed that measures phagocytosis of E. coli particles in the liver and may be used to assess the impact of test compounds on MPS function. Still, the detection of inhibition of splenic macrophage function will require further assay development. PMID:25027674

  2. Set1 and MLL1/2 Target Distinct Sets of Functionally Different Genomic Loci In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Elizabeth M; Chitsazan, Alex D; Seidel, Chris W; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro

    2015-12-29

    Histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) is known to correlate with both active and poised genomic loci, yet many questions remain regarding its functional roles in vivo. We identify functional genomic targets of two H3K4 methyltransferases, Set1 and MLL1/2, in both the stem cells and differentiated tissue of the planarian flatworm Schmidtea mediterranea. We show that, despite their common substrate, these enzymes target distinct genomic loci in vivo, which are distinguishable by the pattern each enzyme leaves on the chromatin template, i.e., the breadth of the H3K4me3 peak. Whereas Set1 targets are largely associated with the maintenance of the stem cell population, MLL1/2 targets are specifically enriched for genes involved in ciliogenesis. These data not only confirm that chromatin regulation is fundamental to planarian stem cell function but also provide evidence for post-embryonic functional specificity of H3K4me3 methyltransferases in vivo. PMID:26711341

  3. Set1 and MLL1/2 target distinct sets of functionally different genomic loci in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Elizabeth M.; Chitsazan, Alex D.; Seidel, Chris W.; Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) is known to correlate with both active and poised genomic loci, yet many questions remain regarding its functional roles in vivo. We identify functional genomic targets of two H3K4 methyltransferases, Set1 and MLL1/2, in both the stem cells and differentiated tissue of the planarian flatworm Schmidtea mediterranea. We show that, despite their common substrate, these enzymes target distinct genomic loci in vivo, which are distinguishable by the pattern each enzyme leaves on the chromatin template, i.e., the breadth of the H3K4me3 peak. Whereas Set1 targets are largely associated with the maintenance of the stem cell population, MLL1/2 targets are specifically enriched for genes involved in ciliogenesis. These data not only confirm that chromatin regulation is fundamental to planarian stem cell function, but also provide evidence for post-embryonic functional specificity of H3K4me3 methyltransferases in vivo. PMID:26711341

  4. REVIEW ARTICLE: In vivo magnetic resonance imaging: insights into structure and function of the central nervous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natt, Oliver; Frahm, Jens

    2005-04-01

    Spatially resolved nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques provide structural, metabolic and functional insights into the central nervous system and allow for repetitive in vivo studies of both humans and animals. Complementing its prominent role in diagnostic imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has evolved into an indispensable research tool in system-oriented neurobiology where contributions to functional genomics and translational medicine bridge the gap from molecular biology to animal models and clinical applications. This review presents an overview on some of the most relevant advances in MRI. An introduction covering the basic principles is followed by a discussion of technological improvements in instrumentation and imaging sequences including recent developments in parallel acquisition techniques. Because MRI is noninvasive in contrast to most other imaging modalities, examples focus on in vivo studies of the central nervous system in a variety of species ranging from humans to mice and insects.

  5. Adverse effects on rat cardiac function ex vivo after repeated administration of the benzodiazepine partial inverse agonist, FG7142.

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, S. C.; Gettins, D.; Little, H. J.

    1990-01-01

    1. The Langendorff preparation was used to investigate functional changes in rat heart one week after the last of a course of repeated injections of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist, FG7142 (20 mg kg-1 i.p; three times weekly for five weeks). 2. Under these conditions, FG7142 caused a statistically significant reduction in both cardiac basal tension and the inotropic effect of noradrenaline at doses giving 50 and 100% of the maximum response. 3. Basal heart rate, basal coronary perfusion pressure and the effects of noradrenaline ex vivo on these parameters were all unaffected by repeated administration of FG7142. 4. FG7142 had no intrinsic effects on cardiac function when administered in vitro. 5. We discuss mechanisms which could underlie the effects of FG7142 on cardiac tension ex vivo and consider the possibility that this action may be related to the anxiogenic or proconvulsant actions of this drug. PMID:2158841

  6. The feasibility of in vivo imaging of infiltrating blood cells for predicting the functional prognosis after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Kazuya; Saito, Takeyuki; Kobayakawa, Kazu; Kubota, Kensuke; Hara, Masamitsu; Murata, Masaharu; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Okada, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    After a spinal cord injury (SCI), a reliable prediction of the potential functional outcome is essential for determining the optimal treatment strategy. Despite recent advances in the field of neurological assessment, there is still no satisfactory methodology for predicting the functional outcome after SCI. We herein describe a novel method to predict the functional outcome at 12 hours after SCI using in vivo bioluminescence imaging. We produced three groups of SCI mice with different functional prognoses: 50 kdyn (mild), 70 kdyn (moderate) and 90 kdyn (severe). Only the locomotor function within 24 hours after SCI was unable to predict subsequent functional recovery. However, both the number of infiltrating neutrophils and the bioluminescence signal intensity from infiltrating blood cells were found to correlate with the severity of the injury at 12 hours after SCI. Furthermore, a strong linear relationship was observed among the number of infiltrating neutrophils, the bioluminescence signal intensity, and the severity of the injury. Our findings thus indicate that in vivo bioluminescence imaging is able to accurately predict the long-term functional outcome in the hyperacute phase of SCI, thereby providing evidence that this imaging modality could positively contribute to the future development of tailored therapeutic approaches for SCI. PMID:27156468

  7. The feasibility of in vivo imaging of infiltrating blood cells for predicting the functional prognosis after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Kazuya; Saito, Takeyuki; Kobayakawa, Kazu; Kubota, Kensuke; Hara, Masamitsu; Murata, Masaharu; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Okada, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    After a spinal cord injury (SCI), a reliable prediction of the potential functional outcome is essential for determining the optimal treatment strategy. Despite recent advances in the field of neurological assessment, there is still no satisfactory methodology for predicting the functional outcome after SCI. We herein describe a novel method to predict the functional outcome at 12 hours after SCI using in vivo bioluminescence imaging. We produced three groups of SCI mice with different functional prognoses: 50 kdyn (mild), 70 kdyn (moderate) and 90 kdyn (severe). Only the locomotor function within 24 hours after SCI was unable to predict subsequent functional recovery. However, both the number of infiltrating neutrophils and the bioluminescence signal intensity from infiltrating blood cells were found to correlate with the severity of the injury at 12 hours after SCI. Furthermore, a strong linear relationship was observed among the number of infiltrating neutrophils, the bioluminescence signal intensity, and the severity of the injury. Our findings thus indicate that in vivo bioluminescence imaging is able to accurately predict the long-term functional outcome in the hyperacute phase of SCI, thereby providing evidence that this imaging modality could positively contribute to the future development of tailored therapeutic approaches for SCI. PMID:27156468

  8. Effect of duration of the GnRH agonists in the luteal phase in the outcome of assisted reproduction cycles.

    PubMed

    Geber, Selmo; Sampaio, Marcos

    2013-06-01

    The effect of long-acting GnRHa, in the luteal phase, during ART cycles varies from one patient to another. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the effect of long-acting GnRHa in the luteal phase, in ART cycles, affects pregnancy rates according to the duration of its action in such phase. This is a retrospective study of 367 patients submitted to ovulation induction for in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedures that used long-acting depot GnRHa for pituitary suppression. Patients were stratified according to the period of action of the agonist in the luteal phase: group 1, ≤ 6 days; group 2, 7 to 12 days; and group 3, >12 days. The following variables were analyzed: ovarian response, age, infertility causes and pregnancy rates. Group 1 (n = 53) had a mean age of 33.8 ± 4.55 years (23-44 years) and a pregnancy rate of 45.2%. In group 2 (n = 118), mean age was 33.7 ± 4.5 years (24-44 years) and the pregnancy rate was 38.9%. In group 3 (n = 196), mean age was 33.7 ± 4.4 years (23-43 years) and the pregnancy rate was 47.4%. Regardless of the duration of depot GnRHa action in the luteal phase, no significant association with pregnancy rates was found. PMID:23656392

  9. The impact of luteal phase support on endometrial estrogen and progesterone receptor expression: a randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To assess the impact of luteal phase support on the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and progesterone receptors B (PR-B) on the endometrium of oocyte donors undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH). Methods A prospective, randomized study was conducted in women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for oocyte donation. Participants were randomized to receive no luteal support, vaginal progesterone alone, or vaginal progesterone plus orally administered 17 Beta estradiol. Endometrial biopsies were obtained at 4 time points in the luteal phase and evaluated by tissue microarray for expression of ER alpha and PR-B. Results One-hundred and eight endometrial tissue samples were obtained from 12 patients. No differences were found in expression of ER alpha and PR-B among all the specimens with the exception of one sample value. Conclusions The administration of progesterone during the luteal phase of COH for oocyte donor cycles, either with or without estrogen, does not significantly affect the endometrial expression of ER alpha and PR. PMID:22360924

  10. Dual regulation of luteal progesterone production by androstenedione during spontaneous and RU486-induced luteolysis in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Tellería, C M; Stocco, C O; Stati, A O; Rastrilla, A M; Carrizo, D G; Aguado, L I; Deis, R P

    1995-12-01

    The effect of androstenedione on luteal progesterone production was studied during luteolysis preceding parturition as well as that induced by the antiprogestin RU486 in late pregnant rats. Luteal cells from animals on days 19, 20 or 21 of pregnancy and incubated with 10 microM androstenedione increased progesterone production by 99, 136, and 277%, respectively. The animals receiving androstenedione (10 mg/rat s.c.) on day 19 of pregnancy showed an increase in serum progesterone levels, a decline in luteal 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta-HSD) activity and an increase in corpus luteum weight without modifying 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20 alpha-HSD) activity on day 21 of pregnancy. Androstenedione and testosterone but not dihydrotestosterone were able to prevent the decrease in serum progesterone concentration and corpus luteum weight observed 58 h after treatment with RU486 (2 mg/kg) on day 18 of pregnancy. However, the three androgens studied inhibited the luteal 3 beta-HSD activity but 20 alpha-HSD activity was not affected, when compared with animals receiving RU486 alone. The co-administration of androstenedione with the aromatase inhibitor 4-hydroxyandrostenedione or with the specific antioestrogen ICI 164,384 did not modify the effects induced by androstenedione in RU486-treated rats, indicating that the action of androstenedione on progesterone production and secretion at the time of luteolysis seems to occur through an androgenic mechanism and is not mediated by previous conversion of the androgens to oestrogens. In all experiments the high luteal 20 alpha-HSD activity, that characterizes a luteolytic process, was not modified by androgens. Androstenedione administered to adrenalectomized rats was also able to prevent the decrease in serum progesterone concentration observed in spontaneous or RU486-induced luteolysis. The administration of androstenedione to RU486-treated rats induced a decrease in luteal progesterone content concomitant with an increase in serum progesterone levels. These studies demonstrate that androgens during luteolysis, are able to stimulate luteal progesterone secretion, prevent the loss in corpora lutea weight and enhance the decrease in 3 beta-HSD activity, without affecting the increase in 20 alpha-HSD activity. PMID:8541235

  11. Furin-processed antigens targeted to the secretory route elicit functional TAP1-/-CD8+ T lymphocytes in vivo.

    PubMed

    Medina, Francisco; Ramos, Manuel; Iborra, Salvador; de León, Patricia; Rodríguez-Castro, Marta; Del Val, Margarita

    2009-10-01

    Most pathogen-derived peptides recognized by CD8+ CTL are produced by proteasomes and delivered to the endoplasmic reticulum by the TAP transporters associated with Ag processing. Alternative proteases also produce antigenic peptides, but their actual relevance is unclear. There is a need to quantify the contribution of these supplementary pathways in vitro and in vivo. A well-defined TAP-independent secretory route of Ag processing involves the trans-Golgi network protease furin. Quantitation of this route by using OVA constructs encoded by vaccinia viruses indicates that it provides approximately one-third of all surface complexes of peptide and MHC class I molecules. Generation of the epitope carboxyl terminus is a dramatic rate-limiting step, since bypassing it increased efficiency by at least 1000-fold. Notably, the secretory construct activated a similar percentage of Ag-specific CD8+ T cells in wild type as in TAP1-deficient mice, which allow only secretory routes but which have a 10- to 20-fold smaller CD8 compartment. Moreover, these TAP1(-/-) OVA-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes accomplished elimination of epitope-bearing cells in vivo. The results obtained with this experimental system underscore the potential of secretory pathways of MHC class I Ag presentation to elicit functional CD8+ T lymphocytes in vivo and support the hypothesis that noncytosolic processing mechanisms may compensate in vivo for the lack of proteasome participation in Ag processing in persons genetically deficient in TAP and thus contribute to pathogen control. PMID:19752221

  12. Characterization and analysis of differentially expressed microRNAs in hircine ovaries during the follicular and luteal phases.

    PubMed

    Ling, Y H; Guo, X F; Chen, T; Ding, J P; Ma, Y H; Chu, M X; Di, R; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, X R

    2016-03-01

    Ovarian activity, which is mainly controlled by follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, is vital to successful reproduction and maintaining reproductive efficiency in livestock. To determine if the regulation of follicular-luteal transition occurs at the post-transcriptional level in hircine ovaries, the expression patterns of small RNAs in the ovarian tissues of Anhui white goats in the follicular and luteal phases were analyzed using Solexa sequencing. In total, 1039 miRNAs were co-expressed in the two libraries, and 278 and 469 miRNAs were specifically expressed in the hircine ovaries during the follicular and luteal phases, respectively. A total of 43 potential novel miRNAs were predicted in the two libraries. GO annotation and KEGG pathway analysis were applied to analyze the target genes of all miRNAs predicted in the two libraries. The highly and differentially expressed miRNAs included miR-26-5p, miR-145-5p, miR-145, miR-145a-5p, miR-125a-5p, miR-320d, and miR-320c, which may participate in follicular-luteal transition. Five co-expressed miRNAs, of which 2 were differentially expressed between the two libraries, were randomly selected to validate the expression pattern using RT-PCR, and the results were consistent with the Solexa sequencing data. Our present results help to clarify the roles of miRNAs in the regulation of follicular-luteal transition in goat ovaries, which may further enhance the reproductive efficiency of commercially important animals in the future. PMID:26778121

  13. Comparison between follicular stimulation and luteal stimulation protocols with clomiphene and HMG in women with poor ovarian response.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Yang, Wan; Chen, Xiaoli; Li, Lin; Zhang, Qingxue; Yang, Dongzi

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study is to compare the follicular mild stimulation and luteal simulation protocols for poor responders undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). A total of 131 women were diagnosed as poor responders. Thirty-three women started ovarian stimulation in early-luteal phase and 98 women started in early follicular phase with 100 mg/d clomiphene citrate and 75-150 IU/d HMG. There were more oocytes retrieved (2.8 ± 2.0 versus 2.0 ± 1.2, p < 0.05), more available embryos (1.8 ± 1.4 versus 1.3 ± 1.1, p < 0.05) and top-quality embryos (0.9 ± 0.9 versus 0.4 ± 0.6, p < 0.05), and reduced cycle cancellation rate (12.1% versus 30.6%, p < 0.05) in luteal group than in follicular group. The clinical pregnancy (17.7%, 20.0% and 41.2%) and live-birth rates (10.78%, 20.0% and 29.4%) after transferring embryos obtained from luteal, follicular and mixed stages were comparable (p > 0.05). For poor responders, luteal phase stimulation could be an option because of increasing the chance to obtain competent embryos and reducing the cycle cancellation rate. PMID:26370530

  14. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases in bovine luteal cells induced by prostaglandin F2α, interferon γ and tumor necrosis factor α

    PubMed Central

    ABE, Hironori; SAKUMOTO, Ryosuke; OKUDA, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that luteal cells flow out from the ovary via lymphatic vessels during luteolysis. However, the regulatory mechanisms of the outflow of luteal cells are not known. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) can degrade the extracellular matrix and basal membrane, and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) inhibit the activity of MMPs. To test the hypothesis that MMP expression in luteal cells is regulated by luteolytic factors, we investigated the effects of prostaglandin F2α (PGF), interferon γ (IFNG) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF) on the mRNA expression of MMPs and TIMPs in cultured luteal cells. Luteal cells obtained from the CL at the mid-luteal stage (days 8–12 after ovulation) were cultured with PGF (0.01, 0.1, 1 μM), IFNG (0.05, 0.5, 5 nM) and TNF (0.05, 0.5, 0.5 nM) alone or in combination for 24 h. PGF and IFNG significantly increased the expression of MMP-1 mRNA. In addition, 1 μM PGF in combination with 5 nM IFNG stimulated MMP-1 and MMP-9 mRNA expression significantly more than either treatment alone. In contrast, IFNG significantly decreased the level of MMP-14 mRNA. The mRNA expression of TIMP-1, which preferentially inhibits MMP-1, was suppressed by 5 nM INFG. One μM PGF and 5 nM IFNG suppressed TIMP-2 mRNA expression. These results suggest a new role of MMPs: luteal MMPs stimulated by PGF and IFNG break down the extracellular matrix surrounding luteal cells, which accelerates detachment from the CL during luteolysis, providing an essential prerequisite for outflow of luteal cells from the CL to lymphatic vessels. PMID:25924700

  15. Diels-Alder functionalized carbon nanotubes for bone tissue engineering: in vitro/in vivo biocompatibility and biodegradability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mata, D.; Amaral, M.; Fernandes, A. J. S.; Colaço, B.; Gama, A.; Paiva, M. C.; Gomes, P. S.; Silva, R. F.; Fernandes, M. H.

    2015-05-01

    The risk-benefit balance for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) dictates their clinical fate. To take a step forward at this crossroad it is compulsory to modulate the CNT in vivo biocompatibility and biodegradability via e.g. chemical functionalization. CNT membranes were functionalised combining a Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction to generate cyclohexene (-C6H10) followed by a mild oxidisation to yield carboxylic acid groups (-COOH). In vitro proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human osteoblastic cells were maximized on functionalized CNT membranes (p,f-CNTs). The in vivo subcutaneously implanted materials showed a higher biological reactivity, thus inducing a slighter intense inflammatory response compared to non-functionalized CNT membranes (p-CNTs), but still showing a reduced cytotoxicity profile. Moreover, the in vivo biodegradation of CNTs was superior for p,f-CNT membranes, likely mediated by the oxidation-induced myeloperoxidase (MPO) in neutrophil and macrophage inflammatory milieus. This proves the biodegradability faculty of functionalized CNTs, which potentially avoids long-term tissue accumulation and triggering of acute toxicity. On the whole, the proposed Diels-Alder functionalization accounts for the improved CNT biological response in terms of the biocompatibility and biodegradability profiles. Therefore, CNTs can be considered for use in bone tissue engineering without notable toxicological threats.The risk-benefit balance for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) dictates their clinical fate. To take a step forward at this crossroad it is compulsory to modulate the CNT in vivo biocompatibility and biodegradability via e.g. chemical functionalization. CNT membranes were functionalised combining a Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction to generate cyclohexene (-C6H10) followed by a mild oxidisation to yield carboxylic acid groups (-COOH). In vitro proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human osteoblastic cells were maximized on functionalized CNT membranes (p,f-CNTs). The in vivo subcutaneously implanted materials showed a higher biological reactivity, thus inducing a slighter intense inflammatory response compared to non-functionalized CNT membranes (p-CNTs), but still showing a reduced cytotoxicity profile. Moreover, the in vivo biodegradation of CNTs was superior for p,f-CNT membranes, likely mediated by the oxidation-induced myeloperoxidase (MPO) in neutrophil and macrophage inflammatory milieus. This proves the biodegradability faculty of functionalized CNTs, which potentially avoids long-term tissue accumulation and triggering of acute toxicity. On the whole, the proposed Diels-Alder functionalization accounts for the improved CNT biological response in terms of the biocompatibility and biodegradability profiles. Therefore, CNTs can be considered for use in bone tissue engineering without notable toxicological threats. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details on the preparation of HNO3 functionalized CNTs and supplementary analyses (μ-Raman, TG, EDS, acid-base titration, FTIR, roughness measurements, SEM and optical images) are shown. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01829c

  16. HelioScan: a software framework for controlling in vivo microscopy setups with high hardware flexibility, functional diversity and extendibility.

    PubMed

    Langer, Dominik; van 't Hoff, Marcel; Keller, Andreas J; Nagaraja, Chetan; Pfäffli, Oliver A; Göldi, Maurice; Kasper, Hansjörg; Helmchen, Fritjof

    2013-04-30

    Intravital microscopy such as in vivo imaging of brain dynamics is often performed with custom-built microscope setups controlled by custom-written software to meet specific requirements. Continuous technological advancement in the field has created a need for new control software that is flexible enough to support the biological researcher with innovative imaging techniques and provide the developer with a solid platform for quickly and easily implementing new extensions. Here, we introduce HelioScan, a software package written in LabVIEW, as a platform serving this dual role. HelioScan is designed as a collection of components that can be flexibly assembled into microscope control software tailored to the particular hardware and functionality requirements. Moreover, HelioScan provides a software framework, within which new functionality can be implemented in a quick and structured manner. A specific HelioScan application assembles at run-time from individual software components, based on user-definable configuration files. Due to its component-based architecture, HelioScan can exploit synergies of multiple developers working in parallel on different components in a community effort. We exemplify the capabilities and versatility of HelioScan by demonstrating several in vivo brain imaging modes, including camera-based intrinsic optical signal imaging for functional mapping of cortical areas, standard two-photon laser-scanning microscopy using galvanometric mirrors, and high-speed in vivo two-photon calcium imaging using either acousto-optic deflectors or a resonant scanner. We recommend HelioScan as a convenient software framework for the in vivo imaging community. PMID:23416135

  17. Functionalized near-infrared quantum dots for in vivo tumor vasculature imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Rui; Yong, Ken-Tye; Roy, Indrajit; Ding, Hong; Law, Wing-Cheung; Cai, Hongxing; Zhang, Xihe; Vathy, Lisa A.; Bergey, Earl J.; Prasad, Paras N.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we report the use of near-infrared (NIR)-emitting alloyed quantum dots (QDs) as efficient optical probes for high contrast in vivo imaging of tumors. Alloyed CdTe1 - xSex/CdS QDs were prepared in the non-aqueous phase using the hot colloidal synthesis approach. Water dispersion of the QDs were accomplished by their encapsulation within polyethyleneglycol (PEG)-grafted phospholipid micelles. For tumor-specific delivery in vivo, the micelle-encapsulated QDs were conjugated with the cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (cRGD) peptide, which targets the αvβ3 integrins overexpressed in the angiogenic tumor vasculatures. Using in vivo NIR optical imaging of mice bearing pancreatic cancer xenografts, implanted both subcutaneously and orthotopically, we have demonstrated that systemically delivered cRGD-conjugated QDs, but not the unconjugated ones, can efficiently target and label the tumors with high signal-to-noise ratio. Histopathological analysis of major organs of the treated mice showed no evidence of systemic toxicity associated with these QDs. These experiments suggest that cRGD-conjugated NIR QDs can serve as safe and efficient probes for optical bioimaging of tumors in vivo. Furthermore, by co-encapsulating these QDs and anticancer drugs within these micelles, we have demonstrated a promising theranostic, nanosized platform for both cancer imaging and therapy.

  18. In Vitro and In Vivo Studies of Single-Walled Carbon Nanohorns with Encapsulated Metallofullerenes and Exohedrally Functionalized Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jianfei; Ge, Jiechao; Shultz, M.D.; Chung, Eunna; Singh, Gurpreet; Shu, Chunying; Deck, Paul; Fatouros, Panos; Henderson, Scott; Corwin, Frank; Geohegan, David B; Rouleau, Christopher M; More, Karren Leslie; Rylander, Nichole M; Rylander, Christopher; Gibson, Harry W; Dorn, Harry C

    2010-07-01

    Single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) are new carbonaceous materials. In this paper, we report the first successful preparation of SWNHs encapsulating trimetallic nitride template endohedral metallofullerenes (TNT-EMFs). The resultant materials were functionalized by a high-speed vibration milling method and conjugated with CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs). The successful encapsulation of TNT-EMFs and external functionalization with QDs provide a dual diagnostic platform for in vitro and in vivo biomedical applications of these new carbonaceous materials.

  19. In Vitro and In Vivo Studies of Single-Walled Carbon Nanohorns with Encapsulated Metallofullerenes and Exohedrally Functionalized Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianfei; Ge, Jiechao; Shultz, Michael D.; Chung, Eunna; Singh, Gurpreet; Shu, Chunying; Deck, Paul A.; Fatouros, Panos P.; Henderson, Scott C.; Corwin, Frank D.; Geohegan, David B.; Puretzky, Alex A.; Rouleau, Christopher M.; More, Karren; Rylander, Christopher; Rylander, Marissa Nichole; Gibson, Harry W.; Dorn, Harry C.

    2010-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) are new carbonaceous materials. In this paper, we report the first successful preparation of SWNHs encapsulating trimetallic nitride template endohedral metallofullerenes (TNT-EMFs). The resultant materials were functionalized by a high-speed vibration milling method and conjugated with CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs). The successful encapsulation of TNT-EMFs and external functionalization with QDs provide a dual diagnostic platform for in vitro and in vivo biomedical applications of these new carbonaceous materials. PMID:20698597

  20. Hybrid fusions show that inter-monomer electron transfer robustly supports cytochrome bc{sub 1} function in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Ekiert, Robert; Czapla, Monika; Sarewicz, Marcin; Osyczka, Artur

    2014-08-22

    Highlights: • We used hybrid fusion bc{sub 1} complex to test inter-monomer electron transfer in vivo. • Cross-inactivated complexes were able to sustain photoheterotrophic growth. • Inter-monomer electron transfer supports catalytic cycle in vivo. • bc{sub 1} dimer is functional even when cytochrome b subunits come from different species. - Abstract: Electronic connection between Q{sub o} and Q{sub i} quinone catalytic sites of dimeric cytochrome bc{sub 1} is a central feature of the energy-conserving Q cycle. While both the intra- and inter-monomer electron transfers were shown to connect the sites in the enzyme, mechanistic and physiological significance of the latter remains unclear. Here, using a series of mutated hybrid cytochrome bc{sub 1}-like complexes, we show that inter-monomer electron transfer robustly sustains the function of the enzyme in vivo, even when the two subunits in a dimer come from different species. This indicates that minimal requirement for bioenergetic efficiency is to provide a chain of cofactors for uncompromised electron flux between the catalytic sites, while the details of protein scaffold are secondary.

  1. Dual-functional, receptor-targeted fluorogenic probe for in vivo imaging of extracellular protease expressions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Xie, Jin; Swierczewska, Magdalena; Zhang, Fan; Lin, Xin; Fang, Xuexun; Niu, Gang; Lee, Seulki; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2011-06-15

    Herein, we report a new type of in vivo fluorogenic probe that enables simultaneous and active targeting of overexpressed receptors, α(V)β(3) integrins, and extracellular proteases, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), in the tumor regions. This c(RGDyK)-conjugated MMP fluorogenic probe efficiently targets the tumor regions with high retention time while maintaining receptor binding affinity and substrate activity. The probe minimizes nonspecific accumulation, thus demonstrating improved tumor-to-background signal ratio (T/N) in both α(V)β(3) integrin- and MMP-overexpressing U87MG tumor-bearing mouse model. This strategy can be easily tuned for a wide array of applications targeting various receptors and extracellular proteases in vivo. PMID:21574650

  2. An in Vivo Function for the Transforming Myc Protein: Elicitation of the Angiogenic Phenotype1

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Cam V.; Gee, Michael; Akhtar, Nasim; Yu, Duonan; Volpert, Olga; Auerbach, Robert; Thomas-Tikhonenko, Andrei

    2006-01-01

    The ability of neoplastic cells to recruit blood vasculature is crucial to their survival in the host organism. However, the evidence linking dominant oncogenes to the angiogenic switch remains incomplete. We demonstrate here that Myc, an oncoprotein implicated in many human malignancies, stimulates neovascularization. As an experimental model, we used Rat-1A fibroblasts that form vascular tumors upon transformation by Myc in immunocompromised mice. Our previous work and the use of neutralizing antibodies reveal that in these cells, the angiogenic switch is achieved via down-modulation of thrombospondin-1, a secreted inhibitor of angiogenesis, whereas the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, a major activator of angiogenesis, remain high and unaffected by Myc. Consistent with this finding, overexpression of Myc confers upon the conditioned media the ability to promote migration of adjacent endothelial cells in vitro and corneal neovascularization in vivo. Furthermore, mobilization of estrogen-dependent Myc in vivo with the appropriate steroid provokes neovascularization of cell implants embedded in Matrigel. These data suggest that Myc is fully competent to trigger the angiogenic switch in vivo and that secondary events may not be required for neovascularization of Myc-induced tumors. PMID:10775037

  3. Regulation of granulocyte function by hyaluronic acid. In vitro and in vivo effects on phagocytosis, locomotion, and metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Håkansson, L; Hällgren, R; Venge, P

    1980-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) stimulated the function of polymorphonucler leukocytes (PMN) both in vitro and in vivo. Stimulation in vitro was achieved by the incubation of PMN and HA in heparinized whole blood at concentrations of HA between 5 and 500 microgram/liter. The stimulation of the PMN function was demonstrated by an increase rate of phagocytosis of complement- and/or immunoglobulin (Ig)G-coated latex particles, increased adherence to nylon wool, increased random migration and chemotactic response, increased chemiluminescence during phagocytosis, and raised levels of intracellular ATP. The effect of HA in vivo was demonstrated, after subcutaneous administration of HA (5-20 mg) to healthy volunteers, by an enhanced rate of phagocytosis of the subsequently isolated neutrophils. The duration of the effect of one administration was approximately 1 wk with maximum effect on days 2-4. HA injections to patients with increased susceptibility to bacterial infections and impaired neutrophil function demonstrated an enhanced neutrophil function also in these individuals. HA may therefore be a new principle by which resistance to infections can be enhanced. PMID:7400316

  4. Binding and action of insulin-like growth factors and insulin in bovine luteal tissue during the oestrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Sauerwein, H; Miyamoto, A; Gnther, J; Meyer, H H; Schams, D

    1992-09-01

    The effect of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and insulin on the release of progesterone and oxytocin from bovine corpus luteum was investigated at early (days 5-7), mid- (days 8-12) and late (days 15-18) luteal phases of the oestrous cycle in an in vitro microdialysis system. The expression of specific receptors was evaluated in bovine corpora lutea of the respective luteal stages. A 30 min infusion of IGF-1, IGF-2 (1.3, 13 and 130 nmol l-1) or insulin (13, 130 and 1300 nmol l-1) caused a stimulation of the release of progesterone (P < 0.05). IGF-1 was most effective in releasing progesterone. Oxytocin release from corpora lutea was stimulated by insulin at all doses tested (13-1300 nmol l-1), whereas the IGFs were only effective at the highest dose (130 nmol l-1) applied. The high doses of IGFs (130 nmol l-1) and insulin (1300 nmol l-1) stimulated the release of progesterone and oxytocin throughout the luteal phase (P < 0.05). For all three peptides, greatest stimulation was seen during the late luteal phase (days 15-18 of the oestrous cycle) with the peak of progesterone release directly related to peptide infusion (P < 0.05). In addition, IGF-1 stimulated total release of progesterone (units in 4 h) after the beginning of the stimulation during this phase (P < 0.05). IGF-1 caused a gradual increase of progesterone even beyond the time of peptide perfusion, whereas IGF-2 and insulin stimulated progesterone release only during the peptide perfusion. Distinct receptors for IGF-1 and IGF-2 were present in corpora lutea membrane preparations at all stages investigated. Specific binding for insulin was also seen in all stages of the cycle without any cycle-dependent changes in the amount of binding. The displacement of labelled insulin by unlabelled IGF-1 and IGF-2 did not show the rank of order that has been described as typical for insulin receptors (i.e. insulin > IGF-1 > IGF-2), but comparable binding affinities were observed for the three unlabelled ligands. Specific binding of IGF-2 was markedly higher than that of IGF-1 or insulin throughout the cycle (1.9- and 4.9-fold higher compared with IGF-1 and insulin, respectively). Receptor specificity did not change during luteal development. Binding affinity and capacity of IGF-1 receptor was constant throughout the oestrous cycle. Specific IGF-2 binding increased and showed a positive co-operativity towards the end of the cycle. Specific binding of insulin was not significantly different in the three luteal stages examined. PMID:1432941

  5. EFFECT OF FOLLICLE SIZE AT TIME OF GNRH-INDUCED OVULATION ON LUTEAL FUNCTION AND FERTILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GnRH in fixed-time AI protocols results in the ovulation of a wide range of follicle sizes. Multiparous beef cows were assigned to one of three treatments: Cyclic or anestrous cows treated with the CO-Synch protocol and anestrous control cows. CO-Synch treated cows received GnRH (100 mcg; im) on d...

  6. Disruption of endocrine function in H295R cell in vitro and in zebrafish in vivo by naphthenic acids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Cao, Xiaofeng; Sun, Jinhua; Huang, Yi; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2015-12-15

    Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) have been reported to exhibit endocrine disrupting effects on aquatic organisms. Although the responsible compounds are unknown, naphthenic acids (NAs) have been considered to be implicated. The current study was designed to investigate the endocrine disruption of OSPW extracted NAs (OS-NAs) and commercial NAs (C-NAs) using a combination of in vitro and in vivo assays. The effects of OS-NAs and C-NAs on steroidogenesis were assessed both at hormone levels and expression levels of hormone-related genes in the H295R cells. The transcriptions of biomarker genes involved in endocrine systems in zebrafish larvae were investigated to detect the effects of OS-NAs and C-NAs on endocrine function in vivo. Exposure to OS-NAs and C-NAs significantly increased production of 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), and decreased production of testosterone (T). Both OS-NAs and C-NAs significantly induced the expression of several genes involved in steroidogenesis. The abundances of transcripts of biomarker gene CYP19b, ERα, and VTG were significantly up-regulated in zebrafish larvae exposed to OS-NAs and C-NAs, which indicated that NAs had negative effects on estrogen-responsive gene transcription in vivo. These results indicated that NAs should be partly responsible for the endocrine disrupting effects of OSPW. PMID:26073515

  7. Chloroplastic thioredoxin m functions as a major regulator of Calvin cycle enzymes during photosynthesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Okegawa, Yuki; Motohashi, Ken

    2015-12-01

    Thioredoxins (Trxs) regulate the activity of various chloroplastic proteins in a light-dependent manner. Five types of Trxs function in different physiological processes in the chloroplast of Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous in vitro experiments have suggested that the f-type Trx (Trx f) is the main redox regulator of chloroplast enzymes, including Calvin cycle enzymes. To investigate the in vivo contribution of each Trx isoform to the redox regulatory system, we first quantified the protein concentration of each Trx isoform in the chloroplast stroma. The m-type Trx (Trx m), which consists of four isoforms, was the most abundant type. Next, we analyzed several Arabidopsis Trx-m-deficient mutants to elucidate the physiological role of Trx m in vivo. Deficiency of Trx m impaired plant growth and decreased the CO2 assimilation rate. We also determined the redox state of Trx target enzymes to examine their photo-reduction, which is essential for enzyme activation. In the Trx-m-deficient mutants, the reduction level of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase was lower than that in the wild type. Inconsistently with the historical view, our in vivo study suggested that Trx m plays a more important role than Trx f in the activation of Calvin cycle enzymes. PMID:26468055

  8. Functional analysis of the hydrophobic patch on nuclear transport factor 2 involved in interactions with the nuclear pore in vivo.

    PubMed

    Quimby, B B; Leung, S W; Bayliss, R; Harreman, M T; Thirumala, G; Stewart, M; Corbett, A H

    2001-10-19

    Nuclear transport factor 2 (NTF2) is a small homodimeric protein that interacts simultaneously with both RanGDP and FxFG nucleoporins. The interaction between NTF2 and Ran is essential for the import of Ran into the nucleus. Here we use mutational analysis to dissect the in vivo role of the interaction between NTF2 and nucleoporins. We identify a series of surface residues that form a hydrophobic patch on NTF2, which when mutated disrupt the NTF2-nucleoporin interaction. Analysis of these mutants in vivo demonstrates that the strength of this interaction can be significantly reduced without affecting cell viability. However, cells cease to be viable if the interaction between NTF2 and nucleoporins is abolished completely, indicating that this interaction is essential for the function of NTF2 in vivo. In addition, we have isolated a dominant negative mutant of NTF2, N77Y, which has increased affinity for nucleoporins. Overexpression of the N77Y protein blocks nuclear protein import and concentrates Ran at the nuclear rim. These data support a mechanism in which NTF2 interacts transiently with FxFG nucleoporins to translocate through the pore and import RanGDP into the nucleus. PMID:11489893

  9. In vivo manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging reveals connections and functional properties of the songbird vocal control system.

    PubMed

    Van der Linden, A; Verhoye, M; Van Meir, V; Tindemans, I; Eens, M; Absil, P; Balthazart, J

    2002-01-01

    Injection of manganese (Mn(2+)), a paramagnetic tract tracing agent and calcium analogue, into the high vocal center of starlings labeled within a few hours the nucleus robustus archistriatalis and area X as observed by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging. Structures highlighted by Mn(2+) accumulation assumed the expected tri-dimensional shape of the nucleus robustus archistriatalis and area X as identified by classical histological or neurochemical methods. The volume of these nuclei could be accurately calculated by segmentation of the areas highlighted by Mn(2+). Besides confirming previously established volumetric sex differences, Mn(2+) uptake into these nuclei revealed new functional sex differences affecting Mn(2+) transport. A faster transport was observed in males than in females and different relative amounts of Mn(2+) were transported to nucleus robustus archistriatalis and area X in males as compared to females. This new in vivo approach, allowing repeated measures, opens new vistas to study the remarkable seasonal plasticity in size and activity of song-control nuclei and correlate neuronal activity with behavior. It also provides new insights on in vivo axonal transport and neuronal activity in song-control nuclei of oscines. PMID:12044464

  10. 20-HETE Regulates the Angiogenic Functions of Human Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Contributes to Angiogenesis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Ackerman, Rachel; Saleh, Mohamed; Gotlinger, Katherine H.; Kessler, Michael; Mendelowitz, Lawrence G.; Falck, John R.; Arbab, Ali S.; Scicli, A. Guillermo; Schwartzman, Michal L.

    2014-01-01

    Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) contribute to postnatal neovascularization. We identified the cytochrome P450 4A/F–20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (CYP4A/F–20-HETE) system as a novel regulator of EPC functions associated with angiogenesis in vitro. Here, we explored cellular mechanisms by which 20-HETE regulates EPC angiogenic functions and assessed its contribution to EPC-mediated angiogenesis in vivo. Results showed that both hypoxia and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induce CYP4A11 gene and protein expression (the predominant 20-HETE synthases in human EPC), and this is accompanied by an increase in 20-HETE production by ∼1.4- and 1.8-fold, respectively, compared with the control levels. Additional studies demonstrated that 20-HETE and VEGF have a synergistic effect on EPC proliferation, whereas 20-HETE antagonist 20-HEDGE or VEGF-neutralizing antibody negated 20-HETE- or VEGF-induced proliferation, respectively. These findings are consistent with the presence of a positive feedback regulation on EPC proliferation between the 20-HETE and the VEGF pathways. Furthermore, we found that 20-HETE induced EPC adhesion to fibronectin and endothelial cell monolayer by 40 ± 5.6 and 67 ± 10%, respectively, which was accompanied by a rapid induction of very late antigen-4 and chemokine receptor type 4 mRNA and protein expression. Basal and 20-HETE-stimulated increases in adhesion were negated by the inhibition of the CYP4A–20-HETE system. Lastly, EPC increased angiogenesis in vivo by 3.6 ± 0.2-fold using the Matrigel plug angiogenesis assay, and these increases were markedly reduced by the local inhibition of 20-HETE system. These results strengthened the notion that 20-HETE regulates the angiogenic functions of EPC in vitro and EPC-mediated angiogenesis in vivo. PMID:24403517

  11. 20-HETE regulates the angiogenic functions of human endothelial progenitor cells and contributes to angiogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Ackerman, Rachel; Saleh, Mohamed; Gotlinger, Katherine H; Kessler, Michael; Mendelowitz, Lawrence G; Falck, John R; Arbab, Ali S; Scicli, A Guillermo; Schwartzman, Michal L; Yang, Jing; Guo, Austin M

    2014-03-01

    Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) contribute to postnatal neovascularization. We identified the cytochrome P450 4A/F-20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (CYP4A/F-20-HETE) system as a novel regulator of EPC functions associated with angiogenesis in vitro. Here, we explored cellular mechanisms by which 20-HETE regulates EPC angiogenic functions and assessed its contribution to EPC-mediated angiogenesis in vivo. Results showed that both hypoxia and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induce CYP4A11 gene and protein expression (the predominant 20-HETE synthases in human EPC), and this is accompanied by an increase in 20-HETE production by ~1.4- and 1.8-fold, respectively, compared with the control levels. Additional studies demonstrated that 20-HETE and VEGF have a synergistic effect on EPC proliferation, whereas 20-HETE antagonist 20-HEDGE or VEGF-neutralizing antibody negated 20-HETE- or VEGF-induced proliferation, respectively. These findings are consistent with the presence of a positive feedback regulation on EPC proliferation between the 20-HETE and the VEGF pathways. Furthermore, we found that 20-HETE induced EPC adhesion to fibronectin and endothelial cell monolayer by 40 ± 5.6 and 67 ± 10%, respectively, which was accompanied by a rapid induction of very late antigen-4 and chemokine receptor type 4 mRNA and protein expression. Basal and 20-HETE-stimulated increases in adhesion were negated by the inhibition of the CYP4A-20-HETE system. Lastly, EPC increased angiogenesis in vivo by 3.6 ± 0.2-fold using the Matrigel plug angiogenesis assay, and these increases were markedly reduced by the local inhibition of 20-HETE system. These results strengthened the notion that 20-HETE regulates the angiogenic functions of EPC in vitro and EPC-mediated angiogenesis in vivo. PMID:24403517

  12. Measuring stem cell frequency in epidermis: A quantitative in vivo functional assay for long-term repopulating cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, T. E.; Barland, C.; Alex, A. M.; Mancianti, M. L.; Lu, Y.; Cleaver, J. E.; Lawrence, H. J.; Ghadially, R.

    2003-09-01

    Epidermal stem cells play a central role in tissue homeostasis, wound repair, tumor initiation, and gene therapy. A major impediment to the purification and molecular characterization of epidermal stem cells is the lack of a quantitative assay for cells capable of long-term repopulation in vivo, such as exists for hematopoietic cells. The tremendous strides made in the characterization and purification of hematopoietic stem cells have been critically dependent on the availability of competitive transplantation assays, because these assays permit the accurate quantitation of long-term repopulating cells in vivo. We have developed an analogous functional assay for epidermal stem cells, and have measured the frequency of functional epidermal stem cells in interfollicular epidermis. These studies indicate that cells capable of long-term reconstitution of a squamous epithelium reside in the interfollicular epidermis. We find that the frequency of these long-term repopulating cells is 1 in 35,000 total epidermal cells, or in the order of 1 in 104 basal epidermal cells, similar to that of hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow, and much lower than previously estimated in epidermis. Furthermore, these studies establish a novel functional assay that can be used to validate immunophenotypic markers and enrichment strategies for epidermal stem cells, and to quantify epidermal stem cells in various keratinocyte populations. Thus further studies using this type of assay for epidermis should aid in the progress of cutaneous stem cell-targeted gene therapy, and in more basic studies of epidermal stem cell regulation and differentiation.

  13. Encapsulation of human islets in novel inhomogeneous alginate-Ca2+/Ba2+ microbeads: in vitro and in vivo function

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Meirigeng; Strand, Berit Løkensgard; Mørch, Yrr; Lacík, Igor; Wang, Yong; Salehi, Payam; Barbaro, Barbara; Gangemi, Antonio; Kuechle, Joseph; Romagnoli, Travis; Hansen, Michael A.; Rodriguez, Lisette A.; Benedetti, Enrico; Hunkeler, David; Skjåk-Bræk, Gudmund; Oberholzer, José

    2013-01-01

    Microencapsulation may allow for immunosuppression free islet transplantation. Herein we investigated whether human islets can be shipped safely to a remote encapsulation core facility and maintain in vitro and in vivo functionality. In non-encapsulated islets before and encapsulated islets after shipment, viability was 88.3±2.5 and 87.5±2.7% (n=6, p=0.30). Stimulation index after static glucose incubation was 5.4±0.5 and 6.3±0.4 (n=6, p=0.18), respectively. After intraperitoneal transplantation, long-term normoglycemia was consistently achieved with 3,000, 5,000, and 10,000 IEQ encapsulated human islets. When transplanting 1,000 IEQ, mice returned to hyperglycemia after 30–55 (n=4/7) and 160 days (n=3/7). Transplanted mice showed human oral glucose tolerance with lower glucose levels than non-diabetic control mice. Capsules retrieved after transplantation were intact, with only minimal overgrowth. This study shows that human islets maintained the viability and in vitro function after encapsulation and the inhomogeneous alginate-Ca2+/Ba2+ microbeads allows for long-term in vivo human islet graft function, despite long-distance shipment. PMID:18925451

  14. Simple and effective exercise design for assessing in vivo mitochondrial function in clinical applications using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sleigh, Alison; Lupson, Victoria; Thankamony, Ajay; Dunger, David B.; Savage, David B.; Carpenter, T. Adrian; Kemp, Graham J.

    2016-01-01

    The growing recognition of diseases associated with dysfunction of mitochondria poses an urgent need for simple measures of mitochondrial function. Assessment of the kinetics of replenishment of the phosphocreatine pool after exercise using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy can provide an in vivo measure of mitochondrial function; however, the wider application of this technique appears limited by complex or expensive MR-compatible exercise equipment and protocols not easily tolerated by frail participants or those with reduced mental capacity. Here we describe a novel in-scanner exercise method which is patient-focused, inexpensive, remarkably simple and highly portable. The device exploits an MR-compatible high-density material (BaSO4) to form a weight which is attached directly to the ankle, and a one-minute dynamic knee extension protocol produced highly reproducible measurements of post-exercise PCr recovery kinetics in both healthy subjects and patients. As sophisticated exercise equipment is unnecessary for this measurement, our extremely simple design provides an effective and easy-to-implement apparatus that is readily translatable across sites. Its design, being tailored to the needs of the patient, makes it particularly well suited to clinical applications, and we argue the potential of this method for investigating in vivo mitochondrial function in new cohorts of growing clinical interest. PMID:26751849

  15. In vivo evolution of metabolic pathways: Assembling old parts to build novel and functional structures

    PubMed Central

    Luque, Alejandro; Sebai, Sarra C; Sauveplane, Vincent; Ramaen, Odile; Pandjaitan, Rudy

    2014-01-01

    In our recent article “In vivo evolution of metabolic pathways by homeologous recombination in mitotic cells” we proposed a useful alternative to directed evolution methods that permits the generation of yeast cell libraries containing recombinant metabolic pathways from counterpart genes. The methodology was applied to generate single mosaic genes and intragenic mosaic pathways. We used flavonoid metabolism genes as a working model to assembly and express evolved pathways in DNA repair deficient cells. The present commentary revises the principles of gene and pathway mosaicism and explores the scope and perspectives of our results as an additional tool for synthetic biology. PMID:25482082

  16. Stimulatory effect of luteinizing hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, and epidermal growth factor on progesterone secretion and viability of cultured bubaline luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, V S; Dangi, S S; Vazhoor, B; Yadav, V P; Gupta, M; Pathak, M C; Panda, R P; Khan, F A; Verma, M R; Maurya, V P; Singh, G; Sarkar, M

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the temporal (24, 48 and 72 hours) and dose-dependent (5, 10, and 100 ng/mL of LH, IGF-1, and EGF, respectively) production and secretion of progesterone (P4) in cultured luteal cells from different stages of estrous cycle as well as the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STARD1), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage (CYP11A1), and 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B), anti-apoptotic gene PCNA, and pro-apoptotic gene BAX in luteal cells of mid-luteal phase in buffalo. Samples from early luteal phase (ELP; Day 1 to 4; n = 4), mid-luteal phase (MLP; Day 5 to 10; n = 4), and late luteal phase (LLP; Day 11 to 16; n = 4) of estrous cycle were collected. Progesterone was assayed by RIA, whereas mRNA expression was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results depicted that highest dose (100 ng/mL) of LH, IGF-1, and EGF and longer duration of time brought about a (P < 0.05) rise in P4 level and expression of steroidogenic enzymes and PCNA compared with the lower level(s) and control while, all treatments (P < 0.05) inhibited BAX expression in a time dependent-manner. Analysis of interaction between stage and treatments revealed that LH treatment (P < 0.05) increased P4 production compared with IGF-1 and EGF in ELP and MLP. However in LLP, treatment with IGF-1 and EGF significantly (P < 0.05) increased P4 production compared with LH treatment. Summarizing, our study explores the steroidogenic potential of LH and growth factors across different luteal stages in buffalo, which on promoting steroidogenic enzyme expression and cell viability culminated in enhanced P4 production in luteal cells. PMID:25263485

  17. Functionalized biocompatible WO3 nanoparticles for triggered and targeted in vitro and in vivo photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Sharker, Shazid Md; Kim, Sung Min; Lee, Jung Eun; Choi, Kyung Ho; Shin, Gyojic; Lee, Sangkug; Lee, Kang Dae; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Lee, Haeshin; Park, Sung Young

    2015-11-10

    We report on dopamine-conjugated hyaluronic acid (HA-D), a mussel-inspired facile capping material that can modify tungsten oxide (WO3) nanoparticles to be both biocompatible and targetable, allowing precise delivery (WO3-HA) to a tumor site. Near-infrared (NIR) irradiated WO3-HA showed a rapid and substantial rise in photothermal heat to complete in vitro thermolysis of malignant MDAMB and A549 cancer cellsbut was found to be relatively less sensitive to normal MDCK cells. A long-term in vivo investigation of ~10 nm HA thickness on WO3 (WO3-HA) nanoparticles demonstrated efficient photo-thermal conversion with time-dependent tumor target accumulation. This long-termin vivo survival study ofWO3-HA showed promising biocompatibility, with a complete recovery from malignant tumor. Due to the importance of keeping simplicity in the design of therapeutic nanoparticles, we therefore expect that this facile scheme (HA-D) would contribute to the biocompatible development of versatile metallic nanoparticles for photothermal applications. PMID:26381897

  18. In Vitro and In Vivo Tumor Targeted Photothermal Cancer Therapy Using Functionalized Graphene Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Han; Lee, Jung Eun; Sharker, Shazid Md; Jeong, Ji Hoon; In, Insik; Park, Sung Young

    2015-11-01

    Despite the tremendous progress that photothermal therapy (PTT) has recently achieved, it still has a long way to go to gain the effective targeted photothermal ablation of tumor cells. Driven by this need, we describe a new class of targeted photothermal therapeutic agents for cancer cells with pH responsive bioimaging using near-infrared dye (NIR) IR825, conjugated poly(ethylene glycol)-g-poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PEG-g-PDMA, PgP), and hyaluronic acid (HA) anchored reduced graphene oxide (rGO) hybrid nanoparticles. The obtained rGO nanoparticles (PgP/HA-rGO) showed pH-dependent fluorescence emission and excellent near-infrared (NIR) irradiation of cancer cells targeted in vitro to provide cytotoxicity. Using intravenously administered PTT agents, the time-dependent in vivo tumor target accumulation was exactly defined, presenting eminent photothermal conversion at 4 and 8 h post-injection, which was demonstrated from the ex vivo biodistribution of tumors. These tumor environment responsive hybrid nanoparticles generated photothermal heat, which caused dominant suppression of tumor growth. The histopathological studies obtained by H&E staining demonstrated complete healing from malignant tumor. In an area of limited successes in cancer therapy, our translation will pave the road to design stimulus environment responsive targeted PTT agents for the safe eradication of devastating cancer. PMID:26451914

  19. Disruption of Tacc3 function leads to in vivo tumor regression.

    PubMed

    Yao, R; Natsume, Y; Saiki, Y; Shioya, H; Takeuchi, K; Yamori, T; Toki, H; Aoki, I; Saga, T; Noda, T

    2012-01-12

    The formation of the bipolar spindle is responsible for accurate chromosomal segregation during mitosis. The dynamic instability of microtubules has an important role in this process, and has been shown to be an effective target for cancer chemotherapy. Several agents that target non-microtubule mitotic proteins, including the motor protein Eg5, Aurora kinases and Polo-like kinases, are currently being developed as chemotherapeutic drugs. However, because the efficacies of these drugs remain elusive, new molecular targets that have essential roles in tumor cells are desired. Here, we provide in vivo evidence that transforming acidic coiled-coil-3 (Tacc3) is a potential target for cancer chemotherapy. Using MRI, we showed that Tacc3 loss led to the regression of mouse thymic lymphoma in vivo, which was accompanied by massive apoptosis. By contrast, normal tissues, including the thymus, showed no overt abnormalities, despite high Tacc3 expression. in vitro analysis indicated that Tacc3 depletion induced multi-polar spindle formation, which led to mitotic arrest, followed by apoptosis. Similar responses have been observed in Burkitt's lymphoma and T-ALL. These results show that Tacc3 is a vulnerable component of the spindle assembly in lymphoma cells and is a promising cancer chemotherapy target. PMID:21685933

  20. Directed dimerization: an in vivo expression system for functional studies of type II phytochromes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Sharrock, Robert A

    2013-09-01

    Type II phytochromes (phy) in Arabidopsis form homodimers and heterodimers, resulting in a diverse collection of light-stable red/far-red (R/FR) sensing photoreceptors. We describe an in vivo protein engineering system and its use in characterizing the activities of these molecules. Using a phyB null mutant background, singly and doubly transgenic plants were generated that express fusion proteins containing the phyB-phyE N-terminal photosensory regions (NB-NE PSRs), a nuclear localization sequence, and small yeast protein domains that mediate either homodimerization or heterodimerization. Activity of NB/NB homodimers but not monomeric NB subunits in control of seedling and adult plant responses to R light is demonstrated. Heterodimers of the NB sequence with the chromophoreless NB(C357S) sequence, which mimic phyB Pfr/Pr photo-heterodimers, mediate R sensitivity in leaves and petioles but not hypocotyls. Homodimerization of the NC, ND and NE sequences and directed heterodimerization of these photosensory regions with the NB region reveal form-specific R-induced activities for different type II phy dimers. The experimental approach developed here of directed assembly of defined protein dimer combinations in vivo may be applicable to other systems. PMID:23738620

  1. Circulating angiogenic cell function is inhibited by cortisol in vitro and associated with psychological stress and cortisol in vivo.

    PubMed

    Aschbacher, Kirstin; Derakhshandeh, Ronak; Flores, Abdiel J; Narayan, Shilpa; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Springer, Matthew L

    2016-05-01

    Psychological stress and glucocorticoids are associated with heightened cardiovascular disease risk. We investigated whether stress or cortisol would be associated with reduced circulating angiogenic cell (CAC) function, an index of impaired vascular repair. We hypothesized that minority-race individuals who experience threat in interracial interactions would exhibit reduced CAC function, and that this link might be explained by cortisol. To test this experimentally, we recruited 106 African American participants for a laboratory interracial interaction task, in which they received socially evaluative feedback from Caucasian confederates. On a separate day, a subset of 32 participants (mean age=26years, 47% female) enrolled in a separate biological substudy and provided blood samples for CAC isolation and salivary samples to quantify the morning peak in cortisol (the cortisol awakening response, CAR). CAC function was quantified using cell culture assays of migration to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and secretion of VEGF into the culture medium. Heightened threat in response to an interracial interaction and trait anxiety in vivo were both associated with poorer CAC migratory function in vitro. Further, threat and poorer sustained attention during the interracial interaction were associated with a higher CAR, which in turn, was related to lower CAC sensitivity to glucocorticoids. In vitro, higher doses of cortisol impaired CAC migratory function and VEGF protein secretion. The glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 reversed this functional impairment. These data identify a novel, neuroendocrine pathway by which psychological stress may reduce CAC function, with potential implications for cardiovascular health. PMID:26925833

  2. Impact of GnRH agonist triggering and intensive luteal steroid support on live-birth rates and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Conventional luteal support packages are inadequate to facilitate a fresh transfer after GnRH agonist (GnRHa) trigger in patients at high risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). By providing intensive luteal-phase support with oestradiol and progesterone satisfactory implantation rates can be sustained. The objective of this study was to assess the live-birth rate and incidence of OHSS after GnRHa trigger and intensive luteal steroid support compared to traditional hCG trigger and conventional luteal support in OHSS high risk Asian patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 363 women exposed to GnRHa triggering with intensive luteal support compared with 257 women exposed to conventional hCG triggering. Women at risk of OHSS were defined by ovarian response ?15 follicles ?12mm on the day of the trigger. Results Live-birth rates were similar in both groups GnRHa vs hCG; 29.8% vs 29.2% (p?=?0.69). One late onset severe OHSS case was observed in the GnRHa trigger group (0.3%) compared to 18 cases (7%) after hCG trigger. Conclusions GnRHa trigger combined with intensive luteal steroid support in this group of OHSS high risk Asian patients can facilitate fresh embryo transfer, however, in contrast to previous reports the occurrence of late onset OHSS was not completely eliminated. PMID:24369069

  3. Sweet taste threshold for sucrose inversely correlates with depression symptoms in female college students in the luteal phase.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Masanori; Matsumoto, Sayaka; Endo, Junko; Sakamoto, Reiko; Wada, Maki

    2015-03-15

    Influences of depression symptoms on the sweet taste threshold were investigated in healthy college students (30 males and 40 females). Depression symptoms were scored by SDS (Self-Rating Depression Scale), and anxiety levels by STAI (State- and Trait-Anxiety Inventory). Recognition thresholds for sucrose were determined. In female students, the menstrual phase on the day of the experiment was self-reported. Depression symptoms, anxiety levels, and the recognition threshold for sucrose were not different among the 3 groups, i.e. males, females in the follicular phase, and females in the luteal phase. Depression symptoms were positively correlated with state and trait anxiety in all groups. The sweet taste threshold was inversely correlated with depression symptoms (r=-0.472, p=0.031) and trait anxiety (r=-0.506, p=0.019) in females in the luteal phase. In males as well as females in the follicular phase, however, no correlation between sweet taste threshold and depression was found. The results show that the recognition threshold for sucrose reduces with increased depression in females with a higher anxiety trait, but only in the luteal phase. It is hypothesized that brain regions, which spatially overlap and are responsible for both aversive emotions and gustatory processing, are susceptible to periodic changes in gonadal hormones due to the menstrual cycle. PMID:25576640

  4. Double stimulations during the follicular and luteal phases of poor responders in IVF/ICSI programmes (Shanghai protocol).

    PubMed

    Kuang, Yanping; Chen, Qiuju; Hong, Qingqing; Lyu, Qifeng; Ai, Ai; Fu, Yonglun; Shoham, Zeev

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that existing antral follicles in the luteal phase enable ovarian stimulation. In a pilot study, the efficacy of double stimulations during the follicular and luteal phases in women with poor ovarian response was explored (defined according to the Bologna criteria). Thirty-eight women began with mild ovarian stimulation. After the first oocyte retrieval, human menopausal gonadotrophin and letrozole were administrated to stimulate follicle development, and oocyte retrieval was carried out a second time when dominant follicles had matured. The primary outcome measured was the number of oocytes retrieved: stage one 1.7 ± 1.0; stage two 3.5 ± 3.2. From the double stimulation, 167 oocytes were collected and 26 out of 38 (68.4%) succeeded in producing one to six viable embryos cryopreserved for later transfer. Twenty-one women underwent 23 cryopreserved embryo transfers, resulting in 13 clinical pregnancies. The study shows that double ovarian stimulations in the same menstrual cycle provide more opportunities for retrieving oocytes in poor responders. The stimulation can start in the luteal phase resulting in retrieval of more oocytes in a short period of time. This offers new hope for women with poor ovarian response and newly diagnosed cancer patients needing fertility preservation. PMID:25444501

  5. Novel in vivo murine model to study islet potency: engraftment and function.

    PubMed

    Bharat, Ankit; Benshoff, Nicholas; Olack, Barbara; Ramachandran, Sabarinathan; Desai, Niraj M; Mohanakumar, T

    2005-06-15

    Standard islet potency testing uses transplantation of islets under the kidney capsule in diabetic severe combined immunodeficient (d-SCID) mice. Even though it is possible to achieve normoglycemia in the majority of recipients by this method, the surgical procedure, by itself, is technically difficult and associated with an appreciable mortality of animals. In addition, the spatially limited renal subcapsular site restricts the mass of islet tissue that can be transplanted. Matrigel basement membrane matrix (MATRIGEL), extracted from a mouse sarcoma, is rich in angiogenic growth factors and has been shown to support the growth of mammalian cells using murine models. In this report we demonstrate that subcutaneous islet transplantation with MATRIGEL can effectively achieve normoglycemia and that this is a simple and reproducible model for in vivo islet potency testing in d-SCID mice that overcomes many drawbacks of the conventional method of kidney subcapsular islet transplantation. PMID:15940055

  6. In vivo function of immune murine peritoneal exudate cells after freezing and thawing

    SciTech Connect

    Adkison, L.R.; Coggin, J.H. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Peritoneal exudate cells were collected from Balb/c mice immunized against a 3-methylcholanthrene-induced (3-MCA) tumor and known to be capable of conferring tumor transplantation resistance in vivo in syngeneic recipients. These PEC were frozen-using dimethylsulfoxide as the cryopreservative agent. Adoptive transfer of tumor resistance in syngeneic recipients challenged with homologous 3-MCA sarcoma cells was attempted using these frozen exudate cells. Cells were thawed 1, 4, 7, 10 or 30 days after freezing and admixed with tumor cells in ratios of 100:1 or 1000:1 before injecting into mice. Tumorigenesis was decreased and delayed in groups receiving the 100:1 ratio. Less than 3% of the mice developed tumors in groups receiving the 1000:1 ratio. The number of cells recovered post-thawing ranged from 60 to 80%; viability of post-thawed cells ranged from 80 to 96%.

  7. In vivo functional photoacoustic tomography of traumatic brain injury in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jung-Taek; Song, Kwang-Hyung; Li, Meng-Lin; Stoica, George; Wang, Lihong V.

    2006-02-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the potential of photoacoustic tomography for the study of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats in vivo. Based on spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography that can detect the absorption rates of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobins, the blood oxygen saturation and total blood volume in TBI rat brains were visualized. Reproducible cerebral trauma was induced using a fluid percussion TBI device. The time courses of the hemodynamic response following the trauma initiation were imaged with multi-wavelength photoacoustic tomography with bandwidth-limited spatial resolution through the intact skin and skull. In the pilot set of experiments, trauma induced hematomas and blood oxygen saturation level changes were detected, a finding consistent with the known physiological responses to TBI. This new imaging method will be useful for future studies on TBI-related metabolic activities and the effects of therapeutic agents.

  8. Preferential accumulation within tumors and in vivo imaging by functionalized luminescent dendrimer lanthanide complexes

    PubMed Central

    Alcala, Marco A.; Shade, Chad M.; Uh, Hyounsoo; Kwan, Shu Ying; Bischof, Matthias; Thompson, Zachary P.; Gogick, Kristy A.; Meier, Adam R.; Strein, Timothy G.; Bartlett, David L.; Modzelewski, Ruth A.; Lee, Yong J.; Petoud, Stéphane; Brown, Charles Komen

    2011-01-01

    We have created a dendrimer complex suitable for preferential accumulation within liver tumors and luminescence imaging by substituting thirty-two naphthalimide fluorophores on the surface of the dendrimer and incorporating eight europium cations within the branches. We demonstrate the utility and performance of this luminescent dendrimer complex to detect hepatic tumors generated via direct subcapsular implantation or via splenic injections of colorectal cancer cells (CC531) into WAG/RijHsd rats. Luminescence imaging of the tumors after injection of the dendrimer complex via hepatic arterial infusion revealed that the dendrimer complex can preferentially accumulate within liver tumors. Further investigation indicated that dendrimer luminescence in hepatic tumors persisted in vivo. Due to the incorporation of lanthanide cations, this luminescence agent presents a strong resistance against photobleaching. These studies show the dendrimer complex has great potential to serve as an innovative accumulation and imaging agent for the detection of metastatic tumors in our rat hepatic model. PMID:21925728

  9. Increased osteoblast function in vitro and in vivo through surface nanostructuring by ultrasonic shot peening

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yongyuan; Hu, Beibei; Tang, Chu; Wu, Yunpeng; Sun, Pengfei; Zhang, Xianlong; Jia, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    Surface topography has significant influence on good and fast osseointegration of biomedical implants. In this work, ultrasonic shot peening was conducted to modify titanium to produce nanograined (NG) surface. Its ability to induce new bone formation was evaluated using an in vivo animal model. We demonstrated that the NG surface enhanced osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization in in vitro experiments compared to coarse-grained titanium surface. Push-out test, histological observations, fluorescent labeling, and histomorphometrical analysis consistently indicated that the NG surfaces developed have the higher osseointegration than coarse-grained surfaces. Those results suggest that ultrasonic shot peening has the potential for future use as a surface modification method in biomedical application. PMID:26229463

  10. Single cell electroporation for longitudinal imaging of synaptic structure and function in the adult mouse neocortex in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Pagès, Stéphane; Cane, Michele; Randall, Jérôme; Capello, Luca; Holtmaat, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal imaging studies of neuronal structures in vivo have revealed rich dynamics in dendritic spines and axonal boutons. Spines and boutons are considered to be proxies for synapses. This implies that synapses display similar dynamics. However, spines and boutons do not always bear synapses, some may contain more than one, and dendritic shaft synapses have no clear structural proxies. In addition, synaptic strength is not always accurately revealed by just the size of these structures. Structural and functional dynamics of synapses could be studied more reliably using fluorescent synaptic proteins as markers for size and function. These proteins are often large and possibly interfere with circuit development, which renders them less suitable for conventional transfection or transgenesis methods such as viral vectors, in utero electroporation, and germline transgenesis. Single cell electroporation (SCE) has been shown to be a potential alternative for transfection of recombinant fluorescent proteins in adult cortical neurons. Here we provide proof of principle for the use of SCE to express and subsequently image fluorescently tagged synaptic proteins over days to weeks in vivo. PMID:25904849

  11. The rare DAT coding variant Val559 perturbs DA neuron function, changes behavior, and alters in vivo responses to psychostimulants

    PubMed Central

    Mergy, Marc A.; Gowrishankar, Raajaram; Gresch, Paul J.; Gantz, Stephanie C.; Williams, John; Davis, Gwynne L.; Wheeler, C. Austin; Stanwood, Gregg D.; Hahn, Maureen K.; Blakely, Randy D.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the critical role of the presynaptic dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT, SLC6A3) in DA clearance and psychostimulant responses, evidence that DAT dysfunction supports risk for mental illness is indirect. Recently, we identified a rare, nonsynonymous Slc6a3 variant that produces the DAT substitution Ala559Val in two male siblings who share a diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with other studies identifying the variant in subjects with bipolar disorder (BPD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previously, using transfected cell studies, we observed that although DAT Val559 displays normal total and surface DAT protein levels, and normal DA recognition and uptake, the variant transporter exhibits anomalous DA efflux (ADE) and lacks capacity for amphetamine (AMPH)-stimulated DA release. To pursue the significance of these findings in vivo, we engineered DAT Val559 knock-in mice, and here we demonstrate in this model the presence of elevated extracellular DA levels, altered somatodendritic and presynaptic D2 DA receptor (D2R) function, a blunted ability of DA terminals to support depolarization and AMPH-evoked DA release, and disruptions in basal and psychostimulant-evoked locomotor behavior. Together, our studies demonstrate an in vivo functional impact of the DAT Val559 variant, providing support for the ability of DAT dysfunction to impact risk for mental illness. PMID:25331903

  12. The mapping of DNA topoisomerase sites in vivo: a tool to enlight the functions of topoisomerases.

    PubMed

    Borde, V; Duguet, M

    1998-03-01

    The possibility to record a trace of the precise sites of topoisomerase action has been exploited for almost 12 years in many laboratories. The large majority of the studies were performed in vitro, giving a good picture of sequence specificities of topoisomerases, and of the preference of various drugs for some sequences. Only a relatively small number of reports concern in vivo studies. Their main conclusions are the following: i) topoisomerase II sites are often found near replication origins and termini, where they are supposed to play a role in the decatenation of daughter DNA molecules, and possibly in the initiation of replication; ii) topoisomerase II sites are found in the promoter region of many genes, but they seem related to the condensation state of chromatin in this region, rather than to transcription per se; iii) some topoisomerase II sites, resistant to high salt, are found in or near matrix associated regions (MARs), suggesting a role in loop anchorage or (and) in the control of topology of individual chromatin loops; iv) topoisomerase I sites appear less localized, acting all along the transcription units, where they seem directly involved in transcription; and v) topoisomerase I sites are possibly connected with replication fork progression and (or) with the termination of replication. Despite these advances, the precise role of topoisomerases in vivo is still poorly understood, especially in recombination and chromatin condensation and decondensation during the cell cycle. Future attempts should take into account the possible specialization of the multiple topoisomerases found in a given cell, and the use of highly synchronized systems. PMID:9615862

  13. Insulin-Producing Endocrine Cells Differentiated In Vitro From Human Embryonic Stem Cells Function in Macroencapsulation Devices In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ambruzs, Dana M.; Moorman, Mark A.; Bhoumik, Anindita; Cesario, Rosemary M.; Payne, Janice K.; Kelly, Jonathan R.; Haakmeester, Carl; Srijemac, Robert; Wilson, Alistair Z.; Kerr, Justin; Frazier, Mauro A.; Kroon, Evert J.; D’Amour, Kevin A.

    2015-01-01

    The PEC-01 cell population, differentiated from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), contains pancreatic progenitors (PPs) that, when loaded into macroencapsulation devices (to produce the VC-01 candidate product) and transplanted into mice, can mature into glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells and other pancreatic endocrine cells involved in glucose metabolism. We modified the protocol for making PEC-01 cells such that 73%–80% of the cell population consisted of PDX1-positive (PDX1+) and NKX6.1+ PPs. The PPs were further differentiated to islet-like cells (ICs) that reproducibly contained 73%–89% endocrine cells, of which approximately 40%–50% expressed insulin. A large fraction of these insulin-positive cells were single hormone-positive and expressed the transcription factors PDX1 and NKX6.1. To preclude a significant contribution of progenitors to the in vivo function of ICs, we used a simple enrichment process to remove remaining PPs, yielding aggregates that contained 93%–98% endocrine cells and 1%–3% progenitors. Enriched ICs, when encapsulated and implanted into mice, functioned similarly to the VC-01 candidate product, demonstrating conclusively that in vitro-produced hESC-derived insulin-producing cells can mature and function in vivo in devices. A scaled version of our suspension culture was used, and the endocrine aggregates could be cryopreserved and retain functionality. Although ICs expressed multiple important β cell genes, the cells contained relatively low levels of several maturity-associated markers. Correlating with this, the time to function of ICs was similar to PEC-01 cells, indicating that ICs required cell-autonomous maturation after delivery in vivo, which would occur concurrently with graft integration into the host. Significance Type 1 diabetes (T1D) affects approximately 1.25 million people in the U.S. alone and is deadly if not managed with insulin injections. This paper describes the production of insulin-producing cells in vitro and a new protocol for producing the cells, representing another potential cell source for a diabetes cell therapy. These cells can be loaded into a protective device that is implanted under the skin. The device is designed to protect the cells from immune rejection by the implant recipient. The implant can engraft and respond to glucose by secreting insulin, thus potentially replacing the β cells lost in patients with T1D. PMID:26304037

  14. In Vivo Noninvasive Analysis of Human Forearm Muscle Function and Fatigue: Applications to EVA Operations and Training Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fotedar, L. K.; Marshburn, T.; Quast, M. J.; Feeback, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Forearm muscle fatigue is one of the major limiting factors affecting endurance during performance of deep-space extravehicular activity (EVA) by crew members. Magnetic resonance (MR) provides in vivo noninvasive analysis of tissue level metabolism and fluid exchange dynamics in exercised forearm muscles through the monitoring of proton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P-31-MRS) parameter variations. Using a space glove box and EVA simulation protocols, we conducted a preliminary MRS/MRI study in a small group of human test subjects during submaximal exercise and recovery and following exhaustive exercise. In assessing simulated EVA-related muscle fatigue and function, this pilot study revealed substantial changes in the MR image longitudinal relaxation times (T2) as an indicator of specific muscle activation and proton flux as well as changes in spectral phosphocreatine-to-phosphate (PCr/Pi) levels as a function of tissue bioenergetic potential.

  15. Functional photoacoustic tomography for non-invasive imaging of cerebral blood oxygenation and blood volume in rat brain in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xueding; Xie, Xueyi; Ku, Geng; Stoica, George; Wang, Lihong V.

    2005-04-01

    Based on the multi-wavelength laser-based photoacoustic tomography, non-invasive in vivo imaging of functional parameters, including the hemoglobin oxygen saturation and the total concentration of hemoglobin, in small-animal brains was realized. The high sensitivity of this technique is based on the spectroscopic differences between oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin while its spatial resolution is bandwidth-limited by the photoacoustic signals rather than by the optical diffusion as in optical imaging. The point-by-point distributions of blood oxygenation and blood volume in the cerebral cortical venous vessels, altered by systemic physiological modulations including hyperoxia, normoxia and hypoxia, were visualized successfully through the intact skin and skull. This technique, with its prominent intrinsic advantages, can potentially accelerate the progress in neuroscience and provide important new insights into cerebrovascular physiology and brain function that are of great significance to the neuroscience community.

  16. In Vivo Readout of CFTR Function: Ratiometric Measurement of CFTR-Dependent Secretion by Individual, Identifiable Human Sweat Glands

    PubMed Central

    Wine, Jeffrey J.; Char, Jessica E.; Chen, Jonathan; Cho, Hyung-ju; Dunn, Colleen; Frisbee, Eric; Joo, Nam Soo; Milla, Carlos; Modlin, Sara E.; Park, Il-Ho; Thomas, Ewart A. C.; Tran, Kim V.; Verma, Rohan; Wolfe, Marlene H.

    2013-01-01

    To assess CFTR function in vivo, we developed a bioassay that monitors and compares CFTR-dependent and CFTR-independent sweat secretion in parallel for multiple (∼50) individual, identified glands in each subject. Sweating was stimulated by intradermally injected agonists and quantified by optically measuring spherical sweat bubbles in an oil-layer that contained dispersed, water soluble dye particles that partitioned into the sweat bubbles, making them highly visible. CFTR-independent secretion (M-sweat) was stimulated with methacholine, which binds to muscarinic receptors and elevates cytosolic calcium. CFTR-dependent secretion (C-sweat) was stimulated with a β-adrenergic cocktail that elevates cytosolic cAMP while blocking muscarinic receptors. A C-sweat/M-sweat ratio was determined on a gland-by-gland basis to compensate for differences unrelated to CFTR function, such as gland size. The average ratio provides an approximately linear readout of CFTR function: the heterozygote ratio is ∼0.5 the control ratio and for CF subjects the ratio is zero. During assay development, we measured C/M ratios in 6 healthy controls, 4 CF heterozygotes, 18 CF subjects and 4 subjects with ‘CFTR-related’ conditions. The assay discriminated all groups clearly. It also revealed consistent differences in the C/M ratio among subjects within groups. We hypothesize that these differences reflect, at least in part, levels of CFTR expression, which are known to vary widely. When C-sweat rates become very low the C/M ratio also tended to decrease; we hypothesize that this nonlinearity reflects ductal fluid absorption. We also discovered that M-sweating potentiates the subsequent C-sweat response. We then used potentiation as a surrogate for drugs that can increase CFTR-dependent secretion. This bioassay provides an additional method for assessing CFTR function in vivo, and is well suited for within-subject tests of systemic, CFTR-directed therapeutics. PMID:24204751

  17. Lipopolysaccharide enhances FcγR-dependent functions in vivo through CD11b/CD18 up-regulation

    PubMed Central

    Rubel, C; Miliani De Marval, P; Vermeulen, M; Isturiz, M A; Palermo, M S

    1999-01-01

    Fc receptors for immunoglobulin G (IgG) (FcγR) mediate several defence mechanisms in the course of inflammatory and infectious diseases. In Gram-negative infections, cellular wall lipopolysaccharides (LPS) modulate different immune responses. We have recently demonstrated that murine LPS in vivo treatment significantly increases FcγR-dependent clearance of immune complexes (IC). In addition, we and others have reported the induction of adhesion molecules on macrophages and neutrophils by LPS in vivo and by tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in vitro. The aim of this paper was to investigate CD11b/CD18 participation in LPS enhancing effects on Fcγ-dependent functionality of tissue macrophages. Our results have demonstrated that LPS can enhance antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and IC-triggered cytotoxicity (IC-Ctx), two reactions which involve the Fcγ-receptor but different lytic mechanisms. In vitro incubation of splenocytes from LPS-treated mice with anti-CD11b/CD18 abrogated ADCC and IC-Ctx enhancement, without affecting FcγR expression. Similar results were obtained with physiological concentrations of fibrinogen. In this way cytotoxic values of LPS-splenocytes decreased to the basal levels of control mice. Time and temperature requirements for such inhibition strongly suggested that anti-CD11b/CD18 could modulate intracellular signals leading to downregulation of FcγR functionality. Data presented herein support the hypothesis that functional and/or physical associations between integrins and FcγR could be critical for the modulation of effector functions during an inflammatory response. PMID:10447764

  18. Multi-functional graphene as an in vitro and in vivo imaging probe.

    PubMed

    Gollavelli, Ganesh; Ling, Yong-Chien

    2012-03-01

    A strategy has been developed for the synthesis of multi-functional graphene (MFG) using green synthetic approach and explored its biomedical application as a promising fluorescent marker for in vitro and in vivo imaging. In-situ microwave-assisted reduction and magnetization process was adopted to convert the graphene oxide into magnetic graphene within 1 min, which was further covalently modified to build a polyacrylic acid (PAA) bridge for linking the fluorescein o-methacrylate (FMA) to yield MFG with water-dispersibility (∼2.5 g/l) and fluorescence property (emission maximum at 526 nm). The PAA bridges also functions to prevent graphene-induced fluorescence quenching of conjugated FMA. The extent of reduction, magnetization, and functionalization was confirmed with TEM, AFM, Raman, XPS, FT-IR, TGA, and SQUID measurements. In vitro cytotoxicity study of HeLa cells reveal that MFG could stand as a biocompatible imaging probe with an IC(50) value of ∼100 μg/ml; whereas in vivo zebrafish study does not induce any significant abnormalities nor affects the survival rate after microinjection of MFG. Confocal laser scanning microscopy images reveals that MFG locates only in the cytoplasm region and exhibits excellent co-localization and biodistribution from the head to tail in the zebrafish. Our results demonstrate the applicability of graphene based fluorescence marker for intracellular imaging and, more significantly, as well as whole-animal imaging. Hence, MFG could preferentially serve as a dual functional probe in biomedical diagnostics. PMID:22206596

  19. Immunization of male rabbits with sheep luteal receptor to LH results in production of antibodies exhibiting hormone-agonistic and -antagonistic activities.

    PubMed

    Jeyakumar, M; Moudgal, N R

    1996-09-01

    Antibodies to LH/chorionic gonadotrophin receptor (LH/CG-R; molecular weight 67 000), isolated in a homogenous state (established by SDS-PAGE and ligand blotting) from sheep luteal membrane using human CG (hCG)-Sepharose affinity chromatography, were raised in three adult male rabbits (R-I, R-II and R-III). Each of the rabbits received 20-30 micrograms of the purified receptor in Freund's complete adjuvant at a time. Primary immunization was followed by booster injection at intervals. Production of receptor antibodies was monitored by (1) determining the dilution of the serum (IgG fraction) that could specifically bind 50% of 125I-LH/CG-R added and (2) analysing sera for any change in testosterone levels. Following primary immunization and the first booster, all three rabbits exhibited a 2.5- to 6.0-fold increase in serum testosterone over basal levels and this effect was spread over a period of time (approximately 40 days) coinciding with the rise and fall of receptor antibodies. The maximal antibody titre (ED50) produced at this time ranged from 1:350 to 1:100 to below detectable limits for R-I, R-II and R-III respectively. Subsequent immunizations followed by the second booster resulted in a substantial increase in antibody titre (ED50 of 1:5000) in R-I, but this was not accompanied by any change in serum testosterone over preimmune levels, suggesting that with the progress of immunization the character of the antibody produced had also changed. Two pools of antisera from R-I collected 10 days following the booster (at day 70 (bleed I) and day 290 (bleed II)) were used in further experiments. IgG isolated from bleed I but not from bleed II antiserum showed a dose-dependent stimulation of testosterone production by mouse Leydig cells in vitro, thus confirming the in vivo hormone-mimicking activity of antibodies generated during the early immunization phase. The IgG fractions from both bleeds were, however, capable of inhibiting (1) 125I-hCG binding to crude sheep luteal membrane (EC50 of 1:70 and 1:350 for bleed I and II antisera respectively) and (2) ovine LH-stimulated testosterone production by mouse Leydig cells in vitro, indicating the presence of antagonistic antibodies irrespective of the period of time during which the rabbits were immunized. The fact that bleed I-stimulated testosterone production could be inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by the addition of IgG from bleed II to the mouse Leydig cell in vitro assay system showed that the agonistic activity is intrinsic to the bleed I antibody. The receptor antibody (bleed II) was also capable of blocking LH action in vivo, as rabbits passively (for 24 h with LH/CG-R antiserum) as well as actively (for 430 days) immunized against LH/CG-R failed to respond to a bolus injection of LH (50 micrograms). At no time, however, was the serum testosterone reduced below the basal level. This study clearly shows that, unlike with LH antibody, attempts to achieve an LH deficiency effect in vivo by resorting to immunization with holo LH receptor is difficult, as receptor antibodies exhibit both hormone-mimicking (agonistic) as well as hormone-blocking (antagonistic) activities. PMID:8882162

  20. Negatively stained punctated cell contacts between luteal cells in rabbit and rat.

    PubMed

    Quatacker, J; Heyneman, R

    1981-08-01

    Cell contacts from rat and rabbit luteal cells have been spread on phosphotungstic acid solution after tissue fractionation or spreading was accomplished by a direct technique avoiding homogenization. Sectioned material was also examined. It was shown by negative staining that the cell contacts were composed of a multitude of bridges. These bridges were either filamentous (condensed form) or clearly showed a larger (expanded form) central particle. The corresponding image in top view showed respectively small and larger granules without any particular arrangement. Large granular structures were also seen on single plasma membranes. Evidence is presented that the condensed and the expanded form are two aspects of the same junctional structure. It is also suggested that both aspects are related to the tightness of the contact. Up to now this type of cell contract has been called "septate-like". However because of the dotted appearance of these contacts after colloidal lanthanum and after negative staining the denomination "punctated cell contact" may be better adapted. PMID:7285959

  1. Cocoa flavanols and platelet and leukocyte function: recent in vitro and ex vivo studies in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Heptinstall, Stan; May, Jane; Fox, Sue; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Zhao, Lian

    2006-01-01

    There is growing interest in possible beneficial effects of specific dietary components on cardiovascular health. Platelets and leukocytes contribute to arterial thrombosis and to inflammatory processes. Previous studies performed in vitro have demonstrated inhibition of platelet function by (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin, flavan-3-ols (flavanols) that are present in several foods including some cocoas. Also, some modest inhibition of platelet function has been observed ex vivo after the consumption of flavanol-containing cocoa products by healthy adults. So far there are no reports of effects of cocoa flavanols on leukocytes. This paper summarizes 2 recent investigations. The first was a study of the effects of cocoa flavanols on platelet and leukocyte function in vitro. The second was a study of the effects of consumption of a flavanol-rich cocoa beverage by healthy adults on platelet and leukocyte function ex vivo. Measurements were made of platelet aggregation, platelet-monocyte conjugate formation (P/M), platelet-neutrophil conjugate formation (P/N), platelet activation (CD62P on monocytes and neutrophils), and leukocyte activation (CD11b on monocytes and neutrophils) in response to collagen and/or arachidonic acid. In the in vitro study several cocoa flavanols and their metabolites were shown to inhibit platelet aggregation, P/M, P/N, and platelet activation. Their effects were similar to those of aspirin and the effects of a cocoa flavanol and aspirin did not seem to be additive. There was also inhibition of monocyte and neutrophil activation by flavanols, but this was not replicated by aspirin. 4'-O-methyl-epicatechin, 1 of the known metabolites of the cocoa flavanol (-)-epicatechin, was consistently effective as an inhibitor of platelet and leukocyte activation. The consumption of a flavanol-rich cocoa beverage also resulted in significant inhibition of platelet aggregation, P/M and P/N, and platelet activation induced by collagen. The inhibitory effects were related to their flavanol content. There was also inhibition of monocyte and neutrophil activation, but here it was concluded that cocoa constituents other than flavanols may contribute to the inhibition that was observed. It can be concluded that cocoa flavanols, their metabolites and possibly other cocoa constituents can modulate the activity of platelets and leukocytes in vitro and ex vivo. The research suggests that the consumption of certain cocoa products may provide a dietary approach to maintaining or improving cardiovascular health. PMID:16794458

  2. Antisense peptide nucleic acid-functionalized cationic nanocomplex for in vivo mRNA detection

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yuefei; Shrestha, Ritu; Ibricevic, Aida; Gunsten, Sean P.; Welch, Michael J.; Wooley, Karen L.; Brody, Steven L.; Taylor, John-Stephen A.; Liu, Yongjian

    2013-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a complex syndrome with many aetiologies, resulting in the upregulation of inflammatory mediators in the host, followed by dyspnoea, hypoxemia and pulmonary oedema. A central mediator is inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) that drives the production of NO and continued inflammation. Thus, it is useful to have diagnostic and therapeutic agents for targeting iNOS expression. One general approach is to target the precursor iNOS mRNA with antisense nucleic acids. Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) have many advantages that make them an ideal platform for development of antisense theranostic agents. Their membrane impermeability, however, limits biological applications. Here, we report the preparation of an iNOS imaging probe through electrostatic complexation between a radiolabelled antisense PNA-YR9 · oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) hybrid and a cationic shell-cross-linked knedel-like nanoparticle (cSCK). The Y (tyrosine) residue was used for 123I radiolabelling, whereas the R9 (arginine9) peptide was included to facilitate cell exit of untargeted PNA. Complete binding of the antisense PNA-YR9 · ODN hybrid to the cSCK was achieved at an 8 : 1 cSCK amine to ODN phosphate (N/P) ratio by a gel retardation assay. The antisense PNA-YR9 · ODN · cSCK nanocomplexes efficiently entered RAW264.7 cells, whereas the PNA-YR9 · ODN alone was not taken up. Low concentrations of 123I-labelled antisense PNA-YR9 · ODN complexed with cSCK showed significantly higher retention of radioactivity when iNOS was induced in lipopolysaccharide+interferon-γ-activated RAW264.7 cells when compared with a mismatched PNA. Moreover, statistically, greater retention of radioactivity from the antisense complex was also observed in vivo in an iNOS-induced mouse lung after intratracheal administration of the nanocomplexes. This study demonstrates the specificity and sensitivity by which the radiolabelled nanocomplexes can detect iNOS mRNA in vitro and in vivo and their potential for early diagnosis of ALI. PMID:24427537

  3. Antisense peptide nucleic acid-functionalized cationic nanocomplex for in vivo mRNA detection.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yuefei; Shrestha, Ritu; Ibricevic, Aida; Gunsten, Sean P; Welch, Michael J; Wooley, Karen L; Brody, Steven L; Taylor, John-Stephen A; Liu, Yongjian

    2013-06-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a complex syndrome with many aetiologies, resulting in the upregulation of inflammatory mediators in the host, followed by dyspnoea, hypoxemia and pulmonary oedema. A central mediator is inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) that drives the production of NO and continued inflammation. Thus, it is useful to have diagnostic and therapeutic agents for targeting iNOS expression. One general approach is to target the precursor iNOS mRNA with antisense nucleic acids. Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) have many advantages that make them an ideal platform for development of antisense theranostic agents. Their membrane impermeability, however, limits biological applications. Here, we report the preparation of an iNOS imaging probe through electrostatic complexation between a radiolabelled antisense PNA-YR9 · oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) hybrid and a cationic shell-cross-linked knedel-like nanoparticle (cSCK). The Y (tyrosine) residue was used for (123)I radiolabelling, whereas the R9 (arginine9) peptide was included to facilitate cell exit of untargeted PNA. Complete binding of the antisense PNA-YR9 · ODN hybrid to the cSCK was achieved at an 8 : 1 cSCK amine to ODN phosphate (N/P) ratio by a gel retardation assay. The antisense PNA-YR9 · ODN · cSCK nanocomplexes efficiently entered RAW264.7 cells, whereas the PNA-YR9 · ODN alone was not taken up. Low concentrations of (123)I-labelled antisense PNA-YR9 · ODN complexed with cSCK showed significantly higher retention of radioactivity when iNOS was induced in lipopolysaccharide+interferon-γ-activated RAW264.7 cells when compared with a mismatched PNA. Moreover, statistically, greater retention of radioactivity from the antisense complex was also observed in vivo in an iNOS-induced mouse lung after intratracheal administration of the nanocomplexes. This study demonstrates the specificity and sensitivity by which the radiolabelled nanocomplexes can detect iNOS mRNA in vitro and in vivo and their potential for early diagnosis of ALI. PMID:24427537

  4. Hexarelin Protects Rodent Pancreatic ?-Cells Function from Cytotoxic Effects of Streptozotocin Involving Mitochondrial Signalling Pathways In Vivo and In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Xinli; Chen, Jiezhong; Lin, Chao; Shao, Renfu; Yan, Chunxia; Chen, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial functions are crucial for pancreatic ?-cell survival and glucose-induced insulin secretion. Hexarelin (Hex) is a synthetic small peptide ghrelin analogue, which has been shown to protect cardiomyocytes from the ischemia-reperfusion process. In this study, we used in vitro and in vivo models of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced ?-cell damage to study the protective effect of Hex and the associated mechanisms. We found that STZ produced a cytotoxic effect in a dose- and time-dependent manner in MIN6 cells (a mouse ?-cell line). Hex (1.0 ?M) decreased the STZ-induced damage in ?-cells. Rhodamine 123 assay and superoxide DHE production assay revealed that Hex ameliorated STZ-induced mitochondrial damage and excessive superoxide activity in ?-cells. In addition, Hex significantly reduced STZ-induced expression of cleaved Caspases-3, Caspases-9 and the ratio of pro-apoptotic protein Bax to anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in MIN6 cells. We further examined the in vivo effect of Hex in a rat model of type 1 diabetes induced by STZ injection. Hex ameliorated STZ-induced decrease in plasma insulin and protected the structure of islets from STZ-induced disruption. Hex also ameliorated STZ-induced expression of cleaved Caspase-9 and the Bax in ?-cells. In conclusion, our data indicate that Hex is able to protects ?-cell mass from STZ-caused cytotoxic effects involving mitochondrial pathways in vitro and in vivo. Hex may serve as a potential protective agent for the management of diabetes. PMID:26918825

  5. Development of an In Vivo RNAi Protocol to Investigate Gene Function in the Filarial Nematode, Brugia malayi

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chuanzhe; Gallup, Jack M.; Day, Tim A.

    2010-01-01

    Our ability to control diseases caused by parasitic nematodes is constrained by a limited portfolio of effective drugs and a paucity of robust tools to investigate parasitic nematode biology. RNA interference (RNAi) is a reverse-genetics tool with great potential to identify novel drug targets and interrogate parasite gene function, but present RNAi protocols for parasitic nematodes, which remove the parasite from the host and execute RNAi in vitro, are unreliable and inconsistent. We have established an alternative in vivo RNAi protocol targeting the filarial nematode Brugia malayi as it develops in an intermediate host, the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Injection of worm-derived short interfering RNA (siRNA) and double stranded RNA (dsRNA) into parasitized mosquitoes elicits suppression of B. malayi target gene transcript abundance in a concentration-dependent fashion. The suppression of this gene, a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease (Bm-cpl-1) is specific and profound, both injection of siRNA and dsRNA reduce transcript abundance by 83%. In vivo Bm-cpl-1 suppression results in multiple aberrant phenotypes; worm motility is inhibited by up to 69% and parasites exhibit slow-moving, kinked and partial-paralysis postures. Bm-cpl-1 suppression also retards worm growth by 48%. Bm-cpl-1 suppression ultimately prevents parasite development within the mosquito and effectively abolishes transmission potential because parasites do not migrate to the head and proboscis. Finally, Bm-cpl-1 suppression decreases parasite burden and increases mosquito survival. This is the first demonstration of in vivo RNAi in animal parasitic nematodes and results indicate this protocol is more effective than existing in vitro RNAi methods. The potential of this new protocol to investigate parasitic nematode biology and to identify and validate novel anthelmintic drug targets is discussed. PMID:21203489

  6. Functional interaction between p53, the TATA-binding protein (TBP), andTBP-associated factors in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, G; Colgan, J; Nakatani, Y; Manley, J L; Prives, C

    1996-01-01

    The transcriptional activator p53 is known to interact with components of the general transcription factor TFIID in vitro. To examine the relevance of these associations to transcriptional activation in vivo, plasmids expressing a p53-GAL4 chimera and Drosophila TATA-binding protein (dTBP) were transfected into Drosophila Schneider cells. p53-GAL4 and dTBP displayed a markedly synergistic effect on activated transcription from a GAL4 site-containing reporter that was at least 10-fold greater than observed with other activators tested. A mutant p53 previously shown to be defective in both transcriptional activation in vivo and in binding to TBP-associated factors (TAFs) in vitro, although still capable of binding dTBP, did not cooperate with dTBP, suggesting that TAFs may contribute to this synergy. Providing further support for this possibility, transfected dTBP assembled into rapidly sedimenting complexes and could be immunoprecipitated with anti-TAF antibodies. While overexpression of any of several TAFs did not affect basal transcription, in either the presence or the absence of cotransfected dTBP, overexpression of TAFII230 inhibited transcriptional activation mediated by p53-GAL4 as well as by GAL4-VP16 and Sp1. Overexpression of TAFII40 and TAFII60 also inhibited activation by p53-GAL4 but had negligible effects on activation by GAL4-VP16 and Sp1, while TAFII110 did not affect any of the activators. TAF-mediated inhibition of activated transcription could be rescued by high levels of exogenous dTBP, which also restored full synergy. These data demonstrate for the first time that functional interactions can occur in vivo between TBP, TAFs, and p53. PMID:8754830

  7. Luteal expression of cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase genes in late pregnant rats: effect of luteinizing hormone and RU486.

    PubMed

    Stocco, C O; Chedrese, J; Deis, R P

    2001-10-01

    A decrease in serum progesterone at the end of pregnancy is essential for the induction of parturition in rats. We have previously demonstrated that LH participates in this process through: 1) inhibiting 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) activity and 2) stimulating progesterone catabolism by inducing 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20alpha-HSD) activity. The objective of this investigation was to determine the effect of LH and progesterone on the luteal expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450(scc)), 3beta-HSD, and 20alpha-HSD genes. Gene expression was analyzed by Northern blot analysis 24 and 48 h after administration of LH or vehicle on Day 19 of pregnancy. StAR and 3beta-HSD mRNA levels were lower in LH-treated rats than in rats administered with vehicle at both time points studied. P450(scc) mRNA levels were unaffected by LH. The 20alpha-HSD mRNA levels were not different between LH and control rats 24 h after treatment; however, greater expression of 20alpha-HSD, with respect to controls, was observed in LH-treated rats 48 h after treatment. Luteal progesterone content dropped in LH-treated rats at both time points studied, whereas serum progesterone decreased after 48 h only. In a second set of experiments, the anti-progesterone RU486 was injected intrabursally on Day 20 of pregnancy. RU486 had no effect on 3beta-HSD or P450(scc) expression but increased 20alpha-HSD mRNA levels after 8 h treatment. In conclusion, the luteolytic effect of LH is mediated by a drop in StAR and 3beta-HSD expression without effect on P450(scc) expression. We also provide the first in vivo evidence indicating that a decrease in luteal progesterone content may be an essential step toward the induction of 20alpha-HSD expression at the end of pregnancy in rats. PMID:11566732

  8. Ex vivo generation of functional immune cells by mitochondria-targeted photosensitization of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Marrache, Sean; Tundup, Smanla; Harn, Donald A; Dhar, Shanta

    2015-01-01

    Stimulating the immune system for potent immune therapy against cancer is potentially a revolutionary method to eradicate cancer. Tumors stimulated with photosensitizers (PSs) not only kill cancer cells but also help to boost the immune system. We recently reported that tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) generated by delivery of a mitochondria-acting PS zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) to MCF-7 breast cancer cells followed by laser irradiation can lead to ex vivo stimulation of mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). The antigens generated from the breast cancer cells were also found to cause significant DC maturation and the activated DCs were able to stimulate T cells to cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells. In this protocol, we describe methods to engineer a mitochondria-targeted biodegradable nanoparticle (NP) formulation, T-ZnPc-NPs for delivery of ZnPc to the mitochondria of MCF-7 cells, subsequent photodynamic therapy (PDT) using a long wavelength laser irradiation to produce TAAs, DC stimulation by the TAAs to secrete interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and matured DC-driven T-cell activation. PMID:25634271

  9. The functional basis of c-myc and bcl-2 complementation during multistep lymphomagenesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Marin, M C; Hsu, B; Stephens, L C; Brisbay, S; McDonnell, T J

    1995-04-01

    Oncogenes are known to be deregulated by chromosomal translocations occurring at high frequency in specific malignancies. Among the most well characterized of these are c-myc, associated with the t(8;14) in Burkitt's lymphomas, and bcl-2, associated with the t(14;18) in follicular lymphomas. In addition to their role in regulating rates of proliferation, it is known that oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes can also regulate rates of apoptotic cell death. The contribution of c-myc and bcl-2 to the regulation of cell death during lymphomagenesis in vivo is assessed using bcl-2-Ig and emu-myc trangenic mice and bcl-2/myc hybrid transgenic mice. Translocations between the endogenous c-myc gene and immunoglobulin loci, e.g., t(12;15), are common in lymphomas arising in the bcl-2-Ig mice. Furthermore, bcl-2/c-myc double transgenic mice exhibit accelerated lymphomagenesis, indicating cooperation between these two oncogenes. Genetic complementation of c-myc and bcl-2 during lymphomagenesis resulted from the suppression of c-myc-associated apoptosis. Other genes are likely involved in regulating cell death during multistep lymphomagenesis. PMID:7698223

  10. Optical properties of neonatal skin measured in vivo as a function of age and skin pigmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosschaart, Nienke; Mentink, Rosaline; Kok, Joke H.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2011-09-01

    Knowledge of the optical properties of neonatal skin is invaluable when developing new, or improving existing optical techniques for use at the neonatal intensive care. In this article, we present in vivo measurements of the absorption μa and reduced scattering coefficient μs' of neonatal skin between 450 and 600 nm and assess the influence of age and skin pigmentation on the optical properties. The optical properties were measured using a spatially resolved, steady state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy setup, combined with a modified spatially resolved diffusion model. The method was validated on phantoms with known values for the absorption and reduced scattering coefficient. Values of μa and μs' were obtained from the skin at four different body locations (forehead, sternum, hand, and foot) of 60 neonates with varying gestational age, postnatal age, and skin pigmentation. We found that μa ranged from 0.02 to 1.25 mm-1 and μs' was in the range of 1 to 2.8 mm-1 (5th to 95th percentile of the patient population), independent of body location. In contrast to previous studies, no to very weak correlation was observed between the optical properties and gestational maturity, but a strong dependency of the absorption coefficient on postnatal age was found for dark skinned patients.

  11. Identification of the in Vivo Function of the High-Efficiency d-Mannonate Dehydratase in Caulobacter crescentus NA1000 from the Enolase Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The d-mannonate dehydratase (ManD) subgroup of the enolase superfamily contains members with varying catalytic activities (high-efficiency, low-efficiency, or no activity) that dehydrate d-mannonate and/or d-gluconate to 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate [Wichelecki, D. J., et al. (2014) Biochemistry53, 2722–2731]. Despite extensive in vitro characterization, the in vivo physiological role of a ManD has yet to be established. In this study, we report the in vivo functional characterization of a high-efficiency ManD from Caulobacter crescentus NA1000 (UniProt entry B8GZZ7) by in vivo discovery of its essential role in d-glucuronate metabolism. This in vivo functional annotation may be extended to ∼50 additional proteins. PMID:24947666

  12. Identification of the in vivo function of the high-efficiency D-mannonate dehydratase in Caulobacter crescentus NA1000 from the enolase superfamily.

    PubMed

    Wichelecki, Daniel J; Graff, Dylan C; Al-Obaidi, Nawar; Almo, Steven C; Gerlt, John A

    2014-07-01

    The d-mannonate dehydratase (ManD) subgroup of the enolase superfamily contains members with varying catalytic activities (high-efficiency, low-efficiency, or no activity) that dehydrate d-mannonate and/or d-gluconate to 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate [Wichelecki, D. J., et al. (2014) Biochemistry 53, 2722-2731]. Despite extensive in vitro characterization, the in vivo physiological role of a ManD has yet to be established. In this study, we report the in vivo functional characterization of a high-efficiency ManD from Caulobacter crescentus NA1000 (UniProt entry B8GZZ7) by in vivo discovery of its essential role in d-glucuronate metabolism. This in vivo functional annotation may be extended to ~50 additional proteins. PMID:24947666

  13. Pharmacokinetic and toxicological evaluation of multi-functional thiol-6-fluoro-6-deoxy-d-glucose gold nanoparticles in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roa, Wilson; Xiong, Yeping; Chen, Jie; Yang, Xiaoyan; Song, Kun; Yang, Xiaohong; Kong, Beihua; Wilson, John; Xing, James Z.

    2012-09-01

    We synthesized a novel, multi-functional, radiosensitizing agent by covalently linking 6-fluoro-6-deoxy-d-glucose (6-FDG) to gold nanoparticles (6-FDG-GNPs) via a thiol functional group. We then assessed the bio-distribution and pharmacokinetic properties of 6-FDG-GNPs in vivo using a murine model. At 2 h, following intravenous injection of 6-FDG-GNPs into the murine model, approximately 30% of the 6-FDG-GNPs were distributed to three major organs: the liver, the spleen and the kidney. PEGylation of the 6-FDG-GNPs was found to significantly improve the bio-distribution of 6-FDG-GNPs by avoiding unintentional uptake into these organs, while simultaneously doubling the cellular uptake of GNPs in implanted breast MCF-7 adenocarcinoma. When combined with radiation, PEG-6-FDG-GNPs were found to increase the apoptosis of the MCF-7 breast adenocarinoma cells by radiation both in vitro and in vivo. Pharmacokinetic data indicate that GNPs reach their maximal concentrations at a time window of two to four hours post-injection, during which optimal radiation efficiency can be achieved. PEG-6-FDG-GNPs are thus novel nanoparticles that preferentially accumulate in targeted cancer cells where they act as potent radiosensitizing agents. Future research will aim to substitute the 18F atom into the 6-FDG molecule so that the PEG-6-FDG-GNPs can also function as radiotracers for use in positron emission tomography scanning to aid cancer diagnosis and image guided radiation therapy planning.

  14. Relationships between insulin-like growth factor-I, milk yield, body condition score, and postpartum luteal activity in high-producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Tamadon, Amin; Kafi, Mojtaba; Saeb, Mehdi; Mirzaei, Abdolah; Saeb, Saedeh

    2011-01-01

    The relations between body condition score (BCS), milk yield, serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) profile, and luteal activity were investigated in postpartum dairy cows. Seventy-one healthy high-producing multiparous Holstein cows were subjected to transrectal ultrasound scanning twice weekly from the first to the eighth week postpartum. Blood samples were collected twice weekly to measure serum progesterone (P4) and every 2 weeks to detect serum IGF-I concentrations. BCS was monitored weekly after calving. Cows with serum P4 concentrations ≥1 ng/ml on at least two consecutive samplings were considered to have commenced luteal activity. Commencement of luteal activity (C-LA) was observed earlier than 45 days postpartum in 71.8% of cows while 28.2% showed C-LA later than 45 days. Prolonged luteal phase was the most common abnormal pattern of luteal activity observed. Cows with a C-LA earlier than 45 days postpartum had higher (P ≤ 0.05) mean serum concentrations of IGF-I than those with later C-LA. In addition, cows which showed C-LA earlier than 45 days postpartum had more optimal productive indices including shorter calving to conception interval and calving to first service interval (P ≤ 0.05), and fewer services per conception (P = 0.07). C-LA was significantly later in cows that lost more than 0.5 BCS units within 3 weeks postpartum than in those that lost less than 0.5 units BCS during the same interval (P = 0.02). We conclude that high-producing dairy cows with higher postpartum serum IGF-I concentrations have earlier commencement and normal luteal activity, and better reproductive performance. Severity and duration of BCS loss adversely affect commencement of luteal activity. PMID:20623186

  15. A preliminary study on the induction of dioestrous ovulation in the mare – a possible method for inducing prolonged luteal phase

    PubMed Central

    Hedberg, Ylva; Dalin, Anne-Marie; Santesson, Malin; Kindahl, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Background Strong oestrous symptoms in the mare can cause problems with racing, training and handling. Since long-acting progesterone treatment is not permitted in mares at competition (e.g. according to FEI rules), there is a need for methods to suppress unwanted cyclicity. Spontaneous dioestrous ovulations in the late luteal phase may cause a prolongation of the luteal phase in mares. Methods In this preliminary study, in an attempt to induce ovulation during the luteal phase, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (3000 IU) was injected intramuscularly in four mares (experimental group) in the luteal phase when a dioestrous follicle ≥ 30 mm was detected. A fifth mare included in this group was not treated due to no detectable dioestrous follicles ≥ 30 mm. Four control mares were similarly injected with saline. The mares were followed with ultrasound for 72 hours post injection or until ovulation. Blood samples for progesterone analysis were obtained twice weekly for one month and thereafter once weekly for another two to four months. Results Three of the hCG-treated mares ovulated within 72 hours after treatment and developed prolonged luteal phases of 58, 68 and 82 days respectively. One treated mare never ovulated after the hCG injection and progesterone levels fell below 3 nmol/l nine days post treatment. Progesterone levels in the control mares were below 3 nmol/l within nine days after saline injection, except for one mare, which developed a spontaneously prolonged luteal phase of 72 days. Conclusion HCG treatment may be a method to induce prolonged luteal phases in the mare provided there is a dioestrous follicle ≥ 30 mm that ovulates post-treatment. However, the method needs to be tested on a larger number of mares to be able to draw conclusions regarding its effectiveness. PMID:16987391

  16. Cathelicidins Have Direct Antiviral Activity against Respiratory Syncytial Virus In Vitro and Protective Function In Vivo in Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Silke M.; Gwyer Findlay, Emily; McFarlane, Amanda J.; Fitch, Paul M.; Böttcher, Bettina; Colegrave, Nick; Paras, Allan; Jozwik, Agnieszka; Chiu, Christopher; Schwarze, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of respiratory tract infection in infants, causing significant morbidity and mortality. No vaccine or specific, effective treatment is currently available. A more complete understanding of the key components of effective host response to RSV and novel preventative and therapeutic interventions are urgently required. Cathelicidins are host defense peptides, expressed in the inflamed lung, with key microbicidal and modulatory roles in innate host defense against infection. In this article, we demonstrate that the human cathelicidin LL-37 mediates an antiviral effect on RSV by inducing direct damage to the viral envelope, disrupting viral particles and decreasing virus binding to, and infection of, human epithelial cells in vitro. In addition, exogenously applied LL-37 is protective against RSV-mediated disease in vivo, in a murine model of pulmonary RSV infection, demonstrating maximal efficacy when applied concomitantly with virus. Furthermore, endogenous murine cathelicidin, induced by infection, has a fundamental role in protection against disease in vivo postinfection with RSV. Finally, higher nasal levels of LL-37 are associated with protection in a healthy human adult RSV infection model. These data lead us to propose that cathelicidins are a key, nonredundant component of host defense against pulmonary infection with RSV, functioning as a first point of contact antiviral shield and having additional later-phase roles in minimizing the severity of disease outcome. Consequently, cathelicidins represent an inducible target for preventative strategies against RSV infection and may inform the design of novel therapeutic analogs for use in established infection. PMID:26873992

  17. Extensive ex vivo expansion of functional human erythroid precursors established from umbilical cord blood cells by defined factors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaosong; Shah, Siddharth; Wang, Jing; Ye, Zhaohui; Dowey, Sarah N; Tsang, Kit Man; Mendelsohn, Laurel G; Kato, Gregory J; Kickler, Thomas S; Cheng, Linzhao

    2014-02-01

    There is a constant shortage of red blood cells (RBCs) from sufficiently matched donors for patients who need chronic transfusion. Ex vivo expansion and maturation of human erythroid precursors (erythroblasts) from the patients or optimally matched donors could represent a potential solution. Proliferating erythroblasts can be expanded from umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (CB MNCs) ex vivo for 10(6)-10(7)-fold (in ~50 days) before proliferation arrest and reaching sufficient number for broad application. Here, we report that ectopic expression of three genetic factors (Sox2, c-Myc, and an shRNA against TP53 gene) associated with iPSC derivation enables CB-derived erythroblasts to undergo extended expansion (~10(68)-fold in ~12 months) in a serum-free culture condition without change of cell identity or function. These expanding erythroblasts maintain immature erythroblast phenotypes and morphology, a normal diploid karyotype and dependence on a specific combination of growth factors for proliferation throughout expansion period. When being switched to a terminal differentiation condition, these immortalized erythroblasts gradually exit cell cycle, decrease cell size, accumulate hemoglobin, condense nuclei and eventually give rise to enucleated hemoglobin-containing erythrocytes that can bind and release oxygen. Our result may ultimately lead to an alternative approach to generate unlimited numbers of RBCs for personalized transfusion medicine. PMID:24002691

  18. Structure-function studies of STAR family Quaking proteins bound to their in vivo RNA target sites

    SciTech Connect

    Teplova, Marianna; Hafner, Markus; Teplov, Dmitri; Essig, Katharina; Tuschl, Thomas; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2013-09-27

    Mammalian Quaking (QKI) and its Caenorhabditis elegans homolog, GLD-1 (defective in germ line development), are evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding proteins, which post-transcriptionally regulate target genes essential for developmental processes and myelination. We present X-ray structures of the STAR (signal transduction and activation of RNA) domain, composed of Qua1, K homology (KH), and Qua2 motifs of QKI and GLD-1 bound to high-affinity in vivo RNA targets containing YUAAY RNA recognition elements (RREs). The KH and Qua2 motifs of the STAR domain synergize to specifically interact with bases and sugar-phosphate backbones of the bound RRE. Qua1-mediated homodimerization generates a scaffold that enables concurrent recognition of two RREs, thereby plausibly targeting tandem RREs present in many QKI-targeted transcripts. Structure-guided mutations reduced QKI RNA-binding affinity in vitro and in vivo, and expression of QKI mutants in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) significantly decreased the abundance of QKI target mRNAs. Overall, our studies define principles underlying RNA target selection by STAR homodimers and provide insights into the post-transcriptional regulatory function of mammalian QKI proteins.

  19. Cathelicidins Have Direct Antiviral Activity against Respiratory Syncytial Virus In Vitro and Protective Function In Vivo in Mice and Humans.

    PubMed

    Currie, Silke M; Gwyer Findlay, Emily; McFarlane, Amanda J; Fitch, Paul M; Böttcher, Bettina; Colegrave, Nick; Paras, Allan; Jozwik, Agnieszka; Chiu, Christopher; Schwarze, Jürgen; Davidson, Donald J

    2016-03-15

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of respiratory tract infection in infants, causing significant morbidity and mortality. No vaccine or specific, effective treatment is currently available. A more complete understanding of the key components of effective host response to RSV and novel preventative and therapeutic interventions are urgently required. Cathelicidins are host defense peptides, expressed in the inflamed lung, with key microbicidal and modulatory roles in innate host defense against infection. In this article, we demonstrate that the human cathelicidin LL-37 mediates an antiviral effect on RSV by inducing direct damage to the viral envelope, disrupting viral particles and decreasing virus binding to, and infection of, human epithelial cells in vitro. In addition, exogenously applied LL-37 is protective against RSV-mediated disease in vivo, in a murine model of pulmonary RSV infection, demonstrating maximal efficacy when applied concomitantly with virus. Furthermore, endogenous murine cathelicidin, induced by infection, has a fundamental role in protection against disease in vivo postinfection with RSV. Finally, higher nasal levels of LL-37 are associated with protection in a healthy human adult RSV infection model. These data lead us to propose that cathelicidins are a key, nonredundant component of host defense against pulmonary infection with RSV, functioning as a first point of contact antiviral shield and having additional later-phase roles in minimizing the severity of disease outcome. Consequently, cathelicidins represent an inducible target for preventative strategies against RSV infection and may inform the design of novel therapeutic analogs for use in established infection. PMID:26873992

  20. In vivo relationship between pelvis motion and deep fascia displacement of the medial gastrocnemius: anatomical and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Montecinos, Carlos; González Blanche, Alberto; López Sánchez, David; Cerda, Mauricio; Sanzana-Cuche, Rodolfo; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Different authors have modelled myofascial tissue connectivity over a distance using cadaveric models, but in vivo models are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between pelvic motion and deep fascia displacement in the medial gastrocnemius (MG). Deep fascia displacement of the MG was evaluated through automatic tracking with an ultrasound. Angular variation of the pelvis was determined by 2D kinematic analysis. The average maximum fascia displacement and pelvic motion were 1.501 ± 0.78 mm and 6.55 ± 2.47 °, respectively. The result of a simple linear regression between fascia displacement and pelvic motion for three task executions by 17 individuals was r = 0.791 (P < 0.001). Moreover, hamstring flexibility was related to a lower anterior tilt of the pelvis (r = 0.544, P < 0.024) and a lower deep fascia displacement of the MG (r = 0.449, P < 0.042). These results support the concept of myofascial tissue connectivity over a distance in an in vivo model, reinforce the functional concept of force transmission through synergistic muscle groups, and grant new perspectives for the role of fasciae in restricting movement in remote zones. PMID:26467242

  1. Extensive Ex Vivo Expansion of Functional Human Erythroid Precursors Established From Umbilical Cord Blood Cells by Defined Factors

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaosong; Shah, Siddharth; Wang, Jing; Ye, Zhaohui; Dowey, Sarah N; Tsang, Kit Man; Mendelsohn, Laurel G; Kato, Gregory J; Kickler, Thomas S; Cheng, Linzhao

    2014-01-01

    There is a constant shortage of red blood cells (RBCs) from sufficiently matched donors for patients who need chronic transfusion. Ex vivo expansion and maturation of human erythroid precursors (erythroblasts) from the patients or optimally matched donors could represent a potential solution. Proliferating erythroblasts can be expanded from umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (CB MNCs) ex vivo for 106107-fold (in ~50 days) before proliferation arrest and reaching sufficient number for broad application. Here, we report that ectopic expression of three genetic factors (Sox2, c-Myc, and an shRNA against TP53 gene) associated with iPSC derivation enables CB-derived erythroblasts to undergo extended expansion (~1068-fold in ~12 months) in a serum-free culture condition without change of cell identity or function. These expanding erythroblasts maintain immature erythroblast phenotypes and morphology, a normal diploid karyotype and dependence on a specific combination of growth factors for proliferation throughout expansion period. When being switched to a terminal differentiation condition, these immortalized erythroblasts gradually exit cell cycle, decrease cell size, accumulate hemoglobin, condense nuclei and eventually give rise to enucleated hemoglobin-containing erythrocytes that can bind and release oxygen. Our result may ultimately lead to an alternative approach to generate unlimited numbers of RBCs for personalized transfusion medicine. PMID:24002691

  2. [Suppressive effects of lanoconazole on arthus phenomenon in vivo and on production and functions of TNF in vitro].

    PubMed

    Mitsuya, M; Wada, K; Ishibashi, H; Tansho, S; Abe, S; Yamaguchi, H

    2000-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect of lanoconazole (LCZ) was investigated in vivo and in vitro. The effect of LCZ was evaluated on the inflammatory reactions elicited by intradermal injection of ovalbumin to ovalbumin-immunized rabbits, as an Arthus phenomenon. A one or two % cream preparation of LCZ was topically applied on the lesion daily after challenging injection until the inflamation had diminished. By macroscopic observation and measuring the diameter of edema, erythema, hemorrhage and necrosis, the effects of LCZ on the reactions were compared with the reactions of the sites administered withcream vehicle as reference agent. Two % LCZ showed an anti-hemorrhagic effect. The in vitro effect of LCZ on production and functions of an inflammatory cytokine, TNF was also examined. LCZ suppressed the production of TNF by murine peritoneal macrophages at 20 micro g/ml and the adhesion of neutrophils at 100 micro g/ml. Moreover, LCZ significantly suppressed the growth inhibitory activity of TNF against L929 fibroblasts at 0.5 micro g/ml. A very low concentration of LCZ might protect the fibroblasts from immunological cytotoxicity in vivo. These findings suggest that LCZ has a suppressive activity to inflammatory responses and this suppressive action may be due to its protective activity to cells like fibroblasts. PMID:10777820

  3. Interaction of bovine respiratory syncytial virus with bovine alveolar macrophages in vivo: effects of virus infection upon selected cell functions.

    PubMed Central

    Olchowy, T W; Ames, T R; Molitor, T W

    1994-01-01

    The effect of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) upon alveolar macrophage (AM) function was investigated using an in vivo calf inoculation model. Alveolar macrophages were collected sequentially from live calves at multiple time points during the 14 day period following viral inoculation. Alveolar macrophages from bronchoalveolar lavage fluids were purified by density gradient centrifugation (> 95% AM) prior to in vitro evaluation of cell functions. There were significant but variable and inconsistent differences in the functions of AM from the BRSV inoculated calves compared to the control calves. Fc-receptor mediated phagocytosis was either increased or unchanged by BRSV inoculation. Nonopsonized phagocytosis was decreased during the early postinoculation period and later increased. There was a variable effect on AM phagosome lysosome fusion with increased fusion activity on postinoculation days 2 through 5, 7 and 12 but reduced activity on days 6 and 10. The AM respiratory burst, as measured by nitroblue tetrazolium dye reduction, was essentially unaffected with a reduction in activity on day 10 only. In this model, BRSV inoculation of calves primarily resulted in an alteration of the membrane associated phagocytic functions of the alveolar macrophages (p < 0.05). PMID:8143252

  4. Structural dynamics of synapses in vivo correlate with functional changes during experience-dependent plasticity in visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Tropea, Daniela; Majewska, Ania K; Garcia, Rodrigo; Sur, Mriganka

    2010-08-18

    The impact of activity on neuronal circuitry is complex, involving both functional and structural changes whose interaction is largely unknown. We have used optical imaging of mouse visual cortex responses and two-photon imaging of superficial layer spines on layer 5 neurons to monitor network function and synaptic structural dynamics in the mouse visual cortex in vivo. Total lack of vision due to dark-rearing from birth dampens visual responses and shifts spine dynamics and morphologies toward an immature state. The effects of vision after dark rearing are strongly dependent on the timing of exposure: over a period of days, functional and structural changes are temporally related such that light stabilizes spines while increasing visually driven activity. The effects of long-term light exposure can be partially mimicked by experimentally enhancing inhibitory signaling in the darkness. Brief light exposure, however, results in a rapid, transient, NMDA-dependent increase of cortical responses, accompanied by increased dynamics of dendritic spines. These findings indicate that visual experience induces rapid reorganization of cortical circuitry followed by a period of stabilization, and demonstrate a close relationship between dynamic changes at single synapses and cortical network function. PMID:20720116

  5. Structural dynamics of synapses in vivo correlate with functional changes during experience-dependent plasticity in visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Tropea, Daniela; Majewska, Ania K; Garcia, Rodrigo; Sur, Mriganka

    2010-01-01

    The impact of activity on neuronal circuitry is complex, involving both functional and structural changes whose interaction is largely unknown. We have used optical imaging of mouse visual cortex responses and two-photon imaging of superficial layer spines on layer 5 neurons to monitor network function and synaptic structural dynamics in the mouse visual cortex in vivo. Total lack of vision due to dark-rearing from birth dampens visual responses and shifts spine dynamics and morphologies toward an immature state. The effects of vision after dark rearing are strongly dependent on the timing of exposure: over a period of days, functional and structural changes are temporally related such that light stabilizes spines while increasing visually-driven activity. The effects of long-term light exposure can be partially mimicked by experimentally enhancing inhibitory signaling in the darkness. Brief light exposure, however, results in a rapid, transient, NMDA-dependent increase of cortical responses, accompanied by increased dynamics of dendritic spines. These findings indicate that visual experience induces rapid reorganization of cortical circuitry followed by a period of stabilization, and demonstrate a close relationship between dynamic changes at single synapses and cortical network function. PMID:20720116

  6. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of a Novel Ferrocyanide Functionalized Nanopourous Silica Decorporation Agent for Cesium (Cs) in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Timchalk, Charles; Creim, Jeffrey A; Sukwarotwat, Vichaya; Wiacek, Robert; Addleman, R Shane; Fryxell, Glen E; Yantasee, Wassana

    2009-01-01

    Novel decorporation agents are being developed to protect against radiological terrorist attacks. These sorbents, known as the self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous supports (SAMMS™), are hybrid materials where differing organic moieties are grafted onto mesoporous silica (SiO2). In vitro experiments focused on the evaluation, and optimization of SAMMS for capturing radiocesium (137Cs); therefore based on these studies, a ferrocyanide copper (FC-Cu-EDA)-SAMMS was advanced for in vivo evaluation. In vivo experiments were conducted comparing the performance of the SAMMS vs. insoluble Prussian blue. Groups of jugular cannulated rats (4/treatment) were evaluated. Animals in group I were administered 137Cs chloride (~40 μg/kg) by intravenous (iv) injection or oral gavage; Group II animals were administered pre-bound 137Cs- SAMMS or sequential 137Cs chloride + SAMMS (~61 ng/kg) by oral gavage; and Group III was orally administered 137Cs chloride (~61 ng/kg) followed by either 0.1 g of SAMMS or Prussian blue. Following dosing, the rats were maintained in metabolism cages for 72 hour and blood, urine and fecal samples were collected for 137Cs analysis (gamma counting). Rats were then humanely euthanized, and selected tissues analyzed. Orally administered 137Cs chloride was rapidly and well absorbed (~100% relative to iv dose), and the pharmacokinetics (blood, urine, feces & tissues) were very comparable to the iv dose group. For both exposures the urine and feces accounted for 20 and 3% of the dose, respectively. The prebound 137Cs-SAMMS was retained primarily within the feces (72% of the dose), with ~1.4% detected in the urine, suggesting that the 137Cs remained tightly bound to SAMMS. SAMMS & Prussian blue both effectively captured available 137Cs in the gut with feces accounting for 80–88% of the administered dose, while less than 2% was detected in the urine. This study suggests that the functionalized SAMMS outperforms Prussian blue in vitro at low pH, but demonstrates comparable in vivo sequestration efficacy at low exposure concentrations. The comparable response may be the result of the low 137Cs chloride dose and high sorbent dosage that was utilized. Future studies are planned to optimize SAMMS in vivo performance over a broader range of doses and conditions. PMID:20699707

  7. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of a Novel Ferrocyanide Functionalized Nanopourous Silica Decorporation Agent for Cesium in Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Timchalk, Charles; Creim, Jeffrey A.; Sukwarotwat, Vichaya; Wiacek, Robert J.; Addleman, Raymond S.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Yantasee, Wassana

    2010-09-01

    Novel decorporation agents are being developed to protect against radiological terrorist attacks. These sorbents, known as the self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous supports (SAMMS™), are hybrid materials where differing organic moieties are grafted onto mesoporous silica (SiO2). In vitro experiments focused on the evaluation, and optimization of SAMMS for capturing radiocesium (137Cs); based on these studies, a ferrocyanide copper (FC-Cu-EDA)-SAMMS was advanced for in vivo evaluation. In vivo experiments were conducted comparing the performance of the SAMMS vs. insoluble Prussian blue. Groups of jugular cannulated rats (4/treatment) were evaluated. Group I was administered 137Cs (~40 μgeq/kg) by intravenous (iv) injection and oral gavage; Group II was administered pre-bound 137Cs-SAMMS and sequential 137Cs + SAMMS (~61 ngeq/kg) by oral gavage; and Group III evaluated orally administered 137Cs (~0.06 μgeq/kg) followed by 0.1 g of either SAMMS or Prussian blue. Following dosing the rats were maintained in metabolism cages for 72 hour and blood, urine and fecal samples were collected for 137Cs analysis (gamma counting). Rats were then humanely euthanized, and selected tissues analyzed. Orally administered 137Cs was rapidly and well absorbed (~100% relative to iv dose), and the pharmacokinetics (blood, urine, feces & tissues) were very comparable to the iv dose group. For both exposures the urine and feces accounted for 20 and 3% of the dose, respectively. The prebound 137Cs-SAMMS was retained primarily within the feces (72% of the dose), with ~1.4% detected in the urine, suggesting that the 137Cs remained tightly bound to SAMMS. SAMMS & Prussian blue both effectively captured available 137Cs in the gut with feces accounting for 80-88% of the administered dose, while less than 2% was detected in the urine. This study suggests that the functionalized SAMMS out performs Prussian blue in vitro at low pH, but demonstrates comparable in vivo sequestration efficacy at low exposure concentrations. The comparable response may be the result of the low 137Cs dose and high sorbent dosage that was utilized. Future studies are planned to optimize SAMMS in vivo performance over a broader range of doses and conditions.

  8. Functionalized carbon nanotube reinforced scaffolds for bone regenerative engineering: fabrication, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mikael, Paiyz E; Amini, Ami R; Basu, Joysurya; Josefina Arellano-Jimenez, M; Laurencin, Cato T; Sanders, Mary M; Barry Carter, C; Nukavarapu, Syam P

    2014-06-01

    Designing biodegradable scaffolds with bone-compatible mechanical properties has been a significant challenge in the field of bone tissue engineering and regenerative engineering. The objective of this work is to improve the polymeric scaffold's mechanical strength by compositing it with mechanically superior carbon nanotubes. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microsphere scaffolds exhibit mechanical properties in the range of human cancellous bone. On the other hand, carbon nanotubes have outstanding mechanical properties. The aim of this study is to improve further the mechanical strength of PLGA scaffolds such that they may be applicable for a wide range of load-bearing repair and regeneration applications. We have formed composite microspheres of PLGA containing pristine and modified (with hydroxyl (OH), carboxylic acid (COOH)) multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and fabricated them into three-dimensional porous scaffolds. Results show that by adding only 3% MWCNTs, the compressive strength and modulus was significantly increased (35 MPa, 510.99 MPa) compared to pure PLGA scaffolds (19 MPa and 166.38 MPa). Scanning electron microscopy images showed excellent cell adhesion and proliferation. In vitro studies exhibited good cell viability, proliferation and mineralization. The in vivo study, however, indicated differences in inflammatory response throughout the 12 weeks of implantation, with OH-modified MWCNTs having the least response, followed by unmodified and COOH-modified exhibiting a more pronounced response. Overall, our results show that PLGA scaffolds containing water-dispersible MWCNTs are mechanically stronger and display good cellular and tissue compatibility, and hence are potential candidates for load-bearing bone tissue engineering. PMID:24687391

  9. In vivo stem cell function of interleukin-3-induced blast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tsunoda, J.; Okada, S.; Suda, J.; Nagayoshi, K.; Nakauchi, H.; Hatake, K.; Miura, Y.; Suda, T. )

    1991-07-15

    The treatment of mice with high doses of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) results in an enrichment of primitive hematopoietic progenitors. Using this procedure, the authors obtained a new class of murine hematopoietic colonies that had very high secondary plating efficiencies in vitro and could differentiate into not only myeloid cells but also into lymphoid lineage cells. The phenotypes of interleukin-3 (IL-3) induced blast colony cells were Thy-1-positive and lineage-marker-negative. They examined whether these blast colony cells contained primitive hematopoietic stem cells in vivo and could reconstitute hematopoietic tissues in lethally irradiated mice. Blast colony cells could generate macroscopic visible spleen colonies on days 8 and 12, and 5 {times} 10(3) blast cells were sufficient to protect them from lethally irradiation. It was shown that 6 or 8 weeks after transplantation of 5 {times} 10(3) blast cells, donor male cells were detected in the spleen and thymus of the female recipients but not in the bone marrow by Southern blot analysis using Y-encoded DNA probe. After 10 weeks, bone marrow cells were partially repopulated from donor cells. In a congenic mouse system, donor-derived cells (Ly5.2) were detected in the thymus and spleen 6 weeks after transplantation. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analyses showed that B cells and macrophages developed from donor cells in the spleen. In the thymus, donor-derived cells were found in CD4, CD8 double-positive, single-positive, and double-negative populations. Reconstitution of bone marrow was delayed and myeloid and lymphoid cells were detected 10 weeks after transplantation. These results indicate that IL-3-induced blast cells contain the primitive hematopoietic stem cells capable of reconstituting hematopoietic organs in lethally irradiated mice.

  10. Ultra-compact fiber-optic two-photon microscope for functional fluorescence imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Engelbrecht, Christoph J; Johnston, Richard S; Seibel, Eric J; Helmchen, Fritjof

    2008-04-14

    We present a small, lightweight two-photon fiberscope and demonstrate its suitability for functional imaging in the intact brain. Our device consists of a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber for efficient delivery of near-IR femtosecond laser pulses, a spiral fiber-scanner for resonant beam steering, and a gradient-index lens system for fluorescence excitation, dichroic beam splitting, and signal collection. Fluorescence light is remotely detected using a standard photomultiplier tube. All optical components have 1 mm dimensions and the microscope's headpiece weighs only 0.6 grams. The instrument achieves micrometer resolution at frame rates of typically 25 Hz with a field-of-view of up to 200 microns. We demonstrate functional imaging of calcium signals in Purkinje cell dendrites in the cerebellum of anesthetized rats. The microscope will be easily portable by a rat or mouse and thus should enable functional imaging in freely behaving animals. PMID:18542658

  11. Proliferation of Functional Hair Cells in Vivo in the Absence of the Retinoblastoma Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sage, Cyrille; Huang, Mingqian; Karimi, Kambiz; Gutierrez, Gabriel; Vollrath, Melissa A.; Zhang, Duan-Sun; García-Añoveros, Jaime; Hinds, Philip W.; Corwin, Jeffrey T.; Corey, David P.; Chen, Zheng-Yi

    2005-02-01

    In mammals, hair cell loss causes irreversible hearing and balance impairment because hair cells are terminally differentiated and do not regenerate spontaneously. By profiling gene expression in developing mouse vestibular organs, we identified the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) as a candidate regulator of cell cycle exit in hair cells. Differentiated and functional mouse hair cells with a targeted deletion of Rb1 undergo mitosis, divide, and cycle, yet continue to become highly differentiated and functional. Moreover, acute loss of Rb1 in postnatal hair cells caused cell cycle reentry. Manipulation of the pRb pathway may ultimately lead to mammalian hair cell regeneration.

  12. Heparin inhibition of von Willebrand factor-dependent platelet function in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Sobel, M; McNeill, P M; Carlson, P L; Kermode, J C; Adelman, B; Conroy, R; Marques, D

    1991-01-01

    The intravenous administration of heparin to patients before open heart surgery reduced ristocetin cofactor activity by 58% (P less than 0.01, t test), and this impairment of von Willebrand factor-dependent platelet function was closely related to plasma heparin levels (r2 = 0.9), but not to plasma von Willebrand factor (vWF) levels. We hypothesized that heparin may inhibit vWF-dependent platelet hemostatic functions by directly binding vWF in solution and interfering with vWF-GpIb binding. Using the in vitro techniques of ristocetin-induced platelet agglutination, fluorescent flow cytometric measurement of vWF-platelet binding, and conventional radioligand binding assays we observed that heparin inhibited both vWF-dependent platelet function and vWF-platelet binding in a parallel and dose-dependent manner. Heparin also inhibited platelet agglutination induced by bovine vWF and inhibited the binding of human asialo-vWF to platelets in ristocetin-free systems. The inhibitory potency of heparin was not dependent upon its affinity for antithrombin III, but was molecular weight dependent: homogeneous preparations of lower molecular weight were less inhibitory. Heparin impairment of vWF function may explain why some hemorrhagic complications of heparin therapy are not predictable based on techniques for monitoring the conventional anticoagulant effects of heparin. PMID:2022745

  13. IN VITRO/IN VIVO COMPARISON OF YOLK SAC FUNCTION AND EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Yolk sac function and development of rat embryos grown in vitro for 24 hrs starting on day 10.5 were compared to those of embryos grown in utero. he embryos grown in vitro had significantly fewer somites, shorter crown-rump length and smaller yolk sac diameter when compared to th...

  14. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) disrupts particle transport, cilia function and sperm motility in an ex vivo oviduct model.

    PubMed

    O'Doherty, A M; Di Fenza, M; Kölle, S

    2016-01-01

    The oviduct functions in the transportation of gametes to the site of fertilization (the ampulla) and is the site of early embryonic development. Alterations of this early developmental environment, such as the presence of sexually transmitted pathogens, may affect oviduct function leading to reduced fertilization rates and contribute to compromised embryonic development. In this study, sperm interactions, particle transport speed (PTS) and cilia beat frequency (CBF) in the ampulla following exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a constituent of the sexually transmitted pathogens Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia abortus, was investigated. Three complementary experiments were performed to analyse; (1) bound sperm motility and cilia function (2) transport velocity in the oviduct and (3) the expression of genes related to immune function and inflammatory response (CASP3, CD14, MYD88, TLR4 and TRAF6). The motility of bound sperm was significantly lower in ampullae that were exposed to LPS. CBF and PTS significantly increased after treatment with LPS for 2 hours. Finally, gene expression analysis revealed that CASP3 and CD14 were significantly upregulated and TLR4 trended towards increased expression following treatment with LPS. These findings provide an insight on the impact of LPS on the oviduct sperm interaction, and have implications for both male and female fertility. PMID:27079521

  15. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) disrupts particle transport, cilia function and sperm motility in an ex vivo oviduct model

    PubMed Central

    O’Doherty, A. M.; Di Fenza, M.; Kölle, S.

    2016-01-01

    The oviduct functions in the transportation of gametes to the site of fertilization (the ampulla) and is the site of early embryonic development. Alterations of this early developmental environment, such as the presence of sexually transmitted pathogens, may affect oviduct function leading to reduced fertilization rates and contribute to compromised embryonic development. In this study, sperm interactions, particle transport speed (PTS) and cilia beat frequency (CBF) in the ampulla following exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a constituent of the sexually transmitted pathogens Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia abortus, was investigated. Three complementary experiments were performed to analyse; (1) bound sperm motility and cilia function (2) transport velocity in the oviduct and (3) the expression of genes related to immune function and inflammatory response (CASP3, CD14, MYD88, TLR4 and TRAF6). The motility of bound sperm was significantly lower in ampullae that were exposed to LPS. CBF and PTS significantly increased after treatment with LPS for 2 hours. Finally, gene expression analysis revealed that CASP3 and CD14 were significantly upregulated and TLR4 trended towards increased expression following treatment with LPS. These findings provide an insight on the impact of LPS on the oviduct sperm interaction, and have implications for both male and female fertility. PMID:27079521

  16. Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the bowel in primary hypogammaglobulinaemia: study of in vivo and in vitro lymphocyte function.

    PubMed Central

    Webster, A D; Kenwright, S; Ballard, J; Shiner, M; Slavin, G; Levi, A J; Loewi, G; Asherson, G L

    1977-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo lymphocyte function was studied in six patients with primary hypogammaglobulinaemia and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH) of the bowel. Lymphocyte transformation, numbers of circulating T and B lymphocytes, and delayed hypersensitivity skin tests did not significantly differ when compared with hypogammaglobulinaemic patients without NLH. However, patients with NLH had higher jejunal juice IgM concentrations and a tendency to higher serum IgM concentrations than those without NLH. The morphological features of NLH are similar to the germinal centres of lymph nodes but more closely resemble the follicle zone of Peyer's patches. These findings suggest that NLH represents a local immune response to antigens originating in the gut lumen. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3(a)-3(b) Fig. 3(c) Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:873321

  17. Synthesis, in vitro, and in vivo evaluation of novel functionalized quaternary ammonium curcuminoids as potential anti-cancer agents.

    PubMed

    Solano, Lucas N; Nelson, Grady L; Ronayne, Conor T; Lueth, Erica A; Foxley, Melissa A; Jonnalagadda, Sravan K; Gurrapu, Shirisha; Mereddy, Venkatram R

    2015-12-15

    Novel functionalized quaternary ammonium curcuminoids have been synthesized from piperazinyl curcuminoids and Baylis-Hillman reaction derived allyl bromides. These molecules are found to be highly water soluble with increased cytotoxicity compared to native curcumin against three cancer cell lines MIAPaCa-2, MDA-MB-231, and 4T1. Preliminary in vivo toxicity evaluation of a representative curcuminoid 5a in healthy mice indicates that this molecule is well tolerated based on normal body weight gains compared to control group. Furthermore, the efficacy of 5a has been tested in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model of MIAPaCa-2 and has been found to exhibit good tumor growth inhibition as a single agent and also in combination with clinical pancreatic cancer drug gemcitabine. PMID:26561365

  18. Hybrid fusions show that inter-monomer electron transfer robustly supports cytochrome bc1 function in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ekiert, Robert; Czapla, Monika; Sarewicz, Marcin; Osyczka, Artur

    2014-01-01

    Electronic connection between Qo and Qi quinone catalytic sites of dimeric cytochrome bc1 is a central feature of the energy-conserving Q cycle. While both the intra- and inter-monomer electron transfers were shown to connect the sites in the enzyme, mechanistic and physiological significance of the latter remains unclear. Here, using a series of mutated hybrid cytochrome bc1-like complexes, we show that inter-monomer electron transfer robustly sustains the function of the enzyme in vivo, even when the two subunits in a dimer come from different species. This indicates that minimal requirement for bioenergetic efficiency is to provide a chain of cofactors for uncompromised electron flux between the catalytic sites, while the details of protein scaffold are secondary. PMID:25089001

  19. Detection of low-amplitude in vivo intrinsic signals from an optical imager of retinal function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriga, Eduardo S.; T'so, Dan; Pattichis, Marios; Kwon, Young; Kardon, Randy; Abramoff, Michael; Soliz, Peter

    2006-02-01

    In the early stages of some retinal diseases, such as glaucoma, loss of retinal activity may be difficult to detect with today's clinical instruments. Many of today's instruments focus on detecting changes in anatomical structures, such as the nerve fiber layer. Our device, which is based on a modified fundus camera, seeks to detect changes in optical signals that reflect functional changes in the retina. The functional imager uses a patterned stimulus at wavelength of 535nm. An intrinsic functional signal is collected at a near infrared wavelength. Measured changes in reflectance in response to the visual stimulus are on the order of 0.1% to 1% of the total reflected intensity level, which makes the functional signal difficult to detect by standard methods because it is masked by other physiological signals and by imaging system noise. In this paper, we analyze the video sequences from a set of 60 experiments with different patterned stimuli from cats. Using a set of statistical techniques known as Independent Component Analysis (ICA), we estimate the signals present in the videos. Through controlled simulation experiments, we quantify the limits of signal strength in order to detect the physiological signal of interest. The results of the analysis show that, in principle, signal levels of 0.1% (-30dB) can be detected. The study found that in 86% of the animal experiments the patterned stimuli effects on the retina can be detected and extracted. The analysis of the different responses extracted from the videos can give an insight of the functional processes present during the stimulation of the retina.

  20. Assessing structural and functional responses of murine hearts to acute and sustained β-adrenergic stimulation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Puhl, Sarah-Lena; Weeks, Kate L.; Ranieri, Antonella; Avkiran, Metin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Given the importance of β-adrenoceptor signalling in regulating cardiac structure and function, robust protocols are required to assess potential alterations in such regulation in murine models in vivo. Methods Echocardiography was performed in naïve and stressed (isoprenaline; 30 μg/g/day s.c. for up to 14 days) mice, in the absence or presence of acute β-adrenergic stimulation (dobutamine 0.75 μg/g, i.p.). Controls received saline infusion and/or injection. Hearts were additionally analysed gravimetrically, histologically and biochemically. Results In naïve mice, acute β-adrenoceptor stimulation with dobutamine increased heart rate, left ventricular (LV) fractional shortening (LVFS), ejection fraction (LVEF) and wall thickness and decreased LV diameter (p < 0.05). In stressed mice, dobutamine failed to induce further inotropic and chronotropic responses. Furthermore, following dobutamine injection, these mice exhibited lower LVEF and LVFS at identical heart rates, relative to corresponding controls. Sustained isoprenaline infusion induced LV hypertrophy (increased heart weight, heart weight/body weight ratio, heart weight/tibia length ratio and LV wall thickness (p < 0.05)) by 3 days, with little further change at 14 days. In contrast, increases in LVEF and LVFS were seen only at 14 days (p < 0.05). Discussion We describe protocols for and illustrative data from the assessment of murine cardiac responses to acute and sustained β-adrenergic stimulation in vivo, which would be of value in determining the impact of genetic or pharmacological interventions on such responses. Additionally, our data indicate that acute dobutamine stimulation unmasks early signs of LV dysfunction in the remodelled heart, even at a stage when basal function is enhanced. PMID:26836145

  1. The value of in vivo electrophysiological measurements for monitoring functional adaptation after massive small bowel resection in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Wolvekamp, M C; Durante, N M; Meyssen, M A; Bijman, J; de Jonge, H R; Marquet, R L; Heineman, E

    1993-01-01

    The process of functional adaptation after extensive small bowel resection is complex and imprecisely understood. In vivo electrophysiological measurements for monitoring the functional adaptive process after massive small bowel resection in Brown-Norway rats were evaluated. Rats underwent either a sham operation (SH) or a 90% small bowel resection (SB). Standard rat chow was fed in unlimited quantities. At three or 10 weeks after operation, jejunal and ileal transepithelial potential differences (PD, mV) were determined. Electrogenic ion transport in the villus was measured after glucose (sodium coupled active glucose absorption; PD-glu) and in the crypt, after theophylline infusion (theophylline stimulated chloride secretion; PD-theo). Biopsies were taken simultaneously. Each experimental group consisted of three to five animals. At three weeks the PD-theo and PD-glu in SB rats were significantly lower than in SH rats in both jejunal and ileal segments. At 10 weeks PD-theo and PD-glu were significantly diminished in the jejunal segment of the SB rats compared with the SH rats. The values of PD-theo and PD-glu in the ileal segments were, however, no longer different between the two groups. Three and 10 weeks after operation the length of the villi in the SB group was increased significantly compared with the SH controls. These results indicate that in the early phase of adaptation in vivo electrophysiological variables do not correlate with histological changes in the SB rats. This might be due to cell immaturity resulting from an increased rate of cell turnover or lack of intercellular tight junctions. This hypothesis is supported by a recovery of PD responses in the ileum 10 weeks after resection. PMID:8504963

  2. Enhanced Control of In Vivo Bone Formation with Surface Functionalized Alginate Microbeads Incorporating Heparin and Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2

    PubMed Central

    Abbah, Sunny Akogwu; Liu, Jing; Goh, James Cho Hong

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a surface functionalization delivery platform incorporating heparin onto strontium alginate microbeads surfaces would convert this “naive carriers” into “mini-reservoirs” for localized in vivo delivery of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) that will induce functional bone regeneration. In vitro evaluation confirmed that (1) heparin incorporation could immobilize and prolong rhBMP-2 release for approximately 3 weeks; (2) a significant decrease (p<0.01) in rhBMP-2 burst release is attainable depending on initial protein load; and (3) rhBMP-2 released from surface functionalized microbeads retained bioactivity and stimulated higher alkaline phosphatase activity in cultured C2C12 cells when compared with daily administration of fresh bolus rhBMP-2. Subsequently, surface functionalized microbeads were used for in vivo delivery of rhBMP-2 at local sites of posterolateral spinal fusion surgery in rats. The microbeads were loaded into the pores of medical-grade polyepsilone caprolactone-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds before implantation. Results revealed robust bone formation and a biomechanically solid fusion after 6 weeks. When compared with a control group consisting of an equivalent amount of rhBMP-2 that was directly adsorbed onto bare-surfaced microbeads with no heparin, a 5.3-fold increase in bone volume fraction and a 2.6-fold increase in bending stiffness (flexion/extension) were observed. When compared with collagen sponge carriers of rhBMP-2, a 1.5-fold and a 1.3-fold increase in bone volume fraction and bending stiffness were observed, respectively. More importantly, 3D micro-computed tomography images enabled the visualization of a well-contained newly formed bone at ipsilateral implant sites with surface functionalized rhBMP-2 delivery. This was absent with collagen sponge carriers where newly formed bone tissue was poorly contained and crossed over the posterior midline to contralateral implants. These findings are important because of complications with current rhBMP-2 delivery method, including excessive, uncontrolled bone formation. PMID:22894570

  3. In vivo DNA expression of functional brome mosaic virus RNA replicons in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, M; Janda, M; Krol, M A; Ahlquist, P

    1997-01-01

    To facilitate manipulation of brome mosaic virus (BMV) RNA replicons in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and for yeast genetic analysis of BMV RNA replication, gene expression, and host interactions, we constructed DNA plasmids from which BMV RNA3 and RNA3 derivatives can be transcribed in vivo from the galactose-inducible yeast GAL1 promoter and terminated by a self-cleaving ribozyme at or near their natural 3' ends. In galactose-induced yeast harboring such plasmids, expression of BMV RNA replication proteins 1a and 2a led to synthesis of negative-strand RNA3, amplification of positive-strand RNA3 to levels over 45-fold higher than those of DNA-derived RNA3 transcripts, and synthesis of the RNA3-encoded subgenomic mRNA for coat protein. Although the GAL1 promoter initiated transcription from multiple sites, 1a and 2a selectively amplified RNA3 with the authentic viral 5' end. As expected, reporter genes substituted for the 3'-proximal coat protein gene could not be translated directly from DNA-derived RNA3 transcripts, so their expression depended on 1a- and 2a-directed subgenomic mRNA synthesis. In yeast in which DNA transcription of B3CAT, an RNA3 derivative with the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene replacing the coat gene, was induced, CAT activity remained near background levels in the absence of 1a and 2a but increased over 500,000-fold when 1a and 2a were expressed. Similarly, a plasmid encoding B3URA3, an RNA3 derivative with the yeast URA3 gene replacing the coat gene, conferred uracil-independent growth to ura3- yeast only after 1a and 2a expression and galactose induction. Once its 1a- and 2a-dependent replication was initiated, B3URA3 was maintained in dividing yeast as a free RNA replicon, even after repression of the GAL1 promoter or the loss of the B3URA3 cDNA plasmid. These findings should be useful for many experimental purposes. PMID:9311863

  4. In vivo measurements of the triceps surae complex architecture in man: implications for muscle function

    PubMed Central

    Maganaris, Constantinos N; Baltzopoulos, Vasilios; Sargeant, Anthony J

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) quantify experimentally in vivo changes in pennation angle, fibre length and muscle thickness in the triceps surae complex in man in response to changes in ankle position and isometric plantarflexion moment and (2) compare changes in the above muscle architectural characteristics occurring in the transition from rest to a given isometric plantarflexion intensity with the estimations of a planimetric muscle model assuming constant thickness and straight muscle fibres. The gastrocnemius medialis (GM), gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) and soleus (SOL) muscles of six males were scanned with ultrasonography at different sites along and across the muscle belly at rest and during maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) trials at ankle angles of −15 deg (dorsiflexed direction), 0 deg (neutral position), +15 deg (plantarflexed direction) and +30 deg. Additional images were taken at 80, 60, 40 and 20% of MVC at an ankle angle of 0 deg. In all three muscles and all scanned sites, as ankle angle increased from −15 to +30 deg, pennation increased (by 6–12 deg, 39–67%, P < 0.01 at rest and 9–16 deg, 29–43%, P < 0.01 during MVC) and fibre length decreased (by 15–28 mm, 32–34%, P < 0.01 at rest and 8–10 mm, 27–30%, P < 0.05 during MVC). Thickness in GL and SOL increased during MVC compared with rest (by 5–7 mm, 36–47%, P < 0.01 in GL and 6–7 mm, 38–47%, P < 0.01 in SOL) while thickness of GM did not differ (P > 0.05) between rest and MVC. At any given ankle angle the model underestimated changes in GL and SOL occurring in the transition from rest to MVC in pennation angle (by 9–12 deg, 24–38%, P < 0.01 in GL and 9–14 deg, 25–28%, P < 0.01 in SOL) and fibre length (by 6–15 mm, 22–39%, P < 0.01 in GL and 6–8 mm, 23–24%, P < 0.01 in SOL). The findings of the study indicate that the mechanical output of muscle as estimated by the model used may be unrealistic due to errors in estimating the changes in muscle architecture during contraction compared with rest. PMID:9763648

  5. Activation of in vivo Kupffer cell function by oral administration of Cordyceps sinensis in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, K; Yamaguchi, Y; Kagota, S; Shinozuka, K; Kunitomo, M

    1999-04-01

    We investigated the effect of water extracts of Cordyceps sinensis (WECS) on Kupffer cell function in rats. Rats were received a single i.v. injection of a colloidal carbon solution and then the clearance rate from the blood were measured. The rats had been daily administered with WECS, p.o. at a dose of 200 mg/kg for 25 days until the day before the injection of colloidal carbon. The half-life of the colloidal carbon in the blood of rats administered WECS 200 mg/kg was significantly shorter than that of the control rats. This suggests that accelerated function of Kupffer cells is partially involved in the anti-metastatic action of WECS. PMID:10361894

  6. Context-Dependent Functional Divergence of the Notch Ligands DLL1 and DLL4 In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Preuße, Kristina; Tveriakhina, Lena; Schuster-Gossler, Karin; Gaspar, Cláudia; Rosa, Alexandra Isabel; Henrique, Domingos; Gossler, Achim; Stauber, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Notch signalling is a fundamental pathway that shapes the developing embryo and sustains adult tissues by direct communication between ligand and receptor molecules on adjacent cells. Among the ligands are two Delta paralogues, DLL1 and DLL4, that are conserved in mammals and share a similar structure and sequence. They activate the Notch receptor partly in overlapping expression domains where they fulfil redundant functions in some processes (e.g. maintenance of the crypt cell progenitor pool). In other processes, however, they appear to act differently (e.g. maintenance of foetal arterial identity) raising the questions of how similar DLL1 and DLL4 really are and which mechanism causes the apparent context-dependent divergence. By analysing mice that conditionally overexpress DLL1 or DLL4 from the same genomic locus (Hprt) and mice that express DLL4 instead of DLL1 from the endogenous Dll1 locus (Dll1Dll4ki), we found functional differences that are tissue-specific: while DLL1 and DLL4 act redundantly during the maintenance of retinal progenitors, their function varies in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) where somites form in a Notch-dependent process. In the anterior PSM, every cell expresses both Notch receptors and ligands, and DLL1 is the only activator of Notch while DLL4 is not endogenously expressed. Transgenic DLL4 cannot replace DLL1 during somitogenesis and in heterozygous Dll1Dll4ki/+ mice, the Dll1Dll4ki allele causes a dominant segmentation phenotype. Testing several aspects of the complex Notch signalling system in vitro, we found that both ligands have a similar trans-activation potential but that only DLL4 is an efficient cis-inhibitor of Notch signalling, causing a reduced net activation of Notch. These differential cis-inhibitory properties are likely to contribute to the functional divergence of DLL1 and DLL4. PMID:26114479

  7. Geometric modeling, functional parameter calculation, and visualization of the in-vivo distended rectal wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, Clifton R.; Manduca, Armando; Camp, Jon J.; Fletcher, Joel G.; Robb, Richard A.; Bharucha, Adil E.

    2006-03-01

    The rectum can distend to accommodate stool, and contracts in response to distention during defecation. Rectal motor dysfunctions are implicated in the pathophysiology of functional defecation disorders and fecal incontinence. These rectal motor functions can be studied by intra-luminal measurements of pressure by manometry, or combined with volume during rectal balloon distention. Pressure-volume (p-v) relationships provide a global index of rectal mechanical properties. However, balloon distention alone does not measure luminal radius or wall thickness, which are necessary to compute wall tension and stress respectively. It has been suggested that the elastic modulus, which is the linear slope of the stress-strain relationship, is a more accurate measure of wall stiffness. Also, measurements of compliance may not reflect differences in rectal diameter between subjects prior to inflation, and imaging is necessary to determine if, as has been suggested, rectal pressure-volume relationships are affected by extra-rectal structures. We have developed a technique to measure rectal stress:strain relationships in humans, by simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during rectal balloon distention. After a conditioning distention, a rectal balloon was distended with water from 0 to 400 ml in 50 ml steps, and imaged at each step with MRI. The fluid filled balloon was segmented from each volume, the phase-ordered binary volumes were transformed into a geometric characterization of the inflated rectal surface. Taken together with measurements of balloon pressure and of rectal wall thickness, this model of the rectal surface was used to calculate regional values of curvature, tension, strain, and stress for the rectum. In summary, this technique has the unique ability to non-invasively measure the rectal stress:strain relationship and also determine if rectal expansion is limited by extra-rectal structures. This functional information allows the direct clinical analysis of rectal motor function and offers the potential for characterizing abnormal mechanical properties of the rectal wall in disease.

  8. Macrophage functions measured by magnetic microparticles in vivo and in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Winfried; Kreyling, Wolfgang G.; Kohlhäufl, Martin; Häussinger, Karl; Heyder, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    Monodisperse ferrimagnetic iron-oxide particles of 1.4 μm geometric diameter were used to study alveolar macrophage functions (phagocytosis, phagosome transport) and cytoskeletal integrity in healthy subjects and in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis as well as in cultured macrophages. Dysfunctions in phagocytosis, in phagosome transport and cytoskeletal integrity correlated with an impaired alveolar clearance and could be induced in vitro by cytoskeletal drugs.

  9. Stimulatory effect of luteinizing hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, and epidermal growth factor on vascular endothelial growth factor production in cultured bubaline luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, V S; Dangi, S S; Babitha, V; Verma, M R; Bag, S; Singh, G; Sarkar, M

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temporal (24, 48, and 72 hours) and dose-dependent (0, 5, 10, and 100 ng/mL of LH, insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1], and EGF) in vitro expression and secretion patterns of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in luteal cell culture during different stages of estrous cycle in water buffaloes. Corpus luteum samples from ovaries of early luteal phase (ELP; Days 1-4), midluteal phase (Days 5-10), and late luteal phase (Days 11-16) were collected from a local slaughterhouse. The samples were then processed and cultured in (serum containing) appropriate cell culture medium and incubated separately with three factors (LH, IGF-1, or EGF) at the previously mentioned three dose-duration combinations. At the end of the respective incubation periods, VEGF was assayed in the spent culture medium by ELISA, whereas the cultured cells were used for VEGF mRNA expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results of the present study disclosed dose- and time-dependent stimulatory effects of LH, IGF-1, and EGF on VEGF production in bubaline luteal cells. The VEGF expression and secretion from the cultured luteal cells were highest during the ELP, intermediate in the midluteal phase, and lowest in the late luteal phase of the estrous cycle for all the three tested factors. Comparison of the results of the three treatments depicted EGF as the most potent stimulating factor followed by IGF-1 and LH. Immunocytochemistry findings in luteal cell culture of ELP agreed with the VEGF expression and secretion. In conclusion, mRNA expression, protein secretion, and immunolocalization of VEGF data clearly indicated for the first time that LH, IGF-1, and EGF play an important role in stimulating luteal angiogenesis in buffalo CL. The highest expression and secretion of VEGF in the ELP might be associated with the development of blood vessels in early growth of CL, which in turn gets augmented by the aforementioned factors emphasizing their regulatory role in luteal angiogenesis. Further studies are however necessary to divulge more information on other factors which regulate VEGF secretion in bubaline CL and the synergistic effects existing among such growth factors. PMID:26242566

  10. In vivo functional photoacoustic microscopy of cutaneous microvasculature in human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favazza, Christopher P.; Cornelius, Lynn A.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-02-01

    Microcirculation is an important component of the cardiovascular system and can be used to assess systemic cardiovascular health. Numerous studies have investigated cutaneous microcirculation as an indicator of cardiovascular related diseases. Such research has shown promising results; however, there are many limitations regarding the employed measurement techniques, such as poor depth and spatial resolution and measurement versatility. Here we show the results of functional cutaneous microvascular experiments measured with photoacoustic microscopy, which provides high spatial resolution and multiparameter measurements. In a set of experiments, microvascular networks located in the palms of volunteers were perturbed by periodic ischemic events, and the subsequent hemodynamic response to the stimulus was recorded. Results indicate that during periods of arterial occlusion, the relative oxygen saturation of the capillary vessels decreased below resting levels, and temporarily increased above resting levels immediately following the occlusion. Furthermore, a hyperemic reaction to the occlusions was measured, and the observation agreed well with similar measurements using more conventional imaging techniques. Due to its exceptional capability to functionally image vascular networks with high spatial resolution, photoacoustic microscopy could be a beneficial biomedical tool to assess microvascular functioning and applied to patients with diseases that affect cardiovascular health.

  11. Selective Delivery of an Anticancer Drug with Aptamer-Functionalized Liposomes to Breast Cancer Cells in Vitro and in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Xing, Hang; Tang, Li; Yang, Xujuan; Hwang, Kevin; Wang, Wendan; Yin, Qian; Wong, Ngo Yin; Dobrucki, Lawrence W; Yasui, Norio; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Helferich, William G; Cheng, Jianjun; Lu, Yi

    2013-10-21

    Selective targeting of cancer cells is a critical step in cancer diagnosis and therapy. To address this need, DNA aptamers have attracted significant attention as possible targeting ligands. However, while their use in targeting cancer cells in vitro has been reported, their effectiveness has rarely been established in vivo. Here we report the development of a liposomal drug delivery system for targeted anticancer chemotherapy. Liposomes were prepared containing doxorubicin as a payload, and functionalized with AS1411, a DNA aptamer with strong binding affinity for nucleolin. AS1411 aptamer-functionalized liposomes increased cellular internalization and cytotoxicity to MCF-7 breast cancer cells as compared to non-targeting liposomes. Furthermore, targeted liposomal doxorubicin improved antitumor efficacy against xenograft MCF-7 breast tumors in athymic nude mice, attributable to their enhanced tumor tissue penetration. This study suggests that AS1411 aptamer-functionalized liposomes can recognize nucleolin overexpressed on MCF-7 cell surface, and therefore enable drug delivery with high specificity and selectivity. PMID:24159374

  12. In vivo roles of the basic domain of dynactin p150 in microtubule plus-end tracking and dynein function

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xuanli; Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Henry; Wang, Eric; Xiang, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Summary Microtubule plus-end tracking proteins accumulate at microtubule plus ends for various cellular functions but their targeting mechanisms are not fully understood (Akhmanova and Steinmetz 2008 Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 9, 309–322.). Here we tested in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans the requirement for plus-end localization of dynactin p150, a protein essential for dynein function. Deletion of the N-terminal microtubule(MT)-binding region of p150 significantly diminishes the microtubule plus-end accumulation of both dynein heavy chain and p150, and causes a partial defect in nuclear distribution. Surprisingly, within the MT-binding region, the basic domain is more critical than the CAP-Gly domain for maintaining plus-end-tracking of p150, as well as for the functions of dynein in nuclear distribution and early endosome movement. Our results show that the basic domain of A. nidulans p150 is important for p150-microtubule interaction both in vivo and in vitro, and the basic amino acids within this domain are crucial for the plus-end accumulation of p150 in wild-type background and for p150-microtubule interaction in the ΔkinA (kinesin-1) background. We suggest that the basic amino acids are required for the electrostatic interaction between p150 and microtubules, which is important for kinesin-1-mediated plus-end targeting of dynactin and dynein in A. nidulans. PMID:22106867

  13. Premenstrual dysphoria and luteal stress in dominant-social-status female macaques.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Mingqi; Zhao, Qitao; Wei, Sheng; Zhang, Huiyun; Wang, Haijun

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims to extend our previous work to develop nonhuman primate model for prospectively studying the mechanism underlying premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Thirty young dominant-status female monkeys were randomly divided into the control group, the model group, and JQP group. For two consecutive menstrual cycles, from day 18 to 22, monkeys in the model and JQP groups were housed and immobilized singly in specially designed isolation cages for 5-6 hours per day. At the same time, the pharmaceutical interference effect of jingqianping (JQP) granule, a traditional Chinese medicine specifically used to cure PMDD patients, was tested using monkeys in the JQP group. The behavior and facial expressions of monkeys were photographed with an automatic vidicon and were quantitatively analyzed by "the emotion evaluation scale of female experimental macaque." Changes in serum level of progesterone and estradiol were measured with RIA, and serum level of 5-HT, noradrenaline, and dopamine were measured with HPLC. After experiencing mentioned above stress, 70% of monkeys of model group showed PMDD symptoms during three consecutive menstrual cycles. Estradiol and progesterone serum level decreased (P < 0.01). Moreover, the peak value of secreted hormones in their follicular phase did not occur. Serum level of 5-HT and dopamine were significantly lower (P < 0.01), but the serum noradrenaline level was higher (P < 0.01). Moreover, in monkeys administered by JQP granule, both PMDD symptoms and the anormal serum level of neurotransmitters could be obviously reversed. This special luteal-phase treatment on dominant-social-status monkeys might be a feasible way to create models mimicking PMDD. PMID:24371458

  14. Field trial on the relationship of blood metabolites and body condition score with the recurrence of luteal activity in Estonian Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Ling, K; Waldmann, A; Samarütel, J; Jaakson, H; Kaart, T; Leesmäe, A

    2007-09-01

    Associations of body condition scores and blood metabolites, measured before calving and at different periods during early lactation, with recurrence of luteal activity were investigated in a 250-head commercial dairy farm during a 4-year period (1999-2002). The study was conducted on 48 dairy cows (60 lactations) with average 305-day milk yield of 8149 kg per cow. Blood samples taken 1-14 days before calving and 1-14, 28-42 and 63-77 days after calving were analysed for aspartate aminotransferase, glucose, ketone bodies, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids and cholesterol. Milk progesterone (P(4)) profiles (samples collected twice a week, P(4) levels measured in whole milk by enzyme immunoassay) were used to evaluate the interval from calving to first luteal response, P(4) >5 ng/ml, and the interval from calving to first normal cycle. The MIXED procedure of the sas system was used to study the association of investigated parameters. A higher concentration of ketone bodies before calving was associated with shorter interval to recurrence of first normal cycle (P = 0.007) and tended to be related to shorter interval from calving to first luteal response (P = 0.071). A lower prepartum aminotransferase activity showed a tendency to be associated with shorter interval from calving to first luteal response (P = 0.084). Results suggest metabolic status up to 2 weeks prepartum to be related to the resumption of postpartum luteal activity in Estonian Holstein dairy cows. PMID:17718804

  15. Functional load of plates in fracture fixation in vivo and its correlate in bone healing.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, K; Klaue, K; Perren, S M

    2000-05-01

    In clinical practice efforts are made to apply a fixation plate on the side opposite the strongest muscle pull. This achieves an optimal distribution of compression between the fragment ends (principle of tension band plating). This is however frequently impossible for anatomical or surgical reasons. In an 'in vivo' study lasting 8 weeks a standardized oblique osteotomy was performed on the tibia of 16 sheep in four different models of tension band plating (a contoured and an overbent plate with or without an interfragmentary lag screw) were assessed. Tension on the plate surface was recorded by strain gauges for different gait speeds on the treadmill. These measurements were performed throughout the experiment. Radiographs were taken at regular intervals in order to assess stability and polychrome sequential labelling and microradiographs served to investigate the healing process. Possible relationships and/or interactions between plate tension and bone healing were investigated. Implant loading under bending strain was reduced the most for the combination of plate overbending with a lag screw. The insertion of a lag screw reduces the surface strain on the plate whether it is contoured or overbent. The bending and torsional forces are greatest if a straight plate is used alone and the principle of tension band plating is not applied. Direct bone healing was only observed in the group with contoured plate and lag screw. Overbending combined with a lag screw provided only a relatively unstable fixation. A residual gap immediately beneath the plate permits "dynamic compression" since the screws slide towards the osteotomy when loaded producing bone resorption under the plate and signs of screw loosening. The models with contoured and overbent plates without a lag screw were histologically assessed as very unstable with signs of secondary fragment displacement, obvious callus formation, resorption at the fragment ends and under the plate, delayed and diminished Haversian remodelling and corrosion sites at the screw heads and at the adjacent site on the plate hole. In all groups, stripping of the periosteum under the plate was associated with porosis of the corresponding cortex as a sign of temporarily impaired blood supply. A relationship between implant loading and/or unloading (stress shielding) could not be demonstrated. Callus formation, measured quantitatively on the radiographs, is directly related to the strain on the plate. Direct bone healing is rapid and is seen histologically three weeks postoperatively, particularly for fixations with contoured plate and lag screw. The early appearance of fixation callus in the presence of an intact blood supply indicates a primary instability of the osteosynthesis. Later, it may be an indication of secondary instability. The time at which osteons appear, their number and location provides information on the stability of the osteosynthesis. At a time when indirect fracture reduction and stabilization using minimally invasive techniques and implants is being propagated, additional ways and means must be sought to assess clinically the load on the implants and the risk of implant failure. PMID:10853760

  16. Soil engineering in vivo: harnessing natural biogeochemical systems for sustainable, multi-functional engineering solutions

    PubMed Central

    DeJong, Jason T.; Soga, Kenichi; Banwart, Steven A.; Whalley, W. Richard; Ginn, Timothy R.; Nelson, Douglas C.; Mortensen, Brina M.; Martinez, Brian C.; Barkouki, Tammer

    2011-01-01

    Carbon sequestration, infrastructure rehabilitation, brownfields clean-up, hazardous waste disposal, water resources protection and global warming—these twenty-first century challenges can neither be solved by the high-energy consumptive practices that hallmark industry today, nor by minor tweaking or optimization of these processes. A more radical, holistic approach is required to develop the sustainable solutions society needs. Most of the above challenges occur within, are supported on, are enabled by or grown from soil. Soil, contrary to conventional civil engineering thought, is a living system host to multiple simultaneous processes. It is proposed herein that ‘soil engineering in vivo’, wherein the natural capacity of soil as a living ecosystem is used to provide multiple solutions simultaneously, may provide new, innovative, sustainable solutions to some of these great challenges of the twenty-first century. This requires a multi-disciplinary perspective that embraces the science of biology, chemistry and physics and applies this knowledge to provide multi-functional civil and environmental engineering designs for the soil environment. For example, can native soil bacterial species moderate the carbonate cycle in soils to simultaneously solidify liquefiable soil, immobilize reactive heavy metals and sequester carbon—effectively providing civil engineering functionality while clarifying the ground water and removing carbon from the atmosphere? Exploration of these ideas has begun in earnest in recent years. This paper explores the potential, challenges and opportunities of this new field, and highlights one biogeochemical function of soil that has shown promise and is developing rapidly as a new technology. The example is used to propose a generalized approach in which the potential of this new field can be fully realized. PMID:20829246

  17. Characterization of the RND family of multidrug efflux pumps: in silico to in vivo confirmation of four functionally distinct subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Patricia; Molina‐Henares, Antonio J.; De La Torre, Jesús; Duque, Estrella; Ramos, Juan L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary We have developed a generalized profile that identifies members of the root‐nodulation‐cell‐division (RND) family of efflux pumps and classifies them into four functional subfamilies. According to Z‐score values, efflux pumps can be grouped by their metabolic function, thus making it possible to distinguish pumps involved in antibiotic resistance (group 1) from those involved in metal resistance (group 3). In silico data regarding efflux pumps in group 1 were validated after identification of RND efflux pumps in a number of environmental microbes that were isolated as resistant to ethidium bromide. Analysis of the Pseudomonas putida KT2440 genome identified efflux pumps in all groups. A collection of mutants in efflux pumps and a screening platform consisting of 50 drugs were created to assign a function to the efflux pumps. We validated in silico data regarding efflux pumps in groups 1 and 3 using 9 different mutants. Four mutants belonging to group 2 were found to be more sensitive than the wild‐type to oxidative stress‐inducing agents such as bipyridyl and methyl viologen. The two remaining mutants belonging to group 4 were found to be more sensitive than the parental to tetracycline and one of them was particularly sensitive to rubidium and chromate. By effectively combining in vivo data with generalized profiles and gene annotation data, this approach allowed the assignment, according to metabolic function, of both known and uncharacterized RND efflux pumps into subgroups, thereby providing important new insight into the functions of proteins within this family. PMID:21255364

  18. Leucocyte function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: quantitative in-vivo leucocyte mobilisation and in-vitro functions of blood and exudate leucocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Wandall, J H

    1985-01-01

    Quantitative leucocyte mobilisation in vivo and the in-vitro random migration, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and oxidative metabolic activity were studied in 15 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Patients mobilised leucocytes to chambers covering skin windows to the same degree as control subjects, and the mobilisation correlated with the blood leucocyte numbers and serum concentration of alpha-l-antitrypsin. Peripheral blood leucocytes showed slightly reduced migration in Boyden chambers but increased phagocytosis and increased unstimulated reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium. Exudate leucocytes from patients with RA showed migratory and phagocytic activity which did not differ from that of control subjects, but unstimulated exudate leucocytes reduced nitroblue tetrazolium more actively than leucocytes from control subjects. The observations indicate that leucocyte accumulation at an experimental inflammatory lesion and the function of these exudate leucocytes are not impaired in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:4051592

  19. Impaired Bub1 Function In vivo Compromises Tension-Dependent Checkpoint Function Leading to Aneuploidy and Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Schliekelman, Mark; Cowley, Dale O.; O'Quinn, Ryan; Oliver, Trudy G.; Lu, Lucy; Salmon, E.D.; Van Dyke, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Bub1 is a serine/threonine kinase originally described as a core component of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) mechanism in yeast. Bub1 binding at kinetochores has been reported to be required for SAC function and localization of other SAC components. A proper SAC is believed to be essential for murine embryonic development, as all previously described null mutations in SAC components in mice cause embryonic lethality. We produced mice harboring a Bub1 mutant allele lacking exons 2 and 3, resulting in a hypomorphic mutant expressed at <5% of wild-type levels. Despite this significant reduction, homozygous mutant animals are viable on a mixed 129P2/B6 or FVB background but display increased tumorigenesis with aging, whereas mice with a C57Bl/6J background die perinatally. Bub1 mutant murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) display defects in chromosome congression to the metaphase plate, severe chromosome missegregation, and aneuploidy accompanied by high levels of premature senescence. Mutant MEFs have a robust SAC in response to nocodazole treatment but an impaired response to Taxol. Mutant MEFs also show reduced kinetochore localization of BubR1, but not of Mad2. The significant reduction in SAC response to Taxol, but not nocodazole, coupled with the reduced binding of BubR1, but not Mad2, indicates that Bub1 is particularly critical for the SAC response to a lack of tension on kinetochores. Thus, Bub1 is essential for proper chromosome segregation, a defect that can lead to severe phenotypes, including perinatal lethality and a predisposition to cancer. PMID:19117986

  20. Cooperative functions of Chk1 and Chk2 reduce tumour susceptibility in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Niida, Hiroyuki; Murata, Kazuhiro; Shimada, Midori; Ogawa, Kumiko; Ohta, Kumiko; Suzuki, Kyoko; Fujigaki, Hidetsugu; Khaw, Aik Kia; Banerjee, Birendranath; Hande, M Prakash; Miyamoto, Tomomi; Miyoshi, Ichiro; Shirai, Tomoyuki; Motoyama, Noboru; Delhase, Mireille; Appella, Ettore; Nakanishi, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    Although the linkage of Chk1 and Chk2 to important cancer signalling suggests that these kinases have functions as tumour suppressors, neither Chk1+/− nor Chk2−/− mice show a predisposition to cancer under unperturbed conditions. We show here that Chk1+/−Chk2−/− and Chk1+/−Chk2+/− mice have a progressive cancer-prone phenotype. Deletion of a single Chk1 allele compromises G2/M checkpoint function that is not further affected by Chk2 depletion, whereas Chk1 and Chk2 cooperatively affect G1/S and intra-S phase checkpoints. Either or both of the kinases are required for DNA repair depending on the type of DNA damage. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts from the double-mutant mice showed a higher level of p53 with spontaneous DNA damage under unperturbed conditions, but failed to phosphorylate p53 at S23 and further induce p53 expression upon additional DNA damage. Neither Chk1 nor Chk2 is apparently essential for p53- or Rb-dependent oncogene-induced senescence. Our results suggest that the double Chk mutation leads to a high level of spontaneous DNA damage, but fails to eliminate cells with damaged DNA, which may ultimately increase cancer susceptibility independently of senescence. PMID:20834228

  1. A USPL functional system with articulated mirror arm for in-vivo applications in dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schelle, Florian; Meister, Jörg; Dehn, Claudia; Oehme, Bernd; Bourauel, Christoph; Frentzen, Mathias

    Ultra-short pulsed laser (USPL) systems for dental application have overcome many of their initial disadvantages. However, a problem that has not yet been addressed and solved is the beam delivery into the oral cavity. The functional system that is introduced in this study includes an articulated mirror arm, a scanning system as well as a handpiece, allowing for freehand preparations with ultra-short laser pulses. As laser source an Nd:YVO4 laser is employed, emitting pulses with a duration of tp < 10 ps at a repetition rate of up to 500 kHz. The centre wavelength is at 1064 nm and the average output power can be tuned up to 9 W. The delivery system consists of an articulated mirror arm, to which a scanning system and a custom made handpiece are connected, including a 75 mm focussing lens. The whole functional system is compact in size and moveable. General characteristics like optical losses and ablation rate are determined and compared to results employing a fixed setup on an optical table. Furthermore classical treatment procedures like cavity preparation are being demonstrated on mammoth ivory. This study indicates that freehand preparation employing an USPL system is possible but challenging, and accompanied by a variety of side-effects. The ablation rate with fixed handpiece is about 10 mm3/min. Factors like defocussing and blinding affect treatment efficiency. Laser sources with higher average output powers might be needed in order to reach sufficient preparation speeds.

  2. Transcranial imaging of functional cerebral hemodynamic changes in single blood vessels using in vivo photoacoustic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Lun-De; Lin, Chin-Teng; Shih, Yen-Yu I; Duong, Timothy Q; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Wang, Po-Hsun; Wu, Robby; Tsang, Siny; Chang, Jyh-Yeong; Li, Meng-Lin; Chen, You-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Optical imaging of changes in total hemoglobin concentration (HbT), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) provides a means to investigate brain hemodynamic regulation. However, high-resolution transcranial imaging remains challenging. In this study, we applied a novel functional photoacoustic microscopy technique to probe the responses of single cortical vessels to left forepaw electrical stimulation in mice with intact skulls. Functional changes in HbT, CBV, and SO2 in the superior sagittal sinus and different-sized arterioles from the anterior cerebral artery system were bilaterally imaged with unambiguous 36 × 65-μm2 spatial resolution. In addition, an early decrease of SO2 in single blood vessels during activation (i.e., ‘the initial dip') was observed. Our results indicate that the initial dip occurred specifically in small arterioles of activated regions but not in large veins. This technique complements other existing imaging approaches for the investigation of the hemodynamic responses in single cerebral blood vessels. PMID:22472612

  3. The Relationship between Dyslipidemia and Acute Axonal Function in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kwai, Natalie C. G.; Nigole, William; Poynten, Ann M.; Brown, Christopher; Krishnan, Arun V.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common and debilitating complication of diabetes mellitus. Treatment largely consists of symptom alleviation and there is a need to identify therapeutic targets for prevention and treatment of DPN. The objective of this study was to utilise novel neurophysiological techniques to investigate axonal function in patients with type 2 diabetes and to prospectively determine their relationship to serum lipids in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods Seventy-one patients with type 2 diabetes were consecutively recruited and tested. All patients underwent thorough clinical neurological assessments including nerve conduction studies, and median motor axonal excitability studies. Studies were also undertaken in age matched normal control subjects(n = 42). Biochemical studies, including serum lipid levels were obtained in all patients. Patient excitability data was compared to control data and linear regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between serum triglycerides and low density lipoproteins and excitability parameters typically abnormal in type 2 diabetic patients. Results Patient mean age was 64.2±2.3 years, mean glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c%) was 7.8±0.3%, mean triglyceride concentration was 1.6±0.1 mmol/L and mean cholesterol concentration was 4.1±0.2mmol/L. Compared to age matched controls, median motor axonal excitability studies indicated axonal dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients as a whole (T2DM) and in a subgroup of the patients without DPN (T2DM-NN). These included reduced percentage threshold change during threshold electrotonus at 10–20ms depolarising currents (TEd10–20ms)(controls 68.4±0.8, T2DM63.9±0.8, T2DM-NN64.8±1.6%,P<0.05) and superexcitability during the recovery cycle (controls-22.5±0.9, T2DM-17.5±0.8, T2DM-NN-17.3±1.6%,P<0.05). Linear regression analysis revealed no associations between changes in axonal function and either serum triglyceride or low density lipoprotein concentration when adjusted for renal function, a separate risk factor for neuropathy development. Our findings indicate that acutely, serum lipids do not exert an acute effect on axonal function in type 2 diabetic patients: TEd(10–20ms)(1.2(-1.4,3.8);P = 0.4) and superexcitability (2.4(-0.05, 4.8);P = 0.06). Conclusions These findings suggest that serum triglyceride levels are not related to axonal function in type 2 diabetic patients. Additional pathogenic mechanisms may play a more substantial role in axonal dysfunction prior to DPN development. PMID:27078166

  4. In Vitro and In Vivo Characterizations of Pichinde Viral Nucleoprotein Exoribonuclease Functions

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qinfeng; Shao, Junjie; Lan, Shuiyun; Zhou, Yanqin; Xing, Junji; Dong, Changjiang

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Arenaviruses cause severe hemorrhagic fever diseases in humans, and there are limited preventative and therapeutic measures against these diseases. Previous structural and functional analyses of arenavirus nucleoproteins (NPs) revealed a conserved DEDDH exoribonuclease (RNase) domain that is important for type I interferon (IFN) suppression, but the biological roles of the NP RNase in viral replication and host immune suppression have not been well characterized. Infection of guinea pigs with Pichinde virus (PICV), a prototype arenavirus, can serve as a surrogate small animal model for arenavirus hemorrhagic fevers. In this report, we show that mutation of each of the five RNase catalytic residues of PICV NP diminishes the IFN suppression activity and slightly reduces the viral RNA replication activity. Recombinant PICVs with RNase catalytic mutations can induce high levels of IFNs and barely grow in IFN-competent A549 cells, in sharp contrast to the wild-type (WT) virus, while in IFN-deficient Vero cells, both WT and mutant viruses can replicate at relatively high levels. Upon infection of guinea pigs, the RNase mutant viruses stimulate strong IFN responses, fail to replicate productively, and can become WT revertants. Serial passages of the RNase mutants in vitro can also generate WT revertants. Thus, the NP RNase function is essential for the innate immune suppression that allows the establishment of a productive early viral infection, and it may be partly involved in the process of viral RNA replication. IMPORTANCE Arenaviruses, such as Lassa, Lujo, and Machupo viruses, can cause severe and deadly hemorrhagic fever diseases in humans, and there are limited preventative and treatment options against these diseases. Development of broad-spectrum antiviral drugs depends on a better mechanistic understanding of the conserved arenavirus proteins in viral infection. The nucleoprotein (NPs) of all arenaviruses carry a unique exoribonuclease (RNase) domain that has been shown to be critical for the suppression of type I interferons. However, the functional roles of the NP RNase in arenavirus replication and host immune suppression have not been characterized systematically. Using a prototype arenavirus, Pichinde virus (PICV), we characterized the viral growth and innate immune suppression of recombinant RNase-defective mutants in both cell culture and guinea pig models. Our study suggests that the NP RNase plays an essential role in the suppression of host innate immunity, and possibly in viral RNA replication, and that it can serve as a novel target for developing antiviral drugs against arenavirus pathogens. PMID:25878103

  5. In Vitro Oocyte Maturation and Preantral Follicle Culture from the Luteal-Phase Baboon Ovary Produce Mature Oocytes1

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Min; Fazleabas, Asgerally T.; Shikanov, Ariella; Jackson, Erin; Barrett, Susan L.; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jenny; Kiesewetter, Sarah E.; Shea, Lonnie D.; Woodruff, Teresa K.

    2010-01-01

    Female cancer patients who seek fertility preservation but cannot undergo ovarian stimulation and embryo preservation may consider 1) retrieval of immature oocytes followed by in vitro maturation (IVM) or 2) ovarian tissue cryopreservation followed by transplantation or in vitro follicle culture. Conventional IVM is carried out during the follicular phase of menstrual cycle. There is limited evidence demonstrating that immature oocyte retrieved during the luteal phase can mature in vitro and be fertilized to produce viable embryos. While in vitro follicle culture is successful in rodents, its application in nonhuman primates has made limited progress. The objective of this study was to investigate the competence of immature luteal-phase oocytes from baboon and to determine the effect of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on baboon preantral follicle culture and oocyte maturation in vitro. Oocytes from small antral follicle cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) with multiple cumulus layers (42%) were more likely to resume meiosis and progress to metaphase II (MII) than oocytes with a single layer of cumulus cells or less (23% vs. 3%, respectively). Twenty-four percent of mature oocytes were successfully fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and 25% of these developed to morula-stage embryos. Preantral follicles were encapsulated in fibrin-alginate-matrigel matrices and cultured to small antral stage in an FSH-independent manner. FSH negatively impacted follicle health by disrupting the integrity of oocyte and cumulus cells contact. Follicles grown in the absence of FSH produced MII oocytes with normal spindle structure. In conclusion, baboon luteal-phase COCs and oocytes from cultured preantral follicles can be matured in vitro. Oocyte meiotic competence correlated positively with the number of cumulus cell layers. This study clarifies the parameters of the follicle culture system in nonhuman primates and provides foundational data for future clinical development as a fertility preservation option for women with cancer. PMID:21123815

  6. Profiling of Luteal Transcriptome during Prostaglandin F2-Alpha Treatment in Buffalo Cows: Analysis of Signaling Pathways Associated with Luteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Suganthi, Hepziba; Rudraiah, Medhamurthy

    2014-01-01

    In several species including the buffalo cow, prostaglandin (PG) F2α is the key molecule responsible for regression of corpus luteum (CL). Experiments were carried out to characterize gene expression changes in the CL tissue at various time points after administration of luteolytic dose of PGF2α in buffalo cows. Circulating progesterone levels decreased within 1 h of PGF2α treatment and evidence of apoptosis was demonstrable at 18 h post treatment. Microarray analysis indicated expression changes in several of immediate early genes and transcription factors within 3 h of treatment. Also, changes in expression of genes associated with cell to cell signaling, cytokine signaling, steroidogenesis, PG synthesis and apoptosis were observed. Analysis of various components of LH/CGR signaling in CL tissues indicated decreased LH/CGR protein expression, pCREB levels and PKA activity post PGF2α treatment. The novel finding of this study is the down regulation of CYP19A1 gene expression accompanied by decrease in expression of E2 receptors and circulating and intra luteal E2 post PGF2α treatment. Mining of microarray data revealed several differentially expressed E2 responsive genes. Since CYP19A1 gene expression is low in the bovine CL, mining of microarray data of PGF2α-treated macaques, the species with high luteal CYP19A1 expression, showed good correlation between differentially expressed E2 responsive genes between both the species. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that PGF2α interferes with luteotrophic signaling, impairs intra-luteal E2 levels and regulates various signaling pathways before the effects on structural luteolysis are manifest. PMID:25102061

  7. Chronic regulation of ovarian oxytocin and progesterone release by prostaglandins: opposite effects in bovine granulosa and early luteal cells.

    PubMed

    McArdle, C A

    1990-08-01

    Oxytocin is synthesized in the granulosa-derived large cells of the ruminant corpus luteum from a gene which is dramatically up-regulated in the first few days after ovulation. In this work, the regulation of granulosa and luteal cells by prostaglandins and insulin (or insulin-like growth factor-I; IGF-I) has been explored by comparing their effects on oxytocin and progesterone production in cell culture. In granulosa cells, chronic exposure to insulin (17 nmol/l) stimulated luteinization as indicated by increased release of oxytocin and progesterone. Prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) alone had little effect, but synergized with insulin (or IGF-I) to increase the release of both these hormones. In direct contrast, insulin-stimulated oxytocin production by luteal cells was inhibited by PGF2 alpha. The half-maximal dose (EC50) for PGF2 alpha action in both cell preparations was similar (10-100 nmol/l). Dose-response studies revealed that PGF2 alpha increased the potency of insulin in granulosa cells (EC50 for insulin-stimulation of oxytocin release reduced from 141 to 13 nmol/l by 1 mumol PGF2 alpha/l), but not in luteal cells. Insulin-stimulated oxytocin release from granulosa cells was also synergistically increased by PGE1, PGE2 and forskolin, suggesting this effect to be mediated by adenylate cyclase-coupled PGE receptors. The results reveal that the effects of prostaglandins on oxytocin release are dependent on both the developmental stage of the target tissue and on the presence of other regulators of cellular differentiation. Moreover, they suggest that the increase in responsiveness to insulin and IGF-I, which appears to accompany luteinization in the cow, may be an effect of prostaglandins produced locally during the peri-ovulatory period. PMID:2401866

  8. Functional analysis of the catalytic subunit of Dictyostelium PKA in vivo.

    PubMed

    Dammann, H; Traincard, F; Anjard, C; van Bemmelen, M X; Reymond, C; Véron, M

    1998-03-01

    The catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) from Dictyostelium discoideum contains several domains, including an unusually long N-terminal extension preceding a highly conserved catalytic core. We transformed the aggregationless PkaC-null strain with several deletion constructs of both domains. Strains transformed with genes expressing catalytically-inactive polypeptides could not rescue development. Cotransformation with constructs encoding the N-terminal extension and the catalytic core, both unable to rescue development by themselves, yielded transformants able to proceed to late development. A 27-amino acid long hydrophobic region, immediately upstream of the catalytic core, was found indispensable for PKA function. A putative role of this sequence in the acquisition of the active conformation of the protein is discussed. PMID:9533959

  9. Functional Optical Coherence Tomography Enables In Vivo Physiological Assessment of Retinal Rod and Cone Photoreceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiuxiang; Lu, Rongwen; Wang, Benquan; Messinger, Jeffrey D.; Curcio, Christine A.; Yao, Xincheng

    2015-04-01

    Transient intrinsic optical signal (IOS) changes have been observed in retinal photoreceptors, suggesting a unique biomarker for eye disease detection. However, clinical deployment of IOS imaging is challenging due to unclear IOS sources and limited signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Here, by developing high spatiotemporal resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) and applying an adaptive algorithm for IOS processing, we were able to record robust IOSs from single-pass measurements. Transient IOSs, which might reflect an early stage of light phototransduction, are consistently observed in the photoreceptor outer segment almost immediately (<4 ms) after retinal stimulation. Comparative studies of dark- and light-adapted retinas have demonstrated the feasibility of functional OCT mapping of rod and cone photoreceptors, promising a new method for early disease detection and improved treatment of diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other eye diseases that can cause photoreceptor damage.

  10. In vivo BOLD contrast MRI mapping of subcutaneous vascular function and maturation: validation by intravital microscopy.

    PubMed

    Neeman, M; Dafni, H; Bukhari, O; Braun, R D; Dewhirst, M W

    2001-05-01

    Bold contrast MRI was applied for mapping vascular maturation in tumor- and wound-induced skin angiogenesis using the response of mature vessels to hypercapnia (inhalation of air vs. air 5% CO(2)) and the response of all vessels to hyperoxia (air 5% CO(2) vs. oxygen 5% CO(2) (carbogen)). MRI signal enhancement with hypercapnia was reduced in centered vs. linear phase encoding, suggesting increased blood flow. However, intravital microscopy demonstrated constriction of arterioles and reduced flux and density of red blood cells in mature capillaries with hypercapnia, with no change in the diameter of wound-induced neovasculature. The discrepancy in flow between MRI and intravital microscopy is consistent with increased plasma flow and reduced hematocrit. Hyperoxia resulted in increased blood oxygenation and constriction of all vessels. These results provide a hemodynamic explanation for the selective registration of MRI response to hypercapnia with mature vessels and the response to hyperoxia with total vascular function. PMID:11323816

  11. In vivo genome editing improves muscle function in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Christopher E; Hakim, Chady H; Ousterout, David G; Thakore, Pratiksha I; Moreb, Eirik A; Castellanos Rivera, Ruth M; Madhavan, Sarina; Pan, Xiufang; Ran, F Ann; Yan, Winston X; Asokan, Aravind; Zhang, Feng; Duan, Dongsheng; Gersbach, Charles A

    2016-01-22

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating disease affecting about 1 out of 5000 male births and caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Genome editing has the potential to restore expression of a modified dystrophin gene from the native locus to modulate disease progression. In this study, adeno-associated virus was used to deliver the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 system to the mdx mouse model of DMD to remove the mutated exon 23 from the dystrophin gene. This includes local and systemic delivery to adult mice and systemic delivery to neonatal mice. Exon 23 deletion by CRISPR-Cas9 resulted in expression of the modified dystrophin gene, partial recovery of functional dystrophin protein in skeletal myofibers and cardiac muscle, improvement of muscle biochemistry, and significant enhancement of muscle force. This work establishes CRISPR-Cas9-based genome editing as a potential therapy to treat DMD. PMID:26721684

  12. Development of optical neuroimaging to detect drug-induced brain functional changes in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Congwu; Pan, Yingtian

    2014-03-01

    Deficits in prefrontal function play a crucial role in compulsive cocaine use, which is a hallmark of addiction. Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex might result from effects of cocaine on neurons as well as from disruption of cerebral blood vessels. However, the mechanisms underlying cocaine's neurotoxic effects are not fully understood, partially due to technical limitations of current imaging techniques (e.g., PET, fMRI) to differentiate vascular from neuronal effects at sufficiently high temporal and spatial resolutions. We have recently developed a multimodal imaging platform which can simultaneously characterize the changes in cerebrovascular hemodynamics, hemoglobin oxygenation and intracellular calcium fluorescence for monitoring the effects of cocaine on the brain. Such a multimodality imaging technique (OFI) provides several uniquely important merits, including: 1) a large field-of-view, 2) high spatiotemporal resolutions, 3) quantitative 3D imaging of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) networks, 4) label-free imaging of hemodynamic changes, 5) separation of vascular compartments (e.g., arterial and venous vessels) and monitoring of cortical brain metabolic changes, 6) discrimination of cellular (neuronal) from vascular responses. These imaging features have been further advanced in combination with microprobes to form micro-OFI that allows quantification of drug effects on subcortical brain. In addition, our ultrahigh-resolution ODT (μODT) enables 3D microangiography and quantitative imaging of capillary CBF networks. These optical strategies have been used to investigate the effects of cocaine on brain physiology to facilitate the studies of brain functional changes induced by addictive substance to provide new insights into neurobiological effects of the drug on the brain.

  13. Brain basis of early parent–infant interactions: psychology, physiology, and in vivo functional neuroimaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Swain, James E.; Lorberbaum, Jeffrey P.; Kose, Samet; Strathearn, Lane

    2015-01-01

    Parenting behavior critically shapes human infants’ current and future behavior. The parent–infant relationship provides infants with their first social experiences, forming templates of what they can expect from others and how to best meet others’ expectations. In this review, we focus on the neurobiology of parenting behavior, including our own functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain imaging experiments of parents. We begin with a discussion of background, perspectives and caveats for considering the neurobiology of parent–infant relationships. Then, we discuss aspects of the psychology of parenting that are significantly motivating some of the more basic neuroscience research. Following that, we discuss some of the neurohormones that are important for the regulation of social bonding, and the dysregulation of parenting with cocaine abuse. Then, we review the brain circuitry underlying parenting, proceeding from relevant rodent and nonhuman primate research to human work. Finally, we focus on a study-by-study review of functional neuroimaging studies in humans. Taken together, this research suggests that networks of highly conserved hypothalamic–midbrain–limbic–paralimbic–cortical circuits act in concert to support aspects of parent response to infants, including the emotion, attention, motivation, empathy, decision-making and other thinking that are required to navigate the complexities of parenting. Specifically, infant stimuli activate basal forebrain regions, which regulate brain circuits that handle specific nurturing and caregiving responses and activate the brain’s more general circuitry for handling emotions, motivation, attention, and empathy – all of which are crucial for effective parenting. We argue that an integrated understanding of the brain basis of parenting has profound implications for mental health. PMID:17355399

  14. A novel RNA oligonucleotide improves liver function and inhibits liver carcinogenesis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Reebye, V.; Sætrom, P.; Mintz, P.J.; Huang, K.W.; Swiderski, P.; Peng, L.; Liu, C.; Liu, X.X.; Jensen, S.; Zacharoulis, D.; Kostomitsopoulos, N.; Kasahara, N.; Nicholls, J.P.; Jiao, L.R.; Pai, M.; Mizandari, M.; Chikovani, T.; Emara, M.M.; Haoudi, A.; Tomalia, D.A.; Rossi, J.J.; Habib, N.A.; Spalding, D.R.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurs predominantly in patients with liver cirrhosis. Here, we show an innovative RNA-based targeted approach to enhance endogenous albumin production whilst reducing liver tumour burden. We designed short-activating RNAs (saRNA) to enhance expression of C/EBPα (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α), a transcriptional regulator and activator of albumin gene expression. Increased levels of both C/EBPα and albumin mRNA in addition to a 3-fold increase in albumin secretion and 50% decrease in cell proliferation was observed in C/EBPα-saRNA transfected HepG2 cells. Intravenous injection of C/EBPα-saRNA in a cirrhotic rat model with multifocal liver tumours increased circulating serum albumin by over 30% showing evidence of improved liver function. Tumour burden decreased by 80% (p = 0.003) with a 40% reduction in a marker of pre-neoplastic transformation. Since C/EBPα has known anti-proliferative activities via retinoblastoma, p21 and cyclins; we used mRNA expression liver cancer specific microarray in C/EBPα-saRNA transfected HepG2 cells to confirm down-regulation of genes strongly enriched for negative regulation of apoptosis, angiogenesis and metastasis. Up-regulated genes were enriched for tumour suppressors and positive regulators of cell differentiation. A quantitative PCR and Western-blot analysis of C/EBPα-saRNA transfected cells suggested that in addition to the known anti-proliferative targets of C/EBPα, we also observed suppression of IL6R, c-Myc and reduced STAT3 phosphorylation. Conclusion We demonstrate for the first time that a novel injectable saRNA-oligonucleotide that enhances C/EBPα expression successfully reduces tumour burden and simultaneously improves liver function in a clinically relevant liver cirrhosis/HCC model. PMID:23929703

  15. Brain basis of early parent-infant interactions: psychology, physiology, and in vivo functional neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Swain, James E; Lorberbaum, Jeffrey P; Kose, Samet; Strathearn, Lane

    2007-01-01

    Parenting behavior critically shapes human infants' current and future behavior. The parent-infant relationship provides infants with their first social experiences, forming templates of what they can expect from others and how to best meet others' expectations. In this review, we focus on the neurobiology of parenting behavior, including our own functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain imaging experiments of parents. We begin with a discussion of background, perspectives and caveats for considering the neurobiology of parent-infant relationships. Then, we discuss aspects of the psychology of parenting that are significantly motivating some of the more basic neuroscience research. Following that, we discuss some of the neurohormones that are important for the regulation of social bonding, and the dysregulation of parenting with cocaine abuse. Then, we review the brain circuitry underlying parenting, proceeding from relevant rodent and nonhuman primate research to human work. Finally, we focus on a study-by-study review of functional neuroimaging studies in humans. Taken together, this research suggests that networks of highly conserved hypothalamic-midbrain-limbic-paralimbic-cortical circuits act in concert to support aspects of parent response to infants, including the emotion, attention, motivation, empathy, decision-making and other thinking that are required to navigate the complexities of parenting. Specifically, infant stimuli activate basal forebrain regions, which regulate brain circuits that handle specific nurturing and caregiving responses and activate the brain's more general circuitry for handling emotions, motivation, attention, and empathy--all of which are crucial for effective parenting. We argue that an integrated understanding of the brain basis of parenting has profound implications for mental health. PMID:17355399

  16. In vivo functional analysis of the Drosophila melanogaster nicotinic acetylcholine receptor Dα6 using the insecticide spinosad.

    PubMed

    Somers, Jason; Nguyen, Joseph; Lumb, Chris; Batterham, Phil; Perry, Trent

    2015-09-01

    The vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been used to identify and manipulate insecticide resistance genes. The advancement of genome engineering technology and the increasing availability of pest genome sequences has increased the predictive and diagnostic capacity of the Drosophila model. The Drosophila model can be extended to investigate the basic biology of the interaction between insecticides and the proteins they target. Recently we have developed an in vivo system that permits the expression and study of key insecticide targets, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), in controlled genetic backgrounds. Here this system is used to study the interaction between the insecticide spinosad and a nAChR subunit, Dα6. Reciprocal chimeric subunits were created from Dα6 and Dα7, a subunit that does not respond to spinosad. Using the in vivo system, the Dα6/Dα7 chimeric subunits were tested for their capacity to respond to spinosad. Only the subunits containing the C-terminal region of Dα6 were able to respond to spinosad, thus confirming the importance this region for spinosad binding. A new incompletely dominant, spinosad resistance mechanism that may evolve in pest species is also examined. First generated using chemical mutagenesis, the Dα6(P146S) mutation was recreated using the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system, the first use of this technology to introduce a resistant mutation into a controlled genetic background. Both alleles present with the same incompletely dominant, spinosad resistance phenotype, proving the P146S replacement to be the causal mutation. The proximity of the P146S mutation to the conserved Cys-loop indicates that it may impair the gating of the receptor. The results of this study enhance the understanding of nAChR structure:function relationships. PMID:25747007

  17. Differential modulations of striatal tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine metabolism by cannabinoid agonists as evidence for functional selectivity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bosier, Barbara; Muccioli, Giulio G; Mertens, Birgit; Sarre, Sophie; Michotte, Yvette; Lambert, Didier M; Hermans, Emmanuel

    2012-06-01

    It is generally assumed that cannabinoids induce transient modulations of dopamine transmission through indirect regulation of its release. However, we previously described a direct cannabinoid-mediated control of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression, in vitro. We herein report on the influence of cannabinoid agonists on the expression of this key enzyme in catecholamine synthesis as well as on the modification of dopamine content in adult rats. As expected for cannabinoid agonists, the exposure to either Δ(9)-THC, HU 210 or CP 55,940 induced both catalepsy and hypolocomotion. Supporting a possible long-lasting control on dopaminergic activity, we noticed a significant HU 210-mediated increase in TH expression in the striatum that was concomitant with an increase in striatal dopamine content. Surprisingly, while a similar trend was reported with Δ(9)-THC, CP 55,940 completely failed to modulate TH expression or dopamine content. Nevertheless, the access of CP 55,940 to brain structures was validated by determinations of drug concentrations in the tissue and by ex vivo binding experiments. Furthermore, confirming the central activity of CP 55,940, the analysis of dopamine metabolites revealed a reduction in striatal DOPAC concentrations. Consistent with the involvement of the CB(1) cannabinoid receptor in these different responses, both HU 210- and CP 55,940-mediated effects were prevented by SR 141716A. Therefore, the present data suggest that both HU 210 and CP 55,940 cause a delayed/persistent regulation of the dopamine neurotransmission system. Nevertheless, these commonly used cannabinoid agonists endowed with similar pharmacodynamic properties clearly triggered distinct biochemical responses highlighting the existence of functional selectivity in vivo. PMID:22365976

  18. Noninvasive assessment of vascular structure and function in conscious rats based on in vivo imaging of the albino iris

    PubMed Central

    Rarick, Kevin R.; Leick, Katie M.; Burkle, Jason W.; Rotella, Diane L.; Anderson, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental techniques allowing longitudinal studies of vascular disease progression or treatment effects are not readily available for most animal models. Thus, most existing studies are destined to either study individual time points or use large cohorts of animals. Here we describe a noninvasive technique for studying vascular disease that is based on in vivo imaging of the long posterior ciliary artery (LPCA) in the iris of albino rats. Using a slit-lamp biomicroscope, images of the LPCA were taken weekly in conscious normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY, n = 10) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, n = 10) for 10 wk. Using imaging software, we found that lumen diameter was significantly smaller and the wall-to-lumen (W/L) ratio larger in SHR than in WKY. Wall thickness was not different. Blood pressure correlated with the W/L ratio. Histology of the abdominal aorta also revealed a smaller lumen diameter and greater W/L ratio in SHR compared with WKY. Corneal application of the muscarinic receptor agonist pilocarpine elicited a dose-dependent vasodilation of the LPCA that could be antagonized by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase, suggesting that the pilocarpine response is mainly mediated by endothelium-derived nitric oxide. Consistent with endothelial dysfunction in SHR, pilocarpine-induced vasodilation was greater in WKY rats than in SHR. These findings indicate that in vivo imaging of the LPCA allows assessment of several structural and functional vascular parameters in conscious rats and that the LPCA responds to disease insults and pharmacologic treatments in a fashion that will make it a useful model for further studies. PMID:21389331

  19. In Vivo Functional Requirement of the Mouse Ifitm1 Gene for Germ Cell Development, Interferon Mediated Immune Response and Somitogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Klymiuk, Ingeborg; Kenner, Lukas; Adler, Thure; Busch, Dirk H.; Boersma, Auke; Irmler, Martin; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Fuchs, Helmut; Leitner, Nicole; Müller, Mathias; Kühn, Ralf; Schlederer, Michaela; Treise, Irina; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Beckers, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian Interferon induced transmembrane protein 1 (Ifitm1) gene was originally identified as a member of a gene family highly inducible by type I and type II interferons. Based on expression analyses, it was suggested to be required for normal primordial germ cell migration. The knockdown of Ifitm1 in mouse embryos provided evidence for a role in somitogenesis. We generated the first targeted knockin allele of the Ifitm1 gene to systematically reassess all inferred functions. Sperm motility and the fertility of male and female mutant mice are as in wild type littermates. Embryonic somites and the adult vertebral column appear normal in homozygous Ifitm1 knockout mice, demonstrating that Ifitm1 is not essential for normal segmentation of the paraxial mesoderm. Proportions of leucocyte subsets, including granulocytes, monocytes, B-cells, T-cells, NK-cells, and NKT-cells, are unchanged in mutant mice. Based on a normal immune response to Listeria monocytogenes infection, there is no evidence for a dysfunction in downstream IFNγ signaling in Ifitm1 mutant mice. Expression from the Ifitm1 locus from E8.5 to E14.5 is highly dynamic. In contrast, in adult mice, Ifitm1 expression is highly restricted and strong in the bronchial epithelium. Intriguingly, IFITM1 is highly overexpressed in tumor epithelia cells of human squamous cell carcinomas and in adenocarcinomas of NSCLC patients. These analyses underline the general importance of targeted in vivo studies for the functional annotation of the mammalian genome. The first comprehensive description of the Ifitm1 expression pattern provides a rational basis for the further examination of Ifitm1 gene functions. Based on our data, the fact that IFITM1 can function as a negative regulator of cell proliferation, and because the gene maps to chromosome band 11p15.5, previously associated with NSCLC, it is likely that IFITM1 in man has a key role in tumor formation. PMID:23115618

  20. Structural Motifs Critical for In Vivo Function and Stability of the RecQ-Mediated Genome Instability Protein Rmi1

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Jessica A.; Syed, Salahuddin; Schmidt, Kristina H.

    2015-01-01

    Rmi1 is a member of the Sgs1/Top3/Rmi1 (STR) complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and has been implicated in binding and catalytic enhancement of Top3 in the dissolution of double Holliday junctions. Deletion of RMI1 results in a severe growth defect resembling that of top3?. Despite the importance of Rmi1 for cell viability, little is known about its functional domains, particularly in Rmi1 of S. cerevisiae, which does not have a resolved crystal structure and the primary sequence is poorly conserved. Here, we rationally designed point mutations based on bioinformatics analysis of order/disorder and helical propensity to define three functionally important motifs in yeast Rmi1 outside of the proposed OB-fold core. Replacing residues F63, Y218 and E220 with proline, designed to break predicted N-terminal and C-terminal ?-helices, or with lysine, designed to eliminate hydrophobic residues at positions 63 and 218, while maintaining ?-helical structure, caused hypersensitivity to hydroxyurea. Further, Y218P and E220P mutations, but not F63P and F63K mutations, led to reduced Rmi1 levels compared to wild type Rmi1, suggesting a role of the C-terminal ?-helix in Rmi1 stabilization, most likely by protecting the integrity of the OB-fold core. Our bioinformatics analysis also suggests the presence of a disordered linker between the N-terminal ?-helix and the OB fold core; a P88A mutation, designed to increase helicity in this linker, also impaired Rmi1 function in vivo. In conclusion, we propose a model that maps all functionally important structural features for yeast Rmi1 based on biological findings in yeast and structure-prediction-based alignment with the recently established crystal structure of the N-terminus of human Rmi1. PMID:26717309

  1. In Vivo Transplantation of Enteric Neural Crest Cells into Mouse Gut; Engraftment, Functional Integration and Long-Term Safety

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Julie E.; McCann, Conor J.; Natarajan, Dipa; Choudhury, Shanas; Boesmans, Werend; Delalande, Jean-Marie; Vanden Berghe, Pieter; Burns, Alan J.; Thapar, Nikhil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Enteric neuropathies are severe gastrointestinal disorders with unsatisfactory outcomes. We aimed to investigate the potential of enteric neural stem cell therapy approaches for such disorders by transplanting mouse enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs) into ganglionic and aganglionic mouse gut in vivo and analysing functional integration and long-term safety. Design Neurospheres generated from yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) expressing ENCCs selected from postnatal Wnt1-cre;R26R-YFP/YFP murine gut were transplanted into ganglionic hindgut of wild-type littermates or aganglionic hindgut of Ednrbtm1Ywa mice (lacking functional endothelin receptor type-B). Intestines were then assessed for ENCC integration and differentiation using immunohistochemistry, cell function using calcium imaging, and long-term safety using PCR to detect off-target YFP expression. Results YFP+ ENCCs engrafted, proliferated and differentiated into enteric neurons and glia within recipient ganglionic gut. Transplanted cells and their projections spread along the endogenous myenteric plexus to form branching networks. Electrical point stimulation of endogenous nerve fibres resulted in calcium transients (F/F0 = 1.16±0.01;43 cells, n = 6) in YFP+ transplanted ENCCs (abolished with TTX). Long-term follow-up (24 months) showed transplanted ENCCs did not give rise to tumours or spread to other organs (PCR negative in extraintestinal sites). In aganglionic gut ENCCs similarly spread and differentiated to form neuronal and glial networks with projections closely associated with endogenous neural networks of the transition zone. Conclusions Transplanted ENCCs successfully engrafted into recipient ganglionic and aganglionic gut showing appropriate spread, localisation and, importantly, functional integration without any long-term safety issues. This study provides key support for the development and use of enteric neural stem cell therapies. PMID:26824433

  2. Novel Chemical Suppressors of Long QT Syndrome Identified by an in vivo Functional Screen

    PubMed Central

    Peal, David S.; Mills, Robert W.; Lynch, Stacey N.; Mosley, Janet M.; Lim, Evi; Elllinor, Patrick T.; January, Craig T.; Peterson, Randall T.; Milan, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic long QT (LQT) syndrome is a life-threatening disorder caused by mutations that result in prolongation of cardiac repolarization. Recent work has demonstrated that a zebrafish model of LQT syndrome faithfully recapitulates several features of human disease including prolongation of ventricular action potential duration (APD), spontaneous early after-depolarizations, and 2:1 atrioventricular (AV) block in early stages of development. Due to their transparency, small size, and absorption of small molecules from their environment, zebrafish are amenable to high throughput chemical screens. We describe a small molecule screen using the zebrafish KCNH2 mutant breakdance to identify compounds that can rescue the LQT type 2 phenotype. Methods and Results Zebrafish breakdance embryos were exposed to test compounds at 48 hours of development and scored for rescue of 2:1 AV block at 72 hours in a 96-well format. Only compounds that suppressed the LQT phenotype in three of three fish were considered hits. Screen compounds were obtained from commercially available small molecule libraries (Prestwick and Chembridge). Initial hits were confirmed with dose response testing and time course studies. Optical mapping using the voltage sensitive dye di-4 ANEPPS was performed to measure compound effects on cardiac APDs. Screening of 1200 small molecules resulted in the identification of flurandrenolide and 2-methoxy-N-(4-methylphenyl) benzamide (2-MMB) as compounds that reproducibly suppressed the LQT phenotype. Optical mapping confirmed that treatment with each compound caused shortening of ventricular APDs. Structure activity studies and steroid receptor knockdown suggest that flurandrenolide functions via the glucocorticoid signaling pathway. Conclusions Using a zebrafish model of LQT type 2 syndrome in a high throughput chemical screen, we have identified two compounds, flurandrenolide and the novel compound, 2-MMB, as small molecules that rescue the zebrafish LQTS 2 by shortening the ventricular action potential duration. We provide evidence that flurandrenolide functions via the glucocorticoid receptor mediated pathway. These two molecules, and future discoveries from this screen, should yield novel tools for the study of cardiac electrophysiology and may lead to novel therapeutics for human LQT patients. PMID:21098441

  3. Functional assessment of disease-associated regulatory variants in vivo using a versatile dual colour transgenesis strategy in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Shipra; Gordon, Christopher T; Foster, Robert G; Melin, Lucie; Abadie, Véronique; Baujat, Geneviève; Vazquez, Marie-Paule; Amiel, Jeanne; Lyonnet, Stanislas; van Heyningen, Veronica; Kleinjan, Dirk A

    2015-06-01

    Disruption of gene regulation by sequence variation in non-coding regions of the genome is now recognised as a significant cause of human disease and disease susceptibility. Sequence variants in cis-regulatory elements (CREs), the primary determinants of spatio-temporal gene regulation, can alter transcription factor binding sites. While technological advances have led to easy identification of disease-associated CRE variants, robust methods for discerning functional CRE variants from background variation are lacking. Here we describe an efficient dual-colour reporter transgenesis approach in zebrafish, simultaneously allowing detailed in vivo comparison of spatio-temporal differences in regulatory activity between putative CRE variants and assessment of altered transcription factor binding potential of the variant. We validate the method on known disease-associated elements regulating SHH, PAX6 and IRF6 and subsequently characterise novel, ultra-long-range SOX9 enhancers implicated in the craniofacial abnormality Pierre Robin Sequence. The method provides a highly cost-effective, fast and robust approach for simultaneously unravelling in a single assay whether, where and when in embryonic development a disease-associated CRE-variant is affecting its regulatory function. PMID:26030420

  4. Stomatin-Like Protein 2 Is Required for In Vivo Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Supercomplex Formation and Optimal Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Mitsopoulos, Panagiotis; Chang, Yu-Han; Wai, Timothy; König, Tim; Dunn, Stanley D.; Langer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Stomatin-like protein 2 (SLP-2) is a mainly mitochondrial protein that is widely expressed and is highly conserved across evolution. We have previously shown that SLP-2 binds the mitochondrial lipid cardiolipin and interacts with prohibitin-1 and -2 to form specialized membrane microdomains in the mitochondrial inner membrane, which are associated with optimal mitochondrial respiration. To determine how SLP-2 functions, we performed bioenergetic analysis of primary T cells from T cell-selective Slp-2 knockout mice under conditions that forced energy production to come almost exclusively from oxidative phosphorylation. These cells had a phenotype characterized by increased uncoupled mitochondrial respiration and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. Since formation of mitochondrial respiratory chain supercomplexes (RCS) may correlate with more efficient electron transfer during oxidative phosphorylation, we hypothesized that the defect in mitochondrial respiration in SLP-2-deficient T cells was due to deficient RCS formation. We found that in the absence of SLP-2, T cells had decreased levels and activities of complex I-III2 and I-III2-IV1-3 RCS but no defects in assembly of individual respiratory complexes. Impaired RCS formation in SLP-2-deficient T cells correlated with significantly delayed T cell proliferation in response to activation under conditions of limiting glycolysis. Altogether, our findings identify SLP-2 as a key regulator of the formation of RCS in vivo and show that these supercomplexes are required for optimal cell function. PMID:25776552

  5. A novel single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) functionalization agent facilitating in vivo combined chemo/thermo therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liwen; Rong, Pengfei; Chen, Minglong; Gao, Shi; Zhu, Lei

    2015-10-21

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have shown intriguing applications in biotechnological and biomedical fields due to their unique shape and properties. However, the fact that unmodified CNTs are prone to aggregation, stunts CNTs applications under physiological conditions. In this research, we found that as little as 1/5th the single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) weight of Evans Blue (EB) is capable of dispersing SWCNT as well as facilitating SWCNT functionalization. In view of the binding between EB and albumin, the yielding product (SWCNT/EB) demonstrated extreme stability for weeks under physiological conditions and it can be endowed with a therapeutic ability by simply mixing SWCNT/EB with an albumin based drug. Specifically, the formed SWCNT/EB/albumin/PTX nanocomplex exhibits strong near-infrared (NIR) absorbance, and can serve as an agent for chemo/thermal therapeutic purposes. Our in vivo result reveals that SWCNT/EB/albumin/PTX after being administered into the MDA-MB-435 tumor would effectively ablate the tumor by chemo and photothermal therapy. Such a combined treatment strategy provides remarkable therapeutic outcomes in restraining tumor growth compared to chemo or photothermal therapy alone. Overall, our strategy of dispersing SWCNTs by EB can be used as a platform for carrying other drugs or functional genes with the aid of albumin to treat diseases. The present study opens new opportunities in surface modification of SWCNTs for future clinical disease treatment. PMID:26234690

  6. In vivo functional protein-protein interaction: nuclear targeted hsp90 shifts cytoplasmic steroid receptor mutants into the nucleus.

    PubMed Central

    Kang, K I; Devin, J; Cadepond, F; Jibard, N; Guiochon-Mantel, A; Baulieu, E E; Catelli, M G

    1994-01-01

    In target tissue extracts, heat shock protein hsp90 has been found associated to all unliganded steroid receptors. Modulation of important functions of these receptors, including prevention of DNA binding and optimization of transcriptional activity, has been attributed to hsp90. However no unequivocal in vivo demonstration of interaction between receptors and hsp90 has been presented. We targeted chicken hsp90, a mainly cytoplasmic protein, with the nucleoplasmin nuclear localization signal (90NLS). After transfection into COS-7 cells, 90NLS was found in the nucleus with specific immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy techniques. A human glucocorticosteroid receptor mutant devoid of NLS sequence was also expressed in COS-7 cells and found exclusively cytoplasmic. Coexpression of 90NLS and of the cytoplasmic human glucocorticosteroid receptor mutant led to complete nuclear localization of the receptor, indicating its piggyback transport by 90NLS and thus physical and functional interaction between the two proteins in the absence of hormone. The same nuclear localization was obtained after cotransfection of 90NLS and a cytoplasmic rabbit progesterone receptor mutant. Finally, coexpression of wild-type rabbit progesterone receptor (nuclear) and wildtype hsp90 (cytoplasmic) into COS-7 cells provoked partial relocalization of hsp90 into the nucleus. These experiments lay the groundwork on which to study hsp90 as a chaperone, regulating activities of steroid receptors and possibly participating in their nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8278390

  7. In Vivo Quantitative Assessment of Myocardial Structure, Function, Perfusion and Viability Using Cardiac Micro-computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    van Deel, Elza; Ridwan, Yanto; van Vliet, J. Nicole; Belenkov, Sasha; Essers, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    The use of Micro-Computed Tomography (MicroCT) for in vivo studies of small animals as models of human disease has risen tremendously due to the fact that MicroCT provides quantitative high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) anatomical data non-destructively and longitudinally. Most importantly, with the development of a novel preclinical iodinated contrast agent called eXIA160, functional and metabolic assessment of the heart became possible. However, prior to the advent of commercial MicroCT scanners equipped with X-ray flat-panel detector technology and easy-to-use cardio-respiratory gating, preclinical studies of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in small animals required a MicroCT technologist with advanced skills, and thus were impractical for widespread implementation. The goal of this work is to provide a practical guide to the use of the high-speed Quantum FX MicroCT system for comprehensive determination of myocardial global and regional function along with assessment of myocardial perfusion, metabolism and viability in healthy mice and in a cardiac ischemia mouse model induced by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). PMID:26967592

  8. In Vivo Quantitative Assessment of Myocardial Structure, Function, Perfusion and Viability Using Cardiac Micro-computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    van Deel, Elza; Ridwan, Yanto; van Vliet, J Nicole; Belenkov, Sasha; Essers, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    The use of Micro-Computed Tomography (MicroCT) for in vivo studies of small animals as models of human disease has risen tremendously due to the fact that MicroCT provides quantitative high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) anatomical data non-destructively and longitudinally. Most importantly, with the development of a novel preclinical iodinated contrast agent called eXIA160, functional and metabolic assessment of the heart became possible. However, prior to the advent of commercial MicroCT scanners equipped with X-ray flat-panel detector technology and easy-to-use cardio-respiratory gating, preclinical studies of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in small animals required a MicroCT technologist with advanced skills, and thus were impractical for widespread implementation. The goal of this work is to provide a practical guide to the use of the high-speed Quantum FX MicroCT system for comprehensive determination of myocardial global and regional function along with assessment of myocardial perfusion, metabolism and viability in healthy mice and in a cardiac ischemia mouse model induced by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). PMID:26967592

  9. Functional assessment of glioma pathogenesis by in vivo multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging and in vitro analyses.

    PubMed

    Yao, Nai-Wei; Chang, Chen; Lin, Hsiu-Ting; Yen, Chen-Tung; Chen, Jeou-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas are aggressive brain tumors with poor prognosis. In this study, we report a novel approach combining both in vivo multi-parametric MRI and in vitro cell culture assessments to evaluate the pathogenic development of gliomas. Osteopontin (OPN), a pleiotropic factor, has been implicated in the formation and progression of various human cancers, including gliomas, through its functions in regulating cell proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, and migration. Using rat C6 glioma model, the combined approach successfully monitors the acquisition and decrease of cancer hallmarks. We show that knockdown of the expression of OPN reduces C6 cell proliferation, survival, viability and clonogenicity in vitro, and reduces tumor burden and prolongs animal survival in syngeneic rats. OPN depletion is associated with reduced tumor growth, decreased angiogenesis, and an increase of tumor-associated metabolites, as revealed by T2-weighted images, diffusion-weighted images, K(trans) maps, and 1H-MRS, respectively. These strategies allow us to define an important role of OPN in conferring cancer hallmarks, which can be further applied to assess the functional roles of other candidate genes in glioma. In particular, the non-invasive multi-parametric MRI measurement of cancer hallmarks related to proliferation, angiogenesis and altered metabolism may serve as a useful tool for diagnosis and for patient management. PMID:27198662

  10. Functional Assessment of Disease-Associated Regulatory Variants In Vivo Using a Versatile Dual Colour Transgenesis Strategy in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Shipra; Gordon, Christopher T.; Foster, Robert G.; Melin, Lucie; Abadie, Véronique; Baujat, Geneviève; Vazquez, Marie-Paule; Amiel, Jeanne; Lyonnet, Stanislas; van Heyningen, Veronica; Kleinjan, Dirk A.

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of gene regulation by sequence variation in non-coding regions of the genome is now recognised as a significant cause of human disease and disease susceptibility. Sequence variants in cis-regulatory elements (CREs), the primary determinants of spatio-temporal gene regulation, can alter transcription factor binding sites. While technological advances have led to easy identification of disease-associated CRE variants, robust methods for discerning functional CRE variants from background variation are lacking. Here we describe an efficient dual-colour reporter transgenesis approach in zebrafish, simultaneously allowing detailed in vivo comparison of spatio-temporal differences in regulatory activity between putative CRE variants and assessment of altered transcription factor binding potential of the variant. We validate the method on known disease-associated elements regulating SHH, PAX6 and IRF6 and subsequently characterise novel, ultra-long-range SOX9 enhancers implicated in the craniofacial abnormality Pierre Robin Sequence. The method provides a highly cost-effective, fast and robust approach for simultaneously unravelling in a single assay whether, where and when in embryonic development a disease-associated CRE-variant is affecting its regulatory function. PMID:26030420

  11. A yeast mitochondrial leader peptide functions in vivo as a dual targeting signal for both chloroplasts and mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, J; Hack, E; Thornburg, R W; Myers, A M

    1990-01-01

    A fusion protein was expressed in transgenic tobacco and yeast cells to examine the functional conservation of mechanisms for importing precursor proteins from the cytosol into mitochondria and chloroplasts. The test protein consisted of the mitochondrial leader peptide from the yeast precursor to cytochrome oxidase subunit Va (prC5) fused to the reporter protein chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. This protein, denoted prC5/CAT, was transported into the mitochondrial interior in yeast and tobacco cells. In both organisms, the mitochondrial form of prC5/CAT was smaller than the primary translation product, suggesting that proteolytic processing occurred during the transport process. prC5/CAT also was translocated into chloroplasts in vivo, accumulating to approximately the same levels as in plant mitochondria. However, accumulation of prC5/CAT in chloroplasts relative to mitochondria varied with the conditions under which plants were grown. The chloroplast form of prC5/CAT also appeared to have been proteolytically processed, yielding a mature protein of the same apparent size as that seen in mitochondria of either tobacco or yeast. Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase lacking a mitochondrial targeting peptide did not associate with either chloroplasts or mitochondria. The results demonstrated that in plant cells a single leader peptide can interact functionally with the protein translocation systems of both chloroplasts and mitochondria, and raised the possibility that certain native proteins might be shared between these two organelles. PMID:1967076

  12. Functional assessment of the ex vivo vocal folds through biomechanical testing: A review.

    PubMed

    Dion, Gregory R; Jeswani, Seema; Roof, Scott; Fritz, Mark; Coelho, Paulo G; Sobieraj, Michael; Amin, Milan R; Branski, Ryan C

    2016-07-01

    The human vocal folds are complex structures made up of distinct layers that vary in cellular and extracellular composition. The mechanical properties of vocal fold tissue are fundamental to the study of both the acoustics and biomechanics of voice production. To date, quantitative methods have been applied to characterize the vocal fold tissue in both normal and pathologic conditions. This review describes, summarizes, and discusses the most commonly employed methods for vocal fold biomechanical testing. Force-elongation, torsional parallel plate rheometry, simple-shear parallel plate rheometry, linear skin rheometry, and indentation are the most frequently employed biomechanical tests for vocal fold tissues and each provide material properties data that can be used to compare native tissue to diseased or treated tissue. Force-elongation testing is clinically useful, as it allows for functional unit testing, while rheometry provides physiologically relevant shear data, and nanoindentation permits micrometer scale testing across different areas of the vocal fold as well as whole organ testing. Thoughtful selection of the testing technique during experimental design to evaluate a hypothesis is critical to optimize biomechanical testing of vocal fold tissues. PMID:27127075

  13. Structure, functional and cerebral asymmetry: in vivo morphometry of the planum temporale.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, H

    1996-01-01

    Using high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the normal left-right asymmetry of the planum temporale (PT) can be quantified accurately and reliably in the intact human brain. The following main results have emerged from MR measurements of individual direction and degree of PT asymmetry. (1) Normal left-handers are less left-lateralized than normal right-handers, without significant gender effects. This confirms a structural-functional correlation in cerebral asymmetry. (2) The aforementioned handedness difference in PT asymmetry is also found in pairs of normal monozygotic twins discordant for handedness. Thus, structural brain asymmetry may not be genetically determined. (3) Whereas right-handed patients with developmental deficits of phonological processing have been reported to show decrease PT asymmetry, musicians with perfect pitch display exaggerated leftward asymmetry. Thus, increasing leftward asymmetry of auditory-related cortices covering the PT may be correlated with the processing capacity for certain auditory features. Studies of the PT as a structural marker of cerebral asymmetry will continue to contribute to a better understanding of the phylogeny and ontogeny of laterality. PMID:8994197

  14. In vivo alterations in skeletal muscle form and function after disuse atrophy.

    PubMed

    Clark, Brian C

    2009-10-01

    Prolonged reductions in muscle activity and mechanical loading (e.g., bed rest, cast immobilization) result in alterations in skeletal muscle form and function. The purpose of this review article was to synthesize recent findings from several studies on the dramatic effects of disuse on skeletal muscle morphology and muscle performance in humans. Specifically, the following are discussed: 1) how the antigravity muscles are most susceptible to atrophy and how the degree of atrophy varies between muscle groups; 2) how disuse alters muscle composition by increasing intermuscular adipose tissue; 3) the influence of different disuse models on regulating the loss of muscle mass and strength, with immobilization causing greater reductions than bed rest and limb suspension do; 4) the observation that disuse decreases strength to a greater extent than muscle mass and the role of adaptations in both neural and contractile properties that influences this excessive loss of strength; 5) the equivocal findings on the effect of disuse on muscle fatigue resistance; and 6) the reduction in motor control after prolonged disuse. Lastly, emerging data warranting further inquiry into the modulating role of biological sex on disuse-induced adaptations are also discussed. PMID:19727027

  15. In vivo selection of lethal mutations reveals two functional domains in arginyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Geslain, R; Martin, F; Delagoutte, B; Cavarelli, J; Gangloff, J; Eriani, G

    2000-01-01

    Using random mutagenesis and a genetic screening in yeast, we isolated 26 mutations that inactivate Saccharomyces cerevisiae arginyl-tRNA synthetase (ArgRS). The mutations were identified and the kinetic parameters of the corresponding proteins were tested after purification of the expression products in Escherichia coli. The effects were interpreted in the light of the crystal structure of ArgRS. Eighteen functional residues were found around the arginine-binding pocket and eight others in the carboxy-terminal domain of the enzyme. Mutations of these residues all act by strongly impairing the rates of tRNA charging and arginine activation. Thus, ArgRS and tRNA(Arg) can be considered as a kind of ribonucleoprotein, where the tRNA, before being charged, is acting as a cofactor that activates the enzyme. Furthermore, by using different tRNA(Arg) isoacceptors and heterologous tRNA(Asp), we highlighted the crucial role of several residues of the carboxy-terminal domain in tRNA recognition and discrimination. PMID:10744027

  16. Heparan sulfate 6-O-endosulfatases: discrete in vivo activities and functional co-operativity

    PubMed Central

    Lamanna, WilliamC.; Baldwin, RebeccaJ.; Padva, Michael; Kalus, Ina; ten Dam, Gerdy; van Kuppevelt, ToinH.; Gallagher, JohnT.; von Figura, Kurt; Dierks, Thomas; Merry, CatherineL.R.

    2006-01-01

    HS (heparan sulfate) is essential for normal embryonic development. This requirement is due to the obligatory role for HS in the signalling pathways of many growth factors and morphogens that bind to sulfated domains in the HS polymer chain. The sulfation patterning of HS is determined by a complex interplay of Golgi-located N- and O-sulfotransferases which sulfate the heparan precursor and cell surface endosulfatases that selectively remove 6-O-sulfates from mature HS chains. In the present study we generated single or double knock-out mice for the two murine endosulfatases mSulf1 and mSulf2. Detailed structural analysis of HS from mSulf1?/? fibroblasts showed a striking increase in 6-O-sulfation, which was not seen in mSulf2?/? HS. Intriguingly, the level of 6-O-sulfation in the double mSulf1?/?/2?/? HS was significantly higher than that observed in the mSulf1?/? counterpart. These data imply that mSulf1 and mSulf2 are functionally co-operative. Unlike their avian orthologues, mammalian Sulf activities are not restricted to the highly sulfated S-domains of HS. Mitogenesis assays with FGF2 (fibroblast growth factor 2) revealed that Sulf activity decreases the activating potential of newly-synthesized HS, suggesting an important role for these enzymes in cell growth regulation in embryonic and adult tissues. PMID:16901266

  17. Dynamic noninvasive monitoring of renal function in vivo by fluorescence lifetime imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goiffon, Reece J.; Akers, Walter J.; Berezin, Mikhail Y.; Lee, Hyeran; Achilefu, Samuel

    2009-03-01

    Kidneys normally filter the blood of excess salts and metabolic products, such as urea, while retaining plasma proteins. In diseases such as multiple myeloma and diabetes mellitus, the renal function is compromised and protein escapes into the urine. In this study, we present the use of fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLI) to image excess serum protein in urine (proteinuria). The near-infrared fluorescent dye LS-288 has distinct lifetimes when bound to protein versus free in solution, providing contrast between the protein-rich viscera and the mostly protein-free bladder. FLI with LS-288 in mice revealed that fluorescence lifetime (FLT) differences in the bladder relative to surrounding tissues was due to the fractional contributions of the bound and unbound dye molecules. The FLT of LS-288 decreased in the case of proteinuria while fluorescence intensity was unchanged. The results show that FLI can be useful for the dynamic imaging of protein-losing nephropathy due to diabetes mellitus and other renal diseases and suggest the potential use of the FLI to distinguish tumors from fluid-filled cysts in the body.

  18. Structural basis for the MukB-topoisomerase IV interaction and its functional implications in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Seychelle M; Stewart, Nichole K; Oakley, Martha G; Berger, James M

    2013-01-01

    Chromosome partitioning in Escherichia coli is assisted by two interacting proteins, topoisomerase (topo) IV and MukB. MukB stimulates the relaxation of negative supercoils by topo IV; to understand the mechanism of their action and to define this functional interplay, we determined the crystal structure of a minimal MukB–topo IV complex to 2.3 Å resolution. The structure shows that the so-called ‘hinge' region of MukB forms a heterotetrameric assembly with a C-terminal DNA binding domain (CTD) on topo IV's ParC subunit. Biochemical studies show that the hinge stimulates topo IV by competing for a site on the CTD that normally represses activity on negatively supercoiled DNA, while complementation tests using mutants implicated in the interaction reveal that the cellular dependency on topo IV derives from a joint need for both strand passage and MukB binding. Interestingly, the configuration of the MukB·topo IV complex sterically disfavours intradimeric interactions, indicating that the proteins may form oligomeric arrays with one another, and suggesting a framework by which MukB and topo IV may collaborate during daughter chromosome disentanglement. PMID:24097060

  19. Formulation of Functionalized PLGA-PEG Nanoparticles for In Vivo Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jianjun; Teply, Benjamin A.; Sherifi, Ines; Sung, Josephine; Luther, Gaurav; Gu, Frank X.; Levy-Nissenbaum, Etgar; Radovic-Moreno, Aleksandar F.; Langer, Robert; Farokhzad, Omid C.

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticle (NP) size has been shown to significantly effect the biodistribution of targeted and non-targeted NPs in an organ specific manner. Herein we have developed NPs from carboxy-terminated poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-b-PEG-COOH) polymer and studied the effects of altering the following formulation parameters on the size of NPs, including: 1) polymer concentration, 2) drug loading, 3) water miscibility of solvent, and 4) the ratio of water to solvent. We found that NP mean volumetric size correlates linearly with polymer concentration for NPs between 70 and 250 nm in diameter (linear coefficient = 0.99 for NPs formulated with solvents studied). NPs with desirable size, drug loading, and polydispersity were conjugated to the A10 RNA aptamer (Apt) that binds to the Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA), and NP and NP-Apt biodistribution was evaluated in a LNCaP (PSMA+) xenograft mouse model of PCa. The surface functionalization of NPs with the A10 PSMA aptamer significantly enhanced delivery of NPs to tumors vs. equivalent NPs lacking the A10 PSMA aptamer (a 3.77-fold increase at 24 hrs; NP-Apt 0.83% ± 0.21% vs. NP 0.22% ± 0.07% of injected dose per gram of tissue; mean ± s.d., n = 4, p = 0.002). The ability to control NP size together with targeted delivery may result in favorable biodistribution and development of clinically relevant targeted therapies. PMID:17055572

  20. In vivo and in vitro analyses of amygdalar function reveal a role for copper

    PubMed Central

    Gaier, E. D.; Rodriguiz, R. M.; Zhou, J.; Ralle, M.; Wetsel, W. C.; Eipper, B. A.

    2014-01-01

    Mice with a single copy of the peptide amidating monooxygenase (Pam) gene (PAM+/?) are impaired in contextual and cued fear conditioning. These abnormalities coincide with deficient long-term potentiation (LTP) at excitatory thalamic afferent synapses onto pyramidal neurons in the lateral amygdala. Slice recordings from PAM+/? mice identified an increase in GABAergic tone (Gaier ED, Rodriguiz RM, Ma XM, Sivaramakrishnan S, Bousquet-Moore D, Wetsel WC, Eipper BA, Mains RE. J Neurosci 30: 1365613669, 2010). Biochemical data indicate a tissue-specific deficit in Cu content in the amygdala; amygdalar expression of Atox-1 and Atp7a, essential for transport of Cu into the secretory pathway, is reduced in PAM+/? mice. When PAM+/? mice were fed a diet supplemented with Cu, the impairments in fear conditioning were reversed, and LTP was normalized in amygdala slice recordings. A role for endogenous Cu in amygdalar LTP was established by the inhibitory effect of a brief incubation of wild-type slices with bathocuproine disulfonate, a highly selective, cell-impermeant Cu chelator. Interestingly, bath-applied CuSO4 had no effect on excitatory currents but reversibly potentiated the disynaptic inhibitory current. Bath-applied CuSO4 was sufficient to potentiate wild-type amygdala afferent synapses. The ability of dietary Cu to affect signaling in pathways that govern fear-based behaviors supports an essential physiological role for Cu in amygdalar function at both the synaptic and behavioral levels. This work is relevant to neurological and psychiatric disorders in which disturbed Cu homeostasis could contribute to altered synaptic transmission, including Wilson's, Menkes, Alzheimer's, and prion-related diseases. PMID:24554785

  1. Optically-Induced Neuronal Activity Is Sufficient to Promote Functional Motor Axon Regeneration In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Patricia J.; Jones, Laura N.; Mulligan, Amanda; Goolsby, William; Wilhelm, Jennifer C.; English, Arthur W.

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries are common, and functional recovery is very poor. Beyond surgical repair of the nerve, there are currently no treatment options for these patients. In experimental models of nerve injury, interventions (such as exercise and electrical stimulation) that increase neuronal activity of the injured neurons effectively enhance axon regeneration. Here, we utilized optogenetics to determine whether increased activity alone is sufficient to promote motor axon regeneration. In thy-1-ChR2/YFP transgenic mice in which a subset of motoneurons express the light-sensitive cation channel, channelrhodopsin (ChR2), we activated axons in the sciatic nerve using blue light immediately prior to transection and surgical repair of the sciatic nerve. At four weeks post-injury, direct muscle EMG responses evoked with both optical and electrical stimuli as well as the ratio of these optical/electrical evoked EMG responses were significantly greater in mice that received optical treatment. Thus, significantly more ChR2+ axons successfully re-innervated the gastrocnemius muscle in mice that received optical treatment. Sections of the gastrocnemius muscles were reacted with antibodies to Synaptic Vesicle Protein 2 (SV2) to quantify the number of re-occupied motor endplates. The number of SV2+ endplates was greater in mice that received optical treatment. The number of retrogradely-labeled motoneurons following intramuscular injection of cholera toxin subunit B (conjugated to Alexa Fluor 555) was greater in mice that received optical treatment. Thus, the acute (1 hour), one-time optical treatment resulted in robust, long-lasting effects compared to untreated animals as well as untreated axons (ChR2-). We conclude that neuronal activation is sufficient to promote motor axon regeneration, and this regenerative effect is specific to the activated neurons. PMID:27152611

  2. Rumen function in vivo and in vitro in sheep fed Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Barros-Rodríguez, Marcos Antonio; Solorio-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo; Klieve, Athol; Rojas-Herrera, Rafael Antonio; Briceño-Poot, Eduardo Gaspar; Ku-Vera, Juan Carlos

    2015-04-01

    The effect of Leucaena leucocephala inclusion in sheep diets upon rumen function was evaluated. Nine Pelibuey sheep, 32.6 ± 5.33 kg live weight (LW), fitted with rumen cannula were used. A complete randomized block design was employed. Two experimental periods of 60 days each, with 60-day intervals between them, were used. Experimental treatments were as follows (n = 6): T1 (control), 100 % Pennisetum purpureum grass; T2, 20 % L. leucocephala + 80 % P. purpureum; T3, 40 % L. leucocephala + 60 % P. purpureum. In situ rumen neutral detergent fiber (aNDF) and crude protein (CP) degradation, dry matter intake (DMI), volatile fatty acids (VFA) production, estimated methane (CH4) yield, rumen pH, ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3), and protozoa counts were measured. The aNDF in situ rumen degradation of P. purpureum and leucaena was higher (P < 0.05) in T2 and T3. Leucaena CP degradation was higher in T2 and T3 but for P. purpureum it was only significantly higher in T3. Leucaena aNDF and CP degradation rate (c) was 50 % higher (P < 0.05) in T2 and T3, but only higher in T3 for P. purpureum. Voluntary intake and rumen (N-NH3) was higher in T2 and T3 (P = 0.0001, P = 0.005, respectively). Molar VFA proportions were similar for all treatments (P > 0.05). Protozoa counts and in vitro gas production (48 h) were lower in T2 and T3 (P < 0.05, P < 0.0001). Estimated methane yield (mol CH4/day) was higher in sheep fed leucaena (P < 0.0001). However, CH4 yield relative to animal performance (mol CH4/g LW gain) was lower in T2 and T3 (P < 0.0001). In summary, these results indicate that including L. leucocephala in sheep diets did not modify rumen fermentation pattern (same VFA ratios) nor reduce the amount of CH4 per unit of DMI (mol CH4/g DMI). However, leucaena inclusion does increase rumen N-NH3, aNDF and CP digestibility, and voluntary intake. PMID:25764346

  3. In vivo evidence of a functional association between immune cells in blood and brain in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Kanegawa, Naoki; Collste, Karin; Forsberg, Anton; Schain, Martin; Arakawa, Ryosuke; Jucaite, Aurelija; Lekander, Mats; Olgart Höglund, Caroline; Kosek, Eva; Lampa, Jon; Halldin, Christer; Farde, Lars; Varrone, Andrea; Cervenka, Simon

    2016-05-01

    Microglia, the resident macrophages in the central nervous system, are thought to be maintained by a local self-renewal mechanism. Although preclinical and in vitro studies have suggested that the brain may contain immune cells also from peripheral origin, the functional association between immune cells in the periphery and brain at physiological conditions is poorly understood. We examined 32 healthy individuals using positron emission tomography (PET) and [(11)C]PBR28, a radioligand for the 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) which is expressed both in brain microglia and blood immune cells. In 26 individuals, two measurements were performed with varying time intervals. In a subgroup of 19 individuals, of which 12 had repeat examinations, leukocyte numbers in blood was measured on each day of PET measurements. All individuals were genotyped for TSPO polymorphism and categorized as high, mixed, and low affinity binders. We assessed TSPO binding expressed as total distribution volume of [(11)C]PBR28 in brain and in blood cells. TSPO binding in brain was strongly and positively correlated to binding in blood cells both at baseline and when analyzing change between two PET examinations. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between change of leukocyte numbers and change in TSPO binding in brai