Sample records for vivo luteal function

  1. EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) ON EX VIVO LUTEAL FUNCTION IN THE PREGNANT F344 RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) ON EX VIVO LUTEAL FUNCTION IN THE PREGNANT F344 RAT. S. R. Bielmeier1, A. S. Murr2, D. S. Best2, J. M. Goldman2, and M. G. Narotsky2 1 Curriculum in Toxicology, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA 2 Reproductive T...

  2. EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) ON EX VIVO LUTEAL FUNCTION IN THE F344 RAT DURING PREGNANCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Bromodichloromethane (BDCM) on Ex Vivo Luteal Function In the Pregnant F344 Rat Susan R. Bielmeier1, Ashley S. Murr2, Deborah S. Best2, Jerome M. Goldman2, and Michael G. Narotsky2 1Curriculum in Toxicology, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599,...

  3. EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) ON EX VIVO LUTEAL FUNCTION IN THE F344 RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) ON EX VIVO LUTEAL FUNCTION IN THE PREGNANT F344 RAT. S. R. Bielmeier1, A. S. Murr2, D. S. Best2, J. M. Goldman2, and M. G. Narotsky2 1 Curriculum in Toxicology, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA 2 Reproductive T...

  4. Luteal blood flow and luteal function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akihisa Takasaki; Hiroshi Tamura; Ken Taniguchi; Hiromi Asada; Toshiaki Taketani; Aki Matsuoka; Yoshiaki Yamagata; Katsunori Shimamura; Hitoshi Morioka; Norihiro Sugino

    2009-01-01

    Background  Blood flow in the corpus luteum (CL) is associated with luteal function. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether\\u000a luteal function can be improved by increasing CL blood flow in women with luteal phase defect (LFD).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Blood flow impedance in the CL was measured by transvaginal color-pulsed-Doppler-ultrasonography and was expressed as a resistance\\u000a index (RI). The patients with both

  5. Salivary progesterone and luteal function in two low-fertility populations of Northeast Zaire.

    PubMed

    Ellison, P T; Peacock, N R; Lager, C

    1986-08-01

    30 Ituri women (Zaire) -- 14 Efe and 16 Balese -- were targeted as subjects in this study designed to verify that, under field conditions, the salivary steroid method can reliably discern follicular and luteal levels of progesterone in normal menstrual cycles and to examine the hypothesis that infertility among these women is due to tubal factors. Findings of normal ovulatory function in fertile women would support the hypothesis; findings of abnormal gonadal function might either indicate a chronic endocrine imbalance or the short-term effects of nutritional and other stressors. All potential subjects ranged in age between 20-35 years, were involved in stable conjugal unions, had no nursing children, and reported either no births or none within the last 6 years. 25 women completed the study. The Boston field control subjects consisted of 18 volunteers ranging in age between 18-43 years. All reported a history of regular menstrual cycles and were nither using oral steroid contraceptives nor engaged in a regular exercise program. The African women had significantly lower luteal progesterone levels than did the Boston controls. Additionally, a significantly higher proportion of the African women failed to demonstrate clear luteal activity, suggesting that a higher rate of anovulation contributed to the low average luteal progesterone levels. The composite-cross-sectional profile for the Ituri Forest women suggests that the average luteal phase for this group was shorter than for the Boston controls. Further investigations need to determine whether gonadal dysfunction such as observed in this study is a regular feature of the reproductive physiology of women in the Ituri Forest, or whether it emerges only in periods of food shortage and significant weight loss. Gonorrhea may be the major cause of infertility in the Ituri region, but it is likely that other factors directly affecting gonadal function contributed to the observed pattern of low fertility. Clearly, the study illustrates the potential usefulness of salivary steroid assays. PMID:3759049

  6. Effects of endocannabinoid 1 and 2 (CB1; CB2) receptor agonists on luteal weight, circulating progesterone, luteal mRNA for luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors, and luteal unoccupied and occupied receptors for LH in vivo in ewes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole M. Tsutahara; Yoshie S. Weems; J. Alejandro Arreguin-Arevalo; Torrance M. Nett; Magen E. LaPorte; Janelle Uchida; Janelle Pang; Tonya McBride; Ronald D. Randel; Charles W. Weems

    2011-01-01

    Thirty to forty percent of ruminant pregnancies are lost during the first third of gestation due to inadequate progesterone secretion. During the estrous cycle, luteinizing hormone (LH) regulates progesterone secretion by small luteal cells (SLC). Loss of luteal progesterone secretion during the estrous cycle is increased via uterine secretion of prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?) starting on days 12–13 post-estrus in ewes

  7. In vivo intra-luteal implants of prostaglandin (PG) E 1 or E 2 (PGE 1, PGE 2) prevent luteolysis in cows. I. Luteal weight, circulating progesterone, mRNA for luteal luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor, and occupied and unoccupied luteal receptors for LH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshie S. Weems; J. Alejandro Arreguin-Arevalo; Torrance M. Nett; Rhonda C. Vann; Stephen P. Ford; Phillip J. Bridges; Thomas H. Welsh; Andrew W. Lewis; Don A. Neuendorff; Ronald D. Randel; Charles W. Weems

    2011-01-01

    Previously, it was reported that chronic intra-uterine infusion of PGE1 or PGE2 every four hours inhibited luteolysis in ewes. However, estradiol-17? or PGE2 given intra-uterine every 8h did not inhibit luteolysis in heifers, but infusion of estradiol+PGE2 inhibited luteolysis in heifers. The objective of this experiment was to determine whether and how intra-luteal implants containing PGE1 or PGE2 prevent luteolysis

  8. The Effect of Luteal \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. COLIN DUNCAN; ALAN S. MCNEILLY; PETER J. ILLINGWORTH

    2010-01-01

    Luteolysis is associated with tissue remodeling probably involving the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their specific tissue in- hibitors (TIMPs). This study investigated the expression and local- ization of the major MMPs and TIMPs in the human corpus luteum throughout the luteal phase and after luteal rescue with hCG. Cor- pora lutea (n 5 9) were collected at hysterectomy and were

  9. Oral Progestin Priming Increases Ovarian Sensitivity to Gonadotropin Stimulation and Improves Luteal Function in the Cat1

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Rosemary A.; Pelican, Katharine M.; Crosier, Adrienne E.; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S.; Wildt, David E.; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Howard, JoGayle

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT As the only domesticated species known to exhibit both induced and spontaneous ovulation, the cat is a model for understanding the nuances of ovarian control. To explore ovarian sensitivity to exogenous gonadotropins and the influence of progestin priming, we conducted a study of queens that were down-regulated with oral progestin or allowed to cycle normally, followed by low or high doses of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Our metrics included 1) fecal steroid metabolite profiles before and after ovulation induction, 2) laparoscopic examination of ovarian follicles and corpora lutea (CL) on Days 2 and 17 (Day 0 = hCG administration), and 3) ovariohysterectomy (Day 17) to assess CL progesterone concentrations, morphometrics, and histology. Reproductive tracts from time-matched, naturally mated queens (n = 6) served as controls. Every progestin-primed cat (n = 12) produced the desired response of morphologically similar, fresh CL (regardless of eCG/hCG dose) by Day 2, whereas 41.7% of unprimed counterparts (n = 12) failed to ovulate or had variable-aged CL suggestive of prior spontaneous ovulation (P < 0.05). The ovarian response to low, but not high, eCG/hCG was improved (P < 0.05) in primed compared to unprimed cats, indicating increased sensitivity to gonadotropin in the progestin-primed ovary. Progestin priming prevented hyperelevated fecal steroid metabolites and normalized CL progesterone capacity, but only when combined with low eCG/hCG. However, priming failed to prevent ancillary CL formation, smaller CL mass, or abnormal luteal cell density, which were common to all eCG/hCG-treated cats. Thus, the domestic cat exposed to eCG/hCG produces CL with structural and functional aberrations. These anomalies can be partially mitigated by progestin priming, possibly due to a protective effect of progestin associated with enhanced ovarian sensitivity to gonadotropins. PMID:23100619

  10. Beyond Drosophila: RNAi In Vivo and Functional

    E-print Network

    Belles, Xavier

    Beyond Drosophila: RNAi In Vivo and Functional Genomics in Insects Xavier Bell´es Institut de of how to discover these functions. The RNA interference (RNAi) technique, which generates loss-of-function phenotypes by depletion of a chosen transcript, can help to overcome this challenge. RNAi can unveil

  11. Clinostat rotation induces apoptosis in luteal cells of the pregnant rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Hyunwon; Bhat, Ganapathy K.; Sridaran, Rajagopala

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that microgravity induces changes at the cellular level, including apoptosis. However, it is unknown whether microgravity affects luteal cell function. This study was performed to assess whether microgravity conditions generated by clinostat rotation induce apoptosis and affect steroidogenesis by luteal cells. Luteal cells isolated from the corpora lutea of Day 8 pregnant rats were placed in equal numbers in slide flasks (chamber slides). One slide flask was placed in the clinostat and the other served as a stationary control. At 48 h in the clinostat, whereas the levels of progesterone and total cellular protein decreased, the number of shrunken cells increased. To determine whether apoptosis occurred in shrunken cells, Comet and TUNEL assays were performed. At 48 h, the percentage of apoptotic cells in the clinostat increased compared with that in the control. To investigate how the microgravity conditions induce apoptosis, the active mitochondria in luteal cells were detected with JC-1 dye. Cells in the control consisted of many active mitochondria, which were evenly distributed throughout the cell. In contrast, cells in the clinostat displayed fewer active mitochondria, which were distributed either to the outer edge of the cell or around the nucleus. These results suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction induced by clinostat rotation could lead to apoptosis in luteal cells and suppression of progesterone production.

  12. Effects of IL8 and immune cells on the regulation of luteal progesterone secretion.

    PubMed

    Talbott, Heather; Delaney, Abigail; Zhang, Pan; Yu, Yangsheng; Cushman, Robert A; Cupp, Andrea S; Hou, Xiaoying; Davis, John S

    2014-07-01

    Recent studies have suggested that chemokines may mediate the luteolytic action of prostaglandin F2? (PGF). Our objective was to identify chemokines induced by PGF in vivo and to determine the effects of interleukin 8 (IL8) on specific luteal cell types in vitro. Mid-cycle cows were injected with saline or PGF, ovaries were removed after 0.5-4?h, and expression of chemokine was analyzed by qPCR. In vitro expression of IL8 was analyzed after PGF administration and with cell signaling inhibitors to determine the mechanism of PGF-induced chemokine expression. Purified neutrophils were analyzed for migration and activation in response to IL8 and PGF. Purified luteal cell types (steroidogenic, endothelial, and fibroblast cells) were used to identify which cells respond to chemokines. Neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cocultured with steroidogenic cells to determine their effect on progesterone production. IL8, CXCL2, CCL2, and CCL8 transcripts were rapidly increased following PGF treatment in vivo. The stimulatory action of PGF on IL8 mRNA expression in vitro was prevented by inhibition of p38 and JNK signaling. IL8, but not PGF, TNF, or TGFB1, stimulated neutrophil migration. IL8 had no apparent action in purified luteal steroidogenic, endothelial, or fibroblast cells, but stimulated ERK phosphorylation in neutrophils. In coculture experiments neither IL8 nor activated neutrophils altered basal or LH-stimulated luteal cell progesterone synthesis. In contrast, activated PBMCs inhibited LH-stimulated progesterone synthesis from cultured luteal cells. These data implicate a complex cascade of events during luteolysis, involving chemokine signaling, neutrophil recruitment, and immune cell action within the corpus luteum. PMID:24686456

  13. The Role of the Endometrial Oxytocin Receptor in Determining the Length of the Sterile Oestrous Cycle and Ensuring Maintenance of Luteal Function in early Pregnancy in Ruminants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. F. Flint; G. E. Lamming; H. J. Stewart; D. R. E. Abayasekara

    1994-01-01

    The oxytocin receptor, a seven transmembrane domain, G protein-linked receptor molecule, plays a central role in determining the endocrine function of the ruminant uterine endometrium. During nonpregnant cycles the control of this molecule by circulating steroid hormones leads to regression of the corpora lutea. The kinetics of the mechanisms involved determine the time at which luteolysis occurs, and therefore the

  14. Luteal maintenance of pregnancy in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Stansfield, F J; Allen, W R

    2012-06-01

    The ovaries of eight African elephant foetuses and their mothers between 2 and 22 months of gestation, and those of two cycling and two lactating elephants, were examined grossly, histologically and immunocytochemically, with emphasis on the development and regression of accessory corpora lutea (CL) of pregnancy and the steroidogenic capacities of the accessory CL and the foetal ovaries. The results supported recent findings that the accessory CL form as a result of luteinisation, with and without ovulation, of medium-sized follicles during the 3-week inter-luteal period of the oestrous cycle. They enlarge significantly and become steroidogenically active around 5 weeks of gestation, probably in response to the placental lactogen which is secreted by the implanting trophoblast of the conceptus. The large luteal cells stained strongly for 3? hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3?HSD) activity throughout the 22-month gestation period although they showed vacuolation and other degenerative changes in the final months of gestation coincident with hypertrophy and hyperplasia of 3?HSD-positive interstitial cells in the foetal gonads. It is proposed that the progestagens secreted by the enlarged gonads of the elephant foetus may function both to assist the maternal ovaries in supporting the pregnancy state and to induce torpor and intrauterine immobility of the rapidly growing foetus. PMID:22457432

  15. In Vivo Calcium Imaging of Neural Network Function

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-01

    Spatiotemporal activity patterns in local neural networks are fundamental to brain function. Network activity can now be measured in vivo using two-photon imaging of cell populations that are labeled with fluorescent calcium indicators. In this review, we discuss basic aspects of in vivo calcium imaging and highlight recent developments that will help to uncover operating principles of neural circuits.

  16. Simultaneous ex vivo Functional Testing of Two Retinas by in vivo Electroretinogram System

    PubMed Central

    Vinberg, Frans; Kefalov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    An In vivo electroretinogram (ERG) signal is composed of several overlapping components originating from different retinal cell types, as well as noise from extra-retinal sources. Ex vivo ERG provides an efficient method to dissect the function of retinal cells directly from an intact isolated retina of animals or donor eyes. In addition, ex vivo ERG can be used to test the efficacy and safety of potential therapeutic agents on retina tissue from animals or humans. We show here how commercially available in vivo ERG systems can be used to conduct ex vivo ERG recordings from isolated mouse retinas. We combine the light stimulation, electronic and heating units of a standard in vivo system with custom-designed specimen holder, gravity-controlled perfusion system and electromagnetic noise shielding to record low-noise ex vivo ERG signals simultaneously from two retinas with the acquisition software included in commercial in vivo systems. Further, we demonstrate how to use this method in combination with pharmacological treatments that remove specific ERG components in order to dissect the function of certain retinal cell types. PMID:25992809

  17. Luteal lifespan and fertility after estrus synchronization in goats

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Lu Meng; Takayama, Koji; Nakanishi, Yoshitaka; Hamana, Katsumi; Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Kojima, Toshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    The present experiment aims to examine the efficiency of estrus synchronization using progesterone and equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) and to look at luteal function. During the non-breeding and breeding season, 5 adult female Korean native goats were injected intramuscularly with 2.5 ml of physiological saline as the control. A progesterone impregnated intravaginal sponge was then kept in the same goats for 10 days followed, after a week, by an intramuscular injection of 500 IU eCG. Five adult female Nubian goats were mated with a fertile buck during the non-breeding season. During the non-breeding season 2 of the 5 goats showed a normal estrous cycle (ranging from 18 to 21 days) and 3 a short estrous cycle (ranging from 3 to 6 days). During the breeding season the equivalent figures were 1 and 2. The major axes of the corpus luteum (CL) were measured by means of calipers built into the ultrasonography system, and the concentrations of plasma progesterone (P4) were determined by double antibody radioimmunoassay. The mean major axes of the CL in goats showing the short cycle (6.1 ± 0.5 mm) was significantly smaller than in those showing the normal cycle (8.9 ± 0.5 mm; p < 0.01) and also the value of P4 in goats showing the short cycle (4.2 ± 2.1 ng/ml) was significantly lower than for those showing the normal cycle (10.3 ± 4.3 ng/ml; p < 0.05) at day 3 following ovulation. Three out of 5 Nubian goats became pregnant but only one goat carried to full term. The present experiment indicated that a combination of progesterone and eCG was effective in inducing estrus, although it resulted in a high incidence of short luteal lifespan. The low kidding rate and high incidence of embryonic loss may be due to the instability of the luteal lifespan. PMID:18303279

  18. EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE ON EX VIVO AND IN VITRO LUTEAL FUNCTION AND BROMODICHLOROMETHANE TISSUE DOSIMETRY IN THE PREGNANT F344 RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bromodichloromethane (BDCM), a drinking water disinfection by-product, causes pregnancy loss, i.e. full-litter resorption, in F344 rats when treated during the luteinizing hormone (LH)-dependent period. This effect is associated with reduced maternal serum progesterone (P) and LH...

  19. Circumferentially aligned fibers guided functional neoartery regeneration in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Meifeng; Wang, Zhihong; Zhang, Jiamin; Wang, Lina; Yang, Xiaohu; Chen, Jingrui; Fan, Guanwei; Ji, Shenglu; Xing, Cheng; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Qiang; Zhu, Yan; Kong, Deling; Wang, Lianyong

    2015-08-01

    An ideal vascular graft should have the ability to guide the regeneration of neovessels with structure and function similar to those of the native blood vessels. Regeneration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) with circumferential orientation within the grafts is crucial for functional vascular reconstruction in vivo. To date, designing and fabricating a vascular graft with well-defined geometric cues to facilitate simultaneously VSMCs infiltration and their circumferential alignment remains a great challenge and scarcely reported in vivo. Thus, we have designed a bi-layered vascular graft, of which the internal layer is composed of circumferentially aligned microfibers prepared by wet-spinning and an external layer composed of random nanofibers prepared by electrospinning. While the internal circumferentially aligned microfibers provide topographic guidance for in vivo regeneration of circumferentially aligned VSMCs, the external random nanofibers can offer enhanced mechanical property and prevent bleeding during and after graft implantation. VSMCs infiltration and alignment within the scaffold was then evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrated that the circumferentially oriented VSMCs and longitudinally aligned ECs were successfully regenerated in vivo after the bi-layered vascular grafts were implanted in rat abdominal aorta. No formation of thrombosis or intimal hyperplasia was observed up to 3 month post implantation. Further, the regenerated neoartery exhibited contraction and relaxation property in response to vasoactive agents. This new strategy may bring cell-free small diameter vascular grafts closer to clinical application. PMID:26001073

  20. Urethral function after cystectomy: a canine in vivo experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilhelm A. Hiibner; Flavio Trigo-Rocha; Eugen G. Plas; Emil A. Tanagho

    1993-01-01

    To study the function of the pelvic floor and the isolated urethra after removal of the bladder, 5 male and 5 female mongrel dogs were used in an acute in vivo experiment. Urethral pressure changes secondary to unilateral stimulation of the pelvic and pudendal nerves were recorded. After baseline data of the intact system were documented, the following procedures were

  1. Involvement of microtubules in lipoprotein degradation and utilization for steroidogenesis in cultured rat luteal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rajan, V.P.; Menon, K.M.

    1985-12-01

    Cells isolated from superovulated rat ovaries metabolize low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) of human or rat origin and use the lipoprotein-derived cholesterol as a precursor for progesterone production. Under in vitro conditions, both lipoproteins are internalized and degraded in the lysosomes, although degradation of HDL is of lower magnitude than that of LDL. In this report we have examined the role of cellular microtubules in the internalization and degradation of human LDL and HDL in cultured rat luteal cells. The microtubule depolymerizing agents colchicine, podophyllotoxin, vinblastine, and nocodazole as well as taxol, deuterium oxide, and dimethyl sulfoxide, which are known to rapidly polymerize cellular tubulin into microtubules, were used to block the function of microtubules. When these antimicrotubule agents were included in the incubations, degradation of the apolipoproteins of (/sup 125/I)iodo-LDL and (/sup 125/I)iodo-HDL by the luteal cells was inhibited by 50-85% compared to untreated control values. Maximum inhibitory effects were observed when the cells were preincubated with the inhibitor for at least 4 h at 37 C before treatment with the labeled lipoprotein. Lipoprotein-stimulated progesterone production by luteal cells was also inhibited by 50% or more in the presence of antimicrotubule agents. However, basal and hCG-stimulated progesterone production were unaffected by these inhibitors. The binding of (/sup 125/I)iodo-LDL and (/sup 125/I)iodo-HDL to luteal cell plasma membrane receptors was not affected by the microtubule inhibitors. Although binding was unaffected and degradation was impaired in the presence of the inhibitors, there was no detectable accumulation of undegraded lipoprotein within the cells during the 24 h of study.

  2. Dendritic spines: from structure to in vivo function

    PubMed Central

    Rochefort, Nathalie L; Konnerth, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic spines arise as small protrusions from the dendritic shaft of various types of neuron and receive inputs from excitatory axons. Ever since dendritic spines were first described in the nineteenth century, questions about their function have spawned many hypotheses. In this review, we introduce understanding of the structural and biochemical properties of dendritic spines with emphasis on components studied with imaging methods. We then explore advances in in vivo imaging methods that are allowing spine activity to be studied in living tissue, from super-resolution techniques to calcium imaging. Finally, we review studies on spine structure and function in vivo. These new results shed light on the development, integration properties and plasticity of spines. PMID:22791026

  3. Intravital FRET: Probing Cellular and Tissue Function in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Radbruch, Helena; Bremer, Daniel; Mothes, Ronja; Günther, Robert; Rinnenthal, Jan Leo; Pohlan, Julian; Ulbricht, Carolin; Hauser, Anja E; Niesner, Raluca

    2015-01-01

    The development of intravital Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) is required to probe cellular and tissue function in the natural context: the living organism. Only in this way can biomedicine truly comprehend pathogenesis and develop effective therapeutic strategies. Here we demonstrate and discuss the advantages and pitfalls of two strategies to quantify FRET in vivo-ratiometrically and time-resolved by fluorescence lifetime imaging-and show their concrete application in the context of neuroinflammation in adult mice. PMID:26006244

  4. Intravital FRET: Probing Cellular and Tissue Function in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Radbruch, Helena; Bremer, Daniel; Mothes, Ronja; Günther, Robert; Rinnenthal, Jan Leo; Pohlan, Julian; Ulbricht, Carolin; Hauser, Anja E.; Niesner, Raluca

    2015-01-01

    The development of intravital Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) is required to probe cellular and tissue function in the natural context: the living organism. Only in this way can biomedicine truly comprehend pathogenesis and develop effective therapeutic strategies. Here we demonstrate and discuss the advantages and pitfalls of two strategies to quantify FRET in vivo—ratiometrically and time-resolved by fluorescence lifetime imaging—and show their concrete application in the context of neuroinflammation in adult mice. PMID:26006244

  5. Biophotonics techniques for structural and functional imaging, in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ardeshirpour, Yasaman; Gandjbakhche, Amir H.; Najafizadeh, Laleh

    2014-01-01

    In vivo optical imaging is being conducted in a variety of medical applications, including optical breast cancer imaging, functional brain imaging, endoscopy, exercise medicine, and monitoring the photodynamic therapy and progress of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In the past three decades, in vivo diffuse optical breast cancer imaging has shown promising results in cancer detection, and monitoring the progress of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The use of near infrared spectroscopy for functional brain imaging has been growing rapidly. In fluorescence imaging, the difference between autofluorescence of cancer lesions compared to normal tissues were used in endoscopy to distinguish malignant lesions from normal tissue or inflammation and in determining the boarders of cancer lesions in surgery. Recent advances in drugs targeting specific tumor receptors, such as AntiBodies (MAB), has created a new demand for developing non-invasive in vivo imaging techniques for detection of cancer biomarkers, and for monitoring their down regulations during therapy. Targeted treatments, combined with new imaging techniques, are expected to potentially result in new imaging and treatment paradigms in cancer therapy. Similar approaches can potentially be applied for the characterization of other disease-related biomarkers. In this chapter, we provide a review of diffuse optical and fluorescence imaging techniques with their application in functional brain imaging and cancer diagnosis. PMID:22433452

  6. Biophotonics techniques for structural and functional imaging, in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ardeshirpour, Yasaman; Gandjbakhche, Amir H; Najafizadeh, Laleh

    2012-01-01

    In vivo optical imaging is being conducted in a variety of medical applications, including optical breast cancer imaging, functional brain imaging, endoscopy, exercise medicine, and monitoring the photodynamic therapy and progress of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In the past three decades, in vivo diffuse optical breast cancer imaging has shown promising results in cancer detection, and monitoring the progress of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The use of near infrared spectroscopy for functional brain imaging has been growing rapidly. In fluorescence imaging, the difference between autofluorescence of cancer lesions compared to normal tissues were used in endoscopy to distinguish malignant lesions from normal tissue or inflammation and in determining the boarders of cancer lesions in surgery. Recent advances in drugs targeting specific tumor receptors, such as AntiBodies (MAB), has created a new demand for developing non-invasive in vivo imaging techniques for detection of cancer biomarkers, and for monitoring their down regulations during therapy. Targeted treatments, combined with new imaging techniques, are expected to potentially result in new imaging and treatment paradigms in cancer therapy. Similar approaches can potentially be applied for the characterization of other disease-related biomarkers. In this chapter, we provide a review of diffuse optical and fluorescence imaging techniques with their application in functional brain imaging and cancer diagnosis. PMID:22433452

  7. In vivo investigation of cilia structure and function using Xenopus

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Eric R.; Wallingford, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Cilia are key organelles in development and homeostasis. The ever-expanding complement of cilia associated proteins necessitates rapid and tractable models for in vivo functional investigation. Xenopus laevis provides an attractive model for such studies, having multiple ciliated populations, including primary and multiciliated tissues. The rapid external development of Xenopus and the large cells make it an especially excellent platform for imaging studies. Here we present embryological and cell-biological methods for the investigation of cilia structure and function in Xenopus laevis, with a focus on quantitative live and fixed imaging. PMID:25837389

  8. Natural influence of season on follicular, luteal, and endocrinological turnover in Indian crossbred cows.

    PubMed

    Satheshkumar, S; Brindha, K; Roy, A; Devanathan, T G; Kathiresan, D; Kumanan, K

    2015-07-01

    The study was aimed at investigating the effect of seasonal changes on follicular and luteal dynamics in vivo in normally cycling crossbred cows during summer and winter months of the year. Six healthy regularly cycling Jersey crossbred nonlactating pluriparous cows were used for the study. Follicular and luteal developmental pattern was studied every other day throughout the estrous cycle by scanning the ovaries during two periods of a year viz., hot season (April to June; n = 16) and cold season (December to February; n = 12). Plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations were measured on Days 0 (estrus), 6, and 12 of the estrous cycle. Among the 12 cycles studied during the cold season, 11 (91.7%) had three waves and one had two waves. Of 16 cycles studied during the hot season, eight (50%) had two waves, four (25%) had three waves, and the remaining four cycles had single (n = 2) and four waves (n = 2). High P4 concentrations during the midcycle would have suppressed the dominant follicle of the second follicular wave and induced the emergence of the third wave during the cold season. The first follicular wave (wave I) of the cycle emerged much earlier (Day 0.5 ± 0.3) during the cold season than that in the hot season (Day 1.7 ± 0.4). The ovulatory wave emerged significantly earlier during the hot season (Day 11.5 ± 1.3) than in the cold season (Day 14.8 ± 0.4), and hence, the growth phase of ovulatory follicle significantly increased during the former season (11.0 ± 1.4 days) than the latter (5.8 ± 0.2 days). The ovulatory follicle attained a significantly larger diameter (12.8 ± 0.8 mm) to express the estrus during the hot season when compared to the cold season (11.3 ± 0.4 mm), which might be indicative of alterations in steroidogenic activity within the follicular microenvironment. During the midphase of the cycle, a period critical for embryonic sustenance, the P4 level was significantly reduced in the hot months indicating suppression of luteal activity during hot period of the year. Thus, it could be concluded that increased incidence of two follicular waves associated with a prolonged growth phase of the ovulatory follicle, and altered luteal endocrine activity during the hot season might be associated with decreased fertility in crossbred cattle. PMID:25840841

  9. New models for analyzing mast cell functions in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Reber, Laurent L.; Marichal, Thomas; Galli, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    In addition to their well-accepted role as critical effector cells in anaphylaxis and other acute IgE-mediated allergic reactions, mast cells have been implicated in a wide variety of process that contribute to disease or help to maintain health. While some of these roles were first suggested by analyses of mast cell products or functions in vitro, it is critical to determine whether, and under which circumstances, such potential roles actually can be performed by mast cells in vivo. This review discusses recent advances in the development and analysis of mouse models to investigate the roles of mast cells and mast cell-associated products during biological responses in vivo, and comments on some of the similarities and differences in the results obtained with these newer versus older models of mast cell deficiency. PMID:23127755

  10. LUTEAL REGRESSION IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS Department of Animal Science,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    estrogen binding protein in bovine luteal tissues collected throughout the estrous cycle revealed. Significant elevations in plasma estrogen levels 4-16 hrs after PGF2. injections were noted in several in plasma estrogen levels, prevented the luteolytic effects of exogenous PGF2!. These same doses of PGF2

  11. Novel in vivo techniques to visualize kidney anatomy and function.

    PubMed

    Peti-Peterdi, János; Kidokoro, Kengo; Riquier-Brison, Anne

    2015-07-01

    Intravital imaging using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has become an increasingly popular and widely used experimental technique in kidney research over the past few years. MPM allows deep optical sectioning of the intact, living kidney tissue with submicron resolution, which is unparalleled among intravital imaging approaches. MPM has solved a long-standing critical technical barrier in renal research to study several complex and inaccessible cell types and anatomical structures in vivo in their native environment. Comprehensive and quantitative kidney structure and function MPM studies helped our better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the healthy and diseased kidney. This review summarizes recent in vivo MPM studies with a focus on the glomerulus and the filtration barrier, although select, glomerulus-related renal vascular and tubular functions are also mentioned. The latest applications of serial MPM of the same glomerulus in vivo, in the intact kidney over several days, during the progression of glomerular disease are discussed. This visual approach, in combination with genetically encoded fluorescent markers of cell lineage, has helped track the fate and function (e.g., cell calcium changes) of single podocytes during the development of glomerular pathologies, and provided visual proof for the highly dynamic, rather than static, nature of the glomerular environment. Future intravital imaging applications have the promise to further push the limits of optical microscopy, and to advance our understanding of the mechanisms of kidney injury. Also, MPM will help to study new mechanisms of tissue repair and regeneration, a cutting-edge area of kidney research. PMID:25738253

  12. [Localization and functions of mesenchymal stromal cells in vivo].

    PubMed

    Payushina, V

    2015-01-01

    Studying mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) is a very topical problem. Numerous experiments in vitro promoted understanding of MSC biology to a great extent. However, many aspects of their behavior in vivo still remain unclear. This review deals with MSC localization and functioning in an organism. MSC are present in various tissues, changing their numbers and traits during ontogenesis. Pericytes, or adventitial cells, can be considered as possible equivalents of MSC in vivo. Self-maintenance, proliferation, and differentiation of MSC are controlled by their tissue microenvironment that includes surrounding cells, soluble molecules, and extracellular matrix. At early stages of ontogenesis, MSC, probably, migrate throughout an organism. The migration occur also through a mature organism when tissues happen to be damaged. MSC move pointedly to the damaged parts and render a reparative effect which is due, first of all, to paracrine production of bioactive molecules. Immunomodulatory properties of MSC also play their role in tissues regeneration. An important function of MSC consists in creation of hematopoietic microenvironment. They secrete humoral regulators of hemopoiesis such as cytokines and chemoattractants. In addition, they interact with hemopoietic cells via surface molecules. Possibly, MSC sustain the stable functioning of other tissues as well. Their unique features make them quite attractive for clinical use, although successful introduction of MSC into medical practice requires their further studying. PMID:25985489

  13. Neurovascular coupling: in vivo optical techniques for functional brain imaging

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Optical imaging techniques reflect different biochemical processes in the brain, which is closely related with neural activity. Scientists and clinicians employ a variety of optical imaging technologies to visualize and study the relationship between neurons, glial cells and blood vessels. In this paper, we present an overview of the current optical approaches used for the in vivo imaging of neurovascular coupling events in small animal models. These techniques include 2-photon microscopy, laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDi), functional photoacoustic microscopy (fPAM), functional near-infrared spectroscopy imaging (fNIRS) and multimodal imaging techniques. The basic principles of each technique are described in detail, followed by examples of current applications from cutting-edge studies of cerebral neurovascular coupling functions and metabolic. Moreover, we provide a glimpse of the possible ways in which these techniques might be translated to human studies for clinical investigations of pathophysiology and disease. In vivo optical imaging techniques continue to expand and evolve, allowing us to discover fundamental basis of neurovascular coupling roles in cerebral physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:23631798

  14. Use of NADH fluorescence to determine mitochondrial function in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mayevsky, Avraham; Barbiro-Michaely, Efrat

    2009-10-01

    Normal mitochondrial function is a critical factor in maintaining cellular homeostasis in various organs of the body. Due to the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in many pathological states, the real-time in vivo monitoring of the mitochondrial metabolic state is crucially important. This type of monitoring in animal models as well as in patients provides real-time data that can help interpret experimental results or optimize patient treatment. In this paper we are summarizing the following items: (1) presenting the solid scientific ground underlying nicotine amide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) NADH fluorescence measurements based on published materials. (2) Presenting NADH fluorescence monitoring and its physiological significance. (3) Providing the reader with basic information on the methodologies of the fluorometers reflectometers. (4) Clarifying various factors affecting the monitored signals, including artifacts. (5) Presenting the potential use of monitoring mitochondrial function in vivo for the evaluation of drug development. The large numbers of publications by different groups testify to the valuable information gathered in various experimental conditions. The monitoring of NADH levels in the tissue provides the most important information on the metabolic state of the mitochondria in terms of energy production and intracellular oxygen levels. Although NADH signals are not calibrated in absolute units, their trend monitoring is important for the interpretation of physiological or pathological situations. To better understand the tissue function, the multiparametric approach has been developed where NADH serves as the key parameter to be monitored. PMID:19703658

  15. Algal photoreceptors: in vivo functions and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Kianianmomeni, Arash; Hallmann, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Many algae, particularly microalgae, possess a sophisticated light-sensing system including photoreceptors and light-modulated signaling pathways to sense environmental information and secure the survival in a rapidly changing environment. Over the last couple of years, the multifaceted world of algal photobiology has enriched our understanding of the light absorption mechanisms and in vivo function of photoreceptors. Moreover, specific light-sensitive modules have already paved the way for the development of optogenetic tools to generate light switches for precise and spatial control of signaling pathways in individual cells and even in complex biological systems. PMID:24081482

  16. Effect of body condition and dietary lipid intake on lipid metabolism, gonadotropin secretion and luteal activity in postpartum beef cows 

    E-print Network

    Morgan, Allan Rae

    1989-01-01

    and This thesis was written in the style of the Journal of Animal Science. Ins keep, 1989). Both pre- and postpartum body condition (BC) can be used as functional predictors of postpartum reproductive performance (Dunn and Kaltenbach, 1980). Cows calving... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1989 Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction EFFECT OF BODY CONDITION AND DIETARY LIPID INTAKE ON LIPID METABOLISM, GONADOTROPIN SECRETION AND LUTEAL ACTIVITY...

  17. Structural analysis of CTLA-4 function in vivo.

    PubMed

    Masteller, E L; Chuang, E; Mullen, A C; Reiner, S L; Thompson, C B

    2000-05-15

    CTLA-4-mediated inhibition of T cell activation may be accomplished by competition for ligands and/or by signals mediated through the intracellular domain. Studies have implicated Tyr201 in the cytoplasmic domain of CTLA-4 in regulating CTLA-4 signal transduction and intracellular trafficking. To investigate the mechanism of CTLA-4 function in vivo, transgenes encoding wild-type CTLA-4 (FL), a mutant lacking the cytoplasmic domain of CTLA-4 (DeltaCTLA-4 tail), or a CTLA-4 Tyr201 mutant (Y201V) were introduced into CTLA-4-deficient mice. CTLA-4-/- mice display an autoimmune lymphoproliferative disorder resulting in tissue destruction and early death. When either the FL or the Y201V transgene was bred into CTLA-4-/- animals, a complete rescue from lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity was observed. In contrast, CTLA-4-/- mice expressing the DeltaCTLA-4 tail transgene were long lived with no evidence of multiorgan lymphocytic infiltration, but exhibited lymphadenopathy and accumulated large numbers of activated T cells. Furthermore, these animals displayed a Th2-biased phenotype which conferred susceptibility to Leishmania infection. These results indicate that the inhibitory effect of CTLA-4 is mediated in part through the ability of the extracellular domain to compete for ligands. The cytoplasmic domain of CTLA-4, however, is required for complete inhibitory function of the receptor and for regulation of Th cell differentiation in vivo. PMID:10799894

  18. Evidence for a potential role of neuropeptide Y in ovine corpus luteum function.

    PubMed

    Keator, C S; Custer, E E; Hoagland, T A; Schreiber, D T; Mah, K; Lawson, A M; Slayden, O D; McCracken, J A

    2010-02-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a neurohormone that is typically associated with food intake, but it has also been reported to affect the production of progesterone from luteal tissue in vitro. However, NPY has not been previously immunolocalized in the ovine ovary or in the corpus luteum (CL) of any species, and the effects of this neurohormone on luteal function in vivo are not known. Thus, we performed fluorescent immunohistochemistry (IHC) to localize NPY in the ovine ovary and used avidin-biotin immunocytochemistry (ICC) to further define the intracellular localization within follicles and the CL. We then infused NPY directly into the arterial supply of the autotransplanted ovaries of sheep to determine the in vivo effect of exogenous NPY on ovarian blood flow and on the luteal secretion rate of progesterone and oxytocin. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the NPY antigen was localized to cells within the follicles and CL, in the nerve fibers of the ovarian stroma, and in the vessels of the ovarian hilus. In the follicle, the NPY antigen was localized to nerves and vessels within the theca interna layer, and strong staining was observed in the granulosal cells of antral follicles. In the CL, NPY was localized in large luteal cells and in the vascular pericytes and/or endothelial cells of blood vessels, found dispersed throughout the gland and within the luteal capsule. In vivo incremental infusions of NPY at 1, 10, 100, and 1,000 ng/min, each for a 30-min period, into the arterial supply of the transplanted ovary of sheep bearing a CL 11 d of age increased (P< or =0.05) ovarian blood flow. The intra-arterial infusions of NPY also increased (P< or =0.05) in a dose-dependent manner the secretion rate of oxytocin, which was positively correlated (P< or =0.05) with the observed increase in ovarian blood flow. The infusions of NPY had a minimal effect on the secretion rate of progesterone, and similar intra-arterial infusions of NPY into sheep with ovarian transplants bearing a CL over 30 d of age had no significant effect on ovarian blood flow or on the secretion rate of progesterone. These results suggest that NPY acts on the luteal vascular system and the large luteal cells to rapidly stimulate blood flow and the secretion of oxytocin, respectively, which collectively implies a putative role for NPY during the process of luteolysis when increasing amounts of oxytocin are secreted from the ovine CL in response to uterine pulses of prostaglandin F2alpha. PMID:19782503

  19. The influence of the luteal and follicular phases on major pharmacokinetic parameters of blood and breath alcohol kinetics in women.

    PubMed

    Dettling, Andrea; Preiss, Astrid; Skopp, Gisela; Haffner, Hans-Thomas

    2010-06-01

    Drink tests involving 14 women were carried out to determine the effects of the menstrual cycle phases on the pharmacokinetics of ethanol. One experiment was carried out in the follicular phase of the cycle and another in the luteal phase, with the estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone levels being determined in both cases. The target concentration was a final blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of approximately 0.08g%. After drinking was completed, concurrent BAC and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) measurements were carried out at intervals of 10-20min. The ethanol elimination rate was determined by calculating a linear function in the part of the slope that was clearly linear. In addition, the c(0) and Widmark factors r were calculated. In 10 of the volunteers, who had a normal increase in progesterone in the luteal phase, the average hourly elimination rate ss(60) in the follicular phase amounted to 0.0194+/-0.0020g%/h (BAC) and 0.0975+/-0.0068mg/L/h (BrAC), and in the luteal phase to 0.0193+/-0.0031g%/h (BAC) and 0.1026+/-0.0101mg/L/h (BrAC). There was no significant difference. Other pharmacokinetic parameters (c(0) concentrations, Widmark factors r, distribution volumes, maximal BAC, mean absorption rate, time until the peak concentrations were reached) also revealed no significant differences between the blood and breath alcohol levels of the luteal and follicular phases. In addition, no significant correlations were observed between the absolute progesterone level and the respective elimination rates ss(60). PMID:20570083

  20. Luteal phase salivary progesterone concentrations in ovulation-induced cycles.

    PubMed

    Khan-Dawood, F S; Cai, H Y; Dawood, M Y

    1988-04-01

    Serial paired plasma and salivary progesterone (P) levels were determined in 21 ovulation-induced cycles of 13 women and in 162 luteal saliva samples of 21 normal cycling women. Mean +/- standard error of the mean (SEM) salivary P levels in all ovulation-induced cycles were similar to normal cycles and were 294 +/- 31.5 to 499 +/- 75 pg/ml, whereas the corresponding plasma P levels were 24.9 +/- 5.0 to 51.4 +/- 16.6 ng/ml. Paired plasma and salivary P levels correlated significantly in women induced with clomiphene citrate (r = 0.82), follicle-stimulating hormone (r = 0.80), human menopausal gonadotropins (r = 0.78), and in those who became pregnant (r = 0.95). Luteal phase salivary P levels were 1.0% to 1.3% of the corresponding plasma levels in ovulation-induced cycles. These findings indicate that salivary P may be a useful and convenient alternative to plasma P for assessing ovulation. PMID:3350156

  1. Longitudinal studies of luteal function by salivary progesterone determinations.

    PubMed

    Walker, S M; Walker, R F; Riad-Fahmy, D

    1984-01-01

    A 'normal range' for salivary progesterone concentrations has been established using data derived from women who were menstruating regularly and in whom dating of the cycle by accepted criteria was possible. Since these values are in agreement with those in the first 9 days of conception cycles and with those in cycles in which ovulation was confirmed by ultrasonography, they provide a reliable index of progesterone output compatible with fertility. Measurement of daily salivary progesterone values in subfertile women for time spans exceeding 3 months allowed accurate assessment of base-line ovarian activity and of the response to ovulation-induction therapy. Salivary sampling, by allowing collection of frequent samples with a minimum of time, stress and inconvenience, is ideally suited to longitudinal studies of ovarian activity. This sampling regimen is also applicable to the monitoring of progesterone output throughout pregnancy. PMID:6510896

  2. Diesel exhaust particulate induces pulmonary and systemic inflammation in rats without impairing endothelial function ex vivo or in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inhalation of diesel exhaust impairs vascular function in man, by a mechanism that has yet to be fully established. We hypothesised that pulmonary exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) would cause endothelial dysfunction in rats as a consequence of pulmonary and systemic inflammation. Methods Wistar rats were exposed to DEP (0.5 mg) or saline vehicle by intratracheal instillation and hind-limb blood flow, blood pressure and heart rate were monitored in situ 6 or 24 h after exposure. Vascular function was tested by administration of the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine (ACh) and the endothelium-independent vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in vivo and ex vivo in isolated rings of thoracic aorta, femoral and mesenteric artery from DEP exposed rats. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and blood plasma were collected to assess pulmonary (cell differentials, protein levels & interleukin-6 (IL-6)) and systemic (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) and C-reactive protein (CRP)) inflammation, respectively. Results DEP instillation increased cell counts, total protein and IL-6 in BALF 6 h after exposure, while levels of IL-6 and TNF? were only raised in blood 24 h after DEP exposure. DEP had no effect on the increased hind-limb blood flow induced by ACh in vivo at 6 or 24 h. However, responses to SNP were impaired at both time points. In contrast, ex vivo responses to ACh and SNP were unaltered in arteries isolated from rats exposed to DEP. Conclusions Exposure of rats to DEP induces both pulmonary and systemic inflammation, but does not modify endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Other mechanisms in vivo limit dilator responses to SNP and these require further investigation. PMID:22480168

  3. In vivo function of the craniofacial haft: The interorbital ?pillar?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Callum F. Ross

    2001-01-01

    The craniofacial haft resists forces gener- ated in the face during feeding, but the importance of these forces for the form of the craniofacial haft remains to be determined. In vivo bone strain data were recorded from the medial orbital wall in an owl monkey (Aotus), rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and a galago (Otole- mur) during feeding. These data were

  4. In Vivo Function of the Craniofacial Haft: The Interorbital "Pillar"

    E-print Network

    strain; mastication; biomechanics; evolution ABSTRACT The craniofacial haft resists forces gener- ated to be determined. In vivo bone strain data were recorded from the medial orbital wall in an owl monkey (Aotus; the face is twisting on the brain case during unilateral biting or mastication; the interorbital "pillar

  5. In vitro gene regulatory networks predict in vivo function of liver

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Evolution of toxicity testing is predicated upon using in vitro cell based systems to rapidly screen and predict how a chemical might cause toxicity to an organ in vivo. However, the degree to which we can extend in vitro results to in vivo activity and possible mechanisms of action remains to be fully addressed. Results Here we use the nitroaromatic 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) as a model chemical to compare and determine how we might extrapolate from in vitro data to in vivo effects. We found 341 transcripts differentially expressed in common among in vitro and in vivo assays in response to TNT. The major functional term corresponding to these transcripts was cell cycle. Similarly modulated common pathways were identified between in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we uncovered the conserved common transcriptional gene regulatory networks between in vitro and in vivo cellular liver systems that responded to TNT exposure, which mainly contain 2 subnetwork modules: PTTG1 and PIR centered networks. Interestingly, all 7 genes in the PTTG1 module were involved in cell cycle and downregulated by TNT both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions The results of our investigation of TNT effects on gene expression in liver suggest that gene regulatory networks obtained from an in vitro system can predict in vivo function and mechanisms. Inhibiting PTTG1 and its targeted cell cyle related genes could be key machanism for TNT induced liver toxicity. PMID:21073692

  6. Tissue-engineered colon exhibits function in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy C. Grikscheit; Jennifer B. Ogilvie; Erin R. Ochoa; Eben Alsberg; David Mooney; Joseph P. Vacanti

    2002-01-01

    Background. Postcolectomy morbidities include important changes in enterohepatic circulation, stool microbiology, and absorption. The surgical substitution of an ileal pouch for the absent colon also has a number of serious complications. We report in vivo colon replacement by tissue-engineered colon (TEC) in lieu of an ileal pouch. Methods. End-ileostomies were created in 22 male Lewis rats. In 11 animals, side-to-side

  7. Blood-Induced Interference of Glucose Sensor Function in Vitro: Implications for in Vivo Sensor Function

    PubMed Central

    Klueh, Ulrike; Liu, Zenghe; Ouyang, Tianmei; Cho, Brian; Feldman, Ben; Henning, Timothy P.; Kreutzer, Don

    2007-01-01

    Background Although tissue hemorrhages, with resulting blood clots, are associated with glucose sensor implantation, virtually nothing known is about the impact of red blood cells and red blood cell clots on sensor function in vitro or in vivo. In these studies, we tested the hypothesis that blood can directly interfere with glucose sensor function in vitro. Methods To test this hypothesis, heparinized human whole blood (HWB) and nonheparinized human whole blood (WB) were obtained from normal individuals. Aliquots of HWB and WB samples were also fractionated into plasma, serum, and total leukocyte (TL) components. Resulting HWB, WB, and WB components were incubated in vitro with an amperometric glucose sensor for 24 hours at 37°C. During incubation, blood glucose levels were determined periodically using a glucose monitor, and glucose sensor function (GSF) was monitored continuously as nanoampere output. Results Heparinized human whole blood had no significant effect on GSF in vitro, nor did TL, serum, or plasmaderived clots from WB. Sensors incubated with WB displayed a rapid signal loss associated with clot formation at 37°C. The half-life was 0.8 ± 0.2 hours (n = 16) for sensors incubated with WB compared to 3.2 ± 0.5 (n = 12) for sensors incubated with HWB with a blood glucose level of approximately 100 mg/dl. Conclusions These studies demonstrated that human whole blood interfered with GSF in vitro. These studies further demonstrated that this interference was related to blood clot formation, as HWB, serum, plasma-derived clots, or TL did not interfere with GSF in vitro in the same way that WB did. These in vitro studies supported the concept that the formation of blood clots at sites of glucose sensor implantation could have a negative impact on GSF in vivo. PMID:19885155

  8. RECQL4 Regulates p53 Function In Vivo During Skeletogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Linchao; Harutyunyan, Karine; Jin, Weidong; Wu, Jianhong; Yang, Tao; Chen, Yuqing; Joeng, Kyu Sang; Bae, Yangjin; Tao, Jianning; Dawson, Brian C; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Lee, Brendan; Wang, Lisa L

    2015-06-01

    RECQ DNA helicases play critical roles in maintaining genomic stability, but their role in development has been less well studied. Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, RAPADILINO, and Baller-Gerold syndrome are rare genetic disorders caused by mutations in the RECQL4 gene. These patients have significant skeletal developmental abnormalities including radial ray, limb and craniofacial defects. To investigate the role of Recql4 in the developing skeletal system, we generated Recql4 conditional knockout mice targeting the skeletal lineage. Inactivation of Recql4 using the Prx1-Cre transgene led to limb abnormalities and craniosynostosis mimicking the major bone findings in human RECQL4 patients. These Prx1-Cre(+) ;Recql4(fl/fl) mice as well as Col2a1-Cre(+) ;Recql4(fl/fl) mice exhibited growth plate defects and an increased p53 response in affected tissues. Inactivation of Trp53 in these Recql4 mutants resulted in genetic rescue of the skeletal phenotypes, indicating an in vivo interaction between Recql4 and Trp53, and p53 activation as an underlying mechanism for the developmental bone abnormalities in RECQL4 disorders. Our findings show that RECQL4 is critical for skeletal development by modulating p53 activity in vivo. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:25556649

  9. Differential inhibition of progesterone synthesis in bovine luteal cells by estrogens and androgens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ing-Cherng Guo; Leang-Shin Wu; Jen-Hsou Lin; Bon-chu Chung

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the roles of estrogens and androgens in the progesterone biosynthesis of bovine luteal cells. The responsiveness of primary luteal cells to the stimulation of tropic agents was observed in a dose-dependent manner. Estrogens and androgens significantly inhibited tropic agent-induced progesterone secretions, but glucocorticoids did not, which indicated the inhibitions were specific. The failure of exogenous 8-Br-cAMP to prevent

  10. In vivo and in vitro HeNe laser effects on phagocyte functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Ricevuti; A. Mazzone; C. Monaia; P. Fratino; R. Degiulio; R. Dell'acqua; G. Leonardi; A. Jucci; S. Sacchi

    1989-01-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of helium-neon (HeNe) laser irradiation on immunocompetent cells. We used the in vivo skin window method and in vitro granulocyte function tests. The study of cellular migration showed a marked decrease in vitro and in vivo in a dose-independent manner. Superoxide release was not modified by laser irradiation. The granulocyte's

  11. Rat parotid cell function in vitro following x irradiation in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Bodner, L.; Kuyatt, B.L.; Hand, A.R.; Baum, B.J.

    1984-02-01

    The effect of X irradiation on rat parotid acinar cell function was evaluated in vitro 1, 3, and 7 days following in vivo exposure to 2000 R. Several cellular functions were followed: protein secretion (amylase release), ion movement (K/sup +/ efflux and reuptake), amino acid transport (..cap alpha..-amino(/sup 14/C)isobutyric acid), and an intermediary metabolic response ((/sup 14/C)glucose oxidation). In addition both the morphologic appearance and in vivo saliva secretory ability of parotid cells were assessed. Our results demonstrate that surviving rat parotid acinar cells, isolated and studied in vitro 1-7 days following 2000 R, remain functionally intact despite in vivo diminution of secretory function.

  12. In Vivo Analysis of Lrig Genes Reveals Redundant and Independent Functions in the Inner Ear

    E-print Network

    Goodrich, Lisa V.

    In Vivo Analysis of Lrig Genes Reveals Redundant and Independent Functions in the Inner Ear Tony compared the expression and function of the Lrigs in the inner ear, which offers a sensitive system in the inner ear throughout development, with Lrig1 and Lrig3 restricted to subsets of cells and Lrig2

  13. In vivo functions of carotenoids in higher plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BARBARA DEMMIG. ADAMS; ADAM M. GILMORE; WILLIAM W. ADAMS

    1996-01-01

    The function of the long-chain, highly unsaturated carotenoids of higher plants in photo- protection is becoming increasingly well understood, while at the same time their function in other proc- esses, such as light collection, needs to be reex- amined. Recent progress in this area has been fueled by more accurate determinations of the photophysi- cal properties of these molecules, as

  14. In vivo functional imaging of human cone photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Jonnal, Ravi S.; Rha, Jungtae; Zhang, Yan; Cense, Barry; Gao, Weihua; Miller, Donald T.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluate a novel non-invasive optical technique for observing fast physiological processes, in particular phototransduction, in single photoreceptor cells in the living human eye. The method takes advantage of the interference of multiple reflections within the outer segments (OS) of cones. This self-interference phenomenon is highly sensitive to phase changes such as those caused by variations in refractive index and scatter within the photoreceptor cell. A high-speed (192 Hz) flood-illumination retina camera equipped with adaptive optics (AO) is used to observe individual photoreceptors, and to monitor changes in their reflectance in response to visible stimuli (“scintillation”). AO and high frame rates are necessary for resolving individual cones and their fast temporal dynamics, respectively. Scintillation initiates within 5 to 10 ms after the onset of the stimulus flash, lasts 300 to 400 ms, is observed at visible and near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths, and is highly sensitive to the coherence length of the imaging light source. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of in vivo optical imaging of the fast physiological processes that accompany phototransduction in individual photoreceptors. PMID:19606274

  15. In vivo functional imaging of human cone photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Jonnal, Ravi S.; Rha, Jungtae; Zhang, Yan; Cense, Barry; Gao, Weihua; Miller, Donald T.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate a novel non-invasive optical technique for observing fast physiological processes, in particular phototransduction, in single photoreceptor cells in the living human eye. The method takes advantage of the interference of multiple reflections within the outer segments (OS) of cones. This self-interference phenomenon is highly sensitive to phase changes such as those caused by variations in refractive index and scatter within the photoreceptor cell. A high-speed (192 Hz) flood-illumination retina camera equipped with adaptive optics (AO) is used to observe individual photoreceptors, and to monitor changes in their reflectance in response to visible stimuli (“scintillation”). AO and high frame rates are necessary for resolving individual cones and their fast temporal dynamics, respectively. Scintillation initiates within 5 to 10 ms after the onset of the stimulus flash, lasts 300 to 400 ms, is observed at visible and near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths, and is highly sensitive to the coherence length of the imaging light source. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of in vivo optical imaging of the fast physiological processes that accompany phototransduction in individual photoreceptors. PMID:19550903

  16. A complementation assay for in vivo protein structure/function analysis in Physcomitrella patens (Funariaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Scavuzzo-Duggan, Tess R.; Chaves, Arielle M.; Roberts, Alison W.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: A method for rapid in vivo functional analysis of engineered proteins was developed using Physcomitrella patens. Methods and Results: A complementation assay was designed for testing structure/function relationships in cellulose synthase (CESA) proteins. The components of the assay include (1) construction of test vectors that drive expression of epitope-tagged PpCESA5 carrying engineered mutations, (2) transformation of a ppcesa5 knockout line that fails to produce gametophores with test and control vectors, (3) scoring the stable transformants for gametophore production, (4) statistical analysis comparing complementation rates for test vectors to positive and negative control vectors, and (5) analysis of transgenic protein expression by Western blotting. The assay distinguished mutations that generate fully functional, nonfunctional, and partially functional proteins. Conclusions: Compared with existing methods for in vivo testing of protein function, this complementation assay provides a rapid method for investigating protein structure/function relationships in plants.

  17. Ascl1 Converts Dorsal Midbrain Astrocytes into Functional Neurons In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yueguang; Miao, Qinglong; Yuan, Jiacheng; Han, Su'e; Zhang, Panpan; Li, Sanlan; Rao, Zhiping; Zhao, Wenlong; Ye, Qian; Geng, Junlan; Zhang, Xiaohui; Cheng, Leping

    2015-06-24

    In vivo induction of non-neuronal cells into neurons by transcription factors offers potential therapeutic approaches for neural regeneration. Although generation of induced neuronal (iN) cells in vitro and in vivo has been reported, whether iN cells can be fully integrated into existing circuits remains unclear. Here we show that expression of achaete-scute complex homolog-like 1 (Ascl1) alone is sufficient to convert dorsal midbrain astrocytes of mice into functional iN cells in vitro and in vivo. Specific expression of Ascl1 in astrocytes by infection with GFAP-adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector converts astrocytes in dorsal midbrain, striatum, and somatosensory cortex of postnatal and adult mice into functional neurons in vivo. These iN cells mature progressively, exhibiting neuronal morphology and markers, action potentials, and synaptic inputs from and output to existing neurons. Thus, a single transcription factor, Ascl1, is sufficient to convert brain astrocytes into functional neurons, and GFAP-AAV is an efficient vector for generating iN cells from astrocytes in vivo. PMID:26109658

  18. Functional dissection of synaptic circuits: in vivo patch-clamp recording in neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Can; Zhang, Guangwei; Xiong, Ying; Zhou, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal activity is dominated by synaptic inputs from excitatory or inhibitory neural circuits. With the development of in vivo patch-clamp recording, especially in vivo voltage-clamp recording, researchers can not only directly measure neuronal activity, such as spiking responses or membrane potential dynamics, but also quantify synaptic inputs from excitatory and inhibitory circuits in living animals. This approach enables researchers to directly unravel different synaptic components and to understand their underlying roles in particular brain functions. Combining in vivo patch-clamp recording with other techniques, such as two-photon imaging or optogenetics, can provide even clearer functional dissection of the synaptic contributions of different neurons or nuclei. Here, we summarized current applications and recent research progress using the in vivo patch-clamp recording method and focused on its role in the functional dissection of different synaptic inputs. The key factors of a successful in vivo patch-clamp experiment and possible solutions based on references and our experiences were also discussed.

  19. The Luteal Phase after GnRHa Trigger-Understanding An Enigma

    PubMed Central

    Leth-Moller, Kathrine; Hammer Jagd, Sandra; Humaidan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The luteal phase of all stimulated in vitro fertilization/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycles is disrupted, which makes luteal phase support (LPS) mandatory. The cause of the disruption is thought to be the multifollicular development achieved during ovarian stimulation which results in supraphysiological concentrations of steroids se- creted by a high number of corpora lutea during the early luteal phase. This will directly inhibit luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion by the pituitary via negative feedback at the level of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, leading to a luteal phase defect. With the intro- duction of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol, it became feasible to trigger final oocyte maturation and ovulation with a single bolus of GnRH agonist (GnRHa) as an alternative to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). GnRHa trig- gering presents several advantages, including the reduction in or even elimination of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Despite the potential advantages of GnRHa trig- gering, previous randomized controlled trials reported a poor clinical outcome with high rates of early pregnancy losses, despite supplementation with a standard LPS in the form of progesterone and estradiol. Following these disappointing results, several studies now report a luteal phase rescue after modifications of the LPS, resulting in a reproductive outcome comparable to that seen after hCG triggering. We herein review luteal phase dif- ferences between the natural cycle, hCG trigger and GnRHa trigger and present the most recent data on handling the luteal phase after GnRHa triggering. PMID:25379149

  20. Luteotrophic and luteolytic effects of nitric oxide in sheep are dose-dependent in vivo.

    PubMed

    Keator, Christopher S; Schreiber, David T; Hoagland, Thomas A; McCracken, John A

    2008-07-01

    It has been suggested that nitric oxide (NO) acts in either an anti-luteolytic or in a luteolytic manner, but the mechanism for these opposing roles is unclear. We hypothesized that NO may act in a dose-dependent manner to regulate luteal function, whereby low concentrations of NO might stimulate luteal progesterone production (i.e. luteotrophic) and high concentrations of NO might reduce concentrations of plasma progesterone (i.e. luteolytic). To test this hypothesis we infused increasing concentrations of the fast-acting NO donor, dipropylenetriamine NONOate (DPTA), into the arterial supply of sheep with ovarian transplants bearing a corpus luteum (CL). Infusions were performed on sheep with CL 11 days of age (n=9) or over 30 days of age (n=15). We measured changes in the concentration of progesterone in ovarian venous plasma during the 1-h infusion and for 24h after the infusion, and then compared the mean concentration of progesterone between treatment groups for effects by dose and dose by period interactions. Compared with saline-treated controls (n=6), the highest dose of 1000 microg/min DPTA (n=6) reduced (P0.05) in sheep infused with the lowest dose of 1 microg/min DPTA (n=6) compared with controls. We conclude that NO regulates luteal function in a dose-dependent manner in sheep in vivo. PMID:18448306

  1. Application of electrical stimulation for functional tissue engineering in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radisic, Milica (Inventor); Park, Hyoungshin (Inventor); Langer, Robert (Inventor); Freed, Lisa (Inventor); Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention provides new methods for the in vitro preparation of bioartificial tissue equivalents and their enhanced integration after implantation in vivo. These methods include submitting a tissue construct to a biomimetic electrical stimulation during cultivation in vitro to improve its structural and functional properties, and/or in vivo, after implantation of the construct, to enhance its integration with host tissue and increase cell survival and functionality. The inventive methods are particularly useful for the production of bioartificial equivalents and/or the repair and replacement of native tissues that contain electrically excitable cells and are subject to electrical stimulation in vivo, such as, for example, cardiac muscle tissue, striated skeletal muscle tissue, smooth muscle tissue, bone, vasculature, and nerve tissue.

  2. Ex Vivo Cytosolic Delivery of Functional Macromolecules to Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hartoularos, George C.; Eyerman, Alexandra T.; Lytton-Jean, Abigail; Angin, Mathieu; Sharma, Siddhartha; Poceviciute, Roberta; Mao, Shirley; Heimann, Megan; Liu, Sophia; Talkar, Tanya; Khan, Omar F.; Addo, Marylyn; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Anderson, Daniel G.; Langer, Robert; Lieberman, Judy; Jensen, Klavs F.

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular delivery of biomolecules, such as proteins and siRNAs, into primary immune cells, especially resting lymphocytes, is a challenge. Here we describe the design and testing of microfluidic intracellular delivery systems that cause temporary membrane disruption by rapid mechanical deformation of human and mouse immune cells. Dextran, antibody and siRNA delivery performance is measured in multiple immune cell types and the approach’s potential to engineer cell function is demonstrated in HIV infection studies. PMID:25875117

  3. Anti-CEA-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for examining colorectal tumors in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kai-Wen; Chieh, Jen-Jie; Lin, In-Tsang; Horng, Herng-Er; Yang, Hong-Chang; Hong, Chin-Yih

    2013-10-01

    Although the biomarker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is expressed in colorectal tumors, the utility of an anti-CEA-functionalized image medium is powerful for in vivo positioning of colorectal tumors. With a risk of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONPs) that is lower for animals than other material carriers, anti-CEA-functionalized SPIONPs were synthesized in this study for labeling colorectal tumors by conducting different preoperatively and intraoperatively in vivo examinations. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the image variation of colorectal tumors reached the maximum at approximately 24 h. However, because MRI requires a nonmetal environment, it was limited to preoperative imaging. With the potentiality of in vivo screening and intraoperative positioning during surgery, the scanning superconducting-quantum-interference-device biosusceptometry (SSB) was adopted, showing the favorable agreement of time-varied intensity with MRI. Furthermore, biological methodologies of different tissue staining methods and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) yielded consistent results, proving that the obtained in vivo results occurred because of targeted anti-CEA SPIONPs. This indicates that developed anti-CEA SPIONPs owe the utilities as an image medium of these in vivo methodologies.

  4. A Multifunctional Turnip Crinkle Virus Replication Enhancer Revealed by in vivo Functional SELEX

    E-print Network

    Simon, Anne

    A Multifunctional Turnip Crinkle Virus Replication Enhancer Revealed by in vivo Functional SELEX College Park College Park, MD 20742, USA The motif1-hairpin (M1H), located on (2)-strands of Turnip, Turnip Crinkle Virus; SELEX, systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment; M1H, motif1

  5. NEST Scientific Report 2007-2009 Monitoring brain function by in vivo 2-photon microscopy

    E-print Network

    Abbondandolo, Alberto

    101) selectively stain and identify a population of brain cells, the astrocytes. The green dyeNEST Scientific Report 2007-2009 Monitoring brain function by in vivo 2-photon microscopy 75) transversal reconstruction of a brain neuron. The cell body is placed in cortical layer V at a depth of over

  6. Recent developments in the understanding of astrocyte function in the cerebellum in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hoogland, Tycho M; Kuhn, Bernd

    2010-09-01

    Several studies have contributed to our understanding of astrocytes, especially Bergmann glia, in the cerebellum; but, until recently, none has looked at their function in vivo. Multicell bolus loading of fluorescent calcium indicators in combination with the astrocytic marker SR101 has allowed imaging of up to hundreds of astrocytes at once in the intact cerebellum. In addition, the selective targeting of astrocytes with fluorescent calcium indicator proteins has enabled the study of their function in vivo without the confounding effects of other neuropil signals and with a resolution that surpasses multicell bolus loading and SR101 staining. The two astrocyte types of the cerebellar cortex, Bergmann glia, and velate protoplasmic astrocytes display a diverse signaling repertoire in vivo, which ranges from localized calcium elevations in subcellular processes to waves, triggered by the release of purines and mediated by purinergic receptors that span multiple processes and can involve tens of astrocytes. During locomotor behavior, even larger numbers of astrocytes display calcium increases that are driven by neuronal activity and correlate with global changes in blood flow. In this review, we give an overview of our current understanding of the function of Bergmann glia and velate protoplasmic astrocytes and the promise of the tools used to study their calcium dynamics and function in vivo. PMID:19904577

  7. In vivo neuronal function of the fragile X mental retardation protein is regulated by phosphorylation

    E-print Network

    Broadie, Kendal S.

    November 7, 2011 Fragile X syndrome (FXS), caused by loss of the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) gene- dependent learning behavior. INTRODUCTION Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common monogenic causeIn vivo neuronal function of the fragile X mental retardation protein is regulated

  8. AAV-mediated in vivo functional selection of tissue-protective factors against ischaemia

    PubMed Central

    Ruozi, Giulia; Bortolotti, Francesca; Falcione, Antonella; Dal Ferro, Matteo; Ukovich, Laura; Macedo, Antero; Zentilin, Lorena; Filigheddu, Nicoletta; Cappellari, Gianluca Gortan; Baldini, Giovanna; Zweyer, Marina; Barazzoni, Rocco; Graziani, Andrea; Zacchigna, Serena; Giacca, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Functional screening of expression libraries in vivo would offer the possibility of identifying novel biotherapeutics without a priori knowledge of their biochemical function. Here we describe a procedure for the functional selection of tissue-protective factors based on the in vivo delivery of arrayed cDNA libraries from the mouse secretome using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors. Application of this technique, which we call FunSel, in the context of acute ischaemia, revealed that the peptide ghrelin protects skeletal muscle and heart from ischaemic damage. When delivered to the heart using an AAV9 vector, ghrelin markedly reduces infarct size and preserves cardiac function over time. This protective activity associates with the capacity of ghrelin to sustain autophagy and remove dysfunctional mitochondria after myocardial infarction. Our findings describe an innovative tool to identify biological therapeutics and reveal a novel role of ghrelin as an inducer of myoprotective autophagy. PMID:26066847

  9. Effects of ACL Reconstruction on In-Vivo, Dynamic Knee Function

    PubMed Central

    Tashman, Scott; Araki, Daisuke

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis The purposes of this article are to discuss key factors for assessing joint function, to present some recent findings and to address the future directions for evaluating the function of the ACL-injured/reconstructed knees. Well-designed studies, using state-of-the art tools to assess knee kinematics under in vivo, dynamic, high-loading conditions, are necessary to evaluate the relative performance of different procedures for restoring normal joint motion. PMID:23177461

  10. In-vivo visualization and functional characterization of primary somatic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chao; Donnelly, David F.; LaMotte, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    In-vivo electrophysiological recordings from cell bodies of primary sensory neurons are used to determine sensory function but are commonly performed blindly and without access to voltage-(patch-clamp) electrophysiology or optical imaging. We present a procedure to visualize and patch-clamp the neuronal cell body in the dorsal root ganglion, in vivo, manipulate its chemical environment, determine its receptive field properties, and remove it either to obtain subsequent molecular analyses or to gain access to deeper lying cells. This method allows the association of the peripheral transduction capacities of a sensory neuron with the biophysical and chemical characteristics of its cell body. PMID:20558205

  11. Assessment of progesterone profiles and postpartum onset of luteal activity in spring calving Hereford beef suckler cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam D Martin; Marit L Lystad; Olav Reksen; Erik Ropstad; Andres Waldmann; Ola Nafstad; Knut Karlberg

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reproduction is the single greatest factor limiting beef cattle production. Previous research on beef suckler luteal activity has largely focused on the mechanisms, and duration, of postpartum anoestrus. However, the temporal pattern of luteal activity after resumption of post-partum ovarian activity, and the impact of pattern type on days open (DO) in purebred beef suckler cows, are unknown. METHODS:

  12. In vivo and in vitro aging is detrimental to mouse spermatogonial stem cell function.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jonathan A; Abramowitz, Lara K; Kubota, Hiroshi; Wu, Xin; Niu, Zhiyv; Avarbock, Mary R; Tobias, John W; Bartolomei, Marisa S; Brinster, Ralph L

    2011-04-01

    The development of techniques to maintain the spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) in vivo and in vitro for extended periods essentially allows for the indefinite continuation of an individual germline. Recent evidence indicates that the aging of male reproductive function is due to failure of the SSC niche. SSCs are routinely cultured for 6 mo, and no apparent effect of culture over this period has been observed. To determine the effects of SSC aging, we utilized an in vitro culture system, followed by quantitative transplantation experiments. After culture for 6 mo, SSCs that had been aged in vivo for 1500 days had a slower proliferation rate than SSCs that were aged in vivo to 8 or 300 days. Examination of methylation patterns revealed no apparent difference in DNA methylation between SSCs that were aged 8, 300, or 1500 days before culture. Long-term culture periods resulted in a loss of stem cell potential without an obvious change in the visual appearance of the culture. DNA microarray analysis of in vivo- and in vitro-aged SSCs identified the differential expression of several genes important for SSC function, including B-cell CLL/lymphoma 6, member B (Bcl6b), Lim homeobox protein 1 (Lhx1), and thymus cell antigen 1, theta (Thy1). Collectively, these data indicate that, although both in vitro and in vivo aging are detrimental to SSC function, in vitro aging results in greater loss of function, potentially due to a decrease in core SSC self-renewal gene expression and an increase in germ cell differentiation gene expression. PMID:21191109

  13. In vivo MR investigation of skeletal muscle function in small animals.

    PubMed

    Giannesini, B; Cozzone, P J; Bendahan, D

    2004-12-01

    In vivo 31P-MRS investigations have been widely used in small animals to study skeletal muscle function under normal and pathological conditions. Paradoxically in these studies, the benefit provided by 31P-MRS in terms of non-invasiveness is lost because of the utilization of experimental setups that integrate invasive devices for inducing muscle contractions and for measuring mechanical performance. These traditional methodologies, which require surgical preparations, have obvious limitations regarding repeatability in the same animal. The purpose of this review is to highlight the technical aspects of the in vivo MR investigations of skeletal muscle function in small animal models. We will more particularly address the issue related to the invasiveness of different procedures used so far in order to show finally that a further step into non-invasiveness can be achieved, in particular with the support of muscle functional 1H-MRI. PMID:15592946

  14. Functionalized gold nanoparticles: a detailed in vivo multimodal microscopic brain distribution study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Fernanda; Mandal, Subhra; Garrovo, Chiara; Astolfo, Alberto; Bonifacio, Alois; Latawiec, Diane; Menk, Ralf Hendrik; Arfelli, Fulvia; Huewel, Sabine; Legname, Giuseppe; Galla, Hans-Joachim; Krol, Silke

    2010-12-01

    In the present study, the in vivo distribution of polyelectrolyte multilayer coated gold nanoparticles is shown, starting from the living animal down to cellular level. The coating was designed with functional moieties to serve as a potential nano drug for prion disease. With near infrared time-domain imaging we followed the biodistribution in mice up to 7 days after intravenous injection of the nanoparticles. The peak concentration in the head of mice was detected between 19 and 24 h. The precise particle distribution in the brain was studied ex vivo by X-ray microtomography, confocal laser and fluorescence microscopy. We found that the particles mainly accumulate in the hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, and the cerebral cortex.In the present study, the in vivo distribution of polyelectrolyte multilayer coated gold nanoparticles is shown, starting from the living animal down to cellular level. The coating was designed with functional moieties to serve as a potential nano drug for prion disease. With near infrared time-domain imaging we followed the biodistribution in mice up to 7 days after intravenous injection of the nanoparticles. The peak concentration in the head of mice was detected between 19 and 24 h. The precise particle distribution in the brain was studied ex vivo by X-ray microtomography, confocal laser and fluorescence microscopy. We found that the particles mainly accumulate in the hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, and the cerebral cortex. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1-S6. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00345j

  15. Improving microbial fitness in the mammalian gut by in vivo temporal functional metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Yaung, Stephanie J; Deng, Luxue; Li, Ning; Braff, Jonathan L; Church, George M; Bry, Lynn; Wang, Harris H; Gerber, Georg K

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating functions of commensal microbial genes in the mammalian gut is challenging because many commensals are recalcitrant to laboratory cultivation and genetic manipulation. We present Temporal FUnctional Metagenomics sequencing (TFUMseq), a platform to functionally mine bacterial genomes for genes that contribute to fitness of commensal bacteria in vivo. Our approach uses metagenomic DNA to construct large-scale heterologous expression libraries that are tracked over time in vivo by deep sequencing and computational methods. To demonstrate our approach, we built a TFUMseq plasmid library using the gut commensal Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (Bt) and introduced Escherichia coli carrying this library into germfree mice. Population dynamics of library clones revealed Bt genes conferring significant fitness advantages in E. coli over time, including carbohydrate utilization genes, with a Bt galactokinase central to early colonization, and subsequent dominance by a Bt glycoside hydrolase enabling sucrose metabolism coupled with co-evolution of the plasmid library and E. coli genome driving increased galactose utilization. Our findings highlight the utility of functional metagenomics for engineering commensal bacteria with improved properties, including expanded colonization capabilities in vivo. PMID:25762151

  16. Improving microbial fitness in the mammalian gut by in vivo temporal functional metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Yaung, Stephanie J; Deng, Luxue; Li, Ning; Braff, Jonathan L; Church, George M; Bry, Lynn; Wang, Harris H; Gerber, Georg K

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating functions of commensal microbial genes in the mammalian gut is challenging because many commensals are recalcitrant to laboratory cultivation and genetic manipulation. We present Temporal FUnctional Metagenomics sequencing (TFUMseq), a platform to functionally mine bacterial genomes for genes that contribute to fitness of commensal bacteria in vivo. Our approach uses metagenomic DNA to construct large-scale heterologous expression libraries that are tracked over time in vivo by deep sequencing and computational methods. To demonstrate our approach, we built a TFUMseq plasmid library using the gut commensal Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (Bt) and introduced Escherichia coli carrying this library into germfree mice. Population dynamics of library clones revealed Bt genes conferring significant fitness advantages in E. coli over time, including carbohydrate utilization genes, with a Bt galactokinase central to early colonization, and subsequent dominance by a Bt glycoside hydrolase enabling sucrose metabolism coupled with co-evolution of the plasmid library and E. coli genome driving increased galactose utilization. Our findings highlight the utility of functional metagenomics for engineering commensal bacteria with improved properties, including expanded colonization capabilities in vivo. PMID:25762151

  17. In vivo interrogation of gene function in the mammalian brain using CRISPR-Cas9

    PubMed Central

    Swiech, Lukasz; Heidenreich, Matthias; Banerjee, Abhishek; Habib, Naomi; Li, Yinqing; Trombetta, John; Sur, Mriganka; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Probing gene function in the mammalian brain can be greatly assisted with methods to manipulate the genome of neurons in vivo. The clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated endonuclease (Cas)9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9)1 can be used to edit single or multiple genes in replicating eukaryotic cells, resulting in frame-shifting insertion/deletion (indel) mutations and subsequent protein depletion. Here, we delivered SpCas9 and guide RNAs using adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors to target single (Mecp2) as well as multiple genes (Dnmt1, Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b) in the adult mouse brain in vivo. We characterized the effects of genome modifications in postmitotic neurons using biochemical, genetic, electrophysiological and behavioral readouts. Our results demonstrate that AAV-mediated SpCas9 genome editing can enable reverse genetic studies of gene function in the brain. PMID:25326897

  18. In vivo MR investigation of skeletal muscle function in small animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Giannesini; P. J. Cozzone; D. Bendahan

    2004-01-01

    In vivo 31P-MRS investigations have been widely used in small animals to study skeletal muscle function under normal and pathological conditions. Paradoxically in these studies, the benefit provided by 31P-MRS in terms of non-invasiveness is lost because of the utilization of experimental setups that integrate invasive devices for inducing muscle contractions and for measuring mechanical performance. These traditional methodologies, which

  19. Recent Developments in the Understanding of Astrocyte Function in the Cerebellum In Vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tycho M. Hoogland; Bernd Kuhn

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have contributed to our understanding of astrocytes, especially Bergmann glia, in the cerebellum; but, until\\u000a recently, none has looked at their function in vivo. Multicell bolus loading of fluorescent calcium indicators in combination\\u000a with the astrocytic marker SR101 has allowed imaging of up to hundreds of astrocytes at once in the intact cerebellum. In\\u000a addition, the selective targeting

  20. Functional studies of maturing myeloid cells during ex vivo expansion for treatment of aplasia: feasibility of ex vivo expansion from cryopreserved bone marrow cell samples.

    PubMed

    Neildez-Nguyen, T M; Vétillard, J; Drouet, M; Hérodin, F; Brouard, N; Mestries, J C; Thierry, D

    1998-02-01

    Ex vivo expanded CD34+ progenitor cells from fresh or cryopreserved primate bone marrow, induced to granulocytic differentiation with growth factors, were investigated to determine whether myeloid cells produced in liquid cultures have the normal biologic functions needed for the treatment of patients with neutropenia following high-dose chemotherapy or therapeutic or accidental radiation exposure. Human and simian (baboons or macaques) CD34+ cells were cultured with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), stem cell factor (SCF), interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-3, and IL-6, and assessed at 14 days of culture for their capacity to respond to different functional tests. Immunostaining revealed that human ex vivo expanded cells contained myeloperoxydase (MPO, 82% +/- 8%) and lactoferrin (LF, 30% +/- 6%) in their granules. Maturation of cultured cells was associated with stimulated chemotactic responsiveness and respiratory burst activity (superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide production) in expansions from human, baboon, and macaque CD34+ progenitor cells. Mature cells obtained from ex vivo expansion of selected cryopreserved human bone marrow CD34+ cells presented reduced but significant functional activities (chemotactic responsiveness and hydrogen peroxide production) when compared with human peripheral blood neutrophils. The validation of nonhuman primate ex vivo expansion systems may permit their use as models of irradiation. The feasibility of ex vivo expansion from cryopreserved bone marrow cell samples may offer considerable opportunity for banking bone marrow for autologous transfusion. PMID:9507383

  1. The effect of luteal phase progesterone supplementation on natural frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles

    PubMed Central

    Lee, You-Jeong; Lee, Kyung-Hee; Kwon, Su-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chae, Hee-Dong; Kang, Byung-Moon

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of progesterone supplementation during the luteal phase on pregnancy outcome in natural frozen-thawed embyo transfer (FTET) cycles. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, 228 consecutive patients who underwent FTET cycles between January 2009 and September 2012 were included. One hundred forty-five patients received luteal progesterone support (P group) but 83 patients did not receive any progesterone supplementation during luteal phase (control group). Results There were no differences in patients' characteristics between the two groups. The two groups were similar with respect to the characteristics of previous fresh in vitro fertilization cycle in which embryos were cryopreserved including the numbers of oocytes retrieved, mature oocytes, fertilized oocytes, grade 1 or 2 embryos and frozen embryos. Also, significant differences were not observed between the P and control groups in clinical pregnancy rate, embryo implantation rate and multiple pregnancy rate. However, miscarriage rate was significantly lower in the P group and live birth rate was significantly higher in the P group than in the control group (P<0.05, P<0.05). Conclusion Our results suggest that luteal phase progesterone supplementation decreases miscarriage rate and improves live birth rate in natural FTET cycles. PMID:25105102

  2. Luteal estradiol supplementation in gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist cycles for infertile patients in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Su-Kyoung; Lee, Kyung-Hee; Jeon, Il Kyung; Ahn, Jun-Woo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chae, Hee-Dong; Kang, Byung-Moon

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of the addition of estradiol to luteal progesterone supplementation in GnRH antagonist cycles for infertile patients undergoing IVF/ICSI. Methods One hundred and ten infertile patients, aged 28 to 39 years, were recruited for this prospective randomized study. They were randomly assigned to receive vaginal progesterone gel (Crinone) along with 4 mg estradiol valerate (group 1, n=55) or only Crinone (group 2, n=55) for luteal support. A GnRH antagonist multiple dose protocol using recombinant human FSH was used for controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) in all of the subjects. The COS results and pregnancy outcomes of the two groups were compared. Results Group 1 and 2 were comparable with respect to the patient characteristics. The COS and IVF results were also comparable between the two groups. There were no differences in the clinical pregnancy rate (PR) and multiple PR between the two groups. However, the embryo implantation rate were significantly higher in group 1 than that in group 2 (22.2% vs. 13.3%, p=0.035). The incidence of luteal vaginal bleeding (LVB) was significantly lower in group 1 (7.4% vs. 27.8%, p=0.010). Conclusion The addition of estradiol to luteal progesterone supplementation in GnRH antagonist cycles reduces the incidence of LVB and increases the embryo implantation rate in infertile patients undergoing IVF/ICSI. PMID:24179871

  3. Restrição alimentar e atividade ovariana luteal cíclica pós-parto em vacas girolanda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ADEMIR DE MORAES FERREIRA; JOÃO HENRIQUE MOREIRA VIANA; WANDERLEI FERREIRA DE SÁ; LUIZ SÉRGIO DE ALMEIDA CAMARGO; RUI DA SILVA VERNEQUE

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of weight loss on postpartum cross bred Holstein x Gir (HZ) cows in good body score condition (BSC = 3.5 to 4.5) at calving on the delay of beginning or on maintenance of ovarian luteal cyclic activity (OLCA). Cows were distributed in three treatments: Group I (n = 15), maintenance;

  4. Automatic Classification of African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) Follicular and Luteal Patrick J. Clemins1

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Michael T.

    the reproductive status of a female African elephant. The classification system is based on current state of their estrous cycle (1). One reason for these differences might be to attract a male for reproductive purposes classification system that can determine whether a female rumble was made during the luteal or follicular phase

  5. OCT-4 expression in follicular and luteal phase endometrium: a pilot study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva-Katrin Bentz; Marina Kenning; Christian Schneeberger; Andrea Kolbus; Johannes C Huber; Lukas A Hefler; Clemens B Tempfer

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The stem cell marker Octamer-4 (OCT-4) is expressed in human endometrium. Menstrual cycle-dependency of OCT-4 expression has not been investigated to date. METHODS: In a prospective, single center cohort study of 98 women undergoing hysteroscopy during the follicular (n = 49) and the luteal (n = 40) phases of the menstrual cycle, we obtained endometrial samples. Specimens were investigated

  6. Methylene blue but not indigo carmine is toxic to human luteal cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, M M; Weitzman, G A; Hogan, S; Breckinridge, S; Miller, M M

    1993-01-01

    Methylene blue (MB) is reported to be teratogenic when injected intra-amniotically. Indigo carmine (IC) appears to be a safe alternative. To determine if MB has potential detrimental effects on ovarian tissue, we compared the effect of MB and IC on human granulosa luteal cell (GC) function in vitro. Human oocyte-cumulus complexes were obtained during in vitro fertilization cycles and one to three were placed in an organ culture dish. After insemination with sperm, oocytes were removed the day after retrieval and the attached GC were washed daily for 3 more days by changing 2 mL of culture medium. All the dishes were treated with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for the next 24 h and progesterone (P) production during this interval was taken as baseline. Test chemicals were added with hCG for the next 48 h with daily media changes. The P production during the last 24 h of chemical treatment was expressed as a percentage of the baseline. MB significantly reduced P production whereas IC did not appear to have any effect. Moreover, under inverted microscopy more than 90% of the GC cells contained several small bluish intracellular granules when exposed to 0.01% MB but not 0.01% IC. These results indicate that MB may be taken up and processed by GC cells and inhibits P production. This finding adds to previous reports on the use of in vitro GC assay to identify potential reproductive toxicants. The clinical significance of this preliminary study needs further investigation. PMID:8118115

  7. In-vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, S; Doble, N; Hardy, J; Jones, S; Keltner, J; Olivier, S; Werner, J S

    2005-10-26

    To relate in-vivo microscopic retinal changes to visual function assessed with clinical tests in patients with various forms of retinal dystrophies. The UC Davis Adaptive Optics (AO) Fundus Camera was used to acquire in-vivo retinal images at the cellular level. Visual function tests, consisting of visual field analysis, multifocal electroretinography (mfERG), contrast sensitivity and color vision measures, were performed on all subjects. Five patients with different forms of retinal dystrophies and three control subjects were recruited. Cone densities were quantified for all retinal images. In all images of diseased retinas, there were extensive areas of dark space between groups of photoreceptors, where no cone photoreceptors were evident. These irregular features were not seen in healthy retinas, but were characteristic features in fundi with retinal dystrophies. There was a correlation between functional vision loss and the extent to which the irregularities occurred in retinal images. Cone densities were found to decrease with an associated decrease in retinal function. AO fundus photography is a reliable technique for assessing and quantifying the changes in the photoreceptor layer as disease progresses. Furthermore, this technique can be useful in cases where visual function tests give borderline or ambiguous results, as it allows visualization of individual photoreceptors.

  8. Relationship between in vivo activity and in vitro measures of function and stability of a protein

    SciTech Connect

    Sandberg, W.S.; Schlunk, P.M.; Zabin, H.G. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-19

    The in vivo activities of mutant proteins are readily measured and can potentially be used to estimate changes in in vitro properties such as stability or function, but this connection has not been rigorously established. Gene V protein is a small protein produced by bacteriophage f1 that binds to single-stranded DNA and to RNA and for which fitness can be assayed both in vivo and in vitro. We have assembled a large number of temperature-sensitive mutants of the gene V protein of bacteriophage f1 and measured their ability to support phage growth and replication in vivo. We have also purified many of these mutant gene V proteins and measured their stabilities and ssDNA binding affinities in vitro. Mutations at surface residues frequently yielded temperature-sensitive mutants, but remarkably, no overall correlation between in vivo activity and in vitro measures of either stability or function was found for this group. Mutations at buried residues often lead to the temperature-sensitive phenotype. At buried sites temperature sensitivity was strongly correlated with in vitro stability changes, but not with in vitro ssDNA binding affinity. The implication of these observations for protein engineering efforts is that phenotypes conferred by amino acid substitutions at buried sites can be used to identify mutants whose stabilities fall into ranges of interest, while phenotypes of mutants with surface substitutions may be much less readily interpreted, even in the case of a single-stranded-DNA-binding protein. 54 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Critical Role of Tissue Mast Cells in Controlling Long Term Glucose Sensor Function in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Klueh, Ulrike; Kaur, Manjot; Qiao, Yi; Kreutzer, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the specific cells, mediators and mechanisms involved in the loss of glucose sensor function (GSF) in vivo. Since mast cells (MC) are known to be key effector cells in inflammation and wound healing, we hypothesized that MC and their products are major contributors to the skin inflammation and wound healing that controls GSF at sites of sensor implantation. To test this hypothesis we utilized a murine model of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in vivo in both normal C57BL/6 mice (mast cell sufficient), as well as mast cell deficient B6.Cg-KitW-sh/HNihrJaeBsmJ (Sash) mice over a 28 day CGM period. As expected, both strains of mice displayed excellent CGM for the first 7 days post sensor implantation (PSI). CGM in the mast cell sufficient C57BL/6 mice was erratic over the remaining 21 days PSI. CGM in the mast cell deficient Sash mice displayed excellent sensor function for the entire 28 day of CGM. Histopathologic evaluation of implantation sites demonstrated that tissue reactions in Sash mice were dramatically less compared to the reactions in normal C57BL/6 mice. Additionally, mast cells were also seen to be consistently associated with the margins of sensor tissue reactions in normal C57BL/6 mice. Finally, direct injection of bone marrow derived mast cells at sites of sensor implantation induced an acute and dramatic loss of sensor function in both C57BL/6 and Sash mice. These results demonstrate the key role of mast cells in controlling glucose sensor function in vivo. PMID:20226521

  10. In Vivo Imaging of the Photoreceptor Mosaic in Retinal Dystrophies and Correlations with Visual Function

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Stacey S.; Doble, Nathan; Hardy, Joseph L.; Jones, Steven M.; Keltner, John L.; Olivier, Scot S.; Werner, John S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To relate in vivo microscopic retinal changes to visual function in patients who have various forms of retinal dystrophy. Methods The UC Davis Adaptive Optics (AO) fundus camera was used to acquire in vivo retinal images at the cellular level. Visual function tests consisting of visual fields, multifocal electroretinography (mfERG), and contrast sensitivity were measured in all subjects by using stimuli that were coincident with areas imaged. Five patients with different forms of retinal dystrophy and three control subjects were recruited. Cone densities were quantified for all retinal images. Results In all images of diseased retinas, there were extensive areas of dark space between groups of photoreceptors, where no cone photoreceptors were evident. These irregular features were not seen in healthy retinas, but were apparent in patients with retinal dystrophy. There were significant correlations between functional vision losses and the extent to which these irregularities, quantified by cone density, occurred in retinal images. Conclusions AO fundus imaging is a reliable technique for assessing and quantifying the changes in the photoreceptor layer as disease progresses. Furthermore, this technique can be useful in cases where visual function tests provide borderline or ambiguous results, as it allows visualization of individual photoreceptors. PMID:16639019

  11. Multi-functional graphene as an in vitro and in vivo imaging probe.

    PubMed

    Gollavelli, Ganesh; Ling, Yong-Chien

    2012-03-01

    A strategy has been developed for the synthesis of multi-functional graphene (MFG) using green synthetic approach and explored its biomedical application as a promising fluorescent marker for in vitro and in vivo imaging. In-situ microwave-assisted reduction and magnetization process was adopted to convert the graphene oxide into magnetic graphene within 1 min, which was further covalently modified to build a polyacrylic acid (PAA) bridge for linking the fluorescein o-methacrylate (FMA) to yield MFG with water-dispersibility (?2.5 g/l) and fluorescence property (emission maximum at 526 nm). The PAA bridges also functions to prevent graphene-induced fluorescence quenching of conjugated FMA. The extent of reduction, magnetization, and functionalization was confirmed with TEM, AFM, Raman, XPS, FT-IR, TGA, and SQUID measurements. In vitro cytotoxicity study of HeLa cells reveal that MFG could stand as a biocompatible imaging probe with an IC(50) value of ?100 ?g/ml; whereas in vivo zebrafish study does not induce any significant abnormalities nor affects the survival rate after microinjection of MFG. Confocal laser scanning microscopy images reveals that MFG locates only in the cytoplasm region and exhibits excellent co-localization and biodistribution from the head to tail in the zebrafish. Our results demonstrate the applicability of graphene based fluorescence marker for intracellular imaging and, more significantly, as well as whole-animal imaging. Hence, MFG could preferentially serve as a dual functional probe in biomedical diagnostics. PMID:22206596

  12. Microfibril-associated Glycoprotein 2 (MAGP2) Loss of Function Has Pleiotropic Effects in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Combs, Michelle D.; Knutsen, Russell H.; Broekelmann, Thomas J.; Toennies, Holly M.; Brett, Thomas J.; Miller, Chantel A.; Kober, Daniel L.; Craft, Clarissa S.; Atkinson, Jeffrey J.; Shipley, J. Michael; Trask, Barbara C.; Mecham, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Microfibril-associated glycoprotein (MAGP) 1 and 2 are evolutionarily related but structurally divergent proteins that are components of microfibrils of the extracellular matrix. Using mice with a targeted inactivation of Mfap5, the gene for MAGP2 protein, we demonstrate that MAGPs have shared as well as unique functions in vivo. Mfap5?/? mice appear grossly normal, are fertile, and have no reduction in life span. Cardiopulmonary development is typical. The animals are normotensive and have vascular compliance comparable with age-matched wild-type mice, which is indicative of normal, functional elastic fibers. Loss of MAGP2 alone does not significantly alter bone mass or architecture, and loss of MAGP2 in tandem with loss of MAGP1 does not exacerbate MAGP1-dependent osteopenia. MAGP2-deficient mice are neutropenic, which contrasts with monocytopenia described in MAGP1-deficient animals. This suggests that MAGP1 and MAGP2 have discrete functions in hematopoiesis. In the cardiovascular system, MAGP1;MAGP2 double knockout mice (Mfap2?/?;Mfap5?/?) show age-dependent aortic dilation. These findings indicate that MAGPs have shared primary functions in maintaining large vessel integrity. In solid phase binding assays, MAGP2 binds active TGF?1, TGF?2, and BMP2. Together, these data demonstrate that loss of MAGP2 expression in vivo has pleiotropic effects potentially related to the ability of MAGP2 to regulate growth factors or participate in cell signaling. PMID:23963447

  13. Biomimetic engineered muscle with capacity for vascular integration and functional maturation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Juhas, Mark; Engelmayr, George C.; Fontanella, Andrew N.; Palmer, Gregory M.; Bursac, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Tissue-engineered skeletal muscle can serve as a physiological model of natural muscle and a potential therapeutic vehicle for rapid repair of severe muscle loss and injury. Here, we describe a platform for engineering and testing highly functional biomimetic muscle tissues with a resident satellite cell niche and capacity for robust myogenesis and self-regeneration in vitro. Using a mouse dorsal window implantation model and transduction with fluorescent intracellular calcium indicator, GCaMP3, we nondestructively monitored, in real time, vascular integration and the functional state of engineered muscle in vivo. During a 2-wk period, implanted engineered muscle exhibited a steady ingrowth of blood-perfused microvasculature along with an increase in amplitude of calcium transients and force of contraction. We also demonstrated superior structural organization, vascularization, and contractile function of fully differentiated vs. undifferentiated engineered muscle implants. The described in vitro and in vivo models of biomimetic engineered muscle represent enabling technology for novel studies of skeletal muscle function and regeneration. PMID:24706792

  14. Alterations in luteal production of androstenedione, testosterone, and estrone, but not estradiol, during mid- and late pregnancy in pigs: effects of androgen deficiency.

    PubMed

    Grzesiak, Malgorzata; Knapczyk-Stwora, Katarzyna; Ciereszko, Renata E; Wieciech, Iwona; Slomczynska, Maria

    2014-09-15

    Recently, we have found that flutamide-induced androgen deficiency altered progesterone production in the porcine corpus luteum (CL) during mid- and late pregnancy. Herein, we tested whether flutamide administration subsequently influences androgen and estrogen metabolism in the CL of pregnancy. Pregnant gilts were treated with flutamide between Days 43 and 49 (GD50F), 83 and 89 (GD90F), or 101 and 107 (GD108F) of gestation. Corpora lutea (CLs) were collected from treated and nontreated (control) pigs. The concentrations of androstenedione (A4), testosterone (T), estrone (E1), and estradiol (E2) together with the levels of expression of mRNAs and proteins for cytochrome P450 17?-hydroxylase/c17-20 lyase (CYP17A1), 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17?-HSD1), cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A1), and 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 7 (17?-HSD7) were measured in the CL of control and flutamide-treated animals. Steroidogenic enzymes were also immunolocalized in luteal tissues. The luteal concentrations of A4 and T were higher in the GD50F (P = 0.006, P = 0.03) and GD108F (P = 0.005, P = 0.035) groups, but lower in the GD90F (P = 0.004, P = 0.014) group. The E1 level was greater only in the GD90F (P = 0.03) and GD108F (P = 0.035) groups, whereas E2 concentration was not affected by flutamide treatment. Increased luteal CYP17A1 mRNA and protein expression was found in the GD50F (P = 0.002, P = 0.03) and GD108F (P = 0.0026, P = 0.03) groups, but reduced in the GD90F (P = 0.002, P = 0.03) group. mRNA of 17?-HSD1 was upregulated in the GD50F (P = 0.0005) group, but downregulated in the GD90F (P = 0.002) and GD108F (P = 0.0005) groups. In contrast, 17?-HSD1 protein expression was higher in the GD50F and GD108F (P = 0.03) groups, but lower in the GD90F (P = 0.03) group. Both CYP19A1 mRNA and protein levels were greater in the GD90F (P = 0.001, P = 0.028) and GD108F (P = 0.005, P = 0.03) groups. Neither 17?-HSD7 mRNA nor protein level were affected by flutamide exposure. Both CYP17A1 and 17?-HSD1 were immunolocalized exclusively in small luteal cells, whereas CYP19A1 and 17?-HSD7 were found in large luteal cells of control and flutamide-treated CLs. Overall, flutamide administration led to the alterations in A4, T, and E1, but not in E2, production in the CL of pregnancy in pigs, probably because of disrupted steroidogenic enzymes expression. These changes suggest that androgens are important modulators of luteal function during pregnancy in pigs. PMID:25011982

  15. Action of the opioid agonist FK 33-824 on porcine small and large luteal cells from the mid-luteal phase: effect on progesterone, cAMP, cGMP and inositol phosphate release

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Kaminski; G Siawrys; S Okrasa; J Przala

    1999-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of the opioid agonist FK 33-824 on basal and hCG-induced progesterone (P4), cAMP and cGMP secretion and on the phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C signalling system in separated porcine small (SLCs) and large luteal cells (LLCs). Unit gravity sedimentation was used to produce cultures of small and large luteal cells from corpora lutea

  16. Value of phagocyte function screening for immunotoxicity of nanoparticles in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich, Eleonore

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) present in the environment and in consumer products can cause immunotoxic effects. The immune system is very complex, and in vivo studies are the gold standard for evaluation. Due to the increased amount of NPs that are being developed, cellular screening assays to decrease the amount of NPs that have to be tested in vivo are highly needed. Effects on the unspecific immune system, such as effects on phagocytes, might be suitable for screening for immunotoxicity because these cells mediate unspecific and specific immune responses. They are present at epithelial barriers, in the blood, and in almost all organs. This review summarizes the effects of carbon, metal, and metal oxide NPs used in consumer and medical applications (gold, silver, titanium dioxide, silica dioxide, zinc oxide, and carbon nanotubes) and polystyrene NPs on the immune system. Effects in animal exposures through different routes are compared to the effects on isolated phagocytes. In addition, general problems in the testing of NPs, such as unknown exposure doses, as well as interference with assays are mentioned. NPs appear to induce a specific immunotoxic pattern consisting of the induction of inflammation in normal animals and aggravation of pathologies in disease models. The evaluation of particle action on several phagocyte functions in vitro may provide an indication on the potency of the particles to induce immunotoxicity in vivo. In combination with information on realistic exposure levels, in vitro studies on phagocytes may provide useful information on the health risks of NPs. PMID:26060398

  17. Functional evaluation of malaria Pfs25 DNA vaccine by in vivo electroporation in Olive baboons

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajesh; Nyakundi, Ruth; Kariuki, Thomas; Ozwara, Hastings; Nyamongo, Onkoba; Mlambo, Godfree; Ellefsen, Barry; Hannaman, Drew; Kumar, Nirbhay

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum Pfs25 antigen, expressed on the surface of zygotes and ookinetes, is one of the leading targets for the development of a malaria transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV). Our laboratory has been evaluating DNA plasmid based Pfs25 vaccine in mice and non-human primates. Previously, we established that in vivo electroporation (EP) delivery is an effective method to improve the immunogenicity of DNA vaccine encoding Pfs25 in mice. In order to optimize the in vivo EP procedure and test for its efficacy in more clinically relevant larger animal models, we employed in vivo EP to evaluate the immune response and protective efficacy of Pfs25 encoding DNA vaccine in nonhuman primates (Olive baboons, Papio anubis). The results showed that at a dose of 2.5 mg DNA vaccine, antibody responses were significantly enhanced with EP as compared to without EP resulting in effective transmission blocking efficiency. Similar immunogenicity enhancing effect of EP was also observed with lower doses (0.5 mg and 1 mg) of DNA plasmids. Further, final boosting with a single dose of recombinant Pfs25 protein resulted in dramatically enhanced antibody titers and significantly increased functional transmission blocking efficiency. Our study suggests priming with DNA vaccine via EP along with protein boost regimen as an effective method to elicit potent immunogenicity of malaria DNA vaccines in nonhuman primates and provides the basis for further evaluation in human volunteers. PMID:23684840

  18. Delayed Recovery of Receptor-Mediated Functional Responses to Acetylcholine in Mouse Isolated Carotid Arteries following Endothelial Denudation in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alastair L. Miller; Frances Plane; Jamie Y. Jeremy; Heather J. McKinnon; Christopher L. Jackson

    2003-01-01

    The time-course of endothelial regrowth and functional recovery following polytetrafluoroethylene filament-induced endothelial denudation in vivo was studied in the left common carotid artery of the mouse. This technique does not result in any intimal hyperplasia, enabling the investigation of endothelial function without any confounding effect of intimal thickening. Endothelial coverage was assessed histologically, and functional recovery was assessed as restoration

  19. Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueding; Pang, Yongjiang; Ku, Geng; Xie, Xueyi; Stoica, George; Wang, Lihong V

    2003-07-01

    Imaging techniques based on optical contrast analysis can be used to visualize dynamic and functional properties of the nervous system via optical signals resulting from changes in blood volume, oxygen consumption and cellular swelling associated with brain physiology and pathology. Here we report in vivo noninvasive transdermal and transcranial imaging of the structure and function of rat brains by means of laser-induced photoacoustic tomography (PAT). The advantage of PAT over pure optical imaging is that it retains intrinsic optical contrast characteristics while taking advantage of the diffraction-limited high spatial resolution of ultrasound. We accurately mapped rat brain structures, with and without lesions, and functional cerebral hemodynamic changes in cortical blood vessels around the whisker-barrel cortex in response to whisker stimulation. We also imaged hyperoxia- and hypoxia-induced cerebral hemodynamic changes. This neuroimaging modality holds promise for applications in neurophysiology, neuropathology and neurotherapy. PMID:12808463

  20. High pressure modulated transport and signaling functions of membrane proteins in models and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, R. F.; Linke, K.; Teichert, H.; Ehrmann, M. A.

    2008-07-01

    Cellular membranes serve in the separation of compartments, recognition of the environment, selective transport and signal transduction. Membrane lipids and membrane proteins play distinct roles in these processes, which are affected by environmental chemical (e. g. pH) or physical (e. g. pressure and temperature) changes. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) affects fluidity and integrity of bacterial membranes instantly during the ramp, resulting in a loss of membrane potential and vital membrane protein functions. We have used the multiple drug transporter LmrA from Lactococcus lactis and ToxR, a membrane protein sensor from Photobacterium profundum, a deep-sea bacterium, and Vibrio cholerae to study membrane protein interaction and functionality in proteolioposomes and by the use of in vivo reporter systems, respectively. Both proteins require dimerization in the phospholipid bilayer for their functionality, which was favoured in the liquid crystalline lipid phase with ToxR and LmrA. Whereas LmrA, which resides in liposomes consisting of DMPC, DMPC/cholesterol or natural lipids, lost its ATPase activity above 20 or 40 MPa, it maintained its active dimeric structure in DOPC/DPPC/cholesterol liposomes up to 120 MPa. By using a specific indicator strain in which the dimerisation of ToxR initiates the transcription of lacZ it was demonstrated, that the amino acid sequence of the transmembrane domain influences HHP stability of ToxR dimerization in vivo. Thus, both the lipid structure and the nature of the protein affect membrane protein interaction. It is suggested that the protein structure determines basic functionality, e.g. principle ability or kinetics to dimerize to a functional complex, while the lipid environment modulates this property.

  1. The effect of interobserver variation in dating endometrial histology on the diagnosis of luteal phase defects.

    PubMed

    Scott, R T; Snyder, R R; Strickland, D M; Tyburski, C C; Bagnall, J A; Reed, K R; Adair, C A; Hensley, S B

    1988-12-01

    Endometrial biopsy specimens (n = 62) were evaluated by five pathologists to assess the effect of interobserver variation on histologic dating of the endometrium. The potential effect of this variation on the diagnosis of luteal phase defects (LPDs) and resulting clinical management was also determined. Mean (+/- standard error) interobserver variation was 0.96 +/- 0.08 days, comparable to results reported by other investigators. The magnitude of the variation was not affected by whether the biopsy specimen was obtained in the mid or late luteal phase, the degree of lag between the dating and subsequent menses, or the presence of an LPD. Redating of a specimen by another pathologist would have resulted in a change in the determination of "in" or "out" of phase in 22% of cases. The subsequent probability of changing patient management altered ranged from 22% to 39% depending on the clinical setting. PMID:3203751

  2. Effects of canine distemper virus infection on lymphoid function in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Krakowka, S; Cockerell, G; Koestner, A

    1975-01-01

    In the present study, the immunodepressive effects of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection of dogs on two parameters of lymphocyte function, namely phytomitogen-induced cellular proliferation and skin allograft rejection, were investigated. Infection of susceptible gnotobiotic dogs with virulent R252-CDV resulted in a depression of peripheral blood lymphocyte mitogen response as measured by (3H)thymidine incorporation for up to 10 weeks after inoculation. This effect coincided with the appearance of viral antigen by immunofluorescence in leukocytes but persisted after the virus was no longer detectable. Loss of mitogen reactivity was seen in all infected dogs. However, when these same CDV-infected dogs were challenged with foreign skin allografts, no significant retention of grafts over controls was observed despite the depressed lymphocyte activity. Considering the in vitro and in vivo data it was concluded that, although immunodepressive effects of CDV were demonstrated in vitro, paralled in vivo experiments indicated that less than complete suppression of immune functions occurs during the course of CDV infection. PMID:1091560

  3. Ubiquitination Regulates the Neuroprotective Function of the Deubiquitinase Ataxin-3 in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Wei-Ling; Burr, Aaron A.; Ouyang, Michelle; Blount, Jessica R.; Scaglione, K. Matthew; Todi, Sokol V.

    2013-01-01

    Deubiquitinases (DUBs) are proteases that regulate various cellular processes by controlling protein ubiquitination. Cell-based studies indicate that the regulation of the activity of DUBs is important for homeostasis and is achieved by multiple mechanisms, including through their own ubiquitination. However, the physiological significance of the ubiquitination of DUBs to their functions in vivo is unclear. Here, we report that ubiquitination of the DUB ataxin-3 at lysine residue 117, which markedly enhances its protease activity in vitro, is critical for its ability to suppress toxic protein-dependent degeneration in Drosophila melanogaster. Compared with ataxin-3 with only Lys-117 present, ataxin-3 that does not become ubiquitinated performs significantly less efficiently in suppressing or delaying the onset of toxic protein-dependent degeneration in flies. According to further studies, the C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP), an E3 ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitinates ataxin-3 in vitro, is dispensable for its ubiquitination in vivo and is not required for the neuroprotective function of this DUB in Drosophila. Our work also suggests that ataxin-3 suppresses degeneration by regulating toxic protein aggregation rather than stability. PMID:24106274

  4. Impact of the prostaglandin-synthase 2 inhibitor celecoxib on ovulation and luteal events in women

    PubMed Central

    Edelman, A.B.; Jensen, J.T.; Doom, C; Hennebold, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Ovarian prostaglandins are critical in normal ovulation processes, thus their inhibition may provide contraceptive benefits. This study was performed to determine the effect of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) inhibitor, celecoxib, on ovulation and luteal events in women. Study design Randomized double-blind crossover design. Ovulatory reproductive-aged women underwent ovarian ultrasound and serum hormone monitoring during four menstrual cycles (control cycle, treatment cycle 1, washout cycle, treatment cycle 2). Subjects received study drug (oral celecoxib 400 mg or placebo) either 1) once daily starting on cycle day 8 and continuing until follicle rupture or the onset of next menses if follicle rupture did not occur (pre-LH surge dosing) or 2) once daily beginning with the LH surge and continued for 6 days (post-LH surge dosing). Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the above treatment schemes and received the other in the subsequent treatment cycle. The main outcomes were evidence of ovulatory and luteal dysfunction as determined by inhibited/delayed follicle rupture and reduced luteal progesterone synthesis or lifespan, respectively. Results A total of 20 women enrolled and completed the study (Group 1 = 10, Group 2 = 10) with similar demographics between groups. Nineteen subjects exhibited normal ovulation in the control cycle (one had a blunted LH peak). In comparison to control cycles, treatment cycles resulted in a significant increase in ovulatory dysfunction [pre-LH treatment: 30% (6/20), p = 0.04; post-LH treatment: 25% (5/20), p = 0.04]. Peak progesterone, estradiol, and LH levels and luteal phase length did not differ significantly between control and either treatment cycles. Conclusions Although treatment with celecoxib before or after the LH surge increases the rate of ovulatory dysfunction, most women ovulate normally. Thus, this selective COX2 inhibitor appears to be of limited usefulness as a potential emergency contraceptive. PMID:22902348

  5. Selective Small Molecule Targeting ?-Catenin Function Discovered by In Vivo Chemical Genetic Screen

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Jijun; Ao, Ada; Zhou, Li; Murphy, Clare K.; Frist, Audrey Y.; Keel, Jessica J.; Thorne, Curtis A.; Kim, Kwangho; Lee, Ethan; Hong, Charles C.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Canonical Wnt signaling pathway, mediated by the transcription factor ?-catenin, plays critical roles in embryonic development, and represents an important therapeutic target. In a zebrafish-based in vivo screen for small molecules that specifically perturb embryonic dorsoventral patterning, we discovered a novel compound, named windorphen, which selectively blocks the Wnt signal required for ventral development. Windorphen exhibits remarkable specificity toward ?-catenin-1 function, indicating that the two ?-catenin isoforms found in zebrafish are not functionally redundant. We show that windorphen is a selective inhibitor of p300 histone acetyl transferase, a co-activator that associates with ?-catenin. Lastly, windorphen robustly and selectively kills cancer cells that harbor Wnt-activating mutations, supporting the therapeutic potential of this novel Wnt inhibitor class. PMID:24012757

  6. Ena/VASP is required for endothelial barrier function in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Furman, Craig; Sieminski, Alisha L.; Kwiatkowski, Adam V.; Rubinson, Douglas A.; Vasile, Eliza; Bronson, Roderick T.; Fässler, Reinhard; Gertler, Frank B.

    2007-01-01

    Enabled/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (Ena/VASP) proteins are key actin regulators that localize at regions of dynamic actin remodeling, including cellular protrusions and cell–cell and cell–matrix junctions. Several studies have suggested that Ena/VASP proteins are involved in the formation and function of cellular junctions. Here, we establish the importance of Ena/VASP in endothelial junctions in vivo by analysis of Ena/VASP-deficient animals. In the absence of Ena/VASP, the vasculature exhibits patterning defects and lacks structural integrity, leading to edema, hemorrhaging, and late stage embryonic lethality. In endothelial cells, we find that Ena/VASP activity is required for normal F-actin content, actomyosin contractility, and proper response to shear stress. These findings demonstrate that Ena/VASP is critical for actin cytoskeleton remodeling events involved in the maintenance of functional endothelia. PMID:17998398

  7. Novel peptides functionally targeting in vivo human lung cancer discovered by in vivo peptide displayed phage screening.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Jin; Lee, Jae Hee; Chung, Hye Kyung; Choi, Jinhyang; Park, Jaesook; Park, Seok Soon; Ju, Eun Jin; Park, Jin; Shin, Seol Hwa; Park, Hye Ji; Ko, Eun Jung; Suh, Nayoung; Kim, InKi; Hwang, Jung Jin; Song, Si Yeol; Jeong, Seong-Yun; Choi, Eun Kyung

    2015-02-01

    Discovery of the cancer-specific peptidic ligands have been emphasized for active targeting drug delivery system and non-invasive imaging. For the discovery of useful and applicable peptidic ligands, in vivo peptide-displayed phage screening has been performed in this study using a xenograft mouse model as a mimic microenvironment to tumor. To seek human lung cancer-specific peptides, M13 phage library displaying 2.9 × 10(9) random peptides was intravenously injected into mouse model bearing A549-derived xenograft tumor through the tail vein. Then the phages emerged from a course of four rounds of biopanning in the xenograft tumor tissue. Novel peptides were categorized into four groups according to a sequence-homology phylogenicity, and in vivo tumor-targeting capacity of these peptides was validated by whole body imaging with Cy5.5-labeled phages in various cancer types. The result revealed that novel peptides accumulated only in adenocarcinoma lung cancer cell-derived xenograft tissue. For further confirmation of the specific targeting ability, in vitro cell-binding assay and immunohistochemistry in vivo tumor tissue were performed with a selected peptide. The peptide was found to bind intensely to lung cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, which was efficiently compromised with unlabeled phages in an in vitro competition assay. In conclusion, the peptides specifically targeting human lung cancer were discovered in this study, which is warranted to provide substantive feasibilities for drug delivery and imaging in terms of a novel targeted therapeutics and diagnostics. PMID:25366491

  8. MS-based metabolomics facilitates the discovery of in vivo functional small molecules with a diversity of biological contexts.

    PubMed

    Yan, Leyu; Nie, Wenna; Parker, Tony; Upton, Zee; Lu, Haitao

    2013-10-01

    In vivo small molecules as necessary intermediates are involved in numerous critical metabolic pathways and biological processes associated with many essential biological functions and events. There is growing evidence that MS-based metabolomics is emerging as a powerful tool to facilitate the discovery of functional small molecules that can better our understanding of development, infection, nutrition, disease, toxicity, drug therapeutics, gene modifications and host-pathogen interaction from metabolic perspectives. However, further progress must still be made in MS-based metabolomics because of the shortcomings in the current technologies and knowledge. This technique-driven review aims to explore the discovery of in vivo functional small molecules facilitated by MS-based metabolomics and to highlight the analytic capabilities and promising applications of this discovery strategy. Moreover, the biological significance of the discovery of in vivo functional small molecules with different biological contexts is also interrogated at a metabolic perspective. PMID:24175746

  9. Importance of Interleukin-1 and Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist in Short-Term Glucose Sensor Function in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Klueh, Ulrike; Liu, Zenghe; Feldman, Ben; Kreutzer, Don

    2010-01-01

    Background The importance of the interleukin (IL)-1 cytokine family in inflammation and immunity is well established as a result of extensive in vitro and in vivo studies. In fact, much of our understanding of the in vivo importance of interleukin-1beta (IL-1B) is the result of research utilizing transgenic mice, such as overexpression or deficiencies of the naturally occurring inhibitor of IL-1 known as interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA). For the present studies, we utilized these transgenic mice to determine the role of IL-1B in glucose sensor function in vivo. Methods To investigate the role of IL-1B in glucose sensor function in vivo, we compared glucose sensor function in trans-genic mice that (1) overexpressed IL-1RA [B6.Cg-Tg(II1rn)1Dih/J] and (2) are deficient in IL-1RA (B6.129S-Il1rntm1Dih/J), with mice that have normal levels of IL-1RA (C57BL/6). Results Our studies demonstrated that, during the first 7 days post-sensor implantation (PSI), mice deficient in IL-1RA had extensive inflammation and decreased sensor function when compared to normal or IL-1RA-overexpressing mice. Conclusion These data directly support our hypothesis that the IL-1 family of cytokines and antagonists play a critical role in controlling tissue reactions and thereby sensor function in vivo during the first 7 days PSI. PMID:20920427

  10. Follicular growth and corpus luteum function in women with unexplained infertility, monitored by ultrasonography and measurement of daily salivary progesterone.

    PubMed

    Finn, M M; Gosling, J P; Tallon, D F; Joyce, L A; Meehan, F P; Fottrell, P F

    1989-12-01

    Ovarian function was evaluated over a minimum of 3 consecutive menstrual cycles from each of 41 women with unexplained infertility. Follicular development and ovulation were monitored using real time ultrasonography and luteal function was evaluated by daily salivary progesterone measurement. In 129 spontaneous cycles, normal single ovulations were detected in 121 (93.8%). Luteal phase insufficiency was identified in 21 (17.4%) of these 121 cycles and this was a recurrent phenomenon in the cycles of 5 of the 41 women (12.2%). A successful pregnancy was seen only in association with consistently normal salivary progesterone profiles or where the empirical use of clomiphene citrate therapy had corrected previously diagnosed luteal phase insufficiency. Basal body temperature records or mid-luteal serum progesterone measurements were less satisfactory indices of luteal function than a salivary progesterone profile. PMID:2626978

  11. Demonstration of an in vivo functional beta 3-adrenoceptor in man.

    PubMed Central

    Enocksson, S; Shimizu, M; Lönnqvist, F; Nordenström, J; Arner, P

    1995-01-01

    Although it is well established in several mammalian species that beta 3-adrenoceptors play a major role in regulating lipolysis and thermogenesis in adipose tissue, the functional existence and role of this receptor subtype in man has been controversial. We investigated whether the beta 3-adrenoceptor functionally co-exists with beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in vivo in human adipose tissue. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue of healthy non-obese subjects was microdialyzed with equimolar concentrations of dobutamine (selective beta 1-adrenoceptor agonist), terbutaline (selective beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist), or CGP 12177 (selective beta 3-adrenoceptor agonist). All three agents caused a rapid, sustained, concentration-dependent and significant elevation of the glycerol level in the microdialysate (lipolysis index). However, only terbutaline stimulated the nutritive blood flow in adipose tissue, as measured by an ethanol escape technique. Dobutamine and CGP 12177 was equally effective in elevating the glycerol level (maximum effect 150% above baseline). Terbutaline was significantly more effective than the other two beta-agonists (maximum effect 200% above baseline). When adipose tissue was pretreated with the beta 1/beta 2-selective adrenoceptor blocker propranolol the glycerol increasing effect of dobutamine or terbutaline was inhibited by 80-85% but the glycerol response to CGP 12177 was not influenced. It is concluded that a functional beta 3-adrenoceptor is present in vivo in man. It co-exists with beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in adipose tissue and may therefore play a role in lipolysis regulation. It appears, however, that the beta 2-adrenoceptor is the most important beta-adrenoceptor subtype for the mobilization of lipids from abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue because of its concomitant stimulatory effect on lipolysis and blood flow. PMID:7738189

  12. Estrogen protects renal endothelial barrier function from ischemia-reperfusion in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Fujiyoshi, Tetsuhiro; Komers, Radko; Herson, Paco S.; Anderson, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that renal endothelial function may be altered in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Acute kidney injury is sexually dimorphic, and estrogen protects renal tubular function after experimental ischemic injury. This study tested the hypothesis that during ischemia-reperfusion, estrogen alters glomerular endothelial function to prevent hyperpermeability. Glomerular endothelial cells were exposed to 8-h oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by 4- and 8-h reoxygenation-glucose repletion. After 4-h reoxygenation-glucose repletion, transendothelial permeability to Ficoll-70 was reduced, and transendothelial resistance increased, by 17?-estradiol vs. vehicle treatment during OGD (OGD-vehicle: 91.0 ± 11.8%, OGD-estrogen: 102.6 ± 10.8%, P < 0.05). This effect was reversed by coadministration of G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) antagonist G15 with 17?-estradiol (OGD-estrogen-G15: 89.5 ± 6.9, P < 0.05 compared with 17?-estradiol). To provide preliminary confirmation of this result in vivo, Ficoll-70 was administered to mice 24 h after cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CA/CPR). Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCr) in these mice were elevated within 12 h following CA/CPR and reduced at 24 h by pretreatment with 17?-estradiol (BUN/SCr 17?-estradiol: 34 ± 19/0.2 ± 0.1 vehicle: 92 ± 49/0.5 ± 0.3, n = 8–12, P < 0.05). Glomerular sieving of Ficoll 70 was increased by CA/CPR within 2 h of injury and 17?-estradiol treatment (?; 17?-estradiol: 0.74 ± 0.26 vs. vehicle: 1.05 ± 0.53, n = 14–15, P < 0.05). These results suggest that estrogen reduces postischemic glomerular endothelial hyperpermeability at least in part through GPR30 and that estrogen may regulate post CA/CPR glomerular permeability in a similar fashion in vivo. PMID:22622457

  13. The putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55 affects osteoclast function in vitro and bone mass in vivo.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Lauren S; Ryberg, Erik; Sims, Natalie A; Ridge, Susan A; Mackie, Ken; Greasley, Peter J; Ross, Ruth A; Rogers, Michael J

    2009-09-22

    GPR55 is a G protein-coupled receptor recently shown to be activated by certain cannabinoids and by lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI). However, the physiological role of GPR55 remains unknown. Given the recent finding that the cannabinoid receptors CB(1) and CB(2) affect bone metabolism, we examined the role of GPR55 in bone biology. GPR55 was expressed in human and mouse osteoclasts and osteoblasts; expression was higher in human osteoclasts than in macrophage progenitors. Although the GPR55 agonists O-1602 and LPI inhibited mouse osteoclast formation in vitro, these ligands stimulated mouse and human osteoclast polarization and resorption in vitro and caused activation of Rho and ERK1/2. These stimulatory effects on osteoclast function were attenuated in osteoclasts generated from GPR55(-/-) macrophages and by the GPR55 antagonist cannabidiol (CBD). Furthermore, treatment of mice with this non-psychoactive constituent of cannabis significantly reduced bone resorption in vivo. Consistent with the ability of GPR55 to suppress osteoclast formation but stimulate osteoclast function, histomorphometric and microcomputed tomographic analysis of the long bones from male GPR55(-/-) mice revealed increased numbers of morphologically inactive osteoclasts but a significant increase in the volume and thickness of trabecular bone and the presence of unresorbed cartilage. These data reveal a role of GPR55 in bone physiology by regulating osteoclast number and function. In addition, this study also brings to light an effect of both the endogenous ligand, LPI, on osteoclasts and of the cannabis constituent, CBD, on osteoclasts and bone turnover in vivo. PMID:19805329

  14. In Vitro Hematological and In Vivo Vasoactivity Assessment of Dextran Functionalized Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Sayan Mullick; Kanakia, Shruti; Toussaint, Jimmy D.; Frame, Mary D.; Dewar, Anthony M.; Shroyer, Kenneth R.; Moore, William; Sitharaman, Balaji

    2013-01-01

    The intravenous, intramuscular or intraperitoneal administration of water solubilized graphene nanoparticles for biomedical applications will result in their interaction with the hematological components and vasculature. Herein, we have investigated the effects of dextran functionalized graphene nanoplatelets (GNP-Dex) on histamine release, platelet activation, immune activation, blood cell hemolysis in vitro, and vasoactivity in vivo. The results indicate that GNP-Dex formulations prevented histamine release from activated RBL-2H3 rat mast cells, and at concentrations ? 7?mg/ml, showed a 12–20% increase in levels of complement proteins. Cytokine (TNF-Alpha and IL-10) levels remained within normal range. GNP-Dex formulations did not cause platelet activation or blood cell hemolysis. Using the hamster cheek pouch in vivo model, the initial vasoactivity of GNP-Dex at concentrations (1–50?mg/ml) equivalent to the first pass of a bolus injection was a brief concentration-dependent dilation in arcade and terminal arterioles. However, they did not induce a pro-inflammatory endothelial dysfunction effect. PMID:24002570

  15. Selective ex-vivo photothermal ablation of human pancreatic cancer with albumin functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Mocan, Lucian; Tabaran, Flaviu A; Mocan, Teodora; Bele, Constantin; Orza, Anamaria Ioana; Lucan, Ciprian; Stiufiuc, Rares; Manaila, Ioana; Iulia, Ferencz; Dana, Iancu; Zaharie, Florin; Osian, Gelu; Vlad, Liviu; Iancu, Cornel

    2011-01-01

    The process of laser-mediated ablation of cancer cells marked with biofunctionalized carbon nanotubes is frequently called “nanophotothermolysis”. We herein present a method of selective nanophotothermolisys of pancreatic cancer (PC) using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) functionalized with human serum albumin (HSA). With the purpose of testing the therapeutic value of these nanobioconjugates, we have developed an ex-vivo experimental platform. Surgically resected specimens from patients with PC were preserved in a cold medium and kept alive via intra-arterial perfusion. Additionally, the HSA-MWCNTs have been intra-arterially administered in the greater pancreatic artery under ultrasound guidance. Confocal and transmission electron microscopy combined with immunohistochemical staining have confirmed the selective accumulation of HSA-MWCNTs inside the human PC tissue. The external laser irradiation of the specimen has significantly produced extensive necrosis of the malign tissue after the intra-arterial administration of HSA-MWCNTs, without any harmful effects on the surrounding healthy parenchyma. We have obtained a selective photothermal ablation of the malign tissue based on the selective internalization of MWCNTs with HSA cargo inside the pancreatic adenocarcinoma after the ex-vivo intra-arterial perfusion. PMID:21720504

  16. Behavior of endogenous tumor-associated macrophages assessed in vivo using a functionalized nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Leimgruber, Antoine; Berger, Cedric; Cortez-Retamozo, Virna; Etzrodt, Martin; Newton, Andita P; Waterman, Peter; Figueiredo, Jose Luiz; Kohler, Rainer H; Elpek, Natalie; Mempel, Thorsten R; Swirski, Filip K; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Weissleder, Ralph; Pittet, Mikael J

    2009-05-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) invade the tumor stroma in many cancers, yet their role is incompletely understood. To visualize and better understand these critical cells in tumor progression, we screened a portfolio of rationally selected, injectable agents to image endogenous TAMs ubiquitously in three different cancer models (colon carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma, and soft tissue sarcoma). AMTA680, a functionally derivatized magneto-fluorescent nanoparticle, labeled a subset of myeloid cells with an "M2" macrophage phenotype, whereas other neighboring cells, including tumor cells and a variety of other leukocytes, remained unlabeled. We further show that AMTA680-labeled endogenous TAMs are not altered and can be tracked noninvasively at different resolutions and using various imaging modalities, e.g., fluorescence molecular tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and multiphoton and confocal intravital microscopy. Quantitative assessment of TAM distribution and activity in vivo identified that these cells cluster in delimited foci within tumors, show relatively low motility, and extend cytoplasmic protrusions for prolonged physical interactions with neighboring tumor cells. Noninvasive imaging can also be used to monitor TAM-depleting regimen quantitatively. Thus, AMTA680 or related cell-targeting agents represent appropriate injectable vehicles for in vivo analysis of the tumor microenvironment. PMID:19412430

  17. Functional Evaluation of ES–Somatic Cell Hybrids In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kitai; Liu, Jun; Ng, Kitwa; Daley, George Q.; Verma, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have previously been reported to reprogram somatic cells following fusion. The resulting ES–somatic cell hybrids have been shown to adopt the transcriptional profile of ESCs, suggesting that the pluripotent program is dominant. ES–somatic cell hybrids have most characteristics of pluripotent cells in vitro; however, it remains unclear whether the somatic genome is an active partner in the hybrid cells or simply retained predominately as silent cargo. Furthermore, the functional properties of ES–somatic cell hybrids in vivo have been limited to studies on their contribution to teratomas and developing embryos/chimeras. The extent of their pluripotency remains largely unclear. Here we determined that the somatic genome is actively transcribed by generating ES–somatic cell hybrids using Rag2-deficient ESCs fused to autologous wild-type somatic cells. Rag2 expression was detected during in vitro differentiation, suggesting that the somatic genome follows the correct temporal cues during differentiation. Furthermore, ES–somatic cell hybrids maintain their tetraploid state following 4 weeks of differentiation in vivo and are immune tolerated when transferred into matched individuals. The ES–somatic cell hybrids can efficiently differentiate into hematopoietic precursors in both myeloid and lymphoid lineages in vitro, suggesting that the somatic genome is actively transcribed following cell fusion based reprogramming. However, the ES–somatic cell hybrids showed an altered hematopoietic potential following in vitro differentiation and were unable to show hematopoietic engraftment in a mouse model. PMID:24787484

  18. An In Vivo Cardiac Assay to Determine the Functional Consequences of Putative Long QT Syndrome Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Jou, Chuanchau J.; Barnett, Spencer M.; Bian, Jian-Tao; Weng, H. Cindy; Sheng, Xiaoming; Tristani-Firouzi, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Genetic testing for Long QT Syndrome (LQTS) is now a standard and integral component of clinical cardiology. A major obstacle to the interpretation of genetic findings is the lack of robust functional assays to determine the pathogenicity of identified gene variants in a high throughput manner. Objective The goal of this study was to design and test a high throughput in vivo cardiac assay to distinguish between disease-causing and benign KCNH2 (hERG1) variants, using the zebrafish as a model organism. Methods and Results We tested the ability of previously characterized LQTS hERG1 mutations and polymorphisms to restore normal repolarization in the kcnh2-knockdown embryonic zebrafish. The cardiac assay correctly identified a benign variant in 9 of 10 cases (negative predictive value 90%) while correctly identifying a disease-causing variant in 39/39 cases (positive predictive value 100%). Conclusion The in vivo zebrafish cardiac assay approaches the accuracy of the current benchmark in vitro assay for the detection of disease-causing mutations and is far superior in terms of throughput rate. Together with emerging algorithms for interpreting a positive LQTS genetic test, the zebrafish cardiac assay provides an additional tool for the final determination of pathogenicity of gene variants identified in LQTS genetic screening. PMID:23303164

  19. In Vivo Evaluation of Vena Caval Filters: Can Function Be Linked to Design Characteristics?

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, Mary C. [Department of Surgery, University of Michigan Hospitals, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0346 (United States); Cho, Kyung J. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Hospitals, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0346 (United States); Greenfield, Lazar J. [Department of Surgery, University of Michigan Hospitals, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0346 (United States)

    2000-11-15

    Purpose: To compare the five vena caval filters marketed in the United States and one investigational vena caval filter and to determine whether there is an association between their design and their in vivo function.Methods: Four of each type of filter-Simon Nitinol (SN), Bird's Nest (BN), Vena Tech (VT), Greenfield stainless steel (PSGF), Greenfield titanium (TGF), and the investigational stent cone filter (NGF)-were studied for 60 days in 12 sheep. Radiographic and pathologic outcomes to be assessed included clot capture and resolution, vena caval penetration, position of the filter, thrombogenicity, and vessel wall reaction.Results: Filters differed with respect to the number of clot-trapping levels and the interdependence of the legs. All devices were successfully placed. Intentionally embolized clot was captured. One VT and two SN filters migrated in response to clot capture. Resolution of thrombus was variable, and related to the design of the device. Fibrin webbing was widely present with the VT, BN, and SN filters but limited in the others. The VT and NGF filters demonstrated the most stable filter base diameter.Conclusions: The performance of vena caval filters differs with respect to clot resolution and mechanical stability. Interdependent filter limbs and single-stage conical capture sites appear to result in more favorable performance in in vivo studies.

  20. Characterization and In Vivo Functional Analysis of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe ICLN Gene

    PubMed Central

    Barbarossa, Adrien; Antoine, Etienne; Neel, Henry; Gostan, Thierry; Soret, Johann

    2014-01-01

    During the early steps of snRNP biogenesis, the survival motor neuron (SMN) complex acts together with the methylosome, an entity formed by the pICln protein, WD45, and the PRMT5 methyltransferase. To expand our understanding of the functional relationship between pICln and SMN in vivo, we performed a genetic analysis of an uncharacterized Schizosaccharomyces pombe pICln homolog. Although not essential, the S. pombe ICln (SpICln) protein is important for optimal yeast cell growth. The human ICLN gene complements the ?icln slow-growth phenotype, demonstrating that the identified SpICln sequence is the bona fide human homolog. Consistent with the role of human pICln inferred from in vitro experiments, we found that the SpICln protein is required for optimal production of the spliceosomal snRNPs and for efficient splicing in vivo. Genetic interaction approaches further demonstrate that modulation of ICln activity is unable to compensate for growth defects of SMN-deficient cells. Using a genome-wide approach and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR validation tests, we also show that splicing is differentially altered in ?icln cells. Our data are consistent with the notion that splice site selection and spliceosome kinetics are highly dependent on the concentration of core spliceosomal components. PMID:24298023

  1. Functional specificity of the homeodomain protein fushi tarazu: the role of DNA-binding specificity in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Schier, A F; Gehring, W J

    1993-01-01

    The mechanisms determining the functional specificity of Drosophila homeodomain proteins are largely unknown. Here, the role of DNA-binding specificity for the in vivo function of the homeodomain protein fushi tarazu (ftz) is analyzed. We find that specific DNA binding is an important but not sufficient determinant of the functional specificity of ftz in vivo: The ftz DNA-binding specificity mutant ftzQ50K retains partial ftz wild-type activity in gene activation and phenotypic rescue assays. Furthermore, specificity mutations in a ftz-in vivo binding site only partially reduce enhancer activity as compared to null mutations of this site. Despite bicoid-like DNA-binding specificity ftzQ50K does not activate natural or artificial bcd target genes in the realms of ftz. These results are discussed in the light of recent observations on the mechanism of action of the yeast homeodomain protein alpha 2. Images PMID:8434005

  2. Molecular motor function in axonal transport in vivo probed by genetic and computational analysis in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Reis, Gerald F; Yang, Ge; Szpankowski, Lukasz; Weaver, Carole; Shah, Sameer B; Robinson, John T; Hays, Thomas S; Danuser, Gaudenz; Goldstein, Lawrence S B

    2012-05-01

    Bidirectional axonal transport driven by kinesin and dynein along microtubules is critical to neuronal viability and function. To evaluate axonal transport mechanisms, we developed a high-resolution imaging system to track the movement of amyloid precursor protein (APP) vesicles in Drosophila segmental nerve axons. Computational analyses of a large number of moving vesicles in defined genetic backgrounds with partial reduction or overexpression of motor proteins enabled us to test with high precision existing and new models of motor activity and coordination in vivo. We discovered several previously unknown features of vesicle movement, including a surprising dependence of anterograde APP vesicle movement velocity on the amount of kinesin-1. This finding is largely incompatible with the biophysical properties of kinesin-1 derived from in vitro analyses. Our data also suggest kinesin-1 and cytoplasmic dynein motors assemble in stable mixtures on APP vesicles and their direction and velocity are controlled at least in part by dynein intermediate chain. PMID:22398725

  3. Artemisia scoparia Enhances Adipocyte Development and Endocrine Function In Vitro and Enhances Insulin Action In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Allison J.; Fuller, Scott; Fedorcenco, Veaceslav; Beyl, Robbie; Burris, Thomas P.; Mynatt, Randall; Ribnicky, David M.; Stephens, Jacqueline M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Failure of adipocytes to expand during periods of energy excess can result in undesirable metabolic consequences such as ectopic fat accumulation and insulin resistance. Blinded screening studies have indicated that Artemisia scoparia (SCO) extracts can enhance adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation in cultured adipocytes. The present study tested the hypothesis that SCO treatment modulates fat cell development and function in vitro and insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue in vivo. Methods In vitro experiments utilized a Gal4-PPAR? ligand binding domain (LBD) fusion protein-luciferase reporter assay to examine PPAR? activation. To investigate the ability of SCO to modulate adipogenesis and mature fat cell function in 3T3-L1 cells, neutral lipid accumulation, gene expression, and protein secretion were measured by Oil Red O staining, qRT-PCR, and immunoblotting, respectively. For the in vivo experiments, diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD containing 1% w/w SCO for four weeks. Body weight and composition, food intake, and fasting glucose and insulin levels were measured. Phospho-activation and expression of insulin-sensitizing proteins in epididymal adipose tissue (eWAT) were measured by immunoblotting. Results Ethanolic extracts of A. scoparia significantly activated the PPAR? LBD and enhanced lipid accumulation in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. SCO increased the transcription of several PPAR? target genes in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells and rescued the negative effects of tumor necrosis factor ? on production and secretion of adiponectin and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in fully differentiated fat cells. DIO mice treated with SCO had elevated adiponectin levels and increased phosphorylation of AMPK? in eWAT when compared to control mice. In SCO-treated mice, these changes were also associated with decreased fasting insulin and glucose levels. Conclusion SCO has metabolically beneficial effects on adipocytes in vitro and adipose tissue in vivo, highlighting its potential as a metabolically favorable botanical supplement. PMID:24915004

  4. In vivo function and comparative genomic analyses of the Drosophila gut microbiota identify candidate symbiosis factors.

    PubMed

    Newell, Peter D; Chaston, John M; Wang, Yiping; Winans, Nathan J; Sannino, David R; Wong, Adam C N; Dobson, Adam J; Kagle, Jeanne; Douglas, Angela E

    2014-01-01

    Symbiosis is often characterized by co-evolutionary changes in the genomes of the partners involved. An understanding of these changes can provide insight into the nature of the relationship, including the mechanisms that initiate and maintain an association between organisms. In this study we examined the genome sequences of bacteria isolated from the Drosophila melanogaster gut with the objective of identifying genes that are important for function in the host. We compared microbiota isolates with con-specific or closely related bacterial species isolated from non-fly environments. First the phenotype of germ-free Drosophila (axenic flies) was compared to that of flies colonized with specific bacteria (gnotobiotic flies) as a measure of symbiotic function. Non-fly isolates were functionally distinct from bacteria isolated from flies, conferring slower development and an altered nutrient profile in the host, traits known to be microbiota-dependent. Comparative genomic methods were next employed to identify putative symbiosis factors: genes found in bacteria that restore microbiota-dependent traits to gnotobiotic flies, but absent from those that do not. Factors identified include riboflavin synthesis and stress resistance. We also used a phylogenomic approach to identify protein coding genes for which fly-isolate sequences were more similar to each other than to other sequences, reasoning that these genes may have a shared function unique to the fly environment. This method identified genes in Acetobacter species that cluster in two distinct genomic loci: one predicted to be involved in oxidative stress detoxification and another encoding an efflux pump. In summary, we leveraged genomic and in vivo functional comparisons to identify candidate traits that distinguish symbiotic bacteria. These candidates can serve as the basis for further work investigating the genetic requirements of bacteria for function and persistence in the Drosophila gut. PMID:25408687

  5. Atypical Membrane Topology and Heteromeric Function of Drosophila Odorant Receptors In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Benton, Richard; Sachse, Silke; Michnick, Stephen W

    2006-01-01

    Drosophila olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) each express two odorant receptors (ORs): a divergent member of the OR family and the highly conserved, broadly expressed receptor OR83b. OR83b is essential for olfaction in vivo and enhances OR function in vitro, but the molecular mechanism by which it acts is unknown. Here we demonstrate that OR83b heterodimerizes with conventional ORs early in the endomembrane system in OSNs, couples these complexes to the conserved ciliary trafficking pathway, and is essential to maintain the OR/OR83b complex within the sensory cilia, where odor signal transduction occurs. The OR/OR83b complex is necessary and sufficient to promote functional reconstitution of odor-evoked signaling in sensory neurons that normally respond only to carbon dioxide. Unexpectedly, unlike all known vertebrate and nematode chemosensory receptors, we find that Drosophila ORs and OR83b adopt a novel membrane topology with their N-termini and the most conserved loops in the cytoplasm. These loops mediate direct association of ORs with OR83b. Our results reveal that OR83b is a universal and integral part of the functional OR in Drosophila. This atypical heteromeric and topological design appears to be an insect-specific solution for odor recognition, making the OR/OR83b complex an attractive target for the development of highly selective insect repellents to disrupt olfactory-mediated host-seeking behaviors of insect disease vectors. PMID:16402857

  6. Presenilin controls kinesin-1 and dynein function during APP-vesicle transport in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, Shermali; Yang, Ge; Goldstein, Lawrence S B

    2013-10-01

    Neurons and other cells require intracellular transport of essential components for viability and function. Previous work has shown that while net amyloid precursor protein (APP) transport is generally anterograde, individual vesicles containing APP move bi-directionally. This discrepancy highlights our poor understanding of the in vivo regulation of APP-vesicle transport. Here, we show that reduction of presenilin (PS) or suppression of gamma-secretase activity substantially increases anterograde and retrograde velocities for APP vesicles. Strikingly, PS deficiency has no effect on an unrelated cargo vesicle class containing synaptotagmin, which is powered by a different kinesin motor. Increased velocities caused by PS or gamma-secretase reduction require functional kinesin-1 and dynein motors. Together, our findings suggest that a normal function of PS is to repress kinesin-1 and dynein motor activity during axonal transport of APP vesicles. Furthermore, our data suggest that axonal transport defects induced by loss of PS-mediated regulatory effects on APP-vesicle motility could be a major cause of neuronal and synaptic defects observed in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) pathogenesis. Thus, perturbations of APP/PS transport could contribute to early neuropathology observed in AD, and highlight a potential novel therapeutic pathway for early intervention, prior to neuronal loss and clinical manifestation of disease. PMID:23710041

  7. Structure predicts function: Combining non-invasive electrophysiology with in-vivo histology

    PubMed Central

    Helbling, Saskia; Teki, Sundeep; Callaghan, Martina F.; Sedley, William; Mohammadi, Siawoosh; Griffiths, Timothy D.; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Barnes, Gareth R.

    2015-01-01

    We present an approach for combining high resolution MRI-based myelin mapping with functional information from electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencephalography (MEG). The main contribution to the primary currents detectable with EEG and MEG comes from ionic currents in the apical dendrites of cortical pyramidal cells, aligned perpendicularly to the local cortical surface. We provide evidence from an in-vivo experiment that the variation in MRI-based myeloarchitecture measures across the cortex predicts the variation of the current density over individuals and thus is of functional relevance. Equivalent current dipole locations and moments due to pitch onset evoked response fields (ERFs) were estimated by means of a variational Bayesian algorithm. The myeloarchitecture was estimated indirectly from individual high resolution quantitative multi-parameter maps (MPMs) acquired at 800 ?m isotropic resolution. Myelin estimates across cortical areas correlated positively with dipole magnitude. This correlation was spatially specific: regions of interest in the auditory cortex provided significantly better models than those covering whole hemispheres. Based on the MPM data we identified the auditory cortical area TE1.2 as the most likely origin of the pitch ERFs measured by MEG. We can now proceed to exploit the higher spatial resolution of quantitative MPMs to identify the cortical origin of M/EEG signals, inform M/EEG source reconstruction and explore structure–function relationships at a fine structural level in the living human brain. PMID:25529007

  8. Reconstruction of functional endometrium-like tissue in vitro and in vivo using cell sheet engineering.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Soichi; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Kuramoto, Goro; Ishitani, Ken; Matsui, Hideo; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo

    2014-03-28

    Uterus is a female specific reproductive organ and plays critical roles in allowing embryo to grow. Therefore, the endometrial disorders lead to female infertility. Hence, the regeneration of endometrium allowing fertilized ovum to implant might be valuable in the field of fertility treatment. Recently, cell sheet engineering using a temperature-responsive culture dish has advanced in regenerative medicine. With this technology, endometrial cells were harvested as a contiguous cell sheet by reducing temperature. Firstly, mouse endometrial cell sheets were re-cultured for 3 days to evaluate the function. Histological analyses revealed that endometrial epithelial cell-specific cytokeratin 18 and female-specific hormone receptors, estrogen receptor ? and progesterone receptor, were expressed. Furthermore, endometrial epithelial cells constructed epithelial layer at the apical side. Then, endometrial cell sheets from green-fluorescent-protein rat cells were transplanted onto the buttock muscle of nude rat for evaluating the function in vivo. Histological analyses showed that endometrial cell sheets reconstructed endometrium-like tissue, which was found to form uterus-specific endometrial glands having hormonal receptor to estrogen. In this study, endometrial cell sheets were speculated to contribute to the regeneration of functional endometrium as a new therapy. PMID:24602616

  9. Development of functional in vivo imaging of cerebral lenticulostriate artery using novel synchrotron radiation angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiaojie; Miao, Peng; Mu, Zhihao; Jiang, Zhen; Lu, Yifan; Guan, Yongjing; Chen, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Tiqiao; Wang, Yongting; Yang, Guo-Yuan

    2015-02-01

    The lenticulostriate artery plays a vital role in the onset and development of cerebral ischemia. However, current imaging techniques cannot assess the in vivo functioning of small arteries such as the lenticulostriate artery in the brain of rats. Here, we report a novel method to achieve a high resolution multi-functional imaging of the cerebrovascular system using synchrotron radiation angiography, which is based on spatio-temporal analysis of contrast density in the arterial cross section. This method provides a unique tool for studying the sub-cortical vascular elasticity after cerebral ischemia in rats. Using this technique, we demonstrated that the vascular elasticity of the lenticulostriate artery decreased from day 1 to day 7 after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats and recovered from day 7 to day 28 compared to the controls (p < 0.001), which paralleled with brain edema formation and inversely correlated with blood flow velocity (p < 0.05). Our results demonstrated that the change of vascular elasticity was related to the levels of brain edema and the velocity of focal blood flow, suggesting that reducing brain edema is important for the improvement of the function of the lenticulostriate artery in the ischemic brain.

  10. Monitoring of in vivo function of superparamagnetic iron oxide labelled murine dendritic cells during anti-tumour vaccination.

    PubMed

    Tavaré, Richard; Sagoo, Pervinder; Varama, Gopal; Tanriver, Yakup; Warely, Alice; Diebold, Sandra S; Southworth, Richard; Schaeffter, Tobias; Lechler, Robert I; Razavi, Reza; Lombardi, Giovanna; Mullen, Gregory E D

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) generated in vitro to present tumour antigens have been injected in cancer patients to boost in vivo anti-tumour immune responses. This approach to cancer immunotherapy has had limited success. For anti-tumour therapy, delivery and subsequent migration of DCs to lymph nodes leading to effective stimulation of effector T cells is thought to be essential. The ability to non-invasively monitor the fate of adoptively transferred DCs in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important clinical tool to correlate their in vivo behavior with response to treatment. Previous reports of superparamagnetic iron oxides (SPIOs) labelling of different cell types, including DCs, have indicated varying detrimental effects on cell viability, migration, differentiation and immune function. Here we describe an optimised labelling procedure using a short incubation time and low concentration of clinically used SPIO Endorem to successfully track murine DC migration in vivo using MRI in a mouse tumour model. First, intracellular labelling of bone marrow derived DCs was monitored in vitro using electron microscopy and MRI relaxometry. Second, the in vitro characterisation of SPIO labelled DCs demonstrated that viability, phenotype and functions were comparable to unlabelled DCs. Third, ex vivo SPIO labelled DCs, when injected subcutaneously, allowed for the longitudinal monitoring by MR imaging of their migration in vivo. Fourth, the SPIO DCs induced the proliferation of adoptively transferred CD4(+) T cells but, most importantly, they primed cytotoxic CD8(+) T cell responses to protect against a B16-Ova tumour challenge. Finally, using anatomical information from the MR images, the immigration of DCs was confirmed by the increase in lymph node size post-DC injection. These results demonstrate that the SPIO labelling protocol developed in this study is not detrimental for DC function in vitro and in vivo has potential clinical application in monitoring therapeutic DCs in patients with cancer. PMID:21637760

  11. In VivoFunctional Imaging of Intrinsic Scattering Changes in the Human Retina with High-speed Ultrahigh Resolution OCT

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, V. J.; Chen, Y.; Duker, J. S.; Fujimoto, J. G.

    2009-01-01

    Non-invasive methods of probing retinal function are of interest for the early detection of retinal disease. While retinal function is traditionally directly measured with the electroretinogram (ERG), recently functional optical imaging of the retina has been demonstrated. In this manuscript, stimulus-induced, intrinsic optical scattering changes in the human retina are measured in vivo with high-speed, ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) operating at 50,000 axial scans per second and ?3.3 micron axial resolution. A stimulus and measurement protocol that enables measurement of functional OCT retinal signals is described. OCT signal changes in the photoreceptors are demonstrated. Two distinct responses having different temporal and spatial properties are reported. These results are discussed in the context of optical intrinsic signals measured previously in the retina by fundus imaging and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Finally, challenges associated with in vivo functional retinal imaging in human subjects are discussed. PMID:19259228

  12. Effects of follicular versus luteal phase-based strength training in young women.

    PubMed

    Sung, Eunsook; Han, Ahreum; Hinrichs, Timo; Vorgerd, Matthias; Manchado, Carmen; Platen, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Hormonal variations during the menstrual cycle (MC) may influence trainability of strength. We investigated the effects of a follicular phase-based strength training (FT) on muscle strength, muscle volume and microscopic parameters, comparing it to a luteal phase-based training (LT). Eumenorrheic women without oral contraception (OC) (N?=?20, age: 25.9?±?4.5 yr, height: 164.2?±?5.5 cm, weight: 60.6?±?7.8 kg) completed strength training on a leg press for three MC, and 9 of them participated in muscle biopsies. One leg had eight training sessions in the follicular phases (FP) and only two sessions in the luteal phases (LP) for follicular phase-based training (FT), while the other leg had eight training sessions in LP and only two sessions in FP for luteal phase-based training (LT). Estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), total testosterone (T), free testosterone (free T) and DHEA-s were analysed once during FP (around day 11) and once during LP (around day 25). Maximum isometric force (Fmax), muscle diameter (Mdm), muscle fibre composition (No), fibre diameter (Fdm) and cell nuclei-to-fibre ratio (N/F) were analysed before and after the training intervention. T and free T were higher in FP compared to LP prior to the training intervention (P?

  13. Women Ornament Themselves for Intrasexual Competition near Ovulation, but for Intersexual Attraction in Luteal Phase

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Jin-Ying; Wang, Jia-Xi

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined women's attentional bias toward ornamental objects in relation to their menstrual phase as well as to motivations of intersexual courtship or intrasexual competition. In Experiment 1, 33 healthy heterosexual women were tested in a bias-assessment visual cuing task twice: once on a high-fertility day (during the ovulatory phase) and once on a low-fertility day (during the luteal phase). They paid greater attention to pictures of ornamental objects than to pictures of non-ornamental objects near ovulation, but not during the luteal phase, suggesting an ornamental bias during the high-fertility phase. In Experiment 2, before the visual cuing task, 40 participants viewed 10 same-sex or opposite-sex facial photographs with either high or low attractiveness as priming tasks to activate the intrasexual competition or intersexual courtship motives. Results showed that women's ornamental bias was dependent on the interaction of menstrual phase and mating motive. Specifically, the ornamental bias was observed on the high-fertility day when the subjects were primed with high-attractive same-sex images (intrasexual competition) and was observed on the low-fertility day when they were primed with high-attractive opposite-sex photographs (intersexual courtship). In conclusion, the present findings confirm the hypothesis that, during the high-fertility phase, women have an attentional bias toward ornamental objects and further support the hypothesis that the ornamental bias is driven by intrasexual competition motivation near ovulation, but driven by intersexual courtship motivation during the luteal phase. PMID:25180577

  14. Simulated conditions of microgravity suppress progesterone production by luteal cells of the pregnant rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, G. K.; Yang, H.; Sridaran, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether simulated conditions of microgravity induce changes in the production of progesterone by luteal cells of the pregnant rat ovary using an in vitro model system. The microgravity environment was simulated using either a high aspect ratio vessel (HARV) bioreactor with free fall or a clinostat without free fall of cells. A mixed population of luteal cells isolated from the corpora lutea of day 8 pregnant rats was attached to cytodex microcarrier beads (cytodex 3). These anchorage dependent cells were placed in equal numbers in the HARV or a spinner flask control vessel in culture conditions. It was found that HARV significantly reduced the daily production of progesterone from day 1 through day 8 compared to controls. Scanning electron microscopy showed that cells attached to the microcarrier beads throughout the duration of the experiment in both types of culture vessels. Cells cultured in chamber slide flasks and placed in a clinostat yielded similar results when compared to those in the HARV. Also, when they were stained by Oil Red-O for lipid droplets, the clinostat flasks showed a larger number of stained cells compared to control flasks at 48 h. Further, the relative amount of Oil Red-O staining per milligram of protein was found to be higher in the clinostat than in the control cells at 48 h. It is speculated that the increase in the level of lipid content in cells subjected to simulated conditions of microgravity may be due to a disruption in cholesterol transport and/or lesions in the steroidogenic pathway leading to a fall in the synthesis of progesterone. Additionally, the fall in progesterone in simulated conditions of microgravity could be due to apoptosis of luteal cells.

  15. In vivo mapping of the functional regions of the DEAD-box helicase Vasa.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Mehrnoush; Lasko, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The maternally expressed Drosophila melanogaster DEAD-box helicase Vasa (Vas) is necessary for many cellular and developmental processes, including specification of primordial germ cells (pole cells), posterior patterning of the embryo, piRNA-mediated repression of transposon-encoded mRNAs, translational activation of gurken (grk) mRNA, and completion of oogenesis itself. Vas protein accumulates in the perinuclear nuage in nurse cells soon after their specification, and then at stage 10 Vas translocates to the posterior pole plasm of the oocyte. We produced a series of transgenic constructs encoding eGFP-Vas proteins carrying mutations affecting different regions of the protein, and analyzed in vivo which Vas functions each could support. We identified novel domains in the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein that are essential for localization, transposon repression, posterior patterning, and pole cell specification. One such functional region, the most C-terminal seven amino acids, is specific to Vas orthologues and is thus critical to distinguishing Vas from other closely related DEAD-box helicases. Surprisingly, we also found that many eGFP-Vas proteins carrying mutations that would be expected to abrogate DEAD-box helicase function localized to the nuage and posterior pole, and retained the capacity to support oogenesis, although they did not function in embryonic patterning, pole cell specification, grk activation, or transposon repression. We conclude from these experiments that Vas, a multifunctional protein, uses different domains and different molecular associations to carry out its various cellular and developmental roles. PMID:25795910

  16. In vivo effects of eltrombopag on platelet function in immune thrombocytopenia: no evidence of platelet activation

    PubMed Central

    Psaila, Bethan; Bussel, James B.; Linden, Matthew D.; Babula, Bracken; Li, Youfu; Barnard, Marc R.; Tate, Chinara; Mathur, Kanika; Frelinger, Andrew L.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of eltrombopag, a thrombopoietin-receptor agonist, on platelet function in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) are not fully characterized. This study used whole blood flow cytometry to examine platelet function in 20 patients receiving eltrombopag treatment at days 0, 7, and 28. Platelet surface expression of activated GPIIb/IIIa, P-selectin, and GPIb was measured with and without low and high adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP) concentrations. Before eltrombopag treatment with no ex vivo agonist, platelet activation was higher in ITP patients than controls. Platelet GPIb and activated GPIIb/IIIa expression without added agonist was unchanged following eltrombopag treatment, whereas a slight increase in P-selectin was observed. Expression of P-selectin and activated GPIIb/IIIa in response to high-dose ADP was lower during eltrombopag treatment than at baseline. Eltrombopag led to a slight increase in platelet reactivity to TRAP only in responders to eltrombopag but not to levels above those in controls; whole blood experiments demonstrated that this increase was probably because of higher platelet counts rather than higher platelet reactivity. In conclusion, although thrombocytopenic ITP patients have higher baseline platelet activation than controls, eltrombopag did not cause platelet activation or hyper-reactivity, irrespective of whether the platelet count increased. PMID:22294727

  17. In vivo effects of eltrombopag on platelet function in immune thrombocytopenia: no evidence of platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Psaila, Bethan; Bussel, James B; Linden, Matthew D; Babula, Bracken; Li, Youfu; Barnard, Marc R; Tate, Chinara; Mathur, Kanika; Frelinger, Andrew L; Michelson, Alan D

    2012-04-26

    The effects of eltrombopag, a thrombopoietin-receptor agonist, on platelet function in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) are not fully characterized. This study used whole blood flow cytometry to examine platelet function in 20 patients receiving eltrombopag treatment at days 0, 7, and 28. Platelet surface expression of activated GPIIb/IIIa, P-selectin, and GPIb was measured with and without low and high adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP) concentrations. Before eltrombopag treatment with no ex vivo agonist, platelet activation was higher in ITP patients than controls. Platelet GPIb and activated GPIIb/IIIa expression without added agonist was unchanged following eltrombopag treatment, whereas a slight increase in P-selectin was observed. Expression of P-selectin and activated GPIIb/IIIa in response to high-dose ADP was lower during eltrombopag treatment than at baseline. Eltrombopag led to a slight increase in platelet reactivity to TRAP only in responders to eltrombopag but not to levels above those in controls; whole blood experiments demonstrated that this increase was probably because of higher platelet counts rather than higher platelet reactivity. In conclusion, although thrombocytopenic ITP patients have higher baseline platelet activation than controls, eltrombopag did not cause platelet activation or hyper-reactivity, irrespective of whether the platelet count increased. PMID:22294727

  18. Humanized large-scale expanded endothelial colony–forming cells function in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Reinisch, Andreas; Hofmann, Nicole A.; Obenauf, Anna C.; Kashofer, Karl; Rohde, Eva; Schallmoser, Katharina; Flicker, Karin; Lanzer, Gerhard; Linkesch, Werner; Speicher, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells are critically involved in essential biologic processes, such as vascular homeostasis, regeneration, and tumor angiogenesis. Endothelial colony–forming cells (ECFCs) are endothelial progenitor cells with robust proliferative potential. Their profound vessel-forming capacity makes them a promising tool for innovative experimental, diagnostic, and therapeutic strategies. Efficient and safe methods for their isolation and expansion are presently lacking. Based on the previously established efficacy of animal serum–free large-scale clinical-grade propagation of mesenchymal stromal cells, we hypothesized that endothelial lineage cells may also be propagated efficiently following a comparable strategy. Here we demonstrate that human ECFCs can be recovered directly from unmanipulated whole blood. A novel large-scale animal protein-free humanized expansion strategy preserves the progenitor hierarchy with sustained proliferation potential of more than 30 population doublings. By applying large-scale propagated ECFCs in various test systems, we observed vascular networks in vitro and perfused vessels in vivo. After large-scale expansion and cryopreservation phenotype, function, proliferation, and genomic stability were maintained. For the first time, proliferative, functional, and storable ECFCs propagated under humanized conditions can be explored in terms of their therapeutic applicability and risk profile. PMID:19321860

  19. Group I PAKs function downstream of Rac to promote podosome invasion during myoblast fusion in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Rui; Jin, Peng; Luo, Fengbao; Zhang, Guofeng; Anderson, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) play essential roles in diverse cellular processes and are required for cell proliferation, apoptosis, polarity establishment, migration, and cell shape changes. Here, we have identified a novel function for the group I PAKs in cell–cell fusion. We show that the two Drosophila group I PAKs, DPak3 and DPak1, have partially redundant functions in myoblast fusion in vivo, with DPak3 playing a major role. DPak3 is enriched at the site of fusion colocalizing with the F-actin focus within a podosome-like structure (PLS), and promotes actin filament assembly during PLS invasion. Although the small GTPase Rac is involved in DPak3 activation and recruitment to the PLS, the kinase activity of DPak3 is required for effective PLS invasion. We propose a model whereby group I PAKs act downstream of Rac to organize the actin filaments within the PLS into a dense focus, which in turn promotes PLS invasion and fusion pore initiation during myoblast fusion. PMID:23007650

  20. A transcription blocker isolated from a designed repeat protein combinatorial library by in vivo functional screen

    PubMed Central

    Tikhonova, Elena B.; Ethayathulla, Abdul S.; Su, Yue; Hariharan, Parameswaran; Xie, Shicong; Guan, Lan

    2015-01-01

    A highly diverse DNA library coding for ankyrin seven-repeat proteins (ANK-N5C) was designed and constructed by a PCR-based combinatorial assembly strategy. A bacterial melibiose fermentation assay was adapted for in vivo functional screen. We isolated a transcription blocker that completely inhibits the melibiose-dependent expression of ?-galactosidase (MelA) and melibiose permease (MelB) of Escherichia coli by specifically preventing activation of the melAB operon. High-resolution crystal structural determination reveals that the designed ANK-N5C protein has a typical ankyrin fold, and the specific transcription blocker, ANK-N5C-281, forms a domain-swapped dimer. Functional tests suggest that the activity of MelR, a DNA-binding transcription activator and a member of AraC family of transcription factors, is inhibited by ANK-N5C-281 protein. All ANK-N5C proteins are expected to have a concave binding area with negative surface potential, suggesting that the designed ANK-N5C library proteins may facilitate the discovery of binders recognizing structural motifs with positive surface potential, like in DNA-binding proteins. Overall, our results show that the established library is a useful tool for the discovery of novel bioactive reagents. PMID:25627011

  1. Tolerogenic Function of Dimeric Forms of HLA-G Recombinant Proteins: A Comparative Study In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Caumartin, Julien; Daouya, Marina; Horuzsko, Anatolij; Carosella, Edgardo D.; LeMaoult, Joel

    2011-01-01

    HLA-G is a natural tolerogenic molecule involved in the best example of tolerance to foreign tissues there is: the maternal-fetal tolerance. The further involvement of HLA-G in the tolerance of allogeneic transplants has also been demonstrated and some of its mechanisms of action have been elucidated. For these reasons, therapeutic HLA-G molecules for tolerance induction in transplantation are actively investigated. In the present study, we studied the tolerogenic functions of three different HLA-G recombinant proteins: HLA-G heavy chain fused to ?2-microglobulin (B2M), HLA-G heavy chain fused to B2M and to the Fc portion of an immunoglobulin, and HLA-G alpha-1 domain either fused to the Fc part of an immunoglobulin or as a synthetic peptide. Our results demonstrate the tolerogenic function of B2M-HLA-G fusion proteins, and especially of B2M-HLA-G5, which were capable of significantly delaying allogeneic skin graft rejection in a murine in vivo transplantation model. The results from our studies suggest that HLA-G recombinant proteins are relevant candidates for tolerance induction in human transplantation. PMID:21779321

  2. Development of topical functionalized formulations added with propolis extract: stability, cutaneous absorption and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Marquele-Oliveira, F; Fonseca, Y M; de Freitas, O; Fonseca, M J V

    2007-09-01

    Propolis, which is a natural product widely consumed in the folk medicine, is a serious candidate to be applied topically due to its outstanding antioxidant properties. So, the purpose of this study was to develop stable topical formulations added with propolis extract in an attempt to prevent and/or treat the diseases occurring in skin caused by UV radiation. The antioxidant activity using a chemiluminescent method was used to evaluate the functional stability and the permeation/retention in skin of these formulations. In the long-term stability study, the formulations were stored at 25+/-2 degrees C/AH and at 40+/-2 degrees C/70% RH for 360 days. It was found in this study, that the formulations prepared with Polawax showed functional and physical stability in the period of study. In addition, this formulation presented good results in the percutaneous study, allowing the antioxidant compounds present in the propolis extract to reach lower layers in pig ear skin and in the whole hairless mice skin (retention=0.12 and 0.13 microL of propolis/g of skin, respectively). In the in vivo study, it was also suggested that this formulation may be effective in protecting skin from UVB photodamage, nevertheless other assays need to be done in order to have a complete understanding of the protective effect of formulations added with propolis extract. PMID:17600647

  3. Expression of Fc?RIIB Tempers Memory CD8 T-cell Function in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Starbeck-Miller, Gabriel R.; Badovinac, Vladimir P.; Barber, Daniel L.; Harty, John T.

    2013-01-01

    During re-infection high-affinity IgG antibodies form complexes with both soluble antigen and antigen displayed on the surface of infected cells. These interactions regulate cellular activation of both innate cells and B cells, which express specific combinations of activating Fc gamma receptors (Fc?RI, Fc?RIII, Fc?RIV) and/or the inhibitory Fc gamma receptor (Fc?RIIB). Direct proof for functional expression of Fc?R by antigen-specific CD8 T-cells is lacking. Here, we show that the majority of memory CD8 T-cells generated by bacterial or viral infection express only Fc?RIIB and that Fc?RIIB could be detected on previously activated human CD8 T-cells. Of note, Fc?R stimulation during in vivo antigen challenge not only inhibited the cytotoxicity of memory CD8 T-cells against peptide-loaded or virus-infected targets, but Fc?RIIB blockade during homologous virus challenge enhanced the secondary CD8 T-cell response. Thus, memory CD8 T-cells intrinsically express a functional Fc?RIIB, permitting antigen-antibody complexes to regulate secondary CD8 T-cell responses. PMID:24285839

  4. Polyglycerolsulfate Functionalized Gold Nanorods as Optoacoustic Signal Nanoamplifiers for In Vivo Bioimaging of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Vonnemann, Jonathan; Beziere, Nicolas; Böttcher, Christoph; Riese, Sebastian B.; Kuehne, Christian; Dernedde, Jens; Licha, Kai; von Schacky, Claudio; Kosanke, Yvonne; Kimm, Melanie; Meier, Reinhard; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Haag, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    We have synthesized a targeted imaging agent for rheumatoid arthritis based on polysulfated gold nanorods. The CTAB layer on gold nanorods was first replaced with PEG-thiol and then with dendritic polyglycerolsulfate at elevated temperature, which resulted in significantly reduced cytotoxicity compared to polyanionic gold nanorods functionalized by non-covalent approaches. In addition to classical characterization methods, we have established a facile UV-VIS based BaCl2 agglomeration assay to confirm a quantitative removal of unbound ligand. With the help of a competitive surface plasmon resonance-based L-selectin binding assay and a leukocyte adhesion-based flow cell assay, we have demonstrated the high inflammation targeting potential of the synthesized gold nanorods in vitro. In combination with the surface plasmon resonance band of AuNRs at 780 nm, these findings permitted the imaging of inflammation in an in vivo mouse model for rheumatoid arthritis with high contrast using multispectral optoacoustic tomography. The study offers a robust method for otherwise difficult to obtain covalently functionalized polyanionic gold nanorods, which are suitable for biological applications as well as a low-cost, actively targeted, and high contrast imaging agent for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. This paves the way for further research in other inflammation associated pathologies, in particular, when photothermal therapy can be applied. PMID:24723984

  5. Effects of altered ventilatory patterns of rabbit pulmonary endothelial angiotensin converting enzyme function, in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Toivonen, H.J.; Catravas, J.D.

    1986-03-01

    Because alveolar pressure can influence pulmonary blood flow, volume and surface area, the authors have studied the effects of airway pressure on endothelial angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) function in rabbit lungs in vivo, utilizing indicator dilution techniques with /sup 3/H-Benzoyl-Phe-Ala-Pro (BPAP) as substate. Static inclation of the lungs to a pressure of 0 or 5 mmHg did not change percent transpulmonary metabolism and Amax/Km ratio in comparison to control measurements during conventional mechanical ventilation. When the inflation pressure was increased to 10 mmHg, percent metabolism of /sup 3/H-BPAP remained unaltered but Amax/Km decreased over 40% from control. This decrease was in close relation to the reduction in pulmonary blood flow. Addition of 5 cm H/sub 2/O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to the mechanical ventilation also decreased Amax/Km values and pulmonary blood flow but did not influence percent metabolism of /sup 3/H-BPAP. These results suggest that the detected alterations in ACE kinetics were more likely due to hemodynamic changes than enzyme dysfunction. The authors propose that high static alveolar pressures as well as PEEP did not affect angiotensin converting enzyme function, but reduced the fraction of perfused microvessels reflected in changes in Amax/Km ratios.

  6. Group I PAKs function downstream of Rac to promote podosome invasion during myoblast fusion in vivo.

    PubMed

    Duan, Rui; Jin, Peng; Luo, Fengbao; Zhang, Guofeng; Anderson, Nathan; Chen, Elizabeth H

    2012-10-01

    The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) play essential roles in diverse cellular processes and are required for cell proliferation, apoptosis, polarity establishment, migration, and cell shape changes. Here, we have identified a novel function for the group I PAKs in cell-cell fusion. We show that the two Drosophila group I PAKs, DPak3 and DPak1, have partially redundant functions in myoblast fusion in vivo, with DPak3 playing a major role. DPak3 is enriched at the site of fusion colocalizing with the F-actin focus within a podosome-like structure (PLS), and promotes actin filament assembly during PLS invasion. Although the small GTPase Rac is involved in DPak3 activation and recruitment to the PLS, the kinase activity of DPak3 is required for effective PLS invasion. We propose a model whereby group I PAKs act downstream of Rac to organize the actin filaments within the PLS into a dense focus, which in turn promotes PLS invasion and fusion pore initiation during myoblast fusion. PMID:23007650

  7. Conserved Fate and Function of Ferumoxides-Labeled Neural Precursor Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Mikhal E.; Muja, Naser; Fainstein, Nina; Bulte, Jeff W.M.; Ben-Hur, Tamir

    2011-01-01

    Recent progress in cell therapy research for brain diseases has raised the need for non-invasive monitoring of transplanted cells. For therapeutic application in multiple sclerosis, transplanted cells need to be tracked both spatially and temporally, in order to assess their migration and survival in the host tissue. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of superparamagnetic iron oxide-(SPIO)-labeled cells has been widely used for high resolution monitoring of the biodistribution of cells after transplantation into the central nervous system (CNS). Here we labeled mouse glial-committed neural precursor cells (NPCs) with the clinically approved SPIO contrast agent ferumoxides and examined their survival and differentiation in vitro, as well as their functional response to environmental signals present within the inflamed brain of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice in vivo. We show that ferumoxides labeling does not affect NPC survival and pluripotency in vitro. Following intracerebroventricular (ICV) transplantation in EAE mice, ferumoxides-labeled NPCs responded to inflammatory cues in a similar fashion as unlabeled cells. Ferumoxides-labeled NPCs migrated over comparable distances in white matter tracts and differentiated equally into the glial lineages. Furthermore, ferumoxides-labeled NPCs inhibited lymph node cell proliferation in vitro, similarly to non-labeled cells, suggesting a preserved immunomodulatory function. These results demonstrate that ferumoxides-based MRI cell tracking is well suited for non-invasive monitoring of NPC transplantation. PMID:19885865

  8. In Vivo Function of PTEX88 in Malaria Parasite Sequestration and Virulence.

    PubMed

    Matz, Joachim M; Ingmundson, Alyssa; Costa Nunes, Jean; Stenzel, Werner; Matuschewski, Kai; Kooij, Taco W A

    2015-06-01

    Malaria pathology is linked to remodeling of red blood cells by eukaryotic Plasmodium parasites. Central to host cell refurbishment is the trafficking of parasite-encoded virulence factors through the Plasmodium translocon of exported proteins (PTEX). Much of our understanding of its function is based on experimental work with cultured Plasmodium falciparum, yet direct consequences of PTEX impairment during an infection remain poorly defined. Using the murine malaria model parasite Plasmodium berghei, it is shown here that efficient sequestration to the pulmonary, adipose, and brain tissue vasculature is dependent on the PTEX components thioredoxin 2 (TRX2) and PTEX88. While TRX2-deficient parasites remain virulent, PTEX88-deficient parasites no longer sequester in the brain, correlating with abolishment of cerebral complications in infected mice. However, an apparent trade-off for virulence attenuation was spleen enlargement, which correlates with a strongly reduced schizont-to-ring-stage transition. Strikingly, general protein export is unaffected in PTEX88-deficient mutants that mature normally in vitro. Thus, PTEX88 is pivotal for tissue sequestration in vivo, parasite virulence, and preventing exacerbation of spleen pathology, but these functions do not correlate with general protein export to the host erythrocyte. The presented data suggest that the protein export machinery of Plasmodium parasites and their underlying mechanistic features are considerably more complex than previously anticipated and indicate challenges for targeted intervention strategies. PMID:25820521

  9. Expression profiling with arrays of randomly disrupted genes in mouse embryonic stem cells leads to in vivo functional analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eishou Matsuda; Toshiaki Shigeoka; Ryuji Iida; Shinya Yamanaka; Masashi Kawaichi; Yasumasa Ishida

    2004-01-01

    DNA arrays are capable of profiling the expression patterns of many genes in a single experiment. After finding a gene of interest in a DNA array, however, labor-intensive gene-targeting experiments sometimes must be performed for the in vivo analysis of the gene function. With random gene trapping, on the other hand, it is relatively easy to disrupt and retrieve hundreds

  10. Randomized Controlled Trial of "Mind Reading" and In Vivo Rehearsal for High-Functioning Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomeer, Marcus L.; Smith, Rachael A.; Lopata, Christopher; Volker, Martin A.; Lipinski, Alanna M.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; McDonald, Christin A.; Lee, Gloria K.

    2015-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of a computer software (i.e., "Mind Reading") and in vivo rehearsal treatment on the emotion decoding and encoding skills, autism symptoms, and social skills of 43 children, ages 7-12 years with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). Children in treatment (n = 22)…

  11. Luteinizing hormone increases inositol trisphosphate and cytosolic free Ca2+ in isolated bovine luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Davis, J S; Weakland, L L; Farese, R V; West, L A

    1987-06-25

    The present studies were conducted to determine whether luteinizing hormone (LH), a hormone which increases intracellular cAMP, also increases "second messengers" derived from inositol phospholipid hydrolysis in isolated bovine luteal cells. In luteal cells prelabeled with 32PO4, LH provoked increases in labeling of phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylinositol, and polyphosphatidylinositol (PIP). No reductions in 32P-prelabeled PIP and PIP2 were observed in LH-treated cells. In luteal cells prelabeled with myo-[2-3H]inositol, LH provoked rapid (10-30 s) and sustained (up to 60 min) increases in the levels of inositol mono-, bis-, and trisphosphates (IP, IP2, and IP3, respectively. IP3 was formed more rapidly than IP2 or IP following LH treatment. In addition, LH increased (50%) levels of [3H]inositol phospholipids in 30-min incubations. LiCl (10 mM) enhanced inositol phosphate accumulation in response to LH. Maximal increases in IP3 occurred at 1-10 micrograms/ml of LH. Similar temporal and dose-response relationships were observed for LH-stimulated IP3 and cAMP accumulation. However, exogenous cAMP (8-bromo-cAMP, 5 mM) and forskolin (10 microM) had no effect on inositol phosphate synthesis. The initial (1 min) effects of LH on IP3 and cAMP were independent of extracellular calcium concentrations, whereas the sustained (5 min) effect of LH on IP3, but not cAMP, was dependent on a source of extracellular calcium. LH-stimulated progesterone synthesis was also dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium. LH induced rapid and concentration-dependent increases in [Ca2+]i as measured by Quin 2 fluorescence. The LH-induced increases in [Ca2+]i were maximal within 30 s (approximately 2-fold) and remained elevated for at least 10 min. In Ca2+-free media containing 2 mM [ethylenebis(oxyethylenenitrilo)]tetraacetic acid, LH was still able to increase [Ca2+]i, but the increase was slightly less in magnitude and of shorter duration (2-4 min). These findings demonstrate that LH can rapidly raise levels of IP3 and [Ca2+]i, as well as, cAMP in bovine luteal cells. These findings suggest that at least two second messenger systems exist to mediate the action of LH in the corpus luteum. PMID:3496333

  12. Characterization of profiles of salivary progesterone concentrations during the luteal phase of fertile and subfertile women.

    PubMed

    Walker, R F; Wilson, D W; Truran, P L; Read, G F; Richards, G; Walker, S M; Riad-Fahmy, D

    1985-03-01

    Salivary progesterone concentrations were measured in daily samples collected between 08.00 and 09.00 h throughout the menstrual cycle of women with a history of fertility. The luteal-phase salivary progesterone profiles in these normally menstruating, healthy women were characterized using a computer program based on a cumulative sum procedure. This method of statistical analysis led to the development of a 'progesterone boundary diagram', the inner and outer domains of which distinguished between the profiles of salivary progesterone considered compatible with fertility, and those observed in subfertile women attending an infertility clinic. PMID:3838334

  13. Luteal Expression of Thyroid Hormone Receptors During Gestation and Postpartum in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Navas, Paola B.; Redondo, Analía L.; Cuello-Carrión, F. Darío; Roig, Laura M. Vargas; Valdez, Susana R.; Jahn, Graciela A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Progesterone (P4) is the main steroid secreted by the corpora lutea (CL) and is required for successful implantation and maintenance of pregnancy. Although adequate circulating levels of thyroid hormone (TH) are needed to support formation and maintenance of CL during pregnancy, TH signaling had not been described in this gland. We determined luteal thyroid hormone receptor isoforms (TR) expression and regulation throughout pregnancy and under the influence of thyroid status, and in vitro effects of triiodothyronine (T3) exposure on luteal P4 synthesis. Methods: Euthyroid female Wistar rats were sacrificed by decapitation on gestational day (G) 5, G10, G15, G19, or G21 of pregnancy or on day 2 postpartum (L2). Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism were induced in female Wistar rats by daily administration of thyroxine (T4; 0.25?mg/kg subcutaneously) or 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU; 0.1?g/L in drinking water), respectively. Luteal TR expression of mRNA was determined using real-time reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and of protein using Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Primary cultures of luteal cells and of luteinized granulosa cells were used to study in vitro effects of T3 on P4 synthesis. In addition, the effect of T3 on P4 synthesis under basal conditions and under stimulation with luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was evaluated. Results: TR?1, TR?2, and TR?1 mRNA were present in CL, increasing during the first half and decreasing during the second half of pregnancy. At the protein level, TR?1 was abundantly expressed during gestation reaching a peak at G19 and decreasing afterwards. TR?1 was barely expressed during early gestation, peaked at G19, and diminished thereafter. Expression of TR?1 and TR?1 at the protein and mRNA level were not influenced by thyroid status. T3 neither modified P4 secretion from CL of pregnancy nor its synthesis in luteinized granulosa cells in culture. Conclusions: This study confirms for the first time the presence of TR isoforms in the CL during pregnancy and postpartum, identifying this gland as a TH target during gestation. TR expression is modulated in this tissue in accordance with the regulation of P4 metabolism, and the abrupt peripartum changes suggest a role of TH during luteolysis. However, TH actions on the CL do not seem to be related to a direct regulation of P4 synthesis. PMID:24684177

  14. Duration of luteal support after IVF is important, so why is there no consistency in practice? The results of a dynamic survey of practice in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Russell, Richard; Kingsland, Charles; Alfirevic, Zarko; Gazvani, Rafet

    2015-03-01

    Luteal support is considered as an essential component of IVF treatment following ovarian stimulation and embryo transfer. Several studies have consistently demonstrated a benefit of luteal support compared with no treatment and whilst a number of preparations are available, no product has been demonstrated as superior. There is an emerging body of evidence which suggests that extension of luteal support beyond biochemical pregnancy does not confer a benefit in terms of successful pregnancy outcome. We performed two surveys separated by 5 years of practice evolution, with the latter reporting on the use of luteal support in all IVF clinics in the UK. All clinics reported utilising luteal support with the majority favouring the use of Cyclogest 400 mg twice daily. In contrast, there was no consensus on the optimal duration of luteal support. Whilst 24% of clinics withdrew luteal support at biochemical confirmation of pregnancy, 40% continued treatment until 12 weeks gestation. Several clinics even extended luteal support beyond 12 weeks gestation. We observed no difference in practice based on the size of the IVF unit or treatment funding source. Although there was some change in practice between surveys in many clinics, there was no uniformity in the direction of change. PMID:25116191

  15. A randomised comparison of side effects and patient inconvenience of two vaginal progesterone formulations used for luteal support in in vitro fertilisation cycles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernest H. Y. Ng; Benyu Miao; Wai Cheung; Pak-Chung Ho

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare side effects and patient inconvenience of two vaginal progesterone (P) formulations for luteal support in in vitro fertilisation cycles. Study design: Sixty infertile patients at risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome were randomised to receive either Cyclogest vaginal suppositories 400mg twice daily or Crinone 8% vaginal gel once daily for 14 days as the luteal support. On

  16. Diagnosis of luteal and follicular ovarian cysts by palpation per rectum and linear-array ultrasonography in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Farin, P W; Youngquist, R S; Parfet, J R; Garverick, H A

    1992-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the accuracy of palpation per rectum and linear-array ultrasonography for diagnosing follicular vs luteal ovarian cysts in cows. Forty-seven examinations of ovarian cysts from 28 cows were diagnosed by palpation per rectum as either a firm, thick-walled structure (luteal cyst) or a soft, thin-walled structure (follicular cyst) during weekly herd examinations. The ovaries of each cow were then examined by ultrasonography. Ultrasonograms of cysts greater than 25 mm in diameter were diagnosed as luteal or follicular cysts and were recorded on videotape for evaluation by a second clinician. Serum progesterone concentrations at the time of examination were determined by radioimmunoassay and used to classify luteal (greater than 0.5 ng/ml) or follicular (less than or equal to 0.5 ng/ml) cysts. Selection of this discriminatory level was based on response of a proportion of cows with luteal cysts that were given 25 mg of prostaglandin F2 alpha at the time of diagnosis by ultrasonography. Sensitivity and specificity of palpation per rectum for diagnosis of type of ovarian cyst were low (43.3 and 64.7%, respectively). In contrast, sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography were considerably higher (86.7 and 82.3%, respectively). Agreement between the 2 methods of diagnosis was 57.4%. Overall agreement between the 2 clinicians' diagnoses by ultrasonography was 85.1%. On the basis of our findings, we confirm that luteal and follicular cysts cannot be accurately differentiated by palpation per rectum alone. These data suggest that linear-array ultrasonography is more effective than palpation per rectum for diagnosing type of ovarian cyst in cows. PMID:1607312

  17. Addition of gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist for luteal phase support in in-vitro fertilization: an analysis of 2739 cycles

    PubMed Central

    ?im?ek, Erhan; K?l?çda?, Esra Bulgan; Aytaç, P?nar Ça?lar; Çoban, Gonca; ?im?ek, Seda Yüksel; Çok, Tayfun; Haydardedeo?lu, Bülent

    2015-01-01

    Objective Luteal phase is defective in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles, and many regimens were tried for the very best luteal phase support (LPS). Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist use, which was administered as an adjunct to the luteal phase support in IVF cycles, was suggested to improve pregnancy outcome measures in certain randomized studies. We analyzed the effects of addition of GnRH agonist to standard progesterone luteal support on pregnancy outcome measures, particularly the live birth rates. Material and Methods This is a retrospective cohort study, including 2739 IVF cycles. Long GnRH agonist and antagonist stimulation IVF cycles with cleavage-stage embryo transfer were included. Cycles were divided into two groups: Group A included cycles with single-dose GnRH agonist plus progesterone LPS and Group B included progesterone only LPS. Live birth rates were the primary outcome measures of the analysis. Miscarriage rates and multiple pregnancy rates were the secondary outcome measures. Results Live birth rates were not statistically different in GnRH agonist plus progesterone (Group A) and progesterone only (Group B) groups in both the long agonist and antagonist stimulation arms (40.8%/41.2% and 32.8%/34.4%, p<0.05 respectively). Moreover, pregnancy rates, implantation rates, and miscarriage rates were found to be similar between groups. Multiple pregnancy rates in antagonist cycles were significantly higher in Group A than those in Group B (12.0% and 6.9%, respectively). Conclusion A beneficial effect of a single dose of GnRH agonist administration as a luteal phase supporting agent is yet to be determined because of the wide heterogeneity of data present in literature. Well-designed randomized clinical studies are required to clarify any effect of luteal GnRH agonist addition on pregnancy outcome measures with different doses, timing, and administration routes of GnRH agonists. PMID:26097392

  18. Soil engineering in vivo: harnessing natural biogeochemical systems for sustainable, multi-functional engineering solutions

    PubMed Central

    DeJong, Jason T.; Soga, Kenichi; Banwart, Steven A.; Whalley, W. Richard; Ginn, Timothy R.; Nelson, Douglas C.; Mortensen, Brina M.; Martinez, Brian C.; Barkouki, Tammer

    2011-01-01

    Carbon sequestration, infrastructure rehabilitation, brownfields clean-up, hazardous waste disposal, water resources protection and global warming—these twenty-first century challenges can neither be solved by the high-energy consumptive practices that hallmark industry today, nor by minor tweaking or optimization of these processes. A more radical, holistic approach is required to develop the sustainable solutions society needs. Most of the above challenges occur within, are supported on, are enabled by or grown from soil. Soil, contrary to conventional civil engineering thought, is a living system host to multiple simultaneous processes. It is proposed herein that ‘soil engineering in vivo’, wherein the natural capacity of soil as a living ecosystem is used to provide multiple solutions simultaneously, may provide new, innovative, sustainable solutions to some of these great challenges of the twenty-first century. This requires a multi-disciplinary perspective that embraces the science of biology, chemistry and physics and applies this knowledge to provide multi-functional civil and environmental engineering designs for the soil environment. For example, can native soil bacterial species moderate the carbonate cycle in soils to simultaneously solidify liquefiable soil, immobilize reactive heavy metals and sequester carbon—effectively providing civil engineering functionality while clarifying the ground water and removing carbon from the atmosphere? Exploration of these ideas has begun in earnest in recent years. This paper explores the potential, challenges and opportunities of this new field, and highlights one biogeochemical function of soil that has shown promise and is developing rapidly as a new technology. The example is used to propose a generalized approach in which the potential of this new field can be fully realized. PMID:20829246

  19. Quantifying long-term microelectrode array functionality using chronic in vivo impedance testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Abhishek; Sanchez, Justin C.

    2012-04-01

    Long-term acquisition of high-quality neural recordings is a cornerstone of neuroprosthetic system design. Mitigating the experimental variability of chronically implanted arrays has been a formidable task because the sensor recording sites can be influenced by biotic and abiotic responses. Several studies have implicated changes in electrical interface impedance as a preliminary marker to infer electrode viability. Microelectrode impedance plays an important role in the monitoring of low amplitude and high-resolution extracellular neural signals. In this work, we seek to quantify long-term microelectrode array functionality and derive an impedance-based predictor for electrode functionality that correlates the recording site electrical properties with the functional neuronal recordings in vivo. High temporal resolution metrics of this type would allow one to assess, predict, and improve electrode performance in the future. In a large cohort of animals, we performed daily impedance measurements and neural signal recordings over long periods (up to 21 weeks) of time in rats using tungsten microwire arrays implanted into the somatosensory cortex. This study revealed that there was a time-varying trend in the modulation of impedance that was related to electrode performance. Single units were best detected from electrodes at time points when the electrode entered into the 40-150 K? impedance range. This impedance trend was modeled across the full cohort of animals to predict future electrode performance. The model was tested on data from all animals and was able to provide predictions of electrode performance chronically. Insight from this study can be combined with knowledge of electrode materials and histological analysis to provide a more comprehensive predictive model of electrode failure in the future.

  20. Preconditioning of skeletal myoblast-based engineered tissue constructs enables functional coupling to myocardium in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Treskes, Philipp; Neef, Klaus; Srinivasan, Sureshkumar Perumal; Halbach, Marcel; Stamm, Christof; Cowan, Douglas; Scherner, Maximilian; Madershahian, Navid; Wittwer, Thorsten; Hescheler, Jürgen; Wahlers, Thorsten; Choi, Yeong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Objective Skeletal myoblasts fuse to form functional syncytial myotubes as an integral part of the skeletal muscle. During this differentiation process, expression of proteins for mechanical and electrical integration is seized, which is a major drawback for the application of skeletal myoblasts in cardiac regenerative cell therapy, because global heart function depends on intercellular communication. Methods Mechanically preconditioned engineered tissue constructs containing neonatal mouse skeletal myoblasts were transplanted epicardially. A Y-chromosomal specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was undertaken up to 10 weeks after transplantation to confirm the presence of grafted cells. Histologic and electrophysiologic analyses were carried out 1 week after transplantation. Results Cells within the grafted construct expressed connexin 43 at the interface to the host myocardium, indicating electrical coupling, confirmed by sharp electrode recordings. Analyses of the maximum stimulation frequency (5.65 ± 0.37 Hz), conduction velocity (0.087 ± 0.011 m/s) and sensitivity for pharmacologic conduction block (0.736 ± 0.080 mM 1-heptanol) revealed effective electrophysiologic coupling between graft and host cells, although significantly less robust than in native myocardial tissue (maximum stimulation frequency, 11.616 ± 0.238 Hz, P<.001; conduction velocity, 0.300 ± 0.057 m/s, P<.01; conduction block, 1.983 ± 0.077 mM 1-heptanol, P<.001). Conclusions Although untreated skeletal myoblasts cannot couple to cardiomyocytes, we confirm that mechanical preconditioning enables transplanted skeletal myoblasts to functionally interact with cardio-myocytes in vivo and, thus, reinvigorate the concept of skeletal myoblast-based cardiac cell therapy. PMID:25439779

  1. Drug-based modulation of endogenous stem cells promotes functional remyelination in vivo.

    PubMed

    Najm, Fadi J; Madhavan, Mayur; Zaremba, Anita; Shick, Elizabeth; Karl, Robert T; Factor, Daniel C; Miller, Tyler E; Nevin, Zachary S; Kantor, Christopher; Sargent, Alex; Quick, Kevin L; Schlatzer, Daniela M; Tang, Hong; Papoian, Ruben; Brimacombe, Kyle R; Shen, Min; Boxer, Matthew B; Jadhav, Ajit; Robinson, Andrew P; Podojil, Joseph R; Miller, Stephen D; Miller, Robert H; Tesar, Paul J

    2015-06-11

    Multiple sclerosis involves an aberrant autoimmune response and progressive failure of remyelination in the central nervous system. Prevention of neural degeneration and subsequent disability requires remyelination through the generation of new oligodendrocytes, but current treatments exclusively target the immune system. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells are stem cells in the central nervous system and the principal source of myelinating oligodendrocytes. These cells are abundant in demyelinated regions of patients with multiple sclerosis, yet fail to differentiate, thereby representing a cellular target for pharmacological intervention. To discover therapeutic compounds for enhancing myelination from endogenous oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, we screened a library of bioactive small molecules on mouse pluripotent epiblast stem-cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Here we show seven drugs function at nanomolar doses selectively to enhance the generation of mature oligodendrocytes from progenitor cells in vitro. Two drugs, miconazole and clobetasol, are effective in promoting precocious myelination in organotypic cerebellar slice cultures, and in vivo in early postnatal mouse pups. Systemic delivery of each of the two drugs significantly increases the number of new oligodendrocytes and enhances remyelination in a lysolecithin-induced mouse model of focal demyelination. Administering each of the two drugs at the peak of disease in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mouse model of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis results in striking reversal of disease severity. Immune response assays show that miconazole functions directly as a remyelinating drug with no effect on the immune system, whereas clobetasol is a potent immunosuppressant as well as a remyelinating agent. Mechanistic studies show that miconazole and clobetasol function in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells through mitogen-activated protein kinase and glucocorticoid receptor signalling, respectively. Furthermore, both drugs enhance the generation of human oligodendrocytes from human oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in vitro. Collectively, our results provide a rationale for testing miconazole and clobetasol, or structurally modified derivatives, to enhance remyelination in patients. PMID:25896324

  2. Administration of single-dose GnRH agonist in the luteal phase in ICSI cycles: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The effects of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) administered in the luteal phase remains controversial. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effect of the administration of a single-dose of GnRH-a in the luteal phase on ICSI clinical outcomes. Methods The research strategy included the online search of databases. Only randomized studies were included. The outcomes analyzed were implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) per transfer and ongoing pregnancy rate. The fixed effects model was used for odds ratio. In all trials, a single dose of GnRH-a was administered at day 5/6 after ICSI procedures. Results All cycles presented statistically significantly higher rates of implantation (P < 0.0001), CPR per transfer (P = 0.006) and ongoing pregnancy (P = 0.02) in the group that received luteal-phase GnRH-a administration than in the control group (without luteal-phase-GnRH-a administration). When meta-analysis was carried out only in trials that had used long GnRH-a ovarian stimulation protocol, CPR per transfer (P = 0.06) and ongoing pregnancy (P = 0.23) rates were not significantly different between the groups, but implantation rate was significant higher (P = 0.02) in the group that received luteal-phase-GnRH-a administration. On the other hand, the results from trials that had used GnRH antagonist multi-dose ovarian stimulation protocol showed statistically significantly higher implantation (P = 0.0002), CPR per transfer (P = 0.04) and ongoing pregnancy rate (P = 0.04) in the luteal-phase-GnRH-a administration group. The majority of the results presented heterogeneity. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that the luteal-phase single-dose GnRH-a administration can increase implantation rate in all cycles and CPR per transfer and ongoing pregnancy rate in cycles with GnRH antagonist ovarian stimulation protocol. Nevertheless, by considering the heterogeneity between the trials, it seems premature to recommend the use of GnRH-a in the luteal phase. Additional randomized controlled trials are necessary before evidence-based recommendations can be provided. PMID:20825643

  3. Relationship between in vitro sperm functional tests and in vivo fertility of rams following cervical artificial insemination of ewes with frozen-thawed semen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. O’ Meara; J. P. Hanrahan; N. S. Prathalingam; J. S. Owen; A. Donovan; S. Fair; F. Ward; M. Wade; A. C. O. Evans; P. Lonergan

    2008-01-01

    Several procedures have been proposed to assess structural and functional characteristics of cryopreserved ram semen but none so far have yielded consistent relationships with in vivo fertility. The objectives of this study were to evaluate several sperm function tests as potential markers of in vivo ram fertility (determined by pregnancy rate in ewes) using frozen-thawed semen. In experiment 1, frozen-thawed

  4. Inflammation and Glucose Sensors: Use of Dexamethasone to Extend Glucose Sensor Function and Life Span in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Klueh, Ulrike; Kaur, Manjot; Montrose, David C.; Kreutzer, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    Background It has been generally accepted that the acute loss of sensor function is the consequence of sensor biofouling as a result of inflammation induced at sites of sensor implantation, as well as tissue trauma induced by the sensor and its implantation. Because anti-inflammatory therapies are used routinely to control inflammation in a wide variety of diseases, we hypothesized that anti-inflammatory therapy would likely extend glucose sensor function in vivo. To test this hypothesis, we utilized our recently developed mouse model of implantable glucose sensors and the potent anti-inflammatory steroid dexamethasone (DEX). Method For this study, glucose sensors were implanted subcutaneously into the head and neck area of mice and sensor function was determined up to 14 days postimplantation. These mice received a daily intraperitoneal injection of DEX at a dose of 1, 6, or 10 mg/kg body weight. Results Mice not treated with DEX lost sensor functionality very rapidly, usually within the first 24 hours postimplantation. Mice treated with DEX at the various doses had an increased sensor life span of up to 2 weeks postimplantation. Additionally, sensitivity was maintained in DEX-treated mice as compared to control mice (non-DEX treated). Histologic evaluation of tissue surrounding the site of sensor implantation had almost no inflammatory cells in DEX-treated mice, whereas control mice had an intense band of inflammation surrounding the site of sensor implantation. Conclusion To our knowledge this is the first study directly demonstrating that anti-inflammatory therapy can extend glucose sensor function in vivo and supports the key role of inflammation in loss of sensor function in vivo, as well as the uses of anti-inflammatory therapy as a potential key adjuvant in enhancing glucose sensor function and life span in vivo. PMID:19885112

  5. Effect of luteal phase support after ovulation induction and intrauterine insemination.

    PubMed

    Oktem, Mesut; Altinkaya, S Ozlem; Yilmaz, Setenay Arzu; Bozkurt, Nuray; Erdem, Mehmet; Erdem, Ahmet; Gumuslu, Seyhan

    2014-08-01

    Abstract Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of luteal phase support on clinical pregnancy and live birth rates after ovulation induction and intrauterine insemination (IUI). Methods: 579 cycles from 2010 to 2013 were retrospectively evaluated. Ovarian stimulation was performed with gonadotropins, and rHCG was used for ovulation triggering. All patients received IUI. 451 cycles were supported by receiving vaginal micronized progesterone capsules (142 cycles) or vaginal progesterone gel (309 cycles) whereas 128 cycles were not supported. Results: Clinical pregnancy (20.6 versus 9.4%; p?=?0.004) and live birth rates (14 versus 7%; p?=?0.036) were higher for supported group than for unsupported group. Progesterone gel and micronized progesterone subgroups achieved similar clinical pregnancy and live birth rates (21.4 versus 19%, p?=?0.567 and 14.2 versus 13.4%, p?=?0.807; respectively). Conclusions: Luteal phase support improved the success of IUI cycles affecting both clinical pregnancy and live birth rates when gonadotropins were used for ovulation induction. The use of vaginal progesterone gel or micronized progesterone significantly improves clinical pregnancy rates. The live birth rates were higher in the progesterone gel group, but were similar in the micronized progesterone group compared to the unsupported group. PMID:25102275

  6. Localization of recombination proteins and Srs2 reveals anti-recombinase function in vivo.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Rebecca C; Lisby, Michael; Altmannova, Veronika; Krejci, Lumir; Sung, Patrick; Rothstein, Rodney

    2009-06-15

    Homologous recombination (HR), although an important DNA repair mechanism, is dangerous to the cell if improperly regulated. The Srs2 "anti-recombinase" restricts HR by disassembling the Rad51 nucleoprotein filament, an intermediate preceding the exchange of homologous DNA strands. Here, we cytologically characterize Srs2 function in vivo and describe a novel mechanism for regulating the initiation of HR. We find that Srs2 is recruited separately to replication and repair centers and identify the genetic requirements for recruitment. In the absence of Srs2 activity, Rad51 foci accumulate, and surprisingly, can form in the absence of Rad52 mediation. However, these Rad51 foci do not represent repair-proficient filaments, as determined by recombination assays. Antagonistic roles for Rad52 and Srs2 in Rad51 filament formation are also observed in vitro. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Srs2 removes Rad51 indiscriminately from DNA, while the Rad52 protein coordinates appropriate filament reformation. This constant breakdown and rebuilding of filaments may act as a stringent quality control mechanism during HR. PMID:19506039

  7. Neurotrophic Factor Artemin Promotes Invasiveness and Neurotrophic Function of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Li; Bo, Haiji; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Jing; Zhu, Minghua

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the neurotrophic factor Artemin on neuroplasticity and perineural invasion of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Methods Artemin expressions were detected in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma tissues by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Artemin overexpression and RNA interference in the pancreatic cancer cell lines were performed to evaluate the effects of Artemin on cell proliferation, invasion, and neurotrophic activity in vitro and in nude orthotopic transplantation tumor models. Results Artemin expression in pancreatic cancer tissues was related to the incidence of lymphatic metastasis and perineural invasion as well as the mean density and total area of nerve fibers. Overexpression of Artemin in pancreatic cancer cell lines improved colony formation, cell migration, matrigel invasion, and neurotrophic activity in vitro. This overexpression also increased the volume of nude orthotopic transplantation tumors; promoted cancer cell invasion of the peripheral organs, nerves, vessels, and lymph nodes; and stimulated the proliferation of peritumoral nerve fibers. Artemin depletion by RNA interference had an inhibitory effect mentioned previously. Conclusions Artemin could promote invasiveness and neurotrophic function of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, Artemin could be used as a new therapeutic target of pancreatic carcinoma. PMID:25243385

  8. In vivo effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali) extract on reproductive functions in the rat.

    PubMed

    Solomon, M C; Erasmus, N; Henkel, R R

    2014-05-01

    An aqueous extract of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali; TA) roots is traditionally used to enhance male sexuality. Because previous studies are limited to only few sperm parameters or testosterone concentration, this study investigated the in vivo effects of TA on body and organ weight as well as functional sperm parameters in terms of safety and efficacy in the management of male infertility. Forty-two male rats were divided into a control, low-dose (200 mg kg(-1) BW) and high-dose (800 mg kg(-1) BW) group (n = 14). Rats were force-fed for 14 days and then sacrificed. Total body and organ weights of the prostate, testes, epididymides, gastrocnemius muscle and the omentum were recorded. Moreover, testosterone concentration, sperm concentration, motility, velocity, vitality, acrosome reaction and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were assessed. Whilst TA decreased BW by 5.7% (P = 0.0276) and omentum fat by 31.9% (P = 0.0496), no changes in organ weights were found for the prostate, testes and epididymides. Testosterone concentration increased by 30.2% (P = 0.0544). Muscle weight also increased, yet not significantly. Whilst sperm concentration, total and progressive motility and vitality increased significantly, MMP improved markedly (P = 0.0765) by 25.1%. Because no detrimental effect could be observed, TA appears safe for possible treatment of male infertility and ageing male problems. PMID:23464350

  9. In vivo and in vitro effects of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine on selected immune functions.

    PubMed

    Tarr, M J; Olsen, R G; Jacobs, D L

    1982-04-01

    The in vivo phase of the experiments reported here include the evaluation of immune function after short-or long-term treatment of mice with 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (UDMH). Long-term exposure (3 injections/week for 14 weeks) resulted in increased numbers of Jerne plaque-forming cells, a trend toward decreased induction of suppressor cell activity by concanavalin A (Con A), and no effects on mitogen-induced lymphocyte blast transformation (LBT), compared to saline-treated control mice. These effects were greatest at doses of 10 or 50 mg/kg, while higher doses had less of an effect. In vitro experiments were performed by adding UDMH to normal murine splenocytes in the LBT assay and con A-induced suppressor cell assay. The UDMH induced a significant enhanced response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 10 and 50 micrograms/ml, and a suppressed response to both Con A and LPS at higher concentrations. The UDMH also caused a decrease in suppressor cell activity at 25 micrograms/ml. Selective abrogation of suppressor activity or alteration of the suppressor cell-helper ratio were suggested as possible mechanisms for the enhancement effect associated with UDMH. PMID:6211418

  10. Functions of ribosomal proteins in assembly of eukaryotic ribosomes in vivo.

    PubMed

    de la Cruz, Jesús; Karbstein, Katrin; Woolford, John L

    2015-06-01

    The proteome of cells is synthesized by ribosomes, complex ribonucleoproteins that in eukaryotes contain 79-80 proteins and four ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) more than 5,400 nucleotides long. How these molecules assemble together and how their assembly is regulated in concert with the growth and proliferation of cells remain important unanswered questions. Here, we review recently emerging principles to understand how eukaryotic ribosomal proteins drive ribosome assembly in vivo. Most ribosomal proteins assemble with rRNA cotranscriptionally; their association with nascent particles is strengthened as assembly proceeds. Each subunit is assembled hierarchically by sequential stabilization of their subdomains. The active sites of both subunits are constructed last, perhaps to prevent premature engagement of immature ribosomes with active subunits. Late-assembly intermediates undergo quality-control checks for proper function. Mutations in ribosomal proteins that affect mostly late steps lead to ribosomopathies, diseases that include a spectrum of cell type-specific disorders that often transition from hypoproliferative to hyperproliferative growth. PMID:25706898

  11. Functional integrity of the interrenal tissue of yellow perch from contaminated sites tested in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Girard, C.; Brodeur, J.C.; Hontela, A. [Univ. du Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    The normal activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI axis) in response to capture is disrupted in fish subjected to life-long exposure to heavy metals, PCBs and PAHs. The ability to increase plasma cortisol in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) from sites contaminated by heavy metals and organic compounds, and from a reference site was assessed by the Capture stress test and by the ACTH Challenge test, a new standardized in vivo method designed for field studies. The effects of seasonal factors, such as temperature and gonadal maturity on these tests were investigated. Measures of liver and muscle glycogen and histopathology were made to further characterize the biochemical and structural changes that may occur along with hormonal changes. The Capture stress test showed that an acute source of stress induced a lower cortisol response in fish from the highly contaminated site compared to the reference site, revealing a functional impairment of the HPI axis. The ACTH Challenge test showed that the hormonal responsiveness of the cortisol-secreting interrenal tissue, stimulated by a standard dose of ACTH injected i.p., was lower in fish from the highly contaminated site than the reference site. Spring is the season during which the impairment was the most evident. The possibility of using the reduced capacity of feral fish to respond to a standardized ACTH Challenge as an early bioindicator of toxic stress is discussed.

  12. [In vivo studies of the main functional systems in the heteronemertean pilidium larva].

    PubMed

    Za?tseva, O V; Fliachinskaia, L P

    2010-01-01

    There is performed in vivo morphological study of the White Sea heteronemerteans belonging to the type of pilidium pyramidale (conussoidale). Based on the layer-by-layer microshooting with subsequent computer processing, development of the pilidium digestive, nervous, and muscle systems is described from the stage following at once the gastrula to the premetamorphose larva. Peculiarities of structural organization of the main functional systems are revealed depending on the larva size and the stage of formation of imaginal discs. It is first shown that even in the not completely formed pilidium, neurons are located not only in integuments and wall of the digestive tract, but also in the depth of cupola along the central muscle retractor. Their processes are distributed between the main body parts and organs by seeming to perform connections of the apical organ and central muscle retractor with the digestive tract, blades, and the nerve plexus of the cupola wall. In the digestive tract between pharynx and stomach in the formed pilidium, the sphincter is first revealed. It has been shown that in the course of larva development, the non-orderly arranged and poorly developed muscle fibers gradually form in the blade the fan-like, whereas in the cupola wall, the net-like structure. PMID:20799611

  13. Dissecting the Function and Assembly of Acentriolar Microtubule Organizing Centers in Drosophila Cells In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Baumbach, Janina; Novak, Zsofia Anna; Raff, Jordan W.; Wainman, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Acentriolar microtubule organizing centers (aMTOCs) are formed during meiosis and mitosis in several cell types, but their function and assembly mechanism is unclear. Importantly, aMTOCs can be overactive in cancer cells, enhancing multipolar spindle formation, merotelic kinetochore attachment and aneuploidy. Here we show that aMTOCs can form in acentriolar Drosophila somatic cells in vivo via an assembly pathway that depends on Asl, Cnn and, to a lesser extent, Spd-2—the same proteins that appear to drive mitotic centrosome assembly in flies. This finding enabled us to ablate aMTOC formation in acentriolar cells, and so perform a detailed genetic analysis of the contribution of aMTOCs to acentriolar mitotic spindle formation. Here we show that although aMTOCs can nucleate microtubules, they do not detectably increase the efficiency of acentriolar spindle assembly in somatic fly cells. We find that they are required, however, for robust microtubule array assembly in cells without centrioles that also lack microtubule nucleation from around the chromatin. Importantly, aMTOCs are also essential for dynein-dependent acentriolar spindle pole focusing and for robust cell proliferation in the absence of centrioles and HSET/Ncd (a kinesin essential for acentriolar spindle pole focusing in many systems). We propose an updated model for acentriolar spindle pole coalescence by the molecular motors Ncd/HSET and dynein in conjunction with aMTOCs. PMID:26020779

  14. The effects of heat on skin barrier function and in vivo dermal absorption.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Gabriela; Leverett, Jesse C; Emamzadeh, Mandana; Lane, Majella E

    2014-04-10

    Enhanced delivery of ingredients across the stratum corneum (SC) is of great interest for improving the efficacy of topically applied formulations. Various methods for improving dermal penetration have been reported including galvanic devices and micro-needles. From a safety perspective it is important that such approaches do not compromise SC barrier function. This study investigates the influence of topically applied heat in vivo on the dermal uptake and penetration of a model active, allantoin from gel and lotion formulations. A custom designed device was used to deliver 42°C for 30s daily to human subjects after application of two formulations containing allantoin. The results were compared with sites treated with formulations containing no active and no heat, and a control site. In addition to penetration of allantoin, the integrity of the SC was monitored using trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements. The results showed that just 30s of 42°C topically applied heat was enough to cause significantly more penetration of allantoin from the lotion formulation compared with no application of heat. TEWL data indicated that the integrity of the skin was not compromised by the treatment. However, the application of heat did not promote enhanced penetration of the active from the gel formulation. Vehicle composition is therefore an important factor when considering thermal enhancement strategies for targeting actives to the skin. PMID:24445121

  15. Diels-Alder functionalized carbon nanotubes for bone tissue engineering: in vitro/in vivo biocompatibility and biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Mata, D; Amaral, M; Fernandes, A J S; Colaço, B; Gama, A; Paiva, M C; Gomes, P S; Silva, R F; Fernandes, M H

    2015-05-28

    The risk-benefit balance for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) dictates their clinical fate. To take a step forward at this crossroad it is compulsory to modulate the CNT in vivo biocompatibility and biodegradability via e.g. chemical functionalization. CNT membranes were functionalised combining a Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction to generate cyclohexene (-C6H10) followed by a mild oxidisation to yield carboxylic acid groups (-COOH). In vitro proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human osteoblastic cells were maximized on functionalized CNT membranes (p,f-CNTs). The in vivo subcutaneously implanted materials showed a higher biological reactivity, thus inducing a slighter intense inflammatory response compared to non-functionalized CNT membranes (p-CNTs), but still showing a reduced cytotoxicity profile. Moreover, the in vivo biodegradation of CNTs was superior for p,f-CNT membranes, likely mediated by the oxidation-induced myeloperoxidase (MPO) in neutrophil and macrophage inflammatory milieus. This proves the biodegradability faculty of functionalized CNTs, which potentially avoids long-term tissue accumulation and triggering of acute toxicity. On the whole, the proposed Diels-Alder functionalization accounts for the improved CNT biological response in terms of the biocompatibility and biodegradability profiles. Therefore, CNTs can be considered for use in bone tissue engineering without notable toxicological threats. PMID:25928241

  16. The effect of glycerol-containing peritoneal dialysis fluid on peritoneal macrophage function in vivo.

    PubMed

    de Fijter, C W; Verbrugh, H A; Oe, P L; Peters, E D; van der Meulen, J; Donker, A J; Verhoef, J; Lameire, N

    1991-01-01

    Though glucose is universally applied as osmotic agent in CAPD, there is great interest in the use of alternative osmotic agents. Glycerol-containing peritoneal dialysis fluids (G-PDF) have been used in an attempt to minimize the metabolic effects of long-term exposure to glucose, especially in patients with diabetes. Since data were lacking, we studied the effect of G-PDF on peritoneal macrophage (PMO) function. In a randomized cross-over setting eight stable diabetic CAPD patients performed the third and fourth exchange of the day with either G-PDF or with glucose-containing PDF (D-PDF) of comparable osmolality. The next day the patients who had used G-PDF were switched to D-PDF and vice versa. PMO were isolated from the effluents and tested for their phagocytic capacity and chemiluminescence response. No differences were encountered in total and differential white cell counts between G-PDF and D-PDF effluents. PMO phagocytic capacity for both S. epidermidis (SE) and E. coli (EC) was significantly depressed after the instillation of G-PDF as compared to D-PDF (SE: 52 +/- 2.7 vs 69 +/- 5.0%, p less than 0.02, and EC: 44 +/- 5.7 vs 63 +/- 6.7%, p less than 0.02). The same held true for peak chemiluminescence response (5.3 +/- 1.36 vs 7.2 +/- 1.43% of control cells, p less than 0.005). Thus, G-PDF may compromise PMO function in vivo more than D-PDF despite its more favourable metabolic profile as compared to D-PDF for diabetic patients. PMID:1680414

  17. Exposure to low mercury concentration in vivo impairs myocardial contractile function

    SciTech Connect

    Furieri, Lorena Barros; Fioresi, Mirian; Junior, Rogerio Faustino Ribeiro [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Bartolome, Maria Visitacion [Department of Physiology, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Fernandes, Aurelia Araujo [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Cachofeiro, Victoria; Lahera, Vicente [Department of Physiology, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Salaices, Mercedes [Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Stefanon, Ivanita [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Vassallo, Dalton Valentim, E-mail: daltonv2@terra.com.br [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Health Science Center of Vitoria-EMESCAM, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2011-09-01

    Increased cardiovascular risk after mercury exposure has been described but cardiac effects resulting from controlled chronic treatment are not yet well explored. We analyzed the effects of chronic exposure to low mercury concentrations on hemodynamic and ventricular function of isolated hearts. Wistar rats were treated with HgCl{sub 2} (1st dose 4.6 {mu}g/kg, subsequent dose 0.07 {mu}g/kg/day, im, 30 days) or vehicle. Mercury treatment did not affect blood pressure (BP) nor produced cardiac hypertrophy or changes of myocyte morphometry and collagen content. This treatment: 1) in vivo increased left ventricle end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) without changing left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) and heart rate; 2) in isolated hearts reduced LV isovolumic systolic pressure and time derivatives, and {beta}-adrenergic response; 3) increased myosin ATPase activity; 4) reduced Na{sup +}-K{sup +} ATPase (NKA) activity; 5) reduced protein expression of SERCA and phosphorylated phospholamban on serine 16 while phospholamban expression increased; as a consequence SERCA/phospholamban ratio reduced; 6) reduced sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX) protein expression and {alpha}-1 isoform of NKA, whereas {alpha}-2 isoform of NKA did not change. Chronic exposure for 30 days to low concentrations of mercury does not change BP, heart rate or LVSP but produces small but significant increase of LVEDP. However, in isolated hearts mercury treatment promoted contractility dysfunction as a result of the decreased NKA activity, reduction of NCX and SERCA and increased PLB protein expression. These findings offer further evidence that mercury chronic exposure, even at small concentrations, is an environmental risk factor affecting heart function. - Highlights: > Unchanges blood pressure, heart rate, systolic pressure. > Increases end diastolic pressure. > Promotes cardiac contractility dysfunction. > Decreases NKA activity, NCX and SERCA, increases PLB protein expression. > Small concentrations constitutes environmental cardiovascular risk factor.

  18. Ex vivo expansion of human outgrowth endothelial cells leads to IL-8-mediated replicative senescence and impaired vasoreparative function.

    PubMed

    Medina, Reinhold J; O'Neill, Christina L; O'Doherty, T Michelle; Chambers, Sarah E J; Guduric-Fuchs, Jasenka; Neisen, Jessica; Waugh, David J; Simpson, David A; Stitt, Alan W

    2013-08-01

    Harnessing outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs) for vasoreparative therapy and tissue engineering requires efficient ex vivo expansion. How such expansion impacts on OEC function is largely unknown. In this study, we show that OECs become permanently cell-cycle arrested after ex vivo expansion, which is associated with enlarged cell size, ?-galactosidase activity, DNA damage, tumor suppressor pathway activation, and significant transcriptome changes. These senescence hallmarks were coupled with low telomerase activity and telomere shortening, indicating replicative senescence. OEC senescence limited their regenerative potential by impairing vasoreparative properties in vitro and in vivo. Integrated transcriptome-proteome analysis identified inflammatory signaling pathways as major mechanistic components of the OEC senescence program. In particular, IL8 was an important facilitator of this senescence; depletion of IL8 in OECs significantly extended ex vivo lifespan, delayed replicative senescence, and enhanced function. While the ability to expand OEC numbers prior to autologous or allogeneic therapy remains a useful property, their replicative senescence and associated impairment of vasorepair needs to be considered. This study also suggests that modulation of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype could be used to optimize OEC therapy. PMID:23629812

  19. Microtubule depolymerization normalizes in vivo myocardial contractile function in dogs with pressure-overload left ventricular hypertrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koide, M.; Hamawaki, M.; Narishige, T.; Sato, H.; Nemoto, S.; DeFreyte, G.; Zile, M. R.; Cooper G, I. V.; Carabello, B. A.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Because initially compensatory myocardial hypertrophy in response to pressure overloading may eventually decompensate to myocardial failure, mechanisms responsible for this transition have long been sought. One such mechanism established in vitro is densification of the cellular microtubule network, which imposes a viscous load that inhibits cardiocyte contraction. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the present study, we extended this in vitro finding to the in vivo level and tested the hypothesis that this cytoskeletal abnormality is important in the in vivo contractile dysfunction that occurs in experimental aortic stenosis in the adult dog. In 8 dogs in which gradual stenosis of the ascending aorta had caused severe left ventricular (LV) pressure overloading (gradient, 152+/-16 mm Hg) with contractile dysfunction, LV function was measured at baseline and 1 hour after the intravenous administration of colchicine. Cardiocytes obtained by biopsy before and after in vivo colchicine administration were examined in tandem. Microtubule depolymerization restored LV contractile function both in vivo and in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: These and additional corroborative data show that increased cardiocyte microtubule network density is an important mechanism for the ventricular contractile dysfunction that develops in large mammals with adult-onset pressure-overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

  20. In vivo exposure to bicarbonate/lactate- and bicarbonate-buffered peritoneal dialysis fluids improves ex vivo peritoneal macrophage function.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, R K; Jones, S; Moseley, A; Holmes, C J; Argyle, R; Williams, J D; Coles, G A; Pu, K; Faict, D; Topley, N

    2000-01-01

    The impact on peritoneal macrophage (PMO) function of acidic lactate-buffered (Lac-PDF [PD4]; 40 mmol/L of lactate; pH 5.2) and neutral-pH, bicarbonate-buffered (TB; 38 mmol/L of bicarbonate; pH 7. 3) and bicarbonate/lactate-buffered (TBL; 25 mmol/L of bicarbonate/15 mmol/L of lactate; pH 7.3) peritoneal dialysis fluids (PDFs) was compared during a study of continuous therapy with PD4, TB, or TBL. During a run-in phase of 6 weeks when all patients (n = 15) were treated with their regular dialysis regimen with Lac-PDF, median PMO tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) release values were 203.6, 89.9, and 115.5 pg TNFalpha/10(6) PMO in the patients subsequently randomized to the PD4, TB, and TBL treatment groups, respectively. Median stimulated TNFalpha values (serum-treated zymosan [STZ], 10 microgram/mL) were 1,894.6, 567.3, and 554.5 pg TNFalpha/10(6) PMO in the same groups, respectively. During the trial phase of 12 weeks, when the three groups of patients (n = 5 per group) were randomized to continuous treatment with PD4, TB, or TBL, median constitutive TNFalpha release values were 204.7, 131.4, and 155.4 pg TNFalpha/10(6) PMO, respectively. Stimulated TNFalpha values (STZ, 10 microgram/mL) were 1,911, 1,832, and 1,378 pg TNFalpha/10(6) PMO in the same groups, respectively. Repeated-measures analysis of variance comparing the run-in phase with the trial phase showed that PMO TNFalpha release was significantly elevated in patients treated with both TB (P = 0.040) and TBL (P = 0.014) but not in patients treated with Lac-PDF (P = 0. 795). These data suggest that patients continuously exposed to bicarbonate- and bicarbonate/lactate-buffered PDFs might have better preserved PMO function and thus improved host defense status. PMID:10620552

  1. The influence of the luteal and follicular phases on major pharmacokinetic parameters of blood and breath alcohol kinetics in women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Dettling; Astrid Preiss; Gisela Skopp; Hans-Thomas Haffner

    2010-01-01

    Drink tests involving 14 women were carried out to determine the effects of the menstrual cycle phases on the pharmacokinetics of ethanol. One experiment was carried out in the follicular phase of the cycle and another in the luteal phase, with the estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone levels being determined in both cases. The target concentration was a final blood alcohol

  2. REVIEW ARTICLE: In vivo magnetic resonance imaging: insights into structure and function of the central nervous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natt, Oliver; Frahm, Jens

    2005-04-01

    Spatially resolved nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques provide structural, metabolic and functional insights into the central nervous system and allow for repetitive in vivo studies of both humans and animals. Complementing its prominent role in diagnostic imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has evolved into an indispensable research tool in system-oriented neurobiology where contributions to functional genomics and translational medicine bridge the gap from molecular biology to animal models and clinical applications. This review presents an overview on some of the most relevant advances in MRI. An introduction covering the basic principles is followed by a discussion of technological improvements in instrumentation and imaging sequences including recent developments in parallel acquisition techniques. Because MRI is noninvasive in contrast to most other imaging modalities, examples focus on in vivo studies of the central nervous system in a variety of species ranging from humans to mice and insects.

  3. Identifying the Functional Flexion-extension Axis of the Knee: An In-Vivo Kinematics Study

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Li; Chen, Kaining; Guo, Lin; Cheng, Liangjun; Wang, Fuyou; Yang, Liu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to calculate the flexion-extension axis (FEA) of the knee through in-vivo knee kinematics data, and then compare it with two major anatomical axes of the femoral condyles: the transepicondylar axis (TEA) defined by connecting the medial sulcus and lateral prominence, and the cylinder axis (CA) defined by connecting the centers of posterior condyles. Methods The knee kinematics data of 20 healthy subjects were acquired under weight-bearing condition using bi-planar x-ray imaging and 3D-2D registration techniques. By tracking the vertical coordinate change of all points on the surface of femur during knee flexion, the FEA was determined as the line connecting the points with the least vertical shift in the medial and lateral condyles respectively. Angular deviation and distance among the TEA, CA and FEA were measured. Results The TEA-FEA angular deviation was significantly larger than that of the CA-FEA in 3D and transverse plane (3.45° vs. 1.98°, p < 0.001; 2.72° vs. 1.19°, p = 0.002), but not in the coronal plane (1.61° vs. 0.83°, p = 0.076). The TEA-FEA distance was significantly greater than that of the CA-FEA in the medial side (6.7 mm vs. 1.9 mm, p < 0.001), but not in the lateral side (3.2 mm vs. 2.0 mm, p = 0.16). Conclusion The CA is closer to the FEA compared with the TEA; it can better serve as an anatomical surrogate for the functional knee axis. PMID:26039711

  4. In vivo skin biophysical behaviour and surface topography as a function of ageing.

    PubMed

    Pailler-Mattei, C; Debret, R; Vargiolu, R; Sommer, P; Zahouani, H

    2013-12-01

    Normal skin ageing is characterised by an alteration of the underlying connective tissue with measurable consequences on global skin biophysical properties. The cutis laxa syndrome, a rare genetic disorder, is considered as an accelerated ageing process since patients appear prematurely aged due to alterations of dermal elastic fibres. In the present study, we compared the topography and the biomechanical parameters of normal aged skin with an 17 year old cutis laxa patient. Skin topography analyses were conducted on normal skin at different ages. The results indicate that the skin relief highly changes as a function of ageing. The cutaneous lines change from a relatively isotropic orientation to a highly anisotropic orientation. This reorganisation of the skin relief during the ageing process might be due to a modification of the skin mechanical properties, and particularly to a modification of the dermis mechanical properties. A specific bio-tribometer, based on the indentationtechnique under light load, has been developed to study the biophysical properties of the human skin in vivo through two main parameters: the physico-chemical properties of the skin surface, by measuring the maximum adhesion force between the skin and the bio-tribometer; and the bulk mechanical properties. Our results show that the pull-off force between the skin and the biotribometer as well as the skin Young's modulus decrease with age. In the case of the young cutis laxa patient, the results obtained were similar to those observed for aged individuals. These results are very interesting and encouraging since they would allow the monitoring of the cutis laxa skin in a standardised and non-invasive way to better characterize either the evolution of the disease or the benefit of a treatment. PMID:23664827

  5. Enzymatic Characterization and In Vivo Function of Five Terminal Oxidases in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Takuro; Osamura, Tatsuya; Hirai, Takehiro; Sakai, Yoshiaki; Ishii, Masaharu

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitous opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa has five aerobic terminal oxidases: bo3-type quinol oxidase (Cyo), cyanide-insensitive oxidase (CIO), aa3-type cytochrome c oxidase (aa3), and two cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidases (cbb3-1 and cbb3-2). These terminal oxidases are differentially regulated under various growth conditions and are thought to contribute to the survival of this microorganism in a wide variety of environmental niches. Here, we constructed multiple mutant strains of P. aeruginosa that express only one aerobic terminal oxidase to investigate the enzymatic characteristics and in vivo function of each enzyme. The Km values of Cyo, CIO, and aa3 for oxygen were similar and were 1 order of magnitude higher than those of cbb3-1 and cbb3-2, indicating that Cyo, CIO, and aa3 are low-affinity enzymes and that cbb3-1 and cbb3-2 are high-affinity enzymes. Although cbb3-1 and cbb3-2 exhibited different expression patterns in response to oxygen concentration, they had similar Km values for oxygen. Both cbb3-1 and cbb3-2 utilized cytochrome c4 as the main electron donor under normal growth conditions. The electron transport chains terminated by cbb3-1 and cbb3-2 generate a proton gradient across the cell membrane with similar efficiencies. The electron transport chain of aa3 had the highest proton translocation efficiency, whereas that of CIO had the lowest efficiency. The enzymatic properties of the terminal oxidases reported here are partially in agreement with their regulatory patterns and may explain the environmental adaptability and versatility of P. aeruginosa. PMID:25182500

  6. Up date on IGFBP-4: regulation of IGFBP-4 levels and functions, in vitro and in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Mazerbourg; Isabelle Callebaut; Jürgen Zapf; Subburaman Mohan; Michael Overgaard; Philippe Monget

    2004-01-01

    Of the six known high affinity insulin-like growth factor binding-proteins (IGFBPs), IGFBP-4 appears to be unique in that it is the only IGFBP that functions mostly like a traditional binding protein. In this regard, none of the IGF independent effects that have been ascribed for other IGFBPs have been described for IGFBP-4. However, recent in vitro and in vivo studies,

  7. Fucoidan Can Function as an Adjuvant In Vivo to Enhance Dendritic Cell Maturation and Function and Promote Antigen-Specific T Cell Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jun-O; Zhang, Wei; Du, Jiang-Yuan; Wong, Ka-Wing; Oda, Tatsuya; Yu, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide purified from brown algae, has a variety of immune-modulation effects, including promoting antigen uptake and enhancing anti-viral and anti-tumor effects. However, the effect of fucoidan in vivo, especially its adjuvant effect on in vivo anti-tumor immune responses, was not fully investigated. In this study, we investigated the effect of fucoidan on the function of spleen dendritic cells (DCs) and its adjuvant effect in vivo. Systemic administration of fucoidan induced up-regulation of CD40, CD80 and CD86 expression and production of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-? in spleen cDCs. Fucoidan also promoted the generation of IFN-?-producing Th1 and Tc1 cells in an IL-12-dependent manner. When used as an adjuvant in vivo with ovalbumin (OVA) antigen, fucoidan promoted OVA-specific antibody production and primed IFN-? production in OVA-specific T cells. Moreover, fucoidan enhanced OVA-induced up-regulation of MHC class I and II on spleen cDCs and strongly prompted the proliferation of OVA-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells. Finally, OVA immunization with fucoidan as adjuvant protected mice from the challenge with B16-OVA tumor cells. Taken together, these results suggest that fucoidan can function as an adjuvant to induce Th1 immune response and CTL activation, which may be useful in tumor vaccine development. PMID:24911024

  8. Effect of ?-carotene supply during close-up dry period on the onset of first postpartum luteal activity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, C; Nagashima, S; Sawada, K; Schweigert, F J; Miyamoto, A; Kida, K

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ?-carotene supply during the close-up dry period on the onset of first postpartum luteal activity in dairy cows. Twelve cows were supplied with 2000?mg of ?-carotene (20?g Rovimix(®) ?-Carotene containing 10% ?-carotene; DSM Nutrition Japan K.K., Tokyo, Japan) by oral administration daily from day 21 before expected calving date to parturition. Fourteen cows (control) did not receive ?-carotene supplementation. Blood samples were obtained on days 21, 14 and 7 before expected calving date and on days 1, 7, 14, 21 postpartum. When the plasma progesterone concentration exceeded 1?ng/ml by day 21 postpartum, luteal activity was assumed to have been initiated. The result showed that serum ?-carotene concentrations in the ?-carotene cows were higher than in the control cows during the experimental period (p?luteal activity by day 21 postpartum was 9/12 in the ?-carotene cows and 4/14 in the control cows (p?luteal activity was lower than in ?-carotene cows with luteal activity (p?luteal activity (p?luteal activity (p?luteal activity. In conclusion, ?-carotene supply during the close-up dry period may support the onset of luteal activity during early lactation in dairy cows. PMID:20002607

  9. Functional characterization of the 180-kD ribosome receptor in vivo

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    A cDNA encoding the 180-kD canine ribosome receptor (RRp) was cloned and sequenced. The deduced primary structure indicates three distinct domains: an NH2-terminal stretch of 28 uncharged amino acids representing the membrane anchor, a basic region (pI = 10.74) comprising the remainder of the NH2-terminal half and an acidic COOH- terminal half (pI = 4.99). The most striking feature of the amino acid sequence is a 10-amino acid consensus motif, NQGKKAEGAP, repeated 54 times in tandem without interruption in the NH2-terminal positively charged region. We postulate that this repeated sequence represents a ribosome binding domain which mediates the interaction between the ribosome and the ER membrane. To substantiate this hypothesis, recombinant full-length ribosome receptor and two truncated versions of this protein, one lacking the potential ribosome binding domain, and one lacking the COOH terminus, were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Morphological and biochemical analyses showed all proteins were targeted to, and oriented correctly in the ER membrane. In vitro ribosome binding assays demonstrated that yeast microsomes containing the full-length canine receptor or one lacking the COOH-terminal domain were able to bind two to four times as many human ribosomes as control membranes lacking a recombinant protein or microsomes containing a receptor lacking the NH2-terminal basic domain. Electron micrographs of these cells revealed that the expression of all receptor constructs led to a proliferation of perinuclear ER membranes known as "karmellae." Strikingly, in those strains which expressed cDNAs encoding a receptor containing the putative ribosome binding domain, the induced ER membranes (examined in situ) were richly studded with ribosomes. In contrast, karmellae resulting from the expression of receptor cDNA lacking the putative ribosome binding domain were uniformly smooth and free of ribosomes. Cell fractionation and biochemical analyses corroborated the morphological characterization. Taken together these data provide further evidence that RRp functions as a ribosome receptor in vitro, provide new evidence indicating its functionality in vivo, and in both cases indicate that the NH2-terminal basic domain is essential for ribosome binding. PMID:7790375

  10. Diels-Alder functionalized carbon nanotubes for bone tissue engineering: in vitro/in vivo biocompatibility and biodegradability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mata, D.; Amaral, M.; Fernandes, A. J. S.; Colaço, B.; Gama, A.; Paiva, M. C.; Gomes, P. S.; Silva, R. F.; Fernandes, M. H.

    2015-05-01

    The risk-benefit balance for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) dictates their clinical fate. To take a step forward at this crossroad it is compulsory to modulate the CNT in vivo biocompatibility and biodegradability via e.g. chemical functionalization. CNT membranes were functionalised combining a Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction to generate cyclohexene (-C6H10) followed by a mild oxidisation to yield carboxylic acid groups (-COOH). In vitro proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human osteoblastic cells were maximized on functionalized CNT membranes (p,f-CNTs). The in vivo subcutaneously implanted materials showed a higher biological reactivity, thus inducing a slighter intense inflammatory response compared to non-functionalized CNT membranes (p-CNTs), but still showing a reduced cytotoxicity profile. Moreover, the in vivo biodegradation of CNTs was superior for p,f-CNT membranes, likely mediated by the oxidation-induced myeloperoxidase (MPO) in neutrophil and macrophage inflammatory milieus. This proves the biodegradability faculty of functionalized CNTs, which potentially avoids long-term tissue accumulation and triggering of acute toxicity. On the whole, the proposed Diels-Alder functionalization accounts for the improved CNT biological response in terms of the biocompatibility and biodegradability profiles. Therefore, CNTs can be considered for use in bone tissue engineering without notable toxicological threats.The risk-benefit balance for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) dictates their clinical fate. To take a step forward at this crossroad it is compulsory to modulate the CNT in vivo biocompatibility and biodegradability via e.g. chemical functionalization. CNT membranes were functionalised combining a Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction to generate cyclohexene (-C6H10) followed by a mild oxidisation to yield carboxylic acid groups (-COOH). In vitro proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human osteoblastic cells were maximized on functionalized CNT membranes (p,f-CNTs). The in vivo subcutaneously implanted materials showed a higher biological reactivity, thus inducing a slighter intense inflammatory response compared to non-functionalized CNT membranes (p-CNTs), but still showing a reduced cytotoxicity profile. Moreover, the in vivo biodegradation of CNTs was superior for p,f-CNT membranes, likely mediated by the oxidation-induced myeloperoxidase (MPO) in neutrophil and macrophage inflammatory milieus. This proves the biodegradability faculty of functionalized CNTs, which potentially avoids long-term tissue accumulation and triggering of acute toxicity. On the whole, the proposed Diels-Alder functionalization accounts for the improved CNT biological response in terms of the biocompatibility and biodegradability profiles. Therefore, CNTs can be considered for use in bone tissue engineering without notable toxicological threats. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details on the preparation of HNO3 functionalized CNTs and supplementary analyses (?-Raman, TG, EDS, acid-base titration, FTIR, roughness measurements, SEM and optical images) are shown. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01829c

  11. Different in vivo functions of the two catalytic domains of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Kenneth E.; Shen, Xiao Z.; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Romer A.; Billet, Sandrine; Okwan-Duodu, Derick; Ong, Frank S.; Fuchs, Sebastien

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) can cleave angiotensin I, bradykinin, neurotensin and many other peptide substrates in vitro. In part, this is due to the structure of ACE, a protein composed of two independent catalytic domains. Until very recently, little was known regarding the specific in vivo role of each ACE domain, and they were commonly regarded as equivalent. This is not true, as shown by mouse models with a genetic inactivation of either the ACE N- or C-domains. In vivo, most angiotensin II is produced by the ACE C-domain. Some peptides, such as the anti-fibrotic peptide AcSDKP, are substrates only of the ACE N-domain. Knowing the in vivo role of each ACE domain has great significance for developing ACE domain-specific inhibitors and for understanding the full effects of the anti-ACE pharmaceuticals in widespread clinical use. PMID:21130035

  12. In vivo Visuotopic Brain Mapping with Manganese-Enhanced MRI and Resting-State Functional Connectivity MRI

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kevin C.; Fan, Shu-Juan; Chan, Russell W.; Cheng, Joe S.; Zhou, Iris Y.; Wu, Ed X.

    2014-01-01

    The rodents are an increasingly important model for understanding the mechanisms of development, plasticity, functional specialization and disease in the visual system. However, limited tools have been available for assessing the structural and functional connectivity of the visual brain network globally, in vivo and longitudinally. There are also ongoing debates on whether functional brain connectivity directly reflects structural brain connectivity. In this study, we explored the feasibility of manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) via 3 different routes of Mn2+ administration for visuotopic brain mapping and understanding of physiological transport in normal and visually deprived adult rats. In addition, resting-state functional connectivity MRI (RSfcMRI) was performed to evaluate the intrinsic functional network and structural-functional relationships in the corresponding anatomical visual brain connections traced by MEMRI. Upon intravitreal, subcortical, and intracortical Mn2+ injection, different topographic and layer-specific Mn enhancement patterns could be revealed in the visual cortex and subcortical visual nuclei along retinal, callosal, cortico-subcortical, transsynaptic and intracortical horizontal connections. Loss of visual input upon monocular enucleation to adult rats appeared to reduce interhemispheric polysynaptic Mn2+ transfer but not intra- or inter-hemispheric monosynaptic Mn2+ transport after Mn2+ injection into visual cortex. In normal adults, both structural and functional connectivity by MEMRI and RSfcMRI was stronger interhemispherically between bilateral primary/secondary visual cortex (V1/V2) transition zones (TZ) than between V1/V2 TZ and other cortical nuclei. Intrahemispherically, structural and functional connectivity was stronger between visual cortex and subcortical visual nuclei than between visual cortex and other subcortical nuclei. The current results demonstrated the sensitivity of MEMRI and RSfcMRI for assessing the neuroarchitecture, neurophysiology and structural-functional relationships of the visual brains in vivo. These may possess great potentials for effective monitoring and understanding of the basic anatomical and functional connections in the visual system during development, plasticity, disease, pharmacological interventions and genetic modifications in future studies. PMID:24394694

  13. In vivo function of the orphan nuclear receptor NR2E3 in establishing photoreceptor identity during mammalian retinal development

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hong; Aleman, Tomas S.; Cideciyan, Artur V.; Khanna, Ritu; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Swaroop, Anand

    2006-01-01

    Rod and cone photoreceptors in mammalian retina are generated from common pool(s) of neuroepithelial progenitors. NRL, CRX and NR2E3 are key transcriptional regulators that control photoreceptor differentiation. Mutations in NR2E3, a rod-specific orphan nuclear receptor, lead to loss of rods, increased density of S-cones and supernormal S-cone-mediated vision in humans. To better understand its in vivo function, NR2E3 was expressed ectopically in the Nrl?/? retina, where post-mitotic precursors fated to be rods develop into functional S-cones similar to the human NR2E3 disease. Expression of NR2E3 in the Nrl?/? retina completely suppressed cone differentiation and resulted in morphologically rod-like photoreceptors, which were however not functional. Gene profiling of FACS-purified photoreceptors confirmed the role of NR2E3 as a strong suppressor of cone genes but an activator of only a subset of rod genes (including rhodopsin) in vivo. Ectopic expression of NR2E3 in cone precursors and differentiating S-cones of wild-type retina also generated rod-like cells. The dual regulatory function of NR2E3 was not dependent upon the presence of NRL and/or CRX, but on the timing and level of its expression. Our studies reveal a critical role of NR2E3 in establishing functional specificity of NRL-expressing photoreceptor precursors during retinal neurogenesis. PMID:16868010

  14. Isolation and ex vivo characterization of the immunophenotype and function of microglia/macrophage populations in normal dog retina.

    PubMed

    Genini, Sem; Beltran, William A; Stein, Veronika M; Aguirre, Gustavo D

    2014-01-01

    Microglia are the primary resident immune cells of the retina and are involved in the pathogenesis of various retinal diseases. In this study, we optimized experimental conditions to isolate microglia from canine retinas and characterized ex vivo their immunophenotype and function using flow cytometry (FACS). The most suitable protocol included a mechanical dissociation of the retina and an enzymatic digestion using DNAse and collagenase. Extraction was carried out by density gradient centrifugation, and retinal microglia accumulated on distinct interfaces of 1.072 and 1.088 g/mL of a Percoll gradient. Immunophenotypical characterization was performed with monoclonal antibodies CD11b, CD11c, CD18, CD45, CD44, B7-1 (CD80), B7-2 (CD86), CD1c, ICAM-1 (CD54), CD14, MHCI, MHCII, CD68, CD3, CD4, CD8?, and CD21. The most prevalent microglia population in the normal canine retina is CD11b(high)CD45(low). Functionally, retinal microglia exhibited phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation activities. To conclude, ex vivo examinations of retinal microglia are feasible and possibly reflect the in vivo conditions, avoiding artifacts observed in tissue culture. The established method will be relevant to examine microglia from diseased canine retinas in order to elucidate their roles in degenerative processes. PMID:24664716

  15. In Vitro Matured Oocytes Are More Susceptible than In Vivo Matured Oocytes to Mock ICSI Induced Functional and Genetic Changes

    PubMed Central

    Salian, Sujit Raj; Singh, Vikram Jeet; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background Concerns regarding the safety of ICSI have been intensified recently due to increased risk of birth defects in ICSI born children. Although fertilization rate is significantly higher in ICSI cycles, studies have failed to demonstrate the benefits of ICSI in improving the pregnancy rate. Poor technical skill, and suboptimal in vitro conditions may account for the ICSI results however, there is no report on the effects of oocyte manipulations on the ICSI outcome. Objective The present study elucidates the influence of mock ICSI on the functional and genetic integrity of the mouse oocytes. Methods Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) level, mitochondrial status, and phosphorylation of H2AX were assessed in the in vivo matured and IVM oocytes subjected to mock ICSI. Results A significant increase in ROS level was observed in both in vivo matured and IVM oocytes subjected to mock ICSI (P<0.05-0.001) whereas unique mitochondrial distribution pattern was found only in IVM oocytes (P<0.01-0.001). Importantly, differential H2AX phosphorylation was observed in both in vivo matured and IVM oocytes subjected to mock ICSI (P <0.001). Conclusion The data from this study suggests that mock ICSI can alter genetic and functional integrity in oocytes and IVM oocytes are more vulnerable to mock ICSI induced changes. PMID:25786120

  16. In-Vivo functional optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with stimulated Raman scattering fiber-laser source

    PubMed Central

    Hajireza, Parsin; Forbrich, Alexander; Zemp, Roger

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a multi-wavelength optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) system using stimulated Raman scattering is demonstrated for both phantom and in vivo imaging. A 1-ns pulse width ytterbium-doped fiber laser is coupled into a single-mode polarization maintaining fiber. Discrete Raman-shifted wavelength peaks extending to nearly 800 nm are generated with pulse energies sufficient for OR-PAM imaging. Bandpass filters are used to select imaging wavelengths. A dual-mirror galvanometer system was used to scan the focused outputs across samples of carbon fiber networks, 200?m dye-filled tubes, and Swiss Webster mouse ears. Photoacoustic signals were collected in transmission mode and used to create maximum amplitude projection C-scan images. Double dye experiments and in vivo oxygen saturation estimation confirmed functional imaging potential. PMID:24575346

  17. Fluorescence-surface enhanced Raman scattering co-functionalized gold nanorods as near-infrared probes for purely optical in vivo imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Qian; Li Jiang; Fuhong Cai; Dan Wang; Sailing He

    2011-01-01

    Gold nanorods (GNRs) have been widely used for bio-imaging. However, GNRs assisted optical in vivo deep tissue imaging is severely restricted due to signal attenuation, low contrast, complex process or low real-timing. To overcome these problems, we functionalized GNRs with both near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and utilized these co-functionalized GNRs for purely optical in vivo

  18. In vivo biodistribution and toxicology of functionalized nano-graphene oxide in mice after oral and intraperitoneal administration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; Gong, Hua; Shi, Xiaoze; Wan, Jianmei; Zhang, Youjiu; Liu, Zhuang

    2013-04-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) and its functionalized derivatives have attracted great attention in biomedicine in recent years. A number of groups including ours have studied the in vivo behaviors of functionalized nano-graphene after intravenous injection or inhalation, and uncovered the surface coating & size dependent biodistribution and toxicology profiles for this type of nanomaterials. However, the fate of GO derivatives in animals after oral feeding and intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, which are two other major drug administration routes, remain unclear. Therefore, in this work, we sought to systematically investigate in vivo biodistribution and potential toxicity of as-made GO and a number of polyethylene glycol (PEG) functionalized GO derivatives with different sizes and surface coatings, after oral and intraperitoneal administration at high doses. It is found that (125)I labeled PEGylated GO derivatives show no obvious tissue uptake via oral administration, indicating the rather limited intestinal adsorption of those nanomaterials. In contrast, high accumulation of PEGyalted GO derivatives, but not as-made GO, in the reticuloendothelial (RES) system including liver and spleen is observed after i.p. injection. Further investigations based on histological examination of organ slices and hematological analysis discover that although GO and PEGylated GO derivatives would retain in the mouse body over a long period of time after i.p. injection, their toxicity to the treated animals is insignificant. Our work is an important fundamental study that offers a deeper understanding of in vivo behaviors and toxicology of functionalized nano-graphene in animals, depending on their different administration routes. PMID:23340196

  19. Stimulatory effect of luteinizing hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, and epidermal growth factor on progesterone secretion and viability of cultured bubaline luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, V S; Dangi, S S; Vazhoor, B; Yadav, V P; Gupta, M; Pathak, M C; Panda, R P; Khan, F A; Verma, M R; Maurya, V P; Singh, G; Sarkar, M

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the temporal (24, 48 and 72 hours) and dose-dependent (5, 10, and 100 ng/mL of LH, IGF-1, and EGF, respectively) production and secretion of progesterone (P4) in cultured luteal cells from different stages of estrous cycle as well as the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STARD1), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage (CYP11A1), and 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B), anti-apoptotic gene PCNA, and pro-apoptotic gene BAX in luteal cells of mid-luteal phase in buffalo. Samples from early luteal phase (ELP; Day 1 to 4; n = 4), mid-luteal phase (MLP; Day 5 to 10; n = 4), and late luteal phase (LLP; Day 11 to 16; n = 4) of estrous cycle were collected. Progesterone was assayed by RIA, whereas mRNA expression was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results depicted that highest dose (100 ng/mL) of LH, IGF-1, and EGF and longer duration of time brought about a (P < 0.05) rise in P4 level and expression of steroidogenic enzymes and PCNA compared with the lower level(s) and control while, all treatments (P < 0.05) inhibited BAX expression in a time dependent-manner. Analysis of interaction between stage and treatments revealed that LH treatment (P < 0.05) increased P4 production compared with IGF-1 and EGF in ELP and MLP. However in LLP, treatment with IGF-1 and EGF significantly (P < 0.05) increased P4 production compared with LH treatment. Summarizing, our study explores the steroidogenic potential of LH and growth factors across different luteal stages in buffalo, which on promoting steroidogenic enzyme expression and cell viability culminated in enhanced P4 production in luteal cells. PMID:25263485

  20. Effects of "own" versus "alien" suckling on incidence of ovarian luteal activity, estrus and secretion of luteinizing hormone, oxytocin and prolactin in early postpartum beef cows 

    E-print Network

    Silveira, Patrice Auvern

    1992-01-01

    EFFECTS OF "OWN" VERSUS "ALIEN" SUCKLING ON INCIDENCE OF OVARIAN LUTEAL ACTIVITY, ESTRUS AND SECRETION OF LUTEINIZING HORMONE, OXYTOCIN AND PROLACTIN IN EARLY POSTPARTUM BEEF COWS A Thesis by PATRICE AUVERN SILVEIRA Submitted to the Office... of Graduate Studies of Texas A8 M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1992 Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction EFFECTS OF "OWN" VERSUS "ALIEN" SUCKLING ON INCIDENCE OF OVARIAN LUTEAL...

  1. Noninvasive Assessment of Gene Transfer and Expression by In Vivo Functional and Morphologic Imaging in a Rabbit Tumor Model

    PubMed Central

    Ravoori, Murali K.; Han, Lin; Singh, Sheela P.; Dixon, Katherine; Duggal, Jyoti; Liu, Ping; Uthamanthil, Rajesh; Gupta, Sanjay; Wright, Kenneth C.; Kundra, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the importance of morphology in quantifying expression after in vivo gene transfer and to compare gene expression after intra-arterial (IA) and intra-tumoral (IT) delivery of adenovirus expressing a SSTR2-based reporter gene in a large animal tumor model. Materials and Methods Tumor directed IA or IT delivery of adenovirus containing a human somatostatin receptor type 2A (Ad-CMV-HA-SSTR2A) gene chimera or control adenovirus (Ad-CMV-GFP) was performed in VX2 tumors growing in both rabbit thighs. Three days later, 111In-octreotide was administered intravenously after CT imaging using a clinical scanner. 111In-octreotide uptake in tumors was evaluated the following day using a clinical gamma-camera. Gene expression was normalized to tumor weight with and without necrosis. This procedure was repeated on nine additional rabbits to investigate longitudinal gene expression both 5 days and 2 weeks after adenovirus delivery. CT images were used to evaluate tumor morphology and excised tissue samples were analyzed to determine 111In-octreotide biodistribution ex vivo. Results VX2 tumors infected with Ad-CMV-HA-SSTR2 had greater 111In-octreotide uptake than with control virus (P<0.05). Intra-arterial and intra-tumoral routes resulted in similar levels of gene expression. Longitudinally, expression appeared to wane at 2 weeks versus 5 days after delivery. Areas of necrosis did not demonstrate significant uptake ex vivo. Morphology identified areas of necrosis on contrast enhanced CT and upon excluding necrosis, in vivo biodistribution analysis resulted in greater percent injected dose per gram (P<0.01) and corresponded better with ex vivo biodistribution(r?=?0.72, P<0.01, Coefficient of the x-variable?=?.72) at 2 weeks than without excluding necrosis (P<0.01). Conclusion Tumor specificity and high transgene expression can be achieved in tumors via both tumor directed intra-arterial and intra-tumoral delivery in a large animal tumor model. Using clinical machines, morphologic imaging contributes to functional imaging for quantifying SSTR2-based reporter expression in vivo. PMID:23762226

  2. Role of vascular networks in extending glucose sensor function: Impact of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis on continuous glucose monitoring in vivo.

    PubMed

    Klueh, Ulrike; Antar, Omar; Qiao, Yi; Kreutzer, Donald L

    2014-10-01

    The concept of increased blood vessel (BV) density proximal to glucose sensors implanted in the interstitial tissue increases the accuracy and lifespan of sensors is accepted, despite limited existing experimental data. Interestingly, there is no previous data or even conjecture in the literature on the role of lymphatic vessels (LV) alone, or in combination with BV, in enhancing continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in vivo. To investigate the impact of inducing vascular networks (BV and LV) at sites of glucose sensor implantation, we utilized adenovirus based local gene therapy of vascular endothelial cell growth factor-A (VEGF-A) to induce vessels at sensor implantation sites. The results of these studies demonstrated that (1) VEGF-A based local gene therapy increases vascular networks (blood vessels and lymphatic vessels) at sites of glucose sensor implantation; and (2) this local increase of vascular networks enhances glucose sensor function in vivo from 7 days to greater than 28 days postsensor implantation. This data provides "proof of concept" for the effective usage of local angiogenic factor (AF) gene therapy in mammalian models in an effort to extend CGM in vivo. It also supports the practice of a variety of viral and nonviral vectors as well as gene products (e.g. anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrosis genes) to engineer "implant friendly tissues" for the usage with implantable glucose sensors as well as other implantable devices. PMID:24243850

  3. Partial recovery of in vivo function by improved incubation conditions of isolated renal proximal tubule

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Müller-Berger; S. Coppola; I. Samaržija; G. Seki; E. Frömter

    1997-01-01

    Isolated microperfused rabbit renal proximal tubule S2 segments, if incubated in conventional substrate containing HCO3\\u000a –Ringer solution, exhibit lower cell membrane potentials (V\\u000a b) and elevated intracellular Na+ concentrations ([Na]i) compared to rat tubules in vivo. Assuming that these and other differences reflect insufficient metabolic and\\/or hormonal\\u000a stimulation of the cells, we have used microelectrode techniques to test whether improving

  4. 20-HETE regulates the angiogenic functions of human endothelial progenitor cells and contributes to angiogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Ackerman, Rachel; Saleh, Mohamed; Gotlinger, Katherine H; Kessler, Michael; Mendelowitz, Lawrence G; Falck, John R; Arbab, Ali S; Scicli, A Guillermo; Schwartzman, Michal L; Yang, Jing; Guo, Austin M

    2014-03-01

    Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) contribute to postnatal neovascularization. We identified the cytochrome P450 4A/F-20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (CYP4A/F-20-HETE) system as a novel regulator of EPC functions associated with angiogenesis in vitro. Here, we explored cellular mechanisms by which 20-HETE regulates EPC angiogenic functions and assessed its contribution to EPC-mediated angiogenesis in vivo. Results showed that both hypoxia and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induce CYP4A11 gene and protein expression (the predominant 20-HETE synthases in human EPC), and this is accompanied by an increase in 20-HETE production by ~1.4- and 1.8-fold, respectively, compared with the control levels. Additional studies demonstrated that 20-HETE and VEGF have a synergistic effect on EPC proliferation, whereas 20-HETE antagonist 20-HEDGE or VEGF-neutralizing antibody negated 20-HETE- or VEGF-induced proliferation, respectively. These findings are consistent with the presence of a positive feedback regulation on EPC proliferation between the 20-HETE and the VEGF pathways. Furthermore, we found that 20-HETE induced EPC adhesion to fibronectin and endothelial cell monolayer by 40 ± 5.6 and 67 ± 10%, respectively, which was accompanied by a rapid induction of very late antigen-4 and chemokine receptor type 4 mRNA and protein expression. Basal and 20-HETE-stimulated increases in adhesion were negated by the inhibition of the CYP4A-20-HETE system. Lastly, EPC increased angiogenesis in vivo by 3.6 ± 0.2-fold using the Matrigel plug angiogenesis assay, and these increases were markedly reduced by the local inhibition of 20-HETE system. These results strengthened the notion that 20-HETE regulates the angiogenic functions of EPC in vitro and EPC-mediated angiogenesis in vivo. PMID:24403517

  5. Fluorescence-surface enhanced Raman scattering co-functionalized gold nanorods as near-infrared probes for purely optical in vivo imaging.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jun; Jiang, Li; Cai, Fuhong; Wang, Dan; He, Sailing

    2011-02-01

    Gold nanorods (GNRs) have been widely used for bio-imaging. However, GNRs assisted optical in vivo deep tissue imaging is severely restricted due to signal attenuation, low contrast, complex process or low real-timing. To overcome these problems, we functionalized GNRs with both near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and utilized these co-functionalized GNRs for purely optical in vivo imaging of live mice. Our proposed technology has the combined advantages of high real-timing, high imaging contrast and deep detection ability. The distribution and excretion of intravenously injected GNRs in deep tissues of live mice were observed in vivo for the first time through purely optical imaging. We also demonstrated successfully in vivo biomedical applications of the co-functionalized GNRs to sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping and tumor targeting of mice. The present technology has great future potentials for disease diagnosis and clinical therapies. PMID:21106233

  6. Long-Term Persistence of Functional Thymic Epithelial Progenitor Cells In Vivo under Conditions of Low FOXN1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Nowell, Craig S.; Ulyanchenko, Svetlana; Stenhouse, Frances H.; Blackburn, C. Clare

    2014-01-01

    Normal thymus function reflects interactions between developing T-cells and several thymic stroma cell types. Within the stroma, key functions reside in the distinct cortical and medullary thymic epithelial cell (TEC) types. It has been demonstrated that, during organogenesis, all TECs can be derived from a common thymic epithelial progenitor cell (TEPC). The properties of this common progenitor are thus of interest. Differentiation of both cTEC and mTEC depends on the epithelial-specific transcription factor FOXN1, although formation of the common TEPC from which the TEC lineage originates does not require FOXN1. Here, we have used a revertible severely hypomorphic allele of Foxn1, Foxn1R, to test the stability of the common TEPC in vivo. By reactivating Foxn1 expression postnatally in Foxn1R/? mice we demonstrate that functional TEPCs can persist in the thymic rudiment until at least 6 months of age, and retain the potential to give rise to both cortical and medullary thymic epithelial cells (cTECs and mTECs). These data demonstrate that the TEPC-state is remarkably stable in vivo under conditions of low Foxn1 expression, suggesting that manipulation of FOXN1 activity may prove a valuable method for long term maintenance of TEPC in vitro. PMID:25531271

  7. Surface-Functionalized Nanoparticles by Olefin Metathesis: A Chemoselective Approach for In Vivo Characterization of Atherosclerosis Plaque.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Beatriz; Ruiz-Cabello, Jesús; Lechuga-Vieco, Ana V; Benito, Marina; Herranz, Fernando

    2015-07-13

    The use of click chemistry reactions for the functionalization of nanoparticles is particularly useful to modify the surface in a well-defined manner and to enhance the targeting properties, thus facilitating clinical translation. Here it is demonstrated that olefin metathesis can be used for the chemoselective functionalization of iron oxide nanoparticles with three different examples. This approach enables, in one step, the synthesis and functionalization of different water-stable magnetite-based particles from oleic acid-coated counterparts. The surface of the nanoparticles was completely characterized showing how the metathesis approach introduces a large number of hydrophilic molecules on their coating layer. As an example of the possible applications of these new nanocomposites, a focus was taken on atherosclerosis plaques. It is also demonstrated how the in vitro properties of one of the probes, particularly its Ca(2+) -binding properties, mediate their final in vivo use; that is, the selective accumulation in atherosclerotic plaques. This opens promising new applications to detect possible microcalcifications associated with plaque vulnerability. The accumulation of the new imaging tracers is demonstrated by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging of carotids and aorta in the ApoE(-/-) mouse model and the results were confirmed by histology. PMID:26096657

  8. Measuring stem cell frequency in epidermis: A quantitative in vivo functional assay for long-term repopulating cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, T. E.; Barland, C.; Alex, A. M.; Mancianti, M. L.; Lu, Y.; Cleaver, J. E.; Lawrence, H. J.; Ghadially, R.

    2003-09-01

    Epidermal stem cells play a central role in tissue homeostasis, wound repair, tumor initiation, and gene therapy. A major impediment to the purification and molecular characterization of epidermal stem cells is the lack of a quantitative assay for cells capable of long-term repopulation in vivo, such as exists for hematopoietic cells. The tremendous strides made in the characterization and purification of hematopoietic stem cells have been critically dependent on the availability of competitive transplantation assays, because these assays permit the accurate quantitation of long-term repopulating cells in vivo. We have developed an analogous functional assay for epidermal stem cells, and have measured the frequency of functional epidermal stem cells in interfollicular epidermis. These studies indicate that cells capable of long-term reconstitution of a squamous epithelium reside in the interfollicular epidermis. We find that the frequency of these long-term repopulating cells is 1 in 35,000 total epidermal cells, or in the order of 1 in 104 basal epidermal cells, similar to that of hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow, and much lower than previously estimated in epidermis. Furthermore, these studies establish a novel functional assay that can be used to validate immunophenotypic markers and enrichment strategies for epidermal stem cells, and to quantify epidermal stem cells in various keratinocyte populations. Thus further studies using this type of assay for epidermis should aid in the progress of cutaneous stem cell-targeted gene therapy, and in more basic studies of epidermal stem cell regulation and differentiation.

  9. In vivo assessment of cardiac metabolism and function in the abdominal aortic banding model of compensated cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Vicky; Miller, Jack J.; Clarke, Kieran; Carr, Carolyn A.; Tyler, Damian J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Left ventricular hypertrophy is an adaptive response of the heart to chronic mechanical overload and can lead to functional deterioration and heart failure. Changes in cardiac energy metabolism are considered as key to the hypertrophic remodelling process. The concurrence of obesity and hypertrophy has been associated with contractile dysfunction, and this work therefore aimed to investigate the in vivo structural, functional, and metabolic remodelling that occurs in the hypertrophied heart in the setting of a high-fat, high-sucrose, Western diet (WD). Methods and results Following induction of cardiac hypertrophy through abdominal aortic banding, male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to either a standard diet or a WD (containing 45% fat and 16% sucrose) for up to 14 weeks. Cardiac structural and functional characteristics were determined by CINE MRI, and in vivo metabolism was investigated using hyperpolarized 13C-labelled pyruvate. Cardiac hypertrophy was observed at all time points, irrespective of dietary manipulation, with no evidence of cardiac dysfunction. Pyruvate dehydrogenase flux was unchanged in the hypertrophied animals at any time point, but increased incorporation of the 13C label into lactate was observed by 9 weeks and maintained at 14 weeks, indicative of enhanced glycolysis. Conclusion Hypertrophied hearts revealed little evidence of a switch towards increased glucose oxidation but rather an uncoupling of glycolytic metabolism from glucose oxidation. This was maintained under conditions of dietary stress provided by a WD but, at this compensated phase of hypertrophy, did not result in any contractile dysfunction. PMID:25750189

  10. The neurexin ligands, neuroligins and leucine-rich repeat transmembrane proteins, perform convergent and divergent synaptic functions in vivo.

    PubMed

    Soler-Llavina, Gilberto J; Fuccillo, Marc V; Ko, Jaewon; Südhof, Thomas C; Malenka, Robert C

    2011-10-01

    Synaptic cell adhesion molecules, including the neurexin ligands, neuroligins (NLs) and leucine-rich repeat transmembrane proteins (LRRTMs), are thought to organize synapse assembly and specify synapse function. To test the synaptic role of these molecules in vivo, we performed lentivirally mediated knockdown of NL3, LRRTM1, and LRRTM2 in CA1 pyramidal cells of WT and NL1 KO mice at postnatal day (P)0 (when synapses are forming) and P21 (when synapses are largely mature). P0 knockdown of NL3 in WT or NL1 KO neurons did not affect excitatory synaptic transmission, whereas P0 knockdown of LRRTM1 and LRRTM2 selectively reduced AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic currents. P0 triple knockdown of NL3 and both LRRTMs in NL1 KO mice yielded greater reductions in AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated currents, suggesting functional redundancy between NLs and LRRTMs during early synapse development. In contrast, P21 knockdown of LRRTMs did not alter excitatory transmission, whereas NL manipulations supported a role for NL1 in maintaining NMDA receptor-mediated transmission. These results show that neurexin ligands in vivo form a dynamic synaptic cell adhesion network, with compensation between NLs and LRRTMs during early synapse development and functional divergence upon synapse maturation. PMID:21953696

  11. Factors affecting the occurrence of postpartum prolonged luteal activity in clinically healthy high-producing dairy cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mojtaba Kafi; Abdolah Mirzaei; Amin Tamadon; Mehdi Saeb

    The objective was to characterize risk factors affecting the occurrence of prolonged luteal phase (PLP) in postpartum, clinically healthy, high-producing dairy cows. Transrectal ultrasound examinations of the reproductive tract were performed twice weekly, from the 1st to 8th wk after calving in 151 multiparous clinically healthy lactating Holstein cows (mean ± SD of peak milk yield = 56.7 ± 7.4

  12. Different processing of LH/hCG receptors in cultured rat luteal cells and murine Leydig tumor cells (MLTC-1)

    SciTech Connect

    Kellokumpu, S.

    1987-02-01

    The metabolic fate of LH/hCG receptors after exposure to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was examined in cultured rat luteal cells and murine Leydig tumor cells (MLTC-1). Kinetic studies performed after pulse-labelling of the cells with (/sup 125/I)hCG indicated that the bound hormone was lost much more rapidly from the tumor cells than from the luteal cells. The tumor cells were also found to internalize and degrade the hormone more effectively than the luteal cells. Chemical cross-linking and analyses by SDS-PAGE of this material revealed that both cell types also released, in addition to intact hCG, two previously characterized receptor fragment-(/sup 125/I)hCG complexes (M/sub r/ 96,000 and 74,000) into the medium, although their amount was negligible in MLTC-1 cells. Possibly due to rapid discharge of the ligand from its receptor, no similar complexes could be detected inside the MLTC-1 cells, suggesting that they were released directly from the cell surface. However, the M/sub r/ 74,000 complex was observed inside MLTC-1 cells if chloroquine, a lysosomotropic agent, was present during the incubations. This suggests that the internalized receptor also becomes degraded, at least when complexed to hCG. The results thus provide evidence that there exist two different mechanisms for proteolytic processing of LH/hCG receptors in these target cells. In tumor cells, the degradation seems to occur almost exclusively intracellularly, whereas in luteal cells a substantial portion of the receptors is also degraded at the cell surface.

  13. Improving microbial fitness in the mammalian gut by in vivo temporal functional metagenomics

    E-print Network

    Yaung, Stephanie J.

    Elucidating functions of commensal microbial genes in the mammalian gut is challenging because many commensals are recalcitrant to laboratory cultivation and genetic manipulation. We present Temporal FUnctional Metagenomics ...

  14. Luteal phase supplementation after gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger in fresh embryo transfer: the American versus European approaches.

    PubMed

    Humaidan, Peter; Engmann, Lawrence; Benadiva, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    The challenges in attaining an adequate luteal phase after GnRH agonist (GnRHa) trigger to induce final oocyte maturation have resulted in different approaches focused on rescuing the luteal phase insufficiency so that a fresh transfer can be carried out without jeopardizing IVF outcomes. Over the years, two different concepts have emerged: intensive luteal support with aggressive exogenous administration of E2 and P; and low-dose hCG rescue in the form of a small dose of hCG either on the day of oocyte retrieva or on the day of GnRHa trigger (the so called "dual trigger"). Both approaches have been shown to be effective in achieving pregnancy rates similar to those obtained after conventional hCG trigger and resulting in a very low risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Although the idea of freezing all embryos after GnRHa trigger and transferring them in a subsequent frozen-thawed cycle has been gaining momentum, a fresh transfer leading to the live birth of a healthy child is currently considered to be the goal of IVF treatment. PMID:25681859

  15. Double stimulations during the follicular and luteal phases of poor responders in IVF/ICSI programmes (Shanghai protocol).

    PubMed

    Kuang, Yanping; Chen, Qiuju; Hong, Qingqing; Lyu, Qifeng; Ai, Ai; Fu, Yonglun; Shoham, Zeev

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that existing antral follicles in the luteal phase enable ovarian stimulation. In a pilot study, the efficacy of double stimulations during the follicular and luteal phases in women with poor ovarian response was explored (defined according to the Bologna criteria). Thirty-eight women began with mild ovarian stimulation. After the first oocyte retrieval, human menopausal gonadotrophin and letrozole were administrated to stimulate follicle development, and oocyte retrieval was carried out a second time when dominant follicles had matured. The primary outcome measured was the number of oocytes retrieved: stage one 1.7 ± 1.0; stage two 3.5 ± 3.2. From the double stimulation, 167 oocytes were collected and 26 out of 38 (68.4%) succeeded in producing one to six viable embryos cryopreserved for later transfer. Twenty-one women underwent 23 cryopreserved embryo transfers, resulting in 13 clinical pregnancies. The study shows that double ovarian stimulations in the same menstrual cycle provide more opportunities for retrieving oocytes in poor responders. The stimulation can start in the luteal phase resulting in retrieval of more oocytes in a short period of time. This offers new hope for women with poor ovarian response and newly diagnosed cancer patients needing fertility preservation. PMID:25444501

  16. The orphan nuclear receptor SF-1 is involved in the effect of PCBs, DDT, and DDE on the secretion of steroid hormones and oxytocin from bovine luteal cells during the estrous cycle in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mlynarczuk, J; Wrobel, M H; Kotwica, J

    2014-04-15

    The orphan receptor steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) is involved in the regulation of ovarian steroidogenesis in cows. It is hypothesized that estrogen-like chlorinated compounds might affect SF-1, and thus impair the function of the ovary. Bovine luteal cells from the estrous cycle (Days: 1-5, 6-10, 11-15, and 16-19) were treated for 50 hours with DDT, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethene, 3,3'4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl or 2'2'4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (each at a dose of 10 ng/mL). Luteal cells were also treated with 4-(heptyloxy)phenol (1 × 10(-7) M), an SF-1 agonist, and F0160 (1 × 10(-6) M), an SF-1 blocker, jointly or separately. The secretion of progesterone and oxytocin and the expression of oxytocin precursor (NP-I/OT) messenger RNA were increased (P < 0.05) by all studied xenobiotics and 4-(heptyloxy)phenol, although they were inhibited (P < 0.05) by F0160. However, the xenobiotics did not affect (P > 0.05) SF-1 messenger RNA expression. In summary, SF-1 is involved in the adverse effect of chlorinated xenobiotics on the regulation of the bovine CL. PMID:24576709

  17. Induction and functional significance of the heme oxygenase system in pathological shear stress in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kang, Lu; Hillestad, Matthew L; Grande, Joseph P; Croatt, Anthony J; Barry, Michael A; Farrugia, Gianrico; Katusic, Zvonimir S; Nath, Karl A

    2015-06-01

    The present study examined the heme oxygenase (HO) system in an in vivo murine model of pathological shear stress induced by partial carotid artery ligation. In this model, along with upregulation of vasculopathic genes, HO-1 is induced in the endothelium and adventitia, whereas HO-2 is mainly upregulated in the endothelium. Within minutes of ligation, NF-?B, a transcription factor that upregulates vasculopathic genes and HO-1, is activated. Failure to express either HO-1 or HO-2 exaggerates the reduction in carotid blood flow and exacerbates vascular injury. After artery ligation, comparable induction of HO-2 occurred in HO-1(+/+) and HO-1(-/-) mice, whereas HO-1 induction was exaggerated in HO-2(-/-) mice compared with HO-2(+/+) mice. Upregulation of HO-1 by an adeno-associated viral vector increased vascular HO-1 expression and HO activity and augmented blood flow in both ligated and contralateral carotid arteries. Acute inhibition of HO activity decreased flow in the ligated carotid artery, whereas a product of HO, carbon monoxide (CO), delivered by CO-releasing molecule-3, increased carotid blood flow. In conclusion, in the partial carotid artery ligation model of pathological shear stress, this study provides the first demonstration of 1) upregulation and vasoprotective effects of HO-1 and HO-2 and the vasorelaxant effects of CO as well as 2) vascular upregulation of HO-1 in vivo by an adeno-associated viral vector that is attended by a salutary vascular response. Induction of HO-1 may reside in NF-?B activation, and, along with induced HO-2, such upregulation of HO-1 provides a countervailing vasoprotective response in pathological shear stress in vivo. PMID:25820397

  18. The rare DAT coding variant Val559 perturbs DA neuron function, changes behavior, and alters in vivo responses to psychostimulants

    PubMed Central

    Mergy, Marc A.; Gowrishankar, Raajaram; Gresch, Paul J.; Gantz, Stephanie C.; Williams, John; Davis, Gwynne L.; Wheeler, C. Austin; Stanwood, Gregg D.; Hahn, Maureen K.; Blakely, Randy D.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the critical role of the presynaptic dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT, SLC6A3) in DA clearance and psychostimulant responses, evidence that DAT dysfunction supports risk for mental illness is indirect. Recently, we identified a rare, nonsynonymous Slc6a3 variant that produces the DAT substitution Ala559Val in two male siblings who share a diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with other studies identifying the variant in subjects with bipolar disorder (BPD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previously, using transfected cell studies, we observed that although DAT Val559 displays normal total and surface DAT protein levels, and normal DA recognition and uptake, the variant transporter exhibits anomalous DA efflux (ADE) and lacks capacity for amphetamine (AMPH)-stimulated DA release. To pursue the significance of these findings in vivo, we engineered DAT Val559 knock-in mice, and here we demonstrate in this model the presence of elevated extracellular DA levels, altered somatodendritic and presynaptic D2 DA receptor (D2R) function, a blunted ability of DA terminals to support depolarization and AMPH-evoked DA release, and disruptions in basal and psychostimulant-evoked locomotor behavior. Together, our studies demonstrate an in vivo functional impact of the DAT Val559 variant, providing support for the ability of DAT dysfunction to impact risk for mental illness. PMID:25331903

  19. The intramembrane proteases signal Peptide peptidase-like 2a and 2b have distinct functions in vivo.

    PubMed

    Schneppenheim, Janna; Hüttl, Susann; Mentrup, Torben; Lüllmann-Rauch, Renate; Rothaug, Michelle; Engelke, Michael; Dittmann, Kai; Dressel, Ralf; Araki, Masatake; Araki, Kimi; Wienands, Jürgen; Fluhrer, Regina; Saftig, Paul; Schröder, Bernd

    2014-04-01

    We reported recently that the presenilin homologue signal peptide peptidase-like 2a (SPPL2a) is essential for B cell development by cleaving the N-terminal fragment (NTF) of the invariant chain (li, CD74). Based on this, we suggested that pharmacological modulation of SPPL2a may represent a novel approach to deplete B cells in autoimmune disorders. With regard to reported overlapping substrate spectra of SPPL2a and its close homologue, SPPL2b, we investigated the role of SPPL2b in CD74 NTF proteolysis and its impact on B and dendritic cell homeostasis. In heterologous expression experiments, SPPL2b was found to cleave CD74 NTF with an efficiency similar to that of SPPL2a. For in vivo analysis, SPPL2b single-deficient and SPPL2a/SPPL2b double-deficient mice were generated and examined for CD74 NTF turnover/accumulation, B cell maturation and functionality, and dendritic cell homeostasis. We demonstrate that in vivo SPPL2b does not exhibit a physiologically relevant contribution to CD74 proteolysis in B and dendritic cells. Furthermore, we reveal that both proteases exhibit divergent subcellular localizations in B cells and different expression profiles in murine tissues. These findings suggest distinct functions of SPPL2a and SPPL2b and, based on a high abundance of SPPL2b in brain, a physiological role of this protease in the central nervous system. PMID:24492962

  20. The Intramembrane Proteases Signal Peptide Peptidase-Like 2a and 2b Have Distinct Functions In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Schneppenheim, Janna; Hüttl, Susann; Mentrup, Torben; Lüllmann-Rauch, Renate; Rothaug, Michelle; Engelke, Michael; Dittmann, Kai; Dressel, Ralf; Araki, Masatake; Araki, Kimi; Wienands, Jürgen; Fluhrer, Regina; Saftig, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We reported recently that the presenilin homologue signal peptide peptidase-like 2a (SPPL2a) is essential for B cell development by cleaving the N-terminal fragment (NTF) of the invariant chain (li, CD74). Based on this, we suggested that pharmacological modulation of SPPL2a may represent a novel approach to deplete B cells in autoimmune disorders. With regard to reported overlapping substrate spectra of SPPL2a and its close homologue, SPPL2b, we investigated the role of SPPL2b in CD74 NTF proteolysis and its impact on B and dendritic cell homeostasis. In heterologous expression experiments, SPPL2b was found to cleave CD74 NTF with an efficiency simliar to that of SPPL2a. For in vivo analysis, SPPL2b single-deficient and SPPL2a/SPPL2b double-deficient mice were generated and examined for CD74 NTF turnover/accumulation, B cell maturation and functionality, and dendritic cell homeostasis. We demonstrate that in vivo SPPL2b does not exhibit a physiologically relevant contribution to CD74 proteolysis in B and dendritic cells. Furthermore, we reveal that both proteases exhibit divergent subcellular localizations in B cells and different expression profiles in murine tissues. These findings suggest distinct functions of SPPL2a and SPPL2b and, based on a high abundance of SPPL2b in brain, a physiological role of this protease in the central nervous system. PMID:24492962

  1. Single cell electroporation for longitudinal imaging of synaptic structure and function in the adult mouse neocortex in vivo.

    PubMed

    Pagès, Stéphane; Cane, Michele; Randall, Jérôme; Capello, Luca; Holtmaat, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal imaging studies of neuronal structures in vivo have revealed rich dynamics in dendritic spines and axonal boutons. Spines and boutons are considered to be proxies for synapses. This implies that synapses display similar dynamics. However, spines and boutons do not always bear synapses, some may contain more than one, and dendritic shaft synapses have no clear structural proxies. In addition, synaptic strength is not always accurately revealed by just the size of these structures. Structural and functional dynamics of synapses could be studied more reliably using fluorescent synaptic proteins as markers for size and function. These proteins are often large and possibly interfere with circuit development, which renders them less suitable for conventional transfection or transgenesis methods such as viral vectors, in utero electroporation, and germline transgenesis. Single cell electroporation (SCE) has been shown to be a potential alternative for transfection of recombinant fluorescent proteins in adult cortical neurons. Here we provide proof of principle for the use of SCE to express and subsequently image fluorescently tagged synaptic proteins over days to weeks in vivo. PMID:25904849

  2. Factors affecting the occurrence of postpartum prolonged luteal activity in clinically healthy high-producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kafi, Mojtaba; Mirzaei, Abdolah; Tamadon, Amin; Saeb, Mehdi

    2012-01-15

    The objective was to characterize risk factors affecting the occurrence of prolonged luteal phase (PLP) in postpartum, clinically healthy, high-producing dairy cows. Transrectal ultrasound examinations of the reproductive tract were performed twice weekly, from the 1st to 8th wk after calving in 151 multiparous clinically healthy lactating Holstein cows (mean ± SD of peak milk yield = 56.7 ± 7.4 kg). Serum samples were collected twice weekly to measure progesterone and every 2 wk to detect ?-hydroxybutyrate (?HB), and ?1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). Body condition score (BCS) was recorded weekly after calving. Based on the serum progesterone profile, 52 (34.4%) cows had normal ovarian activity (NLA), whereas 36 (23.8%) cows had a prolonged luteal phase (PLP), the most prevalent type of abnormal pattern of luteal activity. Furthermore, 63 cows with short luteal activity, delayed first ovulation, or cystic ovaries were excluded from this study. Serum AGP concentrations, as an indication of postpartum chronic endometritis, were not different (P > 0.05) between cows with NLA and PLP. Categories of peak milk yields (kg) were positively correlated with the incidence (%) of cows with PLP (r = 0.87, P = 0.02). Furthermore, milk yield peak, day of milk yield peak, mean milk yield (8 wk in milk), and milk yield on the expected day of luteolysis were higher (P < 0.05) in cows with PLP than NLA, and cows with PLP had greater loss of BCS (P = 0.007) than those with NLA. The likelihood of cows with PLP decreased by 0.9-fold for every 1 d delay of commencement of luteal activity (C-LA). Moreover, the likelihood of cows with PLP increased by 1.8-fold for each 1 mmol/L increase in the 1st wk serum ?HB concentrations. In conclusion, higher mean of milk yield, greater BCS loss, earlier C-LA, and later peak milk yield were the major risk factors affecting the occurrence of postpartum PLP in clinically healthy, high-producing dairy cows. PMID:21958642

  3. Biocompatible near-infrared fluorescent nanoparticles for macro and microscopic in vivo functional bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Chu, Liliang; Wang, Shaowei; Li, Kanghui; Xi, Wang; Zhao, Xinyuan; Qian, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) imaging technology has been widely used for biomedical research and applications, since it can achieve deep penetration in biological tissues due to less absorption and scattering of NIR light. In our research, polymer nanoparticles with NIR fluorophores doped were synthesized. The morphology, absorption/emission features and chemical stability of the fluorescent nanoparticles were characterized, separately. NIR fluorescent nanoparticles were then utilized as bright optical probes for macro in vivo imaging of mice, including sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping, as well as distribution and excretion monitoring of nanoparticles in animal body. Furthermore, we applied the NIR fluorescent nanoparticles in in vivo microscopic bioimaging via a confocal microscope. Under the 635 nm-CW excitation, the blood vessel architecture in the ear and the brain of mice, which were administered with nanoparticles, was visualized very clearly. The imaging depth of our one-photon microscopy, which was assisted with NIR fluorescent nanoprobes, can reach as deep as 500 ?m. Our experiments show that NIR fluorescent nanoparticles have great potentials in various deep-tissue imaging applications. PMID:25426331

  4. Probing cell type-specific functions of Gi in vivo identifies GPCR regulators of insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Regard, Jean B; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Cano, David A; Camerer, Eric; Yin, Liya; Zheng, Yao-Wu; Scanlan, Thomas S; Hebrok, Matthias; Coughlin, Shaun R

    2007-12-01

    The in vivo roles of the hundreds of mammalian G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are incompletely understood. To explore these roles, we generated mice expressing the S1 subunit of pertussis toxin, a known inhibitor of G(i/o) signaling, under the control of the ROSA26 locus in a Cre recombinase-dependent manner (ROSA26(PTX)). Crossing ROSA26(PTX) mice to mice expressing Cre in pancreatic beta cells produced offspring with constitutive hyperinsulinemia, increased insulin secretion in response to glucose, and resistance to diet-induced hyperglycemia. This phenotype underscored the known importance of G(i/o) and hence of GPCRs for regulating insulin secretion. Accordingly, we quantified mRNA for each of the approximately 373 nonodorant GPCRs in mouse to identify receptors highly expressed in islets and examined the role of several. We report that 3-iodothyronamine, a thyroid hormone metabolite, could negatively and positively regulate insulin secretion via the G(i)-coupled alpha(2A)-adrenergic receptor and the G(s)-coupled receptor Taar1, respectively, and protease-activated receptor-2 could negatively regulate insulin secretion and may contribute to physiological regulation of glucose metabolism. The ROSA26(PTX) system used in this study represents a new genetic tool to achieve tissue-specific signaling pathway modulation in vivo that can be applied to investigate the role of G(i/o)-coupled GPCRs in multiple cell types and processes. PMID:17992256

  5. Probing cell type–specific functions of Gi in vivo identifies GPCR regulators of insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Regard, Jean B.; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Cano, David A.; Camerer, Eric; Yin, Liya; Zheng, Yao-Wu; Scanlan, Thomas S.; Hebrok, Matthias; Coughlin, Shaun R.

    2007-01-01

    The in vivo roles of the hundreds of mammalian G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) are incompletely understood. To explore these roles, we generated mice expressing the S1 subunit of pertussis toxin, a known inhibitor of Gi/o signaling, under the control of the ROSA26 locus in a Cre recombinase–dependent manner (ROSA26PTX). Crossing ROSA26PTX mice to mice expressing Cre in pancreatic ? cells produced offspring with constitutive hyperinsulinemia, increased insulin secretion in response to glucose, and resistance to diet-induced hyperglycemia. This phenotype underscored the known importance of Gi/o and hence of GPCRs for regulating insulin secretion. Accordingly, we quantified mRNA for each of the approximately 373 nonodorant GPCRs in mouse to identify receptors highly expressed in islets and examined the role of several. We report that 3-iodothyronamine, a thyroid hormone metabolite, could negatively and positively regulate insulin secretion via the Gi-coupled ?2A-adrenergic receptor and the Gs-coupled receptor Taar1, respectively, and protease-activated receptor–2 could negatively regulate insulin secretion and may contribute to physiological regulation of glucose metabolism. The ROSA26PTX system used in this study represents a new genetic tool to achieve tissue-specific signaling pathway modulation in vivo that can be applied to investigate the role of Gi/o-coupled GPCRs in multiple cell types and processes. PMID:17992256

  6. Comparison of intravaginal progesterone gel and intramuscular 17-?-hydroxyprogesterone caproate in luteal phase support

    PubMed Central

    SATIR, FUNDA; TOPTAS, TAYFUN; INEL, MURAT; ERMAN-AKAR, MUNIRE; TASKIN, OMUR

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to compare the pregnancy rates of intramuscular (IM) 17-?-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-HPC) and intravaginal (IV) progesterone gel administration in in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles. The IM 17-HPC and IV progesterone groups included 632 (66.4%) and 320 (33.6%) women undergoing the first cycles of IVF-ET treatment, respectively. Multivariate analyses annotated for all potential confounders showed that the use of IV progesterone retained a predictive value for the total ?-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) positivity and clinical pregnancy rates [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 1.97; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.28–3.03; P=0.002; and OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.07–2.60; P=0.03, respectively]. However, biochemical and on-going pregnancy rates did not differ significantly between the groups (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.00–3.41; P=0.05; and OR, 1.43, 95% CI, 0.89–2.30; P=0.14, respectively). Luteal phase support (LPS) with IV progesterone gel in comparison with IM 17-HPC appears to be associated with higher clinical pregnancy rates in IVF-ET cycles. However, this benefit is clinically irrelevant in terms of on-going pregnancy outcomes. PMID:23837065

  7. Energy balance and luteal phase progesterone levels in elite adolescent aesthetic athletes.

    PubMed

    Reading, Karen J; McCargar, Linda I; Harber, Vicki J

    2002-03-01

    Menstrual abnormalities are associated with negative energy balance and reduced energy expenditure (REE). To examine this relationship in elite adolescent aesthetic athletes, 3 groups of females (aged 15-18 years) were studied: 10 oligo/amenorrheic athletes (OA), 11 eumenorrheic athletes (EA), and 8 non-athlete controls (C). Components of energy balance, body composition, dietary restraint, pubertal maturation, and luteal phase salivary progesterone were assessed in all groups. Both groups of athletes had a later age of menarche and lower pubertal development score compared to the non-athletes (p < or = .05). With the exception of salivary progesterone (ng/ml; OA = 0. 15 +/- 0.01

  8. In Vivo Noninvasive Analysis of Human Forearm Muscle Function and Fatigue: Applications to EVA Operations and Training Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fotedar, L. K.; Marshburn, T.; Quast, M. J.; Feeback, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Forearm muscle fatigue is one of the major limiting factors affecting endurance during performance of deep-space extravehicular activity (EVA) by crew members. Magnetic resonance (MR) provides in vivo noninvasive analysis of tissue level metabolism and fluid exchange dynamics in exercised forearm muscles through the monitoring of proton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P-31-MRS) parameter variations. Using a space glove box and EVA simulation protocols, we conducted a preliminary MRS/MRI study in a small group of human test subjects during submaximal exercise and recovery and following exhaustive exercise. In assessing simulated EVA-related muscle fatigue and function, this pilot study revealed substantial changes in the MR image longitudinal relaxation times (T2) as an indicator of specific muscle activation and proton flux as well as changes in spectral phosphocreatine-to-phosphate (PCr/Pi) levels as a function of tissue bioenergetic potential.

  9. Genome-Wide Screens for In Vivo Tinman Binding Sites Identify Cardiac Enhancers with Diverse Functional Architectures

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hong; Stojnic, Robert; Adryan, Boris; Ozdemir, Anil; Stathopoulos, Angelike; Frasch, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    The NK homeodomain factor Tinman is a crucial regulator of early mesoderm patterning and, together with the GATA factor Pannier and the Dorsocross T-box factors, serves as one of the key cardiogenic factors during specification and differentiation of heart cells. Although the basic framework of regulatory interactions driving heart development has been worked out, only about a dozen genes involved in heart development have been designated as direct Tinman target genes to date, and detailed information about the functional architectures of their cardiac enhancers is lacking. We have used immunoprecipitation of chromatin (ChIP) from embryos at two different stages of early cardiogenesis to obtain a global overview of the sequences bound by Tinman in vivo and their linked genes. Our data from the analysis of ?50 sequences with high Tinman occupancy show that the majority of such sequences act as enhancers in various mesodermal tissues in which Tinman is active. All of the dorsal mesodermal and cardiac enhancers, but not some of the others, require tinman function. The cardiac enhancers feature diverse arrangements of binding motifs for Tinman, Pannier, and Dorsocross. By employing these cardiac and non-cardiac enhancers in machine learning approaches, we identify a novel motif, termed CEE, as a classifier for cardiac enhancers. In vivo assays for the requirement of the binding motifs of Tinman, Pannier, and Dorsocross, as well as the CEE motifs in a set of cardiac enhancers, show that the Tinman sites are essential in all but one of the tested enhancers; although on occasion they can be functionally redundant with Dorsocross sites. The enhancers differ widely with respect to their requirement for Pannier, Dorsocross, and CEE sites, which we ascribe to their different position in the regulatory circuitry, their distinct temporal and spatial activities during cardiogenesis, and functional redundancies among different factor binding sites. PMID:23326246

  10. Lipopolysaccharide enhances Fc?R-dependent functions in vivo through CD11b/CD18 up-regulation

    PubMed Central

    Rubel, C; Miliani De Marval, P; Vermeulen, M; Isturiz, M A; Palermo, M S

    1999-01-01

    Fc receptors for immunoglobulin G (IgG) (Fc?R) mediate several defence mechanisms in the course of inflammatory and infectious diseases. In Gram-negative infections, cellular wall lipopolysaccharides (LPS) modulate different immune responses. We have recently demonstrated that murine LPS in vivo treatment significantly increases Fc?R-dependent clearance of immune complexes (IC). In addition, we and others have reported the induction of adhesion molecules on macrophages and neutrophils by LPS in vivo and by tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in vitro. The aim of this paper was to investigate CD11b/CD18 participation in LPS enhancing effects on Fc?-dependent functionality of tissue macrophages. Our results have demonstrated that LPS can enhance antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and IC-triggered cytotoxicity (IC-Ctx), two reactions which involve the Fc?-receptor but different lytic mechanisms. In vitro incubation of splenocytes from LPS-treated mice with anti-CD11b/CD18 abrogated ADCC and IC-Ctx enhancement, without affecting Fc?R expression. Similar results were obtained with physiological concentrations of fibrinogen. In this way cytotoxic values of LPS-splenocytes decreased to the basal levels of control mice. Time and temperature requirements for such inhibition strongly suggested that anti-CD11b/CD18 could modulate intracellular signals leading to downregulation of Fc?R functionality. Data presented herein support the hypothesis that functional and/or physical associations between integrins and Fc?R could be critical for the modulation of effector functions during an inflammatory response. PMID:10447764

  11. Tissue Engineering Special Feature: A macroporous hydrogel for the coculture of neural progenitor and endothelial cells to form functional vascular networks in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Millicent C. Ford; James P. Bertram; Sara Royce Hynes; Michael Michaud; Qi Li; Michael Young; Steven S. Segal; Joseph A. Madri; Erin B. Lavik

    2006-01-01

    A microvascular network is critical for the survival and function of most tissues. We have investigated the potential of neural progenitor cells to augment the formation and stabilization of microvascular networks in a previously uncharacterized three-dimensional macroporous hydrogel and the ability of this engineered system to develop a functional microcirculation in vivo. The hydrogel is synthesized by cross-linking polyethylene glycol

  12. Photoinactivation of functional photosystem II and D1-protein synthesis in vivo are independent of the modulation of the photosynthetic apparatus by growth irradiance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youn-Il Park; Jan M. Anderson; Wah Soon Chow

    1996-01-01

    To investigate whether the in-vivo photoinhibition of photosystem II (PSII) function by excess light is an intrinsic property of PSII, the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv\\/Fm) and the content of functional PSII (measured by repetitive flash yield of oxygen evolution) were determined in leaves of pea (Pisum sativum L.), grown in 50 (low light), 250 (medium light), and 650

  13. Regulation and functional involvement of macrophage scavenger receptor MARCO in clearance of bacteria in vivo.

    PubMed

    van der Laan, L J; Döpp, E A; Haworth, R; Pikkarainen, T; Kangas, M; Elomaa, O; Dijkstra, C D; Gordon, S; Tryggvason, K; Kraal, G

    1999-01-15

    The scavenger receptors expressed by macrophages are thought to play an important role in the immune response against bacteria by mediating binding and phagocytosis. A novel member of the class A scavenger receptor family, macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), has recently been identified. In this study we have generated a panel of mAbs with specificities for different domains of this receptor. Two of those reacting with the C-terminal cysteine-rich domain block ligand binding of MARCO. The in vivo expression of this murine receptor is normally restricted to distinct populations of macrophages in the spleen and lymph nodes. During bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) infection, during bacterial sepsis, or after the injection of purified LPS, however, the expression of MARCO is rapidly induced on macrophages in other tissues, including Kupffer cells in the liver. Using the mouse macrophage cell line J774.2, it was shown that LPS stimulation up-regulates surface expression of MARCO in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. The proinflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma had little or no effect. Using inhibitory mAbs, the relevance of MARCO for the clearance of circulating bacteria in vivo was determined. Although the overall elimination of live Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus from the blood did not appear to be affected by treatment with these Abs, the capturing of heat-killed bacteria by macrophages in the marginal zone areas of the spleen was clearly inhibited. This study suggests a role for MARCO in the host antibacterial defense. PMID:9916718

  14. In vivo imaging of the airway wall in asthma: fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy in relation to histology and lung function

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Airway remodelling is a feature of asthma including fragmentation of elastic fibres observed in the superficial elastin network of the airway wall. Fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (FCFM) is a new and non-invasive imaging technique performed during bronchoscopy that may visualize elastic fibres, as shown by in vitro spectral analysis of elastin powder. We hypothesized that FCFM images capture in vivo elastic fibre patterns within the airway wall and that such patterns correspond with airway histology. We aimed to establish the concordance between the bronchial elastic fibre pattern in histology and FCFM. Second, we examined whether elastic fibre patterns in histology and FCFM were different between asthmatic subjects and healthy controls. Finally, the association between these patterns and lung function parameters was investigated. Methods In a cross-sectional study comprising 16 subjects (8 atopic asthmatic patients with controlled disease and 8 healthy controls) spirometry and bronchoscopy were performed, with recording of FCFM images followed by endobronchial biopsy at the airway main carina. Elastic fibre patterns in histological sections and FCFM images were scored semi-quantitatively. Agreement between histology and FCFM was analysed using linearly weighted kappa ?w. Results The patterns observed in histological sections and FCFM images could be divided into 3 distinct groups. There was good agreement between elastic fibre patterns in histology and FCFM patterns (?w 0.744). The semi-quantitative pattern scores were not different between asthmatic patients and controls. Notably, there was a significant difference in post-bronchodilator FEV1 %predicted between the different patterns by histology (p = 0.001) and FCFM (p = 0.048), regardless of asthma or atopy. Conclusion FCFM captures the elastic fibre pattern within the airway wall in humans in vivo. The association between post-bronchodilator FEV1 %predicted and both histological and FCFM elastic fibre patterns points towards a structure-function relationship between extracellular matrix in the airway wall and lung function. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR1306 PMID:21699692

  15. Functional suppression of integrin beta 4-mediated adhesion caused by in vivo sequential selection for cancer cell intravasation.

    PubMed

    Ota, T; Maeda, M; Tanino, M; Tatsuka, M

    2001-01-01

    Intravasation is essential for hematogenous metastasis in cancer cells, but its cellular determinants have not been well elucidated because of a lack of suitable experimental cell systems. Int-3LL was originally developed by in vivo sequential selection for intravasation from Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL) cells. Here, we found that these variant cells showed a highly penetrating ability in vitro as well as an augmented intravasating potential in vivo. In three-dimensional collagen-gel, Int-3LL cells formed diffusive colonies with less plating efficiency than their parental cells. Despite these properties, Int-3LL cells showed an ability of invasive migration in vitro similar to parental cells. On the other hand, a reduced adhesiveness and less spreading on extracellular matrices were revealed in Int-3LL cells. Analyses using anti-integrin antibodies indicated that the dysadhesion phenotype in Int-3LL cells was associated with integrin beta 4 dysfunction, which is known to produce epithelial detachment. Also, the types and the levels of integrins were not indistinguishable between Int-3LL and parental 3LL cells. Thus, the impaired function of integrin beta 4-mediated adhesion is considered to be an important factor in intravasation during metastasis. PMID:11299736

  16. Extensive Ex Vivo Expansion of Functional Human Erythroid Precursors Established From Umbilical Cord Blood Cells by Defined Factors

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaosong; Shah, Siddharth; Wang, Jing; Ye, Zhaohui; Dowey, Sarah N; Tsang, Kit Man; Mendelsohn, Laurel G; Kato, Gregory J; Kickler, Thomas S; Cheng, Linzhao

    2014-01-01

    There is a constant shortage of red blood cells (RBCs) from sufficiently matched donors for patients who need chronic transfusion. Ex vivo expansion and maturation of human erythroid precursors (erythroblasts) from the patients or optimally matched donors could represent a potential solution. Proliferating erythroblasts can be expanded from umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (CB MNCs) ex vivo for 106–107-fold (in ~50 days) before proliferation arrest and reaching sufficient number for broad application. Here, we report that ectopic expression of three genetic factors (Sox2, c-Myc, and an shRNA against TP53 gene) associated with iPSC derivation enables CB-derived erythroblasts to undergo extended expansion (~1068-fold in ~12 months) in a serum-free culture condition without change of cell identity or function. These expanding erythroblasts maintain immature erythroblast phenotypes and morphology, a normal diploid karyotype and dependence on a specific combination of growth factors for proliferation throughout expansion period. When being switched to a terminal differentiation condition, these immortalized erythroblasts gradually exit cell cycle, decrease cell size, accumulate hemoglobin, condense nuclei and eventually give rise to enucleated hemoglobin-containing erythrocytes that can bind and release oxygen. Our result may ultimately lead to an alternative approach to generate unlimited numbers of RBCs for personalized transfusion medicine. PMID:24002691

  17. Structure–function studies of STAR family Quaking proteins bound to their in vivo RNA target sites

    PubMed Central

    Teplova, Marianna; Hafner, Markus; Teplov, Dmitri; Essig, Katharina; Tuschl, Thomas; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian Quaking (QKI) and its Caenorhabditis elegans homolog, GLD-1 (defective in germ line development), are evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding proteins, which post-transcriptionally regulate target genes essential for developmental processes and myelination. We present X-ray structures of the STAR (signal transduction and activation of RNA) domain, composed of Qua1, K homology (KH), and Qua2 motifs of QKI and GLD-1 bound to high-affinity in vivo RNA targets containing YUAAY RNA recognition elements (RREs). The KH and Qua2 motifs of the STAR domain synergize to specifically interact with bases and sugar-phosphate backbones of the bound RRE. Qua1-mediated homodimerization generates a scaffold that enables concurrent recognition of two RREs, thereby plausibly targeting tandem RREs present in many QKI-targeted transcripts. Structure-guided mutations reduced QKI RNA-binding affinity in vitro and in vivo, and expression of QKI mutants in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) significantly decreased the abundance of QKI target mRNAs. Overall, our studies define principles underlying RNA target selection by STAR homodimers and provide insights into the post-transcriptional regulatory function of mammalian QKI proteins. PMID:23630077

  18. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a novel ferrocyanide functionalized nanopourous silica decorporation agent for cesium in rats.

    PubMed

    Timchalk, Charles; Creim, Jeffrey A; Sukwarotwat, Vichaya; Wiacek, Robert; Addleman, R Shane; Fryxell, Glen E; Yantasee, Wassana

    2010-09-01

    Novel decorporation agents are being developed to protect against radiological terrorist attacks. These sorbents, known as the self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous supports (SAMMS), are hybrid materials where differing organic moieties are grafted onto mesoporous silica (SiO(2)). In vitro experiments focused on the evaluation and optimization of SAMMS for capturing radiocesium ((137)Cs); therefore, based on these studies, a ferrocyanide copper (FC-Cu-EDA)-SAMMS was advanced for in vivo evaluation. In vivo experiments were conducted comparing the performance of the SAMMS vs. insoluble Prussian blue. Groups of jugular cannulated rats (4/treatment) were evaluated. Animals in Group I were administered (137)Cs chloride (approximately 40 microg kg(-1)) by intravenous (i.v.) injection or oral gavage; Group II animals were administered pre-bound (137)Cs-SAMMS or sequential Cs chloride + SAMMS (approximately 61 ng kg(-1)) by oral gavage; and Group III was orally administered (137)Cs chloride (approximately 61 ng kg(-1)) followed by either 0.1 g of SAMMS or Prussian blue. Following dosing, the rats were maintained in metabolism cages for 72 h and blood, urine, and fecal samples were collected for (137)Cs analysis (gamma counting). Rats were then humanely euthanized, and selected tissues analyzed. Orally administered (137)Cs chloride was rapidly and well absorbed (approximately 100% relative to i.v. dose), and the pharmacokinetics (blood, urine, feces, and tissues) were very comparable to the i.v. dose group. For both exposures the urine and feces accounted for 20 and 3% of the dose, respectively. The prebound (137)Cs-SAMMS was retained primarily within the feces (72% of the dose), with approximately 1.4% detected in the urine, suggesting that the (137)Cs remained tightly bound to SAMMS. SAMMS and Prussian blue both effectively captured available (137)Cs in the gut with feces accounting for 80-88% of the administered dose, while less than 2% was detected in the urine. This study suggests that the functionalized SAMMS outperforms Prussian blue in vitro at low pH, but demonstrates comparable in vivo sequestration efficacy at low exposure concentrations. The comparable response may be the result of the low (137)Cs chloride dose and high sorbent dosage that was utilized. Future studies are planned to optimize the performance of SAMMS in vivo over a broader range of doses and conditions. PMID:20699707

  19. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of a Novel Ferrocyanide Functionalized Nanopourous Silica Decorporation Agent for Cesium in Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Timchalk, Charles; Creim, Jeffrey A.; Sukwarotwat, Vichaya; Wiacek, Robert J.; Addleman, Raymond S.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Yantasee, Wassana

    2010-09-01

    Novel decorporation agents are being developed to protect against radiological terrorist attacks. These sorbents, known as the self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous supports (SAMMS™), are hybrid materials where differing organic moieties are grafted onto mesoporous silica (SiO2). In vitro experiments focused on the evaluation, and optimization of SAMMS for capturing radiocesium (137Cs); based on these studies, a ferrocyanide copper (FC-Cu-EDA)-SAMMS was advanced for in vivo evaluation. In vivo experiments were conducted comparing the performance of the SAMMS vs. insoluble Prussian blue. Groups of jugular cannulated rats (4/treatment) were evaluated. Group I was administered 137Cs (~40 ?geq/kg) by intravenous (iv) injection and oral gavage; Group II was administered pre-bound 137Cs-SAMMS and sequential 137Cs + SAMMS (~61 ngeq/kg) by oral gavage; and Group III evaluated orally administered 137Cs (~0.06 ?geq/kg) followed by 0.1 g of either SAMMS or Prussian blue. Following dosing the rats were maintained in metabolism cages for 72 hour and blood, urine and fecal samples were collected for 137Cs analysis (gamma counting). Rats were then humanely euthanized, and selected tissues analyzed. Orally administered 137Cs was rapidly and well absorbed (~100% relative to iv dose), and the pharmacokinetics (blood, urine, feces & tissues) were very comparable to the iv dose group. For both exposures the urine and feces accounted for 20 and 3% of the dose, respectively. The prebound 137Cs-SAMMS was retained primarily within the feces (72% of the dose), with ~1.4% detected in the urine, suggesting that the 137Cs remained tightly bound to SAMMS. SAMMS & Prussian blue both effectively captured available 137Cs in the gut with feces accounting for 80-88% of the administered dose, while less than 2% was detected in the urine. This study suggests that the functionalized SAMMS out performs Prussian blue in vitro at low pH, but demonstrates comparable in vivo sequestration efficacy at low exposure concentrations. The comparable response may be the result of the low 137Cs dose and high sorbent dosage that was utilized. Future studies are planned to optimize SAMMS in vivo performance over a broader range of doses and conditions.

  20. Functional Anatomy of the Thalamus as a Model of Integrated Structural and Functional Connectivity of the Human Brain In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Mastropasqua, Chiara; Bozzali, Marco; Spanò, Barbara; Koch, Giacomo; Cercignani, Mara

    2015-07-01

    While methods of measuring non-invasively both, functional and structural brain connectivity are available, the degree of overlap between them is still unknown. In this paper this issue is addressed by investigating the connectivity pattern of a brain structure with many, well characterized structural connections, namely the thalamus. Diffusion-weighted and resting state (RS) functional MRI (fMRI) data were collected in a group of 38 healthy participants. Probabilistic tractography was performed to parcellate the thalamus into regions structurally connected to different cortical areas. The resulting regions were used as seeds for seed-based analysis of RS fMRI data. The tractographic parcellation was thus cross-validated against functional connectivity data by evaluating the overlap between the functional and structural thalamo-cortical connections originating from the parcellated regions. Our data show only a partial overall correspondence between structural and functional connections, in the same group of healthy individuals, thus suggesting that the two approaches provide complementary and not overlapping information. Future studies are warranted to extend the results we obtained in the thalamus to other structures, and to confirm that the mechanisms behind functional connectivity are more complex than just expressing structural connectivity. PMID:25549779

  1. Optical properties of neonatal skin measured in vivo as a function of age and skin pigmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosschaart, Nienke; Mentink, Rosaline; Kok, Joke H.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2011-09-01

    Knowledge of the optical properties of neonatal skin is invaluable when developing new, or improving existing optical techniques for use at the neonatal intensive care. In this article, we present in vivo measurements of the absorption ?a and reduced scattering coefficient ?s' of neonatal skin between 450 and 600 nm and assess the influence of age and skin pigmentation on the optical properties. The optical properties were measured using a spatially resolved, steady state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy setup, combined with a modified spatially resolved diffusion model. The method was validated on phantoms with known values for the absorption and reduced scattering coefficient. Values of ?a and ?s' were obtained from the skin at four different body locations (forehead, sternum, hand, and foot) of 60 neonates with varying gestational age, postnatal age, and skin pigmentation. We found that ?a ranged from 0.02 to 1.25 mm-1 and ?s' was in the range of 1 to 2.8 mm-1 (5th to 95th percentile of the patient population), independent of body location. In contrast to previous studies, no to very weak correlation was observed between the optical properties and gestational maturity, but a strong dependency of the absorption coefficient on postnatal age was found for dark skinned patients.

  2. Hybrid fusions show that inter-monomer electron transfer robustly supports cytochrome bc1 function in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ekiert, Robert; Czapla, Monika; Sarewicz, Marcin; Osyczka, Artur

    2014-01-01

    Electronic connection between Qo and Qi quinone catalytic sites of dimeric cytochrome bc1 is a central feature of the energy-conserving Q cycle. While both the intra- and inter-monomer electron transfers were shown to connect the sites in the enzyme, mechanistic and physiological significance of the latter remains unclear. Here, using a series of mutated hybrid cytochrome bc1-like complexes, we show that inter-monomer electron transfer robustly sustains the function of the enzyme in vivo, even when the two subunits in a dimer come from different species. This indicates that minimal requirement for bioenergetic efficiency is to provide a chain of cofactors for uncompromised electron flux between the catalytic sites, while the details of protein scaffold are secondary. PMID:25089001

  3. Randomized Controlled Trial of Mind Reading and In Vivo Rehearsal for High-Functioning Children with ASD.

    PubMed

    Thomeer, Marcus L; Smith, Rachael A; Lopata, Christopher; Volker, Martin A; Lipinski, Alanna M; Rodgers, Jonathan D; McDonald, Christin A; Lee, Gloria K

    2015-07-01

    This randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of a computer software (i.e., Mind Reading) and in vivo rehearsal treatment on the emotion decoding and encoding skills, autism symptoms, and social skills of 43 children, ages 7-12 years with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). Children in treatment (n = 22) received the manualized protocol over 12 weeks. Primary analyses indicated significantly better posttest performance for the treatment group (compared to controls) on 3 of the 4 measures of emotion decoding and encoding and these were maintained at 5-week follow-up. Analyses of secondary measures favored the treatment group for 1 of the 2 measures; specifically, ASD symptoms were significantly lower at posttest and follow-up. PMID:25643864

  4. DNAM-1-based chimeric antigen receptors enhance T cell effector function and exhibit in vivo efficacy against melanoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Ru; Zhang, Tong; Alcon, Andre; Sentman, Charles L

    2015-04-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapies hold great potential for treating cancers, and new CARs that can target multiple tumor types and have the potential to target non-hematological malignancies are needed. In this study, the tumor recognition ability of a natural killer cell-activating receptor, DNAM-1 was harnessed to design CARs that target multiple tumor types. DNAM-1 ligands, PVR and nectin-2, are expressed on primary human leukemia, myeloma, ovarian cancer, melanoma, neuroblastoma, and Ewing sarcoma. DNAM-1 CARs exhibit high tumor cell cytotoxicity but low IFN-? secretion in vitro. In contrast to other CAR designs, co-stimulatory domains did not improve the expression and function of DNAM-1 CARs. A DNAM-1/CD3zeta CAR reduced tumor burden in a murine melanoma model in vivo. In conclusion, DNAM-1-based CARs may have the potential to treat PVR and nectin-2 expressing hematological and solid tumors. PMID:25549845

  5. Functional effects of dopamine transporter gene genotypes on in vivo dopamine transporter functioning: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Faraone, S V; Spencer, T J; Madras, B K; Zhang-James, Y; Biederman, J

    2014-08-01

    Much psychiatric genetic research has focused on a 40-base pair variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism located in the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of the dopamine active transporter (DAT) gene (SLC6A3). This variant produces two common alleles with 9- and 10-repeats (9R and 10R). Studies associating this variant with in vivo DAT activity in humans have had mixed results. We searched for studies using positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to evaluate this association. Random effects meta-analyses assessed the association of the 3'UTR variant with DAT activity. We also evaluated heterogeneity among studies and evidence for publication bias. We found twelve studies comprising 511 subjects, 125 from PET studies and 386 from SPECT studies. The PET studies provided highly significant evidence that the 9R allele was associated with increased DAT activity in human adults. The SPECT studies were highly heterogeneous. As a group, they suggested no association between the 3'UTR polymorphism and DAT activity. When the analysis was limited to the most commonly used ligand, [123I]?-CIT, stratification by affection status dramatically reduced heterogeneity and revealed a significant association of the 9R allele with increased DAT activity for healthy subjects. In humans, the 9R allele of the 3'UTR polymorphism of SLC6A3 regulates dopamine activity in the striatal brain regions independent of the presence of neuropsychiatric illness. Differences in study methodology account for the heterogeneous results across individual studies. PMID:24061496

  6. Rapid experience-dependent plasticity of synapse function and structure in ferret visual cortex in vivo

    E-print Network

    Yu, Hongbo

    The rules by which visual experience influences neuronal responses and structure in the developing brain are not well understood. To elucidate the relationship between rapid functional changes and dendritic spine remodeling ...

  7. Exploring Functional beta-Cell Heterogeneity In Vivo Using PSA-NCAM as a Specific Marker

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melis Karaca; Julien Castel; Cécile Tourrel-Cuzin; Manuel Brun; Anne Géant; Mathilde Dubois; Sandra Catesson; Marianne Rodriguez; Serge Luquet; Pierre Cattan; Brian Lockhart; Jochen Lang; Alain Ktorza; Christophe Magnan; Catherine Kargar; Kathrin Maedler

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundThe mass of pancreatic ?-cells varies according to increases in insulin demand. It is hypothesized that functionally heterogeneous ?-cell subpopulations take part in this process. Here we characterized two functionally distinct groups of ?-cells and investigated their physiological relevance in increased insulin demand conditions in rats.MethodsTwo rat ?-cell populations were sorted by FACS according to their PSA-NCAM surface expression, i.e.

  8. A synthetic icosahedral DNA-based host-cargo complex for functional in vivo imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dhiraj Bhatia; Sunaina Surana; Saikat Chakraborty; Sandhya P. Koushika; Yamuna Krishnan

    2011-01-01

    The encapsulation of molecular cargo within well-defined supramolecular architectures is highly challenging. Synthetic hosts are desirable because of their well-defined nature and addressability. Encapsulation of biomacromolecules within synthetic hosts is especially challenging because of the former's large size, sensitive nature, retention of functionality post-encapsulation and demonstration of control over the cargo. Here we encapsulate a fluorescent biopolymer that functions as

  9. Mitochondrial function and increased convective O2 transport: implications for the assessment of mitochondrial respiration in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Haseler, Luke J.; Trinity, Joel D.; Hart, Corey R.; Liu, Xin; Le Fur, Yann; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Richardson, Russell S.

    2013-01-01

    Although phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS)-based evidence suggests that in vivo peak mitochondrial respiration rate in young untrained adults is limited by the intrinsic mitochondrial capacity of ATP synthesis, it remains unknown whether a large, locally targeted increase in convective O2 delivery would alter this interpretation. Consequently, we examined the effect of superimposing reactive hyperemia (RH), induced by a period of brief ischemia during the last minute of exercise, on oxygen delivery and mitochondrial function in the calf muscle of nine young adults compared with free-flow conditions (FF). To this aim, we used an integrative experimental approach combining 31P-MRS, Doppler ultrasound imaging, and near-infrared spectroscopy. Limb blood flow [area under the curve (AUC), 1.4 ± 0.8 liters in FF and 2.5 ± 0.3 liters in RH, P < 0.01] and convective O2 delivery (AUC, 0.30 ± 0.16 liters in FF and 0.54 ± 0.05 liters in RH, P < 0.01), were significantly increased in RH compared with FF. RH was also associated with significantly higher capillary blood flow (P < 0.05) and faster tissue reoxygenation mean response times (70 ± 15 s in FF and 24 ± 15 s in RH, P < 0.05). This resulted in a 43% increase in estimated peak mitochondrial ATP synthesis rate (29 ± 13 mM/min in FF and 41 ± 14 mM/min in RH, P < 0.05) whereas the phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery time constant in RH was not significantly different (P = 0.22). This comprehensive assessment of local skeletal muscle O2 availability and utilization in untrained subjects reveals that mitochondrial function, assessed in vivo by 31P-MRS, is limited by convective O2 delivery rather than an intrinsic mitochondrial limitation. PMID:23813526

  10. Ex vivo functional analysis, expansion and adoptive transfer of cytomegalovirus-specific T-cells in patients with glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Crough, Tania; Beagley, Leone; Smith, Corey; Jones, Linda; Walker, David G; Khanna, Rajiv

    2012-10-01

    The frequent detection of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigens in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has raised the possibility of exploiting CMV-specific T-cell immunotherapy to control this disease in CMV--seropositive patients. Here, we have conducted a comprehensive ex vivo profiling of CMV-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses in a cohort of GBM patients. Of the patients analyzed, approximately half exhibited serological evidence of past infection with CMV. Although no CMV-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses could be detected in the serologically negative GBM patients, virus-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses were detected in all seropositive GBM patients. Using major histocompatibility complex-peptide multimers, the frequency of CMV-specific T-cells in the patients detected ranged from 0.1 to 22% of CD8(+) T-cells and a high proportion of these cells were positive for the human natural killer-1 glycoprotein CD57. Furthermore, ex vivo polychromatic functional analysis of the CMV-specific T-cells from GBM patients revealed that large proportions of these cells were unable to produce multiple cytokines (macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1?, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)? and interferon (IFN)?) and displayed limited cytolytic function (CD107a mobilization) following stimulation with CMV peptide epitopes. However, in vitro stimulation with CMV peptide epitopes in the presence of ?C cytokine dramatically reversed the polyfunctional profile of these antigen-specific T-cells with high levels of MIP-1?, TNF?, IFN? and CD107a mobilization. Most importantly, adoptive transfer of these in vitro-expanded T-cells in combination with temozolomide (TMZ) therapy into a patient with recurrent GBM was coincident with a long-term disease-free survival. These studies provide an important platform for a formal assessment of combination therapies based on CMV-specific T-cells and TMZ for recurrent GBM. PMID:22508289

  11. Profiling of Luteal Transcriptome during Prostaglandin F2-Alpha Treatment in Buffalo Cows: Analysis of Signaling Pathways Associated with Luteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Suganthi, Hepziba; Rudraiah, Medhamurthy

    2014-01-01

    In several species including the buffalo cow, prostaglandin (PG) F2? is the key molecule responsible for regression of corpus luteum (CL). Experiments were carried out to characterize gene expression changes in the CL tissue at various time points after administration of luteolytic dose of PGF2? in buffalo cows. Circulating progesterone levels decreased within 1 h of PGF2? treatment and evidence of apoptosis was demonstrable at 18 h post treatment. Microarray analysis indicated expression changes in several of immediate early genes and transcription factors within 3 h of treatment. Also, changes in expression of genes associated with cell to cell signaling, cytokine signaling, steroidogenesis, PG synthesis and apoptosis were observed. Analysis of various components of LH/CGR signaling in CL tissues indicated decreased LH/CGR protein expression, pCREB levels and PKA activity post PGF2? treatment. The novel finding of this study is the down regulation of CYP19A1 gene expression accompanied by decrease in expression of E2 receptors and circulating and intra luteal E2 post PGF2? treatment. Mining of microarray data revealed several differentially expressed E2 responsive genes. Since CYP19A1 gene expression is low in the bovine CL, mining of microarray data of PGF2?-treated macaques, the species with high luteal CYP19A1 expression, showed good correlation between differentially expressed E2 responsive genes between both the species. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that PGF2? interferes with luteotrophic signaling, impairs intra-luteal E2 levels and regulates various signaling pathways before the effects on structural luteolysis are manifest. PMID:25102061

  12. Endogenous cannabinoid system regulates intestinal barrier function in vivo through cannabinoid type 1 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Zoppi, Silvia; Madrigal, José L M; Pérez-Nievas, Beatriz G; Marín-Jiménez, Ignacio; Caso, Javier R; Alou, Luis; García-Bueno, Borja; Colón, Arturo; Manzanares, Jorge; Gómez-Lus, M Luisa; Menchén, Luis; Leza, Juan C

    2012-03-01

    The deleterious effects of stress on the gastrointestinal tract seem to be mainly mediated by the induction of intestinal barrier dysfunction and subsequent subtle mucosal inflammation. Cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) is expressed in the mammalian gut under physiological circumstances. The aim of this investigation is to study the possible role of CB1R in the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis after stress exposure. CB1R knockout mice (CB1R(-/-)) and their wild-type (WT) counterparts were exposed to immobilization and acoustic (IA) stress for 2 h per day during 4 consecutive days. Colonic protein expression of the inducible forms of the nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase (NOS2 and COX2), IgA production, permeability to (51)Cr-EDTA, and bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes were evaluated. Stress exposure induced greater expression of proinflammatory enzymes NOS2 and COX2 in colonic mucosa of CB1R(-/-) mice when compared with WT animals. These changes were related with a greater degree of colonic barrier dysfunction in CB1R(-/-) animals determined by 1) a significantly lower IgA secretion, 2) higher paracellular permeability to (51)Cr-EDTA, and 3) higher bacterial translocation, both under basal conditions and after IA stress exposure. Pharmacological antagonism with rimonabant reproduced stress-induced increase of proinflammatory enzymes in the colon described in CB1R(-/-) mice. In conclusion, CB1R exerts a protective role in the colon in vivo through the regulation of intestinal secretion of IgA and paracellular permeability. Pharmacological modulation of cannabinoid system within the gastrointestinal tract might be therapeutically useful in conditions on which intestinal inflammation and barrier dysfunction takes place after exposure to stress. PMID:22135307

  13. The ex-vivo intestinal absorption rate of uranium is a two-phase function of supply.

    PubMed

    Konietzka, Rainer; Heinze, Rita; Seiwert, Margarete; Dieter, Hermann H

    2014-07-01

    The concentration-dependent absorption behaviour of uranium was investigated with surviving intestinal segments of rat jejunums, using an ex-vivo model. The results showed a monotonic slightly nonlinear increase in absorption as uranium concentrations increased. This trend was observed over the entire concentration range tested. In the lower concentration range a slower linear ascent was observed while a steeper linear ascent was found for the higher concentration range. Statistical fit was only slightly poorer for an exponential function in the range of lower values and a logarithmic function in the range of higher values. The proportion of uranium absorbed expressed as percent of uranium concentrations in the perfusion solutions followed a monotonically increasing trend from 20 to around 200 ?g/l uranium in the perfusion solutions, which thereafter appears to reach a plateau, as further increase towards concentrations around 400 ?g/l is not substantial. The uranium concentration administered had no effect on the vitality and consequently the functionality of the intestinal segments, measured in terms of active glucose transport. The results imply that uranium concentrations of more than 20 ?g/l in drinking water, for example, could lead to elevated absorption rates and thus to higher internal exposures to consider when setting of Guideline values in this concentration range. PMID:24793262

  14. Flexible and general synthesis of functionalized phosphoisoprenoids for the study of prenylation in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Das, Debapratim; Tnimov, Zakir; Nguyen, Uyen T T; Thimmaiah, Govindaraju; Lo, Harriet; Abankwa, Daniel; Wu, Yaowen; Goody, Roger S; Waldmann, Herbert; Alexandrov, Kirill

    2012-03-19

    Protein modification with isoprenoid lipids affects hundreds of signaling proteins in eukaryotic cells. Modification of isoprenoids with reporter groups is the main approach for the creation of probes for the analysis of protein prenylation in vitro and in vivo. Here, we describe a new strategy for the synthesis of functionalized phosphoisoprenoids that uses an aminederivatized isoprenoid scaffold as a starting point for the synthesis of functionalized phosphoisoprenoid libraries. This overcomes a long-standing problem in the field, where multistep synthesis had to be carried out for each individual isoprenoid analogue. The described approach enabled us to synthesize a range of new compounds, including two novel fluorescent isoprenoids that previously could not be generated by conventional means. The fluorescent probes that were developed using the described approach possess significant spectroscopic advantages to all previously generated fluorescent isoprenoid analogue. Using these analogues for flow cytometry and cell imaging, we analyzed the uptake of isoprenoids by mammalian cells and zebrafish embryos. Furthermore, we demonstrate that derivatization of the scaffold can be coupled in a one-pot reaction to enzymatic incorporation of the resulting isoprenoid group into proteins. This enables rapid evaluation of functional groups for compatibility with individual prenyltransferases and identification of the prenyltransferase specific substrates. PMID:22351497

  15. Proliferation of Functional Hair Cells in Vivo in the Absence of the Retinoblastoma Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sage, Cyrille; Huang, Mingqian; Karimi, Kambiz; Gutierrez, Gabriel; Vollrath, Melissa A.; Zhang, Duan-Sun; García-Añoveros, Jaime; Hinds, Philip W.; Corwin, Jeffrey T.; Corey, David P.; Chen, Zheng-Yi

    2005-02-01

    In mammals, hair cell loss causes irreversible hearing and balance impairment because hair cells are terminally differentiated and do not regenerate spontaneously. By profiling gene expression in developing mouse vestibular organs, we identified the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) as a candidate regulator of cell cycle exit in hair cells. Differentiated and functional mouse hair cells with a targeted deletion of Rb1 undergo mitosis, divide, and cycle, yet continue to become highly differentiated and functional. Moreover, acute loss of Rb1 in postnatal hair cells caused cell cycle reentry. Manipulation of the pRb pathway may ultimately lead to mammalian hair cell regeneration.

  16. Postpartum follicular and luteal activity in Holstein-Friesian cows genetically selected for high or low mature bodyweight: Relationships with follicle stimulating hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 and growth hormone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Thiengtham; TJ Parkinson; CW Holmes

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate ovarian follicular and luteal activity during the postpartum period of cows genetically selected for high or low mature bodyweight, in relation to metabolic and reproductive endocrine parameters, to determine whether there are differences between strains that could affect fertility outcomes.METHODS: The presence of follicles ?5 mm diameter and luteal structures was mapped in the ovaries of 12

  17. In Vivo Correlation Between Stratum Corneum Reservoir Function and Percutaneous Absorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andre Rougier; Didier Dupuis; Claire Lotte; Roland Roguet; Hans Schaefer

    1983-01-01

    A relationship between stratum corneum reservoir function and percutaneous absorption has been established in the hairless rat. Two hundred nanomoles of 10 substances that have a wide range of chemical structures were topically applied for 30 min and the total body distribution was measured after 96 h. The quantity of substance present in the stratum corneum reservoir after 30-min application

  18. Leucocyte function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: quantitative in-vivo leucocyte mobilisation and in-vitro functions of blood and exudate leucocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Wandall, J H

    1985-01-01

    Quantitative leucocyte mobilisation in vivo and the in-vitro random migration, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and oxidative metabolic activity were studied in 15 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Patients mobilised leucocytes to chambers covering skin windows to the same degree as control subjects, and the mobilisation correlated with the blood leucocyte numbers and serum concentration of alpha-l-antitrypsin. Peripheral blood leucocytes showed slightly reduced migration in Boyden chambers but increased phagocytosis and increased unstimulated reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium. Exudate leucocytes from patients with RA showed migratory and phagocytic activity which did not differ from that of control subjects, but unstimulated exudate leucocytes reduced nitroblue tetrazolium more actively than leucocytes from control subjects. The observations indicate that leucocyte accumulation at an experimental inflammatory lesion and the function of these exudate leucocytes are not impaired in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:4051592

  19. Comparison of airway and blood eosinophil function after in vivo antigen challenge.

    PubMed

    Sedgwick, J B; Calhoun, W J; Vrtis, R F; Bates, M E; McAllister, P K; Busse, W W

    1992-12-01

    Eosinophils (EOS) are important effector cells in allergic diseases and asthma. However, functional characteristics of the EOS have been derived primarily from studies of blood cells, and it is unlikely that such assessments reflect events occurring in tissues or airways. To establish more precisely the function of airway EOS, segmental Ag challenge was used to elicit and isolate large numbers of these cells. Airway, as well as blood, EOS were isolated from allergic patients 48 h after segmental Ag challenge. Both blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) EOS were fractionated over Percoll density gradients; by using this protocol, three density-distinct populations of pure (>90%) EOS were obtained from BAL fluid (1.100, 1.095, and 1.090 g/ml) and one from blood (1.100 g/ml). The functions of these various populations were compared by measuring superoxide generation, adherence to collagen and endothelial cell monolayers, cell surface receptors, and in vitro survival. BAL EOS of all three densities had greater superoxide generation and adherence with FMLP activation than did corresponding blood EOS. In contrast, blood and airway EOS responded similarly to PMA. BAL EOS also had increased expression of CD11b/CD18 and HLA-DR. The intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was measured with the fluorescent marker indo-1/acetoxymethyl ester. FMLP caused a greater and more sustained increase in [Ca2+]i with BAL than blood EOS. EGTA blocked the sustained component of the [Ca2+]i response to FMLP. Our findings indicate that BAL EOS have an enhanced [Ca2+]i response to activation that may contribute to their functional up-regulation. PMID:1358975

  20. Context-Dependent Functional Divergence of the Notch Ligands DLL1 and DLL4 In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Preuße, Kristina; Tveriakhina, Lena; Schuster-Gossler, Karin; Gaspar, Cláudia; Rosa, Alexandra Isabel; Henrique, Domingos; Gossler, Achim; Stauber, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Notch signalling is a fundamental pathway that shapes the developing embryo and sustains adult tissues by direct communication between ligand and receptor molecules on adjacent cells. Among the ligands are two Delta paralogues, DLL1 and DLL4, that are conserved in mammals and share a similar structure and sequence. They activate the Notch receptor partly in overlapping expression domains where they fulfil redundant functions in some processes (e.g. maintenance of the crypt cell progenitor pool). In other processes, however, they appear to act differently (e.g. maintenance of foetal arterial identity) raising the questions of how similar DLL1 and DLL4 really are and which mechanism causes the apparent context-dependent divergence. By analysing mice that conditionally overexpress DLL1 or DLL4 from the same genomic locus (Hprt) and mice that express DLL4 instead of DLL1 from the endogenous Dll1 locus (Dll1Dll4ki), we found functional differences that are tissue-specific: while DLL1 and DLL4 act redundantly during the maintenance of retinal progenitors, their function varies in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) where somites form in a Notch-dependent process. In the anterior PSM, every cell expresses both Notch receptors and ligands, and DLL1 is the only activator of Notch while DLL4 is not endogenously expressed. Transgenic DLL4 cannot replace DLL1 during somitogenesis and in heterozygous Dll1Dll4ki/+ mice, the Dll1Dll4ki allele causes a dominant segmentation phenotype. Testing several aspects of the complex Notch signalling system in vitro, we found that both ligands have a similar trans-activation potential but that only DLL4 is an efficient cis-inhibitor of Notch signalling, causing a reduced net activation of Notch. These differential cis-inhibitory properties are likely to contribute to the functional divergence of DLL1 and DLL4. PMID:26114479

  1. Effects of intraluteal implants of prostaglandin E1 or E2 on angiogenic growth factors in luteal tissue of Angus and Brahman cows.

    PubMed

    Weems, Yoshie S; Ma, Yan; Ford, Stephen P; Nett, Terry M; Vann, Rhonda C; Lewis, Andrew W; Neuendorff, Don A; Welsh, Thomas H; Randel, Ronald D; Weems, Charles W

    2014-12-01

    Previously, it was reported that intraluteal implants containing prostaglandin E1 or E2 (PGE1 and PGE2) in Angus or Brahman cows prevented luteolysis by preventing loss of mRNA expression for luteal LH receptors and luteal unoccupied and occupied LH receptors. In addition, intraluteal implants containing PGE1 or PGE2 upregulated mRNA expression for FP prostanoid receptors and downregulated mRNA expression for EP2 and EP4 prostanoid receptors. Luteal weight during the estrous cycle of Brahman cows was reported to be lesser than that of Angus cows but not during pregnancy. The objective of this experiment was to determine whether intraluteal implants containing PGE1 or PGE2 alter vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), angiopoietin-1 (ANG-1), and angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) protein in Brahman or Angus cows. On Day 13 of the estrous cycle, Angus cows received no intraluteal implant and corpora lutea were retrieved, or Angus and Brahman cows received intraluteal silastic implants containing vehicle, PGE1, or PGE2 on Day 13 and corpora lutea were retrieved on Day 19. Corpora lutea slices were analyzed for VEGF, FGF-2, ANG-1, and ANG-2 angiogenic proteins via Western blot. Day-13 Angus cow luteal tissue served as preluteolytic controls. Data for VEGF were not affected (P > 0.05) by day, breed, or treatment. PGE1 or PGE2 increased (P < 0.05) FGF-2 in luteal tissue of Angus cows compared with Day-13 and Day-19 Angus controls but decreased (P < 0.05) FGF-2 in luteal tissue of Brahman cows when compared w Day-13 or Day-19 Angus controls. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of PGE1 or PGE2 on ANG-1 in Angus luteal tissue when compared with Day-13 or Day-19 controls, but ANG-1 was decreased (P < 0.05) by PGE1 or PGE2 in Brahman cows when compared with Day-19 Brahman controls. ANG-2 was increased (P < 0.05) on Day 19 in Angus Vehicle controls when compared with Day-13 Angus controls, which was prevented (P < 0.05) by PGE1 but not by PGE2 in Angus cows. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of PGE1 or PGE2 on ANG-2 in Brahman cows. PGE1 or PGE2 may alter cow luteal FGF-2, ANG-1, or ANG-2 but not VEGF to prevent luteolysis; however, species or breed differences may exist. PMID:25219846

  2. The novel costimulatory pathway PDL1: B7.1 is functional in inhibiting alloimmune responses in vivo1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Riella, Leonardo V.; Chock, Susanne; Liu, Tao; Zhao, Xiaozhi; Yuan, Xueli; Paterson, Alison M.; Watanabe, Toshihiko; Vanguri, Vijay; Yagita, Hideo; Azuma, Miyuki; Blazar, Bruce R.; Freeman, Gordon J.; Rodig, Scott J.; Sharpe, Arlene H.; Chandraker, Anil; Sayegh, Mohamed H.

    2011-01-01

    The PDL1: PD1 costimulatory pathway plays an important role in the inhibition of alloimmune responses as well as in the induction and maintenance of peripheral tolerance. It has recently been demonstrated that PDL1 can also bind B7.1 to inhibit T cell responses in vitro. Using the bm12 into B6 heart transplant model, we investigated the functional significance of this interaction in alloimmune responses in vivo. PD1 blockade unlike PDL1 blockade failed to accelerate bm12 allograft rejection suggesting a role for an additional binding partner for PDL1 other than PD1 in transplant rejection. PDL1 blockade was able to accelerate allograft rejection in B7.2-deficient recipients but not B7.1-deficient recipients, indicating that PDL1 interaction with B7.1 was important in inhibiting rejection. Administration of the novel 2H11 anti-PDL1 mAb, which only blocks PDL1: B7.1 interaction, aggravated chronic injury of bm12 allografts in B6 recipients. Aggravated chronic injury was associated with an increased frequency of alloreactive IFN-?-, IL-4-, and IL-6-producing splenocytes and a decreased percentage of regulatory T cells in the recipients. Using an in vitro cell culture assay, blockade of the interaction of PDL1 on dendritic cells with B7.1 on T cells increased IFN-? production from alloreactive CD4+ T cells, whereas blockade of dendritic cell B7.1 interaction with T cell PDL1 did not. These data indicate that PDL1 interaction with B7.1 plays an important role in the inhibition of alloimmune responses in vivo and suggests a dominant direction for PDL1 and B7.1 interaction. PMID:21697455

  3. The novel costimulatory programmed death ligand 1/B7.1 pathway is functional in inhibiting alloimmune responses in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Riella, Leonardo V; Chock, Susanne; Liu, Tao; Zhao, Xiaozhi; Yuan, Xueli; Paterson, Alison M; Watanabe, Toshihiko; Vanguri, Vijay; Yagita, Hideo; Azuma, Miyuki; Blazar, Bruce R; Freeman, Gordon J; Rodig, Scott J; Sharpe, Arlene H; Chandraker, Anil; Sayegh, Mohamed H

    2011-08-01

    The programmed death ligand 1 (PDL1)/programmed death 1 (PD1) costimulatory pathway plays an important role in the inhibition of alloimmune responses as well as in the induction and maintenance of peripheral tolerance. It has been demonstrated recently that PDL1 also can bind B7.1 to inhibit T cell responses in vitro. Using the bm12 into B6 heart transplant model, we investigated the functional significance of this interaction in alloimmune responses in vivo. PD1 blockade unlike PDL1 blockade failed to accelerate bm12 allograft rejection, suggesting a role for an additional binding partner for PDL1 other than PD1 in transplant rejection. PDL1 blockade was able to accelerate allograft rejection in B7.2-deficient recipients but not B7.1-deficient recipients, indicating that PDL1 interaction with B7.1 was important in inhibiting rejection. Administration of the novel 2H11 anti-PDL1 mAb, which only blocks the PDL1-B7.1 interaction, aggravated chronic injury of bm12 allografts in B6 recipients. Aggravated chronic injury was associated with an increased frequency of alloreactive IFN-?-, IL-4-, and IL-6-producing splenocytes and a decreased percentage of regulatory T cells in the recipients. Using an in vitro cell culture assay, blockade of the interaction of PDL1 on dendritic cells with B7.1 on T cells increased IFN-? production from alloreactive CD4(+) T cells, whereas blockade of dendritic cell B7.1 interaction with T cell PDL1 did not. These data indicate that PDL1 interaction with B7.1 plays an important role in the inhibition of alloimmune responses in vivo and suggests a dominant direction for PDL1 and B7.1 interaction. PMID:21697455

  4. Hepatic sirtuin 1 is dispensable for fibrate-induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? function in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bonzo, Jessica A.; Brocker, Chad; Jiang, Changtao; Wang, Rui-Hong; Deng, Chu-Xia

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) mediates metabolic remodeling, resulting in enhanced mitochondrial and peroxisomal ?-oxidation of fatty acids. In addition to the physiological stimuli of fasting and high-fat diet, PPAR? is activated by the fibrate class of drugs for the treatment of dyslipidemia. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an important regulator of energy homeostasis, was downregulated in fibrate-treated wild-type mice, suggesting PPAR? regulation of Sirt1 gene expression. The impact of SIRT1 loss on PPAR? functionality in vivo was assessed in hepatocyte-specific knockout mice that lack the deacetylase domain of SIRT1 (Sirt1?Liv). Knockout mice were treated with fibrates or fasted for 24 h to activate PPAR?. Basal expression of the PPAR? target genes Cyp4a10 and Cyp4a14 was reduced in Sirt1?Liv mice compared with wild-type mice. However, no difference was observed between wild-type and Sirt1?Liv mice in either fasting- or fibrate-mediated induction of PPAR? target genes. Similar to the initial results, there was no difference in fibrate-activated PPAR? gene induction. To assess the relationship between SIRT1 and PPAR? in a pathophysiological setting, Sirt1?Liv mice were maintained on a high-fat diet for 14 wk, followed by fibrate treatment. Sirt1?Liv mice exhibited increased body mass compared with control mice. In the context of a high-fat diet, Sirt1?Liv mice did not respond to the cholesterol-lowering effects of the fibrate treatment. However, there were no significant differences in PPAR? target gene expression. These results suggest that, in vivo, SIRT1 deacetylase activity does not significantly impact induced PPAR? activity. PMID:24496310

  5. Creation of Nonischemic Functional Mitral Regurgitation by Annular Dilatation and Nonplanar Modification in a Chronic In Vivo Swine Model

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Haruo; Feins, Eric N.; Vasilyev, Nikolay V.; Shimada, Shogo; Zurakowski, David; del Nido, Pedro J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mechanisms and treatments of nonischemic functional mitral regurgitation (NIMR) are not fully established in part due to a lack of proper large animal models. We developed a novel technique of NIMR creation in a swine model by making multiple small incisions in the mitral annulus. Methods and Results Ex-vivo experiments using isolated swine hearts (n=10) showed a 15% increase in annular area (6.8 to 7.8cm2) after 16 incisions were made along the posterior mitral annulus of a pressurized left ventricle (LV). In an in vivo swine model (n=7, 46.4±2.2kg) NIMR was created by making 14-26 2mm incisions in the atrial aspect of the mitral annulus using a cardioport video-assisted imaging system in the beating heart. Animals were sacrificed at 4 weeks (n=4) and 6 weeks (n=3). Three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography was obtained before and immediately after NIMR creation, and at euthanasia; vena contracta area (VCA), mitral annular dimension, LV volume, and inter-papillary muscle distance were measured. The mitral annular incisions resulted in mild-moderate mitral regurgitation and an increased VCA. NIMR creation altered mitral valve (MV) geometry by decreasing mitral annular nonplanarity and increasing annular area, primarily in the anteroposterior dimension. NIMR creation did not significantly change LV volume or inter-papillary muscle distance. Longer follow-up period did not significantly affect these outcomes. Conclusions NIMR can successfully be created in a beating-heart swine model and results in dilatation and 3D changes in mitral annular geometry. This model can enhance the experimental validation of new valve repair devices and techniques. PMID:24030417

  6. Functional characterization of dopamine transporter in vivo using Drosophila melanogaster behavioral assays

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Taro; Kume, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine mediates diverse functions such as motivation, reward, attention, learning/memory and sleep/arousal. Recent studies using model organisms including the fruit fly, have elucidated various physiological functions of dopamine, and identified specific neural circuits for these functions. Flies with mutations in the Drosophila dopamine transporter (dDAT) gene show enhanced dopamine signaling, and short sleep and memory impairment phenotypes. However, understanding the mechanism by which dopamine signaling causes these phenotypes requires an understanding of the dynamics of dopamine release. Here we report the effects of dDAT expression on behavioral traits. We show that dDAT expression in a subset of dopaminergic neurons is sufficient for normal sleep. dDAT expression in other cell types such as Kenyon cells and glial cells can also rescue the short sleep phenotype of dDAT mutants. dDAT mutants also show a down-regulation of the D1-like dopamine receptor dDA1, and this phenotype is rescued when dDAT is expressed in the same cell types in which it rescues sleep. On the other hand, dDAT overexpression in mushroom bodies, which are the target of memory forming dopamine neurons, abolishes olfactory aversive memory. Our data demonstrate that expression of extrasynaptic dopamine transporters can rescue some aspects of dopamine signaling in dopamine transporter mutants. These results provide novel insights into regulatory systems that modulate dopamine signaling. PMID:25232310

  7. In vivo functional photoacoustic microscopy of cutaneous microvasculature in human skin

    PubMed Central

    Favazza, Christopher P.; Cornelius, Lynn A.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-01-01

    Microcirculation is an important component of the cardiovascular system and can be used to assess systemic cardiovascular health. Numerous studies have investigated cutaneous microcirculation as an indicator of cardiovascular related diseases. Such research has shown promising results; however, there are many limitations regarding the employed measurement techniques, such as poor depth and spatial resolution and measurement versatility. Here we show the results of functional cutaneous microvascular experiments measured with photoacoustic microscopy, which provides high spatial resolution and multiparameter measurements. In a set of experiments, microvascular networks located in the palms of volunteers were perturbed by periodic ischemic events, and the subsequent hemodynamic response to the stimulus was recorded. Results indicate that during periods of arterial occlusion, the relative oxygen saturation of the capillary vessels decreased below resting levels, and temporarily increased above resting levels immediately following the occlusion. Furthermore, a hyperemic reaction to the occlusions was measured, and the observation agreed well with similar measurements using more conventional imaging techniques. Due to its exceptional capability to functionally image vascular networks with high spatial resolution, photoacoustic microscopy could be a beneficial biomedical tool to assess microvascular functioning and applied to patients with diseases that affect cardiovascular health. © 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. PMID:21361688

  8. Multiple In Vivo Biological Processes Are Mediated by Functionally Redundant Activities of Drosophila mir-279 and mir-996

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kailiang; Jee, David; de Navas, Luis F.; Duan, Hong; Lai, Eric C.

    2015-01-01

    While most miRNA knockouts exhibit only subtle defects, a handful of miRNAs are profoundly required for development or physiology. A particularly compelling locus is Drosophila mir-279, which was reported as essential to restrict the emergence of CO2-sensing neurons, to maintain circadian rhythm, and to regulate ovarian border cells. The mir-996 locus is located near mir-279 and bears a similar seed, but they otherwise have distinct, conserved, non-seed sequences, suggesting their evolutionary maintenance for separate functions. We generated single and double deletion mutants of the mir-279 and mir-996 hairpins, and cursory analysis suggested that miR-996 was dispensable. However, discrepancies in the strength of individual mir-279 deletion alleles led us to uncover that all extant mir-279 mutants are deficient for mature miR-996, even though they retain its genomic locus. We therefore engineered a panel of genomic rescue transgenes into the double deletion background, allowing a pure assessment of miR-279 and miR-996 requirements. Surprisingly, detailed analyses of viability, olfactory neuron specification, and circadian rhythm indicate that miR-279 is completely dispensable. Instead, an endogenous supply of either mir-279 or mir-996 suffices for normal development and behavior. Sensor tests of nine key miR-279/996 targets showed their similar regulatory capacities, although transgenic gain-of-function experiments indicate partially distinct activities of these miRNAs that may underlie that co-maintenance in genomes. Altogether, we elucidate the unexpected genetics of this critical miRNA operon, and provide a foundation for their further study. More importantly, these studies demonstrate that multiple, vital, loss-of-function phenotypes can be rescued by endogenous expression of divergent seed family members, highlighting the importance of this miRNA region for in vivo function. PMID:26042831

  9. Methods of preparation of multifunctional microbubbles and their in vitro / in vivo assessment of stability, functional and structural properties.

    PubMed

    Cavalieri, Francesca; Zhou, Meifang; Tortora, Mariarosaria; Lucilla, Baldassarri; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2012-01-01

    Microbubbles (MBs) are ultrasound responsive colloidal particles with a strong potential to become theranostic agents, combining the contrast agent activity with therapeutic functionality. In the last decades, MBs have played a significant role as ultrasound contrast agents in diagnostic imaging. MBs have also shown great potential in applications such as molecular imaging, drug delivery, gene therapy and sonothrombolysis. A full understanding of all physical processes underlying the MBs' stability and acoustic behavior is available in the literature. Efforts have been now addressed to the study of chemical and biological features of multifunctional lipid, protein, or polymer shelled MBs. A number of methods of preparation of "smart" MBs for ultrasound image-guided therapy have been recently developed. In this review, different approaches utilized in preparing multifunctional MBs are discussed with specific attention to the current strategies adopted to design MBs with specialized functions. In vitro / in vivo assessment of MBs' stability and activity will be discussed with a particular emphasis on the emerging applications of MBs for the multiple imaging modalities, the effective opening of blood brain barrier, BBB, and for the therapeutic treatment of antimicrobial films. PMID:22352769

  10. Functional assessment of disease-associated regulatory variants in vivo using a versatile dual colour transgenesis strategy in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Shipra; Gordon, Christopher T; Foster, Robert G; Melin, Lucie; Abadie, Véronique; Baujat, Geneviève; Vazquez, Marie-Paule; Amiel, Jeanne; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Heyningen, Veronica van; Kleinjan, Dirk A

    2015-06-01

    Disruption of gene regulation by sequence variation in non-coding regions of the genome is now recognised as a significant cause of human disease and disease susceptibility. Sequence variants in cis-regulatory elements (CREs), the primary determinants of spatio-temporal gene regulation, can alter transcription factor binding sites. While technological advances have led to easy identification of disease-associated CRE variants, robust methods for discerning functional CRE variants from background variation are lacking. Here we describe an efficient dual-colour reporter transgenesis approach in zebrafish, simultaneously allowing detailed in vivo comparison of spatio-temporal differences in regulatory activity between putative CRE variants and assessment of altered transcription factor binding potential of the variant. We validate the method on known disease-associated elements regulating SHH, PAX6 and IRF6 and subsequently characterise novel, ultra-long-range SOX9 enhancers implicated in the craniofacial abnormality Pierre Robin Sequence. The method provides a highly cost-effective, fast and robust approach for simultaneously unravelling in a single assay whether, where and when in embryonic development a disease-associated CRE-variant is affecting its regulatory function. PMID:26030420

  11. In vivo studies of silk based gold nano-composite conduits for functional peripheral nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Das, Suradip; Sharma, Manav; Saharia, Dhiren; Sarma, Kushal Konwar; Sarma, Monalisa Goswami; Borthakur, Bibhuti Bhusan; Bora, Utpal

    2015-09-01

    We report a novel silk-gold nanocomposite based nerve conduit successfully tested in a neurotmesis grade sciatic nerve injury model in rats over a period of eighteen months. The conduit was fabricated by adsorbing gold nanoparticles onto silk fibres and transforming them into a nanocomposite sheet by electrospinning which is finally given a tubular structure by rolling on a stainless steel mandrel of chosen diameter. The conduits were found to promote adhesion and proliferation of Schwann cells in vitro and did not elicit any toxic or immunogenic responses in vivo. We also report for the first time, the monitoring of muscular regeneration post nerve conduit implantation by recording motor unit potentials (MUPs) through needle electromyogram. Pre-seeding the conduits with Schwann cells enhanced myelination of the regenerated tissue. Histo-morphometric and electrophysiological studies proved that the nanocomposite based conduits pre-seeded with Schwann cells performed best in terms of structural and functional regeneration of severed sciatic nerves. The near normal values of nerve conduction velocity (50 m/sec), compound muscle action potential (29.7 mV) and motor unit potential (133 ?V) exhibited by the animals implanted with Schwann cell loaded nerve conduits in the present study are superior to those observed in previous reports with synthetic materials as well as collagen based nerve conduits. Animals in this group were also able to perform complex locomotory activities like stretching and jumping with excellent sciatic function index (SFI) and led a normal life. PMID:26026910

  12. Cilia localization is essential for in vivo functions of the Joubert syndrome protein Arl13b/Scorpion

    PubMed Central

    Duldulao, Neil A.; Lee, Sunjin; Sun, Zhaoxia

    2009-01-01

    arl13b was initially cloned as the novel cystic kidney gene scorpion (sco) in zebrafish and was shown to be required for cilia formation in the kidney duct. In mouse, a null mutant of Arl13b shows abnormal ultrastructure of the cilium and defective sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling. Importantly, a recent study linked mutations in ARL13B to a classical form of Joubert syndrome (JS), an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a distinctive cerebellar malformation. In this study, we analyzed the zebrafish arl13b (sco) mutant and gene products in detail. We first demonstrate that Arl13b is a protein that is highly enriched in the cilium and is required for cilia formation in multiple organs in zebrafish, and that knockdown of arl13b leads to multiple cilia-associated phenotypes. We additionally show that multiple regions of Arl13b are required for its localization to the cilium. By means of rescuing experiments with a series of deletion and point mutants, we further demonstrate that the ciliary localization is crucial for the in vivo function of Arl13b. Together, these results strongly support the hypothesis that JS-related disease (JSRD) is a ciliopathy, or a disease caused by ciliary defects, and that Arl13b functions mainly through the cilium. PMID:19906870

  13. Functional Assessment of Disease-Associated Regulatory Variants In Vivo Using a Versatile Dual Colour Transgenesis Strategy in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Shipra; Gordon, Christopher T.; Foster, Robert G.; Melin, Lucie; Abadie, Véronique; Baujat, Geneviève; Vazquez, Marie-Paule; Amiel, Jeanne; Lyonnet, Stanislas; van Heyningen, Veronica; Kleinjan, Dirk A.

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of gene regulation by sequence variation in non-coding regions of the genome is now recognised as a significant cause of human disease and disease susceptibility. Sequence variants in cis-regulatory elements (CREs), the primary determinants of spatio-temporal gene regulation, can alter transcription factor binding sites. While technological advances have led to easy identification of disease-associated CRE variants, robust methods for discerning functional CRE variants from background variation are lacking. Here we describe an efficient dual-colour reporter transgenesis approach in zebrafish, simultaneously allowing detailed in vivo comparison of spatio-temporal differences in regulatory activity between putative CRE variants and assessment of altered transcription factor binding potential of the variant. We validate the method on known disease-associated elements regulating SHH, PAX6 and IRF6 and subsequently characterise novel, ultra-long-range SOX9 enhancers implicated in the craniofacial abnormality Pierre Robin Sequence. The method provides a highly cost-effective, fast and robust approach for simultaneously unravelling in a single assay whether, where and when in embryonic development a disease-associated CRE-variant is affecting its regulatory function. PMID:26030420

  14. A yeast mitochondrial leader peptide functions in vivo as a dual targeting signal for both chloroplasts and mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, J; Hack, E; Thornburg, R W; Myers, A M

    1990-01-01

    A fusion protein was expressed in transgenic tobacco and yeast cells to examine the functional conservation of mechanisms for importing precursor proteins from the cytosol into mitochondria and chloroplasts. The test protein consisted of the mitochondrial leader peptide from the yeast precursor to cytochrome oxidase subunit Va (prC5) fused to the reporter protein chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. This protein, denoted prC5/CAT, was transported into the mitochondrial interior in yeast and tobacco cells. In both organisms, the mitochondrial form of prC5/CAT was smaller than the primary translation product, suggesting that proteolytic processing occurred during the transport process. prC5/CAT also was translocated into chloroplasts in vivo, accumulating to approximately the same levels as in plant mitochondria. However, accumulation of prC5/CAT in chloroplasts relative to mitochondria varied with the conditions under which plants were grown. The chloroplast form of prC5/CAT also appeared to have been proteolytically processed, yielding a mature protein of the same apparent size as that seen in mitochondria of either tobacco or yeast. Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase lacking a mitochondrial targeting peptide did not associate with either chloroplasts or mitochondria. The results demonstrated that in plant cells a single leader peptide can interact functionally with the protein translocation systems of both chloroplasts and mitochondria, and raised the possibility that certain native proteins might be shared between these two organelles. PMID:1967076

  15. Pyrimidine motif triple helix in the Kluyveromyces lactis telomerase RNA pseudoknot is essential for function in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Darian D.; Cohen-Zontag, Osnat; Kim, Nak-Kyoon; Shefer, Kinneret; Brown, Yogev; Ulyanov, Nikolai B.; Tzfati, Yehuda; Feigon, Juli

    2013-01-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein complex that extends the 3? ends of linear chromosomes. The specialized telomerase reverse transcriptase requires a multidomain RNA (telomerase RNA, TER), which includes an integral RNA template and functionally important template-adjacent pseudoknot. The structure of the human TER pseudoknot revealed that the loops interact with the stems to form a triple helix shown to be important for activity in vitro. A similar triple helix has been predicted to form in diverse fungi TER pseudoknots. The solution NMR structure of the Kluyveromyces lactis pseudoknot, presented here, reveals that it contains a long pyrimidine motif triple helix with unexpected features that include three individual bulge nucleotides and a C+•G-C triple adjacent to a stem 2–loop 2 junction. Despite significant differences in sequence and base triples, the 3D shape of the human and K. lactis TER pseudoknots are remarkably similar. Analysis of the effects of nucleotide substitutions on cell growth and telomere lengths provides evidence that this conserved structure forms in endogenously assembled telomerase and is essential for telomerase function in vivo. PMID:23776224

  16. Alterations at the Cross-Bridge Level Are Associated with a Paradoxical Gain of Muscle Function In Vivo in a Mouse Model of Nemaline Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Gineste, Charlotte; Ottenheijm, Coen; Le Fur, Yann; Banzet, Sébastien; Pecchi, Emilie; Vilmen, Christophe; Cozzone, Patrick J.; Koulmann, Nathalie; Hardeman, Edna C.; Bendahan, David; Gondin, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Nemaline myopathy is the most common disease entity among non-dystrophic skeletal muscle congenital diseases. The first disease causing mutation (Met9Arg) was identified in the gene encoding ?-tropomyosinslow gene (TPM3). Considering the conflicting findings of the previous studies on the transgenic (Tg) mice carrying the TPM3Met9Arg mutation, we investigated carefully the effect of the Met9Arg mutation in 8–9 month-old Tg(TPM3)Met9Arg mice on muscle function using a multiscale methodological approach including skinned muscle fibers analysis and in vivo investigations by magnetic resonance imaging and 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. While in vitro maximal force production was reduced in Tg(TPM3)Met9Arg mice as compared to controls, in vivo measurements revealed an improved mechanical performance in the transgenic mice as compared to the former. The reduced in vitro muscle force might be related to alterations occuring at the cross-bridges level with muscle-specific underlying mechanisms. In vivo muscle improvement was not associated with any changes in either muscle volume or energy metabolism. Our findings indicate that TPM3(Met9Arg) mutation leads to a mild muscle weakness in vitro related to an alteration at the cross-bridges level and a paradoxical gain of muscle function in vivo. These results clearly point out that in vitro alterations are muscle-dependent and do not necessarily translate into similar changes in vivo. PMID:25268244

  17. An active artificial cornea with the function of inducing new corneal tissue generation in vivo---a new approach to corneal tissue engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yao-Xiong Huang; Qin-Hua Li

    2007-01-01

    An active artificial cornea which can perform the function of inducing new cornea generation in vivo but does not need culture cells in vitro and which has similar optical and mechanical properties to those of the human cornea was constructed. An animal keratoplasty experiment using the artificial cornea as the implant showed that the animals' corneas could keep smooth surface

  18. EFFECT OF OIL COMBUSTION PARTICLE BIOAVAILABLE CONSTITUENTS ON EX VIVO VASCULAR FUNCTION OF AORTAS RECOVERED FROM NORMAL AND TYPE 2 DIABETIC RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effect of Oil Combustion Particle Bioavailable Constituents on Ex Vivo Vascular Function of Aortae Recovered from Healthy and Early Type 2 Diabetic Rats KL Dreher1, SE Kelly2, SD Proctor2, and JC Russell2. 1National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, US EPA, RTP, NC;...

  19. Effects of GC7101, a Novel Prokinetic Agent on Gastric Motor Function: Ex Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Da Hyun; Choi, Eun Ju; Jeon, Han Ho; Lee, Young Ho; Park, Hyojin

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims GC7101, an extract of Lonicera Flos, is a novel developing drug for reflux esophagitis and functional dyspepsia. However, the drug’s exact pharmacological mechanism of action remains unclear. This study assessed the effects of GC7101 on gastrointestinal (GI) motor function. Methods We used male guinea pigs to evaluate the effects of GC7101 on GI motility. The contraction of antral circular muscle in the presence of different doses of GC7101 was measured in a tissue bath. The prokinetic effects of GC7101 were tested using the charcoal transit assay from the pylorus to the most distal point of migration of charcoal mixture. To clarify the mechanism of action of GC7101, atropine, dopamine and the selective 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 receptor antagonist, GR113808 were used. Results The maximal amplitude of circular muscle contraction was induced by 5 mg mL?1 GC7101. The area under the curve of contraction was significantly increased at 5 mg mL?1 GC7101. Addition of 10?6 M atropine, 10?8 M dopamine or 10?7 M GR 113808 to GC7101 5 mg mL?1 decreased the amplitude and area under curve compared to GC7101 5 mg mL?1 alone. GC7101 accelerated GI transit in a dose dependent manner except 100 mg kg?1. Delayed GI transit caused by atropine, dopamine and GR 113808 was restored by GC7101 50 mg kg?1. Conclusions GC7101, an extract of Lonicera Flos, exerts a gastric prokinetic effect in guinea pig through cholinergic, antidopaminergic and serotonergic mechanisms. Therefore, GC7101 might be a novel drug for the treatment of functional dyspepsia. PMID:25273117

  20. In vivo evaluation of the inhibitory capacity of human plasma on exogenous surfactant function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Lachmann; E. P. Eijking; K. L. So; D. Gommers

    1994-01-01

    Objective  The adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) are characterized by high\\u000a permeability pulmonary edema which contains plasma-derived proteins inhibiting pulmonary surfactant function. Currently, discussion\\u000a continues as to what dose of surfactant is required for treatment of these syndromes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  The purpose of this study was to investigate the amount of exogenous surfactant needed to overcome the

  1. In Vivo Gene Modification Elucidates Subtype-Specific Functions of a2Adrenergic Receptors 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOSEPH W. KABLE; L. CHARLES MURRIN; DAVID B. BYLUND

    Mice with altered a2-adrenergic receptor genes have become important tools in elucidating the subtype-specific functions of the three a2-adrenergic receptor subtypes because of the lack of sufficiently subtype-selective pharmacological agents. Mice with a deletion (knockout) of the a2A-, a2B-, or a2C-gene as well as a point mutation of the a2A-gene (a2A-D79N) and a 3-fold overexpression of the a2C-gene have been

  2. Ex vivo functional responses to HLA-G differ between blood and decidual NK cells

    PubMed Central

    Apps, Richard; Sharkey, Andrew; Gardner, Lucy; Male, Victoria; Kennedy, Pippa; Masters, Leanne; Farrell, Lydia; Jones, Des; Thomas, Rasmi; Moffett, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Restricted expression of human leucocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) to fetal extravillous trophoblast cells, which invade the decidua during implantation, suggests a role for HLA-G in placentation. In this study, we have investigated several aspects of HLA-G expression and function. Surface levels of HLA-G expression were measured in 70 normal pregnancies. We show the dimeric conformation that is unique to HLA-G forms after passage through the Golgi apparatus. Differences were found in the receptor repertoire of decidual natural killer (dNK) cells that express the leucocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor B1 (LILRB1), which binds dimeric HLA-G strongly. We then measured functional responses of dNK cells with LILRB1, when stimulated by HLA-G in both monomeric and dimeric conformations. Degranulation, interferon-? and interleukin-8 production by dNK cells freshly isolated from the first trimester implantation site were either undetected or not affected by HLA-G. These findings should be considered when inferring the activity of tissue NK cells from results obtained with cell lines, peripheral NK or cultured dNK cells. PMID:21471023

  3. In vivo functional analysis reveals specific roles for the integrin-binding sites of talin.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Stephanie J; Pines, Mary; Fairchild, Michael J; Tanentzapf, Guy

    2011-06-01

    Adhesion receptors play diverse roles during animal development and require precise spatiotemporal regulation, which is achieved through the activity of their binding partners. Integrins, adhesion receptors that mediate cell attachment to the extracellular matrix (ECM), connect to the intracellular environment through the cytoplasmic adapter protein talin. Talin has two essential functions: orchestrating the assembly of the intracellular adhesion complex (IAC), which associates with integrin, and regulating the affinity of integrins for the ECM. Talin can bind to integrins through two different integrin-binding sites (IBS-1 and IBS-2, respectively). Here, we have investigated the roles of each in the context of Drosophila development. We find that although IBS-1 and IBS-2 are partially redundant, they each have specialized roles during development: IBS-1 reinforces integrin attachment to the ECM, whereas IBS-2 reinforces the link between integrins and the IAC. Disruption of each IBS has different developmental consequences, illustrating how the functional diversity of integrin-mediated adhesion is achieved. PMID:21558413

  4. Islet cell transplantation: in vivo and in vitro functional assessment of nonhuman primate pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Ranuncoli, A; Cautero, N; Ricordi, C; Masetti, M; Molano, R D; Inverardi, L; Alejandro, R; Kenyon, N S

    2000-01-01

    Transplantation of pancreatic islets of Langerhans as a therapeutic approach for treatment of type I diabetes offers an alternative to subcutaneous insulin injections. Normalization of blood glucose levels by transplanted islets may prevent the development of diabetes-related complications. Problems related to rejection, recurrence of autoimmunity, and local inflammation upon transplantation of islets into the liver need to be solved before the implementation of islet cell transplantation can be viewed as a justifiable procedure in a large cohort of patients. Islet cell isolation has been quite successful in small animals, but the translation of this approach to nonhuman primates has been less rewarding. One of the main problems encountered in nonhuman primate models is the difficulty of isolating an adequate number of functional islets for transplantation. The aim of the present study was to develop a method for isolating a sufficient number of viable islets from nonhuman primates to allow for reversal of diabetes. By implementing minor modifications in the automated method for human islet isolation we were able to obtain viable, functional islets that responded normally to glucose stimulation in vitro. These islets were also able to reverse diabetes in immunocompromised nude mice, rendered diabetic by streptozotocin. This method of islet cell isolation has enabled us to proceed with protocols of allogeneic islet cell transplantation in preclinical, nonhuman primate models. PMID:10972339

  5. In vivo effects of Aspalathus linearis (rooibos) on male rat reproductive functions.

    PubMed

    Opuwari, C S; Monsees, T K

    2014-10-01

    Aspalathus linearis (rooibos tea) may improve sperm function owing to its antioxidant properties. To test this hypothesis, male rats were given 2% or 5% rooibos tea for 52 days. No significant alterations were observed in body and reproductive organs weight, serum antioxidant capacity and testosterone level. Seminiferous tubules displayed complete spermatogenesis. However, a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in tubule diameter and germinal epithelial height was observed. Epithelial height of caput epididymides showed a significant increase. Unfermented rooibos significantly enhanced sperm concentration, viability and motility. Fermented rooibos also significantly improved sperm vitality (P < 0.01), but caused a significant increase in spontaneous acrosome reaction (P < 0.05), whereas unfermented did not. Creatinine was significantly enhanced in all treated rats, consistent with significant higher kidney weights. Rooibos significantly reduced alanine transaminase level, while 2% fermented rooibos significantly decreased aspartate transaminase level (P < 0.01). In conclusion, treatment with rooibos improved sperm concentration, viability and motility, which might be attributed to its high level of antioxidants. However, prolonged exposure of rooibos might result in subtle structural changes in the male reproductive system and may induce acrosome reaction, which can impair fertility. Intake of large amounts of rooibos may also harm liver and kidney function. PMID:24007336

  6. GnRH agonist plus vaginal progesterone for luteal phase support in ICSI cycles: a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Aboulghar, Mohamed A; Marie, Heba; Amin, Yahia M; Aboulghar, Mona M; Nasr, Ahmed; Serour, Gamal I; Mansour, Ragaa T

    2015-01-01

    In this prospective randomized study, the effect of daily gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) in the luteal phase on IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes was assessed. Women (n = 446) were counselled for IVF-ICSI, and randomized on the day of embryo transfer to group 1 (daily 0.1 mg subcutaneous GnRHa until day of beta-HCG) (n = 224) and group 2 (stopped GnRHa on day of HCG injection) (n = 222). Both groups received daily vaginal progesterone suppositories. Primary outcome was clinical pregnancy rate. Secondary outcome was ongoing pregnancy rate beyond 20 weeks. Mean age, oestradiol on day of HCG, number of oocytes retrieved, number of embryos transferred, and clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates were 28.9 ± 4.5 years, 2401 ± 746 pg/mL; 13.5 ± 6.0 oocytes; 2.6 ± 0.6 embryos, and 36.2% and 30.4% consecutively in group 1 compared with 29.7 ± 4.7 years, 2483 ± 867 pg/mL, 13.7 ± 5.5 oocytes, 2.7 ± 0.6 embryos, 30.6% pregnancy rate, and 25.7% ongoing pregnancy rate in group 2. No significant difference was found between the groups. Subcutaneous GnRHa during the luteal phase of long GnRHa protocol cycles does not increase clinical or ongoing pregnancy rates after IVF-ICSI. PMID:25456166

  7. Functional optical coherence tomography enables in vivo physiological assessment of retinal rod and cone photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiuxiang; Lu, Rongwen; Wang, Benquan; Messinger, Jeffrey D; Curcio, Christine A; Yao, Xincheng

    2015-01-01

    Transient intrinsic optical signal (IOS) changes have been observed in retinal photoreceptors, suggesting a unique biomarker for eye disease detection. However, clinical deployment of IOS imaging is challenging due to unclear IOS sources and limited signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Here, by developing high spatiotemporal resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) and applying an adaptive algorithm for IOS processing, we were able to record robust IOSs from single-pass measurements. Transient IOSs, which might reflect an early stage of light phototransduction, are consistently observed in the photoreceptor outer segment almost immediately (<4 ms) after retinal stimulation. Comparative studies of dark- and light-adapted retinas have demonstrated the feasibility of functional OCT mapping of rod and cone photoreceptors, promising a new method for early disease detection and improved treatment of diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other eye diseases that can cause photoreceptor damage. PMID:25901915

  8. Functional Optical Coherence Tomography Enables In Vivo Physiological Assessment of Retinal Rod and Cone Photoreceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiuxiang; Lu, Rongwen; Wang, Benquan; Messinger, Jeffrey D.; Curcio, Christine A.; Yao, Xincheng

    2015-04-01

    Transient intrinsic optical signal (IOS) changes have been observed in retinal photoreceptors, suggesting a unique biomarker for eye disease detection. However, clinical deployment of IOS imaging is challenging due to unclear IOS sources and limited signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Here, by developing high spatiotemporal resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) and applying an adaptive algorithm for IOS processing, we were able to record robust IOSs from single-pass measurements. Transient IOSs, which might reflect an early stage of light phototransduction, are consistently observed in the photoreceptor outer segment almost immediately (<4 ms) after retinal stimulation. Comparative studies of dark- and light-adapted retinas have demonstrated the feasibility of functional OCT mapping of rod and cone photoreceptors, promising a new method for early disease detection and improved treatment of diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other eye diseases that can cause photoreceptor damage.

  9. In Vivo Studies on Nonmuscle Myosin II Expression and Function in Heart Development

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xuefei; Adelstein, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Nonmuscle myosin II-B (NM II-B) plays an important role in cardiac development and function. Genetic ablation of NM II-B in mice results in both cellular and structural defects involving cardiac myocytes. These abnormalities include a ventricular septal defect, double outlet of the right ventricle, myocyte hypertrophy and premature onset of myocyte binucleation due to abnormalities in cytokinesis. The mice die by embryonic day (E) 14.5 due to defects in heart development. Conditional ablation of NM II-B in cardiac myocytes after E11.5 allows study of NM II-B function in adult myocytes. B?MHC/B?MHC mice are born with enlarged cardiac myocytes, some of which are multinucleated. Between 6–10 months of age they develop a cardiomyopathy. Many of these mice develop a marked widening of the intercalated discs. The loss of NM II-B from the intercalated discs primarily affects the adhesion junctions rather than the gap junctions and desmosomes. Interestingly, the loss of NM II-B results in a decrease in the actin binding protein mXin which also has been shown to cause disruption of the intercalated disc in addition to cardiac arrhythmias (Gustafson-Wagner et al. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007, 293:H2680-92). Finally we review the evidence showing that ablation of NM II-C (which also localizes to the intercalated disc) in mouse hearts deficient in NM II-B expression results in destabilization of N-cadherin and ?-catenin in the intercalated disc. PMID:22201759

  10. Brain basis of early parent–infant interactions: psychology, physiology, and in vivo functional neuroimaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Swain, James E.; Lorberbaum, Jeffrey P.; Kose, Samet; Strathearn, Lane

    2015-01-01

    Parenting behavior critically shapes human infants’ current and future behavior. The parent–infant relationship provides infants with their first social experiences, forming templates of what they can expect from others and how to best meet others’ expectations. In this review, we focus on the neurobiology of parenting behavior, including our own functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain imaging experiments of parents. We begin with a discussion of background, perspectives and caveats for considering the neurobiology of parent–infant relationships. Then, we discuss aspects of the psychology of parenting that are significantly motivating some of the more basic neuroscience research. Following that, we discuss some of the neurohormones that are important for the regulation of social bonding, and the dysregulation of parenting with cocaine abuse. Then, we review the brain circuitry underlying parenting, proceeding from relevant rodent and nonhuman primate research to human work. Finally, we focus on a study-by-study review of functional neuroimaging studies in humans. Taken together, this research suggests that networks of highly conserved hypothalamic–midbrain–limbic–paralimbic–cortical circuits act in concert to support aspects of parent response to infants, including the emotion, attention, motivation, empathy, decision-making and other thinking that are required to navigate the complexities of parenting. Specifically, infant stimuli activate basal forebrain regions, which regulate brain circuits that handle specific nurturing and caregiving responses and activate the brain’s more general circuitry for handling emotions, motivation, attention, and empathy – all of which are crucial for effective parenting. We argue that an integrated understanding of the brain basis of parenting has profound implications for mental health. PMID:17355399

  11. Effect of tomato industrial processing (different hybrids, paste, and pomace) on inhibition of platelet function in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Azúa, Rosio; Treuer, Adriana; Moore-Carrasco, Rodrigo; Cortacáns, Daniel; Gutiérrez, Margarita; Astudillo, Luis; Fuentes, Eduardo; Palomo, Iván

    2014-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Healthy eating is among its safeguards, especially the daily intake of fruits and vegetables. In this context it has been shown that tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) presents antiplatelet activity. In the present study, we evaluated in vitro antiplatelet activity of fresh hybrid tomato process (nine hybrids: Apt 410, H 9888, Bos 8066, Sun 6366, AB3, HMX 7883, H 9665, H 7709, and H 9997), paste and its by-product of industrial processes (pomace). We assessed antiplatelet activity ex vivo and bleeding time in rats that ingested 0.1 and 1.0 g/kg of pomace each day. In studies in vitro, no significant differences in antiplatelet activity was observed in fresh tomato hybrids. Furthermore, the agro-industrial process did not affect the antiplatelet activity of paste and pomace. Likewise, pomace intake of 1.0 g/kg per day prolonged bleeding time and reduced ex vivo platelet aggregation in rats. The data obtained indicate that tomato has one or more compounds that caused antiplatelet activity. Regular consumption of tomato and its industrial derivatives could be part of a CVD prevention regimen. PMID:24325459

  12. Effect of Tomato Industrial Processing (Different Hybrids, Paste, and Pomace) on Inhibition of Platelet Function In Vitro, Ex Vivo, and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Azúa, Rosio; Treuer, Adriana; Moore-Carrasco, Rodrigo; Cortacáns, Daniel; Gutiérrez, Margarita; Astudillo, Luis; Fuentes, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Healthy eating is among its safeguards, especially the daily intake of fruits and vegetables. In this context it has been shown that tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) presents antiplatelet activity. In the present study, we evaluated in vitro antiplatelet activity of fresh hybrid tomato process (nine hybrids: Apt 410, H 9888, Bos 8066, Sun 6366, AB3, HMX 7883, H 9665, H 7709, and H 9997), paste and its by-product of industrial processes (pomace). We assessed antiplatelet activity ex vivo and bleeding time in rats that ingested 0.1 and 1.0?g/kg of pomace each day. In studies in vitro, no significant differences in antiplatelet activity was observed in fresh tomato hybrids. Furthermore, the agro-industrial process did not affect the antiplatelet activity of paste and pomace. Likewise, pomace intake of 1.0?g/kg per day prolonged bleeding time and reduced ex vivo platelet aggregation in rats. The data obtained indicate that tomato has one or more compounds that caused antiplatelet activity. Regular consumption of tomato and its industrial derivatives could be part of a CVD prevention regimen. PMID:24325459

  13. RGS-Insensitive G Proteins as In Vivo Probes of RGS Function.

    PubMed

    Neubig, Richard R

    2015-01-01

    Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins of the inhibitory (Gi/o) class play critical physiological roles and the receptors that activate them are important therapeutic targets (e.g., mu opioid, serotonin 5HT1a, etc.). Gi/o proteins are negatively regulated by regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins. The redundant actions of the 20 different RGS family members have made it difficult to establish their overall physiological role. A unique G protein mutation (G184S in G?i/o) prevents RGS binding to the G? subunit and blocks all RGS action at that particular G? subunit. The robust phenotypes of mice expressing these RGS-insensitive (RGSi) mutant G proteins illustrate the profound action of RGS proteins in cardiovascular, metabolic, and central nervous system functions. Specifically, the enhanced G?i2 signaling through the RGSi G?i2(G184S) mutant knock-in mice shows protection against cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury and potentiation of serotonin-mediated antidepressant actions. In contrast, the RGSi G?o mutant knock-in produces enhanced mu-opioid receptor-mediated analgesia but also a seizure phenotype. These genetic models provide novel insights into potential therapeutic strategies related to RGS protein inhibitors and/or G protein subtype-biased agonists at particular GPCRs. PMID:26123300

  14. Genetic Variation Determines PPAR? Function and Anti-diabetic Drug Response In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Soccio, Raymond E; Chen, Eric R; Rajapurkar, Satyajit R; Safabakhsh, Pegah; Marinis, Jill M; Dispirito, Joanna R; Emmett, Matthew J; Briggs, Erika R; Fang, Bin; Everett, Logan J; Lim, Hee-Woong; Won, Kyoung-Jae; Steger, David J; Wu, Ying; Civelek, Mete; Voight, Benjamin F; Lazar, Mitchell A

    2015-07-01

    SNPs affecting disease risk often reside in non-coding genomic regions. Here, we show that SNPs are highly enriched at mouse strain-selective adipose tissue binding sites for PPAR?, a nuclear receptor for anti-diabetic drugs. Many such SNPs alter binding motifs for PPAR? or cooperating factors and functionally regulate nearby genes whose expression is strain selective and imbalanced in heterozygous F1 mice. Moreover, genetically determined binding of PPAR? accounts for mouse strain-specific transcriptional effects of TZD drugs, providing proof of concept for personalized medicine related to nuclear receptor genomic occupancy. In human fat, motif-altering SNPs cause differential PPAR? binding, provide a molecular mechanism for some expression quantitative trait loci, and are risk factors for dysmetabolic traits in genome-wide association studies. One PPAR? motif-altering SNP is associated with HDL levels and other metabolic syndrome parameters. Thus, natural genetic variation in PPAR? genomic occupancy determines individual disease risk and drug response. PMID:26140591

  15. Structural basis for the MukB-topoisomerase IV interaction and its functional implications in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Seychelle M; Stewart, Nichole K; Oakley, Martha G; Berger, James M

    2013-01-01

    Chromosome partitioning in Escherichia coli is assisted by two interacting proteins, topoisomerase (topo) IV and MukB. MukB stimulates the relaxation of negative supercoils by topo IV; to understand the mechanism of their action and to define this functional interplay, we determined the crystal structure of a minimal MukB–topo IV complex to 2.3?Å resolution. The structure shows that the so-called ‘hinge' region of MukB forms a heterotetrameric assembly with a C-terminal DNA binding domain (CTD) on topo IV's ParC subunit. Biochemical studies show that the hinge stimulates topo IV by competing for a site on the CTD that normally represses activity on negatively supercoiled DNA, while complementation tests using mutants implicated in the interaction reveal that the cellular dependency on topo IV derives from a joint need for both strand passage and MukB binding. Interestingly, the configuration of the MukB·topo IV complex sterically disfavours intradimeric interactions, indicating that the proteins may form oligomeric arrays with one another, and suggesting a framework by which MukB and topo IV may collaborate during daughter chromosome disentanglement. PMID:24097060

  16. In vivo selection of lethal mutations reveals two functional domains in arginyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Geslain, R; Martin, F; Delagoutte, B; Cavarelli, J; Gangloff, J; Eriani, G

    2000-01-01

    Using random mutagenesis and a genetic screening in yeast, we isolated 26 mutations that inactivate Saccharomyces cerevisiae arginyl-tRNA synthetase (ArgRS). The mutations were identified and the kinetic parameters of the corresponding proteins were tested after purification of the expression products in Escherichia coli. The effects were interpreted in the light of the crystal structure of ArgRS. Eighteen functional residues were found around the arginine-binding pocket and eight others in the carboxy-terminal domain of the enzyme. Mutations of these residues all act by strongly impairing the rates of tRNA charging and arginine activation. Thus, ArgRS and tRNA(Arg) can be considered as a kind of ribonucleoprotein, where the tRNA, before being charged, is acting as a cofactor that activates the enzyme. Furthermore, by using different tRNA(Arg) isoacceptors and heterologous tRNA(Asp), we highlighted the crucial role of several residues of the carboxy-terminal domain in tRNA recognition and discrimination. PMID:10744027

  17. Superantigen-induced anergy of V beta 8+ CD4+ T cells induces functional but non-proliferative T cells in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Gaus, H; Miethke, T; Wagner, H; Heeg, K

    1994-01-01

    The response profile of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB)-primed murine V beta 8+ CD4+ and V beta 8+ CD8+ T cells was analysed upon rechallenge in vitro. While in vitro responses to secondary stimulation with SEB were reduced to background levels, the in vivo reactivity after rechallenge with SEB was retained, in that SEB-primed mice succumbed to lethal T-cell shock, lymphokines [interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-2, Il-4, IL-6, IL-10, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)], and lymphokine-specific mRNA accumulation could be detected in V beta 8+ CD4+ and V beta 8+ CD8+ T cells. However, V beta 8+ CD4+ T cells failed to enter the cell cycle. While the phenotype of V beta 8+ CD8+ T cells was indistinguishable from that of their counterparts from naive mice, V beta 8+ CD4+ T cells exhibited in vivo an unusual phenotype as non-proliferative but functional T cells. We conclude that in vitro-defined anergy does not disclose the functional abilities of ligand-reactive V beta 8+ T cells in vivo, and that priming with superantigen (SAg) induces in vivo a differentiation of SEB-reactive V beta 8+ CD4+ T cells into a non-proliferative but functional phenotype. PMID:7835956

  18. In vivo and in vitro analyses of amygdalar function reveal a role for copper.

    PubMed

    Gaier, E D; Rodriguiz, R M; Zhou, J; Ralle, M; Wetsel, W C; Eipper, B A; Mains, R E

    2014-05-01

    Mice with a single copy of the peptide amidating monooxygenase (Pam) gene (PAM(+/-)) are impaired in contextual and cued fear conditioning. These abnormalities coincide with deficient long-term potentiation (LTP) at excitatory thalamic afferent synapses onto pyramidal neurons in the lateral amygdala. Slice recordings from PAM(+/-) mice identified an increase in GABAergic tone (Gaier ED, Rodriguiz RM, Ma XM, Sivaramakrishnan S, Bousquet-Moore D, Wetsel WC, Eipper BA, Mains RE. J Neurosci 30: 13656-13669, 2010). Biochemical data indicate a tissue-specific deficit in Cu content in the amygdala; amygdalar expression of Atox-1 and Atp7a, essential for transport of Cu into the secretory pathway, is reduced in PAM(+/-) mice. When PAM(+/-) mice were fed a diet supplemented with Cu, the impairments in fear conditioning were reversed, and LTP was normalized in amygdala slice recordings. A role for endogenous Cu in amygdalar LTP was established by the inhibitory effect of a brief incubation of wild-type slices with bathocuproine disulfonate, a highly selective, cell-impermeant Cu chelator. Interestingly, bath-applied CuSO? had no effect on excitatory currents but reversibly potentiated the disynaptic inhibitory current. Bath-applied CuSO? was sufficient to potentiate wild-type amygdala afferent synapses. The ability of dietary Cu to affect signaling in pathways that govern fear-based behaviors supports an essential physiological role for Cu in amygdalar function at both the synaptic and behavioral levels. This work is relevant to neurological and psychiatric disorders in which disturbed Cu homeostasis could contribute to altered synaptic transmission, including Wilson's, Menkes, Alzheimer's, and prion-related diseases. PMID:24554785

  19. An analytical model for elucidating tendon tissue structure and biomechanical function from in vivo cellular confocal microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Snedeker, J G; Pelled, G; Zilberman, Y; Ben Arav, A; Huber, E; Müller, R; Gazit, D

    2009-01-01

    Fibered confocal laser scanning microscopes have given us the ability to image fluorescently labeled biological structures in vivo and at exceptionally high spatial resolutions. By coupling this powerful imaging modality with classic optical elastography methods, we have developed novel techniques that allow us to assess functional mechanical integrity of soft biological tissues by measuring the movements of cells in response to externally applied mechanical loads. Using these methods we can identify minute structural defects, monitor the progression of certain skeletal tissue disease states, and track subsequent healing following therapeutic intervention in the living animal. Development of these methods using a murine Achilles tendon model has revealed that the hierarchical and composite anatomical structure of the tendon presents various technical challenges that can confound a mechanical analysis of local material properties. Specifically, interfascicle gliding can yield complex cellular motions that must be interpreted within the context of an appropriate anatomical model. In this study, we explore the various classes of cellular images that may result from fibered confocal microscopy of the murine Achilles tendon, and introduce a simple two-fascicle model to interpret the images in terms of mechanical strains within the fascicles, as well as the relative gliding between fascicles. PMID:19122452

  20. Isolation and functional characterization of human erythroblasts at distinct stages: implications for understanding of normal and disordered erythropoiesis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jingping; Liu, Jing; Xue, Fumin; Halverson, Gregory; Reid, Marion; Guo, Anqi; Chen, Lixiang; Raza, Azra; Galili, Naomi; Jaffray, Julie; Lane, Joseph; Chasis, Joel Anne; Taylor, Naomi; Mohandas, Narla

    2013-01-01

    Terminal erythroid differentiation starts from morphologically recognizable proerythroblasts that proliferate and differentiate to generate red cells. Although this process has been extensively studied in mice, its characterization in humans is limited. By examining the dynamic changes of expression of membrane proteins during in vitro human terminal erythroid differentiation, we identified band 3 and ?4 integrin as optimal surface markers for isolating 5 morphologically distinct populations at successive developmental stages. Functional analysis revealed that these purified cell populations have distinct mitotic capacity. Use of band 3 and ?4 integrin enabled us to isolate erythroblasts at specific developmental stages from primary human bone marrow. The ratio of erythroblasts at successive stages followed the predicted 1:2:4:8:16 pattern. In contrast, bone marrows from myelodysplastic syndrome patients exhibited altered terminal erythroid differentiation profiles. Thus, our findings not only provide new insights into the genesis of the red cell membrane during human terminal erythroid differentiation but also offer a means of isolating and quantifying each developmental stage during terminal erythropoiesis in vivo. Our findings should facilitate a comprehensive cellular and molecular characterization of each specific developmental stage of human erythroblasts and should provide a powerful means of identifying stage-specific defects in diseases associated with pathological erythropoiesis. PMID:23422750

  1. Isolation and functional characterization of human erythroblasts at distinct stages: implications for understanding of normal and disordered erythropoiesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jingping; Liu, Jing; Xue, Fumin; Halverson, Gregory; Reid, Marion; Guo, Anqi; Chen, Lixiang; Raza, Azra; Galili, Naomi; Jaffray, Julie; Lane, Joseph; Chasis, Joel Anne; Taylor, Naomi; Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli

    2013-04-18

    Terminal erythroid differentiation starts from morphologically recognizable proerythroblasts that proliferate and differentiate to generate red cells. Although this process has been extensively studied in mice, its characterization in humans is limited. By examining the dynamic changes of expression of membrane proteins during in vitro human terminal erythroid differentiation, we identified band 3 and ?4 integrin as optimal surface markers for isolating 5 morphologically distinct populations at successive developmental stages. Functional analysis revealed that these purified cell populations have distinct mitotic capacity. Use of band 3 and ?4 integrin enabled us to isolate erythroblasts at specific developmental stages from primary human bone marrow. The ratio of erythroblasts at successive stages followed the predicted 1:2:4:8:16 pattern. In contrast, bone marrows from myelodysplastic syndrome patients exhibited altered terminal erythroid differentiation profiles. Thus, our findings not only provide new insights into the genesis of the red cell membrane during human terminal erythroid differentiation but also offer a means of isolating and quantifying each developmental stage during terminal erythropoiesis in vivo. Our findings should facilitate a comprehensive cellular and molecular characterization of each specific developmental stage of human erythroblasts and should provide a powerful means of identifying stage-specific defects in diseases associated with pathological erythropoiesis. PMID:23422750

  2. BMP2-encapsulated chitosan coatings on functionalized Ti surfaces and their performance in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Han, Lu; Lin, Hong; Lu, Xiong; Zhi, Wei; Wang, Ke-Feng; Meng, Fan-Zhi; Jiang, Ou

    2014-07-01

    Bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP2)-encapsulated chitosan (CS) coatings were prepared to immobilize BMP2 on titanium (Ti) surfaces. The Ti substrates were functionalized through a three-step process: alkali treatment, silanization with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and aldehydation with glutaraldehyde (GA). BMP2-encapsulated CS coatings (BMP2-CS) were bonded to Ti surfaces through reactions between the aldehyde groups of GA and the amine groups of CS. Direct BMP2 immobilization on aldehyde-treated Ti (BMP2-Ti) and pure CS coatings (CS-Ti) were used as controls. The release rate of BMP2-CS-Ti was half of that of BMP2-Ti at initial stage, which indicates that the CS coatings are suitable carriers for sustained BMP2 release. The osteoinductivities of BMP2-CS-Ti, BMP2-Ti, CS-Ti and pristine Ti were examined by both in vitro cell tests and in vivo experiments. Bone marrow stem cell (BMSC) culture indicated that BMP2-CS-Ti is more potent in stimulating the differentiation of the adhering BMSC than the three other groups. Rabbit femur implantation revealed the excellent osteoinductivity of BMP2-CS-coated Ti implants. These results demonstrate that the BMP2-encapsulated CS coatings are stable osteoinductive coatings that realize the sustained release of BMP2 and maintain the activity of the protein. PMID:24857458

  3. Regulation of Epithelial Cell Morphology and Functions Approaching To More In Vivo-Like by Modifying Polyethylene Glycol on Polysulfone Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chong; Zhang, Guoliang; Meng, Qin

    2012-01-01

    Cytocompatibility is critically important in design of biomaterials for application in tissue engineering. However, the currently well-accepted “cytocompatible" biomaterials are those which promote cells to sustain good attachment/spreading. The cells on such materials usually lack the self-assembled cell morphology and high cell functions as in vivo. In our view, biomaterials that can promote the ability of cells to self-assemble and demonstrate cell-specific functions would be cytocompatible. This paper examined the interaction of polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified polysulfone (PSf) membranes with four epithelial cell types (primary liver cells, a liver tumor cell line, and two renal tubular cell lines). Our results show that PSf membranes modified with proper PEG promoted the aggregation of both liver and renal cells, but the liver cells more easily formed aggregates than the renal tubular cells. The culture on PEG-modified PSf membranes also enhanced cell-specific functions. In particular, the cells cultured on F127 membranes with the proper PEG content mimicked the in vivo ultrastructure of liver cells or renal tubules cells and displayed the highest cell functions. Gene expression data for adhesion proteins suggest that the PEG modification impaired cell-membrane interactions and increased cell-cell interactions, thus facilitating cell self-assembly. In conclusion, PEG-modified membrane could be a cytocompatible material which regulates the morphology and functions of epithelial cells in mimicking cell performance in vivo. PMID:22558349

  4. Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes to An Unmutated Tumor Rejection Antigen P1A: Normal Development but Restrained Effector Function In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, Supria; Guo, Yong; Guilloux, Yannik; Lee, Cheng; Bai, Xue-Feng; Liu, Yang

    1999-01-01

    Unmutated tumor antigens are chosen as primary candidates for tumor vaccine because of their expression on multiple lineages of tumors. A critical issue is whether unmutated tumor antigens are expressed in normal cells, and if so, whether such expression imposes special restrictions on cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. In this study, we use a transgenic approach to study the development and effector function of T cells specific for P1A, a prototypical unmutated tumor antigen. We report here that although P1A is expressed at low levels in normal tissues, including lymphoid tissues, the P1A-specific transgenic T cells develop normally and remain highly responsive to the P1A antigen. The fact that transgenic expression of P1A antigen in the thymus induces T cell clonal deletion demonstrates that normal hematopoietic cells can process and present the P1A antigen and that P1A-specific T cells are susceptible to clonal deletion. By inference, P1A-specific T cells must have escaped clonal deletion due to low expression of P1A in the thymus. Interestingly, despite the fact that an overwhelming majority of T cells in the T cell receptor for antigen (TCR)–transgenic mice are specific for P1A, these mice are no more resistant to a P1A-expressing plasmocytoma than nontransgenic littermates. Moreover, when the same TCR-transgenic mice were challenged simultaneously with B7-1+ and B7-1? tumors, only B7-1+ tumors were rejected. Therefore, even though P1A can be a tumor rejection antigen, the effector function of P1A-specific CTL is restrained in vivo. These results have important implications for the strategy of tumor immunotherapy. PMID:10049945

  5. Potential electron mediators to extract electron energies of RBC glycolysis for prolonged in vivo functional lifetime of hemoglobin vesicles.

    PubMed

    Kettisen, Karin; Bülow, Leif; Sakai, Hiromi

    2015-04-15

    Developing a functional blood substitute as an alternative to donated blood for clinical use is believed to relieve present and future blood shortages, and to reduce the risks of infection and blood type mismatching. Hemoglobin vesicle (HbV) encapsulates a purified and concentrated human-derived Hb solution in a phospholipid vesicle (liposome). The in vivo safety and efficacy of HbV as a transfusion alternative have been clarified. Auto-oxidation of ferrous Hb in HbV gradually increases the level of ferric methemoglobin (metHb) and impairs the oxygen transport capabilities. The extension of the functional half-life of HbV has recently been proposed using an electron mediator, methylene blue (MB), which acts as a shuttle between red blood cells (RBC) and HbV. MB transfers electron energies of NAD(P)H, produced by RBC glycolysis, to metHb in HbV. Work presented here focuses on screening of 15 potential electron mediators, with appropriate redox potential and water solubility, for electron transfer from RBC to HbV. The results are assessed with regard to the chemical properties of the candidates. The compounds examined in this study were dimethyl methylene blue (DMB), methylene green, azure A, azure B, azure C, toluidine blue (TDB), thionin acetate, phenazine methosulfate, brilliant cresyl blue, cresyl violet, gallocyanine, toluylene blue, indigo carmine, indigotetrasulfonate, and MB. Six candidates were found to be unsuitable because of their insufficient diffusion across membranes, or overly high or nonexistent reactivity with relevant biomolecules. However, 9 displayed favorable metHb reduction. Among the suitable candidates, phenothiazines DMB and TDB exhibited effectiveness like MB did. In comparison to MB, they showed faster reduction by electron-donating NAD(P)H, coupled with showing a lower rate of reoxidation in the presence of molecular oxygen. Ascertaining the best electron mediator can provide a pathway for extending the lifetime and efficiency of potential blood substitutes. PMID:25734688

  6. Induction of functional anaphylatoxin C5a receptors on hepatocytes by in vivo treatment of rats with IL-6.

    PubMed

    Schieferdecker, H L; Schlaf, G; Koleva, M; Götze, O; Jungermann, K

    2000-05-15

    In normal rat liver, anaphylatoxin C5a receptors (C5aR) are only expressed by nonparenchymal cells, mainly Kupffer cells and hepatic stellate cells, but not by parenchymal cells, i.e., hepatocytes (HC). Nevertheless, C5a stimulates glucose output by HC. This HC-specific defense reaction is induced indirectly via prostanoids secreted by the C5aR-expressing Kupffer cells and hepatic stellate cells. It is shown here that under inflammatory conditions simulated by in vivo treatment of rats with IL-6 C5aR mRNA and protein were induced in HC in a time-dependent manner. Maximal mRNA and protein expression were observed at 4-8 h and 8-10 h, respectively, after IL-6 injection. The newly expressed receptors were functional, because recombinant rat C5a significantly activated glycogen phosphorylase in HC isolated from IL-6-treated but not in HC from control rats. In perfused livers of IL-6-treated animals in contrast to control animals, recombinant rat C5a-induced glucose output was not impaired by inhibition of prostanoid synthesis and function with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin and the thromboxane receptor antagonist daltroban. These results indicate that HC-specific defense reactions might be differently regulated under normal and inflammatory conditions as shown here for the indirect prostanoid-dependent or direct C5a-induced activation of hepatocellular glycogen phyosphorylase and glucose output in control or IL-6-treated rats, respectively. PMID:10799912

  7. Reversible electropermeabilisation of human and rat blood platelets: evaluation of morphological and functional integrity 'in vitro' and 'in vivo'.

    PubMed

    Hughes, K; Crawford, N

    1989-06-01

    A high-voltage discharge procedure has been developed for permeabilising the plasma membranes of both human and rat blood platelets. The cells can be resealed by incubation at 37 degrees C, show less than 4% loss of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) implying minimal cell lysis and also have well maintained morphological and functional integrity. The prototype apparatus used at field strengths between 6 and 8 kV/cm produces membrane pores which allow free diffusion of low molecular weight substances such as adenine nucleotides, inositol phosphate and fluorescent dyes. Two properties, namely Ca2+-induced secretion of granule stored 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-induced release of intracellularly sequestered 45Ca, which are both well expressed immediately after permeabilisation, are essentially abolished after resealing. The efficiency of permeabilisation and resealing can be simply monitored by shifts in 'apparent platelet volume' using a resistive particle counter (Coulter). Permeabilised platelets show a shift in modal volumes from a control range 4-7 fl to 10-15 fl. Resealing restores these modal volumes to the original control range. Encapsulation of the fluorochrome, Lucifer yellow (Mr 550), during permeabilisation revealed that after resealing greater than 85% of rat platelets, and close to 100% human platelets, contained the encapsulated dye. The initial rates and % aggregation responses of both human and rat platelets to collagen, thrombin and the thromboxane A2-mimetic U46619 remained essentially normal after permeabilisation and resealing further illustrating the maintenance of functional competence following treatment. Resealed rat platelets reinfused into the circulation after labelling with [111In]indium oxine gave survival curves similar to those of control platelets. Therefore, this reversible permeabilisation procedure may allow the use of autologous or heterologous platelets as carrier vehicles for the delivery of drugs and other agents 'in vivo'. PMID:2730905

  8. Manipulation of the periovulatory sex steroidal milieu affects endometrial but not luteal gene expression in early diestrus Nelore cows.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, F S; Pugliesi, G; Scolari, S C; França, M R; Ramos, R S; Oliveira, M; Papa, P C; Bressan, F F; Meirelles, F V; Silva, L A; Nogueira, G P; Membrive, C M B; Binelli, M

    2014-04-01

    In beef cattle, the ability to conceive has been associated positively with size of the preovulatory follicle (POF). Proestrus estradiol and subsequent progesterone concentrations can regulate the endometrium to affect receptivity and fertility. The aim of the present study was to verify the effect of the size of the POF on luteal and endometrial gene expression during subsequent early diestrus in beef cattle. Eighty-three multiparous, nonlactating, presynchronized Nelore cows received a progesterone-releasing device and estradiol benzoate on Day-10 (D-10). Animals received cloprostenol (large follicle-large CL group; LF-LCL; N = 42) or not (small follicle-small CL group; SF-SCL; N = 41) on D-10. Progesterone devices were withdrawn and cloprostenol administered 42 to 60 hours (LF-LCL) or 30 to 36 hours (SF-SCL) before GnRH treatment (D0). Tissues were collected at slaughter on D7. The LF-LCL group had larger (P < 0.0001) POF (13.24 ± 0.33 mm vs. 10.76 ± 0.29 mm), greater (P < 0.0007) estradiol concentrations on D0 (2.94 ± 0.28 pg/mL vs. 1.27 ± 0.20 pg/mL), and greater (P < 0.01) progesterone concentrations on D7 (3.71 ± 0.25 ng/mL vs. 2.62 ± 0.26 ng/mL) compared with the SF-SCL group. Luteal gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A, kinase insert domain receptor, fms-related tyrosine kinase 1, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, cytochrome P450, family 11, subfamily A, polypeptide 1, and hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 beta- and steroid delta-isomerase 7 was similar between groups. Endometrial gene expression of oxytocin receptor and peptidase inhibitor 3, skin-derived was reduced, and estrogen receptor alpha 2, aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C4, and lipoprotein lipase expression was increased in LF-LCL versus SF-SCL. Results support the hypothesis that the size of the POF alters the periovulatory endocrine milieu (i.e., proestrus estradiol and diestrus progesterone concentrations) and acts on the uterus to alter endometrial gene expression. It is proposed that the uterine environment and receptivity might also be modulated. Additionally, it is suggested that increased progesterone secretion of cows ovulating larger follicles is likely due to increased CL size rather than increased luteal expression of steroidogenic genes. PMID:24507960

  9. Action of the opioid agonist FK 33-824 on porcine small and large luteal cells from the mid-luteal phase: effect on progesterone, cAMP, cGMP and inositol phosphate release.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, T; Siawrys, G; Okrasa, S; Przala, J

    1999-08-16

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of the opioid agonist FK 33-824 on basal and hCG-induced progesterone (P4), cAMP and cGMP secretion and on the phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C signalling system in separated porcine small (SLCs) and large luteal cells (LLCs). Unit gravity sedimentation was used to produce cultures of small and large luteal cells from corpora lutea (CL) on days 8-10 of the oestrous cycle. In order to examine the effect of FK 33-824 on P4 and cyclic nucleotide release, SLCs and LLCs were incubated in M199 medium at 37 degrees C in 5% CO2:95% air, for 12 h. Small and large luteal cells were treated with hCG (100 ng/ml) alone, FK 33-824 (10(-9) M) alone or were co-treated with FK 33-824 and hCG and with the opioid antagonist, naloxone (NAL, 10(-5) M). FK 33-824 alone did not influence P4 secretion by LLCs and SLCs. However, FK 33-824 completely abolished the stimulatory effect of hCG on P4 secretion by SLCs. The addition of FK 33-824 was followed by a significant increase in cAMP release (p<0.01) by LLCs and a decrease in cGMP secretion by SLCs (p<0.05). The effect of FK 33-824 was blocked by NAL, which strongly suggests that the observed influence of this opioid agonist was achieved through its binding to opioid receptors in luteal membranes. In the presence of hCG, cAMP secretion by both SLCs and LLCs was many-fold higher than in the control group. As regards cGMP output, only LLCs showed elevated secretion of this cyclic nucleotide under the influence of hCG. With the aim of examining the influence of FK 33-824 on phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis, LLCs, SLCs and mixed small and large cells were labelled with [3H]-myo-inositol (100 microCi/ml) for 3 h at 37 degrees C. The cells were then incubated in M199 medium supplemented with 10 mM LiCl, 1% BSA, and antibiotics in the presence and absence of FK 33-824 (10(-9) M) at 37 degrees C for 30 min. Liberated labelled inositol mono-, bis-, and trisphosphates (IPs) were isolated and quantified by affinity chromatography on columns of AG 1-X8 resin, followed by liquid scintillation spectroscopy. Inositol phosphate accumulation in LLCs, SLCs, and mixed small and large cells was not altered by treatment with FK 33-824 at the dose used. In view of these findings we suggest that opioid peptides affect pig corpus luteum steroid secretion, and the response is probably mediated through cyclic nucleotides, but not IPs. PMID:10497920

  10. Relationship between in vitro sperm functional tests and in vivo fertility of rams following cervical artificial insemination of ewes with frozen-thawed semen.

    PubMed

    O' Meara, C M; Hanrahan, J P; Prathalingam, N S; Owen, J S; Donovan, A; Fair, S; Ward, F; Wade, M; Evans, A C O; Lonergan, P

    2008-03-01

    Several procedures have been proposed to assess structural and functional characteristics of cryopreserved ram semen but none so far have yielded consistent relationships with in vivo fertility. The objectives of this study were to evaluate several sperm function tests as potential markers of in vivo ram fertility (determined by pregnancy rate in ewes) using frozen-thawed semen. In experiment 1, frozen-thawed straws (n=3 per ram) of semen from three high and three low fertility rams were assessed using fluorescent microscopy for (1) progressive motility, (2) viability and, (3) acrosomal status. In experiment 2, frozen-thawed straws (n=3 per ram) of semen from 18 rams of known fertility were analysed using either computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) for eight motion characteristics or flow cytometric staining for: (1) viability and acrosomal status, (2) plasma membrane status and capacitation-like changes, and (3) live cells following an osmotic resistance test (ORT). In experiment 3, platelet-activating factor (PAF) was isolated from straws (n=2 per ram) of semen using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and quantified using HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry for 18 rams. In experiment 1, no association was found between motility, viability (% live) or acrosomal status (% damaged, % intact and % reacted) and in vivo fertility. In experiment 2, no correlation was found between motility (CASA), viability (% live), acrosomal status (% live, % live intact and % reacted), capacitation status (% capacitated, % non-capacitated), plasma membrane stability (% dead) and % live cells following ORT and ram in vivo fertility. In experiment 3, there was no relationship between PAF content in spermatozoa and ram fertility. In conclusion, we were unable to relate the in vivo fertility of rams with in vitro functional tests of their frozen-thawed semen and suggest that the fertility of a given semen sample cannot easily be quantified using available in vitro tests. PMID:18248736

  11. Husbandry factors and the resumption of luteal activity in open and zero-grazed dairy cows in urban and peri-urban kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kanyima, B M; Båge, R; Owiny, D O; Ntallaris, T; Lindahl, J; Magnusson, U; Nassuna-Musoke, M G

    2014-08-01

    The study investigated the influence of selected husbandry factors on interval to resumption of post-partum cyclicity among dairy cows in urban and peri-urban Kampala. A prospective study of 85 day post-partum period of 59 dairy cows in open (n = 38) and zero grazing (n = 21) systems was conducted on 24 farms. Cows of parity 1-6 were recruited starting 15-30 days post-partum. Progesterone (P4) content in milk taken at 10-12 day intervals was analysed using ELISA. The cow P4 profiles were classified into 'normal' (< 56 days), 'delayed' (> 56 days), 'ceased' or 'prolonged' (if started < 56 days but with abnormal P4 displays) resumption of luteal activity and tested for association with husbandry and cow factors. Of the 59 cows, luteal activity in 81.4% resumed normally and in 18.6%, delayed. Only 23.7% maintained regular luteal activity, while the others had ceased (10.2%), prolonged (37.3%) or unclear luteal activity (20.3%). There were no differences between open and zero-grazed cows. Milk production was higher (p < 0.05) in zero than open grazing, in urban than peri-urban and in cows fed on brew waste (p < 0.001) compared with mill products and banana peels. Results suggest that luteal activity resumes normally in a majority of cows, although only a minority experienced continued normal cyclicity once ovulation had occurred, in the two farming systems irrespective of feed supplements or water, and that supplementing with brew waste is beneficial for milk production. PMID:24930481

  12. Husbandry Factors and the Resumption of Luteal Activity in Open and Zero-Grazed Dairy Cows in Urban and Peri-Urban Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kanyima, BM; Båge, R; Owiny, DO; Ntallaris, T; Lindahl, J; Magnusson, U; Nassuna-Musoke, MG

    2014-01-01

    Contents The study investigated the influence of selected husbandry factors on interval to resumption of post-partum cyclicity among dairy cows in urban and peri-urban Kampala. A prospective study of 85 day post-partum period of 59 dairy cows in open (n = 38) and zero grazing (n = 21) systems was conducted on 24 farms. Cows of parity 1–6 were recruited starting 15–30 days post-partum. Progesterone (P4) content in milk taken at 10–12 day intervals was analysed using ELISA. The cow P4 profiles were classified into ‘normal’ (< 56 days), ‘delayed’ (> 56 days), ‘ceased’ or ‘prolonged’ (if started < 56 days but with abnormal P4 displays) resumption of luteal activity and tested for association with husbandry and cow factors. Of the 59 cows, luteal activity in 81.4% resumed normally and in 18.6%, delayed. Only 23.7% maintained regular luteal activity, while the others had ceased (10.2%), prolonged (37.3%) or unclear luteal activity (20.3%). There were no differences between open and zero-grazed cows. Milk production was higher (p < 0.05) in zero than open grazing, in urban than peri-urban and in cows fed on brew waste (p < 0.001) compared with mill products and banana peels. Results suggest that luteal activity resumes normally in a majority of cows, although only a minority experienced continued normal cyclicity once ovulation had occurred, in the two farming systems irrespective of feed supplements or water, and that supplementing with brew waste is beneficial for milk production. PMID:24930481

  13. Longitudinal, 3D in vivo imaging of sebaceous glands by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy –normal function and response to cryotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yookyung; Tam, Joshua; Jalian, H. Ray; Anderson, R. Rox; Evans, Conor L.

    2014-01-01

    Sebaceous glands perform complex functions, and are centrally involved in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Current techniques for studying sebaceous glands are mostly static in nature, whereas the gland’s main function – excretion of sebum via the holocrine mechanism – can only be evaluated over time. We present a longitudinal, real-time alternative – the in vivo, label-free imaging of sebaceous glands using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) microscopy, which is used to selectively visualize lipids. In mouse ears, CARS microscopy revealed dynamic changes in sebaceous glands during the holocrine secretion process, as well as in response to damage to the glands caused by cooling. Detailed gland structure, plus the active migration of individual sebocytes and cohorts of sebocytes were measured. Cooling produced characteristic changes in sebocyte structure and migration. This study demonstrates that CARS microscopy is a promising tool for studying the sebaceous gland and its associated disorders in three-dimensions in vivo. PMID:25026458

  14. Angiotensin II impairs endothelial progenitor cell number and function in vitro and in vivo: implications for vascular regeneration.

    PubMed

    Endtmann, Cathleen; Ebrahimian, Talin; Czech, Thomas; Arfa, Omar; Laufs, Ulrich; Fritz, Mathias; Wassmann, Kerstin; Werner, Nikos; Petoumenos, Vasileios; Nickenig, Georg; Wassmann, Sven

    2011-09-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute to endothelial regeneration. Angiotensin II (Ang II) through Ang II type 1 receptor (AT(1)-R) activation plays an important role in vascular damage. The effect of Ang II on EPCs and the involved molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. Stimulation with Ang II decreased the number of cultured human early outgrowth EPCs, which express both AT(1)-R and Ang II type 2 receptor, mediated through AT(1)-R activation and induction of oxidative stress. Ang II redox-dependently induced EPC apoptosis through increased apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation; decreased Bcl-2 and increased Bax expression; and activation of caspase 3 but had no effect on the low cell proliferation. In addition, Ang II impaired colony-forming and migratory capacities of early outgrowth EPCs. Ang II infusion diminished numbers and functional capacities of EPCs in wild-type (WT) but not AT(1)a-R knockout mice (AT(1)a(-/-)). Reendothelialization after focal carotid endothelial injury was decreased during Ang II infusion. Salvage of reendothelialization by intravenous application of spleen-derived progenitor cells into Ang II-treated WT mice was pronounced with AT(1)a(-/-) cells compared with WT cells, and transfusion of Ang II-pretreated WT cells into WT mice without Ang II infusion was associated with less reendothelialization. Transplantation of AT(1)a(-/-) bone marrow reduced atherosclerosis development in cholesterol-fed apolipoprotein E-deficient mice compared with transplantation of apolipoprotein E-deficient or WT bone marrow. Randomized treatment of patients with stable coronary artery disease with the AT(1)-R blocker telmisartan significantly increased the number of circulating CD34/KDR-positive EPCs. Ang II through AT(1)-R activation, oxidative stress, and redox-sensitive apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1-dependent proapoptotic pathways impairs EPCs in vitro and in vivo, resulting in diminished vascular regeneration. PMID:21825227

  15. Optimal T Cell Activation and B Cell Antibody Responses In Vivo Require the Interaction between Leukocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1 and Kindlin-3.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Vicky Louise; Uotila, Liisa M; Llort Asens, Marc; Savinko, Terhi; Fagerholm, Susanna Carola

    2015-07-01

    Kindlin-3 is an important integrin regulator that is mutated in the rare genetic disorder, leukocyte adhesion deficiency type III, a disorder characterized by defective neutrophil trafficking and platelet function, leading to recurrent bacterial infections and bleeding. Kindlin-3 is also known to regulate T cell adhesion in vitro and trafficking in vivo, but whether the integrin/kindlin interaction regulates T or B cell activation in vivo is unclear. In this study, we used TTT/AAA ?2-integrin knock-in (KI) mice and TCR-transgenic (OT-II) KI mice, in which the integrin/kindlin connection is disrupted, to investigate the role of the integrin/kindlin interaction in T cell activation. We show that basal T cell activation status in these animals in vivo is normal, but they display reduced T cell activation by wild-type Ag-loaded dendritic cells in vitro. In addition, T cell activation in vivo is reduced. We also show that basal Ab levels are normal in TTT/AAA ?2-integrin KI mice, but B cell numbers in lymph nodes and IgG and IgM production after immunization are reduced. In conclusion, we show that the integrin/kindlin interaction is required for trafficking of immune cells, as well as for T cell activation and B cell Ab responses in vivo. These results imply that the immunodeficiency found in leukocyte adhesion deficiency type III patients, in addition to being caused by defects in neutrophil function, may be due, in part, to defects in lymphocyte trafficking and activation. PMID:25987740

  16. Functional Analysis of in Vivo and in Organello Footprinting of HeLa Cell Mitochondrial DNA in Relationship to ATP and Ethidium Bromide Effects on Transcription

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vicente Micol; Patricio Fernandez-Silva; Giuseppe Attardii

    1997-01-01

    In vivo and in organello footprinting techniques based on methylation interference have been utilized to inves- tigate protein-DNA interactions in the transcription ini- tiation and rDNA transcription termination regions of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in functionally ac- tive mitochondria. In particular, the changes in methyl- ation reactivity of these regions in response to treat- ment of the organelles with ATP

  17. Analysis of the Peroxidase Activity of Rice (Oryza Sativa) Recombinant Hemoglobin 1: Implications for the In Vivo Function of Hexacoordinate Non-Symbiotic Hemoglobins in Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In plants, it has been proposed that hexacoordinate (class 1) non-symbiotic Hbs (nsHb-1) function in vivo as peroxidases. However, little is known about the peroxidase activity of nsHb-1. We evaluated the peroxidase activity of rice recombinant Hb1 (a nsHb-1) by using the guaiacol/H2O2 system at pH ...

  18. The impact of ex vivo clinical grade activation protocols on human T cell phenotype and function for the generation of genetically modified cells for adoptive cell transfer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tumeh, Paul C.; Koya, Richard C.; Chodon, Thinle; Graham, Nicholas A.; Graeber, Thomas G.; Comin-Anduix, Begoña; Ribas, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    Optimized conditions for the ex vivo activation, genetic manipulation, and expansion of human lymphocytes for adoptive cell therapy (ACT) may lead to protocols that maximize their in vivo function. We analyzed the effects of four clinical grade activation and expansion protocols over three weeks on cell proliferative rate, immunophenotype, cell metabolism, and transduction efficiency of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Peak lentiviral transduction efficiency was early (days 2 to 4), at a time when cells demonstrated a larger size, maximal uptake of metabolic substrates, and the highest level of proximal TCR signaling engagement. Anti-CD2/3/28 activation beads induced greater proliferation rate and skewed PBMCs early on to a CD4 phenotype when compared to the cells cultured in OKT3. Multicolor surface phenotyping demonstrated that changes in T cell surface markers that define T cell functional phenotypes were dependent on the time spent in culture as opposed to the particular activation protocol. In conclusion, ex vivo activation of human PBMCs for ACT demonstrate defined immunophenotypic and functional signatures over time, with cells early on showing larger sizes, higher transduction efficiency, maximal metabolic activity and ZAP-70 activation. PMID:20842061

  19. Integrating EMR-Linked and In Vivo Functional Genetic Data to Identify New Genotype-Phenotype Associations

    PubMed Central

    Mosley, Jonathan D.; Van Driest, Sara L.; Weeke, Peter E.; Delaney, Jessica T.; Wells, Quinn S.; Bastarache, Lisa; Roden, Dan M.; Denny, Josh C.

    2014-01-01

    The coupling of electronic medical records (EMR) with genetic data has created the potential for implementing reverse genetic approaches in humans, whereby the function of a gene is inferred from the shared pattern of morbidity among homozygotes of a genetic variant. We explored the feasibility of this approach to identify phenotypes associated with low frequency variants using Vanderbilt's EMR-based BioVU resource. We analyzed 1,658 low frequency non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) with a minor allele frequency (MAF)<10% collected on 8,546 subjects. For each nsSNP, we identified diagnoses shared by at least 2 minor allele homozygotes and with an association p<0.05. The diagnoses were reviewed by a clinician to ascertain whether they may share a common mechanistic basis. While a number of biologically compelling clinical patterns of association were observed, the frequency of these associations was identical to that observed using genotype-permuted data sets, indicating that the associations were likely due to chance. To refine our analysis associations, we then restricted the analysis to 711 nsSNPs in genes with phenotypes in the On-line Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) or knock-out mouse phenotype databases. An initial comparison of the EMR diagnoses to the known in vivo functions of the gene identified 25 candidate nsSNPs, 19 of which had significant genotype-phenotype associations when tested using matched controls. Twleve of the 19 nsSNPs associations were confirmed by a detailed record review. Four of 12 nsSNP-phenotype associations were successfully replicated in an independent data set: thrombosis (F5,rs6031), seizures/convulsions (GPR98,rs13157270), macular degeneration (CNGB3,rs3735972), and GI bleeding (HGFAC,rs16844401). These analyses demonstrate the feasibility and challenges of using reverse genetics approaches to identify novel gene-phenotype associations in human subjects using low frequency variants. As increasing amounts of rare variant data are generated from modern genotyping and sequence platforms, model organism data may be an important tool to enable discovery. PMID:24949630

  20. Effect of Perinatal secondhand tobacco smoke exposure on in vivo and intrinsic airway structure/function in non-human primates

    SciTech Connect

    Joad, Jesse P. [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California at Davis, Davis, California, 95616 (United States)], E-mail: jesse.joad@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu; Kott, Kayleen S.; Bric, John M.; Peake, Janice L.; Pinkerton, Kent E. [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California at Davis, Davis, California, 95616 (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Infants exposed to second hand smoke (SHS) experience more problems with wheezing. This study was designed to determine if perinatal SHS exposure increases intrinsic and/or in vivo airway responsiveness to methacholine and whether potential structural/cellular alterations in the airway might explain the change in responsiveness. Pregnant rhesus monkeys were exposed to filtered air (FA) or SHS (1 mg/m{sup 3} total suspended particulates) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week starting at 50 days gestational age. The mother/infant pairs continued the SHS exposures postnatally. At 3 months of age each infant: 1) had in vivo lung function measurements in response to inhaled methacholine, or 2) the right accessory lobe filled with agarose, precision-cut to 600 {mu}m slices, and bathed in increasing concentrations of methacholine. The lumenal area of the central airway was determined using videomicrometry followed by fixation and histology with morphometry. In vivo tests showed that perinatal SHS increases baseline respiratory rate and decreases responsiveness to methacholine. Perinatal SHS did not alter intrinsic airway responsiveness in the bronchi. However in respiratory bronchioles, SHS exposure increased airway responsiveness at lower methacholine concentrations but decreased it at higher concentrations. Perinatal SHS did not change eosinophil profiles, epithelial volume, smooth muscle volume, or mucin volume. However it did increase the number of alveolar attachments in bronchi and respiratory bronchioles. In general, as mucin increased, airway responsiveness decreased. We conclude that perinatal SHS exposure alters in vivo and intrinsic airway responsiveness, and alveolar attachments.

  1. Hypothyroidism prolongs corpus luteum function in the pregnant rat.

    PubMed

    Hapon, María Belén; Motta, Alicia B; Ezquer, Marcelo; Bonafede, Melisa; Jahn, Graciela A

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown that hypothyroidism in the rat produces a prolongation of pregnancy associated with a delay in the fall of circulating progesterone (P4) at term. The aim of the present work is to determine whether the delayed P4 decline in hypothyroid mother rats is due to a retarded induction of P4 degradation to 20alphaOH P4 or to a stimulation of its synthesis, and to investigate the possible mechanisms that may underlie the altered luteal function. We determined by RIA the circulating profile of the hormones (TSH, PRL, LH, P4, PGF2alpha, and PGE2) involved in luteal regulation at the end of pregnancy and, by semiquantitative RT-PCR, the expression of factors involved in P4 synthesis (CytP450scc, StAR, 3betaHSD, PRLR) and metabolism (20alphaHSD, PGF2alphaR, iNOS and COX2). Our results show that the delay in P4 decline and parturition is the resultant of retarded luteal regression, caused by a combination of decreases in luteolytic factors, mainly luteal PGF2alpha, iNOS mRNA expression and also circulating LH, and increased synthesis or action of luteotrophic factors, such as luteal and circulating PGE2 and circulating PRL. All these changes may be direct causes of the decreased 20alphaHSD mRNA and protein (measured by western blot analysis) expression, which in the presence of unchanged expression of the factors involved in P4 synthesis results in elevated luteal and circulating P4 that prolonged pregnancy and also may favor longer survival of the corpus luteum. PMID:17244746

  2. Beneficial effect of luteal-phase GnRH agonist administration on embryo implantation after ICSI in both GnRH agonist- and antagonist-treated ovarian stimulation cycles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Tesarik; André Hazout; Raquel Mendoza-Tesarik; Nicolas Mendoza; Carmen Mendoza

    BACKGROUND: GnRH agonist was recently suggested as a novel luteal-phase support that may act at different lev- els, including the pituitary gonadotrophs, the endometrium and the embryo itself. This prospective randomized study evaluates the effect of GnRH agonist administered in the luteal phase on ICSI outcomes in both GnRH agonist- and GnRH antagonist-treated ovarian stimulation protocols. METHODS: Six hundred women

  3. [Effects and mechanisms of hyperoside on vascular endothelium function in middle cerebral arteries of rats ex vivo].

    PubMed

    Han, Jun; Xuan, Jia-li; Hu, Hao-ran; Chen, Zhi-wu

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the effects and potential mechanisms of hyperoside (Hyp) on the vascular endothelium function in middle cerebral artery (MCA) ex vivo in rats. Isolated arterial segments from MCAs of rats were used for surveying vasomotoricity in a pressurized chamber. Transmembrane potential was recorded by using glass microelectrodes to evaluate hyperpolarization. Hyp (1 x 10(-6)-1 x 10(-4) mol . L-1) was utilized to observe the effect on 1 x 10(-7) mol . L-1 U46619-preconstricted MCA in rats. The results showed that 1 x 10(-6)-1 x 10(-4) mol . L-1 Hyp significantly induced concentration-dependent vasodilatation and hyperpolarization, leading to the maximal diastolic ratio of (73. 2 ± 6. 1)% and maximal changes in membrane potentials of (-13. 2 ± 2. 2) mV. Hyp still elicited vasorelaxation and hyperpolarization by removal of endothelium in MCA of rat, which was notably attenuated as compared with vascular endothelium-intact group (P <0. 01). In the MCAs preconstricted by U46619 (1 x 10(-7) mol . L-1), Hyp (1 x 10(-6)-1 x 10(-4) mol . L-1) produced concentration-dependent vasorelaxation and hyperpolarizition that were partially attenuated by 3 x 10(-5) mol . L-1 L-NAME(a NOS inhibitor) plus 1 x 10(-5) mol . L-1 PGI2 ,(a synthetase inhibitor). The residual effects were further decreased by 1 x 10(-3) mol . L-1 TEA (an inhibitor of Ca2+-activated potassium channel) or 1 x 10(-5) mol . L-1 PPG (a blocker of endogenous H2S synthese-CSE). Similarly, 1 x 10(-5)-1 x 10(-3) mol . L-1 NaHS (a donor of exogenous H2S) or 1 x 10(-5)-1 x 10(-3) mol . L-1 L-Cys (the substrate of endogenous H2S synthesis) obviously evoked dose-dependent vasodilatation and hyperpolarization of MCA in rats. These findings indicated that Hyp may induce endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent responses. And the endothelium-dependent vasodilatation may be related to the increases of endogenous H2S that has been promoted Hyp in the endotheliocyte of MCAs, and activated Kca and opening of Kca channels, resulting in the hyperpolarization of vascular smooth muscle cell membrane and subsequent reduction of Ca2+ influx and vasodilation. PMID:25898590

  4. Fetal Calf Serum-Free Generation of Functionally Active Murine Dendritic Cells Suitable for In Vivo Therapeutic Approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriele Müller; Anke Müller; Helmut Jonuleit; Kerstin Steinbrink; Claudia Szalma; Lydia Paragnik; Karen Lingnau; Edgar Schmidt; Jürgen Knop; Alexander H. Enk

    2000-01-01

    Standard protocols to generate mouse dendritic cells (DC) generally use culture medium supplemented with fetal calf serum; however, reinjection in vivo of DC cultured in fetal calf serum results in priming to xenogeneic proteins that clearly limits the use of such DC. We therefore established a fetal calf serum-free culture system for the generation of murine DC from bone marrow

  5. Human chorionic gonadotropin activates the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-Ca2+ intracellular signalling system in bovine luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Davis, J S; West, L A; Weakland, L L; Farese, R V

    1986-11-24

    Human chorionic gonadotropin, hCG, a hormone which increases intracellular cAMP, provoked rapid (30 s) and sustained (up to 30 min) increases in the levels of inositol mono-, bis- and trisphosphates (IP, IP2 and IP3, respectively) in bovine luteal cells. LiCl (10 mM) enhanced inositol phosphate accumulation in response to hCG. Concentration-dependent increases in inositol phosphates, cAMP and progesterone accumulation were observed in hCG-treated luteal cells. hCG also induced rapid and concentration-dependent increases in cytosolic free Ca2+ as measured by quin 2 fluorescence. These findings demonstrate that hCG stimulates the phospholipase C-IP3 and diacylglycerol 'second messenger' system in the bovine corpus luteum. PMID:3023139

  6. Greater overall olfactory performance, explicit wanting for high fat foods and lipid intake during the mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Jessica; Cameron, Jameason D; Finlayson, Graham; Blundell, John E; Doucet, Éric

    2013-03-15

    Increases in energy, lipid and carbohydrate intakes during the luteal phase have been previously observed. However, it is not known whether this is due to phase-dependent variations in the reward value of certain foods. Moreover, increases in olfactory sensitivity have been proposed and may be involved in these changes in food reward. Therefore, we examined olfactory performance and the reward value of foods varying in fat content and taste. Seventeen women (Body mass index: 22.3±1.6 kg/m(2); Body fat-DXA: 28.5±6.8%) were recruited to participate in 3 identical sessions, performed during distinct phases of the menstrual cycle - early follicular/menstruation, late follicular/ovulation and mid-luteal - verified by plasma sex-steroid hormones and oral temperature. Food preference, implicit wanting, and explicit wanting and liking for visual food cues, varying in fat content and taste, were measured with a validated experimental platform involving a forced choice computer task. Odour threshold, odour discrimination, odour identification and total odour scores were measured using odourized pens. Ad libitum energy and macronutrient intake was measured with a validated food menu. Results showed greater total odour scores (p<0.05), explicit wanting for high fat foods (p<0.05) and lipid intake (p<0.05) during the mid-luteal phase. Inter-correlations between these variables were non-significant. These findings support previous observations of increased lipid intake during the luteal phase and provide evidence for phase-dependent variation in overall olfactory performance and explicit wanting for high fat foods. PMID:23458628

  7. Preserved endothelium-dependent dilatation of the coronary microvasculature at the early phase of diabetes mellitus despite the increased oxidative stress and depressed cardiac mechanical function ex vivo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There has been accumulating evidence associating diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular dysfunctions. However, most of the studies are focused on the late stages of diabetes and on the function of large arteries. This study aimed at characterizing the effects of the early phase of diabetes mellitus on the cardiac and vascular function with focus on the intact coronary microvasculature and the oxidative stress involved. Materials and methods Zucker diabetic fatty rats and their lean littermates fed with standard diet A04 (Safe) were studied at the 11th week of age. Biochemical parameters such as glucose, insulin and triglycerides levels as well as their oxidative stress status were measured. Their hearts were perfused ex vivo according to Langendorff and their cardiac activity and coronary microvascular reactivity were evaluated. Results Zucker fatty rats already exhibited a diabetic state at this age as demonstrated by the elevated levels of plasma glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin and triglycerides. The ex vivo perfusion of their hearts revealed a decreased cardiac mechanical function and coronary flow. This was accompanied by an increase in the overall oxidative stress of the organs. However, estimation of the active form of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and coronary reactivity indicated a preserved function of the coronary microvessels at this phase of the disease. Diabetes affected also the cardiac membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition by increasing the arachidonic acid and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids levels. Conclusions The presence of diabetes, even at its beginning, significantly increased the overall oxidative stress of the organs resulting to decreased cardiac mechanical activity ex vivo. However, adaptations were adopted at this early phase of the disease regarding the preserved coronary microvascular reactivity and the associated cardiac phospholipid composition in order to provide a certain protection to the heart. PMID:23530768

  8. Drosophila melanogaster dihydroorotate dehydrogenase: the N-terminus is important for biological function in vivo but not for catalytic properties in vitro.

    PubMed

    Löffler, Monika; Knecht, Wolfgang; Rawls, John; Ullrich, Alexandra; Dietz, Carsten

    2002-09-01

    Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH, EC 1.3.99.11), the fourth enzyme of pyrimidine de novo synthesis, is an integral flavoprotein of the inner mitchondrial membrane and is functionally connected to the respiratory chain. Here, experiments have been directed toward determining the roles of the N-terminal sequence motifs both in enzymatic properties of insect DHODH produced in vitro and the in vivo function of the protein. Full-length and three N-terminal truncated derivatives of the Drosophila melanogaster enzyme were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. For identification on Western blots of recombinant DHODH as well as the native enzyme from flies polyclonal anti-DHODH immunoglobulins were generated and affinity-purified. The enzymatic characteristics of the four versions of DHODH were very similar, indicating that the N-terminus of the enzyme does not influence its catalytic function or its susceptibility to prominent DHODH inhibitors: A77-1726, brequinar, dichloroallyl-lawsone and redoxal. Whereas the efficacy of A77-1726 and dichloroallyl-lawsone were similar with Drosophila and human DHODH, that of brequinar and redoxal differed significantly. The differences in responses of insect DHODH and the enzyme from other species may allow the design of new agents that will selectively control insect growth, due to pyrimidine nucleotide limitation. In vivo expression of the full-length and N-truncated DHODHs from engineered transgenes revealed that the truncated proteins could not support normal de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis during development of the fly (i.e., failure to complement dhod-null mutations), apparently due to instability of the truncated proteins. It is concluded that the proper intracellular localization, directed by the N-terminal targeting and transmembrane motifs, is required for stability and subsequent proper biological function in vivo. PMID:12213251

  9. Tissue Engineering Special Feature: A macroporous hydrogel for the coculture of neural progenitor and endothelial cells to form functional vascular networks in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Millicent C.; Bertram, James P.; Royce Hynes, Sara; Michaud, Michael; Li, Qi; Young, Michael; Segal, Steven S.; Madri, Joseph A.; Lavik, Erin B.

    2006-02-01

    A microvascular network is critical for the survival and function of most tissues. We have investigated the potential of neural progenitor cells to augment the formation and stabilization of microvascular networks in a previously uncharacterized three-dimensional macroporous hydrogel and the ability of this engineered system to develop a functional microcirculation in vivo. The hydrogel is synthesized by cross-linking polyethylene glycol with polylysine around a salt-leached polylactic-co-glycolic acid scaffold that is degraded in a sodium hydroxide solution. An open macroporous network is formed that supports the efficient formation of tubular structures by brain endothelial cells. After subcutaneous implantation of hydrogel cocultures in mice, blood flow in new microvessels was apparent at 2 weeks with perfused networks established on the surface of implants at 6 weeks. Compared to endothelial cells cultured alone, cocultures of endothelial cells and neural progenitor cells had a significantly greater density of tubular structures positive for platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 at the 6-week time point. In implant cross sections, the presence of red blood cells in vessel lumens confirmed a functional microcirculation. These findings indicate that neural progenitor cells promote the formation of endothelial cell tubes in coculture and the development of a functional microcirculation in vivo. We demonstrate a previously undescribed strategy for creating stable microvascular networks to support engineered tissues of desired parenchymal cell origin. microvasculature | neural stem cells | polymer | scaffold

  10. miR-31 Functions as a Negative Regulator of Lymphatic Vascular Lineage-Specific Differentiation In Vitro and Vascular Development In Vivo? †

    PubMed Central

    Leslie Pedrioli, Deena M.; Karpanen, Terhi; Dabouras, Vasilios; Jurisic, Giorgia; van de Hoek, Glenn; Shin, Jay W.; Marino, Daniela; Kälin, Roland E.; Leidel, Sebastian; Cinelli, Paolo; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Brändli, André W.; Detmar, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The lymphatic vascular system maintains tissue fluid homeostasis, helps mediate afferent immune responses, and promotes cancer metastasis. To address the role microRNAs (miRNAs) play in the development and function of the lymphatic vascular system, we defined the in vitro miRNA expression profiles of primary human lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) and blood vascular endothelial cells (BVECs) and identified four BVEC signature and two LEC signature miRNAs. Their vascular lineage-specific expression patterns were confirmed in vivo by quantitative real-time PCR and in situ hybridization. Functional characterization of the BVEC signature miRNA miR-31 identified a novel BVEC-specific posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism that inhibits the expression of lymphatic lineage-specific transcripts in vitro. We demonstrate that suppression of lymphatic differentiation is partially mediated via direct repression of PROX1, a transcription factor that functions as a master regulator of lymphatic lineage-specific differentiation. Finally, in vivo studies of Xenopus and zebrafish demonstrated that gain of miR-31 function impaired venous sprouting and lymphatic vascular development, thus highlighting the importance of miR-31 as a negative regulator of lymphatic development. Collectively, our findings identify miR-31 is a potent regulator of vascular lineage-specific differentiation and development in vertebrates. PMID:20479124

  11. Structural and functional recovery of electropermeabilized skeletal muscle in-vivo after treatment with surfactant poloxamer 188.

    PubMed

    Collins, John M; Despa, Florin; Lee, Raphael C

    2007-05-01

    A critical requirement for cell survival after trauma is sealing of breaks in the cell membrane [M. Bier, S.M. Hammer, D.J. Canaday, R.C Lee, Kinetics of sealing for transient electropores in isolated mammalian skeletal muscle cells, Bioelectromagnetics 20 (1999) 194-201; R.C. Lee, D.C. Gaylor, D. Bhatt, D.A. Israel, Role of cell membrane rupture in the pathogenesis of electrical trauma, J. Surg. Res. 44 (1988) 709-719; R.C. Lee, J.F. Burke, E.G. Cravalho (Eds.), Electrical Trauma: The Pathophysiology, Manifestations, and Clinical Management, Cambridge University Press, 1992; B.I. Tropea, R.C. Lee, Thermal injury kinetics in electrical trauma, J. Biomech. Engr. 114 (1992) 241-250; F. Despa, D.P. Orgill, J. Newalder, R.C Lee, The relative thermal stability of tissue macromolecules and cellular structure in burn injury, Burns 31 (2005) 568-577; T.A. Block, J.N. Aarsvold, K.L. Matthews II, R.A. Mintzer, L.P. River, M. Capelli-Schellpfeffer, R.L. Wollman, S. Tripathi, C.T. Chen, R.C. Lee, The 1995 Lindberg Award. Nonthermally mediated muscle injury and necrosis in electrical trauma, J. Burn Care and Rehabil. 16 (1995) 581-588; K. Miyake, P.L. McNeil, Mechanical injury and repair of cells, Crit. Care Med. 31 (2003) S496-S501; R.C. Lee, L.P. River, F.S. Pan, R.L. Wollmann, Surfactant-induced sealing of electropermeabilized skeletal muscle membranes in vivo, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 89 (1992) 4524-4528; J.D. Marks, C.Y. Pan, T. Bushell, W. Cromie, R.C. Lee, Amphiphilic, tri-block copolymers provide potent membrane-targeted neuroprotection, FASEB J. 15 (2001) 1107-1109; B. Greenebaum, K. Blossfield, J. Hannig, C.S. Carrillo, M.A. Beckett, R.R. Weichselbaum, R.C. Lee, Poloxamer 188 prevents acute necrosis of adult skeletal muscle cells following high-dose irradiation, Burns 30 (2004) 539-547; G. Serbest, J. Horwitz, K. Barbee, The effect of poloxamer-188 on neuronal cell recovery from mechanical injury, J. Neurotrauma 22 (2005) 119-132]. The triblock copolymer surfactant Poloxamer 188 (P188) is known to increase the cell survival after membrane electroporation [R.C. Lee, L.P. River, F.S. Pan, R.L. Wollmann, Surfactant-induced sealing of electropermeabilized skeletal muscle membranes in vivo, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 89 (1992) 4524-4528; Z. Ababneh, H. Beloeil, C.B. Berde, G. Gambarota, S.E. Maier, R.V. Mulkern, Biexponential parametrization of T2 and diffusion decay curves in a rat muscle edema model: Decay curve components and water compartments, Magn. Reson. Med. 54 (2005) 524-531]. Here, we use a rat hind-limb model of electroporation injury to determine if the intravenous administration of P188 improves the recovery of the muscle function. Rat hind-limbs received a sequence of either 0, 3, 6, 9, or 12 electrical current pulses (2 A, 4 ms duration, 10 s duty cycle). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis, muscle water content and compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitudes were compared. Electroporation injury manifested edema formation and depression of the CMAP amplitudes. P188 (one bolus of 1 mg/ml of blood) was administrated 30 or 60 min after injury. Animals receiving P188 exhibited reduced tissue edema (p<0.05) and increased CMAP amplitudes (p<0.03). By comparison, treatment with 10 kDa neutral dextran, which produces similar serum osmotic effects as P188, had no effect on post-electroporation recovery. Noteworthy, the present results suggest that a single intravenous dose of P188 is effective to restore the structural integrity of damaged tissues with intact circulation. PMID:17382288

  12. A Salmonella Typhimurium-Typhi Genomic Chimera: A Model to Study Vi Polysaccharide Capsule Function In Vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela M. Jansen; Lindsay J. Hall; Simon Clare; David Goulding; Kathryn E. Holt; Andrew J. Grant; Piero Mastroeni; Gordon Dougan; Robert A. Kingsley

    2011-01-01

    The Vi capsular polysaccharide is a virulence-associated factor expressed by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi but absent from virtually all other Salmonella serotypes. In order to study this determinant in vivo, we characterised a Vi-positive S. Typhimurium (C5.507 Vi+), harbouring the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-7, which encodes the Vi locus. S. Typhimurium C5.507 Vi+ colonised and persisted in mice at similar

  13. In vivo measurement of the shape of the tissue-refractive-index correlation function and its applicationto detection of colorectal field carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Andrew J.; Ruderman, Sarah; DelaCruz, Mart; Wali, Ramesh K.; Roy, Hemant K.; Backman, Vadim

    2012-04-01

    Polarization-gated spectroscopy is an established method to depth-selectively interrogate the structural properties of biological tissue. We employ this method in vivo in the azoxymethane (AOM)-treated rat model to monitor the morphological changes that occur in the field of a tumor during early carcinogenesis. The results demonstrate a statistically significant change in the shape of the refractive-index correlation function for AOM-treated rats versus saline-treated controls. Since refractive index is linearly proportional to mass density, these refractive-index changes can be directly linked to alterations in the spatial distribution patterns of macromolecular density. Furthermore, we found that alterations in the shape of the refractive-index correlation function shape were an indicator of both present and future risk of tumor development. These results suggest that noninvasive measurement of the shape of the refractive-index correlation function could be a promising marker of early cancer development.

  14. Endothelial Microparticles (EMP) for the Assessment of Endothelial Function: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study on Possible Interference of Plasma Lipids

    PubMed Central

    van Ierssel, Sabrina H.; Hoymans, Vicky Y.; Van Craenenbroeck, Emeline M.; Van Tendeloo, Viggo F.; Vrints, Christiaan J.; Jorens, Philippe G.; Conraads, Viviane M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Circulating endothelial microparticles (EMP) reflect the condition of the endothelium and are of increasing interest in cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. Recently, increased numbers of EMP following oral fat intake, possibly due to acute endothelial injury, have been reported. On the other hand, the direct interference of lipids with the detection of EMP has been suggested. This study aimed to investigate the effect of lipid-rich solutions, commonly administered in clinical practice, on the detection, both in vitro and in vivo, of EMP. Methods For the in vitro assessment, several lipid-rich solutions were added to whole blood of healthy subjects (n?=?8) and patients with coronary heart disease (n?=?5). EMP (CD31+/CD42b?) were detected in platelet poor plasma by flow cytometry. For the in vivo study, healthy volunteers were evaluated on 3 different study-days: baseline evaluation, following lipid infusion and after a NaCl infusion. EMP quantification, lipid measurements and peripheral arterial tonometry were performed on each day. Results Both in vitro addition and in vivo administration of lipids significantly decreased EMP (from 198.6 to 53.0 and from 272.6 to 90.6/µl PPP, respectively, p?=?0.001 and p?=?0.012). The EMP number correlated inversely with the concentration of triglycerides, both in vitro and in vivo (r?=??0.707 and ?0.589, p<0.001 and p?=?0.021, respectively). The validity of EMP as a marker of endothelial function is supported by their inverse relationship with the reactive hyperemia index (r?=??0.758, p?=?0.011). This inverse relation was confounded by the intravenous administration of lipids. Conclusion The confounding effect of high circulating levels of lipids, commonly found in patients that receive intravenous lipid-based solutions, should be taken into account when flow cytometry is used to quantify EMP. PMID:22359595

  15. In vivo analysis of cadherin function in the mouse intestinal epithelium: essential roles in adhesion, maintenance of differentiation, and regulation of programmed cell death

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    A model system is described for defining the physiologic functions of mammalian cadherins in vivo. 129/Sv embryonic stem (ES) cells, stably transfected with a dominant negative N-cadherin mutant (NCAD delta) under the control of a promoter that only functions in postmitotic enterocytes during their rapid, orderly, and continuous migration up small intestinal villi, were introduced into normal C57B1/6 (B6) blastocysts. In adult B6<->129/Sv chimeric mice, each villus receives the cellular output of several surrounding monoclonal crypts. A polyclonal villus located at the boundary of 129/Sv- and B6-derived intestinal epithelium contains vertical coherent bands of NCAD delta- producing enterocytes plus adjacent bands of normal B6-derived enterocytes. A comparison of the biological properties of these cell populations established that NCAD delta disrupts cell-cell and cell- matrix contacts, increases the rate of migration of enterocytes along the crypt-villus axis, results in a loss of their differentiated polarized phenotype, and produces precocious entry into a death program. These data indicate that enterocytic cadherins are critical cell survival factors that actively maintain intestinal epithelial function in vivo. PMID:7721948

  16. Reduced Phase-Advance of Plasma Melatonin after Bright Morning Light in the Luteal, but not Follicular, Menstrual Cycle Phase in Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: An Extended Study

    PubMed Central

    Parry, Barbara L.; Meliska, Charles J.; Sorenson, Diane L.; Martínez, L. Fernando; López, Ana M.; Elliott, Jeffrey A.; Hauger, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    We previously observed blunted phase-shift responses to morning bright light in women with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD). The aim of this study was to determine if we could replicate these findings using a higher intensity, shorter duration light pulse and to compare these results with the effects of an evening bright light pulse. In 17 PMDD patients and 14 normal control (NC) subjects, we measured plasma melatonin at 30 minute intervals from 18:00–10:00 h in dim (< 30 lux) or dark conditions the night before (night 1) and after (night 3) a bright light pulse (administered on night 2) in both follicular and luteal menstrual cycle phases. The bright light (either 3,000 lux for 6 h or 6,000 lux for 3 h) was given either in the AM, 7 h after the Dim Light Melatonin Onset (DLMO) measured the previous month, or in the PM, 3 h after the DLMO. In the luteal, but not in the follicular, phase, AM light advanced melatonin offset between night 1 and night 3 significantly less in PMDD than in NC subjects. The effects of PM light were not significant, nor were there significant effects of the light pulse on melatonin measures of onset, duration, peak or area under the curve. These findings replicated our previous finding of a blunted phase-shift response to morning bright light in the luteal, but not the follicular, menstrual cycle phase in PMDD compared with NC women, using a brighter (6,000 vs. 3,000 lux) light pulse for a shorter duration (3 vs. 6 h). As the effect of PM bright light on melatonin phase-shift responses did not differ between groups or significantly alter other melatonin measures, these results suggest that in PMDD there is a luteal phase subsensitivity or an increased resistance to morning bright light cues which are critical in synchronizing human biological rhythms. The resulting circadian rhythm malsynchonization may contribute to the occurrence of luteal phase depressive symptoms in women with PMDD. PMID:21721857

  17. Targeted Resequencing and Systematic In Vivo Functional Testing Identifies Rare Variants in MEIS1 as Significant Contributors to Restless Legs Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Eva C.; Kousi, Maria; Tan, Perciliz L.; Tilch, Erik; Knauf, Franziska; Lichtner, Peter; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Högl, Birgit; Frauscher, Birgit; Berger, Klaus; Fietze, Ingo; Hornyak, Magdolna; Oertel, Wolfgang H.; Bachmann, Cornelius G.; Zimprich, Alexander; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Meitinger, Thomas; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Katsanis, Nicholas; Winkelmann, Juliane

    2014-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurologic condition characterized by nocturnal dysesthesias and an urge to move, affecting the legs. RLS is a complex trait, for which genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified common susceptibility alleles of modest (OR 1.2–1.7) risk at six genomic loci. Among these, variants in MEIS1 have emerged as the largest risk factors for RLS, suggesting that perturbations in this transcription factor might be causally related to RLS susceptibility. To establish this causality, direction of effect, and total genetic burden of MEIS1, we interrogated 188 case subjects and 182 control subjects for rare alleles not captured by previous GWASs, followed by genotyping of ?3,000 case subjects and 3,000 control subjects, and concluded with systematic functionalization of all discovered variants using a previously established in vivo model of neurogenesis. We observed a significant excess of rare MEIS1 variants in individuals with RLS. Subsequent assessment of all nonsynonymous variants by in vivo complementation revealed an excess of loss-of-function alleles in individuals with RLS. Strikingly, these alleles compromised the function of the canonical MEIS1 splice isoform but were irrelevant to an isoform known to utilize an alternative 3? sequence. Our data link MEIS1 loss of function to the etiopathology of RLS, highlight how combined sequencing and systematic functional annotation of rare variation at GWAS loci can detect risk burden, and offer a plausible explanation for the specificity of phenotypic expressivity of loss-of-function alleles at a locus broadly necessary for neurogenesis and neurodevelopment. PMID:24995868

  18. In Vivo Mitochondrial Function in HIV-Infected Persons Treated with Contemporary Anti-Retroviral Therapy: A Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Brendan A. I.; Hollingsworth, Kieren G.; Baxter, Joanne; Wilkins, Edmund; Lee, Vincent; Price, D. Ashley; Trenell, Michael; Chinnery, Patrick F.

    2014-01-01

    Modern anti-retroviral therapy is highly effective at suppressing viral replication and restoring immune function in HIV-infected persons. However, such individuals show reduced physiological performance and increased frailty compared with age-matched uninfected persons. Contemporary anti-retroviral therapy is thought to be largely free from neuromuscular complications, whereas several anti-retroviral drugs previously in common usage have been associated with mitochondrial toxicity. It has recently been established that patients with prior exposure to such drugs exhibit irreversible cellular and molecular mitochondrial defects. However the functional significance of such damage remains unknown. Here we use phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) to measure in vivo muscle mitochondrial oxidative function, in patients treated with contemporary anti-retroviral therapy, and compare with biopsy findings (cytochrome c oxidase (COX) histochemistry). We show that dynamic oxidative function (post-exertional ATP (adenosine triphosphate) resynthesis) was largely maintained in the face of mild to moderate COX defects (affecting up to ?10% of fibers): ?½ ADP (half-life of adenosine diphosphate clearance), HIV-infected 22.1±9.9 s, HIV-uninfected 18.8±4.4 s, p?=?0.09. In contrast, HIV-infected patients had a significant derangement of resting state ATP metabolism compared with controls: ADP/ATP ratio, HIV-infected 1.24±0.08×10?3, HIV-uninfected 1.16±0.05×10?3, p?=?0.001. These observations are broadly reassuring in that they suggest that in vivo mitochondrial function in patients on contemporary anti-retroviral therapy is largely maintained at the whole organ level, despite histochemical (COX) defects within individual cells. Basal energy requirements may nevertheless be increased. PMID:24409305

  19. Effects of dietary omega–3 fatty acids on ventricular function in dogs with healed myocardial infarctions: in vivo and in vitro studies

    PubMed Central

    Nishijima, Yoshinori; Belevych, Andriy E.; Terentyev, Dmitry; Xu, Ying; Haizlip, Kaylan M.; Monasky, Michelle M.; Hiranandani, Nitisha; Harris, William S.; Gyorke, Sandor; Carnes, Cynthia A.; Janssen, Paul M. L.

    2010-01-01

    Since omega–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) can alter ventricular myocyte calcium handling, these fatty acids could adversely affect cardiac contractile function, particularly following myocardial infarction. Therefore, 4 wk after myocardial infarction, dogs were randomly assigned to either placebo (corn oil, 1 g/day, n = 16) or n-3 PUFAs supplement [docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) + eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ethyl esters; 1, 2, or 4 g/day; n = 7, 8, and 12, respectively] groups. In vivo, ventricular function was evaluated by echocardiography before and after 3 mo of treatment. At the end of the 3-mo period, hearts were removed and in vitro function was evaluated using right ventricular trabeculae and isolated left ventricular myocytes. The treatment elicited significant (P < 0.0001) dose-dependent increases (16.4-fold increase with 4 g/day) in left ventricular tissue and red blood cell n-3 PUFA levels (EPA + DHA, placebo, 0.42 ± 0.04; 1 g/day, 3.02 ± 0.23; 2 g/day, 3.63 ± 0.17; and 4 g/day, 6.97 ± 0.33%). Regardless of the dose, n-3 PUFA treatment did not alter ventricular function in the intact animal (e.g., 4 g/day, fractional shortening: pre, 42.9 ± 1.6 vs. post, 40.1 ± 1.7%; placebo: pre, 39.2 ± 1.3 vs. post, 38.4 ± 1.6%). The developed force per cross-sectional area, changes in length- and frequency-dependent behavior in contractile force, and the inotropic response to ?-adrenoceptor activation were also similar for trabeculae obtained from placebo- or n-3 PUFA-treated dogs. Finally, calcium currents and calcium transients were the same in myocytes from n-3 PUFA- and placebo-treated dogs. Thus dietary n-3 PUFAs did not adversely alter either in vitro or in vivo ventricular contractile function in dogs with healed infarctions. PMID:20097770

  20. Formulation, High Throughput In Vitro Screening and In Vivo Functional Characterization of Nanoemulsion-Based Intranasal Vaccine Adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Pamela T.; Leroueil, Pascale R.; Smith, Douglas M.; Ciotti, Susan; Bielinska, Anna U.; Janczak, Katarzyna W.; Mullen, Catherine H.; Groom, Jeffrey V.; Taylor, Erin M.; Passmore, Crystal; Makidon, Paul E.; O’Konek, Jessica J.; Myc, Andrzej; Hamouda, Tarek; Baker, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccine adjuvants have been reported to induce both mucosal and systemic immunity when applied to mucosal surfaces and this dual response appears important for protection against certain pathogens. Despite the potential advantages, however, no mucosal adjuvants are currently approved for human use. Evaluating compounds as mucosal adjuvants is a slow and costly process due to the need for lengthy animal immunogenicity studies. We have constructed a library of 112 intranasal adjuvant candidate formulations consisting of oil-in-water nanoemulsions that contain various cationic and nonionic surfactants. To facilitate adjuvant development we first evaluated this library in a series of high-throughput, in vitro assays for activities associated with innate and adaptive immune activation in vivo. These in vitro assays screened for the ability of the adjuvant to bind to mucin, induce cytotoxicity, facilitate antigen uptake in epithelial and dendritic cells, and activate cellular pathways. We then sought to determine how these parameters related to adjuvant activity in vivo. While the in vitro assays alone were not enough to predict the in vivo adjuvant activity completely, several interesting relationships were found with immune responses in mice. Furthermore, by varying the physicochemical properties of the surfactant components (charge, surfactant polar head size and hydrophobicity) and the surfactant blend ratio of the formulations, the strength and type of the immune response generated (TH1, TH2, TH17) could be modulated. These findings suggest the possibility of using high-throughput screens to aid in the design of custom adjuvants with unique immunological profiles to match specific mucosal vaccine applications. PMID:25962136

  1. In Vivo Induction of Functionally Suppressive Induced Regulatory T Cells from CD4+CD25- T Cells Using an Hsp70 Peptide

    PubMed Central

    van Herwijnen, Martijn J. C.; van der Zee, Ruurd; van Eden, Willem; Broere, Femke

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic peptides that target antigen-specific regulatory T cells (Tregs) can suppress experimental autoimmune diseases. The heat shock protein (Hsp) 70, with its expression elevated in inflamed tissue, is a suitable candidate antigen because administration of both bacterial and mouse Hsp70 peptides has been shown to induce strong immune responses and to reduce inflammation via the activation or induction of Hsp specific Tregs. Although two subsets of Tregs exist, little is known about which subset of Tregs are activated by Hsp70 epitopes. Therefore, we set out to determine whether natural nTregs (derived from the thymus), or induced iTregs (formed in the periphery from CD4+CD25- naïve T cells) were targeted after Hsp70-peptide immunization. We immunized mice with the previously identified Hsp70 T cell epitope B29 and investigated the formation of functional iTregs by using an in vitro suppression assay and adoptive transfer therapy in mice with experimental arthritis. To study the in vivo induction of Tregs after peptide immunization, we depleted CD25+ cells prior to immunization, allowing the in vivo formation of Tregs from CD4+CD25- precursors. This approach allowed us to study in vivo B29-induced Tregs and to compare these cells with Tregs from non-depleted immunized mice. Our results show that using this approach, immunization induced CD4+CD25+ T cells in the periphery, and that these cells were suppressive in vitro. Additionally, adoptive transfer of B29-specific iTregs suppressed disease in a mouse model of arthritis. This study shows that immunization of mice with Hsp70 epitope B29 induces functionally suppressive iTregs from CD4+CD25- T cells. PMID:26107957

  2. Novel functional profiling approach combining reverse phase protein microarrays and human 3-D ex vivo tissue cultures: expression of apoptosis-related proteins in human colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Pirnia, Farzaneh; Pawlak, Michael; Thallinger, Gerhard G; Gierke, Berthold; Templin, Markus F; Kappeler, Andi; Betticher, Daniel C; Gloor, Beat; Borner, Markus M

    2009-07-01

    Cancer is caused by a complex pattern of molecular perturbations. To understand the biology of cancer, it is thus important to look at the activation state of key proteins and signaling networks. The limited amount of available sample material from patients and the complexity of protein expression patterns make the use of traditional protein analysis methods particularly difficult. In addition, the only approach that is currently available for performing functional studies is the use of serial biopsies, which is limited by ethical constraints and patient acceptance. The goal of this work was to establish a 3-D ex vivo culture technique in combination with reverse-phase protein microarrays (RPPM) as a novel experimental tool for use in cancer research. The RPPM platform allows the parallel profiling of large numbers of protein analytes to determine their relative abundance and activation level. Cancer tissue and the respective corresponding normal tissue controls from patients with colorectal cancer were cultured ex vivo. At various time points, the cultured samples were processed into lysates and analyzed on RPPM to assess the expression of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and 24 proteins involved in the regulation of apoptosis. The methodology displayed good robustness and low system noise. As a proof of concept, CEA expression was significantly higher in tumor compared with normal tissue (p<0.0001). The caspase 9 expression signal was lower in tumor tissue than in normal tissue (p<0.001). Cleaved Caspase 8 (p=0.014), Bad (p=0.007), Bim (p=0.007), p73 (p=0.005), PARP (p<0.001), and cleaved PARP (p=0.007) were differentially expressed in normal liver and normal colon tissue. We demonstrate here the feasibility of using RPPM technology with 3-D ex vivo cultured samples. This approach is useful for investigating complex patterns of protein expression and modification over time. It should allow functional proteomics in patient samples with various applications such as pharmacodynamic analyses in drug development. PMID:19609961

  3. Recapitulation of in vivo-like paracrine signals of human mesenchymal stem cells for functional neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells in a 3D microfluidic system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kisuk; Park, Hyun-Ji; Han, Sewoon; Lee, Joan; Ko, Eunkyung; Kim, Jin; Lee, Jong Seung; Yu, Ji Hea; Song, Ki Yeong; Cheong, Eunji; Cho, Sung-Rae; Chung, Seok; Cho, Seung-Woo

    2015-09-01

    Paracrine signals produced from stem cells influence tissue regeneration by inducing the differentiation of endogenous stem or progenitor cells. However, many recent studies that have investigated paracrine signaling of stem cells have relied on either two-dimensional transwell systems or conditioned medium culture, neither of which provide optimal culture microenvironments for elucidating the effects of paracrine signals in vivo. In this study, we recapitulated in vivo-like paracrine signaling of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to enhance functional neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) in three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrices (ECMs) within a microfluidic array platform. In order to amplify paracrine signaling, hMSCs were genetically engineered using cationic polymer nanoparticles to overexpress glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). hNSCs were cultured in 3D ECM hydrogel used to fill central channels of the microfluidic device, while GDNF-overexpressing hMSCs (GDNF-hMSCs) were cultured in channels located on both sides of the central channel. This setup allowed for mimicking of paracrine signaling between genetically engineered hMSCs and endogenous hNSCs in the brain. Co-culture of hNSCs with GDNF-hMSCs in the 3D microfluidic system yielded reduced glial differentiation of hNSCs while significantly enhancing differentiation into neuronal cells including dopaminergic neurons. Neuronal cells produced from hNSCs differentiating in the presence of GDNF-hMSCs exhibited functional neuron-like electrophysiological features. The enhanced paracrine ability of GDNF-hMSCs was finally confirmed using an animal model of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. This study demonstrates the presented 3D microfluidic array device can provide an efficient co-culture platform and provide an environment for paracrine signals from transplanted stem cells to control endogenous neuronal behaviors in vivo. PMID:26113074

  4. Insulin Resistance Is Not Associated with an Impaired Mitochondrial Function in Contracting Gastrocnemius Muscle of Goto-Kakizaki Diabetic Rats In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Macia, Michael; Pecchi, Emilie; Vilmen, Christophe; Desrois, Martine; Lan, Carole; Portha, Bernard; Bernard, Monique; Bendahan, David; Giannesini, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance, altered lipid metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle would play a major role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) development, but the causal relationships between these events remain conflicting. To clarify this issue, gastrocnemius muscle function and energetics were investigated throughout a multidisciplinary approach combining in vivo and in vitro measurements in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a non-obese T2DM model developing peripheral insulin resistant without abnormal level of plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). Wistar rats were used as controls. Mechanical performance and energy metabolism were assessed strictly non-invasively using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and 31-phosphorus MR spectroscopy (31P-MRS). Compared with control group, plasma insulin and glucose were respectively lower and higher in GK rats, but plasma NEFA level was normal. In resting GK muscle, phosphocreatine content was reduced whereas glucose content and intracellular pH were both higher. However, there were not differences between both groups for basal oxidative ATP synthesis rate, citrate synthase activity, and intramyocellular contents for lipids, glycogen, ATP and ADP (an important in vivo mitochondrial regulator). During a standardized fatiguing protocol (6 min of maximal repeated isometric contractions electrically induced at a frequency of 1.7 Hz), mechanical performance and glycolytic ATP production rate were reduced in diabetic animals whereas oxidative ATP production rate, maximal mitochondrial capacity and ATP cost of contraction were not changed. These findings provide in vivo evidence that insulin resistance is not caused by an impairment of mitochondrial function in this diabetic model. PMID:26057538

  5. Gene-modified T cells for adoptive immunotherapy of renal cell cancer maintain transgene-specific immune functions in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cor H. J. Lamers; Sabine C. L. Langeveld; Corrien M. Groot-van Ruijven; Reno Debets; Stefan Sleijfer; Jan Willem Gratama

    2007-01-01

    Background  We have treated three patients with carboxy-anhydrase-IX (CAIX) positive metastatic renal cell cancer (RCC) by adoptive transfer\\u000a of autologous T-cells that had been gene-transduced to express a single-chain antibody-G250 chimeric receptor [scFv(G250)],\\u000a and encountered liver toxicity necessitating adaptation of the treatment protocol. Here, we investigate whether or not the\\u000a in vivo activity of the infused scFv(G250)+ T cells is reflected

  6. A Salmonella Typhimurium-Typhi Genomic Chimera: A Model to Study Vi Polysaccharide Capsule Function In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Clare, Simon; Goulding, David; Holt, Kathryn E.; Grant, Andrew J.; Mastroeni, Piero; Dougan, Gordon; Kingsley, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The Vi capsular polysaccharide is a virulence-associated factor expressed by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi but absent from virtually all other Salmonella serotypes. In order to study this determinant in vivo, we characterised a Vi-positive S. Typhimurium (C5.507 Vi+), harbouring the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-7, which encodes the Vi locus. S. Typhimurium C5.507 Vi+ colonised and persisted in mice at similar levels compared to the parent strain, S. Typhimurium C5. However, the innate immune response to infection with C5.507 Vi+ and SGB1, an isogenic derivative not expressing Vi, differed markedly. Infection with C5.507 Vi+ resulted in a significant reduction in cellular trafficking of innate immune cells, including PMN and NK cells, compared to SGB1 Vi? infected animals. C5.507 Vi+ infection stimulated reduced numbers of TNF-?, MIP-2 and perforin producing cells compared to SGB1 Vi?. The modulating effect associated with Vi was not observed in MyD88?/? and was reduced in TLR4?/? mice. The presence of the Vi capsule also correlated with induction of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in vivo, a factor that impacted on chemotaxis and the activation of immune cells in vitro. PMID:21829346

  7. In Vivo Performance of a Novel Fluorinated Magnetic Resonance Imaging Agent for Functional Analysis of Bile Acid Transport

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A novel trifluorinated cholic acid derivative, CA-lys-TFA, was designed and synthesized for use as a tool to measure bile acid transport noninvasively using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the present study, the in vivo performance of CA-lys-TFA for measuring bile acid transport by MRI was investigated in mice. Gallbladder CA-lys-TFA content was quantified using MRI and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Results in wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice were compared to those in mice lacking expression of Asbt, the ileal bile acid transporter. 19F signals emanating from the gallbladders of WT mice 7 h after oral gavage with 150 mg/kg CA-lys-TFA were reproducibly detected by MRI. Asbt-deficient mice administered the same dose had undetectable 19F signals by MRI, and gallbladder bile CA-lys-TFA levels were 30-fold lower compared to WT animals. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of in vivo imaging of an orally absorbed drug using 19F MRI. Fluorinated bile acid analogues have potential as tools to measure and detect abnormal bile acid transport by MRI. PMID:24708306

  8. In vivo functions of the proprotein convertase PC5/6 during mouse development: Gdf11 is a likely substrate.

    PubMed

    Essalmani, Rachid; Zaid, Ahmed; Marcinkiewicz, Jadwiga; Chamberland, Ann; Pasquato, Antonella; Seidah, Nabil G; Prat, Annik

    2008-04-15

    The proprotein convertase PC5/6 cleaves protein precursors after basic amino acids and is essential for implantation in CD1/129/Sv/C57BL/6 mixed-background mice. Conditional inactivation of Pcsk5 in the epiblast but not in the extraembryonic tissue bypassed early embryonic lethality but resulted in death at birth. PC5/6-deficient embryos exhibited Gdf11-related phenotypes such as altered anteroposterior patterning with extra vertebrae and lack of tail and kidney agenesis. They also exhibited Gdf11-independent phenotypes, such as a smaller size, multiple hemorrhages, collapsed alveoli, and retarded ossification. In situ hybridization revealed overlapping PC5/6 and Gdf11 mRNA expression patterns. In vitro and ex vivo analyses showed that the selectivity of PC5/6 for Gdf11 essentially resides in the presence of a P1' Asn in the RSRR downward arrowN cleavage motif. This work identifies Gdf11 as a likely in vivo specific substrate of PC5/6 and opens the way to the identification of other key substrates of this convertase. PMID:18378898

  9. In vivo progestin treatments inhibit nitric oxide and endothelin-1-induced bovine endometrial prostaglandin (PG) E (PGE) secretion in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshie S. Weems; Ron D. Randel; Sean Tatman; Andy W. Lewis; Don A. Neuendorff; Charles W. Weems

    2005-01-01

    Synchronization of estrus with progestins in cows has been reported to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin-1 (ET-1)-stimulated bovine luteal PGE secretion without affecting prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?) secretion in vitro [Weems YS, Randel RD, Tatman S, Lewis A, Neuendorff DA, Weems CW. Does estrous synchronization affect corpus luteum (CL) function? Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat 2004;74:45–59]. Two experiments were conducted to

  10. Prostaglandin F2 alpha stimulates phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis and mobilizes intracellular Ca2+ in bovine luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Davis, J S; Weakland, L L; Weiland, D A; Farese, R V; West, L A

    1987-06-01

    The present studies were conducted to determine whether prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) stimulates the production of "second messengers" derived from inositol phospholipid hydrolysis and increases intracellular free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in isolated bovine luteal cells. PGF2 alpha provoked rapid (10 sec) and sustained (up to 60 min) increases in the levels of inositol mono-, bis-, and trisphosphates (InsP, InsP2, and InsP3, respectively). InsP3 was formed more rapidly than InsP2 or InsP after PGF2 alpha treatment. In addition, PGF2 alpha increased inositol phospholipid turnover, as evidenced by increased 32PO4 incorporation into phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylinositol. LiCl (1-20 mM) enhanced inositol phosphate accumulation in response to PGF2 alpha. Maximal increases in InsP3 occurred at 1 microM PGF2 alpha, with half-maximal stimulation occurring at 36 nM. The acute effects of PGF2 alpha on InsP3 levels were independent of reductions in extracellular calcium. Prostaglandins E1 and E2 also stimulated increases in inositol phosphate levels, albeit to a lesser extent. PGF2 alpha also induced rapid and concentration-dependent increases in [Ca2+]i as measured by quin-2 fluorescence. The PGF2 alpha-induced increases in [Ca2+]i were maximal within 30 sec (approximately 2- to 3-fold), and [Ca2+]i remained elevated for 8-10 min. The PGF2 alpha-induced increases in [Ca2+]i were also independent of extracellular calcium. These findings demonstrate that the action of PGF2 alpha is coupled to the phospholipase C-InsP3 and diacylglycerol second messenger system in the corpus luteum. PMID:3035550

  11. Prostaglandin F2 alpha stimulates phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis and mobilizes intracellular Ca2+ in bovine luteal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, J S; Weakland, L L; Weiland, D A; Farese, R V; West, L A

    1987-01-01

    The present studies were conducted to determine whether prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) stimulates the production of "second messengers" derived from inositol phospholipid hydrolysis and increases intracellular free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in isolated bovine luteal cells. PGF2 alpha provoked rapid (10 sec) and sustained (up to 60 min) increases in the levels of inositol mono-, bis-, and trisphosphates (InsP, InsP2, and InsP3, respectively). InsP3 was formed more rapidly than InsP2 or InsP after PGF2 alpha treatment. In addition, PGF2 alpha increased inositol phospholipid turnover, as evidenced by increased 32PO4 incorporation into phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylinositol. LiCl (1-20 mM) enhanced inositol phosphate accumulation in response to PGF2 alpha. Maximal increases in InsP3 occurred at 1 microM PGF2 alpha, with half-maximal stimulation occurring at 36 nM. The acute effects of PGF2 alpha on InsP3 levels were independent of reductions in extracellular calcium. Prostaglandins E1 and E2 also stimulated increases in inositol phosphate levels, albeit to a lesser extent. PGF2 alpha also induced rapid and concentration-dependent increases in [Ca2+]i as measured by quin-2 fluorescence. The PGF2 alpha-induced increases in [Ca2+]i were maximal within 30 sec (approximately 2- to 3-fold), and [Ca2+]i remained elevated for 8-10 min. The PGF2 alpha-induced increases in [Ca2+]i were also independent of extracellular calcium. These findings demonstrate that the action of PGF2 alpha is coupled to the phospholipase C-InsP3 and diacylglycerol second messenger system in the corpus luteum. PMID:3035550

  12. A randomized, controlled trial comparing the efficacy and safety of aqueous subcutaneous progesterone with vaginal progesterone for luteal phase support of in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Valerie L.; Jones, Christopher A.; Doody, Kevin; Foulk, Russell; Yee, Bill; Adamson, G. David; Cometti, Barbara; DeVane, Gary; Hubert, Gary; Trevisan, Silvia; Hoehler, Fred; Jones, Clarence; Soules, Michael

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is the ongoing pregnancy rate with a new aqueous formulation of subcutaneous progesterone (Prolutex®) non-inferior to vaginal progesterone (Endometrin®) when used for luteal phase support of in vitro fertilization? SUMMARY ANSWER In the per-protocol (PP) population, the ongoing pregnancy rates per oocyte retrieval at 12 weeks of gestation were comparable between Prolutex and Endometrin (41.6 versus 44.4%), with a difference between groups of ?2.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) ?9.7, 4.2), consistent with the non-inferiority of subcutaneous progesterone for luteal phase support. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Luteal phase support has been clearly demonstrated to improve pregnancy rates in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Because of the increased risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome associated with the use of hCG, progesterone has become the treatment of choice for luteal phase support. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This prospective, open-label, randomized, controlled, parallel-group, multicentre, two-arm, non-inferiority study was performed at eight fertility clinics. A total of 800 women, aged 18–42 years, with a BMI of ?30 kg/m2, with <3 prior completed assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles, exhibiting baseline (Days 2–3) FSH of ?15 IU/L and undergoing IVF at 8 centres (seven private, one academic) in the USA, were enrolled from January 2009 through June 2011. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS In total, 800 women undergoing IVF were randomized after retrieval of at least three oocytes to an aqueous preparation of progesterone administered subcutaneously (25 mg daily) or vaginal progesterone (100 mg bid daily). Randomization was performed to enrol 100 patients at each site using a randomization list that was generated with Statistical Analysis Software (SAS®). If a viable pregnancy occurred, progesterone treatment was continued up to 12 weeks of gestation. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Using a PP analysis, which included all patients who received an embryo transfer (Prolutex = 392; Endometrin = 390), the ongoing pregnancy rate per retrieval for subcutaneous versus vaginal progesterone was 41.6 versus 44.4%, with a difference between groups of ?2.8% (95% CI ?9.7, 4.2), consistent with the non-inferiority of subcutaneous progesterone for luteal phase support. In addition, rates of initial positive ?-hCG (56.4% subcutaneous versus 59.0% vaginal; 95% CI ?9.5, 4.3), clinical intrauterine pregnancy with fetal cardiac activity (42.6 versus 46.4%; 95% CI ?10.8, 3.2), implantation defined as number of gestational sacs divided by number of embryos transferred (33.2 versus 35.1%; 95% CI ?7.6, 4.0), live birth (41.1 versus 43.1%; 95% CI ?8.9, 4.9) and take-home baby (41.1 versus 42.6%; 95% CI ?8.4, 5.4) were comparable. Both formulations were well-tolerated, with no difference in serious adverse events. Analysis with the intention-to-treat population also demonstrated no difference for any outcomes between the treatment groups. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION The conclusions are limited to the progesterone dosing regimen studied and duration of treatment for the patient population examined in this study. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Subcutaneous progesterone represents a novel option for luteal phase support in women undergoing IVF who for personal reasons prefer not to use a vaginal preparation or who wish to avoid the side effects of vaginal or i.m. routes of administration. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS The study was funded by Institut Biochimique SA (IBSA). CAJ, BC, ST and CJ are employees of IBSA. FH currently consults for IBSA. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER NCT00828191. PMID:25100106

  13. A seven-year storage report of good manufacturing practice-grade naked plasmid DNA: stability, topology, and in vitro/in vivo functional analysis.

    PubMed

    Walther, Wolfgang; Schmeer, Marco; Kobelt, Dennis; Baier, Ruth; Harder, Alexander; Walhorn, Volker; Anselmetti, Dario; Aumann, Jutta; Fichtner, Iduna; Schleef, Martin

    2013-12-01

    The great interest for naked plasmid DNA in gene therapy studies is reflected by the fact that it is currently used in 18% of all gene therapy trials. Therefore, validation of topology and functionality of DNA resulting from its long-term stability is an essential requirement for safe and effective gene transfer. To this aim, we analyzed the stability of good manufacturing practice-grade pCMV? reporter plasmid DNA by capillary gel electrophoresis, agarose gel electrophoresis, and atomic force microscopy. The plasmid DNA was produced for a clinical gene transfer study started in 2005 and was stored for meanwhile 7 years under continuously monitored conditions at -20 °C. The stability of plasmid DNA was monitored by LacZ transgene expression functional assays performed in vitro and in vivo on the 7-year-old plasmid DNA samples compared with plasmid batches newly produced in similar experimental conditions and quality standards. The analyses revealed that during the overall storage time and conditions, the proportion of open circular and supercoiled or covalently closed circular forms is conserved without linearization or degradation of the plasmid. The in vitro transfection and the in vivo jet-injection of DNA showed unaltered functionality of the long-stored plasmid. In summary, the 7-year-old and the newly produced plasmid samples showed similar topology and expression performance. Therefore, our stable storage conditions are effective to preserve the integrity of the DNA to be used in clinical studies. This is an important prerequisite for the long-term performance of gene transfer materials used in trials of long duration as well as of the reference material used in standardization procedures and assays. PMID:24067054

  14. Effect of emergency contraception with levonorgestrel or mifepristone on ovarian function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lena Marions; Sten Z. Cekan; Marc Bygdeman; Kristina Gemzell-Danielsson

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism of action of levonorgestrel (LNG) and mifepristone (MIF) in emergency contraception (EC), is still not fully known. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of preovulatory treatment with LNG and MIF on luteal function in more detail. Two days prior to ovulation (day ?2; assessed by ultrasound), we administered LNG (0.75 mg twice, 12 h

  15. Outpatient management of severe early OHSS by administration of GnRH antagonist in the luteal phase: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Management of established severe OHSS requires prolonged hospitalization, occasionally in intensive care units, accompanied by multiple ascites punctures, correction of intravascular fluid volume and electrolyte imbalance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether it is feasible to manage women with severe OHSS as outpatients by treating them with GnRH antagonists in the luteal phase. Methods This is a single-centre, prospective, observational, cohort study. Forty patients diagnosed with severe OHSS, five days post oocyte retrieval, were managed as outpatients after administration of GnRH antagonist (0.25?mg) daily from days 5 to 8 post oocyte retrieval, combined with cryopreservation of all embryos. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of patients with severe OHSS, in whom outpatient management was not feasible. Results 11.3% (95% CI 8.3%-15.0%) of patients (40/353) developed severe early OHSS. None of the 40 patients required hospitalization following luteal antagonist administration and embryo cryopreservation. Ovarian volume, ascites, hematocrit, WBC, serum oestradiol and progesterone decreased significantly (P?luteal phase is feasible and is associated with rapid regression of the syndrome, challenging the dogma of inpatient management. The proposed management is a flexible approach that minimizes unnecessary embryo transfer cancellations in the majority (88.7%) of high risk for OHSS patients. PMID:22938051

  16. Duration of luteal support (DOLS) with progesterone pessaries to improve the success rates in assisted conception: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Luteal support with progesterone is necessary for successful implantation of the embryo following egg collection and embryo transfer in an in-vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle. Progesterone has been used for as little as 2 weeks and for as long as 12 weeks of gestation. The optimal length of treatment is unresolved at present and it remains unclear how long to treat women receiving luteal supplementation. Design The trial is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effect of the duration of luteal support with progesterone in IVF cycles. Following 2 weeks standard treatment and a positive biochemical pregnancy test, this randomized control trial will allocate women to a supplementary 8 weeks treatment with vaginal progesterone or 8 weeks placebo. Further studies would be required to investigate whether additional supplementation with progesterone is beneficial in early pregnancy. Discussion Currently at the Hewitt Centre, approximately 32.5% of women have a positive biochemical pregnancy test 2 weeks after embryo transfer. It is this population that is eligible for trial entry and randomization. Once the patient has confirmed a positive urinary pregnancy test they will be invited to join the trial. Once the consent form has been completed by the patient a trial prescription sheet will be sent to pharmacy with a stated collection time. The patient can then be randomized and the drugs dispensed according to pharmacy protocol. A blood sample will then be drawn for measurement of baseline hormone levels (progesterone, estradiol, free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, Activin A, Inhibin A and Inhibin B). The primary outcome measure is the proportion of all randomized women that continue successfully to a viable pregnancy (at least one fetus with fetal heart rate >100 beats/minute) on transabdominal/transvaginal ultrasound at 10 weeks post embryo transfer/12 weeks gestation (that is at the end of 8 weeks supplementary trial treatment). Trial registration ISRCTN05696887 PMID:22834768

  17. Sensitivity of the early luteal phase ovine cervix to prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and expression of EP3 receptor mRNA.

    PubMed

    Audicana, L; Aughey, E; O'Shaughnessy, P J

    1998-01-01

    The effects and mechanism of action of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on the ovine cervix are largely unknown in the luteal phase. In these studies we have shown that low levels of EP3-receptor (EP3R) mRNA are present in the ovine cervix and that the PGE2 induces activation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the ovine cervix on day 6 of the oestrous cycle. It is possible, therefore, that PGE2 acts on the ovine cervix through coupling to EP3 receptors. PMID:9625477

  18. Driving Human Granulosa-Luteal Cells Recovered From In Vitro Fertilization Cycles Toward the Follicular Phase Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Vireque, Alessandra Aparecida; Campos, Jacira Ribeiro; Dentillo, Daniel Blasioli; Bernuci, Marcelo Picinin; Campos, Carolina Oliveira; Silva-de-Sá, Marcos Felipe; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Nunes, Altacílio Aparecido; Rosa-E-Silva, Ana Carolina Japur de Sá

    2015-08-01

    Culture systems are available for human granulosa cells (GCs) that perpetuate luteinization. The present study examines the plating density effects and long-term serum-free culture on the in vitro dynamics differentiation of luteinizing human GCs. Cells were cultured in serum-free ?-minimum essential medium (?-MEM) or serum-based tissue culture medium (TCM). The time course of GCs morphology and secretion of estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and relaxin were analyzed after 48, 96, and 144 hours of culture. Other functional markers as follicle-stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone receptors and steroidogenic enzymes were investigated at the end of culture. The morphology of an ?-MEM cell rather than a TCM cell resembles more closely that seen in vivo. Compared to TCM cultures, ?-MEM cells secreted 93.7% and 87.2% more E2 and approximately 7% and 17% of the amount of P4 when cultured at densities of 2 × 10(4) or 4 × 10(4) cells/well, respectively. Relaxin secretion was significantly reduced in ?-MEM cultures. ?-MEM cells were estrogenic and expressed the CYP19 gene. Levels of CYP17 increased about 8-fold in ?-MEM cells above the levels found in TCM cells. Our results reveal new insights into human GCs differentiation in vitro and demonstrate the critical importance of the culture system and cell-plating density on the establishment of estrogenic or progestogenic GC phenotypes. PMID:25701839

  19. Folic acid-functionalized up-conversion nanoparticles: toxicity studies in vivo and in vitro and targeted imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lining; Wei, Zuwu; Chen, Haige; Liu, Jinliang; Guo, Jianjian; Cao, Ming; Wen, Tieqiao; Shi, Liyi

    2014-07-01

    Folate receptors (FRs) are overexpressed on a variety of human cancer cells and tissues, including cancers of the breast, ovaries, endometrium, and brain. This over-expression of FRs can be used to target folate-linked imaging specifically to FR-expressing tumors. Fluorescence is emerging as a powerful new modality for molecular imaging in both the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Combining innovative molecular biology and chemistry, we prepared three kinds of folate-targeted up-conversion nanoparticles as imaging agents (UCNC-FA: UCNC-Er-FA, UCNC-Tm-FA, and UCNC-Er,Tm-FA). In vivo and in vitro toxicity studies showed that these nanoparticles have both good biocompatibility and low toxicity. Moreover, the up-conversion luminescence imaging indicated that they have good targeting to HeLa cells and can therefore serve as potential fluorescent contrast agents.Folate receptors (FRs) are overexpressed on a variety of human cancer cells and tissues, including cancers of the breast, ovaries, endometrium, and brain. This over-expression of FRs can be used to target folate-linked imaging specifically to FR-expressing tumors. Fluorescence is emerging as a powerful new modality for molecular imaging in both the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Combining innovative molecular biology and chemistry, we prepared three kinds of folate-targeted up-conversion nanoparticles as imaging agents (UCNC-FA: UCNC-Er-FA, UCNC-Tm-FA, and UCNC-Er,Tm-FA). In vivo and in vitro toxicity studies showed that these nanoparticles have both good biocompatibility and low toxicity. Moreover, the up-conversion luminescence imaging indicated that they have good targeting to HeLa cells and can therefore serve as potential fluorescent contrast agents. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Up-conversion luminescence spectra of UCNC-Er and UCNC-Er-FA, UCNC-Tm and UCNC-Tm-FA. Confocal luminescence imaging data collected as a series along the Z optical axis. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02312a

  20. [The study of vasodilative and antiischemic function of nicorandil in regional ischemia and reperfusion of rat heart in vivo].

    PubMed

    Pisarenko, O I; Serebriakova, L I; Tskitishvili, O V; Nesterenko, D A; Eremenko, L T; Kosilko, V P; Garanin, V A

    2008-01-01

    Aim of the work was to study effect of nicorandil [N-(2-nitrooxiethyl) nicotinamide, SG75] on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and rhythm disturbances during regional ischemia and reperfusion of the heart in rats in vivo and its ability to limit acute myocardial infarction (MI). Nicorandil was obtained by nitrating nicotinamide ethanol using produced by industry ethylnicotinate. MI in Wistar rats was modeled by 40-min occlusion of anterior descending coronary artery (ADCA) and subsequent 60-min reperfusion. Nicorandil (3,2 mmol/kg) was administered intravenously before occlusion. Nitroglycerine was used as preparation of comparison; it was administered in the same dose. MI area and zone at risk (ZR) were measured by computer planimetry after staining of left ventricular sections with 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride. Lowering of mean BP under influence of nicorandil during ADCA occlusion and subsequent reperfusion were deeper and longer than under influence of nitroglycerine. Contrary to nitroglycerine administration of nicorandil did not cause decrease of HR. Administration of both drugs postponed origination of rhythm disturbances during ischemia but did not affect their duration. MI dimension assessed by MI/ZR ratio after administration of nicorandil and nitroglycerine was significantly lowered down to 22 +/- 4 and 32 +/- 3%, respectively, compared with 47 +/- 3% in control. The results obtained evidence that in this model of ischemic and reperfusion damage of the heart vasodilating properties of nicorandil combined with decrease of postischemic loss of cardiomyocytes in ZR are comparable with effects of nitroglycerine. PMID:18537801

  1. In vivo and in vitro effects of 42-hydroxy-palytoxin on mouse skeletal muscle: structural and functional impairment.

    PubMed

    Del Favero, Giorgia; Sosa, Silvio; Poli, Mark; Tubaro, Aurelia; Sbaizero, Orfeo; Lorenzon, Paola

    2014-03-01

    Palytoxins (PLTXs) are known seafood contaminants and their entrance into the food chain raises concern about possible effects on human health. The increasing number of analogs being identified in edible marine organisms complicates the estimation of the real hazard associated with the presence of PLTX-like compounds. So far, 42-OH-PLTX is one of the few congeners available, and the study of its toxicity represents an important step toward a better comprehension of the mechanism of action of this family of compounds. From this perspective, the aim of this work was to investigate the in vivo and in vitro effect of 42-OH-PLTX on skeletal muscle, one of the most sensitive targets for PLTXs. Our results demonstrate that 42-OH-PLTX causes damage at the skeletal muscle level with a cytotoxic potency similar to that of PLTX. 42-OH-PLTX induces cytotoxicity and cell swelling in a Na(+)-dependent manner similar to the parent compound. However, the limited Ca(2+)-dependence of the toxic insult induced by 42-OH-PLTX suggests a specific mechanism of action for this analog. Our results also suggest an impaired response to the physiological agonist acetylcholine and altered cell elasticity. PMID:24378260

  2. Anatomical and Functional Images of in vitro and in vivo Tissues by NIR Time-domain Diffuse Optical Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Huijuan; Gao, Feng; Tanikawa, Yukari; Homma, Kazuhiro; Onodera, Yoichi; Yamada, Yukio

    Near infra-red (NIR) diffuse optical tomography (DOT) has gained much attention and it will be clinically applied to imaging breast, neonatal head, and the hemodynamics of the brain because of its noninvasiveness and deep penetration in biological tissue. Prior to achieving the imaging of infant brain using DOT, the developed methodologies need to be experimentally justified by imaging some real organs with simpler structures. Here we report our results of an in vitro chicken leg and an in vivo exercising human forearm from the data measured by a multi-channel time-resolved NIR system. Tomographic images were reconstructed by a two-dimensional image reconstruction algorithm based on a modified generalized pulse spectrum technique for simultaneous reconstruction of the µa and µs´. The absolute µa- and µs´-images revealed the inner structures of the chicken leg and the forearm, where the bones were clearly distinguished from the muscle. The ?µa-images showed the blood volume changes during the forearm exercise, proving that the system and the image reconstruction algorithm could potentially be used for imaging not only the anatomic structure but also the hemodynamics in neonatal heads.

  3. Tongxinluo (TXL), a Traditional Chinese Medicinal Compound, Improves Endothelial Function After Chronic Hypoxia Both In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Cui-Ying; Song, Li-Li; Wen, Jin-Kun; Li, Li-Min; Guo, Zong-Wei; Zhou, Pei-Pei; Wang, Chang; Li, Yong-Hui; Ma, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Vascular injury after chronic hypoxia leads to endothelial injury and structural damage to tight junctions (TJs), thereby resulting in a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Thus, attenuating hypoxia-induced damage has great significance for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the endothelial protection conferred by tongxinluo (TXL), a traditional Chinese medicinal compound, is related to its regulation of TJ protein expression. In vivo, we found that TXL could promote hypoxia-induced angiogenesis in lung and liver tissue. In vitro, we found that CoCl2 treatment significantly reduced the expression of the TJ proteins occludin, claudin-1, VE-cadherin, and beta-catenin in cultured human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells. TXL pretreatment abrogated the CoCl2-induced downregulation of these TJ proteins. Conversely, overexpression of Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) inhibited the expression of TJ proteins in human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells, an effect that was reversed by TXL pretreatment. Further experiments showed that TXL could promote endothelial cell proliferation by increasing KLF4 phosphorylation, thereby reversing the effect of KLF4 on the expression of TJ proteins. These findings provide a new molecular mechanism for the TXL-induced increase in TJ protein expression. PMID:26065642

  4. Increased delivery of doxorubicin into tumor cells using extracellularly activated TAT functionalized liposomes: in vitro and in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wenmin; Kuai, Rui; Ran, Rui; Fu, Lin; Yang, Yuting; Qin, Yao; Liu, Yayuan; Tang, Jie; Fu, Han; Zhang, Qianyu; Yuan, Mingqing; Zhang, Zhirong; Gao, Fabao; He, Qin

    2014-08-01

    The development of highly efficient tumor-targeted delivery systems is crucial for successful tumor treatment. Previously, a novel cell-penetrating peptide TAT and cleavable polyethylene glycol (PEG) co-modified liposome delivery system (C-TAT-Lipo) showed enhanced accumulation in tumor regions. Under the control of cysteine (Cys), the liposomes were activated extracellularly and achieved increased delivery of their cargo into tumor cells efficiently. In this study, we developed an optimal formulation for the encapsulation of Doxorubicin (DOX) by this delivery system for tumor treatment. The in vitro study showed that the C-TAT-Lipo with Cys delivery system not only enhanced the amount of DOX delivered by at least 100% compared to other DOX-containing formulations, but also displayed high cytotoxicity against tumorigenic cell lines. Compared to other groups, the DOX-loaded C-TAT-Lipo formulation in the presence of cysteine enhanced treatment efficacy by lowering the IC50 (1.67 +/- 0.14 microM) and increasing the cancer cell apoptosis percentage (37.10%). Moreover, the in vivo antitumor activity also showed that DOX-loaded C-TAT-Lipo with injection of cysteine achieved the best tumor growth inhibition with a tumor growth rate of only 58.40 +/- 16.33% (% of initial volume/day), which was significant less than that achieved by other DOX formulations. PMID:25016656

  5. A human ICAM-1 antibody isolated by a function-first approach has potent macrophage-dependent antimyeloma activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Veitonmäki, Niina; Hansson, Markus; Zhan, Fenghuang; Sundberg, Annika; Löfstedt, Tobias; Ljungars, Anne; Li, Zhan-Chun; Martinsson-Niskanen, Titti; Zeng, Ming; Yang, Ye; Danielsson, Lena; Kovacek, Mathilda; Lundqvist, Andrea; Mårtensson, Linda; Teige, Ingrid; Tricot, Guido; Frendéus, Björn

    2013-04-15

    We isolated a tumor B-cell-targeting antibody, BI-505, from a highly diversified human phage-antibody library, using a pioneering "function-first" approach involving screening for (1) specificity for a tumor B cell surface receptor, (2) induction of tumor programmed cell death, and (3) enhanced in vivo antitumor activity compared to currently used treatments. BI-505 bound to intercellular adhesion molecule-1, identifying a previously unrecognized role for this receptor as a therapeutic target in cancer. The BI-505 epitope was strongly expressed on the surface of multiple myeloma cells from both newly diagnosed and relapsed patients. BI-505 had potent macrophage-dependent antimyeloma activity and conferred enhanced survival compared to currently used treatments in advanced experimental models of multiple myeloma. PMID:23597564

  6. Functionalized chitosan/NIPAM (HEMA) hybrid polymer networks as inserts for ocular drug delivery: synthesis, in vitro assessment, and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Verestiuc, Liliana; Nastasescu, Oana; Barbu, Eugen; Sarvaiya, Indrajeetsinh; Green, Keith L; Tsibouklis, John

    2006-06-15

    A series of hybrid polymeric hydrogels, prepared by the reaction of acrylic acid-functionalized chitosan with either N-isopropylacrylamide or 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate monomers, were synthesized, pressed into minitablets, and investigated for their ability to act as controlled release vehicles for ophthalmic drug delivery. For comparison, interpolymeric complex analogues synthesized using the same monomers and pure, unfunctionalized chitosan were examined by means of an identical characterization protocol. The effects of network structure and composition upon the swelling properties, adhesion behavior, and drug release characteristics were investigated. Comparative in vitro studies employing chloramphenicol, atropine, norfloxacin, or pilocarpine informed the selection of drug-specific carrier compositions for the controlled delivery of these compounds. In addition, in vivo (rabbit model) experiments involving the delivery of pilocarpine indicated that chitosan-based hybrid polymer networks containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate are useful carriers for the delivery of this therapeutic agent. PMID:16555266

  7. Characterization of the alpha-gamma and alpha-beta complex: evidence for an in vivo functional role of alpha-crystallin as a molecular chaperone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, D.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that in vitro, alpha-crystallin can protect other lens proteins against extensive denaturation and aggregation. The mechanism of this protection involves preferential binding of the partially denatured protein to a central region of the native alpha-crystallin complex. To test whether a similar phenomenon might occur in vivo, a high molecular weight aggregate (HMWA) fraction was isolated from the aged bovine lens. Negative staining of this preparation revealed the presence of particles of 13-14 nm diameter, characteristic of alpha-crystallin. Immunolocalization of the same particles using antiserum specific for gamma- and beta-crystallins demonstrated preferential binding of these crystallins to the central region of the alpha-crystallin complex. Together, these results provide evidence that in the intact lens, the alpha-crystallins are functionally important molecular chaperones.

  8. Functional neuroanatomy of the human premotor oculomotor brainstem nuclei: insights from postmortem and advanced in vivo imaging studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Udo Rüb; Joanna C. Jen; Heiko Braak; Thomas Deller

    2008-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made recently in the field of the functional neuroanatomy of the primate oculomotor system,\\u000a which has also improved our understanding of the structure, organization and function of the human oculomotor system. In the\\u000a present review we provide for the first time an overview of the neuroanatomical basis of eye movement control in humans as\\u000a revealed by

  9. Functional analysis of crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone by in vivo assay with wild-type and mutant recombinant proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Romina Mettulio; Piero Giulio Giulianini; Enrico Antonio Ferrero; Simonetta Lorenzon; Paolo Edomi

    2004-01-01

    The neuro-endocrine X-organ sinus-gland complex regulates important crustacean physiological processes, such as growth, reproduction and molting. Its major products are the neuropeptides of the cHH\\/MIH\\/GIH family. Until now the structure–function relationships of these neuropeptides were established by sequence comparison. To study the functional relevance of conserved amino acid residues or peptide motifs, we generated point and deletion mutants of the

  10. In vivo function of the conserved non-catalytic domain of Werner syndrome helicase in DNA replication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sudha Sharma; Joshua A. Sommers; Robert M. Brosh

    2004-01-01

    Werner syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by genomic instability, elevated recombination and replication defects. The WRN gene encodes a RecQ helicase whose function(s) in cellular DNA metabolism is not well understood. To investigate the role of WRN in replication, we examined its ability to rescue cellular phenotypes of a yeast dna2 mutant defective in a helicase -endonuclease that participates

  11. What Can Current Stimulation Tell Us about the Vascular Function of Endogenous Prostacyclin in Healthy Rat Skin In Vivo?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stéphanie Gohin; Dominique Sigaudo-Roussel; Agnès Conjard-Duplany; Laurence Dubourg; Jean Louis Saumet; Bérengère Fromy

    2011-01-01

    In endothelial function, prostacyclin (PGI2) is as important as nitric oxide (NO); however, no test assesses specifically the vascular function of endogenous PGI2. We hypothesized that PGI2 has a dominant role in cathodal current-induced vasodilation (CIV) described in human skin. We thus aimed to study, in physiological conditions, the PGI2 involvement in cathodal CIV in rats in order to use

  12. Enhanced in vitro and in vivo toxicity of poly-dispersed acid-functionalized single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajiv K. Saxena; Wanda Williams; John K. Mcgee; Mary J. Daniels; Elizabeth Boykin; M. Ian Gilmour

    2007-01-01

    Many potential applications in nanotechnology envisage the use of better-dispersed and functionalized preparations of carbon nanotubes. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were treated with 1:1 mixtures of concentrated nitric and sulfuric acids for 3 min in a microwave oven under 20 psi pressure followed by extensive dialysis to remove the acids. This treatment resulted in acid functionalized SWCNTs (AF-SWCNTs) that had

  13. In-vivo transfection of manganese superoxide dismutase gene or NF?B shRNA in nodose ganglia improves aortic baroreceptor function in heart failure rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongze; Liu, Jinxu; Tu, Huiyin; Muelleman, Robert L.; Cornish, Kurtis G.; Li, Yu-Long

    2014-01-01

    Arterial baroreflex sensitivity is attenuated in chronic heart failure (CHF) state, which is associated with cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in the patients with CHF. Our previous study showed that CHF-induced sodium channel dysfunction in the baroreceptor neurons was involved in the blunted baroreflex sensitivity in CHF rats. Mitochondria-derived superoxide overproduction decreased expression and activation of the sodium channels in the baroreceptor neurons from CHF rats. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the sodium channel dysfunction in the baroreceptor neurons from CHF rats remain unknown. We tested the involvement of NF?B in the sodium channel dysfunction and evaluated the effects of in-vivo transfection of manganese superoxide dismutase gene and NF?B shRNA on the baroreflex function in CHF rats. CHF was developed at 6–8 weeks after left coronary artery ligation in adult rats. Western bolt and chromatin immunoprecipitation data showed that phosphorylated NF?B p65 and ability of NF?B p65 binding to the sodium channel promoter were increased in the nodose ganglia from CHF rats. In-vivo transfection of adenoviral manganese superoxide dismutase gene or lentiviral NF?B p65 shRNA into the nodose ganglia partially reversed CHF-reduced sodium channel expression and cell excitability in the baroreceptor neurons and improved CHF-blunted arterial baroreflex sensitivity. Additionally, transfection of adenoviral manganese superoxide dismutase also inhibited the augmentation of phosphorylated NF?B p65 in the nodose neurons from CHF rats. The present study suggests that superoxide-NF?B signaling contributes to CHF-induced baroreceptor dysfunction and resultant impairment of baroreflex function. PMID:24101667

  14. Effects of chronic in-vivo treatments with protease-activated receptor 2 agonist on endothelium function and blood pressures in mice.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Keon H; Wijekoon, Enoka P; Valcour, James E; Chia, Elizabeth W; McGuire, John J

    2013-04-01

    Short-term treatments with protease-activated receptor 2-activating peptides (PAR2-AP) induce endothelium-dependent vasodilation and decrease blood pressure. In this study, we tested the effect of chronic in-vivo treatment with PAR2-AP on the blood pressure and endothelium function of mice. Male PAR2 wild-type (WT) and par2-deficient (KO) mice received subcutaneous infusions of either saline, low (PAR2-LD), or high (PAR2-HD) doses of 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-amide for 1 or 2 weeks. In each treatment group, endothelium function was assessed in isolated arteries. Blood pressure, heart rate, and locomotor activity were recorded by radiotelemetry, and levels of tumour nercrosis factor ? (TNF-?) and interkeukin 1? (IL-1?) were measured in plasma samples by ELISA. The relaxation of WT aortas and mesenteric arteries induced by PAR2-AP was decreased by PAR2-LD and PAR2-HD. In mesenteric arteries, PAR2-LD and PAR2-HD decreased the relaxation induced by acetylcholine, but not by nitroprusside; in aortas, PAR2-LD and PAR2-HD caused differential decreases in the relaxations induced by acetylcholine and nitroprusside. Only PAR2-HD lowered systolic arterial pressures in WT, when compared with all of the other groups. TNF-? and IL-1? plasma concentrations were not different among the groups. We conclude that the systolic blood pressure of unrestrained mice can be lowered by chronic in-vivo activation of PAR2; however, this effect is countered by receptor desensitization and the concomitant development of endothelium and vascular dysfunction. PMID:23627841

  15. Intracellular cleavable poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles for efficient siRNA delivery in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Daoshu; Cheng, Qiang; Jiang, Qian; Huang, Yuanyu; Yang, Zheng; Han, Shangcong; Zhao, Yuning; Guo, Shutao; Liang, Zicai; Dong, Anjie

    2013-05-01

    A low cytotoxicity and high efficiency delivery system with the advantages of low cost and facile fabrication is needed for the application of small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery both in vitro and in vivo. For these prerequisites, cationic polymer-mesoporous silica nanoparticles (ssCP-MSNs) were prepared by surface functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles with disulfide bond cross-linked poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA). In vitro and in vivo evaluations were performed. The synthesized ssCP-MSNs are 100-150 nm in diameter with a pore size of 10 nm and a positively charged surface with a high zeta potential of 27 mV. Consequently, the ssCP-MSNs showed an excellent binding capacity for siRNA, and an enhancement in the cell uptake and cytosolic availability of siRNA. Furthermore, the intracellular reducing cleavage of the disulfide bonds cross-linking the PDMAEMA segments led to intracellular cleavage of PDMAEMA from ssCP-MSNs, which facilitated the intracellular triggered release of siRNA. Therefore, promoted RNA interference was observed in HeLa-Luc cells, which was equal to that of Lipofectamine 2000. Significantly, compared to Lipofectamine 2000, the ssCP-MSNs were more biocompatible, with low cytotoxicity (even non-cytotoxicity) and promotion of cell proliferation to HeLa-Luc cells. The in vivo systemic distribution studies certified that ssCP-MSNs/siRNA could prolong the duration of siRNA in vivo, and that they accumulated in the adrenal gland, liver, lung, spleen, kidney, heart and thymus after intravenous injection. Encouragingly, with the ability to deliver siRNA to a tumor, ssCP-MSNs/siRNA showed a tumor suppression effect in the HeLa-Luc xenograft murine model after intravenous injection. Therefore, the ssCP-MSNs cationic polymer-mesoporous silica nanoparticles with low cytotoxicity are promising for siRNA delivery.A low cytotoxicity and high efficiency delivery system with the advantages of low cost and facile fabrication is needed for the application of small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery both in vitro and in vivo. For these prerequisites, cationic polymer-mesoporous silica nanoparticles (ssCP-MSNs) were prepared by surface functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles with disulfide bond cross-linked poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA). In vitro and in vivo evaluations were performed. The synthesized ssCP-MSNs are 100-150 nm in diameter with a pore size of 10 nm and a positively charged surface with a high zeta potential of 27 mV. Consequently, the ssCP-MSNs showed an excellent binding capacity for siRNA, and an enhancement in the cell uptake and cytosolic availability of siRNA. Furthermore, the intracellular reducing cleavage of the disulfide bonds cross-linking the PDMAEMA segments led to intracellular cleavage of PDMAEMA from ssCP-MSNs, which facilitated the intracellular triggered release of siRNA. Therefore, promoted RNA interference was observed in HeLa-Luc cells, which was equal to that of Lipofectamine 2000. Significantly, compared to Lipofectamine 2000, the ssCP-MSNs were more biocompatible, with low cytotoxicity (even non-cytotoxicity) and promotion of cell proliferation to HeLa-Luc cells. The in vivo systemic distribution studies certified that ssCP-MSNs/siRNA could prolong the duration of siRNA in vivo, and that they accumulated in the adrenal gland, liver, lung, spleen, kidney, heart and thymus after intravenous injection. Encouragingly, with the ability to deliver siRNA to a tumor, ssCP-MSNs/siRNA showed a tumor suppression effect in the HeLa-Luc xenograft murine model after intravenous injection. Therefore, the ssCP-MSNs cationic polymer-mesoporous silica nanoparticles with low cytotoxicity are promising for siRNA delivery. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00294b

  16. MEDI0639: a novel therapeutic antibody targeting Dll4 modulates endothelial cell function and angiogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David W; Ross, Sarah; Veldman-Jones, Margaret; Foltz, Ian N; Clavette, Brandon C; Manchulenko, Kathy; Eberlein, Cath; Kendrew, Jane; Petteruti, Philip; Cho, Song; Damschroder, Melissa; Peng, Li; Baker, Dawn; Smith, Neil R; Weir, Hazel M; Blakey, David C; Bedian, Vahe; Barry, Simon T

    2012-08-01

    The Notch signaling pathway has been implicated in cell fate determination and differentiation in many tissues. Accumulating evidence points toward a pivotal role in blood vessel formation, and the importance of the Delta-like ligand (Dll) 4-Notch1 ligand-receptor interaction has been shown in both physiological and tumor angiogenesis. Disruption of this interaction leads to a reduction in tumor growth as a result of an increase in nonfunctional vasculature leading to poor perfusion of the tumor. MEDI0639 is an investigational human therapeutic antibody that targets Dll4 to inhibit the interaction between Dll4 and Notch1. The antibody cross-reacts to cynomolgus monkey but not mouse species orthologues. In vitro MEDI0639 inhibits the binding of Notch1 to Dll4, interacting via a novel epitope that has not been previously described. Binding to this epitope translates into MEDI0639 reversing Notch1-mediated suppression of human umbilical vein endothelial cell growth in vitro. MEDI0639 administration resulted in stimulation of tubule formation in a three-dimensional (3D) endothelial cell outgrowth assay, a phenotype driven by disruption of the Dll4-Notch signaling axis. In contrast, in a two-dimensional endothelial cell-fibroblast coculture model, MEDI0639 is a potent inhibitor of tubule formation. In vivo, MEDI0639 shows activity in a human endothelial cell angiogenesis assay promoting human vessel formation and reducing the number of vessels with smooth muscle actin-positive mural cells coverage. Collectively, the data show that MEDI0639 is a potent modulator of Dll4-Notch signaling pathway. PMID:22679110

  17. Structural and functional analysis of the ribosome landing pad of poliovirus type 2: in vivo translation studies.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, R; Pelletier, J; Le, S Y; Sonenberg, N

    1991-01-01

    The naturally uncapped genomic and mRNAs of poliovirus initiate translation by an internal ribosome-binding mechanism. The mRNA 5' untranslated region (UTR) of poliovirus is approximately 750 nucleotides in length and has seven to eight (depending on the serotype) AUG codons upstream of the initiator AUG. The sequence required for internal ribosome binding has been termed the ribosome landing pad (RLP). To better understand the mechanisms of internal initiation, we have determined the boundaries and critical elements of the RLP of poliovirus type 2 (Lansing strain) in vivo. By using deletion analysis, we demonstrate the existence of a core RLP in the poliovirus mRNA 5' UTR whose boundaries are between nucleotides 134 and 155 at the 5' end and nucleotides 556 and 585 at the 3' end. Sequences flanking the core RLP affect translational activity. The importance of several stem-loop structures in the RLP for internal initiation has been determined. Mutation of the phylogenetically conserved loop sequences in the proximal stem-loop structure of the RLP (stem-loop structure III; nucleotides 127 to 165) abolished internal translation. However, deletion of the second stem-loop in the RLP (stem-loop structure IV; nucleotides 189 to 223) reduced internal translation by only 50%. Internal deletions encompassing nucleotides 240 to 300, 350 to 380, or 450 to 480, predicted to disrupt stem-loop structure V and possibly VI, also abrogated internal initiation. Small point mutations within a short polypyrimidine sequence, highly conserved among all picornaviruses, abolished translation. A conservation of distance between the conserved polypyrimidine tract and a downstream AUG could play an important role in the mechanism of internal initiation. Images PMID:1656077

  18. Dicer-microRNA pathway is critical for peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery in vivo and regenerative axonogenesis in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Di; Raafat, Abdalla; Pak, Elena; Clemens, Stefan; Murashov, Alexander K.

    2011-01-01

    Both central and peripheral axons contain pivotal microRNA (miRNA) proteins. While recent observation demonstrated that miRNA biosynthetic machinery responds to peripheral nerve lesion in an injury-regulated pattern, the physiological significance of this phenomenon remains to be elucidated. In the current paper we hypothesized that deletion of Dicer would disrupt production of Dicer-dependent miRNAs and would negatively impact regenerative axon growth. Taking advantage of tamoxifen-inducible CAG-CreERt:Dicerfl/fl knockout (Dicer KO), we investigated the results of Dicer deletion on sciatic nerve regeneration in vivo and regenerative axon growth in vitro. Here we show that the sciatic functional index, an indicator of functional recovery, was significantly lower in Dicer KO mice in comparison to wild-type animals. Restoration of mechanical sensitivity recorded in the von Frey test was also markedly impaired in Dicer mutants. Further, Dicer deletion impeded the recovery of nerve conduction velocity and amplitude of evoked compound action potentials in vitro. Histologically, both total number of regenerating nerve fibers and mean axonal area were notably smaller in the Dicer KO mice. In addition, Dicer-deficient neurons failed to regenerate axons in dissociated dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cultures. Taken together, our results demonstrate that knockout of Dicer clearly impedes regenerative axon growth as well as anatomical, physiological and functional recovery. Our data suggest that the intact Dicer-dependent miRNA pathway is critical for the successful peripheral nerve regeneration after injury. PMID:22178326

  19. BRCA2 Is Ubiquitinated In Vivo and Interacts with USP11, a Deubiquitinating Enzyme That Exhibits Prosurvival Function in the Cellular Response to DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Alan R.; Apgar, Sarah; Dolios, Georgia; Wang, Rong; Aaronson, Stuart A.

    2004-01-01

    Individuals carrying a germ line mutation of the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA2 are predisposed to breast, ovarian, and other types of cancer. The BRCA2 protein has been proposed to function in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Using an immunopurification-mass spectrometry approach to identify novel proteins that associate with the BRCA2 gene product, we found that a deubiquitinating enzyme, USP11, formed specific complexes with BRCA2. Moreover, BRCA2 was constitutively ubiquitinated in vivo in the absence of detectable proteasomal degradation. Mitomycin C (MMC) led to decreased BRCA2 protein levels associated with increased ubiquitination, consistent with proteasome-dependent degradation. While BRCA2 could be deubiquitinated by USP11 in transient overexpression assays, a catalytically inactive USP11 mutant had no effect on BRCA2 ubiquitination or protein levels. Antagonism of USP11 function either through expression of this mutant or through RNA interference increased cellular sensitivity to MMC in a BRCA2-dependent manner. All of these results imply that BRCA2 expression levels are regulated by ubiquitination in the cellular response to MMC-induced DNA damage and that USP11 participates in DNA damage repair functions within the BRCA2 pathway independently of BRCA2 deubiquitination. PMID:15314155

  20. Novel ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-induced null alleles of the Drosophila homolog of LRRK2 reveal a crucial role in endolysosomal functions and autophagy in vivo.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Mark W; Leung, Lok K; Lone, Mohiddin; Lizzio, Michael A; Guo, Ming

    2014-12-01

    Mutations in LRRK2 cause a dominantly inherited form of Parkinson's disease (PD) and are the most common known genetic determinant of PD. Inhibitor-based therapies targeting LRRK2 have emerged as a key therapeutic strategy in PD; thus, understanding the consequences of inhibiting the normal cellular functions of this protein is vital. Despite much interest, the physiological functions of LRRK2 remain unclear. Several recent studies have linked the toxicity caused by overexpression of pathogenic mutant forms of LRRK2 to defects in the endolysosomal and autophagy pathways, raising the question of whether endogenous LRRK2 might play a role in these processes. Here, we report the characterization of multiple novel ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-induced nonsense alleles in the Drosophila LRRK2 homolog, lrrk. Using these alleles, we show that lrrk loss-of-function causes striking defects in the endolysosomal and autophagy pathways, including the accumulation of markedly enlarged lysosomes that are laden with undigested contents, consistent with a defect in lysosomal degradation. lrrk loss-of-function also results in the accumulation of autophagosomes, as well as the presence of enlarged early endosomes laden with mono-ubiquitylated cargo proteins, suggesting an additional defect in lysosomal substrate delivery. Interestingly, the lysosomal abnormalities in these lrrk mutants can be suppressed by a constitutively active form of the small GTPase rab9, which promotes retromer-dependent recycling from late endosomes to the Golgi. Collectively, our data provides compelling evidence of a vital role for lrrk in lysosomal function and endolysosomal membrane transport in vivo, and suggests a link between lrrk and retromer-mediated endosomal recycling. PMID:25288684

  1. Novel ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-induced null alleles of the Drosophila homolog of LRRK2 reveal a crucial role in endolysosomal functions and autophagy in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Mark W.; Leung, Lok K.; Lone, Mohiddin; Lizzio, Michael A.; Guo, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in LRRK2 cause a dominantly inherited form of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and are the most common known genetic determinant of PD. Inhibitor-based therapies targeting LRRK2 have emerged as a key therapeutic strategy in PD; thus, understanding the consequences of inhibiting the normal cellular functions of this protein is vital. Despite much interest, the physiological functions of LRRK2 remain unclear. Several recent studies have linked the toxicity caused by overexpression of pathogenic mutant forms of LRRK2 to defects in the endolysosomal and autophagy pathways, raising the question of whether endogenous LRRK2 might play a role in these processes. Here, we report the characterization of multiple novel ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-induced nonsense alleles in the Drosophila LRRK2 homolog, lrrk. Using these alleles, we show that lrrk loss-of-function causes striking defects in the endolysosomal and autophagy pathways, including the accumulation of markedly enlarged lysosomes that are laden with undigested contents, consistent with a defect in lysosomal degradation. lrrk loss-of-function also results in the accumulation of autophagosomes, as well as the presence of enlarged early endosomes laden with mono-ubiquitylated cargo proteins, suggesting an additional defect in lysosomal substrate delivery. Interestingly, the lysosomal abnormalities in these lrrk mutants can be suppressed by a constitutively active form of the small GTPase rab9, which promotes retromer-dependent recycling from late endosomes to the Golgi. Collectively, our data provides compelling evidence of a vital role for lrrk in lysosomal function and endolysosomal membrane transport in vivo, and suggests a link between lrrk and retromer-mediated endosomal recycling. PMID:25288684

  2. Route of progesterone administration for luteal phase support may affect outcome of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for IVF with ICSI using GnRH antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Ulug, Ulun

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the impact of route of progesterone administration as luteal phase support on the outcome of assisted conception cycles. Methods Intramuscular progesterone in oil (IMP) at 100 mg daily was administered to 903 women following oocyte retrieval whereas vaginal progesterone gel (VMP) at 90 mg was administered twice daily to 1,110 women. Retrospective analysis was performed according to the type of GnRH analogue used. Implantation (IR), clinical pregnancy (CPR) and biochemical pregnancy rates (BPR) were main outcomes. Results In GnRH agonist cycles, neither IR, CPR or BPR differed according to the route of progesterone. However, in GnRH antagonist cycles, IR and CPR were significantly lower in VMP group compared to IMP group. BPR also was significantly higher in VMP group compared to IMP group. Conclusion Our results suggest that route of progesterone administration for luteal phase support can be an important prognostic factor according to the type of GnRH analogue used for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. PMID:18941886

  3. Effect of sunlight transformed by luminophore-containing materials on cell functions in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Khramov, R N; Fakhranurova, L I; Paskevich, S I; Anisimov, S I; Manokhin, A A; Simonova, N B; Davydova, G A; Selezneva, I I

    2015-02-01

    Effect of sunlight transformed by luminophore-containing materials on cell viability and functional state of the retina was assessed using the photodamage model. Exposure to the luminescent component of light improved viability of NIH 3T3 cells and promoted recovery of electric activity in rabbit retina after photodamage. PMID:25711665

  4. Development of an In Vivo RNAi Protocol to Investigate Gene Function in the Filarial Nematode, Brugia malayi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chuanzhe Song; Jack M. Gallup; Tim A. Day; Lyric C. Bartholomay; Michael J. Kimber

    2010-01-01

    Our ability to control diseases caused by parasitic nematodes is constrained by a limited portfolio of effective drugs and a paucity of robust tools to investigate parasitic nematode biology. RNA interference (RNAi) is a reverse-genetics tool with great potential to identify novel drug targets and interrogate parasite gene function, but present RNAi protocols for parasitic nematodes, which remove the parasite

  5. In vivo stimulatory effect of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium and its fractions on reproductive functions in male mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan-Li Huang; Sew-Fen Leu; Bi-Ching Liu; Chia-Chin Sheu; Bu-Miin Huang

    2004-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (CS), an Ascomycetes fungus parasitic to Lepidoptera larvae, has been traditionally used as nutritious food for the enhancement on sexual performance and the restitution of impairment in sexual function in Chinese society. We have previously demonstrated the stimulatory effect of CS and its fractions on steroidogenesis both on primary mouse Leydig cells and MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells.

  6. JUNONIA COENIA DENSOVIRUS DERIVED VECTORS OFFER NEW AVENUES FOR EXPLORATION AND EXAMINATION OF POLYDNAVIRUS (PDV) GENE FUNCTION IN VIVO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endoparasitic wasps often utilize symbiotic polydnaviruses (PDVs) as a means to overcome and regulate host development and immunity. Genetic manipulations and functional investigations of PDV immunosuppressive activities have been difficult due to the inability to replicate PDV DNA outside host wasp...

  7. Wall Shear Stress – an Important Determinant of Endothelial Cell Function and Structure – in the Arterial System in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert S. Reneman; Theo Arts; Arnold P. G. Hoeks

    2006-01-01

    It has been well established that wall shear stress is an important determinant of endothelial cell function and gene expression as well as of its structure. There is increasing evidence that low wall shear stress, as pres- ent in artery bifurcations opposite to the flow divider where atherosclerotic lesions preferentially originate, expresses an atherogenic endothelial gene profile. Besides, wall shear

  8. Phenotypical Analysis of Atypical PKCs In Vivo Function Display a Compensatory System at Mouse Embryonic Day 7.5

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Sebastian; Braun, Ursula; Roos, Norbert; Li, Shaohua; Lüdtke, Timo H.-W.

    2013-01-01

    Background The atypical protein kinases C (PKC) isoforms ?/? and ? play crucial roles in many cellular processes including development, cell proliferation, differentiation and cell survival. Possible redundancy between the two isoforms has always been an issue since most biochemical tools do not differentiate between the two proteins. Thus, much effort has been made during the last decades to characterize the functions of aPKCs using gene targeting approaches and depletion studies. However, little is known about the specific roles of each isoform in mouse development. Methodology/Principal Findings To evaluate the importance of PKC? in mouse development we designed PKC? deletion mutants using the gene targeting approach. We show that the deletion of PKC?, results in a reduced size of the amniotic cavity at E7.5 and impaired growth of the embryo at E8.5 with subsequent absorption of the embryo. Our data also indicate an impaired localization of ZO-1 and disorganized structure of the epithelial tissue in the embryo. Importantly, using electron microscopy, embryoid body formation and immunofluorescence analysis, we found, that in the absence of PKC?, tight junctions and apico-basal polarity were still established. Finally, our study points to a non-redundant PKC? function at E9.5, since expression of PKC? is able to rescue the E7.5 phenotype, but could not prevent embryonic lethality at a later time-point (E9.5). Conclusion Our data show that PKC? is crucial for mouse embryogenesis but is dispensable for the establishment of polarity and tight junction formation. We present a compensatory function of PKC? at E7.5, rescuing the phenotype. Furthermore, this study indicates at least one specific, yet unknown, PKC? function that cannot be compensated by the overexpression of PKC? at E9.5. PMID:23690951

  9. In vivo effects of cyclic administration of 15-deoxyspergualin on leucocyte function in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Kälsch, A-I; Schmitt, W H; Breedijk, A; Marinaki, S; Weigerding, S; Nebe, T C; Nemoto, K; van der Woude, F J; Yard, B A; Birck, R

    2006-12-01

    15-Deoxyspergualin (DSG) is an alternative treatment modality for Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) patients refractory to conventional treatment. Nevertheless, it is unclear how DSG modulates disease activity in these patients. This study was conducted to investigate which parameters of adaptive and acquired immunity were influenced during two subsequent cycles of DSG treatment. Emphasis was put upon T cell and monocyte activation, neutrophil function and surface expression of proteinase-3 (PR-3). Anti-CD3/anti-CD28 and interleukin (IL)-15/IL-7-mediated T cell proliferation were assessed by fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis using carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CSFE) labelling. Interferon (IFN)-gamma and IL-10 production were determined in the supernatants of these cultures by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Monocyte activation was assessed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated whole blood, using tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha as read-out. Neutrophil function was determined by measuring oxidative burst, chemotaxis and phagocytosis. T cell activation markers and PR3 expression were measured by FACS. All parameters were determined directly before and after each DSG cycle. Anti-CD3/anti-CD28-mediated T cell proliferation was reduced directly after DSG treatment. Directly before a subsequent cycle of DSG was started, T cell proliferation was increased. Similar findings were observed for IFN-gamma and IL-10 production by T cells. DSG did not influence IL-15/IL-7-mediated T cell proliferation. LPS-mediated TNF-alpha production was also impaired directly after DSG treatment. No influence on T cell activation markers, neutrophil function and surface PR-3 expression was observed in peripheral blood of these patients. Our data demonstrate that DSG influences T cell and monocyte activation in a reversible fashion. Although DSG causes neutropenia in these patients, it does not influence neutrophil function. PMID:17100765

  10. Effects of prolonged exposure to morphine and methadone on in vivo parameters of immune function in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. De Waal; J. W. Van Der Laan; H. Van Loveren

    1998-01-01

    In rats, two 6-week repeated dose oral toxicity studies were performed with morphine (250 and 500 mg\\/kg food) and methadone (200 and 400 mg\\/kg food), respectively. Alterations in immune function were studied by assessing primary and secondary immune responses to sheep red blood cells. In addition, the ability to resist challenge with infectious agents was measured in host resistance models

  11. Comparing the in Vivo Function of ?-Carboxysomes and ?-Carboxysomes in Two Model Cyanobacteria1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Lynne; Long, Benedict M.; Price, G. Dean; Badger, Murray R.

    2014-01-01

    The carbon dioxide (CO2)-concentrating mechanism of cyanobacteria is characterized by the occurrence of Rubisco-containing microcompartments called carboxysomes within cells. The encapsulation of Rubisco allows for high-CO2 concentrations at the site of fixation, providing an advantage in low-CO2 environments. Cyanobacteria with Form-IA Rubisco contain ?-carboxysomes, and cyanobacteria with Form-IB Rubisco contain ?-carboxysomes. The two carboxysome types have arisen through convergent evolution, and ?-cyanobacteria and ?-cyanobacteria occupy different ecological niches. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first direct comparison of the carboxysome function from ?-cyanobacteria (Cyanobium spp. PCC7001) and ?-cyanobacteria (Synechococcus spp. PCC7942) with similar inorganic carbon (Ci; as CO2 and HCO3?) transporter systems. Despite evolutionary and structural differences between ?-carboxysomes and ?-carboxysomes, we found that the two strains are remarkably similar in many physiological parameters, particularly the response of photosynthesis to light and external Ci and their modulation of internal ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate, phosphoglycerate, and Ci pools when grown under comparable conditions. In addition, the different Rubisco forms present in each carboxysome had almost identical kinetic parameters. The conclusions indicate that the possession of different carboxysome types does not significantly influence the physiological function of these species and that similar carboxysome function may be possessed by each carboxysome type. Interestingly, both carboxysome types showed a response to cytosolic Ci, which is of higher affinity than predicted by current models, being saturated by 5 to 15 mm Ci. This finding has bearing on the viability of transplanting functional carboxysomes into the C3 chloroplast. PMID:24642960

  12. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological role of TLQP-21, a VGF-derived peptide, in the regulation of rat gastric motor functions

    PubMed Central

    Severini, C; La Corte, G; Improta, G; Broccardo, M; Agostini, S; Petrella, C; Sibilia, V; Pagani, F; Guidobono, F; Bulgarelli, I; Ferri, GL; Brancia, C; Rinaldi, AM; Levi, A; Possenti, R

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Vgf gene expression has been detected in various endocrine and neuronal cells in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study we investigated the pharmacological activity of different VGF-derived peptides. Among these, TLQP-21, corresponding to the 556–576 fragment of the protein was the unique active peptide, and its pharmacological profile was further studied. Experimental approach: The effects of TLQP-21 were examined in vitro by smooth muscle contraction in isolated preparations from the rat gastrointestinal tract and, in vivo, by assessing gastric emptying in rats. Rat stomach tissues were also processed for immunohistochemical and biochemical characterization. Key results: In rat longitudinal forestomach strips, TLQP-21 (100 nmol·L?1–10 µmol·L?1) concentration-dependently induced muscle contraction (in female rats, EC50 = 0.47 µmol·L?1, Emax: 85.7 ± 7.9 and in male rats, 0.87 µmol·L?1, Emax: 33.4 ± 5.3; n = 8), by release of prostaglandin (PG)E2 and PGF2a from the mucosal layer. This effect was significantly antagonized by indomethacin and selective inhibitors of either cyclooxygenase-1 (S560) or cyclooxygenase-2 (NS398). Immunostaining and biochemical studies confirmed the presence of VGF in the gastric neuronal cells. TLQP-21, injected i.c.v. (2–32 nmol per rat), significantly decreased gastric emptying by about 40%. This effect was significantly (P < 0.05) blocked by i.c.v. injection of indomethacin, suggesting that, also in vivo, this peptide acts in the brain stimulating PG release. Conclusions and implications: The present results demonstrate that this VGF-derived peptide plays a central and local role in the regulation of rat gastric motor functions. PMID:19466987

  13. A novel method for the in vivo isolation of circulating tumor cells from peripheral blood of cancer patients using a functionalized and structured medical wire.

    PubMed

    Saucedo-Zeni, Nadia; Mewes, Steffi; Niestroj, Robert; Gasiorowski, Lukasz; Murawa, David; Nowaczyk, Piotr; Tomasi, Tatiana; Weber, Ekkehard; Dworacki, Grzegorz; Morgenthaler, Nils G; Jansen, Heike; Propping, Corinna; Sterzynska, Karolina; Dyszkiewicz, Wojciech; Zabel, Maciej; Kiechle, Marion; Reuning, Ute; Schmitt, Manfred; Lücke, Klaus

    2012-10-01

    The isolation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from the blood of patients afflicted with solid malignant tumors becomes increasingly important as it may serve as a 'liquid biopsy' with the potential of monitoring the course of the cancer disease and its response to cancer therapy, with subsequent molecular characterization. For this purpose, we functionalized a structured medical Seldinger guidewire (FSMW), normally used to obtain safe access to blood vessels and other organ cavities, with a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed to the cell surface expressed epithelial cell surface adhesion molecule (EpCAM). This medical device was optimized in vitro and its biocompatibility was tested according to the regulations for medical devices and found to be safe with no noteworthy side effects. Suitability, specificity and sensitivity of the FSMW to catch and enrich CTCs in vivo from circulating peripheral blood were tested in 24 breast cancer or non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and in 29 healthy volunteers. For this, the FSMW was inserted through a standard venous cannula into the cubital veins of healthy volunteers or cancer patients for the duration of 30 min. After removal, CTCs were identified by immuno-cytochemical staining of EpCAM and/or cytokeratins and staining of their nuclei and counted. The FSMW successfully enriched EpCAM-positive CTCs from 22 of the 24 patients, with a median of 5.5 (0-50) CTCs in breast cancer (n=12) and 16 (2-515) CTCs in NSCLC (n=12). CTCs could be isolated across all tumor stages, including early stage cancer, in which distant metastases were not yet diagnosed, while no CTCs could be detected in healthy volunteers. In this observatory study, no adverse effects were noted. Evidently, the FSMW has the potential to become an important device to enrich CTCs in vivo for monitoring the course of the cancer disease and the efficacy of anticancer treatment. PMID:22825490

  14. A novel method for the in vivo isolation of circulating tumor cells from peripheral blood of cancer patients using a functionalized and structured medical wire

    PubMed Central

    SAUCEDO-ZENI, NADIA; MEWES, STEFFI; NIESTROJ, ROBERT; GASIOROWSKI, LUKASZ; MURAWA, DAVID; NOWACZYK, PIOTR; TOMASI, TATIANA; WEBER, EKKEHARD; DWORACKI, GRZEGORZ; MORGENTHALER, NILS G.; JANSEN, HEIKE; PROPPING, CORINNA; STERZYNSKA, KAROLINA; DYSZKIEWICZ, WOJCIECH; ZABEL, MACIEJ; KIECHLE, MARION; REUNING, UTE; SCHMITT, MANFRED; LÜCKE, KLAUS

    2012-01-01

    The isolation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from the blood of patients afflicted with solid malignant tumors becomes increasingly important as it may serve as a ‘liquid biopsy’ with the potential of monitoring the course of the cancer disease and its response to cancer therapy, with subsequent molecular characterization. For this purpose, we functionalized a structured medical Seldinger guidewire (FSMW), normally used to obtain safe access to blood vessels and other organ cavities, with a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed to the cell surface expressed epithelial cell surface adhesion molecule (EpCAM). This medical device was optimized in vitro and its biocompatibility was tested according to the regulations for medical devices and found to be safe with no noteworthy side effects. Suitability, specificity and sensitivity of the FSMW to catch and enrich CTCs in vivo from circulating peripheral blood were tested in 24 breast cancer or non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and in 29 healthy volunteers. For this, the FSMW was inserted through a standard venous cannula into the cubital veins of healthy volunteers or cancer patients for the duration of 30 min. After removal, CTCs were identified by immunocytochemical staining of EpCAM and/or cytokeratins and staining of their nuclei and counted. The FSMW successfully enriched EpCAM-positive CTCs from 22 of the 24 patients, with a median of 5.5 (0–50) CTCs in breast cancer (n=12) and 16 (2–515) CTCs in NSCLC (n=12). CTCs could be isolated across all tumor stages, including early stage cancer, in which distant metastases were not yet diagnosed, while no CTCs could be detected in healthy volunteers. In this observatory study, no adverse effects were noted. Evidently, the FSMW has the potential to become an important device to enrich CTCs in vivo for monitoring the course of the cancer disease and the efficacy of anticancer treatment. PMID:22825490

  15. Insertions of up to 17 amino acids into a region of alpha-tubulin do not disrupt function in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Schatz, P J; Georges, G E; Solomon, F; Botstein, D

    1987-01-01

    Microtubules in yeasts are essential components of the mitotic and meiotic spindle and are necessary for nuclear movement during cell division and mating. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has two alpha-tubulin genes, TUB1 and TUB3, either of which alone is sufficient for these processes when present in a high enough copy number. Comparisons of sequences from several species reveals the presence of a variable region near the amino terminus of alpha-tubulin proteins. We perturbed the structure of this region in TUB3 by inserting into it 3, 9, or 17 amino acids and tested the ability of these altered proteins to function as the only alpha-tubulin protein in yeast cells. We found that each of these altered proteins was sufficient on its own for mitotic growth, mating, and methods of yeast. We conclude that this region can tolerate considerable variation without losing any of the highly conserved functions of alpha-tubulin. Our results suggest that variability in this region occurs because it can be tolerated, not because it specifies an important function for the protein. Images PMID:3316988

  16. Further Development of a Tissue Engineered Muscle Repair Construct In Vitro for Enhanced Functional Recovery Following Implantation In Vivo in a Murine Model of Volumetric Muscle Loss Injury

    PubMed Central

    Corona, Benjamin T.; Machingal, Masood A.; Criswell, Tracy; Vadhavkar, Manasi; Dannahower, Ashley C.; Bergman, Christopher; Zhao, Weixin

    2012-01-01

    Volumetric muscle loss (VML) can result from trauma and surgery in civilian and military populations, resulting in irrecoverable functional and cosmetic deficits that cannot be effectively treated with current therapies. Previous work evaluated a bioreactor-based tissue engineering approach in which muscle derived cells (MDCs) were seeded onto bladder acellular matrices (BAM) and mechanically preconditioned. This first generation tissue engineered muscle repair (TEMR) construct exhibited a largely differentiated cellular morphology consisting primarily of myotubes, and moreover, significantly improved functional recovery within 2 months of implantation in a murine latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle with a surgically created VML injury. The present report extends these initial observations to further document the importance of the cellular phenotype and composition of the TEMR construct in vitro to the functional recovery observed following implantation in vivo. To this end, three distinct TEMR constructs were created by seeding MDCs onto BAM as follows: (1) a short-term cellular proliferation of MDCs to generate primarily myoblasts without bioreactor preconditioning (TEMR-1SP), (2) a prolonged cellular differentiation and maturation period that included bioreactor preconditioning (TEMR-1SPD; identical to the first generation TEMR construct), and (3) similar treatment as TEMR-1SPD but with a second application of MDCs during bioreactor preconditioning (TEMR-2SPD); simulating aspects of “exercise” in vitro. Assessment of maximal tetanic force generation on retrieved LD muscles in vitro revealed that TEMR-1SP and TEMR-1SPD constructs promoted either an accelerated (i.e., 1 month) or a prolonged (i.e., 2 month postinjury) functional recovery, respectively, of similar magnitude. Meanwhile, TEMR-2SPD constructs promoted both an accelerated and prolonged functional recovery, resulting in twice the magnitude of functional recovery of either TEMR-1SP or TEMR-1SPD constructs. Histological and molecular analyses indicated that TEMR constructs mediated functional recovery via regeneration of functional muscle fibers either at the interface of the construct and the native tissue or within the BAM scaffolding independent of the native tissue. Taken together these findings are encouraging for the further development and clinical application of TEMR constructs as a VML injury treatment. PMID:22439962

  17. Layer-by-layer self-assembly of functionalized graphene nanoplates for glucose sensing in vivo integrated with on-line microdialysis system.

    PubMed

    Gu, Hui; Yu, Yanyan; Liu, Xiaoqian; Ni, Bing; Zhou, Tianshu; Shi, Guoyue

    2012-02-15

    In this work, a novel amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide was fabricated through the layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembling of amine-terminated ionic liquid (IL-NH(2)), and sulfonic acid (SO(3)(-)) functionalized graphene by covalent bonding. The modification of the two functionalities introduced positive and negative charge onto the surface of graphene respectively, thus facilitating the formation of a multilayer film denoted with {IL-RGO/S-RGO}(n) through electrostatic interaction and further immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx). The resulting {IL-RGO/S-RGO}(n)/GOx/Nafion biosensor displayed an excellent response to glucose at a potential of -200 mV. Combined with on-line microdialysis system, the glucose biosensor in the on-line system showed good linear range from 10 ?M to 500 ?M with the detection limit of 3.33 ?M (S/N=3). Consequently, the basal level of glucose in the striatum of anesthetic rats was calculated to be 0.376 ± 0.028 mM (mean ± s.d., n=3). The {IL-RGO/S-RGO}(n)/GOx/Nafion biosensor was further applied for in vivo sensing of the glucose level in the striatum when rats received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 30 ?L insulin, which resulted in an obvious decrease in the extracellular concentration of glucose within 30 min. The method was proved to be sensitive and reproducible, which enabled its promising application in physiology and pathology. PMID:22209068

  18. Identity, regulation and in vivo function of gut NKp46+ROR?t+ and NKp46+ROR?t- lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Reynders, Ana; Yessaad, Nadia; Vu Manh, Thien-Phong; Dalod, Marc; Fenis, Aurore; Aubry, Camille; Nikitas, Georgios; Escalière, Bertrand; Renauld, Jean Christophe; Dussurget, Olivier; Cossart, Pascale; Lecuit, Marc; Vivier, Eric; Tomasello, Elena

    2011-07-20

    The gut is a major barrier against microbes and encloses various innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), including two subsets expressing the natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp46. A subset of NKp46(+) cells expresses retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor ?t (ROR?t) and produces IL-22, like lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. Other NKp46(+) cells lack ROR?t and produce IFN-?, like conventional Natural Killer (cNK) cells. The identity, the regulation and the in vivo functions of gut NKp46(+) ILCs largely remain to be unravelled. Using pan-genomic profiling, we showed here that small intestine (SI) NKp46(+)ROR?t(-) ILCs correspond to SI NK cells. Conversely, we identified a transcriptional programme conserved in fetal LTi cells and adult SI NKp46(+)ROR?t(+) and NKp46(-)ROR?t(+) ILCs. We also demonstrated that the IL-1?/IL-1R1/MyD88 pathway, but not the commensal flora, drove IL-22 production by NKp46(+)ROR?t(+) ILCs. Finally, oral Listeria monocytogenes infection induced IFN-? production in SI NK and IL-22 production in NKp46(+)ROR?t(+) ILCs, but only IFN-? contributed to control bacteria dissemination. NKp46(+) ILC heterogeneity is thus associated with subset-specific transcriptional programmes and effector functions that govern their implication in gut innate immunity. PMID:21685873

  19. Identification of the determinants of tRNA function and susceptibility to rapid tRNA decay by high-throughput in vivo analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Michael P.; Young, David L.; Payea, Matthew J.; Zhang, Xiaoju; Kon, Yoshiko; Dean, Kimberly M.; Grayhack, Elizabeth J.; Mathews, David H.; Fields, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Sequence variation in tRNA genes influences the structure, modification, and stability of tRNA; affects translation fidelity; impacts the activity of numerous isodecoders in metazoans; and leads to human diseases. To comprehensively define the effects of sequence variation on tRNA function, we developed a high-throughput in vivo screen to quantify the activity of a model tRNA, the nonsense suppressor SUP4oc of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using a highly sensitive fluorescent reporter gene with an ochre mutation, fluorescence-activated cell sorting of a library of SUP4oc mutant yeast strains, and deep sequencing, we scored 25,491 variants. Unexpectedly, SUP4oc tolerates numerous sequence variations, accommodates slippage in tertiary and secondary interactions, and exhibits genetic interactions that suggest an alternative functional tRNA conformation. Furthermore, we used this methodology to define tRNA variants subject to rapid tRNA decay (RTD). Even though RTD normally degrades tRNAs with exposed 5? ends, mutations that sensitize SUP4oc to RTD were found to be located throughout the sequence, including the anti-codon stem. Thus, the integrity of the entire tRNA molecule is under surveillance by cellular quality control machinery. This approach to assess activity at high throughput is widely applicable to many problems in tRNA biology. PMID:25085423

  20. Members of the synaptobrevin/vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) family in Drosophila are functionally interchangeable in vivo for neurotransmitter release and cell viability

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Sharmila; Stewart, Bryan A.; Niemeyer, Barbara A.; Burgess, Robert W.; McCabe, Brian D.; Lin, Peter; Boulianne, Gabrielle; O'Kane, Cahir J.; Schwarz, Thomas L.

    2002-01-01

    Synaptobrevins or VAMPs are vesicle-associated membrane proteins, often called v-SNARES, that are important for vesicle transport and fusion at the plasma membrane. Drosophila has two characterized members of this gene family: synaptobrevin (syb) and neuronal synaptobrevin (n-syb). Mutant phenotypes and gene-expression patterns indicate that n-Syb is exclusively neuronal and required only for synaptic vesicle secretion, whereas Syb is ubiquitous and, as shown here, essential for cell viability. When the eye precursor cells were made homozygous for syb?, the eye failed to develop. In contrast, n-syb? eye clones developed appropriately but failed to activate downstream neurons. To determine whether the two proteins are structurally specialized to accomplish these distinct in vivo functions, we have driven the expression of each gene in the absence of the other to look for phenotypic rescue. We find that expression of n-syb during eye development can rescue the cell lethality of the syb mutations, as can rat VAMP2 and cellubrevin. Expression of syb can restore synaptic transmission to n-syb mutants as assayed both by electroretinogram and recordings of excitatory junctional currents at the neuromuscular junction. Therefore, we find that Syb, which usually is not involved in synaptic function, can mediate Ca2+-triggered synaptic activity and that no particular specialization of the v-SNARE is required to differentiate synaptic exocytosis from other forms. PMID:12364587

  1. Flavoprotein imaging in the cerebellar cortex in vivo: cellular and metabolic basis and insights into cerebellar function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wangcai; Chen, Gang; Ebner, Timothy J.

    2009-02-01

    Flavoprotein autofluorescence is an activity dependent intrinsic signal. Flavoproteins are involved in the electron transport chain and change their fluorescence according to the cellular redox state. We have been using flavoprotein autofluorescence in the cerebellum to examine properties of cerebellar circuits. Studies have also focused on understanding the cellular and metabolic origins of this intrinsic optical signal. Parallel fiber stimulation evokes a beamlike response intersected by bands of decreased fluorescence. The beam response is biphasic, with an early fluorescence increase (light phase) followed by a slower decrease (dark phase). We show this signal originates from flavoproteins as determined by its wavelength selectivity and sensitivity to blockers of the electron transport chain. Selectively blocking glutamate receptors abolished the on-beam light phase with the dark phase remaining intact. This demonstrates that the light phase is due to postsynaptic neuronal activation and suggests the dark phase is primarily due to glial activation. The bands of reduced fluorescence intersecting the beam are primarily neuronal in origin, mediated by GABAergic transmission, and due to the inhibitory action of molecular layer interneurons on Purkinje cells and the interneurons themselves. This parasagittally organized molecular layer inhibition differentially modulates the spatial pattern of cerebellar cortical activity. Flavoprotein imaging also reveals the functional architectures underlying the responses to inferior olive and peripheral whisker pad stimulation. Therefore, flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging is providing new insights into cerebellar cortical function and neurometabolic coupling.

  2. Monte Carlo simulation of the BEGe detector response function for in vivo measurements of 241Am in the skull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantínová, K.; Fojtík, P.

    2014-11-01

    This paper reports on the procedure of the BEGe detector characterization for the Monte Carlo calibrations. A project is under way to improve the counting and operating capabilities of the Whole Body Counter (WBC) installed in SÚRO, v.v.i. (NRPI) Prague, Czech Republic. Possible emergency monitoring should mainly benefit from the rapid, safe and flexible operation of the WBC. The system of the WBC for the detection of low energy X and gamma radiation comprises four HPGe detectors intended for the routine, emergency, and research measurements of persons internally contaminated with low-energy photon emitters, mainly actinides. Among them, 241Am is the main subject of interest. A precise detection efficiency calibration of the detector is required for the measurement of activity in individual organs and tissues. The use of physical phantoms in the calibrations is often supplemented with the application of voxel phantoms and a Monte Carlo technique that are used for the calculation of the detector response function and the full energy peak efficiency. Both experimental and computational approaches have been used for the calibration of the BEGe (Broad Energy Germanium) detector. In this paper, the process of the Monte Carlo simulation of the detector response function and the peak efficiency calculation is described. Results of the simulations are provided in the paper and discussed.

  3. Assessing the presence of abnormal regulation of cortisol secretion by membrane hormone receptors: in vivo and in vitro studies in patients with functioning and non-functioning adrenal adenoma.

    PubMed

    Dall'Asta, C; Ballarè, E; Mantovani, G; Ambrosi, B; Spada, A; Barbetta, L; Colombo, P; Travaglini, P; Loli, P; Beck-Peccoz, P

    2004-08-01

    Regulation of cortisol secretion by aberrant hormone receptors may play a role in the pathogenesis of ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome. In this study, the topic was evaluated by combining in vivo and in vitro approaches. Cortisol responses to various stimuli (standard meal, GnRH + TRH, cisapride, vasopressin, glucagon) were assessed in 6 patients with clinical or subclinical adrenal Cushing's syndrome, and non-functioning adrenal adenoma in two cases. Abnormal responses were observed in three patients with Cushing's syndrome; one patient showed a gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP)-dependent cortisol rise after meal, together with responses after GnRH and cisapride; the second patient showed an LH-dependent cortisol response to GnRH, and in the third cortisol rose after cisapride. The pattern of receptor expression performed by RT-PCR showed that while GIP-R was only expressed in tumor from the responsive patient, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 4 receptor and LH-R were also present in normal adrenal tissues and tissues from non-responsive patients. Interestingly, an activating mutation of Gsalpha gene was identified in one of these tumors. Therefore, cortisol responses to agents operating via Gs protein coupled receptors (in one case associated with Gsalpha mutation) were found in Cushing's patients, while these responses were absent in the others. The finding of receptor expression in normal and non-responsive tumors suggests that different mechanisms are probably involved in inducing in vivo cortisol responses. PMID:15326569

  4. In Vivo Reprogramming of Striatal NG2 Glia into Functional Neurons that Integrate into Local Host Circuitry.

    PubMed

    Torper, Olof; Ottosson, Daniella Rylander; Pereira, Maria; Lau, Shong; Cardoso, Tiago; Grealish, Shane; Parmar, Malin

    2015-07-21

    The possibility of directly converting non-neuronal cells into neurons in situ in the brain would open therapeutic avenues aimed at repairing the brain after injury or degenerative disease. We have developed an adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based reporter system that allows selective GFP labeling of reprogrammed neurons. In this system, GFP is turned on only in reprogrammed neurons where it is stable and maintained for long time periods, allowing for histological and functional characterization of mature neurons. When combined with a modified rabies virus-based trans-synaptic tracing methodology, the system allows mapping of 3D circuitry integration into local and distal brain regions and shows that the newly reprogrammed neurons are integrated into host brain. PMID:26166567

  5. Adjudin-mediated Sertoli-germ cell junction disassembly affects Sertoli cell barrier function in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Su, Linlin; Cheng, C. Yan; Mruk, Dolores D.

    2010-01-01

    Adjudin, an analogue of lonidamine, affects adhesion between Sertoli and most germ cells, resulting in reversible infertility in rats, rabbits and dogs. Previous studies have described the apical ectoplasmic specialization, a hybrid-type of Sertoli cell–elongating/elongated spermatid adhesive junction, as a key target of adjudin. In this study, we ask if the function of the blood-testis barrier which is constituted by co-existing tight junctions, desmosome-gap junctions and basal ectoplasmic specializations can be maintained when the seminiferous epithelium is under assault by adjudin. We report herein that administration of a single oral dose of adjudin to adult rats increased the levels of several tight junction and basal ectoplasmic specialization proteins during germ cell loss from the seminiferous epithelium. These findings were corroborated by a functional in vitro experiment when Sertoli cells were cultured on Matrigel™-coated bicameral units in the presence of adjudin and transepithelial electrical resistance was quantified across the epithelium. Indeed, the Sertoli cell permeability barrier was shown to become tighter after adjudin treatment as evidenced by an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance. Equally important, the blood-testis barrier in adjudin-treated rats was shown to be intact 2 weeks post-treatment when its integrity was monitored following vascular administration of inulinfluorescein isothiocyanate which failed to permeate past the barrier and enter into the adluminal compartment. These results illustrate that a unique mechanism exists to maintain blood-testis barrier integrity at all costs, irrespective of the presence of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium of the testis. PMID:20713173

  6. Proteomic analysis of the function of spot in Helicobacter pylori anti-oxidative stress in vitro and colonization in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yundong; Li, Xinpeng; Li, Wen; Zhao, Min; Wang, Lixiang; Liu, Shili; Zeng, Jiping; Liu, Zhifang; Jia, Jihui

    2012-11-01

    As a microaerobe, Helicobacter pylori employs the global regulator SpoT for defending against oxidative stress in vitro. However, the mechanisms how SpoT affects bacterial gene expression is still unknown. Moreover, the function of SpoT in H. pylori colonization in the host is remaining undetermined. To explore the functions of the SpoT in H. pylori pathogenesis, we constructed H. pylori 26695 spoT-deficient mutant (?spoT). While grown in ambient atmosphere, protein expression profile of the ?spoT was analyzed with 2D gel electrophoresis and real-time PCR. Compared to the wild type, the spoT-deficient strain downregulated its transcription of the oxidative-induced genes, as well as the genes responsible for protein degradation and that related to energy metabolism. Meanwhile, the colonization ability of ?spoT strains in Mongolian gerbil was tested, the results demonstrated a decayed colonization in the mouse stomach with ?spoT than the wild type. As a matter of facts, the AGS cells infected with the ?spoT strains excreted increased level of the gastric inflammation cytokines IL-8, and the ?spoT strains showed poor survival ability when treated with reactive oxygen stress (sodium nitroprusside). The elevated capacity of stimulating cytokines and fragility to reactive oxygen stress may be contribute to decreased colonization of the spoT-deficient mutant in the mouse stomach. Conclusively, we speculate that spoT is a key regulator of the genes for H. pylori spreading in the air and colonization in host stomach. PMID:22678710

  7. Aberrant T-cell function in vitro and impaired T-cell dependent antibody response in vivo in vitamin A-deficient rats.

    PubMed Central

    Wiedermann, U; Hanson, L A; Kahu, H; Dahlgren, U I

    1993-01-01

    We have previously reported that vitamin A deficiency resulted in a reduced IgA antibody response to cholera toxin (CT) after per-oral immunization. In the present investigation we have studied the in vivo and in vitro immune response in vitamin A-deficient rats to two parenterally applied antigens, beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) and picrylsulphonic acid (TNP)-Ficoll. The serum IgG and IgM antibody responses to the T-cell dependent antigen beta-LG were significantly lower in the vitamin A-deficient rats than in the pair-fed control rats. No such differences were seen with the IgG and IgM responses to the T-cell independent antigen TNP-Ficoll. However, the biliary IgA and the serum IgE antibodies against both antigens were decreased in the vitamin A-deficient rats. In vitro lymphocyte stimulation with concanavalin A (Con A) or beta-LG gave higher T-cell proliferation rates in the vitamin A-deficient than in the control rats. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) levels in supernatants from Con A-stimulated mesenteric lymph node cells were also higher in the vitamin A-deficient rats, while IL-6 levels were decreased, which is consistent with an up-regulated Th1 activity. Proliferation studies on purified accessory cells and T cells from the deficient and the control rats, mixed in different combinations, showed that the T cells, but not the accessory cells, were disturbed in the vitamin A-deficient rats. Despite the increased T-cell activity in vitro the vitamin A-deficient rats had a lower delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction than the pair-fed control rats. In conclusion, the increased IL-2 and IFN-gamma levels may reflect an up-regulation of Th1 cell function, while the decreased IgA, IgE and IL-6 levels indicate a suppression of Th2 cells. The disturbed T-lymphocyte function is manifested in vivo as a decreased DTH reaction and suppressed antibody production, the latter possibly due to a lack of B-cell switching and proliferation factors in vitamin A-deficient rats. PMID:8307607

  8. Aberrant T-cell function in vitro and impaired T-cell dependent antibody response in vivo in vitamin A-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Wiedermann, U; Hanson, L A; Kahu, H; Dahlgren, U I

    1993-12-01

    We have previously reported that vitamin A deficiency resulted in a reduced IgA antibody response to cholera toxin (CT) after per-oral immunization. In the present investigation we have studied the in vivo and in vitro immune response in vitamin A-deficient rats to two parenterally applied antigens, beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) and picrylsulphonic acid (TNP)-Ficoll. The serum IgG and IgM antibody responses to the T-cell dependent antigen beta-LG were significantly lower in the vitamin A-deficient rats than in the pair-fed control rats. No such differences were seen with the IgG and IgM responses to the T-cell independent antigen TNP-Ficoll. However, the biliary IgA and the serum IgE antibodies against both antigens were decreased in the vitamin A-deficient rats. In vitro lymphocyte stimulation with concanavalin A (Con A) or beta-LG gave higher T-cell proliferation rates in the vitamin A-deficient than in the control rats. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) levels in supernatants from Con A-stimulated mesenteric lymph node cells were also higher in the vitamin A-deficient rats, while IL-6 levels were decreased, which is consistent with an up-regulated Th1 activity. Proliferation studies on purified accessory cells and T cells from the deficient and the control rats, mixed in different combinations, showed that the T cells, but not the accessory cells, were disturbed in the vitamin A-deficient rats. Despite the increased T-cell activity in vitro the vitamin A-deficient rats had a lower delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction than the pair-fed control rats. In conclusion, the increased IL-2 and IFN-gamma levels may reflect an up-regulation of Th1 cell function, while the decreased IgA, IgE and IL-6 levels indicate a suppression of Th2 cells. The disturbed T-lymphocyte function is manifested in vivo as a decreased DTH reaction and suppressed antibody production, the latter possibly due to a lack of B-cell switching and proliferation factors in vitamin A-deficient rats. PMID:8307607

  9. Function of the C-terminal Domain of the DEAD-Box Protein Mss116p Analyzed In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Georg; Del Campo, Mark; Mohr, Sabine; Yang, Quansheng; Jia, Huijue; Jankowsky, Eckhard; Lambowitz, Alan M.

    2008-01-01

    The DEAD-box proteins CYT-19 in Neurospora crassa and Mss116p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are general RNA chaperones that function in splicing mitochondrial group I and group II introns and in translational activation. Both proteins consist of a conserved ATP-dependent RNA helicase core region linked to N- and C-terminal domains, the latter with a basic tail similar to many other DEAD-box proteins. In CYT-19, this basic tail was shown to contribute to non-specific RNA binding that helps tether the core helicase region to structured RNA substrates. Here, multiple sequence alignments and secondary structure predictions indicate that CYT-19 and Mss116p belong to distinct subgroups of DEAD-box proteins, whose C-terminal domains have a defining extended ?-helical region preceding the basic tail. We find that mutations or C-terminal truncations in the predicted ?-helical region of Mss116p strongly inhibit RNA-dependent ATPase activity, leading to loss of function in both translational activation and RNA splicing. These findings suggest that the ?-helical region may stabilize and/or regulate the activity of the RNA helicase core. By contrast, a truncation that removes only the basic tail leaves high RNA-dependent ATPase activity and causes only a modest reduction in translation and RNA splicing efficiency in vivo and in vitro. Biochemical analysis shows that deletion of the basic tail leads to weaker non-specific binding of group I and group II intron RNAs, and surprisingly, also impairs RNA-unwinding at saturating protein concentrations and nucleotide-dependent tight binding of single-stranded RNAs by the RNA helicase core. Together, our results indicate that the two subregions of Mss116p’s C-terminal domain act in different ways to support and modulate activities of the core helicase region, whose RNA-unwinding activity is critical for both the translation and RNA splicing functions. PMID:18096186

  10. In vivo effects of environmental concentrations of produced water on the reproductive function of polar cod (Boreogadus saida).

    PubMed

    Geraudie, P; Nahrgang, J; Forget-Leray, J; Minier, C; Camus, L

    2014-01-01

    Offshore oil and gas drilling processes generate operational discharges such as produced water (PW), a complex mixture of seawater with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and alkylphenols (AP). Some of these compounds may interact with the endocrine system of marine organisms and alter reproductive functions. In this study, polar cod were exposed for up to 28 d to a mixture of PAH, alkylated PAH, and AP simulating the composition of North Sea PW, at low and high concentrations (1:2000 and 1:1000 dilution of the original concentrate, respectively). Potential adverse effects of PW on polar cod physiology were investigated through biomarkers of biotransformation (hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase [EROD] activity and bile PAH metabolites), endocrine disruption (plasma vitellogenin [VTG] levels and sex steroid concentrations), and gonad histology. Plasma sexual steroid levels in fish were not markedly affected by PW exposure, while higher plasma VTG concentrations were measured in females exposed to the high PW treatment for 7 and 28 d. In males exposed to the higher PW concentration, inhibition of spermatogenesis was observed after 28 d in addition to increase of melano-macrophage occurrence in testis. Females exposed to the high PW treatment for 21 d showed a significant increase of atresia incidence. Finally, a significant decrease in oocyte number was observed in high PW exposed female ovaries after 28 d of exposure. PMID:24754392

  11. A loss-of-function variant in the human histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HARS) gene is neurotoxic in vivo.

    PubMed

    Vester, Aimée; Velez-Ruiz, Gisselle; McLaughlin, Heather M; Lupski, James R; Talbot, Kevin; Vance, Jeffery M; Züchner, Stephan; Roda, Ricardo H; Fischbeck, Kenneth H; Biesecker, Leslie G; Nicholson, Garth; Beg, Asim A; Antonellis, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) are ubiquitously expressed enzymes responsible for ligating amino acids to cognate tRNA molecules. Mutations in four genes encoding an ARS have been implicated in inherited peripheral neuropathy with an axonal pathology, suggesting that all ARS genes are relevant candidates for disease in patients with related phenotypes. Here, we present results from a mutation screen of the histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HARS) gene in a large cohort of patients with peripheral neuropathy. These efforts revealed a rare missense variant (c.410G>A/p.Arg137Gln) that resides at a highly conserved amino acid, represents a loss-of-function allele when evaluated in yeast complementation assays, and is toxic to neurons when expressed in a worm model. In addition to the patient with peripheral neuropathy, p.Arg137Gln HARS was detected in three individuals by genome-wide exome sequencing. These findings suggest that HARS is the fifth ARS locus associated with axonal peripheral neuropathy. Implications for identifying ARS alleles in human populations and assessing them for a role in neurodegenerative phenotypes are discussed. PMID:22930593

  12. A Loss-of-Function Variant in the Human Histidyl-tRNA Synthetase (HARS) Gene is Neurotoxic In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Vester, Aimee; Velez-Ruiz, Gisselle; McLaughlin, Heather M.; Lupski, James R.; Talbot, Kevin; Vance, Jeffery M.; Züchner, Stephan; Roda, Ricardo H.; Fischbeck, Kenneth H.; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Nicholson, Garth; Beg, Asim; Antonellis, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) are ubiquitously expressed enzymes responsible for ligating amino acids to cognate tRNA molecules. Mutations in four genes encoding an ARS have been implicated in inherited peripheral neuropathy with an axonal pathology, suggesting that all ARS genes are relevant candidates for disease in patients with related phenotypes. Here, we present results from a mutation screen of the histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HARS) gene in a large cohort of patients with peripheral neuropathy. These efforts revealed a rare missense variant (p.Arg137Gln) that resides at a highly conserved amino acid, represents a loss-of-function allele when evaluated in yeast complementation assays, and is toxic to neurons when expressed in a worm model. In addition to the patient with peripheral neuropathy, p.Arg137Gln HARS was detected in three individuals by genome-wide exome sequencing. These findings suggest that HARS is the fifth ARS locus associated with axonal peripheral neuropathy. Implications for identifying ARS alleles in human populations and assessing them for a role in neurodegenerative phenotypes are discussed. PMID:22930593

  13. High-Resolution Crystal Structure and In Vivo Function of a Kinesin-2 Homologue in Giardia intestinalis

    PubMed Central

    Hoeng, J. C.; House, S. A.; Sagolla, M. S.; Pham, J. K.; Mancuso, J. J.; Löwe, J.; Cande, W. Z.

    2008-01-01

    A critical component of flagellar assembly, the kinesin-2 heterotrimeric complex powers the anterograde movement of proteinaceous rafts along the outer doublet of axonemes in intraflagellar transport (IFT). We present the first high-resolution structures of a kinesin-2 motor domain and an ATP hydrolysis–deficient motor domain mutant from the parasitic protist Giardia intestinalis. The high-resolution crystal structures of G. intestinalis wild-type kinesin-2 (GiKIN2a) motor domain, with its docked neck linker and the hydrolysis-deficient mutant GiKIN2aT104N were solved in a complex with ADP and Mg2+ at 1.6 and 1.8 ? resolutions, respectively. These high-resolution structures provide unique insight into the nucleotide coordination within the active site. G. intestinalis has eight flagella, and we demonstrate that both kinesin-2 homologues and IFT proteins localize to both cytoplasmic and membrane-bound regions of axonemes, with foci at cell body exit points and the distal flagellar tips. We demonstrate that the T104N mutation causes GiKIN2a to act as a rigor mutant in vitro. Overexpression of GiKIN2aT104N results in significant inhibition of flagellar assembly in the caudal, ventral, and posterolateral flagellar pairs. Thus we confirm the conserved evolutionary structure and functional role of kinesin-2 as the anterograde IFT motor in G. intestinalis. PMID:18463165

  14. In vivo assessment of human brainstem cerebrovascular function: a multi-inversion time pulsed arterial spin labelling study

    PubMed Central

    Warnert, Esther AH; Harris, Ashley D; Murphy, Kevin; Saxena, Neeraj; Tailor, Neeta; Jenkins, Nigel S; Hall, Judith E; Wise, Richard G

    2014-01-01

    The brainstem (BS) is involved in critical physiologic processes, including control of cardiovascular and respiratory functions. This study implements a multi-inversion time pulsed arterial spin labelling (MTI PASL) imaging sequence that addresses the challenges of BS imaging and aims to measure normal and elevated BS perfusion in healthy volunteers. An initial experiment was performed to obtain the kinetic curve of the label in the BS and consequently to estimate the label arrival times and tissue perfusion in seven participants. A second experiment estimated the BS cerebral vascular reactivity (CVR) to hypercapnia in 10 participants. Images were acquired with a gradient-echo sequence with two spiral interleaves and short echo time (TE=2.7?ms). Data were analyzed with a two-compartment model, including a tissue and arterial component. In both experiments, perfusion in the BS was significantly lower than in cortical gray matter (repeated measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA), P<0.05), which is as expected since the BS consists of gray and white matter, the latter typically showing lower perfusion. The BS CVR found here is comparable to previous reports obtained with positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Multi-inversion time pulsed ASL in combination with a two-compartment signal model can be used to assess BS perfusion and CVR. PMID:24594624

  15. Ovarian function in the Nile hippopotamus and the effects of Depo-Provera administration.

    PubMed

    Graham, L H; Webster, T; Richards, M; Reid, K; Joseph, S

    2002-01-01

    The preliminary results of an investigation into the reproductive endocrinology of the hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) and the effects of the progestin Depo-Provera on ovarian function are presented. Faecal progestagen analysis indicated that hippos have an oestrous cycle of 29.2 +/- 0.9 days and faecal progestagen concentrations of 323.6 +/- 31.4 ng g(-1) during the luteal phase. Concentrations were higher (765.9 +/- 162.4 ng g(-1); P < 0.05) during pregnancy than during the luteal phase and remained high until parturition. A lactational anoestrus was usually, but not always, observed during nursing. The onset of puberty was observed in three animals and started at 2.5-3.5 years of age. After Depo-Provera treatment, increases in faecal progestagens indicative of ovulation were observed and were not significantly different from luteal concentrations observed before treatment (236.3 +/- 24.4 versus 340.1 +/- 47.9 ng g(-1), respectively); however, the duration of the luteal phase was shorter (P < 0.05) than before treatment (11.3 +/- 1.0 versus 18.9 +/- 1.0 days, respectively). Females returned to normal cyclicity at day 100.7 +/- 15.3 (range 70-116 days) after administration and one female conceived on day 100 after administration. PMID:12220165

  16. Functional analysis of the promoter region of amphioxus ?-actin gene: a useful tool for driving gene expression in vivo.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jun; Li, Guang; Liu, Xin; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yi-Quan

    2014-10-01

    Amphioxus is a promising new animal model for developmental biology. To develop molecular tools for this model, we characterized the promoter region of a cytoplasmic ?-actin gene (Bb-actin-6-2) from the Chinese amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri. In situ hybridization and real time-quantitative PCR analyses showed that this gene is expressed in many tissues throughout embryonic development. Cloning of cDNA revealed two isoforms with distinct transcription start sites. Isoform #1 exhibits a similar exon/intron and regulatory element organization to that of vertebrate ?-actin, whereas isoform #2 lacks the first exon of isoform #1 and recruits its first intron as a promoter. The activities of upstream promoter regions in the two isoforms were examined using the lacZ reporter system in amphioxus embryos. The proximal promoter of isoform #1 drove reporter gene expression broadly in 58.6 % of injected embryos. That of isoform #2 exhibited much higher activity (91.5 %) than that of isoform #1 or the human EF-1-? gene (38.2 %). We determined the minimal promoter regions of the two isoforms via functional analysis. These two regions, alone or inserted a random DNA fragment upstream, had no detectable activity, but when an upstream enhancer was inserted, the promoters directed reporter gene expression in 61.0 and 93.8 %, respectively, of injected embryos in a tissue-specific manner. Our study not only provides insight into the regulatory mechanism underlying amphioxus Bb-actin-6-2 gene expression, but also identifies two sets of efficient proximal and minimal promoters. These promoters could be used to construct gene expression vectors for transgenic studies using amphioxus as a model. PMID:25078982

  17. The IL-6R ? chain controls lung CD4+CD25+ Treg development and function during allergic airway inflammation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Doganci, Aysefa; Eigenbrod, Tatjana; Krug, Norbert; De Sanctis, George T.; Hausding, Michael; Erpenbeck, Veit J.; Haddad, El-Bdaoui; Schmitt, Edgar; Bopp, Tobias; Kallen, Karl-J.; Herz, Udo; Schmitt, Steffen; Luft, Cornelia; Hecht, Olaf; Hohlfeld, Jens M.; Ito, Hiroaki; Nishimoto, Norihiro; Yoshizaki, Kazuyuki; Kishimoto, Tadamitsu; Rose-John, Stefan; Renz, Harald; Neurath, Markus F.; Galle, Peter R.; Finotto, Susetta

    2005-01-01

    The cytokine IL-6 acts via a specific receptor complex that consists of the membrane-bound IL-6 receptor (mIL-6R) or the soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) and glycoprotein 130 (gp130). In this study, we investigated the role of IL-6R components in asthma. We observed increased levels of sIL-6R in the airways of patients with allergic asthma as compared to those in controls. In addition, local blockade of the sIL-6R in a murine model of late-phase asthma after OVA sensitization by gp130–fraction constant led to suppression of Th2 cells in the lung. By contrast, blockade of mIL-6R induced local expansion of Foxp3-positive CD4+CD25+ Tregs with increased immunosuppressive capacities. CD4+CD25+ but not CD4+CD25– lung T cells selectively expressed the IL-6R ? chain and showed IL-6–dependent STAT-3 phosphorylation. Finally, in an in vivo transfer model of asthma in immunodeficient Rag1 mice, CD4+CD25+ T cells isolated from anti–IL-6R antibody–treated mice exhibited marked immunosuppressive and antiinflammatory functions. IL-6 signaling therefore controls the balance between effector cells and Tregs in the lung by means of different receptor components. Furthermore, inhibition of IL-6 signaling emerges as a novel molecular approach for the treatment of allergic asthma. PMID:15668741

  18. Functional Expression of Human Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase (DHODH) in pyr4 Mutants of Ustilago maydis Allows Target Validation of DHODH Inhibitors In Vivo?

    PubMed Central

    Zameitat, Elke; Freymark, Gerald; Dietz, Cornelia D.; Löffler, Monika; Bölker, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH; EC 1.3.99.11) is a central enzyme of pyrimidine biosynthesis and catalyzes the oxidation of dihydroorotate to orotate. DHODH is an important target for antiparasitic and cytostatic drugs since rapid cell proliferation often depends on the de novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. We have cloned the pyr4 gene encoding mitochondrial DHODH from the basidiomycetous plant pathogen Ustilago maydis. We were able to show that pyr4 contains a functional mitochondrial targeting signal. The deletion of pyr4 resulted in uracil auxotrophy, enhanced sensitivity to UV irradiation, and a loss of pathogenicity on corn plants. The biochemical characterization of purified U. maydis DHODH overproduced in Escherichia coli revealed that the U. maydis enzyme uses quinone electron acceptor Q6 and is resistant to several commonly used DHODH inhibitors. Here we show that the expression of the human DHODH gene fused to the U. maydis mitochondrial targeting signal is able to complement the auxotrophic phenotype of pyr4 mutants. While U. maydis wild-type cells were resistant to the DHODH inhibitor brequinar, strains expressing the human DHODH gene became sensitive to this cytostatic drug. Such engineered U. maydis strains can be used in sensitive in vivo assays for the development of novel drugs specifically targeted at either human or fungal DHODH. PMID:17369345

  19. Identification of a farnesol analog as a Ras function inhibitor using both an in vivo Ras activation sensor and a phenotypic screening approach.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Kamalakkannan; Subramanian, Thangaiah; Spielmann, H Peter; Janetopoulos, Chris

    2014-02-01

    Mutations in Ras isoforms such as K-Ras, N-Ras, and H-Ras contribute to roughly 85, 15, and 1% of human cancers, respectively. Proper membrane targeting of these Ras isoforms, a prerequisite for Ras activity, requires farnesylation or geranylgeranylation at the C-terminal CAAX box. We devised an in vivo screening strategy based on monitoring Ras activation and phenotypic physiological outputs for assaying synthetic Ras function inhibitors (RFI). Ras activity was visualized by the translocation of RBD Raf1 -GFP to activated Ras at the plasma membrane. By using this strategy, we screened one synthetic farnesyl substrate analog (AGOH) along with nine putative inhibitors and found that only m-CN-AGOH inhibited Ras activation. Phenotypic analysis of starving cells could be used to monitor polarization, motility, and the inability of these treated cells to aggregate properly during fruiting body formation. Incorporation of AGOH and m-CN-AGOH to cellular proteins was detected by western blot. These screening assays can be incorporated into a high throughput screening format using Dictyostelium discoideum and automated microscopy to determine effective RFIs. These RFI candidates can then be further tested in mammalian systems. PMID:24194124

  20. Replacement of Pro109 by His in TlpA, a thioredoxin-like protein from Bradyrhizobium japonicum, alters its redox properties but not its in vivo functions.

    PubMed

    Rossmann, R; Stern, D; Loferer, H; Jacobi, A; Glockshuber, R; Hennecke, H

    1997-04-14

    TlpA, the membrane-anchored, thioredoxin-like protein from Bradyrhizobium japonicum, is essential for cytochrome aa3 biogenesis. The periplasmic domain of TlpA was previously shown to have protein thiol:disulfide oxidoreductase activity and reducing properties similar to those of cytoplasmic thioredoxins. Here, we replaced the proline-109 in its active-site sequence C107 V108 P109 C110 by a histidine residue. The resulting active-site motif (CVHC) resembles that of oxidizing thiol:disulfide oxidoreductases such as protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and DsbA. Indeed, the TlpA variant P109H was by 66 mV more oxidizing than the wild-type protein. Nevertheless, the altered protein was even more efficient in catalyzing the reduction of insulin disulfides by dithiothreitol than the wild-type due to a faster recycling of its catalytically active, reduced form. Cells of B. japonicum expressing only the mutated tlpA gene had the same phenotypes as wild-type cells, suggesting that the change in the redox potential of TlpA was not critical for its in vivo function. PMID:9136895

  1. Silk fibroin scaffolds promote formation of the ex vivo niche for salivary gland epithelial cell growth, matrix formation, and retention of differentiated function.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin-Xian; Zhang, Zhi-Liang; Lin, Alan L; Wang, Hanzhou; Pilia, Marcello; Ong, Joo L; Dean, David D; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Yeh, Chih-Ko

    2015-05-01

    Salivary gland hypofunction often results from a number of causes, including the use of various medications, radiation for head and neck tumors, autoimmune diseases, diabetes, and aging. Since treatments for this condition are lacking and adult salivary glands have little regenerative capacity, there is a need for cell-based therapies to restore salivary gland function. Development of these treatment strategies requires the establishment of a system that is capable of replicating the salivary gland cell "niche" to support the proliferation and differentiation of salivary gland progenitor cells. In this study, a culture system using three-dimensional silk fibroin scaffolds (SFS) and primary salivary gland epithelial cells (pSGECs) from rat submandibular (SM) gland and parotid gland (PG) was established and characterized. pSGECs grown on SFS, but not tissue culture plastic (TCP), formed aggregates of cells with morphological features resembling secretory acini. High levels of amylase were released into the media by both cell types after extended periods in culture on SFS. Remarkably, cultures of PG-derived cells on SFS, but not SM cells, responded to isoproterenol, a ?-adrenergic receptor agonist, with increased enzyme release. This behavior mimics that of the salivary glands in vivo. Decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) formed by pSGECs in culture on SFS contained type IV collagen, a major component of the basement membrane. These results demonstrate that pSGECs grown on SFS, but not TCP, retain important functional and structural features of differentiated salivary glands and produce an ECM that mimics the native salivary gland cell niche. These results demonstrate that SFS has potential as a scaffold for creating the salivary gland cell niche in vitro and may provide an approach for inducing multipotent stem cells to provide therapeutically meaningful numbers of salivary gland progenitor cells for regenerating these tissues in patients. PMID:25625623

  2. A phenotypical approach to the effects of production traits, parturition, puerperium and body condition on commencement of luteal activity in high yielding dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Boldt, Ariane; Becker, Frank; Martin, Gunter; Nürnberg, Gerd; Römer, Anke; Kanitz, Wilhelm

    2015-06-01

    The interval from calving to commencement of luteal activity (CLA) was determined by progesterone measurements from milk samples obtained once a week until the 14th week post-partum in 513 German Holstein cows in first to third parity. Milk samples were analyzed by an "on-farm" device (eProCheck(®), Minitüb, Germany) and simultaneously by RIA. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of milk yield, protein content and body condition of a cow on the CLA post-partum. Milk progesterone concentrations of "on-farm" measurements correlated with measurements done by the RIA-method significantly (r=0.72; P<0.001). Within the analyzed herd the interval from calving until the first rise of progesterone averaged 5.6±2.4 weeks. The 100-days milk yield was not associated with CLA. Cows with a milk protein content at 1st milk recording of ?3.5% revealed first luteal activity 1.3±0.3 weeks later than cows that had a content of >3.75% protein (P<0.01). Furthermore cows with assisted calving or dystocia presented significantly later CLA than cows which required no help during the calving process (P<0.05). The change in back fat thickness from 1st to 2nd milk recording had a significant influence on CLA (P<0.05). In conclusion the phenotypic impact of milk yield on fertility cannot be confirmed regarding to CLA. The negative energy balance after calving, caused by the high milk yields, is more detrimental for the cyclical activity as was shown by the parameters milk protein content and change in BFT. PMID:25882649

  3. Effect of exogenous progesterone supplementation in the early luteal phase post-insemination on pregnancy per artificial insemination in Holstein-Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Parr, M H; Crowe, M A; Lonergan, P; Evans, A C O; Rizos, D; Diskin, M G

    2014-11-10

    One of the main determining factors of pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) is an optimum concentration of progesterone (P4) in the early luteal phase. This study examined the effects of P4 supplementation on P/AI in lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. A total of 453 cows in 8 spring-calving herds were used in the study. Following AI, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups: (1) no subsequent treatment (control; n=221); (2) insertion of a Controlled Internal Drug Release device (CIDR) from day 4 to day 9 post-estrus (supplemented; n=232). Pregnancy per AI was determined by transrectal ultrasonography at day 30 following AI. Insertion of a CIDR increased concentrations of milk P4 in supplemented cows by 4.78ng/mL between day 4 and 4.5 in comparison with a 0.55ng/mL increase in control cows. Progesterone supplementation from day 4 to 9 after AI decreased P/AI by 12 percentage points (56 vs 44%). There was a positive linear and quadratic relationship between P/AI and milk concentration of P4 on day 4 post-estrus in control cows. An optimum concentration of 2.5ng/mL on day 4 was calculated from the logistic regression curve to achieve a probability of P/AI of 65%. When both treatments groups were included in the analysis, there was no association between P/AI and concentrations of P4 on day 4. The results of the study indicate that supplementation with P4 initiated in the early luteal phase had a negative effect on P/AI in dairy cows. PMID:25205297

  4. IN VIVO STAINING OF ASTROCYTES Specific in vivo staining of astrocytes in the whole brain

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    IN VIVO STAINING OF ASTROCYTES 1 Specific in vivo staining of astrocytes in the whole brain after of astrocytes without damaging or interfering with normal brain functions is essential for intravital microscopy in vivo studies of astrocytes in the intact brain [10,11,12] and has opened a new field of dynamic

  5. In Vivo Treg Suppression Assays

    PubMed Central

    Workman, Creg J.; Collison, Lauren W.; Bettini, Maria; Pillai, Meenu R.; Rehg, Jerold E.; Vignali, Dario A.A.

    2011-01-01

    To fully examine the functionality of a regulatory T cell (Treg) population, one needs to assess their ability to suppress in a variety of in vivo models. We describe five in vivo models that examine the suppressive capacity of Tregs upon different target cell types. The advantages and disadvantages of each model includ ing resources, time, and technical expertise required to execute each model are also described. PMID:21287333

  6. Ex vivo biomechanical, functional, and immunohistochemical alterations of adrenergic responses in the female urethra in a rat model of birth trauma.

    PubMed

    Prantil-Baun, Rachelle; de Groat, William C; Miyazato, Minoru; Chancellor, Michael B; Yoshimura, Naoki; Vorp, David A

    2010-08-01

    Birth trauma and pelvic injury have been implicated in the etiology of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). This study aimed to assess changes in the biomechanical properties and adrenergic-evoked contractile responses of the rat urethra after simulated birth trauma induced by vaginal distension (VD). Urethras were isolated 4 days after VD and evaluated in our established ex vivo urethral testing system that utilized a laser micrometer to measure the urethral outer diameter at proximal, middle, and distal positions. Segments were precontracted with phenylephrine (PE) and then exposed to intralumenal static pressures ranging from 0 to 20 mmHg to measure urethral compliance. After active assessment, the urethra was rendered passive with EDTA and assessed. Pressure and diameter measurements were recorded via computer. Urethral thickness was measured histologically to calculate circumferential stress-strain response and functional contraction ratio (FCR), a measure of smooth muscle activity. VD proximal urethras exhibited a significantly increased response to PE compared with that in controls. Conversely, proximal VD urethras had significantly decreased circumferential stress and FCR values in the presence of PE, suggesting that VD reduced the ability of the proximal segment to maintain smooth muscle tone at higher pressures and strains. Circumferential stress values for VD middle urethral segments were significantly higher than control values. Histological analyses using antibodies against general (protein gene product 9.5) and sympathetic (tyrosine hydroxylase) nerve markers showed a significant reduction in nerve density in VD proximal and middle urethral segments. These results strongly suggest that VD damages adrenergic nerves and alters adrenergic responses of proximal and middle urethral smooth muscle. Defects in urethral storage mechanisms, involving changes in adrenergic regulation, may contribute to stress urinary incontinence induced by simulated birth trauma. PMID:20444739

  7. Exposure of female macaques to Western-style diet with or without chronic T in vivo alters secondary follicle function during encapsulated 3-dimensional culture.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; McGee, Whitney K; Bishop, Cecily V; Park, Byung S; Cameron, Judy L; Zelinski, Mary B; Stouffer, Richard L

    2015-03-01

    Increased adiposity and hyperandrogenemia alter reproductive parameters in both animal models and women, but their effects on preantral follicles in the ovary remain unknown. We recently reported that Western-style diet (WSD) consumption over 1 year, with or without chronic exposure to elevated circulating T, increased the body fat percentage, elicited insulin resistance, suppressed estradiol and progesterone production, as well as altered the numbers, size, and dynamics of antral follicles in the ovary during the menstrual cycle in female macaques. Therefore, experiments were designed to compare the WSD and WSD+T effects to age-matched controls on the survival, growth, and function of isolated secondary follicles during 5 weeks of encapsulated 3-dimensional culture. Follicle survival significantly declined in the WSD and WSD+T groups compared with the control (CTRL) group. Although media progesterone levels were comparable among groups, androstenedione and estradiol levels were markedly reduced in the WSD and WSD+T groups compared with the CTRL group at week 5. Anti-Müllerian hormone levels peaked at week 3 and were lower in the WSD+T group compared with the WSD or CTRL group. Vascular endothelial growth factor levels also decreased at week 5 in the WSD+T group compared with the WSD or CTRL group. After human chorionic gonadotropin exposure, only antral follicles developed from the CTRL group yielded metaphase II oocytes. Thus, WSD with or without T exposure affects the cohort of secondary follicles in vivo, suppressing their subsequent survival, production of steroid hormones and local factors, as well as oocyte maturation in vitro. PMID:25545382

  8. Ex vivo biomechanical, functional, and immunohistochemical alterations of adrenergic responses in the female urethra in a rat model of birth trauma

    PubMed Central

    Prantil-Baun, Rachelle; de Groat, William C.; Miyazato, Minoru; Chancellor, Michael B.; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2010-01-01

    Birth trauma and pelvic injury have been implicated in the etiology of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). This study aimed to assess changes in the biomechanical properties and adrenergic-evoked contractile responses of the rat urethra after simulated birth trauma induced by vaginal distension (VD). Urethras were isolated 4 days after VD and evaluated in our established ex vivo urethral testing system that utilized a laser micrometer to measure the urethral outer diameter at proximal, middle, and distal positions. Segments were precontracted with phenylephrine (PE) and then exposed to intralumenal static pressures ranging from 0 to 20 mmHg to measure urethral compliance. After active assessment, the urethra was rendered passive with EDTA and assessed. Pressure and diameter measurements were recorded via computer. Urethral thickness was measured histologically to calculate circumferential stress-strain response and functional contraction ratio (FCR), a measure of smooth muscle activity. VD proximal urethras exhibited a significantly increased response to PE compared with that in controls. Conversely, proximal VD urethras had significantly decreased circumferential stress and FCR values in the presence of PE, suggesting that VD reduced the ability of the proximal segment to maintain smooth muscle tone at higher pressures and strains. Circumferential stress values for VD middle urethral segments were significantly higher than control values. Histological analyses using antibodies against general (protein gene product 9.5) and sympathetic (tyrosine hydroxylase) nerve markers showed a significant reduction in nerve density in VD proximal and middle urethral segments. These results strongly suggest that VD damages adrenergic nerves and alters adrenergic responses of proximal and middle urethral smooth muscle. Defects in urethral storage mechanisms, involving changes in adrenergic regulation, may contribute to stress urinary incontinence induced by simulated birth trauma. PMID:20444739

  9. Evidence for a Dopamine Intrinsic Direct Role in the Regulation of the Ovary Reproductive Function: In Vitro Study on Rabbit Corpora Lutea

    PubMed Central

    Parillo, Francesco; Maranesi, Margherita; Mignini, Fiorenzo; Marinelli, Lisa; Di Stefano, Antonio; Boiti, Cristiano; Zerani, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) receptor (DR) type 1 (D1R) has been found to be expressed in luteal cells of various species, but the intrinsic role of the DA/DRs system on corpora lutea (CL) function is still unclear. Experiments were devised to characterize the expression of DR types and the presence of DA, as well as the in vitro effects of DA on hormone productions by CL in pseudopregnant rabbits. Immunoreactivity and gene expression for D1R decreased while that for D3R increased in luteal and blood vessel cells from early to late pseudopregnant stages. DA immunopositivity was evidenced only in luteal cells. The DA and D1R agonist increased in vitro release of progesterone and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by early CL, whereas the DA and D3R agonist decreased progesterone and increased PGF2? in vitro release by mid- and late CL. These results provide evidence that the DA/DR system exerts a dual modulatory function in the lifespan of CL: the DA/D1R is luteotropic while the DA/D3R is luteolytic. The present data shed new light on the physiological mechanisms regulating luteal activity that might improve our ability to optimize reproductive efficiency in mammal species, including humans. PMID:25148384

  10. Effects of human chorionic gonadotropin, prostaglandin F2 alpha and protein kinase C activators on the cyclic AMP and inositol phosphate second messenger systems in cultured human granulosa-luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Davis, J S; Tedesco, T A; West, L A; Maroulis, G B; Weakland, L L

    1989-08-01

    The effects of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) on the adenylate cyclase-cAMP and inositol phospholipid-phospholipase C-inositol trisphosphate and diacylglycerol transmembrane signalling systems were evaluated in cultured human granulosa-luteal cells. Granulosa-luteal cells obtained from patients undergoing in vitro fertilization were cultured for 72 h prior to addition of hormones. During the last 24 h of culture granulosa-luteal cells were incubated with [3H]inositol. Neither hCG nor gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulated the inositol phospholipid-phospholipase C signalling system. PGF2 alpha stimulated increases in inositol mono-, bis-, and trisphosphate accumulation in 30 min incubations. NaF (20 mM) mimicked the stimulatory effect of PGF2 alpha on inositol phosphate accumulation suggesting the involvement of a guanine nucleotide regulatory protein in the activation of phospholipase C. In contrast, hCG but not PGF2 alpha or NaF stimulated cAMP accumulation in 30 min incubations. Simultaneous treatment with hCG and PGF2 alpha did not alter the stimulatory effect of PGF2 alpha on inositol phosphate accumulation but reduced (37%) the stimulatory effect of hCG on cAMP accumulation. The protein kinase C activator, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) inhibited the stimulatory effects of hCG (76%) and PGF2 alpha (62%) on cAMP and inositol phosphate accumulation, respectively. Thus, cultures of human granulosa-luteal cells possess multiple transmembrane signalling systems which may be modulated by the activation of protein kinase C. PMID:2550298

  11. In vivo biocompatibility and biodegradation of 3D-printed porous scaffolds based on a hydroxyl-functionalized poly(?-caprolactone).

    PubMed

    Seyednejad, Hajar; Gawlitta, Debby; Kuiper, Raoul V; de Bruin, Alain; van Nostrum, Cornelus F; Vermonden, Tina; Dhert, Wouter J A; Hennink, Wim E

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo biodegradation and biocompatibility of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds based on a hydroxyl-functionalized polyester (poly(hydroxymethylglycolide-co-?-caprolactone), PHMGCL), which has enhanced hydrophilicity, increased degradation rate, and improved cell-material interactions as compared to its counterpart poly(?-caprolactone), PCL. In this study, 3D scaffolds based on this polymer (PHMGCL, HMG:CL 8:92) were prepared by means of fiber deposition (melt-plotting). The biodegradation and tissue biocompatibility of PHMGCL and PCL scaffolds after subcutaneous implantation in Balb/c mice were investigated. At 4 and 12 weeks post implantation, the scaffolds were retrieved and evaluated for extent of degradation by measuring the residual weight of the scaffolds, thermal properties (DSC), and morphology (SEM) whereas the polymer was analyzed for both its composition ((1)H NMR) and molecular weight (GPC). The scaffolds with infiltrated tissues were harvested, fixed, stained and histologically analyzed. The in vitro enzymatic degradation of these scaffolds was also investigated in lipase solutions. It was shown that PHMGCL 3D-scaffolds lost more than 60% of their weight within 3 months of implantation while PCL scaffolds showed no weight loss in this time frame. The molecular weight (M(w)) of PHMGCL decreased from 46.9 kDa before implantation to 23.2 kDa after 3 months of implantation, while the molecular weight of PCL was unchanged in this period. (1)H NMR analysis showed that the degradation of PHMGCL was characterized by a loss of HMG units. In vitro enzymatic degradation showed that PHMGCL scaffolds were degraded within 50 h, while the degradation time for PCL scaffolds of similar structure was 72 h. A normal foreign body response to both scaffold types characterized by the presence of macrophages, lymphocytes, and fibrosis was observed with a more rapid onset in PHMGCL scaffolds. The extent of tissue-scaffold interactions as well as vascularization was shown to be higher for PHMGCL scaffolds compared to PCL ones. Therefore, the fast degradable PHMGCL which showed good biocompatibility is a promising biomaterial for tissue engineering applications. PMID:22436798

  12. Simultaneous synthesis and amine-functionalization of single-phase BaYF5:Yb/Er nanoprobe for dual-modal in vivo upconversion fluorescence and long-lasting X-ray computed tomography imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongrong; Lu, Wei; Wang, Haibo; Rao, Ling; Yi, Zhigao; Zeng, Songjun; Hao, Jianhua

    2013-06-01

    In this work, we developed a novel and biocompatible dual-modal nanoprobe based on single-phase amine-functionalized BaYF5:Yb/Er nanoparticles (NPs) for upconversion (UC) fluorescence and in vivo computed X-ray tomography (CT) bioimaging for the first time. High-quality water-soluble amine-functionalized BaYF5:Yb/Er NPs with an average size of 24 nm were synthesized by a facile environmentally friendly hydrothermal method for simultaneous synthesis and surface functionalization. Structure investigation based on the Rietveld refinement method revealed that the as-synthesized BaYF5:Yb/Er NPs present a cubic phase structure, which differs from the previously reported tetragonal structure. Under 980 nm excitation, high-contrast green and red UC emissions were observed from HeLa cells incubated with these amine-functionalized NPs. The UC spectra measured from the NPs incubated with HeLa cells presented only green and red UC emissions without any autofluorescence, further revealing that these NPs are ideal candidates for fluorescent bioimaging. In addition, the cell cytotoxicity test showed low cell toxicity of these NPs. These amine-functionalized NPs were also successfully used as CT agents for in vivo CT imaging because of the efficient X-ray absorption efficiency of Ba and doped Yb ions. A prolonged (2 h) signal enhancement of the spleen in a mouse was observed in CT imaging, which can improve the detection of splenic diseases. More importantly, the simultaneous X-ray and UC in vivo bioimaging was demonstrated in a nude mouse for the first time, indicating the as-prepared UCNPs can be successfully used as dual-modal bioprobes. These results demonstrate that BaYF5:Yb/Er NPs are ideal nanoprobes for dual-modal fluorescent/CT bioimaging with low cytotoxicity, non-autofluorescence, and enhanced detection of the spleen.

  13. Parallel in vivo and in vitro detection of functional somatostatin receptors in human endocrine pancreatic tumors: Consequences with regard to diagnosis, localization, and therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberts, S.W.; Hofland, L.J.; van Koetsveld, P.M.; Reubi, J.C.; Bruining, H.A.; Bakker, W.H.; Krenning, E.P. (Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherland))

    1990-09-01

    The effects of octreotide in vivo and in vitro on hormone release, in vivo ({sup 123}I)Tyr3-octreotide scanning, and in vitro ({sup 125}I)Tyr3-octreotide autoradiography were compared in five patients with endocrine pancreatic tumors. ({sup 123}I)Tyr3-octreotide scanning localized the primary tumor and/or previously unknown metastases in four of the five patients. The patient with a negative scan had an insulinoma that did not respond to octreotide in vivo. No Tyr3-octreotide-binding sites were subsequently found at autoradiography of the tumor, whereas somatostatin-14 receptors were present at a high density. In parallel, culture studies with the cells prepared from this adenoma showed that insulin release was not affected by octreotide, while both somatostatin-14 and -28 significantly suppressed hormone release. Culture studies of the tumor cells from two gastrinomas showed a dose-dependent inhibition of gastrin release by octreotide. Octreotide exerted direct antiproliferative effects in one of these gastrinomas, which had been shown to be rapidly growing in vivo. Both gastrinomas had specific somatostatin receptors, as measured by in vitro receptor autoradiography. Somatostatin release by the cultured somatostatinoma cells from one of these patients was suppressed by octreotide.

  14. Cytoplasmic Localization of the Oncogenic Protein Ski in Human Cutaneous Melanomas in Vivo: Functional Implications for Transforming Growth Factor Signaling1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon A. Reed; Elise Bales; Weidong Xu; Nihal A. Okan; Debdutta Bandyopadhyay; Estela E. Medrano

    2001-01-01

    The oncogenic protein Ski associates with Smad proteins and counter- acts their activation of gene expression and growth inhibition in response to transforming growth factor (TGF-). Here we show that Ski protein levels are increased in all 44 human melanoma tumor tissues analyzed in vivo. In addition, Ski subcellular localization changes from nuclear, in prein- vasive melanomas (melanomas in situ),

  15. In vivo targeted magnetic resonance imaging and visualized photodynamic therapy in deep-tissue cancers using folic acid-functionalized superparamagnetic-upconversion nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Leyong; Luo, Lijia; Pan, Yuanwei; Luo, Song; Lu, Guangming; Wu, Aiguo

    2015-05-01

    Multifunctional nanoprobes used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) also have potential applications in diagnosis and visualized therapy of cancers, and hence it is important to investigate the active-targeting ability and in vivo reliability of these nanoprobes. In this work, folic acid (FA)-targeted, photosensitizer (PS)-loaded Fe3O4@NaYF4:Yb/Er (FA-NPs-PS) nanocomposites were synthesized for in vivo T2-weighted MRI and visualized PDT of cancers by modeling MCF-7 tumor-bearing nude mice. By measuring the upconversion luminescence (UCL) and fluorescence emission spectra, the as-prepared FA-NPs-PS nanocomposites showed near-infrared (NIR)-triggered PDT performance due to the production of a singlet oxygen species. Moreover, by tracing PS fluorescence in MCF-7, HeLa cells and in MCF-7 tumors, the FA-targeted nanocomposites demonstrated good targeting ability both in vitro and in vivo. Under the irradiation of a 980 nm laser, the viabilities of MCF-7 and HeLa cells incubated with FA-NPs-PS nanocomposites could decrease to about 18.4% and 30.7%, respectively, and the inhibition of MCF-7 tumors could reach about 94.9%. The transverse MR relaxivity of 63.79 mM-1 s-1 (r2 value) and in vivo MR imaging of MCF-7 tumors indicated an excellent T2-weighted MR performance. This work demonstrated that FA-targeted MRI/PDT nanoprobes are effective for in vivo diagnosis and visualized therapy of breast cancers.Multifunctional nanoprobes used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) also have potential applications in diagnosis and visualized therapy of cancers, and hence it is important to investigate the active-targeting ability and in vivo reliability of these nanoprobes. In this work, folic acid (FA)-targeted, photosensitizer (PS)-loaded Fe3O4@NaYF4:Yb/Er (FA-NPs-PS) nanocomposites were synthesized for in vivo T2-weighted MRI and visualized PDT of cancers by modeling MCF-7 tumor-bearing nude mice. By measuring the upconversion luminescence (UCL) and fluorescence emission spectra, the as-prepared FA-NPs-PS nanocomposites showed near-infrared (NIR)-triggered PDT performance due to the production of a singlet oxygen species. Moreover, by tracing PS fluorescence in MCF-7, HeLa cells and in MCF-7 tumors, the FA-targeted nanocomposites demonstrated good targeting ability both in vitro and in vivo. Under the irradiation of a 980 nm laser, the viabilities of MCF-7 and HeLa cells incubated with FA-NPs-PS nanocomposites could decrease to about 18.4% and 30.7%, respectively, and the inhibition of MCF-7 tumors could reach about 94.9%. The transverse MR relaxivity of 63.79 mM-1 s-1 (r2 value) and in vivo MR imaging of MCF-7 tumors indicated an excellent T2-weighted MR performance. This work demonstrated that FA-targeted MRI/PDT nanoprobes are effective for in vivo diagnosis and visualized therapy of breast cancers. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01932j

  16. Optimizing Protein Stability In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Foit, Linda; Morgan, Gareth J.; Kern, Maximilian J.; Steimer, Lenz R.; von Hacht, Annekathrin A.; Titchmarsh, James; Warriner, Stuart L.; Radford, Sheena E.; Bardwell, James C.A.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Identifying mutations that stabilize proteins is challenging because most substitutions are destabilizing. In addition to being of immense practical utility, the ability to evolve protein stability in vivo may indicate how evolution has formed today's protein sequences. Here we describe a genetic selection that directly links the in vivo stability of proteins to antibiotic resistance. It allows the identification of stabilizing mutations within proteins. The large majority of mutants selected for improved antibiotic resistance are stabilized both thermodynamically and kinetically, indicating that similar principles govern stability in vivo and in vitro. The approach requires no prior structural or functional knowledge and allows selection for stability without a need to maintain function. Mutations that enhance thermodynamic stability of the protein Im7 map overwhelmingly to surface residues involved in binding to colicin E7, implying that evolutionary pressures that drive Im7-E7 complex formation may have compromised the stability of the isolated Im7 protein. PMID:20005848

  17. Ecology and ovarian function among Lese women of the Ituri Forest, Zaire.

    PubMed

    Ellison, P T; Peacock, N R; Lager, C

    1989-04-01

    Ovarian function is examined in 35 Lese women inhabiting the Ituri Forest of northeastern Zaire over a period of 4 months through measurements of progesterone in saliva samples collected twice weekly. Ovulatory frequency is found to be only 56% on average, with a pattern of age variation similar to that observed in western women, though lower in level at each age. Average luteal progesterone levels of the Lese women are lower than those of Boston controls even if only ovulatory cycles are considered. Women with the poorest nutritional status, inferred from longitudinal weight changes and weight for height, show the greatest compromise of ovarian function, and the average ovulatory frequency of the whole sample declines in parallel with a period of weight loss over four months. It is suggested that low ovulatory frequency and luteal insufficiency contribute to the low fecundity of the Lese population and that nutritional status is likely to be one of the ecological factors modulating this effect. PMID:2712164

  18. Transient downregulation of monocyte-derived dendritic-cell differentiation, function, and survival during tumoral progression and regression in an in vivo canine model of transmissible venereal tumor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng-Chi Liu; Yu-Shan Wang; Ching-Yi Lin; Tien-Fu Chuang; Kuang-Wen Liao; Kwan-Hwa Chi; Mo-Fan Chen; Hsin-Chien Chiang; Rea-Min Chu

    2008-01-01

    Tumors often target dendritic cells (DCs) to evade host immune surveillance. DC injury is reported in many rodent and human\\u000a tumors but seldom in tumors of other mammals. Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT), a unique and spontaneous cancer\\u000a transmitted by means of viable tumor cells. CTVT causes manifold damage to monocyte-derived DCs. This cancer provides an in\\u000a vivo model of

  19. InVivo Loss of Function Screening Reveals Carbonic Anhydrase IX as a Key Modulator of Tumor Initiating Potential in Primary Pancreatic Tumors.

    PubMed

    Pore, Nabendu; Jalla, Sanjoo; Liu, Zheng; Higgs, Brandon; Sorio, Claudio; Scarpa, Aldo; Hollingsworth, Robert; Tice, David A; Michelotti, Emil

    2015-06-01

    Reprogramming of energy metabolism is one of the emerging hallmarks of cancer. Up-regulation of energy metabolism pathways fuels cell growth and division, a key characteristic of neoplastic disease, and can lead to dependency on specific metabolic pathways. Thus, targeting energy metabolism pathways might offer the opportunity for novel therapeutics. Here, we describe the application of a novel in vivo screening approach for the identification of genes involved in cancer metabolism using a patient-derived pancreatic xenograft model. Lentiviruses expressing short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeting 12 different cell surface protein transporters were separately transduced into the primary pancreatic tumor cells. Transduced cells were pooled and implanted into mice. Tumors were harvested at different times, and the frequency of each shRNA was determined as a measure of which ones prevented tumor growth. Several targets including carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), monocarboxylate transporter 4, and anionic amino acid transporter light chain, xc- system (xCT) were identified in these studies and shown to be required for tumor initiation and growth. Interestingly, CAIX was overexpressed in the tumor initiating cell population. CAIX expression alone correlated with a highly tumorigenic subpopulation of cells. Furthermore, CAIX expression was essential for tumor initiation because shRNA knockdown eliminated the ability of cells to grow in vivo. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first parallel in vivo assessment of multiple novel oncology target genes using a patient-derived pancreatic tumor model. PMID:26152355

  20. Expansion of Cord Blood CD34+ Cells in Presence of zVADfmk and zLLYfmk Improved Their In Vitro Functionality and In Vivo Engraftment in NOD/SCID Mouse

    PubMed Central

    M, Sangeetha V.; Kale, Vaijayanti P.; Limaye, Lalita S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cord blood (CB) is a promising source for hematopoietic stem cell transplantations. The limitation of cell dose associated with this source has prompted the ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). However, the expansion procedure is known to exhaust the stem cell pool causing cellular defects that promote apoptosis and disrupt homing to the bone marrow. The role of apoptotic machinery in the regulation of stem cell compartment has been speculated in mouse hematopoietic and embryonic systems. We have consistently observed an increase in apoptosis in the cord blood derived CD34+ cells cultured with cytokines compared to their freshly isolated counterpart. The present study was undertaken to assess whether pharmacological inhibition of apoptosis could improve the outcome of expansion. Methodology/Principal Findings CB CD34+ cells were expanded with cytokines in the presence or absence of cell permeable inhibitors of caspases and calpains; zVADfmk and zLLYfmk respectively. A novel role of apoptotic protease inhibitors was observed in increasing the CD34+ cell content of the graft during ex vivo expansion. This was further reflected in improved in vitro functional aspects of the HSPCs; a higher clonogenicity and long term culture initiating potential. These cells sustained superior long term engraftment and an efficient regeneration of major lympho-myeloid lineages in the bone marrow of NOD/SCID mouse compared to the cells expanded with growth factors alone. Conclusion/Significance Our data show that, use of either zVADfmk or zLLYfmk in the culture medium improves expansion of CD34+ cells. The strategy protects stem cell pool and committed progenitors, and improves their in vitro functionality and in vivo engraftment. This observation may complement the existing protocols used in the manipulation of hematopoietic cells for therapeutic purposes. These findings may have an impact in the CB transplant procedures involving a combined infusion of unmanipulated and expanded grafts. PMID:20808921

  1. Approximation of the functional kinematics of posterior stabilised total knee replacements using a two-dimensional sagittal plane patello-femoral model: comparing model approximation to in vivo measurement.

    PubMed

    Van Duren, Bernard; Pandit, Hemant; Murray, David; Gill, Harinderjit

    2015-08-01

    Previous in vivo studies have observed that current designs of posterior stabilised (PS) total knee replacements (TKRs) may be ineffective in restoring normal kinematics in Late flexion. Computer-based models can prove a useful tool in improving PS knee replacement designs. This study investigates the accuracy of a two-dimensional (2D) sagittal plane model capable of predicting the functional sagittal plane kinematics of PS TKR implanted knees against direct in vivo measurement. Implant constraints are often used as determinants of anterior-posterior tibio-femoral positioning. This allowed the use of a patello-femoral modelling approach to determine the effect of implant constraints. The model was executed using motion simulation software which uses the constraint force algorithm to achieve a solution. A group of 10 patients implanted with Scorpio PS implants were recruited and underwent fluoroscopic imaging of their knees. The fluoroscopic images were used to determine relative implant orientation using a three-dimensional reconstruction method. The determined relative tibio-femoral orientations were then input to the model. The model calculated the patella tendon angles (PTAs) which were then compared with those measured from the in vivo fluoroscopic images. There were no significant differences between the measured and calculated PTAs. The average root mean square error between measured and modelled ranged from 1.17° to 2.10° over the flexion range. A sagittal plane patello-femoral model could conceivably be used to predict the functional 2D kinematics of an implanted knee joint. This may prove particularly useful in optimising PS designs. PMID:24559039

  2. Effects of different five-day progesterone-based fixed-time AI protocols on follicular/luteal dynamics and fertility in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    GARCIA-ISPIERTO, Irina; LÓPEZ-GATIUS, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This study compares in two experiments the responses of lactating dairy cows to four different progesterone-based protocols for fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in terms of their effects on follicular/luteal dynamics and fertility. The protocols consisted of a progesterone intravaginal device fitted for five days, along with the administration of different combinations of gonadotropin releasing hormone, equine chorionic gonadotropin and a single or double dose (24 h apart) of prostaglandin F2?. In Experiment I, the data were derived from 232 lactating cows. Binary logistic regression identified no effects of treatment on ovulation failure or multiple ovulation 10 days post artificial insemination (AI). Based on the odds ratio, the likelihood of ovulation failure was lower (by a factor of 0.1) in cows showing at least one corpus luteum (CL) upon treatment than in cows lacking a CL; repeat breeders (> 3 AI) and cows with multiple CLs at treatment showed lower (by a factor of 0.44) and higher (by a factor of 9.0) risks of multiple ovulation, respectively, than the remaining animals. In Experiment II, the data were derived from 5173 AIs. The independent variable treatment failed to affect the conception rate 28–34 days post AI, twin pregnancy or early fetal loss 58–64 days post AI. The results of this study demonstrate the efficacy of 5-day progesterone-based protocols for FTAI. All four protocols examined were able to induce ovulation in both cyclic and non-cyclic animals so that FTAI returned a similar pregnancy rate to spontaneous estrus. Our results suggest that the ovarian response and fertility resulting from each treatment are due more to the effect of ovarian structures at treatment than to the different combinations of hormones investigated. PMID:25196275

  3. Titrating Luteinizing Hormone Replacement to Sustain the Structure and Function of the Corpus Luteum after Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Antagonist Treatment in Rhesus Monkeys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DIANE M. DUFFY; DENNIS R. STEWART; RICHARD L. STOUFFER

    These studies were designed to identify 1) a regimen of a third generation GnRH antagonist that abolishes primate luteal function, and 2) the amount of LH replacement required to maintain the struc- ture and functional life span of the corpus luteum of the menstrual cycle after GnRH antagonist treatment. A single injection of antide at 3 or 5 mg\\/kg BW

  4. Horizontal transmission and retention of malignancy, as well as functional human genes, after spontaneous fusion of human glioblastoma and hamster host cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, David M; Zagzag, David; Heselmeyer-Haddad, Kerstin M; Berroa Garcia, Lissa Y; Ried, Thomas; Loo, Meiyu; Chang, Chien-Hsing; Gold, David V

    2012-07-01

    Cell fusion in vitro has been used to study cancer, gene mapping and regulation, and the production of antibodies via hybridomas. However, in-vivo heterosynkaryon formation by cell-cell fusion has received less attention. This investigation describes the spontaneous fusion of a human glioblastoma with normal hamster cells after xenogeneic transplantation, resulting in malignant cells that express both human and hamster genes and gene products, and retention of glioblastoma traits with an enhanced ability to metastasize. Three of 7 human genes found showed translation of their proteins during serial propagation in vivo or in vitro for years; namely, CD74, CXCR4 and PLAGL2, each implicated with malignancy or glioblastoma. This supports the thesis that genetic hybridization of cancer and normal cells can transmit malignancy and also, as first described herein, regulatory genes involved in the tumor's organotypic morphology. Evidence also is increasing that even cell-free human cancer DNA can induce malignancy and transfer genetic information to normal cells. Hence, we posit that the transfer of genetic information between tumor and stromal cells, whether by cell-cell fusion or other mechanisms, is implicated in the progression of malignancy, and may further define the crosstalk between cancer cells and their stromal neighbors. PMID:21796629

  5. Initial In Vivo Quantification of Tc-99m Sestamibi Uptake as a Function of Tissue Type in Healthy Breasts Using Dedicated Breast SPECT-CT

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Steve D.; Perez, Kristy L.; McCracken, Emily K. E.; Shah, Jainil P.; Wong, Terence Z.; Tornai, Martin P.

    2012-01-01

    A pilot study is underway to quantify in vivo the uptake and distribution of Tc-99m Sestamibi in subjects without previous history of breast cancer using a dedicated SPECT-CT breast imaging system. Subjects undergoing diagnostic parathyroid imaging studies were consented and imaged as part of this IRB-approved breast imaging study. For each of the seven subjects, one randomly selected breast was imaged prone-pendant using the dedicated, compact breast SPECT-CT system underneath the shielded patient support. Iteratively reconstructed and attenuation and/or scatter corrected images were coregistered; CT images were segmented into glandular and fatty tissue by three different methods; the average concentration of Sestamibi was determined from the SPECT data using the CT-based segmentation and previously established quantification techniques. Very minor differences between the segmentation methods were observed, and the results indicate an average image-based in vivo Sestamibi concentration of 0.10 ± 0.16??Ci/mL with no preferential uptake by glandular or fatty tissues. PMID:22956950

  6. The P2X7 loss-of-function Glu496Ala polymorphism affects ex vivo cytokine release and protects against the cytotoxic effects of high ATP-levels

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The P2X7 receptor plays an important role in cytokine release during the inflammatory response in vivo. Polymorphisms within the P2X7 receptor gene that lead to loss of receptor function may contribute to impaired cytokine release by immune cells. Therefore, we investigated whether a known loss-of-function polymorphism (Glu496Ala) in the P2X7 receptor gene leads to alterations in cytokine release in response to ATP. Results An ex vivo whole blood model was used to induce an inflammatory reaction with the pro-inflammatory stimuli LPS and PHA (phytohemagglutinin). Blood from n=9 subjects with the Glu496Ala P2X7 SNP (P2X7MUT) and n=7 ‘wild-type’ subjects (no P2X7 SNP; P2X7WT) was used. Addition of ATP (0.9-3 mM) to LPS/PHA-stimulated whole blood induced an increase in IL-1? release in P2X7MUT subjects, whereas decreased release was observed in P2X7WT subjects. Decreased levels of IL-6 and TNF-? in response to ATP were shown in both P2X7MUT and P2X7WT subjects, which was less pronounced in P2X7MUT subjects. ATP at 3 mM also significantly decreased levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in P2X7MUT subjects compared to P2X7WT subjects. Conclusions The presence of the non-synonymous Glu496Ala loss-of-function polymorphism within the P2X7 receptor gene is likely to be of importance in the release of cytokines during inflammation. Furthermore, this study suggests that carriers of the Glu496Ala loss-of-function polymorphism are protected against the cytotoxic effects of high ATP-levels. PMID:23210974

  7. Light dosimetry in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Star, Willem M.

    1997-05-01

    This paper starts with definitions of radiance, fluence (rate) and other quantities that are important with regard to in vivo light dosimetry. The light distribution in mammalian tissues can be estimated from model calculations using measured optical properties or from direct measurements of fluence rate using a suitable detector. A historical introduction is therefore followed by a brief discussion of tissue optical properties and of calculations using diffusion theory, the -approximation or Monte Carlo simulations. In particular the form of the scattering function is considered in relation to the fluence rate close to the tissue boundary, where light is incident. Non-invasive measurements of optical properties yield the absorption coefficient and , where is the scattering coefficient and g is the mean cosine of the scattering angle. An important question is whether this combination is sufficient, or whether g itself must be known. It appears that for strongly forward scattering, as in mammalian tissues, rather detailed knowledge of the scattering function is needed to reliably calculate the fluence rate close to the surface. Deeper in the tissue is sufficient. The construction, calibration and use of fibre-optic probes for measurements of fluence rate in tissues or optical phantoms is discussed. At present, minimally invasive absolute fluence (rate) measurements seem to be possible with an accuracy of 10 - 20%. Examples are given of in vivo measurements in animal experiments and in humans during clinical treatments. Measurements in mammalian tissues, plant leaves and marine sediments are compared and similarities and differences pointed out. Most in vivo light fluence rate measurements have been concerned with photodynamic therapy (PDT). Optical properties of the same normal tissue may differ between patients. Tumours of the same histological type may even show different optical properties in a single patient. Treatment-induced changes of optical properties may also occur. Scattered light appears to contribute substantially to the light dose. All these phenomena emphasize the importance of in situ light measurements. Another important dosimetric parameter in PDT is the concentration and distribution of the photosensitizer. Apart from in vivo fluorescence monitoring, the photosensitizer part of in vivo PDT dosimetry is still in its infancy.

  8. Functional Ginger Extracts from Supercritical Fluid Carbon Dioxide Extraction via In Vitro and In Vivo Assays: Antioxidation, Antimicroorganism, and Mice Xenografts Models

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chih-Chen; Chiou, Li-Yu; Wang, Jheng-Yang; Chou, Sin-You; Lan, John Chi-Wei; Huang, Tsi-Shu; Huang, Kuo-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction technology was developed to gain the active components from a Taiwan native plant, Zingiber officinale (ginger). We studied the biological effects of ginger extracts via multiple assays and demonstrated the biofunctions in each platform. Investigations of ginger extracts indicated antioxidative properties in dose-dependant manners on radical scavenging activities, reducing powers and metal chelating powers. We found that ginger extracts processed moderate scavenging values, middle metal chelating levels, and slight ferric reducing powers. The antibacterial susceptibility of ginger extracts on Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sobrinus, S. mutans, and Escherichia coli was determined with the broth microdilution method technique. The ginger extracts had operative antimicroorganism potentials against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We further discovered the strong inhibitions of ginger extracts on lethal carcinogenic melanoma through in vivo xenograft model. To sum up, the data confirmed the possible applications as medical cosmetology agents, pharmaceutical antibiotics, and food supplements. PMID:23983624

  9. Hepatocyte-targeted in vivo gene expression by intravenous injection of plasmid DNA complexed with synthetic multi-functional gene delivery system.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, M; Yamauchi, M; Morimoto, K; Ishida, E; Takakura, Y; Hashida, M

    2000-04-01

    To achieve hepatocyte-targeted in vivo gene expression, a carrier that controls both the tissue and intracellular distribution of DNA was designed and synthesized. A cationic polymer, poly(L-ornithine) (pOrn), was modified first with galactose, then with a fusigenic peptide (mHA2) to obtain Gal-pOrn-mHA2. When applied with Gal-pOrn-mHA2 to asialoglycoprotein receptor-positive cells, fluorescein-labeled DNA showed a diffuse profile, suggesting the release of DNA from endosomes and/or lysosomes by the carrier. Then the biodistribution and gene expression after intravenous injection of DNA complexes (10 microg DNA per mouse) were examined. After injection of [32P]DNA/Gal-pOrn-mHA2, about 60% of the radioactivity was recovered in the liver, mostly in parenchymal cells. A large amount (81 ng/g tissue) of transgene product (luciferase) was detected in the liver of mice injected with DNA/Gal-pOm-mHA2, which was 280-fold greater than that obtained with DNA/DOTMA:Chol liposomes (50 microg DNA). Prior administration of galactosylated albumin reduced the gene expression to 1/100, indicating the asialoglycoprotein receptor-mediated gene transfer in liver parenchymal cells, ie hepatocytes. The luciferase activity in hepatocytes contributed more than 95% of the total activity in all the tissues examined. Thus, hepatocyte-targeted in vivo gene expression was achieved by the intravenous injection of DNA complex with the multifunctional gene carrier. PMID:10819569

  10. Effects of hypophysectomy and administration of pituitary hormones on luteal function and uptake of high density lipoproteins by luteinized ovaries and adrenals of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, B.D.; Rajkumar, K.; McKibbin, P.E.; Macdonald, G.J.; Buhr, M.M.; Grinwich, D.L.

    1985-04-01

    The role of plasma lipoproteins and hypophyseal hormones in the maintenance of progesterone secretion by the rat corpus luteum was investigated. In the first experiment, rats were treated daily from days 1-6 of pregnancy with 5 mg/kg 4-aminopyrozolopyramidine (4APP), a blocker of hepatic lipoprotein secretion, or with 5 mg/kg 4APP and 1 or 2 mg ovine PRL or 0.1 ml 0.5% phosphoric acid (4APP vehicle). The administration of 4APP reduced serum cholesterol and progesterone levels on days 2-6 of pregnancy and ovarian progesterone on day 6. The reduced progesterone secretion had no effect on embryo implantation. PRL, in the doses used, was incapable of abrogating the effects of 4APP on circulating or ovarian progesterone levels. Ovaries and adrenals, but not kidneys, of pseudopregnant rats exhibited specific and saturable uptake of porcine high density lipoprotein (HDL). Time-course studies indicated that the uptake of HDL was rapid in ovaries compared to that in adrenals. Ovaries from rats not only exhibited uptake of porcine HDL, but also were capable of using it for progesterone synthesis. Treatment with 4APP increased the adrenal uptake of HDL, but ovarian uptake was not different from that in the control group. Hypophysectomy reduced both adrenal and ovarian uptake of HDL. In adrenals only ACTH at the dose employed ameliorated reduction of HDL uptake induced by hypophysectomy, while in the ovaries, both PRL and LH reversed the effect of hypophysectomy. The effect of PRL on uptake was specific to (/sup 125/I)HDL and did not alter (/sup 125/I)albumin uptake. It is concluded that: 1) hypophysectomy reduces HDL uptake in the luteinized rat ovary; and 2) PRL and LH replacement therapy maintain ovarian uptake of HDL, suggesting a direct effect of these luteotropins on lipoprotein uptake.

  11. Functional Analysis of the Caenorhabditis elegans UNC-73B PH Domain Demonstrates a Role in Activation of the Rac GTPase In Vitro and Axon Guidance In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kubiseski, Terrance J.; Culotti, Joe; Pawson, Tony

    2003-01-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans UNC-73B protein regulates axon guidance through its ability to act as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the CeRAC/MIG-2 GTPases. Like other GEFs for Rho family GTPases, UNC-73B has a Dbl homology (DH) catalytic domain, followed by a C-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. We have explored whether the PH domain cooperates with the adjacent DH domain to promote UNC-73B GEF activity and axonal pathfinding. We show that the UNC-73B PH domain binds preferentially to monophosphorylated phosphatidylinositides in vitro. Replacement of residues Lys1420 and Arg1422 with Glu residues within the PH domain impaired this phospholipid binding but did not affect the in vitro catalytic activity of the DH domain. In contrast, a mutant UNC-73B protein with a Trp1502-to-Ala substitution in the PH domain still interacted with phosphorylated phosphatidylinositides but had lost its GEF activity. UNC-73B minigenes containing these mutations were microinjected into C. elegans and transferred to unc-73(e936) mutant worms. Unlike the wild-type protein, neither PH domain mutant was able to rescue the unc-73 axon guidance defect. These results suggest that the UNC-73B PH domain plays distinct roles in targeting and promoting GEF activity towards the Rac GTPase, both of which are important for the directed movements of motorneurons in vivo. PMID:12972602

  12. Functional analysis of the Caenorhabditis elegans UNC-73B PH domain demonstrates a role in activation of the Rac GTPase in vitro and axon guidance in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kubiseski, Terrance J; Culotti, Joe; Pawson, Tony

    2003-10-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans UNC-73B protein regulates axon guidance through its ability to act as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the CeRAC/MIG-2 GTPases. Like other GEFs for Rho family GTPases, UNC-73B has a Dbl homology (DH) catalytic domain, followed by a C-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. We have explored whether the PH domain cooperates with the adjacent DH domain to promote UNC-73B GEF activity and axonal pathfinding. We show that the UNC-73B PH domain binds preferentially to monophosphorylated phosphatidylinositides in vitro. Replacement of residues Lys1420 and Arg1422 with Glu residues within the PH domain impaired this phospholipid binding but did not affect the in vitro catalytic activity of the DH domain. In contrast, a mutant UNC-73B protein with a Trp1502-to-Ala substitution in the PH domain still interacted with phosphorylated phosphatidylinositides but had lost its GEF activity. UNC-73B minigenes containing these mutations were microinjected into C. elegans and transferred to unc-73(e936) mutant worms. Unlike the wild-type protein, neither PH domain mutant was able to rescue the unc-73 axon guidance defect. These results suggest that the UNC-73B PH domain plays distinct roles in targeting and promoting GEF activity towards the Rac GTPase, both of which are important for the directed movements of motorneurons in vivo. PMID:12972602

  13. Targeting of Acetylcholinesterase in Neurons in vivo: A Dual Processing Function for the Proline-rich Membrane Anchor Subunit and the Attachment Domain on the Catalytic Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Dobbertin, Alexandre; Hrabovska, Anna; Dembele, Korami; Camp, Shelley; Taylor, Palmer; Krejci, Eric; Bernard, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    Summary Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) accumulates on axonal varicosities and is primarily found as tetramers associated with a Proline-rich Membrane Anchor (PRiMA). PRiMA is a small transmembrane protein that efficiently transforms secreted AChE to an enzyme anchored on the outer cell surface. Surprisingly, in the striatum of the PRiMA knockout mouse, despite a normal level of AChE mRNA, we find only 2–3% of wild type AChE activity, with the residual AChE localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, demonstrating that PRiMA in vivo is necessary for intracellular processing of AChE in neurons. Moreover, deletion of the retention signal of the AChE catalytic subunit in mice, which is the domain of interaction with PRiMA, does not restore AChE activity in the striatum, establishing that PRiMA is necessary to target and/or to stabilize nascent AChE in neurons. These unexpected findings open new avenues to modulating AChE activity and its distribution in CNS disorders. PMID:19357277

  14. Functional and hypoglycemic properties of nopal cladodes (O. ficus-indica) at different maturity stages using in vitro and in vivo tests.

    PubMed

    Nuñez-López, María A; Paredes-López, Octavio; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2013-11-20

    Nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes are recommended for their therapeutic properties; their maturity stage may affect their biological properties. Cladodes of three maturity stages, from the same crop and location, were dehydrated and evaluated for some of their physicochemical and nutritional characteristics and antidiabetic properties. The flours of small and medium cladodes (SCF and MCF, respectively) had higher contents of dietary fiber, water absorption, swelling, and viscosity compared to those of the large cladode flour (LCF). Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, treated with MCF and SCF (doses of 50 mg/kg body weight), showed reduction of postprandial blood glucose on 46.0 and 23.6%, respectively (p < 0.05), in relation to the control; and LCF had no significant effect. In vitro, glucose diffusion tests showed similar ranking by the two former samples, whereas the latter was close to the control. Cladode maturity stages showed different fiber content and produced suspensions with differences in viscosity, which may affect in vitro and in vivo glucose responses. PMID:24164385

  15. In vivo imaging of functional microvasculature within tissue beds of oral and nasal cavities by swept-source optical coherence tomography with a forward/side-viewing probe.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo June; Wang, Ruikang K

    2014-08-01

    We report three-dimensional (3D) imaging of microcirculation within human cavity tissues in vivo using a high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) at 1300 nm with a modified probe interface. Volumetric structural OCT images of the inner tissues of oral and nasal cavities are acquired with a field of view of 2 mm × 2 mm. Two types of disposable and detachable probe attachments are devised and applied to the port of the imaging probe of OCT system, enabling forward and side imaging scans for selective and easy access to specific cavity tissue sites. Blood perfusion is mapped with OCT-based microangiography from 3D structural OCT images, in which a novel vessel extraction algorithm is used to decouple dynamic light scattering signals, due to moving blood cells, from the background scattering signals due to static tissue elements. Characteristic tissue anatomy and microvessel architectures of various cavity tissue regions of a healthy human volunteer are identified with the 3D OCT images and the corresponding 3D vascular perfusion maps at a level approaching capillary resolution. The initial finding suggests that the proposed method may be engineered into a promising tool for evaluating and monitoring tissue microcirculation and its alteration within a wide-range of cavity tissues in the patients with various pathological conditions. PMID:25136490

  16. Evaluation of In Vivo P-Glycoprotein Function at the Blood-Brain Barrier Among MDR1 Gene Polymorphisms by Using 11C-Verapamil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akihiro Takano; Hiroyuki Kusuhara; Tetsuya Suhara; Ichiro Ieiri; Takuya Morimoto; Young-Joo Lee; Jun Maeda; Yoko Ikoma; Hiroshi Ito; Kazutoshi Suzuki; Yuichi Sugiyama

    2006-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a membrane protein that functions as an adenosine triphosphate-dependent efflux pump for xenobiotics at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Polymorphisms of MDR1 gene have been reported to be associated with the expression level of P-gp. 11C-Verapamil is considered to be one of the suitable radio- ligands for evaluating P-gp functions. However, the metabolites of verapamil might complicate the

  17. Estimating the input function non-invasively for FDG-PET quantification with multiple linear regression analysis: simulation and verification with in vivo data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Hua Fang; Tsair Kao; Ren-Shyan Liu; Liang-Chih Wu

    2004-01-01

    A novel statistical method, namely Regression-Estimated Input Function (REIF), is proposed in this study for the purpose of non-invasive estimation of the input function for fluorine-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) quantitative analysis. We collected 44 patients who had undergone a blood sampling procedure during their FDG-PET scans. First, we generated tissue time-activity curves of the grey matter and the

  18. A Role for Mac-1 (CDIIb/CD18) in Immune Complex–stimulated Neutrophil Function In Vivo: Mac-1 Deficiency Abrogates Sustained Fc? Receptor–dependent Neutrophil Adhesion and Complement-dependent Proteinuria in Acute Glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Tao; Rosenkranz, Alexander; Assmann, Karel J.M.; Goodman, Michael J.; Gutierrez-Ramos, Jose-Carlos; Carroll, Michael C.; Cotran, Ramzi S.; Mayadas, Tanya N.

    1997-01-01

    Mac-1 (?m?2), a leukocyte adhesion receptor, has been shown in vitro to functionally interact with Fc? receptors to facilitate immune complex (IC)–stimulated polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) functions. To investigate the relevance of Mac-1–Fc?R interactions in IC-mediated injury in vivo, we induced a model of Fc-dependent anti–glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis in wild-type and Mac-1–deficient mice by the intravenous injection of anti-GBM antibody. The initial glomerular PMN accumulation was equivalent in Mac-1 null and wild-type mice, but thereafter increased in wild-type and decreased in mutant mice. The absence of Mac-1 interactions with obvious ligands, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and C3 complement, is not responsible for the decrease in neutrophil accumulation in Mac-1– deficient mice since glomerular PMN accumulation in mice deficient in these ligands was comparable to those in wild-type mice. In vitro studies showed that spreading